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Sample records for cell dendritic complexity

  1. Dendritic Cells and Leishmania Infection: Adding Layers of Complexity to a Complex Disease

    PubMed Central

    Feijó, Daniel; Tibúrcio, Rafael; Ampuero, Mariana; Brodskyn, Cláudia; Tavares, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a group of neglected diseases whose clinical manifestations depend on factors from the host and the pathogen. It is an important public health problem worldwide caused by the protozoan parasite from the Leishmania genus. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is the most frequent form of this disease transmitted by the bite of an infected sandfly into the host skin. The parasites can be uptook and/or recognized by macrophages, neutrophils, and/or dendritic cells (DCs). Initially, DCs were described to play a protective role in activating the immune response against Leishmania parasites. However, several reports showed a dichotomic role of DCs in modulating the host immune response to susceptibility or resistance in CL. In this review, we discuss (1) the interactions between DCs and parasites from different species of Leishmania and (2) the crosstalk of DCs and other cells during CL infection. The complexity of these interactions profoundly affects the adaptive immune response and, consequently, the disease outcome, especially from Leishmania species of the New World. PMID:26904694

  2. Dendritic-Tumor Fusion Cells Derived Heat Shock Protein70-Peptide Complex Has Enhanced Immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Liu, Yunyan; Luo, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-derived heat shock protein70-peptide complexes (HSP70.PC-Tu) have shown great promise in tumor immunotherapy due to numerous advantages. However, large-scale phase III clinical trials showed that the limited immunogenicity remained to be enhanced. In previous research, we demonstrated that heat shock protein 70-peptide complexes (HSP70.PC-Fc) derived from dendritic cell (DC)-tumor fusions exhibit enhanced immunogenicity compared with HSP70.PCs from tumor cells. However, the DCs used in our previous research were obtained from healthy donors and not from the patient population. In order to promote the clinical application of these complexes, HSP70.PC-Fc was prepared from patient-derived DC fused directly with patient-derived tumor cells in the current study. Our results showed that compared with HSP70.PC-Tu, HSP70.PC-Fc elicited much more powerful immune responses against the tumor from which the HSP70 was derived, including enhanced T cell activation, and CTL responses that were shown to be antigen specific and HLA restricted. Our results further indicated that the enhanced immunogenicity is related to the activation of CD4+ T cells and increased association with other heat shock proteins, such as HSP90. Therefore, the current study confirms the enhanced immunogenicity of HSP70.PC derived from DC-tumor fusions and may provide direct evidence promoting their future clinical use. PMID:25961716

  3. Mannosylated polyion complexes for in vivo gene delivery into CD11c(+) dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Raviv, Lior; Jaron-Mendelson, Michal; David, Ayelet

    2015-02-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) possess unique abilities in initiating primary immune responses and thus represent prime targets for DNA-based vaccinations. Here, we describe the design and synthesis of mannosylated polyion complexes (PICs) composed of cationic polyethylenimine (PEI) and hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) segments, and bearing mono- and trivalent mannose as a ligand for targeting mannose receptor (MR/CD206)-positive DCs. Amino-terminated mannose (Man)-containing ligands in mono- and trivalent presentations (Man- and Man3-, respectively) were prepared and conjugated to PEG via an N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-activated terminal. Thiolated PEI was conjugated to the mannosylated PEG via the maleimide (MAL)-activated terminal. The resulting positively charged diblock copolymers bearing mannoses (Man-PEG-b-PEI and Man3-PEG-b-PEI) were self-assembled with DNA to form PICs with lower surface charge than did their PEI building block and mean hydrodynamic diameters in the range of 100-450 nm, depending on the N/P ratio. Man3-PEG-b-PEI demonstrated a 3-4-fold greater transfection efficiency in MR-positive dendritic cell lines (THP-1, DC2.4), relative to Man-PEG-b-PEI, exhibited low cytotoxicity when compared with PEI, and showed low transfection efficiency in nondendritic HeLa cells. In preliminary in vivo experiments, Man-PEG-b-PEI/DNA and Man3-PEG-b-PEI/DNA demonstrated 2-3-fold higher gene delivery efficiency into CD11c(+) DCs collected from inguinal lymph nodes of C57/BL6 mice, when compared to PEI/DNA complexes, as shown by GFP expression measurements, 24 h post subcutaneous injection. The results indicate that the mannosylated PICs are a safe and effective gene delivery system, showing in vivo specificity toward CD11c(+) DCs. PMID:25531245

  4. Cytokines Regulate Proteolysis in Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II–Dependent Antigen Presentation by Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fiebiger, Edda; Meraner, Paul; Weber, Ekkehard; Fang, I-Fei; Stingl, Georg; Ploegh, Hidde; Maurer, Dieter

    2001-01-01

    Endo/lysosomal proteases control two key events in antigen (Ag) presentation: the degradation of protein Ag and the generation of peptide-receptive major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. Here we show that the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin (IL)-1β rapidly increase the activity of cathepsin (cat) S and catB in human dendritic cells (DCs). As a consequence, a wave of MHC class II sodium dodecyl sulfate stable dimer formation ensues in a catS-dependent fashion. In contrast, the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 renders DCs incapable of upregulating catS and catB activity and in fact, attenuates the level of both enzymes. Suppressed catS and catB activity delays MHC class II sodium dodecyl sulfate stable dimer formation and impairs Ag degradation. In DCs exposed to tetanus toxoid, IL-10 accordingly reduces the number of MHC class II–peptide complexes accessible to tetanus toxoid–specific T cell receptors, as analyzed by measuring T cell receptor downregulation in Ag-specific T cell clones. Thus, the control of protease activity by pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines is an essential feature of the Ag presentation properties of DCs. PMID:11304549

  5. Impairment of dendritic cell functions in patients with adaptor protein-3 complex deficiency.

    PubMed

    Prandini, Alberto; Salvi, Valentina; Colombo, Francesca; Moratto, Daniele; Lorenzi, Luisa; Vermi, William; De Francesco, Maria Antonia; Notarangelo, Lucia Dora; Porta, Fulvio; Plebani, Alessandro; Facchetti, Fabio; Sozzani, Silvano; Badolato, Raffaele

    2016-06-30

    Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2 (HPS2) is a primary immunodeficiency due to adaptor protein-3 (AP-3) complex deficiency. HPS2 patients present neutropenia, partial albinism, and impaired lysosomal vesicles formation in hematopoietic cells. Given the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in the immune response, we studied monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) in two HPS2 siblings. Mature HPS2 moDCs showed impaired expression of CD83 and DC-lysosome-associated membrane protein (LAMP), low levels of MIP1-β/CCL4, MIG/CXCL9, and severe defect of interleukin-12 (IL-12) secretion. DCs in lymph-node biopsies from the same patients showed a diffuse cytoplasm reactivity in a large fraction of DC-LAMP(+) cells, instead of the classical dot-like stain. In addition, analysis of pDC-related functions of blood-circulating mononuclear cells revealed reduced interferon-α secretion in response to herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), whereas granzyme-B induction upon IL-3/IL-10 stimulation was normal. Finally, T-cell costimulatory activity, as measured by mixed lymphocyte reaction assay, was lower in patients, suggesting that function and maturation of DCs is abnormal in patients with HPS2. PMID:27207797

  6. Follicular Dendritic Cell Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Udayakumar, Achandira M.; Al-Bahri, Maiya; Burney, Ikram A.; Al-Haddabi, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) is a rare neoplasm with a non-specific and insidious presentation further complicated by the difficult diagnostic and therapeutic assessment. It has a low to intermediate risk of recurrence and metastasis. Unlike other soft tissue sarcomas or histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms, cytogenetic studies are very limited in FDCS cases. Although no specific chromosomal marker has yet been established, complex aberrations and different ploidy types have been documented. We report the case of a 39-year-old woman with FDCS who presented to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Oman, in February 2013. Ultrastructural, immunophenotypical and histological findings are reported. In addition, karyotypic findings showed deletions of the chromosomes 1p, 3q, 6q, 7q, 8q and 11q. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, these have not been reported previously in this tumour. Techniques such as spectral karyotyping may help to better characterise chromosomal abnormalities in this type of tumour. PMID:26355964

  7. Versatile polyion complex micelles for peptide and siRNA vectorization to engineer tolerogenic dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Mebarek, Naila; Vicente, Rita; Aubert-Pouëssel, Anne; Quentin, Julie; Mausset-Bonnefont, Anne-Laure; Devoisselle, Jean-Marie; Jorgensen, Christian; Bégu, Sylvie; Louis-Plence, Pascale

    2015-05-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that play a critical role in maintaining the balance between immunity and tolerance and, as such are a promising immunotherapy tool to induce immunity or to restore tolerance. The main challenge to harness the tolerogenic properties of DCs is to preserve their immature phenotype. We recently developed polyion complex micelles, formulated with double hydrophilic block copolymers of poly(methacrylic acid) and poly(ethylene oxide) blocks and able to entrap therapeutic molecules, which did not induce DC maturation. In the current study, the intrinsic destabilizing membrane properties of the polymers were used to optimize endosomal escape property of the micelles in order to propose various strategies to restore tolerance. On the first hand, we showed that high molecular weight (Mw) copolymer-based micelles were efficient to favor the release of the micelle-entrapped peptide into the endosomes, and thus to improve peptide presentation by immature (i) DCs. On the second hand, we put in evidence that low Mw copolymer-based micelles were able to favor the cytosolic release of micelle-entrapped small interfering RNAs, dampening the DCs immunogenicity. Therefore, we demonstrate the versatile use of polyionic complex micelles to preserve tolerogenic properties of DCs. Altogether, our results underscored the potential of such micelle-loaded iDCs as a therapeutic tool to restore tolerance in autoimmune diseases. PMID:25796349

  8. Multi-therapeutic potential of autoantibodies induced by immune complexes trapped on follicular dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    El Shikh, Mohey Eldin; Kmieciak, Maciej; Manjili, Masoud H; Szakal, Andras K; Pitzalis, Costantino; Tew, John G

    2013-01-01

    Induction of autoantibodies (autoAbs) targeting disease drivers / mediators is emerging as a potential immunotherapeutic strategy. Auto-immune complex (IC)-retaining follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) critically regulate pathogenic autoAb production in autoreactive germinal centers (GCs); however, their ability to induce potentially therapeutic autoAbs has not been explored. We hypothesized that deliberate display of clinically targeted antigens (Ags) in the form of ICs on FDC membranes induces target-specific autoreactive GCs and autoAbs that may be exploited therapeutically. To test our hypothesis, three therapeutically relevant Ags: TNF-α, HER2/neu and IgE, were investigated. Our results indicated that TNF-α-, HER2/neu- and IgE-specific autoAbs associated with strong GC reactions were induced by TNF-α-, HER2/neu- and IgE-IC retention on FDCs. Moreover, the induced anti-TNF-α autoAbs neutralized mouse and human TNF-α with half maximal Inhibitory Concentration (IC50) of 7.1 and 1.6 nM respectively. In addition, we demonstrated that FDC-induced Ab production could be non-specifically inhibited by the IgG-specific Endo-S that accessed the light zones of GCs and interfered with FDC-IC retention. In conclusion, the ability of FDCs to productively present autoAgs raises the potential for a novel immunotherapeutic platform targeting mediators of autoimmune disorders, allergic diseases, and Ab responsive cancers. PMID:23836278

  9. Scrapie affects the maturation cycle and immune complex trapping by follicular dendritic cells in mice.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Gillian; Mabbott, Neil; Jeffrey, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) or prion diseases are infectious neurological disorders of man and animals, characterised by abnormal disease-associated prion protein (PrP(d)) accumulations in the brain and lymphoreticular system (LRS). Prior to neuroinvasion, TSE agents often accumulate to high levels within the LRS, apparently without affecting immune function. However, our analysis of scrapie-affected sheep shows that PrP(d) accumulations within the LRS are associated with morphological changes to follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) and tingible body macrophages (TBMs). Here we examined FDCs and TBMs in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) of scrapie-affected mice by light and electron microscopy. In MLNs from uninfected mice, FDCs could be morphologically categorised into immature, mature and regressing forms. However, in scrapie-affected MLNs this maturation cycle was adversely affected. FDCs characteristically trap and retain immune complexes on their surfaces, which they display to B-lymphocytes. In scrapie-affected MLNs, some FDCs were found where areas of normal and abnormal immune complex retention occurred side by side. The latter co-localised with PrP(d) plasmalemmal accumulations. Our data suggest this previously unrecognised morphology represents the initial stage of an abnormal FDC maturation cycle. Alterations to the FDCs included PrP(d) accumulation, abnormal cell membrane ubiquitin and excess immunoglobulin accumulation. Regressing FDCs, in contrast, appeared to lose their membrane-attached PrP(d). Together, these data suggest that TSE infection adversely affects the maturation and regression cycle of FDCs, and that PrP(d) accumulation is causally linked to the abnormal pathology observed. We therefore support the hypothesis that TSEs cause an abnormality in immune function. PMID:19997557

  10. Closely Related Mycobacterial Strains Demonstrate Contrasting Levels of Efficacy as Antitumor Vaccines and Are Processed for Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Presentation by Multiple Routes in Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheadle, Eleanor J.; O'Donnell, Dearbhaile; Selby, Peter J.; Jackson, Andrew M.

    2005-01-01

    Mycobacteria expressing recombinant antigens are already being developed as vaccines against both infections and tumors. Little is known about how dendritic cells might process such antigens. Two different mycobacterial species, the fast-growing Mycobacterium smegmatis and the slow-growing M. bovis M. bovis BCG, were engineered to express a model tumor antigen, the Kb-restricted dominant cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope OVA257-264. Recombinant M. bovis BCG but not recombinant M. smegmatis conferred protection to mice challenged with the B16-OVA tumor cell line. We went on to investigate whether the contrast in antitumor efficacy could be due to differences in how dendritic cells process antigen from the two mycobacterial strains for class I presentation. Both strains of mycobacteria caused phenotypic maturation of dendritic cells, but recombinant M. smegmatis infection led to a greater degree of dendritic cell maturation than recombinant M. bovis BCG infection. Antigen from recombinant M. smegmatis was processed and presented as OVA257-264 on Kb molecules by the dendritic cell line DC2.4 but not by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) or splenic dendritic cells. In contrast, antigen from recombinant M. bovis BCG was presented by all three dendritic cell types as long as the mycobacteria were viable. Such presentation was dependent on proteasome function and nascent major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules in DC2.4 cells but independent of the proteasome and transporter associated with antigen processings (TAP) in BMDC and splenic dendritic cells. These data demonstrate for the first time that antigen vectored by the slow-growing M. bovis BCG but not that vectored by fast-growing, readily destroyed M. smegmatis is processed and presented on MHC class I by in vitro-generated dendritic cells, which has implications for recombinant microbial vaccine development. PMID:15664917

  11. Marginal zone B cells transport and deposit IgM-containing immune complexes onto follicular dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Andrew R; Youd, Michele E; Corley, Ronald B

    2004-10-01

    Secreted IgM and complement are important mediators in the optimal initiation of primary T-dependent humoral immune responses. Secreted IgM serves as a natural adjuvant by enhancing the immunogenicity of protein antigens, perhaps as a result of IgM's ability to facilitate antigen deposition onto follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) and promote rapid germinal center (GC) formation. To understand how IgM enhances adaptive immune responses, we investigated the mechanism by which IgM-containing immune complexes (IgM-IC) are transported to FDCs as a first step in GC formation. We demonstrate that IgM-IC localize first to the splenic marginal zone (MZ) where the IgM-IC bind MZ B cells in a complement and complement receptor (CR1/2) dependent process. MZ B cells then transport the IgM-IC into the follicle for deposition onto FDCs. Mice with reduced numbers of MZ B cells trap IgM-IC on FDC less efficiently, whereas mice with reduced numbers of follicular B cells trap IgM-IC normally. The functional elimination of MZ B cells abrogates the ability of FDCs to trap IgM-IC. Transfer of B cells with associated IgM-IC into naive mice results in deposition of IgM-IC onto FDC by MZ B cells. The results demonstrate an IgM and complement-dependent role for MZ B cells in the fate of antigen early in the initial phases of T-dependent immune responses. The data also establish an important role for CR1/2 on MZ B cells in the efficient binding and transport of IgM-IC to FDCs, which we suggest is an important first step in initiating adaptive immune responses. PMID:15326094

  12. Antigen Transfer from Exosomes to Dendritic Cells as an Explanation for the Immune Enhancement Seen by IgE Immune Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Henningsson, Frida; Heyman, Birgitta; Conrad, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    IgE antigen complexes induce increased specific T cell proliferation and increased specific IgG production. Immediately after immunization, CD23+ B cells capture IgE antigen complexes, transport them to the spleen where, via unknown mechanisms, dendritic cells capture the antigen and present it to T cells. CD23, the low affinity IgE receptor, binds IgE antigen complexes and internalizes them. In this study, we show that these complexes are processed onto B-cell derived exosomes (bexosomes) in a CD23 dependent manner. The bexosomes carry CD23, IgE and MHC II and stimulate antigen specific T-cell proliferation in vitro. When IgE antigen complex stimulated bexosomes are incubated with dendritic cells, dendritic cells induce specific T-cell proliferation in vivo, similar to IgE antigen complexes. This suggests that bexosomes can provide the essential transfer mechanism for IgE antigen complexes from B cells to dendritic cells. PMID:25330118

  13. Retention of immune complexes by murine lymph node or spleen follicular dendritic cells. Role of antibody isotype.

    PubMed

    Heinen, E; Coulie, P; Van Snick, J; Braun, M; Cormann, N; Moeremans, M; Kinet-Denoel, C; Simar, L J

    1986-09-01

    Using monoclonal anti-trinitrophenyl (TNP) antibodies complexed to TNP-myoglobin-coated gold particles, we analysed at the ultrastructural level the retention by follicular dendritic cells (FDC) of immune complexes containing various antibody isotypes. Gold-labelled immune complexes were injected subcutaneously or intravenously into naive mice and, after 24 h, germinal centres of draining lymph nodes or spleen were examined by electron microscopy. FDC generally retained complexes containing IgG2a and IgG2b better than those formed with IgG1 or IgG3. IgM was rarely retained. FDC isolated from lymph nodes or spleens were incubated in vitro with gold-labelled complexes in a serum-free medium. IgG2a and IgG2b complexes were also retained in vitro in large quantities by FDC; IgG1 and IgG3 complexes were retained in smaller quantities or in highly variable quantities compared with IgG2; IgM complexes were rarely seen on FDC. There was no difference between FDC isolated from lymph nodes or from spleen with respect to the Ig isotypes required for Fc-mediated retention of immune complexes. PMID:3749816

  14. Dendritic cells in asthma.

    PubMed

    van Helden, Mary J; Lambrecht, Bart N

    2013-12-01

    The lungs are constantly exposed to antigens, most of which are non-pathogenic and do not require the induction of an immune response. Dendritic cells (DCs) are situated at the basolateral site of the lungs and continuously scan the environment to detect the presence of pathogens and subsequently initiate an immune response. They are a heterogeneous population of antigen-presenting cells that exert specific functions. Compelling evidence is now provided that DCs are both sufficient and necessary to induce allergic responses against several inhaled harmless allergens. How various DC subsets exactly contribute to the induction of allergic asthma is currently a subject of intense investigation. We here review the current progress in this field. PMID:24455765

  15. Dendritic Cell-Targeted Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Lillian; Delamarre, Lélia

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant effort, the development of effective vaccines inducing strong and durable T-cell responses against intracellular pathogens and cancer cells has remained a challenge. The initiation of effector CD8+ T-cell responses requires the presentation of peptides derived from internalized antigen on class I major histocompatibility complex molecules by dendritic cells (DCs) in a process called cross-presentation. A current strategy to enhance the effectiveness of vaccination is to deliver antigens directly to DCs. This is done via selective targeting of antigen using monoclonal antibodies directed against endocytic receptors on the surface of the DCs. In this review, we will discuss considerations relevant to the design of such vaccines: the existence of DC subsets with specialized functions, the impact of the antigen intracellular trafficking on cross-presentation, and the influence of maturation signals received by DCs on the outcome of the immune response. PMID:24910635

  16. Presentation of antagonist peptides to naive CD4+ T cells abrogates spatial reorganization of class II MHC peptide complexes on the surface of dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Chmielowski, Bartosz; Pacholczyk, Rafal; Kraj, Piotr; Kisielow, Pawel; Ignatowicz, Leszek

    2002-01-01

    By using dendritic cells (DCs) transduced with retroviruses encoding covalent Abβ/peptide fusion proteins tagged with fluorescent proteins, we followed the relocation of class II MHC molecules loaded with agonist or null peptides during the onset of activation of naive and effector CD4+ T cells. Clusters of T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex formed in parallel with clusters of agonist class II MHC/peptide complexes on the surface of DCs. However, activation of naive but not effector T cells was accompanied by expulsion of the null class II MHC/peptide complexes from the T cell–DC interface. These effects were perturbed in the presence of exogenously supplied antagonist peptide. These results suggest that interference with selective relocation of agonist and null MHC/peptide complexes in the immunological synapse contributes to the inhibitory effect of antagonist peptides on the response of naive CD4+ T cells to agonist ligands. PMID:12411579

  17. Effects of RAMEA-complexed polyunsaturated fatty acids on the response of human dendritic cells to inflammatory signals

    PubMed Central

    Rajnavölgyi, Éva; Laczik, Renáta; Kun, Viktor; Szente, Lajos

    2014-01-01

    Summary The n−3 fatty acids are not produced by mammals, although they are essential for hormone synthesis and maintenance of cell membrane structure and integrity. They have recently been shown to inhibit inflammatory reactions and also emerged as potential treatment options for inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, asthma and inflammatory bowel diseases. Dendritic cells (DC) play a central role in the regulation of both innate and adaptive immunity and upon inflammatory signals they produce various soluble factors among them cytokines and chemokines that act as inflammatory or regulatory mediators. In this study we monitored the effects of α-linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid solubilized in a dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/ethanol 1:1 mixture or as complexed by randomly methylated α-cyclodextrin (RAMEA) on the inflammatory response of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC). The use of RAMEA for enhancing aqueous solubility of n−3 fatty acids has the unambiguous advantage over applying RAMEB (the β-cyclodextrin analog), since there is no interaction with cell membrane cholesterol. In vitro differentiated moDC were left untreated or were stimulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid, mimicking bacterial and viral infections, respectively. The response of unstimulated and activated moDC to n−3 fatty acid treatment was tested by measuring the cell surface expression of CD1a used as a phenotypic and CD83 as an activation marker of inflammatory moDC differentiation and activation by using flow cytometry. Monocyte-derived DC activation was also monitored by the secretion level of the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12, respectively. We found that RAMEA-complexed n−3 fatty acids reduced the expression of CD1a protein in both LPS and Poly(I:C) stimulated moDC significantly, but most efficiently by eicosapentaenic acid, while no significant change

  18. Can dendritic cells see light?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Aaron C.-H.; Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-02-01

    There are many reports showing that low-level light/laser therapy (LLLT) can enhance wound healing, upregulate cell proliferation and has anti-apoptotic effects by activating intracellular protective genes. In the field of immune response study, it is not known with any certainty whether light/laser is proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory. Increasingly in recent times dendritic cells have been found to play an important role in inflammation and the immunological response. In this study, we try to look at the impact of low level near infrared light (810-nm) on murine bone-marrow derived dendritic cells. Changes in surface markers, including MHC II, CD80 and CD11c and the secretion of interleukins induced by light may provide additional evidence to reveal the mystery of how light affects the maturation of dendritic cells as well how these light-induced mature dendritic cells would affect the activation of adaptive immune response.

  19. DNA and its cationic lipid complexes induce CpG motif-dependent activation of murine dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoshinaga, Takaharu; Yasuda, Kei; Ogawa, Yoshiyuki; Nishikawa, Makiya; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2007-01-01

    Unmethylated CpG motifs in bacterial DNA, but not in vertebrate DNA, are known to trigger an inflammatory response of antigen-presenting cells (APC). In this study, we investigated the cytokine release from murine dendritic cells (DC) by the addition of various types of DNA in the free or complexed form with cationic lipids. Naked plasmid DNA and Escherichia coli DNA with immunostimulatory unmethylated CpG motifs induced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion from granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-cultured bone marrow-derived DC and the DC cell-line, DC2.4 cells, though vertebrate calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) with less CpG motifs did not. These characteristics differed from mouse peritoneal resident macrophages that do not respond to any naked DNA. The amount of cytokines released from the DC was significantly increased by complex formation with cationic lipids when CpG-motif positive DNAs were used. Unlike murine macrophages or Flt-3 L cultured DC, GM-CSF DC did not release inflammatory cytokines in response to the addition of CT DNA/cationic lipid complex, suggesting that the activation is completely dependent on CpG motifs. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrate that murine DC produce pro-inflammatory cytokines upon stimulation with CpG-containing DNAs and the responses are enhanced by cationic lipids. These results also suggest that DC are the major cells that respond to naked CpG DNA in vivo, although both DC and macrophages will release inflammatory cytokines after the administration of a DNA/cationic lipid complex. PMID:17199803

  20. U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein immune complexes induce type I interferon in plasmacytoid dendritic cells through TLR7.

    PubMed

    Savarese, Emina; Chae, Ohk-wha; Trowitzsch, Simon; Weber, Gert; Kastner, Berthold; Akira, Shizuo; Wagner, Hermann; Schmid, Roland M; Bauer, Stefan; Krug, Anne

    2006-04-15

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs), which produce IFN-alpha in response to autoimmune complexes containing nuclear antigens, are thought to be critically involved in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). One of the immunostimulatory components of SLE immune complexes (SLE-ICs) is self DNA, which is recognized through Tlr9 in PDCs and B cells. Small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) are another major component of SLE-ICs in 30% to 40% of patients. In this study, we show that murine PDCs are activated by purified U1snRNP/anti-Sm ICs to produce IFN-alpha and proinflammatory cytokines and to up-regulate costimulatory molecules. The induction of IFN-alpha and IL-6 by U1snRNPs in murine bone marrow-derived PDCs required the presence of intact U1RNA and was largely dependent on Tlr7 but independent of Tlr3. Intracellularly delivered isolated U1snRNA and oligoribonucleotides derived from the stem loop regions and the Sm-binding site of U1snRNA efficiently induced IFN-alpha and IL-6 in Flt3L-cultured DCs in a Tlr7-dependent manner. The U1snRNA component of U1snRNP immune complexes, found in patients with SLE, acts as an endogenous "self" ligand for Tlr7 and triggers IFN-alpha and IL-6 production in PDCs. PMID:16368889

  1. β-III spectrin underpins ankyrin R function in Purkinje cell dendritic trees: protein complex critical for sodium channel activity is impaired by SCA5-associated mutations.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Yvonne L; Perkins, Emma M; Cairncross, Callum J; Lyndon, Alastair R; Skehel, Paul A; Jackson, Mandy

    2014-07-15

    Beta III spectrin is present throughout the elaborate dendritic tree of cerebellar Purkinje cells and is required for normal neuronal morphology and cell survival. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 5 (SCA5) and spectrin associated autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia type 1 are human neurodegenerative diseases involving progressive gait ataxia and cerebellar atrophy. Both disorders appear to result from loss of β-III spectrin function. Further elucidation of β-III spectrin function is therefore needed to understand disease mechanisms and identify potential therapeutic options. Here, we report that β-III spectrin is essential for the recruitment and maintenance of ankyrin R at the plasma membrane of Purkinje cell dendrites. Two SCA5-associated mutations of β-III spectrin both reduce ankyrin R levels at the cell membrane. Moreover, a wild-type β-III spectrin/ankyrin-R complex increases sodium channel levels and activity in cell culture, whereas mutant β-III spectrin complexes fail to enhance sodium currents. This suggests impaired ability to form stable complexes between the adaptor protein ankyrin R and its interacting partners in the Purkinje cell dendritic tree is a key mechanism by which mutant forms of β-III spectrin cause ataxia, initially by Purkinje cell dysfunction and exacerbated by subsequent cell death. PMID:24603075

  2. Immune Monitoring Using mRNA-Transfected Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Borch, Troels Holz; Svane, Inge Marie; Met, Özcan

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells are known to be the most potent antigen presenting cell in the immune system and are used as cellular adjuvants in therapeutic anticancer vaccines using various tumor-associated antigens or their derivatives. One way of loading antigen into the dendritic cells is by mRNA electroporation, ensuring presentation of antigen through major histocompatibility complex I and potentially activating T cells, enabling them to kill the tumor cells. Despite extensive research in the field, only one dendritic cell-based vaccine has been approved. There is therefore a great need to elucidate and understand the immunological impact of dendritic cell vaccination in order to improve clinical benefit. In this chapter, we describe a method for performing immune monitoring using peripheral blood mononuclear cells and autologous dendritic cells transfected with tumor-associated antigen-encoding mRNA. PMID:27236804

  3. Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Döring, Yvonne; Zernecke, Alma

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of the vessel wall and the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease, is initiated and maintained by innate and adaptive immunity. Accumulating evidence suggests an important contribution of autoimmune responses to this disease. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), a specialized cell type known to produce large amounts of type I interferons (IFNs) in response to bacterial and viral infections, have recently been revealed to play important roles in atherosclerosis. For example, the development of autoimmune complexes consisting of self-DNA and antimicrobial peptides, which trigger chronic type I IFN production by pDCs, promote early atherosclerotic lesion formation. pDCs and pDC-derived type I IFNs can also induce the maturation of conventional DCs and macrophages, and the development of autoreactive B cells and antibody production. These mechanisms, known to play a role in the pathogenesis of other autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and psoriasis, may also affect the development and progression of atherosclerotic lesion formation. This review discusses emerging evidence showing a contribution of pDCs in the onset and progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:22754539

  4. Coadministration of polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid and immunostimulatory complexes modifies antigen processing in dendritic cell subsets and enhances HIV gag-specific T cell immunity.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Kylie M; Yamamoto, Ayako; Costa, Andreia; Darrah, Patricia A; Lindsay, Ross W B; Hegde, Sonia T; Johnson, Teresa R; Flynn, Barbara J; Loré, Karin; Seder, Robert A

    2013-11-15

    Currently approved adjuvants induce protective Ab responses but are more limited for generating cellular immunity. In this study, we assessed the effect of combining two adjuvants with distinct mechanisms of action on their ability to prime T cells: the TLR3 ligand, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), and immunostimulatory complexes (ISCOMs). Each adjuvant was administered alone or together with HIV Gag protein (Gag), and the magnitude, quality, and phenotype of Gag-specific T cell responses were assessed. For CD8 T cells, all adjuvants induced a comparable response magnitude, but combining poly I:C with ISCOMs induced a high frequency of CD127(+), IL-2-producing cells with decreased expression of Tbet compared with either adjuvant alone. For CD4 T cells, combining poly I:C and ISCOMs increased the frequency of multifunctional cells, producing IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF, and the total magnitude of the response compared with either adjuvant alone. CD8 or CD4 T cell responses induced by both adjuvants mediated protection against Gag-expressing Listeria monocytogenes or vaccinia viral infections. Poly I:C and ISCOMs can alter Ag uptake and/or processing, and we therefore used fluorescently labeled HIV Gag and DQ-OVA to assess these mechanisms, respectively, in multiple dendritic cell subsets. Poly I:C promoted uptake and retention of Ag, whereas ISCOMs enhanced Ag degradation. Combining poly I:C and ISCOMs caused substantial death of dendritic cells but persistence of degraded Ag. These data illustrate how combining adjuvants, such as poly I:C and ISCOMs, that modulate Ag processing and have potent innate activity, can enhance the magnitude, quality, and phenotype of T cell immunity. PMID:24089189

  5. Dendritic Cells in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Seitz, Heather M.; Matsushima, Glenn K.

    2010-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) persists as a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease and is characterized by the production of autoantibodies and immune complexes that affects multiple organs. The underlying mechanism that triggers and sustain disease are complex and involves certain susceptibility genes and environmental factors. There have been several immune mediators linked to SLE including cytokines and chemokines that have been reviewed elsewhere(1–3). A number of articles have reviewed the role of B cells and T cells in SLE(4–10). Here, we focus on role of dendritic cells (DC) and innate immune factors that may regulate autoreactive B cells. PMID:20367140

  6. Reduced Purkinje cell dendritic arborization and loss of dendritic spines in essential tremor.

    PubMed

    Louis, Elan D; Lee, Michelle; Babij, Rachel; Ma, Karen; Cortés, Etty; Vonsattel, Jean-Paul G; Faust, Phyllis L

    2014-12-01

    Based on accumulating post-mortem evidence of abnormalities in Purkinje cell biology in essential tremor, we hypothesized that regressive changes in dendritic morphology would be apparent in the Purkinje cell population in essential tremor cases versus age-matched controls. Cerebellar cortical tissue from 27 cases with essential tremor and 27 age-matched control subjects was processed by the Golgi-Kopsch method. Purkinje cell dendritic anatomy was quantified using a Neurolucida microscopic system interfaced with a motorized stage. In all measures, essential tremor cases demonstrated significant reductions in dendritic complexity compared with controls. Median values in essential tremor cases versus controls were: 5712.1 versus 10 403.2 µm (total dendrite length, P=0.01), 465.9 versus 592.5 µm (branch length, P=0.01), 22.5 versus 29.0 (maximum branch order, P=0.001), and 165.3 versus 311.7 (number of terminations, P=0.008). Furthermore, the dendritic spine density was reduced in essential tremor cases (medians=0.82 versus 1.02 µm(-1), P=0.03). Our demonstration of regressive changes in Purkinje cell dendritic architecture and spines in essential tremor relative to control brains provides additional evidence of a pervasive abnormality of Purkinje cell biology in this disease, which affects multiple neuronal cellular compartments including their axon, cell body, dendrites and spines. PMID:25367027

  7. Plasmacytoid dendritic cell role in cutaneous malignancies.

    PubMed

    Saadeh, Dana; Kurban, Mazen; Abbas, Ossama

    2016-07-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) correspond to a specialized dendritic cell population that exhibit plasma cell morphology, express CD4, CD123, HLA-DR, blood-derived dendritic cell antigen-2 (BDCA-2), and Toll-like receptor (TLR)7 and TLR9 within endosomal compartments. Through their production of type I interferons (IFNs) and other pro-inflammatory cytokines, pDCs provide anti-viral resistance and link the innate and adaptive immunity by controlling the function of myeloid DCs, lymphocytes, and natural killer (NK) cells. While lacking from normal skin, pDCs are usually recruited to the skin in several cutaneous pathologies where they appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of several infectious, inflammatory/autoimmune, and neoplastic entities. Among the latter group, pDCs have the potential to induce anti-tumour immunity; however, the complex interaction of pDCs with tumor cells and their micro-environment appears to contribute to immunologic tolerance. In this review, we aim at highlighting the role played by pDCs in cutaneous malignancies with special emphasis on the underlying mechanisms. PMID:27236509

  8. Fate Mapping of Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Poltorak, Mateusz Pawel; Schraml, Barbara Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are a heterogeneous group of mononuclear phagocytes with versatile roles in immunity. They are classified predominantly based on phenotypic and functional properties, namely their stellate morphology, expression of the integrin CD11c, and major histocompatibility class II molecules, as well as their superior capacity to migrate to secondary lymphoid organs and stimulate naïve T cells. However, these attributes are not exclusive to DCs and often change within inflammatory or infectious environments. This led to debates over cell identification and questioned even the mere existence of DCs as distinct leukocyte lineage. Here, we review experimental approaches taken to fate map DCs and discuss how these have shaped our understanding of DC ontogeny and lineage affiliation. Considering the ontogenetic properties of DCs will help to overcome the inherent shortcomings of purely phenotypic- and function-based approaches to cell definition and will yield a more robust way of DC classification. PMID:25999945

  9. The effect of stable macromolecular complexes of ionic polyphosphazene on HIV Gag antigen and on activation of human dendritic cells and presentation to T-cells.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Christine D; Ninković, Jana; Prokopowicz, Zofia M; Mancuso, Christy J; Marin, Alexander; Andrianov, Alexander K; Dowling, David J; Levy, Ofer

    2014-10-01

    Neonates and infants are susceptible to infection due to distinct immune responses in early life. Therefore, development of vaccine formulation and delivery systems capable of activating human newborn leukocytes is of global health importance. Poly[di(carboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene] (PCPP) belongs to a family of ionic synthetic polyphosphazene polyelectrolyte compounds that can form non-covalent interactions with protein antigens and demonstrate adjuvant activity in animals and in human clinical trials. However, little is known about their ability to activate human immune cells. In this study, we characterized the effects of PCPP alone or in combination with a model antigen (recombinant HIV-Gag (Gag)), on the maturation, activation and antigen presentation by human adult and newborn dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro. PCPP treatment induced DC activation as assessed by upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules and cytokine production. Studies benchmarking PCPP to Alum, the most commonly used vaccine adjuvant, demonstrated that both triggered cell death and release of danger signals in adult and newborn DCs. When complexed with Gag antigen, PCPP maintained its immunostimulatory characteristics while permitting internalization and presentation of Gag by DCs to HIV-Gag-specific CD4(+) T cell clones. The PCPP vaccine formulation outlined here has intrinsic adjuvant activity, can facilitate effective delivery of antigen to DCs, and may be advantageous for induction of beneficial T cell-mediated immunity. Moreover, polyphosphazenes can further reduce cost of vaccine production and distribution through their dose-sparing and antigen-stabilizing properties, thus potentially eliminating the need for cold chain distribution. PMID:25023392

  10. Dendritic cell targeted liposomes-protamine-DNA complexes mediated by synthetic mannosylated cholestrol as a potential carrier for DNA vaccine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pan; Chen, Simu; Jiang, Yuhong; Jiang, Jiayu; Zhang, Zhirong; Sun, Xun

    2013-07-01

    To construct mannosylated liposomes/protamine/DNA (LPD) carriers for DNA vaccine targeting to dendritic cells (DCs), a mannosylated cholesterol derivative (Man-C6-Chol) was synthesized via simple ester linkage and amide bonds. Then, the Man-C6-Chol was applied to LPD formulation as a synthetic ligand. The physicochemical properties of mannosylated LPD (Man-LPD) were first evaluated, including the size and zeta potential, morphology and the ability to protect DNA against DNase I degradation. Man-LPD showed a small size with a stable viral-like structure. In comparison to non-mannose liposomes/LPD (Man-free liposomes/LPD), mannosylated liposomes/LPD (Man-liposomes/Man-LPD) exhibited higher efficiency in both intracellular uptake (2.3-fold) and transfection (4.5-fold) in vitro. Subsequent MTT assays indicated that the LPD carriers had low toxicity on the tested cells. Afterwards, the investigation into the maturation activation on primary bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) showed that both Man-LPD and Man-free LPD induced remarkable up-regulation of CD80, CD86 and CD40 on BMDCs. Inspired by these studies, we can conclude that the synthetic mannosylated LPD targeting to DCs was a potential carrier for DNA vaccine.

  11. Analysis of the Rab GTPase Interactome in Dendritic Cells Reveals Anti-microbial Functions of the Rab32 Complex in Bacterial Containment.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yu; Zou, Liyun; Tang, Xiangyu; Yang, Yi; Ma, Li; Jia, Qingzhu; Ni, Qingshan; Liu, Siqi; Tang, Lizhang; Lin, Regina; Wong, Elizabeth; Sun, Wei; Wang, Liting; Wei, Quanfang; Ran, Haiying; Zhang, Liqun; Lian, Hengning; Huang, Wei; Wu, Yuzhang; Li, Qi-Jing; Wan, Ying

    2016-02-16

    Dendritic cells (DCs) orchestrate complex membrane trafficking through an interconnected transportation network linked together by Rab GTPases. Through a tandem affinity purification strategy and mass spectrometry, we depicted an interactomic landscape of major members of the mammalian Rab GTPase family. When complemented with imaging tools, this proteomic analysis provided a global view of intracellular membrane organization. Driven by this analysis, we investigated dynamic changes to the Rab32 subnetwork in DCs induced by L. monocytogenes infection and uncovered an essential role of this subnetwork in controlling the intracellular proliferation of L. monocytogenes. Mechanistically, Rab32 formed a persistent complex with two interacting proteins, PHB and PHB2, to encompass bacteria both during early phagosome formation and after L. monocytogenes escaped the original containment vacuole. Collectively, we have provided a functional compartmentalization overview and an organizational framework of intracellular Rab-mediated vesicle trafficking that can serve as a resource for future investigations. PMID:26885862

  12. Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE25/PPE41 protein complex induces activation and maturation of dendritic cells and drives Th2-biased immune responses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Bao, Yige; Chen, Xuerong; Burton, Jeremy; Gong, Xueli; Gu, Dongqing; Mi, Youjun; Bao, Lang

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis evades innate host immune responses by parasitizing macrophages and causes significant morbidity and mortality around the world. A mycobacterial antigen that can activate dendritic cells (DCs) and elicit effective host innate immune responses will be vital to the development of an effective TB vaccine. The M. tuberculosis genes PE25/PPE41 encode proteins which have been associated with evasion of the host immune response. We constructed a PE25/PPE41 complex gene via splicing by overlapping extension and expressed it successfully in E. coli. We investigated whether this protein complex could interact with DCs to induce effective host immune responses. The PE25/PPE41 protein complex induced maturation of isolated mouse DCs in vitro, increasing expression of cell surface markers (CD80, CD86 and MHC-II), thereby promoting Th2 polarization via secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10. In addition, PE25/PPE41 protein complex-activated DCs induced proliferation of mouse CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and a strong humoral response in immunized mice. The sera of five TB patients were also highly reactive to this antigen. These findings suggest that interaction of the PE25/PPE41 protein complex with DCs may be of great immunological significance. PMID:26318856

  13. High-density sub-100-nm peptide-gold nanoparticle complexes improve vaccine presentation by dendritic cells in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Adam Yuh; Lunsford, Jessica; Bear, Adham Sean; Young, Joseph Keith; Eckels, Phillip; Luo, Laureen; Foster, Aaron Edward; Drezek, Rebekah Anna

    2013-02-01

    Nanocarriers have been explored to improve the delivery of tumor antigens to dendritic cells (DCs). Gold nanoparticles are attractive nanocarriers because they are inert, non-toxic, and can be readily endocytosed by DCs. Here, we designed novel gold-based nanovaccines (AuNVs) using a simple self-assembling bottom-up conjugation method to generate high-peptide density delivery and effective immune responses with limited toxicity. AuNVs were synthesized using a self-assembling conjugation method and optimized using DC-to-splenocyte interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assays. The AuNV design has shown successful peptide conjugation with approximately 90% yield while remaining smaller than 80 nm in diameter. DCs uptake AuNVs with minimal toxicity and are able to process the vaccine peptides on the particles to stimulate cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). These high-peptide density AuNVs can stimulate CTLs better than free peptides and have great potential as carriers for various vaccine types.

  14. Dendritic cells in lung immunopathology.

    PubMed

    Cook, Peter C; MacDonald, Andrew S

    2016-07-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) lie at the heart of the innate immune system, specialised at recognising danger signals in many forms including foreign material, infection or tissue damage and initiating powerful adaptive immune and inflammatory responses. In barrier sites such as the lung, the instrumental role that DCs play at the interface between the environment and the host places them in a pivotal position in determining the severity of inflammatory disease. The past few years has seen a significant increase in our fundamental understanding of the subsets of DCs involved in pulmonary immunity, as well as the mechanisms by which they are activated and which they may use to coordinate downstream inflammation and pathology. In this review, we will summarise current understanding of the multi-faceted role that DCs play in the induction, maintenance and regulation of lung immunopathology, with an emphasis on allergic pulmonary disease. PMID:27256370

  15. Regulation of Dendritic Cell Function in Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Said, André; Weindl, Günther

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen presenting cells and link the innate and adaptive immune system. During steady state immune surveillance in skin, DC act as sentinels against commensals and invading pathogens. Under pathological skin conditions, inflammatory cytokines, secreted by surrounding keratinocytes, dermal fibroblasts, and immune cells, influence the activation and maturation of different DC populations including Langerhans cells (LC) and dermal DC. In this review we address critical differences in human DC subtypes during inflammatory settings compared to steady state. We also highlight the functional characteristics of human DC subsets in inflammatory skin environments and skin diseases including psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Understanding the complex immunoregulatory role of distinct DC subsets in inflamed human skin will be a key element in developing novel strategies in anti-inflammatory therapy. PMID:26229971

  16. Dendritic cells in autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Kabel, P J; Voorbij, H A; van der Gaag, R D; Wiersinga, W M; de Haan, M; Drexhage, H A

    1987-01-01

    Dendritic cells form a morphologically distinct class of cells characterized by shape, reniform nucleus, absent to weak acid-phosphatase activity and strong Class II MHC determinant positivity. Functionally they are the most efficient cells in antigen presentation to T-lymphocytes which indicates their role in the initiation of an immune response. Using immunehistochemical techniques we studied the presence of dendritic cells in normal Wistar rat and human thyroids, in thyroids of BBW rats developing thyroid autoimmunity and in Graves' goitres. Dendritic cells could be identified in all thyroids studied and were positioned underneath the thyrocytes in between the follicles. Skin dendritic cells travel via lymphatics to draining lymph nodes, thus forming an antigen presenting cell system. It is likely that a similar cell system exists on the level of the thyroid for dendritic cells have also been detected in thyroid draining lymph nodes. In normal thyroid tissue of both human and rat dendritic cells were relatively scarce. During the initial phases of the thyroid autoimmune response in the BBW rat (before the appearance of Tg-antibodies in the circulation) numbers of thyroid dendritic cells increased. Intrathyroidal T-helper cells, B-cells or plasma cells could not be found. The thyroid draining lymph node contained large numbers of plasma cells. During the later stages of the thyroid autoimmune response in the BB/W rat (after the appearance of Tg-antibodies in the circulation) and in Graves' goitres dendritic cells were not only present in high number, but 20-30% were seen in contact with now-present intrathyroidal T-helper lymphocytes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3475920

  17. Podosomes of dendritic cells facilitate antigen sampling

    PubMed Central

    Reinieren-Beeren, Inge; Cambi, Alessandra; Figdor, Carl G.; van den Bogaart, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Summary Dendritic cells sample the environment for antigens and play an important role in establishing the link between innate and acquired immunity. Dendritic cells contain mechanosensitive adhesive structures called podosomes that consist of an actin-rich core surrounded by integrins, adaptor proteins and actin network filaments. They facilitate cell migration via localized degradation of extracellular matrix. Here we show that podosomes of human dendritic cells locate to spots of low physical resistance in the substrate (soft spots) where they can evolve into protrusive structures. Pathogen recognition receptors locate to these protrusive structures where they can trigger localized antigen uptake, processing and presentation to activate T-cells. Our data demonstrate a novel role in antigen sampling for podosomes of dendritic cells. PMID:24424029

  18. Regulation of Th2 Cell Immunity by Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Na, Hyeongjin

    2016-01-01

    Th2 cell immunity is required for host defense against helminths, but it is detrimental in allergic diseases in humans. Unlike Th1 cell and Th17 cell subsets, the mechanism by which dendritic cells modulate Th2 cell responses has been obscure, in part because of the inability of dendritic cells to provide IL-4, which is indispensable for Th2 cell lineage commitment. In this regard, immune cells other than dendritic cells, such as basophils and innate lymphoid cells, have been suggested as Th2 cell inducers. More recently, multiple independent researchers have shown that specialized subsets of dendritic cells mediate Th2 cell responses. This review will discuss the current understanding related to the regulation of Th2 cell responses by dendritic cells and other immune cells. PMID:26937227

  19. Follicular dendritic cells in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    El Shikh, Mohey Eldin M.; Pitzalis, Costantino

    2012-01-01

    Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are unique immune cells that contribute to the regulation of humoral immune responses. These cells are located in the B-cell follicles of secondary lymphoid tissues where they trap and retain antigens (Ags) in the form of highly immunogenic immune complexes (ICs) consisting of Ag plus specific antibody (Ab) and/or complement proteins. FDCs multimerize Ags and present them polyvalently to B-cells in periodically arranged arrays that extensively crosslink the B-cell receptors for Ag (BCRs). FDC-FcγRIIB mediates IC periodicity, and FDC-Ag presentation combined with other soluble and membrane bound signals contributed by FDCs, like FDC-BAFF, -IL-6, and -C4bBP, are essential for the induction of the germinal center (GC) reaction, the maintenance of serological memory, and the remarkable ability of FDC-Ags to induce specific Ab responses in the absence of cognate T-cell help. On the other hand, FDCs play a negative role in several disease conditions including chronic inflammatory diseases, autoimmune diseases, HIV/AIDS, prion diseases, and follicular lymphomas. Compared to other accessory immune cells, FDCs have received little attention, and their functions have not been fully elucidated. This review gives an overview of FDC structure, and recapitulates our current knowledge on the immunoregulatory functions of FDCs in health and disease. A better understanding of FDCs should permit better regulation of Ab responses to suit the therapeutic manipulation of regulated and dysregulated immune responses. PMID:23049531

  20. Follicular dendritic cells in health and disease.

    PubMed

    El Shikh, Mohey Eldin M; Pitzalis, Costantino

    2012-01-01

    Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are unique immune cells that contribute to the regulation of humoral immune responses. These cells are located in the B-cell follicles of secondary lymphoid tissues where they trap and retain antigens (Ags) in the form of highly immunogenic immune complexes (ICs) consisting of Ag plus specific antibody (Ab) and/or complement proteins. FDCs multimerize Ags and present them polyvalently to B-cells in periodically arranged arrays that extensively crosslink the B-cell receptors for Ag (BCRs). FDC-FcγRIIB mediates IC periodicity, and FDC-Ag presentation combined with other soluble and membrane bound signals contributed by FDCs, like FDC-BAFF, -IL-6, and -C4bBP, are essential for the induction of the germinal center (GC) reaction, the maintenance of serological memory, and the remarkable ability of FDC-Ags to induce specific Ab responses in the absence of cognate T-cell help. On the other hand, FDCs play a negative role in several disease conditions including chronic inflammatory diseases, autoimmune diseases, HIV/AIDS, prion diseases, and follicular lymphomas. Compared to other accessory immune cells, FDCs have received little attention, and their functions have not been fully elucidated. This review gives an overview of FDC structure, and recapitulates our current knowledge on the immunoregulatory functions of FDCs in health and disease. A better understanding of FDCs should permit better regulation of Ab responses to suit the therapeutic manipulation of regulated and dysregulated immune responses. PMID:23049531

  1. Activation of B cells by antigens on follicular dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    El Shikh, Mohey Eldin M.; El Sayed, Rania M.; Sukumar, Selvakumar; Szakal, Andras K.; Tew, John G.

    2010-01-01

    A need for antigen-processing and presentation to B cells is not widely appreciated. However, cross-linking of multiple B cell receptors (BCRs) by T-independent antigens delivers a potent signal that induces antibody responses. Such BCR cross-linking also occurs in germinal centers where follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) present multimerized antigens as periodically arranged antigen-antibody complexes (ICs). Unlike T cells that recognize antigens as peptide-MHC complexes, optimal B cell-responses are induced by multimerized FDC-ICs that simultaneously engage multiple BCRs. FDC-FcγRIIB mediates IC-periodicity and FDC-BAFF, -IL-6 and -C4bBP are co-stimulators. Remarkably, specific antibody responses can be induced by FDC-ICs in the absence of T cells, opening up the exciting possibility that people with T cell insufficiencies may be immunized with T-dependent vaccines via FDC-ICs. PMID:20418164

  2. Regulation of Dendritic Cell Function by Vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Barragan, Myriam; Good, Misty; Kolls, Jay K.

    2015-01-01

    Studies over the last two decades have revealed profound immunomodulatory aspects of vitamin D on various aspects of the immune system. This review will provide an overview of Vitamin D metabolism, a description of dendritic cell subsets, and highlight recent advances on the effects of vitamin D on dendritic cell function, maturation, cytokine production and antigen presentation. The active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D3, has important immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Specifically, the 1,25(OH)2D3-Vitamin D3 complex can affect the maturation and migration of many dendritic cell subsets, conferring a special immunoregulatory role as well as tolerogenic properties affecting cytokine and chemokine production. Furthermore, there have been many recent studies demonstrating the effects of Vitamin D on allergic disease and autoimmunity. A clear understanding of the effects of the various forms of Vitamin D will provide new opportunities to improve human health. PMID:26402698

  3. Dendritic Cells Stimulated by Cationic Liposomes.

    PubMed

    Vitor, Micaela Tamara; Bergami-Santos, Patrícia Cruz; Cruz, Karen Steponavicius Piedade; Pinho, Mariana Pereira; Barbuto, José Alexandre Marzagão; De La Torre, Lucimara Gaziola

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy of cancer aims to harness the immune system to detect and destroy cancer cells. To induce an immune response against cancer, activated dendritic cells (DCs) must present tumor antigens to T lymphocytes of patients. However, cancer patients' DCs are frequently defective, therefore, they are prone to induce rather tolerance than immune responses. In this context, loading tumor antigens into DCs and, at the same time, activating these cells, is a tempting goal within the field. Thus, we investigated the effects of cationic liposomes on the DCs differentiation/maturation, evaluating their surface phenotype and ability to stimulate T lymphocytes proliferation in vitro. The cationic liposomes composed by egg phosphatidylcholine, 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium propane and 1,2-dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (50/25/25% molar) were prepared by the thin film method followed by extrusion (65 nm, polydispersity of 0.13) and by the dehydration-rehydration method (95% of the population 107 nm, polydispersity of 0.52). The phenotypic analysis of dendritic cells and the analysis of T lymphocyte proliferation were performed by flow cytometry and showed that both cationic liposomes were incorporated and activated dendritic cells. Extruded liposomes were better incorporated and induced higher CD86 expression for dendritic cells than dehydrated-rehydrated vesicles. Furthermore, dendritic cells which internalized extruded liposomes also provided stronger T lymphocyte stimulation. Thus, cationic liposomes with a smaller size and polydispersity seem to be better incorporated by dendritic cells. Hence, these cationic liposomes could be used as a potential tool in further cancer immunotherapy strategies and contribute to new strategies in immunotherapy. PMID:27398454

  4. Dendritic Cells in the Cancer Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yang; Shurin, Galina V.; Peiyuan, Zhu; Shurin, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    The complexity of the tumor immunoenvironment is underscored by the emergence and discovery of different subsets of immune effectors and regulatory cells. Tumor-induced polarization of immune cell differentiation and function makes this unique environment even more intricate and variable. Dendritic cells (DCs) represent a special group of cells that display different phenotype and activity at the tumor site and exhibit differential pro-tumorigenic and anti-tumorigenic functions. DCs play a key role in inducing and maintaining the antitumor immunity, but in the tumor environment their antigen-presenting function may be lost or inefficient. DCs might be also polarized into immunosuppressive/tolerogenic regulatory DCs, which limit activity of effector T cells and support tumor growth and progression. Although various factors and signaling pathways have been described to be responsible for abnormal functioning of DCs in cancer, there are still no feasible therapeutic modalities available for preventing or reversing DC malfunction in tumor-bearing hosts. Thus, better understanding of DC immunobiology in cancer is pivotal for designing novel or improved therapeutic approaches that will allow proper functioning of DCs in patients with cancer. PMID:23386903

  5. Bordetella pertussis Proteins Dominating the Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II-Presented Epitope Repertoire in Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Stenger, Rachel M.; Meiring, Hugo D.; Kuipers, Betsy; Poelen, Martien; van Gaans-van den Brink, Jacqueline A. M.; Boog, Claire J. P.; de Jong, Ad P. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of naturally processed Bordetella pertussis-specific T cell epitopes may help to increase our understanding of the basis of cell-mediated immune mechanisms to control this reemerging pathogen. Here, we elucidate for the first time the dominant major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-presented B. pertussis CD4+ T cell epitopes, expressed on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) after the processing of whole bacterial cells by use of a platform of immunoproteomics technology. Pertussis epitopes identified in the context of HLA-DR molecules were derived from two envelope proteins, i.e., putative periplasmic protein (PPP) and putative peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (PAL), and from two cytosolic proteins, i.e., 10-kDa chaperonin groES protein (groES) and adenylosuccinate synthetase (ASS). No epitopes were detectable from known virulence factors. CD4+ T cell responsiveness in healthy adults against peptide pools representing epitope regions or full proteins confirmed the immunogenicity of PAL, PPP, groES, and ASS. Elevated lymphoproliferative activity to PPP, groES, and ASS in subjects within a year after the diagnosis of symptomatic pertussis suggested immunogenic exposure to these proteins during clinical infection. The PAL-, PPP-, groES-, and ASS-specific responses were associated with secretion of functional Th1 (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α] and gamma interferon [IFN-γ]) and Th2 (interleukin 5 [IL-5] and IL-13) cytokines. Relative paucity in the natural B. pertussis epitope display of MDDC, not dominated by epitopes from known protective antigens, can interfere with the effectiveness of immune recognition of B. pertussis. A more complete understanding of hallmarks in B. pertussis-specific immunity may advance the design of novel immunological assays and prevention strategies. PMID:24599530

  6. Bordetella pertussis proteins dominating the major histocompatibility complex class II-presented epitope repertoire in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Stenger, Rachel M; Meiring, Hugo D; Kuipers, Betsy; Poelen, Martien; van Gaans-van den Brink, Jacqueline A M; Boog, Claire J P; de Jong, Ad P J M; van Els, Cécile A C M

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of naturally processed Bordetella pertussis-specific T cell epitopes may help to increase our understanding of the basis of cell-mediated immune mechanisms to control this reemerging pathogen. Here, we elucidate for the first time the dominant major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-presented B. pertussis CD4(+) T cell epitopes, expressed on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) after the processing of whole bacterial cells by use of a platform of immunoproteomics technology. Pertussis epitopes identified in the context of HLA-DR molecules were derived from two envelope proteins, i.e., putative periplasmic protein (PPP) and putative peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (PAL), and from two cytosolic proteins, i.e., 10-kDa chaperonin groES protein (groES) and adenylosuccinate synthetase (ASS). No epitopes were detectable from known virulence factors. CD4(+) T cell responsiveness in healthy adults against peptide pools representing epitope regions or full proteins confirmed the immunogenicity of PAL, PPP, groES, and ASS. Elevated lymphoproliferative activity to PPP, groES, and ASS in subjects within a year after the diagnosis of symptomatic pertussis suggested immunogenic exposure to these proteins during clinical infection. The PAL-, PPP-, groES-, and ASS-specific responses were associated with secretion of functional Th1 (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α] and gamma interferon [IFN-γ]) and Th2 (interleukin 5 [IL-5] and IL-13) cytokines. Relative paucity in the natural B. pertussis epitope display of MDDC, not dominated by epitopes from known protective antigens, can interfere with the effectiveness of immune recognition of B. pertussis. A more complete understanding of hallmarks in B. pertussis-specific immunity may advance the design of novel immunological assays and prevention strategies. PMID:24599530

  7. Porcine cathelicidins efficiently complex and deliver nucleic acids to plasmacytoid dendritic cells and can thereby mediate bacteria-induced IFN-α responses.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Arnaud; Démoulins, Thomas; Python, Sylvie; Summerfield, Artur

    2014-07-01

    Cathelicidins constitute potent antimicrobial peptides characterized by a high cationic charge that enables strong interactions with nucleic acids. In fact, the only human cathelicidin LL-37 triggers rapid sensing of nucleic acids by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC). Among the porcine cathelicidins, phylogenetic analysis of the C-terminal mature peptide showed that porcine myeloid antimicrobial peptide (PMAP)-36 was the most closely related of the 11 porcine cathelicidins to human LL-37. Despite several investigations evaluating potent antimicrobial functions of porcine cathelicidins, nothing is known about their ability to promote pDC activation. We therefore investigated the capacity of the proline-arginine-rich 39-aa peptide, PMAP-23, PMAP-36, and protegrin-1 to complex with bacterial DNA or synthetic RNA molecules and facilitate pDC activation. We demonstrate that these peptides mediate a rapid and efficient uptake of nucleic acids within minutes, followed by robust IFN-α responses. The highest positively charged cathelicidin, PMAP-36, was found to be the most potent peptide tested for this effect. The peptide-DNA complexes were internalized and also found to associate with the cell membranes of pDC. The amphipathic conformation typical of PMAP-36 was not required for IFN-α induction in pDC. We also demonstrate that PMAP-36 can mediate IFN-α induction in pDC stimulated by Escherichia coli, which alone fail to activate pDC. This response was weaker with a scrambled PMAP-36, relating to its lower antimicrobial activity. Collectively, our data suggest that the antimicrobial and nucleic acid-complexing properties of cathelicidins can mediate pDC activation-promoting adaptive immune responses against microbial infections. PMID:24899499

  8. ISOLATION OF CHICKEN FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present study was to isolate chicken follicular dendritic cells (FDC). A combination of methods involving panning, iodixanol density gradient centrifugation, and magnetic cell separation technology made it possible to obtain functional FDC from the cecal tonsils from chickens, which h...

  9. The multifaceted biology of plasmacytoid dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Swiecki, Melissa; Colonna, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are a unique dendritic cell subset that specializes in the production of type I interferons (IFNs). pDCs promote antiviral immune responses and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases characterized by a type I IFN signature. However, pDCs can also induce tolerogenic immune responses. Here, we review recent progress from the field of pDC biology, focusing on: the molecular mechanisms that regulate pDC development and functions; the pathways involved in their sensing of pathogens and endogenous nucleic acids; the function of pDCs at mucosal sites; and their roles in infections, autoimmunity and cancer. PMID:26160613

  10. A multifunctional core-shell nanoparticle for dendritic cell-based cancer immunotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Nam-Hyuk; Cheong, Taek-Chin; Min, Ji Hyun; Wu, Jun Hua; Lee, Sang Jin; Kim, Daehong; Yang, Jae-Seong; Kim, Sanguk; Kim, Young Keun; Seong, Seung-Yong

    2011-10-01

    Dendritic cell-based cancer immunotherapy requires tumour antigens to be delivered efficiently into dendritic cells and their migration to be monitored in vivo. Nanoparticles have been explored as carriers for antigen delivery, but applications have been limited by the toxicity of the solvents used to make nanoparticles, and by the need to use transfection agents to deliver nanoparticles into cells. Here we show that an iron oxide-zinc oxide core-shell nanoparticle can deliver carcinoembryonic antigen into dendritic cells while simultaneously acting as an imaging agent. The nanoparticle-antigen complex is efficiently taken up by dendritic cells within one hour and can be detected in vitro by confocal microscopy and in vivo by magnetic resonance imaging. Mice immunized with dendritic cells containing the nanoparticle-antigen complex showed enhanced tumour antigen specific T-cell responses, delayed tumour growth and better survival than controls.

  11. Transcriptional Regulation of Dendritic Cell Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Chopin, Michaël; Allan, Rhys S.; Belz, Gabrielle T.

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized antigen presenting cells that are exquisitely adapted to sense pathogens and induce the development of adaptive immune responses. They form a complex network of phenotypically and functionally distinct subsets. Within this network, individual DC subsets display highly specific roles in local immunosurveillance, migration, and antigen presentation. This division of labor amongst DCs offers great potential to tune the immune response by harnessing subset-specific attributes of DCs in the clinical setting. Until recently, our understanding of DC subsets has been limited and paralleled by poor clinical translation and efficacy. We have now begun to unravel how different DC subsets develop within a complex multilayered system. These findings open up exciting possibilities for targeted manipulation of DC subsets. Furthermore, ground-breaking developments overcoming a major translational obstacle – identification of similar DC populations in mouse and man – now sets the stage for significant advances in the field. Here we explore the determinants that underpin cellular and transcriptional heterogeneity within the DC network, how these influence DC distribution and localization at steady-state, and the capacity of DCs to present antigens via direct or cross-presentation during pathogen infection. PMID:22566910

  12. Suppression of zinc dendrites in zinc electrode power cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damjanovic, A.; Diggle, J. W.

    1970-01-01

    Addition of various tetraalkyl quarternary ammonium salts, to alkaline zincate electrolyte of cell, prevents formation of zinc dendrites during charging of zinc electrode. Electrode capacity is not impaired and elimination of dendrites prolongs cell life.

  13. Two Clathrin Adaptor Protein Complexes Instruct Axon-Dendrite Polarity.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengpeng; Merrill, Sean A; Jorgensen, Erik M; Shen, Kang

    2016-05-01

    The cardinal feature of neuronal polarization is the establishment and maintenance of axons and dendrites. How axonal and dendritic proteins are sorted and targeted to different compartments is poorly understood. Here, we identified distinct dileucine motifs that are necessary and sufficient to target transmembrane proteins to either the axon or the dendrite through direct interactions with the clathrin-associated adaptor protein complexes (APs) in C. elegans. Axonal targeting requires AP-3, while dendritic targeting is mediated by AP-1. The axonal dileucine motif binds to AP-3 with higher efficiency than to AP-1. Both AP-3 and AP-1 are localized to the Golgi but occupy adjacent domains. We propose that AP-3 and AP-1 directly select transmembrane proteins and target them to axon and dendrite, respectively, by sorting them into distinct vesicle pools. PMID:27151641

  14. Dominating expression of negative regulatory factors downmodulates major histocompatibility complex Class-II expression on dendritic cells in chronic hepatitis C infection

    PubMed Central

    Tomer, Shallu; Chawla, Yogesh K; Duseja, Ajay; Arora, Sunil K

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the molecular mechanisms leading to development of functionally impaired dendritic cells (DCs) in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients infected with genotype 3 virus. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on the cohorts of CHC individuals identified as responders or non-responders to antiviral therapy. Myeloid DCs were isolated from the peripheral blood of each subject using CD1c (BDCA1)+ DC isolation Kit. Monocytes from healthy donor were cultured with DC growth factors such as IL-4 and GM-CSF either in the presence or absence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral proteins followed by LPS stimulation. Phenotyping was done by flowcytometry and gene expression profiling was evaluated by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Non-responders [sustained virological response (SVR)-ve] to conventional antiviral therapy had significantly higher expression of genes associated with interferon responsive element such as IDO1 and PD-L1 (6-fold) and negative regulators of JAK-STAT pathway such as SOCS (6-fold) as compared to responders (SVR+ve) to antiviral therapy. The down-regulated genes in non-responders included factors involved in antigen processing and presentation mainly belonging to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class-II family as HLA-DP, HLA-DQ (2-fold) and superoxide dismutase (2-fold). Cells grown in the presence of HCV viral proteins had genes down-regulated for factors involved in innate response, interferon signaling, DC maturation and co-stimulatory signaling to T-cells, while the genes for cytokine signaling and Toll-like receptors (4-fold) were up-regulated as compared to cells grown in absence of viral proteins. CONCLUSION: Underexpressed MHC class-II genes and upregulated negative regulators in non-responders indicate diminished capacity to present antigen and may constitute mechanism of functionally defective state of DCs. PMID:27298560

  15. [Application of dendritic cells in clinical tumor therapy].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Xian, Li-jian

    2002-04-01

    The active immunotherapy of dendritic cells is hot in tumor therapy research area. This article is a review of the source of dendritic cells, loading antigen, immunotherapy pathway, clinical application, choice of patients, and so on. It makes preparation for further research of dendritic cells. PMID:12452029

  16. Detecting Danger: The Dendritic Cell Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greensmith, Julie; Aickelin, Uwe; Cayzer, Steve

    The "Dendritic Cell Algorithm" (DCA) is inspired by the function of the dendritic cells of the human immune system. In nature, dendritic cells are the intrusion detection agents of the human body, policing the tissue and organs for potential invaders in the form of pathogens. In this research, an abstract model of dendritic cell (DC) behavior is developed and subsequently used to form an algorithm—the DCA. The abstraction process was facilitated through close collaboration with laboratory-based immunologists, who performed bespoke experiments, the results of which are used as an integral part of this algorithm. The DCA is a population-based algorithm, with each agent in the system represented as an "artificial DC". Each DC has the ability to combine multiple data streams and can add context to data suspected as anomalous. In this chapter, the abstraction process and details of the resultant algorithm are given. The algorithm is applied to numerous intrusion detection problems in computer security including the detection of port scans and botnets, where it has produced impressive results with relatively low rates of false positives.

  17. Characterization of chicken dendritic cell markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal and Natural Resources Institute, ARS-USDA, Beltsville, MD, USA. New mouse monoclonal antibodies which detect CD80 and CD83 were developed to characterize chicken dendritic cells (DCs). The characteristics of these molecules have been studied in human, swine, ovine, feline, and canine but not ...

  18. An extracellular adhesion molecule complex patterns dendritic branching and morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xintong; Liu, Oliver W.; Howell, Audrey S.; Shen, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Summary Robust dendrite morphogenesis is a critical step in the development of reproducible neural circuits. However, little is known about the extracellular cues that pattern complex dendrite morphologies. In the model nematode C. elegans, the sensory neuron PVD establishes stereotypical, highly-branched dendrite morphology. Here, we report the identification of a tripartite ligand-receptor complex of membrane adhesion molecules that is both necessary and sufficient to instruct spatially restricted growth and branching of PVD dendrites. The ligand complex SAX-7/L1CAM and MNR-1 function at defined locations in the surrounding hypodermal tissue, while DMA-1 acts as the cognate receptor on PVD. Mutations in this complex lead to dramatic defects in the formation, stabilization, and organization of the dendritic arbor. Ectopic expression of SAX-7 and MNR-1 generates a predictable, unnaturally patterned dendritic tree in a DMA-1 dependent manner. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments indicate that all three molecules are needed for interaction. PMID:24120131

  19. Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma of the tonsil

    PubMed Central

    Kara, Tuba; Serinsoz, Ebru; Arpaci, Rabia Bozdogan; Vayisoglu, Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) is an uncommon tumour within the spectrum of histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms that can occur at nodal and extra-nodal sites. Besides being rare, these tumours are difficult to diagnose. A 72-year-old man with a painless mass in the right tonsil was admitted to the Mersin University Hospital. Tonsillectomy was performed. Microscopically, the tumour consisted of spindle-shaped cells with large oval to polygonal nuclei. Lymphocytes were scattered among the tumour cells. Immunohistochemically, the cells were positive for CD23 and vimentin. The tumour was diagnosed as FDCS with histological and immunohistochemical findings. Recognition of extranodal FDCS requires knowledge of this entity and to consider it during the diagnosis. Confirmatory immunohistochemical staining is essential for diagnosis. Correct characterisation of this neoplasm is important because of its potential for recurrence and metastasis. PMID:23365157

  20. Sensitivity of Dendritic Cells to Microenvironment Signals

    PubMed Central

    Motta, Juliana Maria; Rumjanek, Vivian Mary

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells are antigen-presenting cells capable of either activating the immune response or inducing and maintaining immune tolerance. They do this by integrating stimuli from the environment and changing their functional status as a result of plasticity. The modifications suffered by these cells have consequences in the way the organism may respond. In the present work two opposing situations known to affect dendritic cells are analyzed: tumor growth, leading to a microenvironment that favors the induction of a tolerogenic profile, and organ transplantation, which leads to a proinflammatory profile. Lessons learned from these situations may help to understand the mechanisms of modulation resulting not only from the above circumstances, but also from other pathologies. PMID:27088097

  1. Dendritic cell reprogramming by the hypoxic environment.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Maria Carla; Varesio, Luigi

    2012-12-01

    Myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells central to the orchestration of innate and acquired immunity and the maintenance of self-tolerance. The local microenvironment contributes to the regulation of DC development and functions, and deregulated DC responses may result in amplification of inflammation, loss of tolerance, or establishment of immune escape mechanisms. DC generation from monocytic precursors recruited at sites of inflammation, tissue damage, or neoplasia occurs under condition of low partial oxygen pressure (pO(2), hypoxia). We reviewed the literature addressing the phenotypic and functional changes triggered by hypoxia in monocyte-derived immature (i) and mature (m) DCs. The discussion will revolve around in vitro studies of gene expression profile, which give a comprehensive representation of the complexity of response of these cells to low pO(2). The gene expression pattern of hypoxic DC will be discussed to address the question of the relationship with a specific maturation stage. We will summarize data relative to the regulation of the chemotactic network, which points to a role for hypoxia in promoting a migratory phenotype in iDCs and a highly proinflammatory state in mDCs. Current knowledge of the strict regulatory control exerted by hypoxia on the expression of immune-related cell surface receptors will also be addressed, with a particular focus on a newly identified marker of hypoxic DCs endowed with proinflammatory properties. Furthermore, we discuss the literature on the transcription mechanisms underlying hypoxia-regulated gene expression in DCs, which support a major role for the HIF/HRE pathway. Finally, recent advances shedding light on the in vivo influence of the local hypoxic microenvironment on DCs infiltrating the inflamed joints of juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients are outlined. PMID:22901977

  2. Abnormalities of cell packing density and dendritic complexity in the MeCP2 A140V mouse model of Rett syndrome/X-linked mental retardation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Rett syndrome (RTT), a common cause of mental retardation in girls, is associated with mutations in the MECP2 gene. Most human cases of MECP2 mutation in girls result in classical or variant forms of RTT. When these same mutations occur in males, they often present as severe neonatal encephalopathy. However, some MECP2 mutations can also lead to diseases characterized as mental retardation syndromes, particularly in boys. One of these mutations, A140V, is a common, recurring missense mutation accounting for about 0.6% of all MeCP2 mutations and ranking 21st by frequency. It has been described in familial X-linked mental retardation (XLMR), PPM- X syndrome (Parkinsonism, Pyramidal signs, Macroorchidism, X-linked mental retardation) and in other neuropsychiatric syndromes. Interestingly, this mutation has been reported to preserve the methyl-CpG binding function of the MeCP2 protein while compromising its ability to bind to the mental retardation associated protein ATRX. Results We report the construction and initial characterization of a mouse model expressing the A140V MeCP2 mutation. These initial descriptive studies in male hemizygous mice have revealed brain abnormalities seen in both RTT and mental retardation. The abnormalities found include increases in cell packing density in the brain and a significant reduction in the complexity of neuronal dendritic branching. In contrast to some MeCP2 mutation mouse models, the A140V mouse has an apparently normal lifespan and normal weight gain patterns with no obvious seizures, tremors, breathing difficulties or kyphosis. Conclusion We have identified various neurological abnormalities in this mouse model of Rett syndrome/X-linked mental retardation which may help to elucidate the manner in which MECP2 mutations cause neuronal changes resulting in mental retardation without the confounding effects of seizures, chronic hypoventilation, or other Rett syndrome associated symptoms. PMID:20163734

  3. Human Cytomegalovirus Infection of Langerhans-Type Dendritic Cells Does Not Require the Presence of the gH/gL/UL128-131A Complex and Is Blocked after Nuclear Deposition of Viral Genomes in Immature Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lauron, Elvin J.; Yu, Dong; Fehr, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) enters its host via the oral and genital mucosae. Langerhans-type dendritic cells (LC) are the most abundant innate immune cells at these sites, where they constitute a first line of defense against a variety of pathogens. We previously showed that immature LC (iLC) are remarkably resistant to CMV infection, while mature LC (mLC) are more permissive, particularly when exposed to clinical-strain-like strains of CMV, which display a pentameric complex consisting of the viral glycoproteins gH, gL, UL128, UL130, and UL131A on their envelope. This complex was recently shown to be required for the infection of immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells. We thus sought to establish if the presence of this complex is also necessary for virion penetration of LC and if defects in entry might be the source of iLC resistance to CMV. Here we report that the efficiency of LC infection is reduced, but not completely abolished, in the absence of the pentameric complex. While virion penetration and nuclear deposition of viral genomes are not impaired in iLC, the transcription of the viral immediate early genes UL122 and UL123 and of the delayed early gene UL50 is substantially lower than that in mLC. Together, these data show that the UL128, UL130, and UL131A proteins are dispensable for CMV entry into LC and that progression of the viral cycle in iLC is restricted at the step of viral gene expression. PMID:24155395

  4. Targeting Dendritic Cells in vivo for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Caminschi, Irina; Maraskovsky, Eugene; Heath, William Ross

    2012-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies that recognize cell surface molecules have been used deliver antigenic cargo to dendritic cells (DC) for induction of immune responses. The encouraging anti-tumor immunity elicited using this immunization strategy suggests its suitability for clinical trials. This review discusses the complex network of DC, the functional specialization of DC subsets, the immunological outcomes of targeting different DC subsets and their cell surface receptors, and the requirements for the induction of effective anti-tumor CD4 and CD8 T cell responses that can recognize tumor-specific antigens. Finally, we review preclinical experiments and the progress toward targeting human DC in vivo. PMID:22566899

  5. Role of Dendritic Cells in Immune Dysfunction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savary, Cherylyn A.

    1997-01-01

    Specific aims include: (1) Application of the bioreactor to enhance cytokine-regulated proliferation and maturation of dendritic cells (DC); (2) Based on clues from spaceflight: compare the frequency and function of DC in normal donors and immunocompromised cancer patients; and (3) Initiate studies on the efficiency of cytokine therapy and DC-assisted immunotherapy (using bioreactor-expanded DC) in animal models of experimental fungal infections.

  6. Muscarinic regulation of Kenyon cell dendritic arborizations in adult worker honey bees.

    PubMed

    Dobrin, Scott E; Herlihy, J Daniel; Robinson, Gene E; Fahrbach, Susan E

    2011-09-01

    The experience of foraging under natural conditions increases the volume of mushroom body neuropil in worker honey bees. A comparable increase in neuropil volume results from treatment of worker honey bees with pilocarpine, an agonist for muscarinic-type cholinergic receptors. A component of the neuropil growth induced by foraging experience is growth of dendrites in the collar region of the calyces. We show here, via analysis of Golgi-impregnated collar Kenyon cells with wedge arborizations, that significant increases in standard measures of dendritic complexity were also found in worker honey bees treated with pilocarpine. This result suggests that signaling via muscarinic-type receptors promotes the increase in Kenyon cell dendritic complexity associated with foraging. Treatment of worker honey bees with scopolamine, a muscarinic inhibitor, inhibited some aspects of dendritic growth. Spine density on the Kenyon cell dendrites varied with sampling location, with the distal portion of the dendritic field having greater total spine density than either the proximal or medial section. This observation may be functionally significant because of the stratified organization of projections from visual centers to the dendritic arborizations of the collar Kenyon cells. Pilocarpine treatment had no effect on the distribution of spines on dendrites of the collar Kenyon cells. PMID:21262388

  7. Dendritic cell-based cancer therapeutic vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Palucka, Karolina; Banchereau, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The past decade has seen tremendous developments in novel cancer therapies, through targeting of tumor cell-intrinsic pathways whose activity is linked to genetic alterations, as well as the targeting of tumor cell-extrinsic factors such as growth factors. Furthermore, immunotherapies are entering the clinic at an unprecedented speed following the demonstration that T cells can efficiently reject tumors and that their anti-tumor activity can be enhanced with antibodies against immune regulatory molecules (checkpoints blockade). Current immunotherapy strategies include monoclonal antibodies against tumor cells or immune regulatory molecules, cell-based therapies such as adoptive transfer of ex vivo activated T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, and cancer vaccines. Herein, we discuss the immunological basis for therapeutic cancer vaccines and how the current understanding of dendritic cell (DC) and T cell biology might enable development of next-generation curative therapies for patients with cancer. PMID:23890062

  8. Galectin-1 Regulates Tissue Exit of Specific Dendritic Cell Populations*

    PubMed Central

    Thiemann, Sandra; Man, Jeanette H.; Chang, Margaret H.; Lee, Benhur; Baum, Linda G.

    2015-01-01

    During inflammation, dendritic cells emigrate from inflamed tissue across the lymphatic endothelium into the lymphatic vasculature and travel to regional lymph nodes to initiate immune responses. However, the processes that regulate dendritic cell tissue egress and migration across the lymphatic endothelium are not well defined. The mammalian lectin galectin-1 is highly expressed by vascular endothelial cells in inflamed tissue and has been shown to regulate immune cell tissue entry into inflamed tissue. Here, we show that galectin-1 is also highly expressed by human lymphatic endothelial cells, and deposition of galectin-1 in extracellular matrix selectively regulates migration of specific human dendritic cell subsets. The presence of galectin-1 inhibits migration of immunogenic dendritic cells through the extracellular matrix and across lymphatic endothelial cells, but it has no effect on migration of tolerogenic dendritic cells. The major galectin-1 counter-receptor on both dendritic cell populations is the cell surface mucin CD43; differential core 2 O-glycosylation of CD43 between immunogenic dendritic cells and tolerogenic dendritic cells appears to contribute to the differential effect of galectin-1 on migration. Binding of galectin-1 to immunogenic dendritic cells reduces phosphorylation and activity of the protein-tyrosine kinase Pyk2, an effect that may also contribute to reduced migration of this subset. In a murine lymphedema model, galectin-1−/− animals had increased numbers of migratory dendritic cells in draining lymph nodes, specifically dendritic cells with an immunogenic phenotype. These findings define a novel role for galectin-1 in inhibiting tissue emigration of immunogenic, but not tolerogenic, dendritic cells, providing an additional mechanism by which galectin-1 can dampen immune responses. PMID:26216879

  9. Time-Lapse Retinal Ganglion Cell Dendritic Field Degeneration Imaged in Organotypic Retinal Explant Culture

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Thomas V.; Oglesby, Ericka N.; Steinhart, Matthew R.; Cone-Kimball, Elizabeth; Jefferys, Joan; Quigley, Harry A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop an ex vivo organotypic retinal explant culture system suitable for multiple time-point imaging of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) dendritic arbors over a period of 1 week, and capable of detecting dendrite neuroprotection conferred by experimental treatments. Methods Thy1-YFP mouse retinas were explanted and maintained in organotypic culture. Retinal ganglion cell dendritic arbors were imaged repeatedly using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Maximal projection z-stacks were traced by two masked investigators and dendritic fields were analyzed for characteristics including branch number, size, and complexity. One group of explants was treated with brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) added to the culture media. Changes in individual dendritic fields over time were detected using pair-wise comparison testing. Results Retinal ganglion cells in mouse retinal explant culture began to degenerate after 3 days with 52.4% surviving at 7 days. Dendritic field parameters showed minimal change over 8 hours in culture. Intra- and interobserver measurements of dendrite characteristics were strongly correlated (Spearman rank correlations consistently > 0.80). Statistically significant (P < 0.001) dendritic tree degeneration was detected following 7 days in culture including: 40% to 50% decreases in number of branch segments, number of junctions, number of terminal branches, and total branch length. Scholl analyses similarly demonstrated a significant decrease in dendritic field complexity. Treatment of explants with BDNF+CNTF significantly attenuated dendritic field degeneration. Conclusions Retinal explant culture of Thy1-YFP tissue provides a useful model for time-lapse imaging of RGC dendritic field degeneration over a course of several days, and is capable of detecting neuroprotective amelioration of dendritic pruning within individual RGCs. PMID:26811145

  10. Mucosal dendritic cells shape mucosal immunity

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Sun-Young; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Kweon, Mi-Na

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are key modulators that shape the immune system. In mucosal tissues, DCs act as surveillance systems to sense infection and also function as professional antigen-presenting cells that stimulate the differentiation of naive T and B cells. On the basis of their molecular expression, DCs can be divided into several subsets with unique functions. In this review, we focus on intestinal DC subsets and their function in bridging the innate signaling and adaptive immune systems to maintain the homeostasis of the intestinal immune environment. We also review the current strategies for manipulating mucosal DCs for the development of efficient mucosal vaccines to protect against infectious diseases. PMID:24626170

  11. T Cell Motility as Modulator of Interactions with Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Jens V.

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that the balance of costimulatory and inhibitory signals during interactions with dendritic cells (DCs) determines T cell transition from a naïve to an activated or tolerant/anergic status. Although many of these molecular interactions are well reproduced in reductionist in vitro assays, the highly dynamic motility of naïve T cells in lymphoid tissue acts as an additional lever to fine-tune their activation threshold. T cell detachment from DCs providing suboptimal stimulation allows them to search for DCs with higher levels of stimulatory signals, while storing a transient memory of short encounters. In turn, adhesion of weakly reactive T cells to DCs presenting peptides presented on major histocompatibility complex with low affinity is prevented by lipid mediators. Finally, controlled recruitment of CD8+ T cells to cognate DC–CD4+ T cell clusters shapes memory T cell formation and the quality of the immune response. Dynamic physiological lymphocyte motility therefore constitutes a mechanism to mitigate low avidity T cell activation and to improve the search for “optimal” DCs, while contributing to peripheral tolerance induction in the absence of inflammation. PMID:26579132

  12. Generation of regulatory dendritic cells after treatment with paeoniflorin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dan; Li, Yingxi; Wang, Xiaodong; Li, Keqiu; Jing, Yaqing; He, Jinghua; Qiang, Zhaoyan; Tong, Jingzhi; Sun, Ke; Ding, Wen; Kang, Yi; Li, Guang

    2016-08-01

    Regulatory dendritic cells are a potential therapeutic tool for assessing a variety of immune overreaction diseases. Paeoniflorin, a bioactive glucoside extracted from the Chinese herb white paeony root, has been shown to be effective at inhibiting the maturation and immunostimulatory function of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. However, whether paeoniflorin can program conventional dendritic cells toward regulatory dendritic cells and the underlying mechanism remain unknown. Here, our study demonstrates that paeoniflorin can induce the production of regulatory dendritic cells from human peripheral blood monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but not from mature dendritic cells, thereby demonstrating the potential of paeoniflorin as a specific immunosuppressive drug with fewer complications and side effects. These regulatory dendritic cells treated with paeoniflorin exhibited high CD11b/c and low CD80, CD86 and CD40 expression levels as well as enhanced abilities to capture antigen and promote the proliferation of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells and reduced abilities to migrate and promote the proliferation of CD4(+) T cells, which is associated with the upregulation of endogenous transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-mediated indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) expression. Collectively, paeoniflorin could program immature dendritic cells (imDCs) and imDCs stimulated with LPS toward a regulatory DC fate by upregulating the endogenous TGF-β-mediated IDO expression level, thereby demonstrating its potential as a specific immunosuppressive drug. PMID:26721806

  13. Immunometabolism governs dendritic cell and macrophage function

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies on intracellular metabolism in dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages provide new insights on the functioning of these critical controllers of innate and adaptive immunity. Both cell types undergo profound metabolic reprogramming in response to environmental cues, such as hypoxia or nutrient alterations, but importantly also in response to danger signals and cytokines. Metabolites such as succinate and citrate have a direct impact on the functioning of macrophages. Immunogenicity and tolerogenicity of DCs is also determined by anabolic and catabolic processes, respectively. These findings provide new prospects for therapeutic manipulation in inflammatory diseases and cancer. PMID:26694970

  14. [Dendritic cells in cancer immunotherapy].

    PubMed

    Gato, M; Liechtenstein, T; Blanco-Luquín, I; Zudaire, M I; Kochan, G; Escors, D

    2015-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, biomedical scientists have tried to take advantage of the natural anti-cancer activities of the immune system. However, all the scientific and medical efforts dedicated to this have not resulted in the expected success. In fact, classical antineoplastic treatments such as surgery, radio and chemotherapy are still first line treatments. Even so, there is a quantity of experimental evidence demonstrating that cancer cells are immunogenic. However, the effective activation of anti-cancer T cell responses closely depends on an efficient antigen presentation carried out by professional antigen presenting cells such as DC. Although there are a number of strategies to strengthen antigen presentation by DC, anti-cancer immunotherapy is not as effective as we would expect according to preclinical data accumulated in recent decades. We do not aim to make an exhaustive review of DC immunotherapy here, which is an extensive research subject already dealt with in many specialised reviews. Instead, we present the experimental approaches undertaken by our group over the last decade, by modifying DC to improve their anti-tumour capacities. PMID:26486534

  15. Dendritic cells as therapeutic targets in neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Lüssi, Felix; Zipp, Frauke; Witsch, Esther

    2016-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system characterized by infiltration of immune cells and progressive damage to myelin sheaths and neurons. There is still no cure for the disease, but drug regimens can reduce the frequency of relapses and slightly delay progression. Myeloid cells or antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as dendritic cells (DC), macrophages, and resident microglia, are key players in both mediating immune responses and inducing immune tolerance. Mounting evidence indicates a contribution of these myeloid cells to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and to the effects of treatment, the understanding of which might provide strategies for more potent novel therapeutic interventions. Here, we review recent insights into the role of APCs, with specific focus on DCs in the modulation of neuroinflammation in MS. PMID:26970979

  16. Probiotics, dendritic cells and bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Feyisetan, Oladapo; Tracey, Christopher; Hellawell, Giles O

    2012-06-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The suppressor effect of probiotics on superficial bladder cancer is an observed phenomenon but the specific mechanism is poorly understood. The evidence strongly suggests natural killer (NK) cells are the anti-tumour effector cells involved and NK cell activity correlates with the observed anti-tumour effect in mice. It is also known that dendritic cells (DC) cells are responsible for the recruitment and mobilization of NK cells so therefore it may be inferred that DC cells are most likely to be the interphase point at which probiotics act. In support of this, purification of NK cells was associated with a decrease in NK cells activity. The current use of intravesical bacille Calmette-Guérin in the management of superficial bladder cancer is based on the effect of a localised immune response. In the same way, understanding the mechanism of action of probiotics and the role of DC may potentially offer another avenue via which the immune system may be manipulated to resist bladder cancer. Probiotic foods have been available in the UK since 1996 with the arrival of the fermented milk drink (Yakult) from Japan. The presence of live bacterial ingredients (usually lactobacilli species) may confer health benefits when present in sufficient numbers. The role of probiotics in colo-rectal cancer may be related in part to the suppression of harmful colonic bacteria but other immune mechanisms are involved. Anti-cancer effects outside the colon were suggested by a Japanese report of altered rates of bladder tumour recurrence after ingestion of a particular probiotic. Dendritic cells play a central role to the general regulation of the immune response that may be modified by probiotics. The addition of probiotics to the diet may confer benefit by altering rates of bladder tumour recurrence and also alter the response to immune mechanisms involved with the application of intravesical treatments (bacille Calmette

  17. Transcriptional control of dendritic cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Izumi; Kaisho, Tsuneyasu

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells involved critically not only in provoking innate immune responses but also in establishing adaptive immune responses. Dendritic cells are heterogenous and divided into several subsets, including plasmactyoid DCs (pDCs) and several types of conventional DCs (cDCs), which show subset-specific functions. Plasmactyoid DCs are featured by their ability to produce large amounts of type I interferons (IFNs) in response to nucleic acid sensors, TLR7 and TLR9 and involved in anti-viral immunity and pathogenesis of certain autoimmune disorders such as psoriasis. Conventional DCs include the DC subsets with high crosspresentation activity, which contributes to anti-viral and anti-tumor immunity. These subsets are generated from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) via several intermediate progenitors and the development is regulated by the transcriptional mechanisms in which subset-specific transcription factors play major roles. We have recently found that an Ets family transcription factor, SPI-B, which is abundantly expressed in pDCs among DC subsets, plays critical roles in functions and late stage development of pDCs. SPI-B functions in cooperation with other transcription factors, especially, interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family members. Here we review the transcription factor-based molecular mechanisms for generation and functions of DCs, mainly by focusing on the roles of SPI-B and its relatives. PMID:24875951

  18. Functions of fascin in dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Shigeko

    2012-01-01

    Fascin-1 is an actin-bundling protein that shares no homology with other actin-bundling proteins. It is greatly induced upon maturation of dendritic cells (DCs). However, fascin-1 is not expressed in other primary blood cells, including macrophages and neutrophils, indicating a unique role of fascin-1 in the function of DCs upon maturation. An increasing body of evidence has shown that fascin-1 plays critical roles in maturation-associated DC functions, including dynamic assembly of veil-like membrane protrusions, disassembly of podosomes, migration to lymph nodes, and the assembly of the immunological synapse. Pathological analyses of fascin-1 expression revealed that fascin-1 is a useful marker of diseases of immune cells, including Langerhans cell histiocytosis and Hodgkin diseases. Furthermore, attempts have been made to explore the use of a fascin-1 promoter for DNA vaccination because it is strong and specific to DCs. PMID:22428853

  19. Comparative dendritic cell biology of veterinary mammals.

    PubMed

    Summerfield, Artur; Auray, Gael; Ricklin, Meret

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) have a main function in innate immunity in that they sense infections and environmental antigens at the skin and mucosal surfaces and thereby critically influence decisions about immune activation or tolerance. As professional antigen-presenting cells, they are essential for induction of adaptive immune responses. Consequently, knowledge on this cell type is required to understand the immune systems of veterinary mammals, including cattle, sheep, pigs, dogs, cats, and horses. Recent ontogenic studies define bona fide DC as an independent lineage of hematopoietic cells originating from a common precursor. Distinct transcription factors control the development into the two subsets of classical DC and plasmacytoid DC. These DC subsets express a distinguishable transcriptome, which differs from that of monocyte-derived DC. Using a comparative approach based on phenotype and function, this review attempts to classify DC of veterinary mammals and to describe important knowledge gaps. PMID:25387110

  20. Developmental mechanisms that regulate retinal ganglion cell dendritic morphology

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ning

    2011-01-01

    One of the fundamental features of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is that dendrites of individual RGCs are confined to one or a few narrow strata within the inner plexiform layer (IPL), and each RGC synapses only with a small group of presynaptic bipolar and amacrine cells with axons/dendrites ramified in the same strata to process distinct visual features. The underlying mechanisms which control the development of this laminar-restricted distribution pattern of RGC dendrites have been extensively studied, and it is still an open question whether the dendritic pattern of RGCs is determined by molecular cues or by activity-dependent refinement. Accumulating evidence suggests that both molecular cues and activity-dependent refinement might regulate RGC dendrites in a cell subtype-specific manner. However, identification of morphological subtypes of RGCs before they have achieved their mature dendritic pattern is a major challenge in the study of RGC dendritic development. This problem is now being circumvented through the use of molecular markers in genetically engineered mouse lines to identify RGC subsets early during development. Another unanswered fundamental question in the study of activity-dependent refinement of RGC dendrites is how changes in synaptic activity lead to the changes in dendritic morphology. Recent studies have started to shed light on the molecular basis of activity-dependent dendritic refinement of RGCs by showing that some molecular cascades control the cytoskeleton reorganization of RGCs. PMID:21542137

  1. Membrane specializations and endosome maturation in dendritic cells and B cells.

    PubMed

    Boes, Marianne; Cuvillier, Armelle; Ploegh, Hidde

    2004-04-01

    Interest in the cell biology of antigen presentation is centered on dendritic cells (DCs) as initiators of the immune response. The ability to examine primary antigen-presenting cells, as opposed to cell lines, has opened a new window for study of antigen processing and peptide acquisition by Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) products, especially where intracellular trafficking of peptide-Class-II complexes is concerned. Here, we review the dynamics of Class II MHC-positive intracellular structures in dendritic cells as well as B cells. We focus on the generation of multivesicular bodies, where Class II MHC products acquire antigenic peptide, on the endosomal transport of peptide-loaded Class II MHC to the cell surface and on the importance of Class II MHC localization in membrane microdomains. PMID:15066635

  2. Measles Virus Induces Functional TRAIL Production by Human Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Azocar, Olga; Lamouille, Barbara; Astier, Anne; Rabourdin-Combe, Chantal; Servet-Delprat, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Measles virus infection induces a profound immunosuppression that can lead to serious secondary infections. Here we demonstrate that measles virus induces tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) mRNA and protein expression in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Moreover, measles virus-infected dendritic cells are shown to be cytotoxic via the TRAIL pathway. PMID:10590149

  3. Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara-Infected Dendritic Cells Present CD4+ T-Cell Epitopes by Endogenous Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Presentation Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Frank; Tao, Sha; Zhang, Yi; Muschaweckh, Andreas; Zollmann, Tina; Protzer, Ulrike; Abele, Rubert

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT CD4+ T lymphocytes play a central role in the immune system and mediate their function after recognition of their respective antigens presented on major histocompatibility complex II (MHCII) molecules on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Conventionally, phagocytosed antigens are loaded on MHCII for stimulation of CD4+ T cells. Certain epitopes, however, can be processed directly from intracellular antigens and are presented on MHCII (endogenous MHCII presentation). Here we characterized the MHCII antigen presentation pathways that are possibly involved in the immune response upon vaccination with modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), a promising live viral vaccine vector. We established CD4+ T-cell lines specific for MVA-derived epitopes as tools for in vitro analysis of MHCII antigen processing and presentation in MVA-infected APCs. We provide evidence that infected APCs are able to directly transfer endogenous viral proteins into the MHCII pathway to efficiently activate CD4+ T cells. By using knockout mice and chemical inhibitory compounds, we further elucidated the molecular basis, showing that among the various subcellular pathways investigated, proteasomes and autophagy are key players in the endogenous MHCII presentation during MVA infection. Interestingly, although proteasomal processing plays an important role, neither TAP nor LAMP-2 was found to be involved in the peptide transport. Defining the molecular mechanism of MHCII presentation during MVA infection provides a basis for improving MVA-based vaccination strategies by aiming for enhanced CD4+ T-cell activation by directing antigens into the responsible pathways. IMPORTANCE This work contributes significantly to our understanding of the immunogenic properties of pathogens by deciphering antigen processing pathways contributing to efficient activation of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. We identified autophagosome formation, proteasomal activity, and lysosomal integrity as being crucial for

  4. Targeting dendritic cells: a promising strategy to improve vaccine effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Macri, Christophe; Dumont, Claire; Johnston, Angus PR; Mintern, Justine D

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) targeting is a novel strategy to enhance vaccination efficacy. This approach is based on the in situ delivery of antigen via antibodies that are specific for endocytic receptors expressed at the surface of DCs. Here we review the complexity of the DC subsets and the antigen presentation pathways that need to be considered in the settings of DC targeting. We also summarize current knowledge about antigen delivery to DCs via DEC-205, Clec9A and Clec12A, receptor targets that strongly enhance cellular and humoral immune responses. Finally, we discuss the intracellular trafficking criteria of the targeted receptors that may impact their effectiveness as DC targets. PMID:27217957

  5. Dendritic web silicon photovoltaic cell research

    SciTech Connect

    Easoz, J.A.; Rosey, R.; Campbell, R.B.; Rupnik, R.; Sprecace, R.P.; Piotrowski, P.A. . Advanced Energy Systems Div.); McHugh, J.P.; Seidensticker, R.G. . Science and Technology Center)

    1990-05-01

    This report summarizes the evaluation of a checkpoint demonstration of the throughout capability of the silicon dendritic web growth process as of January 1989. The demonstrated throughput of about 20,000 sq.cm/furnace/week was less than desired for a commercial production facility, however the results clearly indicated that the desired 35,000 sq.cm/furnace/week would be reached with continuous melt replenishment during growth. Improvements in seeding and increase in crystal length would increase the throughput even more. Solar cells subsequently fabricated on the material grown during the demonstration had average efficiency levels (14%) equivalent to cells fabricated on web produced prior to the demonstration run. Finally, a business analysis based on the present results gave estimated photovoltaic module costs in agreement with potential commercial viability. 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Dendritic cell control of tolerogenic responses

    PubMed Central

    Manicassamy, Santhakumar; Pulendran, Bali

    2011-01-01

    Summary One of the most fundamental problems in immunology is the seemingly schizophrenic ability of the immune system to launch robust immunity against pathogens, while acquiring and maintaining a state of tolerance to the body’s own tissues and the trillions of commensal microorganisms and food antigens that confront it every day. A fundamental role for the innate immune system, particularly dendritic cells (DCs), in orchestrating immunological tolerance has been appreciated, but emerging studies have highlighted the nature of the innate receptors and the signaling pathways that program DCs to a tolerogenic state. Furthermore, several studies have emphasized the major role played by cellular interactions, and the microenvironment in programming tolerogenic DCs. Here we review these studies and suggest that the innate control of tolerogenic responses can be viewed as different hierarchies of organization, in which DCs, their innate receptors and signaling networks, and their interactions with other cells and local microenvironments represent different levels of the hierarchy. PMID:21488899

  7. Dendritic cell defects in the colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Legitimo, Annalisa; Consolini, Rita; Failli, Alessandra; Orsini, Giulia; Spisni, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) results from the accumulation of both genetic and epigenetic alterations of the genome. However, also the formation of an inflammatory milieu plays a pivotal role in tumor development and progression. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a relevant role in tumor by exerting differential pro-tumorigenic and anti-tumorigenic functions, depending on the local milieu. Quantitative and functional impairments of DCs have been widely observed in several types of cancer, including CRC, representing a tumor-escape mechanism employed by cancer cells to elude host immunosurveillance. Understanding the interactions between DCs and tumors is important for comprehending the mechanisms of tumor immune surveillance and escape, and provides novel approaches to therapy of cancer. This review summarizes updated information on the role of the DCs in colon cancer development and/or progression. PMID:25483675

  8. Alarmins Link Neutrophils and Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, De; de la Rosa, Gonzalo; Tewary, Poonam; Oppenheim, Joost J.

    2009-01-01

    Neutrophils are the first major population of leukocyte to infiltrate infected or injured tissues and are crucial for initiating host innate defense and adaptive immunity. Although the contribution of neutrophils to innate immune defense is mediated predominantly by phagocytosis and killing of microorganisms, neutrophils also participate in the induction of adaptive immune responses. At sites of infection and/or injury, neutrophils release numerous mediators upon degranulation or death, among these are alarmins which have a characteristic dual capacity to mobilize and activate antigen-presenting cells. We describe here how alarmins released by neutrophil degranulation and/or death can link neutrophils to dendritic cells by promoting their recruitment and activation, resulting in the augmentation of innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:19699678

  9. GATA2 regulates dendritic cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Koichi; Fujiwara, Tohru; Onishi, Yasushi; Itoh-Nakadai, Ari; Okitsu, Yoko; Fukuhara, Noriko; Ishizawa, Kenichi; Shimizu, Ritsuko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Harigae, Hideo

    2016-07-28

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical immune response regulators; however, the mechanism of DC differentiation is not fully understood. Heterozygous germ line GATA2 mutations induce GATA2-deficiency syndrome, characterized by monocytopenia, a predisposition to myelodysplasia/acute myeloid leukemia, and a profoundly reduced DC population, which is associated with increased susceptibility to viral infections, impaired phagocytosis, and decreased cytokine production. To define the role of GATA2 in DC differentiation and function, we studied Gata2 conditional knockout and haploinsufficient mice. Gata2 conditional deficiency significantly reduced the DC count, whereas Gata2 haploinsufficiency did not affect this population. GATA2 was required for the in vitro generation of DCs from Lin(-)Sca-1(+)Kit(+) cells, common myeloid-restricted progenitors, and common dendritic cell precursors, but not common lymphoid-restricted progenitors or granulocyte-macrophage progenitors, suggesting that GATA2 functions in the myeloid pathway of DC differentiation. Moreover, expression profiling demonstrated reduced expression of myeloid-related genes, including mafb, and increased expression of T-lymphocyte-related genes, including Gata3 and Tcf7, in Gata2-deficient DC progenitors. In addition, GATA2 was found to bind an enhancer element 190-kb downstream region of Gata3, and a reporter assay exhibited significantly reduced luciferase activity after adding this enhancer region to the Gata3 promoter, which was recovered by GATA sequence deletion within Gata3 +190. These results suggest that GATA2 plays an important role in cell-fate specification toward the myeloid vs T-lymphocyte lineage by regulating lineage-specific transcription factors in DC progenitors, thereby contributing to DC differentiation. PMID:27259979

  10. Radiation tolerance of boron doped dendritic web silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, A.

    1980-01-01

    The potential of dendritic web silicon for giving radiation hard solar cells is compared with the float zone silicon material. Solar cells with n(+)-p-P(+) structure and approximately 15% (AMl) efficiency were subjected to 1 MeV electron irradiation. Radiation tolerance of web cell efficiency was found to be at least as good as that of the float zone silicon cell. A study of the annealing behavior of radiation-induced defects via deep level transient spectroscopy revealed that E sub v + 0.31 eV defect, attributed to boron-oxygen-vacancy complex, is responsible for the reverse annealing of the irradiated cells in the temperature range of 150 to 350 C.

  11. Follicular dendritic cell networks of primary follicles and germinal centers: phenotype and function

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Christopher D C; Cyster, Jason G

    2008-01-01

    Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) were identified decades ago by their ability to retain immune complexes and more recent findings indicate that they are a source of B cell attractants and trophic factors. New imaging studies have shown that B cells closely associate with their dendritic processes during migration. Here we will review the properties of these specialized follicular stromal cells and provide an update on the requirements for their maturation into phenotypically distinct cells within germinal center light and dark zones. We will then discuss current understanding of how they help support the B cell immune response. PMID:18261920

  12. Strategies to reduce dendritic cell activation through functional biomaterial design

    PubMed Central

    Hume, Patrick S.; He, Jing; Haskins, Kathryn; Anseth, Kristi S.

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells play a key role in determining adaptive immunity, and there is growing interest in characterizing and manipulating the interactions between dendritic cells and biomaterial surfaces. Contact with several common biomaterials can induce the maturation of immature dendritic cells, but substrates that reduce dendritic cell maturation are of particular interest within the field of cell-based therapeutics where the goal is to reduce the immune response to cell-laden material carriers. In this study, we use a materials-based strategy to functionalize poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels with immobilized immunosuppressive factors (TGF-β1 and IL-10) to reduce the maturation of immature dendritic cells. TGF-β1 and IL-10 are commonly employed as soluble factors to program dendritic cells in vitro, and we demonstrate that these proteins retain bioactivity towards dendritic cells when immobilized on hydrogel surfaces. Following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and/or cytokines, a dendritic cell line interacting with the surfaces of immunosuppressive hydrogels expressed reduced markers of maturation, including IL-12 and MHCII. The bioactivity of these immunomodulatory hydrogels was further confirmed with primary bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDCs) isolated from non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, as quantified by a decrease in activation markers and a significantly reduced capacity to activate T cells. Furthermore, by introducing a second signal to promote BMDC-material interactions combined with the presentation of tolerizing signals, the mulitfunctional PEG hydrogels were found to further increase signaling towards BMDCs, as evidenced by greater reductions in maturation markers. PMID:22361099

  13. DEX-1 and DYF-7 establish sensory dendrite length by anchoring dendritic tips during cell migration.

    PubMed

    Heiman, Maxwell G; Shaham, Shai

    2009-04-17

    Cells are devices whose structures delimit function. For example, in the nervous system, neuronal and glial shapes dictate paths of information flow. To understand how cells acquire their shapes, we examined the formation of a sense organ in C. elegans. Using time-lapse imaging, we found that sensory dendrites form by stationary anchoring of dendritic tips during cell-body migration. A genetic screen identified DEX-1 and DYF-7, extracellular proteins required for dendritic tip anchoring, which act cooperatively at the time and place of anchoring. DEX-1 and DYF-7 contain, respectively, zonadhesin and zona pellucida domains, and DYF-7 self-associates into multimers important for anchoring. Thus, unlike other dendrites, amphid dendritic tips are positioned by DEX-1 and DYF-7 without the need for long-range guidance cues. In sequence and function, DEX-1 and DYF-7 resemble tectorins, which anchor stereocilia in the inner ear, suggesting that a sensory dendrite anchor may have evolved into part of a mechanosensor. PMID:19344940

  14. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Imaging Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kobukai, Saho; Baheza, Richard; Cobb, Jared G.; Virostko, Jack; Xie, Jingping; Gillman, Amelie; Koktysh, Dmitry; Kerns, Denny; Does, Mark; Gore, John C.; Pham, Wellington

    2015-01-01

    We report the development of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIOs) nanoparticles and investigate the migration of SPIO-labeled dendritic cells (DCs) in a syngeneic mouse model using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The size of the dextran-coated SPIO is roughly 30 nm, and the DCs are capable of independent uptake of these particles, although not at levels comparable to particle uptake in the presence of a transfecting reagent. On average, with the assistance of polylysine, the particles were efficiently delivered inside DCs within one hour of incubation. The SPIO particles occupy approximately 0.35% of cell surface and are equivalent to 34.6 pg of iron per cell. In vivo imaging demonstrated that the labeled cells migrated from the injection site in the footpad to the corresponding popliteal lymph node. The homing of labeled cells in the lymph nodes resulted in a signal drop of up to 79%. Furthermore, labeling DCs with SPIO particles did not compromise cell function, we demonstrated that SPIO-enhanced MR imaging can be used to track the migration of DCs effectively in vivo. Magn Reson Med 63:1383–1390, 2010. PMID:20432309

  15. Role of Dendritic Cells in Immune Dysfunction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savary, Cherylyn A.

    1998-01-01

    The specific aims of the project were: (1) Application of the NASA bioreactor to enhance cytokine-regulated proliferation and maturation of dendritic cells (DC). (2) Compare the frequency and function of DC in normal donors and immunocompromised cancer patients. (3) Analyze the effectiveness of cytokine therapy and DC-assisted immunotherapy (using bioreactor-expanded DC) in a murine model of experimental fungal disease. Our investigations have provided new insight into DC immunobiology and have led to the development of methodology to evaluate DC in blood of normal donors and patients. Information gained from these studies has broadened our understanding of possible mechanisms involved in the immune dysfunction of space travelers and earth-bound cancer patients, and could contribute to the design of novel therapies to restore/preserve immunity in these individuals. Several new avenues of investigation were also revealed. The results of studies completed during Round 2 are summarized.

  16. Modulation of dendritic cell maturation and function by B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Bayry, Jagadeesh; Lacroix-Desmazes, Sébastien; Kazatchkine, Michel D; Hermine, Olivier; Tough, David F; Kaveri, Srini V

    2005-07-01

    Investigating the signals that regulate the function of dendritic cells (DC), the sentinels of the immune system, is critical to understanding the role of DC in the regulation of immune responses. Accumulating lines of evidence indicate that in addition to innate stimuli and T cell-derived signals, B lymphocytes exert a profound regulatory effect in vitro and in vivo on the Ag-presenting function of DC. The identification of B cells as a cellular source of cytokines, chemokines, and autoantibodies that are critically involved in the process of maturation, migration, and function of DC provides a rationale for immunotherapeutic intervention of autoimmune and inflammatory conditions by targeting B cells. Conversely, efficient cross-presentation of Ags by DC pulsed with immune complexes provides an alternative approach in the immunotherapy of cancer and infectious diseases. PMID:15972625

  17. Metabolism Is Central to Tolerogenic Dendritic Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Wen Jing; Ahl, Patricia Jennifer; Connolly, John Edward

    2016-01-01

    Immunological tolerance is a fundamental tenant of immune homeostasis and overall health. Self-tolerance is a critical component of the immune system that allows for the recognition of self, resulting in hyporeactivity instead of immunogenicity. Dendritic cells are central to the establishment of dominant immune tolerance through the secretion of immunosuppressive cytokines and regulatory polarization of T cells. Cellular metabolism holds the key to determining DC immunogenic or tolerogenic cell fate. Recent studies have demonstrated that dendritic cell maturation leads to a shift toward a glycolytic metabolic state and preferred use of glucose as a carbon source. In contrast, tolerogenic dendritic cells favor oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid oxidation. This dichotomous metabolic reprogramming of dendritic cells drives differential cellular function and plays a role in pathologies, such as autoimmune disease. Pharmacological alterations in metabolism have promising therapeutic potential. PMID:26980944

  18. Dendritic cells use macropinocytosis and the mannose receptor to concentrate macromolecules in the major histocompatibility complex class II compartment: downregulation by cytokines and bacterial products.

    PubMed

    Sallusto, F; Cella, M; Danieli, C; Lanzavecchia, A

    1995-08-01

    We have previously demonstrated that human peripheral blood low density mononuclear cells cultured in granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-4 develop into dendritic cells (DCs) that are extremely efficient in presenting soluble antigens to T cells. To identify the mechanisms responsible for efficient antigen capture, we studied the endocytic capacity of DCs using fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran, horseradish peroxidase, and lucifer yellow. We found that DCs use two distinct mechanisms for antigen capture. The first is a high level of fluid phase uptake via macropinocytosis. In contrast to what has been found with other cell types, macropinocytosis in DCs is constitutive and allows continuous internalization of large volumes of fluid. The second mechanism of capture is mediated via the mannose receptor (MR), which is expressed at high levels on DCs. At low ligand concentrations, the MR can deliver a large number of ligands to the cell in successive rounds. Thus, while macropinocytosis endows DCs with a high capacity, nonsaturable mechanism for capture of any soluble antigen, the MR gives an extra capacity for antigen capture with some degree of selectivity for non-self molecules. In addition to their high endocytic capacity, DCs from GM-CSF + IL-4-dependent cultures are characterized by the presence of a large intracellular compartment that contains high levels of class II molecules, cathepsin D, and lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1, and is rapidly accessible to endocytic markers. We investigated whether the capacity of DCs to capture and process antigen could be modulated by exogenous stimuli. We found that DCs respond to tumor necrosis factor alpha, CD40 ligand, IL-1, and lipopolysaccharide with a coordinate series of changes that include downregulation of macropinocytosis and Fc receptors, disappearance of the class II compartment, and upregulation of adhesion and costimulatory molecules. These changes occur

  19. Brain dendritic cells: biology and pathology.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, Paul M; Gottfried-Blackmore, Andres; Anandasabapathy, Niroshana; Bulloch, Karen

    2012-11-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are the professional antigen-presenting cells of the immune system. In their quiescent and mature form, the presentation of self-antigens by DC leads to tolerance; whereas, antigen presentation by mature DC, after stimulation by pathogen-associated molecular patterns, leads to the onset of antigen-specific immunity. DC have been found in many of the major organs in mammals (e.g. skin, heart, lungs, intestines and spleen); while the brain has long been considered devoid of DC in the absence of neuroinflammation. Consequently, microglia, the resident immune cell of the brain, have been charged with many functional attributes commonly ascribed to DC. Recent evidence has challenged the notion that DC are either absent or minimal players in brain immune surveillance. This review will discuss the recent literature examining DC involvement within both the young and aged steady-state brain. We will also examine DC contributions during various forms of neuroinflammation resulting from neurodegenerative autoimmune disease, injury, and CNS infections. This review also touches upon DC trafficking between the central nervous system and peripheral immune compartments during viral infections, the new molecular technologies that could be employed to enhance our current understanding of brain DC ontogeny, and some potential therapeutic uses of DC within the CNS. PMID:22825593

  20. Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm: From Origin of the Cell to Targeted Therapies.

    PubMed

    Laribi, Kamel; Denizon, Nathalie; Besançon, Anne; Farhi, Jonathan; Lemaire, Pierre; Sandrini, Jeremy; Truong, Catherine; Ghnaya, Habib; Baugier de Materre, Alix

    2016-08-01

    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare hematological malignancy with an aggressive clinical course. It is grouped with acute myeloid leukemia-related precursor neoplasms in the 2008 World Health Organization classification. Most patients with BPDCN have skin lesions at diagnosis and subsequent or simultaneous involvement of the bone marrow, peripheral blood, and lymph nodes. Patients usually respond to initial chemotherapy but often relapse. Stem cell transplantation may improve survival. This neoplasm is derived from precursors of plasmacytoid dendritic cells and is characterized by the coexpression of the immunophenotypic markers CD4, CD56, CD123, blood dendritic cell antigen-2, blood dendritic cell antigen-4, CD2AP, and lineage(-). Atypical immunophenotype expression may be present, making diagnosis difficult. BPDCN is often associated with a complex karyotype, frequent deletions of tumor suppressor genes, and mutations affecting either the DNA methylation or chromatin remodeling pathways. A better understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of this neoplasm could open the way to new therapies targeting specific signaling pathways or involving epigenetics. PMID:27026248

  1. Stimulation of dendritic cells enhances immune response after photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mroz, Pawel; Castano, Ana P.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2009-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the administration of photosensitizers followed by illumination of the primary tumor with red light producing reactive oxygen species that cause vascular shutdown and tumor cell necrosis and apoptosis. Anti-tumor immunity is stimulated after PDT due to the acute inflammatory response, priming of the immune system to recognize tumor-associated antigens (TAA). The induction of specific CD8+ Tlymphocyte cells that recognize major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) restricted epitopes of TAAs is a highly desirable goal in cancer therapy. The PDT killed tumor cells may be phagocytosed by dendritic cells (DC) that then migrate to draining lymph nodes and prime naÃve T-cells that recognize TAA epitopes. This process is however, often sub-optimal, in part due to tumor-induced DC dysfunction. Instead of DC that can become mature and activated and have a potent antigen-presenting and immune stimulating phenotype, immature dendritic cells (iDC) are often found in tumors and are part of an immunosuppressive milieu including regulatory T-cells and immunosuppressive cytokines such as TGF-beta and IL10. We here report on the use of a potent DC activating agent, an oligonucleotide (ODN) that contains a non-methylated CpG motif and acts as an agonist of toll like receptor (TLR) 9. TLR activation is a danger signal to notify the immune system of the presence of invading pathogens. CpG-ODN (but not scrambled non-CpG ODN) increased bone-marrow DC activation after exposure to PDT-killed tumor cells, and significantly increased tumor response to PDT and mouse survival after peri-tumoral administration. CpG may be a valuable immunoadjuvant to PDT especially for tumors that produce DC dysfunction.

  2. Dendritic cell interactions with Histoplasma and Paracoccidioides.

    PubMed

    Thind, Sharanjeet K; Taborda, Carlos P; Nosanchuk, Joshua D

    2015-01-01

    Fungi are among the most common microbes encountered by humans. More than 100, 000 fungal species have been described in the environment to date, however only a few species cause disease in humans. Fungal infections are of particular importance to immunocompromised hosts in whom disease is often more severe, especially in those with impaired cell-mediated immunity such as individuals with HIV infection, hematologic malignancies, or those receiving TNF-α inhibitors. Nevertheless, environmental disturbances through natural processes or as a consequence of deforestation or construction can expose immunologically competent people to a large number of fungal spores resulting in asymptomatic acquisition to life-threatening disease. In recent decades, the significance of the innate immune system and more importantly the role of dendritic cells (DC) have been found to play a fundamental role in the resolution of fungal infections, such as in dimorphic fungi like Histoplasma and Paracoccidioides. In this review article the general role of DCs will be illustrated as the bridge between the innate and adaptive immune systems, as well as their specific interactions with these 2 dimorphic fungi. PMID:25933034

  3. Phenotype and function of nasal dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haekyung; Ruane, Darren; Law, Kenneth; Ho, Yan; Garg, Aakash; Rahman, Adeeb; Esterházy, Daria; Cheong, Cheolho; Goljo, Erden; Sikora, Andrew G.; Mucida, Daniel; Chen, Benjamin; Govindraj, Satish; Breton, Gaëlle; Mehandru, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Intranasal vaccination generates immunity across local, regional and distant sites. However, nasal dendritic cells (DC), pivotal for the induction of intranasal vaccine- induced immune responses, have not been studied in detail. Here, using a variety of parameters, we define nasal DCs in mice and humans. Distinct subsets of “classical” DCs, dependent on the transcription factor zbtb46 were identified in the murine nose. The murine nasal DCs were FLT3 ligand-responsive and displayed unique phenotypic and functional characteristics including the ability to present antigen, induce an allogeneic T cell response and migrate in response to LPS or live bacterial pathogens. Importantly, in a cohort of human volunteers, BDCA-1+ DCs were observed to be the dominant nasal DC population at steady state. During chronic inflammation, the frequency of both BDCA-1+ and BDCA-3hi DCs was reduced in the nasal tissue, associating the loss of these immune sentinels with chronic nasal inflammation. The present study is the first detailed description of the phenotypic, ontogenetic and functional properties of nasal DCs and will inform the design of preventative immunization strategies as well as therapeutic modalities against chronic rhinosinusitis. PMID:25669151

  4. Mechanisms regulating dendritic cell specification and development

    PubMed Central

    Watowich, Stephanie S.; Liu, Yong-Jun

    2010-01-01

    Summary Understanding the diversification of dendritic cell (DC) lineages is one of the last frontiers in mapping the developmental hierarchy of the hematopoietic system. DCs are a vital link between the innate and adaptive immune responses, thus elucidating their developmental pathways is crucial for insight into the generation of natural immunity and for learning how to regulate DCs in clinical settings. DCs arise from hematopoietic stem cells through specialized progenitor subsets under the direction of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L) and Flt3L receptor (Flt3) signaling. Recent studies have revealed important contributions from granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and type I interferons (IFNs) in vivo. Furthermore, DC development is guided by lineage-restricted transcription factors such as IRF8, E2-2, and Batf3. A critical question centers on how cytokines and lineage-restricted transcription factors operate molecularly to direct DC diversification. Here we review recent findings that provide new insight into the DC developmental process. PMID:20969586

  5. Select forms of tumor cell apoptosis induce dendritic cell maturation.

    PubMed

    Demaria, Sandra; Santori, Fabio R; Ng, Bruce; Liebes, Leonard; Formenti, Silvia C; Vukmanovic, Stanislav

    2005-03-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) play a crucial role in initiating immune responses to tumors. DC can efficiently present antigens from apoptotic tumor cells, but apoptotic cells are thought to lack the inflammatory signals required to induce DC maturation. Here, we show that apoptosis of 67NR mouse carcinoma cells via the Fas (CD95) pathway or induced by the anticancer drug bortezomib (PS-341) but not by ultraviolet irradiation is associated with the production of maturation signals for DC. These data have important implications for the effects of chemotherapy on antitumor immunity in solid and hematologic malignancies. PMID:15569694

  6. Follicular dendritic cell function and murine AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, A; Burton, G F; Fuchs, B A; Bhogal, B S; Rupper, R; Szakal, A K; Tew, J G

    1994-01-01

    Infection of mice with LP-BM5 elicits an immunodeficiency state referred to as murine acquired immune deficiency syndrome (MAIDS). Shortly after infection, retrovirus particles become associated with follicular dendritic cells (FDC) and this study was undertaken to determine whether retroviruses alter FDC functions. The FDC functions examined included the ability to: (1) retain antigen (Ag) trapped prior to infection; (2) trap new Ag after infection; (3) maintain specific IgG responses; and (4) provide co-stimulatory signals to B cells. Mice were infected with LP-BM5 and the ability of their FDC to trap and retain 125I-Ag (HSA) was assessed. Serum anti-HSA levels were monitored and FDC co-stimulatory activity was indicated by increased B-cell proliferation. HSA trapped on FDC prior to infection began to disappear by 3 weeks and was practically gone by 6 weeks. Serum anti-HSA titres were maintained normally for about 3 weeks after infection and then declined precipitously. The ability of FDC to trap new Ag began to disappear around the second and third week of infection and was markedly depressed by the fourth week. However, FDC recovered from infected mice retained their ability to co-stimulate anti-mu- and interleukin-4 (IL-4)-activated B cells throughout a 5-week period. In short, the ability of FDC to trap and retain specific Ag and maintain specific antibody levels was markedly depressed after retrovirus infection. However, FDC from infected mice continued to provide co-stimulatory signals and these signals may contribute to the lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly characteristic of MAIDS. Images Figure 4 PMID:8132218

  7. Dendritic cell maturation and cross-presentation: timing matters!

    PubMed

    Alloatti, Andrés; Kotsias, Fiorella; Magalhaes, Joao Gamelas; Amigorena, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    As a population, dendritic cells (DCs) appear to be the best cross-presenters of internalized antigens on major histocompatibility complex class I molecules in the mouse. To do this, DCs have developed a number of unique and dedicated means to control their endocytic and phagocytic pathways: among them, the capacity to limit acidification of their phagosomes, to prevent proteolytic degradation, to delay fusion of phagosomes to lysosomes, to recruit ER proteins to phagosomes, and to export phagocytosed antigens to the cytosol. The regulation of phagocytic functions, and thereby of antigen processing and presentation by innate signaling, represents a critical level of integration of adaptive and innate immune responses. Understanding how innate signals control antigen cross-presentation is critical to define effective vaccination strategies for CD8(+) T-cell responses. PMID:27319345

  8. The role of dendritic cells in male reproductive tract.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Duan, Yong-Gang

    2016-09-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent professional antigen-presenting cells. The central role of various DC subsets as bridges between innate and adaptive immunity has become more and more evident. However, the role of DC subsets in male reproductive tract remains largely unexplored, in particular distinct DC subsets (including myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs), their maturation stage, and tissue distribution, as well as state of health or disease. Furthermore, infection and inflammation of male genital tract are thought to be a primary etiological factor of male infertility. This review sheds some light on this complex and rapidly growing field. It summarized the recent findings and deals with the characterization and role of DCs in male reproductive tract, that is, testis, epididymis, prostate, seminal vesicle, semen, and foreskin, which might help to understand the immunopathological mechanisms of male infertility and design effective vaccines for male reproductive health. PMID:27353336

  9. Dendritic cell-based therapy for mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Munger, Corey M; Vose, Julie M; Joshi, Shantaram S

    2006-06-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a B cell malignancy that is resistant to conventional therapies. High-dose therapy (HDT) followed by stem cell transplantation is effective in inducing remission. However, residual lymphoma cells are eventually responsible for the subsequent relapse. Effective therapeutic strategies to eliminate the residual lymphoma is required. In this study, we have examined the in vitro and in vivo anti-lymphoma effects of MCL-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) that were generated using dendritic cells (DCs) fused with MCL cells for immunostimulation. Dendritic cells were generated in vitro using dendritic cell-specific medium, cytomorphology, immunophenotypes and functional capabilities of the generated DCs were studied. Such DCs were then used for the preparation of DC-MCL hybrids and the DC-MCL hybrids were used to generate CTLs against MCL cells and tested for their MCL-specific cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. The CTLs demonstrated MCL-specific cytotoxicity in vitro against GRANT-519, a human MCL cell line. These CTLs did not show significant effect against an irrelevant target. To test the in vivo therapeutic effect of DC-MCL hybrid-stimulated CTLs, a preclinical model consisting of NOD-SCID mice bearing Granta 519 was developed. The NOD-SCID mice bearing Granta-519 MCL tumors were treated with DC-MCL hybrids and the same donor T lymphocytes. There was an increase in survival (60% in mice treated with DC-MCL hybrid approach compared to 20% in the untreated group). Histological analysis of liver from control and treated mice displayed a decrease in the number of the tumor nodules in the treatment group. These results indicate the potential of DC-based therapy for the treatment of MCL. PMID:16685434

  10. Dendritic polymers: Universal glue for cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Holger

    2012-05-01

    A dendritic polymer consisting of inversely oriented lipid head groups on a polyvalent polyglycerol scaffold makes an effective reversible biomembrane adhesive that may find use as a tissue sealant and a drug-delivery vehicle.

  11. Empowering gamma delta T cells with antitumor immunity by dendritic cell-based immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Van Acker, Heleen H; Anguille, Sébastien; Van Tendeloo, Viggo F; Lion, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Gamma delta (γδ) T cells are the all-rounders of our immune-system with their major histocompatibility complex-unrestricted cytotoxicity, capacity to secrete immunosti-mulatory cytokines and ability to promote the generation of tumor antigen-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses. Dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccine therapy has the prospective to harness these unique features of the γδ T cells in the fight against cancer. In this review, we will discuss our current knowledge on DC-mediated γδ T cell activation and related opportunities for tumor immunologists. PMID:26405575

  12. Dendritic cells in inflammatory sinonasal diseases.

    PubMed

    Cao, P-P; Shi, L-L; Xu, K; Yao, Y; Liu, Z

    2016-07-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical in linking the innate and adaptive immune responses, which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many immune and inflammatory diseases as well as the development of tumours. The role of DCs in the pathophysiology of lung diseases has been widely studied. However, the phenotype, subset and function of DCs in upper airways under physiological or pathological conditions remain largely undefined. Allergic rhinitis (AR) and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) are two important upper airway diseases with a high worldwide prevalence. Aberrant innate and adaptive immune responses have been considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of AR and CRS. To this end, understanding the function of DCs in shaping the immune responses in sinonasal mucosa is critical in exploring the pathogenic mechanisms underlying AR and CRS as well as in developing novel therapeutic strategies. This review summarizes the phenotype, subset, function and regulation of DCs in sinonasal mucosa, particularly in the setting of AR and CRS. Furthermore, this review discusses the perspectives for future research and potential clinical utility focusing on DC pathways in the context of AR and CRS. PMID:27159777

  13. Ion channels modulating mouse dendritic cell functions.

    PubMed

    Matzner, Nicole; Zemtsova, Irina M; Nguyen, Thi Xuan; Duszenko, Michael; Shumilina, Ekaterina; Lang, Florian

    2008-11-15

    Ca(2+)-mediated signal transduction pathways play a central regulatory role in dendritic cell (DC) responses to diverse Ags. However, the mechanisms leading to increased [Ca(2+)](i) upon DC activation remained ill-defined. In the present study, LPS treatment (100 ng/ml) of mouse DCs resulted in a rapid increase in [Ca(2+)](i), which was due to Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores and influx of extracellular Ca(2+) across the cell membrane. In whole-cell voltage-clamp experiments, LPS-induced currents exhibited properties similar to the currents through the Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) channels (CRAC). These currents were highly selective for Ca(2+), exhibited a prominent inward rectification of the current-voltage relationship, and showed an anomalous mole fraction and a fast Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation. In addition, the LPS-induced increase of [Ca(2+)](i) was sensitive to margatoxin and ICAGEN-4, both inhibitors of voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels Kv1.3 and Kv1.5, respectively. MHC class II expression, CCL21-dependent migration, and TNF-alpha and IL-6 production decreased, whereas phagocytic capacity increased in LPS-stimulated DCs in the presence of both Kv channel inhibitors as well as the I(CRAC) inhibitor SKF-96365. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Ca(2+) influx in LPS-stimulated DCs occurs via Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) channels, is sensitive to Kv channel activity, and is in turn critically important for DC maturation and functions. PMID:18981098

  14. The effect of dendritic cells on the retinal cell transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Oishi, Akio; Nagai, Takayuki; Mandai, Michiko Takahashi, Masayo; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2007-11-16

    The potential of bone marrow cell-derived immature dendritic cells (myeloid iDCs) in modulating the efficacy of retinal cell transplantation therapy was investigated. (1) In vitro, myeloid iDCs but not BMCs enhanced the survival and proliferation of embryonic retinal cells, and the expression of various neurotrophic factors by myeloid iDCs was confirmed with RT-PCR. (2) In subretinal transplantation, neonatal retinal cells co-transplanted with myeloid iDCs showed higher survival rate compared to those transplanted without myeloid iDCs. (3) CD8 T-cells reactive against donor retinal cells were significantly increased in the mice with transplantation of retinal cells alone. These results suggested the beneficial effects of the use of myeloid iDCs in retinal cell transplantation therapy.

  15. In vivo imaging of dendritic pruning in dentate granule cells.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, J Tiago; Bloyd, Cooper W; Shtrahman, Matthew; Johnston, Stephen T; Schafer, Simon T; Parylak, Sarah L; Tran, Thanh; Chang, Tina; Gage, Fred H

    2016-06-01

    We longitudinally imaged the developing dendrites of adult-born mouse dentate granule cells (DGCs) in vivo and found that they underwent over-branching and pruning. Exposure to an enriched environment and constraint of dendritic growth by disrupting Wnt signaling led to increased branch addition and accelerated growth, which were, however, counteracted by earlier and more extensive pruning. Our results indicate that pruning is regulated in a homeostatic fashion to oppose excessive branching and promote a similar dendrite structure in DGCs. PMID:27135217

  16. Dendritic-Tumor Fusion Cell-Based Cancer Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Koido, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that play a critical role in the induction of antitumor immunity. Therefore, various strategies have been developed to deliver tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) to DCs as cancer vaccines. The fusion of DCs and whole tumor cells to generate DC-tumor fusion cells (DC-tumor FCs) is an alternative strategy to treat cancer patients. The cell fusion method allows DCs to be exposed to the broad array of TAAs originally expressed by whole tumor cells. DCs then process TAAs endogenously and present them through major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II pathways in the context of costimulatory molecules, resulting in simultaneous activation of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. DC-tumor FCs require optimized enhanced immunogenicity of both DCs and whole tumor cells. In this context, an effective fusion strategy also needs to produce immunogenic DC-tumor FCs. We discuss the potential ability of DC-tumor FCs and the recent progress in improving clinical outcomes by DC-tumor FC-based cancer vaccines. PMID:27240347

  17. MHC Class II Antigen Presentation by Dendritic Cells Regulated through Endosomal Sorting

    PubMed Central

    ten Broeke, Toine; Wubbolts, Richard; Stoorvogel, Willem

    2013-01-01

    For the initiation of adaptive immune responses, dendritic cells present antigenic peptides in association with major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) to naïve CD4+ T lymphocytes. In this review, we discuss how antigen presentation is regulated through intracellular processing and trafficking of MHCII. Newly synthesized MHCII is chaperoned by the invariant chain to endosomes, where peptides from endocytosed pathogens can bind. In nonactivated dendritic cells, peptide-loaded MHCII is ubiquitinated and consequently sorted by the ESCRT machinery to intraluminal vesicles of multivesicular bodies, ultimately leading to lysosomal degradation. Ubiquitination of newly synthesized MHCII is blocked when dendritic cells are activated, now allowing its transfer to the cell surface. This mode of regulation for MHCII is a prime example of how molecular processing and sorting at multivesicular bodies can determine the expression of signaling receptors at the plasma membrane. PMID:24296169

  18. Dendritic Cell-Nerve Clusters Are Sites of T Cell Proliferation in Allergic Airway Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Veres, Tibor Z.; Shevchenko, Marina; Krasteva, Gabriela; Spies, Emma; Prenzler, Frauke; Rochlitzer, Sabine; Tschernig, Thomas; Krug, Norbert; Kummer, Wolfgang; Braun, Armin

    2009-01-01

    Interactions between T cells and dendritic cells in the airway mucosa precede secondary immune responses to inhaled antigen. The purpose of this study was to identify the anatomical locations where dendritic cell–T cell interactions occur, resulting in T cells activation by dendritic cells. In a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation, we applied whole-mount immunohistology and confocal microscopy to visualize dendritic cells and T cells together with nerves, epithelium, and smooth muscle in three dimensions. Proliferating T cells were identified by the detection of the incorporation of the nucleotide analogue 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine into the DNA. We developed a novel quantification method that enabled the accurate determination of cell–cell contacts in a semi-automated fashion. Dendritic cell–T cell interactions occurred beneath the smooth muscle layer, but not in the epithelium. Approximately 10% of the dendritic cells were contacted by nerves, and up to 4% of T cells formed clusters with these dendritic cells. T cells that were clustered with nerve-contacting dendritic cells proliferated only in the airways of mice with allergic inflammation but not in the airways of negative controls. Taken together, these results suggest that during the secondary immune response, sensory nerves influence dendritic cell-driven T cell activation in the airway mucosa. PMID:19179611

  19. Immunity and Tolerance Induced by Intestinal Mucosal Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aliberti, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells present in the digestive tract are constantly exposed to environmental antigens, commensal flora, and invading pathogens. Under steady-state conditions, these cells have high tolerogenic potential, triggering differentiation of regulatory T cells to protect the host from unwanted proinflammatory immune responses to innocuous antigens or commensals. On the other hand, these cells must discriminate between commensal flora and invading pathogens and mount powerful immune response against pathogens. A potential result of unbalanced tolerogenic versus proinflammatory responses mediated by dendritic cells is associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, such as Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, food allergies, and celiac disease. Herein, we review the dendritic cell population involved in mediating tolerance and immunity in mucosal surfaces, the progress in unveiling their development in vivo, and factors that can influence their functions. PMID:27034589

  20. Immunity and Tolerance Induced by Intestinal Mucosal Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Aliberti, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells present in the digestive tract are constantly exposed to environmental antigens, commensal flora, and invading pathogens. Under steady-state conditions, these cells have high tolerogenic potential, triggering differentiation of regulatory T cells to protect the host from unwanted proinflammatory immune responses to innocuous antigens or commensals. On the other hand, these cells must discriminate between commensal flora and invading pathogens and mount powerful immune response against pathogens. A potential result of unbalanced tolerogenic versus proinflammatory responses mediated by dendritic cells is associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, such as Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, food allergies, and celiac disease. Herein, we review the dendritic cell population involved in mediating tolerance and immunity in mucosal surfaces, the progress in unveiling their development in vivo, and factors that can influence their functions. PMID:27034589

  1. A Model of Dendritic Cell Therapy for Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    DePillis, Lisette; Gallegos, Angela; Radunskaya, Ami

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells are a promising immunotherapy tool for boosting an individual’s antigen-specific immune response to cancer. We develop a mathematical model using differential and delay-differential equations to describe the interactions between dendritic cells, effector-immune cells, and tumor cells. We account for the trafficking of immune cells between lymph, blood, and tumor compartments. Our model reflects experimental results both for dendritic cell trafficking and for immune suppression of tumor growth in mice. In addition, in silico experiments suggest more effective immunotherapy treatment protocols can be achieved by modifying dose location and schedule. A sensitivity analysis of the model reveals which patient-specific parameters have the greatest impact on treatment efficacy. PMID:23516248

  2. How Follicular Dendritic Cells Shape the B-Cell Antigenome

    PubMed Central

    Kranich, Jan; Krautler, Nike Julia

    2016-01-01

    Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are stromal cells residing in primary follicles and in germinal centers of secondary and tertiary lymphoid organs (SLOs and TLOs). There, they play a crucial role in B-cell activation and affinity maturation of antibodies. FDCs have the unique capacity to bind and retain native antigen in B-cell follicles for long periods of time. Therefore, FDCs shape the B-cell antigenome (the sum of all B-cell antigens) in SLOs and TLOs. In this review, we discuss recent findings that explain how this stromal cell type can arise in almost any tissue during TLO formation and, furthermore, focus on the mechanisms of antigen capture and retention involved in the generation of long-lasting antigen depots displayed on FDCs. PMID:27446069

  3. Avian dendritic cells: Phenotype and ontogeny in lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Nándor; Bódi, Ildikó; Oláh, Imre

    2016-05-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are critically important accessory cells in the innate and adaptive immune systems. Avian DCs were originally identified in primary and secondary lymphoid organs by their typical morphology, displaying long cell processes with cytoplasmic granules. Several subtypes are known. Bursal secretory dendritic cells (BSDC) are elongated cells which express vimentin intermediate filaments, MHC II molecules, macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R), and produce 74.3+ secretory granules. Avian follicular dendritic cells (FDC) highly resemble BSDC, express the CD83, 74.3 and CSF1R molecules, and present antigen in germinal centers. Thymic dendritic cells (TDC), which express 74.3 and CD83, are concentrated in thymic medulla while interdigitating DC are found in T cell-rich areas of secondary lymphoid organs. Avian Langerhans cells are a specialized 74.3-/MHC II+ cell population found in stratified squamous epithelium and are capable of differentiating into 74.3+ migratory DCs. During organogenesis hematopoietic precursors of DC colonize the developing lymphoid organ primordia prior to immigration of lymphoid precursor cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of the ontogeny, cytoarchitecture, and immunophenotype of avian DC, and offers an antibody panel for the in vitro and in vivo identification of these heterogeneous cell types. PMID:26751596

  4. Follicular dendritic cells emerge from ubiquitous perivascular precursors.

    PubMed

    Krautler, Nike Julia; Kana, Veronika; Kranich, Jan; Tian, Yinghua; Perera, Dushan; Lemm, Doreen; Schwarz, Petra; Armulik, Annika; Browning, Jeffrey L; Tallquist, Michelle; Buch, Thorsten; Oliveira-Martins, José B; Zhu, Caihong; Hermann, Mario; Wagner, Ulrich; Brink, Robert; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2012-07-01

    The differentiation of follicular dendritic cells (FDC) is essential to the remarkable microanatomic plasticity of lymphoid follicles. Here we show that FDC arise from ubiquitous perivascular precursors (preFDC) expressing platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ). PDGFRβ-Cre-driven reporter gene recombination resulted in FDC labeling, whereas conditional ablation of PDGFRβ(+)-derived cells abolished FDC, indicating that FDC originate from PDGFRβ(+) cells. Lymphotoxin-α-overexpressing prion protein (PrP)(+) kidneys developed PrP(+) FDC after transplantation into PrP(-) mice, confirming that preFDC exist outside lymphoid organs. Adipose tissue-derived PDGFRβ(+) stromal-vascular cells responded to FDC maturation factors and, when transplanted into lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR)(-) kidney capsules, differentiated into Mfge8(+)CD21/35(+)FcγRIIβ(+)PrP(+) FDC capable of trapping immune complexes and recruiting B cells. Spleens of lymphocyte-deficient mice contained perivascular PDGFRβ(+) FDC precursors whose expansion required both lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and lymphotoxin. The ubiquity of preFDC and their strategic location at blood vessels may explain the de novo generation of organized lymphoid tissue at sites of lymphocytic inflammation. PMID:22770220

  5. Follicular Dendritic Cells Emerge from Ubiquitous Perivascular Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Krautler, Nike Julia; Kana, Veronika; Kranich, Jan; Tian, Yinghua; Perera, Dushan; Lemm, Doreen; Schwarz, Petra; Armulik, Annika; Browning, Jeffrey L.; Tallquist, Michelle; Buch, Thorsten; Oliveira-Martins, José B.; Zhu, Caihong; Hermann, Mario; Wagner, Ulrich; Brink, Robert; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    Summary The differentiation of follicular dendritic cells (FDC) is essential to the remarkable microanatomic plasticity of lymphoid follicles. Here we show that FDC arise from ubiquitous perivascular precursors (preFDC) expressing platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ). PDGFRβ-Cre-driven reporter gene recombination resulted in FDC labeling, whereas conditional ablation of PDGFRβ+-derived cells abolished FDC, indicating that FDC originate from PDGFRβ+ cells. Lymphotoxin-α-overexpressing prion protein (PrP)+ kidneys developed PrP+ FDC after transplantation into PrP mice, confirming that preFDC exist outside lymphoid organs. Adipose tissue-derived PDGFRβ+ stromal-vascular cells responded to FDC maturation factors and, when transplanted into lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) kidney capsules, differentiated into Mfge8+CD21/35+ FcγRIIβ+PrP+ FDC capable of trapping immune complexes and recruiting B cells. Spleens of lymphocyte-deficient mice contained perivascular PDGFRβ+ FDC precursors whose expansion required both lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and lymphotoxin. The ubiquity of preFDC and their strategic location at blood vessels may explain the de novo generation of organized lymphoid tissue at sites of lymphocytic inflammation. PMID:22770220

  6. Manipulation of dendritic cell functions by human cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, John

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic cells are the most potent antigen-presenting cells of the mammalian immune system and are central to the initiation and maintenance of the adaptive immune response. They are crucial for the presentation of antigen to T cells and B cells, as well as the induction of chemokines and proinflammatory cytokines, which orchestrate the balance of the cell-mediated (Th1) and antibody (Th2) response. This ability of dendritic cells to present antigen and release chemokines and cytokines also bridges the innate and adaptive immune responses by driving T cell activation. These cells thus possess key immunological functions that make them the front line of defence for the targeting and clearance of any invading pathogen and, as such, they underpin the host immune response to infection. For efficient infection, invading pathogens often need to overcome these sentinel immune functions. It is therefore not surprising that pathogens have evolved numerous mechanisms to target dendritic cell functions directly or indirectly during infection, and at least one herpesvirus--human cytomegalovirus--has evolved a life cycle that hijacks dendritic cells for its long-term persistence in the infected host. PMID:19025715

  7. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells migrate in afferent skin lymph.

    PubMed

    Pascale, Florentina; Pascale, Florentia; Contreras, Vanessa; Bonneau, Michel; Courbet, Alexandre; Chilmonczyk, Stefan; Bevilacqua, Claudia; Epardaud, Mathieu; Eparaud, Mathieu; Niborski, Violeta; Riffault, Sabine; Balazuc, Anne-Marie; Foulon, Eliane; Guzylack-Piriou, Laurence; Riteau, Beatrice; Hope, Jayne; Bertho, Nicolas; Charley, Bernard; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle

    2008-05-01

    Conventional dendritic cells enter lymph nodes by migrating from peripheral tissues via the lymphatic route, whereas plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC), also called IFN-producing cells (IPC), are described to gain nodes from blood via the high endothelial venules. We demonstrate here that IPC/pDC migrate in the afferent lymph of two large mammals. In sheep, injection of type A CpG oligodinucleotide (ODN) induced lymph cells to produce type I IFN. Furthermore, low-density lymph cells collected at steady state produced type I IFN after stimulation with type A CpG ODN and enveloped viruses. Sheep lymph IPC were found within a minor B(neg)CD11c(neg) subset expressing CD45RB. They presented a plasmacytoid morphology, expressed high levels of TLR-7, TLR-9, and IFN regulatory factor 7 mRNA, induced IFN-gamma production in allogeneic CD4(pos) T cells, and differentiated into dendritic cell-like cells under viral stimulation, thus fulfilling criteria of bona fide pDC. In mini-pig, a CD4(pos)SIRP(pos) subset in afferent lymph cells, corresponding to pDC homologs, produced type I IFN after type A CpG-ODN triggering. Thus, pDC can link innate and acquired immunity by migrating from tissue to draining node via lymph, similarly to conventional dendritic cells. PMID:18424716

  8. The Dendritic Cell Major Histocompatibility Complex II (MHC II) Peptidome Derives from a Variety of Processing Pathways and Includes Peptides with a Broad Spectrum of HLA-DM Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Clement, Cristina C; Becerra, Aniuska; Yin, Liusong; Zolla, Valerio; Huang, Liling; Merlin, Simone; Follenzi, Antonia; Shaffer, Scott A; Stern, Lawrence J; Santambrogio, Laura

    2016-03-11

    The repertoire of peptides displayed in vivo by MHC II molecules derives from a wide spectrum of proteins produced by different cell types. Although intracellular endosomal processing in dendritic cells and B cells has been characterized for a few antigens, the overall range of processing pathways responsible for generating the MHC II peptidome are currently unclear. To determine the contribution of non-endosomal processing pathways, we eluted and sequenced over 3000 HLA-DR1-bound peptides presented in vivo by dendritic cells. The processing enzymes were identified by reference to a database of experimentally determined cleavage sites and experimentally validated for four epitopes derived from complement 3, collagen II, thymosin β4, and gelsolin. We determined that self-antigens processed by tissue-specific proteases, including complement, matrix metalloproteases, caspases, and granzymes, and carried by lymph, contribute significantly to the MHC II self-peptidome presented by conventional dendritic cells in vivo. Additionally, the presented peptides exhibited a wide spectrum of binding affinity and HLA-DM susceptibility. The results indicate that the HLA-DR1-restricted self-peptidome presented under physiological conditions derives from a variety of processing pathways. Non-endosomal processing enzymes add to the number of epitopes cleaved by cathepsins, altogether generating a wider peptide repertoire. Taken together with HLA-DM-dependent and-independent loading pathways, this ensures that a broad self-peptidome is presented by dendritic cells. This work brings attention to the role of "self-recognition" as a dynamic interaction between dendritic cells and the metabolic/catabolic activities ongoing in every parenchymal organ as part of tissue growth, remodeling, and physiological apoptosis. PMID:26740625

  9. Olfactory nerve stimulation-induced calcium signaling in the mitral cell distal dendritic tuft.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Q; Knöpfel, T

    2006-04-01

    Olfactory receptor neuron axons form the olfactory nerve (ON) and project to the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb, where they form excitatory synapses with terminal arborizations of the mitral cell (MC) tufted primary dendrite. Clusters of MC dendritic tufts define olfactory glomeruli, where they involve in complex synaptic interactions. The computational function of these cellular interactions is not clear. We used patch-clamp electrophysiology combined with whole field or two-photon Ca2+ imaging to study ON stimulation-induced Ca2+ signaling at the level of individual terminal branches of the MC primary dendrite in mice. ON-evoked subthreshold excitatory postsnaptic potentials induced Ca2+ transients in the MC tuft dendrites that were spatially inhomogeneous, exhibiting discrete "hot spots." In contrast, Ca2+ transients induced by backpropagating action potentials occurred throughout the dendritic tuft, being larger in the thin terminal dendrites than in the base of the tuft. Single ON stimulation-induced Ca2+ transients were depressed by the NMDA receptor antagonist D-aminophosphonovaleric acid (D-APV), increased with increasing stimulation intensity, and typically showed a prolonged rising phase. The synaptically induced Ca2+ signals reflect, at least in part, dendrodendritic interactions that support intraglomerular coupling of MCs and generation of an output that is common to all MCs associated with one glomerulus. PMID:16319202

  10. Regulatory multitasking of tolerogenic dendritic cells - lessons taken from vitamin d3-treated tolerogenic dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Tatjana; Roep, Bart O

    2013-01-01

    Tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) work through silencing of differentiated antigen-specific T cells, activation and expansion of naturally occurring T regulatory cells (Tregs), transfer of regulatory properties to T cells, and the differentiation of naïve T cells into Tregs. Due to an operational definition based on T cell activation assays, the identity of tolerogenic DCs has been a matter of debate and it need not represent a specialized DC subset. Human tolerogenic DCs generated in vitro using inhibitory cytokines, growth factors, natural immunomodulators, or genetic manipulation have been effective and several of these tolerogenic DCs are currently being tested for clinical use. Ex vivo generated tolerogenic DCs reduce activation of naïve T cells using various means, promote a variety of regulatory T cells and most importantly, frequently show stable inhibitory phenotypes upon repetitive maturation with inflammatory factors. Yet, tolerogenic DCs differ with respect to the phenotype or the number of regulatory mechanisms they employ to modulate the immune system. In our experience, tolerogenic DCs generated using the biologically active form of vitamin D (VD3-DCs), alone, or combined with dexamethasone are proficient in their immunoregulatory functions. These tolerogenic DCs show a stable maturation-resistant semi-mature phenotype with low expression of activating co-stimulatory molecules, no production of the IL-12 family of cytokines and high expression of inhibitory molecules and IL-10. VD3-DCs induce increased apoptosis of effector T cells and induce antigen-specific regulatory T cells, which work through linked suppression ensuring infectious tolerance. Lessons learned on VD3-DCs help understanding the contribution of different pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and secondary signals to the tolerogenic function and how a cross-talk between DCs and T cells translates into immune regulation. PMID:23717310

  11. Ion efflux and influenza infection trigger NLRP3 inflammasome signaling in human dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Melissa Victoria; Miller, Elizabeth; Krammer, Florian; Gopal, Ramya; Greenbaum, Benjamin D; Bhardwaj, Nina

    2016-05-01

    The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome, a multiprotein complex, is an essential intracellular mediator of antiviral immunity. In murine dendritic cells, this complex responds to a wide array of signals, including ion efflux and influenza A virus infection, to activate caspase-1-mediated proteolysis of IL-1β and IL-18 into biologically active cytokines. However, the presence and function of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome in human dendritic cells, in response to various triggers, including viral infection, has not been defined clearly. Here, we delineate the contribution of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome to the secretion of IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-1α by human dendritic cells (monocyte-derived and primary conventional dendritic cells). Activation of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome in human dendritic cells by various synthetic activators resulted in the secretion of bioactive IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-1α and induction of pyroptotic cell death. Cellular IL-1β release depended on potassium efflux and the activity of proteins nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 and caspase-1. Likewise, influenza A virus infection of dendritic cells resulted in priming and activation of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome and secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 in an M2- and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3-dependent manner. The magnitude of priming by influenza A virus varied among different strains and inversely corresponded to type I IFN production. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the existence and function of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome in human dendritic cells and the ability of influenza A virus to prime and

  12. Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells Exhibit Increased Levels of Lysosomal Proteolysis as Compared to Other Human Dendritic Cell Populations

    PubMed Central

    McCurley, Nathanael; Mellman, Ira

    2010-01-01

    Background Fine control of lysosomal degradation for limited processing of internalized antigens is a hallmark of professional antigen presenting cells. Previous work in mice has shown that dendritic cells (DCs) contain lysosomes with remarkably low protease content. Combined with the ability to modulate lysosomal pH during phagocytosis and maturation, murine DCs enhance their production of class II MHC-peptide complexes for presentation to T cells. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we extend these findings to human DCs and distinguish between different subsets of DCs based on their ability to preserve internalized antigen. Whereas DCs derived in vitro from CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells or isolated from peripheral blood of healthy donors are protease poor, DCs derived in vitro from monocytes (MDDCs) are more similar to macrophages (MΦs) in protease content. Unlike other DCs, MDDCs also fail to reduce their intralysosomal pH in response to maturation stimuli. Indeed, functional characterization of lysosomal proteolysis indicates that MDDCs are comparable to MΦs in the rapid degradation of antigen while other human DC subtypes are attenuated in this capacity. Conclusions/Significance Human DCs are comparable to murine DCs in exhibiting a markedly reduced level of lysosomal proteolysis. However, as an important exception to this, human MDDCs stand apart from all other DCs by a heightened capacity for proteolysis that resembles that of MΦs. Thus, caution should be exercised when using human MDDCs as a model for DC function and cell biology. PMID:20689855

  13. Passive carriage of rabies virus by dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Senba, Kazuyo; Matsumoto, Takashi; Yamada, Kentaro; Shiota, Seiji; Iha, Hidekatsu; Date, Yukari; Ohtsubo, Motoaki; Nishizono, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The rabies virus (RABV) is highly neurotropic and it uses evasive strategies to successfully evade the host immune system. Because rabies is often fatal, understanding the basic processes of the virus-host interactions, particularly in the initial events of infection, is critical for the design of new therapeutic approaches to target RABV. Here, we examined the possible role of dendritic cells (DCs) in the transmission of RABV to neural cells at peripheral site of exposure. Viral replication only occurred at a low level in the DC cell line, JAWS II, after its infection with either pathogenic RABV (CVS strain) or low-pathogenic RABV (ERA strain), and no progeny viruses were produced in the culture supernatants. However, both viral genomic RNAs were retained in the long term after infection and maintained their infectivity. The biggest difference between CVS and ERA was in their ability to induce type I interferons. Although the ERA-infected JAWS II cells exhibited cytopathic effect and were apparently killed by normal spleen cells in vitro, the CVS-infected JAWS II cells showed milder cytopathic effect and less lysis when cocultured with spleen cells. Strongly increased expression of major histocompatibility complex classes I, costimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86), type I interferons and Toll- like receptor 3, and was observed only in the ERA-inoculated JAWS II cells and not in those inoculated with CVS. During the silencing of the cellular immune response in the DCs, the pathogenic CVS strain cryptically maintained an infectious viral genome and was capable of transmitting infectious RABV to permissive neural cells. These findings demonstrate that DCs may play a role in the passive carriage of RABV during natural rabies infections. PMID:24024103

  14. HIV-1 Tat Protein Induces Production of Proinflammatory Cytokines by Human Dendritic Cells and Monocytes/Macrophages through Engagement of TLR4-MD2-CD14 Complex and Activation of NF-κB Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Leghmari, Kaoutar; Serrero, Manutea; Delobel, Pierre; Izopet, Jacques; BenMohamed, Lbachir; Bahraoui, Elmostafa

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported that the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) Tat protein induced the expression of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) on dendritic cells (DCs) through a TLR4 pathway. However, the underlying mechanisms by which HIV-1 Tat protein induces the abnormal hyper-activation of the immune system seen in HIV-1 infected patients remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we report that HIV-1 Tat protein induced the production of significant amounts of the pro-inflammatory IL-6 and IL-8 cytokines by DCs and monocytes from both healthy and HIV-1 infected patients. Such production was abrogated in the presence of anti-TLR4 blocking antibodies or soluble recombinant TLR4-MD2 as a decoy receptor, suggesting TLR4 was recruited by Tat protein. Tat-induced murine IL-6 and CXCL1/KC a functional homologue of human IL-8 was abolished in peritoneal macrophages derived from TLR4 KO but not from Wt mice, confirming the involvement of the TLR4 pathway. Furthermore, the recruitment of TLR4-MD2-CD14 complex by Tat protein was demonstrated by the activation of TLR4 downstream pathways including NF-κB and SOCS-1 and by down-modulation of cell surface TLR4 by endocytosis in dynamin and lipid-raft-dependent manners. Collectively, these findings demonstrate, for the first time, that HIV-1 Tat interacts with TLR4-MD2-CD14 complex and activates the NF-κB pathway, leading to overproduction of IL-6 and IL-8 pro-inflammatory cytokines by myeloid cells from both healthy and HIV-1 infected patients. This study reveals a novel mechanism by which HIV-1, via its early expressed Tat protein, hijacks the TLR4 pathway, hence establishing abnormal hyper-activation of the immune system. PMID:26090662

  15. Programmed Cell Death of Dendritic Cells in Immune Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Min; Wang, Jin

    2010-01-01

    Summary Programmed cell death is essential for the maintenance of lymphocyte homeostasis and immune tolerance. Dendritic cells (DCs), the most efficient antigen presenting cells, represent a small cell population in the immune system. However, DCs play major roles in the regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Programmed cell death in DCs is essential for regulating DC homeostasis and consequently, the scope of immune responses. Interestingly, different DC subsets show varied turnover rates in vivo. The conventional DCs are relatively short-lived in most lymphoid organs, while plasmacytoid DCs are long-lived cells. Mitochondrion-dependent programmed cell death plays an important role in regulating spontaneous DC turnover. Antigen-specific T cells are also capable of killing DCs, thereby providing a mechanism for negative feedback regulation of immune responses. It has been shown that a surplus of DCs due to defects in programmed cell death leads to overactivation of lymphocytes and the onset of autoimmunity. Studying programmed cell death in DCs will shed light on the roles for DC turnover in the regulation of the duration and magnitude of immune responses in vivo, and in the maintenance of immune tolerance. PMID:20636805

  16. The skin-resident and migratory immune system in steady state and memory: innate lymphocytes, dendritic cells and T cells.

    PubMed

    Heath, William R; Carbone, Francis R

    2013-10-01

    The skin is a highly complex organ interspersed with a variety of smaller organ-like structures and a plethora of cell types that together perform essential functions such as physical sensing, temperature control, barrier maintenance and immunity. In this Review, we outline many of the innate and adaptive immune cell types associated with the skin, focusing on the steady state in mice and men, and include a broad update of dendritic cell function and T cell surveillance. PMID:24048119

  17. Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells turn into foamy dendritic cells with IL-17A.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Giulia; Bernoud-Hubac, Nathalie; Bissay, Nathalie; Debard, Cyrille; Daira, Patricia; Meugnier, Emmanuelle; Proamer, Fabienne; Hanau, Daniel; Vidal, Hubert; Aricò, Maurizio; Delprat, Christine; Mahtouk, Karène

    2015-06-01

    Interleukin 17A (IL-17A) is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases. In the field of immunometabolism, we have studied the impact of IL-17A on the lipid metabolism of human in vitro-generated monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs). Microarrays and lipidomic analysis revealed an intense remodeling of lipid metabolism induced by IL-17A in DCs. IL-17A increased 2-12 times the amounts of phospholipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, and cholesteryl esters in DCs. Palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), and oleic (18:ln-9c) acid were the main fatty acid chains present in DCs. They were strongly increased in response to IL-17A while their relative proportion remained unchanged. Capture of extracellular lipids was the major mechanism of lipid droplet accumulation, visualized by electron microscopy and Oil Red O staining. Besides this foamy phenotype, IL-17A induced a mixed macrophage-DC phenotype and expression of the nuclear receptor NR1H3/liver X receptor-α, previously identified in the context of atherosclerosis as the master regulator of cholesterol homeostasis in macrophages. These IL-17A-treated DCs were as competent as untreated DCs to stimulate allogeneic naive T-cell proliferation. Following this first characterization of lipid-rich DCs, we propose to call these IL-17A-dependent cells "foamy DCs" and discuss the possible existence of foamy DCs in atherosclerosis, a metabolic and inflammatory disorder involving IL-17A. PMID:25833686

  18. Imaging of plasmacytoid dendritic cell interactions with T cells.

    PubMed

    Mittelbrunn, María; Martínez del Hoyo, Gloria; López-Bravo, María; Martín-Cofreces, Noa B; Scholer, Alix; Hugues, Stéphanie; Fetler, Luc; Amigorena, Sebastián; Ardavín, Carlos; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) efficiently produce type I interferon and participate in adaptive immune responses, although the molecular interactions between pDCs and antigen-specific T cells remain unknown. This study examines immune synapse (IS) formation between murine pDCs and CD4(+) T cells. Mature pDCs formed canonical ISs, involving relocation to the contact site of the microtubule-organizing center, F-actin, protein kinase C-, and pVav, and activation of early signaling molecules in T cells. However, immature pDCs were less efficient at forming conjugates with T cells and inducing IS formation, microtubule-organizing center translocation, and T-cell signaling and activation. Time-lapse videomicroscopy and 2-photon in vivo imaging of pDC-T-cell interactions revealed that immature pDCs preferentially mediated transient interactions, whereas mature pDCs promoted more stable contacts. Our data indicate that, under steady-state conditions, pDCs preferentially establish transient contacts with naive T cells and show a very modest immunogenic capability, whereas on maturation, pDCs are able to form long-lived contacts with T cells and significantly enhance their capacity to activate these lymphocytes. PMID:18818393

  19. The dynamic lives of macrophage and dendritic cell subsets in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Taghavie-Moghadam, Paresa L.; Butcher, Matthew J.; Galkina, Elena V.

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, the major pathological process through which arterial plaques are formed, is a dynamic chronic inflammatory disease of large and medium sized arteries in which the vasculature, lipid metabolism, and the immune system all play integral roles. Both the innate and adaptive immune systems are involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis but myeloid cells represent the major component of the burgeoning atherosclerotic plaque. Various myeloid cells, including monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells can be found within the healthy and atherosclerotic arterial wall, where they can contribute to or regulate inflammation. However, the precise behaviors and functions of these cells in situ are still active areas of investigation that continue to yield exciting and surprising new data. Here, we review recent progress in understanding of the complex biology of macrophages and dendritic cells, focusing particularly on the dynamic regulation of these subsets in the arterial wall and novel, emerging functions of these cells during atherogenesis. PMID:24628328

  20. Epidermal Viral Immunity Induced by CD8α+ Dendritic Cells But Not by Langerhans Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, Rhys S.; Smith, Chris M.; Belz, Gabrielle T.; van Lint, Allison L.; Wakim, Linda M.; Heath, William R.; Carbone, Francis R.

    2003-09-01

    The classical paradigm for dendritic cell function derives from the study of Langerhans cells, which predominate within skin epidermis. After an encounter with foreign agents, Langerhans cells are thought to migrate to draining lymph nodes, where they initiate T cell priming. Contrary to this, we show here that infection of murine epidermis by herpes simplex virus did not result in the priming of virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes by Langerhans cells. Rather, the priming response required a distinct CD8α+ dendritic cell subset. Thus, the traditional view of Langerhans cells in epidermal immunity needs to be revisited to accommodate a requirement for other dendritic cells in this response.

  1. HIV is trapped and masked in the cytoplasm of lymph node follicular dendritic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Tacchetti, C.; Favre, A.; Moresco, L.; Meszaros, P.; Luzzi, P.; Truini, M.; Rizzo, F.; Grossi, C. E.; Ciccone, E.

    1997-01-01

    To gain further insight into the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, lymph nodes from seven asymptomatic HIV+ subjects were analyzed during the latent phase of disease. Both ultrastructural and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that, in all of the cases, plasma cells producing IgM/gamma were present in germinal centers. Secreted immunoglobulins formed extracellular deposits mimicking the follicular dendritic cell network. Immunoglobulin produced by germinal center plasma cells are specific for HIV because they bind the HIV env protein gp 120. Plasma cells producing antibodies with the same specificity were also abundant in the extrafollicular regions of lymph nodes. During the latent phase of infection, the virus largely accumulates within the germinal centers. Therefore, extracellular immunoglobulin may form immune complexes, as shown by the presence of HIV-specific antibodies, HIV particles, and complement components C3c, C3d, and C1q in the interdendritic spaces. When the ultrastructural localization of HIV in germinal centers was analyzed, abundant virus particles were found in the interdendritic spaces. In addition to this extracellular localization of HIV, receptor-mediated endocytosis of viral particles by follicular dendritic cells was observed. Complete HIV particles were found within the endosomal compartment of the follicular dendritic cells and, as complete viral particles, free in the cytoplasm, indicating that the virus may escape from the endocytic compartment. As the virus is abundant in the cytoplasm, this event leads to formation of a hidden reservoir within follicular dendritic cells. In this location, HIV escapes recognition by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In contrast, virus budding indicating a productive infection of follicular dendritic cells that would render them susceptible to T-cell-mediated lysis has been seldom observed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9033269

  2. Organ-derived dendritic cells have differential effects on alloreactive T cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Theo D.; Terwey, Theis H.; Zakrzewski, Johannes L.; Suh, David; Kochman, Adam A.; Chen, Megan E.; King, Chris G.; Borsotti, Chiara; Grubin, Jeremy; Smith, Odette M.; Heller, Glenn; Liu, Chen; Murphy, George F.; Alpdogan, Onder

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are considered critical for the induction of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). In addition to their priming function, dendritic cells have been shown to induce organ-tropism through induction of specific homing molecules on T cells. Using adoptive transfer of CFSE-labeled cells, we first demonstrated that alloreactive T cells differentially up-regulate specific homing molecules in vivo. Host-type dendritic cells from the GVHD target organs liver and spleen or skin- and gut-draining lymph nodes effectively primed naive allogeneic T cells in vitro with the exception of liver-derived dendritic cells, which showed less stimulatory capacity. Gut-derived dendritic cells induced alloreactive donor T cells with a gut-homing phenotype that caused increased GVHD mortality and morbidity compared with T cells stimulated with dendritic cells from spleen, liver, and peripheral lymph nodes in an MHC-mismatched murine BMT model. However, in vivo analysis demonstrated that the in vitro imprinting of homing molecules on alloreactive T cells was only transient. In conclusion, organ-derived dendritic cells can efficiently induce specific homing molecules on alloreactive T cells. A gut-homing phenotype correlates with increased GVHD mortality and morbidity after murine BMT, underlining the importance of the gut in the pathophysiology of GVHD. PMID:18178870

  3. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN): a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ming Sheng; Lemmert, Karla; Enjeti, Anoop

    2016-01-01

    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare and aggressive haematological malignancy in the elderly, with a high frequency of cutaneous and bone marrow involvement and poor prognosis. We report a case of BPDCN with classic presentation and discuss its treatment and the value of different investigation tools used in diagnosis and response assessment. PMID:26791132

  4. Glucocorticoids Reduce Sepsis by Diminishing Dendritic Cell Responses.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Richard

    2015-10-01

    How does the body's immune system strike the delicate balance between under- and over-response? A new study shows that glucocorticoids limit the production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-12 by dendritic cells in response to invading bacteria, thereby helping to avoid sepsis. Read the Research Article. PMID:26441144

  5. The role of human dendritic cells in HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zahra; Kawamura, Tatsuyoshi; Shimada, Shinji; Piguet, Vincent

    2015-05-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) and their subsets have multifaceted roles in the early stages of HIV-1 transmission and infection. DC studies have led to remarkable discoveries, including identification of restriction factors, cellular structures promoting viral transmission including the infectious synapse or the interplay of the C-type lectins, Langerin on Langerhans cells (LCs), and dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin on other DC subsets, limiting or facilitating HIV transmission to CD4(+) T cells, respectively. LCs/DCs are also exposed to encountering HIV-1 and other sexually transmitted infections (herpes simplex virus-2, bacteria, fungi), which reprogram HIV-1 interaction with these cells. This review will summarize advances in the role of DCs during HIV-1 infection and discuss their potential involvement in the development of preventive strategies against HIV-1 and other sexually transmitted infections. PMID:25407434

  6. How tolerogenic dendritic cells induce regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Roberto A.; von Andrian, Ulrich H.

    2010-01-01

    Since their discovery by Steinman and Cohn in 1973, dendritic cells (DCs) have become increasingly recognized for their crucial role as regulators of innate and adaptive immunity. DCs are exquisitely adept at acquiring, processing and presenting antigens to T cells. They also adjust the context (and hence the outcome) of antigen presentation in response to a plethora of environmental inputs that signal the occurence of pathogens or tissue damage. Such signals generally boost DC maturation, which promotes their migration from peripheral tissues into and within secondary lymphoid organs and their capacity to induce and regulate effector T cell responses. Conversely, more recent observations indicate that DCs are also crucial to ensure immunological peace. Indeed, DCs constantly present innocuous self and non-self antigens in a fashion that promotes tolerance, at least in part, through the control of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Tregs are specialized T cells that exert their immuno-suppressive function through a variety of mechanisms affecting both DCs and effector cells. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the relationship between tolerogenic DCs and Tregs. PMID:21056730

  7. Fascin1 promotes cell migration of mature dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Yamakita, Yoshihiko; Matsumura, Fumio; Lipscomb, Michael W; Chou, Po-chien; Werlen, Guy; Burkhardt, Janis K; Yamashiro, Shigeko

    2011-03-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play central roles in innate and adaptive immunity. Upon maturation, DCs assemble numerous veil-like membrane protrusions, disassemble podosomes, and travel from the peripheral tissues to lymph nodes to present Ags to T cells. These alterations in morphology and motility are closely linked to the primary function of DCs, Ag presentation. However, it is unclear how and what cytoskeletal proteins control maturation-associated alterations, in particular, the change in cell migration. Fascin1, an actin-bundling protein, is specifically and greatly induced upon maturation, suggesting a unique role for fascin1 in mature DCs. To determine the physiological roles of fascin1, we characterized bone marrow-derived, mature DCs from fascin1 knockout mice. We found that fascin1 is critical for cell migration: fascin1-null DCs exhibit severely decreased membrane protrusive activity. Importantly, fascin1-null DCs have lower chemotactic activity toward CCL19 (a chemokine for mature DCs) in vitro, and in vivo, Langerhans cells show reduced emigration into draining lymph nodes. Morphologically, fascin1-null mature DCs are flatter and fail to disassemble podosomes, a specialized structure for cell-matrix adhesion. Expression of exogenous fascin1 in fascin1-null DCs rescues the defects in membrane protrusive activity, as well as in podosome disassembly. These results indicate that fascin1 positively regulates migration of mature DCs into lymph nodes, most likely by increasing dynamics of membrane protrusions, as well as by disassembling podosomes. PMID:21263068

  8. Interactions of bacterial pathogens with dendritic cells during invasion of mucosal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Granucci, Francesca; Ricciardi-Castagnoli, Paola

    2003-02-01

    Recent studies of mucosal immunity suggest a key role for dendritic cells in the regulation of gut immune responses, in both physiological and pathological conditions. Dendritic cells are widely distributed in the lamina propria of the gut and are involved in direct bacterial uptake across mucosal surfaces, which questions the role of dendritic cells in innate mucosal responses. Approximately 400 commensal microbial species are present in the gut lumen. So how do dendritic cells distinguish pathogens from luminal microflora? Are the cytokines and chemokines induced in dendritic cells tailored to the class of microbes being recognized? Several very important questions still need to be addressed. PMID:12615223

  9. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells, Janus-faced sentinels: progesterone, guilty or innocent?

    PubMed

    Konttinen, Yrjö T; Hänninen, Arno; Fuellen, Georg

    2009-11-01

    Evaluation of: Meier A, Chang JJ, Chan ES et al.: Sex differences in the Toll-like receptor-mediated responses of plasmacytoid dendritic cells to HIV-1. Nat. Med. 15, 955-959 (2009). Stimulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)7 of plasmacytoid dendritic cells with ssRNA in internalized ribonucleic protein (RNP)-autoantibody complexes causes production of IFN-alpha and IFN signature in several female-dominant autoimmune diseases. This could relate to a gene-dose effect by the X chromosome or disturbances in the systemic endocrine and local intracrine sex steroid production. Meier et al. extend this paradigm to HIV-1-infected women. ssRNA, in oligoribonucleotides or aldrithiol-2-inactivated HIV-1, stimulated plasmacytoid dendritic cells via TLR7 to synthesize high concentrations of IFN-alpha. Women were disfavored and produced more IFN-alpha and subsequently CD38(high)CD8(+) lymphocytes upon similar viral loads in treatment-naive individuals. This predicts rapid progress to AIDS. There was a significant positive correlation between plasma progesterone concentrations and the percentage of responder plasmacytoid dendritic cells. TLR7-related pathways offer many potential targets for the treatment of viral and autoimmune diseases. PMID:20635911

  10. Dendrimer-like alpha-d-glucan nanoparticles activate dendritic cells and are effective vaccine adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fangjia; Mencia, Alejandra; Bi, Lin; Taylor, Aaron; Yao, Yuan; HogenEsch, Harm

    2015-04-28

    The use of nanoparticles for delivery of vaccine antigens and as vaccine adjuvants is appealing because their size allows efficient uptake by dendritic cells and their biological properties can be tailored to the desired function. Here, we report the effect of chemically modified phytoglycogen, a dendrimer-like α-d-glucan nanoparticle, on dendritic cells in vitro, and the utility of this type of nanoparticle as a vaccine adjuvant in vivo. The modified phytoglycogen nanoparticle, termed Nano-11, has a positive surface charge which enabled electrostatic adsorption of negatively charged protein antigens. The Nano-11-antigen complexes were efficiently phagocytized by dendritic cells. Nano-11 induced increased expression of costimulatory molecules and the secretion of IL-1β and IL-12p40 by dendritic cells. Intramuscular injection of Nano-11-antigen formulations induced a significantly enhanced immune response to two different protein antigens. Examination of the injection site revealed numerous monocytes and relatively few neutrophils at one day after injection. The inflammation had nearly completely disappeared by 2 weeks after injection. These studies indicate that Nano-11 is an effective vaccine delivery vehicle that significantly enhances the immune response. This type of plant based nanoparticle is considered highly cost-effective compared with fully synthetic nanoparticles and appears to have an excellent safety profile making them an attractive adjuvant candidate for prophylactic vaccines. PMID:25747143

  11. A Comparison between Growth Morphology of "Eutectic" Cells/Dendrites and Single-Phase Cells/Dendrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewari, S. N.; Raj, S. V.; Locci, I. E.

    2003-01-01

    Directionally solidified (DS) intermetallic and ceramic-based eutectic alloys with an in-situ composite microstructure containing finely distributed, long aspect ratio, fiber, or plate reinforcements are being seriously examined for several advanced aero-propulsion applications. In designing these alloys, additional solutes need to be added to the base eutectic composition in order to improve heir high-temperature strength, and provide for adequate toughness and resistance to environmental degradation. Solute addition, however, promotes instability at the planar liquid-solid interface resulting in the formation of two-phase eutectic "colonies." Because morphology of eutectic colonies is very similar to the single-phase cells and dendrites, the stability analysis of Mullins and Sekerka has been extended to describe their formation. Onset of their formation shows a good agreement with this approach; however, unlike the single-phase cells and dendrites, there is limited examination of their growth speed dependence of spacing, morphology, and spatial distribution. The purpose of this study is to compare the growth speed dependence of the morphology, spacing, and spatial distribution of eutectic cells and dendrites with that for the single-phase cells and dendrites.

  12. Effects of TCDD on the Fate of Naive Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bankoti, Jaishree; Burnett, Andrea; Navarro, Severine; Miller, Andrea K.; Rase, Ben; Shepherd, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The environmental contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), causes immune suppression via activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Dendritic cells (DCs), the professional antigen-presenting cells in the immune system, are adversely affected by TCDD. We hypothesized that TCDD alters DC homeostasis, resulting in a loss of DCs in naive mice. To test this hypothesis, C57Bl/6 mice were gavaged with either vehicle or an immunosuppressive dose of TCDD (15 μg/kg). TCDD exposure decreased the frequency and number of splenic CD11chigh DCs on day 7 when compared with vehicle-treated controls. TCDD increased the expression of CD86 and CD54, while decreasing the frequency of splenic CD11chigh DCs expressing CD11a and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II. Moreover, TCDD selectively decreased the CD11chighCD8α−33D1+ splenic DCs specialized at activating CD4+ T cells but did not affect the regulatory CD11chighCD8α+DEC205+ splenic DCs. TCDD did not alter the number or frequency of CD11clow splenic DCs but decreased their MHC class II and CD11a expression. Loss of splenic CD11chigh DCs was independent of Fas-mediated apoptosis and was not due to alterations in the numbers of common DC precursors in the bone marrow or their ability to generate steady-state DCs in vitro. Instead, increased CCR7 expression on CD11chigh DCs suggested involvement of a migratory event. Popliteal and brachial lymph node CD11c+ cells showed elevated levels of MHC class II and CD40 following TCDD exposure. Collectively, this study shows the presence of a TCDD-sensitive splenic DC subpopulation in naive mice, suggesting that TCDD may induce suppression of T-cell-mediated immunity by disrupting DC homeostasis. PMID:20211938

  13. Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells for Regulatory T Cell Induction in Man

    PubMed Central

    Raker, Verena K.; Domogalla, Matthias P.; Steinbrink, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are highly specialized professional antigen-presenting cells that regulate immune responses, maintaining the balance between tolerance and immunity. Mechanisms via which they can promote central and peripheral tolerance include clonal deletion, the inhibition of memory T cell responses, T cell anergy, and induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs). These properties have led to the analysis of human tolerogenic DCs as a therapeutic strategy for the induction or re-establishment of tolerance. In recent years, numerous protocols for the generation of human tolerogenic DCs have been developed and their tolerogenic mechanisms, including induction of Tregs, are relatively well understood. Phase I trials have been conducted in autoimmune disease, with results that emphasize the feasibility and safety of treatments with tolerogenic DCs. Therefore, the scientific rationale for the use of tolerogenic DCs therapy in the fields of transplantation medicine and allergic and autoimmune diseases is strong. This review will give an overview on efforts and protocols to generate human tolerogenic DCs with focus on IL-10-modulated DCs as inducers of Tregs and discuss their clinical applications and challenges faced in further developing this form of immunotherapy. PMID:26617604

  14. von Willebrand factor binds to the surface of dendritic cells and modulates peptide presentation of factor VIII

    PubMed Central

    Sorvillo, Nicoletta; Hartholt, Robin B.; Bloem, Esther; Sedek, Magdalena; Brinke, Anja ten; van der Zwaan, Carmen; van Alphen, Floris P.; Meijer, Alexander B.; Voorberg, Jan

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that von Willebrand factor might affect factor VIII immunogenicity by reducing factor VIII uptake by antigen presenting cells. Here we investigate the interaction of recombinant von Willebrand factor with immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Surprisingly, von Willebrand factor was not internalized by immature dendritic cells, but remained bound to the cell surface. As von Willebrand factor reduces the uptake of factor VIII, we investigated the repertoire of factor VIII presented peptides when in complex with von Willebrand factor. Interestingly, factor VIII-derived peptides were still abundantly presented on major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, even though a reduction of factor VIII uptake by immature dendritic cells was observed. Inspection of peptide profiles from 5 different donors showed that different core factor VIII peptide sequences were presented upon incubation with factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex when compared to factor VIII alone. No von Willebrand factor peptides were detected when immature dendritic cells were pulsed with different concentrations of von Willebrand factor, confirming lack of von Willebrand factor endocytosis. Several von Willebrand factor derived peptides were recovered when cells were pulsed with von Willebrand factor/factor VIII complex, suggesting that factor VIII promotes endocytosis of small amounts of von Willebrand factor by immature dendritic cells. Taken together, our results establish that von Willebrand factor is poorly internalized by immature dendritic cells. We also show that von Willebrand factor modulates the internalization and presentation of factor VIII-derived peptides on major histocompatibility complex class II. PMID:26635035

  15. Dendritic Cell Regulation by Cannabinoid-Based Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Mattias; Chen, Puran; Hammarfjord, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    Cannabinoid pharmacology has made important advances in recent years after the cannabinoid system was discovered. Studies in experimental models and in humans have produced promising results using cannabinoid-based drugs for the treatment of obesity and cancer, as well as neuroinflammatory and chronic inflammatory diseases. Moreover, as we discuss here, additional studies also indicates that these drugs have immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties including modulation of immune cell function. Thus, manipulation of the endocannabinoid system in vivo may provide novel therapeutic strategies against inflammatory disorders. At least two types of cannabinoid receptors, cannabinoid 1 and cannabinoid 2 receptors are expressed on immune cells such as dendritic cells (DC). Dendritic cells are recognized for their critical role in initiating and maintaining immune responses. Therefore, DC are potential targets for cannabinoid-mediated modulation. Here, we review the effects of cannabinoids on DC and provide some perspective concerning the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids for the treatment of human diseases involving aberrant inflammatory processes.

  16. Dendritic Kv3.3 potassium channels in cerebellar purkinje cells regulate generation and spatial dynamics of dendritic Ca2+ spikes.

    PubMed

    Zagha, Edward; Manita, Satoshi; Ross, William N; Rudy, Bernardo

    2010-06-01

    Purkinje cell dendrites are excitable structures with intrinsic and synaptic conductances contributing to the generation and propagation of electrical activity. Voltage-gated potassium channel subunit Kv3.3 is expressed in the distal dendrites of Purkinje cells. However, the functional relevance of this dendritic distribution is not understood. Moreover, mutations in Kv3.3 cause movement disorders in mice and cerebellar atrophy and ataxia in humans, emphasizing the importance of understanding the role of these channels. In this study, we explore functional implications of this dendritic channel expression and compare Purkinje cell dendritic excitability in wild-type and Kv3.3 knockout mice. We demonstrate enhanced excitability of Purkinje cell dendrites in Kv3.3 knockout mice, despite normal resting membrane properties. Combined data from local application pharmacology, voltage clamp analysis of ionic currents, and assessment of dendritic Ca(2+) spike threshold in Purkinje cells suggest a role for Kv3.3 channels in opposing Ca(2+) spike initiation. To study the physiological relevance of altered dendritic excitability, we measured [Ca(2+)](i) changes throughout the dendritic tree in response to climbing fiber activation. Ca(2+) signals were specifically enhanced in distal dendrites of Kv3.3 knockout Purkinje cells, suggesting a role for dendritic Kv3.3 channels in regulating propagation of electrical activity and Ca(2+) influx in distal dendrites. These findings characterize unique roles of Kv3.3 channels in dendrites, with implications for synaptic integration, plasticity, and human disease. PMID:20357073

  17. Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule NrCAM Regulates Semaphorin 3F-Induced Dendritic Spine Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Demyanenko, Galina P.; Mohan, Vishwa; Zhang, Xuying; Brennaman, Leann H.; Dharbal, Katherine E.S.; Tran, Tracy S.; Manis, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    Neuron-glial related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) is a regulator of axon growth and repellent guidance, and has been implicated in autism spectrum disorders. Here a novel postsynaptic role for NrCAM in Semaphorin3F (Sema3F)-induced dendritic spine remodeling was identified in pyramidal neurons of the primary visual cortex (V1). NrCAM localized to dendritic spines of star pyramidal cells in postnatal V1, where it was coexpressed with Sema3F. NrCAM deletion in mice resulted in elevated spine densities on apical dendrites of star pyramidal cells at both postnatal and adult stages, and electron microscopy revealed increased numbers of asymmetric synapses in layer 4 of V1. Whole-cell recordings in cortical slices from NrCAM-null mice revealed increased frequency of mEPSCs in star pyramidal neurons. Recombinant Sema3F-Fc protein induced spine retraction on apical dendrites of wild-type, but not NrCAM-null cortical neurons in culture, while re-expression of NrCAM rescued the spine retraction response. NrCAM formed a complex in brain with Sema3F receptor subunits Neuropilin-2 (Npn-2) and PlexinA3 (PlexA3) through an Npn-2-binding sequence (TARNER) in the extracellular Ig1 domain. A trans heterozygous genetic interaction test demonstrated that Sema3F and NrCAM pathways interacted in vivo to regulate spine density in star pyramidal neurons. These findings reveal NrCAM as a novel postnatal regulator of dendritic spine density in cortical pyramidal neurons, and an integral component of the Sema3F receptor complex. The results implicate NrCAM as a contributor to excitatory/inhibitory balance in neocortical circuits. PMID:25143608

  18. Variation of dorsal horn cell dendritic spread with map scale.

    PubMed

    Brown, P B; Millecchia, R; Culberson, J L; Gladfelter, W; Covalt-Dunning, D

    1996-10-21

    Cells in laminae III, IV, and V of cat dorsal horn were injected with horseradish peroxidase or neurobiotin. Dorsal views of the dendritic domains were constructed in order to measure their lengths, widths, areas, and length/width ratios in the horizontal plane (the plane of the somatotopic map). Dendritic domain width and area in the horizontal plane were negatively correlated with fractional distance between the medial and lateral edges of the dorsal horn. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that dendritic domain width varies with map scale, which is maximal in the medial dorsal horn. This is similar to the variation in widths of primary afferent bouton distributions. The parallel variation of dorsal horn cell dendritic domain width and primary afferent bouton distribution width with map scale suggests that there is a causal relation between morphology and map scale in the dorsal horn representation of the hindlimb. This variation of adult morphology with map scale must reflect mechanisms responsible for the assembly of receptive fields. PMID:8906504

  19. Self-Antigen Presentation by Dendritic Cells in Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Hopp, Ann-Katrin; Rupp, Anne; Lukacs-Kornek, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    The operation of both central and peripheral tolerance ensures the prevention of autoimmune diseases. The maintenance of peripheral tolerance requires self-antigen presentation by professional antigen presenting cells (APCs). Dendritic cells (DCs) are considered as major APCs involved in this process. The current review discusses the role of DCs in autoimmune diseases, the various factors involved in the induction and maintenance of tolerogenic DC phenotype, and pinpoints their therapeutic capacity as well as potential novel targets for future clinical studies. PMID:24592266

  20. Mast Cells Condition Dendritic Cells to Mediate Allograft Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Victor C.; Pino-Lagos, Karina; Nowak, Elizabeth C.; Bennett, Kathy A.; Oliva, Carla; Noelle, Randolph J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Peripheral tolerance orchestrated by regulatory T cells, dendritic cells (DCs), and mast cells (MCs) has been studied in several models including skin allograft tolerance. We now define a role for MCs in controlling DC behavior (“conditioning”) to facilitate tolerance. Under tolerant conditions, we show that MCs mediated a marked increase in tumor necrosis factor (TNFα)-dependent accumulation of graft-derived DCs in the dLN compared to nontolerant conditions. This increase of DCs in the dLN is due to the local production of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) by MCs that induces a survival advantage of graft-derived DCs. DCs that migrated to the dLN from the tolerant allograft were tolerogenic; i.e., they dominantly suppress T cell responses and control regional immunity. This study underscores the importance of MCs in conditioning DCs to mediate peripheral tolerance and shows a functional impact of peripherally produced TNFα and GM-CSF on the migration and function of tolerogenic DCs. PMID:22035846

  1. DISC1-dependent Regulation of Mitochondrial Dynamics Controls the Morphogenesis of Complex Neuronal Dendrites.

    PubMed

    Norkett, Rosalind; Modi, Souvik; Birsa, Nicol; Atkin, Talia A; Ivankovic, Davor; Pathania, Manav; Trossbach, Svenja V; Korth, Carsten; Hirst, Warren D; Kittler, Josef T

    2016-01-01

    The DISC1 protein is implicated in major mental illnesses including schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, and autism. Aberrant mitochondrial dynamics are also associated with major mental illness. DISC1 plays a role in mitochondrial transport in neuronal axons, but its effects in dendrites have yet to be studied. Further, the mechanisms of this regulation and its role in neuronal development and brain function are poorly understood. Here we have demonstrated that DISC1 couples to the mitochondrial transport and fusion machinery via interaction with the outer mitochondrial membrane GTPase proteins Miro1 and Miro2, the TRAK1 and TRAK2 mitochondrial trafficking adaptors, and the mitochondrial fusion proteins (mitofusins). Using live cell imaging, we show that disruption of the DISC1-Miro-TRAK complex inhibits mitochondrial transport in neurons. We also show that the fusion protein generated from the originally described DISC1 translocation (DISC1-Boymaw) localizes to the mitochondria, where it similarly disrupts mitochondrial dynamics. We also show by super resolution microscopy that DISC1 is localized to endoplasmic reticulum contact sites and that the DISC1-Boymaw fusion protein decreases the endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria contact area. Moreover, disruption of mitochondrial dynamics by targeting the DISC1-Miro-TRAK complex or upon expression of the DISC1-Boymaw fusion protein impairs the correct development of neuronal dendrites. Thus, DISC1 acts as an important regulator of mitochondrial dynamics in both axons and dendrites to mediate the transport, fusion, and cross-talk of these organelles, and pathological DISC1 isoforms disrupt this critical function leading to abnormal neuronal development. PMID:26553875

  2. DISC1-dependent Regulation of Mitochondrial Dynamics Controls the Morphogenesis of Complex Neuronal Dendrites*

    PubMed Central

    Norkett, Rosalind; Modi, Souvik; Birsa, Nicol; Atkin, Talia A.; Ivankovic, Davor; Pathania, Manav; Trossbach, Svenja V.; Korth, Carsten; Hirst, Warren D.; Kittler, Josef T.

    2016-01-01

    The DISC1 protein is implicated in major mental illnesses including schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, and autism. Aberrant mitochondrial dynamics are also associated with major mental illness. DISC1 plays a role in mitochondrial transport in neuronal axons, but its effects in dendrites have yet to be studied. Further, the mechanisms of this regulation and its role in neuronal development and brain function are poorly understood. Here we have demonstrated that DISC1 couples to the mitochondrial transport and fusion machinery via interaction with the outer mitochondrial membrane GTPase proteins Miro1 and Miro2, the TRAK1 and TRAK2 mitochondrial trafficking adaptors, and the mitochondrial fusion proteins (mitofusins). Using live cell imaging, we show that disruption of the DISC1-Miro-TRAK complex inhibits mitochondrial transport in neurons. We also show that the fusion protein generated from the originally described DISC1 translocation (DISC1-Boymaw) localizes to the mitochondria, where it similarly disrupts mitochondrial dynamics. We also show by super resolution microscopy that DISC1 is localized to endoplasmic reticulum contact sites and that the DISC1-Boymaw fusion protein decreases the endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria contact area. Moreover, disruption of mitochondrial dynamics by targeting the DISC1-Miro-TRAK complex or upon expression of the DISC1-Boymaw fusion protein impairs the correct development of neuronal dendrites. Thus, DISC1 acts as an important regulator of mitochondrial dynamics in both axons and dendrites to mediate the transport, fusion, and cross-talk of these organelles, and pathological DISC1 isoforms disrupt this critical function leading to abnormal neuronal development. PMID:26553875

  3. Regulation of Dendritic Cell Function by Dietary Polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Del Cornò, Manuela; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; Masella, Roberta; Gessani, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    Marked changes in socioeconomic status, cultural traditions, population growth, and agriculture have been affecting diets worldwide. Nutrition is known to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases, and the use of bioactive food compounds at pharmacologic doses is emerging as a preventive and/or therapeutic approach to target metabolic dysregulations occurring in aging, obesity-related chronic diseases, and cancer. Only recently have data on the effects of specific nutrients or food on the immune system become available, and studies regarding the human immune system are still in their infancy. Beyond providing essential nutrients, diet can actively influence the immune system. Understanding how diet and nutritional status influence the innate and adaptive arms of our immune system represents an area of scientific need, opportunity, and challenge. The insights gleaned should help to address several pressing global health problems. Recently, biologically active polyphenols, which are widespread constituents of fruit and vegetables, have gained importance as complex regulators of various cellular processes, critically involved in the maintenance of body homeostasis. This review outlines the potential effects of polyphenols on the function of dendritic cells (DCs), key players in the orchestration of the immune response. Their effects on different aspects of DC biology including differentiation, maturation, and DC capacity to shift immune response toward tolerance or immune activation will be outlined. PMID:24941314

  4. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm: diagnostic criteria and therapeutical approaches.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Livio; Valentini, Caterina G; Grammatico, Sara; Pulsoni, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare haematological malignancy derived from the precursors of plamacytoid dendritic cells, with an aggressive clinical course and high frequency of cutaneous and bone marrow involvement. Neoplastic cells express CD4, CD43 (also termed SPN), CD45RA and CD56 (also termed NCAM1), as well as the plasmacytoid dendritic cell-associated antigens CD123 (also termed IL3RA), BDCA-2 (also termed CD303, CLEC4E) TCL1 and CTLA1 (also termed GZMB). The median survival is only a few months as the tumour exhibits a progressive course despite initial response to chemotherapy. The best modality of treatment remains to be defined. Generally, patients receive acute leukaemia-like induction, according to acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)-type or acute lymphoid leukaemia (ALL)-type regimens. The frequent neuromeningeal involvement indicates systematic pre-emptive intrathecal chemotherapy in addition to intensive chemotherapy. Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), particularly when performed in first remission, may improve the survival. Preliminary data suggest a potential role for immunomodulatory agents and novel targeted drugs. Herein epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and management of BPDCN will be presented. In detail, this review focuses on the therapeutic aspects of BPDCN, proposing a treatment algorithm for the management of the disease, including induction chemotherapy, allogeneic HSCT and intrathecal prophylaxis at different steps of treatment, according to compliance, biological and clinical characteristics of patients. PMID:27264021

  5. The Evolution of Topologically Complex Structures: Coarsening of Dendritic Mixtures - Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    K. Thornton; Peter W. Voorhees

    2009-10-08

    Dendrites frequently form during solidification into an undercooled melt. These dendrites possess secondary and sometimes even ternary arms. While the tip radius and tip velocity of the dendrite are set by the growth conditions, the side branches behind the tip undergo a coarsening process under nearly isothermal conditions. This coarsening process sets an arm thickness and distances between dendrite arms in the solidified structure that are almost independent of the length-scale given by the dendrite tip. Since there is a close relationship between the size scale of the dendrites and the mechanical properties of the material, the coarsening process in dendritic solid-liquid systems has received much attention. Despite the clear importance of the coarsening process, measurements of the morphology of the two-phase mixture during coarsening that capture the full three-dimensional nature of the structure are in their infancy. In addition, since calculations of the evolution of such topologically complex systems are challenging, existing models of this coarsening process involve significant simplifications of the microstructure. To address these deficiencies in our understanding of the coarsening process, we study the coarsening process in topologically complex systems using three-dimensional reconstructions of the microstructure in concert with phase-field calculations of the local interfacial velocities.

  6. Intestinal immune homeostasis is regulated by the crosstalk between epithelial cells and dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Rimoldi, Monica; Chieppa, Marcello; Salucci, Valentina; Avogadri, Francesca; Sonzogni, Angelica; Sampietro, Gianluca M; Nespoli, Angelo; Viale, Giuseppe; Allavena, Paola; Rescigno, Maria

    2005-05-01

    The control of damaging inflammation by the mucosal immune system in response to commensal and harmful ingested bacteria is unknown. Here we show epithelial cells conditioned mucosal dendritic cells through the constitutive release of thymic stromal lymphopoietin and other mediators, resulting in the induction of 'noninflammatory' dendritic cells. Epithelial cell-conditioned dendritic cells released interleukins 10 and 6 but not interleukin 12, and they promoted the polarization of T cells toward a 'classical' noninflammatory T helper type 2 response, even after exposure to a T helper type 1-inducing pathogen. This control of immune responses seemed to be lost in patients with Crohn disease. Thus, the intimate interplay between intestinal epithelial cells and dendritic cells may help to maintain gut immune homeostasis. PMID:15821737

  7. Large-Scale mRNA Transfection of Dendritic Cells by Electroporation in Continuous Flow Systems.

    PubMed

    Selmeczi, David; Hansen, Thomas Steen; Met, Özcan; Svane, Inge Marie; Larsen, Niels B

    2016-01-01

    Electroporation is well established for transient mRNA transfection of many mammalian cells, including immune cells such as dendritic cells used in cancer immunotherapy. Therapeutic application requires methods to efficiently electroporate and transfect millions of immune cells in a fast process with high cell survival. Continuous flow of suspended dendritic cells through a channel incorporating spatially separated microporous meshes with a synchronized electrical pulsing sequence can yield dendritic cell transfection rates of >75 % with survival rates of >90 %. This chapter describes the instrumentation and methods needed for the efficient transfection by electroporation of millions of dendritic cells in one continuous flow process. PMID:27236798

  8. Novel Murine Dendritic Cell Lines: A Powerful Auxiliary Tool for Dendritic Cell Research

    PubMed Central

    Fuertes Marraco, Silvia A.; Grosjean, Frédéric; Duval, Anaïs; Rosa, Muriel; Lavanchy, Christine; Ashok, Devika; Haller, Sergio; Otten, Luc A.; Steiner, Quynh-Giao; Descombes, Patrick; Luber, Christian A.; Meissner, Felix; Mann, Matthias; Szeles, Lajos; Reith, Walter; Acha-Orbea, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Research in vitro facilitates discovery, screening, and pilot experiments, often preceding research in vivo. Several technical difficulties render Dendritic Cell (DC) research particularly challenging, including the low frequency of DC in vivo, thorough isolation requirements, and the vulnerability of DC ex vivo. Critically, there is not as yet a widely accepted human or murine DC line and in vitro systems of DC research are limited. In this study, we report the generation of new murine DC lines, named MutuDC, originating from cultures of splenic CD8α conventional DC (cDC) tumors. By direct comparison to normal WT splenic cDC subsets, we describe the phenotypic and functional features of the MutuDC lines and show that they have retained all the major features of their natural counterpart in vivo, the splenic CD8α cDC. These features include expression of surface markers Clec9A, DEC205, and CD24, positive response to TLR3 and TLR9 but not TLR7 stimuli, secretion of cytokines, and chemokines upon activation, as well as cross-presentation capacity. In addition to the close resemblance to normal splenic CD8α cDC, a major advantage is the ease of derivation and maintenance of the MutuDC lines, using standard culture medium and conditions, importantly without adding supplementary growth factors or maturation-inducing stimuli to the medium. Furthermore, genetically modified MutuDC lines have been successfully obtained either by lentiviral transduction or by culture of DC tumors originating from genetically modified mice. In view of the current lack of stable and functional DC lines, these novel murine DC lines have the potential to serve as an important auxiliary tool for DC research. PMID:23162549

  9. IgE-mediated enhancement of CD4+ T cell responses requires antigen presentation by CD8α− conventional dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zhoujie; Dahlin, Joakim S.; Xu, Hui; Heyman, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    IgE, forming an immune complex with small proteins, can enhance the specific antibody and CD4+ T cell responses in vivo. The effects require the presence of CD23 (Fcε-receptor II)+ B cells, which capture IgE-complexed antigens (Ag) in the circulation and transport them to splenic B cell follicles. In addition, also CD11c+ cells, which do not express CD23, are required for IgE-mediated enhancement of T cell responses. This suggests that some type of dendritic cell obtains IgE-Ag complexes from B cells and presents antigenic peptides to T cells. To elucidate the nature of this dendritic cell, mice were immunized with ovalbumin (OVA)-specific IgE and OVA, and different populations of CD11c+ cells, obtained from the spleens four hours after immunization, were tested for their ability to present OVA. CD8α− conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) were much more efficient in inducing specific CD4+ T cell proliferation ex vivo than were CD8α+ cDCs or plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Thus, IgE-Ag complexes administered intravenously are rapidly transported to the spleen by recirculating B cells where they are delivered to CD8α− cDCs which induce proliferation of CD4+ T cells. PMID:27306570

  10. IgE-mediated enhancement of CD4(+) T cell responses requires antigen presentation by CD8α(-) conventional dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhoujie; Dahlin, Joakim S; Xu, Hui; Heyman, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    IgE, forming an immune complex with small proteins, can enhance the specific antibody and CD4(+) T cell responses in vivo. The effects require the presence of CD23 (Fcε-receptor II)(+) B cells, which capture IgE-complexed antigens (Ag) in the circulation and transport them to splenic B cell follicles. In addition, also CD11c(+) cells, which do not express CD23, are required for IgE-mediated enhancement of T cell responses. This suggests that some type of dendritic cell obtains IgE-Ag complexes from B cells and presents antigenic peptides to T cells. To elucidate the nature of this dendritic cell, mice were immunized with ovalbumin (OVA)-specific IgE and OVA, and different populations of CD11c(+) cells, obtained from the spleens four hours after immunization, were tested for their ability to present OVA. CD8α(-) conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) were much more efficient in inducing specific CD4(+) T cell proliferation ex vivo than were CD8α(+) cDCs or plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Thus, IgE-Ag complexes administered intravenously are rapidly transported to the spleen by recirculating B cells where they are delivered to CD8α(-) cDCs which induce proliferation of CD4(+) T cells. PMID:27306570

  11. Dextromethorphan inhibits activations and functions in dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Der-Yuan; Song, Pei-Shan; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Chu, Ching-Liang; Pan, I-Horng; Chen, Yi-Ming; Lin, Ching-Hsiung; Lin, Sheng-Hao; Lin, Chi-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in connecting innate and adaptive immunity. Thus, DCs have been regarded as a major target for the development of immunomodulators. In this study, we examined the effect of dextromethorphan (DXM), a common cough suppressant with a high safety profile, on the activation and function of DCs. In the presence of DXM, the LPS-induced expression of the costimulatory molecules in murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) was significantly suppressed. In addition, DXM treatment reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), proinflammatory cytokines, and chemokines in maturing BMDCs that were activated by LPS. Therefore, DXM abrogated the ability of LPS-stimulated DCs to induce Ag-specific T-cell activation, as determined by their decreased proliferation and IFN- γ secretion in mixed leukocyte cultures. Moreover, the inhibition of LPS-induced MAPK activation and NF- κ B translocation may contribute to the suppressive effect of DXM on BMDCs. Remarkably, DXM decreased the LPS-induced surface expression of CD80, CD83, and HLA-DR and the secretion of IL-6 and IL-12 in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs). These findings provide a new insight into the impact of DXM treatment on DCs and suggest that DXM has the potential to be used in treating DC-related acute and chronic diseases. PMID:23781253

  12. Dextromethorphan Inhibits Activations and Functions in Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Der-Yuan; Song, Pei-Shan; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Chu, Ching-Liang; Pan, I-Horng; Chen, Yi-Ming; Lin, Ching-Hsiung; Lin, Sheng-Hao; Lin, Chi-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in connecting innate and adaptive immunity. Thus, DCs have been regarded as a major target for the development of immunomodulators. In this study, we examined the effect of dextromethorphan (DXM), a common cough suppressant with a high safety profile, on the activation and function of DCs. In the presence of DXM, the LPS-induced expression of the costimulatory molecules in murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) was significantly suppressed. In addition, DXM treatment reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), proinflammatory cytokines, and chemokines in maturing BMDCs that were activated by LPS. Therefore, DXM abrogated the ability of LPS-stimulated DCs to induce Ag-specific T-cell activation, as determined by their decreased proliferation and IFN-γ secretion in mixed leukocyte cultures. Moreover, the inhibition of LPS-induced MAPK activation and NF-κB translocation may contribute to the suppressive effect of DXM on BMDCs. Remarkably, DXM decreased the LPS-induced surface expression of CD80, CD83, and HLA-DR and the secretion of IL-6 and IL-12 in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs). These findings provide a new insight into the impact of DXM treatment on DCs and suggest that DXM has the potential to be used in treating DC-related acute and chronic diseases. PMID:23781253

  13. Epidermal cells are the primary phagocytes in the fragmentation and clearance of degenerating dendrites in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Hui; Wang, Denan; Franc, Nathalie C.; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh-Nung

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY During developmental remodeling, neurites destined for pruning often degenerate on-site. Physical injury also induces degeneration of neurites distal to the injury site. Prompt clearance of degenerating neurites is important for maintaining tissue homeostasis and preventing inflammatory responses. Here we show that in both dendrite pruning and dendrite injury of Drosophila sensory neurons, epidermal cells rather than hemocytes are the primary phagocytes in clearing degenerating dendrites. Epidermal cells act via Draper-mediated recognition to facilitate dendrite degeneration and to engulf and degrade degenerating dendrites. Using multiple dendritic membrane markers to trace phagocytosis, we show that two members of the CD36 family, croquemort (crq) and debris buster (dsb), act at distinct stages of phagosome maturation for dendrite clearance. Our finding reveals the physiological importance of coordination between neurons and their surrounding epidermis, for both dendrite fragmentation and clearance. PMID:24412417

  14. Viral piracy: HIV-1 targets dendritic cells for transmission.

    PubMed

    Lekkerkerker, Annemarie N; van Kooyk, Yvette; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B H

    2006-04-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs), the professional antigen presenting cells, are critical for host immunity by inducing specific immune responses against a broad variety of pathogens. Remarkably the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) subverts DC function leading to spread of the virus. At an early phase of HIV-1 transmission, DCs capture HIV-1 at mucosal surfaces and transmit the virus to T cells in secondary lymphoid tissues. Capture of the virus on DCs takes place via C-type lectins of which the dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 (ICAM-3) grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) is the best studied. DC-SIGN-captured HIV-1 particles accumulate in CD81(+) multivesicular bodies (MVBs) in DCs and are subsequently transmitted to CD4+ T cells resulting in infection of T cells. The viral cell-to-cell transmission takes place at the DC-T cell interface termed the infectious synapse. Recent studies demonstrate that direct infection of DCs contributes to the transmission to T cells at a later phase. Moreover, the infected DCs may function as cellular reservoirs for HIV-1. This review discusses the different processes that govern viral piracy of DCs by HIV-1, emphasizing the intracellular routing of the virus from capture on the cell surface to egress in the infectious synapse. PMID:16611055

  15. REMOD: A Tool for Analyzing and Remodeling the Dendritic Architecture of Neural Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bozelos, Panagiotis; Stefanou, Stefanos S.; Bouloukakis, Georgios; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Poirazi, Panayiota

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic morphology is a key determinant of how individual neurons acquire a unique signal processing profile. The highly branched dendritic structure that originates from the cell body, explores the surrounding 3D space in a fractal-like manner, until it reaches a certain amount of complexity. Its shape undergoes significant alterations under various physiological or neuropathological conditions. Yet, despite the profound effect that these alterations can have on neuronal function, the causal relationship between the two remains largely elusive. The lack of a systematic approach for remodeling neural cells and their dendritic trees is a key limitation that contributes to this problem. Such causal relationships can be inferred via the use of large-scale neuronal models whereby the anatomical plasticity of neurons is accounted for, in order to enhance their biological relevance and hence their predictive performance. To facilitate this effort, we developed a computational tool named REMOD that allows the structural remodeling of any type of virtual neuron. REMOD is written in Python and can be accessed through a dedicated web interface that guides the user through various options to manipulate selected neuronal morphologies. REMOD can also be used to extract meaningful morphology statistics for one or multiple reconstructions, including features such as sholl analysis, total dendritic length and area, path length to the soma, centrifugal branch order, diameter tapering and more. As such, the tool can be used both for the analysis and/or the remodeling of neuronal morphologies of any type. PMID:26778971

  16. REMOD: A Tool for Analyzing and Remodeling the Dendritic Architecture of Neural Cells.

    PubMed

    Bozelos, Panagiotis; Stefanou, Stefanos S; Bouloukakis, Georgios; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Poirazi, Panayiota

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic morphology is a key determinant of how individual neurons acquire a unique signal processing profile. The highly branched dendritic structure that originates from the cell body, explores the surrounding 3D space in a fractal-like manner, until it reaches a certain amount of complexity. Its shape undergoes significant alterations under various physiological or neuropathological conditions. Yet, despite the profound effect that these alterations can have on neuronal function, the causal relationship between the two remains largely elusive. The lack of a systematic approach for remodeling neural cells and their dendritic trees is a key limitation that contributes to this problem. Such causal relationships can be inferred via the use of large-scale neuronal models whereby the anatomical plasticity of neurons is accounted for, in order to enhance their biological relevance and hence their predictive performance. To facilitate this effort, we developed a computational tool named REMOD that allows the structural remodeling of any type of virtual neuron. REMOD is written in Python and can be accessed through a dedicated web interface that guides the user through various options to manipulate selected neuronal morphologies. REMOD can also be used to extract meaningful morphology statistics for one or multiple reconstructions, including features such as sholl analysis, total dendritic length and area, path length to the soma, centrifugal branch order, diameter tapering and more. As such, the tool can be used both for the analysis and/or the remodeling of neuronal morphologies of any type. PMID:26778971

  17. Dendritic web-type solar cell mini-modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-five minimodules composed of dendritic web solar cells with nominal glass size of 12 by 40 cm were provided for study. The modules were identical with respect to design, materials, and manufacturing and assembly processes to full scale modules. The modules were also electrically functional. These minimodules were fabricated to provide test vehicle for environmental testing and to assess reliability of process and design procedures. The module design and performance are outlined.

  18. Induction and identification of rabbit peripheral blood derived dendritic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jing; Yang, FuYuan; Chen, WenLi

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To study a method of the induction of dendritic cells (DCs) from rabbit peripheral blood. Methods: Peripheral blood cells were removed from rabbit, filtered through nylon mesh. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from the blood cells by Ficoll-Hypaque centrifugation (density of 1.077g/cm3).To obtain DCs, PBMC were cultured in RPMI1640 medium containing 10% fetal calf serum, 50U/mL penicillin and streptomycin, referred to subsequently as complete medium, at 37°C in 5% CO2 atmosphere for 4 hours. Nonadherent cells were aspirated, adherent cells were continued incubated in complete medium, supplemented with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, 50ng/ml),and interleukin 4 (IL-4, 50ng/ml) for 9 days. Fluorescein labeled antibodies(anti-CD14, anti-HLA-DR, anti-CD86) were used to sign cells cultured for 3,6,9 days respectively, Then flow cytometry was performed. Results: Ratio of anti-HLA-DR and anti-CD86 labeled cells increased with induction time extension, in contrast with anti-CD14. Conclusion: Dendritic cells can be effectively induced by the method of this experiment, cell maturation status increased with induction time extension.

  19. 3D visualization of HIV transfer at the virological synapse between dendritic cells and T cells

    PubMed Central

    Felts, Richard L.; Narayan, Kedar; Estes, Jacob D.; Shi, Dan; Trubey, Charles M.; Fu, Jing; Hartnell, Lisa M.; Ruthel, Gordon T.; Schneider, Douglas K.; Nagashima, Kunio; Bess, Julian W.; Bavari, Sina; Lowekamp, Bradley C.; Bliss, Donald; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2010-01-01

    The efficiency of HIV infection is greatly enhanced when the virus is delivered at conjugates between CD4+ T cells and virus-bearing antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages or dendritic cells via specialized structures known as virological synapses. Using ion abrasion SEM, electron tomography, and superresolution light microscopy, we have analyzed the spatial architecture of cell-cell contacts and distribution of HIV virions at virological synapses formed between mature dendritic cells and T cells. We demonstrate the striking envelopment of T cells by sheet-like membrane extensions derived from mature dendritic cells, resulting in a shielded region for formation of virological synapses. Within the synapse, filopodial extensions emanating from CD4+ T cells make contact with HIV virions sequestered deep within a 3D network of surface-accessible compartments in the dendritic cell. Viruses are detected at the membrane surfaces of both dendritic cells and T cells, but virions are not released passively at the synapse; instead, virus transfer requires the engagement of T-cell CD4 receptors. The relative seclusion of T cells from the extracellular milieu, the burial of the site of HIV transfer, and the receptor-dependent initiation of virion transfer by T cells highlight unique aspects of cell-cell HIV transmission. PMID:20624966

  20. Nectin-1 spots regulate the branching of olfactory mitral cell dendrites.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takeshi; Inoue, Takahito; Maruo, Tomohiko; Rikitake, Yoshiyuki; Ieki, Nao; Mandai, Kenji; Kimura, Kazushi; Kayahara, Tetsuro; Wang, Shujie; Itoh, Yu; Sai, Kousyoku; Mori, Masahiro; Mori, Kensaku; Takai, Yoshimi; Mizoguchi, Akira

    2015-09-01

    Olfactory mitral cells extend lateral secondary dendrites that contact the lateral secondary and apical primary dendrites of other mitral cells in the external plexiform layer (EPL) of the olfactory bulb. The lateral dendrites further contact granule cell dendrites, forming dendrodendritic reciprocal synapses in the EPL. These dendritic structures are critical for odor information processing, but it remains unknown how they are formed. We recently showed that the immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule nectin-1 constitutes a novel adhesion apparatus at the contacts between mitral cell lateral dendrites, between mitral cell lateral and apical dendrites, and between mitral cell lateral dendrites and granule cell dendritic spine necks in the deep sub-lamina of the EPL of the developing mouse olfactory bulb and named them nectin-1 spots. We investigated here the role of the nectin-1 spots in the formation of dendritic structures in the EPL of the mouse olfactory bulb. We showed that in cultured nectin-1-knockout mitral cells, the number of branching points of mitral cell dendrites was reduced compared to that in the control cells. In the deep sub-lamina of the EPL in the nectin-1-knockout olfactory bulb, the number of branching points of mitral cell lateral dendrites and the number of dendrodendritic reciprocal synapses were reduced compared to those in the control olfactory bulb. These results indicate that the nectin-1 spots regulate the branching of mitral cell dendrites in the deep sub-lamina of the EPL and suggest that the nectin-1 spots are required for odor information processing in the olfactory bulb. PMID:26169026

  1. Understanding Dendritic Cells and Their Role in Cutaneous Carcinoma and Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Yanofsky, Valerie R.; Mitsui, Hiroshi; Felsen, Diane; Carucci, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) represent a diverse group of professional antigen-presenting cells that serve to link the innate and adaptive immune systems. Their capacity to initiate a robust and antigen-specific immune response has made them the ideal candidates for cancer immunotherapies. To date, the clinical impact of DC immunotherapy has been limited, which may, in part, be explained by the complex nature of DC biology. Multiple distinct subsets of DCs have been identified in the skin, where they can be broadly subcategorized into epidermal Langerhans cells (LC), myeloid-derived dermal dendritic cells (mDC) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC). Each subset is functionally unique and may activate alternate branches of the immune system. This may be relevant for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma, where we have shown that the tumor microenvironment may preferentially suppress the activity of mDCs, while LCs remain potent stimulators of immunity. Here, we provide an in depth analysis of DC biology, with a particular focus on skin DCs and their role in cutaneous carcinoma. We further explore the current approaches to DC immunotherapy and provide evidence for the targeting of LCs as a promising new strategy in the treatment of skin cancer. PMID:23606870

  2. Antigen loading of dendritic cells with whole tumor cell preparations.

    PubMed

    Thumann, Peter; Moc, Isabelle; Humrich, Jens; Berger, Thomas G; Schultz, Erwin S; Schuler, Gerold; Jenne, Lars

    2003-06-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) based vaccinations have been widely used for the induction of anti-tumoral immunity in clinical studies. Antigen loading of DC with whole tumor cell preparations is an attractive method whenever tumor cell material is available. In order to determine parameters for the loading procedure, we performed dose finding and timing experiments. We found that apoptotic and necrotic melanoma cells up to a ratio of one-to-one, equivalent to 1mg/ml protein per 1 x 10(6) DC, can be added to monocyte derived DC without effecting DC recovery extensively. Using the isolated protein content of tumor cells (lysate) as a parameter, up to 5 mg/ml protein per 1 x 10(6) DC can be added. To achieve significant protein uptake at least 1 mg/ml of protein have to be added for more than 24 h as tested with FITC-labelled ovalbumin. Maturation inducing cytokines can be added simultaneously with the tumor cell preparations to immature DC without affecting the uptake. Furthermore, we tested the feasibility of cryopreservation of loaded and matured DC to facilitate the generation of ready to use aliquots. DC were cryopreserved in a mix of human serum albumin, DMSO and 5% glucose. After thawing, surface expression of molecules indicating the mature status (CD83, costimulatory and MHC molecules), was found to be unaltered. Furthermore, cryopreserved DC kept the capability to stimulate allogenic T-cell proliferation in mixed leukocyte reactions at full level. Loaded and matured DC pulsed with influenza matrix peptide (IMP) retained the capacity to induce the generation of IMP-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes after cryopreservation as measured by ELISPOT and tetramer staining. The expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR-4 and CCR-7 remained unaltered during cryopreservation and the migratory responsiveness towards MIP-3beta was unaltered as measured in a migration assay. Thus we conclude that the large scale loading and maturation of DC with whole tumor cell preparations can be

  3. EBI2 augments Tfh cell fate by promoting interaction with IL-2-quenching dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianhua; Lu, Erick; Yi, Tangsheng; Cyster, Jason G

    2016-05-01

    T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are a subset of T cells carrying the CD4 antigen; they are important in supporting plasma cell and germinal centre responses. The initial induction of Tfh cell properties occurs within the first few days after activation by antigen recognition on dendritic cells, although how dendritic cells promote this cell-fate decision is not fully understood. Moreover, although Tfh cells are uniquely defined by expression of the follicle-homing receptor CXCR5 (refs 1, 2), the guidance receptor promoting the earlier localization of activated T cells at the interface of the B-cell follicle and T zone has been unclear. Here we show that the G-protein-coupled receptor EBI2 (GPR183) and its ligand 7α,25-dihydroxycholesterol mediate positioning of activated CD4 T cells at the interface of the follicle and T zone. In this location they interact with activated dendritic cells and are exposed to Tfh-cell-promoting inducible co-stimulator (ICOS) ligand. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a cytokine that has multiple influences on T-cell fate, including negative regulation of Tfh cell differentiation. We demonstrate that activated dendritic cells in the outer T zone further augment Tfh cell differentiation by producing membrane and soluble forms of CD25, the IL-2 receptor α-chain, and quenching T-cell-derived IL-2. Mice lacking EBI2 in T cells or CD25 in dendritic cells have reduced Tfh cells and mount defective T-cell-dependent plasma cell and germinal centre responses. These findings demonstrate that distinct niches within the lymphoid organ T zone support distinct cell fate decisions, and they establish a function for dendritic-cell-derived CD25 in controlling IL-2 availability and T-cell differentiation. PMID:27147029

  4. Isolation of Splenic Dendritic Cells Using Fluorescence-activated Cell Sorting

    PubMed Central

    Tavernier, Simon J; Osorio, Fabiola; Janssens, Sophie; Lambrecht, Bart N

    2016-01-01

    The spleen is a vastly vasculated organ and consists of a complex organized network of innate and adaptive immune cells. This permits the specialized functions of the spleen such as antibacterial and antifungal immunity and iron metabolism among others (Mebius and Kraal, 2005). Different dendritic cell (DC) subsets reside in the spleen and can be defined by the expression of unique surface markers. These DC subsets are recognized to perform non-redundant functions in the immune system (Merad et al., 2013). In our recent study, we found that Inositol Requiring Enzyme (IRE)-1 is specifically activated in splenic CD8a+ DCs. Furthermore, loss of X-box binding protein (XBP)-1 – the transcription factor regulated by IRE-1 – resulted in defective cross-presentation of dead cell associated antigens by splenic CD8a+ DCs (Osorio et al., 2014). This protocol allows the isolation of specific DC subsets for experimental use ex-vivo. PMID:27376108

  5. Functional Properties of Dendritic Gap Junctions in Cerebellar Golgi Cells.

    PubMed

    Szoboszlay, Miklos; Lőrincz, Andrea; Lanore, Frederic; Vervaeke, Koen; Silver, R Angus; Nusser, Zoltan

    2016-06-01

    The strength and variability of electrical synaptic connections between GABAergic interneurons are key determinants of spike synchrony within neuronal networks. However, little is known about how electrical coupling strength is determined due to the inaccessibility of gap junctions on the dendritic tree. We investigated the properties of gap junctions in cerebellar interneurons by combining paired somato-somatic and somato-dendritic recordings, anatomical reconstructions, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and modeling. By fitting detailed compartmental models of Golgi cells to their somato-dendritic voltage responses, we determined their passive electrical properties and the mean gap junction conductance (0.9 nS). Connexin36 immunofluorescence and freeze-fracture replica immunogold labeling revealed a large variability in gap junction size and that only 18% of the 340 channels are open in each plaque. Our results establish that the number of gap junctions per connection is the main determinant of both the strength and variability in electrical coupling between Golgi cells. PMID:27133465

  6. Immune responses of macrophages and dendritic cells regulated by mTOR signalling.

    PubMed

    Katholnig, Karl; Linke, Monika; Pham, Ha; Hengstschläger, Markus; Weichhart, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    The innate myeloid immune system is a complex network of cells that protect against disease by identifying and killing pathogens and tumour cells, but it is also implicated in homoeostatic mechanisms such as tissue remodelling and wound healing. Myeloid phagocytes such as monocytes, macrophages or dendritic cells are at the basis of controlling these immune responses in all tissues of the body. In the present review, we summarize recent studies demonstrating that mTOR [mammalian (or mechanistic) target of rapamycin] regulates innate immune reactions in macrophages and dendritic cells. The mTOR pathway serves as a decision maker to control the cellular response to pathogens and tumours by regulating the expression of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, chemokines or interferons. In addition to various in vivo mouse models, kidney transplant patients under mTOR inhibitor therapy allowed the elucidation of important innate immune functions regulated by mTOR in humans. The role of the mTOR pathway in macrophages and dendritic cells enhances our understanding of the immune system and suggests new therapeutic avenues for the regulation of pro- versus anti-inflammatory mediators with potential relevance to cancer therapy, the design of novel adjuvants and the control of distinct infectious and autoimmune diseases. PMID:23863158

  7. Computer Tomography Imaging Findings of Abdominal Follicular Dendritic Cell Sarcoma: A Report of 5 Cases.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Geng, Zhi-Jun; Xie, Chuan-Miao; Zhang, Xin-Ke; Chen, Rui-Ying; Cai, Pei-Qiang; Lv, Xiao-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) is a neoplasm that arises from follicular dendritic cells. FDCSs originating in the abdomen are extremely rare. Clinically, they often mimic a wide variety of other abdominal tumors, and correct preoperative diagnosis is often a challenging task. To date, only scattered cases of abdominal FDCS have been reported and few data are available on their radiological features. Here we present the computer tomography imaging findings of 5 patients with surgically and pathologically demonstrated abdominal FDCS. An abdominal FDCS should be included in the differential diagnosis when single or multiple masses with relatively large size, well- or ill-defined borders, complex internal architecture with marked internal necrosis and/or focal calcification, and heterogeneous enhancement with "rapid wash-in and slow wash-out" or "progressive enhancement" enhancement patterns in the solid component are seen. PMID:26735543

  8. Unique immunomodulatory effects of azelastine on dendritic cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, S; Kietzmann, M; Stark, H; Bäumer, W

    2014-11-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis and atopic dermatitis are among the most common inflammatory skin diseases in western countries, and antigen-presenting cells like dendritic cells (DC) are key players in their pathophysiology. Histamine, an important mediator of allergic reactions, influences DC maturation and cytokine secretion, which led us to investigate the immunomodulatory potential of the well-known histamine H1 receptor antagonists: azelastine, olopatadine, cetirizine, and pyrilamine. Unlike other H1 antihistamines, azelastine decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-12 secretion from murine bone marrow-derived DC. This effect was independent of histamine receptors H1, H2, or H4 and may be linked to inhibition of the nuclear factor kappa B pathway. Moreover, only azelastine reduced proliferation of allogenic T cells in a mixed leukocyte reaction. We then tested topical application of the H1 antihistamines on mice sensitized against toluene-2,4-diisocyanate, a model of Th2-mediated allergic contact dermatitis. In contrast to the in vitro results, all investigated substances were efficacious in reducing allergic ear swelling. Azelastine has unique effects on dendritic cells and T cell interaction in vitro. However, this did not translate into superior in vivo efficacy for Th2-mediated allergic dermatitis, possibly due to the effects of the antihistamines on other cell types involved in skin inflammation. Future research will have to clarify whether these properties are relevant to in vivo models of allergic inflammation with a different T cell polarization. PMID:25119779

  9. Directing dendritic cell immunotherapy towards successful cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sabado, Rachel Lubong; Bhardwaj, Nina

    2010-01-01

    The use of dendritic cells (DCs) for tumor immunotherapy represents a powerful approach for harnessing the patient's own immune system to eliminate tumor cells. However, suboptimal conditions for generating potent immunostimulatory DCs, as well as the induction of tolerance and suppression mediated by the tumors and its microenvironment have contributed to limited success. Combining DC vaccines with new approaches that enhance immunogenicity and overcome the regulatory mechanisms underlying peripheral tolerance may be the key to achieving effective and durable anti-tumor immune responses that translate to better clinical outcomes. PMID:20473346

  10. Tolerogenic dendritic cells and their applications in transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haibin; Shi, Bingyi

    2015-01-01

    In transplantation immunology, the ultimate goal is always to successfully and specifically induce immune tolerance of allografts. Tolerogenic dendritic cells (tol-DCs) with immunoregulatory functions have attracted much attention as they play important roles in inducing and maintaining immune tolerance. Here, we focused on tol-DCs that have the potential to promote immune tolerance after solid-organ transplantation. We focus on their development and interactions with other regulatory cells, and we also explore various tol-DC engineering protocols. Harnessing tol-DCs represents a promising cellular therapy for promoting long-term graft functional survival in transplant recipients that will most likely be achieved in the future. PMID:25109681

  11. Wnt-5a/Frizzled9 Receptor Signaling through the Gαo-Gβγ Complex Regulates Dendritic Spine Formation.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Valerie T; Ramos-Fernández, Eva; Henríquez, Juan Pablo; Lorenzo, Alfredo; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2016-09-01

    Wnt ligands play crucial roles in the development and regulation of synapse structure and function. Specifically, Wnt-5a acts as a secreted growth factor that regulates dendritic spine formation in rodent hippocampal neurons, resulting in postsynaptic development that promotes the clustering of the PSD-95 (postsynaptic density protein 95). Here, we focused on the early events occurring after the interaction between Wnt-5a and its Frizzled receptor at the neuronal cell surface. Additionally, we studied the role of heterotrimeric G proteins in Wnt-5a-dependent synaptic development. We report that FZD9 (Frizzled9), a Wnt receptor related to Williams syndrome, is localized in the postsynaptic region, where it interacts with Wnt-5a. Functionally, FZD9 is required for the Wnt-5a-mediated increase in dendritic spine density. FZD9 forms a precoupled complex with Gαo under basal conditions that dissociates after Wnt-5a stimulation. Accordingly, we found that G protein inhibition abrogates the Wnt-5a-dependent pathway in hippocampal neurons. In particular, the activation of Gαo appears to be a key factor controlling the Wnt-5a-induced dendritic spine density. In addition, we found that Gβγ is required for the Wnt-5a-mediated increase in cytosolic calcium levels and spinogenesis. Our findings reveal that FZD9 and heterotrimeric G proteins regulate Wnt-5a signaling and dendritic spines in cultured hippocampal neurons. PMID:27402827

  12. Langerhans cells and more: langerin-expressing dendritic cell subsets in the skin

    PubMed Central

    Romani, Nikolaus; Clausen, Björn E.; Stoitzner, Patrizia

    2010-01-01

    Summary Langerhans cells (LCs) are antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) that reside in epithelia. The best studied example is the LC of the epidermis. By electron microscopy, their identifying feature is the unique rod- or tennis racket-shaped Birbeck granule. The phenotypic hallmark is their expression of the C-type lectin receptor langerin/CD207. Langerin, however, is also expressed on a recently discovered population of DC in the dermis and other tissues of the body. These ‘dermal langerin+ dendritic cells’ are unrelated to LCs. The complex field of langerin-negative dermal DCs is not dealt with here. In this article, we briefly review the history, ontogeny, and homeostasis of LCs. More emphasis is laid on the discussion of functional properties in vivo. Novel models using genetically engineered mice are contributing tremendously to our understanding of the role of LCs in eliciting adaptive immune responses against pathogens or tumors and in inducing and maintaining tolerance against self antigens and innocuous substances in vivo. Also, innate effector functions are increasingly being recognized. Current activities in this area are reviewed, and possibilities for future exploitation of LC in medicine, e.g. for the improvement of vaccines, are contemplated. PMID:20193016

  13. Quantitating MHC class II trafficking in primary dendritic cells using imaging flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Hennies, Cassandra M.; Lehn, Maria A.; Janssen, Edith M.

    2015-01-01

    Presentation of antigenic peptides in MHC class II (MHCII) on dendritic cells (DCs) is the first step in the activation of antigen-specific CD4+T cells. The expression of surface MHCII-peptide complexes is tightly regulated as the frequency of MHCII-peptide complexes can affect the magnitude, as well as the phenotype of the ensuing CD4+T cell response. The surface MHCII-peptide levels are determined by the balance between expression of newly generated complexes, complex internalization, and their subsequent re-emergence or degradation. However, the molecular mechanisms that underpin these processes are still poorly understood. Here we describe a multispectral imaging flow cytometry assay to visualize MHCII trafficking that can be used as a tool to dissect the molecular mechanisms that regulate MHCII homeostasis in primary mouse and human DCs. PMID:25967952

  14. Dendritic cells in progression and pathology of HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Manches, Olivier; Frleta, Davor; Bhardwaj, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Although the major targets of HIV infection are CD4+ T cells, dendritic cells (DC) represent a crucial subset in HIV infection as they influence viral transmission, target cell infection and antigen presentation of HIV antigens. DC are potent antigen presenting cells that can modulate anti-viral immune responses. Through secretion of inflammatory cytokines and interferons (IFN), DC also alter T cell proliferation and differentiation, participating in the immune dysregulation characteristic of chronic HIV infection. Their wide distribution in close proximity with the mucosal epithelia makes them one of the first cell types to encounter HIV during sexual transmission [1]. We will discuss here the multiple roles that DC play at different stages of HIV infection, emphasizing their relevance to HIV pathology and progression. PMID:24246474

  15. Targeting Antigens to Dendritic Cell Receptors for Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Apostolopoulos, Vasso; Thalhammer, Theresia; Tzakos, Andreas G.

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are highly specialized antigen presenting cells of the immune system which play a key role in regulating immune responses. Depending on the method of antigen delivery, DCs stimulate immune responses or induce tolerance. As a consequence of the dual function of DCs, DCs are studied in the context of immunotherapy for both cancer and autoimmune diseases. In vaccine development, a major aim is to induce strong, specific T-cell responses. This is achieved by targeting antigen to cell surface molecules on DCs that efficiently channel the antigen into endocytic compartments for loading onto MHC molecules and stimulation of T-cell responses. The most attractive cell surface receptors, expressed on DCs used as targets for antigen delivery for cancer and other diseases, are discussed. PMID:24228179

  16. Dendritic Cell Cancer Vaccines: From the Bench to the Bedside

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Tamar; Avivi, Irit; Benyamini, Noam; Rosenblatt, Jacalyn; Avigan, David

    2014-01-01

    The recognition that the development of cancer is associated with acquired immunodeficiency, mostly against cancer cells themselves, and understanding pathways inducing this immunosuppression, has led to a tremendous development of new immunological approaches, both vaccines and drugs, which overcome this inhibition. Both “passive” (e.g. strategies relying on the administration of specific T cells) and “active” vaccines (e.g. peptide-directed or whole-cell vaccines) have become attractive immunological approaches, inducing cell death by targeting tumor-associated antigens. Whereas peptide-targeted vaccines are usually directed against a single antigen, whole-cell vaccines (e.g. dendritic cell vaccines) are aimed to induce robust responsiveness by targeting several tumor-related antigens simultaneously. The combination of vaccines with new immuno-stimulating agents which target “immunosuppressive checkpoints” (anti-CTLA-4, PD-1, etc.) is likely to improve and maintain immune response induced by vaccination. PMID:25386340

  17. Oxidation of cell surface thiol groups by contact sensitizers triggers the maturation of dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Kagatani, Saori; Sasaki, Yoshinori; Hirota, Morihiko; Mizuashi, Masato; Suzuki, Mie; Ohtani, Tomoyuki; Itagaki, Hiroshi; Aiba, Setsuya

    2010-01-01

    p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) has a crucial role in the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) by sensitizers. Recently, it has been reported that the oxidation of cell surface thiols by an exogenous impermeant thiol oxidizer can phosphorylate p38 MAPK. In this study, we examined whether sensitizers oxidize cell surface thiols of monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs). When cell surface thiols were quantified by flow cytometry using Alexa fluor maleimide, all the sensitizers that we examined decreased cell surface thiols on MoDCs. To examine the effects of decreased cell surface thiols by sensitizers on DC maturation, we analyzed the effects of an impermeant thiol oxidizer, o-phenanthroline copper complex (CuPhen). The treatment of MoDCs with CuPhen decreased cell surface thiols, phosphorylated p38 MAPK, and induced MoDC maturation, that is, the augmentation of CD83, CD86, HLA-DR, and IL-8 mRNA, as well as the downregulation of aquaporin-3 mRNA. The augmentation of CD86 was significantly suppressed when MoDCs were pretreated with N-acetyl-L-cystein or treated with SB203580. Finally, we showed that epicutaneous application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene on mouse skin significantly decreased cell surface thiols of Langerhans cells in vivo. These data suggest that the oxidation of cell surface thiols has some role in triggering DC maturation by sensitizers. PMID:19641517

  18. Negative permeability and subwavelength focusing of quasi-periodic dendritic cell metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin; Fu, Quan H; Zhao, Jing; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Xiao P

    2006-08-01

    We present the design for a hexagonal cell made of quasi-periodic dendritic arranged collections of plasmonic metallic wires that may exhibit a resonant magnetic collective response. When such quasi-periodic dendritic cells are etched on a host medium, they may provide metamaterials with negative effective permeability. We also show that a clear point image is observed, as expected, with our left-handed metamaterials (LHMs) lens composed of metallic dendritic cells and wire strips. These prominent characteristics of quasi-periodic dendritic cells potentially enable us to prepare infrared or visible domain LHMs by using a general chemical method. PMID:19529087

  19. Investigating Evolutionary Conservation of Dendritic Cell Subset Identity and Functions

    PubMed Central

    Vu Manh, Thien-Phong; Bertho, Nicolas; Hosmalin, Anne; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle; Dalod, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) were initially defined as mononuclear phagocytes with a dendritic morphology and an exquisite efficiency for naïve T-cell activation. DC encompass several subsets initially identified by their expression of specific cell surface molecules and later shown to excel in distinct functions and to develop under the instruction of different transcription factors or cytokines. Very few cell surface molecules are expressed in a specific manner on any immune cell type. Hence, to identify cell types, the sole use of a small number of cell surface markers in classical flow cytometry can be deceiving. Moreover, the markers currently used to define mononuclear phagocyte subsets vary depending on the tissue and animal species studied and even between laboratories. This has led to confusion in the definition of DC subset identity and in their attribution of specific functions. There is a strong need to identify a rigorous and consensus way to define mononuclear phagocyte subsets, with precise guidelines potentially applicable throughout tissues and species. We will discuss the advantages, drawbacks, and complementarities of different methodologies: cell surface phenotyping, ontogeny, functional characterization, and molecular profiling. We will advocate that gene expression profiling is a very rigorous, largely unbiased and accessible method to define the identity of mononuclear phagocyte subsets, which strengthens and refines surface phenotyping. It is uniquely powerful to yield new, experimentally testable, hypotheses on the ontogeny or functions of mononuclear phagocyte subsets, their molecular regulation, and their evolutionary conservation. We propose defining cell populations based on a combination of cell surface phenotyping, expression analysis of hallmark genes, and robust functional assays, in order to reach a consensus and integrate faster the huge but scattered knowledge accumulated by different laboratories on different cell types, organs, and

  20. Nanostructured lipid carriers loaded with resveratrol modulate human dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, João P; Neves, Ana R; Silva, Andreia M; Barbosa, Mário A; Reis, M Salette; Santos, Susana G

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are promising targets for drug delivery, as they can induce immunity or tolerance. The current study aims to examine the potential of using nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) as delivery systems for human DC by evaluating nanoparticle internalization, cell labeling, and drug activity. NLC were formulated incorporating the fluorochrome fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-NLC) or the natural anti-inflammatory molecule resveratrol (rsv-NLC). Primary human DCs were differentiated from peripheral blood monocytes, and the innovative imaging flow cytometry technique was used to examine FITC-NLC internalization. The capacity of rsv-NLC to inhibit DC activation in response to proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α) was investigated by conventional flow cytometry. A combination of imaging and conventional flow cytometry was used to assess NLC cytotoxicity. The results obtained indicate that both NLC formulations were stable over time, with mean diameter <200 nm and highly negative zeta potential (about −30 mV). When DCs were placed in contact with NLC, imaging flow cytometry clearly showed that DCs efficiently internalized FITC-NLC, with nearly 100% of cells internalizing nanoparticles upon 1 hour of incubation. Both immature and mature DCs internalized NLC to high and comparable levels, and without cytotoxicity. Stimulating DC with TNF-α in the presence of rsv-NLC revealed that, using these nanoparticles, very small concentrations of rsv were sufficient to significantly decrease surface expression of activation marker CD83 (5 µM) and major histocompatibility complex-class II molecule human leukocyte antigen – antigen D related (10 µM), both upregulated in response to TNF-α stimulation. Rsv-NLC were compared with free rsv; at 5 µM, rsv-NLC were able to inhibit nuclear factor κ beta phosphorylation and significantly decrease the level of interleukin-12/23, both upregulated in response to TNF-α, while 10 µM free rsv were

  1. Nanostructured lipid carriers loaded with resveratrol modulate human dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, João P; Neves, Ana R; Silva, Andreia M; Barbosa, Mário A; Reis, M Salette; Santos, Susana G

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are promising targets for drug delivery, as they can induce immunity or tolerance. The current study aims to examine the potential of using nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) as delivery systems for human DC by evaluating nanoparticle internalization, cell labeling, and drug activity. NLC were formulated incorporating the fluorochrome fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-NLC) or the natural anti-inflammatory molecule resveratrol (rsv-NLC). Primary human DCs were differentiated from peripheral blood monocytes, and the innovative imaging flow cytometry technique was used to examine FITC-NLC internalization. The capacity of rsv-NLC to inhibit DC activation in response to proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α) was investigated by conventional flow cytometry. A combination of imaging and conventional flow cytometry was used to assess NLC cytotoxicity. The results obtained indicate that both NLC formulations were stable over time, with mean diameter <200 nm and highly negative zeta potential (about -30 mV). When DCs were placed in contact with NLC, imaging flow cytometry clearly showed that DCs efficiently internalized FITC-NLC, with nearly 100% of cells internalizing nanoparticles upon 1 hour of incubation. Both immature and mature DCs internalized NLC to high and comparable levels, and without cytotoxicity. Stimulating DC with TNF-α in the presence of rsv-NLC revealed that, using these nanoparticles, very small concentrations of rsv were sufficient to significantly decrease surface expression of activation marker CD83 (5 µM) and major histocompatibility complex-class II molecule human leukocyte antigen - antigen D related (10 µM), both upregulated in response to TNF-α stimulation. Rsv-NLC were compared with free rsv; at 5 µM, rsv-NLC were able to inhibit nuclear factor κ beta phosphorylation and significantly decrease the level of interleukin-12/23, both upregulated in response to TNF-α, while 10 µM free rsv were needed

  2. Human Decidua Contains Potent Immunostimulatory CD83+ Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kämmerer, Ulrike; Schoppet, Michael; McLellan, Alexander D.; Kapp, Michaela; Huppertz, Hans-Iko; Kämpgen, Eckhart; Dietl, Johannes

    2000-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are sentinel cells of the immune system important in initiating antigen-specific T-cell responses to microbial and transplantation antigens. DCs are particularly found in surface tissues such as skin and mucosa, where the organism is threatened by infectious agents. The human decidua, despite its proposed immunosuppressive function, hosts a variety of immunocompetent CD45 cells such as natural killer cells, macrophages, and T cells. Here we describe the detection, isolation, and characterization of CD45+, CD40+, HLA-DR++, and CD83+ cells from human early pregnancy decidua with typical DC morphology. CD83+ as well as CD1a+ cells were found in close vicinity to endometrial glands, with preference to the basal layer of the decidua. In vitro, decidual CD83+ cells could be enriched to ∼30%, with the remainder of cells encompassing DC-bound CD3+ T cells. Stimulation of allogeneic T cells in a mixed leukocyte reaction by the decidual cell fraction enriched for CD83+ cells, was similar to that obtained with blood monocyte-derived DCs, demonstrating the potent immunostimulatory capacity of these cells. Decidual DCs with morphological, phenotypic, and functional characteristics of immunostimulatory DCs might be important mediators in the regulation of immunological balance between maternal and fetal tissue, leading to successful pregnancy. PMID:10880386

  3. Regulation of Intestinal Immune System by Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Hyun-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Innate immune cells survey antigenic materials beneath our body surfaces and provide a front-line response to internal and external danger signals. Dendritic cells (DCs), a subset of innate immune cells, are critical sentinels that perform multiple roles in immune responses, from acting as principal modulators to priming an adaptive immune response through antigen-specific signaling. In the gut, DCs meet exogenous, non-harmful food antigens as well as vast commensal microbes under steady-state conditions. In other instances, they must combat pathogenic microbes to prevent infections. In this review, we focus on the function of intestinal DCs in maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis. Specifically, we describe how intestinal DCs affect IgA production from B cells and influence the generation of unique subsets of T cell. PMID:25713503

  4. Polyelectrolyte coating of ferumoxytol nanoparticles for labeling of dendritic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celikkin, Nehar; Jakubcová, Lucie; Zenke, Martin; Hoss, Mareike; Wong, John Erik; Hieronymus, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Engineered magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are emerging to be used as cell tracers, drug delivery vehicles, and contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for enhanced theragnostic applications in biomedicine. In vitro labeling of target cell populations with MNPs and their implantation into animal models and patients shows promising outcomes in monitoring successful cell engraftment, differentiation and migration by using MRI. Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that initiate adaptive immune responses. Thus, DCs have been the focus of cellular immunotherapy and are increasingly applied in clinical trials. Here, we addressed the coating of different polyelectrolytes (PE) around ferumoxytol particles using the layer-by-layer technique. The impact of PE-coated ferumoxytol particles for labeling of DCs and Flt3+ DC progenitors was then investigated. The results from our studies revealed that PE-coated ferumoxytol particles can be readily employed for labeling of DC and DC progenitors and thus are potentially suitable as contrast agents for MRI tracking.

  5. Interaction of Salmonella Typhimurium with Dendritic Cells Derived from Pluripotent Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Raffaella; Hale, Christine; Goulding, David; Andrews, Robert; Abdellah, Zarah; Fairchild, Paul J.; Dougan, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Using an in vitro differentiation protocol we isolated cells with the properties of dendritic cells (DCs) from immunologically refractive pluripotent murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs). These ES-derived dendritic cells (ESDCs) expressed cytokines and were able to present antigen to a T cell line. Infection of ESDCs with Salmonella Typhimurium stimulated the expression of immune cell markers and thousands of murine genes, many associated with the immune response. Consequently, this system provides a novel in vitro model, amenable to genetic modification, for monitoring host/pathogen interactions. PMID:23284947

  6. Gangliosides inhibit the development from monocytes to dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    WÖLFL, M; BATTEN, W Y; POSOVSZKY, C; BERNHARD, H; BERTHOLD, F

    2002-01-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) development and function is critical in the initiation phase of any antigen-specific immune response against tumours. Impaired function of DC is one explanation as to how tumours escape immunosurveillance. In the presence of various soluble tumour-related factors DC precursors lose their ability to differentiate into mature DC and to activate T cells. Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids shed by tumours of neuroectodermal origin such as melanoma and neuroblastoma. In this investigation we address the question of whether gangliosides suppress the development and function of monocyte-derived DC in vitro. In the presence of gangliosides, the monocytic DC precursors showed increased adherence, cell spreading and a reduced number of dendrites. The expression of MHC class II molecules, co-stimulatory molecules and the GM-CSF receptor (CD116) on the ganglioside-treated DC was significantly reduced. Furthermore, the function of ganglioside-treated DC was impaired as observed in endocytosis, chemotactic and T cell proliferation assays. In contrast to monocytic DC precursors, mature DC were unaffected even when higher doses of gangliosides were added to the culture. With regard to their carbohydrate structure, five different gangliosides (GM2, GM3, GD2, GD3, GT1b), which are typically shed by melanoma and neuroblastoma, were tested for their ability to suppress DC development and function. Suppression was induced by GM2, but not by the other gangliosides. These data suggest that certain gangliosides impair DC precursors, implying a possible mechanism for tumour escape. PMID:12452834

  7. Resistivity and thickness effects in dendritic web silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, D. L.; Hwang, J. M.; Greggi, J.; Campbell, R. B.

    1987-01-01

    The decrease of minority carrier lifetime as resistivity decreases in dendritic-web silicon solar cells is addressed. This variation is shown to be consistent with the presence of defect levels in the bandgap which arise from extended defects in the web material. The extended defects are oxide precipitates (SiOx) and the dislocation cores they decorate. Sensitivity to this background distribution of defect levels increases with doping because the Fermi level moves closer to the majority carrier band edge. For high-resistivity dendritic-web silicon, which has a low concentration of these extended defects, cell efficiencies as high as 16.6 percent (4 sq cm, 40 ohm-cm boron-doped base, AM1.5 global, 100 mW/sq cm, 25 C JPL LAPSS1 measurement) and a corresponding electron lifetime of 38 microsec have been obtained. Thickness effects occur in bifacial cell designs and in designs which use light trapping. In some cases, the dislocation/precipitate defect can be passivated through the full thickness of web cells by hydrogen ion implantation.

  8. Resistivity and thickness effects in dendritic web silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, D. L.; Hwang, J. M.; Greggi, J.; Campbell, R. B.

    The decrease of minority carrier lifetime as resistivity decreases in dendritic-web silicon solar cells is addressed. This variation is shown to be consistent with the presence of defect levels in the bandgap which arise from extended defects in the web material. The extended defects are oxide precipitates (SiOx) and the dislocation cores they decorate. Sensitivity to this background distribution of defect levels increases with doping because the Fermi level moves closer to the majority carrier band edge. For high-resistivity dendritic-web silicon, which has a low concentration of these extended defects, cell efficiencies as high as 16.6 percent (4 sq cm, 40 ohm-cm boron-doped base, AM1.5 global, 100 mW/sq cm, 25 C JPL LAPSS1 measurement) and a corresponding electron lifetime of 38 microsec have been obtained. Thickness effects occur in bifacial cell designs and in designs which use light trapping. In some cases, the dislocation/precipitate defect can be passivated through the full thickness of web cells by hydrogen ion implantation.

  9. Nectin-1 spots as a novel adhesion apparatus that tethers mitral cell lateral dendrites in a dendritic meshwork structure of the developing mouse olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takahito; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Rikitake, Yoshiyuki; Maruo, Tomohiko; Mandai, Kenji; Kimura, Kazushi; Kayahara, Tetsuro; Wang, Shujie; Itoh, Yu; Sai, Kousyoku; Mori, Masahiro; Mori, Kensaku; Mizoguchi, Akira; Takai, Yoshimi

    2015-08-15

    Mitral cells project lateral dendrites that contact the lateral and primary dendrites of other mitral cells and granule cell dendrites in the external plexiform layer (EPL) of the olfactory bulb. These dendritic structures are critical for odor information processing, but it remains unknown how they are formed. In immunofluorescence microscopy, the immunofluorescence signal for the cell adhesion molecule nectin-1 was concentrated on mitral cell lateral dendrites in the EPL of the developing mouse olfactory bulb. In electron microscopy, the immunogold particles for nectin-1 were symmetrically localized on the plasma membranes at the contacts between mitral cell lateral dendrites, which showed bilateral darkening without dense cytoskeletal undercoats characteristic of puncta adherentia junctions. We named the contacts where the immunogold particles for nectin-1 were symmetrically accumulated "nectin-1 spots." The nectin-1 spots were 0.21 μm in length on average and the distance between the plasma membranes was 20.8 nm on average. In 3D reconstruction of serial sections, clusters of the nectin-1 spots formed a disc-like structure. In the mitral cell lateral dendrites of nectin-1-knockout mice, the immunogold particles for nectin-1 were undetectable and the plasma membrane darkening was electron-microscopically normalized, but the plasma membranes were partly separated from each other. The nectin-1 spots were further identified between mitral cell lateral and primary dendrites and between mitral cell lateral dendrites and granule cell dendritic spine necks. These results indicate that the nectin-1 spots constitute a novel adhesion apparatus that tethers mitral cell dendrites in a dendritic meshwork structure of the developing mouse olfactory bulb. PMID:25967681

  10. Replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in primary dendritic cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Langhoff, E; Terwilliger, E F; Bos, H J; Kalland, K H; Poznansky, M C; Bacon, O M; Haseltine, W A

    1991-01-01

    The ability of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to replicate in primary blood dendritic cells was investigated. Dendritic cells compose less than 1% of the circulating leukocytes and are nondividing cells. Highly purified preparations of dendritic cells were obtained using recent advances in cell fractionation. The results of these experiments show that dendritic cells, in contrast to monocytes and T cells, support the active replication of all strains of HIV-1 tested, including T-cell tropic and monocyte/macrophage tropic isolates. The dendritic cell cultures supported much more virus production than did cultures of primary unseparated T cells, CD4+ T cells, and adherent as well as nonadherent monocytes. Replication of HIV-1 in dendritic cells produces no noticeable cytopathic effect nor does it decrease total cell number. The ability of the nonreplicating dendritic cells to support high levels of replication of HIV-1 suggests that this antigen-presenting cell population, which is also capable of supporting clonal T-cell growth, may play a central role in HIV pathogenesis, serving as a source of continued infection of CD4+ T cells and as a reservoir of virus infection. Images PMID:1910172

  11. Follicular Dendritic Cell Sarcoma Mediastinum - a case report.

    PubMed

    Bushan, Kirti

    2014-12-01

    Follicular dendritic cell tumor (FDCT) are extremely rare difficult to diagnose category tumors.There has been a considerable controversy in medical community regarding precise classification and optimal management of this tumor with some treating it as a form of non Hodgkins lymphoma and some as soft tissue sarcomas.The number of published cases are still low and documentation too heterogenous to give statistically ified therapeutic recommendation of these tumors.This case report aims to highlight various aspects of diagnosing and treating this rare entity. PMID:25767341

  12. Dendritic cell-based cancer immunotherapy for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kajihara, Mikio; Takakura, Kazuki; Kanai, Tomoya; Ito, Zensho; Saito, Keisuke; Takami, Shinichiro; Shimodaira, Shigetaka; Okamoto, Masato; Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Koido, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers and a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Although systemic therapy is the standard care for patients with recurrent or metastatic CRC, the prognosis is extremely poor. The optimal sequence of therapy remains unknown. Therefore, alternative strategies, such as immunotherapy, are needed for patients with advanced CRC. This review summarizes evidence from dendritic cell-based cancer immunotherapy strategies that are currently in clinical trials. In addition, we discuss the possibility of antitumor immune responses through immunoinhibitory PD-1/PD-L1 pathway blockade in CRC patients. PMID:27158196

  13. The Dendritic Cell Synapse: A Life Dedicated to T Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Benvenuti, Federica

    2016-01-01

    T-cell activation within immunological synapses is a complex process whereby different types of signals are transmitted from antigen-presenting cells to T cells. The molecular strategies developed by T cells to interpret and integrate these signals have been systematically dissected in recent years and are now in large part understood. On the other side of the immune synapse, dendritic cells (DCs) participate actively in synapse formation and maintenance by remodeling of membrane receptors and intracellular content. However, the details of such changes have been only partially characterized. The DCs actin cytoskeleton has been one of the first systems to be identified as playing an important role in T-cell priming and some of the underlying mechanisms have been elucidated. Similarly, the DCs microtubule cytoskeleton undergoes major spatial changes during synapse formation that favor polarization of the DCs subcellular space toward the interacting T cell. Recently, we have begun to investigate the trafficking machinery that controls polarized delivery of endosomal vesicles at the DC–T immune synapse with the aim of understanding the functional relevance of polarized secretion of soluble factors during T-cell priming. Here, we will review the current knowledge of events occurring in DCs during synapse formation and discuss the open questions that still remain unanswered. PMID:27014259

  14. The Dendritic Cell Synapse: A Life Dedicated to T Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Benvenuti, Federica

    2016-01-01

    T-cell activation within immunological synapses is a complex process whereby different types of signals are transmitted from antigen-presenting cells to T cells. The molecular strategies developed by T cells to interpret and integrate these signals have been systematically dissected in recent years and are now in large part understood. On the other side of the immune synapse, dendritic cells (DCs) participate actively in synapse formation and maintenance by remodeling of membrane receptors and intracellular content. However, the details of such changes have been only partially characterized. The DCs actin cytoskeleton has been one of the first systems to be identified as playing an important role in T-cell priming and some of the underlying mechanisms have been elucidated. Similarly, the DCs microtubule cytoskeleton undergoes major spatial changes during synapse formation that favor polarization of the DCs subcellular space toward the interacting T cell. Recently, we have begun to investigate the trafficking machinery that controls polarized delivery of endosomal vesicles at the DC-T immune synapse with the aim of understanding the functional relevance of polarized secretion of soluble factors during T-cell priming. Here, we will review the current knowledge of events occurring in DCs during synapse formation and discuss the open questions that still remain unanswered. PMID:27014259

  15. Topical vaccination with functionalized particles targeting dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Baleeiro, Renato B; Wiesmüller, Karl-Heinz; Reiter, Yoran; Baude, Barbara; Dähne, Lars; Patzelt, Alexa; Lademann, Jürgen; Barbuto, José A; Walden, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Needle-free vaccination, for reasons of safety, economy, and convenience, is a central goal in vaccine development, but it also needs to meet the immunological requirements for efficient induction of prophylactic and therapeutic immune responses. Combining the principles of noninvasive delivery to dendritic cells (DCs) through skin and the immunological principles of cell-mediated immunity, we developed microparticle-based topical vaccines. We show here that the microparticles are efficient carriers for coordinated delivery of the essential vaccine constituents to DCs for cross-presentation of the antigens and stimulation of T-cell responses. When applied to the skin, the microparticles penetrate into hair follicles and target the resident DCs, the immunologically most potent cells and site for induction of efficient immune responses. The microparticle vaccine principle can be applied to different antigen formats such as peptides and proteins, or nucleic acids coding for the antigens. PMID:23426134

  16. ITAM signaling in dendritic cells controls T helper cell priming by regulating MHC class II recycling

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Daniel B.; Akilesh, Holly M.; Gmyrek, Grzegorz B.; Piccio, Laura; Gilfillan, Susan; Sim, Julia; Belizaire, Roger; Carrero, Javier A.; Wang, Yinan; Blaufuss, Gregory S.; Sandoval, Gabriel; Fujikawa, Keiko; Cross, Anne H.; Russell, John H.; Cella, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Immature dendritic cells (DCs) specialize in antigen capture and maintain a highly dynamic pool of intracellular major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) that continuously recycles from peptide loading compartments to the plasma membrane and back again. This process facilitates sampling of environmental antigens for presentation to T helper cells. Here, we show that a signaling pathway mediated by the DC immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)–containing adaptors (DAP12 and FcRγ) and Vav family guanine nucleotide exchange factors controls the half-life of surface peptide-MHCII (pMHCII) complexes and is critical for CD4 T-cell triggering in vitro. Strikingly, mice with disrupted DC ITAMs show defective T helper cell priming in vivo and are protected from experimental autoimmune encephalitis. Mechanistically, we show that deficiency in ITAM signaling results in increased pMHCII internalization, impaired recycling, and an accumulation of ubiquitinated MHCII species that are prematurely degraded in lysosomes. We propose a novel mechanism for control of T helper cell priming. PMID:20634378

  17. Repeated treatment with oxytocin promotes hippocampal cell proliferation, dendritic maturation and affects socio-emotional behavior.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Vidaña, Dalinda Isabel; Chan, Ngai-Man Jackie; Chan, Alan H L; Hui, Katy K Y; Lee, Sylvia; Chan, Hoi-Yi; Law, Yuen Shan; Sze, Mei Yi; Tsui, Wai-Ching Sarah; Fung, Timothy K H; Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Lai, Cynthia Y Y

    2016-10-01

    Rewarding social behaviors including positive social interactions and sexual behaviors are shown to regulate adult neurogenesis, but the underlying biological mechanisms remain elusive. Oxytocin, a neurohypophysial hormone secreted after exposure to social interaction or sexual behaviors, has a profound role in the formation of social bonding and regulation of emotional distress. While the acute effect of oxytocin was usually studied, relatively scarce evidence showed the behavioral consequence of repeated oxytocin treatment. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of repeated oxytocin treatment on hippocampal cell proliferation, dendritic maturation of new born neurons and social/emotional behaviors. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received treatment with either vehicle or oxytocin (1mg/kg) daily for two weeks. Behavioral tests revealed that oxytocin increased social behaviors and reduced the anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Cell proliferation, differentiation and the dendritic complexity of new born neurons in the hippocampus were promoted by oxytocin treatment. Depression- and anxiety-like behaviors were induced by repeated treatment of corticosterone (40mg/kg) for two weeks while oxytocin treatment reversed the behavioral disturbances. Suppression of cell proliferation caused by corticosterone was reverted by oxytocin treatment in which cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and dendritic complexity increased. The present findings reveal that oxytocin not only enhances cell proliferation, but also promotes the development of the new neurons which is associated with the induction of positive emotional and social behaviors. The results also suggest that oxytocin may be a potential therapeutic agent for treatment of emotional and social dysfunction. PMID:27418343

  18. Immunohistochemical detection of dendritic cell markers in cattle.

    PubMed

    Romero-Palomo, F; Risalde, M A; Molina, V; Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Pedrera, M; Gómez-Villamandos, J C

    2013-11-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are "professional" antigen-presenting cells with a critical role in the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses and thus have been considered of great interest in the study of a variety of infectious diseases. The objective of this investigation was to characterize the in vivo distribution of DCs in bovine tissues by using potential DC markers to establish a basis for the study of DCs in diseased tissues. Markers evaluated included MHCII, CD208, CD1b, CD205, CNA.42, and S100 protein, the latter 2 being expressed by follicular dendritic cells whose origin and role are different from the rest of hematopoietic DCs. Paraffin wax-embedded tissues from 6 healthy Friesian calves were subjected to the avidin-biotin-peroxidase method, and the most appropriate fixatives, dilutions, and antigen retrieval pretreatments were studied for each of the primary antibodies. The most significant results included the localization of CD208-positive cells not only in the T zone of lymphoid organs but also within lymphoid follicles; CD1b-positive cells were mainly found in thymus and interfollicular areas of some lymph nodes; cells stained with anti-CD205 antibody were scarce, and their location was mainly in nonlymphoid tissues; and CNA.42- and S100 protein-positive cells localized in primary lymphoid follicles and light zones of germinal centers, although showing differences in the staining pattern. Furthermore, MHCII was established as one of the most sensitive markers for any DC of hematopoietic origin. These results increase our understanding of DC immunolabeling and will help in future DC studies of both healthy and diseased tissues. PMID:23528943

  19. Ragweed subpollen particles of respirable size activate human dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Pazmandi, Kitti; Kumar, Brahma V; Szabo, Krisztina; Boldogh, Istvan; Szoor, Arpad; Vereb, Gyorgy; Veres, Agota; Lanyi, Arpad; Rajnavolgyi, Eva; Bacsi, Attila

    2012-01-01

    Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) pollen grains, which are generally considered too large to reach the lower respiratory tract, release subpollen particles (SPPs) of respirable size upon hydration. These SPPs contain allergenic proteins and functional NAD(P)H oxidases. In this study, we examined whether exposure to SPPs initiates the activation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs). We found that treatment with freshly isolated ragweed SPPs increased the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in moDCs. Phagocytosis of SPPs by moDCs, as demonstrated by confocal laser-scanning microscopy, led to an up-regulation of the cell surface expression of CD40, CD80, CD86, and HLA-DQ and an increase in the production of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-8, and IL-10. Furthermore, SPP-treated moDCs had an increased capacity to stimulate the proliferation of naïve T cells. Co-culture of SPP-treated moDCs with allogeneic CD3(+) pan-T cells resulted in increased secretion of IFN-γ and IL-17 by T cells of both allergic and non-allergic subjects, but induced the production of IL-4 exclusively from the T cells of allergic individuals. Addition of exogenous NADPH further increased, while heat-inactivation or pre-treatment with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidases, strongly diminished, the ability of SPPs to induce phenotypic and functional changes in moDCs, indicating that these processes were mediated, at least partly, by the intrinsic NAD(P)H oxidase activity of SPPs. Collectively, our data suggest that inhaled ragweed SPPs are fully capable of activating dendritic cells (DCs) in the airways and SPPs' NAD(P)H oxidase activity is involved in initiation of adaptive immune responses against innocuous pollen proteins. PMID:23251688

  20. Polysialylation controls dendritic cell trafficking by regulating chemokine recognition.

    PubMed

    Kiermaier, Eva; Moussion, Christine; Veldkamp, Christopher T; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; de Vries, Ingrid; Williams, Larry G; Chaffee, Gary R; Phillips, Andrew J; Freiberger, Friedrich; Imre, Richard; Taleski, Deni; Payne, Richard J; Braun, Asolina; Förster, Reinhold; Mechtler, Karl; Mühlenhoff, Martina; Volkman, Brian F; Sixt, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The addition of polysialic acid to N- and/or O-linked glycans, referred to as polysialylation, is a rare posttranslational modification that is mainly known to control the developmental plasticity of the nervous system. Here we show that CCR7, the central chemokine receptor controlling immune cell trafficking to secondary lymphatic organs, carries polysialic acid. This modification is essential for the recognition of the CCR7 ligand CCL21. As a consequence, dendritic cell trafficking is abrogated in polysialyltransferase-deficient mice, manifesting as disturbed lymph node homeostasis and unresponsiveness to inflammatory stimuli. Structure-function analysis of chemokine-receptor interactions reveals that CCL21 adopts an autoinhibited conformation, which is released upon interaction with polysialic acid. Thus, we describe a glycosylation-mediated immune cell trafficking disorder and its mechanistic basis. PMID:26657283

  1. Follicular Dendritic Cells Retain Infectious HIV in Cycling Endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Heesters, Balthasar A.; Lindqvist, Madelene; Vagefi, Parsia A.; Scully, Eileen P.; Schildberg, Frank A.; Altfeld, Marcus; Walker, Bruce D.; Kaufmann, Daniel E.; Carroll, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART), it does not cure Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and discontinuation results in viral rebound. Follicular dendritic cells (FDC) are in direct contact with CD4+ T cells and they retain intact antigen for prolonged periods. We found that human FDC isolated from patients on ART retain infectious HIV within a non-degradative cycling compartment and transmit infectious virus to uninfected CD4 T cells in vitro. Importantly, treatment of the HIV+ FDC with a soluble complement receptor 2 purges the FDC of HIV virions and prevents viral transmission in vitro. Our results provide an explanation for how FDC can retain infectious HIV for extended periods and suggest a therapeutic strategy to achieve cure in HIV-infected humans. PMID:26623655

  2. Dendritic cells and macrophages in the genitourinary tract

    PubMed Central

    Iijima, N; Thompson, JM; Iwasaki, A

    2009-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages are antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that are important in innate immune defense as well as in the generation and regulation of adaptive immunity against a wide array of pathogens. The genitourinary (GU) tract, which serves an important reproductive function, is constantly exposed to numerous agents of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). To combat these STIs, several subsets of DCs and macrophages are strategically localized within the GU tract. In the female genital mucosa, recruitment and function of these APCs are uniquely governed by sex hormones. This review summarizes the latest advances in our understanding of DCs and macrophages in the GU tract with respect to their subsets, lineage, and function. In addition, we discuss the divergent roles of these cells in immune defense against STIs as well as in maternal tolerance to the fetus. PMID:19079212

  3. Resident and “inflammatory” dendritic cells in human skin

    PubMed Central

    Zaba, Lisa C.; Krueger, James G; Lowes, Michelle A.

    2009-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are a heterogeneous group of antigen-presenting leukocytes that play an important role in activation of both the innate and acquired arms of the immune system. While there are several different DC populations in the body, DCs are globally defined by their capacity for potent antigen presentation and naive T cell activation. In non-inflamed human skin during steady-state, there are three main cutaneous DC populations: epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs), dermal myeloid DCs, and dermal plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). In psoriasis, a model for cutaneous inflammation, there is an additional population of myeloid dermal DCs – “inflammatory DCs” – which appear to be critical for disease pathogenesis. PMID:18685620

  4. Dendritic Cells in the Gut: Interaction with Intestinal Helminths

    PubMed Central

    Mendlovic, Fela; Flisser, Ana

    2010-01-01

    The mucosal environment in mammals is highly tolerogenic; however, after exposure to pathogens or danger signals, it is able to shift towards an inflammatory response. Dendritic cells (DCs) orchestrate immune responses and are highly responsible, through the secretion of cytokines and expression of surface markers, for the outcome of such immune response. In particular, the DC subsets found in the intestine have specialized functions and interact with different immune as well as nonimmune cells. Intestinal helminths primarily induce Th2 responses where DCs have an important yet not completely understood role. In addition, this cross-talk results in the induction of regulatory T cells (T regs) as a result of the homeostatic mucosal environment. This review highlights the importance of studying the particular relation “helminth-DC-milieu” in view of the significance that each of these factors plays. Elucidating the mechanisms that trigger Th2 responses may provide the understanding of how we might modulate inflammatory processes. PMID:20224759

  5. Dendritic cell development-History, advances, and open questions.

    PubMed

    Puhr, Sarah; Lee, Jaeyop; Zvezdova, Ekaterina; Zhou, Yu J; Liu, Kang

    2015-12-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are uniquely potent in orchestrating T cell immune response, thus they are indispensable immune sentinels. They originate from progenitors in the bone marrow through hematopoiesis, a highly regulated developmental process involving multiple cellular and molecular events. This review highlights studies of DC development-from the discovery of DCs as glass-adherent antigen presenting cells to the debate and resolution of their origin and lineage map. In particular, we summarize the roles of lineage-specific cytokines, the placement of distinct hematopoietic progenitors within the DC lineage and transcriptional programs governing DC development, which together have allowed us to diagram the current view of DC hematopoiesis. Important open questions and debates on the DC development and relevant models are also discussed. PMID:27040276

  6. CT findings associated with blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung W; Jeong, Katherine; Sokol, Lubomir

    2016-01-01

    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare hematologic malignancy that is frequently misdiagnosed. We present a case of a 53-year-old man diagnosed with blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with extensive computed tomography (CT) findings and provide an imaging focused review of this uncommon malignancy. PMID:27504192

  7. β-III spectrin is critical for development of purkinje cell dendritic tree and spine morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuanzheng; Perkins, Emma M; Clarkson, Yvonne L; Tobia, Steven; Lyndon, Alastair R; Jackson, Mandy; Rothstein, Jeffrey D

    2011-11-16

    Mutations in the gene encoding β-III spectrin give rise to spinocerebellar ataxia type 5, a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive thinning of the molecular layer, loss of Purkinje cells and increasing motor deficits. A mouse lacking full-length β-III spectrin (β-III⁻/⁻) displays a similar phenotype. In vitro and in vivo analyses of Purkinje cells lacking β-III spectrin, reveal a critical role for β-III spectrin in Purkinje cell morphological development. Disruption of the normally well ordered dendritic arborization occurs in Purkinje cells from β-III⁻/⁻ mice, specifically showing a loss of monoplanar organization, smaller average dendritic diameter and reduced densities of Purkinje cell spines and synapses. Early morphological defects appear to affect distribution of dendritic, but not axonal, proteins. This study confirms that thinning of the molecular layer associated with disease pathogenesis is a consequence of Purkinje cell dendritic degeneration, as Purkinje cells from 8-month-old β-III⁻/⁻ mice have drastically reduced dendritic volumes, surface areas and total dendritic lengths compared with 5- to 6-week-old β-III⁻/⁻ mice. These findings highlight a critical role of β-III spectrin in dendritic biology and are consistent with an early developmental defect in β-III⁻/⁻ mice, with abnormal Purkinje cell dendritic morphology potentially underlying disease pathogenesis. PMID:22090485

  8. Regulation of protein synthesis and autophagy in activated dendritic cells: implications for antigen processing and presentation.

    PubMed

    Argüello, Rafael J; Reverendo, Marisa; Gatti, Evelina; Pierre, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    Antigenic peptides presented in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules originate from the degradation of both self and non-self proteins. T cells can therefore recognize at the surface of surveyed cells, the self-peptidome produced by the cell itself (mostly inducing tolerance) or immunogenic peptides derived from exogenous origins. The initiation of adaptive immune responses by dendritic cells (DCs), through the antigenic priming of naïve T cells, is associated to microbial pattern recognition receptors engagement. Activation of DCs by microbial product or inflammatory cytokines initiates multiple processes that maximize DC capacity to present exogenous antigens and stimulate T cells by affecting major metabolic and membrane traffic pathways. These include the modulation of protein synthesis, the regulation of MHC and co-stimulatory molecules transport, as well as the regulation of autophagy, that, all together promote exogenous antigen presentation while limiting the display of self-antigens by MHC molecules. PMID:27319340

  9. Inorganic arsenic impairs differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Macoch, Mélinda; Morzadec, Claudie; Fardel, Olivier; Vernhet, Laurent

    2013-01-15

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that the antileukemic trivalent inorganic arsenic prevents the development of severe pro-inflammatory diseases mediated by excessive Th1 and Th17 cell responses. Differentiation of Th1 and Th17 subsets is mainly regulated by interleukins (ILs) secreted from dendritic cells (DCs) and the ability of inorganic arsenic to impair interferon-γ and IL-17 secretion by interfering with the physiology of DCs is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that high concentrations of sodium arsenite (As(III), 1–2 μM) clinically achievable in plasma of arsenic-treated patients, block differentiation of human peripheral blood monocytes into immature DCs (iDCs) by inducing their necrosis. Differentiation of monocytes in the presence of non-cytotoxic concentrations of As(III) (0.1 to 0.5 μM) only slightly impacts endocytotic activity of iDCs or expression of co-stimulatory molecules in cells activated with lipopolysaccharide. However, this differentiation in the presence of As(III) strongly represses secretion of IL-12p70 and IL-23, two major regulators of Th1 and Th17 activities, from iDCs stimulated with different toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in metalloid-free medium. Such As(III)-exposed DCs also exhibit reduced mRNA levels of IL12A and/or IL12B genes when activated with TLR agonists. Finally, differentiation of monocytes with non-cytotoxic concentrations of As(III) subsequently reduces the ability of activated DCs to stimulate the release of interferon-γ and IL-17 from Th cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that clinically relevant concentrations of inorganic arsenic markedly impair in vitro differentiation and functions of DCs, which may contribute to the putative beneficial effects of the metalloid towards inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Highlights: ► Inorganic arsenic impairs differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells (DCs) ► Arsenite (> 1 μM) blocks differentiation of dendritic cells by

  10. Granzyme B produced by human plasmacytoid dendritic cells suppresses T-cell expansion

    PubMed Central

    Vollmer, Angelika; Blackwell, Sue E.; Maier, Julia; Sontheimer, Kai; Beyer, Thamara; Mandel, Birgit; Lunov, Oleg; Tron, Kyrylo; Nienhaus, G. Ulrich; Simmet, Thomas; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Weiner, George J.

    2010-01-01

    Human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are crucially involved in the modulation of adaptive T-cell responses in the course of neoplastic, viral, and autoimmune disorders. In several of these diseases elevated extracellular levels of the serine protease granzyme B (GrB) are observed. Here we demonstrate that human pDCs can be an abundant source of GrB and that such GrB+ pDCs potently suppress T-cell proliferation in a GrB-dependent, perforin-independent manner, a process reminiscent of regulatory T cells. Moreover, we show that GrB expression is strictly regulated on a transcriptional level involving Janus kinase 1 (JAK1), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and STAT5 and that interleukin-3 (IL-3), a cytokine secreted by activated T cells, plays a central role for GrB induction. Moreover, we find that the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 enhances, while Toll-like receptor agonists and CD40 ligand strongly inhibit, GrB secretion by pDCs. GrB-secreting pDCs may play a regulatory role for immune evasion of tumors, antiviral immune responses, and autoimmune processes. Our results provide novel information about the complex network of pDC–T-cell interactions and may contribute to an improvement of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccinations. PMID:19965634

  11. Modulation of Dendritic Cell Activation and Subsequent Th1 Cell Polarization by Lidocaine.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Young-Tae; Na, Hyeongjin; Ryu, Heeju; Chung, Yeonseok

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells play an essential role in bridging innate and adaptive immunity by recognizing cellular stress including pathogen- and damage-associated molecular patterns and by shaping the types of antigen-specific T cell immunity. Although lidocaine is widely used in clinical settings that trigger cellular stress, it remains unclear whether such treatment impacts the activation of innate immune cells and subsequent differentiation of T cells. Here we showed that lidocaine inhibited the production of IL-6, TNFα and IL-12 from dendritic cells in response to toll-like receptor ligands including lipopolysaccharide, poly(I:C) and R837 in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, the differentiation of Th1 cells was significantly suppressed by the addition of lidocaine while the same treatment had little effect on the differentiation of Th17, Th2 and regulatory T cells in vitro. Moreover, lidocaine suppressed the ovalbumin-specific Th1 cell responses in vivo induced by the adoptive transfer of ovalbumin-pulsed dendritic cells. These results demonstrate that lidocaine inhibits the activation of dendritic cells in response to toll-like receptor signals and subsequently suppresses the differentiation of Th1 cell responses. PMID:26445366

  12. Intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms of dendritic morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xintong; Shen, Kang; Bülow, Hannes E

    2015-01-01

    The complex, branched morphology of dendrites is a cardinal feature of neurons and has been used as a criterion for cell type identification since the beginning of neurobiology. Regulated dendritic outgrowth and branching during development form the basis of receptive fields for neurons and are essential for the wiring of the nervous system. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of dendritic morphogenesis have been an intensely studied area. In this review, we summarize the major experimental systems that have contributed to our understandings of dendritic development as well as the intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms that instruct the neurons to form cell type-specific dendritic arbors. PMID:25386991

  13. Dendritic cells and oral transmission of prion diseases.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fang-Ping; MacPherson, G Gordon

    2004-04-19

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (scrapie, BSE, Kuru) develop as central nervous system (CNS) diseases after long incubation periods, and many of which may arise following the consumption of infected material. The infectious agent is thought to be a misfolded form (scrapie associated PrP (PrP(Sc))) of a normal host protein (cellular isoform of PrP (PrP(C))), which is relatively resistant to proteolytic degradation and which serves as a template, directing host prion protein (PrP) to accumulate in the misfolded form. Animal experiments have shown that CNS disease is preceded by a period in which the agent accumulates in secondary lymphoid organs (Peyer's patches (PP), lymph nodes, spleen), particularly follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) in the B cell areas of these organs. How the agent is transmitted from the intestinal lumen to the FDCs is largely unknown. Dendritic cells (DCs, cells quite distinct from FDCs) are cells that are specialised to acquire antigens from peripheral tissues and to transport them to secondary lymphoid organs for presentation to T and B lymphocytes. We have shown that DCs can acquire PrP(Sc) from the intestinal lumen and deliver it to mesenteric lymph nodes. In this review we discuss the different stages involved in the migration of PrP(Sc) from the intestine to FDCs and consider the different stages and barriers involved in this process. We conclude that transport of the causative agent, using PrP(Sc) as a biomarker, from the intestine to FDCs is a very inefficient process, which may help to account for the apparent low frequency of individuals who have consumed infected material that go on to develop clinical disease. PMID:15063597

  14. GM-CSF Controls Nonlymphoid Tissue Dendritic Cell Homeostasis but Is Dispensable for the Differentiation of Inflammatory Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Greter, Melanie; Helft, Julie; Chow, Andrew; Hashimoto, Daigo; Mortha, Arthur; Agudo-Cantero, Judith; Bogunovic, Milena; Gautier, Emmanuel L.; Miller, Jennifer; Leboeuf, Marylene; Lu, Geming; Aloman, Costica; Brown, Brian D.; Pollard, Jeffrey W.; Xiong, Huabao; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Chipuk, Jerry E.; Frenette, Paul S.; Merad, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY GM-CSF (Csf-2) is a critical cytokine for the in vitro generation of dendritic cells (DCs) and is thought to control the development of inflammatory DCs and resident CD103+ DCs in some tissues. Here we showed that in contrast to the current understanding, Csf-2 receptor acts in the steady state to promote the survival and homeostasis of nonlymphoid tissue-resident CD103+ and CD11b+ DCs. Absence of Csf-2 receptor on lung DCs abrogated the induction of CD8+ T cell immunity after immunization with particulate antigens. In contrast, Csf-2 receptor was dispensable for the differentiation and innate function of inflammatory DCs during acute injuries. Instead, inflammatory DCs required Csf-1 receptor for their development. Thus, Csf-2 is important in vaccine-induced CD8+ T cell immunity through the regulation of nonlymphoid tissue DC homeostasis rather than control of inflammatory DCs in vivo. PMID:22749353

  15. Migratory dendritic cells transfer antigen to a lymph node-resident dendritic cell population for efficient CTL priming.

    PubMed

    Allan, Rhys S; Waithman, Jason; Bedoui, Sammy; Jones, Claerwen M; Villadangos, Jose A; Zhan, Yifan; Lew, Andrew M; Shortman, Ken; Heath, William R; Carbone, Francis R

    2006-07-01

    Skin dendritic cells (DCs) are thought to act as key initiators of local T cell immunity. Here we show that after skin infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activation required MHC class I-restricted presentation by nonmigratory CD8(+) DCs rather than skin-derived DCs. Despite a lack of direct presentation by migratory DCs, blocking their egress from infected skin substantially inhibited class I-restricted presentation and HSV-specific CTL responses. These results support the argument for initial transport of antigen by migrating DCs, followed by its transfer to the lymphoid-resident DCs for presentation and CTL priming. Given that relatively robust CTL responses were seen with small numbers of skin-emigrant DCs, we propose that this inter-DC antigen transfer functions to amplify presentation across a larger network of lymphoid-resident DCs for efficient T cell activation. PMID:16860764

  16. Dendritic and Langerhans cells respond to Aβ peptides differently: implication for AD immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jiang; Lin, Xiaoyang; Morgan, David; Gordon, Marcia; Chen, Xi; Wang, Zhen-Hai; Li, Hai-Ning; He, Lan-Jie; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Cao, Chuanhai

    2015-11-01

    Both wild-type and mutated beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptides can elicit an immune response when delivered subcutaneously. However, only mutated forms of Aβ can sensitize dendritic cells when administered intravenously or intraperitoneally. To understand the role of mutation and delivery routes in creating immune responses, and the function of dendritic cells as therapeutic agents, we used fluorescent-conjugated WT Aβ1-40 (WT40) and artificially mutated Aβ1-40 (22W40) peptides to treat dendritic and Langerhans cells from young and/or old mice at different time points. The cell types were analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy to identify differences in function and antigen presentation, and Luminex and Western blots for cell activation and associated mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that the artificial mutant, 22W40, enhanced dendritic cell's phagocytosis and antigen presentation better than the WT40. Interestingly, Langerhans cells were more effective at early presentation. The artificial mutant 22W40 increased CD8α+ dendritic cells, CD8+ T-cells, and IFN-γ production when co-cultured with self-lymphocytes and dendritic cells from aged mice (30-month-old). Here, the 22W40 mutant peptide has been found to be potent enough to activate DCs, and that dendritic cell-based therapy may be a more effective treatment for age-related diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). PMID:26473448

  17. Dendritic and Langerhans cells respond to Aβ peptides differently: implication for AD immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jiang; Lin, Xiaoyang; Morgan, David; Gordon, Marcia; Chen, Xi; Wang, Zhen-Hai; Li, Hai-Ning; He, Lan-Jie; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Cao, Chuanhai

    2015-01-01

    Both wild-type and mutated beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptides can elicit an immune response when delivered subcutaneously. However, only mutated forms of Aβ can sensitize dendritic cells when administered intravenously or intraperitoneally. To understand the role of mutation and delivery routes in creating immune responses, and the function of dendritic cells as therapeutic agents, we used fluorescent-conjugated WT Aβ1-40 (WT40) and artificially mutated Aβ1-40 (22W40) peptides to treat dendritic and Langerhans cells from young and/or old mice at different time points. The cell types were analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy to identify differences in function and antigen presentation, and Luminex and Western blots for cell activation and associated mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that the artificial mutant, 22W40, enhanced dendritic cell's phagocytosis and antigen presentation better than the WT40. Interestingly, Langerhans cells were more effective at early presentation. The artificial mutant 22W40 increased CD8α+ dendritic cells, CD8+ T-cells, and IFN-γ production when co-cultured with self-lymphocytes and dendritic cells from aged mice (30-month-old). Here, the 22W40 mutant peptide has been found to be potent enough to activate DCs, and that dendritic cell-based therapy may be a more effective treatment for age-related diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). PMID:26473448

  18. Immunological Characterization of Whole Tumour Lysate-Loaded Dendritic Cells for Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ottobrini, Luisa; Biasin, Mara; Borelli, Manuela; Lucignani, Giovanni; Trabattoni, Daria; Clerici, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dendritic cells play a key role as initiators of T-cell responses, and even if tumour antigen-loaded dendritic cells can induce anti-tumour responses, their efficacy has been questioned, suggesting a need to enhance immunization strategies. Matherials & Methods We focused on the characterization of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells pulsed with whole tumour lysate (TAA-DC), as a source of known and unknown antigens, in a mouse model of breast cancer (MMTV-Ras). Dendritic cells were evaluated for antigen uptake and for the expression of MHC class I/II and costimulatory molecules and markers associated with maturation. Results Results showed that antigen-loaded dendritic cells are characterized by a phenotypically semi-mature/mature profile and by the upregulation of genes involved in antigen presentation and T-cell priming. Activated dendritic cells stimulated T-cell proliferation and induced the production of high concentrations of IL-12p70 and IFN-γ but only low levels of IL-10, indicating their ability to elicit a TH1-immune response. Furthermore, administration of Antigen loaded-Dendritic Cells in MMTV-Ras mice evoked a strong anti-tumour response in vivo as demonstrated by a general activation of immunocompetent cells and the release of TH1 cytokines. Conclusion Data herein could be useful in the design of antitumoral DC-based therapies, showing a specific activation of immune system against breast cancer. PMID:26795765

  19. Mechanisms of dendritic cell lysosomal killing of Cryptococcus.

    PubMed

    Hole, Camaron R; Bui, Hoang; Wormley, Floyd L; Wozniak, Karen L

    2012-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pulmonary fungal pathogen that disseminates to the CNS causing fatal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. Dendritic cells (DCs) phagocytose C. neoformans following inhalation. Following uptake, cryptococci translocate to the DC lysosomal compartment and are killed by oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms. DC lysosomal extracts kill cryptococci in vitro; however, the means of antifungal activity remain unknown. Our studies determined non-oxidative antifungal activity by DC lysosomal extract. We examined DC lysosomal killing of cryptococcal strains, anti-fungal activity of purified lysosomal enzymes, and mechanisms of killing against C. neoformans. Results confirmed DC lysosome fungicidal activity against all cryptococcal serotypes. Purified lysosomal enzymes, specifically cathepsin B, inhibited cryptococcal growth. Interestingly, cathepsin B combined with its enzymatic inhibitors led to enhanced cryptococcal killing. Electron microscopy revealed structural changes and ruptured cryptococcal cell walls following treatment. Finally, additional studies demonstrated that osmotic lysis was responsible for cryptococcal death. PMID:23074646

  20. Optimizing Dendritic Cell-Based Approaches for Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Jashodeep; Terhune, Julia H.; Lowenfeld, Lea; Cintolo, Jessica A.; Xu, Shuwen; Roses, Robert E.; Czerniecki, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen-presenting cells uniquely suited for cancer immunotherapy. They induce primary immune responses, potentiate the effector functions of previously primed T-lymphocytes, and orchestrate communication between innate and adaptive immunity. The remarkable diversity of cytokine activation regimens, DC maturation states, and antigen-loading strategies employed in current DC-based vaccine design reflect an evolving, but incomplete, understanding of optimal DC immunobiology. In the clinical realm, existing DC-based cancer immunotherapy efforts have yielded encouraging but inconsistent results. Despite recent U.S. Federal and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of DC-based sipuleucel-T for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, clinically effective DC immunotherapy as monotherapy for a majority of tumors remains a distant goal. Recent work has identified strategies that may allow for more potent “next-generation” DC vaccines. Additionally, multimodality approaches incorporating DC-based immunotherapy may improve clinical outcomes. PMID:25506283

  1. Blue light irradiation suppresses dendritic cells activation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Michael R; Abel, Manuela; Lopez Kostka, Susanna; Rudolph, Berenice; Becker, Detlef; von Stebut, Esther

    2013-08-01

    Blue light is a UV-free irradiation suitable for treating chronic skin inflammation, for example, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and hand- and foot eczema. However, a better understanding of the mode of action is still missing. For this reason, we investigated whether dendritic cells (DC) are directly affected by blue light irradiation in vitro. Here, we report that irradiation neither induced apoptosis nor maturation of monocyte-derived and myeloid DC. However, subsequent DC maturation upon LPS/IFNγ stimulation was impaired in a dose-dependent manner as assessed by maturation markers and cytokine release. Moreover, the potential of this DC to induce cytokine secretion from allogeneic CD4 T cells was reduced. In conclusion, unlike UV irradiation, blue light irradiation at high and low doses only resulted in impaired DC maturation upon activation and a reduced subsequent stimulatory capacity in allogeneic MLRs with strongest effects at higher doses. PMID:23879817

  2. Dendritic Cells and Their Multiple Roles during Malaria Infection

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Kelly N. S.; Chagas, Daniele C. G.; Sulczewski, Fernando B.

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in the initiation of adaptive immune responses, efficiently presenting antigens to T cells. This ability relies on the presence of numerous surface and intracellular receptors capable of sensing microbial components as well as inflammation and on a very efficient machinery for antigen presentation. In this way, DCs sense the presence of a myriad of pathogens, including Plasmodium spp., the causative agent of malaria. Despite many efforts to control this infection, malaria is still responsible for high rates of morbidity and mortality. Different groups have shown that DCs act during Plasmodium infection, and data suggest that the phenotypically distinct DCs subsets are key factors in the regulation of immunity during infection. In this review, we will discuss the importance of DCs for the induction of immunity against the different stages of Plasmodium, the outcomes of DCs activation, and also what is currently known about Plasmodium components that trigger such activation. PMID:27110574

  3. Curcumin prevents human dendritic cell response to immune stimulants

    SciTech Connect

    Shirley, Shawna A.; Montpetit, Alison J.; Lockey, R.F.; Mohapatra, Shyam S.

    2008-09-26

    Curcumin, a compound found in the Indian spice turmeric, has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, though the mechanism remains unclear. Dendritic cells (DCs) are important to generating an immune response and the effect of curcumin on human DCs has not been explored. The role curcumin in the DC response to bacterial and viral infection was investigated in vitro using LPS and Poly I:C as models of infection. CD14{sup +} monocytes, isolated from human peripheral blood, were cultured in GM-CSF- and IL-4-supplemented medium to generate immature DCs. Cultures were incubated with curcumin, stimulated with LPS or Poly I:C and functional assays were performed. Curcumin prevents DCs from responding to immunostimulants and inducing CD4{sup +} T cell proliferation by blocking maturation marker, cytokine and chemokine expression and reducing both migration and endocytosis. These data suggest a therapeutic role for curcumin as an immune suppressant.

  4. Curcumin prevents human dendritic cell response to immune stimulants

    PubMed Central

    Shirley, Shawna A.; Montpetit, Alison J.; Lockey, R.F.; Mohapatra, Shyam S.

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin, a compound found in the Indian spice turmeric, has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, though the mechanism remains unclear. Dendritic cells (DCs) are important to generating an immune response and the effect of curcumin on human DCs has not been explored. The role curcumin in the DC response to bacterial and viral infection was investigated in vitro using LPS and Poly I:C as models of infection. CD14+ monocytes, isolated from human peripheral blood, were cultured in GM-CSF- and IL-4-supplemented medium to generate immature DCs. Cultures were incubated with curcumin, stimulated with LPS or Poly I:C and functional assays were performed. Curcumin prevents DCs from responding to immunostimulants and inducing naïve CD4+ T cell proliferation by blocking maturation marker, cytokine and chemokine expression and reducing both migration and endocytosis. These data suggest a therapeutic role for curcumin as an immune suppressant. PMID:18639521

  5. Engineered Lentivector Targeting of Dendritic Cells for In Vivo Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lili; Yang, Haiguang; Rideout, Kendra; Cho, Taehoon; Joo, Kye il; Ziegler, Leslie; Elliot, Abigail; Walls, Anthony; Yu, Dongzi; Baltimore, David; Wang, Pin

    2008-01-01

    We report a method of inducing antigen production in dendritic cells (DCs) by in vivo targeting with lentiviral vectors that specifically bind to the DC surface protein, DC-SIGN. To target the DCs, the lentivector was enveloped with a viral glycoprotein from Sindbis virus, engineered to be DC-SIGN-specific. In vitro, this lentivector specifically transduced DCs and induced DC maturation. A remarkable frequency (up to 12%) of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific CD8+ T cells and a significant antibody response were observed 2 weeks following injection of a targeted lentiviral vector encoding an OVA transgene into naïve mice. These mice were solidly protected against the growth of the OVA-expressing E.G7 tumor and this methodology could even induce regression of an established tumor. Thus, lentiviral vectors targeting DCs provide a simple method of producing effective immunity and may provide an alternative route for immunization with protein antigens. PMID:18297056

  6. Cochlin produced by follicular dendritic cells promotes antibacterial innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Py, Bénédicte F; Gonzalez, Santiago F; Long, Kai; Kim, Mi-Sung; Kim, Young-A; Zhu, Hong; Yao, Jianhua; Degauque, Nicolas; Villet, Régis; Ymele-Leki, Patrick; Gadjeva, Mihaela; Pier, Gerald B; Carroll, Michael C; Yuan, Junying

    2013-05-23

    Cochlin, an extracellular matrix protein, shares homologies with the Factor C, a serine protease found in horseshoe crabs, which is critical for antibacterial responses. Mutations in the COCH gene are responsible for human DFNA9 syndrome, a disorder characterized by neurodegeneration of the inner ear that leads to hearing loss and vestibular impairments. The physiological function of cochlin, however, is unknown. Here, we report that cochlin is specifically expressed by follicular dendritic cells and selectively localized in the fine extracellular network of conduits in the spleen and lymph nodes. During inflammation, cochlin was cleaved by aggrecanases and secreted into blood circulation. In models of lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, Coch(-/-) mice show reduced survival linked to defects in local cytokine production, recruitment of immune effector cells, and bacterial clearance. By producing cochlin, FDCs thus contribute to the innate immune response in defense against bacteria. PMID:23684986

  7. Dendritic cells and cytokines in immune rejection of cancer.

    PubMed

    Ferrantini, Maria; Capone, Imerio; Belardelli, Filippo

    2008-02-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial role in linking innate and adaptive immunity and, thus, in the generation of a protective immune response against both infectious diseases and tumors. The ability of DCs to prime and expand an immune response is regulated by signals acting through soluble mediators, mainly cytokines and chemokines. Understanding how cytokines influence DC functions and orchestrate the interactions of DCs with other immune cells is strictly instrumental to the progress in cancer immunotherapy. Herein, we will illustrate how certain cytokines and immune stimulating molecules can induce and sustain the antitumor immune response by acting on DCs. We will also discuss these cytokine-DC interactions in the light of clinical results in cancer patients. PMID:18054517

  8. Mechanisms of Dendritic Cell Lysosomal Killing of Cryptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Hole, Camaron R.; Bui, Hoang; Wormley, Floyd L.; Wozniak, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pulmonary fungal pathogen that disseminates to the CNS causing fatal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. Dendritic cells (DCs) phagocytose C. neoformans following inhalation. Following uptake, cryptococci translocate to the DC lysosomal compartment and are killed by oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms. DC lysosomal extracts kill cryptococci in vitro; however, the means of antifungal activity remain unknown. Our studies determined non-oxidative antifungal activity by DC lysosomal extract. We examined DC lysosomal killing of cryptococcal strains, anti-fungal activity of purified lysosomal enzymes, and mechanisms of killing against C. neoformans. Results confirmed DC lysosome fungicidal activity against all cryptococcal serotypes. Purified lysosomal enzymes, specifically cathepsin B, inhibited cryptococcal growth. Interestingly, cathepsin B combined with its enzymatic inhibitors led to enhanced cryptococcal killing. Electron microscopy revealed structural changes and ruptured cryptococcal cell walls following treatment. Finally, additional studies demonstrated that osmotic lysis was responsible for cryptococcal death. PMID:23074646

  9. Dendritic Cells and Their Multiple Roles during Malaria Infection.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Kelly N S; Chagas, Daniele C G; Sulczewski, Fernando B; Boscardin, Silvia B

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in the initiation of adaptive immune responses, efficiently presenting antigens to T cells. This ability relies on the presence of numerous surface and intracellular receptors capable of sensing microbial components as well as inflammation and on a very efficient machinery for antigen presentation. In this way, DCs sense the presence of a myriad of pathogens, including Plasmodium spp., the causative agent of malaria. Despite many efforts to control this infection, malaria is still responsible for high rates of morbidity and mortality. Different groups have shown that DCs act during Plasmodium infection, and data suggest that the phenotypically distinct DCs subsets are key factors in the regulation of immunity during infection. In this review, we will discuss the importance of DCs for the induction of immunity against the different stages of Plasmodium, the outcomes of DCs activation, and also what is currently known about Plasmodium components that trigger such activation. PMID:27110574

  10. Mechanisms of Dendritic Cell Lysosomal Killing of Cryptococcus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hole, Camaron R.; Bui, Hoang; Wormley, Floyd L.; Wozniak, Karen L.

    2012-10-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pulmonary fungal pathogen that disseminates to the CNS causing fatal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. Dendritic cells (DCs) phagocytose C. neoformans following inhalation. Following uptake, cryptococci translocate to the DC lysosomal compartment and are killed by oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms. DC lysosomal extracts kill cryptococci in vitro; however, the means of antifungal activity remain unknown. Our studies determined non-oxidative antifungal activity by DC lysosomal extract. We examined DC lysosomal killing of cryptococcal strains, anti-fungal activity of purified lysosomal enzymes, and mechanisms of killing against C. neoformans. Results confirmed DC lysosome fungicidal activity against all cryptococcal serotypes. Purified lysosomal enzymes, specifically cathepsin B, inhibited cryptococcal growth. Interestingly, cathepsin B combined with its enzymatic inhibitors led to enhanced cryptococcal killing. Electron microscopy revealed structural changes and ruptured cryptococcal cell walls following treatment. Finally, additional studies demonstrated that osmotic lysis was responsible for cryptococcal death.