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Sample records for cell death receptor

  1. Cell death sensitization of leukemia cells by opioid receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Claudia; Roscher, Mareike; Hormann, Inis; Fichtner, Iduna; Alt, Andreas; Hilger, Ralf A.; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Miltner, Erich

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) regulates a number of cellular processes and modulates cell death induction. cAMP levels are altered upon stimulation of specific G-protein-coupled receptors inhibiting or activating adenylyl cyclases. Opioid receptor stimulation can activate inhibitory Gi-proteins which in turn block adenylyl cyclase activity reducing cAMP. Opioids such as D,L-methadone induce cell death in leukemia cells. However, the mechanism how opioids trigger apoptosis and activate caspases in leukemia cells is not understood. In this study, we demonstrate that downregulation of cAMP induced by opioid receptor activation using the opioid D,L-methadone kills and sensitizes leukemia cells for doxorubicin treatment. Enhancing cAMP levels by blocking opioid-receptor signaling strongly reduced D,L-methadone-induced apoptosis, caspase activation and doxorubicin-sensitivity. Induction of cell death in leukemia cells by activation of opioid receptors using the opioid D,L-methadone depends on critical levels of opioid receptor expression on the cell surface. Doxorubicin increased opioid receptor expression in leukemia cells. In addition, the opioid D,L-methadone increased doxorubicin uptake and decreased doxorubicin efflux in leukemia cells, suggesting that the opioid D,L-methadone as well as doxorubicin mutually increase their cytotoxic potential. Furthermore, we found that opioid receptor activation using D,L-methadone alone or in addition to doxorubicin inhibits tumor growth significantly in vivo. These results demonstrate that opioid receptor activation via triggering the downregulation of cAMP induces apoptosis, activates caspases and sensitizes leukemia cells for doxorubicin treatment. Hence, opioid receptor activation seems to be a promising strategy to improve anticancer therapies. PMID:23633472

  2. Metabotropic glutamate receptor regulation of neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Spillson, Alison Berent; Russell, James W

    2003-11-01

    The metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are a family of glutamate-sensitive receptors that regulate neuronal function separately from the ionotropic glutamate receptors. By coupling to guanosine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), mGluRs are able to regulate neuronal injury and survival, likely through a series of downstream protein kinase and cysteine protease signaling pathways that affect mitochondrial regulated programmed cell death (PCD). The physiological relevance of this system is supported by evidence that mGluRs are associated with cell survival in several central nervous system neurodegenerative diseases. Evidence is presented that mGluRs are also able to prevent PCD in the peripheral nervous system, and that this may provide a novel mechanism for treatment of diabetic neuropathy. In dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, a high glucose load increases generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), destabilizes the inner mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsi(M)), induces cytochrome c release from the mitochondrial intermembrane space, and induces downstream activation of caspases. In high-glucose conditions, the group II metabotropic glutamate agonist N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) blocks caspase activation and is completely reversed by the mGluR3 antagonist (S)-alpha-ethylglutamic acid (EGLU). Furthermore, the direct mGluR3 agonist (2R,4R)-4-aminopyrrolidine-2, 4-dicarboxylate (APDC) prevents induction of ROS. Together these findings are consistent with an emerging concept that mGluRs may protect against cellular injury by regulating oxidative stress in the neuron. More complete understanding of the complex PCD regulatory pathways mediated by mGluRs will provide new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of a wide variety of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:14597332

  3. Sensing of cell death by myeloid C-type lectin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sancho, David; Reis e Sousa, Caetano

    2015-01-01

    Molecules associated with dead or dying cells can be detected by receptors on macrophages and dendritic cells. Signals from these receptors impact myeloid cell function and play a role in determining whether death is silent or proinflammatory, tolerogenic or immunogenic. Prominent among myeloid receptors detecting dead cells are C-type lectin receptors (CLRs). Signals from these receptors variably induce endocytosis of cell corpses, corpse degradation, retrieval of dead cell-associated antigens and/or modulation of immune responses. The sensing of tissue damage by myeloid CLRs complements detection of pathogens in immunity and represents an ancient response aimed at restoring tissue homeostasis. PMID:23332826

  4. Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors Sensitize Cancer Cells to Death Receptor-mediated Apoptosis by Enhancing Death Receptor Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Meng, X. Wei; Koh, Brian D.; Zhang, Jin-San; Flatten, Karen S.; Schneider, Paula A.; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Hess, Allan D.; Smith, B. Douglas; Karp, Judith E.; Kaufmann, Scott H.

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-α-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), agonistic monoclonal antibodies to TRAIL receptors, and small molecule TRAIL receptor agonists are in various stages of preclinical and early phase clinical testing as potential anticancer drugs. Accordingly, there is substantial interest in understanding factors that affect sensitivity to these agents. In the present study we observed that the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors olaparib and veliparib sensitize the myeloid leukemia cell lines ML-1 and K562, the ovarian cancer line PEO1, non-small cell lung cancer line A549, and a majority of clinical AML isolates, but not normal marrow, to TRAIL. Further analysis demonstrated that PARP inhibitor treatment results in activation of the FAS and TNFRSF10B (death receptor 5 (DR5)) promoters, increased Fas and DR5 mRNA, and elevated cell surface expression of these receptors in sensitized cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated enhanced binding of the transcription factor Sp1 to the TNFRSF10B promoter in the presence of PARP inhibitor. Knockdown of PARP1 or PARP2 (but not PARP3 and PARP4) not only increased expression of Fas and DR5 at the mRNA and protein level, but also recapitulated the sensitizing effects of the PARP inhibition. Conversely, Sp1 knockdown diminished the PARP inhibitor effects. In view of the fact that TRAIL is part of the armamentarium of natural killer cells, these observations identify a new facet of PARP inhibitor action while simultaneously providing the mechanistic underpinnings of a novel therapeutic combination that warrants further investigation. PMID:24895135

  5. Tumour-cell-induced endothelial cell necroptosis via death receptor 6 promotes metastasis.

    PubMed

    Strilic, Boris; Yang, Lida; Albarrán-Juárez, Julián; Wachsmuth, Laurens; Han, Kang; Müller, Ulrike C; Pasparakis, Manolis; Offermanns, Stefan

    2016-08-11

    Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer-related death in humans. It is a complex multistep process during which individual tumour cells spread primarily through the circulatory system to colonize distant organs. Once in the circulation, tumour cells remain vulnerable, and their metastatic potential largely depends on a rapid and efficient way to escape from the blood stream by passing the endothelial barrier. Evidence has been provided that tumour cell extravasation resembles leukocyte transendothelial migration. However, it remains unclear how tumour cells interact with endothelial cells during extravasation and how these processes are regulated on a molecular level. Here we show that human and murine tumour cells induce programmed necrosis (necroptosis) of endothelial cells, which promotes tumour cell extravasation and metastasis. Treatment of mice with the receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIPK1)-inhibitor necrostatin-1 or endothelial-cell-specific deletion of RIPK3 reduced tumour-cell-induced endothelial necroptosis, tumour cell extravasation and metastasis. In contrast, pharmacological caspase inhibition or endothelial-cell-specific loss of caspase-8 promoted these processes. We furthermore show in vitro and in vivo that tumour-cell-induced endothelial necroptosis leading to extravasation and metastasis requires amyloid precursor protein expressed by tumour cells and its receptor, death receptor 6 (DR6), on endothelial cells as the primary mediators of these effects. Our data identify a new mechanism underlying tumour cell extravasation and metastasis, and suggest endothelial DR6-mediated necroptotic signalling pathways as targets for anti-metastatic therapies. PMID:27487218

  6. Triptolide sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to TRAIL-induced activation of the Death Receptor pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhiyu; Sangwan, Veena; Banerjee, Sulagna; Chugh, Rohit; Dudeja, Vikas; Vickers, Selwyn M.; Saluja, Ashok K.

    2014-01-01

    The tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) causes cancer cell death, but many cancers, including pancreatic cancer, are resistant to TRAIL therapy. A combination of TRAIL and the diterpene triepoxide, triptolide, is effective in inducing pancreatic cancer cell death. Triptolide increases levels of death receptor DR5 and decreases the pro-survival FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), which contribute to the activation of caspase-8. This combination further causes both lysosomal and mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, resulting in cell death. Our study provides a mechanism by which triptolide sensitizes TRAIL resistant cells, which may become a novel therapeutic strategy against pancreatic cancer. PMID:24662747

  7. Secretory phospholipase A2-mediated neuronal cell death involves glutamate ionotropic receptors.

    PubMed

    Kolko, Miriam; de Turco, Elena B; Diemer, Nils Henrik; Bazan, Nicolas G

    2002-10-28

    To define the significance of glutamate ionotropic receptors in sPLA -mediated neuronal cell death we used the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 and the AMPA receptor antagonist PNQX. In primary neuronal cell cultures both MK-801 and PNQX inhibited sPLA - and glutamate-induced neuronal death. [ H]Arachidonic acid release induced by both sPLA and glutamate was partially blocked by MK-801, indicating that the glutamate-NMDA-cPLA pathway contributes to sPLA -induced arachidonic acid release. Systemic administration of MK-801 to rats that had sPLA injected into the right striatum significantly decreased neuronal cell death. We conclude that glutamatergic synaptic activity modulates sPLA -induced neuronal cell death. PMID:12395100

  8. Differential immunomodulatory activity of tumor cell death induced by cancer therapeutic toll-like receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Klein, Johanna C; Wild, Clarissa A; Lang, Stephan; Brandau, Sven

    2016-06-01

    Synthetic toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands stimulate defined immune cell subsets and are currently tested as novel immunotherapeutic agents against cancer with, however, varying clinical efficacy. Recent data showed the expression of TLR receptors also on tumor cells. In this study we investigated immunological events associated with the induction of tumor cell death by poly(I:C) and imiquimod. A human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell line was exposed to poly(I:C) and imiquimod, which were delivered exogenously via culture medium or via electroporation. Cell death and cell biological consequences thereof were analyzed. For in vivo analyses, a human xenograft and a syngeneic immunocompetent mouse model were used. Poly(I:C) induced cell death only if delivered by electroporation into the cytosol. Cell death induced by poly(I:C) resulted in cytokine release and activation of monocytes in vitro. Monocytes activated by the supernatant of cancer cells previously exposed to poly(I:C) recruited significantly more Th1 cells than monocytes exposed to control supernatants. If delivered exogenously, imiquimod also induced tumor cell death and some release of interleukin-6, but cell death was not associated with release of Th1 cytokines, interferons, monocyte activation and Th1 recruitment. Interestingly, intratumoral injection of poly(I:C) triggered tumor cell death in tumor-bearing mice and reduced tumor growth independent of TLR signaling on host cells. Imiquimod did not affect tumor size. Our data suggest that common cancer therapeutic RNA compounds can induce functionally diverse types of cell death in tumor cells with implications for the use of TLR ligands in cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27034235

  9. High Cell Surface Death Receptor Expression Determines Type I Versus Type II Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xue Wei; Peterson, Kevin L.; Dai, Haiming; Schneider, Paula; Lee, Sun-Hee; Zhang, Jin-San; Koenig, Alexander; Bronk, Steve; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Gores, Gregory J.; Kaufmann, Scott H.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that there are two signaling pathways leading from ligation of the Fas receptor to induction of apoptosis. Type I signaling involves Fas ligand-induced recruitment of large amounts of FADD (FAS-associated death domain protein) and procaspase 8, leading to direct activation of caspase 3, whereas type II signaling involves Bid-mediated mitochondrial perturbation to amplify a more modest death receptor-initiated signal. The biochemical basis for this dichotomy has previously been unclear. Here we show that type I cells have a longer half-life for Fas message and express higher amounts of cell surface Fas, explaining the increased recruitment of FADD and subsequent signaling. Moreover, we demonstrate that cells with type II Fas signaling (Jurkat or HCT-15) can signal through a type I pathway upon forced receptor overexpression and that shRNA-mediated Fas down-regulation converts cells with type I signaling (A498) to type II signaling. Importantly, the same cells can exhibit type I signaling for Fas and type II signaling for TRAIL (TNF-α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand), indicating that the choice of signaling pathway is related to the specific receptor, not some other cellular feature. Additional experiments revealed that up-regulation of cell surface death receptor 5 levels by treatment with 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin converted TRAIL signaling in HCT116 cells from type II to type I. Collectively, these results suggest that the type I/type II dichotomy reflects differences in cell surface death receptor expression. PMID:21865165

  10. Contribution of programmed cell death receptor (PD)-1 to Kupffer cell dysfunction in murine polymicrobial sepsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Huang, Xin; Chung, Chun-Shiang; Chen, Yaping; Hutchins, Noelle A; Ayala, Alfred

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that coinhibitory receptors appear to be important in contributing sepsis-induced immunosuppression. Our laboratory reported that mice deficient in programmed cell death receptor (PD)-1 have increased bacterial clearance and improved survival in experimental sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). In response to infection, the liver clears the blood of bacteria and produces cytokines. Kupffer cells, the resident macrophages in the liver, are strategically situated to perform the above functions. However, it is not known if PD-1 expression on Kupffer cells is altered by septic stimuli, let alone if PD-1 ligation contributes to the altered microbial handling seen. Here we report that PD-1 is significantly upregulated on Kupffer cells during sepsis. PD-1-deficient septic mouse Kupffer cells displayed markedly enhanced phagocytosis and restoration of the expression of major histocompatibility complex II and CD86, but reduced CD80 expression compared with septic wild-type (WT) mouse Kupffer cells. In response to ex vivo LPS stimulation, the cytokine productive capacity of Kupffer cells derived from PD-1-/- CLP mice exhibited a marked, albeit partial, restoration of the release of IL-6, IL-12, IL-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and IL-10 compared with septic WT mouse Kupffer cells. In addition, PD-1 gene deficiency decreased LPS-induced apoptosis of septic Kupffer cells, as indicated by decreased levels of cleaved caspase-3 and reduced terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling-positive cells. Exploring the signal pathways involved, we found that, after ex vivo LPS stimulation, septic PD-1-/- mouse Kupffer cells exhibited an increased Akt phosphorylation and a reduced p38 phosphorylation compared with septic WT mouse Kupffer cells. Together, these results indicate that PD-1 appears to play an important role in regulating the development of Kupffer cell dysfunction seen in sepsis. PMID:27288425

  11. Terminalia Chebula provides protection against dual modes of necroptotic and apoptotic cell death upon death receptor ligation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoonjung; Byun, Hee Sun; Seok, Jeong Ho; Park, Kyeong Ah; Won, Minho; Seo, Wonhyoung; Lee, So-Ra; Kang, Kidong; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Lee, Ill Young; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Son, Chang Gue; Shen, Han-Ming; Hur, Gang Min

    2016-01-01

    Death receptor (DR) ligation elicits two different modes of cell death (necroptosis and apoptosis) depending on the cellular context. By screening a plant extract library from cells undergoing necroptosis or apoptosis, we identified a water extract of Terminalia chebula (WETC) as a novel and potent dual inhibitor of DR-mediated cell death. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms of its anti-necroptotic and anti-apoptotic action revealed that WETC or its constituents (e.g., gallic acid) protected against tumor necrosis factor-induced necroptosis via the suppression of TNF-induced ROS without affecting the upstream signaling events. Surprisingly, WETC also provided protection against DR-mediated apoptosis by inhibition of the caspase cascade. Furthermore, it activated the autophagy pathway via suppression of mTOR. Of the WETC constituents, punicalagin and geraniin appeared to possess the most potent anti-apoptotic and autophagy activation effect. Importantly, blockage of autophagy with pharmacological inhibitors or genetic silencing of Atg5 selectively abolished the anti-apoptotic function of WETC. These results suggest that WETC protects against dual modes of cell death upon DR ligation. Therefore, WETC might serve as a potential treatment for diseases characterized by aberrantly sensitized apoptotic or non-apoptotic signaling cascades. PMID:27117478

  12. Terminalia Chebula provides protection against dual modes of necroptotic and apoptotic cell death upon death receptor ligation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoonjung; Byun, Hee Sun; Seok, Jeong Ho; Park, Kyeong Ah; Won, Minho; Seo, Wonhyoung; Lee, So-Ra; Kang, Kidong; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Lee, Ill Young; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Son, Chang Gue; Shen, Han-Ming; Hur, Gang Min

    2016-01-01

    Death receptor (DR) ligation elicits two different modes of cell death (necroptosis and apoptosis) depending on the cellular context. By screening a plant extract library from cells undergoing necroptosis or apoptosis, we identified a water extract of Terminalia chebula (WETC) as a novel and potent dual inhibitor of DR-mediated cell death. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms of its anti-necroptotic and anti-apoptotic action revealed that WETC or its constituents (e.g., gallic acid) protected against tumor necrosis factor-induced necroptosis via the suppression of TNF-induced ROS without affecting the upstream signaling events. Surprisingly, WETC also provided protection against DR-mediated apoptosis by inhibition of the caspase cascade. Furthermore, it activated the autophagy pathway via suppression of mTOR. Of the WETC constituents, punicalagin and geraniin appeared to possess the most potent anti-apoptotic and autophagy activation effect. Importantly, blockage of autophagy with pharmacological inhibitors or genetic silencing of Atg5 selectively abolished the anti-apoptotic function of WETC. These results suggest that WETC protects against dual modes of cell death upon DR ligation. Therefore, WETC might serve as a potential treatment for diseases characterized by aberrantly sensitized apoptotic or non-apoptotic signaling cascades. PMID:27117478

  13. EphB3 receptors function as dependence receptors to mediate oligodendrocyte cell death following contusive spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Tsenkina, Y; Ricard, J; Runko, E; Quiala- Acosta, M M; Mier, J; Liebl, D J

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that EphB3 receptors mediate oligodendrocyte (OL) cell death in the injured spinal cord through dependence receptor mechanism. OLs in the adult spinal cord express EphB3 as well as other members of the Eph receptor family. Spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with tissue damage, cellular loss and disturbances in EphB3-ephrinB3 protein balance acutely (days) after the initial impact creating an environment for a dependence receptor-mediated cell death to occur. Genetic ablation of EphB3 promotes OL survival associated with increased expression of myelin basic protein and improved locomotor function in mice after SCI. Moreover, administration of its ephrinB3 ligand to the spinal cord after injury also promotes OL survival. Our in vivo findings are supported by in vitro studies showing that ephrinB3 administration promotes the survival of both oligodendroglial progenitor cells and mature OLs cultured under pro-apoptotic conditions. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates a novel dependence receptor role of EphB3 in OL cell death after SCI, and supports further development of ephrinB3-based therapies to promote recovery. PMID:26469970

  14. Linking pattern recognition and salicylic acid responses in Arabidopsis through ACCELERATED CELL DEATH6 and receptors

    PubMed Central

    Tateda, Chika; Zhang, Zhongqin; Greenberg, Jean T

    2015-01-01

    The Arabidopsis membrane protein ACCELERATED CELL DEATH 6 (ACD6) and the defense signal salicylic acid (SA) are part of a positive feedback loop that regulates the levels of at least 2 pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) receptors, including FLAGELLIN SENSING 2 (FLS2) and CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR (LYSM domain receptor-like kinase 1, CERK1). ACD6- and SA-mediated regulation of these receptors results in potentiation of responses to FLS2 and CERK1 ligands (e.g. flg22 and chitin, respectively). ACD6, FLS2 and CERK1 are also important for callose induction in response to an SA agonist even in the absence of PAMPs. Here, we report that another receptor, EF-Tu RECEPTOR (EFR) is also part of the ACD6/SA signaling network, similar to FLS2 and CERK1. PMID:26442718

  15. Death receptor pathways mediate targeted and non-targeted effects of ionizing radiations in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Luce, Audrey; Courtin, Aurélie; Levalois, Céline; Altmeyer-Morel, Sandrine; Romeo, Paul-Henri; Lebeau, Jérôme

    2009-01-01

    Delayed cell death by mitotic catastrophe is a frequent mode of solid tumor cell death after γ-irradiation, a widely used treatment of cancer. Whereas the mechanisms that underlie the early γ-irradiation-induced cell death are well documented, those that drive the delayed cell death are largely unknown. Here we show that the Fas, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α death receptor pathways mediate the delayed cell death observed after γ-irradiation of breast cancer cells. Early after irradiation, we observe the increased expression of Fas, TRAIL-R and TNF-R that first sensitizes cells to apoptosis. Later, the increased expression of FasL, TRAIL and TNF-α permit the apoptosis engagement linked to mitotic catastrophe. Treatments with TNF-α, TRAIL or anti-Fas antibody, early after radiation exposure, induce apoptosis, whereas the neutralization of the three death receptors pathways impairs the delayed cell death. We also show for the first time that irradiated breast cancer cells excrete soluble forms of the three ligands that can induce the death of sensitive bystander cells. Overall, these results define the molecular basis of the delayed cell death of irradiated cancer cells and identify the death receptors pathways as crucial actors in apoptosis induced by targeted as well as non-targeted effects of ionizing radiation. PMID:19126655

  16. Orphan nuclear receptor TR3 acts in autophagic cell death via mitochondrial signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-jia; Wang, Yuan; Chen, Hang-zi; Xing, Yong-zhen; Li, Feng-wei; Zhang, Qian; Zhou, Bo; Zhang, Hong-kui; Zhang, Jie; Bian, Xue-li; Li, Li; Liu, Yuan; Zhao, Bi-xing; Chen, Yan; Wu, Rong; Li, An-zhong; Yao, Lu-ming; Chen, Ping; Zhang, Yi; Tian, Xu-yang; Beermann, Friedrich; Wu, Mian; Han, Jiahuai; Huang, Pei-qiang; Lin, Tianwei; Wu, Qiao

    2014-02-01

    Autophagy is linked to cell death, yet the associated mechanisms are largely undercharacterized. We discovered that melanoma, which is generally resistant to drug-induced apoptosis, can undergo autophagic cell death with the participation of orphan nuclear receptor TR3. A sequence of molecular events leading to cellular demise is launched by a specific chemical compound, 1-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)nonan-1-one, newly acquired from screening a library of TR3-targeting compounds. The autophagic cascade comprises TR3 translocation to mitochondria through interaction with the mitochondrial outer membrane protein Nix, crossing into the mitochondrial inner membrane through Tom40 and Tom70 channel proteins, dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential by the permeability transition pore complex ANT1-VDAC1 and induction of autophagy. This process leads to excessive mitochondria clearance and irreversible cell death. It implicates a new approach to melanoma therapy through activation of a mitochondrial signaling pathway that integrates a nuclear receptor with autophagy for cell death. PMID:24316735

  17. Fermented Brown Rice Extract Causes Apoptotic Death of Human Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells via Death Receptor Pathway.

    PubMed

    Horie, Yukiko; Nemoto, Hideyuki; Itoh, Mari; Kosaka, Hiroaki; Morita, Kyoji

    2016-04-01

    Mixture of brown rice and rice bran fermented with Aspergillus oryzae, designated as FBRA, has been reported to reveal anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory effects in rodents. Then, to test its potential anti-cancer activity, the aqueous extract was prepared from FBRA powder, and the effect of this extract on human acute lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells was directly examined. The exposure to FBRA extract reduced the cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The reduction of the cell viability was accompanied by the DNA fragmentation, and partially restored by treatment with pan-caspase inhibitor. Further studies showed that FBRA extract induced the cleavage of caspase-8, -9, and -3, and decreased Bcl-2 protein expression. Moreover, the expression of tBid, DR5, and Fas proteins was enhanced by FBRA extract, and the pretreatment with caspase-8 inhibitor, but not caspase-9 inhibitor, restored the reduction of the cell viability induced by FBRA extract. These findings suggested that FBRA extract could induce the apoptotic death of human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells probably through mainly the death receptor-mediated pathway and supplementarily through the tBid-mediated mitochondrial pathway, proposing the possibility that FBRA was a potential functional food beneficial to patients with hematological cancer. PMID:26769704

  18. Capsaicinoids Cause Inflammation and Epithelial Cell Death through Activation of Vanilloid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Christopher A.; Taylor, Jack L.; Lanza, Diane L.; Carr, Brian A.; Crouch, Dennis J.; Yost, Garold S.

    2008-01-01

    Capsaicinoids, found in less-than-lethal self-defense weapons, have been associated with respiratory failure and death in exposed animals and people. The studies described herein provide evidence for acute respiratory inflammation and damage to epithelial cells in experimental animals, and provide precise molecular mechanisms that mediate these effects using human bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells. Inhalation exposure of rats to pepper sprays (capsaicinoids) produced acute inflammation and damage to nasal, tracheal, bronchiolar, and alveolar cells in a dose-related manner. In vitro cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that cultured human lung cells (BEAS-2B and A549) were more susceptible to necrotic cell death than liver (HepG2) cells. Transcription of the human vanilloid receptor type-1, VR1 or TRPV1, was demonstrated by RT-PCR in all of these cells, and the relative transcript levels were correlated to cellular susceptibility. TRPV1 receptor activation was presumably responsible for cellular cytotoxicity, but prototypical functional antagonists of this receptor were cytotoxic themselves, and did not ameliorate capsaicinoid-induced damage. Conversely, the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine, as well as calcium chelation by EGTA ablated cytokine (IL-6) production after capsaicin exposure. To address these seemingly contradictory results, recombinant human TRPV1 was cloned and overexpressed in BEAS-2B cells. These cells exhibited dramatically increased cellular susceptibility to capsaicinoids, measured using IL-6 production and cytotoxicity, and an apoptotic mechanism of cell death. Surprisingly, the cytotoxic effects of capsaicin in TRPV1 overexpressing cells were also not inhibited by TRPV1 antagonists or by treatments that modified extracellular calcium. Thus, capsaicin interacted with TRPV1 expressed by BEAS-2B and other airway epithelial cells to cause the calcium-dependent production of cytokines and, conversely, calcium-independent cell death. These results

  19. Capsaicinoids cause inflammation and epithelial cell death through activation of vanilloid receptors.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Christopher A; Taylor, Jack L; Lanza, Diane L; Carr, Brian A; Crouch, Dennis J; Yost, Garold S

    2003-05-01

    Capsaicinoids, found in less-than-lethal self-defense weapons, have been associated with respiratory failure and death in exposed animals and people. The studies described herein provide evidence for acute respiratory inflammation and damage to epithelial cells in experimental animals, and provide precise molecular mechanisms that mediate these effects using human bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells. Inhalation exposure of rats to pepper sprays (capsaicinoids) produced acute inflammation and damage to nasal, tracheal, bronchiolar, and alveolar cells in a dose-related manner. In vitro cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that cultured human lung cells (BEAS-2B and A549) were more susceptible to necrotic cell death than liver (HepG2) cells. Transcription of the human vanilloid receptor type-1, VR1 or TRPV1, was demonstrated by RT-PCR in all of these cells, and the relative transcript levels were correlated to cellular susceptibility. TRPV1 receptor activation was presumably responsible for cellular cytotoxicity, but prototypical functional antagonists of this receptor were cytotoxic themselves, and did not ameliorate capsaicinoid-induced damage. Conversely, the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine, as well as calcium chelation by EGTA ablated cytokine (IL-6) production after capsaicin exposure. To address these seemingly contradictory results, recombinant human TRPV1 was cloned and overexpressed in BEAS-2B cells. These cells exhibited dramatically increased cellular susceptibility to capsaicinoids, measured using IL-6 production and cytotoxicity, and an apoptotic mechanism of cell death. Surprisingly, the cytotoxic effects of capsaicin in TRPV1 overexpressing cells were also not inhibited by TRPV1 antagonists or by treatments that modified extracellular calcium. Thus, capsaicin interacted with TRPV1 expressed by BEAS-2B and other airway epithelial cells to cause the calcium-dependent production of cytokines and, conversely, calcium-independent cell death. These results

  20. Mediation of Autophagic Cell Death by Type 3 Ryanodine Receptor (RyR3) in Adult Hippocampal Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kyung Min; Jeong, Eun-Ji; Park, Hyunhee; An, Hyun-Kyu; Yu, Seong-Woon

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic Ca2+ actively engages in diverse intracellular processes from protein synthesis, folding and trafficking to cell survival and death. Dysregulation of intracellular Ca2+ levels is observed in various neuropathological states including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors (IP3Rs), the main Ca2+ release channels located in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, are known to direct various cellular events such as autophagy and apoptosis. Here we investigated the intracellular Ca2+-mediated regulation of survival and death of adult hippocampal neural stem (HCN) cells utilizing an insulin withdrawal model of autophagic cell death (ACD). Despite comparable expression levels of RyR and IP3R transcripts in HCN cells at normal state, the expression levels of RyRs—especially RyR3—were markedly upregulated upon insulin withdrawal. While treatment with the RyR agonist caffeine significantly promoted the autophagic death of insulin-deficient HCN cells, treatment with its inhibitor dantrolene prevented the induction of autophagy following insulin withdrawal. Furthermore, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of the RyR3 gene abolished ACD of HCN cells. This study delineates a distinct, RyR3-mediated ER Ca2+ regulation of autophagy and programmed cell death in neural stem cells. Our findings provide novel insights into the critical, yet understudied mechanisms underlying the regulatory function of ER Ca2+ in neural stem cell biology. PMID:27199668

  1. Somatostatin receptor subtype 2 sensitizes human pancreatic cancer cells to death ligand-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Guillermet, Julie; Saint-Laurent, Nathalie; Rochaix, Philippe; Cuvillier, Olivier; Levade, Thierry; Schally, Andrew V; Pradayrol, Lucien; Buscail, Louis; Susini, Christiane; Bousquet, Corinne

    2003-01-01

    Somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (sst2) gene expression is lost in 90% of human pancreatic adenocarcinomas. We previously demonstrated that stable sst2 transfection of human pancreatic BxPC-3 cells, which do not endogenously express sst2, inhibits cell proliferation, tumorigenicity, and metastasis. These sst2 effects occur as a consequence of an autocrine sst2-dependent loop, whereby sst2 induces expression of its own ligand, somatostatin. Here we investigated whether sst2 induces apoptosis in sst2-transfected BxPC-3 cells. Expression of sst2 induced a 4.4- +/- 0.05-fold stimulation of apoptosis in BxPC-3 through the activation of tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. sst2 also sensitized these cells to apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), enhancing it 4.1- +/- 1.5-fold. Apoptosis in BxPC-3 cells mediated by TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and CD95L was likewise increased 2.3- +/- 0.5-fold and 7.4- +/- 2.5-fold, respectively. sst2-dependent activation and cell sensitization to death ligand-induced apoptosis involved activation of the executioner caspases, key factors in both death ligand- or mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. sst2 affected both pathways: first, by up-regulating expression of TRAIL and TNFalpha receptors, DR4 and TNFRI, respectively, and sensitizing the cells to death ligand-induced initiator capase-8 activation, and, second, by down-regulating expression of the antiapoptotic mitochondrial Bcl-2 protein. These results are of interest for the clinical management of chemoresistant pancreatic adenocarcinoma by using a combined gene therapy based on the cotransfer of genes for both the sst2 and a nontoxic death ligand. PMID:12490654

  2. Critical role for BIM in T cell receptor restimulation-induced death

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Andrew L; Oliveira, João B; Zheng, Lixin; Dale, Janet K; Fleisher, Thomas A; Lenardo, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Background Upon repeated or chronic antigen stimulation, activated T cells undergo a T cell receptor (TCR)-triggered propriocidal cell death important for governing the intensity of immune responses. This is thought to be chiefly mediated by an extrinsic signal through the Fas-FasL pathway. However, we observed that TCR restimulation still potently induced apoptosis when this interaction was blocked, or genetically impaired in T cells derived from autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) patients, prompting us to examine Fas-independent, intrinsic signals. Results Upon TCR restimulation, we specifically noted a marked increase in the expression of BIM, a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein known to mediate lymphocyte apoptosis induced by cytokine withdrawal. In fact, T cells from an ALPS type IV patient in which BIM expression is suppressed were more resistant to restimulation-induced death. Strikingly, knockdown of BIM expression rescued normal T cells from TCR-induced death to as great an extent as Fas disruption. Conclusion Our data implicates BIM as a critical mediator of apoptosis induced by restimulation as well as growth cytokine withdrawal. These findings suggest an important role for BIM in eliminating activated T cells even when IL-2 is abundant, working in conjunction with Fas to eliminate chronically stimulated T cells and maintain immune homeostasis. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Dr. Wendy Davidson (nominated by Dr. David Scott), Dr. Mark Williams (nominated by Dr. Neil Greenspan), and Dr. Laurence C. Eisenlohr. PMID:18715501

  3. Synthetic Peptide Ligands of the Antigen Binding Receptor Induce Programmed Cell Death in a Human B-Cell Lymphoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renschler, Markus F.; Bhatt, Ramesh R.; Dower, William J.; Levy, Ronald

    1994-04-01

    Peptide ligands for the antigen binding site of the surface immunoglobulin receptor of a human B-cell lymphoma cell line were identified with the use of filamentous phage libraries displaying random 8- and 12-amino acid peptides. Corresponding synthetic peptides bound specifically to the antigen binding site of this immunoglobulin receptor and blocked the binding of an anti-idiotype antibody. The ligands, when conjugated to form dimers or tetramers, induced cell death by apoptosis in vitro with an IC50 between 40 and 200 nM. This effect was associated with specific stimulation of intracellular protein tyrosine phosphorylation.

  4. Altered sensitivity to excitotoxic cell death and glutamate receptor expression between two commonly studied mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Rozzy; Kovács, Attila D.; Pearce, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Alterations in glutamatergic synapse function have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many different neurological disorders including ischemia, epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and Huntington’s disease. While studying glutamate receptor function in juvenile Batten disease on the C57BL/6J and 129S6/SvEv mouse backgrounds, we noticed differences unlikely to be due to mutation difference alone. We report here that primary cerebellar granule cell cultures from C57BL/6J mice are more sensitive to NMDA-mediated cell death. Moreover, sensitivity to AMPA-mediated excitotoxicity is more variable and is dependent upon the treatment conditions and age of the cultures. Glutamate receptor surface expression levels examined in vitro by in situ ELISA and in vivo by Western blot in surface cross-linked cerebellar samples indicated that these differences in sensitivity are likely due to strain-dependent differences in cell surface receptor expression levels. We propose that differences in glutamate receptor expression and in excitotoxic vulnerability should be taken into consideration in the context of characterizing disease models on the C57BL/6J and 129S6/SvEv mouse backgrounds. PMID:20544821

  5. Multivalent nanobodies targeting death receptor 5 elicit superior tumor cell killing through efficient caspase induction

    PubMed Central

    Huet, Heather A; Growney, Joseph D; Johnson, Jennifer A; Li, Jing; Bilic, Sanela; Ostrom, Lance; Zafari, Mohammad; Kowal, Colleen; Yang, Guizhi; Royo, Axelle; Jensen, Michael; Dombrecht, Bruno; Meerschaert, Kris RA; Kolkman, Joost A; Cromie, Karen D; Mosher, Rebecca; Gao, Hui; Schuller, Alwin; Isaacs, Randi; Sellers, William R; Ettenberg, Seth A

    2014-01-01

    Multiple therapeutic agonists of death receptor 5 (DR5) have been developed and are under clinical evaluation. Although these agonists demonstrate significant anti-tumor activity in preclinical models, the clinical efficacy in human cancer patients has been notably disappointing. One possible explanation might be that the current classes of therapeutic molecules are not sufficiently potent to elicit significant response in patients, particularly for dimeric antibody agonists that require secondary cross-linking via Fcγ receptors expressed on immune cells to achieve optimal clustering of DR5. To overcome this limitation, a novel multivalent Nanobody approach was taken with the goal of generating a significantly more potent DR5 agonist. In the present study, we show that trivalent DR5 targeting Nanobodies mimic the activity of natural ligand, and furthermore, increasing the valency of domains to tetramer and pentamer markedly increased potency of cell killing on tumor cells, with pentamers being more potent than tetramers in vitro. Increased potency was attributed to faster kinetics of death-inducing signaling complex assembly and caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation. In vivo, multivalent Nanobody molecules elicited superior anti-tumor activity compared to a conventional DR5 agonist antibody, including the ability to induce tumor regression in an insensitive patient-derived primary pancreatic tumor model. Furthermore, complete responses to Nanobody treatment were obtained in up to 50% of patient-derived primary pancreatic and colon tumor models, suggesting that multivalent DR5 Nanobodies may represent a significant new therapeutic modality for targeting death receptor signaling. PMID:25484045

  6. Cabergoline, Dopamine D2 Receptor Agonist, Prevents Neuronal Cell Death under Oxidative Stress via Reducing Excitotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Odaka, Haruki; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Adachi, Naoki; Ooshima, Yoshiko; Nakajima, Shingo; Katanuma, Yusuke; Inoue, Takafumi; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of evidence demonstrate that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease. Potent antioxidants may therefore be effective in the treatment of such diseases. Cabergoline, a dopamine D2 receptor agonist and antiparkinson drug, has been studied using several cell types including mesencephalic neurons, and is recognized as a potent radical scavenger. Here, we examined whether cabergoline exerts neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress through a receptor-mediated mechanism in cultured cortical neurons. We found that neuronal death induced by H2O2 exposure was inhibited by pretreatment with cabergoline, while this protective effect was eliminated in the presence of a dopamine D2 receptor inhibitor, spiperone. Activation of ERK1/2 by H2O2 was suppressed by cabergoline, and an ERK signaling pathway inhibitor, U0126, similarly protected cortical neurons from cell death. This suggested the ERK signaling pathway has a critical role in cabergoline-mediated neuroprotection. Furthermore, increased extracellular levels of glutamate induced by H2O2, which might contribute to ERK activation, were reduced by cabergoline, while inhibitors for NMDA receptor or L-type Ca2+ channel demonstrated a survival effect against H2O2. Interestingly, we found that cabergoline increased expression levels of glutamate transporters such as EAAC1. Taken together, these results suggest that cabergoline has a protective effect on cortical neurons via a receptor-mediated mechanism including repression of ERK1/2 activation and extracellular glutamate accumulation induced by H2O2. PMID:24914776

  7. Identification of death receptors DR4 and DR5 in HTB-12 astrocytoma cell lines and determination of TRAIL sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Riddick, Elenia; Evans, Shavonda; Rousch, Jeffrey; Gwebu, Ephraim; Banerjee, Hirendra Nath

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytomas are tumors which arise from astrocytes, cells that form the blood-brain barrier. There are very few drugs that successfully treat brain tumors. In this study, the cytotoxic effects on the HTB-12 astrocytoma cell line by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) were studied. The presence of the TRAIL receptors, Death receptor 4 (DR4) and Death receptor 5 (DR5), were detected in HTB-12 cells by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Cytotoxicity assay by Trypan Blue Exclusion Method showed effective cell killing by TRAIL treatment. Thus, the presence of death receptors and TRAIL efficacy raises the therapeutic potential for this type of brain tumor. PMID:25364476

  8. Activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor reduces carbendazim-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kuo-Liang; Chen, Fei-Yun; Lin, Chih-Yi; Gao, Guan-Lun; Kao, Wen-Ya; Yeh, Chi-Hui; Chen, Chang-Rong; Huang, Hao-Chun; Tsai, Wei-Ren; Jong, Koa-Jen; Li, Wan-Jung; Su, Jyan-Gwo Joseph

    2016-09-01

    Carbendazim inhibits microtubule assembly, thus blocking mitosis and inhibiting cancer cell proliferation. Accordingly, carbendazim is being explored as an anticancer drug. Data show that carbendazim increased mRNA and protein expressions and promoter activity of CYP1A1. In addition, carbendazim activated transcriptional activity of the aryl hydrocarbon response element, and induced nuclear translocation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a sign the AhR is activated. Carbendazim-induced CYP1A1 expression was blocked by AhR antagonists, and was abolished in AhR signal-deficient cells. Results demonstrated that carbendazim activated the AhR, thereby stimulating CYP1A1 expression. In order to understand whether AhR-induced metabolic enzymes turn carbendazim into less-toxic metabolites, Hoechst 33342 staining to reveal carbendazim-induced nuclear changes and flow cytometry to reveal the subG0/G1 population were applied to monitor carbendazim-induced cell apoptosis. Carbendazim induced less apoptosis in Hepa-1c1c7 cells than in AhR signal-deficient Hepa-1c1c7 mutant cells. Pretreatment with β-NF, an AhR agonist that highly induces CYP1A1 expression, decreased carbendazim-induced cell death. In addition, the lower the level of AhR was, the lower the vitality present in carbendazim-treated cells, including hepatoma cells and their derivatives with AhR RNA interference, also embryonic kidney cells, bladder carcinoma cells, and AhR signal-deficient Hepa-1c1c7 cells. In summary, carbendazim is an AhR agonist. The toxicity of carbendazim was lower in cells with the AhR signal. This report provides clues indicating that carbendazim is more potent at inducing cell death in tissues without than in those with the AhR signal, an important reference for applying carbendazim in cancer chemotherapy. PMID:27286660

  9. B cell receptor cross-linking triggers a caspase-8-dependent apoptotic pathway that is independent of the death effector domain of Fas-associated death domain protein.

    PubMed

    Besnault, L; Schrantz, N; Auffredou, M T; Leca, G; Bourgeade, M F; Vazquez, A

    2001-07-15

    We have previously reported that B cell receptors, depending on the degree to which they are cross-linked, can promote apoptosis in various human B cell types. In this study, we show that B cell receptors can trigger two apoptotic pathways according to cross-linking and that these pathways control mitochondrial activation in human Burkitt's lymphoma cells. Whereas soluble anti-mu Ab triggers caspase-independent mitochondrial activation, cross-linked anti-mu Ab induces an apoptotic response associated with a caspase-dependent loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. This B cell receptor-mediated caspase-dependent mitochondrial activation is associated with caspase-8 activation. We show here that caspase-8 inhibitors strongly decrease cross-linking-dependent B cell receptor-mediated apoptosis in Burkitt's lymphoma BL41 cells. These inhibitors act upstream from the mitochondria as they prevented the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential observed in B cell receptor-treated BL41 cells. Caspase-8 activation in these cells was also evident from the detection of cleaved fragments of caspase-8 and the cleavage of specific substrates, including Bid. Our data show that cross-linked B cell receptors induced an apoptotic pathway involving sequential caspase-8 activation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Cells expressing a dominant negative mutant of Fas-associated death domain protein were sensitive to cross-linked B cell receptor-induced caspase-8 activation and apoptosis; therefore, this caspase-8 activation was independent of the death effector domain of Fas-associated death domain protein. PMID:11441077

  10. Targeting breast to brain metastatic tumours with death receptor ligand expressing therapeutic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Bagci-Onder, Tugba; Du, Wanlu; Figueiredo, Jose-Luiz; Martinez-Quintanilla, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing clinically relevant brain metastasis models and assessing the therapeutic efficacy in such models are fundamental for the development of novel therapies for metastatic brain cancers. In this study, we have developed an in vivo imageable breast-to-brain metastasis mouse model. Using real time in vivo imaging and subsequent composite fluorescence imaging, we show a widespread distribution of micro- and macro-metastasis in different stages of metastatic progression. We also show extravasation of tumour cells and the close association of tumour cells with blood vessels in the brain thus mimicking the multi-foci metastases observed in the clinics. Next, we explored the ability of engineered adult stem cells to track metastatic deposits in this model and show that engineered stem cells either implanted or injected via circulation efficiently home to metastatic tumour deposits in the brain. Based on the recent findings that metastatic tumour cells adopt unique mechanisms of evading apoptosis to successfully colonize in the brain, we reasoned that TNF receptor superfamily member 10A/10B apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) based pro-apoptotic therapies that induce death receptor signalling within the metastatic tumour cells might be a favourable therapeutic approach. We engineered stem cells to express a tumour selective, potent and secretable variant of a TRAIL, S-TRAIL, and show that these cells significantly suppressed metastatic tumour growth and prolonged the survival of mice bearing metastatic breast tumours. Furthermore, the incorporation of pro-drug converting enzyme, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase, into therapeutic S-TRAIL secreting stem cells allowed their eradication post-tumour treatment. These studies are the first of their kind that provide insight into targeting brain metastasis with stem-cell mediated delivery of pro-apoptotic ligands and have important clinical implications. PMID:25910782

  11. A TNF receptor 2 selective agonist rescues human neurons from oxidative stress-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Roman; Maier, Olaf; Siegemund, Martin; Wajant, Harald; Scheurich, Peter; Pfizenmaier, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays a dual role in neurodegenerative diseases. Whereas TNF receptor (TNFR) 1 is predominantly associated with neurodegeneration, TNFR2 is involved in tissue regeneration and neuroprotection. Accordingly, the availability of TNFR2-selective agonists could allow the development of new therapeutic treatments of neurodegenerative diseases. We constructed a soluble, human TNFR2 agonist (TNC-scTNF(R2)) by genetic fusion of the trimerization domain of tenascin C to a TNFR2-selective single-chain TNF molecule, which is comprised of three TNF domains connected by short peptide linkers. TNC-scTNF(R2) specifically activated TNFR2 and possessed membrane-TNF mimetic activity, resulting in TNFR2 signaling complex formation and activation of downstream signaling pathways. Protection from neurodegeneration was assessed using the human dopaminergic neuronal cell line LUHMES. First we show that TNC-scTNF(R2) interfered with cell death pathways subsequent to H(2)O(2) exposure. Protection from cell death was dependent on TNFR2 activation of the PI3K-PKB/Akt pathway, evident from restoration of H(2)O(2) sensitivity in the presence of PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Second, in an in vitro model of Parkinson disease, TNC-scTNF(R2) rescues neurons after induction of cell death by 6-OHDA. Since TNFR2 is not only promoting anti-apoptotic responses but also plays an important role in tissue regeneration, activation of TNFR2 signaling by TNC-scTNF(R2) appears a promising strategy to ameliorate neurodegenerative processes. PMID:22110694

  12. A TNF Receptor 2 Selective Agonist Rescues Human Neurons from Oxidative Stress-Induced Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Roman; Maier, Olaf; Siegemund, Martin; Wajant, Harald; Scheurich, Peter; Pfizenmaier, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays a dual role in neurodegenerative diseases. Whereas TNF receptor (TNFR) 1 is predominantly associated with neurodegeneration, TNFR2 is involved in tissue regeneration and neuroprotection. Accordingly, the availability of TNFR2-selective agonists could allow the development of new therapeutic treatments of neurodegenerative diseases. We constructed a soluble, human TNFR2 agonist (TNC-scTNFR2) by genetic fusion of the trimerization domain of tenascin C to a TNFR2-selective single-chain TNF molecule, which is comprised of three TNF domains connected by short peptide linkers. TNC-scTNFR2 specifically activated TNFR2 and possessed membrane-TNF mimetic activity, resulting in TNFR2 signaling complex formation and activation of downstream signaling pathways. Protection from neurodegeneration was assessed using the human dopaminergic neuronal cell line LUHMES. First we show that TNC-scTNFR2 interfered with cell death pathways subsequent to H2O2 exposure. Protection from cell death was dependent on TNFR2 activation of the PI3K-PKB/Akt pathway, evident from restoration of H2O2 sensitivity in the presence of PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Second, in an in vitro model of Parkinson disease, TNC-scTNFR2 rescues neurons after induction of cell death by 6-OHDA. Since TNFR2 is not only promoting anti-apoptotic responses but also plays an important role in tissue regeneration, activation of TNFR2 signaling by TNC-scTNFR2 appears a promising strategy to ameliorate neurodegenerative processes. PMID:22110694

  13. HuR’s post-transcriptional regulation of death receptor 5 in pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Pineda, Danielle M.; Rittenhouse, David W.; Valley, Christopher C.; Cozzitorto, Joseph A.; Burkhart, Richard A.; Leiby, Benjamin; Winter, Jordan M.; Weber, Matthew C.; Londin, Eric R.; Rigoutsos, Isidore; Yeo, Charles J.; Gorospe, Myriam; Witkiewicz, Agnieska K.; Sachs, Jonathan N.; Brody, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    Apoptosis is one of the core signaling pathways disrupted in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). Death receptor 5 (DR5) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor superfamily that is expressed in cancer cells. Binding of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) to DR5 is a potent trigger of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway, and numerous clinical trials are based on DR5-targeted therapies for cancer, including PDA. Human antigen R (HuR), an RNA-binding protein, regulates a select number of transcripts under stress conditions. Here we report that HuR translocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of PDA cells upon treatment with a DR5 agonist. High doses of DR5 agonist induce cleavage of both HuR and caspase 8. HuR binds to DR5 mRNA at the 5′-untranslated region (UTR) in PDA cells in response to different cancer-associated stressors and subsequently represses DR5 protein expression; silencing HuR augments DR5 protein production by enabling its translation and thus enhances apoptosis. In PDA specimens (n = 53), negative HuR cytoplasmic expression correlated with elevated DR5 expression (odds ratio 16.1, p < 0.0001). Together, these data demonstrate a feedback mechanism elicited by HuR-mediated repression of the key apoptotic membrane protein DR5. PMID:22785201

  14. Evaluation of the Contribution of Multiple DAMPs and DAMP Receptors in Cell Death-Induced Sterile Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Zubin; Rock, Kenneth L.

    2014-01-01

    When cells die by necrosis in vivo they stimulate an inflammatory response. It is thought that this response is triggered when the injured cells expose proinflammatory molecules, collectively referred to as damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which are recognized by cells or soluble molecules of the innate or adaptive immune system. Several putative DAMPs and/or their receptors have been identified, but whether and how much they participate in responses in vivo is incompletely understood, and they have not previously been compared side-by-side in the same models. This study focuses on evaluating the contribution of multiple mechanisms that have been proposed to or potentially could participate in cell death-induced inflammation: The third component of complement (C3), ATP (and its receptor P2X7), antibodies, the C-type lectin receptor Mincle (Clec4e), and protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2). We investigate the role of these factors in cell death-induced inflammation to dead cells in the peritoneum and acetaminophen-induced liver damage. We find that mice deficient in antibody, C3 or PAR2 have impaired inflammatory responses to dying cells. In contrast there was no reduction in inflammation to cell death in the peritoneum or liver of mice that genetically lack Mincle, the P2X7 receptor or that were treated with apyrase to deplete ATP. These results indicate that antibody, complement and PAR2 contribute to cell death-induced inflammation but that Mincle and ATP- P2X7 receptor are not required for this response in at least 2 different in vivo models. PMID:25127469

  15. Simultaneous induction of apoptotic, autophagic, and necrosis-like cell death by monoclonal antibodies recognizing chicken transferrin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Yoshiya; Yagi, Hideki; Nakamura, Masanori; Masuko, Kazue; Hashimoto, Yoshiyuki; Masuko, Takashi

    2008-03-21

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is categorized as apoptotic, autophagic, or necrosis-like. Although the possibility that plural (two or three) death signals could be induced by a given stimulus has been reported, the precise mechanisms regulating PCD are not well understood. Recently, we have obtained two anti-chicken transferrin receptor (TfR) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs; D18 and D19) inducing a unique cell death. Although the cell death had several features of apoptosis, autophagic and necrosis-like morphological alterations were simultaneously observed in electron microphotographs. In addition to cells with condensed chromatin and an intact plasma membrane (apoptotic cells), cells having many vacuoles in the cytoplasm (autophagic cells), and enlarged cells with ruptured plasma membranes (necrosis-like cells) were observed in DT40 cells treated with the mAbs, however, the latter two types of dead cells were not detected upon treatment with staurosporine, a typical apoptosis inducer. In autophagic cells, numerous membrane-bound vesicles occupying most of the cytoplasmic space, which frequently contained electron-dense materials from cytoplasmic fragments and organelles, were observed. The simultaneous induction of multiple death signals from a stimulus via the TfR is of great interest to those researching cell death. In addition, activation of caspases was observed in DT40 cells treated with D19, however, the cell death was not inhibited with z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, suggesting that at least in part, a caspase-independent pathway is involved in the TfR-mediated cell death.

  16. Nanoarchitectured electrochemical cytosensors for selective detection of leukemia cells and quantitative evaluation of death receptor expression on cell surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Tingting; Fu, Jia-Ju; Hu, Lihui; Qiu, Fan; Hu, Minjin; Zhu, Jun-Jie; Hua, Zi-Chun; Wang, Hui

    2013-06-01

    The variable susceptibility to the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) treatment observed in various types of leukemia cells is related to the difference in the expression levels of death receptors, DR4 and DR5, on the cell surfaces. Quantifying the DR4/DR5 expression status on leukemia cell surfaces is of vital importance to the development of diagnostic tools to guide death receptor-based leukemia treatment. Taking the full advantages of novel nanobiotechnology, we have developed a robust electrochemical cytosensing approach toward ultrasensitive detection of leukemia cells with detection limit as low as ~40 cells and quantitative evaluation of DR4/DR5 expression on leukemia cell surfaces. The optimization of electron transfer and cell capture processes at specifically tailored nanobiointerfaces and the incorporation of multiple functions into rationally designed nanoprobes provide unique opportunities of integrating high specificity and signal amplification on one electrochemical cytosensor. The high sensitivity and selectivity of this electrochemical cytosensing approach also allows us to evaluate the dynamic alteration of DR4/DR5 expression on the surfaces of living cells in response to drug treatments. Using the TRAIL-resistant HL-60 cells and TRAIL-sensitive Jurkat cells as model cells, we have further verified that the TRAIL susceptibility of various types of leukemia cells is directly correlated to the surface expression levels of DR4/DR5. This versatile electrochemical cytosensing platform is believed to be of great clinical value for the early diagnosis of human leukemia and the evaluation of therapeutic effects on leukemia patients after radiation therapy or drug treatment. PMID:23621478

  17. Silencer of Death Domains Controls Cell Death through Tumour Necrosis Factor-Receptor 1 and Caspase-10 in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naveed I.; Welschinger, Robert; Basnett, Jordan; Fung, Carina; Rizos, Helen; Bradstock, Kenneth F.; Bendall, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to apoptosis remains a significant problem in drug resistance and treatment failure in malignant disease. NO-aspirin is a novel drug that has efficacy against a number of solid tumours, and can inhibit Wnt signaling, and although we have shown Wnt signaling to be important for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell proliferation and survival inhibition of Wnt signaling does not appear to be involved in the induction of ALL cell death. Treatment of B lineage ALL cell lines and patient ALL cells with NO-aspirin induced rapid apoptotic cell death mediated via the extrinsic death pathway. Apoptosis was dependent on caspase-10 in association with the formation of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) incorporating pro-caspase-10 and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1). There was no measurable increase in TNF-R1 or TNF-α in response to NO-aspirin, suggesting that the process was ligand-independent. Consistent with this, expression of silencer of death domain (SODD) was reduced following NO-aspirin exposure and lentiviral mediated shRNA knockdown of SODD suppressed expansion of transduced cells confirming the importance of SODD for ALL cell survival. Considering that SODD and caspase-10 are frequently over-expressed in ALL, interfering with these proteins may provide a new strategy for the treatment of this and potentially other cancers. PMID:25061812

  18. Programmed cell death 1 forms negative costimulatory microclusters that directly inhibit T cell receptor signaling by recruiting phosphatase SHP2

    PubMed Central

    Takamatsu, Masako; Kobayashi-Imanishi, Wakana; Hashimoto-Tane, Akiko; Azuma, Miyuki

    2012-01-01

    Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) is a negative costimulatory receptor critical for the suppression of T cell activation in vitro and in vivo. Single cell imaging elucidated a molecular mechanism of PD-1–mediated suppression. PD-1 becomes clustered with T cell receptors (TCRs) upon binding to its ligand PD-L1 and is transiently associated with the phosphatase SHP2 (Src homology 2 domain–containing tyrosine phosphatase 2). These negative costimulatory microclusters induce the dephosphorylation of the proximal TCR signaling molecules. This results in the suppression of T cell activation and blockade of the TCR-induced stop signal. In addition to PD-1 clustering, PD-1–TCR colocalization within microclusters is required for efficient PD-1–mediated suppression. This inhibitory mechanism also functions in PD-1hi T cells generated in vivo and can be overridden by a neutralizing anti–PD-L1 antibody. Therefore, PD-1 microcluster formation is important for regulation of T cell activation. PMID:22641383

  19. α-Hispanolol sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via death receptor up-regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Mota, Alba; Jiménez-Garcia, Lidia; Herránz, Sandra; Heras, Beatriz de las; Hortelano, Sonsoles

    2015-08-01

    Hispanolone derivatives have been previously described as anti-inflammatory and antitumoral agents. However, their effects on overcoming Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) resistance remain to be elucidated. In this study, we analyzed the cytotoxic effects of the synthetic hispanolone derivative α-hispanolol (α-H) in several tumor cell lines, and we evaluated the induction of apoptosis, as well as the TRAIL-sensitizing potential of α-H in the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. Our data show that α-H decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner in HeLa, MDA-MB231, U87 and HepG2 cell lines, with a more prominent effect in HepG2 cells. Interestingly, α-H had no effect on non-tumoral cells. α-H induced activation of caspase-8 and caspase-9 and also increased levels of the proapoptotic protein Bax, decreasing antiapoptotic proteins (Bcl-2, X-IAP and IAP-1) in HepG2 cells. Specific inhibition of caspase-8 abrogated the cascade of caspase activation, suggesting that the extrinsic pathway has a critical role in the apoptotic events induced by α-H. Furthermore, combined treatment of α-H with TRAIL enhanced apoptosis in HepG2 cells, activating caspase-8 and caspase-9. This correlated with up-regulation of both the TRAIL death receptor DR4 and DR5. DR4 or DR5 neutralizing antibodies abolished the effect of α-H on TRAIL-induced apoptosis, suggesting that sensitization was mediated through the death receptor pathway. Our results demonstrate that α-H induced apoptosis in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 through activation of caspases and induction of the death receptor pathway. In addition, we describe a novel function of α-H as a sensitizer on TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death in HepG2 cells. - Highlights: • α-Hispanolol induced apoptosis in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. • α-Hispanolol induced activation of caspases and the death receptor pathway. • α-Hispanolol enhanced

  20. A receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Tyrphostin A9 induces cancer cell death through Drp1 dependent mitochondria fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Park, So Jung; Park, Young Jun; Shin, Ji Hyun; Kim, Eun Sung; Hwang, Jung Jin; Jin, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Jin Cheon; Cho, Dong-Hyung

    2011-05-13

    Highlights: {yields} We screened and identified Tyrphostin A9, a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor as a strong mitochondria fission inducer. {yields} Tyrphostin A9 treatment promotes mitochondria dysfunction and contributes to cytotoxicity in cancer cells. {yields} Tyrphostin A9 induces apoptotic cell death through a Drp1-mediated pathway. {yields} Our studies suggest that Tyrphostin A9 induces mitochondria fragmentation and apoptotic cell death via Drp1 dependently. -- Abstract: Mitochondria dynamics controls not only their morphology but also functions of mitochondria. Therefore, an imbalance of the dynamics eventually leads to mitochondria disruption and cell death. To identify specific regulators of mitochondria dynamics, we screened a bioactive chemical compound library and selected Tyrphostin A9, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, as a potent inducer of mitochondrial fission. Tyrphostin A9 treatment resulted in the formation of fragmented mitochondria filament. In addition, cellular ATP level was decreased and the mitochondrial membrane potential was collapsed in Tyr A9-treated cells. Suppression of Drp1 activity by siRNA or over-expression of a dominant negative mutant of Drp1 inhibited both mitochondrial fragmentation and cell death induced by Tyrpohotin A9. Moreover, treatment of Tyrphostin A9 also evoked mitochondrial fragmentation in other cells including the neuroblastomas. Taken together, these results suggest that Tyrphostin A9 induces Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission and apoptotic cell death.

  1. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 agonists cause endoplasmic reticulum stress and cell death in human lung cells.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Karen C; Sabnis, Ashwini S; Johansen, Mark E; Lanza, Diane L; Moos, Philip J; Yost, Garold S; Reilly, Christopher A

    2007-06-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a calcium-selective ion channel expressed in human lung cells. We show that activation of the intracellular subpopulation of TRPV1 causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and cell death in human bronchial epithelial and alveolar cells. TRPV1 agonist (nonivamide) treatment caused calcium release from the ER and altered the transcription of growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 (GADD153), GADD45alpha, GRP78/BiP, ATF3, CCND1, and CCNG2) in a manner comparable with prototypical ER stress-inducing agents. The TRPV1 antagonist N-(4-tert-butylbenzyl)-N'-(1-[3-fluoro-4-(methylsulfonylamino)-phenyl]ethyl)thiourea (LJO-328) inhibited mRNA responses and cytotoxicity. EGTA and ruthenium red inhibited cell surface TRPV1 activity, but they did not prevent ER stress gene responses or cytotoxicity. Cytotoxicity paralleled eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 1 (EIF2alpha) phosphorylation and the induction of GADD153 mRNA and protein. Transient overexpression of GADD153 caused cell death independent of agonist treatment, and cells selected for stable overexpression of a GADD153 dominant-negative mutant exhibited reduced sensitivity. Salubrinal, an inhibitor of ER stress-induced cytotoxicity via the EIF2alphaK3/EIF2alpha pathway, or stable overexpression of the EIF2alpha-S52A dominant-negative mutant also inhibited cell death. Treatment of the TRPV1-null human embryonic kidney 293 cell line with TRPV1 agonists did not initiate ER stress responses. Likewise, n-benzylnonanamide, an inactive analog of nonivamide, failed to cause ER calcium release, an increase in GADD153 expression, and cytotoxicity. We conclude that activation of ER-bound TRPV1 and stimulation of GADD153 expression via the EIF2alphaK3/EIF2alpha pathway represents a common mechanism for cytotoxicity by cell-permeable TRPV1 agonists. These findings are significant within the context of lung inflammatory diseases where elevated

  2. Activation of surrogate death receptor signaling triggers peroxynitrite-dependent execution of cisplatin-resistant cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Seah, S; Low, I C C; Hirpara, J L; Sachaphibulkij, K; Kroemer, G; Brenner, C; Pervaiz, S

    2015-01-01

    Platinum-based drugs remain as the cornerstone of cancer chemotherapy; however, development of multidrug resistance presents a therapeutic challenge. This study aims at understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance to cisplatin and unraveling surrogate signaling networks that could revert sensitivity to apoptosis stimuli. We made use of three different sets of cell lines, A549 and H2030 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and A2780 ovarian cancer cells and their cisplatin-resistant variants. Here we report that cisplatin-resistant cell lines displayed a multidrug-resistant phenotype. Changes in mitochondrial metabolism and defective mitochondrial signaling were unraveled in the resistant cells. More interestingly, a marked increase in sensitivity of the resistant cells to death receptor-induced apoptosis, in particular TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand)-mediated execution, was observed. Although this was not associated with an increase in gene transcription, a significant increase in the localization of TRAIL death receptor, DR4, to the lipid raft subdomains of plasma membrane was detected in the resistant variants. Furthermore, exposure of cisplatin-resistant cells to TRAIL resulted in upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and increase in nitric oxide (NO) production that triggered the generation of peroxynitrite (ONOO−). Scavenging ONOO− rescued cells from TRAIL-induced apoptosis, thereby suggesting a critical role of ONOO− in TRAIL-induced execution of cisplatin-resistant cells. Notably, preincubation of cells with TRAIL restored sensitivity of resistant cells to cisplatin. These data provide compelling evidence for employing strategies to trigger death receptor signaling as a second-line treatment for cisplatin-resistant cancers. PMID:26492363

  3. Tyrosine kinase receptor EGFR regulates the switch in cancer cells between cell survival and cell death induced by autophagy in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongqiang; Henson, Elizabeth S; Xiao, Wenyan; Huang, Daniel; McMillan-Ward, Eileen M; Israels, Sara J; Gibson, Spencer B

    2016-06-01

    Autophagy is an intracellular lysosomal degradation pathway where its primary function is to allow cells to survive under stressful conditions. Autophagy is, however, a double-edge sword that can either promote cell survival or cell death. In cancer, hypoxic regions contribute to poor prognosis due to the ability of cancer cells to adapt to hypoxia in part through autophagy. In contrast, autophagy could contribute to hypoxia induced cell death in cancer cells. In this study, we showed that autophagy increased during hypoxia. At 4 h of hypoxia, autophagy promoted cell survival whereas, after 48 h of hypoxia, autophagy increased cell death. Furthermore, we found that the tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) decreased after 16 h in hypoxia. Furthermore, EGFR binding to BECN1 in hypoxia was significantly higher at 4 h compared to 72 h. Knocking down or inhibiting EGFR resulted in an increase in autophagy contributing to increased cell death under hypoxia. In contrast, when EGFR was reactivated by the addition of EGF, the level of autophagy was reduced which led to decreased cell death. Hypoxia led to autophagic degradation of the lipid raft protein CAV1 (caveolin 1) that is known to bind and activate EGFR in a ligand-independent manner during hypoxia. By knocking down CAV1, the amount of EGFR phosphorylation was decreased in hypoxia and amount of autophagy and cell death increased. This indicates that the activation of EGFR plays a critical role in the switch between cell survival and cell death induced by autophagy in hypoxia. PMID:27166522

  4. High glucose-induced apoptosis in human coronary artery endothelial cells involves up-regulation of death receptors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background High glucose can induce apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells, which may contribute to the development of vascular complications in diabetes. We evaluated the role of the death receptor pathway of apoptotic signaling in high glucose-induced apoptosis in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). Methods HCAECs were treated with media containing 5.6, 11.1, and 16.7 mM of glucose for 24 h in the presence or absence of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. For detection of apoptosis, DNA fragmentation assay was used. HCAEC expression of death receptors were analyzed by the PCR and flow cytometry methods. Also, using immunohistochemical techniques, coronary expression of death receptors was assessed in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetic mice. Results Exposure of HCAECs to high glucose resulted in a significant increase in TNF-R1 and Fas expression, compared with normal glucose. High glucose increased TNF-α production by HCAECs and exogenous TNF-α up-regulated TNF-R1 and Fas expression in HCAECs. High glucose-induced up-regulation of TNF-R1 and Fas expression was undetectable in the presence of TNF-α. Treatment with TNF-R1 neutralizing peptides significantly inhibited high glucose-induced endothelial cell apoptosis. Type 2 diabetic mice displayed appreciable expression of TNF-R1 and Fas in coronary vessels. Conclusions In association with increased TNF-α levels, the death receptors, TNF-R1 and Fas, are up-regulated in HCAECs under high glucose conditions, which could in turn play a role in high glucose-induced endothelial cell apoptosis. PMID:21816064

  5. Death Receptor-Induced Apoptosis Signalling Regulation by Ezrin Is Cell Type Dependent and Occurs in a DISC-Independent Manner in Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Iessi, Elisabetta; Zischler, Luciana; Etringer, Aurélie; Bergeret, Marion; Morlé, Aymeric; Jacquemin, Guillaume; Morizot, Alexandre; Shirley, Sarah; Lalaoui, Najoua; Elifio-Esposito, Selene L.; Fais, Stefano; Garrido, Carmen; Solary, Eric; Micheau, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Ezrin belongs to the ERM (ezrin-radixin-moesin) protein family and has been demonstrated to regulate early steps of Fas receptor signalling in lymphoid cells, but its contribution to TRAIL-induced cell death regulation in adherent cancer cells remains unknown. In this study we report that regulation of FasL and TRAIL-induced cell death by ezrin is cell type dependant. Ezrin is a positive regulator of apoptosis in T-lymphoma cell line Jurkat, but a negative regulator in colon cancer cells. Using ezrin phosphorylation or actin-binding mutants, we provide evidence that negative regulation of death receptor-induced apoptosis by ezrin occurs in a cytoskeleton- and DISC-independent manner, in colon cancer cells. Remarkably, inhibition of apoptosis induced by these ligands was found to be tightly associated with regulation of ezrin phosphorylation on serine 66, the tumor suppressor gene WWOX and activation of PKA. Deficiency in WWOX expression in the liver cancer SK-HEP1 or the pancreatic Mia PaCa-2 cell lines as well as WWOX silencing or modulation of PKA activation by pharmacological regulators, in the colon cancer cell line SW480, abrogated regulation of TRAIL signalling by ezrin. Altogether our results show that death receptor pro-apoptotic signalling regulation by ezrin can occur downstream of the DISC in colon cancer cells. PMID:26010871

  6. The role of MAPK and FAS death receptor pathways in testicular germ cell apoptosis induced by lead.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shuying; Liang, Duoping; An, Na; Jia, Li; Shan, Yujuan; Chen, Chao; Sun, Kuo; Niu, Fei; Li, Huiyan; Fu, Songbin

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate gene expression involved in the signal pathway of MAPK and death signal receptor pathway of FAS in lead-induced apoptosis of testicular germ cells. First, cell viabilities were determined by MTT assay. Second, using single cell gel-electrophoresis test (comet assay) and TUNEL staining technique, apoptotic rate and cell apoptosis localization of testicular germ cells were measured in mice treated with 0.15%, 0.3%, and 0.6% lead, respectively. Third, the immunolocalization of K-ras, c-fos, Fas, and active caspase-3 proteins was determined by immunohistochemistry. Finally, changes in the translational levels of K-ras, c-fos, Fas, and active caspase-3 were further detected by western blot analysis. Our results showed that lead could significantly induce testicular germ cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.01). The mechanisms were closely related to the increased expressions of K-ras, c-fos, Fas, and active caspase-3 in apoptotic germ cells. In conclusion, K-ras/c-fos and Fas/caspase-3 death signaling receptor pathways were involved in the lead-induced apoptosis of the testicular germ cells in mice. PMID:19727529

  7. Cell death is induced by ciglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) agonist, independently of PPAR{gamma} in human glioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Myoung Woo; Kim, Dae Seong; Kim, Hye Ryung; Kim, Hye Jin; Yang, Jin Mo; Ryu, Somi; Noh, Yoo Hun; Lee, Soo Hyun; Son, Meong Hi; Jung, Hye Lim; Yoo, Keon Hee; Koo, Hong Hoe; Sung, Ki Woong

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Greater than 30 {mu}M ciglitazone induces cell death in glioma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell death by ciglitazone is independent of PPAR{gamma} in glioma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CGZ induces cell death by the loss of MMP via decreased Akt. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) regulates multiple signaling pathways, and its agonists induce apoptosis in various cancer cells. However, their role in cell death is unclear. In this study, the relationship between ciglitazone (CGZ) and PPAR{gamma} in CGZ-induced cell death was examined. At concentrations of greater than 30 {mu}M, CGZ, a synthetic PPAR{gamma} agonist, activated caspase-3 and induced apoptosis in T98G cells. Treatment of T98G cells with less than 30 {mu}M CGZ effectively induced cell death after pretreatment with 30 {mu}M of the PPAR{gamma} antagonist GW9662, although GW9662 alone did not induce cell death. This cell death was also observed when cells were co-treated with CGZ and GW9662, but was not observed when cells were treated with CGZ prior to GW9662. In cells in which PPAR{gamma} was down-regulated cells by siRNA, lower concentrations of CGZ (<30 {mu}M) were sufficient to induce cell death, although higher concentrations of CGZ ( Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 30 {mu}M) were required to induce cell death in control T98G cells, indicating that CGZ effectively induces cell death in T98G cells independently of PPAR{gamma}. Treatment with GW9662 followed by CGZ resulted in a down-regulation of Akt activity and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), which was accompanied by a decrease in Bcl-2 expression and an increase in Bid cleavage. These data suggest that CGZ is capable of inducing apoptotic cell death independently of PPAR{gamma} in glioma cells, by down-regulating Akt activity and inducing MMP collapse.

  8. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) induces cell death through MAPK-dependent mechanism in osteoblastic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sung Hun; Yoo, Chong Il; Kim, Hui Taek; Park, Ji Yeon; Kwon, Chae Hwa; Keun Kim, Yong . E-mail: kim430@pusan.ac.kr

    2006-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) subfamilies in cell death induced by PPAR{gamma} agonists in osteoblastic cells. Ciglitazone and troglitazone, PPAR{gamma} agonists, resulted in a concentration- and time-dependent cell death, which was largely attributed to apoptosis. But a PPAR{alpha} agonist ciprofibrate did not affect the cell death. Ciglitazone caused reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and ciglitazone-induced cell death was prevented by antioxidants, suggesting an important role of ROS generation in the ciglitazone-induced cell death. ROS generation and cell death induced by ciglitazone were inhibited by the PPAR{gamma} antagonist GW9662. Ciglitazone treatment caused activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38. Activation of ERK was dependent on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and that of p38 was independent. Ciglitazone-induced cell death was significantly prevented by PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK upstream kinase MEK1/2, and SB203580, a p38 inhibitor. Ciglitazone treatment increased Bax expression and caused a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and its effect was prevented by N-acetylcysteine, PD98059, and SB203580. Ciglitazone induced caspase activation, which was prevented by PD98059 and SB203580. The general caspase inhibitor z-DEVD-FMK and the specific inhibitor of caspases-3 DEVD-CHO exerted the protective effect against the ciglitazone-induced cell death. The EGFR inhibitors AG1478 and suramin protected against the ciglitazone-induced cell death. Taken together, these findings suggest that the MAPK signaling pathways play an active role in mediating the ciglitazone-induced cell death of osteoblasts and function upstream of a mitochondria-dependent mechanism. These data may provide a novel insight into potential therapeutic strategies for treatment of osteoporosis.

  9. Kaempferol induces ATM/p53-mediated death receptor and mitochondrial apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chiu-Fang; Yang, Jai-Sing; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Chiang, Ni-Na; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Yu-Syuan; Chen, Chun; Chen, Fu-An

    2016-05-01

    Kaempferol is a member of the flavonoid compounds found in vegetables and fruits. It is shown to exhibit biological impact and anticancer activity, but no report exists on the angiogenic effect of kaempferol and induction of cell apoptosis in vitro. In this study, we investigated the role of kaempferol on anti-angiogenic property and the apoptotic mechanism of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our results demonstrated that kaempferol decreased HUVEC viability in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Kaempferol also induced morphological changes and sub-G1 phase cell population (apoptotic cells). Kaempferol triggered apoptosis of HUVECs as detecting by DNA fragmentation, comet assay and immunofluorescent staining for activated caspase-3. The caspase signals, including caspase-8, -9 and -3, were time-dependently activated in HUVECs after kaempferol exposure. Furthermore, pre-treatment with a specific inhibitor of caspase-8 (Z-IETD-FMK) significantly reduced the activity of caspase-8, -9 and -3, indicating that extrinsic pathway is a major signaling pathway in kaempferol-treated HUVECs. Importantly, kaempferol promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) evaluated using flow cytometric assay in HUVECs. We further investigated the upstream extrinsic pathway and showed that kaempferol stimulated death receptor signals [Fas/CD95, death receptor 4 (DR4) and DR5] through increasing the levels of phosphorylated p53 and phosphorylated ATM pathways in HUVECs, which can be individually confirmed by N-acetylcysteine (NAC), ATM specific inhibitor (caffeine) and p53 siRNA. Based on these results, kaempferol-induced HUVEC apoptosis was involved in an ROS-mediated p53/ATM/death receptor signaling. Kaempferol might possess therapeutic effects on cancer treatment in anti-vascular targeting. PMID:26984266

  10. Pigment Epithelium-derived Factor (PEDF) Prevents Retinal Cell Death via PEDF Receptor (PEDF-R)

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Preeti; Locatelli-Hoops, Silvia; Kenealey, Jason; DesJardin, Jacqueline; Notari, Luigi; Becerra, S. Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) displays retina survival activity by interacting with receptor proteins on cell surfaces. We have previously reported that PEDF binds and stimulates PEDF receptor (PEDF-R), a transmembrane phospholipase. However, the PEDF binding site of PEDF-R and its involvement in survival activity have not been identified. The purpose of this work is to identify a biologically relevant ligand-binding site on PEDF-R. PEDF bound the PEDF-R ectodomain L4 (Leu159–Met325) with affinity similar to the full-length PEDF-R (Met1–Leu504). Binding assays using synthetic peptides spanning L4 showed that PEDF selectively bound E5b (Ile193–Leu232) and P1 (Thr210–Leu249) peptides. Recombinant C-terminal truncated PEDF-R4 (Met1–Leu232) and internally truncated PEDF-R and PEDF-R4 (ΔHis203–Leu232) retained phospholipase activity of the full-length PEDF-R. However, PEDF-R polypeptides without the His203–Leu232 region lost the PEDF affinity that stimulated their enzymatic activity. Cell surface labeling showed that PEDF-R is present in the plasma membranes of retina cells. Using siRNA to selectively knock down PEDF-R in retina cells, we demonstrated that PEDF-R is essential for PEDF-mediated cell survival and antiapoptotic activities. Furthermore, preincubation of PEDF with P1 and E5b peptides blocked the PEDF·PEDF-R-mediated retina cell survival activity, implying that peptide binding to PEDF excluded ligand-receptor interactions on the cell surface. Our findings establish that PEDF-R is required for the survival and antiapoptotic effects of PEDF on retina cells and has determinants for PEDF binding within its L4 ectodomain that are critical for enzymatic stimulation. PMID:23818523

  11. Nortriptyline induces mitochondria and death receptor-mediated apoptosis in bladder cancer cells and inhibits bladder tumor growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Sheau-Yun; Cheng, Chen-Li; Ho, Hao-Chung; Wang, Shian-Shiang; Chiu, Kun-Yuan; Su, Chung-Kuang; Ou, Yen-Chuan; Lin, Chi-Chen

    2015-08-15

    Nortriptyline (NTP), an antidepressant, has antitumor effects on some human cancer cells, but its effect on human bladder cancer cells is not known. In this study, we used a cell viability assay to demonstrate that NTP is cytotoxic to human TCCSUP and mouse MBT-2 bladder cancer cells in a concentration and time-dependent manner. We also performed cell cycle analysis, annexin V and mitochondrial membrane potential assays, and Western blot analysis to show that NTP inhibits cell growth in these cells by inducing both mitochondria-mediated and death receptor-mediated apoptosis. Specifically, NTP increases the expression of Fas, FasL, FADD, Bax, Bak, and cleaved forms of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. In addition, NTP decreases the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, BH3 interacting domain death agonist, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, and survivin. Furthermore, NTP-induced apoptosis is associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which can be reduced by antioxidants, such as N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Finally, we showed that NTP suppresses tumor growth in mice inoculated with MBT-2 cells. Collectively, our results suggest that NTP induces both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis in human and mouse bladder cancer cells and that it may be a clinically useful chemotherapeutic agent for bladder cancer in humans. PMID:26086857

  12. Involvement of decreased glutamate receptor subunit GluR2 expression in lead-induced neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Keishi; Kotake, Yaichiro; Miyara, Masatsugu; Aoki, Kaori; Sanoh, Seigo; Kanda, Yasunari; Ohta, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Lead is known to induce neurotoxicity, particularly in young children, and GluR2, an AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit, plays an important role in neuronal cell survival. Therefore, we hypothesized that altered GluR2 expression plays a role in lead-induced neuronal cell death. To test this idea, we investigated the effect of exposure to 5 and 20 µM lead for 1-9 days on the viability and GluR2 expression of primary-cultured rat cortical neurons. The number of trypan-blue stained cells was increased by exposure to 5 µM lead for 9 days or 20 µM lead for 7-9 days, and LDH release was increased after exposure to 20 µM lead for 9 days. GluR2 expression was reduced by exposure to 5-100 µM lead, but not 0.1-1 µM lead, for 9 days. Immunocytochemistry also confirmed that GluR2 expression was decreased in the presence of lead. Application of 50 ng/ml brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) led to a recovery of lead-induced neuronal cell death, accompanied with increased GluR2 expression. Our results suggest that long-term exposure to lead induces neuronal cell death, in association with a decrease of GluR2 expression. PMID:23719929

  13. Multiple Domain Associations within the Arabidopsis Immune Receptor RPP1 Regulate the Activation of Programmed Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Karl J.; Bentham, Adam; Williams, Simon J.; Kobe, Bostjan; Staskawicz, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Upon recognition of pathogen virulence effectors, plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins induce defense responses including localized host cell death. In an effort to understand the molecular mechanisms leading to this response, we examined the Arabidopsis thaliana NLR protein RECOGNITION OF PERONOSPORA PARASITICA1 (RPP1), which recognizes the Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis effector ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA RECOGNIZED1 (ATR1). Expression of the N-terminus of RPP1, including the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain (“N-TIR”), elicited an effector-independent cell death response, and we used allelic variation in TIR domain sequences to define the key residues that contribute to this phenotype. Further biochemical characterization indicated that cell death induction was correlated with N-TIR domain self-association. In addition, we demonstrated that the nucleotide-binding (NB)-ARC1 region of RPP1 self-associates and plays a critical role in cell death activation, likely by facilitating TIR:TIR interactions. Structural homology modeling of the NB subdomain allowed us to identify a putative oligomerization interface that was shown to influence NB-ARC1 self-association. Significantly, full-length RPP1 exhibited effector-dependent oligomerization and, although mutations at the NB-ARC1 oligomerization interface eliminated cell death induction, RPP1 self-association was unaffected, suggesting that additional regions contribute to oligomerization. Indeed, the leucine-rich repeat domain of RPP1 also self-associates, indicating that multiple interaction interfaces exist within activated RPP1 oligomers. Finally, we observed numerous intramolecular interactions that likely function to negatively regulate RPP1, and present a model describing the transition to an active NLR protein. PMID:27427964

  14. TRAF2 multitasking in TNF receptor-induced signaling to NF-κB, MAP kinases and cell death.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Alice; Verstrepen, Lynn; Beyaert, Rudi

    2016-09-15

    Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) is a potent inflammatory cytokine that exerts its functions through the activation of two distinct receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2. Both receptors can activate canonical NF-κB and JNK MAP kinase signaling, while TNFR2 can also activate non-canonical NF-κB signaling, leading to numerous changes in gene expression that drive inflammation, cell proliferation and cell survival. On the other hand, TNFR1 also activates signaling pathways leading to cell death by either apoptosis or necroptosis, depending on the cellular context. A key player in TNFR1- and TNFR2-induced signaling is the RING finger protein TRAF2, which is recruited to both receptors upon their stimulation. TRAF2 exerts multiple receptor-specific functions but also mediates cross-talk between TNFR1 and TNFR2, dictating the outcome of TNF stimulation. In this review, we provide an overview of the positive and negative regulatory role of TRAF2 in different TNFR1 and TNFR2 signaling pathways. We discuss the underlying molecular mechanism of action, distinguishing between TRAF2 scaffold and E3 ubiquitin ligase functions, and the regulation of TRAF2 by specific post-translational modifications. Finally, we elaborate on some possible strategies to modulate TRAF2 function in the context of therapeutic targeting in autoimmunity and cancer. PMID:26993379

  15. Receptor interacting protein 140 attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress in neurons and protects against cell death

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xudong; Krogh, Kelly A.; Wu, Cheng-Ying; Lin, Yi-Wei; Tsai, Hong-Chieh; Thayer, Stanley A.; Wei, Li-Na

    2014-01-01

    Inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R)-mediated Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) triggers many physiological responses in neurons and when uncontrolled can cause ER stress that contributes to neurological disease. Here we show that the unfolded protein response (UPR) in neurons induces rapid translocation of nuclear receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140) to the cytoplasm. In the cytoplasm, RIP140 localizes to the ER by binding to the IP3R. The carboxyl-terminal RD4 domain of RIP140 interacts with the carboxyl-terminal gate-keeping domain of the IP3R. This molecular interaction disrupts the IP3R's “head-tail” interaction, thereby suppressing channel opening and attenuating IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release. This contributes to a rapid suppression of the ER stress response and provides protection from apoptosis in both hippocampal neurons in vitro and in an animal model of ER stress. Thus, RIP140 translocation to the cytoplasm is an early response to ER stress and provides protection against neuronal death. PMID:25066731

  16. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists protect cerebellar granule cells from cytokine-induced apoptotic cell death by inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Heneka, M T; Feinstein, D L; Galea, E; Gleichmann, M; Wüllner, U; Klockgether, T

    1999-12-01

    Cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) can express the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in response to inflammatory stimuli. We demonstrate that induction of iNOS in CGCs by bacterial lipopolysaccharide and pro-inflammatory cytokines results in cell death that was potentiated by excess L-arginine and inhibited by the selective iNOS inhibitor, 2-amino-5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-4H-1,3-thiazine. The NO-mediated cell death was accompanied by increased caspase-3-like activity, DNA fragmentation and positive terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), suggesting that apoptosis mediates CGC cell death. Incubation of CGCs with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), ibuprofen or indomethacin, or with 15-deoxy-delta12,14 prostaglandin J2 (PGJ2) downregulates iNOS expression and reduces subsequent cell death. Since in other cell types, both NSAIDs and PGJ2 can activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) and downregulate cytokine levels and iNOS expression, and since CGCs express PPARgamma in vivo and in vitro, our data suggest that activation of CGC PPARgamma mediates iNOS suppression and reduced cell death. Because PPARgamma is expressed in brains of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients, in which neuronal iNOS expression and apoptotic cell death have been described, these results may help explain the basis for the beneficial effects of NSAIDs in AD. PMID:10695726

  17. The Amaryllidaceae Isocarbostyril Narciclasine Induces Apoptosis By Activation of the Death Receptor and/or Mitochondrial Pathways in Cancer Cells But Not in Normal Fibroblasts1

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Patrick; Ingrassia, Laurent; Rouzeau, Sébastien; Ribaucour, Fabrice; Thomas, Stéphanie; Roland, Isabelle; Darro, Francis; Lefranc, Florence; Kiss, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Our study has shown that the Amaryllidaceae isocarbostyril narciclasine induces marked apoptosis-mediated cytotoxic effects in human cancer cells but not in normal fibroblasts by triggering the activation of the initiator caspases of the death receptor pathway (caspase-8 and caspase-10) at least in human MCF-7 breast and PC-3 prostate carcinoma cells. The formation of the Fas and death receptor 4 (DR4) death-inducing signaling complex was clearly evidenced in MCF-7 and PC-3 cancer cells. Caspase-8 was found to interact with Fas and DR4 receptors on narciclasine treatment. However, narciclasine-induced downstream apoptotic pathways in MCF-7 cells diverged from those in PC-3 cells, where caspase-8 directly activated effector caspases such as caspase-3 in the absence of any further release of mitochondrial proapoptotic effectors. In contrast, in MCF-7 cells, the apoptotic process was found to require an amplification step that is mitochondria-dependent, with Bid processing, release of cytochrome c, and caspase-9 activation. It is postulated that the high selectivity of narciclasine to cancer cells might be linked, at least in part, to this activation of the death receptor pathway. Normal human fibroblasts appear approximately 250-fold less sensitive to narciclasine, which does not induce apoptosis in these cells probably due to the absence of death receptor pathway activation. PMID:17898872

  18. Death-receptor O-glycosylation controls tumor-cell sensitivity to the proapoptotic ligand Apo2L/TRAIL.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Klaus W; Punnoose, Elizabeth A; Januario, Thomas; Lawrence, David A; Pitti, Robert M; Lancaster, Kate; Lee, Dori; von Goetz, Melissa; Yee, Sharon Fong; Totpal, Klara; Huw, Ling; Katta, Viswanatham; Cavet, Guy; Hymowitz, Sarah G; Amler, Lukas; Ashkenazi, Avi

    2007-09-01

    Apo2L/TRAIL stimulates cancer cell death through the proapoptotic receptors DR4 and DR5, but the determinants of tumor susceptibility to this ligand are not fully defined. mRNA expression of the peptidyl O-glycosyltransferase GALNT14 correlated with Apo2L/TRAIL sensitivity in pancreatic carcinoma, non-small-cell lung carcinoma and melanoma cell lines, and up to 30% of samples from various human malignancies showed GALNT14 overexpression. RNA interference of GALNT14 reduced cellular Apo2L/TRAIL sensitivity, whereas overexpression increased responsiveness. Biochemical analysis of DR5 identified several ectodomain O-(N-acetyl galactosamine-galactose-sialic acid) structures. Sequence comparison predicted conserved extracellular DR4 and DR5 O-glycosylation sites; progressive mutation of the DR5 sites attenuated apoptotic signaling. O-glycosylation promoted ligand-stimulated clustering of DR4 and DR5, which mediated recruitment and activation of the apoptosis-initiating protease caspase-8. These results uncover a new link between death-receptor O-glycosylation and apoptotic signaling, providing potential predictive biomarkers for Apo2L/TRAIL-based cancer therapy. PMID:17767167

  19. FasL-triggered death of Jurkat cells requires caspase 8-induced, ATP-dependent cross-talk between Fas and the purinergic receptor P2X(7).

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Adam; Shoji, Kenji F; Sáez, Juan C; Henríquez, Mauricio; Quest, Andrew F G

    2013-02-01

    Fas ligation via the ligand FasL activates the caspase-8/caspase-3-dependent extrinsic death pathway. In so-called type II cells, an additional mechanism involving tBid-mediated caspase-9 activation is required to efficiently trigger cell death. Other pathways linking FasL-Fas interaction to activation of the intrinsic cell death pathway remain unknown. However, ATP release and subsequent activation of purinergic P2X(7) receptors (P2X(7)Rs) favors cell death in some cells. Here, we evaluated the possibility that ATP release downstream of caspase-8 via pannexin1 hemichannels (Panx1 HCs) and subsequent activation of P2X(7)Rs participate in FasL-stimulated cell death. Indeed, upon FasL stimulation, ATP was released from Jurkat cells in a time- and caspase-8-dependent manner. Fas and Panx1 HCs colocalized and inhibition of the latter, but not connexin hemichannels, reduced FasL-induced ATP release. Extracellular apyrase, which hydrolyzes ATP, reduced FasL-induced death. Also, oxidized-ATP or Brilliant Blue G, two P2X(7)R blockers, reduced FasL-induced caspase-9 activation and cell death. These results represent the first evidence indicating that the two death receptors, Fas and P2X(7)R connect functionally via caspase-8 and Panx1 HC-mediated ATP release to promote caspase-9/caspase-3-dependent cell death in lymphoid cells. Thus, a hitherto unsuspected route was uncovered connecting the extrinsic to the intrinsic pathway to amplify death signals emanating from the Fas receptor in type II cells. PMID:22806078

  20. Quercetin induced apoptosis in association with death receptors and fludarabine in cells isolated from chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients

    PubMed Central

    Russo, M; Spagnuolo, C; Volpe, S; Mupo, A; Tedesco, I; Russo, G-L

    2010-01-01

    Background: Quercetin is a flavonoid naturally present in food and beverages belonging to the large class of phytochemicals with potential anti-cancer properties. Here, we investigated the ability of quercetin to sensitise primary cells from chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) to death receptor (DR) agonists, recombinant TNF-related-apoptosis-inducing ligand (rTRAIL) and anti-CD95, and to fludarabine, a widely used chemotherapeutic drug against CLL. Methods: Peripheral white blood cells were isolated from patients and incubated with medium containing 50 ng ml anti-CD95 agonist antibody; 10 ng ml recombinant TRAIL; 10–25 μM quercetin and 3.5–14 μM fludarabine. Neutral Red assay was used to measure cell viability, where as apoptosis was assessed by determining caspase-3 activity, exposure to Annexin V and PARP fragmentation. Results: Quercetin significantly enhanced anti-CD95- and rTRAIL-induced cell death as shown by decreased cell viability, increased caspase-3 and -9 activities, and positivity to Annexin V. In addition, association of quercetin with fludarabine increases the apoptotic response in CLL cells of about two-fold compared with quercetin monotreatment. Conclusion: This work shows that resistance to DR- and fludarabine-induced cell death in leukaemic cells isolated from CLL patients can be ameliorated or bypassed by the combined treatment with quercetin. Considering the low toxicity of the molecule, our study results are in favour of a potential use of quercetin in adjuvant chemotherapy in combination with other drugs. PMID:20648016

  1. Ozone-induced airway epithelial cell death, the neurokinin-1 receptor pathway, and the postnatal developing lung

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Shannon R.; Oslund, Karen L.; Hyde, Dallas M.; Miller, Lisa A.; Van Winkle, Laura S.

    2014-01-01

    Children are uniquely susceptible to ozone because airway and lung growth continue for an extensive period after birth. Early-life exposure of the rhesus monkey to repeated ozone cycles results in region-specific disrupted airway/lung growth, but the mediators and mechanisms are poorly understood. Substance P (SP), neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R); and nuclear receptor Nur77 (NR4A1) are signaling pathway components involved in ozone-induced cell death. We hypothesize that acute ozone (AO) exposure during postnatal airway development disrupts SP/NK-1R/Nur77 pathway expression and that these changes correlate with increased ozone-induced cell death. Our objectives were to 1) spatially define the normal development of the SP/NK-1R/Nur77 pathway in conducting airways; 2) compare how postnatal age modulates responses to AO exposure; and 3) determine how concomitant, episodic ozone exposure modifies age-specific acute responses. Male infant rhesus monkeys were assigned at age 1 mo to two age groups, 2 or 6 mo, and then to one of three exposure subgroups: filtered air (FA), FA+AO (AO: 8 h/day × 2 days), or episodic biweekly ozone exposure cycles (EAO: 8 h/day × 5 days/14-day cycle+AO). O3 = 0.5 ppm. We found that 1) ozone increases SP/NK-1R/Nur77 pathway expression in conducting airways, 2) an ozone exposure cycle (5 days/cycle) delivered early at age 2 mo resulted in an airway that was hypersensitive to AO exposure at the end of 2 mo, and 3) continued episodic exposure (11 cycles) resulted in an airway that was hyposensitive to AO exposure at 6 mo. These observations collectively associate with greater overall inflammation and epithelial cell death, particularly in early postnatal (2 mo), distal airways. PMID:25063800

  2. The Caspase 8 Inhibitor c-FLIPL Modulates T-Cell Receptor-Induced Proliferation but Not Activation-Induced Cell Death of Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lens, Susanne M. A.; Kataoka, Takao; Fortner, Karen A.; Tinel, Antoine; Ferrero, Isabel; MacDonald, Robson H.; Hahne, Michel; Beermann, Friedrich; Attinger, Antoine; Orbea, Hans-Acha; Budd, Ralph C.; Tschopp, Jürg

    2002-01-01

    The caspase 8 inhibitor c-FLIPL can act in vitro as a molecular switch between cell death and growth signals transmitted by the death receptor Fas (CD95). To elucidate its function in vivo, transgenic mice were generated that overexpress c-FLIPL in the T-cell compartment (c-FLIPL Tg mice). As anticipated, FasL-induced apoptosis was inhibited in T cells from the c-FLIPL Tg mice. In contrast, activation-induced cell death of T cells in c-FLIPL Tg mice was unaffected, suggesting that this deletion process can proceed in the absence of active caspase 8. Accordingly, c-FLIPL Tg mice differed from Fas-deficient mice by showing no accumulation of B220+ CD4− CD8− T cells. However, stimulation of T lymphocytes with suboptimal doses of anti-CD3 or antigen revealed increased proliferative responses in T cells from c-FLIPL Tg mice. Thus, a major role of c-FLIPL in vivo is the modulation of T-cell proliferation by decreasing the T-cell receptor signaling threshold. PMID:12101236

  3. Death Receptor 5 Signaling Promotes Hepatocyte Lipoapoptosis*

    PubMed Central

    Cazanave, Sophie C.; Mott, Justin L.; Bronk, Steven F.; Werneburg, Nathan W.; Fingas, Christian D.; Meng, X. Wei; Finnberg, Niklas; El-Deiry, Wafik S.; Kaufmann, Scott H.; Gores, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is characterized by hepatic steatosis, elevated levels of circulating free fatty acids (FFA), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and hepatocyte lipoapoptosis. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) death receptor 5 (DR5) is significantly elevated in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and steatotic hepatocytes demonstrate increased sensitivity to TRAIL-mediated cell death. Nonetheless, a role for TRAIL and/or DR5 in mediating lipoapoptotic pathways is unexplored. Here, we examined the contribution of DR5 death signaling to lipoapoptosis by free fatty acids. The toxic saturated free fatty acid palmitate induces an increase in DR5 mRNA and protein expression in Huh-7 human hepatoma cells leading to DR5 localization into lipid rafts, cell surface receptor clustering with subsequent recruitment of the initiator caspase-8, and ultimately cellular demise. Lipoapoptosis by palmitate was not inhibited by a soluble human recombinant DR5-Fc chimera protein suggesting that DR5 cytotoxic signaling is ligand-independent. Hepatocytes from murine TRAIL receptor knock-out mice (DR−/−) displayed reduced palmitate-mediated lipotoxicity. Likewise, knockdown of DR5 or caspase-8 expression by shRNA technology attenuated palmitate-induced Bax activation and apoptosis in Huh-7 cells, without altering induction of ER stress markers. Similar observations were verified in other cell models. Finally, knockdown of CHOP, an ER stress-mediated transcription factor, reduced DR5 up-regulation and DR5-mediated caspase-8 activation upon palmitate treatment. Collectively, these results suggest that ER stress-induced CHOP activation by palmitate transcriptionally up-regulates DR5, likely resulting in ligand-independent cytotoxic signaling by this death receptor. PMID:21941003

  4. Positive allosteric modulation of alpha-7 nicotinic receptors promotes cell death by inducing Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Álvarez, María; Moreno-Ortega, Ana J; Navarro, Elisa; Fernández-Morales, José Carlos; Egea, Javier; López, Manuela G; Cano-Abad, María F

    2015-05-01

    Positive allosteric modulation of α7 isoform of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChRs) is emerging as a promising therapeutic approach for central nervous system disorders such as schizophrenia or Alzheimer's disease. However, its effect on Ca(2+) signaling and cell viability remains controversial. This study focuses on how the type II positive allosteric modulator (PAM II) PNU120596 affects intracellular Ca(2+) signaling and cell viability. We used human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells overexpressing α7-nAChRs (α7-SH) and their control (C-SH). We monitored cytoplasmic and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) with Fura-2 and the genetically encoded cameleon targeting the ER, respectively. Nicotinic inward currents were measured using patch-clamp techniques. Viability was assessed using methylthiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide or propidium iodide staining. We observed that in the presence of a nicotinic agonist, PNU120596 (i) reduced viability of α7-SH but not of C-SH cells; (ii) significantly increased inward nicotinic currents and cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration; (iii) released Ca(2+) from the ER by a Ca(2+) -induced Ca(2+) release mechanism only in α7-SH cells; (iv) was cytotoxic in rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures; and, lastly, all these effects were prevented by selective blockade of α7-nAChRs, ryanodine receptors, or IP3 receptors. In conclusion, positive allosteric modulation of α7-nAChRs with the PAM II PNU120596 can lead to dysregulation of ER Ca(2+) , overloading of intracellular Ca(2+) , and neuronal cell death. This study focuses on how the type II positive allosteric modulator PNU120596 (PAM II PNU12) affects intracellular Ca(2+) signaling and cell viability. Using SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells overexpressing α7-nAChRs (α7-SH) and their control (C-SH), we find that PAM of α7-nAChRs with PNU120596: (i) increases inward calcium current (ICa ) and cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+) ]cyt ); (ii) releases Ca(2+) from the ER ([Ca(2

  5. Endoplasmic reticulum-resident E3 ubiquitin ligase Hrd1 controls B-cell immunity through degradation of the death receptor CD95/Fas.

    PubMed

    Kong, Sinyi; Yang, Yi; Xu, Yuanming; Wang, Yajun; Zhang, Yusi; Melo-Cardenas, Johanna; Xu, Xiangping; Gao, Beixue; Thorp, Edward B; Zhang, Donna D; Zhang, Bin; Song, Jianxun; Zhang, Kezhong; Zhang, Jianning; Zhang, Jinping; Li, Huabin; Fang, Deyu

    2016-09-13

    Humoral immunity involves multiple checkpoints during B-cell development, maturation, and activation. The cell death receptor CD95/Fas-mediated apoptosis plays a critical role in eliminating the unwanted activation of B cells by self-reactive antigens and in maintaining B-cell homeostasis through activation-induced B-cell death (AICD). The molecular mechanisms controlling AICD remain largely undefined. Herein, we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Hrd1 protected B cells from activation-induced cell death by degrading the death receptor Fas. Hrd1-null B cells exhibited high Fas expression during activation and rapidly underwent Fas-mediated apoptosis, which could be largely inhibited by FasL neutralization. Fas mutation in Hrd1 KO mice abrogated the increase in B-cell AICD. We identified Hrd1 as the first E3 ubiquitin ligase of the death receptor Fas and Hrd1-mediated Fas destruction as a molecular mechanism in regulating B-cell immunity. PMID:27573825

  6. Parthenolide enhances sensitivity of colorectal cancer cells to TRAIL by inducing death receptor 5 and promotes TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Lim; Liu, Yu-Chuan; Park, Young Ran; Seo, Seung Young; Kim, Seong Hun; Kim, In Hee; Lee, Seung Ok; Lee, Soo Teik; Kim, Dae-Ghon; Kim, Sang-Wook

    2015-03-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising cancer therapeutic agent. Recombinant human TRAIL has been evaluated in clinical trials, however, various malignant tumors are resistant to TRAIL. Parthenolide (PT) has recently been demonstrated as a highly effective anticancer agent and has been suggested to be used for combination therapy with other anticancer agents. In this study, we investigate the molecular mechanisms by which PT sensitizes colorectal cancer (CRC) cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. HT-29 (TRAIL-resistant) and HCT116 (TRAIL-sensitive) cells were treated with PT and/or TRAIL. The results demonstrated that combined treatment induced apoptosis which was determined using MTT, cell cycle analysis, Annexin V assay and Hoechst 33258 staining. Interestingly, we confirmed that HCT116 cells have much higher death receptor (DR) 5 than HT-29 cells and PT upregulates DR5 protein level and surface expression in both cell lines. Apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway was confirmed by detecting regulation of Bcl-2 family members, p53 cytochrome C release, and caspase cascades. These results suggest that PT sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis via upregulation of DR5 and mitochondria-dependent pathway. Combination treatment using PT and TRAIL may offer an effective strategy to overcome TRAIL resistance of certain CRC cells. PMID:25502339

  7. Induction of apoptosis by tumor suppressor FHIT via death receptor signaling pathway in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wu-Guo; Nishizaki, Masahiko; Fang, Bingliang; Roth, Jack A; Ji, Lin

    2007-04-20

    FHIT is a novel tumor suppressor gene located at human chromosome 3p14.2. Restoration of wild-type FHIT in 3p14.2-deficient human lung cancer cells inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis. In this study, we analyzed potential upstream/downstream molecular targets of the FHIT protein and found that FHIT specifically targeted and regulated death receptor (DR) genes in human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Exogenous expression of FHIT by a recombinant adenoviral vector (Ad)-mediated gene transfer upregulated expression of DR genes. Treatment with a recombinant TRAIL protein, a DR-specific ligand, in Ad-FHIT-transduced NSCLC cells considerably enhanced FHIT-induced apoptosis, further demonstrating the involvement of DRs in FHIT-induced apoptosis. Moreover, we also found that FHIT targeted downstream of the DR-mediated signaling pathway. FHIT overexpression disrupted mitochondrial membrane integrity and activated multiple pro-apoptotic proteins in NSCLC cell. These results suggest that FHIT induces apoptosis through a sequential activation of DR-mediated pro-apoptotic signaling pathways in human NSCLC cells. PMID:17328863

  8. Gefitinib upregulates death receptor 5 expression to mediate rmhTRAIL-induced apoptosis in Gefitinib-sensitive NSCLC cell line

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Dong; Ge, Yang; Deng, Haiteng; Chen, Wenming; An, Guangyu

    2015-01-01

    Background Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) triggers apoptosis in tumor cells, but when used alone, it is not effective in the treatment of TRAIL-resistant tumors. Some studies have shown that gefitinib interacts with recombinant mutant human TRAIL (rmhTRAIL) to induce high levels of apoptosis in gefitinib-responsive bladder cancer cell lines; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying the anticancer effects are not fully understood. Several reports have shown that the death receptor 5 (DR5) plays an important role in sensitizing cancer cells to apoptosis induced by TRAIL. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the combination of drugs and the expression of the DR5 to analyze the growth of a gefitinib-responsive non-small cell lung cancer cell line PC9, which was treated with rmhTRAIL and gefitinib individually or in combination. Methods Human PC9 non-small cell lung cancer cells harboring an epidermal growth factor receptor mutation were used as a model for the identification of the therapeutic effects of gefitinib alone or in combination with rmhTRAIL, and cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT assays. Cell cycle and apoptosis were investigated using flow cytometry. Moreover, the effects of drugs on DR5, BAX, FLIP, and cleaved-caspase3 proteins expressions were analyzed using Western blot analyses. Finally, quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was carried out to assess whether rmhTRAIL and gefitinib modulate the expression of genes related to drug activity. Results Gefitinib and rmhTRAIL synergistically interact to inhibit cell proliferation, and apoptosis assessment demonstrated that associations of drug increased the apoptotic index. rmhTRAIL when used alone downregulated DR5 and upregulated BAX, FLIP, and cleaved-caspase3 proteins expressions. However, results obtained in Western blot analyses demonstrated that the combined treatment-induced cell apoptosis was achieved involving upregulated DR5, cleaved-caspase3, and

  9. Different Contribution of Redox-Sensitive Transient Receptor Potential Channels to Acetaminophen-Induced Death of Human Hepatoma Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Heba; Kozai, Daisuke; Sakaguchi, Reiko; Numata, Tomohiro; Mori, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is a safe analgesic antipyretic drug at prescribed doses. Its overdose, however, can cause life-threatening liver damage. Though, involvement of oxidative stress is widely acknowledged in APAP-induced hepatocellular death, the mechanism of this increased oxidative stress and the associated alterations in Ca2+ homeostasis are still unclear. Among members of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels activated in response to oxidative stress, we here identify that redox-sensitive TRPV1, TRPC1, TRPM2, and TRPM7 channels underlie Ca2+ entry and downstream cellular damages induced by APAP in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. Our data indicate that APAP treatment of HepG2 cells resulted in increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione (GSH) depletion, and Ca2+ entry leading to increased apoptotic cell death. These responses were significantly suppressed by pretreatment with the ROS scavengers N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzene disulfonic acid disodium salt monohydrate (Tiron), and also by preincubation of cells with the glutathione inducer Dimethylfumarate (DMF). TRP subtype-targeted pharmacological blockers and siRNAs strategy revealed that suppression of either TRPV1, TRPC1, TRPM2, or TRPM7 reduced APAP-induced ROS formation, Ca2+ influx, and cell death; the effects of suppression of TRPV1 or TRPC1, known to be activated by oxidative cysteine modifications, were stronger than those of TRPM2 or TRPM7. Interestingly, TRPV1 and TRPC1 were labeled by the cysteine-selective modification reagent, 5,5′-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid)-2biotin (DTNB-2Bio), and this was attenuated by pretreatment with APAP, suggesting that APAP and/or its oxidized metabolites act directly on the modification target cysteine residues of TRPV1 and TRPC1 proteins. In human liver tissue, TRPV1, TRPC1, TRPM2, and TRPM7 channels transcripts were localized mainly to hepatocytes and Kupffer cells. Our findings strongly suggest that APAP

  10. Araguspongine C induces autophagic death in breast cancer cells through suppression of c-Met and HER2 receptor tyrosine kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Akl, Mohamed R; Ayoub, Nehad M; Ebrahim, Hassan Y; Mohyeldin, Mohamed M; Orabi, Khaled Y; Foudah, Ahmed I; El Sayed, Khalid A

    2015-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases are key regulators of cellular growth and proliferation. Dysregulations of receptor tyrosine kinases in cancer cells may promote tumorigenesis by multiple mechanisms including enhanced cell survival and inhibition of cell death. Araguspongines represent a group of macrocyclic oxaquinolizidine alkaloids isolated from the marine sponge Xestospongia species. This study evaluated the anticancer activity of the known oxaquinolizidine alkaloids araguspongines A, C, K and L, and xestospongin B against breast cancer cells. Araguspongine C inhibited the proliferation of multiple breast cancer cell lines in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, araguspongine C-induced autophagic cell death in HER2-overexpressing BT-474 breast cancer cells was characterized by vacuole formation and upregulation of autophagy markers including LC3A/B, Atg3, Atg7, and Atg16L. Araguspongine C-induced autophagy was associated with suppression of c-Met and HER2 receptor tyrosine kinase activation. Further in-silico docking studies and cell-free Z-LYTE assays indicated the potential of direct interaction between araguspongine C and the receptor tyrosine kinases c-Met and HER2 at their kinase domains. Remarkably, araguspongine C treatment resulted in the suppression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling cascade in breast cancer cells undergoing autophagy. Induction of autophagic death in BT-474 cells was also associated with decreased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor upon treatment with effective concentration of araguspongine C. In conclusion, results of this study are the first to reveal the potential of araguspongine C as an inhibitor to receptor tyrosine kinases resulting in the induction of autophagic cell death in breast cancer cells. PMID:25580621

  11. Programmed cell death

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this conference to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the role programmed cell death plays in normal development and homeostasis of many organisms. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: invertebrate development; immunology/neurology; bcl-2 family; biochemistry; programmed cell death in viruses; oncogenesis; vertebrate development; and diseases.

  12. TRAIL Recombinant Adenovirus Triggers Robust Apoptosis in Multidrug-Resistant HL-60/Vinc Cells Preferentially Through Death Receptor DR5

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ching-Huang; Kao, Ching-Hai

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising cancer therapeutic because of its highly selective apoptosis-inducing action on neoplastic versus normal cells. However, some cancer cells express resistance to recombinant soluble TRAIL. To overcome this problem, we used a TRAIL adenovirus (Ad5/35-TRAIL) to induce apoptosis in a drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant variant of HL-60 leukemia cells and determined the molecular mechanisms of Ad5/35-TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Ad5/35-TRAIL did not induce apoptosis in normal human lymphocytes, but caused massive apoptosis in acute myelocytic leukemia cells. It triggered more efficient apoptosis in drug-resistant HL-60/Vinc cells than in HL-60 cells. Treating the cells with anti-DR4 and anti-DR5 neutralizing antibodies (particularly anti-DR5) reduced, whereas anti-DcR1 antibody enhanced, the apoptosis triggered by Ad5/35-TRAIL. Whereas Ad5/35-TRAIL induced apoptosis in both cell lines through activation of caspase-3 and caspase-10, known to link the cell death receptor pathway to the mitochondrial pathway, it triggered increased mitochondrial membrane potential change (Δψm) only in HL-60/Vinc cells. Ad5/35-TRAIL also increased the production of reactive oxygen species, which play an important role in apoptosis. Therefore, using Ad5/35-TRAIL may be an effective therapeutic strategy for eliminating TRAIL-resistant malignant cells and these studies may provide clues to treat and eradicate acute myelocytic leukemias. PMID:18476767

  13. Characterization of the Interactions between Calmodulin and Death Receptor 5 in Triple-negative and Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer Cells: AN INTEGRATED EXPERIMENTAL AND COMPUTATIONAL STUDY.

    PubMed

    Fancy, Romone M; Wang, Lingyun; Zeng, Qinghua; Wang, Hong; Zhou, Tong; Buchsbaum, Donald J; Song, Yuhua

    2016-06-10

    Activation of death receptor-5 (DR5) leads to the formation of death inducing signaling complex (DISC) for apoptotic signaling. Targeting DR5 to induce breast cancer apoptosis is a promising strategy to circumvent drug resistance and present a target for breast cancer treatment. Calmodulin (CaM) has been shown to regulate DR5-mediated apoptotic signaling, however, its mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we characterized CaM and DR5 interactions in breast cancer cells with integrated experimental and computational approaches. Results show that CaM directly binds to DR5 in a calcium dependent manner in breast cancer cells. The direct interaction of CaM with DR5 is localized at DR5 death domain. We have predicted and verified the CaM-binding site in DR5 being (354)WEPLMRKLGL(363) that is located at the α2 helix and the loop between α2 helix and α3 helix of DR5 DD. The residues of Trp-354, Arg-359, Glu-355, Leu-363, and Glu-367 in DR5 death domain that are important for DR5 recruitment of FADD and caspase-8 for DISC formation to signal apoptosis also play an important role for CaM-DR5 binding. The changed electrostatic potential distribution in the CaM-binding site in DR5 DD by the point mutations of W354A, E355K, R359A, L363N, or E367K in DR5 DD could directly contribute to the experimentally observed decreased CaM-DR5 binding by the point mutations of the key residues in DR5 DD. Results from this study provide a key step for the further investigation of the role of CaM-DR5 binding in DR5-mediated DISC formation for apoptosis in breast cancer cells. PMID:27129269

  14. Identification of an anabolic selective androgen receptor modulator that actively induces death of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Azriel; Meissner, Robert S; Gentile, Michael A; Chisamore, Michael J; Opas, Evan E; Scafonas, Angela; Cusick, Tara E; Gambone, Carlo; Pennypacker, Brenda; Hodor, Paul; Perkins, James J; Bai, Chang; Ferraro, Damien; Bettoun, David J; Wilkinson, Hilary A; Alves, Stephen E; Flores, Osvaldo; Ray, William J

    2014-09-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) initially responds to inhibition of androgen receptor (AR) signaling, but inevitably progresses to hormone ablation-resistant disease. Much effort is focused on optimizing this androgen deprivation strategy by improving hormone depletion and AR antagonism. However we found that bicalutamide, a clinically used antiandrogen, actually resembles a selective AR modulator (SARM), as it partially regulates 24% of endogenously 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-responsive genes in AR(+) MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells. These data suggested that passive blocking of all AR functions is not required for PCa therapy. Hence, we adopted an active strategy that calls for the development of novel SARMs, which induce a unique gene expression profile that is intolerable to PCa cells. Therefore, we screened 3000 SARMs for the ability to arrest the androgen-independent growth of AR(+) 22Rv1 and LNCaP PCa cells but not AR(-) PC3 or DU145 cells. We identified only one such compound; the 4-aza-steroid, MK-4541, a potent and selective SARM. MK-4541 induces caspase-3 activity and cell death in both androgen-independent, AR(+) PCa cell lines but spares AR(-) cells or AR(+) non-PCa cells. This activity correlates with its promoter context- and cell-type dependent transcriptional effects. In rats, MK-4541 inhibits the trophic effects of DHT on the prostate, but not the levator ani muscle, and triggers an anabolic response in the periosteal compartment of bone. Therefore, MK-4541 has the potential to effectively manage prostatic hypertrophic diseases owing to its antitumor SARM-like mechanism, while simultaneously maintaining the anabolic benefits of natural androgens. PMID:24565564

  15. TRAIL death receptors and cancer therapeutics

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Ying Sheikh, M. Saeed

    2007-11-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) also known as Apo2L is an apoptotic molecule that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily of cytokines. It mediates its apoptotic effects via its cognate death receptors including DR4 and DR5. Agonistic monoclonal antibodies have also been developed that selectively activate TRAIL death receptors to mediate apoptosis. Multiple clinically relevant agents also upregulate the expression of TRAIL death receptors, and cooperate with TRAIL as well as DR4 and DR5-specific agonistic antibodies to exhibit tumor cell killing. TRAIL is currently in phase I clinical trials, whereas DR4 and DR5-specific agonistic antibodies have been tested in phase I and II studies. Thus, TRAIL has clearly distinguished itself from the other family members including TNF-alpha and FasL both of which could not make it to the clinic due to their toxic nature. It is therefore, evident that the future of TRAIL-based therapeutic approaches looks brighter.

  16. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent apoptotic cell death induced by the flavonoid chrysin in human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ronnekleiv-Kelly, Sean M; Nukaya, Manabu; Díaz-Díaz, Carol J; Megna, Bryant W; Carney, Patrick R; Geiger, Peter G; Kennedy, Gregory D

    2016-01-01

    The polyphenolic flavone chrysin has been evaluated as a natural chemopreventive agent due to its anti-cancer effects in a variety of cancer cell lines. However, the mechanism of the chemopreventive effect has been not well established, especially in human colorectal cancer cells. We evaluated the chemopreventive effect of chrysin in three different human colorectal cancer cell lines. We found that chrysin treatment consequently reduced cell viability via induction of apoptosis. We identified that the involvement of up-regulation of pro-apoptotic cytokines tumor necrosis factor (Tnf) α and β genes and consequent activation of the TNF-mediated transcriptional pathway in chrysin-induced apoptosis. Using our generated AHR siRNA expressing colorectal cancer cells, we demonstrated that the chrysin-induced up-regulation of Tnfα and β gene expression was dependent on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), which is a ligand-receptor for chrysin. Subsequently, we found that the AHR siRNA expressing colorectal cancer cells were resistant to chrysin-induced apoptosis. Therefore, we concluded that AHR is required for the chrysin-induced apoptosis and the up-regulation of Tnfα and β gene expression in human colorectal cancer cells. PMID:26515162

  17. Differential proton sensitivity of related G protein-coupled receptors T cell death-associated gene 8 and G2A expressed in immune cells.

    PubMed

    Radu, Caius G; Nijagal, Amar; McLaughlin, Jami; Wang, Li; Witte, Owen N

    2005-02-01

    G2A, T cell death-associated gene 8 (TDAG8), ovarian cancer G protein-coupled receptor 1 (OGR1), and G protein-coupled receptor 4 (GPR4) form a group of structurally related G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) originally proposed to bind proinflammatory lipids. More recent studies have challenged the identification of lipid agonists for these GPCRs and have suggested that they function primarily as proton sensors. We compared the ability of these four receptors to modulate pH-dependent responses by using transiently transfected cell lines. In accordance with previously published reports, OGR1 was found to evoke strong pH-dependent responses as measured by inositol phosphate accumulation. We also confirmed the pH-dependent cAMP production by GPR4 and TDAG8. However, we found the activity of the human G2A receptor and its mouse homolog to be significantly less sensitive to pH fluctuations as measured by inositol phosphate and cAMP accumulation. Sequence homology analysis indicated that, with one exception, the histidine residues that were previously shown to be important for pH sensing by OGR1, GPR4, and TDAG8 were not conserved in the G2A receptor. We further addressed the pH-sensing properties of G2A and TDAG8 in a cellular context where these receptors are coexpressed. In thymocytes and splenocytes explanted from receptor-deficient mice, TDAG8 was found to be critical for pH-dependent cAMP production. In contrast, G2A was found to be dispensable for this process. We conclude that members of this GPCR group exhibit differential sensitivity to extracellular protons, and that expression of TDAG8 by immune cells may regulate responses in acidic microenvironments. PMID:15665078

  18. Classification of cell death

    PubMed Central

    Kroemer, G; Galluzzi, L; Vandenabeele, P; Abrams, J; Alnemri, ES; Baehrecke, EH; Blagosklonny, MV; El-Deiry, WS; Golstein, P; Green, DR; Hengartner, M; Knight, RA; Kumar, S; Lipton, SA; Malorni, W; Nuñez, G; Peter, ME; Tschopp, J; Yuan, J; Piacentini, M; Zhivotovsky, B; Melino, G

    2009-01-01

    Different types of cell death are often defined by morphological criteria, without a clear reference to precise biochemical mechanisms. The Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) proposes unified criteria for the definition of cell death and of its different morphologies, while formulating several caveats against the misuse of words and concepts that slow down progress in the area of cell death research. Authors, reviewers and editors of scientific periodicals are invited to abandon expressions like ‘percentage apoptosis’ and to replace them with more accurate descriptions of the biochemical and cellular parameters that are actually measured. Moreover, at the present stage, it should be accepted that caspase-independent mechanisms can cooperate with (or substitute for) caspases in the execution of lethal signaling pathways and that ‘autophagic cell death’ is a type of cell death occurring together with (but not necessarily by) autophagic vacuolization. This study details the 2009 recommendations of the NCCD on the use of cell death-related terminology including ‘entosis’, ‘mitotic catastrophe’, ‘necrosis’, ‘necroptosis’ and ‘pyroptosis’. PMID:18846107

  19. Anti-cancer effect of bee venom toxin and melittin in ovarian cancer cells through induction of death receptors and inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, Miran; Park, Mi Hee; Kollipara, Pushpa Saranya; An, Byeong Jun; Song, Ho Sueb; Han, Sang Bae; Kim, Jang Heub; Song, Min Jong; Hong, Jin Tae

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether bee venom and melittin, a major component of bee venom, inhibit cell growth through enhancement of death receptor expressions in the human ovarian cancer cells, SKOV3 and PA-1. Bee venom (1–5 μg/ml) and melittin (0.5–2 μg/ml) inhibited the growth of SKOV3 and PA-1 ovarian cancer cells by the induction of apoptotic cell death in a dose dependent manner. Consistent with apoptotic cell death, expression of death receptor (DR) 3 and DR6 was increased in both cancer cells, but expression of DR4 was increased only in PA-1 cells. Expression of DR downstream pro-apoptotic proteins including caspase-3, 8, and Bax was concomitantly increased, but the phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 and the expression of Bcl-2 were inhibited by treatment with bee venom and melittin in SKOV3 and PA-1 cells. Expression of cleaved caspase-3 was increased in SKOV3, but cleaved caspase-8 was increased in PA-1 cells. Moreover, deletion of DR3, DR4, and DR6 by small interfering RNA significantly reversed bee venom and melittin-induced cell growth inhibitory effect as well as down regulation of STAT3 by bee venom and melittin in SKOV3 and PA-1 ovarian cancer cell. These results suggest that bee venom and melittin induce apoptotic cell death in ovarian cancer cells through enhancement of DR3, DR4, and DR6 expression and inhibition of STAT3 pathway. -- Highlights: ► Some studies have showed that bee venom and/or melittin have anti-cancer effects. ► We found that bee venom and melittin inhibited cell growth in ovarian cancer cells. ► Bee venom and melittin induce apoptosis in SKOV3 and PA-1.

  20. Ribavirin and alpha interferon enhance death receptor-mediated apoptosis and caspase activation in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Stephan F; Schuler, Markus; Berg, Christoph P; Lauber, Kirsten; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Schmahl, Friedrich Wilhelm; Wesselborg, Sebastian

    2003-06-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical effects of alpha interferon (IFN) and ribavirin are not understood. Elimination of infected cells occurs in part by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) expressing CD95 ligand and thereby attacking target cells which are positive for the death receptor CD95. Since many viruses have evolved mechanisms to inhibit apoptosis, the opposite, namely, promotion of apoptosis, could be a strategy to strengthen the host antiviral response. In the present study, we have asked whether the antiviral substances IFN and ribavirin could support CD95-mediated apoptosis by interfering with the activation of caspases, a family of proteases known for their essential role in apoptosis. HepG2 cells, stimulated with the agonistic anti-CD95 antibody, served as a minimal model to mimic the CD95 stimulation occurring during a CTL attack of target cells in vivo. Apoptosis was quantitated by flow cytometric detection of hypodiploid nuclei. Caspase activity was measured by cytofluorometry, immunocytochemistry, and immunoblot analysis. IFN and ribavirin sensitized HepG2 cells for CD95-mediated apoptosis. This effect was correlated with an increase in CD95-mediated caspase activation and enhanced cleavage of the caspase substrate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Furthermore, the positive effect on CD95-mediated caspase activation by IFN and ribavirin was confirmed by immunocytochemistry for activated caspase-3 and by immunoblot detection of activated caspase-3, caspase-7, and caspase-8. Our data demonstrate that the antiviral substances IFN and ribavirin are able to sensitize for CD95-mediated apoptosis. IFN and ribavirin also enhance CD95-mediated caspase activation, which might in part be responsible for the apoptosis-promoting effect of these antiviral compounds. PMID:12760867

  1. Insulin receptor substrate 1 expression enhances the sensitivity of 32D cells to chemotherapy-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Holly A.; Carey, Gregory B.; Keegan, Achsah D.

    2012-01-01

    The adaptors IRS1 and IRS2 link growth factor receptors to downstream signaling pathways that regulate proliferation and survival. Both suppress factor-withdrawal-induced apoptosis and have been implicated in cancer progression. However, recent studies suggest IRS1 and IRS2 mediate differential functions in cancer pathogenesis. IRS1 promoted breast cancer proliferation, while IRS2 promoted metastasis. The role of IRS1 and IRS2 in controlling cell responses to chemotherapy is unknown. To determine the role of IRS1 and IRS2 in the sensitivity of cells to chemotherapy, we treated 32D cells lacking or expressing IRS proteins with various concentrations of chemotherapeutic agents. We found that expression of IRS1, in contrast to IRS2, enhanced the sensitivity of 32D cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. When IRS2 was expressed with IRS1, the cells no longer showed enhanced sensitivity. Expression of IRS1 did not alter the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins; however, 32D-IRS1 cells expressed higher levels of Annexin A2. In 32D-IRS1 cells, IRS1 and Annexin A2 were both located in cytoplasmic and membrane fractions. We also found that IRS1 coprecipitated with Annexin A2, while IRS2 did not. Decreasing Annexin A2 levels reduced 32D-IRS1 cell sensitivity to chemotherapy. These results suggest IRS1 enhances sensitivity to chemotherapy in part through Annexin A2. PMID:22652453

  2. T lymphocytes bearing the gamma delta T cell receptor are susceptible to steroid-induced programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    Spinozzi, F; Agea, E; Bistoni, O; Travetti, A; Migliorati, G; Moraca, R; Nicoletti, I; Riccardi, C; Paoletti, F P; Vaccaro, R

    1995-05-01

    The mechanisms by which glucocorticoids suppress immune responses have not yet been clearly defined. In steroid-sensitive pathological conditions, an increase in gamma delta T cells can occur in certain untreated systemic autoimmune disorders and seems to be a peristent feature in most cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Our previously published data demonstrated that immunosuppressive therapy normalized this expanded SLE T cell subset in parallel with clinical remission of the symptoms. To establish how corticosteroid treatment determines the disappearance of peripheral blood gamma delta T lymphocytes, circulating alpha beta and gamma delta T lymphocytes from seven SLE subjects with active disease and seven healthy individuals were cultured in the presence or absence of 10(-7) M Dexamethasone (DEX). Cell suspensions were then analysed for DNA fragmentation, characteristic of apoptotic cell death, by a new cytofluorimetric method. Conventional agarose-gel electrophoresis on the same T cell populations was carried out for comparison. Regular follow-ups for 6 months revealed in vivo steroid treatment determined a dramatic fall in SLE blood gamma delta T cells, and in vitro experiments seem to indicate that DEX-triggered apoptotic signals are confined to the double negative (CD4-CD8-) gamma delta T cell subpopulation which disappears after in vivo immunosuppressive therapy. Clinical and pathological remission of some autoimmune diseases is often obtained by corticosteroids. Our results offer new insights on the mechanisms through these hormones exert their potent inhibitory activities on immune system cells postulated to play a role in the generation of autoimmune responses. PMID:7725070

  3. Death receptors as targets for anti-cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Papenfuss, Kerstin; Cordier, Stefanie M; Walczak, Henning

    2008-01-01

    Human tumour cells are characterized by their ability to avoid the normal regulatory mechanisms of cell growth, division and death. The classical chemotherapy aims to kill tumour cells by causing DNA damage-induced apoptosis. However, as many tumour cells posses mutations in intracellular apoptosis-sensing molecules like p53, they are not capable of inducing apoptosis on their own and are therefore resistant to chemotherapy. With the discovery of the death receptors the opportunity arose to directly trigger apoptosis from the outside of tumour cells, thereby circumventing chemotherapeutic resistance. Death receptors belong to the tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily, with tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-1, CD95 and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-R1 and -R2 being the most prominent members. This review covers the current knowledge about these four death receptors, summarizes pre-clinical approaches engaging these death receptors in anti-cancer therapy and also gives an overview about their application in clinical trials conducted to date. PMID:19210756

  4. Insulin receptor substrate 1 expression enhances the sensitivity of 32D cells to chemotherapy-induced cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Holly A.; Carey, Gregory B.; Keegan, Achsah D.

    2012-08-15

    The adapters IRS1 and IRS2 link growth factor receptors to downstream signaling pathways that regulate proliferation and survival. Both suppress factor-withdrawal-induced apoptosis and have been implicated in cancer progression. However, recent studies suggest IRS1 and IRS2 mediate differential functions in cancer pathogenesis. IRS1 promoted breast cancer proliferation, while IRS2 promoted metastasis. The role of IRS1 and IRS2 in controlling cell responses to chemotherapy is unknown. To determine the role of IRS1 and IRS2 in the sensitivity of cells to chemotherapy, we treated 32D cells lacking or expressing IRS proteins with various concentrations of chemotherapeutic agents. We found that expression of IRS1, in contrast to IRS2, enhanced the sensitivity of 32D cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. When IRS2 was expressed with IRS1, the cells no longer showed enhanced sensitivity. Expression of IRS1 did not alter the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins; however, 32D-IRS1 cells expressed higher levels of Annexin A2. In 32D-IRS1 cells, IRS1 and Annexin A2 were both located in cytoplasmic and membrane fractions. We also found that IRS1 coprecipitated with Annexin A2, while IRS2 did not. Decreasing Annexin A2 levels reduced 32D-IRS1 cell sensitivity to chemotherapy. These results suggest IRS1 enhances sensitivity to chemotherapy in part through Annexin A2. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IRS1 enhanced the sensitivity of 32D cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This sensitivity is abrogated by the expression of IRS2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expressing IRS1 in 32D cells increased levels of Annexin A2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both IRS1 and Annexin A2 were located in cytoplasmic and membrane fractions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decreasing Annexin A2 in 32D-IRS1 cells abated their sensitivity to chemotherapy.

  5. Programmed death-1 expression on HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells is shaped by epitope specificity, T-cell receptor clonotype usage and antigen load

    PubMed Central

    Kløverpris, Henrik N.; McGregor, Reuben; McLaren, James E.; Ladell, Kristin; Stryhn, Anette; Koofhethile, Catherine; Brener, Jacqui; Chen, Fabian; Riddell, Lynn; Graziano, Luzzi; Klenerman, Paul; Leslie, Alasdair; Buus, Søren; Price, David A.; Goulder, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Although CD8+ T cells play a critical role in the control of HIV-1 infection, their antiviral efficacy can be limited by antigenic variation and immune exhaustion. The latter phenomenon is characterized by the upregulation of multiple inhibitory receptors, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1), CD244 and lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3), which modulate the functional capabilities of CD8+ T cells. Design and methods: Here, we used an array of different human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B∗15 : 03 and HLA-B∗42 : 01 tetramers to characterize inhibitory receptor expression as a function of differentiation on HIV-1-specific CD8+ T-cell populations (n = 128) spanning 11 different epitope targets. Results: Expression levels of PD-1, but not CD244 or LAG-3, varied substantially across epitope specificities both within and between individuals. Differential expression of PD-1 on T-cell receptor (TCR) clonotypes within individual HIV-1-specific CD8+ T-cell populations was also apparent, independent of clonal dominance hierarchies. Positive correlations were detected between PD-1 expression and plasma viral load, which were reinforced by stratification for epitope sequence stability and dictated by effector memory CD8+ T cells. Conclusion: Collectively, these data suggest that PD-1 expression on HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells tracks antigen load at the level of epitope specificity and TCR clonotype usage. These findings are important because they provide evidence that PD-1 expression levels are influenced by peptide/HLA class I antigen exposure. PMID:24906112

  6. Prostate stem cell antigen is an endogenous lynx1-like prototoxin that antagonizes alpha7 containing nicotinic receptors and prevents programmed cell death of parasympathetic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hruska, Martin; Keefe, Julie; Wert, David; Tekinay, Ayse Begum; Hulce, Jonathan J.; Ibanez-Tallon, Ines; Nishi, Rae

    2010-01-01

    Vertebrate α–bungarotoxin-like molecules of the Ly-6 super family have been implicated as balancers of activity and survival in the adult nervous system. To determine whether a member of this family could be involved in the development of the avian ciliary ganglion, we identified 6 Gallus genes by their homology in structure to mouse lynx1 and lynx2. One of these genes, an ortholog of prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), is barely detectable at embryonic day 8, prior to neuronal cell loss in the ciliary ganglion, but increases over 100-fold as the number of neurons begins to decline between E9 and E14. PSCA is highly expressed in chicken and mouse telencephalon and peripheral ganglia and correlates with expression of α7-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChRs). Misexpressing PSCA prior to cell death in the ciliary ganglion blocks α7-nAChR activation by nicotine and rescues the choroid subpopulation from dying. Thus, PSCA, a molecule previously identified as a marker of prostate cancer, is a member of the Ly-6 neurotoxin-like family in the nervous system, and is likely to play a role as a modulator of α7 signaling induced cell death during development. PMID:19940180

  7. Heterologous production of death ligands' and death receptors' extracellular domains: structural features and efficient systems.

    PubMed

    Muraki, Michiro

    2012-08-01

    The extracellular domains of death ligands and those of death receptors are closely related to many serious human diseases through the initiation of apoptosis. Recombinant production of the extracellular domains has been investigated due to demand for a large amount of purified samples, which are a prerequisite for their biochemical characterization and constitute the fundamentals of medical applications. This review focuses on the recombinant production of extracellular domains of the major members of death ligand and death receptor families using non-mammalian expression systems with an emphasis on Fas ligand and Fas receptor. In contrast to the efficient production of the functional extracellular domains of TRAIL, TNFα and LTα by intracellular expression systems using Escherichia coli or Pichia pastoris, that of Fas ligand requires the secretory expression systems using P. pastoris or Dictyostelium discoideum, and the productivity in P. pastoris was largely dependent on tag sequence, potential N-glycosylation site and expressed protein region. On the other hand, the exploitation of insect cell systems is generally useful for the preparation of functional extracellular domains of death receptors containing many disulfide bridges in the absence of extended secondary structure, and a Bombyx mori larvae secretion system presented a superior productivity for human Fas receptor extracellular domain. Based on the results obtained so far, further efforts should be devoted to the artificial control of death ligand - death receptor interactions in order to make a contribution to medicine, represented by the development of novel biopharmaceuticals. PMID:22762186

  8. Wnt3a mitigates acute lung injury by reducing P2X7 receptor-mediated alveolar epithelial type I cell death

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Y; Mishra, A; Weng, T; Chintagari, N R; Wang, Y; Zhao, C; Huang, C; Liu, L

    2014-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by pulmonary endothelial and epithelial cell damage, and loss of the alveolar–capillary barrier. We have previously shown that P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), a cell death receptor, is specifically expressed in alveolar epithelial type I cells (AEC I). In this study, we hypothesized that P2X7R-mediated purinergic signaling and its interaction with Wnt/β-catenin signaling contributes to AEC I death. We examined the effect of P2X7R agonist 2′-3′-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP (BzATP) and Wnt agonist Wnt3a on AEC I death in vitro and in vivo. We also assessed the therapeutic potential of Wnt3a in a clinically relevant ALI model of intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure in ventilated mice. We found that the activation of P2X7R by BzATP caused the death of AEC I by suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling through stimulating glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and proteasome. On the other hand, the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by Wnt3a, GSK-3β inhibitor, or proteasome inhibitor blocked the P2X7R-mediated cell death. More importantly, Wnt3a attenuated the AEC I damage caused by intratracheal instillation of BzATP in rats or LPS in ventilated mice. Our results suggest that Wnt3a overrides the effect of P2X7R on the Wnt/β-catenin signaling to prevent the AEC I death and restrict the severity of ALI. PMID:24922070

  9. Insights into the mechanism of cell death induced by saporin delivered into cancer cells by an antibody fusion protein targeting the transferrin receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Daniels-Wells, Tracy R; Helguera, Gustavo; Rodríguez, José A; Leoh, Lai Sum; Erb, Michael A; Diamante, Graciel; Casero, David; Pellegrini, Matteo; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Penichet, Manuel L

    2013-02-01

    We previously developed an antibody-avidin fusion protein (ch128.1Av) that targets the human transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and exhibits direct cytotoxicity against malignant B cells in an iron-dependent manner. ch128.1Av is also a delivery system and its conjugation with biotinylated saporin (b-SO6), a plant ribosome-inactivating toxin, results in a dramatic iron-independent cytotoxicity, both in malignant cells that are sensitive or resistant to ch128.1Av alone, in which the toxin effectively inhibits protein synthesis and triggers caspase activation. We have now found that the ch128.1Av/b-SO6 complex induces a transcriptional response consistent with oxidative stress and DNA damage, a response that is not observed with ch128.1Av alone. Furthermore, we show that the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine partially blocks saporin-induced apoptosis suggesting that oxidative stress contributes to DNA damage and ultimately saporin-induced cell death. Interestingly, the toxin was detected in nuclear extracts by immunoblotting, suggesting the possibility that saporin might induce direct DNA damage. However, confocal microscopy did not show a clear and consistent pattern of intranuclear localization. Finally, using the long-term culture-initiating cell assay we found that ch128.1Av/b-SO6 is not toxic to normal human hematopoietic stem cells suggesting that this critical cell population would be preserved in therapeutic interventions using this immunotoxin. PMID:23085102

  10. Tumor necrosis factor alpha and Fas receptor contribute to cognitive deficits independent of cell death after concussive traumatic brain injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Khuman, Jugta; Meehan, William P; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Qiu, Jianhua; Hoffmann, Ulrike; Zhang, Jimmy; Giovannone, Eric; Lo, Eng H; Whalen, Michael J

    2011-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and Fas receptor contribute to cell death and cognitive dysfunction after focal traumatic brain injury (TBI). We examined the role of TNFα/Fas in postinjury functional outcome independent of cell death in a novel closed head injury (CHI) model produced with weight drop and free rotational head movement in the anterior-posterior plane. The CHI produced no cerebral edema or blood-brain barrier damage at 24 to 48 hours, no detectable cell death, occasional axonal injury (24 hours), and no brain atrophy or hippocampal cell loss (day 60). Microglia and astrocytes were activated (48 to 72 hours). Tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA, Fas mRNA, and TNFα protein were increased in the brain at 3 to 6 hours after injury (P<0.001 versus sham injured). In wild-type (WT) mice, CHI produced hidden platform (P=0.009) and probe deficits (P=0.001) in the Morris water maze versus sham. Surprisingly, injured TNFα/Fas knockout (KO) mice performed worse in hidden platform trials (P=0.036) but better in probe trials than did WT mice (P=0.0001). Administration of recombinant TNFα to injured TNFα/Fas KO mice reduced probe trial performance to that of WT. Thus, TNFα/Fas influence cognitive deficits independent of cell death after CHI. Therapies targeting TNFα/Fas together may be inappropriate for patients with concussive TBI. PMID:20940727

  11. Bakuchiol sensitizes cancer cells to TRAIL through ROS- and JNK-mediated upregulation of death receptors and downregulation of survival proteins.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi Hee; Kim, Jong Han; Chung, Young-Ho; Lee, Seung Ho

    2016-04-29

    We investigated whether bakuchiol, an analog of resveratrol enhances the apoptosis ability of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in cancer cells. Bakuchiol enhanced expression of cell death receptor (DR) in TRAIL-sensitive and -resistant colon cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. A combination of bakuchiol with TRAIL significantly inhibited cell growth of TRAIL sensitive HCT116 and TRAIL resistant HT-29 cells. The expression of TRAIL receptors; DR4 and DR5 was significantly increased by treatment of bakuchiol, however, the expression of survival proteins (e.g., cFLIP, survivin, XIAP and Bcl2) was suppressed. Moreover, the expression of apoptosis related proteins such as cleaved caspase-3, -8, -9 and PARP was increased by combination treatment of bakuchiol and TRAIL. Depletion of DR4 or DR5 by small interfering RNA significantly reversed the cell growth inhibitory effects of bakuchiol in HCT116 and HT-29 cells. Pretreatment with the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125 and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-acetylcysteine reduced the bakuchiol induced cell growth inhibitory effects. The collective results suggest that bakuchiol facilitates TRAIL-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells through up-regulation of the TRAIL receptors; DR4 and DR5 via ROS/JNK pathway signals. PMID:27033605

  12. An anthraquinone derivative, emodin sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cells to TRAIL induced apoptosis through the induction of death receptors and downregulation of cell survival proteins.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Aruljothi; Loo, Ser Yue; Rajendran, Peramaiyan; Manu, Kanjoormana A; Perumal, Ekambaram; Li, Feng; Shanmugam, Muthu K; Siveen, Kodappully Sivaraman; Park, Joo-In; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Hui, Kam M; Kumar, Alan P; Sethi, Gautam

    2013-10-01

    Recombinant tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is currently under clinical trials for cancer, however many tumor cells, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develop resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Hence, novel agents that can alleviate TRAIL-induced resistance are urgently needed. In the present report, we investigated the potential of emodin to enhance apoptosis induced by TRAIL in HCC cells. As observed by MTT cytotoxicity assay and the externalization of the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylserine, we found that emodin can significantly potentiate TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HCC cells. When investigated for the mechanism(s), we observed that emodin can downregulate the expression of various cell survival proteins, and induce the cell surface expression of both TRAIL receptors, death receptors (DR) 4 as well as 5. In addition, emodin increased the expression of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) in a time-dependent manner. Knockdown of CHOP by siRNA decreased the induction of emodin-induced DR5 expression and apoptosis. Emodin-induced induction of DR5 was mediated through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as N-acetylcysteine blocked the induction of DR5 and the induction of apoptosis. Also, the knockdown of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein by siRNA significantly reduced the sensitization effect of emodin on TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Overall, our experimental results clearly indicate that emodin can indeed potentiate TRAIL-induced apoptosis through the downregulation of antiapoptotic proteins, increased expression of apoptotic proteins, and ROS mediated upregulation of DR in HCC cells. PMID:23700228

  13. Identification of T cell death-associated gene 8 (TDAG8) as a novel acid sensing G-protein-coupled receptor.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Satoshi; Kihara, Yasuyuki; Shimizu, Takao

    2005-03-11

    T cell death-associated gene 8 (TDAG8) is a G-protein-coupled receptor mainly expressed in lymphoid organs and cancer tissues. TDAG8 shares high amino acid sequence homologies with recently reported proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptors, G2A, OGR1, and GPR4. Here we have identified TDAG8 as a novel proton-sensing receptor. Upon acid stimulation, stably expressed TDAG8 was internalized from the plasma membrane. As a signaling pathway downstream of TDAG8, accumulation of cyclic AMP was observed in response to solutions with a pH value lower than 7.2. Furthermore, RhoA activation and actin rearrangement were elicited by acid-stimulated TDAG8. These results suggest that TDAG8 may play biological roles in immune response and cellular transformation under conditions accompanying tissue acidosis. PMID:15618224

  14. Motor neuron cell death in wobbler mutant mice follows overexpression of the G-protein-coupled, protease-activated receptor for thrombin.

    PubMed Central

    Festoff, B. W.; D'Andrea, M. R.; Citron, B. A.; Salcedo, R. M.; Smirnova, I. V.; Andrade-Gordon, P.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration are actively sought for new therapeutic strategies. Transgenic, knockout and genetic mouse models greatly aid our understanding of the mechanisms for neuronal cell death. A naturally occurring, autosomal recessive mutant, known as wobbler, and mice transgenic for familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) superoxide dismutase (SOD)1 mutations are available, but the molecular mechanisms remain equally unknown. Both phenotypes are detectable after birth. Wobbler is detectable in the third week of life, when homozygotes (wr/wr) exhibit prominent gliosis and significant motor neuron loss in the cervical, but not in lumbar, spinal cord segments. To address molecular mechanisms, we evaluated "death signals" associated with the multifunctional serine protease, thrombin, which leads to apoptotic motor neuronal cell death in culture by cleavage of a G-protein coupled, protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thrombin activities were determined with chromogenic substrate assays, Western immunoblots and immunohistochemistry were performed with anti-PAR-1 to observe localizations of the receptor and anti-GFAP staining was used to monitor astrocytosis. PAR-1 mRNA levels and locations were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and in situ hybridizations. Cell death was monitored with in situ DNA fragmentation assays. RESULTS: In preliminary studies we found a 5-fold increase in PAR-1 mRNA in cervical spinal cords from wr/wr, compared with wild-type (wt) littermates. Our current studies suggested that reactive astrocytosis and motor neuron cell death were causally linked with alterations in thrombin signaling. PAR-1 protein expression was increased, as demonstrated by immunocytochemistry and confirmed with in situ hybridization, in phenotypic wr/wr motor neurons, compared with wt, but not in astrocytes. This increase was much greater in cervical, compared with lumbar

  15. H-Ras regulation of TRAIL death receptor mediated apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun-Jie; Bozza, William P.; Di, Xu; Zhang, Yaqin; Hallett, William; Zhang, Baolin

    2014-01-01

    TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis through the death receptors (DRs) 4 and/or 5 expressed on the cell surface. Multiple clinical trials are underway to evaluate the antitumor activity of recombinant human TRAIL and agonistic antibodies to DR4 or DR5. However, their therapeutic potential is limited by the high frequency of cancer resistance. Here we provide evidence demonstrating the role of H-Ras in TRAIL receptor mediated apoptosis. By analyzing the genome wide mRNA expression data of the NCI60 cancer cell lines, we found that H-Ras expression was consistently upregulated in TRAIL-resistant cell lines. By contrast, no correlation was found between TRAIL sensitivity and K-Ras expression levels or their mutational profiles. Notably, H-Ras upregulation associated with a surface deficiency of TRAIL death receptors. Selective inhibition of H-Ras activity in TRAIL-resistant cells restored the surface expression of both DR4 and DR5 without changing their total protein levels. The resulting cells became highly susceptible to both TRAIL and agonistic DR5 antibody, whereas K-Ras inhibition had little or no effect on TRAIL-induced apoptosis, indicating H-Ras plays a distinct role in the regulation of TRAIL death receptors. Further studies are warranted to determine the therapeutic potential of H-Ras-specific inhibitors in combination with TRAIL receptor agonists. PMID:25026275

  16. Parthenolide induces apoptosis by activating the mitochondrial and death receptor pathways and inhibits FAK-mediated cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Sang Won; Park, Eon Sub; Lee, Chung Soo

    2014-01-01

    The natural product parthenolide induces apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the mechanism of apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells exposed to parthenolide is not clear. In addition, it is unclear whether parthenolide-induced apoptosis is mediated by the formation of reactive oxygen species and the depletion of GSH contents, and the effect of parthenolide on the invasion and migration of human epithelial ovarian cancer cells has not been studied. Therefore, we investigated the effects of parthenolide exposure on apoptosis, cell adhesion, and migration using the human epithelial ovarian carcinoma cell lines OVCAR-3 and SK-OV-3. The results suggest that parthenolide may induce apoptotic cell death in ovarian carcinoma cell lines by activating the mitochondrial pathway and the caspase-8- and Bid-dependent pathways. The apoptotic effect of parthenolide appears to be mediated by the formation of reactive oxygen species and the depletion of GSH. Parthenolide inhibited fetal bovine serum-induced cell adhesion and migration of OVCAR-3 cells, possibly through the suppression the focal adhesion kinase-dependent activation of cytoskeletal-associated components. Therefore, parthenolide might be beneficial in the treatment of epithelial ovarian adenocarcinoma and combination therapy. PMID:24065392

  17. Snake venom toxin from Vipera lebetina turanica sensitizes cancer cells to TRAIL through ROS- and JNK-mediated upregulation of death receptors and downregulation of survival proteins.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi Hee; Jo, Miran; Won, Dohee; Song, Ho Sueb; Song, Min Jong; Hong, Jin Tae

    2012-12-01

    We investigated whether snake venom toxin (SVT) from Vipera lebetina turanica enhances the apoptosis ability of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in cancer cells. TRAIL inhibited HCT116 cell growth in a dose-dependent manner; however, this reduction did not occur in TRAIL resistant HT-29, A549 and HepG2 cells with an even higher dose of TRAIL. SVT, but not TRAIL enhanced expression of cell death receptor (DR) in TRAIL resistant cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. A combination of SVT with TRAIL significantly inhibited cell growth of TRAIL resistant HT-29, A549 and HepG2 cells. Consistent with cell growth inhibition, the expression of TRAIL receptors; DR4 and DR5 was significantly increased as well as apoptosis related proteins such as cleaved caspase-3, -8, -9 and Bax. However, the expression of survival proteins (e.g., cFLIP, survivin, XIAP and Bcl2) was suppressed by the combination treatment of SVT and TRAIL. Depletion of DR4 or DR5 by small interfering RNA significantly reversed the cell growth inhibitory and apoptosis blocking effects of SVT in HCT116 and HT-29 cells. Pretreatment with the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125 and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-acetylcysteine reduced the SVT and TRAIL-induced upregulation of DR4 and DR5 expression, expression of the apoptosis related protein such as caspase-3 and-9, as well as cell growth inhibitory effects. The collective results suggest that SVT facilitates TRAIL-induced apoptosis in cancer cells through up-regulation of the TRAIL receptors; DR4 and DR5 via ROS/JNK pathway signals. PMID:23007278

  18. Bleomycin induced sensitivity to TRAIL/Apo-2L-mediated apoptosis in human seminomatous testicular cancer cells is correlated with upregulation of death receptors.

    PubMed

    Timur, Mujgan; Cort, Aysegul; Ozdemir, Evrim; Sarikcioglu, Sureyya Bilmen; Sanlioglu, Salih; Sanlioglu, Ahter Dilsad; Ozben, Tomris

    2015-01-01

    The most common solid tumor is testicular cancer among young men. Bleomycin is an antitumor antibiotic used for the therapy of testicular cancer. TRAIL is a proapoptotic cytokine that qualified as an apoptosis inducer in cancer cells. Killing cancer cells selectively via apoptosis induction is an encouraging therapeutic strategy in clinical settings. Combination of TRAIL with chemotherapeutics has been reported to enhance TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of different kinds of cancer cell lines. The molecular ground for sensitization of tumour cells to TRAIL by chemotherapeutics might involve upregulation of TRAIL-R1 (TR/1, DR4) and/or TRAIL-R2 (TR/2, DR5) receptors or activation of proapoptotic proteins including caspases. The curative potential of TRAIL to eradicate cancer cells selectively in testicular cancer has not been studied before. In this study, we investigated apoptotic effects of bleomycin, TRAIL, and their combined application in NTera-2 and NCCIT testicular cancer cell lines. We measured caspase 3 levels as an apoptosis indicator, and TRAIL receptor expressions using flow cytometry. Both NTera-2 and NCCIT cells were fairly resistant to TRAIL's apoptotic effect. Incubation of bleomycin alone caused a significant increase in caspase 3 activity in NCCIT. Combined incubation with bleomycin and TRAIL lead to elevated caspase 3 activity in Ntera-2. Exposure to 72 h of bleomycin increased TR/1, TR/2, and TR/3 cell-surface expressions in NTera-2. Elevation in TR/1 cell-surface expression was evident only at 24 h of bleomycin application in NCCIT. It can be concluded that TRAIL death receptor expressions in particular are increased in testicular cancer cells via bleomycin treatment, and TRAIL-induced apoptosis is initiated. PMID:25173558

  19. Human papilloma virus 16 E6 RNA interference enhances cisplatin and death receptor-mediated apoptosis in human cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shinta; Hougardy, Brigitte M T; Meersma, Gert J; Schaap, Bessel; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; van der Zee, Ate G J; de Jong, Steven

    2012-05-01

    In cervical cancer, the p53 and retinoblastoma (pRb) tumor suppressor pathways are disrupted by the human papilloma virus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncoproteins, because E6 targets p53 and E7 targets pRb for rapid proteasome-mediated degradation. We have investigated whether E6 suppression with small interfering RNA (siRNA) restores p53 functionality and sensitizes the HPV16-positive cervical cancer cell line SiHa to apoptosis by cisplatin, irradiation, recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (rhTRAIL), or agonistic anti-Fas antibody. E6 siRNA resulted in decreased E6 mRNA levels and enhanced p53 and p21 expression, demonstrating the restoration of p53 functionality in SiHa cells, without inducing high levels of apoptosis (<10%). Cell surface expression of the proapoptotic death receptors (DRs) DR4, DR5, and Fas was not affected by E6 suppression. E6 suppression conferred susceptibility to cisplatin-induced apoptosis but not to irradiation-, rhTRAIL-, or anti-Fas antibody-induced apoptosis. Combining cisplatin with rhTRAIL or anti-Fas antibody induced even higher apoptosis levels in E6-suppressed cells. At the molecular level, cisplatin treatment resulted in elevated p53 levels, enhanced caspase-3 activation, and reduced p21 levels in E6-suppressed cells. Cisplatin in combination with death receptor ligands enhanced caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation and reduced X-linked inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein (XIAP) levels in these cells. We showed using siRNA that the enhanced apoptosis in E6-supressed cells was related to reduced XIAP levels and not due to reduced p21 levels. In conclusion, targeting E6 or XIAP in combination with cisplatin can efficiently potentiate rhTRAIL-induced apoptosis in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells. PMID:22328720

  20. A potential role for the acid-sensing T cell death associated gene-8 (TDAG8) receptor in depression-like behavior.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Lauren Larke; Schmeltzer, Sarah N; Ahlbrand, Rebecca; Sah, Renu

    2015-10-15

    Inflammation has been suggested to contribute to the pathophysiology of depression. The T cell death associated gene-8 (TDAG8) receptor is a proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) expressed on immune cells in both the CNS and periphery. Previous work has shown modulation of inflammation by the TDAG8 receptor, with pro-inflammatory responses reported in the central nervous system (CNS). Given the link between depression and inflammation, the aim of the present study was to investigate the role of TDAG8 in depression relevant behaviors. Mice deficient in TDAG8 (TDAG8(-/-)) were tested in the forced swim test (FST) and sucrose preference paradigm. TDAG8 deficiency resulted in significant attenuation of immobility in the FST as compared to wild type TDAG8 (TDAG8(+/+)) mice. These differences were not due to alterations in motor activity evoked by TDAG8 deficiency as TDAG8(+/+) and TDAG8(-/-) mice displayed similar activity in the home cage or in a novel context. TDAG8(-/-) mice showed significantly higher consumption of sucrose compared to wild type mice although sucrose preference was not significantly different between genotypes. Collectively, our results support the involvement of the TDAG8 receptor in behavioral response relevant to depression. Further investigation is required to validate TDAG8 as a novel target linking inflammation and depression. PMID:25770699

  1. The G protein-coupled receptor T-cell death-associated gene 8 (TDAG8) facilitates tumor development by serving as an extracellular pH sensor.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Yuichiro; Kihara, Yasuyuki; Hamano, Fumie; Yanagida, Keisuke; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Kunita, Akiko; Yamori, Takao; Fukayama, Masashi; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Takao; Ishii, Satoshi

    2010-10-01

    Tumors often are associated with a low extracellular pH, which induces a variety of cellular events. However, the mechanisms by which tumor cells recognize and react to the acidic environment have not been fully elucidated. T-cell death-associated gene 8 (TDAG8) is an extracellular pH-sensing G protein-coupled receptor that is overexpressed in various tumors and tumor cell lines. In this report, we show that TDAG8 on the surface of tumor cells facilitates tumor development by sensing the acidic environment. Overexpression of TDAG8 in mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells enhanced tumor development in animal models and rendered LLC cells resistant to acidic culture conditions by increasing activation of protein kinase A and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in vitro. Moreover, shRNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous TDAG8 in NCI-H460 human non-small cell lung cancer cells reduced cell survival in an acidic environment in vitro as well as tumor development in vivo. Microarray analyses of tumor-containing lung tissues of mice injected with TDAG8-expressing LLC cells revealed up-regulation of genes related to cell growth and glycolysis. These results support the hypothesis that TDAG8 enhances tumor development by promoting adaptation to the acidic environment to enhance cell survival/proliferation. TDAG8 may represent a therapeutic target for arresting tumor growth. PMID:20855608

  2. RIPK1 and RIPK3 Kinases Promote Cell-Death-Independent Inflammation by Toll-like Receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Najjar, Malek; Saleh, Danish; Zelic, Matija; Nogusa, Shoko; Shah, Saumil; Tai, Albert; Finger, Joshua N; Polykratis, Apostolos; Gough, Peter J; Bertin, John; Whalen, Michael J; Pasparakis, Manolis; Balachandran, Siddharth; Kelliher, Michelle; Poltorak, Alexander; Degterev, Alexei

    2016-07-19

    Macrophages are a crucial component of the innate immune system in sensing pathogens and promoting local and systemic inflammation. RIPK1 and RIPK3 are homologous kinases, previously linked to activation of necroptotic death. In this study, we have described roles for these kinases as master regulators of pro-inflammatory gene expression induced by lipopolysaccharide, independent of their well-documented cell death functions. In primary macrophages, this regulation was elicited in the absence of caspase-8 activity, required the adaptor molecule TRIF, and proceeded in a cell autonomous manner. RIPK1 and RIPK3 kinases promoted sustained activation of Erk, cFos, and NF-κB, which were required for inflammatory changes. Utilizing genetic and pharmacologic tools, we showed that RIPK1 and RIPK3 account for acute inflammatory responses induced by lipopolysaccharide in vivo; notably, this regulation did not require exogenous manipulation of caspases. These findings identified a new pharmacologically accessible pathway that may be relevant to inflammatory pathologies. PMID:27396959

  3. The type 1 Interleukin 1 receptor is not required for the death of murine hippocampal dentate granule cells and microglia activation

    PubMed Central

    Harry, G. Jean; Funk, Jason; Lefebvre d’Hellencourt, Christian; Aoyama, Mineyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Alterations in the inflammatory process, neuronal death, and glia response have been observed under manipulation of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) cytokine and subsequent signaling through the type 1 IL-1 receptor (IL-1R1). To investigate the influence of IL-1R1 activation in the pathophysiology of a chemical-induced injury to the murine hippocampus, we examined the level and pattern of neuronal death and neuroinflammation in 25-day-old male mice exposed to trimethyltin hydroxide (2.0 mg/kg, i.p.). In IL-1R1 null (IL-1R1−/−) mice, the pattern and severity of dentate granule cell death was similar as compared to wild type mice. In both groups of mice, mRNA levels for TNFα and MIP-1α were elevated and the early activation of microglia, including their ability to progress to a phagocytic phenotype, was maintained. Compared to WT mice, IL-1R1−/− mice displayed a limited glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) astrocytic response, as well as a preferential induction in mRNA levels of Fas signaling components. Cumulatively, these results indicate that IL-1R1 activation is not necessary for TMT-induced death of dentate granule neurons or local activation of microglia; however, IL-1R1 signaling is involved in mediating the structural response of astrocytes to injury and may also regulate apoptotic mechanisms by influencing Fas signaling components. PMID:18191113

  4. Soluble VEGF receptor 1 (sFLT1) induces non-apoptotic death in ovarian and colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Miyake, Tatsuya; Kumasawa, Keiichi; Sato, Noriko; Takiuchi, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Hitomi; Kimura, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Soluble Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 1 (sVEGFR1/sFLT1) is an angiogenesis inhibitor that competes with angiogenic factors such as VEGF and Placental Growth Factor (PlGF). Imbalances of VEGF and sFLT1 levels can cause pathological conditions such as tumour growth or preeclampsia. We observed direct damage caused by sFLT1 in tumour cells. We exposed several kinds of cells derived from ovarian and colorectal cancers as well as HEK293T cells to sFLT1 in two ways, transfection and exogenous application. The cell morphology and an LDH assay revealed cytotoxicity. Additional experiments were performed to clarify how sFLT1 injured cells. In this study, non-apoptotic cell damage was found to be induced by sFLT1. Moreover, sFLT1 showed an anti-tumour effect in a mouse model of ovarian cancer. Our results suggest that sFLT1 has potential as a cancer therapeutic candidate. PMID:27103202

  5. Apolipoprotein E receptor-2 deficiency enhances macrophage susceptibility to lipid accumulation and cell death to augment atherosclerotic plaque progression and necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Waltmann, Meaghan D.; Basford, Joshua E.; Konaniah, Eddy S.; Weintraub, Neal L.; Hui, David Y.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have linked LRP8 polymorphisms to premature coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction in humans. However, the mechanisms by which dysfunctions of apolipoprotein E receptor-2 (apoER2), the protein encoded by LRP8 gene, influence atherosclerosis have not been elucidated completely. The current study focused on the role of apoER2 in macrophages, a cell type that plays an important role in atherosclerosis. Results showed that apoER2-deficient mouse macrophages accumulated more lipids and were more susceptible to oxidized LDL (oxLDL)-induced death compared to control cells. Consistent with these findings, apoER2 deficient macrophages also displayed defective serum-induced Akt activation and higher levels of the pro-apoptotic protein phosphorylated p53. Furthermore, the expression and activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) was increased in apoER2-deficient macrophages. Deficiency of apoER2 in hypercholesterolemic LDL receptor-null mice (Lrp8−/−Ldlr−/− mice) also resulted in accelerated atherosclerosis with more complex lesions and extensive lesion necrosis compared to Lrp8+/+Ldlr−/− mice. The atherosclerotic plaques of Lrp8−/−Ldlr−/− mice displayed significantly higher levels of p53-positive macrophages, indicating that the apoER2-deficient macrophages contribute to the accelerated atherosclerotic lesion necrosis observed in these animals. Taken together, this study indicates that apoER2 in macrophages limits PPARγ expression and protects against oxLDL-induced cell death. Thus, abnormal apoER2 functions in macrophages may at least in part contribute to the premature coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction in humans with LRP8 polymorphisms. Moreover, the elevated PPARγ expression in apoER2-deficient macrophages suggests that LRP8 polymorphism may be a genetic modifier of cardiovascular risk with PPARγ therapy. PMID:24840660

  6. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1P2) attenuates reactive oxygen species formation and inhibits cell death: implications for otoprotective therapy

    PubMed Central

    Herr, Deron R.; Reolo, Marie J. Y.; Peh, Yee Xin; Wang, Wei; Lee, Chang-Wook; Rivera, Rich; Paterson, Ian C.; Chun, Jerold

    2016-01-01

    Ototoxic drugs, such as platinum-based chemotherapeutics, often lead to permanent hearing loss through apoptosis of neuroepithelial hair cells and afferent neurons of the cochlea. There is no approved therapy for preventing or reversing this process. Our previous studies identified a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), S1P2, as a potential mediator of otoprotection. We therefore sought to identify a pharmacological approach to prevent cochlear degeneration via activation of S1P2. The cochleae of S1pr2−/− knockout mice were evaluated for accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) assay. This showed that loss of S1P2 results in accumulation of ROS that precedes progressive cochlear degeneration as previously reported. These findings were supported by in vitro cell-based assays to evaluate cell viability, induction of apoptosis, and accumulation of ROS following activation of S1P2 in the presence of cisplatin. We show for the first time, that activation of S1P2 with a selective receptor agonist increases cell viability and reduces cisplatin-mediated cell death by reducing ROS. Cumulatively, these results suggest that S1P2 may serve as a therapeutic target for attenuating cisplatin-mediated ototoxicity. PMID:27080739

  7. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1P2) attenuates reactive oxygen species formation and inhibits cell death: implications for otoprotective therapy.

    PubMed

    Herr, Deron R; Reolo, Marie J Y; Peh, Yee Xin; Wang, Wei; Lee, Chang-Wook; Rivera, Rich; Paterson, Ian C; Chun, Jerold

    2016-01-01

    Ototoxic drugs, such as platinum-based chemotherapeutics, often lead to permanent hearing loss through apoptosis of neuroepithelial hair cells and afferent neurons of the cochlea. There is no approved therapy for preventing or reversing this process. Our previous studies identified a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), S1P2, as a potential mediator of otoprotection. We therefore sought to identify a pharmacological approach to prevent cochlear degeneration via activation of S1P2. The cochleae of S1pr2(-/-) knockout mice were evaluated for accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) assay. This showed that loss of S1P2 results in accumulation of ROS that precedes progressive cochlear degeneration as previously reported. These findings were supported by in vitro cell-based assays to evaluate cell viability, induction of apoptosis, and accumulation of ROS following activation of S1P2 in the presence of cisplatin. We show for the first time, that activation of S1P2 with a selective receptor agonist increases cell viability and reduces cisplatin-mediated cell death by reducing ROS. Cumulatively, these results suggest that S1P2 may serve as a therapeutic target for attenuating cisplatin-mediated ototoxicity. PMID:27080739

  8. Cell death in mammalian development.

    PubMed

    Penaloza, C; Orlanski, S; Ye, Y; Entezari-Zaher, T; Javdan, M; Zakeri, Z

    2008-01-01

    During embryogenesis there is an exquisite orchestration of cellular division, movement, differentiation, and death. Cell death is one of the most important aspects of organization of the developing embryo, as alteration in timing, level, or pattern of cell death can lead to developmental anomalies. Cell death shapes the embryo and defines the eventual functions of the organs. Cells die using different paths; understanding which path a dying cell takes helps us define the signals that regulate the fate of the cell. Our understanding of cell death in development stems from a number of observations indicating genetic regulation of the death process. With today's increased knowledge of the pathways of cell death and the identification of the genes whose products regulate the pathways we know that, although elimination of some of these gene products has no developmental phenotype, alteration of several others has profound effects. In this review we discuss the types and distributions of cell death seen in developing mammalian embryos as well as the gene products that may regulate the process. PMID:18220829

  9. Zinc Sensing Receptor Signaling, Mediated by GPR39, Reduces Butyrate-Induced Cell Death in HT29 Colonocytes via Upregulation of Clusterin

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Limor; Azriel-Tamir, Hagit; Arotsker, Natan; Sekler, Israel; Hershfinkel, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Zinc enhances epithelial proliferation, protects the digestive epithelial layer and has profound antiulcerative and antidiarrheal roles in the colon. Despite the clinical significance of this ion, the mechanisms linking zinc to these cellular processes are poorly understood. We have previously identified an extracellular Zn2+ sensing G-protein coupled receptor (ZnR) that activates Ca2+ signaling in colonocytes, but its molecular identity as well as its effects on colonocytes' survival remained elusive. Here, we show that Zn2+, by activation of the ZnR, protects HT29 colonocytes from butyrate induced cell death. Silencing of the G-protein coupled receptor GPR39 expression abolished ZnR-dependent Ca2+ release and Zn2+-dependent survival of butyrate-treated colonocytes. Importantly, GPR39 also mediated ZnR-dependent upregulation of Na+/H+ exchange activity as this activity was found in native colon tissue but not in tissue obtained from GPR39 knock-out mice. Although ZnR-dependent upregulation of Na+/H+ exchange reduced the cellular acid load induced by butyrate, it did not rescue HT29 cells from butyrate induced cell death. ZnR/GPR39 activation however, increased the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein clusterin in butyrate-treated cells. Furthermore, silencing of clusterin abolished the Zn2+-dependent survival of HT29 cells. Altogether, our results demonstrate that extracellular Zn2+, acting through ZnR, regulates intracellular pH and clusterin expression thereby enhancing survival of HT29 colonocytes. Moreover, we identify GPR39 as the molecular moiety of ZnR in HT29 and native colonocytes. PMID:22545109

  10. Death receptor-3, a new E-Selectin counter-receptor that confers migration and survival advantages to colon carcinoma cells by triggering p38 and ERK MAPK activation.

    PubMed

    Gout, Stéphanie; Morin, Chantale; Houle, François; Huot, Jacques

    2006-09-15

    E-selectin-mediated adhesion of colon cancer cells to endothelial cells is a key event in metastasis. However, the signaling mechanisms that confer metastatic advantages to cancer cells adhering to E-selectin are ill defined. By using affinity column chromatography and pull-down assays on purified membrane extracts of HT29 and LoVo cells coupled to mass spectrometry analysis, we obtained the first evidence indicating that E-selectin binds to death receptor-3 (DR3) expressed by the cancer cells. Thereafter, we accumulated several results, suggesting that DR3 is an E-selectin receptor on colon cancer cells and that its activation by E-selectin triggers the activation of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and confers migration and survival advantages. First, by Western blotting, we found that the E-selectin-binding protein, identified as DR3, is recognized by two anti-DR3 antibodies. Second, the neutralization of DR3 with an antibody and its knockdown by small interfering RNA decrease the adhesion of colon cancer cells to E-selectin and E-selectin-expressing human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Third, inhibiting DR3 and knocking down its expression impair transendothelial migration of HT29 cells and block the activation of p38 and ERK by E-selectin. Fourth, high molecular weight isoforms of DR3 are expressed in samples of primary human colon carcinoma but not in samples from normal colon tissue. Intriguingly, DR3 is a death receptor but its activation by E-selectin does not induce apoptosis in colon cancer cells, except when ERK is inhibited. Our findings identify novel signaling and functional roles of DR3 activated in response to E-selectin and highlight the potential link between DR3 and metastasis. PMID:16982754

  11. Mucin 1 gene silencing inhibits the growth of SMMC-7721 human hepatoma cells through Bax-mediated mitochondrial and caspase-8-mediated death receptor apoptotic pathways

    PubMed Central

    YUAN, HONGYAN; WANG, JUAN; WANG, FENGLI; ZHANG, NANNAN; LI, QIONGSHU; XIE, FEI; CHEN, TANXIU; ZHAI, RUIPING; WANG, FANG; GUO, YINGYING; NI, WEIHUA; TAI, GUIXIANG

    2015-01-01

    Mucin 1 (MUC1) is an oncogene that has a crucial role in the pathogenesis and progression of the majority of epithelial malignant tumors. Our previous study demonstrated that MUC1 gene silencing inhibited the growth of SMMC-7721 cells in vitro and in vivo, however, whether this growth inhibition is associated with apoptotic cell death remains to be elucidated. In the present study, it was found that MUC1 gene silencing not only resulted in the inhibition of SMMC-7721 cell growth, determined using a clone formation assay in vitro and a tumor xenograft mouse model with an in vivo imaging system, but also induced apoptotic alterations in SMMC-7721 cells, determined using Hoechst 33342 staining, flow cytometry with an Annexin V-PE staining and a DNA ladder assay. Further investigation using western blotting revealed that cytochrome c was released from the mitochondria into the cytoplasm, and caspase-8 and caspase-9 were activated in MUC1 gene-silenced SMMC-7721 cells. The pro-apoptotic protein Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and the tumor suppressor p53 were increased, while the anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2 was decreased in MUC1 gene-silenced cells. In addition, results from the co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that the MUC1 cytoplasmic tail can bind directly to Bax or caspase-8 and these interactions were reduced upon MUC1 gene silencing in SMMC-7721 cells. The above results indicate that MUC1 gene silencing induces growth inhibition in SMMC-7721 cells through Bax-mediated mitochondrial and caspase-8-mediated death receptor apoptotic pathways. PMID:26398332

  12. Overcoming resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis in solid tumor cells by simultaneously targeting death receptors, c-FLIP and IAPs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Yang, Xiang; Xu, Tianrui; Kong, Qinghong; Zhang, Yaping; Shen, Yuehai; Wei, Yunlin; Wang, Guanlin; Chang, Kwen-Jen

    2016-07-01

    The discovery of the TRAIL protein and its death receptors DR4/5 changed the horizon of cancer research because TRAIL specifically kills cancer cells. However, the validity of TRAIL-based cancer therapies has yet to be established, as most cancer cells are TRAIL-resistant. In this report, we demonstrate that TRAIL-resistance of many cancer cell lines can be overcome after siRNA- or rocaglamide-mediated downregulation of c-FLIP expression and simultaneous inhibition of IAPs activity using AT406, a pan-antagonist of IAPs. Combined triple actions of the TRAIL, the IAPs inhibitor, AT406, and the c-FLIP expression inhibitor, rocaglamide (ART), markedly improve TRAIL-induced apoptotic effects in most solid cancer cell lines through the activation of an extrinsic apoptosis pathway. Furthermore, this ART combination does not harm normal cells. Among the 18 TRAIL-resistant cancer cell lines used, 15 cell lines become sensitive or highly sensitive to ART, and two out of three glioma cell lines exhibit high resistance to ART treatment due to very low levels of procaspase-8. This study provides a rationale for the development of TRAIL-induced apoptosis-based cancer therapies. PMID:27210546

  13. Overcoming resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis in solid tumor cells by simultaneously targeting death receptors, c-FLIP and IAPs

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, YING; YANG, XIANG; XU, TIANRUI; KONG, QINGHONG; ZHANG, YAPING; SHEN, YUEHAI; WEI, YUNLIN; WANG, GUANLIN; CHANG, KWEN-JEN

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of the TRAIL protein and its death receptors DR4/5 changed the horizon of cancer research because TRAIL specifically kills cancer cells. However, the validity of TRAIL-based cancer therapies has yet to be established, as most cancer cells are TRAIL-resistant. In this report, we demonstrate that TRAIL-resistance of many cancer cell lines can be overcome after siRNA- or rocaglamide-mediated downregulation of c-FLIP expression and simultaneous inhibition of IAPs activity using AT406, a pan-antagonist of IAPs. Combined triple actions of the TRAIL, the IAPs inhibitor, AT406, and the c-FLIP expression inhibitor, rocaglamide (ART), markedly improve TRAIL-induced apoptotic effects in most solid cancer cell lines through the activation of an extrinsic apoptosis pathway. Furthermore, this ART combination does not harm normal cells. Among the 18 TRAIL-resistant cancer cell lines used, 15 cell lines become sensitive or highly sensitive to ART, and two out of three glioma cell lines exhibit high resistance to ART treatment due to very low levels of procaspase-8. This study provides a rationale for the development of TRAIL-induced apoptosis-based cancer therapies. PMID:27210546

  14. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester enhances TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via CHOP-induced death receptor 5 upregulation in hepatocarcinoma Hep3B cells.

    PubMed

    Dilshara, Matharage Gayani; Jayasooriya, Rajapaksha Gedara Prasad Tharanga; Park, Sang Rul; Choi, Yung-Hyun; Choi, Il-Whan; Kim, Gi-Young

    2016-07-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) exhibits various pharmaceutical properties, including anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-cancer, and anti-oxidative activity. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been a promising anti-cancer agent that preferentially induces cancer cell apoptosis with negligible cytotoxicity toward normal cells. Therefore, the present study investigated whether CAPE promotes TRAIL-mediated cytotoxicity in hepatocarcinoma Hep3B cells. The present study demonstrated that CAPE sensitized TRAIL-mediated cell death in Hep3B carcinoma cells. The percentages of the apoptotic cells and annexin-V(+) cells significantly increased in combined treatment with CAPE and TRAIL (CAPE/TRAIL). Treatment with pancaspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk, attenuated CAPE/TRAIL-induced apoptosis, suggesting that the combined treatment triggers caspase-dependent apoptosis. Additionally, we found that CAPE stimulated the expression of death receptor 5 (DR5) and treatment with DR5/Fc chimera protein significantly blocked CAPE/TRAIL-induced apoptosis, which indicates that CAPE/TRAIL stimulated apoptosis through the binding of TRAIL to DR5. Moreover, expression of transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) markedly increased in response to CAPE and transient knockdown of CHOP abolished CAPE/TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. These results suggest that CHOP is a key regulator in CAPE/TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Taken together, the present study found that CAPE significantly enhanced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in Hep3B carcinoma cells and suggested that CAPE has promising potential in chemoprevention of hepatocellular carcinomas. PMID:27260301

  15. A new oridonin analog suppresses triple-negative breast cancer cells and tumor growth via the induction of death receptor 5.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Ding, Ye; Chen, Chuan-Huizhi; Zhou, Zhongmei; Ding, Chunyong; Chen, Haiying; Zhou, Jia; Chen, Ceshi

    2016-10-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains the leading cause of death among women with breast cancer worldwide. Oridonin is a natural anti-cancer compound that is isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Rabdosia rubescens. However, the antitumor efficacies of oridonin in the treatments of TNBC and other cancers are far from ideal. In this study, we investigated a series of newly designed oridonin analogs in terms of their actions against HCC1806 and HCC1937 TNBC cell lines and identified CYD-6-28, which significantly inhibits cancer cell proliferation and induces G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. CYD-6-28 induces the expression of p21 and the cleavage of caspase-3, -7, -8 and PARP and inhibits the expression levels of Cyclin D1, FLIPL and XIAP. CYD-6-28 also inhibits the activations of STAT3 and AKT and induces the activation of ERK. We demonstrated that CYD-6-28 induces apoptosis at least partially by inducing the expression of death receptor 5 (DR5). Finally, CYD-6-28 significantly suppresses HCC1806 xenograft tumor growth in nude mice at 5 mg/kg without affecting body weight. Taken together, these results indicate that CYD-6-28 has the potential to be developed as a therapeutic agent to treat TNBC. PMID:27387452

  16. Chronic stress regulates NG2⁺ cell maturation and myelination in the prefrontal cortex through induction of death receptor 6.

    PubMed

    Yang, Youjun; Zhang, Yini; Luo, Fei; Li, Baoming

    2016-03-01

    Chronic stress significantly affects neuron morphometry and function in the prefrontal cortex, a brain region controlling cognition and emotion. However, whether and how chronic stress regulates the maturation of NG2-expressing oligodendrocyte precursor cell (NG2(+) cell) and the importance of these changes remained unknown. Here, we report that exposing adult mice to chronic stress results in NG2(+) cell atrophy and myelination arrested in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and impaired mPFC-dependent functions. These alterations, are phenocopied by overexpression of death receptor 6 (DR6) in NG2(+) cell. Conversely, selectively silencing of DR6 in the NG2(+) cell can partly rescue NG2(+) cell atrophy and cognitive deficiency caused by chronic stress. We further demonstrate that myelination appears necessary for mPFC-dependent cognitive processes, as lysolecithin (LPC)-induced demyelination specifically in the mPFC is sufficient to cause these behavioral and cognitive impairments. Our results indicate that chronic stress impairs cognitive functions, at least in part, through modulation of NG2(+) cell maturation and myelination, and suggest that myelination is require for normal cognitive functions. PMID:26772637

  17. Hesperidin from Citrus seed induces human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell apoptosis via both mitochondrial and death receptor pathways.

    PubMed

    Banjerdpongchai, Ratana; Wudtiwai, Benjawan; Khaw-On, Patompong; Rachakhom, Wasitta; Duangnil, Natthachai; Kongtawelert, Prachya

    2016-01-01

    Citrus seeds are full of phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids. The aims of this study were to identify the types of flavonoids in Citrus seed extracts, the cytotoxic effect, mode of cell death, and signaling pathway in human hepatic cancer HepG2 cells. The flavonoids contain anticancer, free radical scavenging, and antioxidant activities. Neohesperidin, hesperidin, and naringin, active flavanone glycosides, were identified in Citrus seed extract. The cytotoxic effect of three compounds was in a dose-dependent manner, and IC50 levels were determined. The sensitivity of human HepG2 cells was as follows: hesperidin > naringin > neohesperidin > naringenin. Hesperidin induced HepG2 cells to undergo apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner as evidenced by the externalization of phosphatidylserine and determined by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide staining using flow cytometry. Hesperidin did not induce the generation of reactive oxygen species, which was determined by using 2',7'-dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate and flow cytometry method. The number of hesperidin-treated HepG2 cells with the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential increased concentration dependently, using 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide employing flow cytometry. Caspase-9, -8, and -3 activities were activated and increased in hesperidin-treated HepG2 cells. Bcl-xL protein was downregulated whereas Bax, Bak, and tBid protein levels were upregulated after treatment with hesperidin in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, the bioflavanone from Citrus seeds, hesperidin, induced human HepG2 cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway and death receptor pathway. Citrus seed flavonoids are beneficial and can be developed as anticancer drug or food supplement, which still needs further in vivo investigation in animals and human beings. PMID:26194866

  18. Endothelial Cell Sensitization by Death Receptor Fractions of an Anti-Dengue Nonstructural Protein 1 Antibody Induced Plasma Leakage, Coagulopathy, and Mortality in Mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Der-Shan; Chang, Ying-Chen; Lien, Te-Sheng; King, Chwan-Chuen; Shih, Yung-Luen; Huang, Hsuan-Shun; Wang, Teng-Yi; Li, Chen-Ru; Lee, Chin-Cheng; Hsu, Ping-Ning; Chang, Hsin-Hou

    2015-09-15

    The mechanisms leading to the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) remain elusive. DHF preferentially occurs during secondary dengue infections, suggesting that aberrant immune responses are involved in its development. We previously demonstrated that the autoantibodies elicited by dengue virus (DENV) nonstructural protein 1 (NS1; anti-NS1 Igs) induce plasma leakage and mortality in mice with warfarinized anticoagulant suppression. However, the involved pathogenic Ig fractions of anti-NS1 Igs remain unclear. In this study, the autoreactive Igs in patients with DHF and in NS1-immunized rabbits crossreacted with TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 1 (death receptor [DR]4). Challenges with the DENV in a subcytotoxic dose sensitized endothelial cells to apoptosis. Treatments with the autoantibodies induced proapoptotic activities and suppressed the surface expression of endothelial anticoagulant thrombomodulin. Combined treatments comprising the DENV and DR4 affinity-purified fractions of anti-NS1 IgGs (anti-NS1-DR4 Ig), but not preimmune control IgGs, in subcytotoxic doses led to apoptosis in endothelial cells. Treatments with the anti-NS1-DR4 Ig led to plasma leakage, coagulopathy, and morality in mice with warfarinized anticoagulant suppression. These results suggest that DR4-induced endothelial cell sensitization through NS1-elicited autoantibodies exacerbates anticoagulant suppression, vascular injury, and plasma leakage. Detecting and blocking anti-DR Igs in patients may be novel strategies for managing severe DENV infection. PMID:26259584

  19. Phosphorylation-Dependent Differential Regulation of Plant Growth, Cell Death, and Innate Immunity by the Regulatory Receptor-Like Kinase BAK1

    PubMed Central

    Schwessinger, Benjamin; Roux, Milena; Kadota, Yasuhiro; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Sklenar, Jan; Jones, Alexandra; Zipfel, Cyril

    2011-01-01

    Plants rely heavily on receptor-like kinases (RLKs) for perception and integration of external and internal stimuli. The Arabidopsis regulatory leucine-rich repeat RLK (LRR-RLK) BAK1 is involved in steroid hormone responses, innate immunity, and cell death control. Here, we describe the differential regulation of three different BAK1-dependent signaling pathways by a novel allele of BAK1, bak1-5. Innate immune signaling mediated by the BAK1-dependent RKs FLS2 and EFR is severely compromised in bak1-5 mutant plants. However, bak1-5 mutants are not impaired in BR signaling or cell death control. We also show that, in contrast to the RD kinase BRI1, the non-RD kinases FLS2 and EFR have very low kinase activity, and we show that neither was able to trans-phosphorylate BAK1 in vitro. Furthermore, kinase activity for all partners is completely dispensable for the ligand-induced heteromerization of FLS2 or EFR with BAK1 in planta, revealing another pathway specific mechanistic difference. The specific suppression of FLS2- and EFR-dependent signaling in bak1-5 is not due to a differential interaction of BAK1-5 with the respective ligand-binding RK but requires BAK1-5 kinase activity. Overall our results demonstrate a phosphorylation-dependent differential control of plant growth, innate immunity, and cell death by the regulatory RLK BAK1, which may reveal key differences in the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of ligand-binding RD and non-RD RKs. PMID:21593986

  20. Cell death proteomics database: consolidating proteomics data on cell death.

    PubMed

    Arntzen, Magnus Ø; Bull, Vibeke H; Thiede, Bernd

    2013-05-01

    Programmed cell death is a ubiquitous process of utmost importance for the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. More than 10 different types of programmed cell death forms have been discovered. Several proteomics analyses have been performed to gain insight in proteins involved in the different forms of programmed cell death. To consolidate these studies, we have developed the cell death proteomics (CDP) database, which comprehends data from apoptosis, autophagy, cytotoxic granule-mediated cell death, excitotoxicity, mitotic catastrophe, paraptosis, pyroptosis, and Wallerian degeneration. The CDP database is available as a web-based database to compare protein identifications and quantitative information across different experimental setups. The proteomics data of 73 publications were integrated and unified with protein annotations from UniProt-KB and gene ontology (GO). Currently, more than 6,500 records of more than 3,700 proteins are included in the CDP. Comparing apoptosis and autophagy using overrepresentation analysis of GO terms, the majority of enriched processes were found in both, but also some clear differences were perceived. Furthermore, the analysis revealed differences and similarities of the proteome between autophagosomal and overall autophagy. The CDP database represents a useful tool to consolidate data from proteome analyses of programmed cell death and is available at http://celldeathproteomics.uio.no. PMID:23537399

  1. Inflammasomes as polyvalent cell death platforms.

    PubMed

    de Vasconcelos, Nathalia M; Van Opdenbosch, Nina; Lamkanfi, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    Inflammasomes are multi-protein platforms that are organized in the cytosol to cope with pathogens and cellular stress. The pattern recognition receptors NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4, AIM2 and Pyrin all assemble canonical platforms for caspase-1 activation, while caspase-11-dependent inflammasomes respond to intracellular Gram-negative pathogens. Inflammasomes are chiefly known for their roles in maturation and secretion of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-(IL)1β and IL18, but they can also induce regulated cell death. Activation of caspases 1 and 11 in myeloid cells can trigger pyroptosis, a lytic and inflammatory cell death mode. Pyroptosis has been implicated in secretion of IL1β, IL18 and intracellular alarmins. Akin to these factors, it may have beneficial roles in controlling pathogen replication, but become detrimental in the context of chronic autoinflammatory diseases. Inflammasomes are increasingly implicated in induction of additional regulated cell death modes such as pyronecrosis and apoptosis. In this review, we overview recent advances in inflammasome-associated cell death research, illustrating the polyvalent roles of these macromolecular platforms in regulated cell death signaling. PMID:27048821

  2. Cytotoxicity of synthetic cannabinoids on primary neuronal cells of the forebrain: the involvement of cannabinoid CB{sub 1} receptors and apoptotic cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Tomiyama, Ken-ichi; Funada, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    The abuse of herbal products containing synthetic cannabinoids has become an issue of public concern. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the acute cytotoxicity of synthetic cannabinoids on mouse brain neuronal cells. Cytotoxicity induced by synthetic cannabinoid (CP-55,940, CP-47,497, CP-47,497-C8, HU-210, JWH-018, JWH-210, AM-2201, and MAM-2201) was examined using forebrain neuronal cultures. These synthetic cannabinoids induced cytotoxicity in the forebrain cultures in a concentration-dependent manner. The cytotoxicity was suppressed by preincubation with the selective CB{sub 1} receptor antagonist AM251, but not with the selective CB{sub 2} receptor antagonist AM630. Furthermore, annexin-V-positive cells were found among the treated forebrain cells. Synthetic cannabinoid treatment induced the activation of caspase-3, and preincubation with a caspase-3 inhibitor significantly suppressed the cytotoxicity. These synthetic cannabinoids induced apoptosis through a caspase-3-dependent mechanism in the forebrain cultures. Our results indicate that the cytotoxicity of synthetic cannabinoids towards primary neuronal cells is mediated by the CB{sub 1} receptor, but not by the CB{sub 2} receptor, and further suggest that caspase cascades may play an important role in the apoptosis induced by these synthetic cannabinoids. In conclusion, excessive synthetic cannabinoid abuse may present a serious acute health concern due to neuronal damage or deficits in the brain. - Highlights: • Synthetic cannabinoids (classical cannabinoids, non-classical cannabinoids, and aminoalkylindole derivatives) induce cytotoxicity in mouse forebrain cultures. • Synthetic cannabinoid-induced cytotoxicity towards forebrain cultures is mediated by the CB{sub 1} receptor, but not by the CB{sub 2} receptor, and involves caspase-dependent apoptosis. • A high concentration of synthetic cannabinoids may be toxic to neuronal cells that express CB{sub 1} receptors.

  3. Immune Complex-Induced, Nitric Oxide-Mediated Vascular Endothelial Cell Death by Phagocytes Is Prevented with Decoy FcγReceptors

    PubMed Central

    Mula, Ramanjaneya V. R.; Machiah, Deepa; Holland, Lauren; Wang, Xinyu; Parihar, Harish; Sharma, Avadhesh C.; Selvaraj, Periasamy; Shashidharamurthy, Rangaiah

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune vasculitis is an endothelial inflammatory disease that results from the deposition of immune-complexes (ICs) in blood vessels. The interaction between Fcgamma receptors (FcγRs) expressed on inflammatory cells with ICs is known to cause blood vessel damage. Hence, blocking the interaction of ICs and inflammatory cells is essential to prevent the IC-mediated blood vessel damage. Thus we tested if uncoupling the interaction of FcγRs and ICs prevents endothelium damage. Herein, we demonstrate that dimeric FcγR-Igs prevented nitric oxide (NO) mediated apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in an in vitro vasculitis model. Dimeric FcγR-Igs significantly inhibited the IC-induced upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) release by murine monocytic cell line. However, FcγR-Igs did not affect the exogenously added NO-induced upregulation of pro-apoptotic genes such as Bax (15 fold), Bak (35 fold), cytochrome-C (11 fold) and caspase-3 (30 fold) in HUVECs. In conclusion, these data suggest that IC-induced NO could be one of the major inflammatory mediator promoting blood vessel inflammation and endothelial cell death during IC-mediated vasculitis which can be effectively blocked by dimeric decoy FcγRs. PMID:27101012

  4. Calix[6]arene bypasses human pancreatic cancer aggressiveness: downregulation of receptor tyrosine kinases and induction of cell death by reticulum stress and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Pelizzaro-Rocha, Karin Juliane; de Jesus, Marcelo Bispo; Ruela-de-Sousa, Roberta Regina; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Reis, Fabiano Souza; de Fátima, Angelo; Ferreira-Halder, Carmen Veríssima

    2013-12-01

    Pancreatic cancer ranks fourth among cancer-related causes of death in North America. Minimal progress has been made in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with late-stage tumors. Moreover, pancreatic cancer aggressiveness is closely related to high levels of pro-survival mediators, which can ultimately lead to rapid disease progression, resistance and metastasis. The main goal of this study was to define the mechanisms by which calix[6]arene, but not other calixarenes, efficiently decreases the aggressiveness of a drug resistant human pancreas carcinoma cell line (Panc-1). Calix[6]arene was more potent in reducing Panc-1 cell viability than gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil. In relation to the underlying mechanisms of cytotoxic effects, it led to cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase through downregulation of PIM1, CDK2, CDK4 and retinoblastoma proteins. Importantly, calix[6]arene abolished signal transduction of Mer and AXL tyrosine kinase receptors, both of which are usually overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. Accordingly, inhibition of PI3K and mTOR was also observed, and these proteins are positively modulated by Mer and AXL. Despite decreasing the phosphorylation of AKT at Thr308, calix[6]arene caused an increase in phosphorylation at Ser473. These findings in conjunction with increased BiP and IRE1-α provide a molecular basis explaining the capacity of calix[6]arene to trigger endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagic cell death. Our findings highlight calix[6]arene as a potential candidate for overcoming pancreatic cancer aggressiveness. Importantly, we provide evidence that calix[6]arene affects a broad array of key targets that are usually dysfunctional in pancreatic cancer, a highly desirable characteristic for chemotherapeutics. PMID:23872419

  5. Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate induces apoptosis in p53-silenced L02 cells via activation of both mitochondrial and death receptor pathways.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guangtao; Zhang, Wenjuan; Qin, Qizhi; Wang, Jing; Zheng, Hongyan; Xiong, Wei; Yuan, Jing

    2015-09-01

    Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) is one of the main metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. The evidence shows that DEHP may exert its toxic effects primarily via MEHP, which is 10-fold more potent than its parent compound in toxicity in vitro. MEHP-induced apoptosis is mediated by either p53-dependent or -independent pathway. However, the detailed mechanism of its toxicity remains unclear. In this study, immortalized normal human liver cell line L02 was chosen, as an in vitro model of nonmalignant liver, to elucidate the role of p53 in MEHP-induced apoptosis. The cells were treated with MEHP (6.25, 12.50, 25.00, 50.00, and 100.00 μM) for 24 and 36 h, then small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to specifically silence p53 gene of L02 cells. The results indicated that MEHP caused oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis in L02 cells were associated with the p53 signaling pathway. Further study found that MEHP (50.00 and 100.00 μM) induced apoptosis in p53-silenced L02 cells, along with the up-regulations of Fas and FasL proteins as well as increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase 3, 8, and 9 activities. Additionally, both FasL inhibitor (AF-016) and Caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp- fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD-FMK) could prevent the cell apoptosis induced by MEHP. The findings suggested that MEHP-induced apoptosis in L02 cells involving a Caspases-mediated mitochondrial signaling pathway and/or death receptor pathway. p53 was not absolutely necessary for MEHP-induced L02 cell apoptosis. PMID:24706461

  6. Autophagy, cell death, and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lin; Baehrecke, Eric H

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved intracellular catabolic process that is used by all cells to degrade dysfunctional or unnecessary cytoplasmic components through delivery to the lysosome. Increasing evidence reveals that autophagic dysfunction is associated with human diseases, such as cancer. Paradoxically, although autophagy is well recognized as a cell survival process that promotes tumor development, it can also participate in a caspase-independent form of programmed cell death. Induction of autophagic cell death by some anticancer agents highlights the potential of this process as a cancer treatment modality. Here, we review our current understanding of the molecular mechanism of autophagy and the potential roles of autophagy in cell death, cancer development, and cancer treatment. PMID:27308466

  7. The miR9863 Family Regulates Distinct Mla Alleles in Barley to Attenuate NLR Receptor-Triggered Disease Resistance and Cell-Death Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Cheng, Xiliu; Liu, Da; Xu, Weihui; Wise, Roger; Shen, Qian-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Mla alleles encode coiled-coil (CC), nucleotide binding, leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) receptors that trigger isolate-specific immune responses against the powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh). How Mla or NB-LRR genes in grass species are regulated at post-transcriptional level is not clear. The microRNA family, miR9863, comprises four members that differentially regulate distinct Mla alleles in barley. We show that miR9863 members guide the cleavage of Mla1 transcripts in barley, and block or reduce the accumulation of MLA1 protein in the heterologous Nicotiana benthamiana expression system. Regulation specificity is determined by variation in a unique single-nucleotide-polymorphism (SNP) in mature miR9863 family members and two SNPs in the Mla miR9863-binding site that separates these alleles into three groups. Further, we demonstrate that 22-nt miR9863s trigger the biogenesis of 21-nt phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs) and together these sRNAs form a feed-forward regulation network for repressing the expression of group I Mla alleles. Overexpression of miR9863 members specifically attenuates MLA1, but not MLA10-triggered disease resistance and cell-death signaling. We propose a key role of the miR9863 family in dampening immune response signaling triggered by a group of MLA immune receptors in barley. PMID:25502438

  8. Salt stress-induced production of reactive oxygen- and nitrogen species and cell death in the ethylene receptor mutant Never ripe and wild type tomato roots.

    PubMed

    Poór, Péter; Kovács, Judit; Borbély, Péter; Takács, Zoltán; Szepesi, Ágnes; Tari, Irma

    2015-12-01

    The salt stress triggered by sublethal, 100 mM and lethal, 250 mM NaCl induced ethylene production as well as rapid accumulation of superoxide radical and H2O2 in the root tips of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Ailsa Craig) wild type and ethylene receptor mutant, Never ripe (Nr/Nr) plants. In the wild type plants superoxide accumulation confined to lethal salt concentration while H2O2 accumulated more efficiently under sublethal salt stress. However, in Nr roots the superoxide production was higher and unexpectedly, H2O2 level was lower than in the wild type under sublethal salt stress. Nitric oxide production increased significantly under sublethal and lethal salt stress in both genotypes especially in mutant plants, while peroxynitrite accumulated significantly under lethal salt stress. Thus, the nitro-oxidative stress may be stronger in Nr roots, which leads to the programmed death of tissues, characterized by the DNA and protein degradation and loss of cell viability under moderate salt stress. In Nr mutants the cell death was induced in the absence of ethylene perception. Although wild type roots could maintain their potassium content under moderate salt stress, K(+) level significantly declined leading to small K(+)/Na(+) ratio in Nr roots. Thus Nr mutants were more sensitive to salt stress than the wild type and the viability of root cells decreased significantly under moderate salt stress. These changes can be attributed to a stronger ionic stress due to the K(+) loss from the root tissues. PMID:26512971

  9. How Kidney Cell Death Induces Renal Necroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Mulay, Shrikant R; Kumar, Santhosh V; Lech, Maciej; Desai, Jyaysi; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2016-05-01

    The nephrons of the kidney are independent functional units harboring cells of a low turnover during homeostasis. As such, physiological renal cell death is a rather rare event and dead cells are flushed away rapidly with the urinary flow. Renal cell necrosis occurs in acute kidney injuries such as thrombotic microangiopathies, necrotizing glomerulonephritis, or tubular necrosis. All of these are associated with intense intrarenal inflammation, which contributes to further renal cell loss, an autoamplifying process referred to as necroinflammation. But how does renal cell necrosis trigger inflammation? Here, we discuss the role of danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), mitochondrial (mito)-DAMPs, and alarmins, as well as their respective pattern recognition receptors. The capacity of DAMPs and alarmins to trigger cytokine and chemokine release initiates the recruitment of leukocytes into the kidney that further amplify necroinflammation. Infiltrating neutrophils often undergo neutrophil extracellular trap formation associated with neutrophil death or necroptosis, which implies a release of histones, which act not only as DAMPs but also elicit direct cytotoxic effects on renal cells, namely endothelial cells. Proinflammatory macrophages and eventually cytotoxic T cells further drive kidney cell death and inflammation. Dissecting the molecular mechanisms of necroinflammation may help to identify the best therapeutic targets to limit nephron loss in kidney injury. PMID:27339382

  10. Anti-cancer effect of bee venom on colon cancer cell growth by activation of death receptors and inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jie; Lee, Hye Lim; Ham, Young Wan; Song, Ho Sueb; Song, Min Jong; Hong, Jin Tae

    2015-01-01

    Bee venom (BV) has been used as a traditional medicine to treat arthritis, rheumatism, back pain, cancerous tumors, and skin diseases. However, the effects of BV on the colon cancer and their action mechanisms have not been reported yet. We used cell viability assay and soft agar colony formation assay for testing cell viability, electro mobility shift assay for detecting DNA binding activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and Western blotting assay for detection of apoptosis regulatory proteins. We found that BV inhibited growth of colon cancer cells through induction of apoptosis. We also found that the expression of death receptor (DR) 4, DR5, p53, p21, Bax, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-8, and cleaved caspase-9 was increased by BV treatment in a dose dependent manner (0–5 μg/ml). Consistent with cancer cell growth inhibition, the DNA binding activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) was also inhibited by BV treatment. Besides, we found that BV blocked NF-κB activation by directly binding to NF-κB p50 subunit. Moreover, combination treatment with BV and p50 siRNA or NF-κB inhibitor augmented BV-induced cell growth inhibition. However, p50 mutant plasmid (C62S) transfection partially abolished BV-induced cell growth inhibiton. In addition, BV significantly suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Therefore, these results suggested that BV could inhibit colon cancer cell growth, and these anti-proliferative effects may be related to the induction of apoptosis by activation of DR4 and DR5 and inhibition of NF-κB. PMID:26561202

  11. TRAIL-Death Receptor 4 Signaling via Lysosome Fusion and Membrane Raft Clustering In Coronary Arterial Endothelial Cells: Evidence from ASM Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Han, Wei-Qing; Boini, Krishna M.; Xia, Min; Zhang, Yang; Li, Pin-Lan

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its receptor death receptor 4 (DR4) have been implicated in the development of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. However, the signaling mechanism mediating DR4 activation and leading to endothelial injury remains unclear. We recently demonstrated that ceramide production via hydrolysis of membrane sphingomyelin by acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) results in membrane raft (MRs) clustering and formation of important redox signaling platforms, which play a crucial role in amplifying redox signaling in endothelial cells leading to endothelial dysfunction. The present study aims to investigate whether TRAIL triggers MR clustering via lysosome fusion and ASM activation, thereby conducting transmembrane redox signaling and changing endothelial function. Using confocal microscopy, we found that TRAIL induced MR clustering and its co-localization with DR4 in coronary arterial endothelial cells (CAECs) isolated from wild-type (Smpd1+/+) mice. Further, TRAIL triggered ASM translocation, ceramide production and NADPH oxidase aggregation in MR clusters in Smpd1+/+ CAECs, whereas these observations were not found in Smpd1−/− CAECs. Moreover, ASM deficiency reduced TRAIL-induced O2−· production in CAECs and abolished TRAIL-induced impairment on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in small resistance arteries. By measuring fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we found that Lamp-1 (lysosome membrane marker protein) and ganglioside GM1 (MR marker) were trafficking together in Smpd1+/+ CAECs, which was absent in Smpd1−/− CAECs. Consistently, fluorescence imaging of living cells with specific lysosome probes demonstrated that TRAIL-induced lysosome fusion with membrane was also absent in Smpd1−/− CAECs. Taken together, these results suggest that ASM is essential for TRAIL-induced lysosomal trafficking and fusion with membrane and formation of MR redox signaling platforms, which may

  12. Synthetic catecholamine triggers β1-adrenergic receptor activation and stimulates cardiotoxicity via oxidative stress mediated apoptotic cell death in rats: Abrogating action of thymol.

    PubMed

    Meeran, M F Nagoor; Jagadeesh, G S; Selvaraj, P

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays, there are considerable interests in the studies which are more connected with the impact of natural antioxidants against the free radical mediated damage in biological systems. Cardiotoxicity is one of the lethal manifestations of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) which have been associated with the incidence of apoptotic cell death due to oxidative stress. We evaluated the impact of thymol, a dietary monoterpene phenol on isoproterenol (ISO), a synthetic catecholamine and a β1-adrenergic receptor agonist in rats. Thymol (7.5 mg/kg body weight) was pre and co-treated into male albino Wistar rats daily for a period of 7 days. Induction of cardiotoxicity was done by the subcutaneous administration of ISO (100 mg/kg body weight) into rats on 6th and 7th day. Cardiotoxicity in rats was confirmed by the increased levels/activity of serum troponin-T and creatine kinase in the serum alongwith decreased activity of creatine kinase in the heart. ISO induced cardiotoxic rats also showed a significant increase in the concentrations of lipid peroxidation products and a significant decrease in the activities/levels of antioxidants in the myocardium whereas Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction study revealed an increased expression of caspase-8, caspase-9 and Fas genes along with a decreased expression of Bcl-xL gene in the myocardium. Thymol pre and co-treated ISO induced cardiotoxic rats showed considerable protective effects on all the biochemical parameters studied. Histopathological and in vitro findings are found in line with our biochemical findings. Thus, the present study revealed that thymol counters ISO induced cardiotoxicity by inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death in rats by virtue of its potent antioxidant property. PMID:26996544

  13. [Cell death in malignant tumors. Relevance of cell death regulation for metastasis].

    PubMed

    Roth, W

    2015-11-01

    Defects in the regulation of cell death are important causes for both the development and therapy resistance of malignant tumors. Several distinct, molecularly defined types of cell death are known, such as apoptosis, anoikis, and necroptosis. Moreover, the specific triggering of cell death plays an important role in the prevention of metastasis. The results of recent studies have shown that various types of cell death are pivotal at different steps of the metastasis cascade, in order to prevent cellular detachment, migration, invasion, intravasation, extravasation and the establishment of micrometastasis and macrometastasis. At the subcellular level, numerous links exist between cell death regulation and metastasis, specifically regarding signaling pathways and individual proteins with dual or multiple functions. As an example, the decoy receptor 3 protein (DcR3) functions both as an anti-apoptotic protein and as a direct promotor of invasion and migration of tumor cells. In summary, the specific triggering of cell death plays a pivotal role for the prevention of metastasis. On the other hand, the stepwise process of metastasis represents a mechanism of selection resulting in established metastases with a multiresistant phenotype which corresponds to the clinical observation that many metastasized cancers are therapy resistant. In the future, innovative diagnostic tests to individually predict the resistance pattern and possibilities to overcome resistance are urgently needed. PMID:26400565

  14. Cell Death in Genome Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Xinchen; Hardwick, J. Marie

    2015-01-01

    Inappropriate survival of abnormal cells underlies tumorigenesis. Most discoveries about programmed cell death have come from studying model organisms. Revisiting the experimental contexts that inspired these discoveries helps explain confounding biases that inevitably accompany such discoveries. Amending early biases has added a newcomer to the collection of cell death models. Analysis of gene-dependent death in yeast revealed the surprising influence of single gene mutations on subsequent eukaryotic genome evolution. Similar events may influence the selection for mutations during early tumorigenesis. The possibility that an early random mutation might drive the selection for a cancer driver mutation is conceivable but difficult to demonstrate. This was tested in yeast, revealing that mutation of almost any gene appears to specify the selection for a new second mutation. Some human tumors contain pairs of mutant genes homologous to co-occurring mutant genes in yeast. Here we consider how yeast again provide novel insights into tumorigenesis. PMID:25725369

  15. Death-receptor activation halts clathrin-dependent endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Cary D.; Lawrence, David A.; Peden, Andrew A.; Varfolomeev, Eugene E.; Totpal, Klara; De Mazière, Ann M.; Klumperman, Judith; Arnott, David; Pham, Victoria; Scheller, Richard H.; Ashkenazi, Avi

    2006-01-01

    Endocytosis is crucial for various aspects of cell homeostasis. Here, we show that proapoptotic death receptors (DRs) trigger selective destruction of the clathrin-dependent endocytosis machinery. DR stimulation induced rapid, caspase-mediated cleavage of key clathrin-pathway components, halting cellular uptake of the classic cargo protein transferrin. DR-proximal initiator caspases cleaved the clathrin adaptor subunit AP2α between functionally distinct domains, whereas effector caspases processed clathrin’s heavy chain. DR5 underwent ligand-induced, clathrin-mediated endocytosis, suggesting that internalization of DR signaling complexes facilitates clathrin-pathway targeting by caspases. An endocytosis-blocking, temperature-sensitive dynamin-1 mutant attenuated DR internalization, enhanced caspase stimulation downstream of DRs, and increased apoptosis. Thus, DR-triggered caspase activity disrupts clathrin-dependent endocytosis, leading to amplification of programmed cell death. PMID:16801533

  16. Lovastatin enhances adenovirus-mediated TRAIL induced apoptosis by depleting cholesterol of lipid rafts and affecting CAR and death receptor expression of prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Youhong; Chen, Lin; Gong, Zhicheng; Shen, Liangfang; Kao, Chinghai; Hock, Janet M; Sun, Lunquan; Li, Xiong

    2015-02-20

    Oncolytic adenovirus and apoptosis inducer TRAIL are promising cancer therapies. Their antitumor efficacy, when used as single agents, is limited. Oncolytic adenoviruses have low infection activity, and cancer cells develop resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Here, we explored combining prostate-restricted replication competent adenovirus-mediated TRAIL (PRRA-TRAIL) with lovastatin, a commonly used cholesterol-lowering drug, as a potential therapy for advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Lovastatin significantly enhanced the efficacy of PRRA-TRAIL by promoting the in vivo tumor suppression, and the in vitro cell killing and apoptosis induction, via integration of multiple molecular mechanisms. Lovastatin enhanced PRRA replication and virus-delivered transgene expression by increasing the expression levels of CAR and integrins, which are critical for adenovirus 5 binding and internalization. Lovastatin enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis by increasing death receptor DR4 expression. These multiple effects of lovastatin on CAR, integrins and DR4 expression were closely associated with cholesterol-depletion in lipid rafts. These studies, for the first time, show correlations between cholesterol/lipid rafts, oncolytic adenovirus infection efficiency and the antitumor efficacy of TRAIL at the cellular level. This work enhances our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that support use of lovastatin, in combination with PRRA-TRAIL, as a candidate strategy to treat human refractory prostate cancer in the future. PMID:25605010

  17. Pancreatic β Cell Mass Death.

    PubMed

    Marrif, Husnia I; Al-Sunousi, Salma I

    2016-01-01

    Type two diabetes (T2D) is a challenging metabolic disorder for which a cure has not yet been found. Its etiology is associated with several phenomena, including significant loss of insulin-producing, beta cellcell) mass via progressive programmed cell death and disrupted cellular autophagy. In diabetes, the etiology of β cell death and the role of mitochondria are complex and involve several layers of mechanisms. Understanding the dynamics of those mechanisms could permit researchers to develop an intervention for the progressive loss of β cells. Currently, diabetes research has shifted toward rejuvenation and plasticity technology and away from the simplified approach of hormonal compensation. Diabetes research is currently challenged by questions such as how to enhance cell survival, decrease apoptosis and replenish β cell mass in diabetic patients. In this review, we discuss evidence that β cell development and mass formation are guided by specific signaling systems, particularly hormones, transcription factors, and growth factors, all of which could be manipulated to enhance mass growth. There is also strong evidence that β cells are dynamically active cells, which, under specific conditions such as obesity, can increase in size and subsequently increase insulin secretion. In certain cases of aggressive or advanced forms of T2D, β cells become markedly impaired, and the only alternatives for maintaining glucose homeostasis are through partial or complete cell grafting (the Edmonton protocol). In these cases, the harvesting of an enriched population of viable β cells is required for transplantation. This task necessitates a deep understanding of the pharmacological agents that affect β cell survival, mass, and function. The aim of this review is to initiate discussion about the important signals in pancreatic β cell development and mass formation and to highlight the process by which cell death occurs in diabetes. This review also examines the

  18. Pancreatic β Cell Mass Death

    PubMed Central

    Marrif, Husnia I.; Al-Sunousi, Salma I.

    2016-01-01

    Type two diabetes (T2D) is a challenging metabolic disorder for which a cure has not yet been found. Its etiology is associated with several phenomena, including significant loss of insulin-producing, beta cellcell) mass via progressive programmed cell death and disrupted cellular autophagy. In diabetes, the etiology of β cell death and the role of mitochondria are complex and involve several layers of mechanisms. Understanding the dynamics of those mechanisms could permit researchers to develop an intervention for the progressive loss of β cells. Currently, diabetes research has shifted toward rejuvenation and plasticity technology and away from the simplified approach of hormonal compensation. Diabetes research is currently challenged by questions such as how to enhance cell survival, decrease apoptosis and replenish β cell mass in diabetic patients. In this review, we discuss evidence that β cell development and mass formation are guided by specific signaling systems, particularly hormones, transcription factors, and growth factors, all of which could be manipulated to enhance mass growth. There is also strong evidence that β cells are dynamically active cells, which, under specific conditions such as obesity, can increase in size and subsequently increase insulin secretion. In certain cases of aggressive or advanced forms of T2D, β cells become markedly impaired, and the only alternatives for maintaining glucose homeostasis are through partial or complete cell grafting (the Edmonton protocol). In these cases, the harvesting of an enriched population of viable β cells is required for transplantation. This task necessitates a deep understanding of the pharmacological agents that affect β cell survival, mass, and function. The aim of this review is to initiate discussion about the important signals in pancreatic β cell development and mass formation and to highlight the process by which cell death occurs in diabetes. This review also examines the

  19. Pneumococal Surface Protein A (PspA) Regulates Programmed Death Ligand 1 Expression on Dendritic Cells in a Toll-Like Receptor 2 and Calcium Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Vashishta, Mohit; Khan, Naeem; Mehto, Subhash; Sehgal, Devinder; Natarajan, Krishnamurthy

    2015-01-01

    Pneumonia leads to high mortality in children under the age of five years worldwide, resulting in close to 20 percent of all deaths in this age group. Therefore, investigations into host-pathogen interactions during Streptococcus pneumoniae infection are key in devising strategies towards the development of better vaccines and drugs. To that end, in this study we investigated the role of S. pneumoniae and its surface antigen Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) in modulating the expression of co-stimulatory molecule Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression on dendritic cells (DCs) and the subsequent effects of increased PD-L1 on key defence responses. Our data indicate that stimulation of DCs with PspA increases the surface expression of PD-L1 in a time and dose dependent manner. Characterization of mechanisms involved in PspA induced expression of PD-L1 indicate the involvement of Toll-Like Receptor 2 (TLR2) and calcium homeostasis. While calcium release from intracellular stores positively regulated PD-L1 expression, calcium influx from external milieu negatively regulated PD-L1 expression. Increase in PD-L1 expression, when costimulated with PspA and through TLR2 was higher than when stimulated with PspA or through TLR2. Further, knockdown of TLR2 and the intermediates in the TLR signaling machinery pointed towards the involvement of a MyD88 dependent pathway in PspA induced PD-L1 expression. Incubation of DCs with S. pneumoniae resulted in the up-regulation of PD-L1 expression, while infection with a strain lacking surface PspA failed to do so. Our data also suggests the role of PspA in ROS generation. These results suggest a novel and specific role for PspA in modulating immune responses against S. pneumoniae by regulating PD-L1 expression. PMID:26214513

  20. Regulation of death receptors-Relevance in cancer therapies

    SciTech Connect

    Thonel, A. de; Eriksson, J.E. . E-mail: john.eriksson@btk.fi

    2005-09-01

    Apoptosis is an essential non-inflammatory mechanism for cell removal, which occurs during both physiological and pathological conditions. Apoptosis is characteristically executed by cysteine proteases, termed caspases. The most specific way to activate the caspases machinery is through death receptors (DRs), such as the tumor necrosis factor (TNFR), Fas receptor (FasR), and TRAIL (TRAIL-R). The apoptotic signaling is tightly regulated by the balance of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins and an imbalance between cell death and proliferation may cause numerous diseases, including cancers. The intensive research during the past decade has delineated the basic mechanisms of apoptosis and outlined many important molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of apoptosis. There is also a better understanding of how the regulation of apoptosis can be disturbed in human cancer cells. The interplay between DRs signaling and anticancer drugs has offered new concepts for the development of highly specific therapeutical agents. Here we review the current understanding of the different molecular mechanisms that regulate DR-mediated apoptosis and the defects in apoptotic signaling discovered in cancer cells. In light of this knowledge, new promising target-based agents for future cancer therapies have been developed.

  1. Activation of Type 4 Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Induced Death of Neural Stem Cells with Inhibition of JNK and p38 MAPK Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhichao; Ma, Wen; Wang, Li; Gong, Hanshi; Tian, Yumei; Zhang, Jianshui; Liu, Jianxin; Lu, Haixia; Chen, Xinlin; Liu, Yong

    2015-11-15

    Promoting both endogenous and exogenous neural stem cells' (NSCs) survival in the hostile host environments is essential to cell replacement therapy for central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Type 4 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR4), one of the members of mGluRs, has been shown to protect neurons from acute and chronic excitotoxic insults in various brain damages. The present study investigated the preventive effects of mGluR4 on NSC injury induced by oxidative stress. Under challenge with H2O2, loss of cell viability was observed in cultured rat NSCs, and treatment with selective mGluR4 agonist VU0155041 conferred protective effects against the loss of cellular viability in a concentration-dependent manner, as shown by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Pretreatment of VU0155041 (30 μM) also inhibited the excessive NSC death induced by H2O2, and group III mGluRs antagonist (RS)-a-methylserine-O-phosphate (MSOP) or gene-targeted knockdown abolished the protective action of mGluR4, indicated by propidium iodide-Hoechst and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Western blot assay demonstrated that mGluR4 activation reversed the decreased procaspase-8/9/3and the destructed Bcl-2/Bax expressing balance, and likewise, MSOP and mGluR4 knockdown abrogated the action of mGluR4 activity. Furthermore, inhibition of JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were observed after mGluR4 activation, and as paralleling control, JNK-specific inhibitor SP600125 and p38-specific inhibitor SB203580 significantly rescued the H2O2-mediated NSC apoptosis and cleavage of procaspase-3. We suggest that activation of mGluR4 prevents oxidative stress-induced NSC death and apoptotic-associated protein activities with involvement of inhibiting the JNK and p38 pathways in cell culture. Our findings may help to develop strategies for enhancing the resided and transplanted NSC survival

  2. Rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, induced apoptosis via independent mitochondrial and death receptor pathway in retinoblastoma Y79 cell

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan-Dong; Su, Yong-Jing; Li, Jian-Ying; Yao, Xiang-Chao; Liang, Guang-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Rapamycin is helpful in the treatment of certain cancers by inhibiting mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway. Here, rapamycin mediated apoptosis were investigated in human retinoblastoma Y79 cells. The MTT assay showed that the IC50 value of rapamycin against Y79 cells was 0.136 ± 0.032 μmol/L. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that the percentage of apoptotic cells was increased from 2.16 ± 0.41% to 12.24 ± 3.10%, 20.16 ± 4.22%, and 31.32 ± 5.78% after 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 μmol/L rapamycin or without rapamycin treatment for 48 hours. Flow cytometry analysis showed that rapamycin induced mitochondrial membrane potential (∆Ψm) collapse in Y79 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Western blot assay showed that rapamycin led to release of cytochrome c from mitochondrial membranes to cytosol. Further Western blot assays showed that rapamycin induced activation of caspase-9 and caspase-8 and the cleavage of caspase-3. Rapamycin induced cleavages of caspase-3 and apoptosis was inhibited by both Z-LETD-FMK and Z-IETD-FMK treatment. Together, all these results illustrated that rapamycin induced apoptosis in human retinoblastoma Y79 cells involvement of both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. PMID:26379864

  3. Modes of Retinal Cell Death in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Feenstra, Derrick J; Yego, E Chepchumba; Mohr, Susanne

    2013-10-01

    Cell death seems to be a prominent feature in the progression of diabetic retinopathy. Several retinal cell types have been identified to undergo cell death in a diabetic environment. Most emphasis has been directed towards identifying apoptosis in the diabetic retina. However, new research has established that there are multiple forms of cell death. This review discusses the different modes of cell death and attempts to classify cell death of retinal cells known to die in diabetic retinopathy. Special emphasis is given to apoptosis, necrosis, autophagic cell death, and pyroptosis. It seems that different retinal cell types are dying by diverse types of cell death. Whereas endothelial cells predominantly undergo apoptosis, pericytes might die by apoptosis as well as necrosis. On the other hand, Müller cells are suggested to die by a pyroptotic mechanism. Diabetes leads to significant Müller cell loss at 7 months duration of diabetes in retinas of diabetic mice compared to non-diabetic, which is prevented by the inhibition of the caspase-1/IL-1β (interleukin-1beta) pathway using the IL-1 receptor knockout mouse. Since pyroptosis is characterized by the activation of the caspase-1/IL-1β pathway subsequently leading to cell death, Müller cells seem to be a prime candidate for this form of inflammation-driven cell death. Considering that diabetic retinopathy is now discussed to potentially be a chronic inflammatory disease, pyroptotic cell death might play an important role in disease progression. Understanding mechanisms of cell death will lead to a more targeted approach in the development of new therapies to treat diabetic retinopathy. PMID:24672740

  4. Raloxifene induces cell death and inhibits proliferation through multiple signaling pathways in prostate cancer cells expressing different levels of estrogen receptor α and β.

    PubMed

    Rossi, V; Bellastella, G; De Rosa, C; Abbondanza, C; Visconti, D; Maione, L; Chieffi, P; Della Ragione, F; Prezioso, D; De Bellis, A; Bellastella, A; Sinisi, A A

    2011-05-01

    Raloxifene (RAL), a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator (SERM) seems to induce apoptosis in both androgen-dependent and -independent prostate cell (PC) lines via activation of ERβ and an antagonistic effect on ERα. In this study, we evaluated the effects of RAL on epithelial PC growth using the two following in vitro models: the androgen-dependent cell line EPN which expressed both ERs; and a stabilized epithelial cell line derived from a prostate cancer specimen (CPEC), which expressed low levels of ERβ and lacked ERα. In EPN cells, there was an increase in the pre-G1 apoptotic peak and a reduction in the S phase of the cell cycle with G0/G1 arrest after E2 or RAL treatment; bcl-2 mRNA and Bcl-2 protein levels were significantly reduced, while activated caspase-3 and Par-4 levels increased significantly after either E2 or RAL treatment; in addition, c-myc transcript was inhibited after 10(-6)  M RAL treatment. A dose-dependent increase of metallothionein II gene RNA level was also induced by RAL in EPN. In CPEC, there was only a weak apoptotic peak associated with caspase-3 activation and Par-4 increase after either E2 or RAL treatment; while c-myc transcript level increased. RAL induced a rapid but transient phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 in EPN cells but generated a sustained effect in CPEC. These findings suggest that RAL effects on PC growth control in vitro are cell-specific, depending on ERβ or ERβ/ERα relative expression levels. Moreover, this study demonstrated that RAL affected both transcriptional regulation and non-genomic signals, which resulted in the modulation of multiple signaling pathways of apoptosis and of cell cycle progression. PMID:20945400

  5. Metabolic control of cell death

    PubMed Central

    Green, Douglas R.; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Summary Beyond their contribution to basic metabolism, the major cellular organelles, in particular mitochondria, can determine whether cells respond to stress in an adaptive or suicidal manner. Thus, mitochondria can continuously adapt their shape to changing bioenergetic demands as they are subjected to quality control by autophagy, or they can undergo a lethal permeabilization process that initiates apoptosis. Along similar lines, multiple proteins involved in metabolic circuitries including oxidative phosphorylation and transport of metabolites across membranes may participate in the regulated or catastrophic dismantling of organelles. Many factors that were initially characterized as cell death regulators are now known to physically or functionally interact with metabolic enzymes. Thus, several metabolic cues regulate the propensity of cells to activate self-destructive programs, in part by acting on nutrient sensors. This suggests the existence of “metabolic checkpoints” that dictate cell fate in response to metabolic fluctuations. Here, we discuss recent insights into the intersection between metabolism and cell death regulation that have major implications for the comprehension and manipulation of unwarranted cell loss. PMID:25237106

  6. Photoreceptor cell death and rescue in retinal detachment and degenerations

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Yusuke; Notomi, Shoji; Hisatomi, Toshio; Nakazawa, Toru; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Miller, Joan W.; Vavvas, Demetrios G.

    2013-01-01

    Photoreceptor cell death is the ultimate cause of vision loss in various retinal disorders, including retinal detachment (RD). Photoreceptor cell death has been thought to occur mainly through apoptosis, which is the most characterized form of programmed cell death. The caspase family of cysteine proteases plays a central role for inducing apoptosis, and in experimental models of RD, dying photoreceptor cells exhibit caspase activation; however, there is a paradox that caspase inhibition alone does not provide a sufficient protection against photoreceptor cell loss, suggesting that other mechanisms of cell death are involved. Recent accumulating evidence demonstrates that non-apoptotic forms of cell death, such as autophagy and necrosis, are also regulated by specific molecular machinery, such as those mediated by autophagy-related proteins and receptor-interacting protein kinases, respectively. Here we summarize the current knowledge of cell death signaling and its roles in photoreceptor cell death after RD and other retinal degenerative diseases. A body of studies indicate that not only apoptotic but also autophagic and necrotic signaling are involved in photoreceptor cell death, and that combined targeting of these pathways may be an effective neuroprotective strategy for retinal diseases associated with photoreceptor cell loss. PMID:23994436

  7. Glutamate Increases In Vitro Survival and Proliferation and Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Induced Cell Death in Adult Spinal Cord-Derived Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells via Non-NMDA Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors.

    PubMed

    Hachem, Laureen D; Mothe, Andrea J; Tator, Charles H

    2016-08-15

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to a cascade of secondary chemical insults, including oxidative stress and glutamate excitotoxicity, which damage host neurons and glia. Transplantation of exogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) has shown promise in enhancing regeneration after SCI, although survival of transplanted cells remains poor. Understanding the response of NSPCs to the chemical mediators of secondary injury is essential in finding therapies to enhance survival. We examined the in vitro effects of glutamate and glutamate receptor agonists on adult rat spinal cord-derived NSPCs. NSPCs isolated from the periventricular region of the adult rat spinal cord were exposed to various concentrations of glutamate for 96 h. We found that glutamate treatment (500 μM) for 96 h significantly increased live cell numbers, reduced cell death, and increased proliferation, but did not significantly alter cell phenotype. Concurrent glutamate treatment (500 μM) in the setting of H2O2 exposure (500 μM) for 10 h increased NSPC survival compared to H2O2 exposure alone. The effects of glutamate on NSPCs were blocked by the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)/kainate receptor antagonist GYKI-52466, but not by the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antagonist MK-801 or DL-AP5, or the mGluR3 antagonist LY-341495. Furthermore, treatment of NSPCs with AMPA, kainic acid, or the kainate receptor-specific agonist (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-tert-butylisoxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid mimicked the responses seen with glutamate both alone and in the setting of oxidative stress. These findings offer important insights into potential mechanisms to enhance NSPC survival and implicate a potential role for glutamate in promoting NSPC survival and proliferation after traumatic SCI. PMID:27316370

  8. Melatonin inhibits the caspase-1/cytochrome c/caspase-3 cell death pathway, inhibits MT1 receptor loss and delays disease progression in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Cook, Anna; Kim, Jinho; Baranov, Sergei V.; Jiang, Jiying; Smith, Karen; Cormier, Kerry; Bennett, Erik; Browser, Robert P.; Day, Arthur L.; Carlisle, Diane; Ferrante, Robert J.; Wang, Xin; Friedlander, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Caspase-mediated cell death contributes to the pathogenesis of motor neuron degeneration in the mutant SOD1G93A transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), along with other factors such as inflammation and oxidative damage. By screening a drug library, we found that melatonin, a pineal hormone, inhibited cytochrome c release in purified mitochondria and prevented cell death in cultured neurons. In this study, we evaluated whether melatonin would slow disease progression in SOD1G93A mice. We demonstrate that melatonin significantly delayed disease onset, neurological deterioration and mortality in ALS mice. ALS-associated ventral horn atrophy and motor neuron death were also inhibited by melatonin treatment. Melatonin inhibited Rip2/caspase-1 pathway activation, blocked the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, and reduced the overexpression and activation of caspase-3. Moreover, for the first time, we determined that disease progression was associated with the loss of both melatonin and the melatonin receptor 1A (MT1) in the spinal cord of ALS mice. These results demonstrate that melatonin is neuroprotective in transgenic ALS mice, and this protective effect is mediated through its effects on the caspase-mediated cell death pathway. Furthermore, our data suggest that melatonin and MT1 receptor loss may play a role in the pathological phenotype observed in ALS. The above observations indicate that melatonin and modulation of Rip2/caspase-1/cytochrome c or MT1 pathways may be promising therapeutic approaches for ALS. PMID:23537713

  9. Cell death in the nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Bredesen, Dale E.; Rao, Rammohan V.; Mehlen, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease trigger neuronal cell death through endogenous suicide pathways. Surprisingly, although the cell death itself may occur relatively late in the course of the degenerative process, the mediators of the underlying cell-death pathways have shown promise as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:17051206

  10. Cell death in the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Murray; Bennett, Martin; Littlewood, Trevor

    2007-01-01

    Cell death is important for both development and tissue homeostasis in the adult. As such, it is tightly controlled and deregulation is associated with diverse pathologies; for example, regulated cell death is involved in vessel remodelling during development or following injury, but deregulated death is implicated in pathologies such as atherosclerosis, aneurysm formation, ischaemic and dilated cardiomyopathies and infarction. We describe the mechanisms of cell death and its role in the normal physiology and various pathologies of the cardiovascular system. PMID:16547202

  11. [Morphological and biochemical criteria for cell death].

    PubMed

    Chernikov, V P; Belousova, T A; Kakturskiĭ, L V

    2010-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of classifications of and criteria for cell death in the light of the 2009 recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death is presented as a lecture. Motivation is given for the necessity of using the unified criteria in the description of cell death and more than one study in its verification. The major structural and biochemical signs of four typical types of cell death--apoptosis, autophagia, keratinization, and necrosis are compared. Data are given on the major atypical forms of cell death--mitotic catastrophe, anoikis, exitotoxicity, Wallerian degeneration, paraptosis, pyroptosis, pyronecrosis, and entosis. PMID:20734836

  12. Pathogen Tactics to Manipulate Plant Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, M Shahid; McCormack, Maggie E; Argueso, Cristiana T; Pajerowska-Mukhtar, Karolina M

    2016-07-11

    Cell death is a vital process for multicellular organisms. Programmed cell death (PCD) functions in a variety of processes including growth, development, and immune responses for homeostasis maintenance. In particular, plants and animals utilize PCD to control pathogen invasion and infected cell populations. Despite some similarity, there are a number of key differences between how these organisms initiate and regulate cell death. In contrast to animals, plants are sessile, lack a circulatory system, and have additional cellular structures, including cell walls and chloroplasts. Plant cells have the autonomous ability to induce localized cell death using conserved eukaryotic pathways as well as unique plant-specific pathways. Thus, in order to successfully infect host cells, pathogens must subvert immune responses and avoid detection to prevent PCD and allow infection. Here we discuss the roles of cell death in plant immune responses and the tactics pathogens utilize to avert cell death. PMID:27404256

  13. How cell death shapes cancer

    PubMed Central

    Labi, V; Erlacher, M

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis has been established as a mechanism of anti-cancer defense. Members of the BCL-2 family are critical mediators of apoptotic cell death in health and disease, often found to be deregulated in cancer and believed to lead to the survival of malignant clones. However, over the years, a number of studies pointed out that a model in which cell death resistance unambiguously acts as a barrier against malignant disease might be too simple. This is based on paradoxical observations made in tumor patients as well as mouse models indicating that apoptosis can indeed drive tumor formation, at least under certain circumstances. One possible explanation for this phenomenon is that apoptosis can promote proliferation critically needed to compensate for cell loss, for example, upon therapy, and to restore tissue homeostasis. However, this, at the same time, can promote tumor development by allowing expansion of selected clones. Usually, tissue resident stem/progenitor cells are a major source for repopulation, some of them potentially carrying (age-, injury- or therapy-induced) genetic aberrations deleterious for the host. Thereby, apoptosis might drive genomic instability by facilitating the emergence of pathologic clones during phases of proliferation and subsequent replication stress-associated DNA damage. Tumorigenesis initiated by repeated cell attrition and repopulation, as confirmed in different genetic models, has parallels in human cancers, exemplified in therapy-induced secondary malignancies and myelodysplastic syndromes in patients with congenital bone marrow failure syndromes. Here, we aim to review evidence in support of the oncogenic role of stress-induced apoptosis. PMID:25741600

  14. Apoptotic Cell Death in Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuanyuan; Nakagawara, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is one of the most common malignant solid tumors in childhood, which derives from the sympathoadrenal lineage of the neural crest and exhibits extremely heterogeneous biological and clinical behaviors. The infant patients frequently undergo spontaneous regression even with metastatic disease, whereas the patients of more than one year of age who suffer from disseminated disease have a poor outcome despite intensive multimodal treatment. Spontaneous regression in favorable NBs has been proposed to be triggered by nerve growth factor (NGF) deficiency in the tumor with NGF dependency for survival, while aggressive NBs have defective apoptotic machinery which enables the tumor cells to evade apoptosis and confers the resistance to treatment. This paper reviews the molecules and pathways that have been recently identified to be involved in apoptotic cell death in NB and discusses their potential prospects for developing more effective therapeutic strategies against aggressive NB. PMID:24709709

  15. Extracellular mtDNA activates NF-κB via toll-like receptor 9 and induces cell death in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Bliksøen, Marte; Mariero, Lars Henrik; Torp, May Kristin; Baysa, Anton; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Haugen, Fred; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Vaage, Jarle; Valen, Guro; Stensløkken, Kåre-Olav

    2016-07-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) causes sterile inflammation, which exacerbates tissue injury. Elevated levels of circulating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been associated with AMI. We hypothesized that mtDNA triggers an innate immune response via TLR9 and NF-κB activation, causing cardiomyocyte injury. Murine cardiomyocytes express TLR9 mRNA and protein and were able to internalize fluorescently labeled mouse mtDNA. Incubation of human embryonic kidney cells with serum from AMI patients containing naturally elevated levels of mtDNA induced TLR9-dependent NF-κB activity. This effect was mimicked by isolated mtDNA. mtDNA activated NF-κB in reporter mice both in vivo and in isolated cardiomyocytes. Moreover, incubation of isolated cardiomyocytes with mtDNA induced cell death after 4 and 24 h. Laser confocal microscopy showed that incubation of cardiomyocytes with mtDNA accelerated mitochondrial depolarization induced by reactive oxygen species. In contrast to mtDNA, isolated total DNA did not activate NF-κB nor induce cell death. In conclusion, mtDNA can induce TLR9-dependent NF-κB activation in reporter cells and activate NF-κB in cardiomyocytes. In cardiomyocytes, mtDNA causes mitochondrial dysfunction and death. Endogenous mtDNA in the extracellular space is a danger signal with direct detrimental effects on cardiomyocytes. PMID:27164906

  16. Detection of Cell Death in Drosophila Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, Deepika; Ryoo, Hyung Don

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila has served as a particularly attractive model to study cell death due to the vast array of tools for genetic manipulation under defined spatial and temporal conditions in vivo as well as in cultured cells. These genetic methods have been well supplemented by enzymatic assays and a panel of antibodies recognizing cell death markers. This chapter discusses reporters, mutants and assays used by various laboratories to study cell death in the context of development and in response to external insults. PMID:27108437

  17. The Fas-FADD Death Domain Complex Structure Unravels Signalling by Receptor Clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, F.; Stec, B; Pop, C; Dobaczewska, M; Lee, J; Monosov, E; Robinson, H; Salvesen, G; Schwarzenbacher, R; Riedl, S

    2009-01-01

    The death inducing signalling complex (DISC) formed by Fas receptor, FADD (Fas-associated death domain protein) and caspase 8 is a pivotal trigger of apoptosis1, 2, 3. The Fas-FADD DISC represents a receptor platform, which once assembled initiates the induction of programmed cell death. A highly oligomeric network of homotypic protein interactions comprised of the death domains of Fas and FADD is at the centre of DISC formation4, 5. Thus, characterizing the mechanistic basis for the Fas-FADD interaction is crucial for understanding DISC signalling but has remained unclear largely because of a lack of structural data. We have successfully formed and isolated the human Fas-FADD death domain complex and report the 2.7 A crystal structure. The complex shows a tetrameric arrangement of four FADD death domains bound to four Fas death domains. We show that an opening of the Fas death domain exposes the FADD binding site and simultaneously generates a Fas-Fas bridge. The result is a regulatory Fas-FADD complex bridge governed by weak protein-protein interactions revealing a model where the complex itself functions as a mechanistic switch. This switch prevents accidental DISC assembly, yet allows for highly processive DISC formation and clustering upon a sufficient stimulus. In addition to depicting a previously unknown mode of death domain interactions, these results further uncover a mechanism for receptor signalling solely by oligomerization and clustering events.

  18. What cell death does in development.

    PubMed

    Zakeri, Zahra; Penaloza, Carlos G; Smith, Kyle; Ye, Yixia; Lockshin, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Cell death is prominent in gametogenesis and shapes and sculpts embryos. In non-mammalian embryos one sees little or no cell death prior to the maternal-zygotic transition, but, in mammalian embryos, characteristic deaths of one or two cells occur at the end of compaction and are apparently necessary for the separation of the trophoblast from the inner cell mass. Considerable sculpting of the embryo occurs by cell deaths during organogenesis, and appropriate cell numbers, especially in the CNS and in the immune system, are generated by massive overproduction of cells and selection of a few, with death of the rest. The timing, identity, and genetic control of specific cells that die have been well documented in Caenorhabditis, but in other embryos the stochastic nature of the deaths limit our ability to do more than identify the regions in which cells will die. Complete disruption of the cell death machinery can be lethal, but many mutations of the regulatory machinery yield only modest or no phenotypes, indicating substantial redundancy and compensation of regulatory mechanisms. Most of the deaths are apoptotic and are identified by techniques used to recognize apoptosis, but techniques identifying lysosomes (whether in dying or involuting cells or in the phagocytes that invade the tissue) also reveal patterns of cell death. Aberrant cell deaths that produce known phenotypes are typically localized, indicating that the mechanism of activating a programmed death in a specific region, rather than the mechanism of death, is aberrant. These results lead us to conclude that we need to know much more about the conversations among cells that lead cells to commit suicide. PMID:26374521

  19. Molecular definitions of cell death subroutines: recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death 2012

    PubMed Central

    Galluzzi, L; Vitale, I; Abrams, J M; Alnemri, E S; Baehrecke, E H; Blagosklonny, M V; Dawson, T M; Dawson, V L; El-Deiry, W S; Fulda, S; Gottlieb, E; Green, D R; Hengartner, M O; Kepp, O; Knight, R A; Kumar, S; Lipton, S A; Lu, X; Madeo, F; Malorni, W; Mehlen, P; Nuñez, G; Peter, M E; Piacentini, M; Rubinsztein, D C; Shi, Y; Simon, H-U; Vandenabeele, P; White, E; Yuan, J; Zhivotovsky, B; Melino, G; Kroemer, G

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) proposed a set of recommendations for the definition of distinct cell death morphologies and for the appropriate use of cell death-related terminology, including ‘apoptosis', ‘necrosis' and ‘mitotic catastrophe'. In view of the substantial progress in the biochemical and genetic exploration of cell death, time has come to switch from morphological to molecular definitions of cell death modalities. Here we propose a functional classification of cell death subroutines that applies to both in vitro and in vivo settings and includes extrinsic apoptosis, caspase-dependent or -independent intrinsic apoptosis, regulated necrosis, autophagic cell death and mitotic catastrophe. Moreover, we discuss the utility of expressions indicating additional cell death modalities. On the basis of the new, revised NCCD classification, cell death subroutines are defined by a series of precise, measurable biochemical features. PMID:21760595

  20. Induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) enzymatic activity contributes to interferon-gamma induced apoptosis and death receptor 5 expression in human non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ting Wen; Tan, Kok-Tong; Chan, Hong-Lin; Lai, Ming-Derg; Yen, Meng-Chi; Li, Yi-Ron; Lin, Sheng Hao; Lin, Chi-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) has been used to treat various malignant tumors. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the direct anti-proliferative activity of IFN-γ are poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the in vitro antitumor activity of IFN-γ on two human non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell lines, H322M and H226. Our findings indicated that IFN-γ treatment caused a time-dependent reduction in cell viability and induced apoptosis through a FADD-mediated caspase-8/tBid/mitochondria-dependent pathway in both cell lines. Notably, we also postulated that IFN-γ increased indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) expression and enzymatic activity in H322M and H226 cells. In addition, inhibition of IDO activity by the IDO inhibitor 1-MT or tryptophan significantly reduced IFN-γ-induced apoptosis and death receptor 5 (DR5) expression, which suggests that IDO enzymatic activity plays an important role in the anti-NSCLC cancer effect of IFN-γ. These results provide new mechanistic insights into interferon-γ antitumor activity and further support IFN-γ as a potential therapeutic adjuvant for the treatment of NCSLC. PMID:25292102

  1. A novel mechanism of autophagic cell death in dystrophic muscle regulated by P2RX7 receptor large-pore formation and HSP90

    PubMed Central

    Young, Christopher NJ; Sinadinos, Anthony; Lefebvre, Alexis; Chan, Philippe; Arkle, Stephen; Vaudry, David; Gorecki, Dariusz C

    2015-01-01

    P2RX7 is an ATP-gated ion channel, which can also exhibit an open state with a considerably wider permeation. However, the functional significance of the movement of molecules through the large pore (LP) and the intracellular signaling events involved are not known. Here, analyzing the consequences of P2RX7 activation in primary myoblasts and myotubes from the Dmdmdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, we found ATP-induced P2RX7-dependent autophagic flux, leading to CASP3-CASP7-independent cell death. P2RX7-evoked autophagy was triggered by LP formation but not Ca2+ influx or MAPK1-MAPK3 phosphorylation, 2 canonical P2RX7-evoked signals. Phosphoproteomics, protein expression inference and signaling pathway prediction analysis of P2RX7 signaling mediators pointed to HSPA2 and HSP90 proteins. Indeed, specific HSP90 inhibitors prevented LP formation, LC3-II accumulation, and cell death in myoblasts and myotubes but not in macrophages. Pharmacological blockade or genetic ablation of p2rx7 also proved protective against ATP-induced death of muscle cells, as did inhibition of autophagy with 3-MA. The functional significance of the P2RX7 LP is one of the great unknowns of purinergic signaling. Our data demonstrate a novel outcome—autophagy—and show that molecules entering through the LP can be targeted to phagophores. Moreover, we show that in muscles but not in macrophages, autophagy is needed for the formation of this LP. Given that P2RX7-dependent LP and HSP90 are critically interacting in the ATP-evoked autophagic death of dystrophic muscles, treatments targeting this axis could be of therapeutic benefit in this debilitating and incurable form of muscular dystrophy. PMID:25700737

  2. A novel mechanism of autophagic cell death in dystrophic muscle regulated by P2RX7 receptor large-pore formation and HSP90.

    PubMed

    Young, Christopher N J; Sinadinos, Anthony; Lefebvre, Alexis; Chan, Philippe; Arkle, Stephen; Vaudry, David; Gorecki, Dariusz C

    2015-01-01

    P2RX7 is an ATP-gated ion channel, which can also exhibit an open state with a considerably wider permeation. However, the functional significance of the movement of molecules through the large pore (LP) and the intracellular signaling events involved are not known. Here, analyzing the consequences of P2RX7 activation in primary myoblasts and myotubes from the Dmd(mdx) mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, we found ATP-induced P2RX7-dependent autophagic flux, leading to CASP3-CASP7-independent cell death. P2RX7-evoked autophagy was triggered by LP formation but not Ca(2+) influx or MAPK1-MAPK3 phosphorylation, 2 canonical P2RX7-evoked signals. Phosphoproteomics, protein expression inference and signaling pathway prediction analysis of P2RX7 signaling mediators pointed to HSPA2 and HSP90 proteins. Indeed, specific HSP90 inhibitors prevented LP formation, LC3-II accumulation, and cell death in myoblasts and myotubes but not in macrophages. Pharmacological blockade or genetic ablation of p2rx7 also proved protective against ATP-induced death of muscle cells, as did inhibition of autophagy with 3-MA. The functional significance of the P2RX7 LP is one of the great unknowns of purinergic signaling. Our data demonstrate a novel outcome--autophagy--and show that molecules entering through the LP can be targeted to phagophores. Moreover, we show that in muscles but not in macrophages, autophagy is needed for the formation of this LP. Given that P2RX7-dependent LP and HSP90 are critically interacting in the ATP-evoked autophagic death of dystrophic muscles, treatments targeting this axis could be of therapeutic benefit in this debilitating and incurable form of muscular dystrophy. PMID:25700737

  3. Programmed Cell Death During Caenorhabditis elegans Development.

    PubMed

    Conradt, Barbara; Wu, Yi-Chun; Xue, Ding

    2016-08-01

    Programmed cell death is an integral component of Caenorhabditis elegans development. Genetic and reverse genetic studies in C. elegans have led to the identification of many genes and conserved cell death pathways that are important for the specification of which cells should live or die, the activation of the suicide program, and the dismantling and removal of dying cells. Molecular, cell biological, and biochemical studies have revealed the underlying mechanisms that control these three phases of programmed cell death. In particular, the interplay of transcriptional regulatory cascades and networks involving multiple transcriptional regulators is crucial in activating the expression of the key death-inducing gene egl-1 and, in some cases, the ced-3 gene in cells destined to die. A protein interaction cascade involving EGL-1, CED-9, CED-4, and CED-3 results in the activation of the key cell death protease CED-3, which is tightly controlled by multiple positive and negative regulators. The activation of the CED-3 caspase then initiates the cell disassembly process by cleaving and activating or inactivating crucial CED-3 substrates; leading to activation of multiple cell death execution events, including nuclear DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial elimination, phosphatidylserine externalization, inactivation of survival signals, and clearance of apoptotic cells. Further studies of programmed cell death in C. elegans will continue to advance our understanding of how programmed cell death is regulated, activated, and executed in general. PMID:27516615

  4. The Capsicum annuum class IV chitinase ChitIV interacts with receptor-like cytoplasmic protein kinase PIK1 to accelerate PIK1-triggered cell death and defence responses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Sung; Kim, Nak Hyun; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2015-01-01

    The pepper receptor-like cytoplasmic protein kinase, CaPIK1, which mediates signalling of plant cell death and defence responses was previously identified. Here, the identification of a class IV chitinase, CaChitIV, from pepper plants (Capsicum annuum), which interacts with CaPIK1 and promotes CaPIK1-triggered cell death and defence responses, is reported. CaChitIV contains a signal peptide, chitin-binding domain, and glycol hydrolase domain. CaChitIV expression was up-regulated by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) infection. Notably, avirulent Xcv infection rapidly induced CaChitIV expression in pepper leaves. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation revealed that CaPIK1 interacts with CaChitIV in planta, and that the CaPIK1–CaChitIV complex is localized mainly in the cytoplasm and plasma membrane. CaChitIV is also localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Transient co-expression of CaChitIV with CaPIK1 enhanced CaPIK1-triggered cell death response and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) bursts. Co-silencing of both CaChitIV and CaPIK1 in pepper plants conferred enhanced susceptibility to Xcv infection, which was accompanied by a reduced induction of cell death response, ROS and NO bursts, and defence response genes. Ectopic expression of CaPIK1 in Arabidopsis enhanced basal resistance to Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis infection. Together, the results suggest that CaChitIV positively regulates CaPIK1-triggered cell death and defence responses through its interaction with CaPIK1. PMID:25694549

  5. Cell death regulates muscle fiber number.

    PubMed

    Sarkissian, Tatevik; Arya, Richa; Gyonjyan, Seda; Taylor, Barbara; White, Kristin

    2016-07-01

    Cell death can have both cell autonomous and non-autonomous roles in normal development. Previous studies have shown that the central cell death regulators grim and reaper are required for the developmentally important elimination of stem cells and neurons in the developing central nervous system (CNS). Here we show that cell death in the nervous system is also required for normal muscle development. In the absence of grim and reaper, there is an increase in the number of fibers in the ventral abdominal muscles in the Drosophila adult. This phenotype can be partially recapitulated by inhibition of cell death specifically in the CNS, indicating a non-autonomous role for neuronal death in limiting muscle fiber number. We also show that FGFs produced in the cell death defective nervous system are required for the increase in muscle fiber number. Cell death in the muscle lineage during pupal stages also plays a role in specifying fiber number. Our work suggests that FGFs from the CNS act as a survival signal for muscle founder cells. Thus, proper muscle fiber specification requires cell death in both the nervous system and in the developing muscle itself. PMID:27131625

  6. Maslinic Acid, a Natural Triterpene, Induces a Death Receptor-Mediated Apoptotic Mechanism in Caco-2 p53-Deficient Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Zurita, Fernando J.; Rufino-Palomares, Eva E.; García-Salguero, Leticia; Peragón, Juan; Medina, Pedro P.; Parra, Andrés; Cascante, Marta; Lupiáñez, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Maslinic acid (MA) is a natural triterpene present in high concentrations in the waxy skin of olives. We have previously reported that MA induces apoptotic cell death via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in HT29 colon cancer cells. Here, we show that MA induces apoptosis in Caco-2 colon cancer cells via the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in a dose-dependent manner. MA triggered a series of effects associated with apoptosis, including the cleavage of caspases -8 and -3, and increased the levels of t-Bid within a few hours of its addition to the culture medium. MA had no effect on the expression of the Bax protein, release of cytochrome-c or on the mitochondrial membrane potential. This suggests that MA triggered the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in this cell type, as opposed to the intrinsic pathway found in the HT29 colon-cancer cell line. Our results suggest that the apoptotic mechanism induced in Caco-2 may be different from that found in HT29 colon-cancer cells, and that in Caco-2 cells MA seems to work independently of p53. Natural antitumoral agents capable of activating both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways could be of great use in treating colon-cancer of whatever origin. PMID:26751572

  7. Nonthermal-plasma-mediated animal cell death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wanil; Woo, Kyung-Chul; Kim, Gyoo-Cheon; Kim, Kyong-Tai

    2011-01-01

    Animal cell death comprising necrosis and apoptosis occurred in a well-regulated manner upon specific stimuli. The physiological meanings and detailed molecular mechanisms of cell death have been continuously investigated over several decades. Necrotic cell death has typical morphological changes, such as cell swelling and cell lysis followed by DNA degradation, whereas apoptosis shows blebbing formation and regular DNA fragmentation. Cell death is usually adopted to terminate cancer cells in vivo. The current strategies against tumour are based on the induction of cell death by adopting various methods, including radiotherapy and chemotherapeutics. Among these, radiotherapy is the most frequently used treatment method, but it still has obvious limitations. Recent studies have suggested that the use of nonthermal air plasma can be a prominent method for inducing cancer cell death. Plasma-irradiated cells showed the loss of genomic integrity, mitochondrial dysfunction, plasma membrane damage, etc. Tumour elimination with plasma irradiation is an emerging concept in cancer therapy and can be accelerated by targeting certain tumour-specific proteins with gold nanoparticles. Here, some recent developments are described so that the mechanisms related to plasma-mediated cell death and its perspectives in cancer treatment can be understood.

  8. Cadmium-induced cell death of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons mediated by muscarinic M1 receptor blockade, increase in GSK-3β enzyme, β-amyloid and tau protein levels.

    PubMed

    Del Pino, Javier; Zeballos, Gabriela; Anadón, María José; Moyano, Paula; Díaz, María Jesús; García, José Manuel; Frejo, María Teresa

    2016-05-01

    Cadmium is a neurotoxic compound which induces cognitive alterations similar to those produced by Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism through which cadmium induces this effect remains unknown. In this regard, we described in a previous work that cadmium blocks cholinergic transmission and induces a more pronounced cell death on cholinergic neurons from basal forebrain which is partially mediated by AChE overexpression. Degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, as happens in AD, results in memory deficits attributable to the loss of cholinergic modulation of hippocampal synaptic circuits. Moreover, cadmium has been described to activate GSK-3β, induce Aβ protein production and tau filament formation, which have been related to a selective loss of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and development of AD. The present study is aimed at researching the mechanisms of cell death induced by cadmium on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. For this purpose, we evaluated, in SN56 cholinergic mourine septal cell line from basal forebrain region, the cadmium toxic effects on neuronal viability through muscarinic M1 receptor, AChE splice variants, GSK-3β enzyme, Aβ and tau proteins. This study proves that cadmium induces cell death on cholinergic neurons through blockade of M1 receptor, overexpression of AChE-S and GSK-3β, down-regulation of AChE-R and increase in Aβ and total and phosphorylated tau protein levels. Our present results provide new understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the harmful effects of cadmium on cholinergic neurons and suggest that cadmium could mediate these mechanisms by M1R blockade through AChE splices altered expression. PMID:26026611

  9. Zyflamend Sensitizes Tumor Cells to TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis Through Up-Regulation of Death Receptors and Down-Regulation of Survival Proteins: Role of ROS-Dependent CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Protein-Homologous Protein Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hye; Park, Byoungduck; Gupta, Subash C.; Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Sung, Bokyung

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aim: TNF (tumor necrosis factor)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), is a selective killer of tumor cells, although its potential is limited by the development of resistance. In this article, we investigated whether the polyherbal preparation Zyflamend® can sensitize tumor cells to TRAIL. Results: We found that Zyflamend potentiated TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human cancer cells. Zyflamend manifested its effects through several mechanisms. First, it down-regulated the expression of cell survival proteins known to be linked to resistance to TRAIL. Second, Zyflamend up-regulated the expression of pro-apoptotic protein, Bax. Third, Zyflamend up-regulated the expression of death receptors (DRs) for TRAIL. Up-regulation of DRs was critical as gene-silencing of these receptors significantly reduced the effect of Zyflamend on TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The up-regulation of DRs was dependent on CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP), as Zyflamend induced CHOP, its gene-silencing abolished the induction of receptors, and mutation of the CHOP binding site on DR5 promoter abolished Zyflamend-mediated DR5 transactivation. Zyflamend mediated its effects through reactive oxygen species (ROS), as ROS quenching reduced its effect. Further, Zyflamend induced DR5 and CHOP and down-regulated the expression of cell survival proteins in nude mice bearing human pancreatic cancer cells. Innovation: Zyflamend can sensitize tumor cells to TRAIL through modulation of multiple cell signaling mechanisms that are linked to ROS. Conclusion: Zyflamend potentiates TRAIL-induced apoptosis through the ROS-CHOP-mediated up-regulation of DRs, increase in pro-apoptotic protein and down-regulation of cell survival proteins. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 413–427. PMID:22004570

  10. Attenuation of Aβ{sub 25–35}-induced parallel autophagic and apoptotic cell death by gypenoside XVII through the estrogen receptor-dependent activation of Nrf2/ARE pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Xiangbao; Wang, Min; Sun, Guibo; Ye, Jingxue; Zhou, Yanhui; Dong, Xi; Wang, Tingting; Lu, Shan; Sun, Xiaobo

    2014-08-15

    Amyloid-beta (Aβ) has a pivotal function in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. To investigate Aβ neurotoxicity, we used an in vitro model that involves Aβ{sub 25–35}-induced cell death in the nerve growth factor-induced differentiation of PC12 cells. Aβ{sub 25–35} (20 μM) treatment for 24 h caused apoptotic cell death, as evidenced by significant cell viability reduction, LDH release, phosphatidylserine externalization, mitochondrial membrane potential disruption, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, PARP cleavage, and DNA fragmentation in PC12 cells. Aβ{sub 25–35} treatment led to autophagic cell death, as evidenced by augmented GFP-LC3 puncta, conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II, and increased LC3-II/LC3-I ratio. Aβ{sub 25–35} treatment induced oxidative stress, as evidenced by intracellular ROS accumulation and increased production of mitochondrial superoxide, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, and 8-OHdG. Phytoestrogens have been proved to be protective against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity and regarded as relatively safe targets for AD drug development. Gypenoside XVII (GP-17) is a novel phytoestrogen isolated from Gynostemma pentaphyllum or Panax notoginseng. Pretreatment with GP-17 (10 μM) for 12 h increased estrogen response element reporter activity, activated PI3K/Akt pathways, inhibited GSK-3β, induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, augmented antioxidant responsive element enhancer activity, upregulated heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression and activity, and provided protective effects against Aβ{sub 25–35}-induced neurotoxicity, including oxidative stress, apoptosis, and autophagic cell death. In conclusion, GP-17 conferred protection against Aβ{sub 25–35}-induced neurotoxicity through estrogen receptor-dependent activation of PI3K/Akt pathways, inactivation of GSK-3β and activation of Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 pathways. This finding might provide novel insights into understanding the mechanism for neuroprotective effects of phytoestrogens or

  11. Targeting Cell Death Pathways for Therapeutic Intervention in Kidney Diseases.

    PubMed

    Garg, Jay P; Vucic, Domagoj

    2016-05-01

    Precise regulation of cell death and survival is essential for proper maintenance of organismal homeostasis, development, and the immune system. Deregulated cell death can lead to developmental defects, neuropathies, infections, and cancer. Kidney diseases, especially acute pathologies linked to ischemia-reperfusion injury, are among illnesses that profoundly are affected by improper regulation or execution of cell death pathways. Attempts to develop medicines for kidney diseases have been impacted by the complexity of these pathologies given the heterogeneous patient population and diverse etiologies. By analyzing cell death pathways activated in kidney diseases, we attempt to differentiate their importance for these pathologies with a goal of identifying those that have more profound impact and the best therapeutic potential. Although classic apoptosis still might be important, regulated necrosis pathways including necroptosis, ferroptosis, parthanatos, and mitochondrial permeability transition-associated cell death play a significantly role in kidney diseases, especially in acute kidney pathologies. Although targeting receptor-interacting protein 1 kinase appears to be the best therapeutic strategy, combination with inhibitors of other cell death pathways is likely to bring superior benefit and possible cure to patients suffering from kidney diseases. PMID:27339381

  12. [Programmed cell death comes in many flavors].

    PubMed

    Cabon, Lauriane; Martinez-Torres, Ana-Carolina; Susin, Santos A

    2013-12-01

    Apoptosis is nowadays what comes first to your scientist mind when someone mentions cellular suicide. However this is not the sole form of programmed cell death and many other alternative or atypical pathways have now been described. These pathways are indeed rather preferred to apoptosis in some instances based on tissue origin, cell type or development stage of the target cell. In this review, we describe many different programmed cell death subtypes according to their characteristics. Discrete, brutal, final or singular cell death pathways all participate in the elimination of unwanted, damaged or dangerous cells in organisms hence contributing to our knowledge of this particular feature of living beings: dying! Through description of anoikis, necroptosis, entosis, netosis, pyroptosis or ferroptosis, we have no choice but to realize that programmed cell death comes in many flavors. PMID:24356142

  13. Joint aging and chondrocyte cell death

    PubMed Central

    Grogan, Shawn P; D’Lima, Darryl D

    2010-01-01

    Articular cartilage extracellular matrix and cell function change with age and are considered to be the most important factors in the development and progression of osteoarthritis. The multifaceted nature of joint disease indicates that the contribution of cell death can be an important factor at early and late stages of osteoarthritis. Therefore, the pharmacologic inhibition of cell death is likely to be clinically valuable at any stage of the disease. In this article, we will discuss the close association between diverse changes in cartilage aging, how altered conditions influence chondrocyte death, and the implications of preventing cell loss to retard osteoarthritis progression and preserve tissue homeostasis. PMID:20671988

  14. Cell death independent of caspases: a review.

    PubMed

    Bröker, Linda E; Kruyt, Frank A E; Giaccone, Giuseppe

    2005-05-01

    Patterns of cell death have been divided into apoptosis, which is actively executed by specific proteases, the caspases, and accidental necrosis. However, there is now accumulating evidence indicating that cell death can occur in a programmed fashion but in complete absence and independent of caspase activation. Alternative models of programmed cell death (PCD) have therefore been proposed, including autophagy, paraptosis, mitotic catastrophe, and the descriptive model of apoptosis-like and necrosis-like PCD. Caspase-independent cell death pathways are important safeguard mechanisms to protect the organism against unwanted and potential harmful cells when caspase-mediated routes fail but can also be triggered in response to cytotoxic agents or other death stimuli. As in apoptosis, the mitochondrion can play a key role but also other organelles such as lysosomes and the endoplasmic reticulum have an important function in the release and activation of death factors such as cathepsins, calpains, and other proteases. Here we review the various models of PCD and their death pathways at molecular and organelle level and discuss the relevance of the growing knowledge of caspase-independent cell death pathways for cancer. PMID:15867207

  15. Signaling through C/EBP homologous protein and death receptor 5 and calpain activation differentially regulate THP-1 cell maturation-dependent apoptosis induced by Shiga toxin type 1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moo-Seung; Cherla, Rama P; Lentz, Erin K; Leyva-Illades, Dinorah; Tesh, Vernon L

    2010-08-01

    Shiga toxins (Stxs) induce apoptosis via activation of the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in many cell types. Toxin-mediated activation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response was shown to be instrumental in initiating apoptosis in THP-1 myeloid leukemia cells. THP-1 cells responded to Shiga toxin type 1 (Stx1) in a cell maturation-dependent manner, undergoing rapid apoptosis in the undifferentiated state but reduced and delayed apoptosis in differentiated cells. The onset of apoptosis was associated with calpain activation and changes in expression of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), Bcl-2 family members, and death receptor 5 (DR5). Ligation of DR5 by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) activates the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. We show here that expression of TRAIL and DR5 is increased by Stx1 treatment. Addition of exogenous TRAIL enhances, and anti-TRAIL antibodies inhibit, Stx1-induced apoptosis of THP-1 cells. Silencing of CHOP or DR5 expression selectively prevented caspase activation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and Stx1-induced apoptosis of macrophage-like THP-1 cells. In contrast, the rapid kinetics of apoptosis induction in monocytic THP-1 cells correlated with rates of calpain cleavage. The results suggest that CHOP-DR5 signaling and calpain activation differentially contribute to cell maturation-dependent Stx1-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of these signaling pathways may protect cells from Stx cytotoxicity. PMID:20515924

  16. Staying alive: cell death in antiviral immunity.

    PubMed

    Upton, Jason W; Chan, Francis Ka-Ming

    2014-04-24

    Programmed cell death is an integral part of host defense against invading intracellular pathogens. Apoptosis, programmed necrosis, and pyroptosis each serve to limit pathogen replication in infected cells, while simultaneously promoting the inflammatory and innate responses that shape effective long-term host immunity. The importance of carefully regulated cell death is evident in the spectrum of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders caused by defects in these pathways. Moreover, many viruses encode inhibitors of programmed cell death to subvert these host responses during infection, thereby facilitating their own replication and persistence. Thus, as both virus and cell vie for control of these pathways, the battle for survival has shaped a complex host-pathogen interaction. This review will discuss the multifaceted role that programmed cell death plays in maintaining the immune system and its critical function in host defense, with a special emphasis on viral infections. PMID:24766891

  17. Plant Proteases Involved in Regulated Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Zamyatnin, A A

    2015-12-01

    Each plant genome encodes hundreds of proteolytic enzymes. These enzymes can be divided into five distinct classes: cysteine-, serine-, aspartic-, threonine-, and metalloproteinases. Despite the differences in their structural properties and activities, members of all of these classes in plants are involved in the processes of regulated cell death - a basic feature of eukaryotic organisms. Regulated cell death in plants is an indispensable mechanism supporting plant development, survival, stress responses, and defense against pathogens. This review summarizes recent advances in studies of plant proteolytic enzymes functioning in the initiation and execution of distinct types of regulated cell death. PMID:26878575

  18. Entosis and Related Forms of Cell Death within Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Wang, X-D

    2015-01-01

    By eliminating the unneeded or mutant cells, programmed cell death actively participates in a wide range of biological processes from embryonic development to homeostasis maintenance in adult. Continuing efforts have identified multiple cell death pathways, with apoptosis, necrosis and autophage the mostly studied. Recently a unique cell death pathway called "cell-in-cell death" has been defined. Unlike traditional cell death pathways, cell-in-cell death, characterized by cell death within another cell, is triggered by the invasion of one cell into its neighbor and executed by either lysosome-dependent degradation or caspase-dependent apoptosis. With remarkable progresses on cell-in-cell over past few years, multiple mechanisms, including entosis, cannibalism and emperitosis, are found to be responsible for cell-in-cell death. Some key questions, such as specific biochemical markers to distinguish precisely the properties of different cell-in-cell structures and the physiological and pathological relevance, remain to be addressed. In light of this situation and a surge of interests, leading scientists in this field intend to share with readers current research progresses on cell-in-cell structures from different model systems through this special edition on cell-in-cell. The mechanistic advances will be highlighted while the future researches be speculated. PMID:26511710

  19. Ionic Regulation of Cell Volume Changes and Cell Death after Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Song, Mingke; Yu, Shan Ping

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of human death and disability in the US and around the world. Shortly after the cerebral ischemia, cell swelling is the earliest morphological change in injured neuronal, glial and endothelial cells. Cytotoxic swelling directly results from increased Na+ (with H2O) and Ca2+ influx into cells via ionic mechanisms evoked by membrane depolarization and a number of harmful factors such as glutamate accumulation and the production of oxygen reactive species (ROS). During the sub-acute and chronic phases after ischemia, injured cells may show a phenotype of cell shrinkage due to complex processes involving membrane receptors/channels and programmed cell death signals. This review will introduce some progress in the understanding of the regulation of pathological cell volume changes and the involved receptors and channels, including NMDA and AMPA receptors, acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC), hemichannels, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and KCNQ channels. Moreover, accumulating evidence supports a key role of energy deficiency and dysfunction of Na+/K+-ATPase in ischemia-induced cell volume changes and cell death. Specifically, the Na+ pump failure is a prerequisite for disruption of ionic homeostasis including a pro-apoptotic disruption of the K+ homeostasis. Finally, we will introduce the concept of hybrid cell death as a result of the Na+ pump failure in cultured cells and the ischemic brain. The goal of this review is to outline recent understanding of the ionic mechanism of ischemic cytoxicity and suggest innovative ideas for future translational research. PMID:24323733

  20. Cocaine-Mediated Autophagy in Astrocytes Involves Sigma 1 Receptor, PI3K, mTOR, Atg5/7, Beclin-1 and Induces Type II Programed Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lu; Walker, Mary P; Vaidya, Naveen K; Fu, Mingui; Kumar, Santosh; Kumar, Anil

    2016-09-01

    Cocaine, a commonly used drug of abuse, has been shown to cause neuropathological dysfunction and damage in the human brain. However, the role of autophagy in this process is not defined. Autophagy, generally protective in nature, can also be destructive leading to autophagic cell death. This study was designed to investigate whether cocaine induces autophagy in the cells of CNS origin. We employed astrocyte, the most abundant cell in the CNS, to define the effects of cocaine on autophagy. We measured levels of the autophagic marker protein LC3II in SVGA astrocytes after exposure with cocaine. The results showed that cocaine caused an increase in LC3II level in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with the peak observed at 1 mM cocaine after 6-h exposure. This result was also confirmed by detecting LC3II in SVGA astrocytes using confocal microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Next, we sought to explore the mechanism by which cocaine induces the autophagic response. We found that cocaine-induced autophagy was mediated by sigma 1 receptor, and autophagy signaling proteins p-mTOR, Atg5, Atg7, and p-Bcl-2/Beclin-1 were also involved, and this was confirmed by using selective inhibitors and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). In addition, we found that chronic treatment with cocaine resulted in cell death, which is caspase-3 independent and can be ameliorated by autophagy inhibitor. Therefore, this study demonstrated that cocaine induces autophagy in astrocytes and is associated with autophagic cell death. PMID:26243186

  1. Ayanin diacetate-induced cell death is amplified by TRAIL in human leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Marrero, Maria Teresa; Estevez, Sara; Negrin, Gledy; Quintana, Jose; Leon, Francisco; Estevez, Francisco

    2012-11-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ayanin diacetate as apoptotic inducer in leukemia cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell death was prevented by caspase inhibitors and by the overexpression of Bcl-x{sub L}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The intrinsic and the extrinsic pathways are involved in the mechanism of action. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Death receptors are up-regulated and TRAIL enhances apoptotic cell death. -- Abstract: Here we demonstrate that the semi-synthetic flavonoid ayanin diacetate induces cell death selectively in leukemia cells without affecting the proliferation of normal lymphocytes. Incubation of human leukemia cells with ayanin diacetate induced G{sub 2}-M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis which was prevented by the non-specific caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk and reduced by the overexpression of Bcl-x{sub L}. Ayanin diacetate-induced cell death was found to be associated with: (i) loss of inner mitochondrial membrane potential, (ii) the release of cytochrome c, (iii) the activation of multiple caspases, (iv) cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and (v) the up-regulation of death receptors for TRAIL, DR4 and DR5. Moreover, the combined treatment with ayanin diacetate and TRAIL amplified cell death, compared to single treatments. These results provide a basis for further exploring the potential applications of this combination for the treatment of cancer.

  2. Neuronal cell death in nervous system development, disease, and injury (Review).

    PubMed

    Martin, L J

    2001-05-01

    Neuronal death is normal during nervous system development but is abnormal in brain and spinal cord disease and injury. Apoptosis and necrosis are types of cell death. They are generally considered to be distinct forms of cell death. The re-emergence of apoptosis may contribute to the neuronal degeneration in chronic neurodegenerative disease, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, and in neurological injury such as cerebral ischemia and trauma. There is also mounting evidence supporting an apoptosis-necrosis cell death continuum. In this continuum, neuronal death can result from varying contributions of coexisting apoptotic and necrotic mechanisms; thus, some of the distinctions between apoptosis and necrosis are becoming blurred. Cell culture and animal model systems are revealing the mechanisms of cell death. Necrosis can result from acute oxidative stress. Apoptosis can be induced by cell surface receptor engagement, growth factor withdrawal, and DNA damage. Several families of proteins and specific biochemical signal-transduction pathways regulate cell death. Cell death signaling can involve plasma membrane death receptors, mitochondrial death proteins, proteases, kinases, and transcription factors. Players in the cell death and cell survival orchestra include Fas receptor, Bcl-2 and Bax (and their homologues), cytochrome c, caspases, p53, and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases. Some forms of cell death require gene activation, RNA synthesis, and protein synthesis, whereas others forms are transcriptionally-translationally-independent and are driven by posttranslational mechanisms such as protein phosphorylation and protein translocation. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neuronal cell death in nervous system development, injury and disease can lead to new therapeutic approaches for the prevention of neurodegeneration and neurological disabilities and will expand the field of cell death biology. PMID

  3. Motoneuron Programmed Cell Death in Response to proBDNF

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, AR; Gifondorwa, DJ; Robinson, MB; Strupe, JL; Prevette, D; Johnson, JE; Hempstead, BL; Oppenheim, RW; Milligan, CE

    2011-01-01

    Motoneurons (MN) as well as most neuronal populations undergo a temporally and spatially specific period of programmed cell death (PCD). Several factors have been considered to regulate the survival of MNs during this period, including availability of muscle-derived trophic support and activity. The possibility that target-derived factors may also negatively regulate MN survival has been considered, but not pursued. Neurotrophin precursors, through their interaction with p75NTR and sortilin receptors have been shown to induce cell death during development and following injury in the CNS. In this study, we find that muscle cells produce and secrete proBDNF. ProBDNF through its interaction with p75NTR and sortilin, promotes a caspase-dependent death of MNs in culture. We also provide data to suggest that proBDNF regulates MN PCD during development in vivo. PMID:21834083

  4. Effect of advanced glycation end-products on cell proliferation and cell death.

    PubMed

    Peterszegi, G; Molinari, J; Ravelojaona, V; Robert, L

    2006-09-01

    The effect of advanced glycation end products (AGE-s) was studied on the proliferation and cell death of human skin fibroblasts in culture. Several AGE-products were prepared from proteins, a peptide and amino acids, using Glucose or Fructose, with or without Fe2+. The AGE preparations increased cell death at the 7th day, after only 72 hours of incubation. Some of these glycation products modified also proliferation. This effect of AGE-s was even maintained without these products in fresh medium for a second period of incubation up to 10 days from the start of the experiment. In order to explore the role of AGE-receptors, especially of AGE-receptor and of growth factor receptors (fibroblast and epidermal growth factors receptors), antibodies to these receptors were added to cell cultures and their effect on both cell death and proliferation were determined as for the AGE-s. These anti-receptor antibodies imitated to some extent the results obtained with AGE-s, producing increase of cell death and proliferation, followed above a certain concentration of antibodies by a decrease and a new increase or plateau. This might correspond to the internalization of the receptors followed by a re-expression on the cell membrane. The role of receptor-mediated Reactive Oxygen Species-production was also explored using scavengers: N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), L-Carnosine, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase. Several of these scavengers decreased cell death, suggesting that Reactive Oxygen Species-production is partially involved in the observed phenomena. PMID:16919894

  5. Newly synthesized quinazolinone HMJ-38 suppresses angiogenetic responses and triggers human umbilical vein endothelial cell apoptosis through p53-modulated Fas/death receptor signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Jo-Hua; Yang, Jai-Sing; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Hour, Mann-Jen; Chang, Shu-Jen; Lee, Tsung-Han; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2013-06-01

    The current study aims to investigate the antiangiogenic responses and apoptotic death of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by a newly synthesized compound named 2-(3′-methoxyphenyl)-6-pyrrolidinyl-4-quinazolinone (HMJ-38). This work attempted to not only explore the effects of angiogenesis on in vivo and ex vivo studies but also hypothesize the implications for HUVECs (an ideal cell model for angiogenesis in vitro) and further undermined apoptotic experiments to verify the underlying molecular signaling by HMJ-38. Our results demonstrated that HMJ-38 significantly inhibited blood vessel growth and microvessel formation by the mouse Matrigel plug assay of angiogenesis, and the suppression of microsprouting from the rat aortic ring assay was observed after HMJ-38 exposure. In addition, HMJ-38 disrupted the tube formation and blocked the ability of HUVECs to migrate in response to VEGF. We also found that HMJ-38 triggered cell apoptosis of HUVECs in vitro. HMJ-38 concentration-dependently suppressed viability and induced apoptotic damage in HUVECs. HMJ-38-influenced HUVECs were performed by determining the oxidative stress (ROS production) and ATM/p53-modulated Fas and DR4/DR5 signals that were examined by flow cytometry, Western blotting, siRNA and real-time RT-PCR analyses, respectively. Our findings demonstrate that p53-regulated extrinsic pathway might fully contribute to HMJ-38-provoked apoptotic death in HUVECs. In view of these observations, we conclude that HMJ-38 reduces angiogenesis in vivo and ex vivo as well as induces apoptosis of HUVECs in vitro. Overall, HMJ-38 has a potent anti-neovascularization effect and could warrant being a vascular targeting agent in the future. - Highlights: • HMJ-38 suppresses angiogenic actions in vivo and ex vivo. • Inhibitions of blood vessel and microvessel formation by HMJ-38 are acted. • Cytotoxic effects of HUVECs occur by HMJ-38 challenge. • p53-modulated extrinsic pathway contributes to HMJ-38

  6. Eiger-induced cell death relies on Rac1-dependent endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, W; Srinivasan, A; Lin, S; Kara, k-I; Barker, P A

    2016-01-01

    Signaling via tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily members regulates cellular life and death decisions. A subset of mammalian TNFR proteins, most notably the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), induces cell death through a pathway that requires activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs). However the receptor-proximal signaling events that mediate this remain unclear. Drosophila express a single tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand termed Eiger (Egr) that activates JNK-dependent cell death. We have exploited this model to identify phylogenetically conserved signaling events that allow Egr to induce JNK activation and cell death in vivo. Here we report that Rac1, a small GTPase, is specifically required in Egr-mediated cell death. rac1 loss of function blocks Egr-induced cell death, whereas Rac1 overexpression enhances Egr-induced killing. We identify Vav as a GEF for Rac1 in this pathway and demonstrate that dLRRK functions as a negative regulator of Rac1 that normally acts to constrain Egr-induced death. Thus dLRRK loss of function increases Egr-induced cell death in the fly. We further show that Rac1-dependent entry of Egr into early endosomes is a crucial prerequisite for JNK activation and for cell death and show that this entry requires the activity of Rab21 and Rab7. These findings reveal novel regulatory mechanisms that allow Rac1 to contribute to Egr-induced JNK activation and cell death. PMID:27054336

  7. Eiger-induced cell death relies on Rac1-dependent endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Ruan, W; Srinivasan, A; Lin, S; Kara, K-I; Barker, P A

    2016-01-01

    Signaling via tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily members regulates cellular life and death decisions. A subset of mammalian TNFR proteins, most notably the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), induces cell death through a pathway that requires activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs). However the receptor-proximal signaling events that mediate this remain unclear. Drosophila express a single tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand termed Eiger (Egr) that activates JNK-dependent cell death. We have exploited this model to identify phylogenetically conserved signaling events that allow Egr to induce JNK activation and cell death in vivo. Here we report that Rac1, a small GTPase, is specifically required in Egr-mediated cell death. rac1 loss of function blocks Egr-induced cell death, whereas Rac1 overexpression enhances Egr-induced killing. We identify Vav as a GEF for Rac1 in this pathway and demonstrate that dLRRK functions as a negative regulator of Rac1 that normally acts to constrain Egr-induced death. Thus dLRRK loss of function increases Egr-induced cell death in the fly. We further show that Rac1-dependent entry of Egr into early endosomes is a crucial prerequisite for JNK activation and for cell death and show that this entry requires the activity of Rab21 and Rab7. These findings reveal novel regulatory mechanisms that allow Rac1 to contribute to Egr-induced JNK activation and cell death. PMID:27054336

  8. The p75 Neurotrophin Receptor Can Induce Autophagy and Death of Cerebellar Purkinje Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Florez-McClure, Maria L.; Linseman, Daniel A.; Chu, Charleen T.; Barker, Phil A.; Bouchard, Ron J.; Le, Shoshona S.; Laessig, Tracey A.; Heidenreich, Kim A.

    2007-01-01

    The cellular mechanisms underlying Purkinje neuron death in various neurodegenerative disorders of the cerebellum are poorly understood. Here we investigate an in vitro model of cerebellar neuronal death. We report that cerebellar Purkinje neurons, deprived of trophic factors, die by a form of programmed cell death distinct from the apoptotic death of neighboring granule neurons. Purkinje neuron death was characterized by excessive autophagic–lysosomal vacuolation. Autophagy and death of Purkinje neurons were inhibited by nerve growth factor (NGF) and were activated by NGF-neutralizing antibodies. Although treatment with antisense oligonucleotides to the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75ntr) decreased basal survival of cultured cerebellar neurons, p75ntr-antisense decreased autophagy and completely inhibited death of Purkinje neurons induced by trophic factor withdrawal. Moreover, adenoviral expression of a p75ntr mutant lacking the ligand-binding domain induced vacuolation and death of Purkinje neurons. These results suggest that p75ntr is required for Purkinje neuron survival in the presence of trophic support; however, during trophic factor withdrawal, p75ntr contributes to Purkinje neuron autophagy and death. The autophagic morphology resembles that found in neurodegenerative disorders, suggesting a potential role for this pathway in neurological disease. PMID:15140920

  9. Mitochondrial Cell Death Pathways in Caenorhabiditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Seervi, Mahendra; Xue, Ding

    2015-01-01

    Programmed cell death is an evolutionarily conserved process essential for animal development and tissue homeostasis. Mitochondria have been demonstrated to play a central role in regulating both the activation and the execution of apoptosis. In particular, mitochondria release multiple proapoptotic factors from its intermembrane space, leading to both caspase-dependent and -independent cell death. Despite the pivotal roles of invertebrate animal models, Caenorhabiditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, in deciphering conserved pathways and mechanisms of programmed cell death, the importance of mitochondria to apoptosis of invertebrates remains elusive and largely unexplored. Recent studies have corroborated significant association between mitochondria and apoptosis in C. elegans, making it a thrust area of investigations. In this review, we detail the roles of mitochondrial proteins in mediating execution of cell death in C. elegans, including chromosome fragmentation, phosphatidylserine externalization, and elimination of mitochondria, and discuss the potential roles of mitochondria in the activation of C. elegans cell death. The combination of traditional powerful genetic tools and the emergence of the multiple new reverse genetic techniques, including the highly efficient CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing method, should make C. elegans an ideal animal model for analyzing mitochondrial cell death pathways and associated regulatory mechanisms. PMID:26431563

  10. Targeting cell death signaling in colorectal cancer: Current strategies and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Bruno Christian; Jäger, Dirk; Schulze-Bergkamen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    The evasion from controlled cell death induction has been considered as one of the hallmarks of cancer cells. Defects in cell death signaling are a fundamental phenomenon in colorectal cancer. Nearly any non-invasive cancer treatment finally aims to induce cell death. However, apoptosis resistance is the major cause for insufficient therapeutic success and disease relapse in gastrointestinal oncology. Various compounds have been developed and evaluated with the aim to meet with this obstacle by triggering cell death in cancer cells. The aim of this review is to illustrate current approaches and future directions in targeting cell death signaling in colorectal cancer. The complex signaling network of apoptosis will be demonstrated and the “druggability” of targets will be identified. In detail, proteins regulating mitochondrial cell death in colorectal cancer, such as Bcl-2 and survivin, will be discussed with respect to potential therapeutic exploitation. Death receptor signaling and targeting in colorectal cancer will be outlined. Encouraging clinical trials including cell death based targeted therapies for colorectal cancer are under way and will be demonstrated. Our conceptual understanding of cell death in cancer is rapidly emerging and new types of controlled cellular death have been identified. To meet this progress in cell death research, the implication of autophagy and necroptosis for colorectal carcinogenesis and therapeutic approaches will also be depicted. The main focus of this topic highlight will be on the revelation of the complex cell death concepts in colorectal cancer and the bridging from basic research to clinical use. PMID:24587670

  11. Cell death in the developing vertebrate retina.

    PubMed

    Vecino, Elena; Hernández, María; García, Mónica

    2004-01-01

    Programmed cell death occurs naturally, as a physiological process, during the embryonic development of multicellular organisms. In the retina, which belongs to the central nervous system, at least two phases of cell death have been reported to occur during development. An early phase takes place concomitant with the processes of neurogenesis, cell migration and cell differentiation. A later phase affecting mainly neurons occurs when connections are established and synapses are formed, resulting in selective elimination of inappropriate connections. This pattern of cell death in the developing retina is common among different vertebrates. However, the timing and magnitude of retinal cell death varies among species. In addition, a precise regulation of apoptosis during retinal development has been described. Factors such as neurotrophins, among many others, and electrical activity influence the survival of retinal cells during the course of development. In this paper, we present a summary of these different aspects of programmed cell death during retinal development, and examine how these differ among different species. PMID:15558487

  12. Ilimaquinone induces death receptor expression and sensitizes human colon cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through activation of ROS-ERK/p38 MAPK-CHOP signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Do, Minh Truong; Na, MinKyun; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Khanal, Tilak; Choi, Jae Ho; Jin, Sun Woo; Oh, Seok Hoon; Hwang, In Hyun; Chung, Young Chul; Kim, Hee Suk; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2014-09-01

    TRAIL induces apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells. However, development of resistance to TRAIL is a major obstacle to more effective cancer treatment. Therefore, novel pharmacological agents that enhance sensitivity to TRAIL are necessary. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which ilimaquinone isolated from a sea sponge sensitizes human colon cancer cells to TRAIL. Ilimaquinone pretreatment significantly enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HCT 116 cells and sensitized colon cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through increased caspase-8, -3 activation, PARP cleavage, and DNA damage. Ilimaquinone also reduced the cell survival proteins Bcl2 and Bcl-xL, while strongly up-regulating death receptor (DR) 4 and DR5 expression. Induction of DR4 and DR5 by ilimaquinone was mediated through up-regulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). The up-regulation of CHOP, DR4 and DR5 expression was mediated through activation of extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Finally, the generation of ROS was required for CHOP and DR5 up-regulation by ilimaquinone. These results demonstrate that ilimaquinone enhanced the sensitivity of human colon cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through ROS-ERK/p38 MAPK-CHOP-mediated up-regulation of DR4 and DR5 expression, suggesting that ilimaquinone could be developed into an adjuvant chemotherapeutic drug. PMID:24930757

  13. Regulation of Cell Death by Transfer RNA

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Both transfer RNA (tRNA) and cytochrome c are essential molecules for the survival of cells. tRNA decodes mRNA codons into amino-acid-building blocks in protein in all organisms, whereas cytochrome c functions in the electron transport chain that powers ATP synthesis in mitochondrion-containing eukaryotes. Additionally, in vertebrates, cytochrome c that is released from mitochondria is a potent inducer of apoptosis, activating apoptotic proteins (caspases) in the cytoplasm to dismantle cells. A better understanding of both tRNA and cytochrome c is essential for an insight into the regulation of cell life and death. Recent Advances: A recent study showed that the mitochondrion-released cytochrome c can be removed from the cell-death pathway by tRNA molecules. The direct binding of cytochrome c by tRNA provides a mechanism for tRNA to regulate cell death, beyond its role in gene expression. Critical Issues: The nature of the tRNA–cytochrome c binding interaction remains unknown. The questions of how this interaction affects tRNA function, cellular metabolism, and apoptotic sensitivity are unanswered. Future Directions: Investigations into the critical issues raised above will improve the understanding of tRNA in the fundamental processes of cell death and metabolism. Such knowledge will inform therapies in cell death-related diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 583–594. PMID:23350625

  14. Programmed cell death: many ways for cells to die decently.

    PubMed

    Jäättelä, Marja

    2002-01-01

    Apoptosis, a cell death programme mediated by the caspase family of cysteine proteases, is essential for appropriate removal of excess cells in many developmental and physiological settings. It would, however, be very dangerous for the organism to depend on a single protease family for clearance of unwanted and potentially dangerous cells. Indeed, the exclusive role of caspases in the execution of programmed cell death (PCD) has been challenged recently, and the understanding of the molecular control of alternative death pathways is emerging. Here, I review recently discovered triggers and molecular regulators of caspase-independent cell death programmes and discuss their potential as therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer. PMID:12523503

  15. Programmed necrosis in the Cross Talk of Cell Death and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Francis Ka-Ming; Luz, Nivea Farias; Moriwaki, Kenta

    2015-01-01

    Cell proliferation and cell death are integral elements in maintaining homeostatic balance in metazoans. Disease pathologies ensue when these processes are disturbed. A plethora of evidence indicates that malfunction of cell death can lead to inflammation, autoimmunity or immuno-deficiency. Programmed necrosis or necroptosis is a form of non-apoptotic cell death driven by the receptor interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) and its substrate mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL). RIPK3 partners with its upstream adaptors RIPK1, TRIF or DAI to signal for necroptosis in response to death receptor or toll-like receptor stimulation, pathogen infection, or sterile cell injury. Necroptosis promotes inflammation through leakage of cellular contents from damaged plasma membrane. Intriguingly, many of the signal adaptors of necroptosis have dual functions in innate immune signaling. This unique signature illustrates the cooperative nature of necroptosis and innate inflammatory signaling pathways in managing cell and organismal stresses from pathogen infection and sterile tissue injury. PMID:25493335

  16. Apoptotic cell death induced by intracellular proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Williams, M S; Henkart, P A

    1994-11-01

    To mimic the injection of granzymes into target cells by cytotoxic lymphocytes or the activation of endogenous proteases in programmed cell death, the proteases chymotrypsin, proteinase K, or trypsin were loaded into the cytoplasm of several different cell types using the osmotic lysis of pinosomes technique. Internalization of these proteases caused cell lysis within several hours, accompanied by extensive nuclear damage in most but not all combinations of target cells and proteases. This nuclear damage, quantitated by DNA release from nuclei, was associated with apoptotic features including DNA fragmentation into nucleosomal ladders, chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, and membrane blebbing. Agents reported to block programmed cell death, including aurintricarboxylic acid, inhibitors of energy metabolism, and protein or RNA synthesis, failed to block this protease-induced death, although some inhibited nuclear damage. In separate experiments, introduction of staphylococcal nuclease into cells led to near complete (at least 75% of total) nucleosomal DNA fragmentation within 6 to 8 h. Condensation of chromatin did not accompany this fragmentation to the same extent, and there was approximately a 10-h lag between half-maximal DNA fragmentation and 50% loss of membrane integrity. The results suggest that activation of intracellular proteases during cell death by any molecular pathway could give rise to apoptotic morphology and DNA fragmentation. PMID:7930626

  17. Sensory hair cell death and regeneration in fishes

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, Jerry D.; Rajadinakaran, Gopinath; Smith, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory hair cells are specialized mechanotransductive receptors required for hearing and vestibular function. Loss of hair cells in humans and other mammals is permanent and causes reduced hearing and balance. In the early 1980’s, it was shown that hair cells continue to be added to the inner ear sensory epithelia in cartilaginous and bony fishes. Soon thereafter, hair cell regeneration was documented in the chick cochlea following acoustic trauma. Since then, research using chick and other avian models has led to great insights into hair cell death and regeneration. However, with the rise of the zebrafish as a model organism for studying disease and developmental processes, there has been an increased interest in studying sensory hair cell death and regeneration in its lateral line and inner ears. Advances derived from studies in zebrafish and other fish species include understanding the effect of ototoxins on hair cells and finding otoprotectants to mitigate ototoxin damage, the role of cellular proliferation vs. direct transdifferentiation during hair cell regeneration, and elucidating cellular pathways involved in the regeneration process. This review will summarize research on hair cell death and regeneration using fish models, indicate the potential strengths and weaknesses of these models, and discuss several emerging areas of future studies. PMID:25954154

  18. Activated microglia cause reversible apoptosis of pheochromocytoma cells, inducing their cell death by phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Hornik, Tamara C.; Vilalta, Anna; Brown, Guy C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Some apoptotic processes, such as phosphatidylserine exposure, are potentially reversible and do not necessarily lead to cell death. However, phosphatidylserine exposure can induce phagocytosis of a cell, resulting in cell death by phagocytosis: phagoptosis. Phagoptosis of neurons by microglia might contribute to neuropathology, whereas phagoptosis of tumour cells by macrophages might limit cancer. Here, we examined the mechanisms by which BV-2 microglia killed co-cultured pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells that were either undifferentiated or differentiated into neuronal cells. We found that microglia activated by lipopolysaccharide rapidly phagocytosed PC12 cells. Activated microglia caused reversible phosphatidylserine exposure on and reversible caspase activation in PC12 cells, and caspase inhibition prevented phosphatidylserine exposur and decreased subsequent phagocytosis. Nitric oxide was necessary and sufficient to induce the reversible phosphatidylserine exposure and phagocytosis. The PC12 cells were not dead at the time they were phagocytised, and inhibition of their phagocytosis left viable cells. Cell loss was inhibited by blocking phagocytosis mediated by phosphatidylserine, MFG-E8, vitronectin receptors or P2Y6 receptors. Thus, activated microglia can induce reversible apoptosis of target cells, which is insufficient to cause apoptotic cell death, but sufficient to induce their phagocytosis and therefore cell death by phagoptosis. PMID:26567213

  19. Mitochondria and calcium: from cell signalling to cell death

    PubMed Central

    Duchen, Michael R

    2000-01-01

    association with the NMDA receptor. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in combination with NO production triggers the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, culminating in delayed cell death. PMID:11080251

  20. Parvovirus infection-induced cell death and cell cycle arrest

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aaron Yun; Qiu, Jianming

    2011-01-01

    The cytopathic effects induced during parvovirus infection have been widely documented. Parvovirus infection-induced cell death is often directly associated with disease outcomes (e.g., anemia resulting from loss of erythroid progenitors during parvovirus B19 infection). Apoptosis is the major form of cell death induced by parvovirus infection. However, nonapoptotic cell death, namely necrosis, has also been reported during infection of the minute virus of mice, parvovirus H-1 and bovine parvovirus. Recent studies have revealed multiple mechanisms underlying the cell death during parvovirus infection. These mechanisms vary in different parvoviruses, although the large nonstructural protein (NS)1 and the small NS proteins (e.g., the 11 kDa of parvovirus B19), as well as replication of the viral genome, are responsible for causing infection-induced cell death. Cell cycle arrest is also common, and contributes to the cytopathic effects induced during parvovirus infection. While viral NS proteins have been indicated to induce cell cycle arrest, increasing evidence suggests that a cellular DNA damage response triggered by an invading single-stranded parvoviral genome is the major inducer of cell cycle arrest in parvovirus-infected cells. Apparently, in response to infection, cell death and cell cycle arrest of parvovirus-infected cells are beneficial to the viral cell lifecycle (e.g., viral DNA replication and virus egress). In this article, we will discuss recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms underlying parvovirus infection-induced cell death and cell cycle arrest. PMID:21331319

  1. Inhibition of regulated cell death by cell-penetrating peptides.

    PubMed

    Krautwald, Stefan; Dewitz, Christin; Fändrich, Fred; Kunzendorf, Ulrich

    2016-06-01

    Development of the means to efficiently and continuously renew missing and non-functional proteins in diseased cells remains a major goal in modern molecular medicine. While gene therapy has the potential to achieve this, substantial obstacles must be overcome before clinical application can be considered. A promising alternative approach is the direct delivery of non-permeant active biomolecules, such as oligonucleotides, peptides and proteins, to the affected cells with the purpose of ameliorating an advanced disease process. In addition to receptor-mediated endocytosis, cell-penetrating peptides are widely used as vectors for rapid translocation of conjugated molecules across cell membranes into intracellular compartments and the delivery of these therapeutic molecules is generally referred to as novel prospective protein therapy. As a broad coverage of the enormous amount of published data in this field is unrewarding, this review will provide a brief, focused overview of the technology and a summary of recent studies of the most commonly used protein transduction domains and their potential as therapeutic agents for the treatment of cellular damage and the prevention of regulated cell death. PMID:27048815

  2. Time-Lapse Imaging of Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Wallberg, Fredrik; Tenev, Tencho; Meier, Pascal

    2016-03-01

    The best approach to distinguish between necrosis and apoptosis is time-lapse video microscopy. This technique enables a biological process to be photographed at regular intervals over a period, which may last from a few hours to several days, and can be applied to cells in culture or in vivo. We have established two time-lapse microscopy methods based on different ways of calculating cell death: semiautomated and automated. In the semiautomated approach, cell death can be visualized by staining with combinations of Alexa Fluor 647-conjugated Annexin V and Sytox Green (SG), or Annexin V(FITC) and Propidium iodide (PI). The automated method is similar except that all cells are labeled with dyes. This allows faster quantification of data. To this end Cell Tracker Green is used to label all cells at time zero in combination with PI and Alexa Fluor 647-conjugated Annexin V. Necrotic cell death is accompanied by either simultaneous labeling with Annexin V and PI or SG (double-positive), or direct PI or SG staining. Additionally, necrotic cells display characteristic morphology, such as cytoplasmic swelling. In contrast to necrosis where membrane permeabilization is an early event, cells that die by apoptosis lose their membrane permeability relatively late. Therefore, the time between Annexin V staining and PI or SG uptake (double-positive) can be used to distinguish necrosis from apoptosis. This protocol describes the analysis of cell death by time-lapse imaging of HT1080 and L929 cells stained with these dyes, but it can be readily adapted to other cell types of interest. PMID:26933245

  3. Synchronized renal tubular cell death involves ferroptosis

    PubMed Central

    Skouta, Rachid; Himmerkus, Nina; Mulay, Shrikant R.; Dewitz, Christin; De Zen, Federica; Prokai, Agnes; Zuchtriegel, Gabriele; Krombach, Fritz; Welz, Patrick-Simon; Weinlich, Ricardo; Vanden Berghe, Tom; Vandenabeele, Peter; Pasparakis, Manolis; Bleich, Markus; Weinberg, Joel M.; Reichel, Christoph A.; Bräsen, Jan Hinrich; Kunzendorf, Ulrich; Anders, Hans-Joachim; Stockwell, Brent R.; Green, Douglas R.; Krautwald, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3)-mediated necroptosis is thought to be the pathophysiologically predominant pathway that leads to regulated necrosis of parenchymal cells in ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI), and loss of either Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) or caspase-8 is known to sensitize tissues to undergo spontaneous necroptosis. Here, we demonstrate that renal tubules do not undergo sensitization to necroptosis upon genetic ablation of either FADD or caspase-8 and that the RIPK1 inhibitor necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) does not protect freshly isolated tubules from hypoxic injury. In contrast, iron-dependent ferroptosis directly causes synchronized necrosis of renal tubules, as demonstrated by intravital microscopy in models of IRI and oxalate crystal-induced acute kidney injury. To suppress ferroptosis in vivo, we generated a novel third-generation ferrostatin (termed 16-86), which we demonstrate to be more stable, to metabolism and plasma, and more potent, compared with the first-in-class compound ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1). Even in conditions with extraordinarily severe IRI, 16-86 exerts strong protection to an extent which has not previously allowed survival in any murine setting. In addition, 16-86 further potentiates the strong protective effect on IRI mediated by combination therapy with necrostatins and compounds that inhibit mitochondrial permeability transition. Renal tubules thus represent a tissue that is not sensitized to necroptosis by loss of FADD or caspase-8. Finally, ferroptosis mediates postischemic and toxic renal necrosis, which may be therapeutically targeted by ferrostatins and by combination therapy. PMID:25385600

  4. Optogenetic apoptosis: light-triggered cell death.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Robert M; Freeman, David J; Lamb, Kelsey N; Pollet, Rebecca M; Smith, Weston J; Lawrence, David S

    2015-10-01

    An optogenetic Bax has been designed that facilitates light-induced apoptosis. We demonstrate that mitochondrial recruitment of a genetically encoded light-responsive Bax results in the release of mitochondrial proteins, downstream caspase-3 cleavage, changes in cellular morphology, and ultimately cell death. Mutagenesis of a key phosphorylatable residue or modification of the C-terminus mitigates background (dark) levels of apoptosis that result from Bax overexpression. The mechanism of optogenetic Bax-mediated apoptosis was explored using a series of small molecules known to interfere with various steps in programmed cell death. Optogenetic Bax appears to form a mitochondrial apoptosis-induced channel analogous to that of endogenous Bax. PMID:26418181

  5. ETosis: A Microbicidal Mechanism beyond Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães-Costa, Anderson B.; Nascimento, Michelle T. C.; Wardini, Amanda B.; Pinto-da-Silva, Lucia H.; Saraiva, Elvira M.

    2012-01-01

    Netosis is a recently described type of neutrophil death occurring with the release to the extracellular milieu of a lattice composed of DNA associated with histones and granular and cytoplasmic proteins. These webs, initially named neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), ensnare and kill microorganisms. Similarly, other cell types, such as eosinophils, mast cells, and macrophages, can also dye by this mechanism; thus, it was renamed as ETosis, meaning death with release of extracellular traps (ETs). Here, we review the mechanism of NETosis/etosis, emphasizing its role in diseases caused by protozoan parasites, fungi, and viruses. PMID:22536481

  6. Cytokine signaling for proliferation, survival, and death in hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, A; Ito, Y; Kinoshita, T

    1999-04-01

    The survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells are regulated by cytokines. In the absence of cytokines, hematopoietic cells not only stop proliferation, but undergo apoptosis. This strict dependency of hematopoietic cells on cytokines is an important mechanism that maintains the homeostasis of blood cells. Cytokines induce various intracellular signaling pathways by activating the receptor-associated Janus kinases (Jaks), and distinct signals are responsible for cell cycle progression and cell survival. Induction of signals for cell cycle progression without suppressing apoptosis results in apoptotic cell death, indicating the essential role of anti-apoptotic signaling for cell growth. In hematopoietic cells, Ras, a cellular protooncogen product, and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase are involved in the suppression of apoptosis. Cytokine depletion not only turns off anti-apoptotic signaling, but also actively induces cell death by activating caspases, a distinct family of cysteine proteases. Alterations in the mechanisms of cytokine signaling for cell cycle progression and anti-apoptotic function are implicated in hematological disorders. PMID:10222650

  7. Regulated cell death and adaptive stress responses.

    PubMed

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Bravo-San Pedro, José Manuel; Kepp, Oliver; Kroemer, Guido

    2016-06-01

    Eukaryotic cells react to potentially dangerous perturbations of the intracellular or extracellular microenvironment by activating rapid (transcription-independent) mechanisms that attempt to restore homeostasis. If such perturbations persist, cells may still try to cope with stress by activating delayed and robust (transcription-dependent) adaptive systems, or they may actively engage in cellular suicide. This regulated form of cell death can manifest with various morphological, biochemical and immunological correlates, and constitutes an ultimate attempt of stressed cells to maintain organismal homeostasis. Here, we dissect the general organization of adaptive cellular responses to stress, their intimate connection with regulated cell death, and how the latter operates for the preservation of organismal homeostasis. PMID:27048813

  8. Ewing's sarcoma family tumors are sensitive to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and express death receptor 4 and death receptor 5.

    PubMed

    Mitsiades, N; Poulaki, V; Mitsiades, C; Tsokos, M

    2001-03-15

    In this study, we investigated the sensitivity of Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFTs) of children and adolescents to the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing Ligand (TRAIL). TRAIL binds to death receptors (DRs) DR4, DR5, DcR1, and DcR2. Either DR4 or DR5 can induce apoptosis, whereas DcR1 and DcR2 are considered inhibitory receptors. Nine of 10 ESFT cell lines, including several that were Fas resistant, underwent apoptosis with TRAIL through activation of caspase-10, capase-8 (FLICE), caspase-3, and caspase-9. In contrast to the Fas signaling pathway, caspase-10, but not caspase-8 or the Fas-associated death domain-containing molecule, was recruited to the TRAIL receptor-associated signaling complex. We found that 9 of 10 ESFT cell lines expressed both DR4 and DR5 by Western blotting, whereas the TRAIL-resistant line expressed only DR4. However, DR4 was absent from the cell surface in the resistant and two additional lines (three of five tested lines), suggesting that it may have been nonfunctional. On the contrary, DR5 was located on the cell surface in all four sensitive lines tested, being absent only from the cell surface of the resistant line that was also DR5-negative by Western blotting. In agreement with these findings, the resistance of the line was overcome by restoration of DR5 levels by transfection. Levels of DcR1 and DcR2 or levels of the FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP) did not correlate with TRAIL resistance, and protein synthesis inhibition did not sensitize the TRAIL-resistant line to TRAIL. Because these data suggested that sensitivity of ESFTs to TRAIL was mainly based on the presence of DR4/DR5, we investigated the presence of these receptors in 32 ESFT tissue sections by immunohistochemistry. We found that 23 of 32 tumor tissues (72%) expressed both receptors, 8 of 32 (25%) expressed one receptor only, and 1 was negative for both. Our finding of wide expression of DR4/DR5 in ESFT in vivo, in combination with their high sensitivity

  9. The deaths of a cell: how language and metaphor influence the science of cell death.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Andrew S

    2014-12-01

    Multicellular development and tissue maintenance involve the regular elimination of damaged and healthy cells. The science of this genetically regulated cell death is particularly rich in metaphors: 'programmed cell death' or 'cell suicide' is considered an 'altruistic' act on the part of a cell for the benefit of the organism as a whole. It is also considered a form of 'social control' exerted by the body/organism over its component cells. This paper analyzes the various functions of these metaphors and critical discussion about them within the scientific community. Bodies such as the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) have been charged with bringing order to the language of cell death to facilitate scientific progress. While the NCCD recommends adopting more objective biochemical terminology to describe the mechanisms of cell death, the metaphors in question retain an important function by highlighting the broader context within which cell death occurs. Scientific metaphors act as conceptual 'tools' which fulfill various roles, from highlighting a phenomenon as of particular interest, situating it in a particular context, or suggesting explanatory causal mechanisms. PMID:25085023

  10. Cell death pathways associated with PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessel, David; Reiners, John J., Jr.

    2006-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy leads to both direct and indirect tumor cell death. The latter also involves the consequences of vascular shut-down and immunologic effects. While these factors are a major factor in tumor eradication, there is usually an element of direct cell killing that can reduce the cell population by as much as 2-3 logs. Necrosis was initially believed to represent the predominant PDT death mechanism. An apoptotic response to PDT was first reported by Oleinick in 1991, using a sensitizer that targets the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Apoptosis leads to fragmentation of DNA and of cells into apoptotic bodies that are removed by phagocytosis. Inflammatory effects are minimized, and the auto- catalytic elements of the process can amplify the death signal. In this study, we examined consequences of Bcl-2 photodamage by a porphycene sensitizer that targets the ER and causes photodamage to the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Death patterns after Bcl-2 inactivation by a small-molecular antagonist were also assessed. In addition to apoptosis, we also characterized a hitherto undescribed PDT effect, the initiation of autophagy. Autophagy was initially identified as a cell survival pathway, allowing the recycling of components as nutrients become scarce. We propose that autophagy can also represent both a potential survival pathway after PDT damage to cellular organelles, as well as a cell-death pathway. Recent literature reports indicate that autophagy, as well as apoptosis, can be evoked after down-regulation of Bcl-2, a result consistent with results reported here.

  11. The miR9863 family regulates distinct Mla alleles in barley to attenuate NLR receptor-triggered disease resistance and cell-death signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley Mla alleles encode coiled-coil (CC), nucleotide binding and leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) intracellular receptors that trigger isolate-specific immune responses against the powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh). How Mla or NB-LRR genes in grass species are regulated at p...

  12. Caspase-1 induced pyroptotic cell death

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Edward A.; Rajan, Jayant V.; Aderem, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Summary Programmed cell death is a necessary part of development and tissue homeostasis enabling the removal of unwanted cells. In the setting of infectious disease, cells that have been commandeered by microbial pathogens become detrimental to the host. When macrophages and dendritic cells are compromised in this way, they can be lysed by pyroptosis, a cell death mechanism that is distinct from apoptosis and oncosis/necrosis. Pyroptosis is triggered by Caspase-1 after its activation by various inflammasomes, and results in lysis of the affected cell. Both pyroptosis and apoptosis are programmed cell death mechanisms, but are dependent on different caspases, unlike oncosis. Similar to oncosis, and unlike apoptosis, pyroptosis results in cellular lysis and release of the cytosolic contents to the extracellular space. This event is predicted to be inherently inflammatory, and additionally coincides with IL-1β and IL-18 secretion. We discuss the role of distinct inflammasomes, including NLRC4, NLRP3 and AIM2, as well as the role of the ASC focus in Caspase-1 signaling. We further review the importance of pyroptosis in vivo as a potent mechanism to clear intracellular pathogens. PMID:21884178

  13. Cell Death Mechanisms Induced by Cytotoxic Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chávez-Galán, L; Arenas-Del Angel, M C; Zenteno, E; Chávez, R; Lascurain, R

    2009-01-01

    One of the functions of the immune system is to recognize and destroy abnormal or infected cells to maintain homeostasis. This is accomplished by cytotoxic lymphocytes. Cytotoxicity is a highly organized multifactor process. Here, we reviewed the apoptosis pathways induced by the two main cytotoxic lymphocyte subsets, natural killer (NK) cells and CD8+ T cells. In base to recent experimental evidence, we reviewed NK receptors involved in recognition of target-cell, as well as lytic molecules such as perforin, granzymes-A and -B, and granulysin. In addition, we reviewed the Fas-FasL intercellular linkage mediated pathway, and briefly the cross-linking of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and TNF receptor pathway. We discussed three models of possible molecular interaction between lytic molecules from effector cytotoxic cells and target-cell membrane to induction of apoptosis. PMID:19254476

  14. Peroxiredoxins and the Regulation of Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Hampton, Mark B.; O’Connor, Karina M.

    2016-01-01

    Cell death pathways such as apoptosis can be activated in response to oxidative stress, enabling the disposal of damaged cells. In contrast, controlled intracellular redox events are proposed to be a significant event during apoptosis signaling, regardless of the initiating stimulus. In this scenario oxidants act as second messengers, mediating the post-translational modification of specific regulatory proteins. The exact mechanism of this signaling is unclear, but increased understanding offers the potential to promote or inhibit apoptosis through modulating the redox environment of cells. Peroxiredoxins are thiol peroxidases that remove hydroperoxides, and are also emerging as important players in cellular redox signaling. This review discusses the potential role of peroxiredoxins in the regulation of apoptosis, and also their ability to act as biomarkers of redox changes during the initiation and progression of cell death. PMID:26810076

  15. Proteases in renal cell death: calpains mediate cell death produced by diverse toxicants.

    PubMed

    Schnellmann, R G; Williams, S W

    1998-09-01

    The role of proteases in renal cell death has received limited investigation. Calpains are non-lysosomal cysteine proteases that are Ca+2 activated. Calpain inhibitors that block the active site of calpains (calpain inhibitor 1 and 2) or the Ca+2 binding domain of calpains (PD150606) decreased calpain activity in rabbit renal proximal tubule (RPT) suspensions. The inhibition of calpain activity decreased cell death produced by the diverse toxicants antimycin A (mitochondrial inhibitor), tetrafluroethyl-L-cysteine (nephrotoxic halocarbon), bromohydroquinone (nephro-toxic quinone), t-butylhydroperoxide (model oxidant) and ionomycin (Ca+2 ionophore). In summary, calpains appear to play a common and critical role in cell injury produced by diverse toxicants with different mechanisms of action. The general cysteine protease inhibitor trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido (4-guanidino)-butane (E-64) decreased antimycin A- and tetrafluoroethyl-L-cysteine-induced cell death but had no effect on bromohydroquinone- or t-butylhydroperoxide-induced cell death. Serine/cysteine protease inhibitors (antipain, leupeptin) were not cytoprotective to RPT exposed to any of the toxicants. The cytoprotection associated with E-64 correlated with inhibition of lysosomal cathepsins and E-64 was only cytoprotective after some cell death had occurred. Since some cell death occurred prior to the E-64 cytoprotective effect, lysosomal cathepsins may be released from dying cells and subsequently target the remaining viable cells. PMID:9768434

  16. Activation-induced and damage-induced cell death in aging human T cells.

    PubMed

    Sikora, Ewa

    2015-11-01

    In multicellular organisms the proper system functionality is ensured by the balance between cell division, differentiation, senescence and death. This balance is changed during aging. Immunosenescence plays a crucial role in aging and leads to the shrinkage of T cell repertoire and the propensity to apoptosis. The elimination of expanded T cells at the end of immune response is crucial to maintain homeostasis and avoid any uncontrolled inflammation. Resting mature T lymphocytes, when activated via their antigen-specific receptor (TCR) and CD28 co-receptor, start to proliferate and then undergo the so called activation induced cell death (AICD), which mechanistically is triggered by the death receptor and leads to apoptosis. T lymphocytes, like other cells, are also exposed to damage, which can trigger the so called damage-induced cell death (DICD). It was hypothesized that oxidative stress and chronic antigenic load increasing with age reduced lymphocyte susceptibility to DICD and enhanced a proinflamatory status leading to increased AICD. However, data collected so far are inconsistent and does not support this assumption. Systematic and comprehensive studies are still needed for conclusive elucidation of the role of AICD and DICD in human immunosenescence, including the role of autophagy and necroptosis in the processes. PMID:25843236

  17. A long-awaited merger of the pathways mediating host defence and programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    Blander, J Magarian

    2014-09-01

    Historically, cell death and inflammation have been closely linked, but the necessary divergence of the fields in the past few decades has enriched our molecular understanding of the signalling pathways that mediate various programmes of cell death and multiple types of inflammatory responses. The fields have now come together again demonstrating a surprising level of integration. Intimate interconnections at multiple levels are revealed between the cell death and inflammatory signal transduction pathways that are mobilized in response to the engagement of pattern recognition receptors during microbial infection. Molecules such as receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1), RIPK3, FAS-associated death domain protein (FADD), FLICE-like inhibitory protein (FLIP) and caspase 8 - which are associated with different forms of cell death - are incorporated into compatible and exceedingly dynamic Toll-like receptor, NOD-like receptor and RIG-I-like receptor signalling modules. These signalling modules have a high capacity to switch from inflammation to cell death, or a programmed execution of both, all in an orchestrated battle for host defence and survival. PMID:25145756

  18. Sickle Cell Trait Not Linked to Early Death in Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Sickle Cell Trait Not Linked to Early Death in Study However, black soldiers with the gene ... cell gene variant, are at risk of premature death. People with the sickle cell gene variant do ...

  19. PACAP protects against TNFα-induced cell death in olfactory epithelium and olfactory placodal cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Kanekar, Shami; Gandham, Mahendra; Lucero, Mary T

    2010-01-01

    In mouse olfactory epithelium (OE), pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) protects against axotomy-induced apoptosis. We used mouse OE to determine whether PACAP protects neurons during exposure to the inflammatory cytokine TNFα. Live slices of neonatal mouse OE were treated with 40 ng/ml TNFα ± 40 nM PACAP for 6 hours and dying cells were live-labeled with 0.5% propidium iodide. TNFα significantly increased the percentage of dying cells while co-incubation with PACAP prevented cell death. PACAP also prevented TNFα-mediated cell death in the olfactory placodal (OP) cell lines, OP6 and OP27. Although OP cell lines express all three PACAP receptors (PAC1, VPAC1,VPAC2), PACAP’s protection of these cells from TNFα was mimicked by the specific PAC1 receptor agonist maxadilan and abolished by the PAC1 antagonist PACAP6–38. Treatment of OP cell lines with blockers or activators of the PLC and AC/MAPKK pathways revealed that PACAP-mediated protection from TNFα involved both pathways. PACAP may therefore function through PAC1 receptors to protect neurons from cell death during inflammatory cytokine release in vivo as would occur upon viral infection or allergic rhinitis-associated injury. PMID:20654718

  20. Programmed cell death in the plant immune system

    PubMed Central

    Coll, N S; Epple, P; Dangl, J L

    2011-01-01

    Cell death has a central role in innate immune responses in both plants and animals. Besides sharing striking convergences and similarities in the overall evolutionary organization of their innate immune systems, both plants and animals can respond to infection and pathogen recognition with programmed cell death. The fact that plant and animal pathogens have evolved strategies to subvert specific cell death modalities emphasizes the essential role of cell death during immune responses. The hypersensitive response (HR) cell death in plants displays morphological features, molecular architectures and mechanisms reminiscent of different inflammatory cell death types in animals (pyroptosis and necroptosis). In this review, we describe the molecular pathways leading to cell death during innate immune responses. Additionally, we present recently discovered caspase and caspase-like networks regulating cell death that have revealed fascinating analogies between cell death control across both kingdoms. PMID:21475301

  1. Cell Death and Autophagy in TB

    PubMed Central

    Moraco, Andrew H.; Kornfeld, Hardy

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis has succeeded in infecting one third of the human race though inhibition or evasion of innate and adaptive immunity. The pathogen is a facultative intracellular parasite that uses the niche provided by mononuclear phagocytes for its advantage. Complex interactions determine whether the bacillus will or will not be delivered to acidified lysosomes, whether the host phagocyte will survive infection or die, and whether the timing and mode of cell death works to the advantage of the host or the pathogen. Here we discuss cell death and autophagy in TB. These fundamental processes of cell biology feature in all aspects of TB pathogenesis and may be exploited to the treatment or prevention of TB disease. PMID:25453227

  2. TRPV1 Activation in Primary Cortical Neurons Induces Calcium-Dependent Programmed Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Song, Juhyun; Lee, Jun Hong; Lee, Sung Ho; Park, Kyung Ah; Lee, Won Taek; Lee, Jong Eun

    2013-03-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1, also known as vanilloid receptor 1) is a receptor that detects capsaicin, a pungent component of chili peppers, and noxious heat. Although its function in the primary nociceptor as a pain receptor is well established, whether TRPV1 is expressed in the brain is still under debate. In this study, the responses of primary cortical neurons were investigated. Here, we report that 1) capsaicin induces caspase-3-dependent programmed cell death, which coincides with increased production of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite ; that 2) the prolonged capsaicin treatment induces a steady increase in the degree of capase-3 activation, which is prevented by the removal of capsaicin; 3) and that blocking calcium entry and calcium-mediated signaling prevents capsaicin-induced cell death. These results indicate that cortical neurons express TRPV1 whose prolonged activation causes cell death. PMID:23585723

  3. Programmed cell death during quinoa perisperm development

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Sara

    2013-01-01

    At seed maturity, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) perisperm consists of uniform, non-living, thin-walled cells full of starch grains. The objective of the present study was to study quinoa perisperm development and describe the programme of cell death that affects the entire tissue. A number of parameters typically measured during programmed cell death (PCD), such as cellular morphological changes in nuclei and cytoplasm, endoreduplication, DNA fragmentation, and the participation of nucleases and caspase-like proteases in nucleus dismantling, were evaluated; morphological changes in cytoplasm included subcellular aspects related to starch accumulation. This study proved that, following fertilization, the perisperm of quinoa simultaneously accumulates storage reserves and degenerates, both processes mediated by a programme of developmentally controlled cell death. The novel findings regarding perisperm development provide a starting point for further research in the Amaranthaceae genera, such as comparing seeds with and without perisperm, and specifying phylogeny and evolution within this taxon. Wherever possible and appropriate, differences between quinoa perisperm and grass starchy endosperm—a morphologically and functionally similar, although genetically different tissue—were highlighted and discussed. PMID:23833197

  4. Role of polyphenols in cell death control.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, Claudio; Masella, Roberta

    2012-05-01

    Dietary consumption of fruit, vegetables, fish, and olive oil has been demonstrated to exert beneficial effects on human health. This finding may be due to the high content of antioxidant compounds including polyphenols. Current evidence strongly supports a contribution of polyphenols to the prevention of several chronic degenerative diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases, central nervous system disorders, as well as aging. Apoptosis is a genetically controlled and evolutionarily conserved form of cell death of critical importance for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis in the adult organism. The malfunction of the death machinery may play a primary role in various pathologic processes, leading to proliferative or degenerative diseases. Polyphenols can interact with specific steps and/or proteins regulating the apoptotic process in different ways depending on their concentration, the cell system, the type or stage of the pathological process. Because of their ability to modulate cell death, polyphenols have been proposed as chemopreventive and therapeutic agents. This paper reviews and discusses the last 3-year findings related to the principal molecular mechanisms involved in the control of the balance between apoptosis and cell proliferation exerted by polyphenols. PMID:22584012

  5. The mitochondrial and death receptor pathways involved in the thymocytes apoptosis induced by aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xi; Yu, Zhengqiang; Liang, Na; Chi, Xiaofeng; Li, Xiaochong; Jiang, Min; Fang, Jing; Cui, Hengmin; Lai, Weimin; Zhou, Yi; Zhou, Shan

    2016-03-15

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent immunosuppressive agent in endotherms, which can be related to the up-regulated apoptosis of immune organs. In this study, we investigated the roles of the mitochondrial, death receptor, and endoplasmic reticulum pathways in Aflatoxin B1 induced thymocytes apoptosis. Chickens were fed an aflatoxin B1 containing diet (0.6 mg/kg AFB1) for 3 weeks. Our results showed that (1) AFB1 diet induced the decrease of T-cell subsets, morphological changes, and excessive apoptosis of thymus. (2) The excessive apoptosis involved the mitochondrial pathway (up-regulation of Bax, Bak, cytC and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL) and death receptor pathway (up-regulation of FasL, Fas and FADD). (3) Oxidative stress, an apoptosis inducer, was confirmed in the thymus. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that mitochondrial and death receptor pathways involved in AFB1 induced thymocytes apoptosis in broilers. PMID:26933817

  6. The mitochondrial and death receptor pathways involved in the thymocytes apoptosis induced by aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Xiaofeng; Li, Xiaochong; Jiang, Min; Fang, Jing; Cui, Hengmin; Lai, Weimin; Zhou, Yi; Zhou, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent immunosuppressive agent in endotherms, which can be related to the up-regulated apoptosis of immune organs. In this study, we investigated the roles of the mitochondrial, death receptor, and endoplasmic reticulum pathways in Aflatoxin B1 induced thymocytes apoptosis. Chickens were fed an aflatoxin B1 containing diet (0.6 mg/kg AFB1) for 3 weeks. Our results showed that (1) AFB1 diet induced the decrease of T-cell subsets, morphological changes, and excessive apoptosis of thymus. (2) The excessive apoptosis involved the mitochondrial pathway (up-regulation of Bax, Bak, cytC and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL) and death receptor pathway (up-regulation of FasL, Fas and FADD). (3) Oxidative stress, an apoptosis inducer, was confirmed in the thymus. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that mitochondrial and death receptor pathways involved in AFB1 induced thymocytes apoptosis in broilers. PMID:26933817

  7. Regulated cell death in diagnostic histopathology.

    PubMed

    Skenderi, Faruk; Vranic, Semir; Damjanov, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Regulated cell death (RCD) is a controlled cellular process, essential for normal development, tissue integrity and homeostasis, and its dysregulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various conditions including developmental and immunological disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. In this review, we briefly discuss the historical perspective and conceptual development of RCD, we overview recent classifications and some of the key players in RCD; finally we focus on current applications of RCD in diagnostic histopathology. PMID:26009238

  8. Cell death and deubiquitinases: perspectives in cancer.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Seemana; Ghosh, Mrinal Kanti

    2014-01-01

    The process of cell death has important physiological implications. At the organism level it is mostly involved in maintenance of tissue homeostasis. At the cellular level, the strategies of cell death may be categorized as either suicide or sabotage. The mere fact that many of these processes are programmed and that these are often deregulated in pathological conditions is seed to thought. The various players that are involved in these pathways are highly regulated. One of the modes of regulation is via post-translational modifications such as ubiquitination and deubiquitination. In this review, we have first dealt with the different modes and pathways involved in cell death and then we have focused on the regulation of several proteins in these signaling cascades by the different deubiquitinating enzymes, in the perspective of cancer. The study of deubiquitinases is currently in a rather nascent stage with limited knowledge both in vitro and in vivo, but the emerging roles of the deubiquitinases in various processes and their specificity have implicated them as potential targets from the therapeutic point of view. This review throws light on another aspect of cancer therapeutics by targeting the deubiquitinating enzymes. PMID:25121098

  9. Cell Death and Deubiquitinases: Perspectives in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Seemana

    2014-01-01

    The process of cell death has important physiological implications. At the organism level it is mostly involved in maintenance of tissue homeostasis. At the cellular level, the strategies of cell death may be categorized as either suicide or sabotage. The mere fact that many of these processes are programmed and that these are often deregulated in pathological conditions is seed to thought. The various players that are involved in these pathways are highly regulated. One of the modes of regulation is via post-translational modifications such as ubiquitination and deubiquitination. In this review, we have first dealt with the different modes and pathways involved in cell death and then we have focused on the regulation of several proteins in these signaling cascades by the different deubiquitinating enzymes, in the perspective of cancer. The study of deubiquitinases is currently in a rather nascent stage with limited knowledge both in vitro and in vivo, but the emerging roles of the deubiquitinases in various processes and their specificity have implicated them as potential targets from the therapeutic point of view. This review throws light on another aspect of cancer therapeutics by targeting the deubiquitinating enzymes. PMID:25121098

  10. Programmed Cell Death of Dendritic Cells in Immune Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Min; Wang, Jin

    2010-01-01

    Summary Programmed cell death is essential for the maintenance of lymphocyte homeostasis and immune tolerance. Dendritic cells (DCs), the most efficient antigen presenting cells, represent a small cell population in the immune system. However, DCs play major roles in the regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Programmed cell death in DCs is essential for regulating DC homeostasis and consequently, the scope of immune responses. Interestingly, different DC subsets show varied turnover rates in vivo. The conventional DCs are relatively short-lived in most lymphoid organs, while plasmacytoid DCs are long-lived cells. Mitochondrion-dependent programmed cell death plays an important role in regulating spontaneous DC turnover. Antigen-specific T cells are also capable of killing DCs, thereby providing a mechanism for negative feedback regulation of immune responses. It has been shown that a surplus of DCs due to defects in programmed cell death leads to overactivation of lymphocytes and the onset of autoimmunity. Studying programmed cell death in DCs will shed light on the roles for DC turnover in the regulation of the duration and magnitude of immune responses in vivo, and in the maintenance of immune tolerance. PMID:20636805

  11. Ionotropic receptors and ion channels in ischemic neuronal death and dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Weilinger, Nicholas L; Maslieieva, Valentyna; Bialecki, Jennifer; Sridharan, Sarup S; Tang, Peter L; Thompson, Roger J

    2013-01-01

    Loss of energy supply to neurons during stroke induces a rapid loss of membrane potential that is called the anoxic depolarization. Anoxic depolarizations result in tremendous physiological stress on the neurons because of the dysregulation of ionic fluxes and the loss of ATP to drive ion pumps that maintain electrochemical gradients. In this review, we present an overview of some of the ionotropic receptors and ion channels that are thought to contribute to the anoxic depolarization of neurons and subsequently, to cell death. The ionotropic receptors for glutamate and ATP that function as ligand-gated cation channels are critical in the death and dysfunction of neurons. Interestingly, two of these receptors (P2X7 and NMDAR) have been shown to couple to the pannexin-1 (Panx1) ion channel. We also discuss the important roles of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in responses to ischemia. The central challenge that emerges from our current understanding of the anoxic depolarization is the need to elucidate the mechanistic and temporal interrelations of these ion channels to fully appreciate their impact on neurons during stroke. PMID:22864302

  12. Death and survival of heterozygous Lurcher Purkinje cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zanjani, Hadi; McFarland, Rebecca; Cavelier, Pauline; Blokhin, Andrei; Gautheron, Vanessa; Levenes, Carole; Bambrick, Linda L.; Mariani, Jean; Vogel, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    The differentiation and survival of heterozygous Lurcher (+/Lc) Purkinje cells in vitro was examined as a model system for studying how chronic ionic stress affects neuronal differentiation and survival. The Lurcher mutation in the δ2 glutamate receptor (GluRδ2) converts an orphan receptor into a membrane channel that constitutively passes an inward cation current. In the GluRδ2+/Lc mutant, Purkinje cell dendritic differentiation is disrupted and the cells degenerate following the first week of postnatal development. To determine if the GluRδ2+/Lc Purkinje cell phenotype is recapitulated in vitro, +/+ and +/Lc Purkinje cells from postnatal day 0 pups were grown in either isolated cell or cerebellar slice cultures. GluRδ2+/+ and GluRδ2+/Lc Purkinje cells appeared to develop normally through the first 7 days in vitro (DIV), but by 11 DIV GluRδ2+/Lc Purkinje cells exhibited a significantly higher cation leak current. By 14 DIV, GluRδ2+/Lc Purkinje cell dendrites were stunted and the number of surviving GluRδ2+/Lc Purkinje cells was reduced by 75% compared to controls. However, treatment of +/Lc cerebellar cultures with 1-naphthyl acetyl spermine (NASP) increased +/Lc Purkinje cell survival to wild type levels. These results support the conclusion that the Lurcher mutation in GluRδ2 induces cell autonomous defects in differentiation and survival. The establishment of a tissue culture system for studying cell injury and death mechanisms in a relatively simple system like GluRδ2+/Lc Purkinje cells will provide a valuable model for studying how the induction of a chronic inward cation current in a single cell type affects neuronal differentiation and survival. PMID:19294643

  13. Enhancement of Glioma Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy Response With Targeted Antibody Therapy Against Death Receptor 5

    SciTech Connect

    Fiveash, John B. Gillespie, G. Yancey; Oliver, Patsy G.; Zhou Tong; Belenky, Michael L.; Buchsbaum, Donald J.

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: TRA-8 is an agonistic mouse monoclonal antibody that binds to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) death receptor 5, which induces apoptosis in cancer cells through a caspase-8-dependent mechanism. We investigated the ability of TRA-8 to augment the radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy response of human glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Materials: The in vitro cytotoxicity of TRA-8 and temozolomide (Tmz) or RT was examined using adenosine triphosphate-dependent viability and clonogenic survival assays with five glioma cell lines. Death receptor 5 expression was determined by flow cytometry. In vivo studies included subcutaneous and intracranial xenograft models testing various combination treatments, including RT, Tmz, and TRA-8. Results: TRA-8, combined with Tmz or RT, produced enhanced cytotoxicity against five glioma cell lines compared with the use of the individual agents alone. Death receptor 5 upregulation occurred in response to RT. Complete tumor regression in the subcutaneous experiments was the most common in animals that received combination therapy with TRA-8/Tmz/RT. TRA-8 enhanced tumor growth delay in combination with RT or Tmz. TRA-8 alone had limited activity against intracranial tumors. In contrast, the median survival of mice treated with TRA-8/Tmz/RT was significantly greater than the control or TRA-8-alone-treated mice. The median survival of the mice treated with TRA-8/Tmz/RT or chemoradiotherapy only was significantly greater than the control or TRA-8-treated mice. A trend toward improved survival was observed between TRA-8/Tmz/RT-treated and Tmz/RT-treated mice. Conclusions: These preliminary findings support the hypothesis that TRA-8 will augment the RT and chemotherapy response in gliomas. A humanized version of TRA-8 is being evaluated in a Phase II clinical trial.

  14. RIPK3 Restricts Myeloid Leukemogenesis by Promoting Cell Death and Differentiation of Leukemia Initiating Cells.

    PubMed

    Höckendorf, Ulrike; Yabal, Monica; Herold, Tobias; Munkhbaatar, Enkhtsetseg; Rott, Stephanie; Jilg, Stefanie; Kauschinger, Johanna; Magnani, Giovanni; Reisinger, Florian; Heuser, Michael; Kreipe, Hans; Sotlar, Karl; Engleitner, Thomas; Rad, Roland; Weichert, Wilko; Peschel, Christian; Ruland, Jürgen; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Spiekermann, Karsten; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Groß, Olaf; Jost, Philipp J

    2016-07-11

    Since acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by the blockade of hematopoietic differentiation and cell death, we interrogated RIPK3 signaling in AML development. Genetic loss of Ripk3 converted murine FLT3-ITD-driven myeloproliferation into an overt AML by enhancing the accumulation of leukemia-initiating cells (LIC). Failed inflammasome activation and cell death mediated by tumor necrosis factor receptor caused this accumulation of LIC exemplified by accelerated leukemia onset in Il1r1(-/-), Pycard(-/-), and Tnfr1/2(-/-) mice. RIPK3 signaling was partly mediated by mixed lineage kinase domain-like. This link between suppression of RIPK3, failed interleukin-1β release, and blocked cell death was supported by significantly reduced RIPK3 in primary AML patient cohorts. Our data identify RIPK3 and the inflammasome as key tumor suppressors in AML. PMID:27411587

  15. Current and Emerging Biomarkers of Cell Death in Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kongning; Wu, Deng; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Lu; Yi, Ying; Miao, Zhengqiang; Jin, Nana; Bi, Xiaoman; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Cell death is a critical biological process, serving many important functions within multicellular organisms. Aberrations in cell death can contribute to the pathology of human diseases. Significant progress made in the research area enormously speeds up our understanding of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of cell death. According to the distinct morphological and biochemical characteristics, cell death can be triggered by extrinsic or intrinsic apoptosis, regulated necrosis, autophagic cell death, and mitotic catastrophe. Nevertheless, the realization that all of these efforts seek to pursue an effective treatment and cure for the disease has spurred a significant interest in the development of promising biomarkers of cell death to early diagnose disease and accurately predict disease progression and outcome. In this review, we summarize recent knowledge about cell death, survey current and emerging biomarkers of cell death, and discuss the relationship with human diseases. PMID:24949464

  16. Cellular functions of programmed cell death 5.

    PubMed

    Li, Ge; Ma, Dalong; Chen, Yingyu

    2016-04-01

    Programmed cell death 5 (PDCD5) was originally identified as an apoptosis-accelerating protein that is widely expressed and has been well conserved during the process of evolution. PDCD5 has complex biological functions, including programmed cell death and immune regulation. It can accelerate apoptosis in different type of cells in response to different stimuli. During this process, PDCD5 rapidly translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. PDCD5 regulates the activities of TIP60, HDAC3, MDM2 and TP53 transcription factors. These proteins form part of a signaling network that is disrupted in most, if not all, cancer cells. Recent evidence suggests that PDCD5 participates in immune regulation by promoting regulatory T cell function via the PDCD5-TIP60-FOXP3 pathway. The stability and expression of PDCD5 are finely regulated by other molecules, such as NF-κB p65, OTUD5, YAF2 and DNAJB1. PDCD5 is phosphorylated by CK2 at Ser119, which is required for nuclear translocation in response to genotoxic stress. In this review, we describe what is known about PDCD5 and its cellular functions. PMID:26775586

  17. In vitro apoptotic cell death during erythroid differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zamai, L; Burattini, S; Luchetti, F; Canonico, B; Ferri, P; Melloni, E; Gonelli, A; Guidotti, L; Papa, S; Falcieri, E

    2004-03-01

    Erythropoiesis occurs in bone marrow and it has been shown that during in vivo erythroid differentiation some immature erythroblasts undergo apoptosis. In this regard, it is known that immature erythroblasts are FasL- and TRAIL-sensitive and can be killed by cells expressing these ligand molecules. In the present study, we have investigated the cell death phenomenon that occurs during a common unilineage model of erythroid development. Purified CD34+ human haemopoietic progenitors were cultured in vitro in the presence of SCF, IL-3 and erythropoietin. Their differentiation stages and apoptosis were followed by multiple technical approaches. Flow cytometric evaluation of surface and intracellular molecules revealed that glycophorin A appeared at day 3-4 of incubation and about 75% of viable cells co-expressed high density glycophorin A (Gly(bright)) and adult haemoglobin at day 14 of culture, indicating that this system reasonably recapitulates in vivo normal erythropoiesis. Interestingly, when mature (Gly(bright)) erythroid cells reached their higher percentages (day 14) almost half of cultured cells were apoptotic. Morphological studies indicated that the majority of dead cells contained cytoplasmic granular material typical of basophilic stage, and DNA analysis by flow cytometry and TUNEL reaction revealed nuclear fragmentation. These observations indicate that in vitro unilineage erythroid differentiation, as in vivo, is associated with apoptotic cell death of cells with characteristics of basophilic erythroblasts. We suggest that the interactions between different death receptors on immature basophilic erythroblasts with their ligands on more mature erythroblasts may contribute to induce apoptosis in vitro. PMID:15004520

  18. Cell Death Control by Matrix Metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Dirk; Gomez-Barrera, Juan A; Pasule, Christian; Brack-Frick, Ursula B; Sieferer, Elke; Nicholson, Tim M; Pfannstiel, Jens; Stintzi, Annick; Schaller, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    In contrast to mammalian matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that play important roles in the remodeling of the extracellular matrix in animals, the proteases responsible for dynamic modifications of the plant cell wall are largely unknown. A possible involvement of MMPs was addressed by cloning and functional characterization of Sl2-MMP and Sl3-MMP from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The two tomato MMPs were found to resemble mammalian homologs with respect to gelatinolytic activity, substrate preference for hydrophobic amino acids on both sides of the scissile bond, and catalytic properties. In transgenic tomato seedlings silenced for Sl2/3-MMP expression, necrotic lesions were observed at the base of the hypocotyl. Cell death initiated in the epidermis and proceeded to include outer cortical cell layers. In later developmental stages, necrosis spread, covering the entire stem and extending into the leaves of MMP-silenced plants. The subtilisin-like protease P69B was identified as a substrate of Sl2- and Sl3-MMP. P69B was shown to colocalize with Sl-MMPs in the apoplast of the tomato hypocotyl, it exhibited increased stability in transgenic plants silenced for Sl-MMP activity, and it was cleaved and inactivated by Sl-MMPs in vitro. The induction of cell death in Sl2/3-MMP-silenced plants depended on P69B, indicating that Sl2- and Sl3-MMP act upstream of P69B in an extracellular proteolytic cascade that contributes to the regulation of cell death in tomato. PMID:27208293

  19. Autophagic cell death: Loch Ness monster or endangered species?

    PubMed

    Shen, Han-Ming; Codogno, Patrice

    2011-05-01

    The concept of autophagic cell death was first established based on observations of increased autophagic markers in dying cells. The major limitation of such a morphology-based definition of autophagic cell death is that it fails to establish the functional role of autophagy in the cell death process, and thus contributes to the confusion in the literature regarding the role of autophagy in cell death and cell survival. Here we propose to define autophagic cell death as a modality of non-apoptotic or necrotic programmed cell death in which autophagy serves as a cell death mechanism, upon meeting the following set of criteria: (i) cell death occurs without the involvement of apoptosis; (ii) there is an increase of autophagic flux, and not just an increase of the autophagic markers, in the dying cells; and (iii) suppression of autophagy via both pharmacological inhibitors and genetic approaches is able to rescue or prevent cell death. In light of this new definition, we will discuss some of the common problems and difficulties in the study of autophagic cell death and also revisit some well-reported cases of autophagic cell death, aiming to achieve a better understanding of whether autophagy is a real killer, an accomplice or just an innocent bystander in the course of cell death. At present, the physiological relevance of autophagic cell death is mainly observed in lower eukaryotes and invertebrates such as Dictyostelium discoideum and Drosophila melanogaster. We believe that such a clear definition of autophagic cell death will help us study and understand the physiological or pathological relevance of autophagic cell death in mammals. PMID:21150268

  20. Comparison of Types of Cell Death: Apoptosis and Necrosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Francis; Zuzel, Katherine

    2003-01-01

    Cell death is an essential factor in many biological processes including development. Discusses two types of cell death: (1) necrosis (induced by sodium azide); and (2) apoptosis (induced by sodium chromate). Illustrates key features that differ between these two types of cells death including loss of membrane integrity and internucleosomal DNA…

  1. ACCELERATED CELL DEATH2 suppresses mitochondrial oxidative bursts and modulates cell death in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Pattanayak, Gopal K.; Venkataramani, Sujatha; Hortensteiner, Stefan; Kunz, Lukas; Christ, Bastien; Moulin, Michael; Smith, Alison G.; Okamoto, Yukihiro; Tamiaki, Hitoshi; Sugishima, Masakazu; Greenberg, Jean T.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The Arabidopsis ACCELERATED CELL DEATH 2 (ACD2) protein protects cells from programmed cell death (PCD) caused by endogenous porphyrin-related molecules like red chlorophyll catabolite or exogenous protoporphyrin IX. We previously found that during bacterial infection, ACD2, a chlorophyll breakdown enzyme, localizes to both chloroplasts and mitochondria in leaves. Additionally, acd2 cells show mitochondrial dysfunctions. In plants with acd2 and ACD2+ sectors, ACD2 functions cell autonomously, implicating a pro-death ACD2 substrate as cell non-autonomous in promoting spreading PCD. ACD2 targeted solely to mitochondria can reduce the accumulation of an ACD2 substrate that originates in chloroplasts, indicating that ACD2 substrate molecules are likely mobile within cells. Two different light-dependent reactive oxygen bursts in mitochondria play prominent and causal roles in the acd2 PCD phenotype. Finally, ACD2 can complement acd2 when targeted to mitochondria or chloroplasts, respectively, as long as it is catalytically active; the ability to bind substrate is not sufficient for ACD2 to function in vitro or in vivo. Together the data suggest that ACD2 localizes dynamically during infection to protect cells from pro-death mobile substrate molecules, some of which may originate in chloroplasts, but have major effects on mitochondria. PMID:21988537

  2. Inhibition of caspases prevents ototoxic and ongoing hair cell death

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsui, Jonathan I.; Ogilvie, Judith M.; Warchol, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    Sensory hair cells die after acoustic trauma or ototoxic insults, but the signal transduction pathways that mediate hair cell death are not known. Here we identify several important signaling events that regulate the death of vestibular hair cells. Chick utricles were cultured in media supplemented with the ototoxic antibiotic neomycin and selected pharmacological agents that influence signaling molecules in cell death pathways. Hair cells that were treated with neomycin exhibited classically defined apoptotic morphologies such as condensed nuclei and fragmented DNA. Inhibition of protein synthesis (via treatment with cycloheximide) increased hair cell survival after treatment with neomycin, suggesting that hair cell death requires de novo protein synthesis. Finally, the inhibition of caspases promoted hair cell survival after neomycin treatment. Sensory hair cells in avian vestibular organs also undergo continual cell death and replacement throughout mature life. It is unclear whether the loss of hair cells stimulates the proliferation of supporting cells or whether the production of new cells triggers the death of hair cells. We examined the effects of caspase inhibition on spontaneous hair cell death in the chick utricle. Caspase inhibitors reduced the amount of ongoing hair cell death and ongoing supporting cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. In isolated sensory epithelia, however, caspase inhibitors did not affect supporting cell proliferation directly. Our data indicate that ongoing hair cell death stimulates supporting cell proliferation in the mature utricle.

  3. RARβ regulates neuronal cell death and differentiation in the avian ciliary ganglion

    PubMed Central

    Boerries, Melanie; Busch, Hauke

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Programmed cell death during chicken ciliary ganglion (CG) development is mostly discussed as an extrinsically regulated process, guided either by the establishment of a functional balance between preganglionic and postganglionic activity or the availability of target‐derived neurotrophic factors. We found that the expression of the gene coding for the nuclear retinoic acid receptor β (RARB) is transiently upregulated prior to and during the execution phase of cell death in the CG. Using retroviral vectors, the expression of RARB was knocked down during embryonic development in ovo. The knockdown led to a significant increase in CG neuron number after the cell death phase. BrdU injections and active caspase‐3 staining revealed that this increase in neuron number was due to an inhibition of apoptosis during the normal cell death phase. Furthermore, apoptotic neuron numbers were significantly increased at a stage when cell death is normally completed. While the cholinergic phenotype of the neurons remained unchanged after RARB knockdown, the expression of the proneural gene Cash1 was increased, but somatostatin‐like immunoreactivity, a hallmark of the mature choroid neuron population, was decreased. Taken together, these results point toward a delay in neuronal differentiation as well as cell death. The availability of nuclear retinoic acid receptor β (RARβ) and RARβ‐induced transcription of genes could therefore be a new intrinsic cue for the maturation of CG neurons and their predisposition to undergo cell death. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 75: 1204–1218, 2015 PMID:25663354

  4. Apoptosis, oncosis, and necrosis. An overview of cell death.

    PubMed Central

    Majno, G.; Joris, I.

    1995-01-01

    The historical development of the cell death concept is reviewed, with special attention to the origin of the terms necrosis, coagulation necrosis, autolysis, physiological cell death, programmed cell death, chromatolysis (the first name of apoptosis in 1914), karyorhexis, karyolysis, and cell suicide, of which there are three forms: by lysosomes, by free radicals, and by a genetic mechanism (apoptosis). Some of the typical features of apoptosis are discussed, such as budding (as opposed to blebbing and zeiosis) and the inflammatory response. For cell death not by apoptosis the most satisfactory term is accidental cell death. Necrosis is commonly used but it is not appropriate, because it does not indicate a form of cell death but refers to changes secondary to cell death by any mechanism, including apoptosis. Abundant data are available on one form of accidental cell death, namely ischemic cell death, which can be considered an entity of its own, caused by failure of the ionic pumps of the plasma membrane. Because ischemic cell death (in known models) is accompanied by swelling, the name oncosis is proposed for this condition. The term oncosis (derived from ónkos, meaning swelling) was proposed in 1910 by von Reckling-hausen precisely to mean cell death with swelling. Oncosis leads to necrosis with karyolysis and stands in contrast to apoptosis, which leads to necrosis with karyorhexis and cell shrinkage. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7856735

  5. Oncogenes in Cell Survival and Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Shortt, Jake; Johnstone, Ricky W.

    2012-01-01

    The transforming effects of proto-oncogenes such as MYC that mediate unrestrained cell proliferation are countered by “intrinsic tumor suppressor mechanisms” that most often trigger apoptosis. Therefore, cooperating genetic or epigenetic effects to suppress apoptosis (e.g., overexpression of BCL2) are required to enable the dual transforming processes of unbridled cell proliferation and robust suppression of apoptosis. Certain oncogenes such as BCR-ABL are capable of concomitantly mediating the inhibition of apoptosis and driving cell proliferation and therefore are less reliant on cooperating lesions for transformation. Accordingly, direct targeting of BCR-ABL through agents such as imatinib have profound antitumor effects. Other oncoproteins such as MYC rely on the anti-apoptotic effects of cooperating oncoproteins such as BCL2 to facilitate tumorigenesis. In these circumstances, where the primary oncogenic driver (e.g., MYC) cannot yet be therapeutically targeted, inhibition of the activity of the cooperating antiapoptotic protein (e.g., BCL2) can be exploited for therapeutic benefit. PMID:23209150

  6. Inhibition of ErbB2 by receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors causes myofibrillar structural damage without cell death in adult rat cardiomyocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Pentassuglia, Laura; Graf, Michael; Lane, Heidi; Kuramochi, Yukio; Cote, Gregory; Timolati, Francesco; Sawyer, Douglas B.; Zuppinger, Christian; Suter, Thomas M.

    2009-04-15

    Inhibition of ErbB2 (HER2) with monoclonal antibodies, an effective therapy in some forms of breast cancer, is associated with cardiotoxicity, the pathophysiology of which is poorly understood. Recent data suggest, that dual inhibition of ErbB1 (EGFR) and ErbB2 signaling is more efficient in cancer therapy, however, cardiac safety of this therapeutic approach is unknown. We therefore tested an ErbB1-(CGP059326) and an ErbB1/ErbB2-(PKI166) tyrosine kinase inhibitor in an in-vitro system of adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes and assessed their effects on 1. cell viability, 2. myofibrillar structure, 3. contractile function, and 4. MAPK- and Akt-signaling alone or in combination with Doxorubicin. Neither CGP nor PKI induced cardiomyocyte necrosis or apoptosis. PKI but not CGP caused myofibrillar structural damage that was additive to that induced by Doxorubicin at clinically relevant doses. These changes were associated with an inhibition of excitation-contraction coupling. PKI but not CGP decreased p-Erk1/2, suggesting a role for this MAP-kinase signaling pathway in the maintenance of myofibrils. These data indicate that the ErbB2 signaling pathway is critical for the maintenance of myofibrillar structure and function. Clinical studies using ErbB2-targeted inhibitors for the treatment of cancer should be designed to include careful monitoring for cardiac dysfunction.

  7. Hyperthermia restores apoptosis induced by death receptors through aggregation-induced c-FLIP cytosolic depletion.

    PubMed

    Morlé, A; Garrido, C; Micheau, O

    2015-01-01

    TRAIL is involved in immune tumor surveillance and is considered a promising anti-cancer agent owing to its limited side effects on healthy cells. However, some cancer cells display resistance, or become resistant to TRAIL-induced cell death. Hyperthermia can enhance sensitivity to TRAIL-induced cell death in various resistant cancer cell lines, including lung, breast, colon or prostate carcinomas. Mild heat shock treatment has been proposed to restore Fas ligand or TRAIL-induced apoptosis through c-FLIP degradation or the mitochondrial pathway. We demonstrate here that neither the mitochondria nor c-FLIP degradation are required for TRAIL-induced cell death restoration during hyperthermia. Our data provide evidence that insolubilization of c-FLIP, alone, is sufficient to enhance apoptosis induced by death receptors. Hyperthermia induced c-FLIP depletion from the cytosolic fraction, without apparent degradation, thereby preventing c-FLIP recruitment to the TRAIL DISC and allowing efficient caspase-8 cleavage and apoptosis. Hyperthermia-induced c-FLIP depletion was independent of c-FLIP DED2 FL chain assembly motif or ubiquitination-mediated c-FLIP degradation, as assessed using c-FLIP point mutants on lysine 167 and 195 or threonine 166, a phosphorylation site known to regulate ubiquitination of c-FLIP. Rather, c-FLIP depletion was associated with aggregation, because addition of glycerol not only prevented the loss of c-FLIP from the cytosol but also enabled c-FLIP recruitment within the TRAIL DISC, thus inhibiting TRAIL-induced apoptosis during hyperthermia. Altogether our results demonstrate that c-FLIP is a thermosensitive protein whose targeting by hyperthermia allows restoration of apoptosis induced by TNF ligands, including TRAIL. Our findings suggest that combining TRAIL agonists with whole-body or localized hyperthermia may be an interesting approach in cancer therapy. PMID:25675293

  8. Necdin Protects Embryonic Motoneurons from Programmed Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Aebischer, Julianne; Sturny, Rachel; Andrieu, David; Rieusset, Anne; Schaller, Fabienne; Geib, Sandrine; Raoul, Cédric; Muscatelli, Françoise

    2011-01-01

    NECDIN belongs to the type II Melanoma Associated Antigen Gene Expression gene family and is located in the Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) critical region. Necdin-deficient mice develop symptoms of PWS, including a sensory and motor deficit. However, the mechanisms underlying the motor deficit remain elusive. Here, we show that the genetic ablation of Necdin, whose expression is restricted to post-mitotic neurons in the spinal cord during development, leads to a loss of 31% of specified motoneurons. The increased neuronal loss occurs during the period of naturally-occurring cell death and is not confined to specific pools of motoneurons. To better understand the role of Necdin during the period of programmed cell death of motoneurons we used embryonic spinal cord explants and primary motoneuron cultures from Necdin-deficient mice. Interestingly, while Necdin-deficient motoneurons present the same survival response to neurotrophic factors, we demonstrate that deletion of Necdin leads to an increased susceptibility of motoneurons to neurotrophic factor deprivation. We show that by neutralizing TNFα this increased susceptibility of Necdin-deficient motoneurons to trophic factor deprivation can be reduced to the normal level. We propose that Necdin is implicated through the TNF-receptor 1 pathway in the developmental death of motoneurons. PMID:21912643

  9. miR-25 Targets TRAIL Death Receptor-4 and Promotes Apoptosis Resistance in Cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Razumilava, Nataliya; Bronk, Steve F.; Smoot, Rory L.; Fingas, Christian D.; Werneburg, Nathan W.; Roberts, Lewis R.; Mott, Justin L.

    2011-01-01

    It has been established that microRNA expression and function contribute to phenotypic features of malignant cells, including resistance to apoptosis. While targets and functional roles for a number of microRNAs have been described in cholangiocarcinoma, many additional microRNAs dysregulated in this tumor have not been assigned functional roles. In this study, we identify elevated miR-25 expression in malignant cholangiocarcinoma cell lines as well as patient samples. In cultured cells, treatment with the Smoothened inhibitor, cyclopamine, reduced miR-25 expression, suggesting Hedgehog signaling stimulates miR-25 production. Functionally, miR-25 was shown to protect cells against TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis. Correspondingly, antagonism of miR-25 in culture sensitized cells to apoptotic death. Computational analysis identified the TRAIL Death Receptor-4 (DR4) as a potential novel miR-25 target, and this prediction was confirmed by immunoblot, cell staining, and reporter assays. Conclusion These data implicate elevated miR-25 levels in the control of tumor cell apoptosis in cholangiocarcinoma. The identification of the novel miR-25 target DR4 provides a mechanism by which miR-25 contributes to evasion of TRIAL-induced cholangiocarcinoma apoptosis. PMID:21953056

  10. Melting Behaviour of Cell Death Lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Sherry; Sot, Jesus; Goni, Felix; Thewalt, Jenifer

    2009-05-01

    Sphingomyelin is a major lipid constituent of mammalian cell plasma membranes. It is converted into ceramide during programmed cell death. It is hypothesized that this conversion induces a structural change in membranes that is responsible for downstream signaling. To characterize these structural changes, deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is used to create a concentration-temperature phase diagram of palmitoyl sphingomyelin:ceramide multilamellar vesicles in excess water between 0-40 mol% ceramide and 25-80^oC. The two lipids are fully miscible at high temperatures and at 40 mol% ceramide. A variety of solid-liquid coexistence phase behavior is observed at lower concentrations. With increasing ceramide content, a gel phase is observed at progressively higher temperatures, implying that at physiological temperature, ceramide may increase the gel phase propensity of cell membranes.