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Sample records for cell culture studies

  1. Cell culture block array for immunocytochemical study of protein expression in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Rongshan; Ni, Jing; Bourne, Patricia A; Yeh, Shuyuan; Yao, Jorge; di Sant'Agnese, P Anthony; Huang, Jiaoti

    2005-03-01

    Immunocytochemical staining of cultured cells using specific antibodies is a powerful technique to study the expression and subcellular localization of proteins. However, this technique is associated with sample-to-sample variations because samples are handled individually and manually. Cell permeation is needed when intracytoplasmic or nuclear proteins are studied. Storage of cultured cells is difficult, and experiments must be repeated if additional studies are desired later, which introduces more variations. We developed a cell culture block array technique that converts cultured cells into a permanently fixed form identical to tissue sections prepared for pathologic examination. Cells from different cultures can be embedded in a single block. Many identical sections, each containing cells from multiple cultures, may be stained with different antibodies using an automated stainer. As a result, sample-to-sample variation is eliminated. Because cells in these blocks are sectioned by knives, all cellular proteins come into direct contact with antibodies, and cell permeation is not needed. Such blocks can be conveniently stored for years without loss of antigens, providing a constant source for future studies. We demonstrated the utility of this technique by studying the proliferation and neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer-derived LNCaP cells cultured in vitro. PMID:15722799

  2. Cultured heart cell reaggregate model for studying cardiac toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Sperelakis, N

    1978-01-01

    This review represents a summary of the technique of using cultured heart cells as a model system for studying the physiology, pharmacology, biochemistry and toxicology of myocardial cells. The general techniques and types of culture preparations commonly used are given and some of the advantages and disadvantages of working with cultured heart cells are summarized. Images FIGURE 3. FIGURE 7. PMID:214299

  3. Studying cell cycle checkpoints using Drosophila cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Siudeja, Katarzyna; de Jong, Jannie; Sibon, Ody C M

    2011-01-01

    Drosophila cell lines are valuable tools to study a number of cellular processes, including DNA damage responses and cell cycle checkpoint control. Using an in vitro system instead of a whole organism has two main advantages: it saves time and simple and effective molecular techniques are available. It has been shown that Drosophila cells, similarly to mammalian cells, display cell cycle checkpoint pathways required to survive DNA damaging events (de Vries et al. 2005, Journal of Cell Science 118, 1833-1842; Bae et al. 1995, Experimental Cell Research 217, 541-545). Moreover, a number of proteins involved in checkpoint and cell cycle control in mammals are highly conserved among different species, including Drosophila (de Vries et al. 2005, Journal of Cell Science 118, 1833-1842; Bae et al. 1995, Experimental Cell Research 217, 541-545; LaRocque et al. 2007, Genetics 175, 1023-1033; Sibon et al. 1999, Current Biology 9, 302-312; Purdy et al. 2005, Journal of Cell Science 118, 3305-3315). Because of straightforward and highly efficient methods to downregulate specific transcripts in Drosophila cells, these cells are an excellent system for genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screens. Thus, the following methods, assays and techniques: Drosophila cell culture, RNAi, introducing DNA damaging events, determination of cell cycle arrest, and determination of cell cycle distributions described here may well be applied to identifying new players in checkpoint mechanisms and will be helpful to investigate the function of these new players in detail. Results obtained with studies using in vitro systems can subsequently be extended to studies in the complete organism as described in the chapters provided by the Su laboratory and the Takada laboratory. PMID:21870285

  4. Cell culture systems to study glial transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Bressler, J.P.; Cole, R.; de Vellis, J.

    1980-01-01

    The transformation of two different types of glial cells has been studied using an in vivo-/in vitro model and a complete in vitro model. The purpose of the study and to define in vitro model systems is to study the the neoplastic transformation of pure populations of glial cells. Data are presented to demonstrate that the transformed cells are glial and tumorigenic. (ACR)

  5. Characterizing parameters of Jatropha curcas cell cultures for microgravity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vendrame, Wagner A.; Pinares, Ania

    2013-06-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) is a tropical perennial species identified as a potential biofuel crop. The oil is of excellent quality and it has been successfully tested as biodiesel and in jet fuel mixes. However, studies on breeding and genetic improvement of jatropha are limited. Space offers a unique environment for experiments aiming at the assessment of mutations and differential gene expression of crops and in vitro cultures of plants are convenient for studies of genetic variation as affected by microgravity. However, before microgravity studies can be successfully performed, pre-flight experiments are necessary to characterize plant material and validate flight hardware environmental conditions. Such preliminary studies set the ground for subsequent spaceflight experiments. The objectives of this study were to compare the in vitro growth of cultures from three explant sources (cotyledon, leaf, and stem sections) of three jatropha accessions (Brazil, India, and Tanzania) outside and inside the petriGAP, a modified group activation pack (GAP) flight hardware to fit petri dishes. In vitro jatropha cell cultures were established in petri dishes containing a modified MS medium and maintained in a plant growth chamber at 25 ± 2 °C in the dark. Parameters evaluated were surface area of the explant tissue (A), fresh weight (FW), and dry weight (DW) for a period of 12 weeks. Growth was observed for cultures from all accessions at week 12, including subsequent plantlet regeneration. For all accessions differences in A, FW and DW were observed for inside vs. outside the PetriGAPs. Growth parameters were affected by accession (genotype), explant type, and environment. The type of explant influenced the type of cell growth and subsequent plantlet regeneration capacity. However, overall cell growth showed no abnormalities. The present study demonstrated that jatropha in vitro cell cultures are suitable for growth inside PetriGAPs for a period of 12 weeks. The parameters evaluated in this study provide the basic ground work and pre-flight assessment needed to justify a model for microgravity studies with jatropha in vitro cell cultures. Future studies should focus on results of experiments performed with jatropha in vitro cultures in microgravity.

  6. Sex Stratified Neuronal Cultures to Study Ischemic Cell Death Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Saurabh; Traystman, Richard J.; Herson, Paco S.

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences in neuronal susceptibility to ischemic injury and neurodegenerative disease have long been observed, but the signaling mechanisms responsible for those differences remain unclear. Primary disassociated embryonic neuronal culture provides a simplified experimental model with which to investigate the neuronal cell signaling involved in cell death as a result of ischemia or disease; however, most neuronal cultures used in research today are mixed sex. Researchers can and do test the effects of sex steroid treatment in mixed sex neuronal cultures in models of neuronal injury and disease, but accumulating evidence suggests that the female brain responds to androgens, estrogens, and progesterone differently than the male brain. Furthermore, neonate male and female rodents respond differently to ischemic injury, with males experiencing greater injury following cerebral ischemia than females. Thus, mixed sex neuronal cultures might obscure and confound the experimental results; important information might be missed. For this reason, the Herson Lab at the University of Colorado School of Medicine routinely prepares sex-stratified primary disassociated embryonic neuronal cultures from both hippocampus and cortex. Embryos are sexed before harvesting of brain tissue and male and female tissue are disassociated separately, plated separately, and maintained separately. Using this method, the Herson Lab has demonstrated a male-specific role for the ion channel TRPM2 in ischemic cell death. In this manuscript, we share and discuss our protocol for sexing embryonic mice and preparing sex-stratified hippocampal primary disassociated neuron cultures. This method can be adapted to prepare sex-stratified cortical cultures and the method for embryo sexing can be used in conjunction with other protocols for any study in which sex is thought to be an important determinant of outcome. PMID:24378980

  7. Bovine chromaffin cell cultures as model to study organophosporus neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Quesada, E; Sogorb, M A; Vilanova, E; Carrera, V

    2004-06-15

    Based on the high level of phenyl valerate esterase activities, and in particular of neuropathy target esterase (NTE) found in bovine adrenal medulla, chromaffin cells culture have been proposed as an alternative model for the study of organophosphorus neurotoxicity. Organophosphorus-induced polyneuropathy is a syndrome related to the inhibition and further modification by organophosphorus compounds of NTE (a protein that displays phenyl valerate esterase activity resistant to mipafox and sensitive to paraoxon). Total phenyl valerate esterase activities found in homogenate, particulate and soluble fractions of bovine adrenal medulla were 5200+/-35, 5000+/-280 and 1700+/-260 mU/g tissue, respectively. Cultured chromaffin cells displayed a total hydrolysing activity of 41+/-5 mU/10(6) cells. Homogenates of bovine adrenal medulla displayed only about 6% of activity sensitive to paraoxon. Most of the phenyl valerate esterase activity inhibited by mipafox (a neuropathy inducing compound) was found in particulate fraction. Cultured chromaffin cells displayed kinetics of inhibition by mipafox similar to the kinetics displayed by homogenates of bovine adrenal medulla. We conclude that NTE could be assayed in this system by only using one inhibitor (mipafox) instead of two (paraoxon and mipafox). Also, the proposal is supported of using chromaffin cells as in vitro model for the study of the role of NTE and related esterases in organophosphorus-induced polyneuropathy. PMID:15177651

  8. Studies of the metabolism of cell cultures by microspectrofluoroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoehne, Wolfgang; Schramm, Werner; Moritzen, V.; Burgmann, U.; Kronfeldt, Heinz D.

    1996-01-01

    The monitoring of the state of cellular energy metabolism and respiratory activity is a necessary procedure in cell biology and pharmacology. One method is the observation of the redox state by NADH and FAD autofluorescence measurements. Using this technique, investigations on endothelial cell cultures were done to study their behavior under pharmacologic influences. One application was the investigation of cytotoxicity of cyanides, blocking the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Further we studied the activation of energy metabolism as a step of the cellular reaction on extracellular impacts. The measurements have been performed with a fluorescence microscope Zei(beta) Axioplan, extended by a PMT and a CCD camera. During examination, the cell cultures were kept under nearly physiological conditions using a specialized perfusion chamber. The measurements took place on cellular monolayers. Different excitation geometries have been studied to overcome the difficulties, which arose from the very weak absorption of the cell monolayer, resulting in a low quantum yield and SNR. In classical cytotoxicity studies, only the statistical long-time effects (e.g. IC50) of cell damages are recorded. By redox microspectrofluorometry it is possible to observe the process of damage in its progress, shown by the presented results. In the second, more complex model, we studied the reaction of cells on ligands like PIA (Phenylisopropyladenosin). In this case, the intracellular reaction is connected with an increased production of cAMP. Again, this requires an increased production of ATP, which leads to an activation of the cellular energy metabolism. The spectroscopic results are interpreted by a first model.

  9. Psyllid cell culture: System to study Candidatus Liberibacter replication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cell culture system was established for the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a highly competent vector of the phloem-inhabiting bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous (CLp) associated with the zebra complex disease in potato. Commonly referred to as Zebra Chip ...

  10. Advances in cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Maramorosch, K. )

    1987-01-01

    This book presents papers on advances in cell culture. Topics covered include: Genetic changes in the influenza viruses during growth in cultured cells; The biochemistry and genetics of mosquito cells in culture; and Tree tissue culture applications.

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Grape Berry Cell Cultures Reveals that Developmentally Regulated Ripening Related Processes Can Be Studied Using Cultured Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sharathchandra, Ramaschandra G.; Stander, Charmaine; Jacobson, Dan; Ndimba, Bongani; Vivier, Melané A.

    2011-01-01

    Background This work describes a proteomics profiling method, optimized and applied to berry cell suspensions to evaluate organ-specific cultures as a platform to study grape berry ripening. Variations in berry ripening within a cluster(s) on a vine and in a vineyard are a major impediment towards complete understanding of the functional processes that control ripening, specifically when a characterized and homogenous sample is required. Berry cell suspensions could overcome some of these problems, but their suitability as a model system for berry development and ripening needs to be established first. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we report on the proteomic evaluation of the cytosolic proteins obtained from synchronized cell suspension cultures that were established from callus lines originating from green, véraison and ripe Vitis vinifera berry explants. The proteins were separated using liquid phase IEF in a Microrotofor cell and SDS PAGE. This method proved superior to gel-based 2DE. Principal component analysis confirmed that biological and technical repeats grouped tightly and importantly, showed that the proteomes of berry cultures originating from the different growth/ripening stages were distinct. A total of twenty six common bands were selected after band matching between different growth stages and twenty two of these bands were positively identified. Thirty two % of the identified proteins are currently annotated as hypothetical. The differential expression profile of the identified proteins, when compared with published literature on grape berry ripening, suggested common trends in terms of relative abundance in the different developmental stages between real berries and cell suspensions. Conclusions The advantages of having suspension cultures that accurately mimic specific developmental stages are profound and could significantly contribute to the study of the intricate regulatory and signaling networks responsible for berry development and ripening. PMID:21379583

  12. Epithelial Cell Culture from Human Adenoids: A Functional Study Model for Ciliated and Secretory Cells

    PubMed Central

    González, Claudia; Espinosa, Marisol; Sánchez, María Trinidad; Droguett, Karla; Ríos, Mariana; Fonseca, Ximena; Villalón, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Background. Mucociliary transport (MCT) is a defense mechanism of the airway. To study the underlying mechanisms of MCT, we have both developed an experimental model of cultures, from human adenoid tissue of ciliated and secretory cells, and characterized the response to local chemical signals that control ciliary activity and the secretion of respiratory mucins in vitro. Materials and Methods. In ciliated cell cultures, ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and intracellular Ca2+ levels were measured in response to ATP, UTP, and adenosine. In secretory cultures, mucin synthesis and secretion were identified by using immunodetection. Mucin content was taken from conditioned medium and analyzed in the presence or absence of UTP. Results. Enriched ciliated cell monolayers and secretory cells were obtained. Ciliated cells showed a basal CBF of 10.7 Hz that increased significantly after exposure to ATP, UTP, or adenosine. Mature secretory cells showed active secretion of granules containing different glycoproteins, including MUC5AC. Conclusion. Culture of ciliated and secretory cells grown from adenoid epithelium is a reproducible and feasible experimental model, in which it is possible to observe ciliary and secretory activities, with a potential use as a model to understand mucociliary transport control mechanisms. PMID:23484122

  13. Cell isolation and culture.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sihui; Kuhn, Jeffrey R

    2013-01-01

    Cell isolation and culture are essential tools for the study of cell function. Isolated cells grown under controlled conditions can be manipulated and imaged at a level of resolution that is not possible in whole animals or even tissue explants. Recent advances have allowed for large-scale isolation and culture of primary C. elegans cells from both embryos and all four larval stages. Isolated cells can be used for single-cell profiling, electrophysiology, and high-resolution microscopy to assay cell autonomous development and behavior. This chapter describes protocols for the isolation and culture of C. elegans embryonic and larval stage cells. Our protocols describe isolation of embryonic and L1 stage cells from nematodes grown on high-density NA22 bacterial plates and isolation of L2 through L4 stage cells from nematodes grown in axenic liquid culture. Both embryonic and larval cells can be isolated from nematode populations within 3 hours and can be cultured for several days. A primer on sterile cell culture techniques is given in the appendices. PMID:23430760

  14. Validation of cell-free culture using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and gene expression studies.

    PubMed

    Yang, R; Elankumaran, Y; Hijjawi, N; Ryan, U

    2015-06-01

    A cell-free culture system for Cryptosporidium parvum was analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to characterise life cycle stages and compare gene expression in cell-free culture and cell culture using HCT-8 cells. Cryptosporidium parvum samples were harvested at 2 h, 8 h, 14 h, 26 h, 50 h, 74 h, 98 h, 122 h and 170 h, chemically fixed and specimens were observed using a Zeiss 1555 scanning electron microscope. The presence of sporozoites, trophozoites and type I merozoites were identified by SEM. Gene expression in cell culture and cell-free culture was studied using reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) of the sporozoite surface antigen protein (cp15), the glycoprotein 900 (gp900), the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) and 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes in both cell free and conventional cell culture. In cell culture, cp15 expression peaked at 74 h, gp900 expression peaked at 74 h and 98 h and COWP expression peaked at 50 h. In cell-free culture, CP15 expression peaked at 98 h, gp900 expression peaked at 74 h and COWP expression peaked at 122 h. The present study is the first to compare gene expression of C. parvum in cell culture and cell-free culture and to characterise life cycle stages of C. parvum in cell-free culture using SEM. Findings from this study showed that gene expression patterns in cell culture and cell-free culture were similar but in cell-free culture, gene expression was delayed for CP15 and COWP in cell free culture compared with the cell culture system and was lower. Although three life cycle stageswere conclusively identified, improvements in SEM methodology should lead to the detection of more life cycle stages. PMID:25765560

  15. [Thermophilic eukaryotic cell cultures].

    PubMed

    Bakhutashvili, V I; Dzhavakhishvili, N A; Kupradze, S A; Chkhotua, R N; Bobokhidze, N G

    1991-01-01

    Thermophilic clones of lymphoblastoid cell cultures Namalwa were generated and found to be capable of life and reproduction at a temperature of 60 degrees C. The reproductive dynamics, cytology, and ultrastructure of these clones were studied. PMID:1803780

  16. The dispersed cell culture as model for functional studies of the subcommissural organ: preparation and characterization of the culture system.

    PubMed

    Schöniger, S; Wehming, S; Gonzalez, C; Schöbitz, K; Rodríguez, E; Oksche, A; Yulis, C R; Nürnberger, F

    2001-05-30

    The subcommissural organ (SCO) is an enigmatic secretory gland of the brain, which is believed to be derived from ependymal (glial) precursor cells. We here developed a dispersed cell culture system of the bovine SCO as an approach to functional analyses of this brain gland. Tissue of the bovine SCO obtained from the slaughterhouse was papain dissociated either directly after dissection or after preparation of SCO explants. The latter had been maintained for 4-6 weeks in organ culture. The dispersed cells were cultured for up to 14 days and continuously tested for their secretory state by immunostaining of their secretory product. With respect to the morphology of the SCO cells (shape, processes, nucleus), no difference was found between the culture of freshly dissociated SCOs and that of dissociated SCO explants. In all cases, the dissociation caused a dedifferentiation; typical elongated cells were formed increasingly after 1 day of culture. Thereafter, only the cellular size increased, whereas the shape and the viability of the cells remained unchanged. Proliferating SCO cells were never observed. The culture obtained from fresh SCO tissue contained more glia cells and fibrocytes than the culture prepared from SCO explants. The proliferation of glia cells and fibrocytes was suppressed by blocking the mitotic activity with cytosine-beta-D-arabino furanoside (CAF). The cytophysiological features of the cultured dispersed cells of both origins did not differ as demonstrated by classical histology, by immunocytochemistry for the secretory products of the SCO, by the characteristics of calcium influx into the cytoplasm ([Ca2+]i) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) after stimulation with adenosine-5-triphosphate, substance P or serotonin, and by the activation of the transcription factor cAMP-responsive element-binding protein. Because of the maintenance of their viability, their capacity to release the secretory product into the culture medium, their receptive capacity, and their signal transduction pathways, we conclude that the dispersed cell culture system, especially that obtained from SCO explants, represents an appropriate and useful model for functional studies of the mammalian SCO. PMID:11389941

  17. Use of liver cell cultures in mutagenesis studies

    SciTech Connect

    Huberman, E.; Jones, C.A.

    1980-09-30

    A sensitive cell-mediated assay has been developed for testing the mutagenesis of liver carcinogens. Mutagenesis was detected in Chinese hamster V79 cells that were cocultivated with hepatocytes isolated after collagenase/hyaluronidase digestion of rat liver slices. Mutations were characterized by resistance to ouabain and 6-thioguanine. Seven of the nitrosamines, which are potent liver carcinogens, exhibited a mutagenic response. Mutagenesis with these carcinogens could be detected at ..mu..molar doses. The polyaromatic hydrocarbon benzo(a)pyrene, which is not a liver carcinogen, but can cause fibrosarcomas, was not mutagenic in this assay, but was mutagenic in a fibroblast-mediated assay. The liver carcinogen, aflatoxin B/sub 1/, which usually does not induce fibrosarcomas, exhibited an inverse situation; it was mutagenic for V79 cells in the presence of liver cells but not in the presence of fibroblasts. We suggest that the use of various cell types, including hepatocytes prepared by the slicing method for carcinogen metabolism, and mutable V79 cells offers a sensitive assay for determining the mutagenic potential of chemical carcinogens, and may also allow a study of their organ specificity.

  18. Assessment of cell death studies by monitoring hydrogen peroxide in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Irina; Prell, Erik; Weiwad, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been widely used to study the oxidative stress response. However, H2O2 is unstable and easily decomposes into H2O and O2. Consequently, a wide range of exposure times and treatment concentrations has been described in the literature. In the present study, we established a ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange (FOX) assay, which was originally described for food and body liquids, as a method for the precise quantification of H2O2 concentrations in cell culture media. We observed that the presence of FCS and high cell densities significantly accelerate the decomposition of H2O2, therefore acting as a protection against cell death by accidental necrosis. PMID:24747006

  19. Molluscan cells in culture: primary cell cultures and cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, T. P.; Bickham, U.; Bayne, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro cell culture systems from molluscs have significantly contributed to our basic understanding of complex physiological processes occurring within or between tissue-specific cells, yielding information unattainable using intact animal models. In vitro cultures of neuronal cells from gastropods show how simplified cell models can inform our understanding of complex networks in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures from marine and freshwater bivalve and gastropod species are used as biomonitors for environmental contaminants, as models for gene transfer technologies, and for studies of innate immunity and neoplastic disease. Despite efforts to isolate proliferative cell lines from molluscs, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 embryonic (Bge) cell line is the only existing cell line originating from any molluscan species. Taking an organ systems approach, this review summarizes efforts to establish molluscan cell cultures and describes the varied applications of primary cell cultures in research. Because of the unique status of the Bge cell line, an account is presented of the establishment of this cell line, and of how these cells have contributed to our understanding of snail host-parasite interactions. Finally, we detail the difficulties commonly encountered in efforts to establish cell lines from molluscs and discuss how these difficulties might be overcome. PMID:24198436

  20. An Assessment of Cell Culture Plate Surface Chemistry for in Vitro Studies of Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Röder, Alexander; García-Gareta, Elena; Theodoropoulos, Christina; Ristovski, Nikola; Blackwood, Keith A.; Woodruff, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    The use of biopolymers as a three dimensional (3D) support structure for cell growth is a leading tissue engineering approach in regenerative medicine. Achieving consistent cell seeding and uniform cell distribution throughout 3D scaffold culture in vitro is an ongoing challenge. Traditionally, 3D scaffolds are cultured within tissue culture plates to enable reproducible cell seeding and ease of culture media change. In this study, we compared two different well-plates with different surface properties to assess whether seeding efficiencies and cell growth on 3D scaffolds were affected. Cell attachment and growth of murine calvarial osteoblast (MC3T3-E1) cells within a melt-electrospun poly-ε-caprolactone scaffold were assessed when cultured in either “low-adhesive” non-treated or corona discharged-treated well-plates. Increased cell adhesion was observed on the scaffold placed in the surface treated culture plates compared to the scaffold in the non-treated plates 24 h after seeding, although it was not significant. However, higher cell metabolic activity was observed on the bases of all well-plates than on the scaffold, except for day 21, well metabolic activity was higher in the scaffold contained in non-treated plate than the base. These results indicate that there is no advantage in using non-treated plates to improve initial cell seeding in 3D polymeric tissue engineering scaffolds, however non-treated plates may provide an improved metabolic environment for long-term studies. PMID:26703748

  1. Biotransformations of Antidiabetic Vanadium Prodrugs in Mammalian Cells and Cell Culture Media: A XANES Spectroscopic Study.

    PubMed

    Levina, Aviva; McLeod, Andrew I; Pulte, Anna; Aitken, Jade B; Lay, Peter A

    2015-07-20

    The antidiabetic activities of vanadium(V) and -(IV) prodrugs are determined by their ability to release active species upon interactions with components of biological media. The first X-ray absorption spectroscopic study of the reactivity of typical vanadium (V) antidiabetics, vanadate ([V(V)O4](3-), A) and a vanadium(IV) bis(maltolato) complex (B), with mammalian cell cultures has been performed using HepG2 (human hepatoma), A549 (human lung carcinoma), and 3T3-L1 (mouse adipocytes and preadipocytes) cell lines, as well as the corresponding cell culture media. X-ray absorption near-edge structure data were analyzed using empirical correlations with a library of model vanadium(V), -(IV), and -(III) complexes. Both A and B ([V] = 1.0 mM) gradually converged into similar mixtures of predominantly five- and six-coordinate V(V) species (∼75% total V) in a cell culture medium within 24 h at 310 K. Speciation of V in intact HepG2 cells also changed with the incubation time (from ∼20% to ∼70% V(IV) of total V), but it was largely independent of the prodrug used (A or B) or of the predominant V oxidation state in the medium. Subcellular fractionation of A549 cells suggested that V(V) reduction to V(IV) occurred predominantly in the cytoplasm, while accumulation of V(V) in the nucleus was likely to have been facilitated by noncovalent bonding to histone proteins. The nuclear V(V) is likely to modulate the transcription process and to be ultimately related to cell death at high concentrations of V, which may be important in anticancer activities. Mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes (unlike for preadipocytes) showed a higher propensity to form V(IV) species, despite the prevalence of V(V) in the medium. The distinct V biochemistry in these cells is consistent with their crucial role in insulin-dependent glucose and fat metabolism and may also point to an endogenous role of V in adipocytes. PMID:25906315

  2. Biotransformations of Antidiabetic Vanadium Prodrugs in Mammalian Cells and Cell Culture Media: A XANES Spectroscopic Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The antidiabetic activities of vanadium(V) and -(IV) prodrugs are determined by their ability to release active species upon interactions with components of biological media. The first X-ray absorption spectroscopic study of the reactivity of typical vanadium (V) antidiabetics, vanadate ([VVO4]3–, A) and a vanadium(IV) bis(maltolato) complex (B), with mammalian cell cultures has been performed using HepG2 (human hepatoma), A549 (human lung carcinoma), and 3T3-L1 (mouse adipocytes and preadipocytes) cell lines, as well as the corresponding cell culture media. X-ray absorption near-edge structure data were analyzed using empirical correlations with a library of model vanadium(V), -(IV), and -(III) complexes. Both A and B ([V] = 1.0 mM) gradually converged into similar mixtures of predominantly five- and six-coordinate VV species (∼75% total V) in a cell culture medium within 24 h at 310 K. Speciation of V in intact HepG2 cells also changed with the incubation time (from ∼20% to ∼70% VIV of total V), but it was largely independent of the prodrug used (A or B) or of the predominant V oxidation state in the medium. Subcellular fractionation of A549 cells suggested that VV reduction to VIV occurred predominantly in the cytoplasm, while accumulation of VV in the nucleus was likely to have been facilitated by noncovalent bonding to histone proteins. The nuclear VV is likely to modulate the transcription process and to be ultimately related to cell death at high concentrations of V, which may be important in anticancer activities. Mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes (unlike for preadipocytes) showed a higher propensity to form VIV species, despite the prevalence of VV in the medium. The distinct V biochemistry in these cells is consistent with their crucial role in insulin-dependent glucose and fat metabolism and may also point to an endogenous role of V in adipocytes. PMID:25906315

  3. Aquatic flower-inspired cell culture platform with simplified medium exchange process for facilitating cell-surface interaction studies.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyeonjun; Park, Sung Jea; Han, Seon Jin; Lim, Jiwon; Kim, Dong Sung

    2016-02-01

    Establishing fundamentals for regulating cell behavior with engineered physical environments, such as topography and stiffness, requires a large number of cell culture experiments. However, cell culture experiments in cell-surface interaction studies are generally labor-intensive and time-consuming due to many experimental tasks, such as multiple fabrication processes in sample preparation and repetitive medium exchange in cell culture. In this work, a novel aquatic flower-inspired cell culture platform (AFIP) is presented. AFIP aims to facilitate the experiments on the cell-surface interaction studies, especially the medium exchange process. AFIP was devised to capture and dispense cell culture medium based on interactions between an elastic polymer substrate and a liquid medium. Thus, the medium exchange can be performed easily and without the need of other instruments, such as a vacuum suction and pipette. An appropriate design window of AFIP, based on scaling analysis, was identified to provide a criterion for achieving stability in medium exchange as well as various surface characteristics of the petal substrates. The developed AFIP, with physically engineered petal substrates, was also verified to exchange medium reliably and repeatedly. A closed structure capturing the medium was sustained stably during cell culture experiments. NIH3T3 proliferation results also demonstrated that AFIP can be applied to the cell-surface interaction studies as an alternative to the conventional method. PMID:26683462

  4. Liver Cell Culture Devices

    PubMed Central

    Andria, B.; Bracco, A.; Cirino, G.; Chamuleau, R. A. F. M.

    2010-01-01

    In the last 15 years many different liver cell culture devices, consisting of functional liver cells and artificial materials, have been developed. They have been devised for numerous different applications, such as temporary organ replacement (a bridge to liver transplantation or native liver regeneration) and as in vitro screening systems in the early stages of the drug development process, like assessing hepatotoxicity, hepatic drug metabolism, and induction/inhibition studies. Relevant literature is summarized about artificial human liver cell culture systems by scrutinizing PubMed from 2003 to 2009. Existing devices are divided in 2D configurations (e.g., static monolayer, sandwich, perfused cells, and flat plate) and 3D configurations (e.g., liver slices, spheroids, and different types of bioreactors). The essential features of an ideal liver cell culture system are discussed: different types of scaffolds, oxygenation systems, extracellular matrixes (natural and artificial), cocultures with nonparenchymal cells, and the role of shear stress problems. Finally, miniaturization and high-throughput systems are discussed. All these factors contribute in their own way to the viability and functionality of liver cells in culture. Depending on the aim for which they are designed, several good systems are available for predicting hepatotoxicity and hepatic metabolism within the general population. To predict hepatotoxicity in individual cases genomic analysis might be essential as well. PMID:26998397

  5. Culturing Uveal Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Angi, Martina; Versluis, Mieke; Kalirai, Helen

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in cancer research is the use of appropriate models with which to study a specific biological question. Cell lines have long been used to study cellular processes and the effects of individual molecules because they are easy to use, grow rapidly, produce reproducible results and have a strong track record in research. In uveal melanoma in particular, the absence of animal models that faithfully replicate the behavior of the human disease has propagated the generation and use of numerous cell lines by individual research groups. This in itself, however, can be viewed as a problem due to the lack of standardization when characterizing these entities to determine how closely they reflect the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of this disease. The alternative is to use in vitro primary cultures of cells obtained directly from uveal melanoma patient samples, but this too has its difficulties. Primary cell cultures are difficult to use, hard to obtain and can show considerable heterogeneity. In this article, we review the following: (1) the uveal melanoma cell lines that are currently available, discussing the importance of establishing a bank of those that represent the molecular heterogeneity of uveal melanoma; (2) the methods used to isolate and perform short-term cultures of primary uveal melanoma cells, and (3) the establishment of 3D tissue culture models that bridge the gap between 2D in vitro systems and in vivo models with which to dissect cancer biology and perform therapeutic screens. PMID:27171555

  6. ASBESTOS AND GASTRO-INTESTINAL CANCER: CELL CULTURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three forms of asbestos: amosite, crocidolite, and chrysotile, were assayed for their cytotoxicity and mutagenicity in cell clture. Using embjryonic human intestine derived and adult rat liver derived epitelial cells, the order of toxicity was chrysotile > amosite = crocidolite. ...

  7. Cinemicrographic study of cell proliferation pattern and interdivision times of human keratinocytes in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Kitano, Y; Nagase, N; Okada, N; Okano, M

    1983-01-01

    The stratified squamous epithelium of the skin, the epidermis, is a renewing cell population. In order for epidermis to remain the same size, each dividing basal cell must produce on an average, one daughter cell that will remain as a germinative cell and another that will perform terminal differentiation (differential mitosis). In order to investigate cell kinetics in the epidermis, the information obtained from in vivo study is limited, and offers only indirect evidence for the determination of cell cycle time and cell proliferation pattern. Keratinocytes in cell culture are unique in formation of a multilayered cellular sheet in which the keratinocytes form a structure resembling the epidermis in vivo, and keratinize at the top. In the early days of the primary culture of human keratinocytes, when the cells proliferate to form a monolayer sheet, direct access to cell proliferation pattern and measurement of interdivision time can be done using techniques of time-lapse cinemicrography. The primary cultures at 8-20 days of incubation were employed for cinemicrographic observation when small polygonal cells appeared in groups, when numerous mitotic figures were observed, and when stratification of the cells had not yet occurred. The appropriate field was marked and followed for up to 6 days. Photographic prints were made from the 16 mm cine film, and dendrograms were made and analyzed for pattern of cell proliferation and interdivision time. Most cells in the field divided two or three times during the period of observation. Sister-sister pairs of the second and third generations divided after approximately the same interdivision times. However, some cells have never divided. Some of the sister-sister pairs differed considerably in their interdivision times. In some cultures synchronous division was quite evident. The average interdivision time was about 26 hr in the majority of cultures, and it is suggested that the estimated long cell cycle time in vivo might be overestimated due to the existence of non-cycling cells in the germinative population. PMID:6197252

  8. Biology on a Chip: Microfabrication for Studying the Behavior of Cultured Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nianzhen; Tourovskaia, Anna; Folch, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The ability to culture cells in vitro has revolutionized hypothesis testing in basic cell and molecular biology research and has become a standard methodology in drug screening and toxicology assays. However, the traditional cell culture methodology—consisting essentially of the immersion of a large population of cells in a homogeneous fluid medium—has become increasingly limiting, both from a fundamental point of view (cells in vivo are surrounded by complex spatiotemporal microenvironments) and from a practical perspective (scaling up the number of fluid handling steps and cell manipulations for high-throughput studies in vitro is prohibitively expensive). Micro fabrication technologies have enabled researchers to design, with micrometer control, the biochemical composition and topology of the substrate, the medium composition, as well as the type of neighboring cells surrounding the microenvironment of the cell. In addition, microtechnology is conceptually well suited for the development of fast, low-cost in vitro systems that allow for high-throughput culturing and analysis of cells under large numbers of conditions. Here we review a variety of applications of microfabrication in cell culture studies, with an emphasis on the biology of various cell types. PMID:15139302

  9. Preliminary study of spectral features of normal and malignant cell cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atif, M.; Farooq, W. A.; Siddiqui, Maqsood A.; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.

    2016-04-01

    In this study the fluorescence emission spectra of normal and malignant cell cultures were recorded at an excitation wavelength of 290 nm, corresponding to the higher fluorescence intensity at 350 nm (due to tryptophan) of three malignant cells and normal cells. Similarly, Stokes shift spectra were recorded for normal and malignant cell cultures with a shift, Δλ, of 70 nm. The Stokes shift shows the existence of discriminating features between normal and carcinoma cell lines due to the higher concentration of phenylalanine and tryptophan in carcinoma cell lines which are completely absent in normal cell lines. Hence, both the emission spectra and the Stokes shift spectra showed considerably different spectral features between the normal and malignant cells. The preliminary studies indicate the potential application of fluorescence spectroscopy for cancer detection using the spectral features of biofluorophores.

  10. Cell culture as a tool for the study of poultry skeletal muscle development.

    PubMed

    McFarland, D C

    1992-03-01

    Postnatal development of skeletal muscle is the responsibility of the myogenic satellite cells. Satellite cells, isolated from the pectoralis major muscle of young growing tom turkeys, have been cultured in vitro to provide a system for studying cellular and hormonal aspects of poultry skeletal muscle development. Satellite cell clones derived from primary cultures have been developed so that in vitro observations would not be confounded by the presence of nonmyogenic cells. Likewise, a serum-free medium that promotes proliferation of the turkey satellite cell has been developed to provide a hormonally controlled environment for in vitro developmental studies. These two techniques have enabled us to examine the following: 1) factors that influence satellite cell proliferation and differentiation, 2) the interaction of hormones with cellular receptors, 3) secretion of biologically important proteins from cells and 4) the expression of genes important to muscle development. PMID:1371806

  11. Label-free imaging to study phenotypic behavioural traits of cells in complex co-cultures.

    PubMed

    Suman, Rakesh; Smith, Gabrielle; Hazel, Kathryn E A; Kasprowicz, Richard; Coles, Mark; O'Toole, Peter; Chawla, Sangeeta

    2016-01-01

    Time-lapse imaging is a fundamental tool for studying cellular behaviours, however studies of primary cells in complex co-culture environments often requires fluorescent labelling and significant light exposure that can perturb their natural function over time. Here, we describe ptychographic phase imaging that permits prolonged label-free time-lapse imaging of microglia in the presence of neurons and astrocytes, which better resembles in vivo microenvironments. We demonstrate the use of ptychography as an assay to study the phenotypic behaviour of microglial cells in primary neuronal co-cultures through the addition of cyclosporine A, a potent immune-modulator. PMID:26915695

  12. Label-free imaging to study phenotypic behavioural traits of cells in complex co-cultures

    PubMed Central

    Suman, Rakesh; Smith, Gabrielle; Hazel, Kathryn E. A.; Kasprowicz, Richard; Coles, Mark; O’Toole, Peter; Chawla, Sangeeta

    2016-01-01

    Time-lapse imaging is a fundamental tool for studying cellular behaviours, however studies of primary cells in complex co-culture environments often requires fluorescent labelling and significant light exposure that can perturb their natural function over time. Here, we describe ptychographic phase imaging that permits prolonged label-free time-lapse imaging of microglia in the presence of neurons and astrocytes, which better resembles in vivo microenvironments. We demonstrate the use of ptychography as an assay to study the phenotypic behaviour of microglial cells in primary neuronal co-cultures through the addition of cyclosporine A, a potent immune-modulator. PMID:26915695

  13. Label-free imaging to study phenotypic behavioural traits of cells in complex co-cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suman, Rakesh; Smith, Gabrielle; Hazel, Kathryn E. A.; Kasprowicz, Richard; Coles, Mark; O'Toole, Peter; Chawla, Sangeeta

    2016-02-01

    Time-lapse imaging is a fundamental tool for studying cellular behaviours, however studies of primary cells in complex co-culture environments often requires fluorescent labelling and significant light exposure that can perturb their natural function over time. Here, we describe ptychographic phase imaging that permits prolonged label-free time-lapse imaging of microglia in the presence of neurons and astrocytes, which better resembles in vivo microenvironments. We demonstrate the use of ptychography as an assay to study the phenotypic behaviour of microglial cells in primary neuronal co-cultures through the addition of cyclosporine A, a potent immune-modulator.

  14. Type II pneumocytes in mixed cell culture of human lung: a light and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Bingle, L; Bull, T B; Fox, B; Guz, A; Richards, R J; Tetley, T D

    1990-01-01

    Alveolar Type II epithelial cells dedifferentiate rapidly in vitro. Studies with animal tissue suggest that cell-cell and extracellular matrix-cell interactions are important in the retention of Type II cell morphology in vitro. Thus, in this study with human tissue, alveolar Type II cells, alveolar macrophages, and spindle cells were prepared from the same sample of lung (obtained following lobectomy for cancer, n = 3), cocultured on glass cover slips or tissue culture plastic, and studied by light microscopy with scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy for 8 days. The primary cell isolates contained approximately 45% Type II cells; the remainder were macrophages or unidentifiable cells. Clusters, made up of a single layer of cuboidal Type II cells around a central core of connective tissue (largely collagen and some elastic tissue), formed above a monolayer of spindle cells. The Type II cells were morphologically similar to those seen in vivo. The cells were still cuboidal at 8 days but had lost their lamellar bodies, which were released into the medium via the apical surface. The clusters increased in size with time (area, microns 2: day 1, 29(5-143) x 10(2); day 8, 63(10-311) x 10(2); mean(range); p less than 0.02) without changing in number per culture, suggesting Type II cell proliferation. This may have been due to factors produced by the other cells and adherence to the extracellular matrix (ECM); (free collagen fibers, present in the original preparation, spindle cells, and/or Type II cells could be responsible for presence of ECM). We propose this as a useful model for the study of human Type II epithelial cells in vitro. Images FIGURE 1. a FIGURE 1. b FIGURE 1. c FIGURE 1. d FIGURE 1. e FIGURE 1. f FIGURE 2. a FIGURE 2. b FIGURE 2. c FIGURE 2. d FIGURE 2. e FIGURE 2. f FIGURE 2. g FIGURE 3. PMID:2384069

  15. Cell Culture Made Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Frank J.

    1985-01-01

    Outlines steps to generate cell samples for observation and experimentation. The procedures (which use ordinary laboratory equipment) will establish a short-term primary culture of normal mammalian cells. Information on culture vessels and cell division and a list of questions to generate student interest and involvement in the topics are

  16. Cell Culture Made Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Frank J.

    1985-01-01

    Outlines steps to generate cell samples for observation and experimentation. The procedures (which use ordinary laboratory equipment) will establish a short-term primary culture of normal mammalian cells. Information on culture vessels and cell division and a list of questions to generate student interest and involvement in the topics are…

  17. Optimizing stem cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Van Der Sanden, Boudewijn; Dhobb, Mehdi; Berger, François; Wion, Didier

    2010-01-01

    Stem cells always balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Hence, stem cell culture parameters are critical and need to be continuously refined according to progress in our stem cell biology understanding and the latest technological developments. This led to the progressive replacement of ill-defined additives such as serum or feeder cell layers by recombinant cytokines or growth factors. Another example is the control of the oxygen pressure. For many years cell cultures have been done under atmospheric oxygen pressure which is much higher than the one experienced by stem cells in vivo. A consequence of cell metabolism is that cell culture conditions are constantly changing. Therefore, the development of high sensitive monitoring processes and control algorithms is required for ensuring cell culture medium homeostasis. Stem cells also sense the physical constraints of their microenvironment. Rigidity, stiffness and geometry of the culture substrate influence stem cell fate. Hence, nanotopography is probably as important as medium formulation in the optimization of stem cell culture conditions. Recent advances include the development of synthetic bioinformative substrates designed at the micro- and nanoscale level. On going research in many different fields including stem cell biology, nanotechnology, and bioengineering suggest that our current way to culture cells in Petri dish or flasks will soon be outdated as flying across the Atlantic Ocean in the Lindbergh’s plane. PMID:20803548

  18. Cell culture from lizard skin: a tool for the study of epidermal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Polazzi, Elisabetta; Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2011-12-01

    An in vitro system of isolated skin cells has been developed in order to address the understanding on the factors that control the shedding cycle and differentiation of lizard epidermis. The skin from the regenerating lizard tail has been separated in epidermis and dermis, cells have been dissociated, cultivated in vitro, and studied ultrastructurally after 1-30 days of culture condition. Dissociated keratinocytes after 12 days in culture show numerous cell elongations and contain bundles of keratin or sparse keratin filaments. These cells often contain one to three 0.5-3 μm large and dense "keratinaceous bodies", an organelle representing tonofilament disassembling. Most keratinocytes have sparse tonofilaments in the cytoplasm and form shorter bundles of keratin in the cell periphery. The dissociated dermis mainly consists of mesenchymal cells containing sparse bundles of intermediate filaments. These cells proliferate and form multi-stratified layers and a dermal pellicle in about 2-3 weeks in vitro in our basic medium. Conversely, cultures of keratinocytes do not expand but eventually reduce to few viable cells within 2-3 weeks of in vitro condition. It is suggested that dermal cells sustain themselves through the production of growth factors but that epidermal cells requires specific growth factors still to be identified before setting-up an in vitro system that allows analyzing the control of the shedding cycle in lizards. PMID:21872288

  19. ELECTROPHORETIC STUDY OF THE INTERACTION OF RADIOACTIVE POLIOVIRUS WITH COMPONENTS OF CULTURED CELLS.

    PubMed

    THORNE, H V

    1963-06-01

    Thorne, H. V. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis). Electrophoretic study of the interaction of radioactive poliovirus with components of cultured cells. J. Bacteriol. 85:1247-1255. 1963.-The interaction of P(32)-labeled poliovirus with the postnuclear fraction of HeLa cell homogenates was first examined using radioactivity to quantitate the reaction. The effects of virus and debris concentration, suspending medium, temperature, and time on the reaction were determined. Binding was independent of salt concentration up to 1.0 m and unaffected by calcium and magnesium ions at 10(-3)m. The postnuclear particulate components of homogenates of mammalian cells in culture were examined by sucrose gradient zone electrophoresis at pH 7.2 with a simple apparatus which permitted several simultaneous analyses. The distributions of components for different cell types were distinct and appeared to be influenced by conditions of culture. Addition of radioactive poliovirus to the homogenate before analysis was used to identify components with virus-binding activity. Activity of HeLa and human esophageal epithelium cell homogenates was found mainly in membranous fractions of relatively low electrophoretic mobility. Components with a broader spread of mobility were moderately active in cultured human amnion, but uncultured amnion had almost undetectable virus-binding activity and a distinct distribution of components. Rat heart cells and L cells did not bind poliovirus, but binding components were present in both ERK-1 and CRE rabbit lines. PMID:14047214

  20. Expression of FcIgG receptors on cultured fetal rat brain cells. Studies on normal, preneoplastic and malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Aanderud, S; Lillehaug, J; Tønder, O; Laerum, O D

    1983-01-01

    The expression of FcIgG receptor (FcR) was studied during various stages of growth and subculturing of: (1) fetal rat brain cells (FBC); (2) FBC during in vitro neoplastic transformation after a transplacental pulse of the alkylating carcinogen ethylnitrosurea in vivo, and (3) an established neoplastic brain tumor cell line. Hemadsorption of antibody-coated sheep erythrocytes was used for the detection of FcR-positive cells. Such cells were not detected in cryostat sections of fetal rat brains, but in primary cultures of FBC 1 day after the explantation. FcR-positive cells were present throughout the logarithmic-growth phase. When reaching confluency after 5-7 days in culture. FcR-positive cells could not be detected. In the secondary cultures the occurrence of FcR-positive cells showed a similar variation related to growth: The growth-related receptor was also present on cells growing into arteficial defects in confluent cultures, while the resting cells in the same cultures were FcR-negative. With further subculturing the cells became epithelioid and slowly growing without FcR. Morphologically induced differentiation of such epithelioid cells by 12-O-tetra-decanoyl phorbol-13-acetate did not change the FcR expression. We did not detect any change in the receptor expression related to the malignant transformation, and the malignant cell line was FcR-negative. Expression of FcR on FBC undergoing malignant transformation therefore seems to be mainly connected to the mode of growth (log-phase versus confluence). PMID:6848476

  1. Histochemical study of brown-fat cells in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) in cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolov, V.E.; Boyadzhieva-Mikhailova, A.; Koncheva, L.; Angelova, P.; Evgen'eva, T.P.

    1985-11-01

    The authors undertake the task of studying the synthesis of certain hormones by brown-fat cells. The authors used brown-fat cells from the golden hamster. The metabolism of brown-fat cells was studied on precultured cells, which made it possible to detect the synthesis of the studied substances rather than their accumulation in the organ. The authors conducted three experiments. First, fragments of brown fat were cultivated in diffusion chambers in vivo. Pieces of brown fat were cultivated in parallel in vitro on agar (organotypic cultures) and on plasma (histotypic cultures). During cultivation in diffusion chambers, the chambers were implanted in the abdominal cavity of young white rats. For in vitro cultivation, TCM 199 plus 15-20% calf serum was used. A total of 36 cultures with 12 cultures in each series of experiments were performed. The auto-radiographic studies of brown-fat cells were conducted on 24-hour cultures and on brown-fat fragments taken from the intact animal. The cultures were incubated with isotopes for 1 h. Either (/sup 3/H)lysine (87.3 Ci/mM specific activity), (/sup 3/H)arginine (16.7 Ci/mM), (/sup 3/H)glycerol (43 Ci/mM), or (/sup 3/H)cholesterol (43 Ci/mM) were added to the medium. After incubation, the cultures were washed three times in pure medium, fixed in Sierra fluid, and embedded in paraffin. The paraffin sections were covered with Ilford K/sub 2/ emulsion, and the preparations were exposed for 20 days at 4/sup 0/C temperature. Radio-immunological methods were used to study the accumulation of estradiol-17-beta in the culture medium by the Dobson method and that of testerone. The culture medium was taken on cultivation days 2,4,6,8, and 10. The medium was changed during cultivation every third day, which made it possible to judge the rates of accumulation of material with increase in the cultivation times.

  2. Ultrastructural study of cultured ovine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Desantis, Salvatore; Accogli, Gianluca; Zizza, Sara; Mastrodonato, Maria; Blasi, Antonella; Francioso, Edda; Rossi, Roberta; Crovace, Antonio; Resta, Leonardo

    2015-09-01

    Ovine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (oBM-MSCs) represent a good animal model for cell-based therapy and tissue engineering. Despite their use as a new therapeutic tool for several clinical applications, the morphological features of oBM-MSCs are yet unknown. Therefore, in this study the ultrastructural phenotype of these cells was analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The oBM-MSCs were isolated from the iliac crest and cultured until they reached near-confluence. After trypsinization, they were processed to investigate their ultrastructural features as well as specific surface marker proteins by flow cytometry and immunogold electron microscopy. Flow cytometry displayed that all oBM-MSCs lacked expression of CD31, CD34, CD45, HLA-DR whereas they expressed CD44, CD58, HLAI and a minor subset of the cell population (12%) exhibited CD90. TEM revealed the presence of two morphologically distinct cell types: cuboidal electron-lucent cells and spindle-shaped electron-dense cells, both expressing the CD90 antigen. Most of the electron-lucent cells showed glycogen aggregates, dilated cisternae of RER, moderately developed Golgi complex, and secretory activity. The electron-dense cell type was constituted by two different cell-populations: type A cells with numerous endosomes, dense bodies, rod-shaped mitochondria and filopodia; type B cells with elongated mitochondria, thin pseudopodia and cytoplasmic connectivity with electron-lucent cells. These morphological findings could provide a useful support to identify "in situ" the cellular components involved in the cell-therapy when cultured oBM-MSCs are injected. PMID:26196242

  3. Mammalian Cell Culture Simplified.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Robert; Solomon, Sondra

    1991-01-01

    A tissue culture experiment that does not require elaborate equipment and that can be used to teach sterile technique, the principles of animal cell line maintenance, and the concept of cell growth curves is described. The differences between cancerous and normal cells can be highlighted. The procedure is included. (KR)

  4. Digital Microfluidic Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Ng, Alphonsus H C; Li, Bingyu Betty; Chamberlain, M Dean; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2015-01-01

    Digital microfluidics (DMF) is a droplet-based liquid-handling technology that has recently become popular for cell culture and analysis. In DMF, picoliter- to microliter-sized droplets are manipulated on a planar surface using electric fields, thus enabling software-reconfigurable operations on individual droplets, such as move, merge, split, and dispense from reservoirs. Using this technique, multistep cell-based processes can be carried out using simple and compact instrumentation, making DMF an attractive platform for eventual integration into routine biology workflows. In this review, we summarize the state-of-the-art in DMF cell culture, and describe design considerations, types of DMF cell culture, and cell-based applications of DMF. PMID:26643019

  5. Cytocompatibility of the selected calcium phosphate based bone cements: comparative study in human cell culture.

    PubMed

    Olkowski, Radosław; Kaszczewski, Piotr; Czechowska, Joanna; Siek, Dominika; Pijocha, Dawid; Zima, Aneta; Ślósarczyk, Anna; Lewandowska-Szumieł, Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPC) are valuable bone fillers. Recently they have been also considered as the basis for drug-, growth factors- or cells-delivery systems. Broad possibilities to manipulate CPC composition provide a unique opportunity to obtain materials with a wide range of physicochemical properties. In this study we show that CPC composition significantly influences cell response. Human bone derived cells were exposed to the several well-characterized different cements based on calcium phosphates, magnesium phosphates and calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH). Cell viability assays, live/dead staining and real-time observation of cells in contact with the materials (time-laps) were performed. Although all the investigated materials have successfully passed a standard cytocompatibility assay, cell behavior in a direct contact with the materials varied depending on the material and the experimental system. The most recommended were the α-TCP-based materials which proved suitable as a support for cells in a direct contact. The materials which caused a decrease of calcium ions concentration in culture induced the negative cell response, however this effect might be expected efficiently compensated in vivo. All the materials consisting of CSH had negative impact on the cells. The obtained results strongly support running series of cytocompatibility studies for preclinical evaluation of bone cements. PMID:26511138

  6. Cytotoxic and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase-inducing effects of laboratory rodent diets. A cell culture study

    SciTech Connect

    Toerroenen, R.; Pelkonen, K.; Kaerenlampi, S. )

    1991-01-01

    Extracts of several rodent diets were studied for their cytotoxic and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase-inducing properties by an in vitro method. The cell culture system based on a mouse hepatoma cell line (Hepa-1) was shown to be convenient and sensitive method for screening of diets for these parameters implying the presence of compounds potentially harmful in vivo. Considerable differences among diets and batches were detected. Smallest effects were observed with a semipurified diet and with the unrefined diet which - contrary to other four unrefined diets - contained no fish.

  7. Poly(dimethylsiloxane) thin films as biocompatible coatings for microfluidic devices : cell culture and flow studies with glial cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Sophie Louise; Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio; Gourley, Paul Lee; McDonald, Anthony Eugene

    2004-06-01

    Oxygen plasma treatment of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) thin films produced a hydrophilic surface that was biocompatible and resistant to biofouling in microfluidic studies. Thin film coatings of PDMS were previously developed to provide protection for semiconductor-based microoptical devices from rapid degradation by biofluids. However, the hydrophobic surface of native PDMS induced rapid clogging of microfluidic channels with glial cells. To evaluate the various issues of surface hydrophobicity and chemistry on material biocompatibility, we tested both native and oxidized PDMS (ox-PDMS) coatings as well as bare silicon and hydrophobic alkane and hydrophilic oligoethylene glycol silane monolayer coated under both cell culture and microfluidic studies. For the culture studies, the observed trend was that the hydrophilic surfaces supported cell adhesion and growth, whereas the hydrophobic ones were inhibitive. However, for the fluidic studies, a glass-silicon microfluidic device coated with the hydrophilic ox-PDMS had an unperturbed flow rate over 14 min of operation, whereas the uncoated device suffered a loss in rate of 12%, and the native PDMS coating showed a loss of nearly 40%. Possible protein modification of the surfaces from the culture medium also were examined with adsorbed films of albumin, collagen, and fibrinogen to evaluate their effect on cell adhesion.

  8. Development of primary cell cultures using hemocytes and phagocytic tissue cells of Locusta migratoria: an application for locust immunity studies.

    PubMed

    Duressa, Tewodros Firdissa; Huybrechts, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Insect cell cultures played central roles in unraveling many insect physiological and immunological processes. Regardless, despite imminent needs, insect cell lines were developed primarily from Dipteran and Lepidopteran orders, leaving many important insects such as Orthopteran locusts under-represented. Besides the lack of cell lines, the slow progress in development of in vitro techniques is attributed to poor communications between different laboratories regarding optimized primary cell cultures. Therefore, we report here about methods developed for primary cell culture of Locusta migratoria hemocyte and phagocytic tissue cells by which we could maintain viable hemocytes in vitro for over 5 d and phagocytic tissue cells for over 12 d. 2-Mercaptoethanol and phenyl-thiourea supplements in Grace's medium together with addition of fetal bovine serum 30 min after cell seeding resulted in a successful setup of the primary cell cultures and a week-long survival of the hemocytes and phagocytic tissue cells in vitro. PMID:26427710

  9. Primary culture of intestinal epithelial cells as a potential model for Toxoplasma gondii enteric cycle studies.

    PubMed

    Moura, Marcos de Assis; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis; Barbosa, Helene Santos

    2009-09-01

    The primary culture of intestinal epithelial cells from domestic cats is an efficient cellular model to study the enteric cycle of Toxoplasma gondii in a definitive host. The parasite-host cell ratio can be pointed out as a decisive factor that determines the intracellular fate of bradyzoites forms. The development of the syncytial-like forms of T. gondii was observed using the 1:20 bradyzoite-host cell ratio, resulting in similar forms described in in vivo systems. This alternative study potentially opens up the field for investigation into the molecular aspects of this interaction. This can contribute to the development of new strategies for intervention of a main route by which toxoplasmosis spreads. PMID:19876557

  10. A study on sonoporation of cells cultured on a soft collagen gel scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Nobuki; Kinoshita, Yuto

    2012-11-01

    Efficiencies of sonoporation were investigated using four types of monolayer-cell samples: cells cultured directly on a cover slip, cells cultured on a cover slip coated with collagen gel of several μm in thickness, and cells cultured on collagen gel scaffolds of 0.4 and 1.0 mm in thicknesses. Cell samples attached with Levovist microbubbles were irradiated by one shot of a three- or 10,000-cycle ultrasound pulse, and cell detachment and membrane perforation were investigated. Experimental results showed that rates of cell detachment and membrane damage were markedly decreased in the presence of soft gel layer of 0.4 and 1.0 mm in thicknesses under the cells and that these rates were inversely proportional to the thickness of the gel layer. These results indicate that optimum conditions of sonoporation in vitro should be carefully translated into those in vivo.

  11. Cell Culturing of Cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc., has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc., is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.

  12. Cell Culturing of Cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc. has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc. is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.

  13. LIMITED BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF PERFLUOROCARBON EMULSIONS ON ENCAPSULATED CELLS IN CULTURE: EXPERIMENTAL AND MODELING STUDIES

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Fernie; Gross, Jeffrey D.; Simpson, Nicholas E.; Sambanis, Athanassios

    2010-01-01

    Due to the high solubility of oxygen in perfluorocarbons (PFCs), these compounds have been explored for improved cell and tissue oxygenation. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of a PFC emulsion on cellular growth and function in a tissue engineered construct. A perfluorotributylamine (PFTBA) emulsion was co-encapsulated at 10 vol% with mouse βTC-tet insulinoma cells in calcium alginate beads and cultured under normoxic and severely hypoxic conditions. The number of metabolically active cells and the induced insulin secretion rate were measured over time for up to 16 days. Results showed no significant effect of PFTBA relative to the PFTBA-free control. The alginate-PFC-cell system was also modeled mathematically, and simulations tracked the number of viable cells over time under the same conditions used experimentally. Simulations revealed only a small, likely experimentally undetectable difference in cell density between the PFC-containing and PFC-free control beads. It is concluded that PFTBA up to 10 vol% has no significant effect on the growth and function of encapsulated βTC-tet cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. PMID:20804794

  14. Oscillating Cell Culture Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Lisa E.; Cheng, Mingyu; Moretti, Matteo G.

    2010-01-01

    To better exploit the principles of gas transport and mass transport during the processes of cell seeding of 3D scaffolds and in vitro culture of 3D tissue engineered constructs, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor provides a flow of cell suspensions and culture media directly through a porous 3D scaffold (during cell seeding) and a 3D construct (during subsequent cultivation) within a highly gas-permeable closed-loop tube. This design is simple, modular, and flexible, and its component parts are easy to assemble and operate, and are inexpensive. Chamber volume can be very low, but can be easily scaled up. This innovation is well suited to work with different biological specimens, particularly with cells having high oxygen requirements and/or shear sensitivity, and different scaffold structures and dimensions. The closed-loop changer is highly gas permeable to allow efficient gas exchange during the cell seeding/culturing process. A porous scaffold, which may be seeded with cells, is fixed by means of a scaffold holder to the chamber wall with scaffold/construct orientation with respect to the chamber determined by the geometry of the scaffold holder. A fluid, with/without biological specimens, is added to the chamber such that all, or most, of the air is displaced (i.e., with or without an enclosed air bubble). Motion is applied to the chamber within a controlled environment (e.g., oscillatory motion within a humidified 37 C incubator). Movement of the chamber induces relative motion of the scaffold/construct with respect to the fluid. In case the fluid is a cell suspension, cells will come into contact with the scaffold and eventually adhere to it. Alternatively, cells can be seeded on scaffolds by gel entrapment prior to bioreactor cultivation. Subsequently, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor will provide efficient gas exchange (i.e., of oxygen and carbon dioxide, as required for viability of metabolically active cells) and controlled levels of fluid dynamic shear (i.e., as required for viability of shear-sensitive cells) to the developing engineered tissue construct. This bioreactor was recently utilized to show independent and interactive effects of a growth factor (IGF-I) and slow bidirectional perfusion on the survival, differentiation, and contractile performance of 3D tissue engineering cardiac constructs. The main application of this system is within the tissue engineering industry. The ideal final application is within the automated mass production of tissue- engineered constructs. Target industries could be both life sciences companies as well as bioreactor device producing companies.

  15. Design Study Conducted of a Stirred and Perfused Specimen Chamber for Culturing Suspended Cells on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Emily S.; Kizito, John P.

    2003-01-01

    A tightly knit numerical/experimental collaboration among the NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Glenn Research Center, and Payload Systems, Inc., was formed to analyze cell culturing systems for the International Space Station. The Cell Culture Unit is a facility scheduled for deployment on the space station by the Cell Culture Unit team at Ames. The facility houses multiple cell specimen chambers (CSCs), all of which have inlets and outlets to allow for replenishment of nutrients and for waste removal. For improved uniformity of nutrient and waste concentrations, each chamber has a pair of counterrotating stir bars as well. Although the CSC can be used to grow a wide variety of organic cells, the current study uses yeast as a model cell. Previous work identified groundbased protocols for perfusion and stirring to achieve yeast growth within the CSC that is comparable to that for yeast cultures grown in a shaken Ehrlenmeyer flask.

  16. Characterization of bovine ciliary pigmented epithelial cells in monolayer culture: an ultrastructural, enzyme histochemical and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, M; Bermbach, G; Dermietzel, R; Lütjen-Drecoll, E

    1993-01-01

    Monolayer cultures of the pigmented epithelial (PE) cells derived from two regions of the pars plicata of bovine eyes were established and grown up to the third passage. After this passage, the cultures became senescent. During the first three passages, the PE cells lost their pigment granules but developed a distinct cellular polarity by forming junctional complexes at their apical cell portions and depositing basement membrane like material on their basal side. The junctional complexes were shown to be impermeable for horseradish peroxidase, suggesting that they contained tight junctions. Histochemically, the monolayer cells stained for carbonic anhydrase (CA) and Na+/K(+)-ATPase, enzymes involved in active fluid secretion. Staining for CA and Na+/K(+)-ATPase as well as for acid phosphatase and immunostaining for vimentin and actin of the cultured PE cells were comparable with that of PE cells in vivo. Therefore, PE monolayer cultures are considered to be a suitable model for experimental studies in vitro. PMID:8381371

  17. Development and characterization of a primary culture of chicken embryonic tracheal epithelial cells and their use in avian studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major route of infection of avian influenza is through cells of the airway epithelium. To study the molecular mechanism of infection and early host responses we created a primary chicken tracheal cell culture. Epithelial cells were isolated from the trachea of 18 day old chicken embryos and cult...

  18. Human corneal equivalent as cell culture model for in vitro drug permeation studies

    PubMed Central

    Reichl, S; Bednarz, J; Müller-Goymann, C C

    2004-01-01

    Aims: For the study of transcorneal in vitro permeation of ophthalmic drugs, excised animal cornea or corneal epithelial cell culture are frequently used as a replacement for the human cornea. The main purposes of this study were to reconstruct a complete human organotypic cornea equivalent, consisting of all three different cell types (epithelial, stromal, and endothelial); to test the barrier function of this bio-engineered human cornea using three different model drugs (pilocarpine hydrochloride (PHCl), befunolol hydrochloride (BHCl), and hydrocortisone (HC)); and to determine its usefulness as an in vitro model for prediction of ocular drug absorption into the human eye. Methods: A multilayer tissue construct was created step by step in Transwell cell culture insert using SV-40 immortalised human endothelial and epithelial cells and native stromal cells (fibroblasts). Morphology was characterised by light microscopy using routine H&E staining. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate ultrastructural features. Ocular permeation of drugs across the human cornea construct was tested using modified Franz cells and compared with data obtained from excised porcine cornea and previously described porcine cornea constructs. Results and conclusion: The cornea construct exhibited typical corneal structures such as a monolayer of hexagonally shaped endothelial cells and a multilayered epithelium consisting of seven to nine cell layers with flat superficial cells. The formation of microplicae and microvilli was also confirmed. The human cornea construct showed similar permeation behaviour for all substances compared with excised porcine cornea. However, permeability (permeation coefficients Kp) of the human cornea equivalent (PHCl 13.4•10−6 (SD 3.01•10−6); BHCl 9.88•10−6 (SD 1.79•10−6); HC 5.41•10−6 (SD 0.40•10−6) cm/s) was about 1.6–1.8 fold higher than excised porcine cornea. Compared with data from the porcine cornea construct the cultivated human equivalent showed a decreased permeability. The reconstructed human cornea could be appropriate to predict drug absorption into the human eye. PMID:15031177

  19. Challenge for 3D culture technology: Application in carcinogenesis studies with human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Emura, M; Aufderheide, M

    2016-05-01

    Lung cancer is still one of the major intractable diseases and we urgently need more efficient preventive and curative measures. Recent molecular studies have provided strong evidence that allows us to believe that classically well-known early airway lesions such as hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia and carcinoma in situ are really precancerous lesions progressing toward cancer but not necessarily transient and reversible alteration. This suggests that adequate early control of the precancerous lesions may lead to improved prevention of lung cancer. This knowledge is encouraging in view of the imminent necessity for additional experimental systems to investigate the causal mechanisms of cancers directly in human cells and tissues. There are many questions with regard to various precancerous lesions of the airways. For example, should cells, before reaching a stage of invasive carcinoma, undergo all precancerous stages such as hyperplasia or metaplasia and dysplasia, or is there any shortcut to bypass one or more of the precancerous stages? For the study of such questions, the emerging 3-dimensional (3D) cell culture technology appears to provide an effective and valuable tool. Though a great challenge, it is expected that this in vitro technology will be rapidly and reliably improved to enable the cultures to be maintained in an in vivo-mimicking state of differentiation for much longer than a period of at best a few months, as is currently the case. With the help of a "causes recombination-Lox" (Cre-lox) technology, it has been possible to trace cells giving rise to specific lung tumor types. In this short review we have attempted to assess the future role of 3D technology in the study of lung carcinogenesis. PMID:26951634

  20. Studies on Culture and Osteogenic Induction of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells under CO2-Independent Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian; Zhang, Cui; Feng, Yiding; Zong, Chen; Chen, Jiarong; Tang, Zihua; Jia, Bingbing; Tong, Xiangming; Zheng, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are one of the important factors that regulate bone anabolism. Osteoporosis resulting from microgravity during spaceflight may possibly be due to a decrease in osteogenesis mediated by hMSCs. This speculation should be verified through culture and osteogenic induction of hMSCs in a microgravity environment during spaceflight. Control of CO2 is a key component in current experimental protocols for growth, survival, and proliferation of in vitro cultured cells. However, carrying CO2 tanks on a spaceflight and devoting space/mass allowances for classical CO2 control protocols make experimentation on culture and osteogenesis difficult during most missions. Therefore, an experimental culture and osteogenic medium was developed through modifying the components of buffer salts in conventional culture medium. This experimental medium was used to culture and induce hMSCs under CO2-independent conditions. The results showed that culture and induction of hMSCs with conventional culture medium and conventional osteogenic medium under CO2-independent conditions resulted in an increase of pH in medium. The proliferation of hMSCs was also inhibited. hMSCs cultured with experimental culture medium under CO2-independent conditions showed a proliferation potential that was the same as those cultured with conventional culture medium under CO2-dependent conditions. The experimental osteogenic medium could promote hMSCs to differentiate into osteoblast-like cells under CO2-independent conditions. Cells induced by this induction system showed high alkaline phosphatase activity. The expression levels of osteogenic genes in cells induced with experimental osteogenic medium under CO2-independent conditions were not significantly different from those cells induced with conventional osteogenic medium under CO2-dependent conditions. These results suggest that the experimental culture and induction system could be used to culture hMSCs and induce the osteogenesis of hMSCs in the atmospheric conditions common to spaceflights without additional CO2. Key Words: hMSCs—CO2-independent culture—Osteogenic differentiation—Proliferation. Astrobiology 13, 370–379. PMID:23577816

  1. Ultrastructural study of long-term canine distemper virus infection in tissue culture cells.

    PubMed Central

    Narang, H K

    1982-01-01

    The morphogenesis of canine distemper virus was studied in Vero cell cultures for 43 days post-inoculation. Active replication of the virus was observed by electron microscopy and assay from 12 h after inoculation on, and peak production was observed on days 5, 14, and 22. From day 28 on, constant but smaller amounts of infectious virus were detected. Two ultrastructural types of intracytoplasmic nucleoprotein filaments were observed; although they first appeared at different times, their subsequent chronological patterns of development were similar. The cells apparently became free of virus by a mechanism of vacuolation. Intranuclear filaments were seen about day 11 and appeared to increase in number thereafter, whereas the infectious titer declined. Possible mechanisms of persistence are discussed in the light of these findings. Images PMID:7076301

  2. Application of speckle dynamics for studying metabolic activity of cell cultures with herpes virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, A. P.; Bakharev, A. A.; Malygin, A. S.; Mikhaylova, J. A.; Borodin, E. M.; Poryvayeva, A. P.; Glinskikh, N. P.

    2014-05-01

    The report considers the results of the experiments in which digital values of light intensity I and the image area correlation index ? values were recorded on a real-time basis for one or two days. Three cell cultures with viruses along with intact cultures were investigated. High correlation of dependence of ? values on time t values was demonstrated for three cultures. The ?=?(t) and I=I(t) dependences for cells with and without viruses differ considerably. It was shown that the presence of viruses could be determined as early as ten minutes after measurements were started.

  3. [Computer-controlled laser irradiation unit for studies of light-induced processes in cell cultures].

    PubMed

    Knappe, A; Beyer, W; Riesenberg, R; Schneede, P; Sroka, R; Unsöld, E; Valet, G

    1995-10-01

    For the photodynamic treatment of tumours, synergistic effects of photosensitizing substances and light (today usually laser light) are used. With the aim of optimizing photosensitizing drugs and therapy, the effects of light and drug dose were studied in cell experiments. To automate and standardize such in vitro experiments, a laser irradiation chamber was developed. Cells cultured from tumour cell lines are placed on micro-titre plates or in petri dishes, together with the photosensitizer, and subsequently irradiated in the irradiation chamber with a well-defined dose of laser light of a wavelength corresponding to the absorbance of the photosensitizing agent. The plates or dishes are irradiated from below. In this way, light dose errors due to refraction from the meniscus of the cell suspension as occurs with irradiation from above, are avoided. During irradiation, speckle effects on the underside of the plates or petri dishes lead to variation in irradiation. A vibrator keeps the light transmission fibre and thus speckle pattern in motion, guaranteeing a homogeneous irradiation of the cells. PMID:8527638

  4. The Organotypic Longitudinal Spinal Cord Slice Culture for Stem Cell Study

    PubMed Central

    Sypecka, Joanna; Koniusz, Sylwia; Kawalec, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe in detail the method of organotypic longitudinal spinal cord slice culture and the scientific basis for its potential utility. The technique is based on the interface method, which was described previously and thereafter was modified in our laboratory. The most important advantage of the presented model is the preservation of the intrinsic spinal cord fiber tract and the ventrodorsal polarity of the spinal cord. All the processes occurring during axonal growth, regeneration, synapse formation, and myelination could be visualized while being cultured in vitro for up to 4-5 weeks after the slices had been isolated. Both pups and adult animals can undergo the same, equally efficient procedures when going by the protocol in question. The urgent need for an appropriate in vitro model for spinal cord regeneration results from a greater number of clinical trials concerning regenerative medicine in the spinal cord injury and from still insufficient knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in the neuroreparative processes. The detailed method of organotypic longitudinal spinal cord slice culture is accompanied by examples of its application to studying biological processes to which both the CNS inhabiting and grafted cells are subjected. PMID:25802530

  5. Embryos and culture cells: a model for studying the effect of progesterone.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R M; Marques, C C; Baptista, M C; Vasques, M I; Horta, A E M

    2009-03-01

    A positive association between P4 concentration and initial bovine embryo survival has been reported. The objective of this study was to establish two coculture systems as a model to study the influence of progesterone on the initial bovine embryo development. Granulosa cells (GC) or bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOECs) were used at the base of embryo culture medium microdroplets (TCM199 and 10% of superovulated oestrus cow serum, (SOCS)) supplemented or not with progesterone (P4, 33.4 ng mL(-1)) and/or a progesterone receptor antagonist (onapristone, OP, 2.2x10(-5)M). Presumptive zygotes were transferred to monolayers after in vitro maturation and fertilization of bovine oocytes with thawed swim-up selected sperm. Embryo development was carried out according to the following groups: experiment 1, BOEC (n=378) and BOEC plus OP (n=325); experiment 2, GC (n=514); GC plus OP (n=509); BOEC (n=490); BOEC plus P4 (n=500); BOEC plus P4 and OP (n=502). Embryos were checked for cleavage at day 2 and for stage development between days 8 and 12 of culture. In experiment 1, no differences (P>0.05) were identified between BOEC and BOECOP groups for embryo rates of development, quality or developmental stages. Also in experiment 2, no differences were found in embryo rates of development, quality or developmental stages between embryos cultured under the two coculture systems when no supplementation was added. Embryo development rates were not affected by OP presence in GCOP group. However, P4 negatively affected Day 8 (D8) embryo development rates in BOEC system (BOECP4=16.8+/-2.6% vs. BOEC=23.7+/-1.7%, P=0.02). This negative effect was abolished when P4 antagonist (OP) was added to the culture medium. BOEC supplementation with P4 also induced a delay on embryo development at D8 as confirmed by a lower development score (BOECP4=3.0+/-1.4 vs. GC=3.4+/-0.1, GCOP=3.5+/-0.1, BOEC=3.4+/-0.1 and BOECP4OP=3.5+/-0.1; P<0.05). These results demonstrate that OP supplementation had no harmful effect on embryo development either in granulosa, where P4 is naturally synthesised, or in BOEC coculture systems. Also we can not confirm a direct association between high P4 concentrations and embryo survival during early stages, although P4 may influence early embryo development through different mechanisms mediated by the type of cells present. PMID:18374525

  6. A primary chicken tracheal cell culture system for the study of infection with avian respiratory viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major route of infection of avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in chickens is through cells of the airway epithelium. Here we describe the development and optimization of conditions for culture of tracheal epithelial cells from chicken embryos as well as their use in st...

  7. Microfluidic Cell Culture Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takayama, Shuichi (Inventor); Cabrera, Lourdes Marcella (Inventor); Heo, Yun Seok (Inventor); Smith, Gary Daniel (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic devices for cell culturing and methods for using the same are disclosed. One device includes a substrate and membrane. The substrate includes a reservoir in fluid communication with a passage. A bio-compatible fluid may be added to the reservoir and passage. The reservoir is configured to receive and retain at least a portion of a cell mass. The membrane acts as a barrier to evaporation of the bio-compatible fluid from the passage. A cover fluid may be added to cover the bio-compatible fluid to prevent evaporation of the bio-compatible fluid.

  8. Studies on the effects of microgravity on the ultrastructure and functions of cultured mammalian cells (L-6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Atsushige

    1993-01-01

    The human body consists of 10(exp 13) cells. Understanding the mechanisms by which the cells sense and respond to microgravity is very important as the basis for space biology. The cells were originally isolated aseptically from mammalian bodies and cultured in vitro. A set of cell culture vessels was developed to be applied to three kinds of space flight experiments. Experiment 1 is to practice the cell culture technique in a space laboratory and obtain favorable growth of the cells. Aseptic handling in tryspin treatment and medium renewal will be tested. The cells, following space flight, will be returned to the ground and cultured continuously to investigate the effects of space flight on the cellular characteristics. Experiment 2 is to examine the cytoskeletal structure of the cells under microgravity conditions. The cytoskeletal structure plays essential roles in the morphological construction, movements, axonal transport, and differentiation of the cells. The cells fixed during space flight will be returned and the cytoskeleton and ultrastructure observed using electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. Experiment 3 is to study the cellular productivity of valuable substances. The waste medium harvested during space flight are returned and quantitated for the cellular products. The effects of microgravity on mammalian cells will be clarified from the various aspects.

  9. An innovative three-dimensional gelatin foam culture system for improved study of glioblastoma stem cell behavior.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng-Yin; Chiao, Ming-Tsang; Lee, Hsu-Tung; Chen, Chien-Min; Yang, Yi-Chin; Shen, Chiung-Chyi; Ma, Hsin-I

    2015-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) tissue engineered constructs provide a platform for examining how the local extracellular matrix contributes to the malignancy of various cancers, including human glioblastoma multiforme. Here, we describe a simple and innovative 3-D culture environment and assess its potential for use with glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) to examine the diversification inside the cell mass in the 3-D culture system. The dissociated human GSCs were cultured using gelatin foam. These cells were subsequently identified by immunohistochemical staining, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot assay. We demonstrate that the gelatin foam provides a suitable microenvironment, as a 3-D culture system, for GSCs to maintain their stemness. The gelatin foam culture system contributes a simplified assessment of cell blocks for immunohistochemistry assay. We show that the significant transcription activity of hypoxia and the protein expression of inflammatory responses are detected at the inside of the cell mass in vitro, while robust expression of PROM1/CD133 and hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha are detected at the xenografted tumor in vivo. We also examine the common clinical trials under this culture platform and characterized a significant difference of drug resistance. The 3-D gelatin foam culture system can provide a more realistic microenvironment through which to study the in vivo behavior of GSCs to evaluate the role that biophysical factors play in the hypoxia, inflammatory responses and subsequent drug resistance. PMID:24966152

  10. High CD49f expression is associated with osteosarcoma tumor progression: a study using patient-derived primary cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Penfornis, Patrice; Cai, David Z; Harris, Michael R; Walker, Ryan; Licini, David; Fernandes, Joseph D A; Orr, Griffin; Koganti, Tejaswi; Hicks, Chindo; Induru, Spandana; Meyer, Mark S; Khokha, Rama; Barr, Jennifer; Pochampally, Radhika R

    2014-08-01

    Overall prognosis for osteosarcoma (OS) is poor despite aggressive treatment options. Limited access to primary tumors, technical challenges in processing OS tissues, and the lack of well-characterized primary cell cultures has hindered our ability to fully understand the properties of OS tumor initiation and progression. In this study, we have isolated and characterized cell cultures derived from four central high-grade human OS samples. Furthermore, we used the cell cultures to study the role of CD49f in OS progression. Recent studies have implicated CD49f in stemness and multipotency of both cancer stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells. Therefore, we investigated the role of CD49f in osteosarcomagenesis. First, single cell suspensions of tumor biopsies were subcultured and characterized for cell surface marker expression. Next, we characterized the growth and differentiation properties, sensitivity to chemotherapy drugs, and anchorage-independent growth. Xenograft assays showed that cell populations expressing CD49f(hi) /CD90(lo) cell phenotype produced an aggressive tumor. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrated that inhibiting CD49f decreased the tumor-forming ability. Furthermore, the CD49f(hi) /CD90(lo) cell population is generating more aggressive OS tumor growth and indicating this cell surface marker could be a potential candidate for the isolation of an aggressive cell type in OSs. PMID:24802970

  11. High CD49f expression is associated with osteosarcoma tumor progression: a study using patient-derived primary cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Penfornis, Patrice; Cai, David Z; Harris, Michael R; Walker, Ryan; Licini, David; Fernandes, Joseph D A; Orr, Griffin; Koganti, Tejaswi; Hicks, Chindo; Induru, Spandana; Meyer, Mark S; Khokha, Rama; Barr, Jennifer; Pochampally, Radhika R

    2014-01-01

    Overall prognosis for osteosarcoma (OS) is poor despite aggressive treatment options. Limited access to primary tumors, technical challenges in processing OS tissues, and the lack of well-characterized primary cell cultures has hindered our ability to fully understand the properties of OS tumor initiation and progression. In this study, we have isolated and characterized cell cultures derived from four central high-grade human OS samples. Furthermore, we used the cell cultures to study the role of CD49f in OS progression. Recent studies have implicated CD49f in stemness and multipotency of both cancer stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells. Therefore, we investigated the role of CD49f in osteosarcomagenesis. First, single cell suspensions of tumor biopsies were subcultured and characterized for cell surface marker expression. Next, we characterized the growth and differentiation properties, sensitivity to chemotherapy drugs, and anchorage-independent growth. Xenograft assays showed that cell populations expressing CD49fhi/CD90lo cell phenotype produced an aggressive tumor. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrated that inhibiting CD49f decreased the tumor-forming ability. Furthermore, the CD49fhi/CD90lo cell population is generating more aggressive OS tumor growth and indicating this cell surface marker could be a potential candidate for the isolation of an aggressive cell type in OSs. PMID:24802970

  12. Cultured Human Renal Cortical Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    During the STS-90 shuttle flight in April 1998, cultured renal cortical cells revealed new information about genes. Timothy Hammond, an investigator in NASA's microgravity biotechnology program was interested in culturing kidney tissue to study the expression of proteins useful in the treatment of kidney diseases. Protein expression is linked to the level of differentiation of the kidney cells, and Hammond had difficulty maintaining differentiated cells in vitro. Intrigued by the improvement in cell differentiation that he observed in rat renal cells cultured in NASA's rotating wall vessel (a bioreactor that simulates some aspects of microgravity) and during an experiment performed on the Russian Space Station Mir, Hammond decided to sleuth out which genes were responsible for controlling differentiation of kidney cells. To do this, he compared the gene activity of human renal cells in a variety of gravitational environments, including the microgravity of the space shuttle and the high-gravity environment of a centrifuge. Hammond found that 1,632 genes out of 10,000 analyzed changed their activity level in microgravity, more than in any of the other environments. These results have important implications for kidney research as well as for understanding the basic mechanism for controlling cell differentiation.

  13. A Method for the Isolation and Culture of Adult Rat Retinal Pigment Epithelial (RPE) Cells to Study Retinal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Heller, Janosch P.; Kwok, Jessica C. F.; Vecino, Elena; Martin, Keith R.; Fawcett, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) affect the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and lead to the death of the epithelial cells and ultimately blindness. RPE transplantation is currently a major focus of eye research and clinical trials using human stem cell-derived RPE cells are ongoing. However, it remains to be established to which extent the source of RPE cells for transplantation affects their therapeutic efficacy and this needs to be explored in animal models. Autotransplantation of RPE cells has attractions as a therapy, but existing protocols to isolate adult RPE cells from rodents are technically difficult, time-consuming, have a low yield and are not optimized for long-term cell culturing. Here, we report a newly devised protocol which facilitates reliable and simple isolation and culture of RPE cells from adult rats. Incubation of a whole rat eyeball in 20 U/ml papain solution for 50 min yielded 4 × 104 viable RPE cells. These cells were hexagonal and pigmented upon culture. Using immunostaining, we demonstrated that the cells expressed RPE cell-specific marker proteins including cytokeratin 18 and RPE65, similar to RPE cells in vivo. Additionally, the cells were able to produce and secrete Bruch’s membrane matrix components similar to in vivo situation. Similarly, the cultured RPE cells adhered to isolated Bruch’s membrane as has previously been reported. Therefore, the protocol described in this article provides an efficient method for the rapid and easy isolation of high quantities of adult rat RPE cells. This provides a reliable platform for studying the therapeutic targets, testing the effects of drugs in a preclinical setup and to perform in vitro and in vivo transplantation experiments to study retinal diseases. PMID:26635529

  14. Principles of cancer cell culture.

    PubMed

    Cree, Ian A

    2011-01-01

    The basics of cell culture are now relatively common, though it was not always so. The pioneers of cell culture would envy our simple access to manufactured plastics, media and equipment for such studies. The prerequisites for cell culture are a well lit and suitably ventilated laboratory with a laminar flow hood (Class II), CO(2) incubator, benchtop centrifuge, microscope, plasticware (flasks and plates) and a supply of media with or without serum supplements. Not only can all of this be ordered easily over the internet, but large numbers of well-characterised cell lines are available from libraries maintained to a very high standard allowing the researcher to commence experiments rapidly and economically. Attention to safety and disposal is important, and maintenance of equipment remains essential. This chapter should enable researchers with little prior knowledge to set up a suitable laboratory to do basic cell culture, but there is still no substitute for experience within an existing well-run laboratory. PMID:21516394

  15. P NMR Study of Elicitor Treated Phaseolus vulgaris Cell Suspension Cultures.

    PubMed

    Ojalvo, I; Rokem, J S; Navon, G; Goldberg, I

    1987-11-01

    The addition of an elicitor (glucan) to Phaseolus vulgaris cell suspension cultures increased the formation of the phytoalexin phaseollin. Intracellular pH and phosphate concentrations were studied with (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on elicitor-treated cells which were aerated during the nuclear magnetic resonance measurement. The pH of the vacuole and to a lesser extent the pH of the cytoplasm were affected at 10 minutes after elicitor addition; a decrease in pH from 5.3 to 4.8 was noted in the vacuole and from 7.46 to 7.28 in the cytoplasm. The ratio between the amount of Pi in the vacuole to that in the cytoplasm also changed within 10 minutes after elicitor addition. The signal for ATP (beta-ATP) was low after elicitor addition and was high again 23 hours after elicitation. Forty-eight hours after elicitor addition, vacuolar and cytoplasmic pH had almost returned to their initial values. The rapid change in vacuolar and cytoplasmic pH may cause the change of metabolism that occurs in elicitor-treated P. vulgaris cells. PMID:16665766

  16. The neuroendocrine nature of the glomus cells: an experimental, ultrastructural, and histochemical tissue culture study.

    PubMed

    Lawson, W

    1980-01-01

    Although the carotid body is an established chemoreceptor, there is considerable evidence also for its possessing a secretory function. While adrenergic neuroendocrine cells of neuroectodermal derviation exist in the central and autonomic nervous systems, the exact histogenesis of the mammalian carotid body is unsettled. The normal human carotid body and glomus jugulare tumor have been grown in tissue culture and their constituent cells have been observed to transform from epithelial to neuronoid appearing cells with extensive dendritic processes. This conversion has been further enhanced by the addition of nerve growth factor, a polypeptide specific for neural tissue. Electron microscopy confirmed that these culus cell. Histofluorescence revealed that these in vitro cells continued to synthesize and store biogenic monoamines in culture. Comparison of the morphologic, ultrastructural and histochemical features of the glomus cell with established neuroendocrine cells (central nervous system neurons, sympathetic ganglia cells, chromaffin cells) shows striking similarities. On the basis of these findings it is concluded that the glomus cell is a modified neuron of neural crest origin. The embryology, electron microscopy and histochemistry of the carotid body and related glomera and their tumors are reviewed. PMID:6243386

  17. Three Dimensional Cultures: A Tool to Study Normal Acinar Architecture vs. Malignant Transformation of Breast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Anupama; Kleer, Celina G.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive breast carcinomas are a group of malignant epithelial tumors characterized by the invasion of adjacent tissues and propensity to metastasize. The interplay of signals between cancer cells and their microenvironment exerts a powerful influence on breast cancer growth and biological behavior1. However, most of these signals from the extracellular matrix are lost or their relevance is understudied when cells are grown in two dimensional culture (2D) as a monolayer. In recent years, three dimensional (3D) culture on a reconstituted basement membrane has emerged as a method of choice to recapitulate the tissue architecture of benign and malignant breast cells. Cells grown in 3D retain the important cues from the extracellular matrix and provide a physiologically relevant ex-vivo system2–3. Of note, there is growing evidence suggesting that cells behave differently when grown in 3D as compared to 2D4. 3D culture can be effectively used as a means to differentiate the malignant phenotype from the benign breast phenotype and for underpinning the cellular and molecular signaling involved3. One of the distinguishing characteristics of benign epithelial cells is that they are polarized so that the apical cytoplasm is towards the lumen and the basal cytoplasm rests on the basement membrane. This apico-basal polarity is lost in invasive breast carcinomas, which are characterized by cellular disorganization and formation of anastomosing and branching tubules that haphazardly infiltrates the surrounding stroma. These histopathological differences between benign gland and invasive carcinoma can be reproduced in 3D6–7. Using the appropriate read-outs like the quantitation of single round acinar structures, or differential expression of validated molecular markers for cell proliferation, polarity and apoptosis in combination with other molecular and cell biology techniques, 3D culture can provide an important tool to better understand the cellular changes during malignant transformation and for delineating the responsible signaling. PMID:24797513

  18. Ex vivo electroporation of retinal cells: a novel, high efficiency method for functional studies in primary retinal cultures.

    PubMed

    Vergara, M Natalia; Gutierrez, Christian; O'Brien, David R; Canto-Soler, M Valeria

    2013-04-01

    Primary retinal cultures constitute valuable tools not only for basic research on retinal cell development and physiology, but also for the identification of factors or drugs that promote cell survival and differentiation. In order to take full advantage of the benefits of this system it is imperative to develop efficient and reliable techniques for the manipulation of gene expression. However, achieving appropriate transfection efficiencies in these cultures has remained challenging. The purpose of this work was to develop and optimize a technique that would allow the transfection of chick retinal cells with high efficiency and reproducibility for multiple applications. We developed an ex vivo electroporation method applied to dissociated retinal cell cultures that offers a significant improvement over other currently available transfection techniques, increasing efficiency by five-fold. In this method, eyes were enucleated, devoid of RPE, and electroporated with GFP-encoding plasmids using custom-made electrodes. Electroporated retinas were then dissociated into single cells and plated in low density conditions, to be analyzed after 4 days of incubation. Parameters such as voltage and number of electric pulses, as well as plasmid concentration and developmental stage of the animal were optimized for efficiency. The characteristics of the cultures were assessed by morphology and immunocytochemistry, and cell viability was determined by ethidium homodimer staining. Cell imaging and counting was performed using an automated high-throughput system. This procedure resulted in transfection efficiencies in the order of 22-25% of cultured cells, encompassing both photoreceptors and non-photoreceptor neurons, and without affecting normal cell survival and differentiation. Finally, the feasibility of the technique for cell-autonomous studies of gene function in a biologically relevant context was tested by carrying out gain and loss-of-function experiments for the transcription factor PAX6. Electroporation of a plasmid construct expressing PAX6 resulted in a marked upregulation in the expression levels of this protein that could be measured in the whole culture as well as cell-intrinsically. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in the percentage of cells differentiating as photoreceptors among the transfected population. Conversely, electroporation of an RNAi construct targeting PAX6 resulted in a significant decrease in the levels of this protein, with a concomitant increase in the proportion of photoreceptors. Taken together these results provide strong proof-of-principle of the suitability of this technique for genetic studies in retinal cultures. The combination of the high transfection efficiency obtained by this method with automated high-throughput cell analysis supplies the scientific community with a powerful system for performing functional studies in a cell-autonomous manner. PMID:23370269

  19. Psyllid cell culture: A system to study Candidatus Liberibacter species replication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Primary cell cultures were made from the Potato Psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The potato psyllid is an important agricultural pest insect due to its ability to transmit the bacterial pathogen Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous, CLp. The pathogen is a phloem limited bacteri...

  20. System for Studying Uninfected and Virus-Infected Cell Cultures in Hyperbaric Chambers1

    PubMed Central

    Leong, J. K. L.; Schultz, W. W.; Zebovitz, E.; Schlamm, N. A.

    1973-01-01

    Equipment and techniques previously used to investigate the effect of hyperbaric gases on bacteria were modified to permit comparable investigations with uninfected and virus-infected tissue cell cultures. This report describes the modified equipment and related methodology. Use of the system is illustrated with findings on the effect of oxygen-helium mixtures at 68 atm on cell physiology and virus growth in two cell types. Our results suggested that, under those experimental conditions, several synthetic processes in chick fibroblast monolayers are inhibited but that Sindbis virus growth in the cells is increased. Growth of Japanese encephalitis virus in porcine kidney cells was found to be unaffected by oxygen-helium gas at partial pressures of oxygen between 0 and 700 mm Hg, but morphological alterations in the cells occurred at low and high pO2 levels. Images PMID:4796161

  1. System for studying uninfected and virus-infected cell cultures in hyperbaric chambers.

    PubMed

    Leong, J K; Schultz, W W; Zebovitz, E; Schlamm, N A

    1973-09-01

    Equipment and techniques previously used to investigate the effect of hyperbaric gases on bacteria were modified to permit comparable investigations with uninfected and virus-infected tissue cell cultures. This report describes the modified equipment and related methodology. Use of the system is illustrated with findings on the effect of oxygen-helium mixtures at 68 atm on cell physiology and virus growth in two cell types. Our results suggested that, under those experimental conditions, several synthetic processes in chick fibroblast monolayers are inhibited but that Sindbis virus growth in the cells is increased. Growth of Japanese encephalitis virus in porcine kidney cells was found to be unaffected by oxygen-helium gas at partial pressures of oxygen between 0 and 700 mm Hg, but morphological alterations in the cells occurred at low and high pO(2) levels. PMID:4796161

  2. A human colonic crypt culture system to study regulation of stem cell-driven tissue renewal and physiological function.

    PubMed

    Parris, Alyson; Williams, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium is one of the most rapidly renewing tissues in the human body and fulfils vital physiological roles such as barrier function and transport of nutrients and fluid. Investigation of gut epithelial physiology in health and disease has been hampered by the lack of ex vivo models of the native human intestinal epithelium. Recently, remarkable progress has been made in defining intestinal stem cells and in generating intestinal organoid cultures. In parallel, we have developed a 3D culture system of the native human colonic epithelium that recapitulates the topological hierarchy of stem cell-driven tissue renewal and permits the physiological study of native polarized epithelial cells. Here we describe methods to establish 3D cultures of intact human colonic crypts and conduct real-time imaging of intestinal tissue renewal, cellular signalling, and physiological function, in conjunction with manipulation of gene expression by lentiviral or adenoviral transduction. Visualization of mRNA- and protein-expression patterns in cultured human colonic crypts, and cross-validation with crypts derived from fixed mucosal biopsies, is also described. Alongside studies using intestinal organoids, the near-native human colonic crypt culture model will help to bridge the gap that exists between investigation of colon cancer cell lines and/or animal (tissue) studies, and progression to clinical trials. To this end, the near native human colonic crypt model provides a platform to aid the development of novel strategies for the prevention of inflammatory bowel disease and cancer. PMID:25762290

  3. Transplantation of cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells to rabbit cornea: clinical implications for human studies.

    PubMed Central

    Gospodarowicz, D; Greenburg, G; Alvarado, J

    1979-01-01

    Rabbit corneas denuded of their endothelium were coated with bovine corneal endothelial cells (from steers) previously maintained in tissue culture for short (20 generations) or prolonged (200 generations) periods. When grafted back into female rabbits, the corneal buttons remained clear and showed no edema. In contrast, denuded corneas coated with bovine keratocytes and grafted into rabbits became opaque and edematous within 7 days and remained so thereafter. Bovine corneal endothelial cells of the grafted corneas, which had remained clear for over 100 days, proliferated actively when put back into tissue culture. The corneal endothelial cells of the graft were characteristic of the male (XY). The chromosome number of the endothelium of the recipient rabbit was 2n = 44 with sex chromosomes characteristic of the female (XX). Results of the karyotype analysis show that there was no invasion of the corneal button by the recipient endothelium and, conversely, no invasion of the recipient endothelium by the endothelium on the corneal button. These results demonstrate that cultured corneal endothelial cells remain functional in vitro and can replace a damaged or nonfunctional endothelium in vivo. Images PMID:370830

  4. Comparative genomic study of gastric epithelial cells co-cultured with Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fen; Luo, Li-Dan; Pan, Jian-Hua; Huang, Li-Hua; Lv, Hong-Wei; Guo, Qin; Xu, Can-Xia; Shen, Shou-Rong

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To identify genes potentially involved in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-induced gastric carcinogenesis. METHODS: GES-1 cells were co-cultured with H. pylori strains isolated from patients with gastric carcinoma (GC, n = 10) or chronic gastritis (CG, n = 10) for in vitro proliferation and apoptosis assays to identify the most and least virulent strains. These two strains were cagA-genotyped and used for further in vivo carcinogenic virulence assays by infecting Mongolian gerbils for 52 wk, respectively; a broth free of H. pylori was lavaged as control. Genomic profiles of GES-1 cells co-cultured with the most and least virulent strains were determined by microarray analysis. The most differentially expressed genes were further verified using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in GES-1 cells infected with the most and least virulent strains, and by immunohistochemistry in H. pylori positive CG, precancerous diseases, and GC biopsy specimens in an independent experiment. RESULTS: GC-derived H. pylori strains induced a potent proliferative effect in GES-1 cells in co-culture, whereas CG-derived strains did not. The most (from a GC patient) and least (from a CG patient) virulent strains were cagA-positive and negative, respectively. At week 52, CG, atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia, and GC were observed in 90.0%, 80.0%, 80.0%, 90%, and 60.0%, respectively, of the animals lavaged with the most virulent strain. However, only mild CG was observed in 90% of the animals lavaged with the least virulent strain. On microarray analysis, 800 differentially expressed genes (49 up- and 751 down-regulated), involving those associated with cell cycle regulation, cell apoptosis, cytoskeleton, immune response, and substance and energy metabolisms, were identified in cells co-cultured with the most virulent strain as compared with those co-cultured with the least virulent strain. The six most differentially expressed genes (with a betweenness centrality of 0.1-0.2) were identified among the significant differential gene profile network, including JUN, KRAS, BRCA1, SMAD2, TRAF1, and HDAC6. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses verified that HDAC6 and TRFA1 mRNA expressions were significantly more up-regulated in GES-1 cells co-cultured with the most virulent strain than in those co-cultured with the least virulent strain. Immunohistochemistry of gastric mucosal specimens from H. pylori-positive patients with CG, intestinal metaplasia (IM), dysplasia, and GC showed that moderately positive and strongly positive HDAC6 expression was detected in 21.7% of CG patients, 30.0% of IM patients, 54.5% of dysplasia patients, and 77.8% of GC patients (P < 0.001). The up-regulation of TRAF1 expressions was detected in 34.8%, 53.3%, 72.7%, and 88.9% specimens of CG, IM, dysplasia, and GC, respectively (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The overexpression of HDAC6 and TRAF1 in GES-1 cells co-cultured with the GC-derived strain and in H. pylori-positive dysplasia and GC suggests that HDAC6 and TRAF1 may be involved in H. pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:23326126

  5. Study on application of high doses plasmodium berghei in cell culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, L. M.; De Santis, M.; Davila, J.; Foinquinos, A.; Salcedo, E.; Sajo-Bohus, L.

    2012-02-01

    Malaria, one of the most important infection disease problems in the world, is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. This disease is responsible for hundreds of the millions of clinical cases and more than one million deaths per year, for this reason, malaria is a priority and the WHO estimates that half of the world population is at risk. In this work we study how the absorbed dose inactivates the parasite (Plasmodium berghei) in rodent model (BALB/c mice), by applying X-ray irradiation. The dose was increased from 10 to 50 Gy in parasitized red blood cells (PRBC) with merozoite stage using in vitro short cultures. Also the reduction of the irradiation effect was determined by intra-peritoneal inoculations of irradiated parasites. Afterwards, the parasitaemia was assessed daily on smears made from tail blood and stained with Giemsa's reagent. Besides, the effect of irradiation was evaluated using an immunological test as indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The results of this study showed that the most effective radiation for inactivation of parasites is about 50 Gy and the immunofluorescence pattern showed a different distribution of the fluorescence on parasites. These results showed direct correlation between the effect of irradiated parasites and parasitaemia in the group of mice infected with RBC after 50 Gy irradiation. Our results indicated that the threshold is between 30 to 50 Gy to inactivate the parasites.

  6. Genotoxicity studies of methyl isocyanate in Salmonella, Drosophila, and cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.M.; Zeiger, E.; Haworth, S.; Ivett, J.; Valencia, R.

    1987-01-01

    The genotoxic effects of methyl isocyanate (MIC) were investigated using four short-term tests: the Salmonella reversion assay (Ames test), the Drosophila sex-linked recessive lethal assay, and the sister chromatic exchange (SCE) and chromosomal aberration assays in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. No evidence was found for the induction of mutations in either Salmonella or Drosophila. MIC did, however, induce SCEs and chromosomal aberrations in CHO cells both in the presence and absence of Aroclor-induced rat liver S-9.

  7. Toxicity study of water transferred graphene-based nanostructures for cell culture substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghi, Fabricio; van der Laan, Tim; Ishaq, Musarat; Kumar, Shailesh; Ostrikov, Kostya

    2014-10-01

    Graphene has attracted enormous attention due to its unique physical and chemical properties. Early researches had focused on it electrical properties for device applications. Nowadays graphene has attracted increased interest in bio-medical applications, such as cell culture substrates. Substrates are critical for: investigating early stage development of cells, new drugs tests and tissue engineering. Benefits of graphene for this application are: it can be produced with desired structural morphology, its surface properties can be modified via plasma or chemical treatment (decorated with specific functional groups), and it can be transferred to a plethora of substrates (high influence of cells fate). Successful applications of graphene-based materials for bio-med applications are predominantly produced via chemical methods. When produced via Thermal CVD, the transfer to the desired substrate involves chemical treatment, potentially contaminating the graphene. In this work, we use a unique plasma produced graphene, transferred to glass via a chemical-free process, as cell culture substrates. This work aims graphene's bio-toxicity. Our results show that our material is non toxic, and cells morphology and proliferation indicates similar growth among all samples and the control.

  8. Free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of betanin: electron spin resonance spectroscopy studies and studies in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Wagner, Anika E; Motafakkerazad, Rouhollah; Nakajima, Yu; Matsugo, Seiichi; Rimbach, Gerald

    2014-11-01

    Betanin is a red pigment present in red beetroot. Recently, potential health benefits of betanin-rich beetroot have been suggested. However, little is known regarding the free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of betanin. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) and spin trapping techniques were applied to evaluate the ability of betanin to scavenge hydroxyl, superoxide, 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and galvinoxyl free radicals. In addition, we tested in cultured cells the ability of betanin to prevent DNA damage and to induce the transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2) as well as its down-stream target heme oxygenase1 (HO-1), paraoxonase1 (PON1) and glutathione (GSH). Betanin dose-dependently scavenged DPPH-, galvinoxyl-, superoxide-, and hydroxyl-radicals in the ESR and spin trapping studies and prevented hydrogen peroxide induced DNA damage as determined by the Comet assay. Furthermore, betanin treatment induced the transcription factor Nrf2 and resulted in an increase of HO-1 protein levels, PON1-transactivation and cellular GSH. Present data suggest that betanin is both a free radical scavenger and an inducer of antioxidant defense mechanism in cultured cells. PMID:25152328

  9. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY ON APOPTOSIS INDUCTION BY AZADIRACHTIN IN Spodoptera frugiperda CULTURED CELL LINE Sf9.

    PubMed

    Shu, Benshui; Wang, Wenxiang; Hu, Qingbo; Huang, Jingfei; Hu, Meiying; Zhong, Guohua

    2015-07-01

    The induction of apoptosis by azadirachtin, a well-known botanical tetranortriterpenoid isolated from the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and other members of the Meliaceae, was investigated in Spodoptera frugiperda cultured cell line (Sf9). Morphological changes in Sf9 cells treated by various concentrations of azadirachtin were observed at different times under light microscopy. Morphological and biochemical analysis indicated that Sf9 cells treated by 1.5 μg/mL azadirachtin showed typical morphological changes, which were indicative of apoptosis and a clear DNA ladder. The flow cytometry analysis showed the apoptosis rate reached a maximum value of 32.66% at 24 h with 1.5 μg/mL azadirachtin in Sf9 cells. The inhibition of Sf9 cell proliferation suggested that the effect of azadirachtin was dose dependent and the EC50 at 48 and 72 h was 2.727 × 10(-6) and 6.348 × 10(-9) μg/mL, respectively. The treatment of azadirachtin in Sf9 cells could significantly increase the activity of Sf caspase-1, but showed no effect on the activity of Topo I, suggesting that the apoptosis induced by azadirachtinin Sf9 cells is through caspase-dependent pathway. These results provided not only a series of morphological, biochemical, and toxicological comprehensive evidences for induction of apoptosis by azadirachtin, but also a reference model for screening insect cell apoptosis inducers from natural compounds. PMID:25828604

  10. Cell culture experiments planned for the space bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.; Cross, John H.

    1987-01-01

    Culturing of cells in a pilot-scale bioreactor remains to be done in microgravity. An approach is presented based on several studies of cell culture systems. Previous and current cell culture research in microgravity which is specifically directed towards development of a space bioprocess is described. Cell culture experiments planned for a microgravity sciences mission are described in abstract form.

  11. Huanglongbing and psyllid cell cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We successfully established cell cultures of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae: Hemiptera), DcHH-1. The cell culture also supported growth of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. This bacterial pathogen is associated with Huanglongbing, known as citrus greening disease. Research on...

  12. Studies on the genetic effects of phthalic acid esters on cells in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, B J; Anderson, D; Gangolli, S D

    1986-01-01

    Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) induced chromosome aberrations in cells of two culture lines, one derived from Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) and the other from rat liver cells (RL4). In CHO cells, the clastogenicity of MEHP was unaffected by the presence of an exogenous metabolic activation system (S-9 mix). 2-Ethylhexanol, o-phthalic acid, and phthalic anhydride were without effect. Cytochemical methods and assays for carnitine acetyltransferase and KCN-insensitive palmitoyl CoA oxidation were employed to determine whether chromosome damage was associated with peroxisome proliferation. No evidence of an increase in peroxisome numbers or of induction of marker enzymes was found in CHO cells treated with MEHP for up to 72 hr. Clofibric acid and BR931 were also ineffective. Observations on changes in CHO cell structure and permeability, and on the haemolytic effects of phthalate monoesters, suggest that the cytotoxicity of MEHP may be due primarily to its action on cell membranes. Since chromosome damage was observed only at cytotoxic concentrations, it is suggested that damage to lysosomal membranes and the release of endonucleases may be responsible for the observed clastogenicity of MEHP in vitro. PMID:3709451

  13. Production scale insect cell culture.

    PubMed

    Agathos, S N

    1991-01-01

    Insect cells in culture are currently commanding great interest as superior hosts for the efficient production of biologicals with applications in health care and in agriculture. Insect cell culture is ripe for scale-up technologies, in order to meet future projected production requirements of (a) insect viruses used as bioinsecticides and (b) recombinant proteins of therapeutic potential for humans and animals. The single most prominent system used in research-based and in commercial insect cell culture today involves lepidopteran cells transfected with baculovirus expression vectors for abundant formation of recombinant biologicals. However, dipteran insect cell lines also are beginning to emerge as useful tools in biotechnology. Current practices in bioprocess development using insect cell culture, advances in media formulation and in insect cell bioreactor design, and emerging trends are presented and critically evaluated. PMID:14543739

  14. Tissue culture and explant approaches to studying and visualizing Neospora caninum and its interactions with the host cell.

    PubMed

    Hemphill, Andrew; Vonlaufen, Nathalie; Naguleswaran, Arunasalam; Keller, Nadine; Riesen, Michele; Guetg, Nicole; Srinivasan, Sangeetha; Alaeddine, Ferial

    2004-10-01

    Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite first mentioned in 1984 as a causative agent of neuromuscular disease in dogs. It is closely related to Toxoplasma gondii and Hammondia heydorni, and its subsequent description in 1988 has been, and still is, accompanied by discussions on the true phylogenetical status of the genus Neospora. N. caninum exhibits features that clearly distinguish this parasite from other members of the Apicomplexa, including distinct ultrastructural properties, genetic background, antigenic composition, host cell interactions, and the definition of the dog as a final host. Most importantly, N. caninum has a particular significance as a cause of abortion in cattle. In vitro culture has been indispensable for the isolation of this parasite and for investigations on the ultrastructural, cellular, and molecular characteristics of the different stages of N. caninum. Tissue culture systems include maintenance of N. caninum tachyzoites, which represent the rapidly proliferating stage in a large number of mammalian host cells, culture of parasites in organotypic brain slice cultures as a tool to investigate cerebral infection by N. caninum, and the use of techniques to induce the stage conversion from the tachyzoite stage to the slowly proliferating and tissue cyst-forming bradyzoite stage. This review will focus on the use of these tissue culture models as well as light- and electron-microscopical techniques for studies on N. caninum tachyzoites and bradyzoites, and on the physical interactions between parasites and host cells. PMID:15525434

  15. AlgiMatrix™ Based 3D Cell Culture System as an In-Vitro Tumor Model for Anticancer Studies

    PubMed Central

    Godugu, Chandraiah; Patel, Apurva R.; Desai, Utkarsh; Andey, Terrick; Sams, Alexandria; Singh, Mandip

    2013-01-01

    Background Three-dimensional (3D) in-vitro cultures are recognized for recapitulating the physiological microenvironment and exhibiting high concordance with in-vivo conditions. Taking the advantages of 3D culture, we have developed the in-vitro tumor model for anticancer drug screening. Methods Cancer cells grown in 6 and 96 well AlgiMatrix™ scaffolds resulted in the formation of multicellular spheroids in the size range of 100–300 µm. Spheroids were grown in two weeks in cultures without compromising the growth characteristics. Different marketed anticancer drugs were screened by incubating them for 24 h at 7, 9 and 11 days in 3D cultures and cytotoxicity was measured by AlamarBlue® assay. Effectiveness of anticancer drug treatments were measured based on spheroid number and size distribution. Evaluation of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic markers was done by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. The 3D results were compared with the conventional 2D monolayer cultures. Cellular uptake studies for drug (Doxorubicin) and nanoparticle (NLC) were done using spheroids. Results IC50 values for anticancer drugs were significantly higher in AlgiMatrix™ systems compared to 2D culture models. The cleaved caspase-3 expression was significantly decreased (2.09 and 2.47 folds respectively for 5-Fluorouracil and Camptothecin) in H460 spheroid cultures compared to 2D culture system. The cytotoxicity, spheroid size distribution, immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and nanoparticle penetration data suggested that in vitro tumor models show higher resistance to anticancer drugs and supporting the fact that 3D culture is a better model for the cytotoxic evaluation of anticancer drugs in vitro. Conclusion The results from our studies are useful to develop a high throughput in vitro tumor model to study the effect of various anticancer agents and various molecular pathways affected by the anticancer drugs and formulations. PMID:23349734

  16. Studies of formation and efflux of methotrexate polyglutamates with cultured hepatic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Galivan, J.; Balinska, M.

    1983-01-01

    Methotrexate polyglutamates are extensively synthesized when cultured hepatocytes and H35 hepatoma cells are exposed to micromolar concentrations of methotrexate. The predominant species found within the cell have from two to four additional gamma-linked glutamate residues. When either cell type containing a mixture of methotrexate and its polyglutamate derivatives is exposed to medium lacking methotrexate, there is a rapid release of methotrexate. This release has a T/sub 1/2/ of 2 to 4 min and is apparently complete within 30 to 60 min. Methotrexate polyglutamates leave the cells much more slowly and appear to do so by two mechanisms. Although cleavage to methotrexate and subsequent efflux appears to be quantitatively the more important pathway, there is also a slow, finite loss of intact methotrexate polyglutamates from cells which exclude trypan blue. The T/sub 1/2/ for the loss of methotrexate polyglutamates by both cell types, when placed in medium lacking methotrexate, is approximately 6 to 8 hr. These results suggest that the polyglutamate derivatives are forms of methotrexate which are as cytotoxic as methotrexate but which offer a potentially greater capacity for cellular destruction because they are retained longer in the tissue.

  17. THE COMPARISON OF TWO VITRO PALATAL ORGAN CULTURE MODELS TO STUDY CELL SIGNALING PATHWAYS DURING PALATOGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was performed to determine the best palatal organ culture model to use in evaluating the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling in the response to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Previous work has shown that TCDD and EGF can induce teratogenic effe...

  18. Alternative Method for Primary Nasal Epithelial Cell Culture Using Intranasal Brushing and Feasibility for the Study of Epithelial Functions in Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Do Yang; Kim, Sujin; Kim, Chang-Hoon; Yoon, Joo-Heon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although differentiated normal human nasal epithelial (NHNE) cells can be used to study the role of human nasal epithelium, there is a need for effective culture models of nasal epithelium in sinonasal disease status, including allergic rhinitis (AR). We aimed to examine the feasibility of intranasal brushing for culture of nasal epithelial cells in AR patients and to verify the hypothesis that allergic nasal epithelial (ARNE) cells differ in histologic and physiologic characteristics. Methods We established a system for isolating (via intranasal brushing) and culturing (with air-liquid interface, ALI) nasal epithelial cells from healthy volunteers (n=8) and AR patients (n=8). We used this system to compare the histologic findings and physiologic characteristics of NHNE and ARNE. Results The histology results showed that fully differentiated ALI culture was obtained at least 14 days after confluence and that both ciliated and secretory cells were well differentiated in ALI culture using nasal brushing. The histology results of ARNE culture were significantly different from NHNE. The number of ciliated cells was lower, and secretory cells were more dominant in ARNE cell culture compared to NHNE cells. We also observed, by electron microscopy, loose tight junctions and short cilia in cultured ARNE cells. In addition, the mRNA level of TSLP which was one of the epithelial-derived allergic cytokines was significantly higher, and the expressions of genes involved in ciliogenesis were lower in cultured ARNE cells without allergen stimulation. Conclusions Our findings suggest that ALI culture of ARNE cells using intranasal brushing may be an alternative method for epithelial cell culture in AR patients and that cultured ARNE cells will be useful for in vitro studies of the mechanisms at play during AR because they maintain unique allergic characteristics. PMID:26540504

  19. Knockdown of Drosha in human alveolar type II cells alters expression of SP-A in culture: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Silveyra, Patricia; Chroneos, Zissis C; DiAngelo, Susan L; Thomas, Neal J; Noutsios, Georgios T; Tsotakos, Nikolaos; Howrlylak, Judie A; Umstead, Todd M; Floros, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Human surfactant protein A (SP-A) plays an important role in surfactant metabolism and lung innate immunity. SP-A is synthesized and secreted by alveolar type II cells (ATII), one of the two cell types of the distal lung epithelium (ATII and ATI). We have shown that miRNA interactions with sequence polymorphisms on the SP-A mRNA 3′UTRs mediate differential expression of SP-A1 and SP-A2 gene variants in vitro. In the present study, we describe a physiologically relevant model to study miRNA regulation of SP-A in human ATII. For these studies, we purified and cultured human ATII on an air-liquid interface matrix (A/L) or plastic wells without matrix (P). Gene expression analyses confirmed that cells cultured in A/L maintained the ATII phenotype for over 5 days, whereas P-cultured cells differentiated to ATI. When we transfected ATII with siRNAs to inhibit the expression of Drosha, a critical effector of miRNA maturation, the levels of SP-A mRNA and protein increased in a time dependent manner. We next characterized cultured ATII and ATI by studying expression of 1,066 human miRNAs using miRNA PCR arrays. We detected expression of >300 miRNAs with 24 miRNAs differentially expressed in ATII vs. ATI, 12 of which predicted to bind SP-A 3′UTRs, indicating that these may be implicated in SP-A downregulation in ATI. Thus, miRNAs not only affect SPA expression, but also may contribute to the maintenance of the ATII cell phenotype and/or the trans-differentiation of ATII to ATI cells, and may represent new molecular markers that distinguish ATII and ATI. PMID:25058539

  20. High density cell culture system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An annular culture vessel for growing mammalian cells is constructed in a one piece integral and annular configuration with an open end which is closed by an endcap. The culture vessel is rotatable about a horizontal axis by use of conventional roller systems commonly used in culture laboratories. The end wall of the endcap has tapered access ports to frictionally and sealingly receive the ends of hypodermic syringes. The syringes permit the introduction of fresh nutrient and withdrawal of spent nutrients. The walls are made of conventional polymeric cell culture material and are subjected to neutron bombardment to form minute gas permeable perforations in the walls.

  1. Dynamic culture improves cell reprogramming efficiency.

    PubMed

    Sia, Junren; Sun, Raymond; Chu, Julia; Li, Song

    2016-06-01

    Cell reprogramming to pluripotency is an inefficient process and various approaches have been devised to improve the yield of induced pluripotent stem cells. However, the effect of biophysical factors on cell reprogramming is not well understood. Here we showed that, for the first time, dynamic culture with orbital shaking significantly improved the reprogramming efficiency in adherent cells. Manipulating the viscosity of the culture medium suggested that the improved efficiency is mainly attributed to convective mixing rather than hydrodynamic shear stress. Temporal studies demonstrated that the enhancement of reprogramming efficiency required the dynamic culture in the middle but not early phase. In the early phase, fibroblasts had a high proliferation rate, but as the culture became over-confluent in the middle phase, expression of p57 was upregulated to inhibit cell proliferation and consequently, cell reprogramming. Subjecting the over confluent culture to orbital shaking prevented the upregulation of p57, thus improving reprogramming efficiency. Seeding cells at low densities to avoid over-confluency resulted in a lower efficiency, and optimal reprogramming efficiency was attained at a high seeding density with dynamic culture. Our findings provide insight into the underlying mechanisms of how dynamic culture condition regulate cell reprogramming, and will have broad impact on cell engineering for regenerative medicine and disease modeling. PMID:27031931

  2. Type I collagen influences cartilage calcification: an immunoblocking study in differentiating chick limb-bud mesenchymal cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Boskey, A L; Stiner, D; Binderman, I; Doty, S B

    2000-07-19

    Chick limb-bud mesenchymal cells, plated in high-density micro-mass culture, differentiate and form a matrix resembling chick epiphyseal cartilage. In the presence of 4 mM inorganic phosphate or 2.5 mM beta-glycerophosphate mineral deposits upon this matrix forming a mineralized tissue that, based on electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and Fourier Transform Infrared microspectoscopy, is like that of chick calcified cartilage. In this culture system the initial mineral deposits are found on the periphery of the chondrocyte nodules. During differentiation of the cells in the high-density micro-mass cultures there is a switch from expression of type I collagen to type II, and then to type X collagen. However, type I collagen persists in the matrix. Because there is some debate about whether type I collagen influences cartilage calcification, an immunoblocking technique was used to determine the importance of type I collagen on the mineralization process in this system. Studies using nonspecific goat anti-chick IgG demonstrated that 1-100 ng/ml antibody added with the media after the cartilage nodules had developed (day 7) had no effect on the accumulation of mineral in the cultures. Nonspecific antibody added before day 7 blocked development of the cultures. Parallel solution based cell-free studies showed that IgG did not have a strong affinity for apatite crystals, and had no significant effect on apatite crystal growth. Type I collagen antibodies (1-200 ng/ml) added to cultures one time on day 9 (before mineralization started), or on day 11 (at the start of mineralization), slightly inhibited the accumulation of mineral. There was a statistically significant decrease in mineral accretion with 100 or 200 ng/ml collagen antibody addition continuously after these times. Fab' fragments of nonspecific and type I collagen antibodies had effects parallel to those of the intact antibodies, indicating that the decreased mineralization was not attributable to the presence of the larger, bulkier antibodies. The altered accumulation of mineral was not associated with cell death in the presence of antibody (demonstrated by fluorescent labeling of DNA) or with increased apoptosis (TUNEL-stain). In the immunoblocked cultures, EM analysis demonstrated that mineral continued to deposit on collagen fibrils, but there appeared to be fewer deposits. The data demonstrate that type I collagen is important for the mineralization of these cultures. PMID:10906758

  3. CELL CULTURE STUDIES WITH THE IMC-HZ-1 NONOCCLUDED VIRUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were conducted on an adventitious agent (Hz-lv) isolated from the IMC-Hz-1 cell line. It appeared identical to the virus first obtained by Granados et al. from a persistent infection of this cell line. Restriction endonuclease digestion of Hz-lv DNA indicated the agent wa...

  4. Good Caco-2 cell culture practices.

    PubMed

    Natoli, Manuela; Leoni, Bruno D; D'Agnano, Igea; Zucco, Flavia; Felsani, Armando

    2012-12-01

    The human Caco-2 cells differentiate spontaneously in culture forming monolayers of mature intestinal enterocytes which have been used as a model of the intestinal barrier for in vitro toxicology studies. Reproducibility problems often reported in literature have been generally ascribed to different culture-related conditions, such as the type of animal serum used, the supplements added to the culture media, the passage number and the source of cell clones. The Caco-2 cell culture protocol here described has been recently optimized in our laboratory, producing a homogeneous and highly polarized monolayer of cells which display many of the characteristics of the intestinal enterocytes. This protocol differs from standard protocols mainly because Caco-2 cells are subcultured when they reach just 50% of confluence, instead of 80%, retaining a high proliferation potential. When this cell population is seeded at high density on filter inserts differentiates almost synchronously and much more homogenously. PMID:22465559

  5. Good Caco-2 cell culture practices.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Natoli M; Leoni BD; D'Agnano I; Zucco F; Felsani A

    2012-12-01

    The human Caco-2 cells differentiate spontaneously in culture forming monolayers of mature intestinal enterocytes which have been used as a model of the intestinal barrier for in vitro toxicology studies. Reproducibility problems often reported in literature have been generally ascribed to different culture-related conditions, such as the type of animal serum used, the supplements added to the culture media, the passage number and the source of cell clones. The Caco-2 cell culture protocol here described has been recently optimized in our laboratory, producing a homogeneous and highly polarized monolayer of cells which display many of the characteristics of the intestinal enterocytes. This protocol differs from standard protocols mainly because Caco-2 cells are subcultured when they reach just 50% of confluence, instead of 80%, retaining a high proliferation potential. When this cell population is seeded at high density on filter inserts differentiates almost synchronously and much more homogenously.

  6. A study of murine bone marrow cells cultured in bioreactors which create an environment which simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, Brother Desales

    1990-01-01

    Previous research indicated that mouse bone marrow cells could be grown in conditions of simulated microgravity. This environment was created in rotating bioreactor vessels. On three attempts mouse cells were grown successfully in the vessels. The cells reached a stage where the concentrations were doubling daily. Phenotypic analysis using a panel of monoclonal antibodies indicated that the cell were hematopoietic pluripotent stem cells. One unsuccessful attempt was made to reestablish the immune system in immunocompromised mice using these cells. Since last summer, several unsuccessful attempts were made to duplicate these results. It was determined by electron microscopy that the cells successfully grown in 1989 contained virus particles. It was suggested that these virally parasitized cells had been immortalized. The work of this summer is a continuation of efforts to grow mouse bone marrow in these vessels. A number of variations of the protocol were introduced. Certified pathogen free mice were used in the repeat experiments. In some attempts the medium of last summer was used; in others Dexture Culture Medium containing Iscove's Medium supplemented with 20 percent horse serum and 10-6 M hydrocortisone. Efforts this summer were directed solely to repeating the work of last summer. Plans were made for investigations if stem cells were isolated. Immortalization of the undifferentiated stem cell would be attempted by transfection with an oncogenic vector. Selective differentiation would be induced in the stem cell line by growing it with known growth factors and immune response modulators. Interest is in identifying any surface antigens unique to stem cells that would help in their characterization. Another goal was to search for markers on stem cells that would distinguish them from stem cells committed to a particular lineage. If the undifferentiated hematopoietic stem cell was obtained, the pathways that would terminally convert it to myeloid, lyphoid, erythroid, or other cell lines would be studied. Transfection with a known gene would be attempted and then conversion to a terminally identifiable cell.

  7. Efficient Gene Transfer in Chick Retinas for Primary Cell Culture Studies: An Ex-ovo Electroporation Approach.

    PubMed

    Vergara, M Natalia; Gutierrez, Christian; Canto-Soler, M Valeria

    2015-01-01

    The cone photoreceptor-enriched cultures derived from embryonic chick retinas have become an indispensable tool for researchers around the world studying the biology of retinal neurons, particularly photoreceptors. The applications of this system go beyond basic research, as they can easily be adapted to high throughput technologies for drug development. However, genetic manipulation of retinal photoreceptors in these cultures has proven to be very challenging, posing an important limitation to the usefulness of the system. We have recently developed and validated an ex ovo plasmid electroporation technique that increases the rate of transfection of retinal cells in these cultures by five-fold compared to other currently available protocols(1). In this method embryonic chick eyes are enucleated at stage 27, the RPE is removed, and the retinal cup is placed in a plasmid-containing solution and electroporated using easily constructed custom-made electrodes. The retinas are then dissociated and cultured using standard procedures. This technique can be applied to overexpression studies as well as to the downregulation of gene expression, for example via the use of plasmid-driven RNAi technology, commonly achieving transgene expression in 25% of the photoreceptor population. The video format of the present publication will make this technology easily accessible to researchers in the field, enabling the study of gene function in primary retinal cultures. We have also included detailed explanations of the critical steps of this procedure for a successful outcome and reproducibility. PMID:26556302

  8. Cell culture purity issues and DFAT cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Shengjuan; Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 ; Bergen, Werner G.; Zan, Linsen; Dodson, Michael V.

    2013-04-12

    Highlights: •DFAT cells are progeny cells derived from dedifferentiated mature adipocytes. •Common problems in this research is potential cell contamination of initial cultures. •The initial cell culture purity is crucial in DFAT cell research field. -- Abstract: Dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, in vitro, has been pursued/documented for over forty years. The subsequent progeny cells are named dedifferentiated adipocyte-derived progeny cells (DFAT cells). DFAT cells are proliferative and likely to possess mutilineage potential. As a consequence, DFAT cells and their progeny/daughter cells may be useful as a potential tool for various aspects of tissue engineering and as potential vectors for the alleviation of several disease states. Publications in this area have been increasing annually, but the purity of the initial culture of mature adipocytes has seldom been documented. Consequently, it is not always clear whether DFAT cells are derived from dedifferentiated mature (lipid filled) adipocytes or from contaminating cells that reside in an impure culture.

  9. PCR amplification of 16S rDNA from lyophilized cell cultures facilitates studies in molecular systematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisotzkey, J. D.; Jurtshuk, P. Jr; Fox, G. E.

    1990-01-01

    The sequence of the major portion of a Bacillus cycloheptanicus strain SCH(T) 16S rRNA gene is reported. This sequence suggests that B. cycloheptanicus is genetically quite distinct from traditional Bacillus strains (e.g., B. subtilis) and may be properly regarded as belonging to a different genus. The sequence was determined from DNA that was produced by direct amplification of ribosomal DNA from a lyophilized cell pellet with straightforward polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedures. By obviating the need to revive cell cultures from the lyophile pellet, this approach facilitates rapid 16S rDNA sequencing and thereby advances studies in molecular systematics.

  10. Functional Studies of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase Using Transfected Cell Cultures.

    PubMed

    Arystarkhova, Elena; Sweadner, Kathleen J

    2016-01-01

    The properties of different combinations of Na,K-ATPase subunits or their mutations can be studied in stably transfected mammalian cells. As a specific example, the methods here are for transfection of a modulatory subunit into cells with endogenous α and β subunits. Renal Na,K-ATPase is tightly bound to a small single-span membrane protein, the γ subunit, or FXYD2. The protein co-localizes and co-immunoprecipitates with the α/β complex, however it is not required for basic enzyme properties. Functional consequences of association with FXYD2 were investigated in stably transfected cells. The outcome was that FXYD2 reduced activity of Na,K-ATPase at the level of apparent affinity for Na(+) and to a smaller extent for K(+). Moreover, expression of FXYD2 reduced cell growth. Here we describe the methodologies as well as potential pitfalls. PMID:26695043

  11. Substrate Micropatterning as a New in Vitro Cell Culture System to Study Myelination

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Myelination is a highly regulated developmental process whereby oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system ensheathe axons with a multilayered concentric membrane. Axonal myelination increases the velocity of nerve impulse propagation. In this work, we present a novel in vitro system for coculturing primary dorsal root ganglia neurons along with myelinating cells on a highly restrictive and micropatterned substrate. In this new coculture system, neurons survive for several weeks, extending long axons on defined Matrigel tracks. On these axons, myelinating cells can achieve robust myelination, as demonstrated by the distribution of compact myelin and nodal markers. Under these conditions, neurites and associated myelinating cells are easily accessible for studies on the mechanisms of myelin formation and on the effects of axonal damage on the myelin sheath. PMID:22348182

  12. A novel approach for in vitro studies applying electrical fields to cell cultures by transformer-like coupling.

    PubMed

    Hess, R; Neubert, H; Seifert, A; Bierbaum, S; Hart, D A; Scharnweber, D

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new apparatus for in vitro studies applying low frequency electrical fields to cells without interfering side effects like biochemical reactions or magnetic fields which occur in currently available systems. We developed a non-invasive method by means of the principle of transformer-like coupling where the magnetic field is concentrated in a toroid and, therefore, does not affect the cell culture. Next to an extensive characterization of the electrical field parameters, initial cell culture studies have focused on examining the response of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to pulsed electrical fields. While no significant differences in the proliferation of human MSCs could be detected, significant increases in ALP activity as well as in gene expression of other osteogenic markers were observed. The results indicate that transformer-like coupled electrical fields can be used to influence osteogenic differentiation of human MSCs in vitro and can pose a useful tool in understanding the influence of electrical fields on the cellular and molecular level. PMID:22798202

  13. Chemical Synthesis, Characterisation, and Biocompatibility of Nanometre Scale Porous Anodic Aluminium Oxide Membranes for Use as a Cell Culture Substrate for the Vero Cell Line: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Poinern, Gérrard Eddy Jai; Le, Xuan Thi; Becker, Thomas; Fawcett, Derek

    2014-01-01

    In this preliminary study we investigate for the first time the biomedical potential of using porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membranes as a cell substrate for culturing the Cercopithecus aethiops (African green monkey) Kidney (Vero) epithelial cell line. One advantage of using the inorganic AAO membrane is the presence of nanometre scale pore channels that allow the exchange of molecules and nutrients across the membrane. The size of the pore channels can be preselected by adjusting the controlling parameters of a temperature controlled two-step anodization process. The cellular interaction and response of the Vero cell line with an in-house synthesised AAO membrane, a commercially available membrane, and a glass control were assessed by investigating cell adhesion, morphology, and proliferation over a 72 h period. The number of viable cells proliferating over the respective membrane surfaces revealed that the locally produced in-house AAO membrane had cells numbers similar to the glass control. The study revealed evidence of focal adhesion sites over the surface of the nanoporous membranes and the penetration of cellular extensions into the pore structure as well. The outcome of the study has revealed that nanometre scale porous AAO membranes have the potential to become practical cell culture scaffold substrates with the capability to enhance adhesion and proliferation of Vero cells. PMID:24579077

  14. Cold response of dedifferentiated barley cells at the gene expression, hormone composition, and freezing tolerance levels: studies on callus cultures.

    PubMed

    Vashegyi, Ildikó; Marozsán-Tóth, Zsuzsa; Galiba, Gábor; Dobrev, Petre I; Vankova, Radomira; Tóth, Balázs

    2013-06-01

    In this study, data is presented how dark-grown, embryogenic barley callus cells respond to cold without any light-dependent, chloroplast-related mechanism, independently of the systemic signals. The expression of HvCBF9, HvCBF14, and HvCOR14b genes, members of one of the most important cold-inducible regulatory system, was measured by real-time PCR. Characteristic of the cold response was similar in the crowns of seedlings and in dark-grown callus cultures, however, gene expression levels were lower in calli. Endogenous concentration of auxins, abscisic acid, and salicylic acid did not change, but phaseic acid and neophaseic acid showed robust accumulation after cold acclimation. Freezing tolerance of the cultures was also higher after 7 days of cold-hardening. The results suggest the presence of a basal, light-independent, cold-responsive activation of the CBF-COR14b pathway in barley cultures. The effects of Dicamba, the exogenous auxin analog used for maintaining tissue cultures were also studied. Dicamba seems to be a general enhancer of the gene expression and physiological responses to cold stress, but has no specific effect on the activation. Our data along with previous findings show that this system might be a suitable model for studying certain basic cellular mechanisms involved in the cold acclimation process in cereals. PMID:22669585

  15. The study of energy metabolism in bladder cancer cells in co-culture conditions using a microfluidic chip

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao-Dong; Shao, Shi-Xiu; Cao, Yan-Wei; Yang, Xue-Cheng; Shi, Hao-Qing; Wang, You-Lin; Xue, Sen-Yao; Wang, Xin-Sheng; Niu, Hai-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to systematically analyze changes in mitochondrial-related protein expression in bladder cancer cells and tumor-associated fibroblasts and to investigate the characteristics of bladder cancer cell energy metabolism. Methods: In this study, we utilized the following techniques to achieve the objectives: (1) a co-culture system of bladder tumor cells and fibroblasts was built using a microfluidic chip as a three-dimensional culture system; (2) the concentration of lactic acid in the medium from the different groups was determined using an automatic micro-plate reader; (3) a qualitative analysis of mitochondria-related protein expression was performed by immunofluorescent staining; and (4) a quantitative analysis of mitochondrial-associated protein expression was conducted via Western blot. SPSS software was utilized to analyze the data. Results: (1) Determination of lactic acid concentration: The lactic acid concentration was determined to be highest in the experimental group, followed by the T24 cell control group and then the fibroblast control group. (2) Qualitative results: In the control group, the mitochondrial-related protein fluorescence intensity was higher in the fibroblasts compared with the cancer cells, and the fluorescence intensity of the fibroblasts was reduced compared with the experimental group. The mitochondrial-related protein fluorescence intensity of the cancer cells was higher in the experimental group compared with the control group, and the opposite results were obtained with the fibroblasts. (3) Quantitative results: The expression of mitochondria-related proteins was higher in fibroblasts compared with cancer cells in the control group, and the opposite results were obtained in the experimental group (P<0.05). The expression of mitochondria-related proteins was increased in cancer cells in the experimental group compared with the control group; the opposite results were observed for the fibroblasts (P<0.05). Conclusions: The energy metabolism of bladder tumor cells does not parallel the “Warburg effect” because even under sufficient oxygen conditions, cancer cells still undergo glycolysis. Bladder cancer cells also have an efficient oxidative phosphorylation process wherein cancer cells promote glycolysis in adjacent interstitial cells, thereby causing increased formation of nutritional precursors. These high-energy metabolites are transferred to adjacent tumor cells in a specified direction and enter the Krebs Cycle. Ultimately, oxidative phosphorylation increases, and sufficient ATP is produced. PMID:26550142

  16. Cell culture processes for monoclonal antibody production

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng; Vijayasankaran, Natarajan; Shen, Amy (Yijuan); Kiss, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Animal cell culture technology has advanced significantly over the last few decades and is now generally considered a reliable, robust and relatively mature technology. A range of biotherapeutics are currently synthesized using cell culture methods in large scale manufacturing facilities that produce products for both commercial use and clinical studies. The robust implementation of this technology requires optimization of a number of variables, including (1) cell lines capable of synthesizing the required molecules at high productivities that ensure low operating cost; (2) culture media and bioreactor culture conditions that achieve both the requisite productivity and meet product quality specifications; (3) appropriate on-line and off-line sensors capable of providing information that enhances process control; and (4) good understanding of culture performance at different scales to ensure smooth scale-up. Successful implementation also requires appropriate strategies for process development, scale-up and process characterization and validation that enable robust operation and ensure compliance with current regulations. This review provides an overview of the state-of-the art technology in key aspects of cell culture, e.g., generation of highly productive cell lines and optimization of cell culture process conditions. We also summarize the current thinking on appropriate process development strategies and process advances that might affect process development. PMID:20622510

  17. Study of the Effects of Ultrasonic Waves on the Reproductive Integrity of Mammalian Cells Cultured in Vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martins, B. I.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of monochromatic ultrasonic waves of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and, 3.3 MHz frequency on the colony-forming ability of mammalian cells (M3-1,V79, Chang's and T-1) cultured in vitro have been studied to determine the nature of the action of ultrasonic energy on biological systems at the cellular level. The combined effect of ultrasound and X-rays has also been studied. It is concluded: (1) Ultrasonic irradiation causes both lethal and sublethal damage. (2) There is a threshold dose rate for lethal effects. (3) The effectiveness of ultrasonic waves in causing cell death probably depends on the frequency and the amplitude of the waves for a given cell line, indicating a possible resonance phenomenon.

  18. Advances in cell culture: anchorage dependence

    PubMed Central

    Merten, Otto-Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    Anchorage-dependent cells are of great interest for various biotechnological applications. (i) They represent a formidable production means of viruses for vaccination purposes at very large scales (in 1000–6000 l reactors) using microcarriers, and in the last decade many more novel viral vaccines have been developed using this production technology. (ii) With the advent of stem cells and their use/potential use in clinics for cell therapy and regenerative medicine purposes, the development of novel culture devices and technologies for adherent cells has accelerated greatly with a view to the large-scale expansion of these cells. Presently, the really scalable systems—microcarrier/microcarrier-clump cultures using stirred-tank reactors—for the expansion of stem cells are still in their infancy. Only laboratory scale reactors of maximally 2.5 l working volume have been evaluated because thorough knowledge and basic understanding of critical issues with respect to cell expansion while retaining pluripotency and differentiation potential, and the impact of the culture environment on stem cell fate, etc., are still lacking and require further studies. This article gives an overview on critical issues common to all cell culture systems for adherent cells as well as specifics for different types of stem cells in view of small- and large-scale cell expansion and production processes. PMID:25533097

  19. An Immunohistochemical Method to Study Breast Cancer Cell Subpopulations and Their Growth Regulation by Hormones in Three-Dimensional Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Mauricio P.; Jacobsen, Britta M.; Horwitz, Kathryn B.

    2011-01-01

    The development of in vitro three-dimensional cell culture matrices offers physiologically relevant alternatives to traditional culture on plastic surfaces. However methods to analyze cell subpopulations therein are poor. Here we present a simple and inexpensive method to analyze cell subpopulations in mixed-cell colonies using standard immunohistochemical (IHC) techniques. Briefly, Matrigel™ blocks are sandwiched between two layers of HistoGel™, hardened by rapid cooling then processed for routine fixation, paraffin embedding, and IHC. We demonstrate the assay using mono- and co-cultured normal human breast, human breast cancer, and transformed mouse stromal cells along with hormone treated breast cancer cells. Judicious selection of specific antibodies allows different cell types within heterotypic colonies to be identified. A brief pulse of bromodeoxyuridine in living colonies allows proliferation of cell subpopulations to be quantified. This simple assay is useful for multiple cell types, species, and conditions. PMID:22649363

  20. Evaluation of Silicon Nitride as a Substrate for Culture of PC12 Cells: An Interfacial Model for Functional Studies in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Medina Benavente, Johan Jaime; Mogami, Hideo; Sakurai, Takashi; Sawada, Kazuaki

    2014-01-01

    Silicon nitride is a biocompatible material that is currently used as an interfacial surface between cells and large-scale integration devices incorporating ion-sensitive field-effect transistor technology. Here, we investigated whether a poly-L-lysine coated silicon nitride surface is suitable for the culture of PC12 cells, which are widely used as a model for neural differentiation, and we characterized their interaction based on cell behavior when seeded on the tested material. The coated surface was first examined in terms of wettability and topography using contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy and then, conditioned silicon nitride surface was used as the substrate for the study of PC12 cell culture properties. We found that coating silicon nitride with poly-L-lysine increased surface hydrophilicity and that exposing this coated surface to an extracellular aqueous environment gradually decreased its roughness. When PC12 cells were cultured on a coated silicon nitride surface, adhesion and spreading were facilitated, and the cells showed enhanced morphological differentiation compared to those cultured on a plastic culture dish. A bromodeoxyuridine assay demonstrated that, on the coated silicon nitride surface, higher proportions of cells left the cell cycle, remained in a quiescent state and had longer survival times. Therefore, our study of the interaction of the silicon nitride surface with PC12 cells provides important information for the production of devices that need to have optimal cell culture-supporting properties in order to be used in the study of neuronal functions. PMID:24587271

  1. Predicting In Vivo Efficacy of Potential Restenosis Therapies by Cell Culture Studies: Species-Dependent Susceptibility of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hila, Epstein; Rabinovich, Laura; Banai, Shmuel; Elazar, Vicktoria; Gao, Jianchuan; Chorny, Michael; Danenebrg, Haim D; Golomb, Gershon

    2008-01-01

    Although drug-eluting stents (DES) are successfully utilized for restenosis therapy, the development of local and systemic therapeutic means including nanoparticles (NP) continues. Lack of correlation between in vitro and in vivo studies is one of the major drawbacks in developing new drug delivery systems. The present study was designed to examine the applicability of the arterial explant outgrowth model, and of smooth muscle cells (SMC) cultures for prescreening of possible drugs. Elucidation of different species sensitivity (rat, rabbit, porcine and human) to diverse drugs (tyrphostins, heparin and bisphsophonates) and a delivery system (nanoparticles) could provide a valuable screening tool for further in vivo studies. The anticipated sensitivity ranking from the explant outgrowth model and SMC mitotic rates (porcine>rat>>rabbit>human) do not correlate with the observed relative sensitivity of those animals to antiproliferative therapy in restenosis models (rat≥rabbit>porcine>human). Similarly, the inhibitory profile of the various antirestenotic drugs in SMC cultures (rabbit>porcine>rat>>human) do not correlate with animal studies, the rabbit- and porcine-derived SMC being highly sensitive. The validity of in vitro culture studies for the screening of controlled release delivery systems such as nanoparticles is limited. It is suggested that prescreening studies of possible drug candidates for restenosis therapy should include both SMC cell cultures of rat and human, appropriately designed with a suitable serum. PMID:18949101

  2. Culture and transfection of axolotl cells.

    PubMed

    Denis, Jean-François; Sader, Fadi; Ferretti, Patrizia; Roy, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    The use of cells grown in vitro has been instrumental for multiple aspects of biomedical research and especially molecular and cellular biology. The ability to grow cells from multicellular organisms like humans, squids, or salamanders is important to simplify the analyses and experimental designs to help understand the biology of these organisms. The advent of the first cell culture has allowed scientists to tease apart the cellular functions, and in many situations these experiments help understand what is happening in the whole organism. In this chapter, we describe techniques for the culture and genetic manipulation of an established cell line from axolotl, a species widely used for studying epimorphic regeneration. PMID:25740487

  3. Comparison of Coconut Water and Jordanian Propolis on Survival of Bench-dried Periodontal Ligament Cells: An in vitro Cell Culture Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jundi, Suhad; Mhaidat, Nizar

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The aim of this study is to assess and compare the efficacy of Jordanian propolis and full concentration mature coconut water in their ability to preserve periodontal ligament (PDL) cell viability after exposure of PDL cells to up to 120 minutes dry storage. Materials and methods: PDL cells were obtained from sound permanent first molars which were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium (DMEM). Cultures were subjected to 0, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes dry storage times then incubated with 100% mature coconut water, Jordanian propolis and DMEM for 45 minutes at room temperature (18-26°C). Untreated cells served as controls at each dry storage time tested. PDL cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. Statistical analysis of data was accomplished by using one-way analysis of variance complemented by Tukey test and the level of significance was 5% ( p < 0.05). Results: Up to 60 minutes dry storage, no significant improvement on the percentage of viable cells was found from soaking in all tested media. On the other hand, soaking in mature coconut water only resulted in higher percentages of viable cells at >60 minutes dry storage. However, this improvement was not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Avulsed teeth which have been left dry for <45 minutes should be replanted immediately, whereas avulsed teeth which have been left dry for >45 minutes may benefit from soaking for 45 minutes in mature coconut water. How to cite this article: Al-Haj Ali SN, Al-Jundi S, Mhaidat N. Comparison of Coconut Water and Jordanian Propolis on Survival of Bench-dried Periodontal Ligament Cells: An in vitro Cell Culture Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):161-165. PMID:25206215

  4. Cell culture compositions

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yiao, Jian

    2014-03-18

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl6 (SEQ ID NO:1 encodes the full length endoglucanase; SEQ ID NO:4 encodes the mature form), and the corresponding endoglucanase VI amino acid sequence ("EGVI"; SEQ ID NO:3 is the signal sequence; SEQ ID NO:2 is the mature sequence). The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVI, recombinant EGVI proteins and methods for producing the same.

  5. Rotating Cell Culture Systems for Human Cell Culture: Human Trophoblast Cells as a Model

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Heather L.; Morris, Cindy A.; Höner zu Bentrup, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    The field of human trophoblast research aids in understanding the complex environment established during placentation. Due to the nature of these studies, human in vivo experimentation is impossible. A combination of primary cultures, explant cultures and trophoblast cell lines1 support our understanding of invasion of the uterine wall2 and remodeling of uterine spiral arteries3,4 by extravillous trophoblast cells (EVTs), which is required for successful establishment of pregnancy. Despite the wealth of knowledge gleaned from such models, it is accepted that in vitro cell culture models using EVT-like cell lines display altered cellular properties when compared to their in vivo counterparts5,6. Cells cultured in the rotating cell culture system (RCCS) display morphological, phenotypic, and functional properties of EVT-like cell lines that more closely mimic differentiating in utero EVTs, with increased expression of genes mediating invasion (e.g. matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)) and trophoblast differentiation7,8,9. The Saint Georges Hospital Placental cell Line-4 (SGHPL-4) (kindly donated by Dr. Guy Whitley and Dr. Judith Cartwright) is an EVT-like cell line that was used for testing in the RCCS. The design of the RCCS culture vessel is based on the principle that organs and tissues function in a three-dimensional (3-D) environment. Due to the dynamic culture conditions in the vessel, including conditions of physiologically relevant shear, cells grown in three dimensions form aggregates based on natural cellular affinities and differentiate into organotypic tissue-like assemblies10,11,12 . The maintenance of a fluid orbit provides a low-shear, low-turbulence environment similar to conditions found in vivo. Sedimentation of the cultured cells is countered by adjusting the rotation speed of the RCCS to ensure a constant free-fall of cells. Gas exchange occurs through a permeable hydrophobic membrane located on the back of the bioreactor. Like their parental tissue in vivo, RCCS-grown cells are able to respond to chemical and molecular gradients in three dimensions (i.e. at their apical, basal, and lateral surfaces) because they are cultured on the surface of porous microcarrier beads. When grown as two-dimensional monolayers on impermeable surfaces like plastic, cells are deprived of this important communication at their basal surface. Consequently, the spatial constraints imposed by the environment profoundly affect how cells sense and decode signals from the surrounding microenvironment, thus implying an important role for the 3-D milieu13. We have used the RCCS to engineer biologically meaningful 3-D models of various human epithelial tissues7,14,15,16. Indeed, many previous reports have demonstrated that cells cultured in the RCCS can assume physiologically relevant phenotypes that have not been possible with other models10,17-21. In summary, culture in the RCCS represents an easy, reproducible, high-throughput platform that provides large numbers of differentiated cells that are amenable to a variety of experimental manipulations. In the following protocol, using EVTs as an example, we clearly describe the steps required to three-dimensionally culture adherent cells in the RCCS. PMID:22297395

  6. C22-bronchial and T7-alveolar epithelial cell lines of the immortomouse are excellent murine cell culture model systems to study pulmonary peroxisome biology and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Karnati, Srikanth; Palaniswamy, Saranya; Alam, Mohammad Rashedul; Oruqaj, Gani; Stamme, Cordula; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline

    2016-03-01

    In pulmonary research, temperature-sensitive immortalized cell lines derived from the lung of the "immortomouse" (H-2k(b)-tsA58 transgenic mouse), such as C22 club cells and T7 alveolar epithelial cells type II (AECII), are frequently used cell culture models to study CC10 metabolism and surfactant synthesis. Even though peroxisomes are highly abundant in club cells and AECII and might fulfill important metabolic functions therein, these organelles have never been investigated in C22 and T7 cells. Therefore, we have characterized the peroxisomal compartment and its associated gene transcription in these cell lines. Our results show that peroxisomes are highly abundant in C22 and T7 cells, harboring a common set of enzymes, however, exhibiting specific differences in protein composition and gene expression patterns, similar to the ones observed in club cells and AECII in situ in the lung. C22 cells contain a lower number of larger peroxisomes, whereas T7 cells possess more numerous tubular peroxisomes, reflected also by higher levels of PEX11 proteins. Moreover, C22 cells harbor relatively higher amounts of catalase and antioxidative enzymes in distinct subcellular compartments, whereas T7 cells exhibit higher levels of ABCD3 and plasmalogen synthesizing enzymes as well as nuclear receptors of the PPAR family. This study suggest that the C22 and T7 cell lines of the immortomouse lung are useful models to study the regulation and metabolic function of the peroxisomal compartment and its alterations by paracrine factors in club cells and AECII. PMID:26686684

  7. Study of Silymarin and Vitamin E Protective Effects on Silver Nanoparticle Toxicity on Mice Liver Primary Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Faedmaleki, Firouz; Shirazi, Farshad H; Ejtemaeimehr, Shahram; Anjarani, Soghra; Salarian, Amir-Ahmad; Ahmadi Ashtiani, Hamidreza; Rastegar, Hossein

    2016-02-01

    Nanotechnology is a most promising field for generating new applications in medicine, although, only few nano products are currently in use for medical purposes. A most prominent nanoproduct is nanosilver. Nano-silver has biological properties which are significant for consumer products, food technology, textiles, and medical applications (e.g. wound care products, implantable medical devices, in diagnosis, drug delivery, and imaging). For their antibacterial activity, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are largely used in various commercially available products. The use of nano-silver is becoming more and more widespread in medicine and related applications, and due to its increasing exposure, toxicological and environmental issues need to be raised. Cytotoxicity induced by silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and the role that oxidative stress plays in this process were demonstrated in human hepatoma cells AgNPs agglomerated in the cytoplasm and nuclei of treated cells, and they induced intracellular oxidative stress. AgNP reduced ATP content of the cell and caused damage to mitochondria and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a dose-dependent manner. Silymarin was known as a hepatoprotective agent that is used in the treatment of hepatic diseases including viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver diseases, Amanita mushroom poisoning, liver cirrhosis, toxic and drug-induced liver diseases. It promotes protein synthesis, helps in regenerating liver tissue, controls inflammation, enhances glucuronidation, and protects against glutathione depletion. Vitamin E is a well-known antioxidant and has hepatoprotective effect in liver diseases. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of Ag NPs on primary liver cells of mice. Cell viability (cytotoxicity) was examined with MTT assay after primary liver cells of mice exposure to AgNPs at 1, 10, 50, 100, 150, 200, 400 ppm for 24h. AgNPs caused a concentration- dependent decrease of cell viability (IC50 value = 121.7 ppm or µg/ml). Then the hepatoprotective effect of silymarin and vitamin E were experimented on silver nanoparticle toxicity on mice liver primary cell culture. The results showed that silymarin at 600µg/ml and vitamin E at 2500µmol/l have protective effects on silver nanoparticle toxicity on mice liver primary cell culture. Viability percentage of the primary liver cell of the mouse were exposed to silver nanoparticles at 121.7ppm and co-treatment of silymarin, and vitamin E is more than viability percentage of the primary liver cell of the mouse were exposed to silver nanoparticles and silymarin or silver nanoparticles and vitamin E. PMID:26997594

  8. Thiolated chitosan nanoparticles: transfection study in the Caco-2 differentiated cell culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martien, Ronny; Loretz, Brigitta; Sandbichler, Adolf Michael; Bernkop Schnürch, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the expression of secreted protein in differentiated Caco-2 cells after transfection with nanoparticles, in order to improve gene delivery. Based on unmodified chitosan and thiolated chitosan conjugates, nanoparticles with the gene reporter pSEAP (recombinant Secreted Alkaline Phosphatase) were generated at pH 4.0. Transfection studies of thiolated chitosan in Caco-2 cells during the exponential growth phase and differentiation growth phase of the cells led to a 5.0-fold and 2.0-fold increase in protein expression when compared to unmodified chitosan nanoparticles. The mean particle size for both unmodified chitosan and cross-linked thiolated chitosan nanoparticles is 212.2 ± 86 and 113.6 ± 40 nm, respectively. The zeta potential of nanoparticles was determined to be 7.9 ± 0.38 mV for unmodified chitosan nanoparticles and 4.3 ± 0.74 mV for cross-linked thiolated chitosan nanoparticles. Red blood cell lysis evaluation was used to evaluate the membrane damaging properties of unmodified and thiolated chitosan nanoparticles and led to 4.61 ± 0.36% and 2.29 ± 0.25% lysis, respectively. Additionally, cross-linked thiolated chitosan nanoparticles were found to exhibit higher stability toward degradation in gastric juices. Furthermore the reversible effect of thiolated chitosan on barrier properties was monitored by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and is supported by immunohistochemical staining for the tight junction protein claudin. According to these results cross-linked thiolated chitosan nanoparticles have the potential to be used as a non-viral vector system for gene therapy.

  9. Evaluation of an air-liquid interface cell culture model for studies on the inflammatory and cytotoxic responses to tobacco smoke aerosols.

    PubMed

    Azzopardi, David; Haswell, Linsey E; Foss-Smith, Geoff; Hewitt, Katherine; Asquith, Nathan; Corke, Sarah; Phillips, Gary

    2015-10-01

    In vitro toxicological studies for tobacco product assessment have traditionally been undertaken using the particulate phase of tobacco smoke. However, this does not truly reflect exposure conditions that occur in smokers. Thus in vitro cell culture systems are required in which cells are exposed to tobacco whole smoke (WS) at the air-liquid interface (ALI). In this study bronchial epithelial cells were cultured on semi-permeable membranes, transitioned to the ALI and the robustness and sensitivity of the cells to tobacco WS and vapour phase (VP) assessed. Although no effect of air exposure was observed on cell viability, IL-6 and IL-8 release was increased. Exposure to WS resulted in a significant dose dependent decrease in cell viability and a significant non-dose dependent increase in inflammatory mediator secretion. The VP was found to contribute approximately 90% of the total cytotoxicity derived from WS. The cell culture system was also able to differentiate between two smoking regimens and was sensitive to passage number with increased inflammatory mediator secretion and lower cell viability observed in cell cultures of low passage number following WS exposure. This simple cell culture system may facilitate studies on the toxicological impact of future tobacco products and nicotine delivery devices. PMID:26096598

  10. In vitro culture studies of blood and marrow cells in chronic myeloid leukemia at different phases of the disease.

    PubMed

    Shih, L Y; Chiu, W F; Dunn, P; Liaw, S J

    1988-09-01

    The in vitro culture growth of peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) cells were studied simultaneously from 100 adult patients with chronic myeloid leukemia at different phases. Sixty-five patients were investigated at initial diagnosis, 30 patients in control phase, and 41 patients in blast phase. In untreated chronic phase, the relative concentrations of granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells (CFU-GM) in BM were not significantly different from those of normal controls, but there was generally a marked increase in circulating CFU-GM. The 6 Ph1-negative patients did not show different growth characteristics. We were unable to correlate the CFU-GM number to any of the hematologic parameters as well as to the response to busulfan therapy. Pretreated patients with excessive cluster formation did not necessarily indicate impending blast crisis. In hematologic remission, the numbers of CFU-GM in both BM and PB were well within the ranges of normal controls. Culture results in blast phase revealed a spectrum of abnormal growth. In myeloid crisis, 14/29 BM and 12/29 PB samples showed increased colony and cluster formations which were composed predominantly of immature cells with variable degeneration. Marrow cells in lymphoid crisis produced low numbers of both colonies and clusters in 5 out of 8 patients, while blood cells from 8 out of 10 patients formed large amount of colonies of normal morphology. This study indicates that the in vitro CFU-GM assay may have diagnostic utility in differentiating lymphoid crisis from myeloid crisis. PMID:3166388

  11. Culture of equine fibroblast-like synoviocytes on synthetic tissue scaffolds towards meniscal tissue engineering: a preliminary cell-seeding study

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Derek B.; Stoker, Aaron M.; Beatty, Mark; Cockrell, Mary; Janicek, John C.; Cook, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Tissue engineering is a new methodology for addressing meniscal injury or loss. Synovium may be an ideal source of cells for in vitro meniscal fibrocartilage formation, however, favorable in vitro culture conditions for synovium must be established in order to achieve this goal. The objective of this study was to determine cellularity, cell distribution, and extracellular matrix (ECM) formation of equine fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) cultured on synthetic scaffolds, for potential application in synovium-based meniscal tissue engineering. Scaffolds included open-cell poly-L-lactic acid (OPLA) sponges and polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffolds cultured in static and dynamic culture conditions, and PGA scaffolds coated in poly-L-lactic (PLLA) in dynamic culture conditions. Materials and Methods. Equine FLS were seeded on OPLA and PGA scaffolds, and cultured in a static environment or in a rotating bioreactor for 12 days. Equine FLS were also seeded on PGA scaffolds coated in 2% or 4% PLLA and cultured in a rotating bioreactor for 14 and 21 days. Three scaffolds from each group were fixed, sectioned and stained with Masson’s Trichrome, Safranin-O, and Hematoxylin and Eosin, and cell numbers and distribution were analyzed using computer image analysis. Three PGA and OPLA scaffolds from each culture condition were also analyzed for extracellular matrix (ECM) production via dimethylmethylene blue (sulfated glycosaminoglycan) assay and hydroxyproline (collagen) assay. PLLA coated PGA scaffolds were analyzed using double stranded DNA quantification as areflection of cellularity and confocal laser microscopy in a fluorescent cell viability assay. Results. The highest cellularity occurred in PGA constructs cultured in a rotating bioreactor, which also had a mean sulfated glycosaminoglycan content of 22.3 µg per scaffold. PGA constructs cultured in static conditions had the lowest cellularity. Cells had difficulty adhering to OPLA and the PLLA coating of PGA scaffolds; cellularity was inversely proportional to the concentration of PLLA used. PLLA coating did not prevent dissolution of the PGA scaffolds. All cell scaffold types and culture conditions produced non-uniform cellular distribution. Discussion/Conclusion. FLS-seeding of PGA scaffolds cultured in a rotating bioreactor resulted in the most optimal cell and matrix characteristics seen in this study. Cells grew only in the pores of the OPLA sponge, and could not adhere to the PLLA coating of PGA scaffold, due to the hydrophobic property of PLA. While PGA culture in a bioreactor produced measureable GAG, no culture technique produced visible collagen. For this reason, and due to the dissolution of PGA scaffolds, the culture conditions and scaffolds described here are not recommended for inducing fibrochondrogenesis in equine FLS for meniscal tissue engineering. PMID:24765587

  12. Culture & differentiation of mesenchymal stem cell into osteoblast on degradable biomedical composite scaffold: In vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Krishan G.; Mohanty, Sujata; Ray, Alok R.; Malhotra, Rajesh; Airan, Balram

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: There is a significant bone tissue loss in patients from diseases and traumatic injury. The current autograft transplantation gold standard treatment has drawbacks, namely donor site morbidity and limited supply. The field of tissue engineering has emerged with a goal to provide alternative sources for transplantations to bridge this gap between the need and lack of bone graft. The aim of this study was to prepare biocomposite scaffolds based on chitosan (CHT), polycaprolactone (PCL) and hydroxyapatite (HAP) by freeze drying method and to assess the role of scaffolds in spatial organization, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in vitro, in order to achieve bone graft substitutes with improved physical-chemical and biological properties. Methods: Pure chitosan (100CHT) and composites (40CHT/HAP, 30CHT/HAP/PCL and 25CHT/HAP/PCL scaffolds containing 40, 30, 25 parts per hundred resin (phr) filler, respectively) in acetic acid were freeze dried and the porous foams were studied for physicochemical and in vitro biological properties. Results: Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the scaffolds showed porous microstructure (20-300 μm) with uniform pore distribution in all compositions. Materials were tested under compressive load in wet condition (using phosphate buffered saline at pH 7.4). The in vitro studies showed that all the scaffold compositions supported mesenchymal stem cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation as visible from SEM images, [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] (MTT) assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay and quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR. Interpretation & conclusions: Scaffold composition 25CHT/HAP/PCL showed better biomechanical and osteoinductive properties as evident by mechanical test and alkaline phosphatase activity and osteoblast specific gene expression studies. This study suggests that this novel degradable 3D composite may have great potential to be used as scaffold in bone tissue engineering. PMID:26831424

  13. Culture Studies: Hawaiian Studies Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazama, Dorothy, Ed.

    Reports and materials from the Hawaiian Studies Project are presented. The document, designed for elementary school teachers contains two major sections. The first section describes the planning phase of the project, the Summer Institute for Hawaiian Culture Studies (1976) and the follow-up workshops and consultant help (1976-77). The appendix to…

  14. Toward a cell-culture model of cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kraemer, P.M.

    1984-08-01

    The spontaneous transformation of normal Chinese hamster cells into malignant cells was studied. Hamster cells when grown in culture over an extended series of subcultivations inevitably become malignant even without exposure to a carcinogen. The study of this process using flow cytometry and the implantation of cultured cells into retrievable sponges placed under the skin of a nude mouse is described. (ACR)

  15. Isoniazid Proliposome Powders for InhalationPreparation, Characterization and Cell Culture Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rojanarat, Wipaporn; Changsan, Narumon; Tawithong, Ekawat; Pinsuwan, Sirirat; Chan, Hak-Kim; Srichana, Teerapol

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop proliposome powders containing isoniazid (INH) in a dry powder aerosol form. INH-proliposome powders were prepared by a spray drying method. Proliposome physicochemical properties were determined using cascade impactor, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The toxicity of proliposomes to respiratory-associated cell lines and its potential to provoke immunological responses from alveolar macrophages (AM) were determined. Free INH and INH-proliposome bioactivities were tested in vitro and in AM infected with Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis). Aerosolization properties of INH-proliposome powders at 60 L/min, the powders showed mass median aerodynamic diameters of 2.994.92 ?m, with fine particle fractions (aerosolized particles less than 4.4 ?m) of 1535%. Encapsulation of INH was 1830%. Proliposome formulations containing INH to mannitol ratios of 4:6 and 6:4 exhibited the greatest overlapping peak between the drug and mannitol. INH-proliposomes were evidently nontoxic to respiratory-associated cells, and did not activate AM to produce inflammatory mediatorsincluding interleukin-1? (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and nitric oxideat a toxic level. The efficacy of INH-proliposome against AM infected with M. bovis was significantly higher than that of free INH (p < 0.05). INH-proliposomes are potential candidates for an alternative tuberculosis treatment. PMID:21845086

  16. Ultrastructural study of Listeria monocytogenes entry into cultured human colonic epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Karunasagar, I; Senghaas, B; Krohne, G; Goebel, W

    1994-01-01

    Evidence that Listeria monocytogenes enters Caco-2 cells through the apical surface is presented. Attachment of bacteria to host cells seems to induce modifications of microvilli which are either in direct contact with the bacterial surface or in close vicinity, resulting in the formation of lamellipodia involved in the cellular uptake of the bacteria. Such modifications are not induced by L. monocytogenes SLCC 53, which carries a deletion in the prfA gene, although attachment of this mutant to Caco-2 cells occurs. Listeria innocua does not attach well to Caco-2 cells and also fails to cause structural alterations of the microvilli. Treatment of confluent monolayers of Caco-2 cells with ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)- N,N,N1,N1-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), which disrupts intercellular junctions, greatly reduced the uptake of Listeria cells. Attachment and invasion of L. monocytogenes was not accompanied by accumulation of filamentous actin around the entering bacterial cell. Images PMID:8039928

  17. [Culture of mussel Mytiuls edulis I. mantle cells].

    PubMed

    Daugavet, M A; Blinova, M I

    2015-01-01

    To date, cell lines derived from marine invertebrates have not been available. Hence primary cell cultures serve as model systems for various experiments. In present study we established primary culture of mussel Mytilus edulis L. mantle cells. Cells were isolated by means of explant culture or enzymatic dissociation of mantle tissue. They maintained viability up to 22 months regardless of culture initiation method. In course of culturing, cells, which were transferred onto new plates, successfully attached to a new surface. Physiological activity of cultured cells was also confirmed by formation of crystals, which appeared after 4-6 months. After continuous time of culturing, mantle cells can be cryopreserved using 5 % DMSO with post-freezing survival up to 50%. These results demonstrate that M. edulis mantle cells can maintain viability and physiological activity for exceptionally long time and can be cryopreserved for further examination. PMID:26035973

  18. An appropriate selection of a 3D alginate culture model for hepatic Huh-7 cell line encapsulation intended for viral studies.

    PubMed

    Tran, Nhu Mai; Dufresne, Murielle; Duverlie, Gilles; Castelain, Sandrine; Dfarge, Christian; Paullier, Patrick; Legallais, Cecile

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) culture systems have been introduced to provide cells with a biomimetic environment that is similar to in vivo conditions. Among the polymeric molecules available, sodium-alginate (Na-alg) salt is a material that is currently employed in different areas of drug delivery and tissue engineering, because it offers biocompatibility and optimal chemical properties, and its gelation with calcium chloride provides calcium-alginate (Ca-alg) scaffolds with mechanical stability and relative permeability. In this work, four different preparations of Ca-alg beads with varying Na-alg viscosity and concentration were used for a human hepatoma cell line (Huh-7) encapsulation. The effects of Ca-alg bead preparation on structural cell organization, liver-specific functions, and the expression of specific receptors implicated in hepatotropic virus permissivity were evaluated. Hepatic cells were cultured in 500??m diameter Ca-alg beads for 7 days under dynamic conditions. For all culture systems, cell viability reached almost 100% at day 7. Cell proliferation was concomitantly followed by hepatocyte organization in aggregates, which adopted two different morphologies (spheroid aggregates or multicellular channel-like structures), depending on Ca-alg bead preparation. These cellular organizations established a real 3D hepatocyte architecture with cell polarity, cell junctions, and abundant bile canaliculi possessing microvillus-lined channels. The functionality of these 3D cultures was confirmed by the production of albumin and the exhibition of CYP1A activity over culture time, which were variable, according to Ca-alg bead condition. The expression of specific receptors of hepatitis C virus by Huh-7 cells suggests encouraging data for the further development of a new viral culture system in Ca-alg beads. In summary, this 3D hepatic cell culture represents a promising physiologically relevant system for further in vitro studies and demonstrates that an adequate encapsulation condition can be selected for each target application in liver tissue engineering, specifically in viral studies. PMID:22889091

  19. Optimization and characterization of an in vitro bovine mammary cell culture system to study regulation of milk protein synthesis and mammary differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Talhouk, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    A long term bovine mammary cell culture system that maintains normal mammary cell function was established and optimized to study milk protein synthesis and secretion and mammary differentiation. This culture system used bovine mammary acini isolated from developing or lactating mammary gland by enzymatic dissociation, and cryopreserved until thawed and plated for growth in vitro for these studies. Cells in M199 with lactogenic hormones {plus minus} fetal calf serum (FCS) were cultured on plastic, 100ul and 500ul type I collagen, and Matrigel, or embedded within type I collagen. Cell morphology, cell number, and total TCA-precipitable {sup 35}S-labelled proteins were monitored. Milk protein ({alpha}{sub s,1}-casein, lactoferrin (LF), {alpha}-lactalbumin, and {beta}-lactoglobulin) secretion and intracellular levels were determined by an ELISA assay.

  20. Studies on two biological phenomena in in vitro cell cultures: the reversibility of leukemic blast cells and the immunologic enhancement of tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Berceanu, S; Moţoiu, I; Gociu, M

    1983-01-01

    The nature of the leukemic process is discussed with respect to the possible in vitro transformation of the leukemic blast cells into myeloid differentiated cells. During the period 1968-1970 we noticed this process in bone marrow cultures in fluid medium. The differentiation was established on morphologic and cytochemical criteria; the proportion of mature cells or those undergoing maturation with peroxidase positive reaction increased over 50% reaching even 70-80%. Our recent observations can be discussed from several points of view but leukemic blast cell reversibility is now a phenomenon with therapeutical applications. The phenomenon of malignant cells growth enhancement has been considered as an antibody mediated immune process. In a previous paper we have demonstrated in AKR mice the possibility of achieving the growth enhancement of lymphoblastic cells in mixed cultures with normal autologous or isologous splenic cells. Other investigations have been carried out by means of mixed cultures in human leukemias and malignant lymphomas. The intensity of blast-cell proliferation was followed up by comparing the number of colonies and TH3 incorporation in simple cultures with those in mixed cultures. The observations made in the 20 culture systems followed-up over 3-5 and 8-10 days proved the "malignant cell growth enhancement" by the immune mononuclear cells (lymphocytes and macrophages). PMID:6342111

  1. Microfabricated Platforms for Mechanically Dynamic Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Christopher; Sun, Yu; Simmons, Craig A.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to systematically probe in vitro cellular response to combinations of mechanobiological stimuli for tissue engineering, drug discovery or fundamental cell biology studies is limited by current bioreactor technologies, which cannot simultaneously apply a variety of mechanical stimuli to cultured cells. In order to address this issue, we have developed a series of microfabricated platforms designed to screen for the effects of mechanical stimuli in a high-throughput format. In this protocol, we demonstrate the fabrication of a microactuator array of vertically displaced posts on which the technology is based, and further demonstrate how this base technology can be modified to conduct high-throughput mechanically dynamic cell culture in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional culture paradigms. PMID:21206477

  2. Ascorbate Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis Cell Suspension Culture

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Mark W.; Gilot, Christophe; Persiau, Geert; stergaard, Jens; Han, Yu; Bauw, Guy C.; Van Montagu, Marc C.

    1999-01-01

    The biosynthesis of l-ascorbic acid (l-AA) in an Arabidopsis (L.) Heynh. cell suspension culture was studied by quantifying the effects of incubation with a range of potential biosynthetic precursors, analogs, and inhibitors on the intracellular levels of reduced and oxidized forms of l-AA. Our results support the recently published biosynthetic pathway of l-AA from l-galactose (G.L. Wheeler, M.A. Jones, N. Smirnoff [1998] Nature 393: 365369), but suggest that Arabidopsis cell suspension culture simultaneously contains two other routes leading to l-AA. The possible physiological significance of these alternate routes is discussed. PMID:10517845

  3. Cell Culture, Technology: Enhancing the Culture of Diagnosing Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Alshrari, Ahmed Subeh; Syahida, Ahmad; Sekawi, Zamberi

    2016-01-01

    Cell culture involves a complex of processes of cell isolation from their natural environment (in vivo) and subsequent growth in a controlled environmental artificial condition (in vitro). Cells from specific tissues or organs are cultured as short term or established cell lines which are widely used for research and diagnosis, most specially in the aspect of viral infection, because pathogenic viral isolation depends on the availability of permissible cell cultures. Cell culture provides the required setting for the detection and identification of numerous pathogens of humans, which is achieved via virus isolation in the cell culture as the “gold standard” for virus discovery. In this review, we summarized the views of researchers on the current role of cell culture technology in the diagnosis of human diseases. The technological advancement of recent years, starting with monoclonal antibody development to molecular techniques, provides an important approach for detecting presence of viral infection. They are also used as a baseline for establishing rapid tests for newly discovered pathogens. A combination of virus isolation in cell culture and molecular methods is still critical in identifying viruses that were previously unrecognized. Therefore, cell culture should be considered as a fundamental procedure in identifying suspected infectious viral agent. PMID:27134874

  4. Cell Culture, Technology: Enhancing the Culture of Diagnosing Human Diseases.

    PubMed

    Hudu, Shuaibu Abdullahi; Alshrari, Ahmed Subeh; Syahida, Ahmad; Sekawi, Zamberi

    2016-03-01

    Cell culture involves a complex of processes of cell isolation from their natural environment (in vivo) and subsequent growth in a controlled environmental artificial condition (in vitro). Cells from specific tissues or organs are cultured as short term or established cell lines which are widely used for research and diagnosis, most specially in the aspect of viral infection, because pathogenic viral isolation depends on the availability of permissible cell cultures. Cell culture provides the required setting for the detection and identification of numerous pathogens of humans, which is achieved via virus isolation in the cell culture as the "gold standard" for virus discovery. In this review, we summarized the views of researchers on the current role of cell culture technology in the diagnosis of human diseases. The technological advancement of recent years, starting with monoclonal antibody development to molecular techniques, provides an important approach for detecting presence of viral infection. They are also used as a baseline for establishing rapid tests for newly discovered pathogens. A combination of virus isolation in cell culture and molecular methods is still critical in identifying viruses that were previously unrecognized. Therefore, cell culture should be considered as a fundamental procedure in identifying suspected infectious viral agent. PMID:27134874

  5. Carrier-free cultured autologous oral mucosa epithelial cell sheet (CAOMECS) for corneal epithelium reconstruction: a histological study.

    PubMed

    Bardag-Gorce, Fawzia; Oliva, Joan; Wood, Andrew; Hoft, Richard; Pan, Derek; Thropay, Jacquelyn; Makalinao, Andrew; French, Samuel W; Niihara, Yutaka

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the therapeutic effects of carrier-free cultured autologous oral mucosa epithelial cell sheet (CAOMECS) transplantation for experimentally induced severe rabbit limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Buccal biopsies were performed and CAOMECS were cultured and transplanted onto diseased corneas. Six-month follow-up examinations indicated that three out of four corneas with CAOMECS grafts showed a decrease in superficial vascularization, while almost all the sham corneas did not show a similar decrease. H&E staining of corneas showed that CAOMECS transplantation reduced blood vessel invasion of central cornea, reduced lymphocyte infiltration and fibrotic tissue formation. DeltaNp63 stained markedly in the grafted cornea and to a lesser extent in the sham corneas. PCNA and Ki-67 staining were much greater in the sham corneas than in the grafted and normal corneas. K3 and K13 staining demonstrated that CAOMECS transplanted corneas had much more K3- and less K13- positive cells compared to the sham corneas. Muc5AC was decreased in the central region of grafted corneas. Very little alpha-smooth muscle actin (aSMA) staining was detected in grafted corneas, while there was a greater amount of aSMA staining in sham corneas. Staining for anti-angiogenic factor TIMP -3 was also increased, and pro-angiogenic factor MMP-3 was decreased in grafted corneas compared to sham corneas. Our results indicate that CAOMECS grafts resulted in improved epithelialization of the corneal surface and decreased vascularization and fibrosis of the diseased corneas. PMID:25881998

  6. Cell Cycle Progression of Human Cells Cultured in Rotating Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, Kelsey

    2009-01-01

    Space flight has been shown to alter the astronauts immune systems. Because immune performance is complex and reflects the influence of multiple organ systems within the host, scientists sought to understand the potential impact of microgravity alone on the cellular mechanisms critical to immunity. Lymphocytes and their differentiated immature form, lymphoblasts, play an important and integral role in the body's defense system. T cells, one of the three major types of lymphocytes, play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They can be distinguished from other lymphocyte types, such as B cells and natural killer cells by the presence of a special receptor on their cell surface called T cell receptors. Reported studies have shown that spaceflight can affect the expression of cell surface markers. Cell surface markers play an important role in the ability of cells to interact and to pass signals between different cells of the same phenotype and cells of different phenotypes. Recent evidence suggests that cell-cycle regulators are essential for T-cell function. To trigger an effective immune response, lymphocytes must proliferate. The objective of this project is to investigate the changes in growth of human cells cultured in rotating bioreactors and to measure the growth rate and the cell cycle distribution for different human cell types. Human lymphocytes and lymphoblasts will be cultured in a bioreactor to simulate aspects of microgravity. The bioreactor is a cylindrical culture vessel that incorporates the aspects of clinostatic rotation of a solid fluid body around a horizontal axis at a constant speed, and compensates gravity by rotation and places cells within the fluid body into a sustained free-fall. Cell cycle progression and cell proliferation of the lymphocytes will be measured for a number of days. In addition, RNA from the cells will be isolated for expression of genes related in cell cycle regulations.

  7. Purified Culture Systems for Bovine Oviductal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    YAMAMOTO, Yuki; KOBAYASHI, Yoshihiko; OKUDA, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Isolated stromal cells from the ampullary and isthmic parts of bovine oviductal tissues were cultured in monolayer and spheroid (cell aggregate) systems. Prostaglandin F2? (PGF) plays a crucial role in oviductal contraction and is produced by oviductal epithelial cells in cattle. Since stromal cells of many organs produce PGF, PGF production by bovine oviductal stromal cells was investigated. After PGF synthesis was confirmed, the utility of isolation and culture methods for oviductal stromal cells was evaluated by PGF production in the present study. The homogeneity of the cells was > 99%. PGF production of the cells was increased by tumor necrosis factor-?. The stromal cells aggregated and formed a spheroid by the treatments with several reagents. PGF production was higher in the spheroid culture than in the monolayer culture. The isolation and culture methods described here will facilitate studies of the physiological function of bovine oviductal stromal cells. PMID:24096613

  8. Comparative methodologic study of NFkappaB activation in cultured endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mercié, P; Belloc, F; Bihlou-Nabera, C; Barthe, C; Pruvost, A; Renard, M; Seigneur, M; Bernard, P; Marit, G; Boisseau, M R

    2000-11-01

    The transcriptional regulatory protein nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) participates in the control of gene expression of many modulators of the inflammatory and immune responses. Various activators trigger NFkappaB release and nuclear translocation after phosphorylation and proteolytic degradation of IkappaB. This study evaluated the abilities of fluorescence and confocal microscopies, laser scanning cytometry (LSC), electrophoretic mobility-shift assay (EMSA), and Western blotting to detect NFkappaB activation in endothelial cells (ECs) and to investigate the role of homocysteine (Hcy) in NFkappaB activation. ECs were treated with interleukin-1B (10 ng/mL) or Hcy thiolactone (1 and 5 mmol/L) as NFkappaB activators. Hcy, a thiol-containing amino acid, has been shown to directly damage ECs in vitro. Experimental evidence suggests that the atherogenic propensity associated with hyperhomocysteinemia results from EC dysfunction. When ECs were pretreated with an inhibitor (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, 100 micromol/L) or with staurosporine (5 microL/mL), no NFkappaB activation was observed. NFkappaB activation in ECs could be detected with all five techniques, clearly showing NFkappaB translocation from the cytoplasm to the nuclei. Confocal microscopy was more sensitive and less subjective than immunofluorescence microscopy. LSC was even more sensitive, specific, and reproducible. EMSA, the reference method, has the disadvantages of being radioactive, expensive, and time consuming. Western blot analysis detected the NFkappaB p50 subunit implicated in NFkappaB activation. The techniques usually used to detect NFkappaB activation in ECs are immunofluorescence microscopy and confocal microscopy, LSC, EMSA, and Western blot analysis, but none of them is ready for routine use. PMID:11079468

  9. How do culture media influence in vitro perivascular cell behavior?

    PubMed

    Huber, Birgit; Volz, Ann-Cathrin; Kluger, Petra Juliane

    2015-12-01

    Perivascular cells are multilineage cells located around the vessel wall and important for wall stabilization. In this study, we evaluated a stem cell media and a perivascular cell-specific media for the culture of primary perivascular cells regarding their cell morphology, doubling time, stem cell properties, and expression of cell type-specific markers. When the two cell culture media were compared to each other, perivascular cells cultured in the stem cell medium had a more elongated morphology and a faster doubling rate and cells cultured in the pericyte medium had a more typical morphology, with several filopodia, and a slower doubling rate. To evaluate stem cell properties, perivascular cells, CD146(-) cells, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were differentiated into the adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic lineages. It was seen that perivascular cells, as well as CD146(-) cells and MSCs, cultured in stem cell medium showed greater differentiation than cells cultured in pericyte-specific medium. The expression of pericyte-specific markers CD146, neural/glial antigen 2 (NG2), platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFR-β), myosin, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) could be found in both pericyte cultures, as well as to varying amounts in CD146(-) cells, MSCs, and endothelial cells. The here presented work shows that perivascular cells can adapt to their in vitro environment and cell culture conditions influence cell functionality, such as doubling rate or differentiation behavior. Pericyte-specific markers were shown to be expressed also from cells other than perivascular cells. We can further conclude that CD146(+) perivascular cells are inhomogeneous cell population probably containing stem cell subpopulations, which are located perivascular around capillaries. PMID:26179857

  10. A Spore Counting Method and Cell Culture Model for Chlorine Disinfection Studies of Encephalitozoon syn. Septata intestinalis

    PubMed Central

    Wolk, D. M.; Johnson, C. H.; Rice, E. W.; Marshall, M. M.; Grahn, K. F.; Plummer, C. B.; Sterling, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    The microsporidia have recently been recognized as a group of pathogens that have potential for waterborne transmission; however, little is known about the effects of routine disinfection on microsporidian spore viability. In this study, in vitro growth of Encephalitozoon syn. Septata intestinalis, a microsporidium found in the human gut, was used as a model to assess the effect of chlorine on the infectivity and viability of microsporidian spores. Spore inoculum concentrations were determined by using spectrophotometric measurements (percent transmittance at 625 nm) and by traditional hemacytometer counting. To determine quantitative dose-response data for spore infectivity, we optimized a rabbit kidney cell culture system in 24-well plates, which facilitated calculation of a 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) and a minimal infective dose (MID) for E. intestinalis. The TCID50 is a quantitative measure of infectivity and growth and is the number of organisms that must be present to infect 50% of the cell culture wells tested. The MID is as a measure of a system's permissiveness to infection and a measure of spore infectivity. A standardized MID and a standardized TCID50 have not been reported previously for any microsporidian species. Both types of doses are reported in this paper, and the values were used to evaluate the effects of chlorine disinfection on the in vitro growth of microsporidia. Spores were treated with chlorine at concentrations of 0, 1, 2, 5, and 10 mg/liter. The exposure times ranged from 0 to 80 min at 25°C and pH 7. MID data for E. intestinalis were compared before and after chlorine disinfection. A 3-log reduction (99.9% inhibition) in the E. intestinalis MID was observed at a chlorine concentration of 2 mg/liter after a minimum exposure time of 16 min. The log10 reduction results based on percent transmittance-derived spore counts were equivalent to the results based on hemacytometer-derived spore counts. Our data suggest that chlorine treatment may be an effective water treatment for E. intestinalis and that spectrophotometric methods may be substituted for labor-intensive hemacytometer methods when spores are counted in laboratory-based chlorine disinfection studies. PMID:10742198

  11. Immunoelectron microscopic studies on the specific adhesion of Trypanosoma congolense to cultured vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Shakibaei, M; Milaninezhad, M; Risse, H J

    1994-01-01

    Bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma congolense were cocultivated in vitro with vascular endothelial cells. The trypanosomes adhere specifically to the endothelial surfaces of the anterior part of their flagella, as shown by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The interaction between parasite and host cell is very tight, and frequently the accumulation of endocytotic vesicles near the contact site is observed. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed a compound distributed over the total surface of the trypanosomes and reacting with antibodies against the beta 1 integrin chain, but no reaction was found with anti-alpha 1 or anti-alpha 2 antibodies. Integrins are typical adhesion molecules and are now shown to be present at the surface of T. congolense by electron microscopy and by immunofluorescence. A direct participation of this substance in the specific adhesion to endothelium, however, could not be proven. PMID:8060730

  12. A modified culture system for epidermal cells for grafting purposes: an in vitro and in vivo study.

    PubMed

    van Dorp, A G; Verhoeven, M C; Nat-Van Der Meij, T H; Koerten, H K; Ponec, M

    1999-01-01

    A fully differentiated epithelium mimicking the features of native epidermis was obtained in vitro by culturing human or porcine epidermal keratinocytes on polyester filter substrate at the air-liquid interface. In addition, after 2 weeks of culture, hemidesmosome-like structures were formed along the basal area of the plasma membrane of the basal cells at the cell-filter interface. When grafted onto full-thickness skin wounds in pigs, the take of cell sheets detached from the filter with dispase was significantly higher (about 70%) in comparison to mechanically detached keratinocytes (about 15%). With dispase-treated keratinocytes alone, basement membrane formation took place within 7 days postgrafting as judged from the presence of a lamina lucida and positive staining for type IV collagen. Also, numerous hemidesmosomes and anchoring fibrils were observed at the basal cell-"neodermis" interface. The fully differentiated epidermis, generated by culturing keratinocytes at the air-liquid interface and detached from the substrate by dispase-treatment, is less fragile and easier to handle than epidermal autografts obtained by conventional culturing methods. Detachment by a short dispase-treatment appeared in our hands the only method for successful and complete epithelial regeneration in full-thickness wounds. PMID:10781213

  13. Density gradient electrophoresis of cultured human embryonic kidney cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plank, L. D.; Kunze, M. E.; Giranda, V.; Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Ground based confirmation of the electrophoretic heterogeneity of human embryonic kidney cell cultures, the general characterization of their electrophoretic migration, and observations on the general properties of cultures derived from electrophoretic subpopulations were studied. Cell migration in a density gradient electrophoresis column and cell electrophoretic mobility was determined. The mobility and heterogeneity of cultured human embryonic kidney cells with those of fixed rat erythrocytes as model test particle was compared. Electrophoretically separated cell subpopulations with respect to size, viability, and culture characteristics were examined.

  14. Hydrogels as Extracellular Matrix Mimics for 3D Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Tibbitt, Mark W.; Anseth, Kristi S.

    2010-01-01

    Methods for culturing mammalian cells ex vivo are increasingly needed to study cell and tissue physiology and to grow replacement tissue for regenerative medicine. Two-dimensional culture has been the paradigm for typical in vitro cell culture; however, it has been demonstrated that cells behave more natively when cultured in three-dimensional environments. Permissive, synthetic hydrogels and promoting, natural hydrogels have become popular as three-dimensional cell culture platforms; yet, both of these systems possess limitations. In this perspective, we discuss the use of both synthetic and natural hydrogels as scaffolds for three-dimensional cell culture as well as synthetic hydrogels that incorporate sophisticated biochemical and mechanical cues as mimics of the native extracellular matrix. Ultimately, advances in synthetic–biologic hydrogel hybrids are needed to provide robust platforms for investigating cell physiology and fabricating tissue outside of the organism. PMID:19472329

  15. Centrifugation of Cultured Osteoblasts And Macrophages as a Model To Study How Gravity Regulates The Function of Skeletal Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Ruth K.; Searby, Nancy D.; Almeida, Eduardo A. C.; Sutijono, Darrell; Yu, Joon-Ho; Malouvier, Alexander; Doty, Steven B.; Morey-Holton, Emily; Weinstein, Steven L.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Mechanical loading helps define the architecture of weight-bearing bone via the tightly regulated process of skeletal turnover. Turnover occurs by the concerted activity of osteoblasts, responsible for bone formation. and osteoclasts, responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclasts are specialized megakaryon macrophages, which differentiate from monocytes in response to resorption stimuli, such as reduced weight-bearing. Habitation in space dramatically alters musculoskeletal loading, which modulates both cell function and bone structure. Our long-term objective is to define the molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate skeletal adaptations to altered gravity environments. Our experimental approach is to apply hypergravity loads by centrifugation to rodents and cultured cells. As a first step, we examined the influence of centrifugation on the structure of cancellous bone in rats to test the ability of hypergravity to change skeletal architecture. Since cancellous bone undergoes rapid turnover we expected the most dramatic structural changes to occur in the shape of trabeculae of weight-bearing, cancellous bone. To define the cellular responses to hypergravity loads, we exposed cultured osteoblasts and macrophages to centrifugation. The intraosseous and intramedullary pressures within long bones in vivo reportedly range from 12-40 mm Hg, which would correspond to 18-59 gravity (g) in our cultures. We assumed that hydrostatic pressure from the medium above the cell layer is at least one major component of the mechanical load generated by centrifuging cultured cells. and therefore we exposed the cells to 10-50g. In osteoblasts, we examined the structure of their actin and microtubule networks, production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and cell survival. Analysis of the shape of the cytoskeletal networks provides evidence for the ability of centrifugation to affect cell structure, while the production of PGE2 serves as a convenient marker for mechanical stimulation. We examined cell survival, reasoning that osteoblasts might mold skeletal structure in a hypergravity environment in part by regulating apoptosis and thus the duration of osteoblast productivity. Finally, we tested the influence of centrifugation on microbial activation of a macrophage cell line (RAW264.7). In response to the appropriate hormonal stimulation, this cell line is reportedly capable of undergoing differentiation to express osteoclast markers. In addition, a component of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria, lipopolysaccaride (LPS), stimulates the formation of osteoclasts in vivo. Thus we tested the influence on centrifugation on RAW264.7 cells stimulated with LPS to provide an index of the function of osteoclast precursors.

  16. Cell culture metabolomics in the diagnosis of lung cancer-the influence of cell culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Kalluri, U; Naiker, M; Myers, M A

    2014-06-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Unfortunately, lung cancer is often diagnosed only when it becomes symptomatic or at an advanced stage when few treatment options are available. Hence, a diagnostic test suitable for screening widespread populations is required to enable earlier diagnosis. Analysis of exhaled breath provides a non-invasive method for early detection of lung cancer. Analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by various mass spectral techniques has identified potential biomarkers of disease. Nevertheless, the metabolic origins and the disease specificity of VOCs need further elucidation. Cell culture metabolomics can be used as a bottom-up approach to identify biomarkers of pathological conditions and can also be used to study the metabolic pathways that produce such compounds. This paper summarizes the current knowledge of lung cancer biomarkers in exhaled breath and emphasizes the critical role of cell culture conditions in determining the VOCs produced in vitro. Hypoxic culture conditions more closely mimic the conditions of cancer cell growth in vivo. We propose that since hypoxia influences cell metabolism and so potentially the VOCs that the cancer cells produce, the cell culture metabolomics projects should consider culturing cancer cells in hypoxic conditions. PMID:24861817

  17. Development of primary cell culture from Scylla serrata : Primary cell cultures from Scylla serrata.

    PubMed

    Sashikumar, Anu; Desai, P V

    2008-03-01

    This paper reports for the first time, the Primary cell culture of hepatopancreas from edible crab Scylla serrata using crab saline, L-15 (Leibovitz), 1 x L-15 + crab saline, 2 x L-15 + crab saline, 3 x L-15 and citrate buffer without any serum. We could isolate and maintain E (Embryonalzellen), F (Fibrenzellen), B (Blasenzellen), R (Restzellen) and G (Granular cells). Upon seeding the hepatopancreatic E, F, B, and R cells showed different survival pattern over time than granular cells. A modified L-15 (3x) medium supported the best survival of hepatopancreatic E, F B, and R cells in in-vitro culture. However granular cells could be maintained for 184 days with L-15 (1x) + crab saline. Fetal bovine serum was not effective additive and hampered cell viability in present study. PMID:19002854

  18. Gonococcal and meningococcal pathogenesis as defined by human cell, cell culture, and organ culture assays.

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, D S

    1989-01-01

    Human cells, cell cultures, and organ cultures have been extremely useful for studying the events that occur when gonococci and meningococci encounter human mucosal surfaces. The specificity and selectivity of these events for human cells are striking and correlate with the adaptation of these pathogens for survival on human mucous membranes. To colonize these sites, meningococci and gonococci have developed mechanisms to damage local host defenses such as the mucociliary blanket, to attach to epithelial cells, and to invade these cells. Attachment to epithelial cells mediated by pili, and to some types of cells mediated by PIIs, serves to anchor the organism close to sources of nutrition and allows multiplication. Intracellular invasion, possibly initiated by the major porin protein, may provide additional nutritional support and protection from host defenses. Mucosal invasion may also result in access of gonococci and meningococci to the bloodstream, leading to dissemination. Images PMID:2497953

  19. Skeletal muscle satellite cells cultured in simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Greg; Hartzell, Charles R.; Schroedl, Nancy A.; Gonda, Steve R.

    1993-01-01

    Satellite cells are postnatal myoblasts responsible for providing additional nuclei to growing or regenerating muscle cells. Satellite cells retain the capacity to proliferate and differentiate in vitro and therefore provide a useful model to study postnatal muscle development. Most culture systems used to study postnatal muscle development are limited by the two-dimensional (2-D) confines of the culture dish. Limiting proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells in 2-D could potentially limit cell-cell contacts important for developing the level of organization in skeletal muscle obtained in vivo. Culturing satellite cells on microcarrier beads suspended in the High-Aspect-Ratio-Vessel (HARV) designed by NASA provides a low shear, three-dimensional (3-D) environment to study muscle development. Primary cultures established from anterior tibialis muscles of growing rats (approximately 200 gm) were used for all studies and were composed of greater than 75 % satellite cells. Different inoculation densities did not affect the proliferative potential of satellite cells in the HARV. Plating efficiency, proliferation, and glucose utilization were compared between 2-D flat culture and 3-D HARV culture. Plating efficiency (cells attached - cells plated x 100) was similar between the two culture systems. Proliferation was reduced in HARV cultures and this reduction was apparent for both satellite cells and non-satellite cells. Furthermore, reduction in proliferation within the HARV could not be attributed to reduced substrate availability since glucose levels in media from HARV and 2-D cell culture were similar. Morphologically, microcarrier beads within the HARVS were joined together by cells into three-dimensional aggregates composed of greater than 10 beads/aggregate. Aggregation of beads did not occur in the absence of cells. Myotubes were often seen on individual beads or spanning the surface of two beads. In summary, proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells on microcarrier beads within the HARV bioreactor results in a three dimensional level of organization that could provide a more suitable model to study postnatal muscle development.

  20. Performance of enzymatic fuel cell in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Lamberg, P; Shleev, S; Ludwig, R; Arnebrant, T; Ruzgas, T

    2014-05-15

    Here we present the very first study of an enzymatic fuel cell (EFC) in a cell culture. An EFC with Corynascus thermophilus cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) based bioanode and Myrothecium verrucaria bilirubin oxidase (BOx) based biocathode was constructed at the bottom of a medusa cell culture plate. The constructed EFC had a power density of up to 25 ?W cm(-2) at 0.5 V potential in simple buffer solution and in cell culturing medium. L929 murine fibroblast cells were seeded on top of the EFC and possible effects of the EFC on the cells and vice versa were studied. It was shown that on average the power of the EFC drops by about 70% under a nearly confluent layer of cells. The EFC appeared to have a toxic effect on the L929 cell line. It was concluded that the bioanode, consisting of CDH, produced hydrogen peroxide at toxic concentrations. However, the toxic effect was circumvented by co-immobilizing catalase on the bioanode. PMID:24374299

  1. Recent advances in the study of live attenuated cell-cultured smallpox vaccine LC16m8.

    PubMed

    Eto, Akiko; Saito, Tomoya; Yokote, Hiroyuki; Kurane, Ichiro; Kanatani, Yasuhiro

    2015-11-01

    LC16m8 is a live, attenuated, cell-cultured smallpox vaccine that was developed and licensed in Japan in the 1970s, but was not used in the campaign to eradicate smallpox. In the early 2000s, the potential threat of bioterrorism led to reconsideration of the need for a smallpox vaccine. Subsequently, LC16m8 production was restarted in Japan in 2002, requiring re-evaluation of its safety and efficacy. Approximately 50,000 children in the 1970s and about 3500 healthy adults in the 2000s were vaccinated with LC16m8 in Japan, and 153 adults have been vaccinated with LC16m8 or Dryvax in phase I/II clinical trials in the USA. These studies confirmed the safety and efficacy of LC16m8, while several studies in animal models have shown that LC16m8 protects the host against viral challenge. The World Health Organization Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization recommended LC16m8, together with ACAM2000, as a stockpile vaccine in 2013. In addition, LC16m8 is expected to be a viable alternative to first-generation smallpox vaccines to prevent human monkeypox. PMID:26319072

  2. Establishment of an in vitro Peyer's patch cell culture system correlative to in vivo study using intestine and screening of lactic acid bacteria enhancing intestinal immunity.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hekui; Higashikawa, Fumiko; Noda, Masafumi; Zhao, Xingrong; Matoba, Yasuyuki; Kumagai, Takanori; Sugiyama, Masanori

    2010-01-01

    Some lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known as representative of probiotics. To screen LAB effective to enhance intestinal immunity, in the present study, we developed an accurate and convenient in vitro evaluation system using Peyer's patch cells (PP-cells) isolated from the mice intestine. We observed that the amount of immunoglobulin A (IgA) produced by PP-cells co-cultured with LAB was well correlative to that in PP-cells, intestine and feces isolated from live mice after oral administration of LAB [correlation coefficient (r)=0.888, 0.883, and 0.920, respectively]. In addition, using this in vitro system, we suggest that the IgA level of PP-cells co-culturing with plant-derived LAB might be more enhanced than with animal-derived LAB. PMID:20118555

  3. Cell Culture as an Alternative in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nardone, Roland M.

    1990-01-01

    Programs that are intended to inform and provide "hands-on" experience for students and to facilitate the introduction of cell culture-based laboratory exercises into the high school and college laboratory are examined. The components of the CellServ Program and the Cell Culture Toxicology Training Programs are described. (KR)

  4. Cell culture techniques in honey bee research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cell culture techniques are indispensable in most if not all life science disciplines to date. Wherever cell culture models are lacking scientific development is hampered. Unfortunately this has been and still is the case in honey bee research because permanent honey bee cell lines have not yet been...

  5. Dynamic cell culture system (7-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogoli, Augusto

    1992-01-01

    This experiment is one of the Biorack experiments being flown on the International Microgravity Laboratory 1 (MIL-1) mission as part of an investigation studying cell proliferation and performance in space. One of the objectives of this investigation is to assess the potential benefits of bioprocessing in space with the ultimate goal of developing a bioreactor for continuous cell cultures in space. This experiment will test the operation of an automated culture chamber that was designed for use in a Bioreactor in space. The device to be tested is called the Dynamic Cell Culture System (DCCS). It is a simple device in which media are renewed or chemicals are injected automatically, by means of osmotic pumps. This experiment uses four Type I/O experiment containers. One DCCS unit, which contains a culture chamber with renewal of medium and a second chamber without a medium supply fits in each container. Two DCCS units are maintained under zero gravity conditions during the on-orbit period. The other two units are maintained under 1 gh conditions in a 1 g centrifuge. The schedule for incubator transfer is given.

  6. Three-Dimensional Cell Culture: A Breakthrough in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Antoni, Delphine; Burckel, Hélène; Josset, Elodie; Noel, Georges

    2015-01-01

    Cell culture is an important tool for biological research. Two-dimensional cell culture has been used for some time now, but growing cells in flat layers on plastic surfaces does not accurately model the in vivo state. As compared to the two-dimensional case, the three-dimensional (3D) cell culture allows biological cells to grow or interact with their surroundings in all three dimensions thanks to an artificial environment. Cells grown in a 3D model have proven to be more physiologically relevant and showed improvements in several studies of biological mechanisms like: cell number monitoring, viability, morphology, proliferation, differentiation, response to stimuli, migration and invasion of tumor cells into surrounding tissues, angiogenesis stimulation and immune system evasion, drug metabolism, gene expression and protein synthesis, general cell function and in vivo relevance. 3D culture models succeed thanks to technological advances, including materials science, cell biology and bioreactor design. PMID:25768338

  7. Micro-PIXE and FT-IR microscopic studies of mineralized nodules formed in rat bone marrow stromal cell cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokita, E.; Mutsaers, P. H. A.; Quaedackers, J. A.; Tatoń , G.; de Voigt, M. J. A.

    1998-04-01

    A proton microprobe in combination with Proton Induced X-ray Emission (micro-PIXE) and Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) microscopy are used for examination of the elemental composition and structure of inorganic deposits formed in cell cultures of rat bone marrow. The results show that micro-PIXE is well suited for prior recognition of the localization and for the determination of the elemental composition of the deposits while FT-IR microscopy may be used to determine the structure of deposits in situ with a spatial resolution of about 20 μm. It is demonstrated that nodules in the cell culture are composed of different Ca compounds. In contrast to physiological mineralization, Ca-P compounds do not dominate the mineral phase. Discrepancies are observed between histomorphometric and micro-PIXE data.

  8. Purification and partial characterization of a peroxidase from plant cell cultures of Cassia didymobotrya and biotransformation studies.

    PubMed Central

    Vitali, A; Botta, B; Delle Monache, G; Zappitelli, S; Ricciardi, P; Melino, S; Petruzzelli, R; Giardina, B

    1998-01-01

    An acidic peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) produced by cell suspension cultures of Cassia didymobotrya (wild senna) was purified from culture medium collected on the 29th day. The enzyme was shown to be a glycoprotein with a pI of 3.5, a molecular mass of approx. 43 kDa by SDS/PAGE and 50 kDa by gel filtration. The N-terminal sequence was very similar to those of other plant peroxidases. The peroxidase was characterized by a high specificity towards coniferyl alcohol and other natural phenolics such as guaiacol and ferulic and caffeic acids. These findings suggest that the enzyme is involved in lignification processes of the cell wall. Moreover, the enzyme was able to catalyse the oxidation of 4,3',4'-trihydroxychalcone and 4, 3',4'-trihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone to the corresponding 3, 3'-biflavanones, as mixtures of racemic and meso forms. PMID:9531492

  9. Purification and partial characterization of a peroxidase from plant cell cultures of Cassia didymobotrya and biotransformation studies.

    PubMed

    Vitali, A; Botta, B; Delle Monache, G; Zappitelli, S; Ricciardi, P; Melino, S; Petruzzelli, R; Giardina, B

    1998-04-15

    An acidic peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) produced by cell suspension cultures of Cassia didymobotrya (wild senna) was purified from culture medium collected on the 29th day. The enzyme was shown to be a glycoprotein with a pI of 3.5, a molecular mass of approx. 43 kDa by SDS/PAGE and 50 kDa by gel filtration. The N-terminal sequence was very similar to those of other plant peroxidases. The peroxidase was characterized by a high specificity towards coniferyl alcohol and other natural phenolics such as guaiacol and ferulic and caffeic acids. These findings suggest that the enzyme is involved in lignification processes of the cell wall. Moreover, the enzyme was able to catalyse the oxidation of 4,3',4'-trihydroxychalcone and 4, 3',4'-trihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone to the corresponding 3, 3'-biflavanones, as mixtures of racemic and meso forms. PMID:9531492

  10. Genomics in mammalian cell culture bioprocessing

    PubMed Central

    Wuest, Diane M.; Harcum, Sarah W.; Lee, Kelvin H.

    2013-01-01

    Explicitly identifying the genome of a host organism including sequencing, mapping, and annotating its genetic code has become a priority in the field of biotechnology with aims at improving the efficiency and understanding of cell culture bioprocessing. Recombinant protein therapeutics, primarily produced in mammalian cells, constitute a $108 billion global market. The most common mammalian cell line used in biologic production processes is the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line, and although great improvements have been made in titer production over the past 25 years, the underlying molecular and physiological factors are not well understood. Confident understanding of CHO bioprocessing elements (e.g. cell line selection, protein production, and reproducibility of process performance and product specifications) would significantly improve with a well understood genome. This review describes mammalian cell culture use in bioprocessing, the importance of obtaining CHO cell line genetic sequences, and the current status of sequencing efforts. Furthermore, transcriptomic techniques and gene expression tools are presented, and case studies exploring genomic techniques and applications aimed to improve mammalian bioprocess performance are reviewed. Finally, future implications of genomic advances are surmised. PMID:22079893

  11. Applicability of integrated cell culture quantitative PCR (ICC-qPCR) for the detection of infectious adenovirus type 2 in UV disinfection studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human adenovirus is relatively resistant to UV radiation and has been used as a conservative testing microbe for evaluations of UV disinfection systems as components of water treatment processes. In this study, we attempted to validate the applicability of integrated cell culture...

  12. Seed coat removal improves Fe bioavailability in cooked lentils: studies using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the range of Fe concentration and relative Fe bioavailability of 24 varieties of cooked lentils, as well as the impact of seed coat removal on lentil Fe nutritional quality. Relative Fe bioavailability was assessed by the in vitro/Caco-2 cell culture method. While Fe concentrat...

  13. A novel co-culture model of murine K12 osteosarcoma cells and S. aureus on common orthopedic implant materials: 'the race to the surface' studied in vitro.

    PubMed

    McConda, David B; Karnes, Jonathan M; Hamza, Therwa; Lindsey, Brock A

    2016-07-01

    Infection is a major cause of orthopedic implant failure. There are few studies assessing both tissue cell and bacterial adherence on common orthopedic implant materials in a co-culture environment. An in vitro co-culture model was created using K12 osteosarcoma cells and Staphylococcus aureus in a medium incubated over metal disks for 48 h. The results showed that, in the presence of S. aureus, there were fewer osteosarcoma cells attached to the disks for all substrata tested. There were significantly more osteosarcoma cells adhering to the cobalt chrome than the stainless steel and titanium disks. Overall, in the presence of osteosarcoma cells, there were more bacteria adhering to the disks for all the substrata tested, with significantly more bacteria adhering to the stainless steel disks compared to cobalt chrome and titanium disks. Scanning electron microscopy verified that osteosarcoma cells and bacteria were adherent to the metal disks after incubation for 48 h. Furthermore, the observation that more bacteria were in the co-culture than in the control sample suggests that the osteosarcoma cells serve as a nutrient source for the bacteria. Future models assessing the interaction of osteogenic cells with bacteria on a substratum would be improved if the model accounted for the role of the immune system in secondary bone healing. PMID:27142312

  14. Effect of Cocoa and Its Flavonoids on Biomarkers of Inflammation: Studies of Cell Culture, Animals and Humans.

    PubMed

    Goya, Luis; Martín, María Ángeles; Sarriá, Beatriz; Ramos, Sonia; Mateos, Raquel; Bravo, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation has been identified as a necessary step to mediate atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease and as a relevant stage in the onset and progression of several types of cancer. Considerable attention has recently been focused on the identification of dietary bioactive compounds with anti-inflammatory activities as an alternative natural source for prevention of inflammation-associated diseases. The remarkable capacity of cocoa flavanols as antioxidants, as well as to modulate signaling pathways involved in cellular processes, such as inflammation, metabolism and proliferation, has encouraged research on this type of polyphenols as useful bioactive compounds for nutritional prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Data from numerous studies suggest that cocoa and cocoa-derived flavanols can effectively modify the inflammatory process, and thus potentially provide a benefit to individuals with elevated risk factors for atherosclerosis/cardiovascular pathology and cancer. The present overview will focus on the most recent findings about the effects of cocoa, its main constituents and cocoa derivatives on selected biomarkers of the inflammatory process in cell culture, animal models and human cohorts. PMID:27070643

  15. Effect of Cocoa and Its Flavonoids on Biomarkers of Inflammation: Studies of Cell Culture, Animals and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Goya, Luis; Martín, María Ángeles; Sarriá, Beatriz; Ramos, Sonia; Mateos, Raquel; Bravo, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation has been identified as a necessary step to mediate atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease and as a relevant stage in the onset and progression of several types of cancer. Considerable attention has recently been focused on the identification of dietary bioactive compounds with anti-inflammatory activities as an alternative natural source for prevention of inflammation-associated diseases. The remarkable capacity of cocoa flavanols as antioxidants, as well as to modulate signaling pathways involved in cellular processes, such as inflammation, metabolism and proliferation, has encouraged research on this type of polyphenols as useful bioactive compounds for nutritional prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Data from numerous studies suggest that cocoa and cocoa-derived flavanols can effectively modify the inflammatory process, and thus potentially provide a benefit to individuals with elevated risk factors for atherosclerosis/cardiovascular pathology and cancer. The present overview will focus on the most recent findings about the effects of cocoa, its main constituents and cocoa derivatives on selected biomarkers of the inflammatory process in cell culture, animal models and human cohorts. PMID:27070643

  16. Polydimethylsiloxane SlipChip for mammalian cell culture applications.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Wen; Peng, Chien-Chung; Liao, Wei-Hao; Tung, Yi-Chung

    2015-11-01

    This paper reports a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) SlipChip for in vitro cell culture applications, multiple-treatment assays, cell co-cultures, and cytokine detection assays. The PDMS SlipChip is composed of two PDMS layers with microfluidic channels on each surface that are separated by a thin silicone fluid (Si-fluid) layer. The integration of Si-fluid enables the two PDMS layers to be slid to different positions; therefore, the channel patterns can be re-arranged for various applications. The SlipChip design significantly reduces the complexity of sample handling, transportation, and treatment processes. To apply the developed SlipChip for cell culture applications, human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (A549) and lung fibroblasts (MRC-5) were cultured to examine the biocompatibility of the developed PDMS SlipChip. Moreover, embryonic pluripotent stem cells (ES-D3) were also cultured in the device to evaluate the retention of their stemness in the device. The experimental results show that cell morphology, viability and proliferation are not affected when the cells are cultured in the SlipChip, indicating that the device is highly compatible with mammalian cell culture. In addition, the stemness of the ES-D3 cells was highly retained after they were cultured in the device, suggesting the feasibility of using the SlipChip for stem cell research. Various cell experiments, such as simultaneous triple staining of cells and co-culture of MRC-5 with A549 cells, were also performed to demonstrate the functionalities of the PDMS SlipChip. Furthermore, we used a cytokine detection assay to evaluate the effect of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) treatment on the cytokine secretion of A549 cells using the SlipChip. The developed PDMS SlipChip provides a straightforward and effective platform for various on-chip in vitro cell cultures and consequent analysis, which is promising for a number of cell biology studies and biomedical applications. PMID:26381390

  17. Three-dimensional tissue culture based on magnetic cell levitation.

    PubMed

    Souza, Glauco R; Molina, Jennifer R; Raphael, Robert M; Ozawa, Michael G; Stark, Daniel J; Levin, Carly S; Bronk, Lawrence F; Ananta, Jeyarama S; Mandelin, Jami; Georgescu, Maria-Magdalena; Bankson, James A; Gelovani, Juri G; Killian, T C; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2010-04-01

    Cell culture is an essential tool in drug discovery, tissue engineering and stem cell research. Conventional tissue culture produces two-dimensional cell growth with gene expression, signalling and morphology that can be different from those found in vivo, and this compromises its clinical relevance. Here, we report a three-dimensional tissue culture based on magnetic levitation of cells in the presence of a hydrogel consisting of gold, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and filamentous bacteriophage. By spatially controlling the magnetic field, the geometry of the cell mass can be manipulated, and multicellular clustering of different cell types in co-culture can be achieved. Magnetically levitated human glioblastoma cells showed similar protein expression profiles to those observed in human tumour xenografts. Taken together, these results indicate that levitated three-dimensional culture with magnetized phage-based hydrogels more closely recapitulates in vivo protein expression and may be more feasible for long-term multicellular studies. PMID:20228788

  18. Three-dimensional Tissue Culture Based on Magnetic Cell Levitation

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Glauco R.; Molina, Jennifer R.; Raphael, Robert M.; Ozawa, Michael G.; Stark, Daniel J.; Levin, Carly S.; Bronk, Lawrence F.; Ananta, Jeyarama S.; Mandelin, Jami; Georgescu, Maria-Magdalena; Bankson, James A.; Gelovani, Juri G.

    2015-01-01

    Cell culture is an essential tool for drug discovery, tissue engineering, and stem cell research. Conventional tissue culture produces two-dimensional (2D) cell growth with gene expression, signaling, and morphology that can differ from those in vivo and thus compromise clinical relevancy1–5. Here we report a three-dimensional (3D) culture of cells based on magnetic levitation in the presence of hydrogels containing gold and magnetic iron oxide (MIO) nanoparticles plus filamentous bacteriophage. This methodology allows for control of cell mass geometry and guided, multicellular clustering of different cell types in co-culture through spatial variance of the magnetic field. Moreover, magnetic levitation of human glioblastoma cells demonstrates similar protein expression profiles to those observed in human tumor xenografts. Taken together, these results suggest levitated 3D culture with magnetized phage-based hydrogels more closely recapitulates in vivo protein expression and allows for long-term multi-cellular studies. PMID:20228788

  19. Cell culture, oxidative stress, and antioxidants: avoiding pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Halliwell, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Cell culture is widely used by biochemists and cell/molecular biologists, but the fluctuating (and often elevated) levels of O 2 to which cells in culture are exposed can affect many of their properties. So can the low level of antioxidants found in some cell culture media. Reagents, especially "antioxidants," added to cell culture media can react with the constituents of the media to produce H 2 O 2 and degradation products that can influence cell behavior. Several published papers describing the cellular effects of ascorbate, polyphenols, and carotenoids have, in fact, reported artifacts due to the actions of the degradation products of these "antioxidants." A greater awareness of the potential artifacts in cell culture studies is needed among the free radical/antioxidant community. PMID:24923566

  20. Long-term maintenance of human induced pluripotent stem cells by automated cell culture system

    PubMed Central

    Konagaya, Shuhei; Ando, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Toshiaki; Suemori, Hirofumi; Iwata, Hiroo

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, are regarded as new sources for cell replacement therapy. These cells can unlimitedly expand under undifferentiated conditions and be differentiated into multiple cell types. Automated culture systems enable the large-scale production of cells. In addition to reducing the time and effort of researchers, an automated culture system improves the reproducibility of cell cultures. In the present study, we newly designed a fully automated cell culture system for human iPS maintenance. Using an automated culture system, hiPS cells maintained their undifferentiated state for 60 days. Automatically prepared hiPS cells had a potency of differentiation into three germ layer cells including dopaminergic neurons and pancreatic cells. PMID:26573336

  1. Culture of Cells from Amphibian Embryos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanisstreet, Martin

    1983-01-01

    Describes a method for in vitro culturing of cells from amphibian early embryos. Such cells can be used to demonstrate such properties of eukaryote cells as cell motility, adhesion, differentiation, and cell sorting into tissues. The technique may be extended to investigate other factors. (Author/JN)

  2. Particle Trajectories in Rotating Wall Cell Culture Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran N.; Downey, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    Cell cultures are extremely important to the medical community since such cultures provide an opportunity to perform research on human tissue without the concerns inherent in experiments on individual humans. Development of cells in cultures has been found to be greatly influenced by the conditions of the culture. Much work has focused on the effect of the motions of cells in the culture relative to the solution. Recently rotating wall vessels have been used with success in achieving improved cellular cultures. Speculation and limited research have focused on the low shear environment and the ability of rotating vessels to keep cells suspended in solution rather than floating or sedimenting as the primary reasons for the improved cellular cultures using these devices. It is widely believed that the cultures obtained using a rotating wall vessel simulates to some degree the effect of microgravity on cultures. It has also been speculated that the microgravity environment may provide the ideal acceleration environment for culturing of cellular tissues due to the nearly negligible levels of sedimentation and shear possible. This work predicts particle trajectories of cells in rotating wall vessels of cylindrical and annular design consistent with the estimated properties of typical cellular cultures. Estimates of the shear encountered by cells in solution and the interactions with walls are studied. Comparisons of potential experiments in ground and microgravity environments are performed.

  3. Acetaldehyde and hexanaldehyde from cultured white cells

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hye-Won; Umber, Brandon J; Meinardi, Simone; Leu, Szu-Yun; Zaldivar, Frank; Blake, Donald R; Cooper, Dan M

    2009-01-01

    Background Noninvasive detection of innate immune function such as the accumulation of neutrophils remains a challenge in many areas of clinical medicine. We hypothesized that granulocytes could generate volatile organic compounds. Methods To begin to test this, we developed a bioreactor and analytical GC-MS system to accurately identify and quantify gases in trace concentrations (parts per billion) emitted solely from cell/media culture. A human promyelocytic leukemia cell line, HL60, frequently used to assess neutrophil function, was grown in serum-free medium. Results HL60 cells released acetaldehyde and hexanaldehyde in a time-dependent manner. The mean ± SD concentration of acetaldehyde in the headspace above the cultured cells following 4-, 24- and 48-h incubation was 157 ± 13 ppbv, 490 ± 99 ppbv, 698 ± 87 ppbv. For hexanaldehyde these values were 1 ± 0.3 ppbv, 8 ± 2 ppbv, and 11 ± 2 ppbv. In addition, our experimental system permitted us to identify confounding trace gas contaminants such as styrene. Conclusion This study demonstrates that human immune cells known to mimic the function of innate immune cells, like neutrophils, produce volatile gases that can be measured in vitro in trace amounts. PMID:19402909

  4. Fish Rhabdovirus Replication in Non-Piscine Cell Culture: New System for the Study of Rhabdovirus-Cell Interaction in Which the Virus and Cell Have Different Temperature Optima

    PubMed Central

    Clark, H Fred; Soriano, Elvira Z.

    1974-01-01

    The replication of three rhabdoviruses associated with diseases of fish has been demonstrated in cells of continuously cultivated non-piscine cell lines. Spring viremia of carp (SVC) virus and the salmonid fish viruses, Egtved and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus, all replicated in mammalian WI-38 (human diploid cell strain) and BHK/21 cells and in cells of one or more reptilian cell lines at the temperatures commonly used to propagate these viruses in fish cells. The infections were cytopathic: SVC virus plaque assays may be performed in several types of mammalian cell culture. “Autointerference” apparently mediated by abortive “T” particle formation was observed during serial nondiluted passages of SVC virus in BHK/21 and TH1 cells, but not in RTG-2 or WI-38 cells. Optimal temperatures for replication of SVC and Egtved viruses in BHK/21 cells were identical to those determined in poikilothermic vertebrate cell cultures. However, these viruses replicated relatively more efficiently at suboptimal temperatures in “cold-blooded” vertebrate cells than in the hamster cells. Studies of [3H]uridine incorporation into uninfected BHK/21 cells incubated at different temperatures revealed that [3H]uridine uptake is sharply reduced at temperatures below 24.5 C. Growth curve studies of SVC virus in BHK/21 cells incubated at 23 C revealed that a clear-cut large excess of virus-induced [3H]uridine incorporation could be demonstrated in the absence of actinomycin D. Actinomycin D treatment (1 μg/ml) led to efficient inhibition of control cell [3H]uridine uptake, but also markedly reduced the total counts per minute of virus-induced [3H]uridine uptake, without depressing the yield of released infectious virus. Actinomycin D added to SVC virus-infected BHK/21 cell cultures at concentrations as low as 0.01 μg/ml caused a significant decrease in the level of virus-induced [3H]uridine uptake, despite the fact that this concentration is insufficient to efficiently suppress “background” cellular [3H]uridine incorporation. Images PMID:4210338

  5. Correlated mass spectrometry imaging and confocal Raman microscopy for studies of three-dimensional cell culture sections.

    PubMed

    Ahlf, Dorothy R; Masyuko, Rachel N; Hummon, Amanda B; Bohn, Paul W

    2014-09-21

    A novel method of correlated imaging, combining confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) was developed in order to investigate the structural and chemical diversity inherent in three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures. These 3D spheroidal cell cultures are high throughput in vitro model systems that recapitulate some of the chemical and physiological gradients characteristic of tissues. As a result, they are ideal for testing new imaging approaches due to the native diversity of cellular phenotypes found within a single culture. Individually, confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) and mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) produce different kinds of chemical information. CRM imaging reveals differences in cellular integrity and protein secretion across a typical near-equatorial transverse slice, while MSI shows localization of small molecules to discrete regions of the spheroid section. Correlating information obtained from these disparate imaging methods begins with an external fiducial mask, added to the spheroidal samples to orient image acquisition on the two orthogonal platforms. Rather than combine the images directly, principal component analysis is used to reveal the most chemically-informative elements, which are then combined using digital image correlation. Using this approach, relationships between the principal components of each method are visualized so that they may be compared on commensurate spatial length scales. PMID:25030970

  6. Plant Tissue Culture Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert Alan

    Plant tissue culture has developed into a valid botanical discipline and is considered a key area of biotechnology, but it has not been a key component of the science curriculum because of the expensive and technical nature of research in this area. This manual presents a number of activities that are relatively easy to prepare and perform. The…

  7. On the origin of lipofuscin; the iron content of residual bodies, and the relation of these organelles to the lysosomal vacuome. A study on cultured human glial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Brunk, U.T. )

    1989-01-01

    Cultured human glial cells constitute a suitable model system for the study of lipofuscinogenesis in vitro. These cells, although not post-mitotic, can be kept for several months in stable monolayers due to their display of very pronounced density-dependent inhibition of cell growth. Residual bodies, or lipofuscin pigment granules, accumulate over time in this pseudo post-mitotic cell system. I. In early dense cultures, exposed to purified rat liver mitochondriae, it was possible to follow the uptake of mitochondriae and their degradation, which was found to be incomplete and result in the formation of numerous residual bodies containing lipofuscin-type material. It was concluded that incomplete degradation of mitochondriae may be an important origin of lipofuscin. II. Dense, older cultures exposed to electron dense marker particles (colloidal thorium dioxide) accumulated these markers within endosomes, and later in secondary lysosomes of various types, including residual bodies. It was concluded that residual bodies constitute an integral part of the lysosomal vacuome system. III. Phase III glial cells were cultured on formvar-coated gold EM-grids and studied by whole cell transmission electron microscopy using TEM and STEM techniques in combination with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. It was found that residual bodies contained iron. This fact was taken as a further indication that lipofuscin has its origin in autophagocytosed mitochondriae and ER-material rich in metallo-enzymes. Due to their high concentration of iron, residual bodies may constitute unstable structures within the cells. Since iron is a well known catalyst of various peroxidative processes, the surrounding lysosomal membrane might be damaged, e.g. by oxidative stress, with risk for leakage of degradative lysosomal enzymes into the cell sap.

  8. [An experimental study of the effects of drilling with dental high speed turbine on culture cells (in vitro) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ohta, M

    1976-05-01

    A drilling at 500 000 R.P.M. with a dental high speed turbine was made either to a tissue culture bottle or to a test tube, in which mouse L fibroblasts were grown for 2 days with YLH medium supplemented with 10% bovine serum, in order to examine the effects of high speed drilling to the cells in vitro, Experiments were carried out with the following three conditions; (1) Drilling of outer surface of the glasswares at the inner surface on which the cells were attached, with a water coolant, (2) Drilling of the same place without a water coolant, and (3) Drilling of a remote area of the glasswares where no cells were grown. The last experimental condition permitted to give a sole effect of vibration accompanied with the drilling. Rates of cell multiplication and morphological observation were obtained on 2 days and 5 days after the glasswares were drilled. Rates of cell multiplication showed no change between the experimental conditions and control. This means that heat generation, vibration and/or their compound effects during drilling did not deter cells from growing. Morphological change of the cells due to the drilling was parallel to the results of cell multiplication except the drilling without a water coolant. When drilled without a water coolant, the cells around the drilled area was deteriorated and died after 24 hours. However, most of the cells away from the drilled area were not affected. The present results can not directly apply to the drilling in dental clinic, since in vivo condition has more complicated situation, some of which can not be simulated in in vitro environment. However, the in vitro results can surely be important information in resolving drilling effects in vivo. PMID:784883

  9. Use of an insect cell culture growth medium to isolate bacteria from horses with effusive, fibrinous pericarditis: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Jones, Samuel L; Valenzisi, Amy; Sontakke, Sushama; Sprayberry, Kimberly A; Maggi, Ricardo; Hegarty, Barbara; Breitschwerdt, Edward

    2007-03-31

    Effusive, fibrinous pericarditis is an uncommon disease entity in horses. In 2001, pericarditis occurred in conjunction with an epizootic in central Kentucky that was associated with exposure to eastern tent caterpillars (ETCs). Bacterial isolation from equine pericardial fluid samples was attempted using an insect cell culture growth medium (ICCGM). Using previously cultured, stored frozen samples from four horses with fibrinous pericarditis, inoculation of 10% blood agar plates yielded no growth, whereas simultaneous inoculation of ICCGM resulted in the isolation of Proprionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus equorum, a Streptococcus sp. and Pseudomonas rhodesiae from pericardial fluid samples. A similar or novel caterpillar-associated bacteria was not identified; however, use of an ICCGM might enhance isolation of bacteria from equine pericardial fluid. PMID:17204376

  10. Ascorbic acid transport into cultured pituitary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, E.I.; May, V.; Eipper, R.A.

    1986-05-01

    An amidating enzyme designated peptidyl-glycine ..cap alpha..-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) has been studied in a variety of tissues and is dependent on molecular oxygen and stimulated by copper and ascorbic acid. To continue investigating the relationship among cellular ascorbic acid concentrations, amidating ability, and PAM activity, the authors studied ascorbic acid transport in three cell preparations that contain PAM and produce amidated peptides: primary cultures of rat anterior and intermediate pituitary and mouse AtT-20 tumor cells. When incubated in 50 ..mu..M (/sup 14/C)ascorbic acid all three cell preparations concentrated ascorbic acid 20- to 40-fold, producing intracellular ascorbate concentrations of 1 to 2 mM, based on experimentally determined cell volumes. All three cell preparations displayed saturable ascorbic acid uptake with half-maximal initial rates occurring between 9 and 18 ..mu..M ascorbate. Replacing NaCl in the uptake buffer with choline chloride significantly diminished ascorbate uptake in all three preparations. Ascorbic acid efflux from these cells was slow, displaying half-lives of 7 hours. Unlike systems that transport dehydroascorbic acid, the transport system for ascorbic acid in these cells was not inhibited by glucose. Thus, ascorbate is transported into pituitary cells by a sodium-dependent, active transport system.

  11. 9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures. When used in conjunction with or in reference...

  12. 9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures. When used in conjunction with or in reference...

  13. 9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures....

  14. 9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures....

  15. 9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures....

  16. AMMONIA REMOVAL FROM MAMMALIAN CELL CULTURE MEDIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolites such as ammonia and lactic formed during mammalian cell culture can frequently be toxic to the cells themselves beyond a threshold concentration of the metabolites. ell culture conducted in the presence of such accumulated metabolites is therefore limited in productiv...

  17. 3D Culture of MIN-6 Cells on Decellularized Pancreatic Scaffold: In Vitro and In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Di; Wan, Jian; Huang, Yan; Guo, Yibing; Xu, Tianxin; Zhu, Mingyan; Fan, Xiangjun; Zhu, Shajun; Ling, Changchun; Li, Xiaohong; Lu, Jingjing; Zhu, Hui; Zhou, Pengcheng; Lu, Yuhua; Wang, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease which is due to the lack of β cells. The ideal therapy to cure the disease is pancreas transplantation, but its application is confined to a limited number of people due to the shortage of organ and the need for life-long immunosuppression. Regenerative medicine methods such as a tissue engineered pancreas seem to provide a useful method. In order to construct a microenvironment similar to the native pancreas that is suitable for not only cell growth but also cellular function exertion, a decellularized mouse pancreas was used as a natural 3D scaffold in this experiment. MIN-6 β cells were planted in the bioscaffold. The cell engraftment was verified by HE staining and SEM. Immunostaining procedures were performed to confirm the normal function of the engrafted cells. qRT-PCR demonstrated that insulin gene expression of the recellularized pancreas was upregulated compared with conventional plate-cultured cells. In vivo experiment was also accomplished to further evaluate the function of the recellularized bioscaffold and the result was inspiring. And beyond doubt this will bring new hope for type 1 diabetic patients. PMID:26688810

  18. Biochemical Assays of Cultured Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, G. H.

    1985-01-01

    Subpopulations of human embryonic kidney cells isolated from continuous flow electrophoresis experiments performed at McDonnell Douglas and on STS-8 have been analyzed. These analyses have included plasminogen activator assays involving indirect methodology on fibrin plated and direct methodology using chromogenic substrates. Immunological studies were performed and the conditioned media for erythropoietin activity and human granulocyte colony stimulating (HGCSF) activity was analyzed.

  19. Electrophysiological measurements in three-dimensional in vivo-mimetic organotypic cell cultures: preliminary studies with hen embryo brain spheroids.

    PubMed

    Uroukov, Ivan S; Ma, Mingwen; Bull, Larry; Purcell, Wendy M

    2006-08-14

    Using three-dimensional artificial tissue constructs shown to offer organotypic functionality, hen embryo brain spheroids were used as a novel electrophysiological paradigm. For the first time, single spontaneous action potentials were recorded from spheroids in culture at day 7 in vitro (DIV) using multi-electrode arrays. At DIV14 'bursting behaviour' was observed. Simple stimulation was found to induce an increase in spiking frequency with an effect that ramped up over DIV7-14. By DIV14, the frequency under stimulation was typically over twice that of the corresponding spontaneous spiking. These results indicate strong self-organizing processes in vitro within the neuronal networks of the three-dimensional spheroid cell cultures. The organotypic in vivo-mimetic nature of the spheroid paradigm was confirmed by electron microscopy that revealed an outer layer of glial cells, a glial limitans, while immunostaining for Neurofilament and Glial Fibrilliary Acidic Protein demonstrated neuronal cells with a centralized neuronal and synaptic distribution. Basic biochemical functionality was also determined and Acetylcholinesterase measured, indicating the activity of acetylcholine receptors. Thus the organotypic hen embryo brain spheroid model may offer a new paradigm in which to explore neuronal networks. PMID:16750879

  20. Cell-cell signaling in co-cultures of macrophages and fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Dolly J.; Chamberlain, Lisa M.; Grainger, David W.

    2010-01-01

    The foreign body response (FBR) comprises a general, ubiquitous host tissue-based reaction to implanted materials. In vitro cell-based models are frequently employed to study FBR mechanisms involving cell signaling responses to materials. However, these models often study only one cell type, identify only limited signals, and cannot accurately represent the complexity of in vivo inflammatory signaling. To address this issue, a cell co-culture system involving two primary effector cells of the FBR, macrophages and fibroblasts, was employed. Cell-cell signaling systems were monitored between these cell types, including long-term 1) culture of one cell type in conditioned media from the other cell type, 2) non-contacting cell co-cultures (paracrine signaling), and 3) contact co-cultures (juxtacrine signaling) of primary- and secondary-derived cells. Cell culture media and cell images were collected on Days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, and 21 and changes in soluble protein secretion, cellular behavior, and morphology were assessed. Primary- and secondary- derived cells responded uniquely during each signaling scenario and to one another. In general higher in vitro fidelity to FBR-like responses was found in primary cell co-cultures compared to their mono-cultures and all secondary cell cultures. PMID:20932568

  1. A phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance study of phosphate uptake and storage in cultured Catharanthus roseus and Daucus carota plant cells.

    PubMed

    Brodelius, P; Vogel, H J

    1985-03-25

    High resolution 31P NMR spectra (103.2 MHz) of oxygenated Catharanthus roseus and Daucus carota cells grown in suspension cultures were obtained using a solenoidal perfusion probe. The spectra showed resonances for various phosphorylated metabolites such as ATP, ADP, NAD(P)(H), nucleoside diphosphoglucose, and sugar phosphates. The relative levels of the phosphorylated metabolites remained constant throughout the growth curve. No resonances for storage compounds such as polyphosphates, pyrophosphate, or phytates were observed. Two resolved resonances for Pi indicated an intracellular pH of 7.3 and 5.7 (or below) for the cytoplasm and vacuoles, respectively. The time course of Pi uptake and storage during growth in fresh culture medium was followed by studying the level of vacuolar Pi with 31P NMR (145.7 MHz). Simultaneously, the level of Pi in the culture medium was followed with radioactive 32P. C. roseus quickly takes up all the Pi from the culture medium (maximum rate 1.7 mumol min-1 g-1 (dry weight of cells]. The Pi is first stored in the vacuoles; subsequently, one part of this pool is used to keep a constant cytoplasmic Pi level while another part is apparently accumulated as an NMR invisible Pi store, probably in another cell organelle. In contrast, D. carota does not accumulate Pi in the vacuoles and consequently it takes up Pi from the medium at a much slower rate (0.05 mumol min-1 g-1 (dry weight of cells]. PMID:3972837

  2. Replication of cultured lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Guzowski, D.; Bienkowski, R.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have investigated the conditions necessary to support replication of lung type 2 epithelial cells in culture. Cells were isolated from mature fetal rabbit lungs (29d gestation) and cultured on feeder layers of mitotically inactivated 3T3 fibroblasts. The epithelial nature of the cells was demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescent staining for keratin and by polyacid dichrome stain. Ultrastructural examination during the first week showed that the cells contained myofilaments, microvilli and lamellar bodies (markers for type 2 cells). The following changes were observed after the first week: increase in cell size; loss of lamellar bodies and appearance of multivesicular bodies; increase in rough endoplasmic reticulum and golgi; increase in tonafilaments and well-defined junctions. General cell morphology was good for up to 10 wk. Cells cultured on plastic surface degenerated after 1 wk. Cell replication was assayed by autoradiography of cultures exposed to (/sup 3/H)-thymidine and by direct cell counts. The cells did not replicate during the first week; however, between 2-10 wk the cells incorporated the label and went through approximately 6 population doublings. They have demonstrated that lung alveolar epithelial cells can replicate in culture if they are maintained on an appropriate substrate. The coincidence of ability to replicate and loss of markers for differentiation may reflect the dichotomy between growth and differentiation commonly observed in developing systems.

  3. Contact Inhibition of Movement in the Cultures of Transformed Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guelstein, V. I.; Ivanova, O. Yu.; Margolis, L. B.; Vasiliev, Ju. M.; Gelfand, I. M.

    1973-01-01

    Results of cell-cell collisions were studied with the aid of time-lapse microcinematography in primary cultures of normal mouse-embryo fibroblast-like cells and in cultures of transformed mouse cells of two types: (a) primary fibroblast-like cells transformed by Moloney mouse sarcoma virus; (b) neoplastic fibroblasts of the CIM strain. Collisions of normal fibroblast-like cells and CIM cells in mixed cultures were also analyzed. Classification of the results of collisions was based on observation of the movements of the active cell edge during the first hour after the moment when this edge had contacted another cell. Three types of collision results were detected: halt of the active edge, overlapping, and underlapping. The relative number of overlappings was not higher and that of halts not lower in the cultures of transformed cells as compared with those of normal cells. Analysis of the collisions of normal fibroblasts with transformed cells gave similar results. Thus, the altered morphology of the cultures of these transformed cells cannot be explained by loss of contact inhibition of movement leading to increased ability of cells to move over the surfaces of other cells after collision. PMID:4516201

  4. Emulsions Containing Perfluorocarbon Support Cell Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ju, Lu-Kwang; Lee, Jaw Fang; Armiger, William B.

    1990-01-01

    Addition of emulsion containing perfluorocarbon liquid to aqueous cell-culture medium increases capacity of medium to support mammalian cells. FC-40 Fluorinert (or equivalent) - increases average density of medium so approximately equal to that of cells. Cells stay suspended in medium without mechanical stirring, which damages them. Increases density enough to prevent cells from setting, and increases viscosity of medium so oxygen bubbled through it and nutrients stirred in with less damage to delicate cells.

  5. Horizontally rotated cell culture system with a coaxial tubular oxygenator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, David A. (Inventor); Schwarz, Ray P. (Inventor); Trinh, Tinh T. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The present invention relates to a horizontally rotating bioreactor useful for carrying out cell and tissue culture. For processing of mammalian cells, the system is sterilized and fresh fluid medium, microcarrier beads, and cells are admitted to completely fill the cell culture vessel. An oxygen containing gas is admitted to the interior of the permeable membrane which prevents air bubbles from being introduced into the medium. The cylinder is rotated at a low speed within an incubator so that the circular motion of the fluid medium uniformly suspends the microbeads throughout the cylinder during the cell growth period. The unique design of this cell and tissue culture device was initially driven by two requirements imposed by its intended use for feasibility studies for three dimensional culture of living cells and tissues in space by JSC. They were compatible with microgravity and simulation of microgravity in one G. The vessels are designed to approximate the extremely quiescent low shear environment obtainable in space.

  6. A novel method for culturing neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xue-Sheng; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Wei-Guo; Shen, Gang; Pan, De-Sheng; Luo, Ming

    2007-01-01

    The standard culture method for neural stem cells cannot prevent the attachment of neurospheres, which eventually result in differentiation. This study developed a new method for long-term neural stem cell cultivation. In the antiattachment group, neural stem cells were cultured in flasks coated with 1.5% agarose gel. As a control, cells were cultured in plastic flasks. The 5-bromine-deoxyuridine incorporation assay was used to determine the S-phase labeling index of both groups. The methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) colorimetric assay was used to determine the total cell vitality. After a 3-mo culture, the spontaneous differentiation of stem cells was studied using immunocytochemistry for neuroepithelial stem cell protein. We found that neural stem cells grew rapidly in the antiattachment flasks. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of the S-phase labeling index or MTT assay. When cultured for 3 mo in vitro, many more cells differentiated in the control than in the antiattachment group (32.05 vs. 0.64%, P < 0.01). Moreover, the neural stem cells in the antiattachment group remained multipotent. Therefore, flasks coated with agarose gel are suitable for long-term neural stem cell culture. PMID:17619224

  7. Algal culture studies for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radmer, R.; Behrens, P.; Arnett, K.; Gladue, R.; Cox, J.; Lieberman, D.

    1987-01-01

    Microalgae are well-suited as a component of a Closed Environmental Life Support System (CELSS), since they can couple the closely related functions of food production and atmospheric regeneration. The objective was to provide a basis for predicting the response of CELSS algal cultures, and thus the food supply and air regeneration system, to changes in the culture parameters. Scenedesmus growth was measured as a function of light intensity, and the spectral dependence of light absorption by the algae as well as algal respiration in the light were determined as a function of cell concentration. These results were used to test and confirm a mathematical model that describes the productivity of an algal culture in terms of the competing processes of photosynthesis and respiration. The relationship of algal productivity to cell concentration was determined at different carbon dioxide concentrations, temperatures, and light intensities. The maximum productivity achieved by an air-grown culture was found to be within 10% of the computed maximum productivity, indicating that CO2 was very efficiently removed from the gas stream by the algal culture. Measurements of biomass productivity as a function of cell concentration at different light intensities indicated that both the productivity and efficiency of light utilization were greater at higher light intensities.

  8. Constructing a High Density Cell Culture System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An annular culture vessel for growing mammalian cells is constructed in a one piece integral and annular configuration with an open end which is closed by an endcap. The culture vessel is rotatable about a horizontal axis by use of conventional roller systems commonly used in culture laboratories. The end wall of the endcap has tapered access ports to frictionally and sealingly receive the ends of hypodermic syringes. The syringes permit the introduction of fresh nutrient and withdrawal of spent nutrients. The walls are made of conventional polymeric cell culture material and are subjected to neutron bombardment to form minute gas permeable perforations in the walls.

  9. Sensitivity of Human Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Subtypes to Chemotherapeutics and Molecular Targeted Agents: A Study on Primary Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Fraveto, Alice; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Bragazzi, Maria Consiglia; Giuliante, Felice; De Rose, Agostino Maria; Grazi, Gian Luca; Napoletano, Chiara; Semeraro, Rossella; Lustri, Anna Maria; Costantini, Daniele; Nevi, Lorenzo; Di Matteo, Sabina; Renzi, Anastasia; Carpino, Guido; Gaudio, Eugenio; Alvaro, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the sensitivity of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCCA) subtypes to chemotherapeutics and molecular targeted agents. Primary cultures of mucin- and mixed-IHCCA were prepared from surgical specimens (N. 18 IHCCA patients) and evaluated for cell proliferation (MTS assay) and apoptosis (Caspase 3) after incubation (72 hours) with increasing concentrations of different drugs. In vivo, subcutaneous human tumor xenografts were evaluated. Primary cultures of mucin- and mixed-IHCCA were characterized by a different pattern of expression of cancer stem cell markers, and by a different drug sensitivity. Gemcitabine and the Gemcitabine-Cisplatin combination were more active in inhibiting cell proliferation in mixed-IHCCA while Cisplatin or Abraxane were more effective against mucin-IHCCA, where Abraxane also enhances apoptosis. 5-Fluoracil showed a slight inhibitory effect on cell proliferation that was more significant in mixed- than mucin-IHCCA primary cultures and, induced apoptosis only in mucin-IHCCA. Among Hg inhibitors, LY2940680 and Vismodegib showed slight effects on proliferation of both IHCCA subtypes. The tyrosine kinase inhibitors, Imatinib Mesylate and Sorafenib showed significant inhibitory effects on proliferation of both mucin- and mixed-IHCCA. The MEK 1/2 inhibitor, Selumetinib, inhibited proliferation of only mucin-IHCCA while the aminopeptidase-N inhibitor, Bestatin was more active against mixed-IHCCA. The c-erbB2 blocking antibody was more active against mixed-IHCCA while, the Wnt inhibitor, LGK974, similarly inhibited proliferation of mucin- and mixed-IHCCA. Either mucin- or mixed-IHCCA showed high sensitivity to nanomolar concentrations of the dual PI3-kinase/mTOR inhibitor, NVP-BEZ235. In vivo, in subcutaneous xenografts, either NVP-BEZ235 or Abraxane, blocked tumor growth. In conclusion, mucin- and mixed-IHCCA are characterized by a different drug sensitivity. Cisplatin, Abraxane and the MEK 1/2 inhibitor, Selumetinib were more active against mucin-IHCCA while, Gemcitabine, Gemcitabine-Cisplatin combination, the c-erbB2 blocking antibody and bestatin worked better against mixed-IHCCA. Remarkably, we identified a dual PI3-kinase/mTOR inhibitor that both in vitro and in vivo, exerts dramatic antiproliferative effects against both mucin- and mixed-IHCCA. PMID:26571380

  10. Relationship between P-glycoprotein expression and cyclosporin A in kidney. An immunohistological and cell culture study.

    PubMed Central

    Garca del Moral, R.; O'Valle, F.; Andjar, M.; Aguilar, M.; Lucena, M. A.; Lpez-Hidalgo, J.; Ramrez, C.; Medina-Cano, M. T.; Aguilar, D.; Gmez-Morales, M.

    1995-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), encoded in humans by the mdr-1 gene, acts physiologically as an efflux pump to expel hydrophobic substances from cells. This glycoprotein is closely related to multidrug resistance in tumor cells and can be modulated by cyclosporin A (CsA). We investigated the relationship between CsA and P-gp in 52 renal allograft biopsies and in cultures of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) renal tubule cells to determine whether the intrarenal accumulation of CsA or chronic stimulation with the drug modified the expression of P-gp. Expression of P-gp and CsA was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Immunostaining was evaluated semiquantitatively. Modulation of P-gp in MDCK cells after chronic stimulation with CsA for 7, 30, and 60 days was analyzed by flow cytometry. P-gp and CsA immunostaining in renal post-transplant biopsies showed considerable overlap in all cases (Spearman's test, r = 0.577, P < 0.001). After 7 days in vitro, the number of cells expressing P-gp increased progressively; a further increase in mean fluorescence was found after 60 days (P < 0.001, Student's t-test). Our findings suggest that in non-neoplastic cells, CsA may stimulate P-gp as a mechanism of detoxification. Individual differences in the adaptive responses to glycoprotein may be responsible for the appearance of nephrotoxicity or a CsA-resistant rejection reaction in cases of overexpression on lymphocytes and macrophages. Images Figure 1 PMID:7856751

  11. Morphological and Immunohistochemical Characterization of Canine Osteosarcoma Spheroid Cell Cultures.

    PubMed

    Gebhard, C; Gabriel, C; Walter, I

    2016-06-01

    Spheroid cell culture emerges as powerful in vitro tool for experimental tumour research. In this study, we established a scaffold-free three-dimensional spheroid system built from canine osteosarcoma (OS) cells (D17). Spheroids (7, 14 and 19 days of cultivation) and monolayer cultures (2 and 7 days of cultivation) were evaluated and compared on light and electron microscopy. Monolayer and spheroid cultures were tested for vimentin, cytokeratin, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin and collagen I by means of immunohistochemistry. The spheroid cell culture exhibited a distinct network of collagen I in particular after 19-day cultivation, whereas in monolayer cultures, collagen I was arranged as a lamellar basal structure. Necrotic centres of large spheroids, as observed in 14- and 19-day cultures, were characterized by significant amounts of osteocalcin. Proliferative activity as determined by Ki-67 immunoreactivity showed an even distribution in two-dimensional cultures. In spheroids, proliferation was predominating in the peripheral areas. Metastasis-associated markers ezrin and S100A4 were shown to be continuously expressed in monolayer and spheroid cultures. We conclude that the scaffold-free spheroid system from canine OS cells has the ability to mimic the architecture of the in vivo tumour, in particular cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. PMID:26287450

  12. Improvement of photoaged skin wrinkles with cultured human fibroblasts and adipose-derived stem cells: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jae Hoon; Fan, Yingfang; You, Ga Young; Choi, Tae Hyun; Kim, Sukwha

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the antiwrinkle effects of cultured human fibroblasts and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and the mechanisms underlying the reduction of wrinkles in photoaged skin. The fibroblasts and ADSCs were isolated from human tissue and cultured. A total of 28 6-week-old female BALB/c nude mice were classified into four groups, including the normal control group and three groups that were irradiated six times a week for 6-weeks using ultraviolet B radiation to induce photoaged wrinkles. ADSCs were injected into the wrinkles in the skin of the second group and fibroblasts were injected into the wrinkles in the skin of the third group. The fourth group was the irradiated negative control group (no therapy). After 4 weeks of injections, the wrinkles were compared by replica analysis, biopsies were performed, and the dermal thickness and collagen densities were measured. We determined the amounts of type 1 collagen and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 1, 2, 3, 9, and 13 using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis, and we assessed tropoelastin and fibrillin-1 expression in the dermis by immunohistochemistry. Replica analysis showed significant wrinkle reduction in the fibroblast group and the ADSC group. ADSCs stimulated collagen expression and decreased MMP expression. Although fibroblasts stimulated more collagen expression than ADSCs, they also increased MMP expression. Overall, the ADSC group showed higher collagen density and had better outcomes in the tropoelastin and fibrillin-1 assessments. Both cultured fibroblasts and ADSCs could play an important role in wrinkle reduction despite differences in their mechanisms of action. PMID:25484240

  13. Skeletal muscle satellite cells cultured in simulated microgravity.

    PubMed

    Molnar, G; Schroedl, N A; Gonda, S R; Hartzell, C R

    1997-05-01

    Satellite cells are postnatal myoblasts responsible for providing additional nuclei to growing or regenerating muscle cells. Satellite cells retain the capacity to proliferate and differentiate in vitro and, therefore, provide a useful model to study postnatal muscle development. Most culture systems used to study postnatal muscle development are limited by the two-dimensional (2-D) confines of the culture dish. Limiting proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells in 2-D could potentially limit cell-cell contacts important for developing the level of organization in skeletal muscle obtained in vivo. Culturing satellite cells on microcarrier beads suspended in the High-Aspect-Ratio-Vessel (HARV) designed by NASA provides a low shear, three-dimensional (3-D) environment to study muscle development. Primary cultures established from anterior tibialis muscles of growing rats (approximately 200 gm) were used for all studies and were composed of greater than 75% satellite cells. Different inoculation densities did not affect the proliferative potential of satellite cells in the HARV. Plating efficiency, proliferation, and glucose utilization were compared between 2-D culture and 3-D HARV culture. Plating efficiency (cells attached divided by cells plated x 100) was similar between the two culture systems. Proliferation was reduced in HARV cultures and this reduction was apparent for both satellite cells and nonsatellite cells. Furthermore, reduction in proliferation within the HARV could not be attributed to reduced substrate availability because glucose levels in medium from HARV and 2-D cell culture were similar. Morphologically, microcarrier beads within the HARV were joined together by cells into 3-D aggregates composed of greater than 10 beads/aggregate. Aggregation of beads did not occur in the absence of cells. Myotubes were often seen on individual beads or spanning the surface of two beads. In summary, proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells on microcarrier beads within the HARV bioreactor results in a 3-D level of organization that could provide a more suitable model to study postnatal muscle development than is currently available with standard culture methods. PMID:9196898

  14. Culture and Manipulation of Embryonic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Lois G.; Goldstein, Bob

    2012-01-01

    The direct manipulation of embryonic cells is an important tool for addressing key questions in cell and developmental biology. C. elegans is relatively unique among genetic model systems in being amenable to manipulation of embryonic cells. Embryonic cell manipulation has allowed the identification of cell interactions by direct means, and it has been an important technique for dissecting mechanisms by which cell fates are specified, cell divisions are oriented, and morphogenesis is accomplished. Here, we present detailed methods for isolating, manipulating and culturing embryonic cells of C. elegans. PMID:22226523

  15. Feeding frequency affects cultured rat pituitary cells in low gravity.

    PubMed

    Hymer, W C; Grindeland, R E; Salada, T; Cenci, R; Krishnan, K; Mukai, C; Nagaoka, S

    1996-06-27

    In this report, we describe the results of a rat pituitary cell culture experiment done on STS-65 in which the effect of cell feeding on the release of the six anterior pituitary hormones was studied. We found complex microgravity-related interactions between the frequency of cell feeding and the quantity and quality (i.e. biological activity) of some of the six hormones released in flight. Analyses of growth hormone (GH) released from cells into culture media on different mission days using gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography yielded qualitatively similar results between ground and flight samples. Lack of cell feeding resulted in extensive cell clumping in flight (but not ground) cultures. Vigorous fibroblast growth occurred in both ground and flight cultures fed 4 times. These results are interpreted within the context of autocrine and/or paracrine feedback interactions. Finally, the payload specialist successfully prepared a fresh trypsin solution in microgravity, detached the cells from their surface and reinserted them back into the culture chamber. These cells reattached and continued to release hormone in microgravity. In summary, this experiment shows that pituitary cells are microgravity sensitive and that coupled operations routinely associated with laboratory cell culture can also be accomplished in low gravity. PMID:8987570

  16. Spheroid Culture of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cesarz, Zoe; Tamama, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    Compared with traditional 2D adherent cell culture, 3D spheroidal cell aggregates, or spheroids, are regarded as more physiological, and this technique has been exploited in the field of oncology, stem cell biology, and tissue engineering. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured in spheroids have enhanced anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, and tissue reparative/regenerative effects with improved cell survival after transplantation. Cytoskeletal reorganization and drastic changes in cell morphology in MSC spheroids indicate a major difference in mechanophysical properties compared with 2D culture. Enhanced multidifferentiation potential, upregulated expression of pluripotency marker genes, and delayed replicative senescence indicate enhanced stemness in MSC spheroids. Furthermore, spheroid formation causes drastic changes in the gene expression profile of MSC in microarray analyses. In spite of these significant changes, underlying molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways triggering and sustaining these changes are largely unknown. PMID:26649054

  17. Oscillatory behavior of cells in tissue culture.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giaever, Ivar; Linton, Michael F. A.; Keese, Charles R.

    1998-03-01

    Fibroblasts and epithelial cells organize themselves in distinct patterns in tissue culture which indicates that neighboring cells communicate. A striking example of such communication is the oscillatory behavior of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells reported here. These oscillations were discovered using a biosensor referred to as ECIS (Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing). In this measurement cells are seeded out on a small electrode deposited at the bottom of a tissue culture well and immersed in ordinary culture medium. By measuring the changes in the impedance of the electrode as a function of time, many important properties of the cells on the electrode can be inferred, such as motion, morphology changes and membrane capacitance. The impedance oscillations of MDCK cells were observed with highly confluent cell layers, where the approximately 100 cells on the electrode acted in unison. The communication between cells can be demonstrated directly by a variation of the ECIS concept, where cells are cultured on two closely spaced electrodes. The impedance fluctuations are measured independently on each electrode and compared by using a cross-correlation function.

  18. A cytotoxic analysis of a sardinian plant extract cream on human oral primary cell cultures: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Sinjari, B; Diomede, F; Murmura, G; Traini, T; Merciaro, I; Trubiani, O; Caputi, S

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing agents support the natural healing process, reduce trauma and likelihood of secondary infections and hasten wound closure. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of different concentration of a new Sardinian plant cream (RD7) on two human primary cultures: Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (hPDLSCs) and Gingival Fibroblasts (hGFs) derived from oral tissues in terms of morphological changes, cell proliferation and wound healing properties. RD7, is an interactive dressing containing phytocomplex derived from Sardinian endemic or not, medicinal plant extracts, with an important anti-radical, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic activity finalized to rapidly promote tissue regeneration and the formation of granulation tissue. hPDLSCs and hGFs were seeded at different concentrations (0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5 mg/ml) of RD7. The cell proliferation and viability was evaluated using colorimetric assays (MTT assay) and trypan blue exclusion test. Meanwhile, the morphological cell changes were evaluated by means of optic (OM) and scanning electronic microscopes (SEM). The induction of the migratory properties was evaluated by means of wound healing assay. In vitro results, using hPDLSCs and hGFs, showed a decrease of cell growth starting at 24 h of incubation, at high concentrations (2.5 mg/ml and 5 mg/ml). This cell growth reduction was associated to evident morphological changes, whilst, at low concentrations (0.5 and 1 mg/ml) a typical unchanged morphology of both hPDLSCs and hGFs was shown. Wound healing assay showed a complete wound full closure occurring after 24 h of treatment in samples treated with low concentration of RD7. The results of the present work indicate that low concentrations of RD7 have no cytotoxicity effect, stimulate cell proliferation and contribute to induce the migratory properties in hPDLSCs and hGFs, therefore it could be considered a new product for use in clinical practice. PMID:25864746

  19. Three dimensional spheroid cell culture for nanoparticle safety testing.

    PubMed

    Sambale, Franziska; Lavrentieva, Antonina; Stahl, Frank; Blume, Cornelia; Stiesch, Meike; Kasper, Cornelia; Bahnemann, Detlef; Scheper, Thomas

    2015-07-10

    Nanoparticles are widely employed for many applications and the number of consumer products, incorporating nanotechnology, is constantly increasing. A novel area of nanotechnology is the application in medical implants. The widespread use of nanoparticles leads to their higher prevalence in our environment. This, in turn, raises concerns regarding potential risks to humans. Previous studies have shown possible hazardous effects of some nanoparticles on mammalian cells grown in two-dimensional (2D) cultures. However, 2D in vitro cell cultures display several disadvantages such as changes in cell shape, cell function, cell responses and lack of cell-cell contacts. For this reason, the development of better models for mimicking in vivo conditions is essential. In the present work, we cultivated A549 cells and NIH-3T3 cells in three-dimensional (3D) spheroids and investigated the effects of zinc oxide (ZnO-NP) and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NP). The results were compared to cultivation in 2D monolayer culture. A549 cells in 3D cell culture formed loose aggregates which were more sensitive to the toxicity of ZnO-NP in comparison to cells grown in 2D monolayers. In contrast, NIH-3T3 cells showed a compact 3D spheroid structure and no differences in the sensitivity of the NIH-3T3 cells to ZnO-NP were observed between 2D and 3D cultures. TiO2-NP were non-toxic in 2D cultures but affected cell-cell interaction during 3D spheroid formation of A549 and NIH-3T3 cells. When TiO2-NP were directly added during spheroid formation in the cultures of the two cell lines tested, several smaller spheroids were formed instead of a single spheroid. This effect was not observed if the nanoparticles were added after spheroid formation. In this case, a slight decrease in cell viability was determined only for A549 3D spheroids. The obtained results demonstrate the importance of 3D cell culture studies for nanoparticle safety testing, since some effects cannot be revealed in 2D cell culture. PMID:25595712

  20. Plasminogen carbohydrate side chains in receptor binding and enzyme activation: A study of C6 glioma cells and primary cultures of rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, S.W.; VandenBerg, S.R.; Gonias, S.L. )

    1990-07-01

    The human (Glu1)-plasminogen carbohydrate isozymes, plasminogen type I (Pg 1) and plasminogen type II (Pg 2), were separated by chromatography and studied in cell binding experiments at 4{degrees}C with primary cultures of rat hepatocytes and rat C6 glioma cells. In both cell systems, Pg 1 and Pg 2 bound to an equivalent number of receptors, apparently representing the same population of surface molecules. The affinity for Pg 2 was slightly higher. With hepatocytes, the KD for Pg 1 was 3.2 +/- 0.2 microM, and the KD for Pg 2 was 1.9 +/- 0.1 microM, as determined from Scatchard transformations of the binding isotherms. The Bmax was approximately the same for both isozymes. With C6 cells, the KD for Pg 1 was 2.2 +/- 0.1 microM vs. 1.5 +/- 0.2 microM for Pg 2. Again, the Bmax was similar with both isozymes. 125I-Pg 1 and 125I-Pg 2 were displaced from specific binding sites by either nonradiolabeled isozyme. The KI for Pg 2 was slightly lower than the KI for Pg 1 with hepatocytes (0.9 vs. 1.3 microM) and with C6 cells (0.6 vs. 1.1 microM). No displacement was detected with miniplasminogen at concentrations up to 5.0 microM. Activation of Pg 1 and Pg 2 by recombinant two-chain tissue-plasminogen activator (rt-PA) was enhanced by hepatocyte cultures. The enhancing effect was greater with Pg 2. Hepatocyte cultures did not affect the activation of miniplasminogen by rt-PA or the activation of plasminogen by streptokinase. Unlike the hepatocytes, C6 cells did not enhance the activation of plasminogen by rt-PA or streptokinase; however, plasmin generated in the presence of C6 cells reacted less readily with alpha 2-antiplasmin.

  1. Alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate cytotoxicity in hepatocytes and other cultured cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bailie, M.B.; Roth, R.A. )

    1991-03-11

    Alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) is a model hepatotoxicant that causes injury to liver parenchymal and bile ductular cells in vivo. In this study, toxicity to various cells in culture was evaluated. In short term cultures of rat hepatocytes (HCs), a 4hr exposure to ANIT caused a concentration dependent increase in cytotoxicity as measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. HCs cultured for 24hr or longer demonstrated a delay in ANIT-induced LDH release when compared to 2.5hr cultures. In addition, the magnitude of the cytotoxic response was greater in longer term cultures. The threshold for ANIT-induced cytotoxicity in HCs was between 20 and 63uM. In porcine endothelial cell cultures, ANIT cytotoxicity was similar to that seen in HCs. In two transformed cells lines, the Swiss 3T3 fibroblast and WB cell, a 24hr exposure to ANTI caused a concentration dependent increase in LDH release. Like the HCs, the threshold concentration was between 20 and 63uM. These results indicate that ANIT is directly cytotoxic to various cells in culture. Since endothelium and fibroblasts are deficient in cytochrome P-450 mixed function oxidase activity, ANIT toxicity in culture may be largely independent of this xenobiotic metabolizing system.

  2. Multinucleated giant cells from fibroblast cultures.

    PubMed

    Holt, Dolly J; Grainger, David W

    2011-06-01

    Many multinucleated giant cells are well-known to form from macrophage origin. Those formed from other cell types are less described, but may be as prevalent in pathological tissue. Giant multinucleated cells derived from secondary and primary fibroblast sources in various cultures with similar characteristics to foreign body giant cells are reported. Secondary-transformed NIH 3T3 fibroblasts rapidly fuse within 24 h in contact co-cultures with RAW 264.7 immortalized macrophages, while 3T3 monocultures, non-contact (transwell) co-cultures, and macrophage-conditioned media-treated 3T3 monocultures all do not fuse. Primary-derived murine fibroblasts also form multinucleated cells, both in the presence or absence of co-cultured macrophages that increase during long-term culture (5-30 days). In contrast to 3T3 fusion, this primary cell phenomenon is not due to fibroblast fusion, but rather to nuclear division without cytokinesis. That these multinucleated fibroblasts can originate via different mechanisms may influence and distinguish their behaviors in conditions under which they may arise, including various in vitro culture assays, and in certain fibroblastic pathologies such as the foreign body response, fibrosis, cancer and aged tissue. PMID:21397323

  3. Metabolic flux rewiring in mammalian cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Young, Jamey D.

    2013-01-01

    Continuous cell lines (CCLs) engage in “wasteful” glucose and glutamine metabolism that leads to accumulation of inhibitory byproducts, primarily lactate and ammonium. Advances in techniques for mapping intracellular carbon fluxes and profiling global changes in enzyme expression have led to a deeper understanding of the molecular drivers underlying these metabolic alterations. However, recent studies have revealed that CCLs are not necessarily entrenched in a glycolytic or glutaminolytic phenotype, but instead can shift their metabolism toward increased oxidative metabolism as nutrients become depleted and/or growth rate slows. Progress to understand dynamic flux regulation in CCLs has enabled the development of novel strategies to force cultures into desirable metabolic phenotypes, by combining fed-batch feeding strategies with direct metabolic engineering of host cells. PMID:23726154

  4. Protein extracts from cultured cells contain nonspecific serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Miyara, Masatsugu; Umeda, Kanae; Ishida, Keishi; Sanoh, Seigo; Kotake, Yaichiro; Ohta, Shigeru

    2016-06-01

    Serum is an important component of cell culture media. The present study demonstrates contamination of intracellular protein extract by bovine serum albumin from the culture media and illustrates how this contamination can cause the misinterpretation of western blot results. Preliminary experiments can prevent the misinterpretation of some experimental results, and optimization of the washing process may enable specific protein detection. PMID:26967711

  5. Feeding Frequency Affects Cultured Rat Pituitary Cells in Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, W. C.; Grindeland, R. E.; Salada, T.; Cenci, R.; Krishnan, K.; Mukai, C.; Nagaoka, S.

    1996-01-01

    In this report, we describe the results of a rat pituitary cell culture experiment done on STS-65 in which the effect of cell feeding on the release of the six anterior pituitary hormones was studied. We found complex microgravity related interactions between the frequency of cell feeding and the quantity and quality (i.e. biological activity) of some of the six hormones released in flight. Analyses of growth hormone (GH) released from cells into culture media on different mission days using gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography yielded qualitatively similar results between ground and flight samples. Lack of cell feeding resulted in extensive cell clumping in flight (but not ground) cultures. Vigorous fibroblast growth occurred in both ground and flight cultures fed 4 times. These results are interpreted within the context of autocrine and or paracrine feedback interactions. Finally the payload specialist successfully prepared a fresh trypsin solution in microgravity, detached the cells from their surface and reinserted them back into the culture chamber. These cells reattached and continued to release hormone in microgravity. In summary, this experiment shows that pituitary cells are microgravity sensitive and that coupled operations routinely associated with laboratory cel1 culture can also be accomplished in low gravity.

  6. Monitoring of cell cultures with LTCC microelectrode array.

    PubMed

    Ciosek, P; Zawadzki, K; Łopacińska, J; Skolimowski, M; Bembnowicz, P; Golonka, L J; Brzózka, Z; Wróblewski, W

    2009-04-01

    Monitoring of cell cultures in microbioreactors is a crucial task in cell bioassays and toxicological tests. In this work a novel tool based on a miniaturized sensor array fabricated using low-temperature cofired ceramics (LTCC) technology is presented. The developed device is applied to the monitoring of cell-culture media change, detection of the growth of various species, and in toxicological studies performed with the use of cells. Noninvasive monitoring performed with the LTCC microelectrode array can be applied for future cell-engineering purposes. PMID:19214482

  7. Characterization of primary cultures of adult human epididymis epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Leir, Shih-Hsing; Browne, James A.; Eggener, Scott E.; Harris, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish cultures of epithelial cells from all regions of the human epididymis to provide reagents for molecular approaches to functional studies of this epithelium. Design Experimental laboratory study. Setting University research institute. Patient(s) Epididymis from seven patients undergoing orchiectomy for suspected testicular cancer without epididymal involvement. Intervention(s) Human epididymis epithelial cells harvested from adult epididymis tissue. Main Outcome Measure(s) Establishment of a robust culture protocol for adult human epididymal epithelial cells. Result(s) Cultures of caput, corpus, and cauda epithelial cells were established from epididymis tissue of seven donors. Cells were passaged up to eight times and maintained differentiation markers. They were also cryopreserved and recovered successfully. Androgen receptor, clusterin, and cysteine-rich secretory protein 1 were expressed in cultured cells, as shown by means of immunofluorescence, Western blot, and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The distribution of other epididymis markers was also shown by means of qRT-PCR. Cultures developed transepithelial resistance (TER), which was androgen responsive in the caput but androgen insensitive in the corpus and cauda, where unstimulated TER values were much higher. Conclusion(s) The results demonstrate a robust in vitro culture system for differentiated epithelial cell types in the caput, corpus, and cauda of the human epididymis. These cells will be a valuable resource for molecular analysis of epididymis epithelial function, which has a pivotal role in male fertility. PMID:25542823

  8. Characterizing the mechanics of cultured cell monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Loic; Bellis, Julien; Baum, Buzz; Kabla, Alexandre J.; Charras, Guillaume T.

    2012-01-01

    One-cell-thick monolayers are the simplest tissues in multicellular organisms, yet they fulfill critical roles in development and normal physiology. In early development, embryonic morphogenesis results largely from monolayer rearrangement and deformation due to internally generated forces. Later, monolayers act as physical barriers separating the internal environment from the exterior and must withstand externally applied forces. Though resisting and generating mechanical forces is an essential part of monolayer function, simple experimental methods to characterize monolayer mechanical properties are lacking. Here, we describe a system for tensile testing of freely suspended cultured monolayers that enables the examination of their mechanical behavior at multi-, uni-, and subcellular scales. Using this system, we provide measurements of monolayer elasticity and show that this is two orders of magnitude larger than the elasticity of their isolated cellular components. Monolayers could withstand more than a doubling in length before failing through rupture of intercellular junctions. Measurement of stress at fracture enabled a first estimation of the average force needed to separate cells within truly mature monolayers, approximately ninefold larger than measured in pairs of isolated cells. As in single cells, monolayer mechanical properties were strongly dependent on the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton, myosin, and intercellular adhesions interfacing adjacent cells. High magnification imaging revealed that keratin filaments became progressively stretched during extension, suggesting they participate in monolayer mechanics. This multiscale study of monolayer response to deformation enabled by our device provides the first quantitative investigation of the link between monolayer biology and mechanics. PMID:22991459

  9. Purification and culture of oligodendrocyte lineage cells.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Jason C; Emery, Ben

    2013-09-01

    Oligodendrocytes are the cells of the vertebrate central nervous system responsible for forming myelin sheaths, which are essential for the rapid propagation of action potential. The formation of oligodendrocytes and myelin sheaths is tightly regulated, both temporally and spatially, by a number of extracellular and intracellular factors. For example, notch ligands, thyroid hormones, and mitogens such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) can all interact with oligodendrocyte precursor cell-expressed receptors to impact proliferation, differentiation, and myelin gene expression. To facilitate oligodendrocyte biology research, we have developed a technique using immunopanning to isolate different stages of the oligodendrocyte lineage, oligodendrocyte precursor cells and/or postmitotic oligodendrocytes, from postnatal rat or mouse brains. These cells can be cultured in defined, serum-free media in conditions that either promote differentiation into mature oligodendrocytes or continued proliferation as immature oligodendrocyte precursors. These cells represent an ideal system in which to study the regulation of oligodendrocyte proliferation, migration, differentiation, myelin gene expression, or other fundamental aspects of oligodendrocyte biology. PMID:24003197

  10. Identifying viable regulatory and innovation pathways for regenerative medicine: a case study of cultured red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Mittra, J; Tait, J; Mastroeni, M; Turner, M L; Mountford, J C; Bruce, K

    2015-01-25

    The creation of red blood cells for the blood transfusion markets represents a highly innovative application of regenerative medicine with a medium term (5-10 year) prospect for first clinical studies. This article describes a case study analysis of a project to derive red blood cells from human embryonic stem cells, including the systemic challenges arising from (i) the selection of appropriate and viable regulatory protocols and (ii) technological constraints related to stem cell manufacture and scale up to clinical Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) standard. The method used for case study analysis (Analysis of Life Science Innovation Systems (ALSIS)) is also innovative, demonstrating a new approach to social and natural science collaboration to foresight product development pathways. Issues arising along the development pathway include cell manufacture and scale-up challenges, affected by regulatory demands emerging from the innovation ecosystem (preclinical testing and clinical trials). Our discussion reflects on the efforts being made by regulators to adapt the current pharmaceuticals-based regulatory model to an allogeneic regenerative medicine product and the broader lessons from this case study for successful innovation and translation of regenerative medicine therapies, including the role of methodological and regulatory innovation in future development in the field. PMID:25094050

  11. Epithelial cell detachment by Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilm and planktonic cultures.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lijia; van Loveren, Cor; Ling, Junqi; Wei, Xi; Crielaard, Wim; Deng, Dong Mei

    2016-04-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is present as a biofilm at the sites of periodontal infections. The detachment of gingival epithelial cells induced by P. gingivalis biofilms was examined using planktonic cultures as a comparison. Exponentially grown planktonic cultures or 40-h biofilms were co-incubated with epithelial cells in a 24-well plate for 4 h. Epithelial cell detachment was assessed using imaging. The activity of arginine-gingipain (Rgp) and gene expression profiles of P. gingivalis cultures were examined using a gingipain assay and quantitative PCR, respectively. P. gingivalis biofilms induced significantly higher cell detachment and displayed higher Rgp activity compared to the planktonic cultures. The genes involved in gingipain post-translational modification, but not rgp genes, were significantly up-regulated in P. gingivalis biofilms. The results underline the importance of including biofilms in the study of bacterial and host cell interactions. PMID:26963862

  12. Mammosphere culture of cancer stem cells in a microfluidic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadin, Katayoon; White, Ian M.

    2012-03-01

    It is known that tumor-initiating cells with stem-like properties will form spherical colonies - termed mammospheres - when cultured in serum-free media on low-attachment substrates. Currently this assay is performed in commercially available 96-well trays with low-attachment surfaces. Here we report a novel microsystem that features on-chip mammosphere culture on low attachment surfaces. We have cultured mammospheres in this microsystem from well-studied human breast cancer cell lines. To enable the long-term culture of these unattached cells, we have integrated diffusion-based delivery columns that provide zero-convection delivery of reagents, such as fresh media, staining agents, or drugs. The multi-layer system consists of parallel cell-culture chambers on top of a low-attachment surface, connected vertically with a microfluidic reagent delivery layer. This design incorporates a reagent reservoir, which is necessary to reduce evaporation from the cell culture micro-chambers. The development of this microsystem will lead to the integration of mammosphere culture with other microfluidic functions, including circulating tumor cell recovery and high throughput drug screening. This will enable the cancer research community to achieve a much greater understanding of these tumor initiating cancer stem cells.

  13. Isolation, Culture and Identification of Porcine Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo-jiang; Li, Ping-hua; Huang, Rui-hua; Sun, Wen-xing; Wang, Han; Li, Qi-fa; Chen, Jie; Wu, Wang-jun; Liu, Hong-lin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the optimum protocol for the isolation and culture of porcine muscle satellite cells. Mononuclear muscle satellite cells are a kind of adult stem cell, which is located between the basal lamina and sarcolemma of muscle fibers and is the primary source of myogenic precursor cells in postnatal muscle. Muscle satellite cells are a useful model to investigate the mechanisms of muscle growth and development. Although the isolation and culture protocols of muscle satellite cells in some species (e.g. mouse) have been established successfully, the culture system for porcine muscle satellite cells is very limited. In this study, we optimized the isolation procedure of porcine muscle satellite cells and elaborated the isolation and culture process in detail. Furthermore, we characterized the porcine muscle satellite cells using the immunofluorecence. Our study provides a reference for the isolation of porcine muscle satellite cells and will be useful for studying the molecular mechanisms in these cells. PMID:26104526

  14. Comparison between agar and methylcellulose cultures of human leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Kubota, K; Preisler, H D; Sagawa, K; Minowada, J

    1981-08-01

    A comparison was made between the agar and methylcellulose culture systems with respect to their ability to support the clonal growth of leukemic cells obtained from patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and chronic myelogenous leukemia in blastic crisis. The number of clusters and/or colonies formed and the morphology of the cells within them varied from patient to patient. Nevertheless, no significant difference between the two culture systems within given leukemic specimens was found. No significant differences were noted among three different conditioned media used as sources of colony-stimulating activity. Most of the cells within clusters and colonies were identified to be immature members of granulocyte-macrophage series or to be indistinguishable from the preculture leukemic blast cells by morphological and cell surface marker studies. Cells from myeloid crisis in chronic myelogenous leukemia grew well in the cultures, but cells from lymphoid crisis did not proliferate. PMID:6941851

  15. Growth of melanocytes in human epidermal cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Staiano-Coico, L.; Hefton, J.M.; Amadeo, C.; Pagan-Charry, I.; Madden, M.R.; Cardon-Cardo, C. )

    1990-08-01

    Epidermal cell cultures were grown in keratinocyte-conditioned medium for use as burn wound grafts; the melanocyte composition of the grafts was studied under a variety of conditions. Melanocytes were identified by immunohistochemistry based on a monoclonal antibody (MEL-5) that has previously been shown to react specifically with melanocytes. During the first 7 days of growth in primary culture, the total number of melanocytes in the epidermal cultures decreased to 10% of the number present in normal skin. Beginning on day 2 of culture, bipolar melanocytes were present at a mean cell density of 116 +/- 2/mm2; the keratinocyte to melanocyte ratio was preserved during further primary culture and through three subpassages. Moreover, exposure of cultures to mild UVB irradiation stimulated the melanocytes to proliferate, suggesting that the melanocytes growing in culture maintained their responsiveness to external stimuli. When the sheets of cultured cells were enzymatically detached from the plastic culture flasks before grafting, melanocytes remained in the basal layer of cells as part of the graft applied to the patient.

  16. Lipoprotein binding to cultured human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Krempler, F; Kostner, G M; Friedl, W; Paulweber, B; Bauer, H; Sandhofer, F

    1987-01-01

    Binding of various 125I-lipoproteins to hepatic receptors was studied on cultured human hepatoma cells (Hep G2). Chylomicrons, isolated from a chylothorax, chylomicron remnants, hypertriglyceridemic very low-density lipoproteins, normotriglyceridemic very low-density lipoproteins (NTG-VLDL), their remnants, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and HDL-E (an Apo E-rich high-density lipoprotein isolated from the plasma of a patient with primary biliary cirrhosis) were bound by high-affinity receptors. Chylomicron remnants and HDL-E were bound with the highest affinity. The results, obtained from competitive binding experiments, are consistent with the existence of two distinct receptors on Hep G2 cells: (a) a remnant receptor capable of high-affinity binding of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and HDL-E, but not of Apo E free LDL, and (b) a LDL receptor capable of high-affinity binding of LDL, NTG-VLDL, and HDL-E. Specific binding of Apo E-free LDL was completely abolished in the presence of 3 mM EDTA, indicating that binding to the LDL receptor is calcium dependent. Specific binding of chylomicron remnants was not inhibited by the presence of even 10 mM EDTA. Preincubation of the Hep G2 cells in lipoprotein-containing medium resulted in complete suppression of LDL receptors but did not affect the remnant receptors. Hep G2 cells seem to be a suitable model for the study of hepatic receptors for lipoprotein in man. Images PMID:3038957

  17. Comparative assessment of the stability of nonfouling poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) and poly(ethylene glycol) surface films: an in vitro cell culture study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yin; Pidhatika, Bidhari; von Erlach, Thomas; Konradi, Rupert; Textor, Marcus; Hall, Heike; Lühmann, Tessa

    2014-09-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) has been the most frequently reported and commercially used polymer for surface coatings to convey nonfouling properties. PEGylated surfaces are known to exhibit limited chemical stability, particularly due to oxidative degradation, which limits long-term applications. In view of excellent anti-adhesive properties in the brush conformation and resistance to oxidative degradation, poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (PMOXA) has been proposed recently as an alternative to PEG. In this study, the authors systematically compare the (bio)chemical stability of PEG- and PMOXA-based polymer brush monolayer thin films when exposed to cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs). To this end, the authors used cell-adhesive protein micropatterns in a background of the nonfouling PEG and PMOXA brushes, respectively, and monitored the outgrowth of HUVECs and HFFs for up to 21 days and 1.5 months. Our results demonstrate that cellular micropatterns spaced by PMOXA brushes are significantly more stable under serum containing cell culture conditions in terms of confinement of cells to the adhesive patterns, when compared to corresponding micropatterns generated by PEG brushes. Moreover, homogeneous PEG and PMOXA-based brush monolayers on Nb2O5 surfaces were investigated after immersion in endothelial cell medium using ellipsometry and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. PMID:25280844

  18. Isolation and culture of pulmonary endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, U S

    1984-01-01

    Methods for isolation, identification and culture of pulmonary endothelial cells are now routine. In the past, methods of isolation have used proteolytic enzymes to detach cells; thereafter, traditional methods for cell passaging have used trypsin/EDTA mixtures. Cells isolated and passaged using proteolytic enzymes have been useful in establishing the field and in verifying certain endothelial properties. However, there is a growing awareness of the role of endothelial cells in processing vasoactive substances, in responding to hormones and other agonists and in cell-cell interactions with other cell types of the vascular wall, with blood cells and with cellular products. Consequently, a new requirement has arisen for cells in vitro that maintain the differentiated properties of their counterparts in vivo. The deleterious effects of trypsin and other proteolytic enzymes commonly used in cell culture on surface structures of endothelial cells such as enzymes, receptors and junctional proteins, as well as on extracellular layers such as the glycocalyx or "endothelial fuzz," have led to the development of methods that avoid use of proteolytic enzymes at both the isolation step and during subsequent subculture. This chapter describes traditional methods for isolating pulmonary endothelial cells but emphasizes newer approaches using mechanical harvest and scale-up using microcarriers. The new methods allow maintenance of long-term, large-scale cultures of cells that retain the full complement of surface properties and that maintain the cobblestone monolayer morphology and differentiated functional properties. Methods for identification of isolated cells are therefore also considered as methods for validation of cultures during their in vitro lifespan. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. PMID:6090112

  19. Hypergravity signal transduction and gene expression in cultured mammalian cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumei, Y.; Whitson, P. A.

    1994-01-01

    A number of studies have been conducted during space flight and with clinostats and centrifuges, suggesting that gravity effects the proliferation and differentiation of mammalian cells in vitro. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which mammalian cells respond to changes in gravitational stress. This paper summarizes studies designed to clarify the effects of hypergravity on the cultured human HeLa cells and to investigate the mechanism of hypergravity signal transduction in these cells.

  20. Optimization of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryonic Stem Cell Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Zandi, Mohammad; Muzaffar, Musharifa; Shah, Syed Mohmad; Kumar Singh, Manoj; Palta, Prabhat; Kumar Singla, Suresh; Manik, Radheysham; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Objective In order to retain an undifferentiated pluripotent state, embryonic stem (ES) cells have to be cultured on feeder cell layers. However, use of feeder layers limits stem cell research, since experimental data may result from a combined ES cell and feeder cell response to various stimuli. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, a buffalo ES cell line was established from in vitro derived blastocysts and characterized by the Alkaline phosphatase (AP) and immunoflourescence staining of various pluripotency markers. We examined the effect of various factors like fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and Y-27632 to support the growth and maintenance of bubaline ES cells on gelatin coated dishes, in order to establish feeder free culture systems. We also analyzed the effect of feeder-conditioned media on stem cell growth in gelatin based cultures both in the presence as well as in the absence of the growth factors. Results The results showed that Y-27632, in the presence of FGF-2 and LIF, resulted in higher colony growth and increased expression of Nanog gene. Feeder-Conditioned Medium resulted in a significant increase in growth of buffalo ES cells on gelatin coated plates, however, feeder layer based cultures produced better results than gelatin based cultures. Feeder layers from buffalo fetal fibroblast cells can support buffalo ES cells for more than two years. Conclusion We developed a feeder free culture system that can maintain buffalo ES cells in the short term, as well as feeder layer based culture that can support the long term maintenance of buffalo ES cells. PMID:26199905

  1. Applicability of integrated cell culture quantitative PCR (ICC-qPCR) for the detection of infectious adenovirus type 2 in UV disinfection studies.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hodon; Cashdollar, Jennifer L; Fout, G Shay; Schrantz, Karen A; Hayes, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Practical difficulties of the traditional adenovirus infectivity assay such as intensive labor requirements and longer turnaround period limit the direct use of adenovirus as a testing microorganism for systematic, comprehensive disinfection studies. In this study, we attempted to validate the applicability of integrated cell culture quantitative PCR (ICC-qPCR) as an alternative to the traditional cell culture method with human adenovirus type 2 (HAdV2) in a low-pressure UV disinfection study and to further optimize the procedures of ICC-qPCR for 24-well plate format. The relatively high stability of the hexon gene of HAdV2 was observed after exposure to UV radiation, resulting in a maximum gene copy reduction of 0.5 log10 at 280 mJ cm(-2). Two-day post-inoculation incubation period and a maximum spiking level of 10(5) MPN mL(-1) were selected as optimum conditions of ICC-qPCR with the tested HAdV2. An approximate 1:1 correlation of virus quantities by the traditional and ICC-qPCR cell culture based methods suggested that ICC-qPCR is a satisfactory alternative for practical application in HAdV2 disinfection studies. ICC-qPCR results, coupled with a first-order kinetic model (i.e., the inactivation rate constant of 0.0232 cm(2) mJ(-1)), showed that an UV dose of 172 mJ cm(-2) achieved a 4-log inactivation credit for HAdV2. This estimate is comparable to other studies with HAdV2 and other adenovirus respiratory types. The newly optimized ICC-qPCR shows much promise for further study on its applicability of other slow replicating viruses in disinfection studies. PMID:26030683

  2. Microfabricated polymeric vessel mimetics for 3-D cancer cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Ashley A.; Das, Chandan K.; Morgan, Nicole Y.; Pursley, Randall H.; McQueen, Philip G.; Hall, Matthew D.; Pohida, Thomas J.; Gottesman, Michael M.

    2013-01-01

    Modeling tumor growth in vitro is essential for cost-effective testing of hypotheses in preclinical cancer research. 3-D cell culture offers an improvement over monolayer culture for studying cellular processes in cancer biology because of the preservation of cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions. Oxygen transport poses a major barrier to mimicking in vivo environments and is not replicated in conventional cell culture systems. We hypothesized that we can better mimic the tumor microenvironment using a bioreactor system for controlling gas exchange in cancer cell cultures with silicone hydrogel synthetic vessels. Soft-lithography techniques were used to fabricate oxygen-permeable silicone hydrogel membranes containing arrays of micropillars. These membranes were inserted into a bioreactor and surrounded by basement membrane extract (BME) within which fluorescent ovarian cancer (OVCAR8) cells were cultured. Cell clusters oxygenated by synthetic vessels showed a ∼100um drop-off to anoxia, consistent with in vivo studies of tumor nodules fed by the microvasculature. We showed oxygen tension gradients inside the clusters oxygenated by synthetic vessels had a ∼100 µm drop-off to anoxia, which is consistent with in vivo studies. Oxygen transport in the bioreactor system was characterized by experimental testing with a dissolved oxygen probe and finite element modeling of convective flow. Our study demonstrates differing growth patterns associated with controlling gas distributions to better mimic in vivo conditions. PMID:23911071

  3. Human cell culture in a space bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    1988-01-01

    Microgravity offers new ways of handling fluids, gases, and growing mammalian cells in efficient suspension cultures. In 1976 bioreactor engineers designed a system using a cylindrical reactor vessel in which the cells and medium are slowly mixed. The reaction chamber is interchangeable and can be used for several types of cell cultures. NASA has methodically developed unique suspension type cell and recovery apparatus culture systems for bioprocess technology experiments and production of biological products in microgravity. The first Space Bioreactor was designed for microprocessor control, no gaseous headspace, circulation and resupply of culture medium, and slow mixing in very low shear regimes. Various ground based bioreactors are being used to test reactor vessel design, on-line sensors, effects of shear, nutrient supply, and waste removal from continuous culture of human cells attached to microcarriers. The small Bioreactor is being constructed for flight experiments in the Shuttle Middeck to verify systems operation under microgravity conditions and to measure the efficiencies of mass transport, gas transfer, oxygen consumption and control of low shear stress on cells.

  4. Optically micropatterned culture of adherent cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jian-Long; Pan, Huei-Jyuan; Lee, Chau-Hwang

    2012-07-01

    We used a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator to project 473 nm light patterns surrounding a region of adherent cells and achieved an arbitrarily micropatterned cell culture. For a group of ~60 cells, the cell boundaries fit the pattern of light within 15% deviation of the side length. We also demonstrated a wound-healing experiment with a definite starting temporal point by using this technique. While observing mitochondrial structures in the illuminated cells, we found that the 473 nm light damaged the integrity of mitochondria and thus prohibited cell proliferation in the illuminated region.

  5. Establishment, Culture, and Characterization of Guinea Pig Fetal Fibroblast Cell

    PubMed Central

    Mahboobi, Reza; Dianatpour, Mehdi; Zare, Shahrokh; Hosseini, Seyed Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Establishment of Guinea pig fetal fibroblast cells and their biological evaluation before and after cryopreservation were the main purposes of this study. After determination of the proper age of pregnancy by ultrasonography, 30 days old fetuses of Guinea pigs were recovered. Their skins were cut into small pieces (1 mm2) and were cultured. When reaching 80–90% confluence, the cells were passaged. Cells of the second and eighth passages were cultured in 24-well plates (4 × 104 cells/well) for 6 days and three wells per day were counted. The average cell counts at each time point were then plotted against time and the population doubling time (PDT) was determined. Then, vials of cells (2 × 106 cells/mL) were cryopreserved for 1 month and after thawing, the cell viability was evaluated. The PDT of the second passage was about 23 h and for the eighth passage was about 30 h. The viability of the cultures was 95% in the second passage and 74.5% in the eighth passage. It was shown that the Guinea pig fetal fibroblast cell culture can be established using the adherent culture method while, after freezing, the viability indices of these cells were favorable. PMID:24790770

  6. Increasing cell culture population doublings for long-term growth of finite life span human cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Stampfer, Martha R; Garbe, James C

    2015-02-24

    Cell culture media formulations for culturing human epithelial cells are herein described. Also described are methods of increasing population doublings in a cell culture of finite life span human epithelial cells and prolonging the life span of human cell cultures. Using the cell culture media disclosed alone and in combination with addition to the cell culture of a compound associated with anti-stress activity achieves extended growth of pre-stasis cells and increased population doublings and life span in human epithelial cell cultures.

  7. Henrietta Lacks, HeLa cells, and cell culture contamination.

    PubMed

    Lucey, Brendan P; Nelson-Rees, Walter A; Hutchins, Grover M

    2009-09-01

    Henrietta Lacks died in 1951 of an aggressive adenocarcinoma of the cervix. A tissue biopsy obtained for diagnostic evaluation yielded additional tissue for Dr George O. Gey's tissue culture laboratory at Johns Hopkins (Baltimore, Maryland). The cancer cells, now called HeLa cells, grew rapidly in cell culture and became the first human cell line. HeLa cells were used by researchers around the world. However, 20 years after Henrietta Lacks' death, mounting evidence suggested that HeLa cells contaminated and overgrew other cell lines. Cultures, supposedly of tissues such as breast cancer or mouse, proved to be HeLa cells. We describe the history behind the development of HeLa cells, including the first published description of Ms Lacks' autopsy, and the cell culture contamination that resulted. The debate over cell culture contamination began in the 1970s and was not harmonious. Ultimately, the problem was not resolved and it continues today. Finally, we discuss the philosophical implications of the immortal HeLa cell line. PMID:19722756

  8. Cultural Education--Iroquois Cultural Study for Elementary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catherine

    Presenting a sequenced cultural education program, this curriculum guide for an Iroquois cultural study for elementary grades concentrates on providing a supplemental classroom program to an existing social studies curriculum, though it is also aimed at teaching culture in Native American classes. Program objectives are to provide students with…

  9. Isolation and culture of human fungiform taste papillae cells.

    PubMed

    Ozdener, Hakan; Spielman, Andrew I; Rawson, Nancy E

    2012-01-01

    Taste cells are highly specialized, with unique histological, molecular and physiological characteristics that permit detection of a wide range of simple stimuli and complex chemical molecules contained in foods. In human, individual fungiform papillae contain from zero to as many as 20 taste buds. There is no established protocol for culturing human taste cells, although the ability to maintain taste papillae cells in culture for multiple cell cycles would be of considerable utility for characterizing the molecular, regenerative, and functional properties of these unique sensory cells. Earlier studies of taste cells have been done using freshly isolated cells in primary culture, explant cultures from rodents, or semi-intact taste buds in tissue slices. Although each of these preparations has advantages, the development of long-term cultures would have provided significant benefits, particularly for studies of taste cell proliferation and differentiation. Several groups, including ours, have been interested in the development and establishment of taste cell culture models. Most attempts to culture taste cells have reported limited viability, with cells typically not lasting beyond 3-5 d. We recently reported on a successful method for the extended culture of rodent taste cells. We here report for the first time the establishment of an in vitro culture system for isolated human fungiform taste papillae cells. Cells from human fungiform papillae obtained by biopsy were successfully maintained in culture for more than eight passages (12 months) without loss of viability. Cells displayed many molecular and physiological features characteristic of mature taste cells. Gustducin and phospholipase C β2, (PLC-β2) mRNA were detected in many cells by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and confirmed by sequencing. Immunocytochemistry analysis demonstrated the presence of gustducin and PLC-β2 expression in cultured taste cells. Cultured human fungiform cells also exhibited increases in intracellular calcium in response to appropriate concentrations of several taste stimuli indicating that taste receptors and at least some of the signalling pathways were present. These results sufficient indicate that taste cells from adult humans can be generated and maintained for at least eight passages. Many of the cells retain physiological and biochemical characteristics of acutely isolated cells from the adult taste epithelium to support their use as a model taste system. This system will enable further studies of the processes involved in proliferation, differentiation and function of mammalian taste receptor cells in an in vitro preparation. Human fungiform taste papillae used for establishing human fungiform cell culture were donated for research following proper informed consent under research protocols that were reviewed and approved by the IRB committee. The protocol (#0934) was approved by Schulman Associates Institutional Review Board Inc., Cincinnati, OH. Written protocol below is based on published parameters reported by Ozdener et al. 2011. PMID:22643728

  10. Immunodissection and culture of rabbit cortical collecting tubule cells

    SciTech Connect

    Spielman, W.S.; Sonnenburg, W.K.; Allen, M.L.; Arend, L.J.; Gerozissis, K.; Smith, W.L.

    1986-08-01

    A mouse monoclonal antibody designated IgG3 (rct-30) has been prepared that reacts specifically with an antigen on the surface of all cells comprising the cortical and medullary rabbit renal collecting tubule including the arcades. Plastic culture dishes coated with IgG3 (rct-30) were used to isolate collecting tubule cells from collagenase dispersions of rabbit renal cortical cells by immunoadsorption. Typically, 10W rabbit cortical collecting tubule (RCCT) cells were obtained from 5 g of renal cortex (2 kidneys). Between 20 and 30% of the RCCT cells were reactive with peanut lectin suggesting that RCCT cells are a mixture of principal and intercalated cells. Approximately 10X RCCT cells were obtained after 4 to 5 days in primary culture. Moreover, RCCT cells continued to proliferate after passaging with a doubling time of approx.32 h. RCCT cells passaged once and then cultured 4-5 days were found 1) to synthesize cAMP in response to arginine vasopressin (AVP), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), isoproterenol, and parathyroid hormone, but not calcitonin, prostaglandin D2, or prostaglandin I, and 2) to release PGE2 in response to bradykinin but not arginine vasopressin or isoproterenol. The results indicate that cultured RCCT cells retain many of the hormonal, histochemical, and morphological properties expected for a mixture of principal and intercalated rabbit cortical collecting tubule epithelia. RCCT cells should prove useful both for studying hormonal interactions in the cortical collecting tubule and as a starting population for isolating intercalated collecting tubule epithelia.

  11. Campylobacter jejuni non-culturable coccoid cells.

    PubMed

    Beumer, R R; de Vries, J; Rombouts, F M

    1992-01-01

    The behaviour of Campylobacter jejuni in the environment is poorly documented. Rapid loss of viability on culture media is reported. This phenomenon is associated with the development of so-called coccoid cells. It has been suggested that these cells can be infective to animals and man. Results obtained with ATP-measurements of coccoid cells and Direct Viable Count (DVC) support this hypothesis. Introduction of coccoid cells into simulated gastric, ileal and colon environments did not result in the presence of culturable cells. Oral administration to laboratory animals and volunteers caused no typical symptoms of campylobacteriosis. Until 30 days after uptake of the cells antibodies against C. jejuni could not be detected in the blood, and the presence of this microorganism in stool samples could not be demonstrated. PMID:1622752

  12. Comparative evaluation of maintenance of cell viability of an experimental transport media “coconut water” with Hank's balanced salt solution and milk, for transportation of an avulsed tooth: An in vitro cell culture study

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Toby; Gopikrishna, Velayutham; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a new storage medium, coconut water, in comparison with other traditional storage media like Hank's balanced salt solution (HBBS) and milk, in maintaining the viability of an established cell line BHK-21/C13 (baby hamster kidney fibroblasts) using the direct suspension cell culture technique. The storage media tested in the study were divided into three major groups and two control groups - Group A: HBBS, Group B: milk, and Group C: coconut water. The positive and negative controls corresponded to 0-minute and 24-hour dry times respectively. The three groups were then divided into five subgroups, each denoting the storage time periods 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min and 120 min respectively. The cell line BHK-21/C13 was subcultured and the number of cells was standardized by making a cell suspension using Minimal Essential Medium in five culture plates. One ml of each experimental group (HBBS, milk and coconut water) was added to eight wells of each culture plate. The culture plates containing the cells and the experimental groups were incubated for the respective time periods. The cells were then counted with a Neubauer counting chamber, under light microscope. The results were statistically analyzed using One-way ANOVA and Multiple Range Test using the Tukey-HSD procedure to identify the significant groups at p ≤ 0.05. Within the parameters of this study, it appears that coconut water may be a better alternative to HBSS or milk, in terms of maintaining cell viability. Coconut water can be used as a superior transport medium for avulsed teeth. PMID:20142880

  13. Shock wave application to cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Holfeld, Johannes; Tepeköylü, Can; Kozaryn, Radoslaw; Mathes, Wolfgang; Grimm, Michael; Paulus, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Shock waves nowadays are well known for their regenerative effects. Basic research findings showed that shock waves do cause a biological stimulus to target cells or tissue without any subsequent damage. Therefore, in vitro experiments are of increasing interest. Various methods of applying shock waves onto cell cultures have been described. In general, all existing models focus on how to best apply shock waves onto cells. However, this question remains: What happens to the waves after passing the cell culture? The difference of the acoustic impedance of the cell culture medium and the ambient air is that high, that more than 99% of shock waves get reflected! We therefore developed a model that mainly consists of a Plexiglas built container that allows the waves to propagate in water after passing the cell culture. This avoids cavitation effects as well as reflection of the waves that would otherwise disturb upcoming ones. With this model we are able to mimic in vivo conditions and thereby gain more and more knowledge about how the physical stimulus of shock waves gets translated into a biological cell signal ("mechanotransduction"). PMID:24747842

  14. Shock Wave Application to Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Holfeld, Johannes; Tepeköylü, Can; Kozaryn, Radoslaw; Mathes, Wolfgang; Grimm, Michael; Paulus, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Shock waves nowadays are well known for their regenerative effects. Basic research findings showed that shock waves do cause a biological stimulus to target cells or tissue without any subsequent damage. Therefore, in vitro experiments are of increasing interest. Various methods of applying shock waves onto cell cultures have been described. In general, all existing models focus on how to best apply shock waves onto cells. However, this question remains: What happens to the waves after passing the cell culture? The difference of the acoustic impedance of the cell culture medium and the ambient air is that high, that more than 99% of shock waves get reflected! We therefore developed a model that mainly consists of a Plexiglas built container that allows the waves to propagate in water after passing the cell culture. This avoids cavitation effects as well as reflection of the waves that would otherwise disturb upcoming ones. With this model we are able to mimic in vivo conditions and thereby gain more and more knowledge about how the physical stimulus of shock waves gets translated into a biological cell signal (“mechanotransduction"). PMID:24747842

  15. Studies on batch and continuous cultures of Botryococcus braunii: hydrocarbon production in relation to physiological state, cell ultrastructure, and phosphate nutrition

    SciTech Connect

    Casadevall, E.; Dif, D.; Largeau, C.; Gudin, C.; Chaumont, D.; Desanti, O.

    1985-01-01

    The growth of the hydrocarbon-rich alga Botryococcus braunii was studied under air-lift conditions using batch and continuous cultures. Large variations in the physiological state of B. braunii were achieved in batch cultures and in continuous cultures with various dilution rates. The possible effects of these variations upon hydrocarbons (nature, relative abundance, location, level, productivity) and also on the production of exocellular polysaccharides were examined. The relationships between the physiological state of B. braunii and its hydrocarbon and polysaccharide production were discussed and compared with those generally observed in unicellular algae. The factors giving rise to the transition from high to low productivity stages were considered. To this end the authors examined, at first, the variations in cell ultrastructure and the resulting degeneration occurring during batch cultures. Afterward the parallel changes in some parameters of the medium (pH, phosphate level) were determined and their possible relationships with B. braunii growth and hydrocarbon production were discussed. The main features of phosphate nutrition in B. braunii and its effects on hydrocarbons were finally examined.

  16. Three-dimensional podocyte-endothelial cell co-cultures: Assembly, validation, and application to drug testing and intercellular signaling studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Corbelli, Alessandro; Watanabe, Shojiro; Armelloni, Silvia; Ikehata, Masami; Parazzi, Valentina; Pignatari, Chiara; Giardino, Laura; Mattinzoli, Deborah; Lazzari, Lorenza; Puliti, Aldamaria; Cellesi, Francesco; Zennaro, Cristina; Messa, Piergiorgio; Rastaldi, Maria Pia

    2016-04-30

    Proteinuria is a common symptom of glomerular diseases and is due to leakage of proteins from the glomerular filtration barrier, a three-layer structure composed by two post-mitotic highly specialized and interdependent cell populations, i.e. glomerular endothelial cells and podocytes, and the basement membrane in between. Despite enormous progresses made in the last years, pathogenesis of proteinuria remains to be completely uncovered. Studies in the field could largely benefit from an in vitro model of the glomerular filter, but such a system has proved difficult to realize. Here we describe a method to obtain and utilize a three-dimensional podocyte-endothelial co-culture which can be largely adopted by the scientific community because it does not rely on special instruments nor on the synthesis of devoted biomaterials. The device is composed by a porous membrane coated on both sides with type IV collagen. Adhesion of podocytes on the upper side of the membrane has to be preceded by VEGF-induced maturation of endothelial cells on the lower side. The co-culture can be assembled with podocyte cell lines as well as with primary podocytes, extending the use to cells derived from transgenic mice. An albumin permeability assay has been extensively validated and applied as functional readout, enabling rapid drug testing. Additionally, the bottom of the well can be populated with a third cell type, which multiplies the possibilities of analyzing more complex glomerular intercellular signaling events. In conclusion, the ease of assembly and versatility of use are the major advantages of this three-dimensional model of the glomerular filtration barrier over existing methods. The possibility to run a functional test that reliably measures albumin permeability makes the device a valid companion in several research applications ranging from drug screening to intercellular signaling studies. PMID:26924225

  17. [Use of cultured human autologous bone marrow stem cells in repair of a rotator cuff tear: preliminary results of a safety study].

    PubMed

    Havlas, V; Kotaška, J; Koníček, P; Trč, T; Konrádová, Š; Kočí, Z; Syková, E

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Rotator cuff tears are one of the most frequent shoulder disorders which are often associated with pain and interfere with proper arm function. In order to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of using cultured human autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) applied to the suture site during arthroscopic repair of a rotator cuff tear, a prospective clinical study was designed and started recently at the authors' department. Its primary goal was to evaluate the safety of using cultured human MSCs, the secondary goal then was to study a therapeutic effect of their application. Preliminary results of the study on a limited number of patients are presented here. MATERIAL AND METHODS Ten patients who met the indication criteria for arthroscopic repair of a rotator cuff tear were included in the study. In addition, they also had to meet inclusion and lack exclusion criteria. According to the protocol, their bone marrow was harvested at 3 to 4 weeks before surgery. Subsequently, an arthroscopic repair of the rotator cuff tear was performed and an suspension of cultured MSCs was applied to the suture site at the end of the procedure. The isolation of MSCs from bone marrow and their cultivation was carried out by the company Bioinova, Ltd. The patients were followed up at 6 weeks and 3 and 6 months post-operatively. Their clinical assessment included physical examination of the shoulder, pain intensity evaluation according to the visual analogue scale (VAS), and subjective questionnaires for Constant and University of California (UCLA) scores. All patients underwent MRI examination at 6 post-operative months to evaluate the quality of rotator cuff reconstruction. The findings were compared with the pre-operative results. RESULTS A final evaluation was made in eight patients of 10. Two patients were excluded from the study because their exclusion criteria were fulfilled. The evaluated patients showed significantly better clinical outcomes as early as 6 weeks after surgery; also all pre-operative scores were improved at 3 and 6 months. The average values at 6 months post-operatively were: 0 points for the VAS score, 32 for the UCLA score and 84 for the Constant score. The MRI findings at 6 months after surgery showed fully healed and well-integrated tissue of the rotator cuff tendon attachment in all eight patients. No adverse effects of therapy were recorded during the follow-up period. DISCUSSION The use of autologous stem cells and growth factors in the treatment of tendons, muscles and cartilage is currently the topic of many experimental studies on animal models. Its utilisation in human clinical trials has been reported only marginally; the relevant studies have so far used only suspensions of non-cultured mononuclear cells. Our study, although on a smallsize patient group, provides evidence that human cultured autologous MSCs can safely be used for tissue repair in the indications mentioned above. CONCLUSIONS Our preliminary short-term results show that using human cultured autologous MSCs in the treatment of rotator cuff tears is safe. However, further research is needed, particularly with regard to the effectiveness of the method. Key words: rotator cuff tear, arthroscopic repair, mesenchymal stem cells, tendon, cell therapy. PMID:26317295

  18. Differential effects of selective frankincense (Ru Xiang) essential oil versus non-selective sandalwood (Tan Xiang) essential oil on cultured bladder cancer cells: a microarray and bioinformatics study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Frankincense (Boswellia carterii, known as Ru Xiang in Chinese) and sandalwood (Santalum album, known as Tan Xiang in Chinese) are cancer preventive and therapeutic agents in Chinese medicine. Their biologically active ingredients are usually extracted from frankincense by hydrodistillation and sandalwood by distillation. This study aims to investigate the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities of frankincense and sandalwood essential oils in cultured human bladder cancer cells. Methods The effects of frankincense (1,400600 dilutions) (v/v) and sandalwood (16,0007,000 dilutions) (v/v) essential oils on cell viability were studied in established human bladder cancer J82 cells and immortalized normal human bladder urothelial UROtsa cells using a colorimetric XTT cell viability assay. Genes that responded to essential oil treatments in human bladder cancer J82 cells were identified using the Illumina Expression BeadChip platform and analyzed for enriched functions and pathways. The chemical compositions of the essential oils were determined by gas chromatographymass spectrometry. Results Human bladder cancer J82 cells were more sensitive to the pro-apoptotic effects of frankincense essential oil than the immortalized normal bladder UROtsa cells. In contrast, sandalwood essential oil exhibited a similar potency in suppressing the viability of both J82 and UROtsa cells. Although frankincense and sandalwood essential oils activated common pathways such as inflammatory interleukins (IL-6 signaling), each essential oil had a unique molecular action on the bladder cancer cells. Heat shock proteins and histone core proteins were activated by frankincense essential oil, whereas negative regulation of protein kinase activity and G protein-coupled receptors were activated by sandalwood essential oil treatment. Conclusion The effects of frankincense and sandalwood essential oils on J82 cells and UROtsa cells involved different mechanisms leading to cancer cell death. While frankincense essential oil elicited selective cancer cell death via NRF-2-mediated oxidative stress, sandalwood essential oil induced non-selective cell death via DNA damage and cell cycle arrest. PMID:25006348

  19. Long-term culture of capillary endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Folkman, J; Haudenschild, C C; Zetter, B R

    1979-01-01

    Capillary endothelial cells from rats, calves, and humans, have been carried in long-term culture. Bovine capillary endothelial cells have been cloned and maintained by serial passage for longer than 8 months. This prolonged culture was accomplished by using tumor-conditioned medium, gelatin-coated plates, and a method of enriching cells in primary culture. Cultured bovine capillary endothelial cells produce Factor VIII antigen and angiotensin-converting enzyme, but do not have Weibel-Palade bodies. Human cells do contain Weibel-Palade bodies. Capillary endothelial cells are distinguished from aortic endothelial cells by their requirement for conditioned medium. Bovine capillary endothelial cells in regular medium grow slowly with a mean doubling time of 67 hr and eventually die. In tumor-conditioned medium, these cells grow rapidly with a doubling time of 28 hr and continue to proliferate for as long as the tumor-conditioned medium is present. In contrast, bovine aortic endothelial cells grow as rapidly in regular medium as in tumor-conditioned medium. This method allows the production of pure capillary endothelial cells that may prove useful for studies of tumor angiogenesis, metastatic mechanisms, and the role of capillary endothelium in other pathologic states. Images PMID:291937

  20. Differential oxidative damage and expression of stress defence regulons in culturable and non-culturable Escherichia coli cells.

    PubMed

    Desnues, Benoît; Cuny, Caroline; Grégori, Gérald; Dukan, Sam; Aguilaniu, Hugo; Nyström, Thomas

    2003-04-01

    Potentially pathogenic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae, become non-culturable during stasis. The analysis of such cells has been hampered by difficulties in studying bacterial population heterogeneity. Using in situ detection of protein oxidation in single E. coli cells, and using a density-gradient centrifugation technique to separate culturable and non-culturable cells, we show that the proteins in non-culturable cells show increased and irreversible oxidative damage, which affects various bacterial compartments and proteins. The levels of expression of specific stress regulons are higher in non-culturable cells, confirming increased defects relating to oxidative damage and the occurrence of aberrant, such as by amino-acid misincorporation, proteins. Our data suggest that non-culturable cells are produced due to stochastic deterioration, rather than an adaptive programme, and pinpoint oxidation management as the 'Achilles heel' of these cells. PMID:12671690

  1. Differential oxidative damage and expression of stress defence regulons in culturable and non-culturable Escherichia coli cells

    PubMed Central

    Desnues, Benoît; Cuny, Caroline; Grégori, Gérald; Dukan, Sam; Aguilaniu, Hugo; Nyström, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Potentially pathogenic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae, become non-culturable during stasis. The analysis of such cells has been hampered by difficulties in studying bacterial population heterogeneity. Using in situ detection of protein oxidation in single E. coli cells, and using a density-gradient centrifugation technique to separate culturable and non-culturable cells, we show that the proteins in non-culturable cells show increased and irreversible oxidative damage, which affects various bacterial compartments and proteins. The levels of expression of specific stress regulons are higher in non-culturable cells, confirming increased defects relating to oxidative damage and the occurrence of aberrant, such as by amino-acid misincorporation, proteins. Our data suggest that non-culturable cells are produced due to stochastic deterioration, rather than an adaptive programme, and pinpoint oxidation management as the 'Achilles heel' of these cells. PMID:12671690

  2. Cultural Language Study: Grade 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Betty L.; Tappenden, Jacqueline W.

    This course guide, the first in a two-year sequence, is designed to give students an overview of Greek and Roman culture and language from the era of the early Aegean civilizations in Greece and Asia Minor to the Augustan Age in Rome. Six units of study are concerned with the growth and development of Greece and with the metamorphosis of Rome from…

  3. Cell Culture on MEMS Platforms: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Ming; Tong, Wen Hao; Choudhury, Deepak; Rahim, Nur Aida Abdul; Iliescu, Ciprian; Yu, Hanry

    2009-01-01

    Microfabricated systems provide an excellent platform for the culture of cells, and are an extremely useful tool for the investigation of cellular responses to various stimuli. Advantages offered over traditional methods include cost-effectiveness, controllability, low volume, high resolution, and sensitivity. Both biocompatible and bio-incompatible materials have been developed for use in these applications. Biocompatible materials such as PMMA or PLGA can be used directly for cell culture. However, for bio-incompatible materials such as silicon or PDMS, additional steps need to be taken to render these materials more suitable for cell adhesion and maintenance. This review describes multiple surface modification strategies to improve the biocompatibility of MEMS materials. Basic concepts of cell-biomaterial interactions, such as protein adsorption and cell adhesion are covered. Finally, the applications of these MEMS materials in Tissue Engineering are presented. PMID:20054478

  4. Functional characterization of choroid plexus epithelial cells in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, A R; Parmelee, J T; Pritchard, J B

    1997-08-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a primary culture system for choroid plexus epithelial cells as an in vitro model for studying organic cation transport. Cells were dispersed from choroid plexus of neonatal rats by enzymatic digestion and grew as differentiated monolayers when plated on solid or permeable support. Electron microscopy showed that cultured cells were morphologically similar to intact choroid plexus epithelium, having apical tight junctions between cells, numerous mitochondria, basal nuclei and apical microvilli and cilia. As previously demonstrated for intact choroid plexus, immunocytochemistry showed that Na+,K+-ATPase was localized to the apical membrane, and GLUT-1, the facilitative glucose transporter, was localized to the basolateral membrane of cultured cells. Apical transport of L-proline by cultured cells was mediated by a sodium-dependent, electrogenic process, as in whole tissue. 14C-Tetraethylammonium (TEA), a prototypic organic cation, was accumulated by isolated choroid plexus in a time-dependent manner; uptake was inhibited by tetrapentylammonium (TePA). In cultured cells, apical TEA transport was mediated by a saturable process coupled to cellular metabolism. Unlabeled TEA and other organic cations (TePA, N1-methylnicotinamide and mepiperphenidol) inhibited TEA transport; the organic anion, p-aminohippurate, had no effect. Finally, TePA-sensitive transport of 14C-TEA was stimulated after preloading the cells with unlabeled TEA. Based on the morphological, biochemical and functional properties of these cultured cells, we conclude that this primary culture system should be an excellent in vitro model for experimental characterization of choroid plexus function. PMID:9262381

  5. Primary Bovine Extra-Embryonic Cultured Cells: A New Resource for the Study of In Vivo Peri-Implanting Phenotypes and Mesoderm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Hue, Isabelle; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Fournier, Thierry; Degrelle, Séverine A.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to nourishing the embryo, extra-embryonic tissues (EETs) contribute to early embryonic patterning, primitive hematopoiesis, and fetal health. These tissues are of major importance for human medicine, as well as for efforts to improve livestock efficiency, but they remain incompletely understood. In bovines, EETs are accessible easily, in large amounts, and prior to implantation. We took advantage of this system to describe, in vitro and in vivo, the cell types present in bovine EETs at Day 18 of development. Specifically, we characterized the gene expression patterns and phenotypes of bovine extra-embryonic ectoderm (or trophoblast; bTC), endoderm (bXEC), and mesoderm (bXMC) cells in culture and compared them to their respective in vivo micro-dissected cells. After a week of culture, certain characteristics (e.g., gene expression) of the in vitro cells were altered with respect to the in vivo cells, but we were able to identify “cores” of cell-type-specific (and substrate-independent) genes that were shared between in vitro and in vivo samples. In addition, many cellular phenotypes were cell-type-specific with regard to extracellular adhesion. We evaluated the ability of individual bXMCs to migrate and spread on micro-patterns, and observed that they easily adapted to diverse environments, similar to in vivo EE mesoderm cells, which encounter different EE epithelia to form chorion, yolk sac, and allantois. With these tissue interactions, different functions arose that were detected in silico and corroborated in vivo at D21–D25. Moreover, analysis of bXMCs allowed us to identify the EE cell ring surrounding the embryonic disc (ED) at D14-15 as mesoderm cells, which had been hypothesized but not shown prior to this study. We envision these data will serve as a major resource for the future in the analysis of peri-implanting phenotypes in response to the maternal metabolism and contribute to subsequent studies of placental/fetal development in eutherians. PMID:26070137

  6. Explant culture of adult zebrafish hearts for epicardial regeneration studies.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jingli; Poss, Kenneth D

    2016-05-01

    Here we describe how to culture adult zebrafish hearts as explants and study the regeneration of epicardial tissue ex vivo, as a means to identify therapeutic targets for heart disease. Uninjured or injured adult hearts are excised, washed and cultured in an incubator with gentle agitation. Heart explants can be prepared within 2 h, and they can be maintained in culture for 30 d or longer. If explants are prepared from appropriate transgenic lines, dynamic behaviors of epicardial cells can be monitored by live imaging using stereofluorescence microscopy. We also describe ex vivo procedures for genetic ablation of the epicardium, cell proliferation assays, tissue grafts and bead grafts. Basic cell culture and surgical skills are required to carry out this protocol. Unlike existing protocols for culturing isolated zebrafish epicardial cells on matrices, procedures described here maintain epicardial cells on an intact cardiac surface, thereby better supporting in vivo cell behaviors. Our protocols complement and extend in vivo studies of heart regeneration. PMID:27055096

  7. Transcriptome analysis of primary bovine extra-embryonic cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Degrelle, Séverine A

    2015-12-01

    The dataset described in this article pertains to the article by Hue et al. (2015) entitled "Primary bovine extra-embryonic cultured cells: A new resource for the study of in vivo peri-implanting phenotypes and mesoderm formation" [1]. In mammals, extra-embryonic tissues are essential to support not only embryo patterning but also embryo survival, especially in late implanting species. These tissues are composed of three cell types: trophoblast (bTCs), endoderm (bXECs) and mesoderm (bXMCs). Until now, it is unclear how these cells interact. In this study, we have established primary cell cultures of extra-embryonic tissues from bovine embryos collected at day-18 after artificial insemination. We used our homemade bovine 10K array (GPL7417) to analyze the gene expression profiles of these primary extra-embryonic cultured cells compared to the corresponding cells from in vivo micro-dissected embryos. Here, we described the experimental design, the isolation of bovine extra-embryonic cell types as well as the microarray expression analysis. The dataset has been deposited in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) (accession number GSE52967). Finally, these primary cell cultures were a powerful tool to start studying their cellular properties, and will further allow in vitro studies on cellular interactions among extra-embryonic tissues, and potentially between extra-embryonic vs embryonic tissues. PMID:26697347

  8. Using 2H2O to study the influence of feeding on protein synthesis: effect of isotope equilibration in vivo vs. in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Dufner, Danielle A; Bederman, Ilya R; Brunengraber, Daniel Z; Rachdaoui, Nadia; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz; Siegfried, Brett A; Kimball, Scot R; Previs, Stephen F

    2005-06-01

    We previously reported that 2H2O can be used to measure rates of protein synthesis during prolonged steady-state conditions (Previs SF, Fatica R, Chandramouli V, Alexander JC, Brunengraber H, and Landau BR. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 286: E665-E672, 2004). The underlying premise of our method is that following the administration of 2H2O, 2H atoms in body water rapidly equilibrate with free alanine before it is incorporated into newly synthesized proteins. We have now directly examined whether 2H2O can be used to measure the influence of a single meal on protein synthesis. In addition, we have compared the use of 2H2O for measuring rates of protein synthesis in vivo vs. in cell culture. Using a rat model, we observed rapid equilibration between 2H in body water and free alanine; therefore we were able to study the response of protein synthesis to a single meal. We observed that approximately 50% of the plasma albumin that is synthesized over the course of 24 h is made within approximately 5 h after eating (in rats trained to eat a complete 24-h ration of food in a single meal). Contrary to what we observed in vivo, feeding (the replenishment of cell culture medium) does influence the use of 2H2O for in vitro studies. In particular, since there can be slow equilibration of 2H between water and alanine in the cell culture medium, special consideration must be made to avoid underestimating the rate of protein synthesis in vitro. PMID:15671077

  9. Progress in the development of shrimp cell cultures in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kasornchandra, J; Khongpradit, R; Ekpanithanpong, U; Boonyaratpalin, S

    1999-01-01

    Primary shrimp cell cultures were developed from lymphoid organ and ovaries of black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, in double-strength Leibovitz's L-15 medium supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum, 1% glucose, 5 g/L NaCl, 15% shrimp meat extract. The optimum conditions for primary culture in vitro were obtained in L-15 medium with an osmolality of approximately 730 +/- 10 mmol/kg, a temperature range of 25--28 degrees C and incubation in a normal atmosphere. However, basal medium supplemented with 0.01% cholesterol could enhance good growth and cells performance initiated from lymphoid organ. Both epithelial-like and fibroblastic- like cells were observed from those organs within 2 days incubation. Within 3 days, 80% confluent monolayers were obtained from the lymphoid organ while cultures from other tissues required 5 days. Cultures were maintained for at least 43 days. Only cells from lymphoid organ could be subcultured and confluent monolayers achieved within 10 days post-spilt. Healthy cultures of the lymphoid cells did not persist beyond the third passage. Application of these primary shrimp cell cultures for studying pathogenic viruses of shrimp in vitro will be discussed. PMID:10627677

  10. Establishment and in vitro culture of porcine spermatogonial germ cells in low temperature culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Young; Park, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Ran; Lee, Kyung-Hoon; Kim, Yong-Hee; Ryu, Buom-Yong; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Moon, Sung-Hwan; Park, Jin-Ki; Chung, Hak-Jae; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Song, Hyuk

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a porcine spermatogonial germ cell (pSGC) line and develop an in vitro culture system. Isolated total testicular cells (TTCs) from 5-day-old porcine testes were primary cultured at 31, 34, and 37°C. Although the time of colony appearance was delayed at 31°C, strong alkaline phosphatase staining, expressions of pluripotency marker genes such as OCT4, NANOG, and THY1, and the gene expressions of the undifferentiated germ cell markers PLZF and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5) were identified compared to 34 and 37°C. Cell cycle analysis for both pSGC and feeder cells at the three temperatures revealed that more pSGCs were in the G2/M phase at 31°C than 37°C at the subculture stage. In vitro, pSGCs could stably maintain undifferentiated germ cell and stem cell characteristics for over 60days during culture at 31°C. Xenotransplantation of pSGCs to immune deficient mice demonstrated a successful colonization and localization on the seminiferous tubule basement membrane in the recipient testes. In conclusion, pSGCs from neonatal porcine were successfully established and cultured for long periods under a low temperature culture environment in vitro. PMID:24041805

  11. Voltage-Gated ion currents of schwann cells in cell culture models of human neurofibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Fieber, Lynne A

    2003-11-01

    K(+) (K) channels play a role in the proliferation of many cell types in normal cells and certain disease states. Several laboratories have studied K currents in cultured Schwann cells from models of the human diseases, neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). These diseases are characterized by the growth of Schwann cell tumors. In all cell culture NF models the K current properties differ in tumor-derived and normal Schwann cells. Depending on the model however, the type of K channel abnormality differs. K channels appear to play a role in the proliferation of Schwann cell cultures of these disease models, because a link has been established between K current blockade and the inhibition of Schwann cell proliferation in NF1 and NF2. Differences in the proliferation response of normal Schwann cells to K channel blockers suggest that in vitro regulation of proliferation in neoplastic and normal Schwann cells is complex. PMID:14598389

  12. Ultrastructural and tissue-culture studies on the role of fibronectin, collagen and glycosaminoglycans in the migration of neural crest cells in the fowl embryo.

    PubMed

    Newgreen, D F; Gibbins, I L; Sauter, J; Wallenfels, B; Wütz, R

    1982-01-01

    The initial migration of neural crest (NC) cells into cell-free space was studied by transmission electron microscopy at trunk levels of fowl embryos, some of which were fixed in the presence of ruthenium red. Migrating NC cells occurred in zones which contained fewer ruthenium-red stained 15-40nm diameter granules than other regions. The ruthenium-red stained granules were linked by similarly stained thin (greater than 3nm diameter) microfibrils. The granules resemble proteoglycan and the microfibrils may be hyaluronate. NC cells contacted thicker (greater than 10 nm diameter) fibrils and interstitial bodies, which did not require ruthenium red for visualization. Cytoplasmic microfilaments were sometimes aligned at the point of contact with the extracellular fibrils, which may be fibronectin and collagen. Phase-contrast time-lapse videotaping and scanning electron microscopy showed that NC cells of the fowl embryo in vitro migrated earlier and more extensively on glass coated with fibronectin-rich fibrous material and adsorbed fibronectin molecules than on glass coated with collagen type I (fibres and adsorbed molecules). NC cells became completely enmeshed in fibronectin-rich fibres, but generally remained on the surface of collagen-fibre gels. When given a choice, NC cells strongly preferred fibronectin coatings to plain glass, and plain glass to dried collagen gels. NC cells showed a slight preference for plain glass over glass to which collagen was adsorbed. Addition to the culture medium of hyaluronate (initial conc. 20 mg/ml), chondroitin (5 mg/ml) and fully sulphated chondroitin sulphate and dermatan sulphate (up to 10 mg/ml) did not drastically alter NC cell migration on fibronectin-rich fibrous substrates. PMID:7034954

  13. The potential role of granulosa cells in the maturation rate of immature human oocytes and embryo development: A co-culture study

    PubMed Central

    Jahromi, Bahia Namavar; Mosallanezhad, Zahra; Matloob, Najmeh; Davari, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective In order to increase the number of mature oocytes usable for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), we aimed to investigate the effect of co-culturing granulosa cells (GCs) on human oocyte maturation in vitro, the fertilization rate, and embryo development. Methods A total of 133 immature oocytes were retrieved and were randomly divided into two groups; oocytes that were cultured with GCs (group A) and oocytes that were cultured without GCs (group B). After in vitro maturation, only oocytes that displayed metaphase II (MII) underwent the ICSI procedure. The maturation and fertilization rates were analyzed, as well as the frequency of embryo development. Results The mean age of the patients, their basal levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, and the number of oocytes recovered from the patients were all comparable between the two study groups. The number of oocytes that reached MII (mature oocytes) was 59 out of 70 (84.28%) in group A, compared to 41 out of 63 (65.07%) in group B (p=0.011). No significant difference between fertilization rates was found between the two study groups (p=0.702). The embryo development rate was higher in group A (33/59, 75%) than in group B (12/41, 42.85%; p=0.006). The proportion of highest-quality embryos and the blastocyst formation rate were significantly lower in group B than in group A (p=0.003 and p<0.001, respectively). Conclusion The findings of the current study demonstrate that culturing immature human oocytes with GCs prior to ICSI improves the maturation rate and the likelihood of embryo development. PMID:26473111

  14. Susceptibility of testicular cell cultures of crab, Scylla serrata (Forskal) to white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Shashikumar, Anumol; Desai, P V

    2013-03-01

    Testicular cell culture of crab, Scylla serrata (Forskal) was used to study the effects of White spot syndrome virus (WSSV). We are showing the susceptibility of cell culture of crabs to WSSV. The proliferating cell culture of testes were maintained for more than 4 months in a medium prepared from L15 and crab saline supplemented with epidermal growth factor. The cell cultures inoculated with different concentrations of virus showed distinct cytopathic effects such as change in cell appearance, shrinkage and cell lysis. WSSV infection of cultured cells was confirmed by Nested PCR technique. The incorporation of viral DNA in cultured cells was shown by RAPD profile generated using 10-mer primers. The controls that were not exposed to WSSV did not show cytopathic effects. This work shows the usefulness of proliferating testicular cell culture for studying WSSV infection using molecular tools. Thus, this report gains significance as it opens new vistas for diagnostics and drugs for WSSV. PMID:22828752

  15. Shape memory polymers for active cell culture.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kevin A; Luo, Xiaofan; Mather, Patrick T; Henderson, James H

    2011-01-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are a class of "smart" materials that have the ability to change from a fixed, temporary shape to a pre-determined permanent shape upon the application of a stimulus such as heat(1-5). In a typical shape memory cycle, the SMP is first deformed at an elevated temperature that is higher than its transition temperature, T(trans;) [either the melting temperature (T(m;)) or the glass transition temperature (T(g;))]. The deformation is elastic in nature and mainly leads to a reduction in conformational entropy of the constituent network chains (following the rubber elasticity theory). The deformed SMP is then cooled to a temperature below its T(trans;) while maintaining the external strain or stress constant. During cooling, the material transitions to a more rigid state (semi-crystalline or glassy), which kinetically traps or "freezes" the material in this low-entropy state leading to macroscopic shape fixing. Shape recovery is triggered by continuously heating the material through T(trans;) under a stress-free (unconstrained) condition. By allowing the network chains (with regained mobility) to relax to their thermodynamically favored, maximal-entropy state, the material changes from the temporary shape to the permanent shape. Cells are capable of surveying the mechanical properties of their surrounding environment(6). The mechanisms through which mechanical interactions between cells and their physical environment control cell behavior are areas of active research. Substrates of defined topography have emerged as powerful tools in the investigation of these mechanisms. Mesoscale, microscale, and nanoscale patterns of substrate topography have been shown to direct cell alignment, cell adhesion, and cell traction forces(7-14). These findings have underscored the potential for substrate topography to control and assay the mechanical interactions between cells and their physical environment during cell culture, but the substrates used to date have generally been passive and could not be programmed to change significantly during culture. This physical stasis has limited the potential of topographic substrates to control cells in culture. Here, active cell culture (ACC) SMP substrates are introduced that employ surface shape memory to provide programmed control of substrate topography and deformation. These substrates demonstrate the ability to transition from a temporary grooved topography to a second, nearly flat memorized topography. This change in topography can be used to control cell behavior under standard cell culture conditions. PMID:21750496

  16. Penetration of antimicrobials into tissue culture cells and leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Brown, K N; Percival, A

    1978-01-01

    When exposed to HeLa cells in tissue culture for 72 hr., antimicrobials could be categorised into three groups characterised by cell associated concentrations much lower (ampicillin, cephalexin, cloxacillin, flucloxacillin, streptomycin and trimethoprim, all 14% or less), much higher (tetracycline and polymyxins) or approximating to those extracellularly (erythromycin, lincomycin, fusidic acid and gentamicin). For kanamycin, neomycin and sulphonamides, cell associated levels were between 24 and 47% and for penicillin G and cephaloridine were 66% of those extracellularly. With mouse peritoneal macrophages and human peripheral blood leucocytes cell associated levels for representative antibiotics were all lower after 3 hr. exposure than in the tissue culture cells. However, studies on the rate of release of cell associated antibiotic and of the effects of surface active agents indicated that the differences between cell types were due to loss of cell association during washing procedures to remove extracellular antibiotic. The effects of bactericidal antibiotics on survival of bacteria phagocytosed by mouse macrophages suggested that the cell association observed in tissue culture cells represented true intracellular penetration rather than mere binding to the cell surface. Within families of antibiotics, alterations to the molecule change cell penetration and the variations observed can not be explained merely in terms of simple diffusion, molecular size, dissociation constants, lipid solubility or protein binding. PMID:360375

  17. Chronic Rabies Virus Infection of Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Wiktor, T. J.; Clark, H F.

    1972-01-01

    Exposure of both mammalian and reptilian cells in tissue culture to different strains of fixed rabies virus resulted in a carrier type of infection. No cytopathic effect was observed in either type of culture; infected cultures could be maintained by cell transfer for unlimited numbers of passages. A consistent pattern of cyclically rising and falling levels of viral infection was observed by fluorescent-antibody staining techniques and by titration of released infectious virus. Resistance to super-infection by vesicular stomatis virus and the production of an interferon-like substance by infected cells indicated that the maintenance of a carrier type of infection may be interferon-mediated. The degree of susceptibility of rabies-infected cells to immunolysis by antirabies antibody in the presence of complement was found to be correlated with the amount of virus maturation occurring by budding through the cell membrane and not with the presence of immunofluorescent antigen in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Images PMID:4344636

  18. THE METHODS FOR MAINTAINING INSECT CELL CULTURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect cell cultures are now commonly used in insect physiology, developmental biology, pathology, and molecular biology. As the field has advanced from a methods development to a standard procedure, so has the diversity of scientists using the technique. This paper describes techniques that are e...

  19. ANTHOCYANIN (ACN) STABILITY IN CELL CULTURE MEDIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthocyanins (ACNs) are potential oxygen radical scavengers that have coronary vasoactive and vasoprotective properties. Cell or tissue culture systems have been used to examine the bioactivity and mechanisms of action of ACNs on the vascular system. However, due to their unique chemical structure, ...

  20. Towards dynamic metabolic flux analysis in CHO cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Woo Suk; Antoniewicz, Maciek R

    2012-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the most widely used mammalian cell line for biopharmaceutical production, with a total global market approaching $100 billion per year. In the pharmaceutical industry CHO cells are grown in fed-batch culture, where cellular metabolism is characterized by high glucose and glutamine uptake rates combined with high rates of ammonium and lactate secretion. The metabolism of CHO cells changes dramatically during a fed-batch culture as the cells adapt to a changing environment and transition from exponential growth phase to stationary phase. Thus far, it has been challenging to study metabolic flux dynamics in CHO cell cultures using conventional metabolic flux analysis techniques that were developed for systems at metabolic steady state. In this paper we review progress on flux analysis in CHO cells and techniques for dynamic metabolic flux analysis. Application of these new tools may allow identification of intracellular metabolic bottlenecks at specific stages in CHO cell cultures and eventually lead to novel strategies for improving CHO cell metabolism and optimizing biopharmaceutical process performance. PMID:22102428

  1. Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Cancer Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Lovitt, Carrie J.; Shelper, Todd B.; Avery, Vicky M.

    2014-01-01

    Human cancer cell lines are an integral part of drug discovery practices. However, modeling the complexity of cancer utilizing these cell lines on standard plastic substrata, does not accurately represent the tumor microenvironment. Research into developing advanced tumor cell culture models in a three-dimensional (3D) architecture that more prescisely characterizes the disease state have been undertaken by a number of laboratories around the world. These 3D cell culture models are particularly beneficial for investigating mechanistic processes and drug resistance in tumor cells. In addition, a range of molecular mechanisms deconstructed by studying cancer cells in 3D models suggest that tumor cells cultured in two-dimensional monolayer conditions do not respond to cancer therapeutics/compounds in a similar manner. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of utilizing 3D cell culture models in drug discovery programs; however, it is evident that further research is required for the development of more complex models that incorporate the majority of the cellular and physical properties of a tumor. PMID:24887773

  2. Prevention and Detection of Mycoplasma Contamination in Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Nikfarjam, Laleh; Farzaneh, Parvaneh

    2012-01-01

    One of the main problems in cell culture is mycoplasma infection. It can extensively affect cell physiology and metabolism. As the applications of cell culture increase in research, industrial production and cell therapy, more concerns about mycoplasma contamination and detection will arise. This review will provide valuable information about: 1. the ways in which cells are contaminated and the frequency and source of mycoplasma species in cell culture; 2. the ways to prevent mycoplasma contamination in cell culture; 3. the importance of mycoplasma tests in cell culture; 4. different methods to identify mycoplasma contamination; 5. the consequences of mycoplasma contamination in cell culture and 6. available methods to eliminate mycoplasma contamination. Awareness about the sources of mycoplasma and pursuing aseptic techniques in cell culture along with reliable detection methods of mycoplasma contamination can provide an appropriate situation to prevent mycoplasma contamination in cell culture. PMID:23508237

  3. Microfluidic cell culture chip with multiplexed medium delivery and efficient cell/scaffold loading mechanisms for high-throughput perfusion 3-dimensional cell culture-based assays.

    PubMed

    Huang, Song-Bin; Wu, Min-Hsien; Wang, Shih-Siou; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2011-06-01

    This study reports a microfluidic cell culture chip consisting of 48 microbioreactors for high-throughput perfusion 3-dimensional (3-D) cell culture-based assays. Its advantages include the capability for multiplexed and backflow-free medium delivery, and both efficient and high-throughput micro-scale, 3-D cell culture construct loading. In this work, the microfluidic cell culture chip is fabricated using two major processes, specifically, a computer-numerical-controlled (CNC) mold machining process and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) replication process. The chip is composed of micropumps, microbioreactors, connecting microchannels and a cell/agarose scaffold loading mechanism. The performance of the new pneumatic micropumps and the cell/agarose scaffold loading mechanism has been experimentally evaluated. The experimental results show that this proposed multiplexed medium-pumping design is able to provide a uniform pumping rate ranging from 1.5 to 298.3 μl hr(-1) without any fluid backflow and the resultant medium contamination. In addition, the simple cell/agarose loading method has been proven to be able to load the 3-D cell culture construct uniformly and efficiently in all 48 microbioreactors investigated. Furthermore, a micro-scale, perfusion, 3-D cell culture-based assay has been successfully demonstrated using this proposed cell culture chip. The experimental results are also compared to a similar evaluation using a conventional static 3-D cell culture with a larger scale culture. It is concluded that the choice of a cell culture format can influence assay results. As a whole, because of the inherent advantages of a miniaturized perfusion 3-D cell culture assay, the cell culture chip not only can provide a stable, well-defined and more biologically-meaningful culture environment, but it also features a low consumption of research resources. Moreover, due to the integrated medium pumping mechanism and the simple cell/agarose loading method, this chip is economical and time efficient. All of these traits are particularly useful for high-precision and high-throughput 3-D cell culture-based assays. PMID:21234690

  4. Poly(vinyl alcohol)/gelatin Hydrogels Cultured with HepG2 Cells as a 3D Model of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Morphological Study

    PubMed Central

    Moscato, Stefania; Ronca, Francesca; Campani, Daniela; Danti, Serena

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models represent fundamental tools for the comprehension of cellular phenomena both for normal and cancerous tissues. Indeed, the microenvironment affects the cellular behavior as well as the response to drugs. In this study, we performed a morphological analysis on a hepatocarcinoma cell line, HepG2, grown for 24 days inside a bioartificial hydrogel composed of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and gelatin (G) to model a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in 3D. Morphological features of PVA/G hydrogels were investigated, resulting to mimic the trabecular structure of liver parenchyma. A histologic analysis comparing the 3D models with HepG2 cell monolayers and tumor specimens was performed. In the 3D setting, HepG2 cells were viable and formed large cellular aggregates showing different morphotypes with zonal distribution. Furthermore, β-actin and α5β1 integrin revealed a morphotype-related expression; in particular, the frontline cells were characterized by a strong immunopositivity on a side border of their membrane, thus suggesting the formation of lamellipodia-like structures apt for migration. Based on these results, we propose PVA/G hydrogels as valuable substrates to develop a long term 3D HCC model that can be used to investigate important aspects of tumor biology related to migration phenomena. PMID:25590431

  5. Cell Culture Assay for Human Noroviruses [response

    SciTech Connect

    Straub, Tim M.; Honer Zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Orosz Coghlan, Patricia; Dohnalkova, Alice; Mayer, Brooke K.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Valdez, Catherine O.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Gerba, Charles P.; Abbaszadegan, Morteza A.; Nickerson, Cheryl A.

    2007-07-01

    We appreciate the comments provided by Leung et al., in response to our recently published article “In Vitro Cell Culture Infectivity Assay for Human Noroviruses” by Straub et al. (1). The specific aim of our project was to develop an in vitro cell culture infectivity assay for human noroviruses (hNoV) to enhance risk assessments when they are detected in water supplies. Reverse transcription (RT) qualitative or quantitative PCR are the primary assays for waterborne NoV monitoring. However, these assays cannot distinguish between infectious vs. non-infectious virions. When hNoV is detected in water supplies, information provided by our infectivity assay will significantly improve risk assessment models and protect human health, regardless of whether we are propagating NoV. Indeed, in vitro cell culture infectivity assays for the waterborne pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum that supplement approved fluorescent microscopy assays, do not result in amplification of the environmentally resistant hard-walled oocysts (2). However, identification of life cycle stages in cell culture provides evidence of infectious oocysts in a water supply. Nonetheless, Leung et al.’s assertion regarding the suitability of our method for the in vitro propagation of high titers of NoV is valid for the medical research community. In this case, well-characterized challenge pools of virus would be useful for developing and testing diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. As further validation of our published findings, we have now optimized RT quantitative PCR to assess the level of viral production in cell culture, where we are indeed finding significant increases in viral titer. The magnitude and time course of these increases is dependent on both virus strain and multiplicity of infection. We are currently preparing a manuscript that will discuss these findings in greater detail, and the implications this may have for creating viral challenge pools

  6. Basic study on a lower-energy defibrillation method using computer simulation and cultured myocardial cell models.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, A; Nagase, K; Ishikawa, M; Iwasaka, T; Odagaki, M; Hosaka, H

    2006-01-01

    Computer simulation and myocardial cell models were used to evaluate a low-energy defibrillation technique. A generated spiral wave, considered to be a mechanism of fibrillation, and fibrillation were investigated using two myocardial sheet models: a two-dimensional computer simulation model and a two-dimensional experimental model. A new defibrillation technique that has few side effects, which are induced by the current passing into the patient's body, on cardiac muscle is desired. The purpose of the present study is to conduct a basic investigation into an efficient defibrillation method. In order to evaluate the defibrillation method, the propagation of excitation in the myocardial sheet is measured during the normal state and during fibrillation, respectively. The advantages of the low-energy defibrillation technique are then discussed based on the stimulation timing. PMID:17959447

  7. Establishing a stem cell culture laboratory for clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Sekiya, Elíseo Joji; Forte, Andresa; Kühn, Telma Ingrid Borges de Bellis; Janz, Felipe; Bydlowski, Sérgio Paulo; Alves, Adelson

    2012-01-01

    Adult stem/progenitor cells are found in different human tissues. An in vitro cell culture is needed for their isolation or for their expansion when they are not available in a sufficient quantity to regenerate damaged organs and tissues. The level of complexity of these new technologies requires adequate facilities, qualified personnel with experience in cell culture techniques, assessment of quality and clear protocols for cell production. The rules for the implementation of cell therapy centers involve national and international standards of good manufacturing practices. However, such standards are not uniform, reflecting the diversity of technical and scientific development. Here standards from the United States, the European Union and Brazil are analyzed. Moreover, practical solutions encountered for the implementation of a cell therapy center appropriate for the preparation and supply of cultured cells for clinical studies are described. Development stages involved the planning and preparation of the project, the construction of the facility, standardization of laboratory procedures and development of systems to prevent cross contamination. Combining the theoretical knowledge of research centers involved in the study of cells with the practical experience of blood therapy services that manage structures for cell transplantation is presented as the best potential for synergy to meet the demands to implement cell therapy centers. PMID:23049427

  8. Recent applications of fish cell culture to biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Hightower, L E; Renfro, J L

    1988-12-01

    Tissues of the fishes are as amenable to the techniques of modern cell culture as mammalian tissues and organs, and yet this vast resource, comprising thousands of vertebrate species, remains largely unexplored. The model systems that have been developed demonstrate the utility of fish cells as sources of special adaptations and exaggerated physiological systems. In this review, we briefly describe several of the successful models along with recent developments in fish cell culture with the hope of stimulating increased interest in the lower vertebrates as useful complements to mammalian cell culture in biomedical research. The topics covered include epithelial ion transport, endocrinological studies, the cellular stress (heat shock) response, thermotolerance, cancer biology, and environmental toxicology. PMID:3062124

  9. Social Studies: Selected Cultures. Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Marshall R.

    This revised teachers guide attempts to facilitate the study of selected cultures through a conceptual approach and multimedia instruction in a spiral curriculum. There are six units: 1) Cultures and Archaeology --cultural factors, cultural study, artifacts, fossils, archaeological sites and evidence; 2) Food Gathering Complex --life styles,…

  10. Use of an adaptable cell culture kit for performing lymphocyte and monocyte cell cultures in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatton, J. P.; Lewis, M. L.; Roquefeuil, S. B.; Chaput, D.; Cazenave, J. P.; Schmitt, D. A.

    1998-01-01

    The results of experiments performed in recent years on board facilities such as the Space Shuttle/Spacelab have demonstrated that many cell systems, ranging from simple bacteria to mammalian cells, are sensitive to the microgravity environment, suggesting gravity affects fundamental cellular processes. However, performing well-controlled experiments aboard spacecraft offers unique challenges to the cell biologist. Although systems such as the European 'Biorack' provide generic experiment facilities including an incubator, on-board 1-g reference centrifuge, and contained area for manipulations, the experimenter must still establish a system for performing cell culture experiments that is compatible with the constraints of spaceflight. Two different cell culture kits developed by the French Space Agency, CNES, were recently used to perform a series of experiments during four flights of the 'Biorack' facility aboard the Space Shuttle. The first unit, Generic Cell Activation Kit 1 (GCAK-1), contains six separate culture units per cassette, each consisting of a culture chamber, activator chamber, filtration system (permitting separation of cells from supernatant in-flight), injection port, and supernatant collection chamber. The second unit (GCAK-2) also contains six separate culture units, including a culture, activator, and fixation chambers. Both hardware units permit relatively complex cell culture manipulations without extensive use of spacecraft resources (crew time, volume, mass, power), or the need for excessive safety measures. Possible operations include stimulation of cultures with activators, separation of cells from supernatant, fixation/lysis, manipulation of radiolabelled reagents, and medium exchange. Investigations performed aboard the Space Shuttle in six different experiments used Jurkat, purified T-cells or U937 cells, the results of which are reported separately. We report here the behaviour of Jurkat and U937 cells in the GCAK hardware in ground-based investigations simulating the conditions expected in the flight experiment. Several parameters including cell concentration, time between cell loading and activation, and storage temperature on cell survival were examined to characterise cell response and optimise the experiments to be flown aboard the Space Shuttle. Results indicate that the objectives of the experiments could be met with delays up to 5 days between cell loading into the hardware and initial in flight experiment activation, without the need for medium exchange. Experiment hardware of this kind, which is adaptable to a wide range of cell types and can be easily interfaced to different spacecraft facilities, offers the possibility for a wide range of experimenters successfully and easily to utilise future flight opportunities.

  11. Method of determining the number of cells in cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, D.T.

    1990-06-12

    This patent describes a color-sensitivity method for determining the number of cells in in vitro cell culture at a sensitivity as low as about 100 or about 500 cells. It comprises lysing the cells and incubating the lysate with p-nitrophenyl phosphate at acid pH for a predetermined period of time at a temperature of from about 35{degrees} to about 38{degrees}C. and then measuring the color development at 400 to 420 nanometers and correlating the color development with cell number by comparing with a control standard of known cell number.

  12. Metabolic measurements in cell culture and tissue constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolfe, P.

    2008-10-01

    This paper concerns the study and use of biological cells in which there is a need for sensors and assemblies for the measurement of a diverse range of physical and chemical variables. In this field cell culture is used for basic research and for applications such as protein and drug synthesis, and in cell, tissue and organ engineering. Metabolic processes are fundamental to cell behaviour and must therefore be monitored reliably. Basic metabolic studies measure the transport of oxygen, glucose, carbon dioxide, lactic acid to, from, or within cells, whilst more advanced research requires examination of energy storage and utilisation. Assemblies are designed to incorporate bioreactor functions for cell culture together with appropriate sensing devices. Oxygen consumption by populations of cells is achieved in a flowthrough assembly that incorporates O2 micro-sensors based on either amperometry or fluorescence. Measurements in single cell are possible with intra-cellular fluorophores acting as biosensors together with optical stimulation and detection. Near infra-red spectroscopy (NIRS) is used for analysis within culture fluid, for example for estimation of glucose levels, as well as within cell populations, for example to study the respiratory enzymes.Â#

  13. Heterologous protein expression affects the death kinetics of baculovirus-infected insect cell cultures: a quantitative study by use of n-target theory.

    PubMed

    Wu, S C; Jarvis, D L; Dale, B E; Liao, J C

    1994-01-01

    The death of cultured insect cells after baculovirus infection is a time-dependent event. Without a quantitative model, it is difficult to characterize its kinetics. Our group has shown that the cell survival rate can be characterized by use of the n-target theory, which involves only two parameters: the number of hypothetical inactivation targets (n) and the first-order death rate (k). In this study, we used different recombinant viruses to examine the effect of heterologous protein expression on the cell survival rate. The proteins expressed were beta-galactosidase, human T-cell leukemia virus type I p40x, human interleukin-2, and human tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). The survival rate was affected by protein expression, but the n value remained constant if the protein expression level was high (above 30 mg/L). Low-level expression of secreted, glycosylated tPA resulted in a reduced n value, which was restored to the normal value when the tPA signal peptide and prosequence were deleted. In addition, if the n value was normal (10-11), the level of protein expression correlated negatively with the death rate. However, if the n value was reduced by unfavorable culture conditions or foreign protein expression, the expression level correlated positively with the death rate. A dimensionless plot with kt as the dimensionless time shows that alteration of the k value while retaining constant n is equivalent to a rescaling of time. Therefore, the survival curves with constant n reduce to a single curve on the dimensionless plot.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7764527

  14. Region Specific Response of Intervertebral Disc Cells to Complex Dynamic Loading: An Organ Culture Study Using a Dynamic Torsion-Compression Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Samantha C. W.; Walser, Jochen; Käppeli, Patrick; Shamsollahi, Mohammad Javad; Ferguson, Stephen J.; Gantenbein-Ritter, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The spine is routinely subjected to repetitive complex loading consisting of axial compression, torsion, flexion and extension. Mechanical loading is one of the important causes of spinal diseases, including disc herniation and disc degeneration. It is known that static and dynamic compression can lead to progressive disc degeneration, but little is known about the mechanobiology of the disc subjected to combined dynamic compression and torsion. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the mechanobiology of the intervertebral disc when subjected to combined dynamic compression and axial torsion or pure dynamic compression or axial torsion using organ culture. We applied four different loading modalities [1. control: no loading (NL), 2. cyclic compression (CC), 3. cyclic torsion (CT), and 4. combined cyclic compression and torsion (CCT)] on bovine caudal disc explants using our custom made dynamic loading bioreactor for disc organ culture. Loads were applied for 8 h/day and continued for 14 days, all at a physiological magnitude and frequency. Our results provided strong evidence that complex loading induced a stronger degree of disc degeneration compared to one degree of freedom loading. In the CCT group, less than 10% nucleus pulposus (NP) cells survived the 14 days of loading, while cell viabilities were maintained above 70% in the NP of all the other three groups and in the annulus fibrosus (AF) of all the groups. Gene expression analysis revealed a strong up-regulation in matrix genes and matrix remodeling genes in the AF of the CCT group. Cell apoptotic activity and glycosaminoglycan content were also quantified but there were no statistically significant differences found. Cell morphology in the NP of the CCT was changed, as shown by histological evaluation. Our results stress the importance of complex loading on the initiation and progression of disc degeneration. PMID:24013824

  15. Cultural relativism: maintenance of genomic imprints in pluripotent stem cell culture systems.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Maxim Vc; Bourc'his, Déborah

    2015-04-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) in culture have become a widely used model for studying events occurring during mammalian development; they also present an exciting avenue for therapeutics. However, compared to their in vivo counterparts, cultured PSC derivatives have unique properties, and it is well established that their epigenome is sensitive to medium composition. Here we review the specific effects on genomic imprints in various PSC types and culture systems. Imprinted gene regulation is developmentally important, and imprinting defects have been associated with several human diseases. Therefore, imprint abnormalities in PSCs may have considerable consequences for downstream applications. PMID:25974256

  16. Teaching Culture. The Long Revolution in Cultural Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldred, Nannette, Ed.; Ryle, Martin, Ed.

    This book contains 12 papers that trace the connections and tensions between the original aims and forms of cultural studies in Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the current settings, goals, and methodologies of cultural studies. The following papers are included: "Introduction" (Nannette Aldred and Martin Ryle); "Marginal Occupations: Adult…

  17. Isolation and culture of bovine mammary epithelial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji-Xia; Zhang, Yong; Ma, Li-Bing; Sun, Jian-Hong; Yin, Bao-Ying

    2009-01-01

    Bovine mammary epithelial stem cells (MESCs) are very important in agricultural production and bioengineering. In the present study, we compared different isolation and culture methods for MESCs and observed their growth and differentiation characteristics. MESCs have an extremely weak proliferation capacity, and it is very difficult to obtain and prolong subculture of a bovine mammary epithelial stem cell line. We obtained some multipotent MESC aggregates that looked like spherical colonies. These colonies were only derived from suspension culture and were induced to differentiate into epithelial-like cells, myoepithelial-like cells and secretory cells and to establish a ductal-like structure. In contrast, MESCs cultured in adherent culture displayed low morphogenetic competence and only differentiated into epithelial-like cells. MESCs are often identified by testing their differentiation in vivo; however, herein, we have demonstrated the in vitro differentiation potential of bovine MESCs. In our study, beta 1-integrin and alpha 6-integrin which are expressed by human epidermal stem cells, were found in bovine, which shows that bovine MESCs share the same molecular signature as human MESCs. PMID:19194071

  18. 21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section... Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification. Cultured animal and human cells are in vitro cultivated cell lines from the tissue of humans or other animals which are used in various...

  19. 21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section... Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification. Cultured animal and human cells are in vitro cultivated cell lines from the tissue of humans or other animals which are used in various...

  20. 21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section... Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification. Cultured animal and human cells are in vitro cultivated cell lines from the tissue of humans or other animals which are used in various...

  1. 21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section... Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification. Cultured animal and human cells are in vitro cultivated cell lines from the tissue of humans or other animals which are used in various...

  2. 21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section... Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification. Cultured animal and human cells are in vitro cultivated cell lines from the tissue of humans or other animals which are used in various...

  3. Novel method to dynamically load cells in 3D-gel culture for primary blast injury studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sory, David; Cepa-Areias, Anabela; Overby, Darryl; Proud, William; Institute of Shock Physics, Department of Bioengineering; Royal British Legion CentreBlast I Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    For at least a century explosive devices have been reported as one of the most important causes of injuries on battlefield in military conflicts as well as in terrorist attacks. Although significant experimental and modelling efforts have been focussed on blast injury at the organ or tissue level, few studies have investigated the mechanism of blast injury at the cellular level. This paper introduces an in vitro method compatible with living cells to examine the effects of high stress and short-duration pulses similar to those observed in blast waves. The experimental phase involved high strain rate axial compression of biological cylindrical specimens within a hermetically sealed sample holder made of a biocompatible polymer. Numerical simulations were performed in order to characterize the loading path within the sample and assess the loading conditions. A proof of concept is presented so as to establish a new window to address fundamental questions regarding primary blast injury at the cellular level. The Institute of Shock Physics acknowledges the support of AWE, Aldermaston, UK and Imperial College London. The Centre for Blast Injury Studies acknowledges the support of the Royal British Legion and Imperial College London.

  4. Specimen Sample Preservation for Cell and Tissue Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeker, Gabrielle; Ronzana, Karolyn; Schibner, Karen; Evans, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The era of the International Space Station with its longer duration missions will pose unique challenges to microgravity life sciences research. The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) is responsible for addressing these challenges and defining the science requirements necessary to conduct life science research on-board the International Space Station. Space Station will support a wide range of cell and tissue culture experiments for durations of 1 to 30 days. Space Shuttle flights to bring experimental samples back to Earth for analyses will only occur every 90 days. Therefore, samples may have to be retained for periods up to 60 days. This presents a new challenge in fresh specimen sample storage for cell biology. Fresh specimen samples are defined as samples that are preserved by means other than fixation and cryopreservation. The challenge of long-term storage of fresh specimen samples includes the need to suspend or inhibit proliferation and metabolism pending return to Earth-based laboratories. With this challenge being unique to space research, there have not been any ground based studies performed to address this issue. It was decided hy SSBRP that experiment support studies to address the following issues were needed: Fixative Solution Management; Media Storage Conditions; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Mammalian Cell/Tissue Cultures; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Plant Cell/Tissue Cultures; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Aquatic Cell/Tissue Cultures; and Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Microbial Cell/Tissue Cultures. The objective of these studies was to derive a set of conditions and recommendations that can be used in a long duration microgravity environment such as Space Station that will permit extended storage of cell and tissue culture specimens in a state consistent with zero or minimal growth, while at the same time maintaining their stability and viability.

  5. In vitro and in vivo studies on the inhibitory effects of myocardial cell culture medium on growth of a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, A549

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Y.; Zhou, J.; Fu, S.Z.; Fan, J.; Wu, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the heart is one of the body’s vital organs, with an abundant blood supply, metastasis to the heart is considered rare. In a previous study, we found that the myocardial microenvironment might contain a low molecular weight natural tumour suppressor. The present study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effect of cardiac myocyte–conditioned medium (cmcm) on the growth of A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Methods An mtt assay was used to detect the inhibition ratio with respect to A549 proliferation. Human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549 cell strain) were transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice to produce tumours. The xenograft tumour growth in mice was observed after selected drug administration. Results After treatment with cmcm and cisplatin (Cis), A549 cell viability significantly declined (p < 0.001). The cell viability in the cmcm and Cis groups were 53.42% ± 3.45% and 58.45% ± 6.39% respectively. Growth of implanted tumour cells in vivo was significantly inhibited in the cmcm group, the group treated with recombinant human adenovirus–p53, and the Cis-treated group compared with a control group. The inhibition rates were 41.44% in the cmcm group, 41.34% in the p53 group, and 64.50% in the Cis group. Lung metastasis capacity was significantly reduced in the presence of cmcm (p < 0.05). Lung metastasis inhibition rates in mice were 56.52% in the cmcm group, 47.83% in the p53 group, and 82.61% in the Cis group. With cmcm, the lives of A549-tumour-bearing mice could be significantly prolonged without any effect on weight loss. Conclusions Use of cmcm has the effect of reducing A549 cell viability, tumour volume, and lung metastasis rate, while prolonging survival duration without severe toxicity.

  6. Using Haworthia Cultured Cells as an Aid in Teaching Botany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majumdar, Shyamal K.; Castellano, John M.

    1977-01-01

    Callus induction from species of Haworthia can be done quickly in the laboratory with minimal equipment to study tissue dedifferentiation and cellular redifferentiation. It is shown that the cultured cell can also be used to study and evaluate the effects of various mutagens, carcinogens, and pesticides in controlled environments. (Author/MA)

  7. Testicular Sertoli cells influence the proliferation and immunogenicity of co-cultured endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Ping; He, Lan; Pu, Dan; Lv, Xiaohong; Zhou, Wenxu; Sun, Yining; Hu, Nan

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: {yields} The proliferation of dramatic increased by co-cultured with Sertoli cells. {yields} VEGF receptor-2 expression of ECs was up-regulated by co-cultured with Sertoli cells. {yields} The MHC expression of ECs induced by INF-{gamma} and IL-6, IL-8 and sICAM induced by TNF-{alpha} decreased respectively after co-cultured with Sertoli cells. {yields} ECs co-cultured with Sertoli cells also didn't increase the stimulation index of spleen lymphocytes. -- Abstract: The major problem of the application of endothelial cells (ECs) in transplantation is the lack of proliferation and their immunogenicity. In this study, we co-cultured ECs with Sertoli cells to monitor whether Sertoli cells can influence the proliferation and immunogenicity of co-cultured ECs. Sertoli cells were isolated from adult testicular tissue. ECs were divided into the control group and the experimental group, which included three sub-groups co-cultured with 1 x 10{sup 3}, 1 x 10{sup 4} or 1 x 10{sup 5} cell/ml of Sertoli cells. The growth and proliferation of ECs were observed microscopically, and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-2 (KDR) was examined by Western blotting. In another experiment, ECs were divided into the control group, the single culture group and the co-culture group with the optimal concentration of Sertoli cells. After INF-{gamma} and TNF-{alpha} were added to the culture medium, MHC II antigen expression was detected by immunofluorescence staining and western blotting; interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) were measured in the culture medium by ELISA. We demonstrated that 1 x 10{sup 4} cell/ml Sertoli cells promoted the proliferation of co-cultured ECs more dramatically than that in other groups (P < 0.05). Western blotting showed that 1 x 10{sup 4} cell/ml of the Sertoli cells was most effective in the up-regulation of KDR expression in the co-cultured ECs (P < 0.05). Sertoli cells can effectively suppress INF-{gamma}-induced MHC II antigen expression in co-cultured ECs compared with single culture group (P < 0.05). TNF-{alpha} induced the expression of IL-6, IL-8 and sICAM in ECs. When co-cultured with Sertoli cells, their expressions were significantly lower than in the EC single culture group (P < 0.05). ECs co-cultured with Sertoli cells also did not significantly increase the stimulation index of spleen lymphocytes compared to the single culture group (P < 0.05). Our results suggested that co-culturing with Sertoli cells can significantly promote the proliferation of ECs, accelerate post-transplant angiogenesis, while reduce EC immunogenicity and stimulus to lymphocytes.

  8. Culture of Oral Mucosal Epithelial Cells for the Purpose of Treating Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Utheim, Tor Paaske; Utheim, Øygunn Aass; Khan, Qalb-E-Saleem; Sehic, Amer

    2016-01-01

    The cornea is critical for normal vision as it allows allowing light transmission to the retina. The corneal epithelium is renewed by limbal epithelial cells (LEC), which are located in the periphery of the cornea, the limbus. Damage or disease involving LEC may lead to various clinical presentations of limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Both severe pain and blindness may result. Transplantation of cultured autologous oral mucosal epithelial cell sheet (CAOMECS) represents the first use of a cultured non-limbal autologous cell type to treat this disease. Among non-limbal cell types, CAOMECS and conjunctival epithelial cells are the only laboratory cultured cell sources that have been explored in humans. Thus far, the expression of p63 is the only predictor of clinical outcome following transplantation to correct LSCD. The optimal culture method and substrate for CAOMECS is not established. The present review focuses on cell culture methods, with particular emphasis on substrates. Most culture protocols for CAOMECS used amniotic membrane as a substrate and included the xenogeneic components fetal bovine serum and murine 3T3 fibroblasts. However, it has been demonstrated that tissue-engineered epithelial cell sheet grafts can be successfully fabricated using temperature-responsive culture surfaces and autologous serum. In the studies using different substrates for culture of CAOMECS, the quantitative expression of p63 was generally poorly reported; thus, more research is warranted with quantification of phenotypic data. Further research is required to develop a culture system for CAOMECS that mimics the natural environment of oral/limbal/corneal epithelial cells without the need for undefined foreign materials such as serum and feeder cells. PMID:26938569

  9. Culture of Oral Mucosal Epithelial Cells for the Purpose of Treating Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Paaske Utheim, Tor; Aass Utheim, Øygunn; Khan, Qalb-E-Saleem; Sehic, Amer

    2016-01-01

    The cornea is critical for normal vision as it allows allowing light transmission to the retina. The corneal epithelium is renewed by limbal epithelial cells (LEC), which are located in the periphery of the cornea, the limbus. Damage or disease involving LEC may lead to various clinical presentations of limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Both severe pain and blindness may result. Transplantation of cultured autologous oral mucosal epithelial cell sheet (CAOMECS) represents the first use of a cultured non-limbal autologous cell type to treat this disease. Among non-limbal cell types, CAOMECS and conjunctival epithelial cells are the only laboratory cultured cell sources that have been explored in humans. Thus far, the expression of p63 is the only predictor of clinical outcome following transplantation to correct LSCD. The optimal culture method and substrate for CAOMECS is not established. The present review focuses on cell culture methods, with particular emphasis on substrates. Most culture protocols for CAOMECS used amniotic membrane as a substrate and included the xenogeneic components fetal bovine serum and murine 3T3 fibroblasts. However, it has been demonstrated that tissue-engineered epithelial cell sheet grafts can be successfully fabricated using temperature-responsive culture surfaces and autologous serum. In the studies using different substrates for culture of CAOMECS, the quantitative expression of p63 was generally poorly reported; thus, more research is warranted with quantification of phenotypic data. Further research is required to develop a culture system for CAOMECS that mimics the natural environment of oral/limbal/corneal epithelial cells without the need for undefined foreign materials such as serum and feeder cells. PMID:26938569

  10. Generation of a large volume of clinically relevant nanometre-sized ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene wear particles for cell culture studies

    PubMed Central

    Ingham, Eileen; Fisher, John; Tipper, Joanne L

    2014-01-01

    It has recently been shown that the wear of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene in hip and knee prostheses leads to the generation of nanometre-sized particles, in addition to micron-sized particles. The biological activity of nanometre-sized ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene wear particles has not, however, previously been studied due to difficulties in generating sufficient volumes of nanometre-sized ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene wear particles suitable for cell culture studies. In this study, wear simulation methods were investigated to generate a large volume of endotoxin-free clinically relevant nanometre-sized ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene wear particles. Both single-station and six-station multidirectional pin-on-plate wear simulators were used to generate ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene wear particles under sterile and non-sterile conditions. Microbial contamination and endotoxin levels in the lubricants were determined. The results indicated that microbial contamination was absent and endotoxin levels were low and within acceptable limits for the pharmaceutical industry, when a six-station pin-on-plate wear simulator was used to generate ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene wear particles in a non-sterile environment. Different pore-sized polycarbonate filters were investigated to isolate nanometre-sized ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene wear particles from the wear test lubricants. The use of the filter sequence of 10, 1, 0.1, 0.1 and 0.015 µm pore sizes allowed successful isolation of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene wear particles with a size range of < 100 nm, which was suitable for cell culture studies. PMID:24658586

  11. New Cultural Studies at Warwick University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Peter

    1993-01-01

    The British Cultural Studies program at the University of Warwick emphasizes the cultural diversity of Britain. Content includes mythical, cultural, and gender discourses about Britain as they function in economic and political forms; the nexus of economy and culture; and national identities (e.g., Shakespeare). Some course material is appended.

  12. Cell culture: Progenitor cells from human brain after death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Theo D.; Schwartz, Philip H.; Taupin, Philippe; Kaspar, Brian; Stein, Stuart A.; Gage, Fred H.

    2001-05-01

    Culturing neural progenitor cells from the adult rodent brain has become routine and is also possible from human fetal tissue, but expansion of these cells from postnatal and adult human tissue, although preferred for ethical reasons, has encountered problems. Here we describe the isolation and successful propagation of neural progenitor cells from human postmortem tissues and surgical specimens. Although the relative therapeutic merits of adult and fetal progenitor cells still need to be assessed, our results may extend the application of these progenitor cells in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. Development of a bovine luteal cell in vitro culture system suitable for co-culture with early embryos.

    PubMed

    Batista, M; Torres, A; Diniz, P; Mateus, L; Lopes-da-Costa, L

    2012-10-01

    The cross talk between the corpus luteum (CL) and the early embryo, potentially relevant to pregnancy establishment, is difficult to evaluate in the in vivo bovine model. In vitro co-culture of bovine luteal cells and early embryos (days 2-8 post in vitro fertilization) may allow the deciphering of this poorly understood cross talk. However, early embryos and somatic cells require different in vitro culture conditions. The objective of this study was to develop a bovine luteal cell in vitro culture system suitable for co-culture with early embryos in order to evaluate their putative steroidogenic and prostanoid interactions. The corpora lutea of the different stages of the estrous cycle (early, mid, and late) were recovered postmortem and enriched luteal cell populations were obtained. In experiments 1 and 2, the effects of CL stage, culture medium (TCM, DMEM-F12, or SOF), serum concentration (5 or 10%), atmosphere oxygen tension (5 or 20%), and refreshment of the medium on the ability of luteal cells to produce progesterone (P(4)) were evaluated. The production of P(4) was significantly increased in early CL cultures, and luteal cells adapted well to simple media (SOF), low serum concentrations (5%), and oxygen tensions (5%). In experiment 3, previous luteal cell cryopreservation did not affect the production of P(4), PGF(2α), and PGE(2) compared to fresh cell cultures. This enables the use of pools of frozen-thawed cells to decrease the variation in cell function associated with primary cell cultures. In experiment 4, mineral oil overlaying culture wells resulted in a 50-fold decrease of the P(4) quantified in the medium, but had no effect on PGF(2α) and PGE(2) quantification. In conclusion, a luteal cell in vitro culture system suitable for the 5-d-long co-culture with early embryos was developed. PMID:23054443

  14. Differentiation of mammalian skeletal muscle cells cultured on microcarrier beads in a rotating cell culture system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgan, C. E.; Burge, S. S.; Collinsworth, A. M.; Truskey, G. A.; Kraus, W. E.

    2000-01-01

    The growth and repair of adult skeletal muscle are due in part to activation of muscle precursor cells, commonly known as satellite cells or myoblasts. These cells are responsive to a variety of environmental cues, including mechanical stimuli. The overall goal of the research is to examine the role of mechanical signalling mechanisms in muscle growth and plasticity through utilisation of cell culture systems where other potential signalling pathways (i.e. chemical and electrical stimuli) are controlled. To explore the effects of decreased mechanical loading on muscle differentiation, mammalian myoblasts are cultured in a bioreactor (rotating cell culture system), a model that has been utilised to simulate microgravity. C2C12 murine myoblasts are cultured on microcarrier beads in a bioreactor and followed throughout differentiation as they form a network of multinucleated myotubes. In comparison with three-dimensional control cultures that consist of myoblasts cultured on microcarrier beads in teflon bags, myoblasts cultured in the bioreactor exhibit an attenuation in differentiation. This is demonstrated by reduced immunohistochemical staining for myogenin and alpha-actinin. Western analysis shows a decrease, in bioreactor cultures compared with control cultures, in levels of the contractile proteins myosin (47% decrease, p < 0.01) and tropomyosin (63% decrease, p < 0.01). Hydrodynamic measurements indicate that the decrease in differentiation may be due, at least in part, to fluid stresses acting on the myotubes. In addition, constraints on aggregate size imposed by the action of fluid forces in the bioreactor affect differentiation. These results may have implications for muscle growth and repair during spaceflight.

  15. Culturing hybridoma cell lines for monoclonal antibody production.

    PubMed

    Winzeler, Alissa; Wang, Jack T

    2013-07-01

    This protocol describes how to culture hybridoma cell lines (e.g., Thy1.1) for monoclonal antibody production. Supernatants harvested from such cultures can be used to purify various rodent neural cell types by immunopanning. PMID:23818668

  16. Oxygen consumption of human heart cells in monolayer culture.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Kaori; Kagawa, Yuki; Maeyama, Erina; Ota, Hiroki; Haraguchi, Yuji; Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Shimizu, Tatsuya

    2014-09-26

    Tissue engineering in cardiovascular regenerative therapy requires the development of an efficient oxygen supply system for cell cultures. However, there are few studies which have examined human cardiomyocytes in terms of oxygen consumption and metabolism in culture. We developed an oxygen measurement system equipped with an oxygen microelectrode sensor and estimated the oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) by using the oxygen concentration profiles in culture medium. The heart is largely made up of cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibroblasts, and cardiac endothelial cells. Therefore, we measured the oxygen consumption of human induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs), cardiac fibroblasts, human cardiac microvascular endothelial cell and aortic smooth muscle cells. Then we made correlations with their metabolisms. In hiPSC-CMs, the value of the OCR was 0.71±0.38pmol/h/cell, whereas the glucose consumption rate and lactate production rate were 0.77±0.32pmol/h/cell and 1.61±0.70pmol/h/cell, respectively. These values differed significantly from those of the other cells in human heart. The metabolism of the cells that constitute human heart showed the molar ratio of lactate production to glucose consumption (L/G ratio) that ranged between 1.97 and 2.2. Although the energy metabolism in adult heart in vivo is reported to be aerobic, our data demonstrated a dominance of anaerobic glycolysis in an in vitro environment. With our measuring system, we clearly showed the differences in the metabolism of cells between in vivo and in vitro monolayer culture. Our results regarding cell OCRs and metabolism may be useful for future tissue engineering of human heart. PMID:25218502

  17. Induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) Cell Culture Methods and Induction of Differentiation into Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Ishita; Li, Fei; Kohler, Erin E.; Rehman, Jalees; Malik, Asrar B.; Wary, Kishore K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The studies of stem cell behavior and differentiation in a developmental context is complex, time-consuming and expensive, and for this reason, cell culture remains a method of choice for developmental and regenerative biology and mechanistic studies. Similar to ES cells, iPS cells have the ability to differentiate into endothelial cells (ECs), and the route for differentiation appears to mimic the developmental process that occurs during the formation of an embryo. Traditional EC induction methods from embryonic stem (ES) cells rely mostly on the formation the embryoid body (EB), which employs feeder or feeder-free conditions in the presence or absence of supporting cells. Similar to ES cells, iPS cells can be cultured in feeder-layer or feeder-free conditions. Here, we describe the iPS cell culture methods and induction differentiation of these cells into ECs. We use anti-mouse Flk1 and anti-mouse VE-cadherin to isolate and characterize mouse ECs, because these antibodies are commercially available and their use has been described in the literature, including by our group. The ECs produced by this method have been used by our laboratory, and we have demonstrated their in vivo potential. We also discuss how iPS cells differ in their ability to differentiate into endothelial cells in culture. PMID:25687301

  18. Defined culture conditions of human embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jean; Hou, Runhua; Booth, Carmen Jane; Yang, Shih-Hung; Snyder, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are pluripotent cells that have the potential to differentiate into any tissue in the human body; therefore, they are a valuable resource for regenerative medicine, drug screening, and developmental studies. However, the clinical application of hESCs is hampered by the difficulties of eliminating animal products in the culture medium and/or the complexity of conditions required to support hESC growth. We have developed a simple medium [termed hESC Cocktail (HESCO)] containing basic fibroblast growth factor, Wnt3a, April (a proliferation-inducing ligand)/BAFF (B cell-activating factor belonging to TNF), albumin, cholesterol, insulin, and transferrin, which is sufficient for hESC self-renewal and proliferation. Cells grown in HESCO were maintained in an undifferentiated state as determined by using six different stem cell markers, and their genomic integrity was confirmed by karyotyping. Cells cultured in HESCO readily form embryoid bodies in tissue culture and teratomas in mice. In both cases, the cells differentiated into each of the three cell lineages, ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm, indicating that they maintained their pluripotency. The use of a minimal medium sufficient for hESC growth is expected to greatly facilitate clinical application and developmental studies of hESCs. PMID:16595624

  19. Preservative cytotoxicity to cultured corneal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Neville, R; Dennis, P; Sens, D; Crouch, R

    1986-05-01

    Cultured human and rat corneal epithelial cells with 51Cr incorporated were used as a model to test the cytolytic action of four common preservatives. Benzalkonium chloride, chlorohexidine and thimerosol were all found to lyse greater than 40% cells when incubated for fifteen minutes at concentrations in clinical use in topical ophthalmic medications. Chlorobutanol is the only preservative tested which has a low level of cytotoxicity (10%) and which, under these conditions, can be considered a safe preservative using cytolytic activity as the means of criteria. PMID:3720343

  20. Recombinant protein production and insect cell culture and process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas (Inventor); Francis, Karen (Inventor); Andrews, Angela (Inventor); Oconnor, Kim (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process has been developed for recombinant production of selected polypeptides using transformed insect cells cultured in a horizontally rotating culture vessel modulated to create low shear conditions. A metabolically transformed insect cell line is produced using the culture procedure regardless of genetic transformation. The recombinant polypeptide can be produced by an alternative process using the cultured insect cells as host for a virus encoding the described polypeptide such as baculovirus. The insect cells can also be a host for viral production.

  1. Methyl Jasmonate Represses Growth and Affects Cell Cycle Progression in Cultured Taxus Cells

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rohan A.; Lenka, Sangram K.; Normanly, Jennifer; Walker, Elsbeth L.

    2014-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) elicitation is an effective strategy to induce and enhance synthesis of the anticancer agent paclitaxel (Taxol®) in Taxus cell suspension cultures; however, concurrent decreases in growth are often observed, which is problematic for large scale bioprocessing. Here, increased accumulation of paclitaxel in Taxus cuspidata suspension cultures with MeJA elicitation was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in cell growth, evident within the first three days post-elicitation. Both MeJA-elicited and mock-elicited cultures exhibited similar viability with no apoptosis up to day 16 and day 24 of the cell culture period, respectively, suggesting that growth repression is not attributable to cell death. Flow cytometric analyses demonstrated that MeJA perturbed cell cycle progression of asynchronously dividing Taxus cells. MeJA slowed down cell cycle progression, impaired the G1/S transition as observed by an increase in G0/G1 phase cells, and decreased the number of actively dividing cells. Through a combination of deep sequencing and gene expression analyses, the expression status of Taxus cell cycle-associated genes correlated with observations at the culture level. Results from this study provide valuable insight into the mechanisms governing MeJA perception and subsequent events leading to repression of Taxus cell growth. PMID:24832773

  2. Amino Acid Transport into Cultured Tobacco Cells

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, H. Michael; Henke, Randolph R.

    1981-01-01

    Lysine transport into suspension-cultured Wisconsin-38 tobacco cells was observed. Uptake was linear (up to 90 minutes) with respect to time and amount of tissue only after 4 to 6 hours preincubation in calcium-containing medium. The observed cellular accumulation of lysine was against a concentration gradient and not due to exchange diffusion. Transport was stimulated by low pH and characterized by a biphasic uptake isotherm with two Km values for lysine. System I (Km ≃ 5 × 10−6 molar; Vmax ≃ 180 nanomoles per gram fresh weight per hour) and system II (Km ≃ 10−4 molar; Vmax ≃ 1900 nanomoles per gram fresh weight per hour) were inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide and a variety of respiratory inhibitors. This inhibition was not due to increased efflux. In antagonism experiments, system I was inhibited most effectively by basic amino acids, followed by the sulfur amino acids. System I was only slightly inhibited by the neutral and aromatic amino acids and was not inhibited by the acidic amino acids aspartic and glutamic acids. Transport by system II was inhibited by all of the tested amino acids (including aspartic and glutamic acids) and analogs; however, this system was not inhibited by d-arginine. Neither system was strongly inhibited by d-lysine or the lysine analog S-2-aminoethyl-l-cysteine. Arginine was shown to be a competitive inhibitor of both systems with values for Ki similar to the respective Km values. These studies suggest the presence of at least two amino acid permeases in W-38 tobacco cells. PMID:16661678

  3. A Versatile Bioreactor for Dynamic Suspension Cell Culture. Application to the Culture of Cancer Cell Spheroids.

    PubMed

    Massai, Diana; Isu, Giuseppe; Madeddu, Denise; Cerino, Giulia; Falco, Angela; Frati, Caterina; Gallo, Diego; Deriu, Marco A; Falvo D'Urso Labate, Giuseppe; Quaini, Federico; Audenino, Alberto; Morbiducci, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    A versatile bioreactor suitable for dynamic suspension cell culture under tunable shear stress conditions has been developed and preliminarily tested culturing cancer cell spheroids. By adopting simple technological solutions and avoiding rotating components, the bioreactor exploits the laminar hydrodynamics establishing within the culture chamber enabling dynamic cell suspension in an environment favourable to mass transport, under a wide range of tunable shear stress conditions. The design phase of the device has been supported by multiphysics modelling and has provided a comprehensive analysis of the operating principles of the bioreactor. Moreover, an explanatory example is herein presented with multiphysics simulations used to set the proper bioreactor operating conditions for preliminary in vitro biological tests on a human lung carcinoma cell line. The biological results demonstrate that the ultralow shear dynamic suspension provided by the device is beneficial for culturing cancer cell spheroids. In comparison to the static suspension control, dynamic cell suspension preserves morphological features, promotes intercellular connection, increases spheroid size (2.4-fold increase) and number of cycling cells (1.58-fold increase), and reduces double strand DNA damage (1.5-fold reduction). It is envisioned that the versatility of this bioreactor could allow investigation and expansion of different cell types in the future. PMID:27144306

  4. A Versatile Bioreactor for Dynamic Suspension Cell Culture. Application to the Culture of Cancer Cell Spheroids

    PubMed Central

    Madeddu, Denise; Cerino, Giulia; Falco, Angela; Frati, Caterina; Gallo, Diego; Deriu, Marco A.; Falvo D’Urso Labate, Giuseppe; Quaini, Federico; Audenino, Alberto; Morbiducci, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    A versatile bioreactor suitable for dynamic suspension cell culture under tunable shear stress conditions has been developed and preliminarily tested culturing cancer cell spheroids. By adopting simple technological solutions and avoiding rotating components, the bioreactor exploits the laminar hydrodynamics establishing within the culture chamber enabling dynamic cell suspension in an environment favourable to mass transport, under a wide range of tunable shear stress conditions. The design phase of the device has been supported by multiphysics modelling and has provided a comprehensive analysis of the operating principles of the bioreactor. Moreover, an explanatory example is herein presented with multiphysics simulations used to set the proper bioreactor operating conditions for preliminary in vitro biological tests on a human lung carcinoma cell line. The biological results demonstrate that the ultralow shear dynamic suspension provided by the device is beneficial for culturing cancer cell spheroids. In comparison to the static suspension control, dynamic cell suspension preserves morphological features, promotes intercellular connection, increases spheroid size (2.4-fold increase) and number of cycling cells (1.58-fold increase), and reduces double strand DNA damage (1.5-fold reduction). It is envisioned that the versatility of this bioreactor could allow investigation and expansion of different cell types in the future. PMID:27144306

  5. Patulin-induced ion flux in cultured renal cells and reversal by dithiothreitol and glutathione: a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) X-ray microanalysis study.

    PubMed

    Hinton, D M; Riley, R T; Showker, J L; Rigsby, W E

    1989-01-01

    Patulin (PAT), a compound produced by certain species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Byssochlamys, is frequently found associated with agricultural commodities. PAT has many effects on membrane function, including the inhibition of the isolated Na+-K+ ATPase. In this study, a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectroscopy X-ray microanalysis system was used to examine individual cultured renal epithelial cells (LLC-PK1) in order to determine the effects of PAT on the relative intracellular ion concentrations. The estimated EC50 (60 min) for both sodium influx and potassium efflux was between 10 and 50 microns for ouabain. For PAT, the EC50 (60 min) was 250 microns for sodium influx and 100 microns for potassium efflux. However, 1 mM patulin at 240 min caused complete reversal of the sodium and potassium content of cells, and 1 mM ouabain at 240 min did not. The effect of patulin on sodium and potassium flux was both concentration and time dependent and was reversed by dithiothreitol and glutathione. PAT (250 microM) but not ouabain (250 microM) induced massive blebbing of LLC-PK1 cells. Thus, the interaction of PAT with cellular membranes involves both alterations in the regulation of intracellular ion content and the cytoskeleton. We hypothesize that patulin alters intracellular ion content via Na+-K+ ATPase and non-Na+-K+ ATPase mechanisms. PMID:2549248

  6. Niche-independent high-purity cultures of Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells and their progeny

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xiaolei; Farin, Henner F; van Es, Johan H; Clevers, Hans; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Although Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells have been expanded in vitro as organoids, homogeneous culture of these cells has not been possible thus far. Here we show that two small molecules, CHIR99021 and valproic acid, synergistically maintain self-renewal of mouse Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells, resulting in nearly homogeneous cultures. The colony-forming efficiency of cells from these cultures is ~100-fold greater than that of cells cultured in the absence of CHIR99021 and valproic acid, and multilineage differentiation ability is preserved. We made use of these homogeneous cultures to identify conditions employing simultaneous modulation of Wnt and Notch signaling to direct lineage differentiation into mature enterocytes, goblet cells and Paneth cells. Expansion in these culture conditions may be feasible for Lgr5+ cells from the mouse stomach and colon and from the human small intestine. These methods provide new tools for the study and application of multiple intestinal epithelial cell types. PMID:24292484

  7. Reversible gelling culture media for in-vitro cell culture in three-dimensional matrices

    DOEpatents

    An, Yuehuei H.; Mironov, Vladimir A.; Gutowska, Anna

    2000-01-01

    A gelling cell culture medium useful for forming a three dimensional matrix for cell culture in vitro is prepared by copolymerizing an acrylamide derivative with a hydrophilic comonomer to form a reversible (preferably thermally reversible) gelling linear random copolymer in the form of a plurality of linear chains having a plurality of molecular weights greater than or equal to a minimum gelling molecular weight cutoff, mixing the copolymer with an aqueous solvent to form a reversible gelling solution and adding a cell culture medium to the gelling solution to form the gelling cell culture medium. Cells such as chondrocytes or hepatocytes are added to the culture medium to form a seeded culture medium, and temperature of the medium is raised to gel the seeded culture medium and form a three dimensional matrix containing the cells. After propagating the cells in the matrix, the cells may be recovered by lowering the temperature to dissolve the matrix and centrifuging.

  8. An Introductory Undergraduate Course Covering Animal Cell Culture Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozdziak, Paul E.; Petitte, James N.; Carson, Susan D.

    2004-01-01

    Animal cell culture is a core laboratory technique in many molecular biology, developmental biology, and biotechnology laboratories. Cell culture is a relatively old technique that has been sparingly taught at the undergraduate level. The traditional methodology for acquiring cell culture training has been through trial and error, instruction when…

  9. Long Term Maintenance of Myeloid Leukemic Stem Cells Cultured with Unrelated Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Sawa; Barrett, A. John; Dutra, Amalia; Pak, Evgenia; Miner, Samantha; Keyvanfar, Keyvan; Hensel, Nancy F.; Rezvani, Katayoun; Muranski, Pawel; Liu, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) support the growth and differentiation of normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Here we studied the ability of MSCs to support the growth and survival of leukemic stem cells (LSCs) in vitro. Primary leukemic blasts isolated from the peripheral blood of 8 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were co-cultured with equal numbers of irradiated MSCs derived from unrelated donor bone marrow, with or without cytokines for up to 6 weeks. Four samples showed CD34+CD38− predominance, and four were predominantly CD34+CD38+. CD34+ CD38− predominant leukemia cells maintained the CD34+ CD38− phenotype and were viable for 6 weeks when co-cultured with MSCs compared to co-cultures with cytokines or medium only, which showed rapid differentiation and loss of the LSC phenotype. In contrast, CD34+ CD38+ predominant leukemic cells maintained the CD34+CD38+ phenotype when co-cultured with MSCs alone, but no culture conditions supported survival beyond 4 weeks. Cell cycle analysis showed that MSCs maintained a higher proportion of CD34+ blasts in G0 than leukemic cells cultured with cytokines. AML blasts maintained in culture with MSCs for up to 6 weeks engrafted NSG mice with the same efficiency as their non-cultured counterparts, and the original karyotype persisted after co-culture. Chemosensitivity and transwell assays suggest MSCs provide pro-survival benefits to leukemic blasts through cell-cell contact. We conclude that MSCs support long-term maintenance of LSCs in vitro. This simple and inexpensive approach will facilitate basic investigation of LSCs and enable screening of novel therapeutic agents targeting LSCs. PMID:25535865

  10. Characteristics of Human Endometrial Stem Cells in Tissue and Isolated Cultured Cells: An Immunohistochemical Aspect

    PubMed Central

    Fayazi, Mehri; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Ziaei, Saeideh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the percentage of the stem cells population in human endometrial tissue sections and cultured cells at fourth passage. Methods: Human endometrial specimens were divided into two parts, one part for morphological studies and the other part for in vitro culture. Full thickness of human normal endometrial sections and cultured endometrial cells at fourth passage were analyzed via immunohistochemistry for CD146 and some stemness markers such as Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, and Klf4 and the expression of typical mesenchymal stem cell markers CD90, CD105. Results: 11.88±1.29% of human endometrial cells within tissue sections expressed CD146 marker vs. 28±2.3% of cultured cells, CD90 and CD105 were expressed by functionalis stroma (85±2.4 and 89±3.2%) than basalis stroma (16±1.4 and 17±1.9%), respectively (P<0.05). Oct4 and Nanog-expressing cells comprise 1.43±0.08 and 0.54±0.01% of endometrial stromal cells in endometrial sections vs. 12±3.1% and 8±2.9% of cultured cells, respectively. They reside near the glands in the basal layer of endometrium. Sox2 and Klf4 were not commonly expressed in tissue samples and cultured cells. CD9 and EpCAM were expressed by epithelial cells of the endometrium, rather than by stroma or perivascular cells. Conclusion: The human endometrial stem cells and pluripotency markers may be localized more in basalis layer of endometrium. The immunostaining observations of endometrial cells at fourth passage were correlated with the immunohistochemistry data. PMID:26568058

  11. Different phenotypes of cultured microvessel endothelial cells obtained from bovine corpus luteum. Study by light microscopy and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

    PubMed

    Spanel-Borowski, K; van der Bosch, J

    1990-07-01

    Morphological heterogeneity has not been documented for cultured endothelial cells isolated from the microvascular bed of any organ. As the corpus luteum depends on a rich microvascularization, endothelial cells were dislodged from developing corpora lutea by mechanical dissection followed either by collagenase digestion or by no digestion. Cell separation was carried out by Percoll density centrifugation. Although the yield of intact cells was higher with collagenase treatment than without, successful endothelial cell cultures were only established when cells remained untreated. Viewed by light microscopy after an average lag phase of 10 days, five different phenotypes of endothelial cells were found under similar simple culture conditions: isomorphic epithelioid, polymorphic epithelioid, spindle-shaped, round, and phase-dense phenotypes. Monolayers appeared within 2-4 weeks. After an additional period of 2-4 weeks, tubular forms with a specific pattern were noted for types 1-3, the so-called pseudotubular forms for type 4, and none for type 5. Cell types differed in their cytochemical and immunocytochemical responses. Examined by SEM, type 1 displayed a more conspicuous surface anatomy than type 2. Types 3-5 demonstrated striking cell processes that were characteristic of each type. Tubular forms of types 1 and 2 showed cell borders and a marked increase in surface specializations, whereas tubular forms of type 3 lacked detectable cell borders in the absence of a striking surface anatomy. Pseudotubular forms of type 4 developed no particular spatial organization. Thus, for the first time, morphological evidence is provided that different endothelial cell types are obtained from diverse segments of the microvascular bed. PMID:1696523

  12. Lingual Epithelial Stem Cells and Organoid Culture of Them

    PubMed Central

    Hisha, Hiroko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Ueno, Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    As tongue cancer is one of the major malignant cancers in the world, understanding the mechanism of maintenance of lingual epithelial tissue, which is known to be the origin of tongue cancer, is unquestionably important. However, the actual stem cells that are responsible for the long-term maintenance of the lingual epithelium have not been identified. Moreover, a simple and convenient culture method for lingual epithelial stem cells has not yet been established. Recently, we have shown that Bmi1-positive cells, residing at the second or third layer of the epithelial cell layer at the base of the interpapillary pit (IPP), were slow-cycling and could supply keratinized epithelial cells for over one year, indicating that Bmi1-positive cells are long-term lingual epithelial stem cells. In addition, we have developed a novel lingual epithelium organoid culture system using a three-dimensional matrix and growth factors. Here, we discuss current progress in the identification of lingual stem cells and future applications of the lingual culture system for studying the regulatory mechanisms of the lingual epithelium and for regenerative medicine. PMID:26828484

  13. The cell-surface proteome of cultured adipose stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Donnenberg, Albert D; Meyer, E Michael; Rubin, J Peter; Donnenberg, Vera S

    2015-07-01

    In this technical note we describe a method to evaluate the cell surface proteome of human primary cell cultures and cell lines. The method utilizes the BD Biosciences lyoplate, a system covering 242 surface proteins, glycoproteins, and glycosphingolipids plus relevant isotype controls, automated plate-based flow cytometry, conventional file-level analysis and unsupervised K-means clustering of markers on the basis of percent of positive events and mean fluorescence intensity of positive and total clean events. As an example, we determined the cell surface proteome of cultured adipose stromal cells (ASC) derived from 5 independent clinical isolates. Between-sample agreement of very strongly expressed (n = 32) and strongly expressed (n =16) markers was excellent, constituting a reliable profile for ASC identification and determination of functional properties. Known mesenchymal markers (CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105) were among the identified strongly expressed determinants. Among other strongly expressed markers are several that are potentially immunomodulatory including three proteins that protect from complement mediated effects (CD46, CD55, and CD59), two that regulate apoptosis (CD77 and CD95) and several with ectoenzymatic (CD10, CD26, CD13, CD73, and CD143) or receptor tyrosine kinase (CD140b (PDGFR), CD340 (Her-2), EGFR) activity, suggesting mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory and tissue remodeling properties of ASC. Because variables are standardized for K-means clustering, results generated using this methodology should be comparable between instrumentation platforms. It is widely generalizable to human primary explant cultures and cells lines and will prove useful to determine how cell passage, culture interventions, and gene expression and silencing affect the cell-surface proteome. PMID:25929697

  14. Traditional and Modern Cell Culture in Virus Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Hematian, Ali; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Mohebi, Reza; Taherikalani, Morovat; Nasrolahi, Abbas; Amraei, Mansour; Ghafourian, Sobhan

    2016-01-01

    Cell cultures are developed from tissue samples and then disaggregated by mechanical, chemical, and enzymatic methods to extract cells suitable for isolation of viruses. With the recent advances in technology, cell culture is considered a gold standard for virus isolation. This paper reviews the evolution of cell culture methods and demonstrates why cell culture is a preferred method for identification of viruses. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of both traditional and modern cell culture methods for diagnosis of each type of virus are discussed. Detection of viruses by the novel cell culture methods is considered more accurate and sensitive. However, there is a need to include some more accurate methods such as molecular methods in cell culture for precise identification of viruses. PMID:27169004

  15. Stimulation of gastrin release by bombesin and canine gastrin-releasing peptides. Studies with isolated canine G cells in primary culture.

    PubMed Central

    Sugano, K; Park, J; Soll, A H; Yamada, T

    1987-01-01

    Bombesin, a polypeptide derived from frog skin, has been shown to stimulate gastrin release from the gastric antrum in vivo and in vitro. To elucidate the mechanisms of this effect, we developed a method to culture isolated and enriched G cells from canine stomach. After digestion of antral mucosa with collagenase and EDTA, dispersed cells were fractionated by counterflow elutriation then cultured on a collagen support. Bombesin and three molecular forms of canine gastrin-releasing peptides all stimulated gastrin release from G cells in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of bombesin was suppressed by somatostatin and potentiated by dibutyryl cyclic AMP (10(-3) M) but not by carbachol (10(-6) M). Extracellular calcium depletion attenuated the stimulation of gastrin release by bombesin but not by forskolin. These findings suggest that the bombesin family peptides directly activate G cells through calcium-dependent mechanisms to cause gastrin release. Images PMID:2880870

  16. Patterning discrete stem cell culture environments via localized SAM replacement

    PubMed Central

    Koepsel, Justin T.; Murphy, William L.

    2009-01-01

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiolates on gold have become an important tool for probing cell-material interactions. Emerging studies in stem cell biology are particularly reliant on well-defined model substrates, and rapid and highly controllable fabrication methods may be necessary to characterize the wide array of stem cell-material interactions. Therefore, this study describes a rapid method to create SAM cell culture substrates with multiple discrete regions of controlled peptide identity and density. The approach uses an NaBH4 solution to selectively remove regions of bio-inert, hydroxyl-terminated oligo(ethylene glycol) alkanethiolate SAM, then locally replace them with mixed SAMs of hydroxyl- and carboxylic acid-terminated oligo(ethylene glycol) alkanethiolates. The cell adhesion peptide Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Pro (RGDSP) was then covalently linked to carboxylic acid-terminated mixed SAM regions to create cell adhesive environments within a bio-inert background. SAM preparation and peptide immobilization were characterized using polarization modulation–infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PMIRRAS), as well as assays to monitor conjugation of a fluorescently-labeled peptide. This “localized SAM replacement” method was achieved using an array of microchannels, which facilitated rapid and simple processing. Results indicate that immobilized RGDSP promoted spatially localized attachment of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) within specified regions, while maintaining a stable, bio-inert background in serum-containing cell culture conditions for up to 14 days. Cell attachment to patterned regions presenting a range of cell adhesion peptide densities demonstrated that peptide identity and density strongly influence hMSC spreading and focal adhesion density. These substrates contain discrete, well-defined microenvironments for stem cell culture, which could ultimately enable high-throughput screening for the effects of immobilized signals on stem cell phenotype. PMID:19856996

  17. Cultural Studies in the English Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, James A., Ed.; Vivion, Michael J., Ed.

    This book opens up ways of teaching and devising programs which place the students' cultural experiences at the center of language production and consumption. It provides concrete models of cultural studies programs and classrooms for high school and college teachers who would like to try the "cultural studies approach." It also offers a…

  18. Rotating bio-reactor cell culture apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, Ray P. (Inventor); Wolf, David A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A bioreactor system is described in which a tubular housing contains an internal circularly disposed set of blade members and a central tubular filter all mounted for rotation about a common horizontal axis and each having independent rotational support and rotational drive mechanisms. The housing, blade members and filter preferably are driven at a constant slow speed for placing a fluid culture medium with discrete microbeads and cell cultures in a discrete spatial suspension in the housing. Replacement fluid medium is symmetrically input and fluid medium is symmetrically output from the housing where the input and the output are part of a loop providing a constant or intermittent flow of fluid medium in a closed loop.

  19. Enhanced steatosis by nuclear receptor ligands: a study in cultured human hepatocytes and hepatoma cells with a characterized nuclear receptor expression profile.

    PubMed

    Moya, Marta; Gómez-Lechón, M José; Castell, José V; Jover, Ramiro

    2010-03-30

    Steatosis is the first step in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis are not fully understood. Many nuclear receptors (NRs) involved in energy homeostasis and biotransformation constitute a network connecting fatty acids, cholesterol and xenobiotic metabolisms; therefore, multiple NRs and their ligands may play a prominent role in liver fat metabolism and accumulation. In this study we have attempted to gain insight into the relevance of the NR superfamily in NAFLD by investigating the steatogenic potential of 76 different NR ligands in fatty acid overloaded human hepatocytes and hepatoma cells. Moreover, we have determined the mRNA expression level of 24 NRs to correlate the steatogenic potential of the ligands with the expression of their associated NRs in the cultured cells. Our results demonstrate that 18% of the examined NR ligands enhanced lipid accumulation in human hepatocytes and/or hepatoma cells. Among them, ligands of PPARgamma (e.g., thiazolidinediones), LXR (paxilline and 24(S),25-epoxycholesterol), PXR (hyperforin), CAR (3alpha,5alpha-androstenol), ERalpha (tamoxifen), FXR (Z-guggulsterone), VDR (25-hydroxyvitamin D3) and particular retinoids and farnesoids showed a significant pro-steatotic effect. The mRNA level of most of the NRs examined was well preserved in human hepatocytes, but HepG2 showed a deranged profile, where many of the receptors had a marginal or negligible level of expression in comparison with the human liver. By comparing the steatogenic effect of NR ligands with the NR expression levels, we conclude that LXR, PXR, RAR and PPARgamma ligands likely induce fat accumulation by a NR-dependent mechanism. Indeed, over-expression of PXR in HepG2 cells enhanced the steatogenic effect of hyperforin and rifampicin. However, the accumulation of fat induced by other ligands did not correlate with the expression of their associated NR. Our results also suggest that human hepatocytes cultured with free fatty acids offer a highly valuable in vitro system to investigate the pathogenesis and therapeutics of the human fatty liver. PMID:20079722

  20. Maintenance of primary cell cultures of immunocytes from Cacopsylla sp. psyllids: a new in vitrio tool for the study of pest insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Psyllid species are major vectors of plant pathogens, such as phytoplasmas and Liberibacter bacteria, which threaten economic stability of fruit tee crops and vegetable production worldwide. Primary cell cultures of immunocytes have been developed from the three psyllid species, Cacopsylla melanone...

  1. Three-Dimensional Cultures of Mouse Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mroue, Rana; Bissell, Mina J.

    2013-01-01

    The mammary gland is an ideal “model organism” for studying tissue specificity and gene expression in mammals: it is one of the few organs that develop after birth and it undergoes multiple cycles of growth, differentiation and regression during the animal’s lifetime in preparation for the important function of lactation. The basic “functional differentiation” unit in the gland is the mammary acinus made up of a layer of polarized epithelial cells specialized for milk production surrounded by myoepithelial contractile cells, and the two-layered structure is surrounded by basement membrane. Much knowledge about the regulation of mammary gland development has been acquired from studying the physiology of the gland and of lactation in rodents. Culture studies, however, were hampered by the inability to maintain functional differentiation on conventional tissue culture plastic. We now know that the microenvironment, including the extracellular matrix and tissue architecture, plays a crucial role in directing functional differentiation of organs. Thus, in order for culture systems to be effective experimental models, they need to recapitulate the basic unit of differentiated function in the tissue or organ and to maintain its three-dimensional (3D) structure. Mouse mammary culture models evolved from basic monolayers of cells to an array of complex 3D systems that observe the importance of the microenvironment in dictating proper tissue function and structure. In this chapter, we focus on how 3D mouse mammary epithelial cultures have enabled investigators to gain a better understanding of the organization, development and function of the acinus, and to identify key molecular, structural, and mechanical cues important for maintaining mammary function and architecture. The accompanying chapter of Vidi et al. describes 3D models developed for human cells. Here, we describe how mouse primary epithelial cells and cell lines—essentially those we use in our laboratory—are cultured in relevant 3D microenvironments. We focus on the design of functional assays that enable us to understand the intricate signaling events underlying mammary gland biology, and address the advantages and limitations of the different culture settings. Finally we also discuss how advances in bioengineering tools may help towards the ultimate goal of building tissues and organs in culture for basic research and clinical studies. PMID:23097110

  2. CELL GROWTH IN PLANT CULTURES: AN INTERPRETATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF INITIAL WEIGHT IN CADMIUM AND COPPER TOXICITY TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors present an approach for conducting and interpreting results of newly established plant cell culture in toxicity studies. xtended culturing produces uniform suspension and facilities sampling. rimary (new) cultures are more representative of all responses of their plan...

  3. Arsenic exposure induces the Warburg effect in cultured human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Fei; Severson, Paul; Pacheco, Samantha; Futscher, Bernard W.; Klimecki, Walter T.

    2013-08-15

    Understanding how arsenic exacts its diverse, global disease burden is hampered by a limited understanding of the particular biological pathways that are disrupted by arsenic and underlie pathogenesis. A reductionist view would predict that a small number of basic pathways are generally perturbed by arsenic, and manifest as diverse diseases. Following an initial observation that arsenite-exposed cells in culture acidify their media more rapidly than control cells, the report here shows that low level exposure to arsenite (75 ppb) is sufficient to induce aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) as a generalized phenomenon in cultured human primary cells and cell lines. Expanded studies in one such cell line, the non-malignant pulmonary epithelial line, BEAS-2B, established that the arsenite-induced Warburg effect was associated with increased accumulation of intracellular and extracellular lactate, an increased rate of extracellular acidification, and inhibition by the non-metabolized glucose analog, 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Associated with the induction of aerobic glycolysis was a pathway-wide induction of glycolysis gene expression, as well as protein accumulation of an established glycolysis master-regulator, hypoxia-inducible factor 1A. Arsenite-induced alteration of energy production in human cells represents the type of fundamental perturbation that could extend to many tissue targets and diseases. - Highlights: • Chronic arsenite exposure induces aerobic glycolysis, dubbed the “Warburg effect”. • Arsenite-induced Warburg effect is a general phenomenon in cultured human cells. • HIF-1A may mediate arsenite induced Warburg effect.

  4. Embryonic stem cell derived motoneurons provide a highly sensitive cell culture model for botulinum neurotoxin studies, with implications for high-throughput drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Kiris, Erkan; Nuss, Jonathan E.; Burnett, James C.; Kota, Krishna P.; Koh, Dawn C.; Wanner, Laura M.; Torres-Melendez, Edna; Gussio, Rick; Tessarollo, Lino; Bavari, Sina

    2011-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) inhibit cholinergic synaptic transmission by specifically cleaving proteins that are crucial for neurotransmitter exocytosis. Due to the lethality of these toxins, there are elevated concerns regarding their possible use as bioterrorism agents. Moreover, their widespread use for cosmetic purposes, and as medical treatments, has increased the potential risk of accidental overdosing and environmental exposure. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop novel modalities to counter BoNT intoxication. Mammalian motoneurons are the main target of BoNTs, however, due to the difficulty and poor efficiency of the procedures required to isolate the cells, they are not suitable for high-throughput drug screening assays. Here, we explored the suitability of embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived motoneurons as a renewable, reproducible, and physiologically relevant system for BoNT studies. We found that the sensitivity of ES-derived motoneurons to BoNT/A intoxication is comparable to that of primary mouse spinal motoneurons. Additionally, we demonstrated that several BoNT/A inhibitors protected SNAP-25, the BoNT/A substrate, in the ES-derived motoneuron system. Furthermore, this system is compatible with immunofluorescence-based high-throughput studies. These data suggest that ES-derived motoneurons provide a highly sensitive system that is amenable to large-scale screenings to rapidly identify and evaluate the biological efficacies of novel therapeutics. PMID:21353660

  5. Ca2+ homeostasis in Brody's disease. A study in skeletal muscle and cultured muscle cells and the effects of dantrolene an verapamil.

    PubMed Central

    Benders, A A; Veerkamp, J H; Oosterhof, A; Jongen, P J; Bindels, R J; Smit, L M; Busch, H F; Wevers, R A

    1994-01-01

    Brody's disease, i.e., sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-dependent Mg(2+)-ATPase (Ca(2+)-ATPase) deficiency, is a rare inherited disorder of skeletal muscle function. Pseudo-myotonia is the most important clinical feature. SR Ca(2+)-ATPase and Ca2+ homeostasis are examined in m. quadriceps and/or cultured muscle cells of controls and 10 patients suffering from Brody's disease. In both m. quadriceps and cultured muscle cells of patients, the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase activity is decreased by approximately 50%. However, the concentration of SR Ca(2+)-ATPase and SERCA1 are normal. SERCA1 accounts for 83 and 100% of total SR Ca(2+)-ATPase in m. quadriceps and cultured muscle cells, respectively. This implies a reduction of the molecular activity of SERCA1 in Brody's disease. The cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) at rest and the increase of [Ca2+]i after addition of acetylcholine are the same in cultured muscle cells of controls and patients. The half-life of the maximal response, however, is raised three times in the pathological muscle cells. Addition of dantrolene or verapamil after the maximal response accelerates the restoration of the [Ca2+]i in these muscle cells. The differences in Ca2+ handling disappear by administration of dantrolene or verapamil concomitantly with acetylcholine. The reduced Ca2+ re-uptake from the cytosol presumably due to structural modification(s) of SERCA1 may explain the pseudo-myotonia in Brody's disease. Single cell measurements suggest a beneficial effect of dantrolene or verapamil in treating patients suffering from Brody's disease. Images PMID:8040329

  6. Neural stem cell differentiation in a cell-collagen-bioreactor culture system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsingchi J; O'Shaughnessy, Thomas J; Kelly, Jeremy; Ma, Wu

    2004-11-25

    Neural stem cells and neural progenitors (NSCs/NPs) are capable of self-renewal and can give rise to both neurons and glia. Such cells have been isolated from the embryonic brain and immobilized in three dimensional collagen gels. The collagen-entrapped NSCs/NPs recapitulate CNS stem cell development and form functional synapses and neuronal circuits. However, the cell-collagen constructs from static conditions contain hypoxic, necrotic cores and the cells are short-lived. In the present study, NSCs/NPs isolated from embryonic day 13 rat cortical neuroepithelium are immobilized in type I collagen gels and cultured in NASA-designed rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactors for up to 9 weeks. Initially, during the first 2 weeks of culture, a lag phase of cellular growth and differentiation is observed in the RWV bioreactors. Accelerated growth and differentiation, with the cells beginning to form large aggregates (approximately 1 mm in diameter) without death cores, begins during the third week. The collagen-entrapped NSCs/NPs cultured in RWV show active neuronal generation followed by astrocyte production. After 6 weeks in rotary culture, the cell-collagen constructs contain over 10 fold greater nestin+ and GFAP+ cells and two-fold more TuJ1 gene expression than those found in static cultures. In addition, TuJ1+ neurons in RWV culture give rise to extensive neurite outgrowth and considerably more synapsin I+ pre-synaptic puncta surrounding MAP2+ cell bodies and dendrites. These results strongly suggest that the cell-collagen-bioreactor culture system supports long-term NSC/NP growth and differentiation, and RWV bioreactors can be useful in generating neural tissue like constructs, which may have the potential for cell replacement therapy. PMID:15527884

  7. Isolation and culture of human oligodendrocyte precursor cells from neurospheres.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yabin; Yang, Yinxiang; Wang, Zhaoyan; Wang, Caiying; Du, Qingan; Wang, Qian; Luan, Zuo

    2015-09-01

    Culture of human oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) can help understand the regulatory mechanism of differentiation and myelination of oligodendrocytes. However, existing culture methods have limitations, particularly the lack of a source of human donor tissue and high cost. We sorted cells with the A2B5(+)PSA-NCAM(-) phenotype from neurospheres instead of human donor tissues through immunomagnetic sorting and subsequently cultured the isolated cells in OPC medium. Of all the isolated cells, 15.69% were of the A2B5(+)PSA-NCAM(-) phenotype. More than 90% of the isolated OPCs expressed the OPC-specific markers O4, PDGFαR, and Sox10, and less than 5% of cells expressed GFAP and Tuj-1. After induction, the isolated cells had the capacity to differentiate into oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, the OPCs could be stably passaged in vitro for at least four generations and all the cells had high expression levels of O4 and Sox10 and very low expression levels of GFAP and Tuj-1; moreover, the cells had the capacity to differentiate into oligodendrocytes. After four passages, OPCs can proliferate at least 14 times above. In addition, in the presence of B27, only one cytokine, namely, bFGF, was sufficient to maintain proliferation, and this greatly reduced the experimental cost. Cells of the A2B5(+)PSA-NCAM(-) phenotype have already been identified as OPCs. We developed and characterized a reproducible, simple, and economical method for the isolation and culture of human OPCs. This method will contribute to studying the function of OPCs in development, disease, and treatment. PMID:26321391

  8. Antitumor Activity of Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells during Direct or Indirect Co-Culturing with C6 Glioma Cells.

    PubMed

    Gabashvili, A N; Baklaushev, V P; Grinenko, N F; Mel'nikov, P A; Cherepanov, S A; Levinsky, A B; Chehonin, V P

    2016-02-01

    The tumor-suppressive effect of rat mesenchymal stem cells against low-differentiated rat C6 glioma cells during their direct and indirect co-culturing and during culturing of C6 glioma cells in the medium conditioned by mesenchymal stem cells was studied in an in vitro experiment. The most pronounced antitumor activity of mesenchymal stem cells was observed during direct co-culturing with C6 glioma cells. The number of live C6 glioma cells during indirect co-culturing and during culturing in conditioned medium was slightly higher than during direct co-culturing, but significantly differed from the control (C6 glioma cells cultured in medium conditioned by C6 glioma cells). The cytotoxic effect of medium conditioned by mesenchymal stem cells was not related to medium depletion by glioma cells during their growth. The medium conditioned by other "non-stem" cells (rat astrocytes and fibroblasts) produced no tumor-suppressive effect. Rat mesenchymal stem cells, similar to rat C6 glioma cells express connexin 43, the main astroglial gap junction protein. During co-culturing, mesenchymal stem cells and glioma C6 cells formed functionally active gap junctions. Gap junction blockade with connexon inhibitor carbenoxolone attenuated the antitumor effect observed during direct co-culturing of C6 glioma cells and mesenchymal stem cells to the level produced by conditioned medium. Cell-cell signaling mediated by gap junctions can be a mechanism of the tumor-suppressive effect of mesenchymal stem cells against C6 glioma cells. This phenomenon can be used for the development of new methods of cell therapy for high-grade malignant gliomas. PMID:26902362

  9. Cultural Studies in Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Dave

    1974-01-01

    For many years American Society seemed to feel that all institutional and cultural development of the United States came directly from Western European historical tradition. The greater society lost much of the enrichment and perspective that comes from the acceptance of a cultural pluralism that includes American Indian contributions in society…

  10. In vitro culture of Keratinocytes from human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells: the Saigonese culture.

    PubMed

    Tran, Cong Toai; Huynh, Duy Thao; Gargiulo, Ciro; Nguyen, Phuong Thao; Tran, Thi Thanh Thuy; Huynh, Minh Tuan; Nguyen, Thanh Tung; Filgueira, Luis; Strong, D Micheal

    2011-05-01

    There have been many attempts to acquire and culture human keratinocytes for clinical purposes including from keratotome slices in media with fetal calf serum (FCS) or pituitary extract (PE), from skin specimens in media with feeder layers, from suction blister epidermal roofs' in serum-free culture and from human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in media with skin feeder layers. Conversely this study was designed to investigate whether keratinocytes could be obtained directly from hUCB MSCs in vitro. It is widely established that mesenchymal stem cells from human umbilical cord blood have multipotent capacity and the ability to differentiate into disparate cell lineages hUCB MSCs were directly induced to differentiate into keratinocytes by using a specific medium composed of primary culture medium (PCM) and serum free medium (SFM) in a ratio 1:9 for a period of 7 days and tested by immunostain p63 and K1-K10. Cells thus cultured were positive in both tests, confirming the possibility to directly obtain keratinocytes from MSCs hUCB in vitro. PMID:20349146

  11. Cultured meat from stem cells: challenges and prospects.

    PubMed

    Post, Mark J

    2012-11-01

    As one of the alternatives for livestock meat production, in vitro culturing of meat is currently studied. The generation of bio-artificial muscles from satellite cells has been ongoing for about 15 years, but has never been used for generation of meat, while it already is a great source of animal protein. In order to serve as a credible alternative to livestock meat, lab or factory grown meat should be efficiently produced and should mimic meat in all of its physical sensations, such as visual appearance, smell, texture and of course, taste. This is a formidable challenge even though all the technologies to create skeletal muscle and fat tissue have been developed and tested. The efficient culture of meat will primarily depend on culture conditions such as the source of medium and its composition. Protein synthesis by cultured skeletal muscle cells should further be maximized by finding the optimal combination of biochemical and physical conditions for the cells. Many of these variables are known, but their interactions are numerous and need to be mapped. This involves a systematic, if not systems, approach. Given the urgency of the problems that the meat industry is facing, this endeavor is worth undertaking. As an additional benefit, culturing meat may provide opportunities for production of novel and healthier products. PMID:22543115

  12. Radiosensitivity of cultured insect cells: II. Diptera

    SciTech Connect

    Koval, T.M.

    1983-10-01

    The radiosensitivity of five dipteran cell lines representing three mosquito genera and one fruit fly genus were examined. These lines are: (1) ATC-10, Aedes aegypti; (2) RU-TAE-14, Toxorhynchites amboinensis; (3) RU-ASE-2A, Anopheles stephensi; (4) WR69-DM-1, Drosophila melanogaster; and (5) WR69-DM-2, Drosophila melanogaster. Population doubling times for these lines range from approximately 16 to 48 hr. Diploid chromosome numbers are six for the mosquito cells and eight for the fruit fly cells D/sub 0/ values are 5.1 and 6.5 Gy for the Drosophila cell lines and 3.6, 6.2, and 10.2 Gy for the mosquito cell lines. The results of this study demonstrate that dipteran insect cells are a few times more resistant to radiation than mammalian cells, but not nearly as radioresistant as lepidopteran cells.

  13. Effects of Feeder Cell Types on Culture of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yun-Gwi; Lee, Seung-Eun; Kim, Eun-Young; Hyun, Hyuk; Shin, Min-Young; Son, Yeo-Jin; Kim, Su-Young; Park, Se-Pill

    2015-01-01

    The suitable feeder cell layer is important for culture of embryonic stem (ES) cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of two kinds of the feeder cell, MEF cells and STO cells, layer to mouse ES (mES) cell culture for maintenance of stemness. We compare the colony formations, alkaline phosphatase (AP) activities, expression of pluripotency marker genes and proteins of D3 cell colonies cultured on MEF feeder cell layer (D3/MEF) or STO cell layers (D3/STO) compared to feeder free condition (D3/–) as a control group. Although there were no differences to colony formations and AP activities, interestingly, the transcripts level of pluripotency marker genes, Pou5f1 and Nanog were highly expressed in D3/MEF (79 and 93) than D3/STO (61and 77) or D3/– (65 and 81). Also, pluripotency marker proteins, NANOG and SOX-2, were more synthesized in D3/MEF (72.8±7.69 and 81.2±3.56) than D3/STO (32.0±4.30 and 56.0±4.90) or D3/– (55.0±4.64 and 62.0±6.20). These results suggest that MEF feeder cell layer is more suitable to mES cell culture. PMID:27004268

  14. Cardiac Cells Beating in Culture: A Laboratory Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Debora

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how to establish a primary tissue culture, where cells are taken directly from an organ of a living animal. Cardiac cells are taken from chick embryos and transferred to culture dishes. These cells are not transformed and therefore have a limited life span. However, the unique characteristics of cardiac cells are maintained

  15. Cardiac Cells Beating in Culture: A Laboratory Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Debora

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how to establish a primary tissue culture, where cells are taken directly from an organ of a living animal. Cardiac cells are taken from chick embryos and transferred to culture dishes. These cells are not transformed and therefore have a limited life span. However, the unique characteristics of cardiac cells are maintained…

  16. Cannabinoids induce incomplete maturation of cultured human leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Murison, G.; Chubb, C.B.H.; Maeda, S.; Gemmell, M.A.; Huberman, E.

    1987-08-01

    Monocyte maturation markers were induced in cultured human myeloblastic ML-2 leukemia cells after treatment for 1-6 days with 0.03-30 ..mu..M ..delta../sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component of marijuana. After a 2-day or longer treatment, 2- to 5-fold increases were found in the percentages of cells exhibiting reactivity with either the murine OKM1 monoclonal antibody of the Leu-M5 monoclonal antibody, staining positively for nonspecific esterase activity, and displaying a promonocyte morphology. The increases in these differentiation markers after treatment with 0.03-1 ..mu..M THC were dose dependent. At this dose range, THC did not cause an inhibition of cell growth. The THC-induced cell maturation was also characterized by specific changes in the patterns of newly synthesized proteins. The THC-induced differentiation did not, however, result in cells with a highly developed mature monocyte phenotype. However, treatment of these incompletely matured cells with either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate of 1..cap alpha..,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, which are inducers of differentiation in myeloid leukemia cells (including ML-2 cells), produced cells with a mature monocyte morphology. The ML-2 cell system described here may be a useful tool for deciphering critical biochemical events that lead to the cannabinoid-induced incomplete cell differentiation of ML-2 cells and other related cell types. Findings obtained from this system may have important implications for studies of cannabinoid effects on normal human bone-marrow progenitor cells.

  17. Culture and characterization of oral mucosal epithelial cells on human amniotic membrane for ocular surface reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Madhira, Soundarya Lakshmi; Vemuganti, Geeta; Bhaduri, Anirban; Gaddipati, Subhash; Sangwan, Virender Singh

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To culture oral mucosal epithelial cells on deepithelialized human amniotic membrane without the use of feeder cells and to compare the characteristics of cultured oral cells with cultured limbal and conjunctival epithelial cells for use in ocular surface reconstruction. Methods Oral biopsies were obtained from healthy volunteers after informed consent and were cultured on deepithelialized amniotic membrane for three to four weeks. Confluent cultures of limbal, oral, and conjunctival cells were subjected to characterization of markers of stem cells and of epithelial differentiation by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) and by immunohistochemistry. Ultrastructural studies were also performed using electron microscopy. Results A sheet of healthy, stratified oral epithelial cells was obtained within three to four weeks of culture. Electron microscopy demonstrated that the cells formed gap junctions and desmosomes. RT–PCR analysis showed that cultured oral epithelial cells expressed markers of epithelial differentiation such as cytokeratin K3, K4, K13, K15 and connexin 43. The cells also expressed stem cell markers of epithelial cells such as ΔN isoforms of p63 as well as p75, a marker for stem cells of oral epithelium. The cells did not express cytokeratin K12 or Pax-6, an eye-specific transcription factor. Conclusions Oral epithelial cells can be cultured as explants on deepithelialized amniotic membrane without using feeder cells. Characterization showed that these cells maintain the phenotypic characteristics of oral epithelial cells and that the culture is a heterogeneous population of differentiated cells and stem cells. We find the cultured oral epithelial cells usable for ocular surface reconstruction in patients having bilateral ocular surface diseases. PMID:18334934

  18. Equipment for large-scale mammalian cell culture.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Sadettin S

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides information on commonly used equipment in industrial mammalian cell culture, with an emphasis on bioreactors. The actual equipment used in the cell culture process can vary from one company to another, but the main steps remain the same. The process involves expansion of cells in seed train and inoculation train processes followed by cultivation of cells in a production bioreactor. Process and equipment options for each stage of the cell culture process are introduced and examples are provided. Finally, the use of disposables during seed train and cell culture production is discussed. PMID:24429549

  19. Co-culture with endometrial stromal cells enhances the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into endometrium-like cells

    PubMed Central

    YU, WENZHU; NIU, WENBIN; WANG, SHUNA; CHEN, XUEMEI; SUN, BO; WANG, FANG; SUN, YINGPU

    2015-01-01

    In vitro differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into endometrium-like cells may provide a useful tool for clinical treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the differentiation potential of hESCs into endometrium-like cells using three methods, which included induction by feeder cells, co-culture with endometrial stromal cells and induction with embryoid bodies. Following differentiation, the majority of cells positively expressed cytokeratin and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EPCAM). Factors associated with endometrium cell function, namely the estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER and PR), were also detected. At day 21 following the induction of differentiation, the expression levels of cytokeratin, EPCAM, ER and PR were significantly increased in the co-culture method group, as compared with the other two methods. Furthermore, these cells became decidualized in response to progesterone and prolactin. In addition, the number of cytokeratin-positive or EPCAM-positive cells significantly increased following the induction of differentiation using the co-culture method, as compared with the other two methods. The mRNA expression levels of Wnt members that are associated with endometrial development were subsequently examined, and Wnt5a was found to be significantly upregulated in the differentiated cells induced by feeder cells and co-culture with endometrial stromal cells; however, Wnt4 and Wnt7a expression levels were unaffected. Additionally, the mRNA expression levels of Wnt5a in the differentiated cells co-cultured with endometrial stromal cells were higher when compared with those induced by feeder cells. In conclusion, the present findings indicated that the co-culture system is the optimal protocol for the induction of hESC differentiation into endometrium-like cells, and Wnt5a signaling may be involved in this process. PMID:26170910

  20. Human norovirus culture in B cells.

    PubMed

    Jones, Melissa K; Grau, Katrina R; Costantini, Veronica; Kolawole, Abimbola O; de Graaf, Miranda; Freiden, Pamela; Graves, Christina L; Koopmans, Marion; Wallet, Shannon M; Tibbetts, Scott A; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey; Wobus, Christiane E; Vinjé, Jan; Karst, Stephanie M

    2015-12-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are a leading cause of foodborne disease and severe childhood diarrhea, and they cause a majority of the gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. However, the development of effective and long-lasting HuNoV vaccines and therapeutics has been greatly hindered by their uncultivability. We recently demonstrated that a HuNoV replicates in human B cells, and that commensal bacteria serve as a cofactor for this infection. In this protocol, we provide detailed methods for culturing the GII.4-Sydney HuNoV strain directly in human B cells, and in a coculture system in which the virus must cross a confluent epithelial barrier to access underlying B cells. We also describe methods for bacterial stimulation of HuNoV B cell infection and for measuring viral attachment to the surface of B cells. Finally, we highlight variables that contribute to the efficiency of viral replication in this system. Infection assays require 3 d and attachment assays require 3 h. Analysis of infection or attachment samples, including RNA extraction and RT-qPCR, requires ∼6 h. PMID:26513671

  1. Oxygenation of intensive cell-culture system.

    PubMed

    Emery, A N; Jan, D C; al-Rubeai, M

    1995-11-01

    The abilities of various methods of oxygenation to meet the demands of high-cell-density culture were investigated using a spin filter perfusion system in a bench-top bioreactor. Oxygen demand at high cell density could not be met by sparging with air inside a spin filter (oxygen transfer values in this condition were comparable with those for surface aeration). Sparging with air outside a spin filter gave adequate oxygen transfer for the support of cell concentrations above 10(7) ml-1 in fully aerobic conditions but the addition of antifoam to control foaming caused blockage of the spinfilter mesh. Bubble-free aeration through immersed silicone tubing with pure oxygen gave similar oxygen transfer rates to that of sparging with air but without the problems of bubble damage and fouling of the spin filter. A supra-optimal level of dissolved oxygen (478% air saturation) inhibited cell growth. However, cells could recover from this stress and reach high density after reduction of the dissolved oxygen level to 50% air saturation. PMID:8590652

  2. Co-culture with Sertoli cells promotes proliferation and migration of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fenxi; Hong, Yan; Liang, Wenmei; Ren, Tongming; Jing, Suhua; Lin, Juntang

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-culture of Sertoli cells (SCs) with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of SCs dramatically increased proliferation and migration of UCMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of SCs stimulated expression of Mdm2, Akt, CDC2, Cyclin D, CXCR4, MAPKs. -- Abstract: Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) have been recently used in transplant therapy. The proliferation and migration of MSCs are the determinants of the efficiency of MSC transplant therapy. Sertoli cells are a kind of 'nurse' cells that support the development of sperm cells. Recent studies show that Sertoli cells promote proliferation of endothelial cells and neural stem cells in co-culture. We hypothesized that co-culture of UCMSCs with Sertoli cells may also promote proliferation and migration of UCMSCs. To examine this hypothesis, we isolated UCMSCs from human cords and Sertoli cells from mouse testes, and co-cultured them using a Transwell system. We found that UCMSCs exhibited strong proliferation ability and potential to differentiate to other cell lineages such as osteocytes and adipocytes. The presence of Sertoli cells in co-culture significantly enhanced the proliferation and migration potential of UCMSCs (P < 0.01). Moreover, these phenotypic changes were accompanied with upregulation of multiple genes involved in cell proliferation and migration including phospho-Akt, Mdm2, phospho-CDC2, Cyclin D1, Cyclin D3 as well as CXCR4, phospho-p44 MAPK and phospho-p38 MAPK. These findings indicate that Sertoli cells boost UCMSC proliferation and migration potential.

  3. Neonatal rat heart cells cultured in simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akins, Robert E.; Schroedl, Nancy A.; Gonda, Steve R.; Hartzell, Charles R.

    1994-01-01

    In vitro characteristics of cardiac cells cultured in simulated microgravity are reported. Tissue culture methods performed at unit gravity constrain cells to propagate, differentiate, and interact in a two dimensional (2D) plane. Neonatal rat cardiac cells in 2D culture organize predominantly as bundles of cardiomyocytes with the intervening areas filled by non-myocyte cell types. Such cardiac cell cultures respond predictably to the addition of exogenous compounds, and in many ways they represent an excellent in vitro model system. The gravity-induced 2D organization of the cells, however, does not accurately reflect the distribution of cells in the intact tissue. We have begun characterizations of a three-dimensional (3D) culturing system designed to mimic microgravity. The NASA designed High-Aspect-Ratio-Vessel (HARV) bioreactors provide a low shear environment which allows cells to be cultured in static suspension. HARV-3D cultures were prepared on microcarrier beads and compared to control-2D cultures using a combination of microscopic and biochemical techniques. Both systems were uniformly inoculated and medium exchanged at standard intervals. Cells in control cultures adhered to the polystyrene surface of the tissue culture dishes and exhibited typical 2D organization. Cells in cultured in HARV's adhered to microcarrier beads, the beads aggregated into defined clusters containing 8 to 15 beads per cluster, and the clusters exhibited distinct 3D layers: myocytes and fibroblasts appeared attached to the surfaces of beads and were overlaid by an outer cell type. In addition, cultures prepared in HARV's using alternative support matrices also displayed morphological formations not seen in control cultures. Generally, the cells prepared in HARV and control cultures were similar, however, the dramatic alterations in 3D organization recommend the HARV as an ideal vessel for the generation of tissue-like organizations of cardiac cells in simulated microgravity.

  4. Neonatal rat heart cells cultured in simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akins, R. E.; Schroedl, N. A.; Gonda, S. R.; Hartzell, C. R.

    1997-01-01

    In vitro characteristics of cardiac cells cultured in simulated microgravity are reported. Tissue culture methods performed at unit gravity constrain cells to propagate, differentiate, and interact in a two-dimensional (2D) plane. Neonatal rat cardiac cells in 2D culture organize predominantly as bundles of cardiomyocytes with the intervening areas filled by nonmyocyte cell types. Such cardiac cell cultures respond predictably to the addition of exogenous compounds, and in many ways they represent an excellent in vitro model system. The gravity-induced 2D organization of the cells, however, does not accurately reflect the distribution of cells in the intact tissue. We have begun characterizations of a three-dimensional (3D) culturing system designed to mimic microgravity. The NASA-designed High-Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) bioreactors provide a low shear environment that allows cells to be cultured in static suspension. HARV-3D cultures were prepared on microcarrier beads and compared to control-2D cultures using a combination of microscopic and biochemical techniques. Both systems were uniformly inoculated and medium exchanged at standard intervals. Cells in control cultures adhered to the polystyrene surface of the tissue culture dishes and exhibited typical 2D organization. Cells cultured in HARVs adhered to microcarrier beads, the beads aggregated into defined clusters containing 8 to 15 beads per cluster, and the clusters exhibited distinct 3D layers: myocytes and fibroblasts appeared attached to the surfaces of beads and were overlaid by an outer cell type. In addition, cultures prepared in HARVs using alternative support matrices also displayed morphological formations not seen in control cultures. Generally, the cells prepared in HARV and control cultures were similar; however, the dramatic alterations in 3D organization recommend the HARV as an ideal vessel for the generation of tissuelike organization of cardiac cells in vitro.

  5. Neonatal rat heart cells cultured in simulated microgravity.

    PubMed

    Akins, R E; Schroedl, N A; Gonda, S R; Hartzell, C R

    1997-05-01

    In vitro characteristics of cardiac cells cultured in simulated microgravity are reported. Tissue culture methods performed at unit gravity constrain cells to propagate, differentiate, and interact in a two-dimensional (2D) plane. Neonatal rat cardiac cells in 2D culture organize predominantly as bundles of cardiomyocytes with the intervening areas filled by nonmyocyte cell types. Such cardiac cell cultures respond predictably to the addition of exogenous compounds, and in many ways they represent an excellent in vitro model system. The gravity-induced 2D organization of the cells, however, does not accurately reflect the distribution of cells in the intact tissue. We have begun characterizations of a three-dimensional (3D) culturing system designed to mimic microgravity. The NASA-designed High-Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) bioreactors provide a low shear environment that allows cells to be cultured in static suspension. HARV-3D cultures were prepared on microcarrier beads and compared to control-2D cultures using a combination of microscopic and biochemical techniques. Both systems were uniformly inoculated and medium exchanged at standard intervals. Cells in control cultures adhered to the polystyrene surface of the tissue culture dishes and exhibited typical 2D organization. Cells cultured in HARVs adhered to microcarrier beads, the beads aggregated into defined clusters containing 8 to 15 beads per cluster, and the clusters exhibited distinct 3D layers: myocytes and fibroblasts appeared attached to the surfaces of beads and were overlaid by an outer cell type. In addition, cultures prepared in HARVs using alternative support matrices also displayed morphological formations not seen in control cultures. Generally, the cells prepared in HARV and control cultures were similar; however, the dramatic alterations in 3D organization recommend the HARV as an ideal vessel for the generation of tissuelike organization of cardiac cells in vitro. PMID:9196891

  6. Mechanisms of the proliferation and differentiation of plant cells in cell culture systems.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, H; Ito, M; Sugiyama, M; Komamine, A

    1994-06-01

    Plant cell functions have been investigated in various cell culture systems. In this review, we summarize results obtained from investigations of gene expression during the cell cycle in synchronized cultures of Catharanthus roseus during somatic embryogenesis in suspension cultures of Daucus carota, during organogenesis in tissue cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana and during the transdifferentiation of isolated mesophyll cells to tracheary elements in single-cell cultures of Zinnia elegans. PMID:7981037

  7. Aphid-symbiotic bacteria cultured in insect cell lines.

    PubMed

    Darby, A C; Chandler, S M; Welburn, S C; Douglas, A E

    2005-08-01

    The cells and tissues of many aphids contain bacteria known as "secondary symbionts," which under specific environmental circumstances may be beneficial to the host insect. Such symbiotic bacteria are traditionally described as intractable to cultivation in vitro. Here we show that two types of aphid secondary symbionts, known informally as T type and U type, can be cultured and maintained in three insect cell lines. The identities of the cultured bacteria were confirmed by PCR with sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments and fluorescence in situ hybridization. In cell lines infected with bacteria derived from aphids harboring both T type and U type, the U type persisted, while the T type was lost. We suggest that the two bacteria persist in aphids because competition between them is limited by differences in tropism for insect tissues or cell types. The culture of these bacteria in insect cell lines provides a new and unique research opportunity, offering a source of unibacterial material for genomic studies and a model system to investigate the interactions between animal cells and bacteria. We propose the provisional taxon names "Candidatus Consessoris aphidicola" for T type and "Candidatus Adiaceo aphidicola" for U type. PMID:16085881

  8. An optimized method for establishing high purity murine CD8+ T cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Zanker, Damien; Xiao, Kun; Oveissi, Sara; Guillaume, Philippe; Luescher, Immanuel F; Chen, Weisan

    2013-01-31

    Establishing CD8(+) T cell cultures has been empirical and the published methods have been largely individual laboratory based. In this study, we optimized culturing conditions and show that IL-2 concentration is the most critical factor for the success of establishing CD8(+) T cell cultures. High IL-2 concentration encouraged T cells to non-specifically proliferate, express a B cell marker, B220, and undergo apoptosis. These cells also lose typical irregular T cell morphology and are incapable of sustaining long-term cultures. Using tetramer and intracellular cytokine assessments, we further demonstrated that many antigen-specific T cells have been rendered nonfunctional when expanded under high IL-2 concentration. When IL-2 is used in the correct range, B220-mediated cell depletion greatly enhanced the success rate of such T cell cultures. PMID:23098837

  9. Disposable Bioreactors for Plant Micropropagation and Mass Plant Cell Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducos, Jean-Paul; Terrier, Bénédicte; Courtois, Didier

    Different types of bioreactors are used at Nestlé R&D Centre - Tours for mass propagation of selected plant varieties by somatic embryogenesis and for large scale culture of plants cells to produce metabolites or recombinant proteins. Recent studies have been directed to cut down the production costs of these two processes by developing disposable cell culture systems. Vegetative propagation of elite plant varieties is achieved through somatic embryogenesis in liquid medium. A pilot scale process has recently been set up for the industrial propagation of Coffea canephora (Robusta coffee). The current production capacity is 3.0 million embryos per year. The pre-germination of the embryos was previously conducted by temporary immersion in liquid medium in 10-L glass bioreactors. An improved process has been developed using a 10-L disposable bioreactor consisting of a bag containing a rigid plastic box ('Box-in-Bag' bioreactor), insuring, amongst other advantages, a higher light transmittance to the biomass due to its horizontal design. For large scale cell culture, two novel flexible plastic-based disposable bioreactors have been developed from 10 to 100 L working volumes, validated with several plant species ('Wave and Undertow' and 'Slug Bubble' bioreactors). The advantages and the limits of these new types of bioreactor are discussed, based mainly on our own experience on coffee somatic embryogenesis and mass cell culture of soya and tobacco.

  10. Disposable bioreactors for plant micropropagation and mass plant cell culture.

    PubMed

    Ducos, Jean-Paul; Terrier, Bndicte; Courtois, Didier

    2009-01-01

    Different types of bioreactors are used at Nestl R&D Centre - Tours for mass propagation of selected plant varieties by somatic embryogenesis and for large scale culture of plants cells to produce metabolites or recombinant proteins. Recent studies have been directed to cut down the production costs of these two processes by developing disposable cell culture systems. Vegetative propagation of elite plant varieties is achieved through somatic embryogenesis in liquid medium. A pilot scale process has recently been set up for the industrial propagation of Coffea canephora (Robusta coffee). The current production capacity is 3.0 million embryos per year. The pre-germination of the embryos was previously conducted by temporary immersion in liquid medium in 10-L glass bioreactors. An improved process has been developed using a 10-L disposable bioreactor consisting of a bag containing a rigid plastic box ('Box-in-Bag' bioreactor), insuring, amongst other advantages, a higher light transmittance to the biomass due to its horizontal design. For large scale cell culture, two novel flexible plastic-based disposable bioreactors have been developed from 10 to 100 L working volumes, validated with several plant species ('Wave and Undertow' and 'Slug Bubble' bioreactors). The advantages and the limits of these new types of bioreactor are discussed, based mainly on our own experience on coffee somatic embryogenesis and mass cell culture of soya and tobacco. PMID:19475375

  11. Culture at a Higher Temperature Mildly Inhibits Cancer Cell Growth but Enhances Chemotherapeutic Effects by Inhibiting Cell-Cell Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shengming; Wang, Jiangang; Xie, Bingkun; Luo, Zhiguo; Lin, Xiukun; Liao, D. Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Acute febrile infections have historically been used to treat cancer. To explore the underlying mechanism, we studied chronic effects of fever on cancer cell growth and chemotherapeutic efficacy in cell culture. We found that culturing cancer cells at 39°C mildly inhibited cell growth by arresting the cells at the G1 phase of the cell cycle. When cells were seeded in culture dishes at a lower density, e.g. about 1000–2000 cells per 35-mm dish, the growth inhibition was much greater, manifested as many fewer cell colonies in the 39°C dishes, compared with the results at a higher density seeding, e.g. 20,000 cells per dish, suggesting that cell-cell collaboration as the Allee effect in cell culture is inhibited at 39°C. Withdrawal of cells from serum enhanced the G1 arrest at 39°C and, for some cell lines such as A549 lung cancer cells, serum replenishment failed to quickly drive the cells from the G1 into the S and G2-M phases. Therapeutic effects of several chemotherapeutic agents, including clove bud extracts, on several cancer cell lines were more potent at 39°C than at 37°C, especially when the cells were seeded at a low density. For some cell lines and some agents, this enhancement is long-lasting, i.e. continuing after the cessation of the treatment. Collectively these results suggest that hyperthermia may inhibit cancer cell growth by G1 arrest and by inhibition of cell-cell collaboration, and may enhance the efficacy of several chemotherapeutic agents, an effect which may persist beyond the termination of chemotherapy. PMID:26495849

  12. In vitro co-culture systems for studying molecular basis of cellular interaction between Aire-expressing medullary thymic epithelial cells and fresh thymocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Yoshitaka; Kudoh, Jun; Yoshida, Tetsuhiko; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We previously established three mouse cell lines (Aire+TEC1, Aire+TEC2 and Aire+DC) from the medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) and dendritic cells (mDCs). These cells constitutively expressed “autoimmune regulator (Aire) gene” and they exhibited various features of self antigen-presenting cells (self-APCs) present in the thymic medullary region. Here, we confirmed our previous observation that Aire+ thymic epithelial cells adhere to fresh thymocytes and kill them by inducing apoptosis, thus potentially reproducing in vitro some aspects of the negative selection of T cells in vivo. In this system, a single Aire+ cell appeared able to kill ∼30 thymocytes within 24 hrs. Moreover, we observed that ectopic expression of peripheral tissue-specific antigens (TSAs), and expression of several surface markers involved in mTEC development, increased as Aire+ cell density increases toward confluency. Thus, these Aire+ cells appear to behave like differentiating mTECs as if they pass through the developmental stages from intermediate state toward mature state. Surprisingly, an in vitro co-culture system consisting of Aire+ cells and fractionated sub-populations of fresh thymocytes implied the possible existence of two distinct subtypes of thymocytes (named as CD4+ killer and CD4− rescuer) that may determine the fate (dead or alive) of the differentiating Aire+mTECs. Thus, our in vitro co-culture system appears to mimic a part of “in vivo thymic crosstalk”. PMID:25326516

  13. Recombinant Protein Production and Insect Cell Culture and Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); OConnor, Kim C. (Inventor); Francis, Karen M. (Inventor); Andrews, Angela D. (Inventor); Prewett, Tracey L. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A process has been developed for recombinant production of selected polypeptides using transformed insect cells cultured in a horizontally rotating culture vessel modulated to create low shear conditions. A metabolically transformed insect cell line is produced using the culture procedure regardless of genetic transformation. The recombinant polypeptide can be produced by an alternative process using virtually infected or stably transformed insect cells containing a gene encoding the described polypeptide. The insect cells can also be a host for viral production.

  14. Medium for development of bee cell cultures (Apis mellifera: Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Hunter, Wayne B

    2010-02-01

    A media for the production of cell cultures from hymenopteran species such as honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was developed. Multiple bee cell cultures were produced when using bee larvae and pupae as starting material and modified Hert-Hunter 70 media. Cell culture systems for bees solves an impasse that has hindered efforts to isolate and screen pathogens which may be influencing or causing colony collapse disorder of bees. Multiple life stages of maturing larvae to early pupae were used to successfully establish cell cultures from the tissues of the head, thorax, and abdomen. Multiple cell types were observed which included free-floating suspensions, fibroblast-like, and epithelia-like monolayers. The final culture medium, WH2, was originally developed for hemipterans, Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, and leafhopper, Homalodisca vitripennis cell cultures but has been shown to work for a diverse range of insect species such as bees. Bee cell cultures had various doubling times at 21-23 degrees C ranging from 9-15 d. Deformed wing virus was detected in the primary explanted tissues, which tested negative by rt-PCR for Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), Kashmir bee virus, acute bee paralysis virus, and black queen cell virus. Culture inoculation with IAPV from an isolate from Florida field samples, was detectable in cell cultures after two subcultures. Cell culture from hymenoptera species, such as bees, greatly advances the approaches available to the field of study on colony collapse disorders. PMID:20033792

  15. Three-dimensional culture may promote cell reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jin; Chen, Lei; Luo, Guanzheng; Dai, Bin; Wang, Xiujie; Dai, Jianwu

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells reside in stem cells niches, which maintain the balance of self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells. In stem cell niches, cell-cell, cell-extracellular matrix interactions and diffusible signals are important elements. However, another pivotal element is that localized and diffusible signals are all organized as three-dimensional (3-D) structures, which is easily neglected by in vitro cell biology research. Under 3-D culture conditions, the morphology of cells exhibited differently from cultured in traditional two-dimensional (2-D) conditions. Under 3-D culture conditions, the self-renewal and pluripotency of neural stem cells (NSCs) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were enhanced compared with culturing under 2-D conditions. 3-D cultures could change the transcriptional profile of NSCs compared with 2-D cultures. We hypothesized that 3-D cultures could reprogram mature cells such as fibroblasts to an immature state, like the pluripotent stem cells. The primary results indicated that several ES marker genes were upregulated by 3-D cultures. Though further experiments are needed, this work may provide a method of reprogramming mature cells without gene modifications. PMID:23820263

  16. Unique cell culture systems for ground based research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Marian L.

    1990-01-01

    The horizontally rotating fluid-filled, membrane oxygenated bioreactors developed at NASA Johnson for spacecraft applications provide a powerful tool for ground-based research. Three-dimensional aggregates formed by cells cultured on microcarrier beads are useful for study of cell-cell interactions and tissue development. By comparing electron micrographs of plant seedlings germinated during Shuttle flight 61-C and in an earth-based rotating bioreactor it is shown that some effects of microgravity are mimicked. Bioreactors used in the UAH Bioreactor Laboratory will make it possible to determine some of the effects of altered gravity at the cellular level. Bioreactors can be valuable for performing critical, preliminary-to-spaceflight experiments as well as medical investigations such as in vitro tumor cell growth and chemotherapeutic drug response; the enrichment of stem cells from bone marrow; and the effect of altered gravity on bone and muscle cell growth and function and immune response depression.

  17. Milk stimulates growth of prostate cancer cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Tate, Patricia L; Bibb, Robert; Larcom, Lyndon L

    2011-11-01

    Concern has been expressed about the fact that cows' milk contains estrogens and could stimulate the growth of hormone-sensitive tumors. In this study, organic cows' milk and two commercial substitutes were digested in vitro and tested for their effects on the growth of cultures of prostate and breast cancer cells. Cows' milk stimulated the growth of LNCaP prostate cancer cells in each of 14 separate experiments, producing an average increase in growth rate of over 30%. In contrast, almond milk suppressed the growth of these cells by over 30%. Neither cows' milk nor almond milk affected the growth of MCF-7 breast cancer cells or AsPC-1 pancreatic cancer cells significantly. Soy milk increased the growth rate of the breast cancer cells. These data indicate that prostate and breast cancer patients should be cautioned about the possible promotional effects of commercial dairy products and their substitutes. PMID:22043817

  18. The measurement of nitric oxide production by cultured endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hart, C Michael; Kleinhenz, Dean J; Dikalov, Sergey I; Boulden, Beth M; Dudley, Samuel C

    2005-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced by vascular endothelial cells (ECs) plays a critical role in normal vascular physiology. Important insights into mechanisms regulating the production of endothelial NO have been derived from in vitro studies employing cultured ECs. Although many techniques for the detection of NO have been described, many of these methods lack adequate sensitivity to detect the small amount of NO produced by cultured ECs. In this chapter, we describe three protocols that employ chemiluminescence, electron spin resonance, or electrochemical techniques to permit the reliable detection of EC NO production. PMID:16291257

  19. [Protection of cultured mammalian cells by rebamipide].

    PubMed

    Antoku, S; Aramaki, R; Tanaka, H; Kusumoto, N

    1997-06-01

    Rebamipide which is used as a drug for gastritis and stomach ulcer has large capability for OH radical scavenging. It is expected that rebamipide has protective effect against ionizing radiations. The present paper deals with protective effect of rebamipide for cultured mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiations. As rebamipide is insoluble in water, three solvents were used to dissolve. Rebamipide dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), dimethyl formamide (DMFA) and 0.02 N NaOH was added to the cells in Eagle's minimum essential medium (MEM) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and the cells were irradiated with X-rays. After irradiation, the cells were trypsinized, plated in MEM with 10% fetal calf serum and incubated for 7 days in a CO2 incubator to form colonies. Rebamipide dissolved in 0.02 N NaOH exhibited the protective effect expected its OH radical scavenging capability. However, the protective effect of rebamipide dissolved in DMSO was about half of that expected by its radical scavenging capability and that of rebamipide dissolved in DMFA was not observed. Uptake of rebamipide labeled with 14C increased with increasing contact time with rebamipide. These rebamipide mainly distributed in nucleous rather than cytoplasm. PMID:9248142

  20. Enhanced chondrocyte culture and growth on biologically inspired nanofibrous cell culture dishes

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Garima; Webster, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Chondral and osteochondral defects affect a large number of people in which treatment options are currently limited. Due to its ability to mimic the natural nanofibrous structure of cartilage, this current in vitro study aimed at introducing a new scaffold, called XanoMatrix™, for cartilage regeneration. In addition, this same scaffold is introduced here as a new substrate onto which to study chondrocyte functions. Current studies on chondrocyte functions are limited due to nonbiologically inspired cell culture substrates. With its polyethylene terephthalate and cellulose acetate composition, good mechanical properties and nanofibrous structure resembling an extracellular matrix, XanoMatrix offers an ideal surface for chondrocyte growth and proliferation. This current study demonstrated that the XanoMatrix scaffolds promote chondrocyte growth and proliferation as compared with the Corning and Falcon surfaces normally used for chondrocyte cell culture. The XanoMatrix scaffolds also have greater hydrophobicity, three-dimensional surface area, and greater tensile strength, making them ideal candidates for alternative treatment options for chondral and osteochondral defects as well as cell culture substrates to study chondrocyte functions. PMID:26917958

  1. Differential marker expression by cultures rich in mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells have properties that make them amenable to therapeutic use. However, the acceptance of mesenchymal stem cells in clinical practice requires standardized techniques for their specific isolation. To date, there are no conclusive marker (s) for the exclusive isolation of mesenchymal stem cells. Our aim was to identify markers differentially expressed between mesenchymal stem cell and non-stem cell mesenchymal cell cultures. We compared and contrasted the phenotype of tissue cultures in which mesenchymal stem cells are rich and rare. By initially assessing mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, we established that bone marrow and breast adipose cultures are rich in mesenchymal stem cells while, in our hands, foreskin fibroblast and olfactory tissue cultures contain rare mesenchymal stem cells. In particular, olfactory tissue cells represent non-stem cell mesenchymal cells. Subsequently, the phenotype of the tissue cultures were thoroughly assessed using immuno-fluorescence, flow-cytometry, proteomics, antibody arrays and qPCR. Results Our analysis revealed that all tissue cultures, regardless of differentiation potential, demonstrated remarkably similar phenotypes. Importantly, it was also observed that common mesenchymal stem cell markers, and fibroblast-associated markers, do not discriminate between mesenchymal stem cell and non-stem cell mesenchymal cell cultures. Examination and comparison of the phenotypes of mesenchymal stem cell and non-stem cell mesenchymal cell cultures revealed three differentially expressed markers – CD24, CD108 and CD40. Conclusion We indicate the importance of establishing differential marker expression between mesenchymal stem cells and non-stem cell mesenchymal cells in order to determine stem cell specific markers. PMID:24304471

  2. Three-dimensional cell culturing by magnetic levitation.

    PubMed

    Haisler, William L; Timm, David M; Gage, Jacob A; Tseng, Hubert; Killian, T C; Souza, Glauco R

    2013-10-01

    Recently, biomedical research has moved toward cell culture in three dimensions to better recapitulate native cellular environments. This protocol describes one method for 3D culture, the magnetic levitation method (MLM), in which cells bind with a magnetic nanoparticle assembly overnight to render them magnetic. When resuspended in medium, an external magnetic field levitates and concentrates cells at the air-liquid interface, where they aggregate to form larger 3D cultures. The resulting cultures are dense, can synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM) and can be analyzed similarly to the other culture systems using techniques such as immunohistochemical analysis (IHC), western blotting and other biochemical assays. This protocol details the MLM and other associated techniques (cell culture, imaging and IHC) adapted for the MLM. The MLM requires 45 min of working time over 2 d to create 3D cultures that can be cultured in the long term (>7 d). PMID:24030442

  3. High-affinity binding of fibronectin to cultured Kupffer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cardarelli, P.M.; Blumenstock, F.A.; McKeown-Longo, P.J.; Saba, T.M.; Mazurkiewicz, J.E.; Dias, J.A. )

    1990-11-01

    Hepatic Kupffer cells are a major component of the reticuloendothelial or macrophage system. They were the first phagocytic cell type whose phagocytosis was shown to be influenced by plasma fibronectin, a dimeric opsonic glycoprotein. In the current study, the binding of soluble radioiodinated fibronectin purified from rat serum to isolated rat hepatic Kupffer cells was investigated using a cultured Kupffer cell monolayer technique. Binding was specific, since unlabeled purified fibronectin competed in a dose-dependent manner with the 125I-fibronectin for binding to the Kupffer cells. Addition of gelatin enhanced the binding of 125I-fibronectin to Kupffer cells. The phagocytosis of gelatinized-coated red cells by Kupffer cells was increased either by preopsonizing the target particles with purified fibronectin or by the addition of purified fibronectin to the culture medium. In contrast, exposure of the Kupffer cells to medium containing purified fibronectin followed by wash-removal of the fibronectin did not increase the uptake of gelatin-coated red blood cells, even though fibronectin was detected on the surface of the Kupffer cells by immunofluorescence. Trypsinized monolayers expressed decreased capacity to bind 125I-fibronectin as well as fibronectin-coated sheep erythrocytes. The binding of 125I-fibronectin-gelatin complexes was inhibited by excess unlabeled fibronectin. We calculated that specific high-affinity (Kd = 7.46 x 10(-9) M) binding sites for fibronectin exist on Kupffer cells. There are approximately 2,800-3,500 binding sites or putative fibronectin receptors per Kupffer cell. These sites appear to mediate the enhanced phagocytosis of gelatin-coated particles opsonized by fibronectin.

  4. The Effect of Spaceflight on Bone Cell Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, William J.

    1999-01-01

    Understanding the response of bone to mechanical loading (unloading) is extremely important in defining the means of adaptation of the body to a variety of environmental conditions such as during heightened physical activity or in extended explorations of space or the sea floor. The mechanisms of the adaptive response of bone are not well defined, but undoubtedly they involve changes occurring at the cellular level of bone structure. This proposal has intended to examine the hypothesis that the loading (unloading) response of bone is mediated by specific cells through modifications of their activity cytoskeletal elements, and/or elaboration of their extracellular matrices. For this purpose, this laboratory has utilized the results of a number of previous studies defining molecular biological, biochemical, morphological, and ultrastructural events of the reproducible mineralization of a primary bone cell (osteoblast) culture system under normal loading (1G gravity level). These data and the culture system then were examined following the use of the cultures in two NASA shuttle flights, STS-59 and STS-63. The cells collected from each of the flights were compared to respective synchronous ground (1G) control cells examined as the flight samples were simultaneously analyzed and to other control cells maintained at 1G until the time of shuttle launch, at which point they were terminated and studied (defined as basal cells). Each of the cell cultures was assayed in terms of metabolic markers- gene expression; synthesis and secretion of collagen and non-collagenous proteins, including certain cytoskeletal components; assembly of collagen into macrostructural arrays- formation of mineral; and interaction of collagen and mineral crystals during calcification of the cultures. The work has utilized a combination of biochemical techniques (radiolabeling, electrophoresis, fluorography, Western and Northern Blotting, and light microscopic immunofluorescence) and structural methods (conventional and high voltage electron microscopy, inununocytochemistry, stereomicroscopy, and 3D image reconstruction). The studies have provided new knowledge of aspects of bone cell development and structural regulation, extracellular matrix assembly, and mineralization during spaceflight and under normal gravity. The information has contributed to insights into the means in general by which cells respond and adapt to different conditions of gravity (loading). The data may as well have suggested an underlying basis for the observed loss of bone by vertebrates, including man, in microgravity; and these scientific results may have implications for understanding bone loss following fracture healing and extended periods of inactivity such as during long-term bedrest.

  5. Gravity, chromosomes, and organized development in aseptically cultured plant cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krikorian, Abraham D.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the PCR experiment are: to test the hypothesis that microgravity will in fact affect the pattern and developmental progression of embryogenically competent plant cells from one well-defined, critical stage to another; to determine the effects of microgravity in growth and differentiation of embryogenic carrot cells grown in cell culture; to determine whether microgravity or the space environment fosters an instability of the differentiated state; and to determine whether mitosis and chromosome behavior are adversely affected by microgravity. The methods employed will consist of the following: special embryogenically competent carrot cell cultures will be grown in cell culture chambers provided by NASDA; four cell culture chambers will be used to grow cells in liquid medium; two dishes (plant cell culture dishes) will be used to grow cells on a semi-solid agar support; progression to later embryonic stages will be induced in space via crew intervention and by media manipulation in the case of liquid grown cell cultures; progression to later stages in case of semi-solid cultures will not need crew intervention; embryo stages will be fixed at a specific interval (day 6) in flight only in the case of liquid-grown cultures; and some living cells and somatic embryos will be returned for continued post-flight development and 'grown-out.' These will derive from the semi-solid grown cultures.

  6. Analysis of cell identity, morphology, apoptosis and mitotic activity in a primary neural cell culture system in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In Drosophila, most neurogenetic research is carried out in vivo. Mammalian research demonstrates that primary cell culture techniques provide a powerful model to address cell autonomous and non-autonomous processes outside their endogenous environment. We developed a cell culture system in Drosophila using wildtype and genetically manipulated primary neural tissue for long-term observations. We assessed the molecular identity of distinct neural cell types by immunolabeling and genetically expressed fluorescent cell markers. We monitored mitotic activity of cell cultures derived from wildtype and tumorous larval brains. Our system provides a powerful approach to unveil developmental processes in the nervous system and to complement studies in vivo. PMID:22554060

  7. Small SSEA-4-positive cells from human ovarian cell cultures: related to embryonic stem cells and germinal lineage?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It has already been found that very small embyronic-like stem cells (VSELs) are present in adult human tissues and organs. The aim of this study was to find if there exists any similar population of cells in cell cultures of reproductive tissues and embryonic stem cells, and if these cells have any relation to pluripotency and germinal lineage. Methods and results Here we report that a population of small SSEA-4-positive cells with diameters of up to 4 μm was isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) from the human ovarian cell cultures after enzymatic degradation of adult cortex tissues. These small cells – putative ovarian stem cells – were also observed during cell culturing of up to 6 months and more. In general, small putative ovarian stem cells, isolated by FACS, showed a relatively low gene expression profile when compared to human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human adult fibroblasts; this may reflect the quiescent state of these cells. In spite of that, small putative ovarian stem cells expressed several genes related to primordial germ cells (PGCs), pluripotency and germinal lineage, including VASA. The PGC-related gene PRDM1 was strongly expressed in small putative ovarian stem cells; in both hESCs and fibroblasts it was significantly down-regulated. In addition, putative ovarian stem cells expressed other PGC-related genes, such as PRDM14 and DPPA3. Most of the pluripotency and germinal lineage-related genes were up-regulated in hESCs (except VASA). When compared to fibroblasts, there were several pluripotency-related genes, which were up-regulated in small putative ovarian stem cells. Similar populations of small cells were also isolated by FACS from human testicular and hESC cultures. Conclusions Our results confirm the potential embryonic-like character of small putative stem cells isolated from human adult ovaries and their possible relation to germinal lineage. PMID:23570331

  8. Superior oxygen and glucose supply in perfusion cell cultures compared to static cell cultures demonstrated by simulations using the finite element method

    PubMed Central

    Sugiura, Shinji; Sakai, Yusuke; Nakazawa, Kohji; Kanamori, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen and glucose supply is one of the important factors for the growth and viability of the cells in cultivation of tissues, e.g., spheroid, multilayered cells, and three-dimensional tissue construct. In this study, we used finite element methods to simulate the flow profile as well as oxygen and glucose supply to the multilayered cells in a microwell array chip for static and perfusion cultures. The simulation results indicated that oxygen supply is more crucial than glucose supply in both static and perfusion cultures, and that the oxygen supply through the wall of the perfusion culture chip is important in perfusion cultures. Glucose concentrations decline with time in static cultures, whereas they can be maintained at a constant level over time in perfusion cultures. The simulation of perfusion cultures indicated that the important parameters for glucose supply are the flow rate of the perfusion medium and the length of the cell culture chamber. In a perfusion culture chip made of oxygen-permeable materials, e.g., polydimethylsiloxane, oxygen is hardly supplied via the perfusion medium, but mainly supplied through the walls of the perfusion culture chip. The simulation of perfusion cultures indicated that the important parameters for oxygen supply are the thickness of the flow channel and the oxygen permeability of the walls of the channel, i.e., the type of material and the thickness of the wall. PMID:21799709

  9. Organelle transport in cultured Drosophila cells: S2 cell line and primary neurons.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wen; Del Castillo, Urko; Gelfand, Vladimir I

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila S2 cells plated on a coverslip in the presence of any actin-depolymerizing drug form long unbranched processes filled with uniformly polarized microtubules. Organelles move along these processes by microtubule motors. Easy maintenance, high sensitivity to RNAi-mediated protein knock-down and efficient procedure for creating stable cell lines make Drosophila S2 cells an ideal model system to study cargo transport by live imaging. The results obtained with S2 cells can be further applied to a more physiologically relevant system: axonal transport in primary neurons cultured from dissociated Drosophila embryos. Cultured neurons grow long neurites filled with bundled microtubules, very similar to S2 processes. Like in S2 cells, organelles in cultured neurons can be visualized by either organelle-specific fluorescent dyes or by using fluorescent organelle markers encoded by DNA injected into early embryos or expressed in transgenic flies. Therefore, organelle transport can be easily recorded in neurons cultured on glass coverslips using living imaging. Here we describe procedures for culturing and visualizing cargo transport in Drosophila S2 cells and primary neurons. We believe that these protocols make both systems accessible for labs studying cargo transport. PMID:24300413

  10. Engineering systems for the generation of patterned co-cultures for controlling cell-cell interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kaji, Hirokazu; Camci-Unal, Gulden; Langer, Robert; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Background Inside the body, cells lie in direct contact or in close proximity to other cell types in a tightly controlled architecture that often regulates the resulting tissue function. Therefore, tissue engineering constructs that aim to reproduce the architecture and the geometry of tissues will benefit from methods of controlling cell–cell interactions with microscale resolution. Scope of the review We discuss the use of microfabrication technologies for generating patterned co-cultures. In addition, we categorize patterned co-culture systems by cell type and discuss the implications of regulating cell-cell interactions in the resulting biological function of the tissues. Major conclusions Patterned co-cultures are a useful tool for fabricating tissue engineered constructs and for studying cell–cell interactions in vitro, because they can be used to control the degree of homotypic and heterotypic cell–cell contact. In addition, this approach can be manipulated to elucidate important factors involved in cell-matrix interactions. General significance Patterned co-culture strategies hold significant potential to develop biomimetic structures for tissue engineering. It is expected that they would create opportunities to develop artificial tissues in the future. PMID:20655984

  11. Characterization of human thymic dendritic cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, M; Tautu, C; Landry, D; Montplaisir, S; Chartrand, C; Perreault, C

    1986-06-01

    Cells with dendritic shape, the so-called dendritic cells (DCs), have been described in many tissues. In order to characterize one DCs population, normal human thymus specimens were obtained from children undergoing cardiovascular surgery. These specimens were either put in culture or fixed for in situ ultrastructural, immunocytochemical and cytochemical studies. In culture, DCs could be differentiated from other non-lymphoid cell populations. They presented long, fine processes and an irregular nucleus. Like interdigitating cells (IDCs) in situ, their cytoplasm contained many free ribosomes and mitochondria, and a well-developed endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex. They showed a variable number of tubulovesicular structures and membrane-bound dark homogeneous granules. They never displayed phagolysosomes, tonofilaments or desmosomes. They were Ia+, ATPase+, S-100 protein+, vimentin+, esterase-, lysozyme-, and cytokeratin- cells. Macrophages were easily identified by their numerous lysosomes and large phagolysosomes. They were esterase+, lysozyme+, vimentin+, ATPase +/-, S-100 protein- and cytokeratin-. Although they were Ia+, membrane labelling was not as important as on DC's membrane. In situ, S-100 protein-positive cells had a dendritic shape and were located mainly in medullary regions and at the cortico-medullary border. The staining was diffused both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm. Lysozyme-positive cells were randomly distributed in the cortex, the medulla and the connective septa. They were round cells and the staining was intracytoplasmic. These observations demonstrate that DCs can be isolated in human thymic cultures, and they suggest that these cells correspond to IDCs in situ. They also provide evidence to suggest that DCs and macrophages are two distinct cellular populations. PMID:2423446

  12. Use of cultured epithelia to study transport and its regulation.

    PubMed

    Handler, J S

    1983-09-01

    Epithelial cells from a variety of species and organs form polarized epithelia in culture. When epithelia are grown on a porous surface, such as a millipore filter, transport can be studied using adaptations of standard techniques. In the few years in which cultured epithelia have been studied by transport physiologists, most work has been focused on identification and description of the differentiated transport exhibited by cultured epithelia. Epithelia formed by a continuous line of cells derived from pig kidney (LLC-PK1) exhibit sodium-coupled glucose transport similar to that of the proximal tubule and have vasopressin-sensitive adenylate cyclase that has been studied in great detail. Also of interest are epithelia formed by continuous lines of cells derived from amphibian kidney (A6) and from amphibian urinary bladder (TBM). Each line forms epithelia that have high electrical resistance and amiloride-sensitive sodium transport. Transport is stimulated by aldosterone and by cAMP or hormones that raise cell cAMP levels. In LLC-PK1 and in A6 epithelia, transport and the response to hormones can be manipulated by manipulating the culture conditions. Cultured epithelia have also been used to explore the cell biology of epithelia. Most interesting in this regard are studies of the development and maintenance of epithelial cell polarity. This approach should be especially valuable. PMID:6317789

  13. In vitro Spermatogenesis - Optimal Culture Conditions for Testicular Cell Survival, Germ Cell Differentiation, and Steroidogenesis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Reda, Ahmed; Hou, Mi; Landreh, Luise; Kjartansdttir, Kristn Rs; Svechnikov, Konstantin; Sder, Olle; Stukenborg, Jan-Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Although three-dimensional testicular cell cultures have been demonstrated to mimic the organization of the testis in vivo and support spermatogenesis, the optimal culture conditions and requirements remain unknown. Therefore, utilizing an established three-dimensional cell culture system that promotes differentiation of pre-meiotic murine male germ cells as far as elongated spermatids, the present study was designed to test the influence of different culture media on germ cell differentiation, Leydig cell functionality, and overall cell survival. Single-cell suspensions prepared from 7-day-old rat testes and containing all the different types of testicular cells were cultured for as long as 31?days, with or without stimulation by gonadotropins. Leydig cell functionality was assessed on the basis of testosterone production and the expression of steroidogenic genes. Gonadotropins promoted overall cell survival regardless of the culture medium employed. Of the various media examined, the most pronounced expression of Star and Tspo, genes related to steroidogenesis, as well as the greatest production of testosterone was attained with Dulbecco's modified eagle medium?+?glutamine. Although direct promotion of germ cell maturation by the cell culture medium could not be observed, morphological evaluation in combination with immunohistochemical staining revealed unfavorable organization of tubules formed de novo in the three-dimensional culture, allowing differentiation to the stage of pachytene spermatocytes. Further differentiation could not be observed, probably due to migration of germ cells out of the cell colonies and the consequent lack of support from Sertoli cells. In conclusion, the observations reported here show that in three-dimensional cultures, containing all types of rat testicular cells, the nature of the medium per se exerts a direct influence on the functionality of the rat Leydig cells, but not on germ cell differentiation, due to the lack of proper organization of the Sertoli cells. PMID:24616715

  14. In vitro Spermatogenesis Optimal Culture Conditions for Testicular Cell Survival, Germ Cell Differentiation, and Steroidogenesis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Reda, Ahmed; Hou, Mi; Landreh, Luise; Kjartansdttir, Kristn Rs; Svechnikov, Konstantin; Sder, Olle; Stukenborg, Jan-Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Although three-dimensional testicular cell cultures have been demonstrated to mimic the organization of the testis in vivo and support spermatogenesis, the optimal culture conditions and requirements remain unknown. Therefore, utilizing an established three-dimensional cell culture system that promotes differentiation of pre-meiotic murine male germ cells as far as elongated spermatids, the present study was designed to test the influence of different culture media on germ cell differentiation, Leydig cell functionality, and overall cell survival. Single-cell suspensions prepared from 7-day-old rat testes and containing all the different types of testicular cells were cultured for as long as 31?days, with or without stimulation by gonadotropins. Leydig cell functionality was assessed on the basis of testosterone production and the expression of steroidogenic genes. Gonadotropins promoted overall cell survival regardless of the culture medium employed. Of the various media examined, the most pronounced expression of Star and Tspo, genes related to steroidogenesis, as well as the greatest production of testosterone was attained with Dulbeccos modified eagle medium?+?glutamine. Although direct promotion of germ cell maturation by the cell culture medium could not be observed, morphological evaluation in combination with immunohistochemical staining revealed unfavorable organization of tubules formed de novo in the three-dimensional culture, allowing differentiation to the stage of pachytene spermatocytes. Further differentiation could not be observed, probably due to migration of germ cells out of the cell colonies and the consequent lack of support from Sertoli cells. In conclusion, the observations reported here show that in three-dimensional cultures, containing all types of rat testicular cells, the nature of the medium per se exerts a direct influence on the functionality of the rat Leydig cells, but not on germ cell differentiation, due to the lack of proper organization of the Sertoli cells. PMID:24616715

  15. Organotypic slice cultures to study oligodendrocyte dynamics and myelination.

    PubMed

    Hill, Robert A; Medved, Jelena; Patel, Kiran D; Nishiyama, Akiko

    2014-01-01

    NG2 expressing cells (polydendrocytes, oligodendrocyte precursor cells) are the fourth major glial cell population in the central nervous system. During embryonic and postnatal development they actively proliferate and generate myelinating oligodendrocytes. These cells have commonly been studied in primary dissociated cultures, neuron cocultures, and in fixed tissue. Using newly available transgenic mouse lines slice culture systems can be used to investigate proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte lineage cells in both gray and white matter regions of the forebrain and cerebellum. Slice cultures are prepared from early postnatal mice and are kept in culture for up to 1 month. These slices can be imaged multiple times over the culture period to investigate cellular behavior and interactions. This method allows visualization of NG2 cell division and the steps leading to oligodendrocyte differentiation while enabling detailed analysis of region-dependent NG2 cell and oligodendrocyte functional heterogeneity. This is a powerful technique that can be used to investigate the intrinsic and extrinsic signals influencing these cells over time in a cellular environment that closely resembles that found in vivo. PMID:25177825

  16. Cholera toxin stimulation of human mammary epithelial cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Stampfer, M.R.

    1982-06-01

    Addition of cholera toxin to human mammary epithelial cultures derived from reduction mammoplasties and primary carcinomas greatly stimulated cell growth and increased the number of times the cells could be successfully subcultured. Other agents known to increase intracellular cAMP levels were also growth stimulatory. The increased growth potential conferred by cholera toxin enhances the usefulness of this cell culture system.

  17. Biolistic transformation of cotton embryogenic cell suspension cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic transformation of cotton is highly dependent on the ability to regenerate fertile plants from transgenic cells through somatic embryogenesis. Induction of embryogenic cell cultures is genotype-dependant. However, once embryogenic cell cultures are available, they can be effectively used fo...

  18. Confined lateral diffusion of membrane receptors as studied by single particle tracking (nanovid microscopy). Effects of calcium-induced differentiation in cultured epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kusumi, A; Sako, Y; Yamamoto, M

    1993-01-01

    The movements of E-cadherin, epidermal growth factor receptor, and transferrin receptor in the plasma membrane of a cultured mouse keratinocyte cell line were studied using both single particle tracking (SPT; nanovid microscopy) and fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR). In the SPT technique, the receptor molecules are labeled with 40 nm-phi colloidal gold particles, and their movements are followed by video-enhanced differential interference contrast microscopy at a temporal resolution of 33 ms and at a nanometer-level spatial precision. The trajectories of the receptor molecules obtained by SPT were analyzed by developing a method that is based on the plot of the mean-square displacement against time. Four characteristic types of motion were observed: (a) stationary mode, in which the microscopic diffusion coefficient is less than 4.6 x 10(-12) cm2/s; (b) simple Brownian diffusion mode; (c) directed diffusion mode, in which unidirectional movements are superimposed on random motion; and (d) confined diffusion mode, in which particles undergoing Brownian diffusion (microscopic diffusion coefficient between 4.6 x 10(-12) and 1 x 10(-9) cm2/s) are confined within a limited area, probably by the membrane-associated cytoskeleton network. Comparison of these data obtained by SPT with those obtained by FPR suggests that the plasma membrane is compartmentalized into many small domains 300-600 nm in diameter (0.04-0.24 microns2 in area), in which receptor molecules are confined in the time scale of 3-30 s, and that the long-range diffusion observed by FPR can occur by successive movements of the receptors to adjacent compartments. Calcium-induced differentiation decreases the sum of the percentages of molecules in the directed diffusion and the stationary modes outside of the cell-cell contact regions on the cell surface (which is proposed to be the percentage of E-cadherin bound to the cytoskeleton/membrane-skeleton), from approximately 60% to 8% (low- and high-calcium mediums, respectively). Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 14 PMID:8298032

  19. Production of calves by transfer of nuclei from cultured inner cell mass cells.

    PubMed

    Sims, M; First, N L

    1994-06-21

    We report here the isolation and in vitro culture of bovine inner cell mass (ICM) cells and the use of ICM cells in nuclear transfer to produce totipotent blastocysts that resulted in calves born. Of 15 cell lines represented in this study, 13 were derived from immunosurgically isolated ICM of 3 in vitro produced day 9-10 bovine blastocysts, while 2 lines were derived from single blastocysts. Approximately 70% of attempted cell lines became established cell lines when started from 3 ICMs. The ability to establish cell lines was dependent on the number of ICMs starting the line. Sire differences were noted in the ability of ICMs to establish cell lines and to form blastocysts. The cell lines were cultured as a low cell density suspension in the medium CR1aa plus selenium, insulin, and transferrin (SIT) and 5% fetal calf serum (FCS) for 6-101 days before use in nuclear transfer, at which time some had multiplied to more than 2000 cells. If allowed to aggregate, cells of established cell lines formed embryoid bodies. A total of 659 nuclear transfer clones were made by fusing the ES cells into enucleated oocytes with polyethylene glycol; 460 of these fused, based on cleavage (70%). After culture of the clones for 7 days in vitro in CR1aa/SIT/5% FCS, 109 (24%) of those fused became blastocysts. Thirty-four blastocysts were transferred into uteri of 27 cows, and 13 cows (49%) became pregnant. Four of the 13 cows gave birth to 4 normal calves. DNA typing showed the calves to be derived from the respective sires of the cell lines. The calves were derived from cultures of less than 28 days. PMID:8016127

  20. Production of putative virulence factors by Renibacterium salmoninarum grown in cell culture.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, D; Flaño, E; Grayson, T H; Gilpin, M L; Austin, B; Villena, A J

    1997-10-01

    A cell culture system, employing the fish cell line Epithelioma papillosum cyprini (EPC), was developed to study the synthesis of intracellular antigen and the expression of putative virulence factors by Renibacterium salmoninarum. EPC cultures infected with R. salmoninarum could be maintained for 7 weeks, during which the pathogen multiplied intracellularly. Immunohistochemical examination of infected cultures revealed the production of the p57 antigen, haemolysin and cytolysin. The intracellular nature of the infection was confirmed by transmission electron microscopic examination of EPC monolayers. A comparison of the relative virulence of bacterial cells cultured in EPC cells and on agar plates revealed that the former were markedly more virulent in challenge experiments with juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum). The EPC cell culture model provided a system for the study of R. salmoninarum under more natural conditions than those achieved with plate culture techniques. PMID:9353936

  1. Cell and tissue culture of Miscanthus Sacchariflorus

    SciTech Connect

    Godovikova, V.A.; Moiseyeva, E.A.; Shumny, V.K.

    1995-11-01

    Since recent time search and introduction of new species of plants have paid attention. More perspective are perennial low maintenance landscape plants from genera Phragmites L. and Miscanthus Anderss. known as high speed growing and great amount of cellulose`s containing. Absence of seeds production and limited distribution area prevent from immediately introduction the plants of this species. The main goal of our investigation is the scientific development of the cell and tissue culture methods to get changing clones, salt and cold tolerant plants and their micropogation. At present there are collection of biovariety represented by subspecies, ecotypes and plant regenerants of two species - Miscanthus purpurascens (Anders.) and Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Maxim.). Successful results have been achieved in screening of culture media, prepared on MS base medium and contained a row of tropic components to protect the explant and callus tissue from oxidation and necrosis. Initially the callus was induced from stem segments, apical and nodular meristem of vegetative shoots of elulalia, growing in hydroponic greenhouse. Morphological and cytologic analysis of plant-regenerants have been done.

  2. Cultural Studies--Australian Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Gay

    1997-01-01

    Describes a Montessori grade school's production of a "corroboree," an adaptation of an Aboriginal gathering for ceremony and celebration that included dance, music, and song. Notes the benefits, including a sense of community, interaction between different age groups, and exposure to culture. Also describes a camping trek made by students at…

  3. Cultural Studies Meets Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Evelyn

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how contemporary popular culture influences religious meaning of people in pluralistic society. One such powerful media that influences religious beliefs is the television. Meaning making about faith, how people make meaning, and the nature of those meanings are central concerns of religious education and…

  4. Cultural Policy in Nigeria. Studies and Documents on Cultural Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasuyik, T. A.

    This document, published by the United Nations, is one of approximately twenty in a series designed to show how cultural policies are planned and implemented in various Member States. The studies which cover countries belonging to differing social and economic systems, geographical areas and levels of development present a wide variety of…

  5. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Position within Scaffolds Influences Cell Fate During Dynamic Culture

    PubMed Central

    Yeatts, Andrew B.; Geibel, Elyse M.; Fears, Fayola F.; Fisher, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Cell based tissue engineering is limited by the size of cell-containing constructs that can be successfully cultured in vitro. This limit is largely a result of the slow diffusion of molecules such as oxygen into the interior of three dimensional scaffolds in static culture. Bioreactor culture has been shown to overcome these limits. In this study we utilize a tubular perfusion system (TPS) bioreactor for the three dimensional dynamic culture of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in spherical alginate bead scaffolds. The goal of this study is to examine the effect of shear stress in the system and then quantify the proliferation and differentiation of hMSCs in different radial annuli of the scaffold. Shear stress was shown to have a temporal effect on hMSC osteoblastic differentiation with a strong correlation of shear stress, osteopontin and bone morphogenic protein-2 occurring on day 21, and weaker correlation occurring at early timepoints. Further results revealed an approximate 2.5 fold increase in cell number in the inner annulus of TPS cultured constructs as compared to statically cultured constructs after 21 days. This result demonstrated a nutrient transfer limitation in static culture which can be mitigated by dynamic culture. A significant increase (p < 0.05) in mineralization in the inner and outer annuli of bioreactor cultured 4 mm scaffolds occurred on day 21 with 79 29% and 53 25% mineralization area respectively compared to 6 4% and 19 6% mineralization area respectively in inner and outer annuli of 4 mm statically cultured scaffolds. Surprising lower mineralization area was observed in 2 mm bioreactor cultured beads which had the highest levels of proliferation. These results may demonstrate a relationship between scaffold position and stem cell fate. In addition the decreased proliferation and matrix production in statically cultured scaffolds compared to bioreactor cultured constructs demonstrate the need for bioreactor systems and the effectiveness of the TPS bioreactor in promoting hMSC proliferation and differentiation in three-dimensional scaffolds. PMID:22422570

  6. Composition of the cell wall formed by protoplasts isolated from cell suspension cultures of Vinca rosea.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Y; Komamine, A

    1978-01-01

    The biochemistry of cell-wall regeneration in protoplasts obtained from Vinca rosea L. (Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don) cells grown in suspension culture by isolating the regenerated wall and the extracellular polysaccharides of protoplasts cultured for various periods, and investigating their composition. Gas-liquid chromatography and tracer studies with D-[U-(14)C]glucose showed that the sugar composition of the extracellular polysaccharides was similar to that of the original cell culture, consisting mainly of polyuronide and 3,6-linked arabinogalactan. the regenerated cell wall was composed of non-cellulosic glucans having 1,3- and 1,4-linkages, while its content in pectic and hemicellulosic components was very low. PMID:24414558

  7. Imaging the division process in living tissue culture cells

    PubMed Central

    Khodjakov, Alexey; Rieder, Conly L.

    2008-01-01

    We detail some of the pitfalls encountered when following live cultured somatic cells by light microscopy during mitosis. Principle difficulties in this methodology arise from the necessity to compromise between maintaining the health of the cell while achieving the appropriate temporal and spatial resolutions required for the study. Although the quality of the data collected from fixed cells is restricted only by the quality of the imaging system and the optical properties of the specimen, the major limiting factor when viewing live cells is radiation damage induced during illumination. We discuss practical considerations for minimizing this damage, and for maintaining the general health of the cell, while it is being followed by multi-mode or multi-dimensional light microscopy. PMID:16343936

  8. Nerve cells culture from lumbar spinal cord on surfaces modified by plasma pyrrole polymerization.

    PubMed

    Zuñiga-Aguilar, E; Olayo, R; Ramírez-Fernández, O; Morales, J; Godínez, R

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there are several techniques for modified cell culture surfaces under research to improve cell growth and adhesion. Recently, different methods have been used for surface coating, using biomolecules that enhance cell attachment and growth of nerve cells from spinal cord, such as the use of Poly-DL-Ornithine/Laminin. Plasma-polymerized pyrrole (PPy)-treated surfaces have showed improvement on surfaces biocompatibility with the cells in culture since they do not interfere with any of the biological cell functions. In the present work, we present a novel mouse nerve cell culture technique, using PPy-treated cell culture surfaces. A comparative study of cell survival using Poly-DL-Ornithine/Laminin-treated surfaces was performed. Our results of cell survival when compared with data already reported by other investigators, show that cells cultured on the PPy-modified surface increased survival up to 21 days when compared with Poly-DL-Ornithine/Laminin-coated culture, where 8 days cell survival was obtained. There were electrical and morphological differences in the nerve cells grown in the different surfaces. By comparing the peak ion currents of Poly-DL-Ornithine/Laminin-seeded cells for 8 days with cells grown for 21 days on PPy, an increase of 516% in the Na(+) current and 127% in K(+) currents in cells seeded on PPy were observed. Immunofluorescence techniques showed the presence of cell synapses and culture viability after 21 days. Our results then showed that PPy-modified surfaces are an alternative culture method that increases nerve cells survival from lumbar spinal cord cell culture by preserving its electrical and morphological features. PMID:24650203

  9. Stochastic synchronization analysis of cultured human glial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balazsi, Gabor; Cornell-Bell, Ann; Simonotto, Enrico; Neiman, Alexander; Moss, Frank

    2000-03-01

    The production of calcium waves is a property of a healthy astrocyte culture when exposed to the neurotransmitter kainate [Jung et al, J. Neurophys, 79, 1098 (1998)]. Healthy and epileptic tissues differ to a great extent in their dynamics: while a healthy cell culture shows much pattern formation, and wave propagation, the epileptic tissue shows spatially irregular flickering activity or global oscillation. Developing statistical tools to describe healthy versus epileptic tissue dynamics could be very important in order to study the effects of specific drugs, or to identify oscillation centers in the epileptic brain. We perform a statistical analysis in terms of phase synchronization. We show that hyper active epileptic astrocyte cultures are characterized by synchronization between different regions of the network taken from the uncus part of the brain.

  10. Cell culture contamination: sources, consequences, prevention, and elimination.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, C K; Gabridge, M G

    1998-01-01

    The subject of the chapter is cell culture contamination. Contamination may enter the cell culture system as a physical, chemical, and/or biological component of the environment. The potential sources and consequences of cell culture contamination are unique to the cell culture system and the contaminant. A basic understanding of cell culture contamination is necessary to appreciate the need to develop and practice standardized cell culture procedures. General sources, consequences, and preventative measures are discussed for physical and chemical contamination based on current technology. Mycoplasmal contamination is the focus of the discussion on biological contamination and its impact on cell cultures. The introduction of other biological contaminants should be controlled by the institution of cell culture management procedures needed to minimize the incidence of mycoplasmal contamination. The need to eliminate the routine use of antibiotics in cell culture systems and institute routine testing to detect contamination is emphasized. More rapid detection of contamination should reduce the incidence of cross-contamination and minimize the consequences of any contamination event. PMID:9648099

  11. Methylmercury disrupts the balance between phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated cofilin in primary cultures of mice cerebellar granule cells A proteomic study

    SciTech Connect

    Vendrell, Iolanda; Carrascal, Montserrat; Abian, Joaquin

    2010-01-01

    Methylmercury is an environmental contaminant that is particularly toxic to the developing central nervous system; cerebellar granule neurons are especially vulnerable. Here, primary cultures of cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) were continuously exposed to methylmercury for up to 16 days in vitro (div). LC50 values were 508 +- 199, 345 +- 47, and 243 +- 45 nM after exposure for 6, 11, and 16 div, respectively. Proteins from cultured mouse CGCs were separated by 2DE. Seventy-one protein spots were identified by MALDI-TOF PMF and MALDI-TOF/TOF sequencing. Prolonged exposure to a subcytotoxic concentration of methylmercury significantly increased non-phosphorylated cofilin both in cell protein extracts (1.4-fold; p < 0.01) and in mitochondrial-enriched fractions (1.7-fold; p < 0.01). The decrease in P-cofilin induced by methylmercury was concentration-dependent and occurred after different exposure times. The percentage of P-cofilin relative to total cofilin significantly decreased to 49 +- 13% vs. control cells after exposure to 300 nM methylmercury for 5 div. The balance between the phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated form of cofilin regulates actin dynamics and facilitates actin filament turnover. Filamentous actin dynamics and reorganization are responsible of neuron shape change, migration, polarity formation, regulation of synaptic structures and function, and cell apoptosis. An alteration of the complex regulation of the cofilin phosphorylation/dephosphorylation pathway could be envisaged as an underlying mechanism compatible with reported signs of methylmercury-induced neurotoxicity.

  12. Isolation and Culture of Single Cell Types from Rat Liver.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qidi; Qu, Ying; Li, Zhenghong; Zhang, Qingqing; Xu, Mingyi; Cai, Xiaobo; Li, Fei; Lu, Lungen

    2016-01-01

    There have been few reports on the simultaneous isolation of multiple liver cell populations thus far. As such, this study was aimed at establishing a protocol for the simultaneous separation of hepatocytes (HCs), hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and Kupffer cells (KCs) from the rat liver and assessing the in vitro culture of these cells. Single-cell suspensions from the liver were obtained by ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid/collagenase perfusion. After low-speed centrifugal separation of HCs, pronase was added to the nonparenchymal cell fraction to eliminate the remaining HCs. Subsequently, HSCs, LSECs and KCs were purified by two steps of density gradient centrifugation using Nycodenz and Percoll in addition to selective attachment. Pronase treatment increased the HSC yield (1.5 ± 0.2 vs. 0.7 ± 0.3 cells/g liver, p < 0.05) and improved LSEC purity (93.6 ± 3.6 vs. 82.5 ± 5.6%, p < 0.01). The isolated cells could also be cultured in vitro. LSEC apoptosis began on day 3 and reached a maximum on day 7. A few surviving LSECs began proliferating and split to form a cobblestone, sheet-like appearance on day 14. The LSECs on day 14 lost fenestrations but retained scavenger function. Thus, viable and purified liver cells were obtained with a high yield from the rat liver using the developed method, which may be useful for studying the physiology and pathology of the liver in the future. PMID:27054325

  13. Anthropology and Popular Culture: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Jack

    The study of popular culture in the United States is an appropriate anthropological endeavor, as evidenced in a case study of the volcanic eruption of Mt. St. Helens in Oregon. By examining its popular arts, anthropologists gain understanding of the culture and its people. For example, an analysis of reactions to the Mt. St. Helens eruption…

  14. Cell and Molecular Biology of Ataxia Telangiectasia Heterozygous Human Mammary Epithelial Cells Irradiated in Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    Autologous isolates of cell types from obligate heterozygotes with the autosomal disorder ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T)were used to begin a tissue culture model for assessing pathways of radiation-induced cancer formation in this target tissue. This was done by establishing cultures of stromal fibroblasts and long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) in standard 2-dimensional tissue culture in order to establish expression of markers detailing early steps of carcinogenesis. The presumptive breast cancer susceptibility of A-T heterozygotes as a sequel to damage caused by ionizing radiation provided reason to study expression of markers in irradiated HMEC. Findings from our study with HMEC have included determination of differences in specific protein expression amongst growth phase (e.g., log vs stationary) and growth progression (e.g., pass 7 vs pass 9), as well as differences in morphologic markers within populations of irradiated HMEC (e.g., development of multinucleated cells).

  15. Long-Term Oocyte-Like Cell Development in Cultures Derived from Neonatal Marmoset Monkey Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Fereydouni, Bentolhoda; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Heistermann, Michael; Dressel, Ralf; Lewerich, Lucia; Drummer, Charis; Behr, Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    We use the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) as a preclinical nonhuman primate model to study reproductive and stem cell biology. The neonatal marmoset monkey ovary contains numerous primitive premeiotic germ cells (oogonia) expressing pluripotent stem cell markers including OCT4A (POU5F1). This is a peculiarity compared to neonatal human and rodent ovaries. Here, we aimed at culturing marmoset oogonia from neonatal ovaries. We established a culture system being stable for more than 20 passages and 5 months. Importantly, comparative transcriptome analysis of the cultured cells with neonatal ovary, embryonic stem cells, and fibroblasts revealed a lack of germ cell and pluripotency genes indicating the complete loss of oogonia upon initiation of the culture. From passage 4 onwards, however, the cultured cells produced large spherical, free-floating cells resembling oocyte-like cells (OLCs). OLCs strongly expressed several germ cell genes and may derive from the ovarian surface epithelium. In summary, our novel primate ovarian cell culture initially lacked detectable germ cells but then produced OLCs over a long period of time. This culture system may allow a deeper analysis of early phases of female primate germ cell development and—after significant refinement—possibly also the production of monkey oocytes. PMID:26664406

  16. Bile acid synthesis in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Javitt, N B; Pfeffer, R; Kok, E; Burstein, S; Cohen, B I; Budai, K

    1989-06-25

    Confluent cultures of Hep G2 cells were found to synthesize chenodeoxycholic and cholic acids continually. Chenodeoxycholic acid was synthesized at the rate of 58 +/- 8.6 micrograms/96 h, a rate more than 7-fold greater than that for cholic acid. Addition of 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-triol but not the -3 alpha, 7 alpha-diol was followed by an increase in cholic acid synthesis, thus indicating a relatively low 12 alpha-hydroxylase activity. Endogenous synthesis of monohydroxy bile acid ester sulfates was found, with maximum rates of 135 and 74 micrograms/96 h for lithocholic and 3 alpha-hydroxy-5-cholenoic acids, respectively. Incubation of Hep G2 cells in medium containing 25% D2O permitted a comparison of the precursor/product relationship of cholesterol with 3 beta-hydroxy-5-cholenoic acid. The pattern of incorporation of deuterium was in accordance with that expected, thus allowing the conclusion that this monohydroxy bile acid is derived from cholesterol and should be considered together with chenodeoxycholic and cholic acids as a primary bile acid. PMID:2543667

  17. Functional and ultrastructural cell pathology induced by fuel oil in cultured dolphin renal cells.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, C J; Sharova, L V; Gray, L

    2000-10-01

    Investigations were undertaken to elucidate in a marine mammal renal cell culture system the toxicity and some of the mechanisms of cytopathology in a standardized preparation following exposure to No. 1 fuel oil. Cell survivability of a cultured SP1K renal cell line from the Atlantic spotted dolphin Stenella plagiodon was reduced in a dose-dependent manner after a 12-h exposure to fuel oil. Early morphologic changes reflecting cytotoxicity, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy, included enlarged rough endoplasmic reticula, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and degenerative cytoplasmic inclusions, but mitochondria remained resistant. Assessment of extracellular proton loss by microphysiometry of cultured cells revealed fuel oil-induced enhancement of proton loss that was dependent upon both protein kinase C and renal epithelial Na(+)/H(+) counter-transport functioning, as the specific inhibitors H-7 and amiloride reduced this stimulatory petroleum effect. Cell cycle progression and apoptosis (programmed cell death) were studied in dolphin renal cells exposed to fuel oil for 12, 24, and 48 hours. The toxicant increased the percentage of cells in GO/GI phase and decreased the percentage of cells in S phase starting after 24 hours. The number of cells undergoing early apoptosis was also increased after 24 hours. PMID:11023700

  18. The culture of mouse embryonic stem cells and formation of embryoid bodies.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Melany; Taylor, A Helen; Jones, Elizabeth A; Forrester, Lesley M

    2010-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells isolated from the inner cell mass of the pre-implantation blastocyst. They have the capacity to undergo indefinite rounds of self-renewing cell division and differentiate into all the cell lineages of the developing embryo. In suspension culture, ES cells will differentiate into aggregates known as embryoid bodies in a manner similar to the early embryo. This culture system therefore provides a useful model to study the relatively inaccessible stages of mammalian development. We describe methods for the routine maintenance of mouse embryonic stem cells in culture, assays of stem cell self-renewal potential in monolayer culture and the generation of embryoid bodies to study differentiation pathways. PMID:20204616

  19. Single molecule microscopy in 3D cell cultures and tissues.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Florian M; Kaemmerer, Elke; Meckel, Tobias

    2014-12-15

    From the onset of the first microscopic visualization of single fluorescent molecules in living cells at the beginning of this century, to the present, almost routine application of single molecule microscopy, the method has well-proven its ability to contribute unmatched detailed insight into the heterogeneous and dynamic molecular world life is composed of. Except for investigations on bacteria and yeast, almost the entire story of success is based on studies on adherent mammalian 2D cell cultures. However, despite this continuous progress, the technique was not able to keep pace with the move of the cell biology community to adapt 3D cell culture models for basic research, regenerative medicine, or drug development and screening. In this review, we will summarize the progress, which only recently allowed for the application of single molecule microscopy to 3D cell systems and give an overview of the technical advances that led to it. While initially posing a challenge, we finally conclude that relevant 3D cell models will become an integral part of the on-going success of single molecule microscopy. PMID:25453259

  20. Cell differentiation mediated by co-culture of human umbilical cord blood stem cells with murine hepatic cells.

    PubMed

    Stecklum, Maria; Wulf-Goldenberg, Annika; Purfürst, Bettina; Siegert, Antje; Keil, Marlen; Eckert, Klaus; Fichtner, Iduna

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, purified human cord blood stem cells were co-cultivated with murine hepatic alpha mouse liver 12 (AML12) cells to compare the effect on endodermal stem cell differentiation by either direct cell-cell interaction or by soluble factors in conditioned hepatic cell medium. With that approach, we want to mimic in vitro the situation of preclinical transplantation experiments using human cells in mice. Cord blood stem cells, cultivated with hepatic conditioned medium, showed a low endodermal differentiation but an increased connexin 32 (Cx32) and Cx43, and cytokeratin 8 (CK8) and CK19 expression was monitored by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Microarray profiling indicated that in cultivated cord blood cells, 604 genes were upregulated 2-fold, with the highest expression for epithelial CK19 and epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin). On ultrastructural level, there were no major changes in the cellular morphology, except a higher presence of phago(ly)some-like structures observed. Direct co-culture of AML12 cells with cord blood cells led to less incisive differentiation with increased sex-determining region Y-box 17 (SOX17), Cx32 and Cx43, as well as epithelial CK8 and CK19 expressions. On ultrastructural level, tight cell contacts along the plasma membranes were revealed. FACS analysis in co-cultivated cells quantified dye exchange on low level, as also proved by time relapse video-imaging of labelled cells. Modulators of gap junction formation influenced dye transfer between the co-cultured cells, whereby retinoic acid increased and 3-heptanol reduced the dye transfer. The study indicated that the cell-co-cultured model of human umbilical cord blood cells and murine AML12 cells may be a suitable approach to study some aspects of endodermal/hepatic cell differentiation induction. PMID:25270685

  1. Aeroponics for the culture of organisms, tissues and cells.

    PubMed

    Weathers, P J; Zobel, R W

    1992-01-01

    Characteristics of aeroponics are discussed. Contrast is made, where appropriate, with hydroponics and aero-hydroponics as applies to research and commercial applications of nutrient mist technology. Topics include whole plants, plant tissue cultures, cell and microbial cultures, and animal tissue cultures with regard to operational considerations (moisture, temperature, minerals, gaseous atmosphere) and design of apparati. PMID:14540802

  2. Paclitaxel uptake and transport in Taxus cell suspension cultures

    PubMed Central

    Naill, Michael C.; Kolewe, Martin E.; Roberts, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    The transport of paclitaxel in Taxus canadensis suspension cultures was studied with a fluorescence analogue of paclitaxel (Flutax-2®) in combination with flow cytometry detection. Experiments were carried out using both isolated protoplasts and aggregated suspension cell cultures. Flutax-2® was shown to be greater than 90% stable in Taxus suspension cultures over the required incubation time (24 hours). Unlabeled paclitaxel was shown to inhibit the cellular uptake of Flutax-2®, although structurally similar taxanes such as cephalomannine, baccatin III, and 10-deacetylbaccatin III did not inhibit Flutax-2® uptake. Saturation kinetics of Flutax-2® uptake was demonstrated. These results indicate the presence of a specific transport system for paclitaxel. Suspension cells elicited with methyl jasmonate accumulated 60% more Flutax-2® than unelicited cells, possibly due to an increased cellular storage capacity following methyl jasmonate elicitation. The presence of a specific mechanism for paclitaxel transport is an important first result that will provide the basis of more detailed studies as well as the development of targeted strategies for increased paclitaxel secretion to the extracellular medium. PMID:23180977

  3. Isolation and culture of hepatic stellate cells from mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wenju; Yang, Mengxuan; Song, Lujun; Shen, Kuntang; Wang, Hongshan; Gao, Xiaodong; Li, Min; Niu, Weixin; Qin, Xinyu

    2014-04-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the primary extracellular matrix-producing cells within the liver and have numerous vital functions. A robust protocol for the isolation and culture of HSCs is important for further investigations of cell functions and related mechanisms in liver disease. The volume of the mouse liver is much smaller than that of the rat liver, which makes it much more difficult to isolate mouse HSCs (mHSCs) than rat HSCs. At present, isolating mHSCs is still a challenge because there is no efficient, robust method to isolate and culture these cells. In the present study, C57BL/6J mice were intravenously injected with liposome-encapsulated dichloromethylene diphosphate (CL2MDP) to selectively eliminate Kupffer cells from the liver. The mouse livers were then perfused in situ, and the mHSCs were isolated with an optimized density gradient centrifugation technique. In the phosphate buffer solution (PBS)-liposome group, the yield of mHSCs was (1.37 ± 0.23) × 10(6)/g liver, the cell purity was (90.18 ± 1.61)%, and the cell survival rate was (94.51 ± 1.61)%. While in the CL2MDP-liposome group, the yield of mHSCs was (1.62 ± 0.34) × 10(6)/g liver, the cell purity was (94.44 ± 1.89)%, and the cell survival rate was (94.41 ± 1.50)%. Based on the yield and purity of mHSCs, the CL2MDP-liposome treatment was superior to the PBS-liposome treatment (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). This study established successfully a robust and efficient protocol for the separation and purification of mHSCs, and both a high purity and an adequate yield of mHSCs were obtained. PMID:24389643

  4. Development of Scalable Culture Systems for Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Azarin, Samira M.; Palecek, Sean P.

    2009-01-01

    The use of human pluripotent stem cells, including embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, in therapeutic applications will require the development of robust, scalable culture technologies for undifferentiated cells. Advances made in large-scale cultures of other mammalian cells will facilitate expansion of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), but challenges specific to hESCs will also have to be addressed, including development of defined, humanized culture media and substrates, monitoring spontaneous differentiation and heterogeneity in the cultures, and maintaining karyotypic integrity in the cells. This review will describe our current understanding of environmental factors that regulate hESC self-renewal and efforts to provide these cues in various scalable bioreactor culture systems. PMID:20161686

  5. Adenosine formation in contracting primary rat skeletal muscle cells and endothelial cells in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Hellsten, Y; Frandsen, U

    1997-01-01

    1. The present study examined the capacity for adenosine formation, uptake and metabolism in contracting primary rat muscle cells and in microvascular endothelial cells in culture. 2. Strong and moderate electrical simulation of skeletal muscle cells led to a significantly greater increase in the extracellular adenosine concentration (421 +/- 91 and 235 +/- 30 nmol (g protein)-1, respectively; P < 0.05) compared with non-stimulated muscle cells (161 +/- 20 nmol (g protein)-1). The ATP concentration was lower (18%; P < 0.05) in the intensely contracted, but not in the moderately contracted muscle cells. 3. Addition of microvascular endothelial cells to the cultured skeletal muscle cells enhanced the contraction-induced accumulation of extracellular adenosine (P < 0.05), whereas endothelial cells in culture alone did not cause extracellular accumulation of adenosine. 4. Skeletal muscle cells were found to have ecto-forms of several enzymes involved in nucleotide metabolism, including ATPases capable of converting extracellular ATP to ADP and AMP. 5. Adenosine added to the cell medium was taken up by muscle cells and incorporated into the adenine nucleotide pool so that after 30 min of incubation, over 95% of the adenosine label was present in ATP, ADP and AMP. A similar extent of incorporation of adenosine into the nucleotide pool was evident in the endothelial cells. 6. The present data suggest that contracting muscle cells induce an elevation in the extracellular adenosine concentration. Addition of endothelial cells to muscle cells enhances the contraction-induced formation of adenosine. Adenosine taken up by muscle and endothelial cells from the extracellular space is not likely to be used for storage in intracellular pools, but may serve to regulate muscle extracellular adenosine levels. PMID:9401975

  6. Biotechnology Apprenticeship for Secondary-Level Students: Teaching Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jennifer R.; Kotur, Mark S.; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A.; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Ferrari, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss "small-group apprenticeships (SGAs)" as a method to instruct cell culture techniques to high school participants. The study aimed to teach cell culture practices and to introduce advanced imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Participants designed and completed experiments…

  7. Development of a gastrointestinal tract microscale cell culture analog to predict drug transport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microscale cell culture analogs (uCCAs) are used to study the metabolism and toxicity of a chemical or drug. These in vitro devices are physical replicas of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models that combine microfabrication and cell culture. The goal of this project is to add an independent ...

  8. A comparative study of the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells cultured on β-TCP ceramics and demineralized bone matrix with or without osteogenic inducers in vitro.

    PubMed

    An, Shaofeng; Gao, Yan; Huang, Xiangya; Ling, Junqi; Liu, Zhaohui; Xiao, Yin

    2015-05-01

    The repair of bone defects that result from periodontal diseases remains a clinical challenge for periodontal therapy. β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ceramics are biodegradable inorganic bone substitutes with inorganic components that are similar to those of bone. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is an acid-extracted organic matrix derived from bone sources that consists of the collagen and matrix proteins of bone. A few studies have documented the effects of DBM on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of inorganic and organic elements of bone on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs using three-dimensional porous β-TCP ceramics and DBM with or without osteogenic inducers. Primary hPDLCs were isolated from human periodontal ligaments. The proliferation of the hPDLCs on the scaffolds in the growth culture medium was examined using a Cell-Counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the osteogenic differentiation of the hPDLCs cultured on the β-TCP ceramics and DBM were examined in both the growth culture medium and osteogenic culture medium. Specific osteogenic differentiation markers were examined using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). SEM images revealed that the cells on the β-TCP were spindle-shaped and much more spread out compared with the cells on the DBM surfaces. There were no significant differences observed in cell proliferation between the β-TCP ceramics and the DBM scaffolds. Compared with the cells that were cultured on β-TCP ceramics, the ALP activity, as well as the Runx2 and osteocalcin (OCN) mRNA levels in the hPDLCs cultured on DBM were significantly enhanced both in the growth culture medium and the osteogenic culture medium. The organic elements of bone may exhibit greater osteogenic differentiation effects on hPDLCs than the inorganic elements. PMID:25738431

  9. Computerized microfluidic cell culture using elastomeric channels and Braille displays

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Wei; Zhu, Xiaoyue; Futai, Nobuyuki; Cho, Brenda S.; Takayama, Shuichi

    2004-01-01

    Computer-controlled microfluidics would advance many types of cellular assays and microscale tissue engineering studies wherever spatiotemporal changes in fluidics need to be defined. However, this goal has been elusive because of the limited availability of integrated, programmable pumps and valves. This paper demonstrates how a refreshable Braille display, with its grid of 320 vertically moving pins, can power integrated pumps and valves through localized deformations of channel networks within elastic silicone rubber. The resulting computerized fluidic control is able to switch among: (i) rapid and efficient mixing between streams, (ii) multiple laminar flows with minimal mixing between streams, and (iii) segmented plug-flow of immiscible fluids within the same channel architecture. The same control method is used to precisely seed cells, compartmentalize them into distinct subpopulations through channel reconfiguration, and culture each cell subpopulation for up to 3 weeks under perfusion. These reliable microscale cell cultures showed gradients of cellular behavior from C2C12 myoblasts along channel lengths, as well as differences in cell density of undifferentiated myoblasts and differentiation patterns, both programmable through different flow rates of serum-containing media. This technology will allow future microscale tissue or cell studies to be more accessible, especially for high-throughput, complex, and long-term experiments. The microfluidic actuation method described is versatile and computer programmable, yet simple, well packaged, and portable enough for personal use. PMID:15514025

  10. Using Tissue Culture To Investigate Plant Cell Differentiation and Dedifferentiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozzone, Donna M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experimental project that uses plant tissue culture techniques to examine cell differentiation in the carrot. Allows students to gain experience in some important techniques and to explore fundamental questions about cell differentiation. (DDR)

  11. Isolation and Culture of Alveolar Epithelial Type I and Type II Cells from Rat Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Robert F.; Dobbs, Leland G.

    2014-01-01

    The pulmonary alveolar epithelium, comprised of alveolar Type I (TI) and Type II (TII) cells, covers more than 99% of the internal surface area of the lungs. The study of isolated and cultured alveolar epithelial TI and TII cells has provided a large amount of information about the functions of both cell types. This chapter provides information about methods for isolating and culturing both of these cell types from rat lungs. PMID:23097106

  12. The evolution of human pluripotent stem cell culture: from feeder cells to synthetic coatings

    PubMed Central

    Villa-Diaz, L.G.; Ross, A.M.; Lahann, J.; Krebsbach, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    Current practices to maintain human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), which include induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs), in an undifferentiated state typically depend on the support of feeder cells such as mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), or an extracellular matrix such as Matrigel. Culture conditions that depend on these undefined support systems limit our ability to interpret mechanistic studies aimed at resolving how hPSCs interact with their extracellular environment to remain in a unique undifferentiated state and to make fate-changing lineage decisions. Likewise, the xenogeneic components of MEFs and Matrigel ultimately hinder our ability to use pluripotent stem cells to treat debilitating human diseases. Many of these obstacles have been overcome by the development of synthetic coatings and bioreactors that support hPSC expansion and self-renewal within defined culture conditions that are free from xenogeneic contamination. The establishment of defined culture conditions andsynthetic matrices will facilitate studies tomore precisely probe the molecular basis of pluripotent stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. When combined with 3D cultures in bioreactors, these systems will also enable large-scale expansion for future clinical applications. PMID:23081828

  13. Long-term culture and analysis of cashmere goat Sertoli cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Huimin; Luo, Fenhua; Bao, Jiajing; Wu, Sachula; Zhang, Xueming; Zhang, Yan; Duo, Shuguang; Wu, Yingji

    2014-12-01

    Sertoli cells have important functions in the testis for spermatogenesis. Thus, Sertoli cell culture systems have been established in many animals, such as rat, mouse, human, dog, cow, and pig, but a goat culture has not been reported. This study describes the isolation and culture of Sertoli cells from 3- to 4-month-old cashmere goat (Capra hircus) testes. These proliferative cells were expanded for 20 passages and repeatedly cryopreserved in vitro, in contrast to previous study in human, of which maintain steady growth for up to seven passages and only passages 1 to 5 could be refrozen. The microstructure and ultrastructure of the culture were typical of Sertoli cells, bearing irregular nuclei and a cytoplasm that was rich in smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, Golgi, lysosomes, lipid drops, and glycogenosomes. By immunofluorescence analysis, the all cells expressed SRY-related HMG box gene 9 (Sox9). Growth curves and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation were used to analyze the proliferation of the cultured cells. With increasing passage times, the proliferation of the Sertoli cells declined, but the transcription of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), stem cell factor (SCF), and β1-integrin was constant. By flow cytometry, the cells retained the ability to proliferate after 5 yr of cryopreservation. Thus, cashmere goat Sertoli cells have significant proliferative potential in vitro, expressing germ cell regulatory factors and have important applications in studying Sertoli cell-germ cell interactions, spermatogenesis, reproductive toxicology, and male infertility. PMID:25164184

  14. Rhamnolipids elicit the same cytotoxic sensitivity between cancer cell and normal cell by reducing surface tension of culture medium.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lifang; Shen, Chong; Long, Xuwei; Zhang, Guoliang; Meng, Qin

    2014-12-01

    Biosurfactant rhamnolipids have been claimed to show biological activities of inhibiting the proliferation of cancer cells. In this study, the cytotoxicity of rhamnolipids was examined on four cancer cells (HepG2, Caco-2, Hela, MCF-7 cells) and two normal cells (HK-2 cell, primary hepatocyte). Interestingly, both cancer cells and normal cells exhibited similar sensitivities to the addition of rhamnolipids in culture medium, and the cytotoxicity was largely attenuated by the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS) in culture medium. In correlation of the mono-/di-rhamnolipid cytotoxicity with the surface tension of culture medium, it was found that rhamnolipids triggered cytotoxicity whenever the surface tension of culture medium decreased below 41 mN/m irrespective of the FBS content in culture medium, cell line, or rhamnolipid congener. Similarly, each chemical surfactant (Tween-80, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate) could cause cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells whenever its addition made the surface tension under 41 mN/m in culture medium with or without the presence of FBS. It seems that rhamnolipids, like chemical surfactants, exhibited cytotoxicity by reducing the surface tension of culture medium rather than by changing its specific molecular structure, which had no selection on tumor cells. This study could offer helps to correct the misleading biological activity of rhamnolipids and to avoid the possible large wastes of time and expenses on developing the applications in antitumor drugs. PMID:25231070

  15. Transport of monocarboxylic acids at the blood-brain barrier: Studies with monolayers of primary cultured bovine brain capillary endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Terasaki, T.; Takakuwa, S.; Moritani, S.; Tsuji, A. )

    1991-09-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of the transport of monocarboxylic acids (MCAs) were studied by using primary cultured bovine brain capillary endothelial cells. Concentration-dependent uptake of acetic acid was observed, and the kinetic parameters were estimated as follows: the Michaelis constant, Kt, was 3.41 {plus minus} 1.87 mM, the maximum uptake rate, Jmax, was 144.7 {plus minus} 55.7 nmol/mg of protein/min and the nonsaturable first-order rate constant, Kd, was 6.66 {plus minus} 1.98 microliters/mg of protein/min. At medium pH below 7.0, the uptake rate of (3H)acetic acid increased markedly with decreasing medium pH, whereas pH-independent uptake was observed in the presence of 10 mM acetic acid. An energy requirement for (3H)acetic acid uptake was also demonstrated, because metabolic inhibitors (2,4-dinitrophenol and rotenone) reduced significantly the uptake rate (P less than .05). Carbonylcyanide-p-trifluoro-methoxyphenylhydrazone, a protonophore, inhibited significantly the uptake of (3H)acetic acid at medium pH of 5.0 and 6.0, whereas 4,4{prime}-diisothiocyanostilben-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid did not. Several MCAs inhibited significantly the uptake rate of (3H)acetic acid, whereas di- and tricarboxylic acids did not. The uptake of (3H)acetic acid was competitively inhibited by salicylic acid, with an inhibition constant, Ki, of 3.60 mM, suggesting a common transport system between acetic acid and salicylic acid. Moreover, at the medium pH of 7.4, salicylic acid and valproic acid inhibited significantly the uptake of (3H)acetic acid, demonstrating that the transport of MCA drugs could also be ascribed to the MCA transport system at the physiologic pH.

  16. Effects of Cell Type and Culture Media on Interleukin-6 Secretion in Response to Environmental Particles

    PubMed Central

    Veranth, John M.; Cutler, N. Shane; Kaser, Erin G.; Reilly, Christopher A.; Yost, Garold S.

    2008-01-01

    Cultured lung cells provide an alternative to animal exposures for comparing the effects of different types of air pollution particles. Studies of particulate matter in vitro have reported proinflammatory cytokine signaling in response to many types of environmental particles, but there have been few studies comparing identical treatments in multiple cell types or identical cells with alternative cell culture protocols. We compared soil-derived, diesel, coal fly ash, titanium dioxide, and kaolin particles along with soluble vanadium and lipopolysaccharide, applied to airway-derived cells grown in submerged culture. Cell types included A549, BEAS-2B, RAW 264.7, and primary macrophages. The cell culture models (specific combinations of cell types and culture conditions) were reproducibly different in the cytokine signaling responses to the suite of treatments. Further, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) response to the treatments changed when the same cells, BEAS-2B, were grown in KGM versus LHC-9 media or in media containing bovine serum. The effect of changing media composition was reversible over multiple changes of media type. Other variables tested included culture well size and degree of confluence. The observation that sensitivity of a cell type to environmental agonists can be manipulated by modifying culture conditions suggests a novel approach for studying biochemical mechanisms of particle toxicity. PMID:18178371

  17. Fabrication and optimization of alginate hydrogel constructs for use in 3D neural cell culture.

    PubMed

    Frampton, J P; Hynd, M R; Shuler, M L; Shain, W

    2011-02-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) culture systems provide useful information about many biological processes. However, some applications including tissue engineering, drug transport studies, and analysis of cell growth and dynamics are better studied using three-dimensional (3D) culture systems. 3D culture systems can potentially offer higher degrees of organization and control of cell growth environments, more physiologically relevant diffusion characteristics, and permit the formation of more extensive 3D networks of cell-cell interactions. A 3D culture system has been developed using alginate as a cell scaffold, capable of maintaining the viability and function of a variety of neural cell types. Alginate was functionalized by the covalent attachment of a variety of whole proteins and peptide epitopes selected to provide sites for cell attachment. Alginate constructs were used to entrap a variety of neural cell types including astroglioma cells, astrocytes, microglia and neurons. Neural cells displayed process outgrowth over time in culture. Cell-seeded scaffolds were characterized in terms of their biochemical and biomechanical properties, effects on seeded neural cells, and suitability for use as 3D neural cell culture models. PMID:21205998

  18. Evaluation of cytokine gene expression after avian influenza virus infection in avian cell lines and primary cell cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The innate immune responses elicited by avian influenza virus (AIV) infection has been studied by measuring cytokine gene expression by relative real time PCR (rRT-PCR) in vitro, using both cell lines and primary cell cultures. Continuous cell lines offer advantages over the use of primary cell cult...

  19. Rabbit uterine epithelial cells: Co-culture with spermatozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Boice, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    A primary culture of rabbit uterine epithelial cells was established and their effects on sperm function were examined in vitro. Epithelial cells were isolated from uteri of estrous rabbits and cultured on floating collagen gels in phenol red-free medium supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum. Light microscopy and keratin staining showed that the epithelial cell population established in culture had morphological characteristics similar to that seen in the intact endometrium. Cells were cultured with {sup 3}H-leucine and uptake of label by cells and its incorporation into cellular and secretory proteins determined. When compared to cells cultured for 24-48 h, incorporation of label into cellular protein was lower at 72-96 h, but secretion increased. Estradiol 17-{beta} did not affect label uptake or incorporation, but did enhance proliferation of cells as judged by total DNA content of the cell population. Analysis of proteins in media by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography suggested that epithelial and stromal cells synthesis proteins that may be secretory in nature during 72-96 h culture. Twenty-nine to thirty-one h after initiation of epithelial cultures, 1-2 {times} 10{sup 6} sperm were co-incubated with cells and sperm viability, motility, loss of acrosome and fertilizing ability determined.

  20. Effects of simulated microgravity on mouse Sertoli cells in culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angela, Masini Maria; Prato, Paola; Linda, Scarabelli; Lanza, Cristina; Palmero, Silvio; Pointis, Georges; Ricci, Franco; Strollo, Felice

    With the advent of space flights questions concerning the effects of microgravity (0xG) on hu-man reproduction physiology have got priority Spermatogenesis is a complex, highly ordered process of cell division and differentiation by which spermatogonial cells give rise to mature spermatozoa. Sertoli cells play a crucial role in the development of germ cells and the regulation of spermatogenesis. In this study the influence of 0xG on Sertoli cells was evaluated. A Sertoli cell line from mouse testis (42GPA9) was analyzed for cytoskeletal (using the 3D reconstruction generated from a stack of confocal images) and SHBG changes by immunohistochemistry, for antioxidant agents by RT-PCR and for culture medium lactate concentrations by wet chemistry. Cells were cultured for 6, 24 and 48 hrs on a three-dimensional Random Positioning Machine (3D-RPM); static controls (1xG) were positioned on the supporting frame. At the end of each experiment, cultured cells were either fixed in paraformaldehyde or RNA-extracted or used for culture medium lactate measurements as needed. At 0xG Sertoli cytoskeleton got disorganized, microtubules fragmented and SHBG undetectable already after 24 hrs, with alterations wors-ening further until 48 hrs; various antioxidant systems (SOD, GST, PARP, MTs) appreciably increased during the first 24 hrs but significantly decreased at 48 hrs. No changes occurred in 1xG samples. At least initially, 0xG seems to perturb antioxidant protection strategies allowing the testes to support sperm production, thus generating an aging-like state of oxidative stress. Lactate production at 0xG slightly decreased only after 24 hrs. Further experiments need to be carried out in space to investigate upon steroidogenesis and germ cell differentiation within the testis, to rule out eventually pending male infertility consequences, which would be a problem nowadays, when life expectancy increases and male fertility might become a social issue often extending into 60 years and over. (experiment funded by ASI, through a grant within the OSMA project).

  1. Clonal analyses and cryopreservation of neural stem cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Gritti, Angela; Galli, Rossella; Vescovi, Angelo L

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of stem cell populations in the adult central nervous system (CNS) that continually produce neurons and glial cells, and the hypothesis that they could contribute to neural plasticity/repair, has opened new and exciting areas of research in basic cell biology and regenerative medicine. The success of these studies relies on understanding the functional features and the normal fate of neural stem cells (NSCs) in vivo as well on the development of in vitro culture conditions enabling isolation, extensive propagation, and rigorous characterization of the "putative" NSCs. The neurosphere assay (NSA) has emerged as a valuable tool for isolating embryonic and adult CNS stem cells and for studying their biology. However, because this assay may select and expand a heterogeneous stem/progenitor cell population, rigorous clonal and serial subcloning analyses are required to detect and document stem cell activity and to unequivocally identify bona fide stem cells. We illustrate and discuss methods for the isolation, propagation, cryopreservation, and functional characterization of NSCs, focusing on the essential issue of their clonogenic capacity. PMID:18369757

  2. Some Rat Sensory Neurons in Culture Express Characteristics of Differentiated Pain Sensory Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccaglini, Paola I.; Hogan, Patrick G.

    1983-01-01

    Sensory neurons were dissociated from trigeminal ganglia or from dorsal root ganglia of rats, grown in culture, and examined for expression of properties of pain sensory cells. Many sensory neurons in culture are excited by low concentrations of capsaicin, reportedly a selective stimulus for pain sensory neurons. Many are excited by bradykinin, sensitized by prostaglandin E2, or specifically stained by an antiserum against substance P. These experiments provide a basis for the study of pain mechanisms in cell culture.

  3. High-Aspect-Ratio Rotating Cell-Culture Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, David A.; Sams, Clarence; Schwarz, Ray P.

    1992-01-01

    Cylindrical rotating cell-culture vessel with thin culture-medium layer of large surface area provides exchange of nutrients and products of metabolism with minimal agitation. Rotation causes averaging of buoyant forces otherwise separating components of different densities. Vessel enables growth of cells in homogeneous distribution with little agitation and little shear stress.

  4. Heat Stress Responses in Cultured Plant Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Min-Tze; Wallner, Stephen J.; Waddell, John W.

    1984-01-01

    The pipetting of pear (Pyrus communis cv Bartlett) suspension cultures was followed by a substantial but transient decrease in heat sensitivity. During a culture cycle, pear cells were most sensitive to heat at day 3, which coincided with the period of most active cell division. To minimize serious artifacts, the influence of culture handling and age on parameters such as heat sensitivity must be standardized. PMID:16663538

  5. Autophagic response to cell culture stress in pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Siân; Swamy, Sushma; Hewitt, Zoe; Wood, Andrew; Weightman, Richard; Moore, Harry

    2016-05-01

    Autophagy is an important conserved cellular process, both constitutively as a recycling pathway for long lived proteins and as an upregulated stress response. Recent findings suggest a fundamental role for autophagic processes in the maintenance of pluripotent stem cell function. In human embryonic stem cells (hESCS), autophagy was investigated by transfection of LC3-GFP to visualize autophagosomes and with an antibody to LC3B protein. The presence of the primary cilium (PC) in hESCs as the site of recruitment of autophagy-related proteins was also assessed. HESCs (mShef11) in vitro displayed basal autophagy which was upregulated in response to deprivation of culture medium replacement. Significantly higher levels of autophagy were exhibited on spontaneous differentiation of hESCs in vitro. The PC was confirmed to be present in hESCs and therefore may serve to coordinate autophagy function. PMID:26385182

  6. Suspension culture of Catharanthus roseus crown gall cell induced by Agrobacterium C58.

    PubMed

    Wang, N; Wang, S; Tian, J; Li, X; Zhu, L

    1994-01-01

    In comparison with calli from leaf or stem, Catharanthus roseus crown gall cell cultured on MS basic medium was superior in growth, total indole alkaloids and ajmalicine contents. The effects of illumination, cultural temperature, sucrose level of the medium and exogenous L-Trp on the growth, total indole alkaloids and ajmalicine contents of C. roseus crown gall cell cultures were studied. The results will provide a theoretical basis for the attempt of using suspension cultures of C. roseus crown gall cells to produce indole alkaloids. PMID:7893941

  7. Effects of hyperosmotic stress on cultured airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Harriet; Dragomir, Anca; Ahlander, Anders; Johannesson, Marie; Roomans, Godfried M

    2007-11-01

    Inhalation of hyperosmotic solutions (salt, mannitol) has been used in the treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis or asthma, but the mechanism behind the effect of hyperosmotic solutions is unclear. The relation between osmolarity and permeability changes was examined in an airway cell line by the addition of NaCl, NaBr, LiCl, mannitol, or xylitol (295-700 mOsm). Transepithelial resistance was measured as an indicator of the tightness of the cultures. Cell-cell contacts and morphology were investigated by immunofluorescence and by transmission electron microscopy, with lanthanum nitrate added to the luminal side of the epithelium to investigate tight junction permeability. The electrolyte solutions caused a significant decrease in transepithelial resistance from 450 mOsm upwards, when the hyperosmolar exposure was gradually increased from 295 to 700 mOsm; whereas the nonelectrolyte solutions caused a decrease in transepithelial resistance from 700 mOsm upwards. Old cultures reacted in a more rigid way compared to young cultures. Immuno-fluorescence pictures showed weaker staining for the proteins ZO-1, claudin-4, and plakoglobin in treated samples compared to the control. The ultrastructure revealed an increased number of open tight junctions as well as a disturbed morphology with increasing osmolarity, and electrolyte solutions opened a larger proportion of tight junctions than nonelectrolyte solutions. This study shows that hyperosmotic solutions cause the opening of tight junctions, which may increase the permeability of the paracellular pathway and result in increased transepithelial water transport. PMID:17768643

  8. Evaluation of spheroid head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell models in comparison to monolayer cultures

    PubMed Central

    KADLETZ, LORENZ; HEIDUSCHKA, GREGOR; DOMAYER, JULIAN; SCHMID, RAINER; ENZENHOFER, ELISABETH; THURNHER, DIETMAR

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cell culture models are the most common method used to investigate tumor cells in vitro. In the few last decades, a multicellular spheroid model has gained attention due to its adjacency to tumors in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate immunohistochemical differences between these two cell culture systems. The FaDu, CAL27 and SCC25 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines were seeded out in monolayer and multicellular spheroids. The FaDu and SCC25 cells were treated with increasing doses of cisplatin and irradiation. CAL27 cells were not used in theproliferation experiments, since the spheroids of CAL27 cells were not able to process the reagent in CCK-8 assays. Furthermore, they were stained to present alterations of the following antigens: Ki-67, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, epithelial growth factor and survivin. Differences in growth rates and expression patterns were detected in certain HNSCC cell lines. The proliferation rates showed a significant divergence of cells grown in the three-dimensional model compared with cells grown in the 2D model. Overall, multicellular spheroids are a promising method to reproduce the immunohistochemical aspects and characteristics of tumor cells, and may show different response rates to therapeutic options. PMID:26622664

  9. Biona-C Cell Culture pH Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedericks, C.

    1999-01-01

    Sensors 2000! is developing a system to demonstrate the ability to perform accurate, real-time measurements of pH and CO2 in a cell culture media in Space. The BIONA-C Cell Culture pH Monitoring System consists of S2K! developed ion selective sensors and control electronics integrated with the fluidics of a cell culture system. The integrated system comprises a "rail" in the Cell Culture Module (CCM) of WRAIR (Space Biosciences of Walter Read Army Institute of Research). The CCM is a Space Shuttle mid-deck locker experiment payload. The BIONA-C is displayed along with associated graphics and text explanations. The presentation will stimulate interest in development of sensor technology for real-time cell culture measurements. The transfer of this technology to other applications will also be of interest. Additional information is contained in the original document.

  10. Neurons on Parafilm: versatile elastic substrates for neuronal cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sang Jin; Nam, Yoonkey

    2012-02-15

    A variety of materials has been applied to neuronal cell culture substrates to improve the efficiency of the culture and to provide pertinent cell growth environment. Here we report the application of Parafilm(®) M ('Parafilm') as a novel substrate for neuronal culture and patterning. Cell culture results show that elastic Parafilm had effects on cell viability, length and number of neurites, and soma spreading. Parafilm was also an effective substrate to obtain patterned neuronal cultures using a conventional micro-contract printing (μCP) technique. Polylysine micropatterns in line or grid forms were readily transferred from PDMS stamp to bare Parafilm surfaces and spatially confined neuronal cultures were successfully maintained for over three weeks. We also demonstrate that batch-processing cell culture substrates can be easily fabricated using a piece of Parafilm. The softness, plasticity, and hydrophobicity were main features that made it attractive for Parafilm to be considered as a practical cell culture platform. The results can be extended to develop an inexpensive and practical neuronal culture substrates in tissue engineering and biochip applications. PMID:22068030

  11. 3-D microwell culture of human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Jeffrey C; de Pablo, Juan J; Palecek, Sean P

    2006-12-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the ability to proliferate indefinitely and differentiate into each of the embryonic cell lineages. Great care is required to maintain undifferentiated hESC cultures since spontaneous differentiation often occurs in culture, presumably resulting from soluble factors, cell-cell contact, and/or cell-matrix signaling. hESC differentiation is typically stimulated via generation of embryoid bodies (EBs) and lineage commitment of individual cells depends upon numerous cues throughout the EB environment, including EB shape and size. Common EB formation protocols, however, produce a very heterogeneous size distribution, perhaps reducing efficiency of directed differentiation. We have developed a 3-D microwell-based method to maintain undifferentiated hESC cultures for weeks without passaging using physical and extracellular matrix patterning constraints to limit colony growth. Over 90% of hESCs cultured in microwells for 2-3 weeks were viable and expressed the hESC transcription marker Oct-4. Upon passaging to Matrigel-coated tissue culture-treated polystyrene dishes (TCPS), microwell cultured hESCs maintained undifferentiated proliferation. Microwell culture also permits formation of hESC colonies with a defined size, which can then be used to form monodisperse EBs. When cultured in this system, hESCs retained pluripotency and self-renewal, and were able to be passaged to standard unconstrained culture conditions. PMID:16884768

  12. A Rat Primary Hepatocyte Culture Model for Aging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Shenvi, Swapna V.; Dixon, Brian M.; Shay, Kate Petersen; Hagen, Tory M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this protocol is to establish a primary hepatocyte culture system as a suitable model to examine age-related changes in Phase II detoxication gene expression. Hepatocytes are isolated using a two-step collagenase perfusion technique from young (3 to 6 months) and old (24 to 28 months) rats and placed in primary culture using collagen (Type I)-coated plates as the extracellular matrix. A supplemented William’s E Medium is used as the medium. This culture system maintains hepatocyte viability from both young and old rats for ~60 hr, as measured by lactate dehydrogenase activity, while also maintaining their respective phenotypes relative to Phase II detoxification. We thus conclude that a collagen-based cell culture system is suitable to study age-associated deficits in Nrf2/ARE-mediated Phase II gene regulation provided that experiments can be conducted within 60 hr after cell isolation. PMID:23045003

  13. Stabilization of gene expression and cell morphology after explant recycling during fin explant culture in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Chenais, Nathalie; Lareyre, Jean-Jacques; Le Bail, Pierre-Yves; Labbe, Catherine

    2015-07-01

    The development of fin primary cell cultures for in vitro cellular and physiological studies is hampered by slow cell outgrowth, low proliferation rate, poor viability, and sparse cell characterization. Here, we investigated whether the recycling of fresh explants after a first conventional culture could improve physiological stability and sustainability of the culture. The recycled explants were able to give a supplementary cell culture showing faster outgrowth, cleaner cell layers and higher net cell production. The cells exhibited a highly stabilized profile for marker gene expression including a low cytokeratin 49 (epithelial marker) and a high collagen 1a1 (mesenchymal marker) expression. Added to the cell spindle-shaped morphology, motility behavior, and actin organization, this suggests that the cells bore stable mesenchymal characteristics. This contrast with the time-evolving expression pattern observed in the control fresh explants during the first 2 weeks of culture: a sharp decrease in cytokeratin 49 expression was concomitant with a gradual increase in col1a1. We surmise that such loss of epithelial features for the benefit of mesenchymal ones was triggered by an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) process or by way of a progressive population replacement process. Overall, our findings provide a comprehensive characterization of this new primary culture model bearing mesenchymal features and whose stability over culture time makes those cells good candidates for cell reprogramming prior to nuclear transfer, in a context of fish genome preservation. PMID:25929521

  14. The Impairment of Osteogenesis in Bone Sialoprotein (BSP) Knockout Calvaria Cell Cultures Is Cell Density Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Bouet, Guenaelle; Bouleftour, Wafa; Juignet, Laura; Linossier, Marie-Thrse; Thomas, Mireille; Vanden-Bossche, Arnaud; Aubin, Jane E.; Vico, Laurence; Marchat, David; Malaval, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Bone sialoprotein (BSP) belongs to the "small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoprotein" (SIBLING) family, whose members interact with bone cells and bone mineral. BSP is strongly expressed in bone and we previously showed that BSP knockout (BSP-/-) mice have a higher bone mass than wild type (BSP+/+) littermates, with lower bone remodelling. Because baseline bone formation activity is constitutively lower in BSP-/- mice, we studied the impact of the absence of BSP on in vitro osteogenesis in mouse calvaria cell (MCC) cultures. MCC BSP-/- cultures exhibit fewer fibroblast (CFU-F), preosteoblast (CFU-ALP) and osteoblast colonies (bone nodules) than wild type, indicative of a lower number of osteoprogenitors. No mineralized colonies were observed in BSP-/- cultures, along with little/no expression of either osteogenic markers or SIBLING proteins MEPE or DMP1. Osteopontin (OPN) is the only SIBLING expressed in standard density BSP-/- culture, at higher levels than in wild type in early culture times. At higher plating density, the effects of the absence o