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Sample records for cell derived insulin-producing

  1. A Modified Method of Insulin Producing Cells' Generation from Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Czubak, Paweł; Putowski, Lechosław

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a result of autoimmune destruction of pancreatic insulin producing β-cells and so far it can be cured only by insulin injection, by pancreas transplantation, or by pancreatic islet cells' transplantation. The methods are, however, imperfect and have a lot of disadvantages. Therefore new solutions are needed. The best one would be the use of differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the present study, we investigated the potential of the bone marrow-derived MSCs line for in vitro differentiation into insulin producing cells (IPSs). We applied an 18-day protocol to differentiate MSCs. Differentiating cells formed cell clusters some of which resembled pancreatic islet-like cells. Using dithizone we confirmed the presence of insulin in the cells. What is more, the expression of proinsulin C-peptide in differentiated IPCs was analyzed by flow cytometry. For the first time, we investigated the influence of growth factors' concentration on IPCs differentiation efficiency. We have found that an increase in the concentration of growth factors up to 60 ng/mL of β-FGF/EGF and 30 ng/mL of activin A/β-cellulin increases the percentage of IPCs. Further increase of growth factors does not show any increase of the percentage of differentiated cells. Our findings suggest that the presented protocol can be adapted for differentiation of insulin producing cells from stem cells. PMID:25405207

  2. A modified method of insulin producing cells' generation from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Czubak, Paweł; Bojarska-Junak, Agnieszka; Tabarkiewicz, Jacek; Putowski, Lechosław

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a result of autoimmune destruction of pancreatic insulin producing β-cells and so far it can be cured only by insulin injection, by pancreas transplantation, or by pancreatic islet cells' transplantation. The methods are, however, imperfect and have a lot of disadvantages. Therefore new solutions are needed. The best one would be the use of differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the present study, we investigated the potential of the bone marrow-derived MSCs line for in vitro differentiation into insulin producing cells (IPSs). We applied an 18-day protocol to differentiate MSCs. Differentiating cells formed cell clusters some of which resembled pancreatic islet-like cells. Using dithizone we confirmed the presence of insulin in the cells. What is more, the expression of proinsulin C-peptide in differentiated IPCs was analyzed by flow cytometry. For the first time, we investigated the influence of growth factors' concentration on IPCs differentiation efficiency. We have found that an increase in the concentration of growth factors up to 60 ng/mL of β-FGF/EGF and 30 ng/mL of activin A/β-cellulin increases the percentage of IPCs. Further increase of growth factors does not show any increase of the percentage of differentiated cells. Our findings suggest that the presented protocol can be adapted for differentiation of insulin producing cells from stem cells. PMID:25405207

  3. Generation of insulin-producing cells from gnotobiotic porcine skin-derived stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ji Hoon; Lee, Sung Ho; Heo, Young Tae; Uhm, Sang Jun; Lee, Hoon Taek

    2010-07-09

    A major problem in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus is the limited availability of alternative sources of insulin-producing cells for islet transplantation. In this study, we investigated the effect of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) treatments of gnotobiotic porcine skin-derived stem cells (gSDSCs) on their reprogramming and subsequent differentiation into insulin-producing cells (IPCs). We isolated SDSCs from the ear skin of a gnotobiotic pig. During the proliferation period, the cells expressed stem-cell markers Oct-4, Sox-2, and CD90; nestin expression also increased significantly. The cells could differentiate into IPCs after treatments with activin-A, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and nicotinamide. After 15 days in the differentiation medium, controlled gSDSCs began expressing endocrine progenitor genes and proteins (Ngn3, Neuro-D, PDX-1, NKX2.2, NKX6.1, and insulin). The IPCs showed increased insulin synthesis after glucose stimulation. The results indicate that stem cells derived from the skin of gnotobiotic pigs can differentiate into IPCs under the appropriate conditions in vitro. Our three-stage induction protocol could be applied without genetic modification to source IPCs from stem cells in the skin of patients with diabetes for autologous transplantation.

  4. Insulin-producing cells derived from stem cells: recent progress and future directions.

    PubMed

    Santana, A; Enseñat-Waser, R; Arribas, María Isabel; Reig, J A; Roche, E

    2006-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is characterized by the selective destruction of pancreatic beta-cells caused by an autoimmune attack. Type 2 diabetes is a more complex pathology which, in addition to beta-cell loss caused by apoptotic programs, includes beta-cell dedifferentiation and peripheric insulin resistance. beta-Cells are responsible for insulin production, storage and secretion in accordance to the demanding concentrations of glucose and fatty acids. The absence of insulin results in death and therefore diabetic patients require daily injections of the hormone for survival. However, they cannot avoid the appearance of secondary complications affecting the peripheral nerves as well as the eyes, kidneys and cardiovascular system. These afflictions are caused by the fact that external insulin injection does not mimic the tight control that pancreatic-derived insulin secretion exerts on the body's glycemia. Restoration of damaged beta-cells by transplantation from exogenous sources or by endocrine pancreas regeneration would be ideal therapeutic options. In this context, stem cells of both embryonic and adult origin (including beta-cell/islet progenitors) offer some interesting alternatives, taking into account the recent data indicating that these cells could be the building blocks from which insulin secreting cells could be generated in vitro under appropriate culture conditions. Although in many cases insulin-producing cells derived from stem cells have been shown to reverse experimentally induced diabetes in animal models, several concerns need to be solved before finding a definite medical application. These refer mainly to the obtainment of a cell population as similar as possible to pancreatic beta-cells, and to the problems related with the immune compatibility and tumor formation. This review will summarize the different approaches that have been used to obtain insulin-producing cells from embryonic and adult stem cells, and the main problems that hamper the

  5. Insulin - producing cells derived from stem cells: recent progress and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Santana, A; Enseñat - Waser, R; Arribas, Maria Isabel; Reig, J A; Roche, E

    2006-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is characterized by the selective destruction of pancreatic β-cells caused by an autoimmune attack. Type 2 diabetes is a more complex pathology which, in addition to β-cell loss caused by apoptotic programs, includes β-cell dedifferentiation and peripheric insulin resistance. β-Cells are responsible for insulin production, storage and secretion in accordance to the demanding concentrations of glucose and fatty acids. The absence of insulin results in death and therefore diabetic patients require daily injections of the hormone for survival. However, they cannot avoid the appearance of secondary complications affecting the peripheral nerves as well as the eyes, kidneys and cardiovascular system. These afflictions are caused by the fact that external insulin injection does not mimic the tight control that pancreaticderived insulin secretion exerts on the body’s glycemia. Restoration of damaged β-cells by transplantation from exogenous sources or by endocrine pancreas regeneration would be ideal therapeutic options. In this context, stem cells of both embryonic and adult origin (including β-cell/islet progenitors) offer some interesting alternatives, taking into account the recent data indicating that these cells could be the building blocks from which insulin secreting cells could be generated in vitro under appropriate culture conditions. Although in many cases insulin-producing cells derived from stem cells have been shown to reverse experimentally induced diabetes in animal models, several concerns need to be solved before finding a definite medical application. These refer mainly to the obtainment of a cell population as similar as possible to pancreatic β-cells, and to the problems related with the immune compatibility and tumor formation. This review will summarize the different approaches that have been used to obtain insulin-producing cells from embryonic and adult stem cells, and the main problems that hamper the clinical

  6. Three-dimensional differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells into insulin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Khorsandi, Layasadat; Khodadadi, Ali; Nejad-Dehbashi, Fereshteh; Saremy, Sadegh

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the collagen/hyaluronic acid (Col/HA) scaffold effect on the differentiation of insulin-producing cells (IPCs) from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs). In this experimental study, ASCs were cultured and seeded in a Col/HA scaffold (3D culture) and then treated with induction media. After induction, the presence of IPCs was evaluated using gene expression (PDX-1, GLUT-2 and insulin) analysis and immunocytochemistry, while functional maturity was determined by measuring insulin release in response to low- and high-glucose media. The induced IPCs were morphologically similar to pancreatic islet-like cells. Expression of the islet-associated genes PDX-1, GLUT-2 and insulin genes in 3D-cultured cells was markedly higher than the 2D-cultured cells exposure differentiation media. Compared to the 2D culture of ASCs-derived IPCs, the insulin release from 3D ASCs-derived IPCs showed a nearly 4-fold (p < 0.05) increase when exposed to a high glucose (25 mmol) medium. The percentage of insulin-positive cells in the 3D experimental group showed an approximately 4-fold increase compared to the 2D experimental culture cells. The results of this study demonstrated that the COL/HA scaffold can enhance the differentiation of IPCs from rat ASCs. PMID:25795142

  7. Reversal of diabetes with insulin-producing cells derived in vitro from human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Rezania, Alireza; Bruin, Jennifer E; Arora, Payal; Rubin, Allison; Batushansky, Irina; Asadi, Ali; O'Dwyer, Shannon; Quiskamp, Nina; Mojibian, Majid; Albrecht, Tobias; Yang, Yu Hsuan Carol; Johnson, James D; Kieffer, Timothy J

    2014-11-01

    Transplantation of pancreatic progenitors or insulin-secreting cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) has been proposed as a therapy for diabetes. We describe a seven-stage protocol that efficiently converts hESCs into insulin-producing cells. Stage (S) 7 cells expressed key markers of mature pancreatic beta cells, including MAFA, and displayed glucose-stimulated insulin secretion similar to that of human islets during static incubations in vitro. Additional characterization using single-cell imaging and dynamic glucose stimulation assays revealed similarities but also notable differences between S7 insulin-secreting cells and primary human beta cells. Nevertheless, S7 cells rapidly reversed diabetes in mice within 40 days, roughly four times faster than pancreatic progenitors. Therefore, although S7 cells are not fully equivalent to mature beta cells, their capacity for glucose-responsive insulin secretion and rapid reversal of diabetes in vivo makes them a promising alternative to pancreatic progenitor cells or cadaveric islets for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:25211370

  8. PDX1-engineered embryonic stem cell-derived insulin producing cells regulate hyperglycemia in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Type 1 diabetes can be treated by the transplantation of cadaveric whole pancreata or isolated pancreatic islets. However, this form of treatment is hampered by the chronic shortage of cadaveric donors. Embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived insulin producing cells (IPCs) offer a potentially novel source of unlimited cells for transplantation to treat type 1 and possibly type 2 diabetes. However, thus far, the lack of a reliable protocol for efficient differentiation of ES cells into IPCs has hindered the clinical exploitation of these cells. Methods To efficiently generate IPCs using ES cells, we have developed a double transgenic ES cell line R1Pdx1AcGFP/RIP-Luc that constitutively expresses pancreatic β-cell-specific transcription factor pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene 1 (Pdx1) as well as rat insulin promoter (RIP) driven luciferase reporter. We have established several protocols for the reproducible differentiation of ES cells into IPCs. The differentiation of ES cells into IPCs was monitored by immunostaining as well as real-time quantitative RT-PCR for pancreatic β-cell-specific markers. Pancreatic β-cell specific RIP became transcriptionally active following the differentiation of ES cells into IPCs and induced the expression of the luciferase reporter. Glucose stimulated insulin secretion by the ES cell-derived IPCs was measured by ELISA. Further, we have investigated the therapeutic efficacy of ES cell-derived IPCs to correct hyperglycemia in syngeneic streptozotocin (STZ)-treated diabetic mice. The long term fate of the transplanted IPCs co-expressing luciferase in syngeneic STZ-induced diabetic mice was monitored by real time noninvasive in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Results We have recently demonstrated that spontaneous in vivo differentiation of R1Pdx1AcGFP/RIP-Luc ES cell-derived pancreatic endoderm-like cells (PELCs) into IPCs corrects hyperglycemia in diabetic mice. Here, we investigated whether R1Pdx1AcGFP/RIP-Luc ES cells

  9. Surrogate insulin-producing cells

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Adrianne L.; Hwa, Albert; Hellman, Dov

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes, a large and growing worldwide health concern, affects the functional mass of the pancreatic beta cell, which in turn affects the glucose regulation of the body. Successful transplantation of cadaveric islets and pancreata for patients with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes has provided proof-of-concept for the development of commercial cell therapy approaches to treat diabetes. Three broad issues must be addressed before surrogate insulin-producing cells can become a reality: the development of a surrogate beta-cell source, immunoprotection, and translation. Cell therapy for diabetes is a real possibility, but many questions remain; through the collaborative efforts of multiple stakeholders this may become a reality. PMID:22891077

  10. Human iPS Cell-Derived Insulin Producing Cells Form Vascularized Organoids under the Kidney Capsules of Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Raikwar, Sudhanshu P.; Kim, Eun-Mi; Sivitz, William I.; Allamargot, Chantal; Thedens, Daniel R.; Zavazava, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is caused by autoimmune disease that leads to the destruction of pancreatic β-cells. Transplantation of cadaveric pancreatic organs or pancreatic islets can restore normal physiology. However, there is a chronic shortage of cadaveric organs, limiting the treatment of the majority of patients on the pancreas transplantation waiting list. Here, we hypothesized that human iPS cells can be directly differentiated into insulin producing cells (IPCs) capable of secreting insulin. Using a series of pancreatic growth factors, we successfully generated iPS cells derived IPCs. Furthermore, to investigate the capability of these cells to secrete insulin in vivo, the differentiated cells were transplanted under the kidney capsules of diabetic immunodeficient mice. Serum glucose levels gradually declined to either normal or near normal levels over 150 days, suggesting that the IPCs were secreting insulin. In addition, using MRI, a 3D organoid appeared as a white patch on the transplanted kidneys but not on the control kidneys. These organoids showed neo-vascularization and stained positive for insulin and glucagon. All together, these data show that a pancreatic organ can be created in vivo providing evidence that iPS cells might be a novel option for the treatment of T1D. PMID:25629318

  11. Generation of Functional Insulin-Producing Cells from Neonatal Porcine Liver-Derived Cells by PDX1/VP16, BETA2/NeuroD and MafA

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Dong-Sik; Shin, Juyoung; Kim, Ji-Won; Park, Heon-Seok; Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Yoon, Kun-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Surrogate β-cells derived from stem cells are needed to cure type 1 diabetes, and neonatal liver cells may be an attractive alternative to stem cells for the generation of β-cells. In this study, we attempted to generate insulin-producing cells from neonatal porcine liver-derived cells using adenoviruses carrying three genes: pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor1 (PDX1)/VP16, BETA2/NeuroD and v-maf musculo aponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA), which are all known to play critical roles in pancreatic development. Isolated neonatal porcine liver-derived cells were sequentially transduced with triple adenoviruses and grown in induction medium containing a high concentration of glucose, epidermal growth factors, nicotinamide and a low concentration of serum following the induction of aggregation for further maturation. We noted that the cells displayed a number of molecular characteristics of pancreatic β-cells, including expressing several transcription factors necessary for β-cell development and function. In addition, these cells synthesized and physiologically secreted insulin. Transplanting these differentiated cells into streptozotocin-induced immunodeficient diabetic mice led to the reversal of hyperglycemia, and more than 18% of the cells in the grafts expressed insulin at 6 weeks after transplantation. These data suggested that neonatal porcine liver-derived cells can be differentiated into functional insulin-producing cells under the culture conditions presented in this report and indicated that neonatal porcine liver-derived cells (NPLCs) might be useful as a potential source of cells for β-cell replacement therapy in efforts to cure type I diabetes. PMID:24260156

  12. PDX-1 mRNA-induced reprogramming of mouse pancreas-derived mesenchymal stem cells into insulin-producing cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xing Rong; Wang, Xiao Li; Li, Man Chol; Yuan, Ya Hong; Chen, Yun; Zou, Dan Dan; Bian, Liu Jiao; Li, Dong Sheng

    2015-11-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation has remained an effective therapy for type 1 diabetes since 2000. Its widespread use has been prohibited by the shortage of suitable donors. It is critical to explore an applicable alternative for β-cell replacement. This study was performed to generate insulin-producing cells (IPCs) from pancreas-derived mesenchymal stem cells (pMSCs). pMSCs were isolated from discarded pancreatic tissue in the filter liquor during islet isolation procedure in mice and ex vivo expanded in culture. IPCs were induced by transfection of pancreas and duodenal transcription factor 1 (PDX-1) mRNA in vitro. Some islet characteristics were identified on pMSC-derived IPCs in mRNA and protein levels. Our results demonstrated that mouse pMSCs can be transdifferentiated into effective glucose-responsive insulin-producing cells through transfecting synthetic modified PDX-1 mRNA in vitro. The study of PDX-1 mRNA-induced pMSC reprogramming may pave the way toward the development of a novel β-cell source for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:25345580

  13. Mechanism study for hypoxia induced differentiation of insulin-producing cells from umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Meng, Xian-Hui; Liu, Rui; Yan, Shancheng; Xiao, Zhong-Dang

    2015-10-23

    Recently, we have successfully obtained functional IPCs efficiently from umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells by using hypoxia treatment. In this study, we further elaborated that the improved function and viability of IPCs are the result of the interaction β cell development pathway and c-Met/HGF axis induced by hypoxia. We found that hypoxia induced c-MET elevation is efficiently initiated the early stage differentiation IPCs from MSCs, and HGF improved the fully differentiation of IPCs by inducing the expression of NGN3. This finding may contribute to understanding β cell development and the development of stem cell therapy for diabetes. PMID:26392316

  14. Effects of Exendine-4 on The Differentiation of Insulin Producing Cells from Rat Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Khorsandi, Layasadat; Saremy, Sadegh; Khodadadi, Ali; Dehbashi, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of Exendine-4 (EX-4), a Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, on the differentiation of insulin-secreting cells (IPCs) from rat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells(ADMSCs). Materials and Methods In this experimental study, ADMSCs were isolated from rat adi- pose tissue and exposed to induction media with or without EX-4. After induction, the existence of IPCs was confirmed by morphology analysis, expression pattern analysis of islet-specific genes (Pdx-1, Glut-2 and Insulin) and insulin synthesis and secretion. Results IPCs induced in presence of EX-4 were morphologically similar to pancre- atic islet-like cells. Expression of Pdx-1, Glut-2 and Insulin genes in EX-4 treated cells was significantly higher than the cells exposed to differentiation media without EX-4. Compared to EX-4 untreated ADMSCs, insulin release from EX-4 treated ADMSCs showed a nearly 2.5 fold (P<0.05) increase when exposed to a high glucose (25 mM) medium. The percentage of insulin positive cells in the EX-4 treated group was ap- proximately 4-fold higher than in the EX-4 untreated ADMSCs. Conclusion The present study has demonstrated that EX-4 enhances the differen- tiation of ADMSCs into IPCs. Improvement of this method may help the formation of an unlimited source of cells for transplantation. PMID:26862531

  15. Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Insulin-Producing Cells: Evidence for Further Maturation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gabr, Mahmoud M.; Zakaria, Mahmoud M.; Refaie, Ayman F.; Khater, Sherry M.; Ashamallah, Sylvia A.; Ismail, Amani M.; El-Halawani, Sawsan M.; Ghoneim, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide evidence for further in vivo maturation of insulin-producing cells (IPCs) derived from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HBM-MSCs). HBM-MSCs were obtained from three insulin-dependent type 2 diabetic volunteers. Following expansion, cells were differentiated according to a trichostatin-A/GLP protocol. One million cells were transplanted under the renal capsule of 29 diabetic nude mice. Blood glucose, serum human insulin and c-peptide levels, and glucose tolerance curves were determined. Mice were euthanized 1, 2, 4, or 12 weeks after transplantation. IPC-bearing kidneys were immunolabeled, number of IPCs was counted, and expression of relevant genes was determined. At the end of in vitro differentiation, all pancreatic endocrine genes were expressed, albeit at very low values. The percentage of IPCs among transplanted cells was small (≤3%). Diabetic animals became euglycemic 8 ± 3 days after transplantation. Thereafter, the percentage of IPCs reached a mean of ~18% at 4 weeks. Relative gene expression of insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin showed a parallel increase. The ability of the transplanted cells to induce euglycemia was due to their further maturation in the favorable in vivo microenvironment. Elucidation of the exact mechanism(s) involved requires further investigation. PMID:26064925

  16. Generation of Functional Insulin-Producing Cells From Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Through 804G Cell-Derived Extracellular Matrix and Protein Transduction of Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Kaitsuka, Taku; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Shiraki, Nobuaki; Kubo, Takuya; Wei, Fan-Yan; Hakim, Farzana; Kume, Shoen

    2014-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have potential applications to regenerative medicine for diabetes; however, a useful and safe way to generate pancreatic β cells has not been developed. In this study, we tried to establish an effective method of differentiation through the protein transduction of three transcription factors (Pdx1, NeuroD, and MafA) important to pancreatic β cell development. The method poses no risk of unexpected genetic modifications in target cells. Transduction of the three proteins induced the differentiation of mouse ES and mouse iPS cells into insulin-producing cells. Furthermore, a laminin-5-rich extracellular matrix efficiently induced differentiation under feeder-free conditions. Cell differentiation was confirmed with the expression of the insulin 1 gene in addition to marker genes in pancreatic β cells, the differentiated cells secreted glucose-responsive C-peptide, and their transplantation restored normoglycemia in diabetic mice. Moreover, Pdx1 protein transduction had facilitative effects on differentiation into pancreatic endocrine progenitors from human iPS cells. These results suggest the direct delivery of recombinant proteins and treatment with laminin-5-rich extracellular matrix to be useful for the generation of insulin-producing cells. PMID:24292793

  17. Promoting Long-Term Survival of Insulin-Producing Cell Grafts That Differentiate from Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells to Cure Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuzi; Dai, Hehua; Wan, Ni; Moore, Yolonda; Dai, Zhenhua

    2011-01-01

    Background Insulin-producing cell clusters (IPCCs) have recently been generated in vitro from adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) to circumvent islet shortage. However, it is unknown how long they can survive upon transplantation, whether they are eventually rejected by recipients, and how their long-term survival can be induced to permanently cure type 1 diabetes. IPCC graft survival is critical for their clinical application and this issue must be systematically addressed prior to their in-depth clinical trials. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we found that IPCC grafts that differentiated from murine ASCs in vitro, unlike their freshly isolated islet counterparts, did not survive long-term in syngeneic mice, suggesting that ASC-derived IPCCs have intrinsic survival disadvantage over freshly isolated islets. Indeed, β cells retrieved from IPCC syngrafts underwent faster apoptosis than their islet counterparts. However, blocking both Fas and TNF receptor death pathways inhibited their apoptosis and restored their long-term survival in syngeneic recipients. Furthermore, blocking CD40-CD154 costimulation and Fas/TNF signaling induced long-term IPCC allograft survival in overwhelming majority of recipients. Importantly, Fas-deficient IPCC allografts exhibited certain immune privilege and enjoyed long-term survival in diabetic NOD mice in the presence of CD28/CD40 joint blockade while their islet counterparts failed to do so. Conclusions/Significance Long-term survival of ASC-derived IPCC syngeneic grafts requires blocking Fas and TNF death pathways, whereas blocking both death pathways and CD28/CD40 costimulation is needed for long-term IPCC allograft survival in diabetic NOD mice. Our studies have important clinical implications for treating type 1 diabetes via ASC-derived IPCC transplantation. PMID:22216347

  18. Glucose-responsive insulin-producing cells from stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kaczorowski, David J; Patterson, Ethan S; Jastromb, William E; Shamblott, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    Recent success with immunosuppression following islet cell transplantation offers hope that a cell transplantation treatment for type 1 (juvenile) diabetes may be possible if sufficient quantities of safe and effective cells can be produced. For the treatment of type 1 diabetes, the two therapeutically essential functions are the ability to monitor blood glucose levels and the production of corresponding and sufficient levels of mature insulin to maintain glycemic control. Stem cells can replicate themselves and produce cells that take on more specialized functions. If a source of stem cells capable of yielding glucose-responsive insulin-producing (GRIP) cells can be identified, then transplantation-based treatment for type 1 diabetes may become widely available. Currently, stem cells from embryonic and adult sources are being investigated for their ability to proliferate and differentiate into cells with GRIP function. Human embryonic pluripotent stem cells, commonly referred to as embryonic stem (ES) cells and embryonic germ (EG) cells, have received significant attention owing to their broad capacity to differentiate and ability to proliferate well in culture. Their application to diabetes research is of particular promise, as it has been demonstrated that mouse ES cells are capable of producing cells able to normalize glucose levels of diabetic mice, and human ES cells can differentiate into cells capable of insulin production. Cells with GRIP function have also been derived from stem cells residing in adult organisms, here referred to as endogenous stem cell sources. Independent of source, stem cells capable of producing cells with GRIP function may provide a widely available cell transplantation treatment for type 1 diabetes. PMID:12469358

  19. Insulin-producing cells from embryonic stem cells rescues hyperglycemia via intra-spleen migration.

    PubMed

    Ren, Meng; Shang, Changzhen; Zhong, Xiaomei; Guo, Ruomi; Lao, Guojuan; Wang, Xiaoyi; Cheng, Hua; Min, Jun; Yan, Li; Shen, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Implantation of embryonic stem cells (ESC)-derived insulin-producing cells has been extensively investigated for treatment of diabetes in animal models. However, the in vivo behavior and migration of transplanted cells in diabetic models remains unclear. Here we investigated the location and migration of insulin-producing cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) using a dynamic MRI tracking method. SPIO labeled cells showed hypointense signal under the kidney subcapsules of diabetic mice on MRI, and faded gradually over the visiting time. However, new hypointense signal appeared in the spleen 1 week after transplantation, and became obvious with the time prolongation. Further histological examination proved the immigrated cells were insulin and C-peptide positive cells which were evenly distributed throughout the spleen. These intra-spleen insulin-producing cells maintained their protective effects against hyperglycemia in vivo, and these effects were reversed upon spleen removal. Transplantation of insulin-producing cells through spleen acquired an earlier blood glucose control as compared with that through kidney subcapsules. In summary, our data demonstrate that insulin-producing cells transplanted through kidney subcapsules were not located in situ but migrated into spleen, and rescues hyperglycemia in diabetic models. MRI may provide a novel tracking method for preclinical cell transplantation therapy of diabetes continuously and non-invasively. PMID:25533571

  20. Insulin-producing cells from embryonic stem cells rescues hyperglycemia via intra-spleen migration

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Meng; Shang, Changzhen; Zhong, Xiaomei; Guo, Ruomi; Lao, Guojuan; Wang, Xiaoyi; Cheng, Hua; Min, Jun; Yan, Li; Shen, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Implantation of embryonic stem cells (ESC)-derived insulin-producing cells has been extensively investigated for treatment of diabetes in animal models. However, the in vivo behavior and migration of transplanted cells in diabetic models remains unclear. Here we investigated the location and migration of insulin-producing cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) using a dynamic MRI tracking method. SPIO labeled cells showed hypointense signal under the kidney subcapsules of diabetic mice on MRI, and faded gradually over the visiting time. However, new hypointense signal appeared in the spleen 1 week after transplantation, and became obvious with the time prolongation. Further histological examination proved the immigrated cells were insulin and C-peptide positive cells which were evenly distributed throughout the spleen. These intra-spleen insulin-producing cells maintained their protective effects against hyperglycemia in vivo, and these effects were reversed upon spleen removal. Transplantation of insulin-producing cells through spleen acquired an earlier blood glucose control as compared with that through kidney subcapsules. In summary, our data demonstrate that insulin-producing cells transplanted through kidney subcapsules were not located in situ but migrated into spleen, and rescues hyperglycemia in diabetic models. MRI may provide a novel tracking method for preclinical cell transplantation therapy of diabetes continuously and non-invasively. PMID:25533571

  1. Exendin-4 enhances expression of Neurod1 and Glut2 in insulin-producing cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qiaoshi; Yang, Yuzhi; Hu, Jing; Shan, Zhiyan; Wu, Yanshuang

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Stem cells involved cell replacement therapies for type 1 diabetes mellitus is promising, yet time-consuming and inefficient. Exendin-4 is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist which has been reported to possess anti-apoptotic effects, thereby increasing β-cell mass and improving β-cell function. The present study aimed to investigate whether exendin-4 would enhance the differentiation of embryonic stem cells into insulin-secreting cells and improve the pancreatic differentiation strategy. Material and methods R1 embryonic stem cells were treated with different concentrations of exendin-4 and divided into three groups. In the high dosage group (group H), exendin-4 was added at the dosage of 10 nmol/l. In the low dosage group (group L), exendin-4 was added at the dosage of 0.1 nmol/l. Group C was a control. Expression of genes related to the β-cell phenotype and immunofluorescence staining of insulin and C-peptide were detected. Results Compared with groups L and C, group H had the highest mRNA expression levels of Isl1, Pdx1, Ngn3, and Insulin1 (p < 0.05). Neurod1 and Glut2 only emerged at the final stage of differentiation in group H. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that exendin-4 upregulated the protein expression of insulin and C-peptide. Conclusions Exendin-4 remarkably facilitated Neurod1 and Glut2 gene transcription, and was able to induce differentiation of embryonic stem cells into endocrine and insulin-producing cells. PMID:26925137

  2. In vivo regeneration of insulin-producing beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Jun, Hee-Sook

    2010-01-01

    Type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus are considered to be caused by defective control of blood glucose resulting from a reduced beta-cell mass. Thus, the restoration of a functional beta-cell mass by replacing the damaged beta-cells or stimulating beta-cell regeneration is a logical approach for the treatment of diabetes. Strategies for increasing the beta-cell mass include stimulating beta-cell replication and differentiation and inhibiting beta-cell death. Treatment with various growth factors such as GLP-1, BTC, HGF, and EGF and forced expression of beta-cell transcription factors such as Pdx-1, NeuroD, and MafA resulted in the regeneration of beta-cells in vivo. Another approach is the administration of stem/progenitor cells, which can differentiate into insulin-producing cells. However, there are no satisfactory methods yet for clinical application. Understanding the mechanisms of the regenerative process of pancreatic beta-cells will pave the way for the development of regenerative medicine for treatment of diabetes. PMID:20217517

  3. Examination of a Viral Infection Mimetic Model in Human iPS Cell-Derived Insulin-Producing Cells and the Anti-Apoptotic Effect of GLP-1 Analogue

    PubMed Central

    Baden, Megu Yamaguchi; Fukui, Kenji; Hosokawa, Yoshiya; Iwahashi, Hiromi; Imagawa, Akihisa; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2015-01-01

    Aims Viral infection is associated with pancreatic beta cell destruction in fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to investigate the acceleration and protective mechanisms of beta cell destruction by establishing a model of viral infection in pancreatic beta cells. Methods Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid was transfected into MIN6 cells and insulin-producing cells differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells via small molecule applications. Gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR, and apoptosis was evaluated by caspase-3 activity and TUNEL staining. The anti-apoptotic effect of Exendin-4 was also evaluated. Results Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid transfection led to elevated expression of the genes encoding IFNα, IFNβ, CXCL10, Fas, viral receptors, and IFN-inducible antiviral effectors in MIN6 cells. Exendin-4 treatment suppressed the elevated gene expression levels and reduced polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid-induced apoptosis both in MIN6 cells and in insulin-producing cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor, protein kinase A, and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase inhibitors counteracted the anti-apoptotic effect of Exendin-4. Conclusions Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid transfection can mimic viral infection, and Exendin-4 exerted an anti-apoptotic effect both in MIN6 and insulin-producing cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells. PMID:26659307

  4. Improving the efficacy of type 1 diabetes therapy by transplantation of immunoisolated insulin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Ngoc, Phan Kim; Phuc, Pham Van; Nhung, Truong Hai; Thuy, Duong Thanh; Nguyet, Nguyen Thi Minh

    2011-06-01

    Type 1 diabetes occurs when pancreatic islet β-cells are damaged and are thus unable to secrete insulin. Pancreas- or islet-grafting therapy offers highly efficient treatment but is limited by inadequate donor islets or pancreases for transplantation. Stem-cell therapy holds tremendous potential and promises to enhance treatment efficiency by overcoming the limitations of traditional therapies. In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of preclinical diabetic treatment. Diabetes was induced in mice by injections of streptozotocin. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were derived from mouse bone marrow or human umbilical cord blood and subsequently differentiated into insulin-producing cells. These insulin-producing cells were encapsulated in an alginate membrane to form capsules. Finally, these capsules were grafted into diabetic mice by intraperitoneal injection. Treatment efficiency was evaluated by monitoring body weight and blood glucose levels. Immune reactions after transplantation were monitored by counting total white blood cells. Allografting or xenografting of encapsulated insulin-producing cells (IPCs) reduced blood glucose levels and increased body weight following transplantation. Encapsulation with alginate conferred immune isolation and prevented graft rejection. These results provide further evidence supporting the use of allogeneic or xenogeneic MSCs obtained from bone marrow or umbilical cord blood for treating type 1 diabetes. PMID:21567289

  5. Differentiation of embryonic and adult stem cells into insulin producing cells.

    PubMed

    Zulewski, H

    2008-03-01

    Replacement of insulin producing cells represents an almost ideal treatment for patients with diabetes mellitus type 1. Transplantation of pancreatic islets of Langerhans is successful in experienced centers. The wider application of this therapy, however, is limited by the lack of donor organs. Insulin producing cells generated from stem cells represent an attractive alternative. Stem cells with the potential to differentiate into insulin producing cells include embryonic stem cells (ESC) as well as adult stem cells from various tissues including the pancreas, liver, bone marrow and adipose tissue. The use of human ESC is hampered by ethical concerns but research with human ESC may help us to decipher important steps in the differentiation process in vitro since almost all information available on pancreas development are based on animal studies. The present review summarizes the current knowledge on the development of insulin producing cells from embryonic and adult stem cells with special emphasis on pancreatic, hepatic and human mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:18427390

  6. Adult Stem Cells as a Renewable Source of Insulin-Producing Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Hee-Sook; Park, Eun-Young

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder resulting from an inadequate mass of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. The replacement or restoration of damaged beta cells would be considered the optimal therapeutic options. Islet transplantation seems to be a promising approach for replacement therapy; however, the main obstacle is the shortage of organ donors. As mature beta cells have been shown to be difficult to expand in vitro, regeneration of beta cells from embryonic or adult stem cells or pancreatic progenitor cells is an attractive method to restore the islet cell mass. So far, multiple studies using various strategies have shown direct differentiation of stem and progenitor cells toward insulin-producing cells. The important issue to be solved is how to differentiate these cells into mature functional insulin-producing cells. Further research is required to understand how endogenous beta cells differentiate and to develop methods to regenerate enough functional beta cells for clinically applicable therapies for diabetes. PMID:24855530

  7. New method to differentiate human peripheral blood monocytes into insulin producing cells: Human hematosphere culture.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jin; Yang, Ji Min; Choi, Jae-Il; Yun, Ji-Yeon; Jang, Jae Hee; Kim, Joonoh; Kim, Ju-Young; Oh, Il-Young; Yoon, Chang-Hwan; Cho, Hyun-Jai; Park, Young-Bae; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2012-02-24

    Strategy to differentiate stem cells into insulin producing cells (IPCs) in vitro has been a promising one to get cell source of β-cell replacement therapy for diabetes. It has been suggested that islets and neurons share features and nestin-positive cells could differentiate into IPCs. We have recently developed a three-dimensional culture system using human peripheral blood cells named as blood-born hematosphere (BBHS). Here we showed that most of BBHS were composed of nestin-positive cells. Under the four-stage differentiation protocol for IPCs, we plated nestin-positive BBHS onto fibronectin-coated dish. These cells form islet-like clusters and most of them expressed insulin. Pancreatic specific genes were turned on, such as transcription factors (Pdx-1, Ngn3 and Nkx6.1), genes related to endocrine function (Glut-2 and PC2) or β cell function (Kir6.2, SUR1). Furthermore islet differentiation was confirmed by dithizone (DTZ) staining to detect zinc ion which binds insulin protein within the cells. Finally, IPCs derived from BBHS showed capability to secrete insulin in response to glucose stimulation. Taken together, our novel protocol successfully induced islet-like human insulin producing cells out of BBHS. This strategy of ex vivo expansion of IPCs using BBHS provides an autologous therapeutic cell source for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:22310720

  8. Potential Factors for the Differentiation of ESCs/iPSCs Into Insulin-Producing Cells.

    PubMed

    Tsugata, Takako; Nikoh, Naruo; Kin, Tatsuya; Saitoh, Issei; Noguchi, Yasufumi; Ueki, Hideo; Watanabe, Masami; James Shapiro, Andrew M; Noguchi, Hirofumi

    2015-02-01

    The low efficiency of in vitro differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into insulin-producing cells thus creates a crucial hurdle for the clinical implementation of human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). In this study, we investigated the key factors for the differentiation of PSCs into insulin-producing cells. We obtained microarray data of HUES8 and HUES6 from two GeneChips (GPL3921: Affymetrix HT Human Genome U133A Array, GPL570: Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array) in a database of GEO (NCBI), since HUES8 can differentiate into pancreatic cells, while HUES6 hardly demonstrates any differentiation at all. The genes with more than fourfold higher expressions in HUES8 compared to HUES6 included RPS4Y1, DDX3Y, EIF1AY, GREM1, GATA6, and NLGN4Y. Since there were four genes, RPS4Y1, DDX3Y, EIF1AY, and NLGN4Y, on the Y chromosome and HUES8 was a male cell line and HUES6 was a female cell line, we excluded these genes in this study. On the other hand, genes with more than fourfold higher expressions in HUES6 compared to HUES8 included NLRP2, EGR1, and SMC3. We next compared iPSCs derived from pancreatic cells (PiPSCs) and iPSCs derived from fibroblasts (FiPSCs). PiPSCs differentiated into insulin-producing cells more easily than FiPSCs because of their epigenetic memory. The gene expressions of GREM1, GATA6, NLRP2, EGR1, and SMC3 in PiPSCs and FiPSCs were also investigated. The expression level of GREM1 and GATA6 in PiPSCs were higher than in FiPSCs. On the other hand, EGR1, which was lower in HUES8 than in HUES6, was predictably lower in PiPSCs than FiPSCs, while NLRP2 and SMC3 were higher in PiPSCs than FiPSCs. These data suggest that the expression of GATA6 and GREM1 and the inhibition of EGR1 may be important factors for the differentiation of PSCs into insulin-producing cells. PMID:26858897

  9. Targeting insulin-producing beta cells for regenerative therapy.

    PubMed

    Migliorini, Adriana; Roscioni, Sara S; Lickert, Heiko

    2016-09-01

    Pancreatic beta cells differ in terms of glucose responsiveness, insulin secretion and proliferative capacity; however, the molecular pathways that regulate this cellular heterogeneity are unknown. We have identified the Wnt-planar cell polarity (PCP) effector Flattop (FLTP) as a biomarker that identifies mature beta cells in the islets of Langerhans. Interestingly, three-dimensional architecture and Wnt-PCP ligands are sufficient to trigger mouse and human beta cell maturation. These results highlight the fact that novel biomarkers shed light on the long-standing mystery of beta cell heterogeneity and identify the Wnt-PCP pathway as triggering beta cell maturation. Understanding heterogeneity in the islets of Langerhans might allow targeting of beta cell subpopulations for regenerative therapy and provide building principles for stem cell-derived islets. This review summarises a presentation given at the 'Can we make a better beta cell?' symposium at the 2015 annual meeting of the EASD. It is accompanied by two other reviews on topics from this symposium (by Amin Ardestani and Kathrin Maedler, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3892-9 , and by Harry Heimberg and colleagues, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3879-6 ) and a commentary by the Session Chair, Shanta Persaud (DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3870-2 ). PMID:27412250

  10. Endovascular Method for Transplantation of Insulin-Producing Cells to the Pancreas Parenchyma in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, J; Stone-Elander, S; Zhang, X-M; Korsgren, O; Jonsson, S; Holmin, S

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-producing cells are transplanted by portal vein injection as an alternative to pancreas transplantation in both clinical and preclinical trials. Two of the main limitations of portal vein transplantation are the prompt activation of the innate immunity and concomitant loss of islets and a small but significant risk of portal vein thrombosis. Furthermore, to mimic physiological release, the insulin-producing cells should instead be located in the pancreas. The trans-vessel wall approach is an endovascular method for penetrating the vessel wall from the inside. In essence, a working channel is established to the parenchyma of organs that are difficult to access by percutaneous technique. In this experiment, we accessed the extra-vascular pancreatic parenchyma in swine by microendovascular technique and injected methylene blue, contrast fluids and insulin-producing cells without acute adverse events. Further, we evaluated the procedure itself by a 1-year angiographical follow-up, without adverse events. This study shows that the novel approach utilizing endovascular minimal invasiveness coupled to accurate trans-vessel wall placement of an injection in the pancreatic parenchyma with insulin-producing cells is possible. In clinical practice, the potential benefits compared to portal vein cell transplantation should significantly improve endocrine function of the graft and potentially reduce adverse events. This study presents one-year follow-up safety data on the microendovascular trans-vessel wall technique and shows that the technique can be used to transplant insulin-producing cells to the swine pancreas parenchyma. PMID:24517268

  11. Differentiation of stem cells into insulin-producing cells: current status and challenges.

    PubMed

    Pokrywczynska, Marta; Krzyzanowska, Sandra; Jundzill, Arkadiusz; Adamowicz, Jan; Drewa, Tomasz

    2013-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most serious public health challenges of the twenty-first century. Allogenic islet transplantation is an efficient therapy for type 1 diabetes. However, immune rejection, side effects of immunosuppressive treatment as well as lack of sufficient donor organs limits its potential. In recent years, several promising approaches for generation of new pancreatic β cells have been developed. This review provides an overview of current status of pancreatic and extra-pancreatic stem cells differentiation into insulin-producing cells and the possible application of these cells for diabetes treatment. The PubMed database was searched for English language articles published between 2001 and 2012, using the keyword combinations: diabetes mellitus, differentiation, insulin-producing cells, stem cells. PMID:23283518

  12. Differentiation of stem cells into insulin-producing cells under the influence of nanostructural polyoxometalates.

    PubMed

    Bâlici, Ştefana; Şuşman, Sergiu; Rusu, Dan; Nicula, Gheorghe Zsolt; Soriţău, Olga; Rusu, Mariana; Biris, Alexandru S; Matei, Horea

    2016-03-01

    Two polyoxometalates (POMs) with W were synthesized by a two-step, self-assembling method. They were used for stimulation of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into insulin-producing cells. The nanocompounds (tris(vanadyl)-substituted tungsto-antimonate(III) anions [POM1] and tris-butyltin-21-tungsto-9-antimonate(III) anions [POM2]) were characterized by analytical techniques, including ultraviolet-visible, Fourier transform infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. We found that these polyoxotungstates, with 2-4 nm diameters, did not present toxic effects at the tested concentrations. In vitro, POM1 stimulated differentiation of a greater number of dithizone-positive cells (also organized in clusters) than the second nanocompound (POM2). Based on our in vitro studies, we have concluded that both the POMs tested had significant biological activity acting as active stimuli for differentiation of stem cells into insulin-producing cells. PMID:26397720

  13. Islet Brain 1 Protects Insulin Producing Cells against Lipotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Brajkovic, Saška; Ferdaoussi, Mourad; Pawlowski, Valérie; Ezanno, Hélène; Plaisance, Valérie; Zmuda, Erik; Hai, Tsonwin; Annicotte, Jean-Sébastien; Waeber, Gérard; Abderrahmani, Amar

    2016-01-01

    Chronic intake of saturated free fatty acids is associated with diabetes and may contribute to the impairment of functional beta cell mass. Mitogen activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 also called islet brain 1 (IB1) is a candidate gene for diabetes that is required for beta cell survival and glucose-induced insulin secretion (GSIS). In this study we investigated whether IB1 expression is required for preserving beta cell survival and function in response to palmitate. Chronic exposure of MIN6 and isolated rat islets cells to palmitate led to reduction of the IB1 mRNA and protein content. Diminution of IB1 mRNA and protein level relied on the inducible cAMP early repressor activity and proteasome-mediated degradation, respectively. Suppression of IB1 level mimicked the harmful effects of palmitate on the beta cell survival and GSIS. Conversely, ectopic expression of IB1 counteracted the deleterious effects of palmitate on the beta cell survival and insulin secretion. These findings highlight the importance in preserving the IB1 content for protecting beta cell against lipotoxicity in diabetes. PMID:26665154

  14. Islet Brain 1 Protects Insulin Producing Cells against Lipotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Brajkovic, Saška; Ferdaoussi, Mourad; Pawlowski, Valérie; Ezanno, Hélène; Plaisance, Valérie; Zmuda, Erik; Hai, Tsonwin; Annicotte, Jean-Sébastien; Waeber, Gérard; Abderrahmani, Amar

    2016-01-01

    Chronic intake of saturated free fatty acids is associated with diabetes and may contribute to the impairment of functional beta cell mass. Mitogen activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 also called islet brain 1 (IB1) is a candidate gene for diabetes that is required for beta cell survival and glucose-induced insulin secretion (GSIS). In this study we investigated whether IB1 expression is required for preserving beta cell survival and function in response to palmitate. Chronic exposure of MIN6 and isolated rat islets cells to palmitate led to reduction of the IB1 mRNA and protein content. Diminution of IB1 mRNA and protein level relied on the inducible cAMP early repressor activity and proteasome-mediated degradation, respectively. Suppression of IB1 level mimicked the harmful effects of palmitate on the beta cell survival and GSIS. Conversely, ectopic expression of IB1 counteracted the deleterious effects of palmitate on the beta cell survival and insulin secretion. These findings highlight the importance in preserving the IB1 content for protecting beta cell against lipotoxicity in diabetes. PMID:26665154

  15. Nanomaterial Solutions for the Protection of Insulin Producing Beta Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atchison, Nicole Ann

    Islet transplantation is a promising treatment for type 1 diabetes. However, even with the many successes, islet transplantation has yet to reach its full potential. Limited islet sources, loss of cell viability during isolation and culture, and post-transplant graft loss are a few of the issues preventing extensive use of islet transplantation. The application of biomaterial systems to alleviate some of the stresses affecting islet viability has led to improvements in isolation and transplantation outcomes, but problems persist. In this work we approach two distinct issues affecting islet viability; ischemic conditions and immunological attack post-transplant. Ischemic conditions have been linked to a loss of islet graft function and occur during organ preservation, islet isolation and culture, and after islets are transplanted. We show that liposomal delivery of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to beta cells can limit cell death and loss of function in ischemic conditions. We demonstrate that by functionalizing liposomes with the fibronectin-mimetic peptide PR_b, delivery of liposomes to porcine islets and rat beta cells is increased compared to nontargeted controls. Additionally, liposomes are shown to protect by providing both ATP and lipids to the ischemic cells. The delivery of ATP was investigated here but application of PR_b functionalized liposomes could be extended to other interesting cargos as well. The second area of investigation involves encapsulation of islets with silica nanoparticles to create a permselective barrier. Silica nanoparticles are an interesting material for encapsulation given their ability to be fine-tuned and further functionalized. We demonstrate that size-tunable, fluorescent silica nanoparticles can be assembled layer-by-layer on the surface of cells and that silica nanoparticle encapsulated islets are able to secrete insulin in response to a glucose challenge.

  16. Improved antioxidative defence protects insulin-producing cells against homocysteine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Scullion, Siobhan M; Hahn, Claudine; Tyka, Karolina; Flatt, Peter R; McClenaghan, Neville H; Lenzen, Sigurd; Gurgul-Convey, Ewa

    2016-08-25

    Homocysteine (HC) is considered to play an important role in the development of metabolic syndrome complications. Insulin-producing cells are prone to HC toxicity and this has been linked to oxidative stress. However, the exact mechanisms remain unknown. Therefore it was the aim of this study to determine the nature of reactive oxygen species responsible for HC toxicity. Chronic exposure of RINm5F and INS1E insulin-producing cells to HC decreased cell viability and glucose-induced insulin secretion in a concentration-dependent manner and led to a significant induction of hydrogen peroxide generation in the cytosolic, but not the mitochondrial compartment of the cell. Cytosolic overexpression of catalase, a hydrogen peroxide detoxifying enzyme, provided a significant protection against viability loss and hydrogen peroxide generation, while mitochondrial overexpression of catalase did not protect against HC toxicity. Overexpression of CuZnSOD, a cytosolic superoxide dismutating enzyme, also protected against HC toxicity. However, the best protection was achieved in the case of a combined overexpression of CuZnSOD and catalase. Incubation of cells in combination with alloxan resulted in a significant increase of HC toxicity and an increase of hydrogen peroxide generation. Overexpression of CuZnSOD or catalase protected against the toxicity of HC plus alloxan, with a superior protection achieved again by combined overexpression. The results indicate that HC induces oxidative stress in insulin-producing cells by stimulation of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide generation in the cytoplasm. The low antioxidative defence status makes the insulin-producing cells very vulnerable to HC toxicity. PMID:27317948

  17. Noninvasive Tracking of Encapsulated Insulin Producing Cells Labelled with Magnetic Microspheres by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Mandy M. W.; Foster, Jayne L.; Oberholzer, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Microencapsulated islets are usually injected free-floating into the peritoneal cavity, so the position of the grafts remains elusive after transplantation. This study aims to assess magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a noninvasive means to track microencapsulated insulin producing cells following transplantation. Encapsulated insulin producing cells (MIN6 and human islets) were labelled with magnetic microspheres (MM), assessed for viability and insulin secretion, and imaged in vitro using a clinical grade 3 T MRI and in vivo using both clinical grade 3 T and research grade 11.7 T MRI. Fluorescent imaging demonstrated the uptake of MM by both MIN6 and human islets with no changes in cell morphology and viability. MM labelling did not affect the glucose responsiveness of encapsulated MIN6 and islets in vitro. In vivo encapsulated MM-labelled MIN6 normalized sugar levels when transplanted into diabetic mice. In vitro MRI demonstrated that single microcapsules as well as clusters of encapsulated MM-labelled cells could be visualised clearly in agarose gel phantoms. In vivo encapsulated MM-labelled MIN6 could be visualised more clearly within the peritoneal cavity as discrete hypointensities using the high power 11.7 T but not the clinical grade 3 T MRI. This study demonstrates a method to noninvasively track encapsulated insulin producing cells by MM labelling and MRI.

  18. Extrinsic Factors Involved in the Differentiation of Stem Cells into Insulin-Producing Cells: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Rebecca S. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease with many debilitating complications. Treatment of diabetes mellitus mainly revolves around conventional oral hypoglycaemic agents and insulin replacement therapy. Recently, scientists have turned their attention to the generation of insulin-producing cells (IPCs) from stem cells of various sources. To date, many types of stem cells of human and animal origins have been successfully turned into IPCs in vitro and have been shown to exert glucose-lowering effect in vivo. However, scientists are still faced with the challenge of producing a sufficient number of IPCs that can in turn produce sufficient insulin for clinical use. A careful choice of stem cells, methods, and extrinsic factors for induction may all be contributing factors to successful production of functional beta-islet like IPCs. It is also important that the mechanism of differentiation and mechanism by which IPCs correct hyperglycaemia are carefully studied before they are used in human subjects. PMID:21747828

  19. Selection of insulin-producing rat insulinoma (RINm) cells with improved resistance to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Konstantin O; Vorobeychik, Marina; Yavrians, Karina; Vardi, Pnina

    2003-06-01

    The defense system against reactive oxygen species is believed to be crucial for the survival of insulin-producing cells after various injuries. The aim of our study was to select a subpopulation of insulin-producing RINm cells with higher resistance to oxidative stress. The cells resistant to hydrogen peroxide (RINmHP) were obtained by repeated exposure of parental RINm cells to 100 and 200 microM hydrogen peroxide (HP). The increased resistance of RINmHP cells to HP was confirmed by three different cytotoxicity assays. In addition, the selected cells also were resistant to the cytotoxic effect of activated rat splenocytes compared to parental cells. The half-life of HP in the RINmHP cell culture medium was about 2.5 times lower than that of the parental cells, corresponding to the increased level of catalase expression and activity in selected cells. The increased defense property of the selected cells was not associated with any significant changes in insulin content and insulin response to a mixture of glucose with isobutyl methyl xanthine or potassium chloride. In conclusion, repeated exposure to HP induces selection of RINm cells with improved resistance to oxidative stress. This improved defense characteristic probably is due to an increased level of catalase expression and activity in the selected cells. PMID:12781331

  20. Reprogramming of Pancreatic Exocrine Cells AR42J Into Insulin-producing Cells Using mRNAs for Pdx1, Ngn3, and MafA Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Koblas, Tomas; Leontovyc, Ivan; Loukotova, Sarka; Kosinova, Lucie; Saudek, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    Direct reprogramming of pancreatic nonendocrine cells into insulin-producing β-cells represents a promising approach for the treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes. However, its clinical application is limited by the potential for insertional mutagenesis associated with the viral vectors currently used for cell reprogramming. With the aim of developing a nonintegrative reprogramming strategy for derivation of insulin-producing cells, here, we evaluated a new approach utilizing synthetic messenger RNAs encoding reprogramming transcription factors. Administration of synthetic mRNAs encoding three key transcription regulators of β-cell differentiation-Pdx1, Neurogenin3, and MafA-efficiently reprogrammed the pancreatic exocrine cells into insulin-producing cells. In addition to the insulin genes expression, the synthetic mRNAs also induced the expressions of genes important for proper pancreatic β-cell function, including Sur1, Kir6.2, Pcsk1, and Pcsk2. Pretreating cells with the chromatin-modifying agent 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine further enhanced reprogramming efficiency, increasing the proportion of insulin-producing cells from 3.5 ± 0.9 to 14.3 ± 1.9% (n = 4). Moreover, 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine pretreatment enabled the reprogrammed cells to respond to glucose challenge with increased insulin secretion. In conclusion, our results support that the reprogramming of pancreatic exocrine cells into insulin-producing cells, induced by synthetic mRNAs encoding pancreatic transcription factors, represents a promising approach for cell-based diabetes therapy. PMID:27187823

  1. Insulin-Producing Cells Differentiated from Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro Ameliorate Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Hyperglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Ying; Jiang, Xin; Wang, Yishu; Su, Xuejin; Sun, Meiyu; Zhang, Lihong; Tan, Yi; Wintergerst, Kupper A.; Li, Yan; Li, Yulin

    2016-01-01

    Background The two major obstacles in the successful transplantation of islets for diabetes treatment are inadequate supply of insulin-producing tissue and immune rejection. Induction of the differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) for autologous transplantation may alleviate those limitations. Methods hMSCs were isolated and induced to differentiate into IPCs through a three-stage differentiation protocol in a defined media with high glucose, nicotinamide, and exendin-4. The physiological characteristics and functions of IPCs were then evaluated. Next, about 3 × 106 differentiated cells were transplanted into the renal sub-capsular space of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nude mice. Graft survival and function were assessed by immunohistochemistry, TUNEL staining and measurements of blood glucose levels in the mice. Results The differentiated IPCs were characterized by Dithizone (DTZ) positive staining, expression of pancreatic β-cell markers, and human insulin secretion in response to glucose stimulation. Moreover, 43% of the IPCs showed L-type Ca2+ channel activity and similar changes in intracellular Ca2+ in response to glucose stimulation as that seen in pancreatic β-cells in the process of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Transplantation of functional IPCs into the renal subcapsular space of STZ-induced diabetic nude mice ameliorated the hyperglycemia. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that transplanted IPCs sustainably expressed insulin, c-peptide, and PDX-1 without apparent apoptosis in vivo. Conclusions IPCs derived from hMSCs in vitro can ameliorate STZ-induced diabetic hyperglycemia, which indicates that these hMSCs may be a promising approach to overcome the limitations of islet transplantation. PMID:26756576

  2. Three-dimensional printed polymeric system to encapsulate human mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into islet-like insulin-producing aggregates for diabetes treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sabek, Omaima M; Farina, Marco; Fraga, Daniel W; Afshar, Solmaz; Ballerini, Andrea; Filgueira, Carly S; Thekkedath, Usha R; Grattoni, Alessandro; Gaber, A Osama

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is one of the most prevalent, costly, and debilitating diseases in the world. Pancreas and islet transplants have shown success in re-establishing glucose control and reversing diabetic complications. However, both are limited by donor availability, need for continuous immunosuppression, loss of transplanted tissue due to dispersion, and lack of vascularization. To overcome the limitations of poor islet availability, here, we investigate the potential of bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into islet-like insulin-producing aggregates. Islet-like insulin-producing aggregates, characterized by gene expression, are shown to be similar to pancreatic islets and display positive immunostaining for insulin and glucagon. To address the limits of current encapsulation systems, we developed a novel three-dimensional printed, scalable, and potentially refillable polymeric construct (nanogland) to support islet-like insulin-producing aggregates’ survival and function in the host body. In vitro studies showed that encapsulated islet-like insulin-producing aggregates maintained viability and function, producing steady levels of insulin for at least 4 weeks. Nanogland—islet-like insulin-producing aggregate technology here investigated as a proof of concept holds potential as an effective and innovative approach for diabetes cell therapy. PMID:27152147

  3. Deoxysphingolipids, novel biomarkers for type 2 diabetes, are cytotoxic for insulin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Zuellig, Richard A; Hornemann, Thorsten; Othman, Alaa; Hehl, Adrian B; Bode, Heiko; Güntert, Tanja; Ogunshola, Omolara O; Saponara, Enrica; Grabliauskaite, Kamile; Jang, Jae-Hwi; Ungethuem, Udo; Wei, Yu; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Graf, Rolf; Sonda, Sabrina

    2014-04-01

    Irreversible failure of pancreatic β-cells is the main culprit in the pathophysiology of diabetes, a disease that is now a global epidemic. Recently, elevated plasma levels of deoxysphingolipids, including 1-deoxysphinganine, have been identified as a novel biomarker for the disease. In this study, we analyzed whether deoxysphingolipids directly compromise the functionality of insulin-producing Ins-1 cells and primary islets. Treatment with 1-deoxysphinganine induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity with senescent, necrotic, and apoptotic characteristics and compromised glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In addition, 1-deoxysphinganine altered cytoskeleton dynamics, resulting in intracellular accumulation of filamentous actin and activation of the Rho family GTPase Rac1. Moreover, 1-deoxysphinganine selectively upregulated ceramide synthase 5 expression and was converted to 1-deoxy-dihydroceramides without altering normal ceramide levels. Inhibition of intracellular 1-deoxysphinganine trafficking and ceramide synthesis improved the viability of the cells, indicating that the intracellular metabolites of 1-deoxysphinganine contribute to its cytotoxicity. Analyses of signaling pathways identified Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase as antagonistic effectors of cellular senescence. The results revealed that 1-deoxysphinganine is a cytotoxic lipid for insulin-producing cells, suggesting that the increased levels of this sphingolipid observed in diabetic patients may contribute to the reduced functionality of pancreatic β-cells. Thus, targeting deoxysphingolipid synthesis may complement the currently available therapies for diabetes. PMID:24379346

  4. Insulin-Producing Endocrine Cells Differentiated In Vitro From Human Embryonic Stem Cells Function in Macroencapsulation Devices In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ambruzs, Dana M.; Moorman, Mark A.; Bhoumik, Anindita; Cesario, Rosemary M.; Payne, Janice K.; Kelly, Jonathan R.; Haakmeester, Carl; Srijemac, Robert; Wilson, Alistair Z.; Kerr, Justin; Frazier, Mauro A.; Kroon, Evert J.; D’Amour, Kevin A.

    2015-01-01

    The PEC-01 cell population, differentiated from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), contains pancreatic progenitors (PPs) that, when loaded into macroencapsulation devices (to produce the VC-01 candidate product) and transplanted into mice, can mature into glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells and other pancreatic endocrine cells involved in glucose metabolism. We modified the protocol for making PEC-01 cells such that 73%–80% of the cell population consisted of PDX1-positive (PDX1+) and NKX6.1+ PPs. The PPs were further differentiated to islet-like cells (ICs) that reproducibly contained 73%–89% endocrine cells, of which approximately 40%–50% expressed insulin. A large fraction of these insulin-positive cells were single hormone-positive and expressed the transcription factors PDX1 and NKX6.1. To preclude a significant contribution of progenitors to the in vivo function of ICs, we used a simple enrichment process to remove remaining PPs, yielding aggregates that contained 93%–98% endocrine cells and 1%–3% progenitors. Enriched ICs, when encapsulated and implanted into mice, functioned similarly to the VC-01 candidate product, demonstrating conclusively that in vitro-produced hESC-derived insulin-producing cells can mature and function in vivo in devices. A scaled version of our suspension culture was used, and the endocrine aggregates could be cryopreserved and retain functionality. Although ICs expressed multiple important β cell genes, the cells contained relatively low levels of several maturity-associated markers. Correlating with this, the time to function of ICs was similar to PEC-01 cells, indicating that ICs required cell-autonomous maturation after delivery in vivo, which would occur concurrently with graft integration into the host. Significance Type 1 diabetes (T1D) affects approximately 1.25 million people in the U.S. alone and is deadly if not managed with insulin injections. This paper describes the production of insulin-producing

  5. Ligand-bound Thyroid Hormone Receptor Contributes to Reprogramming of Pancreatic Acinar Cells into Insulin-producing Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Furuya, Fumihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Asami, Keiichi; Ichijo, Sayaka; Takahashi, Kazuya; Kaneshige, Masahiro; Oikawa, Yoichi; Aida, Kaoru; Endo, Toyoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro

    2013-01-01

    One goal of diabetic regenerative medicine is to instructively convert mature pancreatic exocrine cells into insulin-producing cells. We recently reported that ligand-bound thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα) plays a critical role in expansion of the β-cell mass during postnatal development. Here, we used an adenovirus vector that expresses TRα driven by the amylase 2 promoter (AdAmy2TRα) to induce the reprogramming of pancreatic acinar cells into insulin-producing cells. Treatment with l-3,5,3-triiodothyronine increases the association of TRα with the p85α subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), leading to the phosphorylation and activation of Akt and the expression of Pdx1, Ngn3, and MafA in purified acinar cells. Analyses performed with the lectin-associated cell lineage tracing system and the Cre/loxP-based direct cell lineage tracing system indicate that newly synthesized insulin-producing cells originate from elastase-expressing pancreatic acinar cells. Insulin-containing secretory granules were identified in these cells by electron microscopy. The inhibition of p85α expression by siRNA or the inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 prevents the expression of Pdx1, Ngn3, and MafA and the reprogramming to insulin-producing cells. In immunodeficient mice with streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia, treatment with AdAmy2TRα leads to the reprogramming of pancreatic acinar cells to insulin-producing cells in vivo. Our findings suggest that ligand-bound TRα plays a critical role in β-cell regeneration during postnatal development via activation of PI3K signaling. PMID:23595988

  6. Ligand-bound thyroid hormone receptor contributes to reprogramming of pancreatic acinar cells into insulin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Fumihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Asami, Keiichi; Ichijo, Sayaka; Takahashi, Kazuya; Kaneshige, Masahiro; Oikawa, Yoichi; Aida, Kaoru; Endo, Toyoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro

    2013-05-31

    One goal of diabetic regenerative medicine is to instructively convert mature pancreatic exocrine cells into insulin-producing cells. We recently reported that ligand-bound thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα) plays a critical role in expansion of the β-cell mass during postnatal development. Here, we used an adenovirus vector that expresses TRα driven by the amylase 2 promoter (AdAmy2TRα) to induce the reprogramming of pancreatic acinar cells into insulin-producing cells. Treatment with l-3,5,3-triiodothyronine increases the association of TRα with the p85α subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), leading to the phosphorylation and activation of Akt and the expression of Pdx1, Ngn3, and MafA in purified acinar cells. Analyses performed with the lectin-associated cell lineage tracing system and the Cre/loxP-based direct cell lineage tracing system indicate that newly synthesized insulin-producing cells originate from elastase-expressing pancreatic acinar cells. Insulin-containing secretory granules were identified in these cells by electron microscopy. The inhibition of p85α expression by siRNA or the inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 prevents the expression of Pdx1, Ngn3, and MafA and the reprogramming to insulin-producing cells. In immunodeficient mice with streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia, treatment with AdAmy2TRα leads to the reprogramming of pancreatic acinar cells to insulin-producing cells in vivo. Our findings suggest that ligand-bound TRα plays a critical role in β-cell regeneration during postnatal development via activation of PI3K signaling. PMID:23595988

  7. Identification of miRNAs Involved in Reprogramming Acinar Cells into Insulin Producing Cells

    PubMed Central

    Teichenne, Joan; Morró, Meritxell; Casellas, Alba; Jimenez, Veronica; Tellez, Noelia; Leger, Adrien; Bosch, Fatima; Ayuso, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Reprogramming acinar cells into insulin producing cells using adenoviral (Ad)-mediated delivery of Pdx1, Ngn3 and MafA (PNM) is an innovative approach for the treatment of diabetes. Here, we aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in this process and in particular, the role of microRNAs. To this end, we performed a comparative study of acinar-to-β cell reprogramming efficiency in the rat acinar cell line AR42J and its subclone B13 after transduction with Ad-PNM. B13 cells were more efficiently reprogrammed than AR42J cells, which was demonstrated by a strong activation of β cell markers (Ins1, Ins2, IAPP, NeuroD1 and Pax4). miRNome panels were used to analyze differentially expressed miRNAs in acinar cells under four experimental conditions (i) non-transduced AR42J cells, (ii) non-transduced B13 cells, (iii) B13 cells transduced with Ad-GFP vectors and (iv) B13 cells transduced with Ad-PNM vectors. A total of 59 miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed between non-transduced AR42J and B13 cells. Specifically, the miR-200 family was completely repressed in B13 cells, suggesting that these cells exist in a less differentiated state than AR42J cells and as a consequence they present a greater plasticity. Adenoviral transduction per se induced dedifferentiation of acinar cells and 11 miRNAs were putatively involved in this process, whereas 8 miRNAs were found to be associated with PNM expression. Of note, Ad-PNM reprogrammed B13 cells presented the same levels of miR-137-3p, miR-135a-5p, miR-204-5p and miR-210-3p of those detected in islets, highlighting their role in the process. In conclusion, this study led to the identification of miRNAs that might be of compelling importance to improve acinar-to-β cell conversion for the future treatment of diabetes. PMID:26690959

  8. Insight into Insulin Secretion from Transcriptome and Genetic Analysis of Insulin-Producing Cells of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jian; Ni, Julie; Ma, Wenxiu; Shiu, Vanessa; Milla, Luis A.; Park, Sangbin; Spletter, Maria L.; Tang, Sheng; Zhang, Jun; Wei, Xing; Kim, Seung K.; Scott, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-producing cells (IPCs) in the Drosophila brain produce and release insulin-like peptides (ILPs) to the hemolymph. ILPs are crucial for growth and regulation of metabolic activity in flies, functions analogous to those of mammalian insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). To identify components functioning in IPCs to control ILP production, we employed genomic and candidate gene approaches. We used laser microdissection and messenger RNA sequencing to characterize the transcriptome of larval IPCs. IPCs highly express many genes homologous to genes active in insulin-producing β-cells of the mammalian pancreas. The genes in common encode ILPs and proteins that control insulin metabolism, storage, secretion, β-cell proliferation, and some not previously linked to insulin production or β-cell function. Among these novelties is unc-104, a kinesin 3 family gene, which is more highly expressed in IPCs compared to most other neurons. Knockdown of unc-104 in IPCs impaired ILP secretion and reduced peripheral insulin signaling. Unc-104 appears to transport ILPs along axons. As a complementary approach, we tested dominant-negative Rab genes to find Rab proteins required in IPCs for ILP production or secretion. Rab1 was identified as crucial for ILP trafficking in IPCs. Inhibition of Rab1 in IPCs increased circulating sugar levels, delayed development, and lowered weight and body size. Immunofluorescence labeling of Rab1 showed its tight association with ILP2 in the Golgi of IPCs. Unc-104 and Rab1 join other proteins required for ILP transport in IPCs. PMID:24558258

  9. Insulin producing cells established using non-integrated lentiviral vector harboring PDX1 gene

    PubMed Central

    Boroujeni, Zahra Niki; Aleyasin, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate reprogramming of human adipose tissue derived stem cells into insulin producing cells using non-integrated lentivirus harboring PDX1 gene. METHODS: In this study, human adipose tissue derived stem cells (hADSCs) were obtained from abdominal adipose tissues by liposuction, selected by plastic adhesion, and characterized by flow cytometric analysis. Human ADSCs were differentiated into adipocytes and osteocytes using differentiating medium to confirm their multipotency. Non-integrated lentiviruses harboring PDX1 (Non-integrated LV-PDX1) were constructed using specific plasmids (pLV-HELP, pMD2G, LV-105-PDX1-1). Then, hADSCs were transduced with non-integrated LV-PDX1. After transduction, ADSCsPDX1+ were cultured in high glucose DMEM medium supplement by B27, nicotinamide and βFGF for 21 d. Expressions of PDX1 and insulin were detected at protein level by immunofluorescence analysis. Expressions of PDX1, neurogenin3 (Ngn3), glucagon, glucose transporter2 (Glut2) and somatostatin as specific marker genes were investigated at mRNA level by quantitative RT-PCR. Insulin secretion of hADSCsPDX1+ in the high-glucose medium was detected by electrochemiluminescence test. Human ADSCsPDX1+ were implanted into hyperglycemic rats. RESULTS: Human ADSCs exhibited their fibroblast-like morphology and made colonies after 7-10 d of culture. Determination of hADSCs identified by FACS analysis showed that hADSCs were positive for mesenchymal cell markers and negative for hematopoietic cell markers that guaranteed the lack of hematopoietic contamination. In vitro differentiation of hADSCs into osteocytes and adipocytes were detected by Alizarin red and Oil red O staining and confirmed their multilineage differentiation ability. Transduced hADSCs+PDX1 became round and clusters in the differentiation medium. The appropriate expression of PDX1 and insulin proteins was confirmed using immunocytochemistry analysis. Significant expressions of PDX1, Ngn3, glucagon, Glut2 and

  10. Cold-sensing regulates Drosophila growth through insulin-producing cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiaoran; Gong, Zhefeng

    2015-01-01

    Across phyla, body size is linked to climate. For example, rearing fruit flies at lower temperatures results in bigger body sizes than those observed at higher temperatures. The underlying molecular basis of this effect is poorly understood. Here we provide evidence that the temperature-dependent regulation of Drosophila body size depends on a group of cold-sensing neurons and insulin-producing cells (IPCs). Electrically silencing IPCs completely abolishes the body size increase induced by cold temperature. IPCs are directly innervated by cold-sensing neurons. Stimulation of these cold-sensing neurons activates IPCs, promotes synthesis and secretion of Drosophila insulin-like peptides and induces a larger body size, mimicking the effects of rearing the flies in cold temperature. Taken together, these findings reveal a neuronal circuit that mediates the effects of low temperature on fly growth. PMID:26648410

  11. Cold-sensing regulates Drosophila growth through insulin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiaoran; Gong, Zhefeng

    2015-01-01

    Across phyla, body size is linked to climate. For example, rearing fruit flies at lower temperatures results in bigger body sizes than those observed at higher temperatures. The underlying molecular basis of this effect is poorly understood. Here we provide evidence that the temperature-dependent regulation of Drosophila body size depends on a group of cold-sensing neurons and insulin-producing cells (IPCs). Electrically silencing IPCs completely abolishes the body size increase induced by cold temperature. IPCs are directly innervated by cold-sensing neurons. Stimulation of these cold-sensing neurons activates IPCs, promotes synthesis and secretion of Drosophila insulin-like peptides and induces a larger body size, mimicking the effects of rearing the flies in cold temperature. Taken together, these findings reveal a neuronal circuit that mediates the effects of low temperature on fly growth. PMID:26648410

  12. From the Cover: Cell-replacement therapy for diabetes: Generating functional insulin-producing tissue from adult human liver cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapir, Tamar; Shternhall, Keren; Meivar-Levy, Irit; Blumenfeld, Tamar; Cohen, Hamutal; Skutelsky, Ehud; Eventov-Friedman, Smadar; Barshack, Iris; Goldberg, Iris; Pri-Chen, Sarah; Ben-Dor, Lya; Polak-Charcon, Sylvie; Karasik, Avraham; Shimon, Ilan; Mor, Eytan; Ferber, Sarah

    2005-05-01

    Shortage in tissue availability from cadaver donors and the need for life-long immunosuppression severely restrict the large-scale application of cell-replacement therapy for diabetic patients. This study suggests the potential use of adult human liver as alternate tissue for autologous beta-cell-replacement therapy. By using pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene 1 (PDX-1) and soluble factors, we induced a comprehensive developmental shift of adult human liver cells into functional insulin-producing cells. PDX-1-treated human liver cells express insulin, store it in defined granules, and secrete the hormone in a glucose-regulated manner. When transplanted under the renal capsule of diabetic, immunodeficient mice, the cells ameliorated hyperglycemia for prolonged periods of time. Inducing developmental redirection of adult liver offers the potential of a cell-replacement therapy for diabetics by allowing the patient to be the donor of his own insulin-producing tissue. pancreas | transdifferentiation

  13. Differentiation of P19 embryonal carcinoma stem cells into insulin-producing cells promoted by pancreas-conditioned medium.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Akram; Esmaeili, Fariba; Nejatpour, Azadeh; Houshmand, Fariba; Shabani, Leila; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2016-07-01

    The ability of embryonal carcinoma )EC (stem cells to generate insulin-producing cells (IPCs) is still unknown. We examined the trophic effects of pancreas-conditioned medium (PCM) on in vitro production of IPCs. Initially, P19 EC cells were characterized by the expression of stem cell markers, Oct3/4, Sox-2 and Nanog. To direct differentiation, P19-derived embryoid bodies (EBs) were induced by selection of nestin-positive cells and treatment with different concentrations of PCM. Morphological studies documented the presence of islet-like cell IPCs clusters. The differentiated cells were immunoreactive for β cell-specific proteins, including insulin, proinsulin, C-peptide and insulin receptor-β. The expression of genes related to pancreatic β cell development and function (PDX-1, INS1, INS2, EP300 and CREB1) was confirmed by qPCR. During differentiation, the expression of EP300 and CREB1 increased by 2.5 and 3.1 times, respectively. In contrast, a sharp decrease in the expression of Oct3/4, Sox-2 and Nanog by 4, 1.5 and 1.5 times, respectively, was observed. The differentiated cells were functionally active, synthesizing and secreting insulin in a glucose-regulated manner. Network prediction highlighted crosstalk between PDX-1 transcription factor and INS2 ligand in IPC generation and revealed positive regulatory effects of EP300, CREB1, PPARA, EGR, KIT, GLP1R, and PKT2 on activation of PDX-1 and INS2. This is the first report of the induction of IPC differentiation from EC cells by using neonate mouse PCM. Since P19 EC cells are widely available, easily cultured without feeders and do not require special growth conditions, they would provide a valuable tool for studying pancreatic β cell differentiation and development. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25044225

  14. Transplantation of insulin-producing cells to treat diabetic rats after 90% pancreatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ya-Bin; Bian, Jian-Min; Gu, Dian-Hua

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of transplantation of insulin-producing cells (IPCs) in the treatment of diabetic rats after 90% pancreatectomy. METHODS: Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) were isolated and induced into IPCs using differentiation medium. Differentiated cells were examined by dithizone (DTZ) staining, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and real-time RT-PCR. C-peptide release, both spontaneously and after glucose challenge, was measured by ELISA. IPCs were then transplanted into Sprague-Dawley rats after 90% pancreatectomy and blood glucose levels and body weight were measured. RESULTS: The differentiated cells were positive for DTZ staining and expressed pancreatic β-cell related genes. C-peptide release by the differentiated cells increased after glucose challenge (380.6 ± 15.32 pmol/L vs 272.4 ± 15.32 pmol/L, P < 0.05). Further, in the cell transplantation group, blood sugar levels were significantly lower than in the sham group 2 wk after transplantation (18.7 ± 2.5 mmol/L vs 25.8 ± 1.25 mmol/L, P < 0.05). Glucose tolerance tests showed that 45 min after intraperitoneal glucose injection, blood glucose levels were significantly lower on day 56 after transplantation of IPCs (12.5 ± 4.7 mmol/L vs 42.2 ± 9.3 mmol/L, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our results show that UCMSCs can differentiate into islet-like cells in vitro under certain conditions, which can function as IPCs both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:26074696

  15. Peribiliary Glands as a Niche of Extrapancreatic Precursors Yielding Insulin-Producing Cells in Experimental and Human Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Carpino, Guido; Puca, Rosa; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Renzi, Anastasia; Scafetta, Gaia; Nevi, Lorenzo; Rossi, Massimo; Berloco, Pasquale B; Ginanni Corradini, Stefano; Reid, Lola M; Maroder, Marella; Gaudio, Eugenio; Alvaro, Domenico

    2016-05-01

    Peribiliary glands (PBGs) are niches in the biliary tree and containing heterogeneous endodermal stem/progenitors cells that can differentiate, in vitro and in vivo, toward pancreatic islets. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in experimental and human diabetes, proliferation of cells in PBGs and differentiation of the biliary tree stem/progenitor cells (BTSCs) toward insulin-producing cells. Diabetes was generated in mice by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of 200 mg/kg (N = 12) or 120 mg/kg (N = 12) of streptozotocin. Liver, pancreas, and extrahepatic biliary trees were en bloc dissected and examined. Cells in PBGs proliferated in experimental diabetes, and their proliferation was greatest in the PBGs of the hepatopancreatic ampulla, and inversely correlated with the pancreatic islet area. In rodents, the cell proliferation in PBGs was characterized by the expansion of Sox9-positive stem/progenitor cells that gave rise to insulin-producing cells. Insulin-producing cells were located mostly in PBGs in the portion of the biliary tree closest to the duodenum, and their appearance was associated with upregulation of MafA and Gli1 gene expression. In patients with type 2 diabetes, PBGs at the level of the hepatopancreatic ampulla contained cells showing signs of proliferation and pancreatic fate commitment. In vitro, high glucose concentrations induced the differentiation of human BTSCs cultures toward pancreatic beta cell fates. The cells in PBGs respond to diabetes with proliferation and differentiation towards insulin-producing cells indicating that PBG niches may rescue pancreatic islet impairment in diabetes. These findings offer important implications for the pathophysiology and complications of this disease. Stem Cells 2016;34:1332-1342. PMID:26850087

  16. Mitochondrial Respiration in Insulin-Producing β-Cells: General Characteristics and Adaptive Effects of Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zuheng; Scholz, Hanne; Björklund, Anneli; Grill, Valdemar

    2015-01-01

    Objective To provide novel insights on mitochondrial respiration in β-cells and the adaptive effects of hypoxia. Methods and Design Insulin-producing INS-1 832/13 cells were exposed to 18 hours of hypoxia followed by 20–22 hours re-oxygenation. Mitochondrial respiration was measured by high-resolution respirometry in both intact and permeabilized cells, in the latter after establishing three functional substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor titration (SUIT) protocols. Concomitant measurements included proteins of mitochondrial complexes (Western blotting), ATP and insulin secretion. Results Intact cells exhibited a high degree of intrinsic uncoupling, comprising about 50% of oxygen consumption in the basal respiratory state. Hypoxia followed by re-oxygenation increased maximal overall respiration. Exploratory experiments in peremabilized cells could not show induction of respiration by malate or pyruvate as reducing substrates, thus glutamate and succinate were used as mitochondrial substrates in SUIT protocols. Permeabilized cells displayed a high capacity for oxidative phosphorylation for both complex I- and II-linked substrates in relation to maximum capacity of electron transfer. Previous hypoxia decreased phosphorylation control of complex I-linked respiration, but not in complex II-linked respiration. Coupling control ratios showed increased coupling efficiency for both complex I- and II-linked substrates in hypoxia-exposed cells. Respiratory rates overall were increased. Also previous hypoxia increased proteins of mitochondrial complexes I and II (Western blotting) in INS-1 cells as well as in rat and human islets. Mitochondrial effects were accompanied by unchanged levels of ATP, increased basal and preserved glucose-induced insulin secretion. Conclusions Exposure of INS-1 832/13 cells to hypoxia, followed by a re-oxygenation period increases substrate-stimulated respiratory capacity and coupling efficiency. Such effects are accompanied by up-regulation of

  17. The Drosophila TNF Eiger Is an Adipokine that Acts on Insulin-Producing Cells to Mediate Nutrient Response.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Neha; Delanoue, Renald; Mauri, Alessandra; Basco, Davide; Pasco, Matthieu; Thorens, Bernard; Léopold, Pierre

    2016-04-12

    Adaptation of organisms to ever-changing nutritional environments relies on sensor tissues and systemic signals. Identification of these signals would help understand the physiological crosstalk between organs contributing to growth and metabolic homeostasis. Here we show that Eiger, the Drosophila TNF-α, is a metabolic hormone that mediates nutrient response by remotely acting on insulin-producing cells (IPCs). In the condition of nutrient shortage, a metalloprotease of the TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE) family is active in fat body (adipose-like) cells, allowing the cleavage and release of adipose Eiger in the hemolymph. In the brain IPCs, Eiger activates its receptor Grindelwald, leading to JNK-dependent inhibition of insulin production. Therefore, we have identified a humoral connexion between the fat body and the brain insulin-producing cells relying on TNF-α that mediates adaptive response to nutrient deprivation. PMID:27076079

  18. Insulin-producing cells could not mimic the physiological regulation of insulin secretion performed by pancreatic beta cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the difference between insulin-producing cells (IPCs) and normal human pancreatic beta cells both in physiological function and morphological features in cellular level. Methods The levels of insulin secretion were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The insulin gene expression was determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The morphological features were detected by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and laser confocal scanning microscopy. Results IPCs and normal human pancreatic beta cells were similar to each other under the observation in AFM with the porous structure features in the cytoplasm. Both number of membrane particle size and average roughness of normal human beta cells were higher than those of IPCs. Conclusions Our results firstly revealed that the cellular ultrastructure of IPCs was closer to that of normal human pancreatic beta cells, but they still could not mimic the physiological regulation of insulin secretion performed by pancreatic beta cells. PMID:23421382

  19. Differentiation of PDX1 gene-modified human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into insulin-producing cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    He, Dongmei; Wang, Juan; Gao, Yangjun; Zhang, Yuan

    2011-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have significant advantages over other stem cell types, and greater potential for immediate clinical application. MSCs would be an interesting cellular source for treatment of type 1 diabetes. In this study, MSCs from human umbilical cord were differentiated into functional insulin-producing cells in vitro by introduction of the pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor 1 (PDX1) and in the presence of induction factors. The expressions of cell surface antigens were detected by flow cytometry. After induction in an adipogenic medium or an osteogenic medium, the cells were observed by Oil Red O staining and alkaline phosphatase staining. Recombinant adenovirus carrying the PDX1 gene was constructed and MSCs were infected by the recombinant adenovirus, then treated with several inducing factors for differentiation into islet β-like cells. The expression of the genes and protein related to islet β-cells was detected by immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Insulin and C-peptide secretion were assayed. Our results show that the morphology and immunophenotype of MSCs from human umbilical cord were similar to those present in human bone marrow. The MSCs could be induced to differentiate into osteocytes and adipocytes. After induction by recombined adenovirus vector with induction factors, MSCs were aggregated and presented islet-like bodies. Dithizone staining of these cells was positive. The genes' expression related to islet β-cells was found. After induction, insulin and C-peptide secretion in the supernatant were significantly increased. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that PDX1 gene-modified human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells could be differentiated into insulin-producing cells in vitro. PMID:21837359

  20. Protection against Cytokine Toxicity through Endoplasmic Reticulum and Mitochondrial Stress Prevention by Prostacyclin Synthase Overexpression in Insulin-producing Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Gurgul-Convey, Ewa; Lenzen, Sigurd

    2010-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus. One of the cytokine-regulated pathways mediating inflammation in this autoimmune disease is the arachidonic acid metabolism pathway, comprising both the induction of cyclooxygenases and the production of different prostaglandins. Cytokine toxicity is mediated in many cell types, including pancreatic β cells through this pathway. Interestingly, some cell types have been shown to be insensitive to such toxicity, and this correlated with a high expression of prostacyclin synthase (PGIS). Using insulin-producing RINm5F cells as a model for pancreatic β cells, PGIS was overexpressed and exhibited a large protective effect against cytokine toxicity. This protective effect of PGIS against cytokine toxicity correlated with a decreased activation of the transcription factor NFκB and the inducible NO synthase promoter as well as a reduced inducible NO synthase protein expression and nitrite production. A reduction in the cytokine-stimulated endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial stress was also found in the PGIS-overexpressing cells. Moreover, cytokine-induced caspase-3 activation and reduction of glucose oxidation and cell proliferation were suppressed. Thus, PGIS overexpression apparently protects insulin-producing cells against cytokine toxicity via suppression of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial stress-mediated cell death pathways. PMID:20159982

  1. Factors expressed by murine embryonic pancreatic mesenchyme enhance generation of insulin-producing cells from hESCs.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tingxia; Landsman, Limor; Li, Na; Hebrok, Matthias

    2013-05-01

    Islet transplantation has proven to be a successful strategy to restore normoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, the dearth of cadaveric islets available for transplantation hampers the widespread application of this treatment option. Although human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells are capable of generating insulin-producing cells in vitro when provided with the appropriate inductive cues, the insulin-expressing cells that develop behave more like immature β-cells with minimal sensitivity to glucose stimulation. Here, we identify a set of signaling factors expressed in mouse embryonic mesenchyme during the time when foregut and pancreatic progenitors are specified and test their activities during in vitro differentiation of human embryonic stem cells. Several of the identified factors work in concert to expand the pancreatic progenitor pool. Interestingly, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β ligands, most potent in inducing pancreatic progenitors, display strong inhibitory effects on subsequent endocrine cell differentiation. Treatment with TGF-β ligands, followed by the addition of a TGF-β receptor antagonist, dramatically increased the number of insulin-producing cells in vitro, demonstrating the need for dynamic temporal regulation of TGF-β signaling during in vitro differentiation. These studies illustrate the need to precisely mimic the in vivo conditions to fully recapitulate pancreatic lineage specification in vitro. PMID:23305648

  2. Reversal of hyperglycemia in mice by using human expandable insulin-producing cells differentiated from fetal liver progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Zalzman, Michal; Gupta, Sanjeev; Giri, Ranjit K; Berkovich, Irina; Sappal, Baljit S; Karnieli, Ohad; Zern, Mark A; Fleischer, Norman; Efrat, Shimon

    2003-06-10

    Beta-cell replacement is considered to be the most promising approach for treatment of type 1 diabetes. Its application on a large scale is hindered by a shortage of cells for transplantation. Activation of insulin expression, storage, and regulated secretion in stem/progenitor cells offers novel ways to overcome this shortage. We explored whether fetal human progenitor liver cells (FH) could be induced to differentiate into insulin-producing cells after expression of the pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1) gene, which is a key regulator of pancreatic development and insulin expression in beta cells. FH cells possess a considerable replication capacity, and this was further extended by introduction of the gene for the catalytic subunit of human telomerase. Immortalized FH cells expressing Pdx1 activated multiple beta-cell genes, produced and stored considerable amounts of insulin, and released insulin in a regulated manner in response to glucose. When transplanted into hyperglycemic immunodeficient mice, the cells restored and maintained euglycemia for prolonged periods. Quantitation of human C-peptide in the mouse serum confirmed that the glycemia was normalized by the transplanted human cells. This approach offers the potential of a novel source of cells for transplantation into patients with type 1 diabetes. PMID:12756298

  3. Reversal of hyperglycemia in mice by using human expandable insulin-producing cells differentiated from fetal liver progenitor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalzman, Michal; Gupta, Sanjeev; Giri, Ranjit K.; Berkovich, Irina; Sappal, Baljit S.; Karnieli, Ohad; Zern, Mark A.; Fleischer, Norman; Efrat, Shimon

    2003-06-01

    Beta-cell replacement is considered to be the most promising approach for treatment of type 1 diabetes. Its application on a large scale is hindered by a shortage of cells for transplantation. Activation of insulin expression, storage, and regulated secretion in stem/progenitor cells offers novel ways to overcome this shortage. We explored whether fetal human progenitor liver cells (FH) could be induced to differentiate into insulin-producing cells after expression of the pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1) gene, which is a key regulator of pancreatic development and insulin expression in beta cells. FH cells possess a considerable replication capacity, and this was further extended by introduction of the gene for the catalytic subunit of human telomerase. Immortalized FH cells expressing Pdx1 activated multiple beta-cell genes, produced and stored considerable amounts of insulin, and released insulin in a regulated manner in response to glucose. When transplanted into hyperglycemic immunodeficient mice, the cells restored and maintained euglycemia for prolonged periods. Quantitation of human C-peptide in the mouse serum confirmed that the glycemia was normalized by the transplanted human cells. This approach offers the potential of a novel source of cells for transplantation into patients with type 1 diabetes.

  4. In vitro differentiation of human umbilical cord Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stromal cells to insulin producing clusters

    PubMed Central

    Nekoei, Seideh Masoomeh; Azarpira, Negar; Sadeghi, Ladan; Kamalifar, Sulmaz

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the differentiation of human Wharton’s jelly derived mesenchymal stromal cells (WJ-MSCs) to insulin producing clusters (IPC) this study was conducted. METHODS: The umbilical cords samples were collected from full term caesarian section mothers and the WJ-MSCS were cultured from tissue explants in High glucose-Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (H-DMEM); H-DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and antibiotics. The expression of CD90, CD44, CD105, CD34 and CD133 as well as osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of cells in appropriate medium were also evaluated. The cells were differentiated toward IPC with changing the culture medium and adding the small molecules such as nicotinic acid, epidermal growth factor, and exendin-4 during 3 wk period. The gene expression of PDX1, NGN3, Glut2, insulin was monitored by reveres transcription polymerase chain reaction method. The differentiated clusters were stained with Dithizone (DTZ) which confirms the presence of insulin granules. The insulin challenge test (low and high glucose concentration in Krebs-Ringer HEPES buffer) was also used to evaluate the functional properties of differentiated clusters. RESULTS: WJ-MSCS were positive for mesenchymal surface markers (CD90, CD44, CD105), and negative for CD34 and CD133. The accumulation of lipid vacuoles and deposition of calcium mineral in cells were considered as adipogenic and osteogenic potential of WJ-MSCS. The cells also expressed the transcriptional factors such as Nanog and OCT4. During this three step differentiation, the WJ-MSCS morphology was gradually changed from spindle shaped cells in to epithelioid cells and eventually to three dimensional clusters. The clusters expressed PDX1, NGN3, Glut2, and insulin. The cells became bright red color when stained with DTZ and the insulin secretion was also confirmed. In glucose challenge test a significant increase in insulin secretion from 0.91 ± 0.04 μIu/mL (2.8 mmol/L glucose) to

  5. Induced ICER I{gamma} down-regulates cyclin A expression and cell proliferation in insulin-producing {beta} cells

    SciTech Connect

    Inada, Akari; Weir, Gordon C.; Bonner-Weir, Susan . E-mail: susan.bonner-weir@joslin.harvard.edu

    2005-04-15

    We have previously found that cyclin A expression is markedly reduced in pancreatic {beta}-cells by cell-specific overexpression of repressor inducible cyclic AMP early repressor (ICER I{gamma}) in transgenic mice. Here we further examined regulatory effects of ICER I{gamma} on cyclin A gene expression using Min6 cells, an insulin-producing cell line. The cyclin A promoter luciferase assay showed that ICER I{gamma} directly repressed cyclin A gene transcription. In addition, upon ICER I{gamma} overexpression, cyclin A mRNA levels markedly decreased, thereby confirming an inhibitory effect of ICER I{gamma} on cyclin A expression. Suppression of cyclin A results in inhibition of BrdU incorporation. Under normal culture conditions endogenous cyclin A is abundant in these cells, whereas ICER is hardly detectable. However, serum starvation of Min6 cells induces ICER I{gamma} expression with a concomitant very low expression level of cyclin A. Cyclin A protein is not expressed unless the cells are in active DNA replication. These results indicate a potentially important anti-proliferative effect of ICER I{gamma} in pancreatic {beta} cells. Since ICER I{gamma} is greatly increased in diabetes as well as in FFA- or high glucose-treated islets, this effect may in part exacerbate diabetes by limiting {beta}-cell proliferation.

  6. Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Insulin Producing Cells by Using A Lentiviral Vector Carrying PDX1

    PubMed Central

    Allahverdi, Amir; Abroun, Saied; Jafarian, Arefeh; Soleimani, Masoud; Taghikhani, Mohammad; Eskandari, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Objective Type I diabetes is an immunologically-mediated devastation of insulin producing cells (IPCs) in the pancreatic islet. Stem cells that produce β-cells are a new promising tool. Adult stem cells such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are self renewing multi potent cells showing capabilities to differentiate into ectodermal, mesodermal and endodermal tissues. Pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor 1 (PDX1) is a master regulator gene required for embryonic development of the pancreas and is crucial for normal pancreatic islets activities in adults. Materials and Methods We induced the over-expression of the PDX1 gene in human bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) by Lenti-PDX1 in order to generate IPCs. Next, we examine the ability of the cells by measuring insulin/c-peptide production and INSULIN and PDX1 gene expressions. Results After transduction, MSCs changed their morphology at day 5 and gradually differentiated into IPCs. INSULIN and PDX1 expressions were confirmed by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunostaining. IPC secreted insulin and C-peptide in the media that contained different glucose concentrations. Conclusion MSCs differentiated into IPCs by genetic manipulation. Our result showed that lentiviral vectors could deliver PDX1 gene to MSCs and induce pancreatic differentiation. PMID:26199902

  7. Preadipocyte factor 1 induces pancreatic ductal cell differentiation into insulin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Marie; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Ji-Won; Ham, Dong-Sik; Park, Heon-Seok; Yang, Hae Kyung; Shin, Ju-Young; Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Kim, Young-Bum; Youn, Byung-Soo; Sul, Hei Sook; Yoon, Kun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref-1) is involved in the proliferation and differentiation of various precursor cells. However, the intracellular signaling pathways that control these processes and the role of Pref-1 in the pancreas remain poorly understood. Here, we showed that Pref-1 induces insulin synthesis and secretion via two independent pathways. The overexpression of Pref-1 activated MAPK signaling, which induced nucleocytoplasmic translocation of FOXO1 and PDX1 and led to the differentiation of human pancreatic ductal cells into β-like cells and an increase in insulin synthesis. Concurrently, Pref-1 activated Akt signaling and facilitated insulin secretion. A proteomics analysis identified the Rab43 GTPase-activating protein as a downstream target of Akt. A serial activation of both proteins induced various granular protein syntheses which led to enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In a pancreatectomised diabetic animal model, exogenous Pref-1 improved glucose homeostasis by accelerating pancreatic ductal and β-cell regeneration after injury. These data establish a novel role for Pref-1, opening the possibility of applying this molecule to the treatment of diabetes. PMID:27044861

  8. Preadipocyte factor 1 induces pancreatic ductal cell differentiation into insulin-producing cells

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Marie; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Ji-Won; Ham, Dong-Sik; Park, Heon-Seok; Yang, Hae Kyung; Shin, Ju-Young; Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Kim, Young-Bum; Youn, Byung-Soo; Sul, Hei Sook; Yoon, Kun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref-1) is involved in the proliferation and differentiation of various precursor cells. However, the intracellular signaling pathways that control these processes and the role of Pref-1 in the pancreas remain poorly understood. Here, we showed that Pref-1 induces insulin synthesis and secretion via two independent pathways. The overexpression of Pref-1 activated MAPK signaling, which induced nucleocytoplasmic translocation of FOXO1 and PDX1 and led to the differentiation of human pancreatic ductal cells into β-like cells and an increase in insulin synthesis. Concurrently, Pref-1 activated Akt signaling and facilitated insulin secretion. A proteomics analysis identified the Rab43 GTPase-activating protein as a downstream target of Akt. A serial activation of both proteins induced various granular protein syntheses which led to enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In a pancreatectomised diabetic animal model, exogenous Pref-1 improved glucose homeostasis by accelerating pancreatic ductal and β-cell regeneration after injury. These data establish a novel role for Pref-1, opening the possibility of applying this molecule to the treatment of diabetes. PMID:27044861

  9. Mechanisms of hepatocyte growth factor-mediated signaling in differentiation of pancreatic ductal epithelial cells into insulin-producing cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xin-Yu; Zhan, Xiao-Rong; Lu, Chong; Liu, Xiao-Min; Wang, Xiao-Chen

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} A hypothesis that the differentiation of PDEC is through MAPKs or PI3K/AKT pathways. {yields} Determine if kinases (ERK1/2, p38, JNK, and AKT) are activated in these pathways. {yields} Determine signal pathway(s) that may effect on HGF-induced differentiation of PDEC. {yields} PI3K-AKT pathway is involved in the differentiation of PDECs induced by HGF. {yields} MEK-ERK pathway effect on the proliferation of PDECs but not the differentiation. -- Abstract: Pancreatic ductal epithelial cells (PDECs) were induced to differentiate into insulin-producing cells by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in our previous study, but the mechanism through which this induction occurs is still unknown. HGF is a ligand that activates a tyrosine kinase encoded by the c-Met proto-oncogene. This activation is followed by indirect activation of multiple downstream signal transduction pathways (including MAPKs and the PI3K/AKT signaling pathways) that initiate various biological effects. Therefore, we speculated that the differentiation of PDECs is through either the MAPK signaling pathway or the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. To test this hypothesis, isolated PDECs from adult rats were stimulated by adding HGF to their medium for 28 days. Then, the expression levels of several protein kinases, including MAPKs (ERK1/2, p38, and JNK) and AKT, were determined by Western blotting to determine if specific protein kinases are activated in these pathways. Subsequently, re-isolated from adult rats and cultured PDECs were pre-treated with specific inhibitors of proteins shown to be activated in these signaling pathways; these cells were then induced to differentiate by the addition of HGF. The expression levels of protein kinases were determined by Western blotting, and the differentiation rate of insulin-positive cells was determined by flow cytometry. The change of PDEC differentiation rates were compared between the groups in which cells with or without inhibitors

  10. A Variant of GJD2, Encoding for Connexin 36, Alters the Function of Insulin Producing β-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cigliola, Valentina; Populaire, Celine; Pierri, Ciro L.; Deutsch, Samuel; Haefliger, Jacques-Antoine; Fadista, João; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Groop, Leif; Rueedi, Rico; Thorel, Fabrizio; Herrera, Pedro Luis; Meda, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Signalling through gap junctions contributes to control insulin secretion and, thus, blood glucose levels. Gap junctions of the insulin-producing β-cells are made of connexin 36 (Cx36), which is encoded by the GJD2 gene. Cx36-null mice feature alterations mimicking those observed in type 2 diabetes (T2D). GJD2 is also expressed in neurons, which share a number of common features with pancreatic β-cells. Given that a synonymous exonic single nucleotide polymorphism of human Cx36 (SNP rs3743123) associates with altered function of central neurons in a subset of epileptic patients, we investigated whether this SNP also caused alterations of β-cell function. Transfection of rs3743123 cDNA in connexin-lacking HeLa cells resulted in altered formation of gap junction plaques and cell coupling, as compared to those induced by wild type (WT) GJD2 cDNA. Transgenic mice expressing the very same cDNAs under an insulin promoter revealed that SNP rs3743123 expression consistently lead to a post-natal reduction of islet Cx36 levels and β-cell survival, resulting in hyperglycemia in selected lines. These changes were not observed in sex- and age-matched controls expressing WT hCx36. The variant GJD2 only marginally associated to heterogeneous populations of diabetic patients. The data document that a silent polymorphism of GJD2 is associated with altered β-cell function, presumably contributing to T2D pathogenesis. PMID:26959991

  11. A genetic mouse model for progressive ablation and regeneration of insulin producing beta-cells

    PubMed Central

    Shamsi, Farnaz; Parlato, Rosanna; Collombat, Patrick; Mansouri, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    The putative induction of adult β-cell regeneration represents a promising approach for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. Toward this ultimate goal, it is essential to develop an inducible model mimicking the long-lasting disease progression. In the current study, we have established a novel β-cell ablation mouse model, in which the β-cell mass progressively declines, as seen in type 1 diabetes. The model is based on the β-cell specific genetic ablation of the transcription initiation factor 1A, TIF-IA, essential for RNA Polymerase I activity (TIF-IAΔ/Δ). Using this approach, we induced a slow apoptotic response that eventually leads to a protracted β-cell death. In this model, we observed β-cell regeneration that resulted in a complete recovery of the β-cell mass and normoglycemia. In addition, we showed that adaptive proliferation of remaining β-cells is the prominent mechanism acting to compensate for the massive β-cell loss in young but also aged mice. Interestingly, at any age, we also detected β-like cells expressing the glucagon hormone, suggesting a transition between α- and β-cell identities or vice versa. Taken together, the TIF-IAΔ/Δ mouse model can be used to investigate the potential therapeutic approaches for type 1 diabetes targeting β-cell regeneration. PMID:25558832

  12. Laminin 411 acts as a potent inducer of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into insulin-producing cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an incurable metabolic disease constituting a major threat to human health. Insulin-producing cells (IPCs) differentiated from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold great promise in the treatment of DM. The development of an efficient IPC induction system is a crucial step for the clinical application of IPCs for DM. Laminin 411 is a key component of the basement membrane and is involved in the regulation of cell differentiation; however, little is known about a role of laminin 411 in the regulation of IPC differentiation from human MSCs. Methods MSCs were isolated from human umbilical cord (UC-MSCs) and expanded in an in vitro culture system. UC-MSCs were then cultured in the IPC induction and differentiation medium in the presence of laminin 411. Flow cytometry, Quantitative realtime PCR, immunofluorescence staining, ELISA, Western blotting and other techniques were applied to determine IPC generation, insulin expression and related mechanisms. To evaluate potential therapeutic efficacy of IPCs induced from UC-MSCs, a type-1 diabetes (T1DM) rat model was generated using streptozotocin. Blood glucose, insulin levels, and survival of rats were monitored periodically following intravenous injection of the tested cells. Results Laminin 411 markedly induced the expression of the genes Foxa2 and Sox17, markers for pancreatic precursor cells, efficiently induced IPC differentiation from MSCs, and up-regulated insulin expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, the expression of the genes known to govern insulin expression including Pdx1 and Ngn3 was markedly induced by laminin 411, which suggests that Pdx1 and Ngn3 signaling pathways are involved in laminin 411 induced-insulin expression machinery. More importantly, administration of laminin 411-induced IPCs rapidly and significantly down-regulated fasting blood glucose levels, significantly reduced the HbA1c concentration and markedly improved the symptoms and survival of

  13. Efficient and simple production of insulin-producing cells from embryonal carcinoma stem cells using mouse neonate pancreas extract, as a natural inducer.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimie, Marzieh; Esmaeili, Fariba; Cheraghi, Somayeh; Houshmand, Fariba; Shabani, Leila; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2014-01-01

    An attractive approach to replace the destroyed insulin-producing cells (IPCs) is the generation of functional β cells from stem cells. Embryonal carcinoma (EC) stem cells are pluripotent cells which can differentiate into all cell types. The present study was carried out to establish a simple nonselective inductive culture system for generation of IPCs from P19 EC cells by 1-2 weeks old mouse pancreas extract (MPE). Since, mouse pancreatic islets undergo further remodeling and maturation for 2-3 weeks after birth, we hypothesized that the mouse neonatal MPE contains essential factors to induce in vitro differentiation of pancreatic lineages. Pluripotency of P19 cells were first confirmed by expression analysis of stem cell markers, Oct3/4, Sox-2 and Nanog. In order to induce differentiation, the cells were cultured in a medium supplemented by different concentrations of MPE (50, 100, 200 and 300 µg/ml). The results showed that P19 cells could differentiate into IPCs and form dithizone-positive cell clusters. The generated P19-derived IPCs were immunoreactive to proinsulin, insulin and insulin receptor beta. The expression of pancreatic β cell genes including, PDX-1, INS1 and INS2 were also confirmed. The peak response at the 100 µg/ml MPE used for investigation of EP300 and CREB1 gene expression. When stimulated with glucose, these cells synthesized and secreted insulin. Network analysis of the key transcription factors (PDX-1, EP300, CREB1) during the generation of IPCs resulted in introduction of novel regulatory candidates such as MIR17, and VEZF1 transcription factors, as well as MORN1, DKFZp761P0212, and WAC proteins. Altogether, we demonstrated the possibility of generating IPCs from undifferentiated EC cells, with the characteristics of pancreatic β cells. The derivation of pancreatic cells from EC cells which are ES cell siblings would provide a valuable experimental tool in study of pancreatic development and function as well as rapid production of

  14. A Systematic Comparison of Purification and Normalization Protocols for Quantitative MicroRNA Expressional Profiling in Insulin-Producing Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vestergaard, Anna Lindeløv; Blankestijn, Maaike; Stahl, Jonathan Lucien; Pallesen, Emil Marek Heymans; Bang-Berthelsen, Claus Heiner; Pociot, Flemming; Novotny, Guy Wayne; Lundh, Morten; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    As microRNAs (miRs) are gaining increasing attention as key regulators of cellular processes, expressional quantification is widely applied. However, in the processing of relatively quantified data, the importance of testing the stability of several reference mRNAs and/or miRs and choosing among these for normalization is often overlooked, potentially leading to biased results. Here, we have optimized the purification of miR-enriched total RNA from pancreatic insulin-producing INS-1 cells. Additionally, we optimized and analyzed miR expression by a qPCR-based microarray and by specific qPCR and tested the stability of candidate reference mRNAs and miRs. Hence, this study gives a widely applicable example on how to easily and systematically test and decide how to normalize miR quantification. We suggest that caution in the interpretation of miR quantification studies that do not comprise stability analysis should be exerted. PMID:27338345

  15. Aromatic malononitriles stimulate the resistance of insulin-producing beta-cells to oxidants and inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Turpaev, Kyril; Welsh, Nils

    2016-08-01

    We presently report that treatment with tyrphostin AG-126 (2-(3-hydroxy-4-nitrobenzylidene)malononitrile) and ten other aromatic malononitrile compounds (AMN) improves the resistance of insulin-producing βTC6, RIN-5AH, and MIN6 cells to oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. On the molecular level AMN compounds promote nuclear accumulation of the Nrf2 transcription factor and expression of the cytoprotective genes heme ogygenase 1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H/quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), inhibit cytokine-dependent inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induction, suppress intracellular production of reactive oxygen species in βTC6 and counteract to impairments of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines in MIN6 cells. Nrf2 up-regulation and HO-1 induction by AG-126 are attenuated at the presence of siRNA against Nrf2 and brusatol, an inhibitor of the Nrf2 signaling pathway. Our present results indicate that in respect of inhibition of IL-1β-dependent iNOS induction, βTC6 cells are more sensitive to EMK 1071 (2-((5-methylthiophen-2-yl)methylene)malononitrile) and EMK 31 (2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)malononitrile) as compared to other analyzed AMN compounds. We suggest that the ability of AMN compounds to inhibit iNOS induction and other cytokine-induced transcriptional events might be a tool to achieve improved β-cell survival and functionality. PMID:27178899

  16. In Vivo Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Insulin Producing Cells on Electrospun Poly-L-Lactide Acid Scaffolds Coated with Matricaria chamomilla L. Oil

    PubMed Central

    Fazili, Afsaneh; Gholami, Soghra; Minaie Zangi, Bagher; Seyedjafari, Ehsan; Gholami, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined the in vivo differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into insulin producing cells (IPCs) on electrospun poly-L-lactide acid (PLLA) scaffolds coated with Matricaria chammomila L. (chamomile) oil. Materials and Methods In this interventional, experimental study adipose MSCs (AMSCs) were isolated from 12 adult male New Zealand white rabbits and characterized by flow cytometry. AMSCs were subsequently differentiated into osteogenic and adipogenic lines. Cells were seeded onto either a PLLA scaffold (control) or PLLA scaffold coated with chamomile oil (experimental). A total of 24 scaffolds were inserted into the pancreatic area of each rabbit and placement was confirmed by ultrasound. After 21 days, immunohistochemistry analysis of insulin-producing like cells on protein levels confirmed insulin expression of insulin producing cells (IPSCs). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) determined the expressions of genes related to pancreatic endocrine development and function. Results Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results confirmed the existence of oil on the surface of the PLLA scaffold. The results showed a new peak at 2854 cm-1 for the aliphatic CH2 bond. Pdx1 expression was 0.051 ± 0.007 in the experimental group and 0.009 ± 0.002 in the control group. There was significantly increased insulin expression in the scaffold coated with chamomile oil (0.09 ± 0.001) compared to control group (0.063 ± 0.009, P≤0.05). Both groups expressed Ngn3 and Pdx1 specific markers and pancreatic tissue was observed at 21 days post transplantation. Conclusion The pancreatic region is an optimal site for differentiation of AMSCs to IPCs. Chamomile oil (as an antioxidant agent) can affect cell adhesion to the scaffold and increase cell differentiation. In addition, the oil may lead to increased blood glucose uptake in pathways in the muscles, liver and fatty tissue of a diabetic animal model by some probable molecular mechanisms

  17. The Generation of Insulin Producing Cells from Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells by MiR-375 and Anti-MiR-9

    PubMed Central

    Jafarian, Arefeh; Taghikani, Mohammad; Abroun, Saeid; Allahverdi, Amir; Lamei, Maryam; Lakpour, Niknam; Soleimani, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of endogenous small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. A number of studies have led to the notion that some miRNAs have key roles in control of pancreatic islet development and insulin secretion. Based on some studies on miRNAs pattern, the researchers in this paper investigated the pancreatic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) by up-regulation of miR-375 and down-regulation of miR-9 by lentiviruses containing miR-375 and anti-miR-9. Methodology After 21 days of induction, islet-like clusters containing insulin producing cells (IPCs) were confirmed by dithizone (DTZ) staining. The IPCs and β cell specific related genes and proteins were detected using qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence on days 7, 14 and 21 of differentiation. Glucose challenge test was performed at different concentrations of glucose so extracellular and intracellular insulin and C-peptide were assayed using ELISA kit. Although derived IPCs by miR-375 alone were capable to express insulin and other endocrine specific transcription factors, the cells lacked the machinery to respond to glucose. Conclusion It was found that over-expression of miR-375 led to a reduction in levels of Mtpn protein in derived IPCs, while treatment with anti-miR-9 following miR-375 over-expression had synergistic effects on MSCs differentiation and insulin secretion in a glucose-regulated manner. The researchers reported that silencing of miR-9 increased OC-2 protein in IPCs that may contribute to the observed glucose-regulated insulin secretion. Although the roles of miR-375 and miR-9 are well known in pancreatic development and insulin secretion, the use of these miRNAs in transdifferentiation was never demonstrated. These findings highlight miRNAs functions in stem cells differentiation and suggest that they could be used as therapeutic tools for gene-based therapy in diabetes mellitus. PMID:26047014

  18. In vitro generation of glucose-responsive insulin producing cells using lentiviral based pdx-1 gene transduction of mouse (C57BL/6) mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Rahmati, Saman; Alijani, Najva; Kadivar, Mehdi

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of this type of recombinant lentivirus to generate glucose-responsive insulin producing cells in vitro. All steps of cloning were confirmed using restriction digests. After the transduction, mesenchymal stem cells gradually began to change their morphology and showed differentiation into islet like structures. RT-PCR results confirmed the expression of insulin1, insulin2 and pdx-1 in differentiated cells. Dithizone staining of mouse MSCs showed the concentration of glucose in islet like structures. ELISA analysis validated the insulin secretion of islet like structures which in the high-glucose medium (25mmol/l) was 7.44 fold higher than that secreted in the low-glucose medium (5mmol/l). Our results demonstrated that mouse mesenchymal stem cells can be differentiated into effective glucose-responsive insulin producing cells through our new recombinant lentiviral transduction of pdx-1 gene in vitro. This new lentiviral vector could be suggested as an effective candidate for using in gene therapy of type-1 diabetes. PMID:23831626

  19. Association of expression levels of pluripotency/stem cell markers with the differentiation outcome of Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells into insulin producing cells.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Dina H; Kamal, Mohamed M; El-Kholy, Abd El-Latif G; El-Mesallamy, Hala O

    2016-08-01

    Recently, there has been much attention towards generation of insulin producing cells (IPCs) from stem cells, especially from Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs). However, generation of mature IPCs remains a challenge. Assessment of generation of IPCs was usually done by examining β-cell markers, however, assessment of pluripotency/stem cell markers drew less attention. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of pluripotency/stem cell markers during differentiation of WJ-MSCs into IPCs and the association of these levels with differentiation outcomes. WJ-MSCs were isolated, characterized then induced to differentiate into IPCs using three different protocols namely A, B and C. Differentiated IPCs were assessed by the expression of pluripotency/stem cell markers, together with β-cell markers using qRT-PCR, and functionally by measuring glucose stimulated insulin secretion. Differentiated cells from protocol A showed lowest expression of pluripotency/stem cell markers and relatively best GSIS. However, protocol B showed concomitant expression of pluripotency/stem cell and β-cell markers with relatively less insulin secretion as compared to protocol A. Protocol C failed to generate glucose-responsive IPCs. In conclusion, sustained expression of pluripotency/stem cell markers could be associated with the incomplete differentiation of WJ-MSCs into IPCs. A novel finding for which further investigations are warranted. PMID:27265786

  20. In Vitro Differentiation of Human Umbilical Cord Blood CD133+Cells into Insulin Producing Cells in Co-Culture with Rat Pancreatic Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sahraneshin Samani, Fazel; Ebrahimi, Marzieh; Zandieh, Tahereh; Khoshchehreh, Reyhaneh; Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza; Aghdami, Nasser; Baharvand, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pancreatic stroma plays an important role in the induction of pancreatic cells by the use of close range signaling. In this respect, we presume that pancreatic mesenchymal cells (PMCs) as a fundamental factor of the stromal niche may have an effective role in differentiation of umbilical cord blood cluster of differentiation 133+ (UCB-CD133+) cells into newly-formed β-cells in vitro. Materials and Methods This study is an experimental research. The UCB-CD133+cells were purified by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) and differentiated into insulin producing cells (IPCs) in co-culture, both directly and indirectly with rat PMCs. Immunocytochemistry and enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) were used to determine expression and production of insulin and C-peptide at the protein level. Results Our results demonstrated that UCB-CD133+differentiated into IPCs. Cells in islet-like clusters with (out) co-cultured with rat pancreatic stromal cells produced insulin and C-peptide and released them into the culture medium at the end of the induction protocol. However they did not respond well to glucose challenges. Conclusion Rat PMCs possibly affect differentiation of UCB-CD133+cells into IPCs by increasing the number of immature β-cells. PMID:26199900

  1. Graphene oxide inhibits hIAPP amyloid fibrillation and toxicity in insulin-producing NIT-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Nedumpully-Govindan, Praveen; Gurzov, Esteban N; Chen, Pengyu; Pilkington, Emily H; Stanley, William J; Litwak, Sara A; Davis, Thomas P; Ke, Pu Chun; Ding, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP or amylin) aggregation is directly associated with pancreatic β-cell death and subsequent insulin deficiency in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Since no cure is currently available for T2D, it is of great benefit to devise new anti-aggregation molecules, which protect β-cells against hIAPP aggregation-induced toxicity. Engineered nanoparticles have been recently exploited as anti-aggregation nanomedicines. In this work, we studied graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets for their potential for hIAPP aggregation inhibition by combining computational modeling, biophysical characterization and cell toxicity measurements. Using discrete molecular dynamics (DMD) simulations and in vitro studies, we showed that GO exhibited an inhibitory effect on hIAPP aggregation. DMD simulations indicated that the strong binding of hIAPP to GO nanosheets was driven by hydrogen bonding and aromatic stacking and that the strong peptide-GO binding efficiently inhibited hIAPP self-association and aggregation on the nanosheet surface. Secondary structural changes of hIAPP upon GO binding derived from DMD simulations were consistent with circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy measurements. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images confirmed the reduction of hIAPP aggregation in the presence of GO. Furthermore, we carried out a cell toxicity assay and found that these nanosheets protected insulin-secreting NIT-1 pancreatic β-cells against hIAPP-induced toxicity. Our multidisciplinary study suggests that GO nanosheets have the potential to be utilized as an anti-aggregation nanomedicine itself in addition to a biosensor or delivery vehicle for the mitigation of T2D progression. PMID:26625841

  2. Genetically Engineered Islets and Alternative Sources of Insulin-Producing Cells for Treating Autoimmune Diabetes: Quo Vadis?

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Feng-Cheng; Huang, Shing-Hwa; Sytwu, Huey-Kang

    2012-01-01

    Islet transplantation is a promising therapy for patients with type 1 diabetes that can provide moment-to-moment metabolic control of glucose and allow them to achieve insulin independence. However, two major problems need to be overcome: (1) detrimental immune responses, including inflammation induced by the islet isolation/transplantation procedure, recurrence autoimmunity, and allorejection, can cause graft loss and (2) inadequate numbers of organ donors. Several gene therapy approaches and pharmaceutical treatments have been demonstrated to prolong the survival of pancreatic islet grafts in animal models; however, the clinical applications need to be investigated further. In addition, for an alternative source of pancreatic β-cell replacement therapy, the ex vivo generation of insulin-secreting cells from diverse origins of stem/progenitor cells has become an attractive option in regenerative medicine. This paper focuses on the genetic manipulation of islets during transplantation therapy and summarizes current strategies to obtain functional insulin-secreting cells from stem/progenitor cells. PMID:22690214

  3. Insulin signaling, lifespan and stress resistance are modulated by metabotropic GABA receptors on insulin producing cells in the brain of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Enell, Lina E; Kapan, Neval; Söderberg, Jeannette A E; Kahsai, Lily; Nässel, Dick R

    2010-01-01

    Insulin-like peptides (ILPs) regulate growth, reproduction, metabolic homeostasis, life span and stress resistance in worms, flies and mammals. A set of insulin producing cells (IPCs) in the Drosophila brain that express three ILPs (DILP2, 3 and 5) have been the main focus of interest in hormonal DILP signaling. Little is, however, known about factors that regulate DILP production and release by these IPCs. Here we show that the IPCs express the metabotropic GABA(B) receptor (GBR), but not the ionotropic GABA(A) receptor subunit RDL. Diminishing the GBR expression on these cells by targeted RNA interference abbreviates life span, decreases metabolic stress resistance and alters carbohydrate and lipid metabolism at stress, but not growth in Drosophila. A direct effect of diminishing GBR on IPCs is an increase in DILP immunofluorescence in these cells, an effect that is accentuated at starvation. Knockdown of irk3, possibly part of a G protein-activated inwardly rectifying K(+) channel that may link to GBRs, phenocopies GBR knockdown in starvation experiments. Our experiments suggest that the GBR is involved in inhibitory control of DILP production and release in adult flies at metabolic stress and that this receptor mediates a GABA signal from brain interneurons that may convey nutritional signals. This is the first demonstration of a neurotransmitter that inhibits insulin signaling in its regulation of metabolism, stress and life span in an invertebrate brain. PMID:21209905

  4. Multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes in the mouse. Evidence for stimulation of a cytotoxic cellular immune response against an insulin-producing beta cell line.

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, R C; Andersson, J; Sandler, S; Hellerström, C

    1984-01-01

    Mice were examined for the presence of splenocytes specifically cytotoxic for a rat insulinoma cell line (RIN) during the induction of diabetes by streptozotocin (SZ) in multiple low doses (Multi-Strep). Cytotoxicity was quantitated by the release of 51Cr from damaged cells. A low but statistically significant level of cytolysis (5%) by splenocytes was first detectable on day 8 after the first dose of SZ. The cytotoxicity reached a maximum of approximately 9% on day 10 and slowly decreased thereafter, becoming undetectable 42 d after SZ was first given. The time course of the in vitro cytotoxic response correlated with the degree of insulitis demonstrable in the pancreata of the Multi-Strep mice. The degree of cytotoxicity after Multi-Strep was related to the number of effector splenocytes to which the target RIN cells were exposed and was comparable to that detectable after immunization by intraperitoneal injection of RIN cells in normal mice. The cytotoxicity was specific for insulin-producing cells; syngeneic, allogeneic, and xenogeneic lymphocytes and lymphoblasts, 3T3 cells, and a human keratinocyte cell line were not specifically lysed by the splenocytes of the Multi-Strep mice. This phenomenon was limited to the Multi-Strep mice. Splenocytes from mice made diabetic by a single, high dose of SZ exhibited a very low level of cytotoxicity against the RIN cells. The cytotoxic response was also quantitated in splenocytes from control and Multi-Strep mice (10 d after the first dose of SZ) before and after culture with mitomycin-treated RIN cells in the presence of T cell growth factor (TCGF). The cytotoxicity of the Multi-Strep splenocytes was enhanced more than fivefold after such culture, suggesting the proliferation of an effector cell that could be stimulated and supported in vitro by TCGF. These results support the hypothesis that cell-mediated anti-beta cell autoimmunity may play a role in the destruction of the beta cells in this animal model. The

  5. Proteomics analysis of cytokine-induced dysfunction and death in insulin-producing INS-1E cells: new insights into the pathways involved.

    PubMed

    D'Hertog, Wannes; Overbergh, Lut; Lage, Kasper; Ferreira, Gabriela Bonfim; Maris, Michael; Gysemans, Conny; Flamez, Daisy; Cardozo, Alessandra Kupper; Van den Bergh, Gert; Schoofs, Liliane; Arckens, Lut; Moreau, Yves; Hansen, Daniel Aaen; Eizirik, Decio Laks; Waelkens, Ettienne; Mathieu, Chantal

    2007-12-01

    Cytokines released by islet-infiltrating immune cells play a crucial role in beta-cell dysfunction and apoptotic cell death in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes and after islet transplantation. RNA studies revealed complex pathways of genes being activated or suppressed during this beta-cell attack. The aim of the present study was to analyze protein changes in insulin-producing INS-1E cells exposed to inflammatory cytokines in vitro using two-dimensional DIGE. Within two different pH ranges we observed 2214 +/- 164 (pH 4-7) and 1641 +/- 73 (pH 6-9) spots. Analysis at three different time points (1, 4, and 24 h of cytokine exposure) revealed that the major changes were taking place only after 24 h. At this time point 158 proteins were altered in expression (4.1%, n = 4, p < or = 0.01) by a combination of interleukin-1beta and interferon-gamma, whereas only 42 and 23 proteins were altered by either of the cytokines alone, giving rise to 199 distinct differentially expressed spots. Identification of 141 of these by MALDI-TOF/TOF revealed proteins playing a role in insulin secretion, cytoskeleton organization, and protein and RNA metabolism as well as proteins associated with endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress/defense. We investigated the interactions of these proteins and discovered a significant interaction network (p < 1.27e-05) containing 42 of the identified proteins. This network analysis suggests that proteins of different pathways act coordinately in a beta-cell dysfunction/apoptotic beta-cell death interactome. In addition the data suggest a central role for chaperones and proteins playing a role in RNA metabolism. As many of these identified proteins are regulated at the protein level or undergo post-translational modifications, a proteomics approach, as performed in this study, is required to provide adequate insight into the mechanisms leading to beta-cell dysfunction and apoptosis. The present findings may open new avenues for the understanding

  6. Combined therapy of insulin-producing cells and haematopoietic stem cells offers better diabetic control than only haematopoietic stem cells’ infusion for patients with insulin-dependent diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Shruti D; Trivedi, Hargovind L; Gopal, Saroj C; Chandra, Tulika

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is a chronic condition characterised by impaired blood sugar metabolism and autoimmunity. We report two children: a 5-year-old girl on exogenous insulin therapy of 30 IU/day and a 9-year-old boy on short-acting insulin 30 IU/day, long-acting insulin 70 IU/day, with IDDM since 4 and 7 years, respectively. We infused in vitro-generated donor bone marrow (BM)-derived haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in patient 1 and insulin-secreting cells trans-differentiated from autologous adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells along with BM-HSC in patient 2 under non-myeloablative conditioning. Patient 1 improved during the initial 6 months, but then again lost metabolic control with increased blood sugar levels and insulin requirement of 32 IU/day; we lost her to follow-up after 18 months. Patient 2, over follow-up of 24.87 months, has stable blood sugar levels with glycosylated haemoglobin of 6.4% and present insulin requirement of 15 IU/day. PMID:25199184

  7. Transduction of PEP-1-heme oxygenase-1 into insulin-producing INS-1 cells protects them against cytokine-induced cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Su Jin; Kang, Hyung Kyung; Song, Dong Keun; Eum, Won Sik; Park, Jinseu; Choi, Soo Young; Kwon, Hyeok Yil

    2015-06-05

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines play a crucial role in the destruction of pancreatic β-cells, thereby triggering the development of autoimmune diabetes mellitus. We recently developed a cell-permeable fusion protein, PEP-1-heme oxygenase-1 (PEP-1-HO-1) and investigated the anti-inflammatory effects in macrophage cells. In this study, we transduced PEP-1-HO-1 into INS-1 insulinoma cells and examined its protective effect against cytokine-induced cell death. PEP-1-HO-1 was successfully delivered into INS-1 cells in time- and dose-dependent manner and was maintained within the cells for at least 48 h. Pre-treatment with PEP-1-HO-1 increased the survival of INS-1 cells exposed to cytokine mixture (IL-1β, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) in a dose-dependent manner. PEP-1-HO-1 markedly decreased cytokine-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA). These protective effects of PEP-1-HO-1 against cytokines were correlated with the changes in the levels of signaling mediators of inflammation (iNOS and COX-2) and cell apoptosis/survival (Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, PARP, JNK, and Akt). These results showed that the transduced PEP-1-HO-1 efficiently prevented cytokine-induced cell death of INS-1 cells by alleviating oxidative/nitrosative stresses and inflammation. Further, these results suggested that PEP-1-mediated HO-1 transduction may be a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent β-cell destruction in patients with autoimmune diabetes mellitus. - Highlights: • We showed that PEP-1-HO-1 was efficiently delivered into INS-1 cells. • Transduced PEP-1-HO-1 exerted a protective effect against cytokine-induced cell death. • Transduced PEP-1-HO-1 inhibited cytokine-induced ROS and NO accumulation. • PEP-1-HO-1 suppressed cytokine-induced expression of iNOS, COX-2, and Bax. • PEP-1-HO-1 transduction may be an efficient tool to prevent β-cell destruction.

  8. Generation of Insulin-Producing Cells from the Mouse Liver Using β Cell-Related Gene Transfer Including Mafa and Mafb

    PubMed Central

    Oishi, Hisashi; Tai, Pei-Han; Sekiguchi, Yukari; Koshida, Ryusuke; Jung, Yunshin; Kudo, Takashi; Takahashi, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on the large Maf transcription factors have shown that Mafb and Mafa have respective and distinctive roles in β-cell development and maturation. However, whether this difference in roles is due to the timing of the gene expression (roughly, expression of Mafb before birth and of Mafa after birth) or to the specific function of each gene is unclear. Our aim was to examine the functional differences between these genes that are closely related to β cells by using an in vivo model of β-like cell generation. We monitored insulin gene transcription by measuring bioluminescence emitted from the liver of insulin promoter-luciferase transgenic (MIP-Luc-VU) mice. Adenoviral gene transfers of Pdx1/Neurod/Mafa (PDA) and Pdx1/Neurod/Mafb (PDB) combinations generated intense luminescence from the liver that lasted for more than 1 week and peaked at 3 days after transduction. The peak signal intensities of PDA and PDB were comparable. However, PDA but not PDB transfer resulted in significant bioluminescence on day 10, suggesting that Mafa has a more sustainable role in insulin gene activation than does Mafb. Both PDA and PDB transfers ameliorated the glucose levels in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic model for up to 21 days and 7 days, respectively. Furthermore, PDA transfer induced several gene expressions necessary for glucose sensing and insulin secretion in the liver on day 9. However, a glucose tolerance test and liver perfusion experiment did not show glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from intrahepatic β-like cells. These results demonstrate that bioluminescence imaging in MIP-Luc-VU mice provides a noninvasive means of detecting β-like cells in the liver. They also show that Mafa has a markedly intense and sustained role in β-like cell production in comparison with Mafb. PMID:25397325

  9. Islet formation in mice and men: Lessons for the generation of functional insulin-producing β cells from human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Gopika; Hebrok, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The Islets of Langerhans are crucial ‘micro-organs’ embedded in the glandular exocrine pancreas that regulate nutrient metabolism. They not only synthesize, but also secrete endocrine hormones in a modulated fashion in response to physiologic metabolic demand. These highly sophisticated structures with intricate organization of multiple cell types, namely endocrine, vascular, neuronal and mesenchymal cells, have evolved to perform this task to perfection over time. Not surprisingly, islet architecture and function are dissimilar between humans and typically studied model organisms, such as rodents and zebrafish. Further, recent findings also suggest noteworthy differences in human islet development from that in mouse, including delayed appearance and gradual resolution of key differentiation markers, a single-phase of endocrine differentiation, and prenatal association of developing islets with neurovascular milieu. In light of these findings, it is imperative that a systematic study is undertaken to compare islet development between human and mouse. Illuminating inter-species differences in islet development will likely be critical in furthering our pursuit to generate an unlimited supply of truly functional and fully mature β-cells from human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) sources for therapeutic purposes. PMID:25909383

  10. Islet formation in mice and men: lessons for the generation of functional insulin-producing β-cells from human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Nair, Gopika; Hebrok, Matthias

    2015-06-01

    The Islets of Langerhans are crucial 'micro-organs' embedded in the glandular exocrine pancreas that regulate nutrient metabolism. They not only synthesize, but also secrete endocrine hormones in a modulated fashion in response to physiologic metabolic demand. These highly sophisticated structures with intricate organization of multiple cell types, namely endocrine, vascular, neuronal and mesenchymal cells, have evolved to perform this task to perfection over time. Not surprisingly, islet architecture and function are dissimilar between humans and typically studied model organisms, such as rodents and zebrafish. Further, recent findings also suggest noteworthy differences in human islet development from that in mouse, including delayed appearance and gradual resolution of key differentiation markers, a single-phase of endocrine differentiation, and prenatal association of developing islets with neurovascular milieu. In light of these findings, it is imperative that a systematic study is undertaken to compare islet development between human and mouse. Illuminating inter-species differences in islet development will likely be critical in furthering our pursuit to generate an unlimited supply of truly functional and fully mature β-cells from human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) sources for therapeutic purposes. PMID:25909383

  11. Suppression of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transitioning Enhances Ex Vivo Reprogramming of Human Exocrine Pancreatic Tissue Toward Functional Insulin-Producing β-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Maria João; Muir, Kenneth R.; Docherty, Hilary M.; Drummond, Robert; McGowan, Neil W.A.; Forbes, Shareen; Heremans, Yves; Houbracken, Isabelle; Ross, James A.; Forbes, Stuart J.; Ravassard, Philippe; Heimberg, Harry; Casey, John; Docherty, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Because of the lack of tissue available for islet transplantation, new sources of β-cells have been sought for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether the human exocrine-enriched fraction from the islet isolation procedure could be reprogrammed to provide additional islet tissue for transplantation. The exocrine-enriched cells rapidly dedifferentiated in culture and grew as a mesenchymal monolayer. Genetic lineage tracing confirmed that these mesenchymal cells arose, in part, through a process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitioning (EMT). A protocol was developed whereby transduction of these mesenchymal cells with adenoviruses containing Pdx1, Ngn3, MafA, and Pax4 generated a population of cells that were enriched in glucagon-secreting α-like cells. Transdifferentiation or reprogramming toward insulin-secreting β-cells was enhanced, however, when using unpassaged cells in combination with inhibition of EMT by inclusion of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) and transforming growth factor-β1 inhibitors. Resultant cells were able to secrete insulin in response to glucose and on transplantation were able to normalize blood glucose levels in streptozotocin diabetic NOD/SCID mice. In conclusion, reprogramming of human exocrine-enriched tissue can be best achieved using fresh material under conditions whereby EMT is inhibited, rather than allowing the culture to expand as a mesenchymal monolayer. PMID:23610058

  12. Enzymes for Pancreatic Islet Isolation Impact Chemokine-Production and Polarization of Insulin-Producing β-Cells with Reduced Functional Survival of Immunoisolated Rat Islet-Allografts as a Consequence

    PubMed Central

    de Vos, Paul; Smink, Alexandra M.; Paredes, Genaro; Lakey, Jonathan R. T.; Kuipers, Jeroen; Giepmans, Ben N. G.; de Haan, Bart J.; Faas, Marijke M.

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether normal variations in enzyme-activities of collagenases applied for rat-islet isolation impact longevity of encapsulated islet grafts. Also we studied the functional and immunological properties of rat islets isolated with different enzyme preparations to determine whether this impacts these parameters. Rat-islets were isolated from the pancreas with two different collagenases with commonly accepted collagenase, neutral protease, and clostripain activities. Islets had a similar and acceptable glucose-induced insulin-release profile but a profound statistical significant difference in production of the chemokines IP-10 and Gro-α. The islets were studied with nanotomy which is an EM-based technology for unbiased study of ultrastructural features of islets such as cell-cell contacts, endocrine-cell condition, ER stress, mitochondrial conditions, and cell polarization. The islet-batch with higher chemokine-production had a lower amount of polarized insulin-producing β-cells. All islets had more intercellular spaces and less interconnected areas with tight cell-cell junctions when compared to islets in the pancreas. Islet-graft function was studied by implanting encapsulated and free islet grafts in rat recipients. Alginate-based encapsulated grafts isolated with the enzyme-lot inducing higher chemokine production and lower polarization survived for a two-fold shorter period of time. The lower survival-time of the encapsulated grafts was correlated with a higher influx of inflammatory cells at 7 days after implantation. Islets from the same two batches transplanted as free unencapsulated-graft, did not show any difference in survival or function in vivo. Lack of insight in factors contributing to the current lab-to-lab variation in longevity of encapsulated islet-grafts is considered to be a threat for clinical application. Our data suggest that seemingly minor variations in activity of enzymes applied for islet

  13. Long term Glycemic Control Using Polymer Encapsulated, Human Stem-Cell Derived β-cells in Immune Competent mice

    PubMed Central

    Vegas, Arturo J.; Veiseh, Omid; Gürtler, Mads; Millman, Jeffrey R.; Pagliuca, Felicia W.; Bader, Andrew R.; Doloff, Joshua C.; Li, Jie; Chen, Michael; Olejnik, Karsten; Tam, Hok Hei; Jhunjhunwala, Siddharth; Langan, Erin; Aresta-Dasilva, Stephanie; Gandham, Srujan; McGarrigle, James; Bochenek, Matthew A.; Hollister-Lock, Jennifer; Oberholzer, Jose; Greiner, Dale L.; Weir, Gordon C.; Melton, Douglas A.; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    The transplantation of glucose-responsive, insulin-producing cells offers the potential for restoring glycemic control in diabetic patients1. Pancreas transplantation and the infusion of cadaveric islets are currently implemented clinically2, but are limited by the adverse effects of lifetime immunosuppression and the limited supply of donor tissue3. The latter concern may be addressed by recently described glucose responsive mature β-cells derived from human embryonic stem cells; called SC-β, these cells may represent an unlimited human cell source for pancreas replacement therapy4. Strategies to address the immunosuppression concern include immunoisolation of insulin-producing cells with porous biomaterials that function as an immune barrier5,6. However, clinical implementation has been challenging due to host immune responses to implant materials7. Here, we report the first long term glycemic correction of a diabetic, immune-competent animal model with human SC-β cells. SC-β cells were encapsulated with alginate-derivatives capable of mitigating foreign body responses in vivo, and implanted into the intraperitoneal (IP) space of streptozotocin-treated (STZ) C57BL/6J mice. These implants induced glycemic correction until removal at 174 days without any immunosuppression. Human C-peptide concentrations and in vivo glucose responsiveness demonstrate therapeutically relevant glycemic control. Implants retrieved after 174 days contained viable insulin-producing cells. PMID:26808346

  14. Islet Endothelial Cells Derived From Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Jain, Neha; Lee, Eun Jung

    2016-01-01

    The islet endothelium comprises a specialized population of islet endothelial cells (IECs) expressing unique markers such as nephrin and α-1 antitrypsin (AAT) that are not found in endothelial cells in surrounding tissues. However, due to difficulties in isolating and maintaining a pure population of these cells, the information on these islet-specific cells is currently very limited. Interestingly, we have identified a large subpopulation of endothelial cells exhibiting IEC phenotype, while deriving insulin-producing cells from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). These cells were identified by the uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and were successfully isolated and subsequently expanded in endothelial cell culture medium. Further analysis demonstrated that the mouse embryonic stem cell-derived endothelial cells (mESC-ECs) not only express classical endothelial markers, such as platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM1), thrombomodulin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) but also IEC-specific markers such as nephrin and AAT. Moreover, mESC-ECs secrete basement membrane proteins such as collagen type IV, laminin, and fibronectin in culture and form tubular networks on a layer of Matrigel, demonstrating angiogenic activity. Further, mESC-ECs not only express eNOS, but also its eNOS expression is glucose dependent, which is another characteristic phenotype of IECs. With the ability to obtain highly purified IECs derived from pluripotent stem cells, it is possible to closely examine the function of these cells and their interaction with pancreatic β-cells during development and maturation in vitro. Further characterization of tissue-specific endothelial cell properties may enhance our ability to formulate new therapeutic angiogenic approaches for diabetes. PMID:25751085

  15. Long-term glycemic control using polymer-encapsulated human stem cell-derived beta cells in immune-competent mice.

    PubMed

    Vegas, Arturo J; Veiseh, Omid; Gürtler, Mads; Millman, Jeffrey R; Pagliuca, Felicia W; Bader, Andrew R; Doloff, Joshua C; Li, Jie; Chen, Michael; Olejnik, Karsten; Tam, Hok Hei; Jhunjhunwala, Siddharth; Langan, Erin; Aresta-Dasilva, Stephanie; Gandham, Srujan; McGarrigle, James J; Bochenek, Matthew A; Hollister-Lock, Jennifer; Oberholzer, Jose; Greiner, Dale L; Weir, Gordon C; Melton, Douglas A; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G

    2016-03-01

    The transplantation of glucose-responsive, insulin-producing cells offers the potential for restoring glycemic control in individuals with diabetes. Pancreas transplantation and the infusion of cadaveric islets are currently implemented clinically, but these approaches are limited by the adverse effects of immunosuppressive therapy over the lifetime of the recipient and the limited supply of donor tissue. The latter concern may be addressed by recently described glucose-responsive mature beta cells that are derived from human embryonic stem cells (referred to as SC-β cells), which may represent an unlimited source of human cells for pancreas replacement therapy. Strategies to address the immunosuppression concerns include immunoisolation of insulin-producing cells with porous biomaterials that function as an immune barrier. However, clinical implementation has been challenging because of host immune responses to the implant materials. Here we report the first long-term glycemic correction of a diabetic, immunocompetent animal model using human SC-β cells. SC-β cells were encapsulated with alginate derivatives capable of mitigating foreign-body responses in vivo and implanted into the intraperitoneal space of C57BL/6J mice treated with streptozotocin, which is an animal model for chemically induced type 1 diabetes. These implants induced glycemic correction without any immunosuppression until their removal at 174 d after implantation. Human C-peptide concentrations and in vivo glucose responsiveness demonstrated therapeutically relevant glycemic control. Implants retrieved after 174 d contained viable insulin-producing cells. PMID:26808346

  16. Maturation of Stem Cell-Derived Beta-cells Guided by the Expression of Urocortin 3

    PubMed Central

    van der Meulen, Talitha; Huising, Mark O.

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a devastating disease precipitated by an autoimmune response directed at the insulin-producing beta-cells of the pancreas for which no cure exists. Stem cell-derived beta-cells show great promise for a cure as they have the potential to supply unlimited numbers of cells that could be derived from a patient's own cells, thus eliminating the need for immunosuppression. Current in vitro protocols for the differentiation of stem cell-derived beta-cells can successfully generate pancreatic endoderm cells. In diabetic rodents, such cells can differentiate further along the beta-cell lineage until they are eventually capable of restoring normoglycemia. While these observations demonstrate that stem cell-derived pancreatic endoderm has the potential to differentiate into mature, glucose-responsive beta-cells, the signals that direct differentiation and maturation from pancreatic endoderm onwards remain poorly understood. In this review, we analyze the sequence of events that culminates in the formation of beta-cells during embryonic development. and summarize how current protocols to generate beta-cells have sought to capitalize on this ontogenic template. We place particular emphasis on the current challenges and opportunities which occur in the later stages of beta-cell differentiation and maturation of transplantable stem cell-derived beta-cells. Another focus is on the question how the use of recently identified maturation markers such as urocortin 3 can be instrumental in guiding these efforts. PMID:25148370

  17. Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into insulin, somatostatin, and glucagon expressing cells

    SciTech Connect

    Timper, Katharina; Seboek, Dalma; Eberhardt, Michael; Linscheid, Philippe; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Keller, Ulrich; Mueller, Beat; Zulewski, Henryk . E-mail: henryk.zulewski@unibas.ch

    2006-03-24

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from mouse bone marrow were shown to adopt a pancreatic endocrine phenotype in vitro and to reverse diabetes in an animal model. MSC from human bone marrow and adipose tissue represent very similar cell populations with comparable phenotypes. Adipose tissue is abundant and easily accessible and could thus also harbor cells with the potential to differentiate in insulin producing cells. We isolated human adipose tissue-derived MSC from four healthy donors. During the proliferation period, the cells expressed the stem cell markers nestin, ABCG2, SCF, Thy-1 as well as the pancreatic endocrine transcription factor Isl-1. The cells were induced to differentiate into a pancreatic endocrine phenotype by defined culture conditions within 3 days. Using quantitative PCR a down-regulation of ABCG2 and up-regulation of pancreatic developmental transcription factors Isl-1, Ipf-1, and Ngn3 were observed together with induction of the islet hormones insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin.

  18. Glucose responsive insulin production from human embryonic germ (EG) cell derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Gregory O.; Yochem, Robert L.; Axelman, Joyce; Sheets, Timothy P.; Kaczorowski, David J.; Shamblott, Michael J. . E-mail: mshambl1@jhmi.edu

    2007-05-11

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus subjects millions to a daily burden of disease management, life threatening hypoglycemia and long-term complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, heart disease, and stroke. Cell transplantation therapies providing a glucose-regulated supply of insulin have been implemented clinically, but are limited by safety, efficacy and supply considerations. Stem cells promise a plentiful and flexible source of cells for transplantation therapies. Here, we show that cells derived from human embryonic germ (EG) cells express markers of definitive endoderm, pancreatic and {beta}-cell development, glucose sensing, and production of mature insulin. These cells integrate functions necessary for glucose responsive regulation of preproinsulin mRNA and expression of insulin C-peptide in vitro. Following transplantation into mice, cells become insulin and C-peptide immunoreactive and produce plasma C-peptide in response to glucose. These findings suggest that EG cell derivatives may eventually serve as a source of insulin producing cells for the treatment of diabetes.

  19. Differentiation and transplantation of functional pancreatic beta cells generated from induced pluripotent stem cells derived from a type 1 diabetes mouse model.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Kilsoo; Lim, Hyejin; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Thuan, Nguyen Van; Park, Seung Hwa; Lim, Yu-Mi; Choi, Hye-Yeon; Lee, Eung-Ryoung; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Lee, Myung-Shik; Cho, Ssang-Goo

    2012-09-20

    The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse is a classical animal model for autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D), closely mimicking features of human T1D. Thus, the NOD mouse presents an opportunity to test the effectiveness of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as a therapeutic modality for T1D. Here, we demonstrate a proof of concept for cellular therapy using NOD mouse-derived iPSCs (NOD-iPSCs). We generated iPSCs from NOD mouse embryonic fibroblasts or NOD mouse pancreas-derived epithelial cells (NPEs), and applied directed differentiation protocols to differentiate the NOD-iPSCs toward functional pancreatic beta cells. Finally, we investigated whether the NPE-iPSC-derived insulin-producing cells could normalize hyperglycemia in transplanted diabetic mice. The NOD-iPSCs showed typical embryonic stem cell-like characteristics such as expression of markers for pluripotency, in vitro differentiation, teratoma formation, and generation of chimeric mice. We developed a method for stepwise differentiation of NOD-iPSCs into insulin-producing cells, and found that NPE-iPSCs differentiate more readily into insulin-producing cells. The differentiated NPE-iPSCs expressed diverse pancreatic beta cell markers and released insulin in response to glucose and KCl stimulation. Transplantation of the differentiated NPE-iPSCs into diabetic mice resulted in kidney engraftment. The engrafted cells responded to glucose by secreting insulin, thereby normalizing blood glucose levels. We propose that NOD-iPSCs will provide a useful tool for investigating genetic susceptibility to autoimmune diseases and generating a cellular interaction model of T1D, paving the way for the potential application of patient-derived iPSCs in autologous beta cell transplantation for treating diabetes. PMID:22512788

  20. Myeloid derived suppressor cells

    PubMed Central

    Waldron, Todd J.; Quatromoni, Jon G.; Karakasheva, Tatiana A.; Singhal, Sunil; Rustgi, Anil K.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of achieving measurable response with cancer immunotherapy requires counteracting the immunosuppressive characteristics of tumors. One of the mechanisms that tumors utilize to escape immunosurveillance is the activation of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Upon activation by tumor-derived signals, MDSCs inhibit the ability of the host to mount an anti-tumor immune response via their capacity to suppress both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Despite their relatively recent discovery and characterization, anti-MDSC agents have been identified, which may improve immunotherapy efficacy. PMID:23734336

  1. β-Cell Differentiation of Human Pancreatic Duct–Derived Cells After In Vitro Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Corritore, Elisa; Dugnani, Erica; Pasquale, Valentina; Misawa, Ryosuke; Witkowski, Piotr; Lei, Ji; Markmann, James; Piemonti, Lorenzo; Sokal, Etienne M.; Bonner-Weir, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract β-Cell replacement therapy is a promising field of research that is currently evaluating new sources of cells for clinical use. Pancreatic epithelial cells are potent candidates for β-cell engineering, but their large-scale expansion has not been evidenced yet. Here we describe the efficient expansion and β-cell differentiation of purified human pancreatic duct cells (DCs). When cultured in endothelial growth-promoting media, purified CA19-9+ cells proliferated extensively and achieved up to 22 population doublings over nine passages. While proliferating, human pancreatic duct-derived cells (HDDCs) downregulated most DC markers, but they retained low CK19 and SOX9 gene expression. HDDCs acquired mesenchymal features but differed from fibroblasts or pancreatic stromal cells. Coexpression of duct and mesenchymal markers suggested that HDDCs were derived from DCs via a partial epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). This was supported by the blockade of HDDC appearance in CA19-9+ cell cultures after incubation with the EMT inhibitor A83-01. After a differentiation protocol mimicking pancreatic development, HDDC populations contained about 2% of immature insulin-producing cells and showed glucose-unresponsive insulin secretion. Downregulation of the mesenchymal phenotype improved β-cell gene expression profile of differentiated HDDCs without affecting insulin protein expression and secretion. We show that pancreatic ducts represent a new source for engineering large amounts of β-like-cells with potential for treating diabetes. PMID:25437872

  2. Generation of Islet-like Cell Aggregates from Human Adipose Tissue-derived Stem Cells by Lentiviral Overexpression of PDX-1

    PubMed Central

    Bahrebar, M.; Soleimani, M.; Karimi, M. H.; Vahdati, A.; Yaghobi, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pancreatic duodenal homeobox1 (PDX-1) is a transcription factor that is important in regulating pancreas development and maintaining β-cell function. β-cell replacement is an effective approach for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. Human adipose-mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) are the ideal population cells for differentiating into insulin-producing cells. Objective: To determine if islet-like cell aggregates production could be generated from hAMSCs by lentiviral overexpression of PDX-1. Methods: After isolation of hAMSCs, characteristics of these cells were identified by flow-cytometic analysis and multilineage differentiation studies. PDX-1 gene delivered into hAMSCs through lentiviral vector for differentiating hAMSCs into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) at the utilized protocol for 14 days. Characteristics of IPCs were evaluated by immunocytofluorescence, dithizone staining, and quantitative reverse transcription PCR. In response to high glucose medium, insulin release was detected by chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay. Results: The islet-like cell aggregates appeared about 10 days after introduction of PDX-1 into hAMSCs. PDX-1 induced its own expression (auto-induction), a number of islet-related genes such as Ngn3, Nkx2-2, and insulin. The insulin-positive cells were detected in the PDX-1 transduced cells. In response to glucose challenge test, secretion of insulin hormone in the medium with high glucose concentration significantly increased in the PDX-1-transduced cells related to medium with low glucose concentration. Conclusion: Introduction of lentiviral PDX-1 significantly induces hAMSCs to differentiate into islet-like cell aggregates, which may provide a source of adipose stem cells-derived insulin-producing cells for cell replacement therapy in type 1 diabetes. PMID:26082830

  3. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Human Exocrine Pancreas Spontaneously Express Pancreas Progenitor-Cell Markers in a Cell-Passage-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Song; Lee, Chanmi; Oh, Jooyun

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow, adipose tissue, and most connective tissues have been recognized as promising sources for cell-based therapies. MSCs have also been detected in human pancreatic tissue, including endocrine and exocrine cells. These adult human pancreas-derived MSCs have generated a great deal of interest owing to their potential use in the differentiation of insulin-producing cells for diabetes treatment. In the present study, we isolated MSCs from the adult human exocrine pancreas to determine whether isolated MSCs have the potential to differentiate into pancreatic endocrine cells and, therefore, whether they can be used in stem cell-based therapies. Pancreatic tissue was digested by collagenase and an enriched exocrine-cell fraction was obtained by density-gradient separation. Crude exocrine cells were methodically cultured in suspension and then in adherent culture. We expanded the human pancreatic exocrine-derived MSCs (hpMSCs) by cell passaging in culture and confirmed by flow cytometry that >90% expressed human classic surface markers of MSCs. Interestingly, these cells expressed pancreatic transcription factors, such as Pdx1, Ngn3, and MafA, similar to pancreatic progenitor cells. These results indicated that hpMSCs can be used for the differentiation of pancreatic endocrine cells and may be used in type 1 diabetes treatment.

  4. Potential of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and skeletal muscle-derived satellite cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer mediated transgenesis in Arbas Cashmere goats.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yu; Wu, Haiqing; Ma, Yuzhen; Yuan, Jianlong; Liang, Hao; Liu, Dongjun

    2014-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer is used to generate genetic models for research and new, genetically modified livestock varieties. Goat fetal fibroblast cells (gFFCs) are the predominant nuclear donors in Cashmere goat transgenic cloning, but have disadvantages. We evaluated the potential of goat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (gADSCs) and goat skeletal muscle-derived satellite cells (gMDSCs) for somatic cell nuclear transfer, evaluating their proliferation, pluripotency, transfection efficiency and capacity to support full term development of embryos after additive gene transfer or homologous recombination. gADSCs and gMDSCs were isolated by enzyme digestion and differentiated into neurocytes, myotube cells and insulin-producing cells. Neuron-specific enolase, fast muscle myosin and insulin expression were determined by immunohistochemistry. Following somatic cell nuclear transfer with donor cells derived from gADSCs, gMDSCs and gFFCs, transfection and cloning efficiencies were compared. Red fluorescent protein levels were determined by quantitative PCR and western blotting. 5-Methylcytosine, H4K5, H4K12 and H3K18 were determined immunohistochemically. gADSCs and gMDSCs were maintained in culture for up to 65 passages, whereas gFFCs could be passaged barely more than 15 times. gADSCs and gMDSCs had higher fluorescent colony forming efficiency and greater convergence (20%) and cleavage (10%) rates than gFFCs, and exhibited differing H4K5 histone modification patterns after somatic cell nuclear transfer and in vitro cultivation. After transfection with a pDsRed2-1 expression plasmid, the integrated exogenous genes did not influence the pluripotency of gADSCs-pDsRed2-1 or gMDSCs-pDsRed2-1. DsRed2 mRNA expression by cloned embryos derived from gADSCs-pDsRed2-1 or gMDSCs-pDsRed2-1 was more than twice that of gFFCs-pDsRed2-1 embryos (P<0.01). Pregnancy rates of gADSCs-pDsRed2-1 and gMDSCs-pDsRed2-1 recipients were higher than those of gFFCs-pDsRed2-1 recipients (P

  5. Potential of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Skeletal Muscle-Derived Satellite Cells for Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Mediated Transgenesis in Arbas Cashmere Goats

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jianlong; Liang, Hao; Liu, Dongjun

    2014-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer is used to generate genetic models for research and new, genetically modified livestock varieties. Goat fetal fibroblast cells (gFFCs) are the predominant nuclear donors in Cashmere goat transgenic cloning, but have disadvantages. We evaluated the potential of goat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (gADSCs) and goat skeletal muscle-derived satellite cells (gMDSCs) for somatic cell nuclear transfer, evaluating their proliferation, pluripotency, transfection efficiency and capacity to support full term development of embryos after additive gene transfer or homologous recombination. gADSCs and gMDSCs were isolated by enzyme digestion and differentiated into neurocytes, myotube cells and insulin-producing cells. Neuron-specific enolase, fast muscle myosin and insulin expression were determined by immunohistochemistry. Following somatic cell nuclear transfer with donor cells derived from gADSCs, gMDSCs and gFFCs, transfection and cloning efficiencies were compared. Red fluorescent protein levels were determined by quantitative PCR and western blotting. 5-Methylcytosine, H4K5, H4K12 and H3K18 were determined immunohistochemically. gADSCs and gMDSCs were maintained in culture for up to 65 passages, whereas gFFCs could be passaged barely more than 15 times. gADSCs and gMDSCs had higher fluorescent colony forming efficiency and greater convergence (20%) and cleavage (10%) rates than gFFCs, and exhibited differing H4K5 histone modification patterns after somatic cell nuclear transfer and in vitro cultivation. After transfection with a pDsRed2-1 expression plasmid, the integrated exogenous genes did not influence the pluripotency of gADSCs–pDsRed2-1 or gMDSCs–pDsRed2-1. DsRed2 mRNA expression by cloned embryos derived from gADSCs–pDsRed2-1 or gMDSCs–pDsRed2-1 was more than twice that of gFFCs–pDsRed2-1 embryos (P<0.01). Pregnancy rates of gADSCs–pDsRed2-1 and gMDSCs–pDsRed2-1 recipients were higher than those of gFFCs–pDsRed2

  6. Fluorescent Exendin-4 Derivatives for Pancreatic β-Cell Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Clardy, Susan M.; Keliher, Edmund J.; Mohan, James F.; Sebas, Matt; Benoist, Christophe; Mathis, Diane; Weissleder, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    The ability to reliably identify pancreatic β-cells would have far reaching implications for a greater understanding of β-cell biology, measurement of β-cell mass in diabetes, islet transplantation, and drug development. The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1R) is highly expressed on the surface of insulin producing pancreatic β-cells. Using systematic modifications of the GLP1R ligand, exendin-4, we screened over 25 compounds and identified a palette of fluorescent exendin-4 with high GLP1R binding affinity. We show considerable differences in affinity, as well as utility of the top candidates for flow cytometry and microscopy of β-cells. Some of the developed compounds should be particularly useful for basic and translational β-cell research. PMID:24328216

  7. Applicability of adipose-derived stem cells in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Ping; Chan, Tzu-Min; Fu, Ru-Huei; Chuu, Chih-Pin; Chiu, Shao-Chih; Tseng, Yu-Hsiung; Liu, Shih-Ping; Lai, Kuang-Chi; Shih, Mu-Chin; Lin, Zung-Sheng; Chen, Hsin-Shui; Yeh, Da-Chuan; Lin, Shinn-Zong

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a form of early onset diabetes mellitus characterized by the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing cells (IPCs), resulting in hyperglycemia and abnormal glucose metabolism. There are currently no treatments available capable of completely curing the symptoms associated with the loss or functional defects of IPCs. Nonetheless, stem cell therapy has demonstrated considerable promise in the replacement of IPCs with immunomodulatory functions to overcome the defects caused by T1DM. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are particularly suitable for use in cell transplantation therapy, especially when seeking to avoid the ethical issues and tumorigenic complications commonly associated with embryos or induced pluripotent stem cells. Cell-based treatments have demonstrated therapeutic advantages and clinical applicability of ADSCs in T1DM, ensuring their suitability for transplantation therapy. This manuscript focuses on the benefits and possible mechanisms in a T1DM-relevant model and displays positive results from finished or ongoing human clinical trials. We also discuss and hypothesize potential methods to further enhance the therapeutic efficacy of these efforts, such as a humanized rodent model and gene therapies for IPC clusters, to meet the clinical applicability of the standard. PMID:25621468

  8. Islet-Like Cell Aggregates Generated from Human Adipose Tissue Derived Stem Cells Ameliorate Experimental Diabetes in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Vikash; G, Swetha; Muthyala, Sudhakar; Jaiswal, Amit K.; Bellare, Jayesh R.; Nair, Prabha D.; Bhonde, Ramesh R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus is caused by auto immune destruction of insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas. Currently available treatments include transplantation of isolated islets from donor pancreas to the patient. However, this method is limited by inadequate means of immuno-suppression to prevent islet rejection and importantly, limited supply of islets for transplantation. Autologous adult stem cells are now considered for cell replacement therapy in diabetes as it has the potential to generate neo-islets which are genetically part of the treated individual. Adopting methods of islet encapsulation in immuno-isolatory devices would eliminate the need for immuno-suppressants. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study we explore the potential of human adipose tissue derived adult stem cells (h-ASCs) to differentiate into functional islet like cell aggregates (ICAs). Our stage specific differentiation protocol permit the conversion of mesodermic h-ASCs to definitive endoderm (Hnf3β, TCF2 and Sox17) and to PDX1, Ngn3, NeuroD, Pax4 positive pancreatic endoderm which further matures in vitro to secrete insulin. These ICAs are shown to produce human C-peptide in a glucose dependent manner exhibiting in-vitro functionality. Transplantation of mature ICAs, packed in immuno-isolatory biocompatible capsules to STZ induced diabetic mice restored near normoglycemia within 3–4 weeks. The detection of human C-peptide, 1155±165 pM in blood serum of experimental mice demonstrate the efficacy of our differentiation approach. Conclusions h-ASC is an ideal population of personal stem cells for cell replacement therapy, given that they are abundant, easily available and autologous in origin. Our findings present evidence that h-ASCs could be induced to differentiate into physiologically competent functional islet like cell aggregates, which may provide as a source of alternative islets for cell replacement therapy in type 1 diabetes. PMID:21687731

  9. Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes With Adipose Tissue–Derived Stem Cells Expressing Pancreatic Duodenal Homeobox 1

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Shwun

    2009-01-01

    Due to the limited supply of donor pancreas, it is imperative that we identify alternative cell sources that can be used to treat diabetes mellitus (DM). Multipotent adipose tissue–derived stem cells (ADSC) can be abundantly and safely isolated for autologous transplantation and therefore are an ideal candidate. Here, we report the derivation of insulin-producing cells from human or rat ADSC by transduction with the pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1) gene. RT-PCR analyses showed that native ADSC expressed insulin, glucagon, and NeuroD genes that were up-regulated following Pdx1 transduction. ELISA analyses showed that the transduced cells secreted increasing amount of insulin in response to increasing concentration of glucose. Transplantation of these cells under the renal capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats resulted in lowered blood glucose, higher glucose tolerance, smoother fur, and less cataract. Histological examination showed that the transplanted cells formed tissue-like structures and expressed insulin. Thus, ADSC-expressing Pdx1 appear to be suitable for treatment of DM. PMID:19245309

  10. [Comparative assessment of cell mechanisms of the antidiabetic action of a new organic derivative of oxovanadium(IV) and vanadyl sulfate].

    PubMed

    Aleeva, G N; Kiiasov, A P; Burykin, I M; Khafiz'ianova, R Kh

    2004-01-01

    The antidiabetic effect of a new organic derivative of vanadium(IV) oxide with isonicotinic acid hydrazide (compound no. 8), as manifested by the action upon the alpha and beta cell populations in Langerhans islands of the pancreas, was studied in rats with alloxane diabetes model in comparison to the analogous effect of the inorganic drug vanadyl sulfate. The hypoglycemic activity of compound no. 8 was comparable with that of vanadyl sulfate. The results of immunohistochemical and morphometric investigation showed that both preparations produced a reliable increase in the population of insulin-producing cells and a decrease in the (alloxane-enhanced) population of alpha-cells in the pancreatic islands. PMID:15341067

  11. Patient-Derived Antibody Targets Tumor Cells

    Cancer.gov

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog on an antibody derived from patients that killed tumor cells in cell lines of several cancer types and slowed tumor growth in mouse models of brain and lung cancer without evidence of side effects.

  12. Suspension Culture Alters Insulin Secretion in Induced Human Umbilical Cord Matrix-Derived Mesenchymal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Seyedi, Fatemeh; Farsinejad, Alireza; Nematollahi-Mahani, Seyed Amirmahdi; Eslaminejad, Touba; Nematollahi-Mahani, Seyed Noureddin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Worldwide, diabetes mellitus (DM) is an ever-increasing metabolic disorder. A promising approach to the treatment of DM is the implantation of insulin producing cells (IPC) that have been derived from various stem cells. Culture conditions play a pivotal role in the quality and quantity of the differentiated cells. In this experimental study, we have applied various culture conditions to differentiate human umbilical cord matrix-derived mesenchymal cells (hUCMs) into IPCs and measured insulin production. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, we exposed hUCMs cells to pancreatic medium and differentiated them into IPCs in monolayer and suspension cultures. Pancreatic medium consisted of serum-free Dulbecco’s modified eagle’s medium Nutrient mixture F12 (DMEM/F12) medium with 17.5 mM glucose supplemented by 10 mM nicotinamide, 10 nM exendin-4, 10 nM pentagastrin, 100 pM hepatocyte growth factor, and B-27 serum-free supplement. After differentiation, insulin content was analyzed by gene expression, immunocytochemistry (IHC) and the chemiluminesence immunoassay (CLIA). Results Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed efficient expressions of NKX2.2, PDX1 and INSULIN genes in both groups. IHC analysis showed higher expression of insulin protein in the hanging drop group, and CLIA revealed a significant higher insulin production in hanging drops compared with the monolayer group following the glucose challenge test. Conclusion We showed by this novel, simple technique that the suspension culture played an important role in differentiation of hUCMs into IPC. This culture was more efficient than the conventional culture method commonly used in IPC differentiation and cultivation. PMID:27054119

  13. Making surrogate β-cells from mesenchymal stromal cells: perspectives and future endeavors.

    PubMed

    Bhonde, Ramesh R; Sheshadri, Preethi; Sharma, Shikha; Kumar, Anujith

    2014-01-01

    Generation of surrogate β-cells is the need of the day to compensate the short supply of islets for transplantation to diabetic patients requiring daily shots of insulin. Over the years several sources of stem cells have been claimed to cater to the need of insulin producing cells. These include human embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, human perinatal tissues such as amnion, placenta, umbilical cord and postnatal tissues involving adipose tissue, bone marrow, blood monocytes, cord blood, dental pulp, endometrium, liver, labia minora dermis-derived fibroblasts and pancreas. Despite the availability of such heterogonous sources, there is no substantial breakthrough in selecting and implementing an ideal source for generating large number of stable insulin producing cells. Although the progress in derivation of β-cell like cells from embryonic stem cells has taken a greater leap, their application is limited due to controversy surrounding the destruction of human embryo and immune rejection. Since multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells are free of ethical and immunological complications, they could provide unprecedented opportunity as starting material to derive insulin secreting cells. The main focus of this review is to discuss the merits and demerits of MSCs obtained from human peri- and post-natal tissue sources to yield abundant glucose responsive insulin producing cells as ideal candidates for prospective stem cell therapy to treat diabetes. PMID:24275096

  14. Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Peptide Prevents Serum Deprivation-Induced Apoptosis in Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Osteoblastic Cells.

    PubMed

    Berlier, J L; Kharroubi, I; Zhang, J; Dalla Valle, A; Rigutto, S; Mathieu, M; Gangji, V; Rasschaert, J

    2015-12-01

    Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSC) are able to differentiate into cells of connective tissue lineages, including bone and cartilage. They are therefore considered as a promising tool for the treatment of bone degenerative diseases. One of the major issues in regenerative cell therapy is the biosafety of fetal bovine serum used for cell culture. Therefore, the development of a culture medium devoid of serum but preserving hBMSC viability will be of clinical value. The glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) has an anti-apoptotic action in insulin-producing cells. Interestingly, GIP also exerts beneficial effects on bone turnover by acting on osteoblasts and osteoclasts. We therefore evaluated the ability of GIP to prevent cell death in osteoblastic cells cultured in serum-free conditions. In hBMSC and SaOS-2 cells, activation of the GIP receptor increased intracellular cAMP levels. Serum deprivation induced apoptosis in SaOS-2 and hBMSC that was reduced by 30 and 50 %, respectively, in the presence of GIP. The protective effect of GIP involves activation of the adenylate cyclase pathway and inhibition of caspases 3/7 activation. These findings demonstrate that GIP exerts a protective action against apoptosis in hBMSC and suggest a novel approach to preserve viability of hBMSC cultured in the absence of serum. PMID:26254594

  15. Tissue-Derived Stem and Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tesche, Leora J.; Gerber, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The characterization and isolation of various stem cell populations, from embryonic through tissue-derived stem cells, have led a rapid growth in the field of stem cell research. These research efforts have often been interrelated as to the markers that identify a select cell population are frequently analyzed to determine their expression in cells of distinct organs/tissues. In this review, we will expand the current state of research involving select tissue-derived stem cell populations including the liver, central nervous system, and cardiac tissues as examples of the success and challenges in this field of research. Lastly, the challenges of clinical therapies will be discussed as it applies to these unique cell populations. PMID:21048854

  16. Trophoblast lineage cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ying; Wang, Kai; Chandramouli, Gadisetti V.R.; Knott, Jason G.; Leach, Richard

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •Epithelial-like phenotype of trophoblast lineage cells derived from human iPS cells. •Trophoblast lineage cells derived from human iPS cells exhibit trophoblast function. •Trophoblasts from iPS cells provides a proof-of-concept in regenerative medicine. -- Abstract: Background: During implantation, the blastocyst trophectoderm attaches to the endometrial epithelium and continues to differentiate into all trophoblast subtypes, which are the major components of a placenta. Aberrant trophoblast proliferation and differentiation are associated with placental diseases. However, due to ethical and practical issues, there is almost no available cell or tissue source to study the molecular mechanism of human trophoblast differentiation, which further becomes a barrier to the study of the pathogenesis of trophoblast-associated diseases of pregnancy. In this study, our goal was to generate a proof-of-concept model for deriving trophoblast lineage cells from induced pluripotency stem (iPS) cells from human fibroblasts. In future studies the generation of trophoblast lineage cells from iPS cells established from patient’s placenta will be extremely useful for studying the pathogenesis of individual trophoblast-associated diseases and for drug testing. Methods and results: Combining iPS cell technology with BMP4 induction, we derived trophoblast lineage cells from human iPS cells. The gene expression profile of these trophoblast lineage cells was distinct from fibroblasts and iPS cells. These cells expressed markers of human trophoblasts. Furthermore, when these cells were differentiated they exhibited invasive capacity and placental hormone secretive capacity, suggesting extravillous trophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts. Conclusion: Trophoblast lineage cells can be successfully derived from human iPS cells, which provide a proof-of-concept tool to recapitulate pathogenesis of patient placental trophoblasts in vitro.

  17. Endothelial Cells Derived From Nuclear Reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Wing Tak; Huang, Ngan F.; Botham, Crystal M.; Sayed, Nazish; Cooke, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The endothelium plays a pivotal role in vascular homeostasis, regulating the tone of the vascular wall, and its interaction with circulating blood elements. Alterations in endothelial functions facilitate the infiltration of inflammatory cells and permit vascular smooth muscle proliferation and platelet aggregation. Therefore, endothelial dysfunction is an early event in disease processes including atherosclerosis, and because of its critical role in vascular health the endothelium is worthy of the intense focus it has received. However, there are limitations to studying human endothelial function in vivo, or human vascular segments ex vivo. Thus, methods for endothelial cell culture have been developed and refined. More recently, methods to derive endothelial cells from pluripotent cells have extended the scientific range of human endothelial cell studies. Pluripotent stem cells may be generated, expanded and then differentiated into endothelial cells for in vitro studies. Constructs for molecular imaging can also be employed to facilitate tracking these cells in vivo. Furthermore, one can generate patient-specific endothelial cells to study the effects of genetic or epigenetic alterations on endothelial behavior. Finally, there is the opportunity to apply these cells for vascular therapy. This review focuses on the generation of endothelial cells from stem cells; their characterization by genetic, histological and functional studies; and their translational applications. PMID:23104878

  18. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells in B cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Yaghoub; Mohammadnia-Afrouzi, Mousa; Yousefi, Mehdi; Anvari, Enayat; Ghalamfarsa, Ghasem; Hasannia, Hadi; Sadreddini, Sanam; Jadidi-Niaragh, Farhad

    2015-09-01

    Tumor cells use several mechanisms such as soluble immune modulators or suppressive immune cells to evade from anti-tumor responses. Immunomodulatory cytokines, such as transforming growth factor-β, interleukin (IL)-10, and IL-35, soluble factors, such as adenosine, immunosuppressive cells, such as regulatory T cells, NKT cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), are the main orchestra leaders involved in immune suppression in cancer by which tumor cells can freely expand without immune cell-mediated interference. Among them, MDSCs have attracted much attention as they represent a heterogenous population derived from myeloid progenitors that are expanded in tumor condition and can also shift toward other myeloid cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells, after tumor clearing. MDSCs exert their immunosuppressive effects through various immune and non-immune mechanisms which make them as potent tumor-promoting cells. Although, there are several studies regarding the immunobiology of MDSCs in different solid tumors, little is known about the precise characteristics of these cells in hematological malignancies, particularly B cell malignancies. In this review, we tried to clarify the precise role of MDSCs in B cell-derived malignancies. PMID:26330296

  19. Redifferentiation of expanded human islet β cells by inhibition of ARX

    PubMed Central

    Friedman-Mazursky, Orr; Elkon, Ran; Efrat, Shimon

    2016-01-01

    Ex-vivo expansion of adult human islet β cells has been evaluated for generation of abundant insulin-producing cells for transplantation; however, lineage-tracing has demonstrated that this process results in β-cell dedifferentiation. Redifferentiation of β-cell-derived (BCD) cells can be achieved using a combination of soluble factors termed Redifferentiation Cocktail (RC); however, this treatment leads to redifferentiation of only a fraction of BCD cells. This study aimed at improving redifferentiation efficiency by affecting the balance of islet progenitor-cell transcription factors activated by RC treatment. Specifically, RC treatment induces the transcription factors PAX4 and ARX, which play key roles in directing pancreas endocrine progenitor cells into the β/δ or α/PP developmental pathways, respectively. Misactivation of ARX in RC-treated BCD cells may inhibit their redifferentiation into β cells. Blocking ARX expression by shRNA elevated insulin mRNA levels 12.8-fold, and more than doubled the number of insulin-positive BCD cells. ARX inhibition in expanded α-cell-derived cells treated with RC did not cause their transdifferentiation into insulin-producing cells. The combination of RC and ARX shRNA treatment may facilitate the generation of abundant insulin-producing cells for transplantation into patients with type 1 diabetes. PMID:26856418

  20. Myeloid derived suppressor cells and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Boros, Peter; Ochando, Jordi; Zeher, Margit

    2016-08-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells are a heterogeneous group of immature myeloid cells with immunoregulatory function. When activated and expanded, these cells can suppress T cell functions via cell-to cell interactions as well as soluble mediators. Recent studies investigated the involvement of MDSC in autoimmune diseases. Some papers have described beneficial effect of MDSC during the course of autoimmune diseases, and suggest a potential role as a treatment option, while others failed to detect these effects. Their contributions to autoimmune diseases are not fully understood, and many questions and some controversies remain as to the expansion, activation, and inhibitory functions of MDSC. This review aims to summarize current knowledge of MDSC in autoimmune disorders. PMID:27240453

  1. Human Embryonic Stem Cells Derived by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Masahito; Amato, Paula; Sparman, Michelle; Gutierrez, Nuria Marti; Tippner-Hedges, Rebecca; Ma, Hong; Kang, Eunju; Fulati, Alimujiang; Lee, Hyo-Sang; Sritanaudomchai, Hathaitip; Masterson, Keith; Larson, Janine; Eaton, Deborah; Sadler-Fredd, Karen; Battaglia, David; Lee, David; Wu, Diana; Jensen, Jeffrey; Patton, Phillip; Gokhale, Sumita; Stouffer, Richard L.; Wolf, Don; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Reprogramming somatic cells into pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been envisioned as an approach for generating patient-matched nuclear transfer (NT)-ESCs for studies of disease mechanisms and for developing specific therapies. Past attempts to produce human NT-ESCs have failed secondary to early embryonic arrest of SCNT embryos. Here, we identified premature exit from meiosis in human oocytes and suboptimal activation as key factors that are responsible for these outcomes. Optimized SCNT approaches designed to circumvent these limitations allowed derivation of human NT-ESCs. When applied to premium quality human oocytes, NT-ESC lines were derived from as few as two oocytes. NT-ESCs displayed normal diploid karyotypes and inherited their nuclear genome exclusively from parental somatic cells. Gene expression and differentiation profiles in human NT-ESCs were similar to embryo-derived ESCs, suggesting efficient reprogramming of somatic cells to a pluripotent state. PMID:23683578

  2. Endothelial cells derived from human embryonic stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levenberg, Shulamit; Golub, Justin S.; Amit, Michal; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph; Langer, Robert

    2002-04-01

    Human embryonic stem cells have the potential to differentiate into various cell types and, thus, may be useful as a source of cells for transplantation or tissue engineering. We describe here the differentiation steps of human embryonic stem cells into endothelial cells forming vascular-like structures. The human embryonic-derived endothelial cells were isolated by using platelet endothelial cell-adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM1) antibodies, their behavior was characterized in vitro and in vivo, and their potential in tissue engineering was examined. We show that the isolated embryonic PECAM1+ cells, grown in culture, display characteristics similar to vessel endothelium. The cells express endothelial cell markers in a pattern similar to human umbilical vein endothelial cells, their junctions are correctly organized, and they have high metabolism of acetylated low-density lipoprotein. In addition, the cells are able to differentiate and form tube-like structures when cultured on matrigel. In vivo, when transplanted into SCID mice, the cells appeared to form microvessels containing mouse blood cells. With further studies, these cells could provide a source of human endothelial cells that could be beneficial for potential applications such as engineering new blood vessels, endothelial cell transplantation into the heart for myocardial regeneration, and induction of angiogenesis for treatment of regional ischemia.

  3. Follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Dralle, Henning; Machens, Andreas; Basa, Johanna; Fatourechi, Vahab; Franceschi, Silvia; Hay, Ian D; Nikiforov, Yuri E; Pacini, Furio; Pasieka, Janice L; Sherman, Steven I

    2015-01-01

    Follicular cell-derived thyroid cancers are derived from the follicular cells in the thyroid gland, which secrete the iodine-containing thyroid hormones. Follicular cell-derived thyroid cancers can be classified into papillary thyroid cancer (80-85%), follicular thyroid cancer (10-15%), poorly differentiated thyroid cancer (<2%) and undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid cancer (<2%), and these have an excellent prognosis with the exception of undifferentiated thyroid cancer. The advent and expansion of advanced diagnostic techniques has driven and continues to drive the epidemic of occult papillary thyroid cancer, owing to overdiagnosis of clinically irrelevant nodules. This transformation of the thyroid cancer landscape at molecular and clinical levels calls for the modification of management strategies towards personalized medicine based on individual risk assessment to deliver the most effective but least aggressive treatment. In thyroid cancer surgery, for instance, injuries to structures outside the thyroid gland, such as the recurrent laryngeal nerve in 2-5% of surgeries or the parathyroid glands in 5-10% of surgeries, negatively affect quality of life more than loss of the expendable thyroid gland. Furthermore, the risks associated with radioiodine ablation may outweigh the risks of persistent or recurrent disease and disease-specific mortality. Improvement in the health-related quality of life of survivors of follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer, which is decreased despite the generally favourable outcome, hinges on early tumour detection and minimization of treatment-related sequelae. Future opportunities include more widespread adoption of molecular and clinical risk stratification and identification of actionable targets for individualized therapies. PMID:27188261

  4. Directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells along the pancreatic endocrine lineage.

    PubMed

    Van Hoof, Dennis; Liku, Muluye E

    2013-01-01

    Many research groups are engaged in using human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) to generate surrogate pancreatic β-cells for transplantation into diabetic patients. However, to our knowledge, there is no report on the successful generation of glucose-responsive insulin-producing β-cells from hPSCs in vitro. Below, we outline a method that is based on published protocols as well as our own experience by which one can differentiate hPSCs along the pancreatic lineage to generate insulin-producing β-cell-like cells. The protocol, which spans five distinct stages, is an attempt to recapitulate the derivation of pancreatic β-cells in vitro as they form in the developing embryo. We included details on materials and techniques, suggest ways to customize it to your hPSC line of choice, added notes on how to monitor and analyze the cells during differentiation, and indicate what results can be expected. PMID:23546752

  5. Immunogenicity of umbilical cord tissue derived cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Patricia S; Messina, Darin J; Hirsh, Erica L; Chi, Nina; Goldman, Stephanie N; Lo, Diana P; Harris, Ian R; Popma, Sicco H; Sachs, David H; Huang, Christene A

    2008-01-01

    Umbilical cord tissue provides a unique source of cells with potential for tissue repair. Umbilical cord tissue-derived cells (UTCs) are MHC class I (MHCI) dull and negative for MHC class II (MHCII), but can be activated to increase MHCI and to express MHCII with IFN-gamma stimulation. Mesenchymal stem cells with similar characteristics have been inferred to be nonimmunogenic; however, in most cases, immunogenicity was not directly assessed. Using UTC from Massachusetts General Hospital MHC-defined miniature swine, we assessed immunogenicity across a full MHC barrier. Immunogenicity was assessed by in vitro assays including mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) and flow cytometry to detect serum alloantibody. A single injection of MHC-mismatched unactivated UTCs did not induce a detectable immune response. When injected in an inflamed region, injected repeatedly in the same region or stimulated with IFN-gamma prior to injection, UTCs were immunogenic. As clinical cellular repair strategies may involve injection of allogeneic cells into inflamed regions of damaged tissue or repeated doses of cells to achieve the desired benefit, our results on the immunogenicity of these cells in these circumstances may have important implications for optimal success and functional improvement for this cellular treatment strategy for diseased tissues. PMID:17909081

  6. Matrix Metalloproteinase-3 in Odontoblastic Cells Derived from Ips Cells: Unique Proliferation Response as Odontoblastic Cells Derived from ES Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hiyama, Taiki; Ozeki, Nobuaki; Mogi, Makio; Yamaguchi, Hideyuki; Kawai, Rie; Nakata, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Ayami; Nakamura, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 accelerates wound healing following dental pulp injury. In addition, we reported that a proinflammatory cytokine mixture (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and interferon-γ) induced MMP-3 activity in odontoblast-like cells derived from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, suggesting that MMP-3 plays a potential unique physiological role in wound healing and regeneration of dental pulp in odontoblast-like cells. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that upregulation of MMP-3 activity by IL-1β promotes proliferation and apoptosis of purified odontoblast-like cells derived from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) and ES cells. Each odontoblast-like cell was isolated and incubated with different concentrations of IL-1β. MMP-3 mRNA and protein expression were assessed using RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. MMP-3 activity was measured using immunoprecipitation and a fluorescence substrate. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined using ELISA for BrdU and DNA fragmentation, respectively. siRNA was used to reduce MMP-3 transcripts in these cells. Treatment with IL-1β increased MMP-3 mRNA and protein levels, and MMP-3 activity in odontoblast-like cells. Cell proliferation was found to markedly increase with no changes in apoptosis. Endogenous tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 were constitutively expressed during all experiments. The exocytosis inhibitor, Exo1, potently suppressed the appearance of MMP-3 in the conditioned medium. Treatment with siRNA against MMP-3 suppressed an IL-1β-induced increase in MMP-3 expression and activity, and also suppressed cell proliferation, but unexpectedly increased apoptosis in these cells (P<0.05). Exogenous MMP-3 was found to induce cell proliferation in odontoblast-like cells derived from iPS cells and ES cells. This siRNA-mediated increase in apoptosis could be reversed with exogenous MMP-3 stimulation (P<0.05). Taken

  7. Cell-derived microparticles and the lung.

    PubMed

    Nieri, Dario; Neri, Tommaso; Petrini, Silvia; Vagaggini, Barbara; Paggiaro, Pierluigi; Celi, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Cell-derived microparticles are small (0.1-1 μm) vesicles shed by most eukaryotic cells upon activation or during apoptosis. Microparticles carry on their surface, and enclose within their cytoplasm, molecules derived from the parental cell, including proteins, DNA, RNA, microRNA and phospholipids. Microparticles are now considered functional units that represent a disseminated storage pool of bioactive effectors and participate both in the maintenance of homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of diseases. The mechanisms involved in microparticle generation include intracellular calcium mobilisation, cytoskeleton rearrangement, kinase phosphorylation and activation of the nuclear factor-κB. The role of microparticles in blood coagulation and inflammation, including airway inflammation, is well established in in vitro and animal models. The role of microparticles in human pulmonary diseases, both as pathogenic determinants and biomarkers, is being actively investigated. Microparticles of endothelial origin, suggestive of apoptosis, have been demonstrated in the peripheral blood of patients with emphysema, lending support to the hypothesis that endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease and represent a link with cardiovascular comorbidities. Microparticles also have potential roles in patients with asthma, diffuse parenchymal lung disease, thromboembolism, lung cancer and pulmonary arterial hypertension. PMID:27581826

  8. New naphthoquinone derivatives against glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Redaelli, Marco; Mucignat-Caretta, Carla; Isse, Abdirisak Ahmed; Gennaro, Armando; Pezzani, Raffaele; Pasquale, Riccardo; Pavan, Valeria; Crisma, Marco; Ribaudo, Giovanni; Zagotto, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    This work was aimed to the development of a set of new naphtoquinone derivatives that can act against glioma. The compounds were tested in order to find out their ability to inhibit the growth of glioma cells, and the results of these assays were correlated with electrochemical analysis and NMR-based reoxidation kinetic studies, suggesting that a redox mechanism underlies and may explain the observed biological behavior. In addition to a full description of the synthetic pathways, electrochemistry, NMR and single crystal X-ray diffraction data are provided. PMID:25916907

  9. Enriched retinal ganglion cells derived from human embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Katherine P.; Hung, Sandy S. C.; Sharov, Alexei; Lo, Camden Y.; Needham, Karina; Lidgerwood, Grace E.; Jackson, Stacey; Crombie, Duncan E.; Nayagam, Bryony A.; Cook, Anthony L.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Pébay, Alice; Wong, Raymond C. B.

    2016-01-01

    Optic neuropathies are characterised by a loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) that lead to vision impairment. Development of cell therapy requires a better understanding of the signals that direct stem cells into RGCs. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) represent an unlimited cellular source for generation of human RGCs in vitro. In this study, we present a 45-day protocol that utilises magnetic activated cell sorting to generate enriched population of RGCs via stepwise retinal differentiation using hESCs. We performed an extensive characterization of these stem cell-derived RGCs by examining the gene and protein expressions of a panel of neural/RGC markers. Furthermore, whole transcriptome analysis demonstrated similarity of the hESC-derived RGCs to human adult RGCs. The enriched hESC-RGCs possess long axons, functional electrophysiological profiles and axonal transport of mitochondria, suggestive of maturity. In summary, this RGC differentiation protocol can generate an enriched population of functional RGCs from hESCs, allowing future studies on disease modeling of optic neuropathies and development of cell therapies. PMID:27506453

  10. Enriched retinal ganglion cells derived from human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gill, Katherine P; Hung, Sandy S C; Sharov, Alexei; Lo, Camden Y; Needham, Karina; Lidgerwood, Grace E; Jackson, Stacey; Crombie, Duncan E; Nayagam, Bryony A; Cook, Anthony L; Hewitt, Alex W; Pébay, Alice; Wong, Raymond C B

    2016-01-01

    Optic neuropathies are characterised by a loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) that lead to vision impairment. Development of cell therapy requires a better understanding of the signals that direct stem cells into RGCs. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) represent an unlimited cellular source for generation of human RGCs in vitro. In this study, we present a 45-day protocol that utilises magnetic activated cell sorting to generate enriched population of RGCs via stepwise retinal differentiation using hESCs. We performed an extensive characterization of these stem cell-derived RGCs by examining the gene and protein expressions of a panel of neural/RGC markers. Furthermore, whole transcriptome analysis demonstrated similarity of the hESC-derived RGCs to human adult RGCs. The enriched hESC-RGCs possess long axons, functional electrophysiological profiles and axonal transport of mitochondria, suggestive of maturity. In summary, this RGC differentiation protocol can generate an enriched population of functional RGCs from hESCs, allowing future studies on disease modeling of optic neuropathies and development of cell therapies. PMID:27506453

  11. Permanently Blocked Stem Cells Derived from Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Sajithlal, Gangadharan B.; Rothermund, Kristi; Zhang, Fang; Dabbs, David J.; Latimer, Jean J.; Grant, Stephen G.; Prochownik, Edward V.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are thought to be resistant to standard chemotherapeutic drugs and the inimical conditions of the tumor microenvironment. Obtaining CSCs in sufficient quantities and maintaining their undifferentiated state have been major hurdles to their further characterization and to the identification of new pharmaceuticals that preferentially target these cells. We describe here the tagging of CSC-like populations from four human breast cancer cell lines with green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the Oct3/4 stem cell-specific promoter. As expected, GFP was expressed by the CSC-enriched populations. An unanticipated result, however, was that these cells remained blocked in a CSC-like state and tended to be resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs as well as acidotic and hypoxic conditions. These CSC-like cells possessed several other in vitro attributes of CSCs and were able to reproducibly generate tumors in immuno-compromised mice from as few as 100 cells. Moreover, the tumors derived from these cells were comprised almost exclusively of pure CSCs. The ability of the Oct3/4 promoter to block CSC differentiation underscores its potential general utility for obtaining highly purified CSC populations, although the mechanism by which it does so remains undefined and subject to further study. Nonetheless, such stable cell lines should be extremely valuable tools for studying basic questions pertaining to CSC biology and for the initial identification of novel CSC-specific chemotherapeutic agents, which can then be verified in primary CSCs. PMID:20506227

  12. Amelioration of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Mice with Cells Derived from Human Marrow Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Min; Amiel, Stephanie A.; Ajami, Sanaz; Jiang, Jie; Rela, Mohamed; Heaton, Nigel; Huang, Guo Cai

    2008-01-01

    Background Pluri-potent bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) provide an attractive opportunity to generate unlimited glucose-responsive insulin-producing cells for the treatment of diabetes. We explored the potential for human MSCs (hMSCs) to be differentiated into glucose-responsive cells through a non-viral genetic reprogramming approach. Methods and Findings Two hMSC lines were transfected with three genes: PDX-1, NeuroD1 and Ngn3 without subsequent selection, followed by differentiation induction in vitro and transplantation into diabetic mice. Human MSCs expressed mRNAs of the archetypal stem cell markers: Sox2, Oct4, Nanog and CD34, and the endocrine cell markers: PDX-1, NeuroD1, Ngn3, and Nkx6.1. Following gene transfection and differentiation induction, hMSCs expressed insulin in vitro, but were not glucose regulated. After transplantation, hMSCs differentiated further and ∼12.5% of the grafted cells expressed insulin. The graft bearing kidneys contained mRNA of insulin and other key genes required for the functions of beta cells. Mice transplanted with manipulated hMSCs showed reduced blood glucose levels (from 18.9+/−0.75 to 7.63+/−1.63 mM). 13 of the 16 mice became normoglycaemic (6.9+/−0.64 mM), despite the failure to detect the expression of SUR1, a K+-ATP channel component required for regulation of insulin secretion. Conclusions Our data confirm that hMSCs can be induced to express insulin sufficient to reduce blood glucose in a diabetic mouse model. Our triple gene approach has created cells that seem less glucose responsive in vitro but which become more efficient after transplantation. The maturation process requires further study, particularly the in vivo factors influencing the differentiation, in order to scale up for clinical purposes. PMID:18628974

  13. Comparison of human adipose-derived stem cells and bone marrow-derived stem cells in a myocardial infarction model.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Jeppe Grøndahl; Frøbert, Ole; Holst-Hansen, Claus; Kastrup, Jens; Baandrup, Ulrik; Zachar, Vladimir; Fink, Trine; Simonsen, Ulf

    2014-02-01

    Treatment of myocardial infarction (MI) with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and recently also adipose-derived stem cells has shown promising results. In contrast to clinical trials and their use of autologous bone marrow-derived cells from the ischemic patient, the animal MI models are often using young donors and young, often immune-compromised, recipient animals. Our objective was to compare bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells with adipose-derived stem cells from an elderly ischemic patient in the treatment of MI using a fully grown non-immune-compromised rat model. Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from adipose tissue and bone marrow and compared with respect to surface markers and proliferative capability. To compare the regenerative potential of the two stem cell populations, male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive intramyocardial injections of adipose-derived stem cells, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, or phosphate-buffered saline 1 week following induction of MI. After 4 weeks, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was improved in the adipose-derived stem cell group, and scar wall thickness was greater compared with the saline group. Adipose-derived as well as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells prevented left ventricular end diastolic dilation. Neither of the cell groups displayed increased angiogenesis in the myocardium compared with the saline group. Adipose-derived stem cells from a human ischemic patient preserved cardiac function following MI, whereas this could not be demonstrated for bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, with only adipose-derived stem cells leading to an improvement in LVEF. Neither of the stem cell types induced myocardial angiogenesis, raising the question whether donor age and health have an effect on the efficacy of stem cells used in the treatment of MI. PMID:23211469

  14. Identification of 1,2,3-triazole derivatives that protect pancreatic β cells against endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated dysfunction and death through the inhibition of C/EBP-homologous protein expression.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hongliang; Arora, Daleep; Li, Yu; Setiadi, Hendra; Xu, Depeng; Lim, Hui-Ying; Wang, Weidong

    2016-06-15

    The C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) acts as a mediator of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced pancreatic insulin-producing β cell death, a key element in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Chemicals that inhibit the expression of CHOP might therefore protect β cells from ER stress-induced apoptosis and prevent or ameliorate diabetes. Here, we used high-throughput screening to identify a series of 1,2,3-triazole amide derivatives that inhibit ER stress-induced CHOP-luciferase reporter activity. Our SAR studies indicate that compounds with an N,1-diphenyl-5-methyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxamide backbone potently protect β cell against ER stress. Several representative compounds inhibit ER stress-induced up-regulation of CHOP mRNA and protein, without affecting the basal level of CHOP expression. We further show that a 1,2,3-triazole derivative 4e protects β cell function and survival against ER stress in a CHOP-dependent fashion, as it is inactive in CHOP-deficient β cells. Finally, we show that 4e significantly lowers blood glucose levels and increases concomitant β cell survival and number in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic mouse model. Identification of small molecule inhibitors of CHOP expression that prevent ER stress-induced β cell dysfunction and death may provide a new modality for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:27157393

  15. Derivation of islet-like cells from mesenchymal stem cells using PDX1-transducing lentiviruses.

    PubMed

    Talebi, Samira; Aleyasin, Ahmad; Soleimani, Masoud; Massumi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic duodenum homeobox protein-1 (PDX1) is a master regulatory gene in pancreatic development. Reprogramming of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a promising tool for producing insulin-producing cells. In this study, lentivirus harboring PDX1 (LV-PDX1) has been used for persistence gene expression in MSCs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of lentivirus to introduce the PDX1 gene into MSCs to produce insulin-secreting cells and apply it for treatment of hyperglycemia in diabetic rats. MSCs were isolated from rat bone marrow, characterized, and transduced by LV-PDX1. Significant expressions of PDX1, neurogenin3, glucagon, glucose transporter2 (Glut2), and insulin were detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (P < 0.05). PDX1 and insulin were detected at the protein level by immunofluorescence analysis. PDX1 could trigger a gene expression cascade that involved pancreatic endocrine differentiation and also revealed the glucose sensing ability by expressing Glut2 in high-glucose medium. The insulin secretion of MSCs(PDX1+) in the high-glucose medium was 1.75-fold higher than that secreted in the low-glucose medium (P < 0.05). MSCs(PDX1+) implanted into diabetic rats could decrease the blood glucose level from 485 mg/dL to the normal level in 3 days. This study showed MSCs(PDX1+) have the potential to be used as a viable resource in cell-based gene therapy of type 1 diabetes. PMID:23586830

  16. Amnion-derived stem cells: in quest of clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the promising field of regenerative medicine, human perinatal stem cells are of great interest as potential stem cells with clinical applications. Perinatal stem cells could be isolated from normally discarded human placentae, which are an ideal cell source in terms of availability, the fewer number of ethical concerns, less DNA damage, and so on. Numerous studies have demonstrated that some of the placenta-derived cells possess stem cell characteristics like pluripotent differentiation ability, particularly in amniotic epithelial (AE) cells. Term human amniotic epithelium contains a relatively large number of stem cell marker-positive cells as an adult stem cell source. In this review, we introduce a model theory of why so many AE cells possess stem cell characteristics. We also describe previous work concerning the therapeutic applications and discuss the pluripotency of the AE cells and potential pitfalls for amnion-derived stem cell research. PMID:21596003

  17. Graphene and its derivatives for cell biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mei; Yao, Jun; Duan, Yixiang

    2013-01-01

    Every few years, a novel material with salient and often unique properties emerges and attracts both academic and industrial interest from the scientific community. The latest blockbuster is graphene, an increasingly important nanomaterial with atomically thin sheets of carbon, which has become a shining star and has shown great promise in the field of material science and nanotechnology. In recent years, it has changed from being the exclusive domain of physicists to the new passion of chemists and biologists. Graphene and its derivatives are now at the forefront of nearly every rapidly developing field of science and engineering, including biochemistry, biomedicine and certain cutting-edge interdisciplines that have intense popularity. The aim of this review is, firstly, to provide readers with a comprehensive, systematic and in-depth prospective of graphene's band structure and properties, and secondly, to concentrate on the recent progress in producing graphene-based nanomaterials, including mechanical exfoliation, chemical vapor deposition, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, chemical reduction of graphene oxide, total organic synthesis, electrochemical synthesis and other fabrication strategies widely accepted by research scientists. At the same time, important definitions related to graphene are also introduced. The focus of this Tutorial Review is to emphasize the current situation and significance of using this new kind of two-dimensional material in the hot and emerging fields that are closely related to human life quality, for instance, cell biochemistry, bioimaging along with other frontier areas. Finally, the latest developments and possible impact that affect the heart of the whole scientific community have been discussed. In addition, the future trends along with potential challenges of this rapidly rising layered carbon have been pointed out in this paper. PMID:23115773

  18. Bone marrow-derived cell regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dongxu; Martinez, Carlo O; Ochoa, Oscar; Ruiz-Willhite, Lourdes; Bonilla, Jose R; Centonze, Victoria E; Waite, Lindsay L; Michalek, Joel E; McManus, Linda M; Shireman, Paula K

    2009-02-01

    Limb regeneration requires the coordination of multiple stem cell populations to recapitulate the process of tissue formation. Therefore, bone marrow (BM) -derived cell regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration was examined in mice lacking the CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2). Myofiber size, numbers of myogenic progenitor cells (MPCs), and recruitment of BM-derived cells and macrophages were assessed after cardiotoxin-induced injury of chimeric mice produced by transplanting BM from wild-type (WT) or CCR2(-/-) mice into irradiated WT or CCR2(-/-) host mice. Regardless of the host genotype, muscle regeneration and recruitment of BM-derived cells and macrophages were similar in mice replenished with WT BM, whereas BM-derived cells and macrophage accumulation were decreased and muscle regeneration was impaired in all animals receiving CCR2(-/-) BM. Furthermore, numbers of MPCs (CD34(+)/Sca-1(-)/CD45(-) cells) were significantly increased in mice receiving CCR2(-/-) BM despite the decreased size of regenerated myofibers. Thus, the expression of CCR2 on BM-derived cells regulated macrophage recruitment into injured muscle, numbers of MPC, and the extent of regenerated myofiber size, all of which were independent of CCR2 expression on host-derived cells. Future studies in regenerative medicine must include consideration of the role of BM-derived cells, possibly macrophages, in CCR2-dependent events that regulate effective skeletal muscle regeneration. PMID:18827026

  19. Multiple Effects of Berberine Derivatives on Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guamán Ortiz, Luis Miguel; Dutto, Ilaria; Arcamone, Andrea G.; Buzzetti, Franco

    2014-01-01

    The pharmacological use of the plant alkaloid berberine is based on its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties; recently, anticancer activity has been attributed to this compound. To exploit this interesting feature, we synthesized three berberine derivatives, namely, NAX012, NAX014, and NAX018, and we tested their effects on two human colon carcinoma cell lines, that is, HCT116 and SW613-B3, which are characterized by wt and mutated p53, respectively. We observed that cell proliferation is more affected by cell treatment with the derivatives than with the lead compound; moreover, the derivatives proved to induce cell cycle arrest and cell death through apoptosis, thus suggesting that they could be promising anticancer drugs. Finally, we detected typical signs of autophagy in cells treated with berberine derivatives. PMID:25045712

  20. Derivation of three new human embryonic stem cell lines.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Cara K; Chami, Omar; Peura, Teija T; Bosman, Alexis; Dumevska, Biljana; Schmidt, Uli; Stojanov, Tomas

    2010-04-01

    Human embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells capable of extensive self-renewal and differentiation to all cells of the embryo proper. Here, we describe the derivation and characterization of three Sydney IVF human embryonic stem cell lines not already reported elsewhere, designated SIVF001, SIVF002, and SIVF014. The cell lines display typical compact colony morphology of embryonic stem cells, have stable growth rates over more than 40 passages and are cytogenetically normal. Furthermore, the cell lines express pluripotency markers including Nanog, Oct4, SSEA3 and Tra-1-81, and are capable of generating teratoma cells derived from each of the three germ layers in immunodeficient mice. These experiments show that the cell lines constitute pluripotent stem cell lines. PMID:20198447

  1. Generation of new islets from stem cells.

    PubMed

    Roche, Enrique; Soria, Bernat

    2004-01-01

    Spain ranks number one in organ donors (35 per million per yr). Although the prevalence of diabetes is low (100,000 type 1 diabetic patients and 2 million type 2 diabetic patients), the expected number of patients receiving islet transplants should be estimated at 200 per year. Islet replacement represents a promising cure for diabetes and has been successfully applied in a limited number of type 1 diabetic patients, resulting in insulin independence for periods longer than 3 yr. However, it has been difficult to obtain sufficient numbers of islets from cadaveric donors. Interesting alternatives include acquiring renewable sources of cells using either embryonic or adult stem cells to overcome the islet scarcity problem. Stem cells are capable of extensive proliferation rates and are capable of differentiating into other cell types of the body. In particular, totipotent stem cells are capable of differentiating into all cell types in the body, whereas pluripotent stem cells are limited to the development of a certain number of differentiated cell types. Insulin-producing cells have been obtained from both embryonic and adult stem cells using several approaches. In animal models of diabetes, the therapeutic application of bioengineered insulin-secreting cells derived from stem cells has delivered promising results. This review will summarize the different approaches that have been used to obtain insulin-producing cells from embryonic and adult stem cells and highlights the key points that will allow in vitro differentiation and subsequent transplantation in the future. PMID:15289648

  2. Red blood cell-derived microparticles: An overview.

    PubMed

    Westerman, Maxwell; Porter, John B

    2016-07-01

    The red blood cell (RBC) is historically the original parent cell of microparticles (MPs). In this overview, we describe the discovery and the early history of red cell-derived microparticles (RMPs) and present an overview of the evolution of RMP. We report the formation, characteristics, effects of RMP and factors which may affect RMP evaluation. The review examines RMP derived from both normal and pathologic RBC. The pathologic RBC studies include sickle cell anemia (SCA), sickle cell trait (STr), thalassemia intermedia (TI), hereditary spherocytosis (HS), hereditary elliptocytosis (HE), hereditary stomatocytosis (HSt) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD). PMID:27282583

  3. Human placenta-derived adherent cells induce tolerogenic immune responses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Morschauser, Andrew; Zhang, Xin; Lu, Xiaohua; Gleason, Joseph; He, Shuyang; Chen, Hong-Jung; Jankovic, Vladimir; Ye, Qian; Labazzo, Kristen; Herzberg, Uri; Albert, Vivian R; Abbot, Stewart E; Liang, Bitao; Hariri, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Human placenta-derived adherent cells (PDAC cells) are a culture expanded, undifferentiated mesenchymal-like population derived from full-term placental tissue, with immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. PDA-001 (cenplacel-L), an intravenous formulation of PDAC cells, is in clinical development for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the immunoregulatory properties of PDAC cells, we investigated their effects on immune cell populations, including T cells and dendritic cells (DC) in vitro and in vivo. PDAC cells suppressed T-cell proliferation in an OT-II T-cell adoptive transfer model, reduced the severity of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and ameliorated inflammation in a delayed type hypersensitivity response model. In vitro, PDAC cells suppressed T-cell proliferation and inhibited Th1 and Th17 differentiation. Analysis of tissues derived from PDAC cell-treated animals revealed diminished CD86 expression on splenic DC, suggesting that they can also modulate DC populations. Furthermore, PDAC cells modulate the differentiation and maturation of mouse bone marrow-derived DC. Similarly, human DC differentiated from CD14(+) monocytes in the presence of PDAC cells acquired a tolerogenic phenotype. These tolerogenic DC failed to induce allogeneic T-cell proliferation and differentiation toward Th1, but skewed T-cell differentiation toward Th2. Inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase-2 activity resulted in a significant, but not complete, abrogation of PDAC cells' effects on DC phenotype and function, implying a role for prostaglandin E2 in PDAC-mediated immunomodulation. This study identifies modulation of DC differentiation toward immune tolerance as a key mechanism underlying the immunomodulatory activities of PDAC cells. PMID:25505962

  4. Lost in translation: pluripotent stem cell-derived hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, Mania; Liebhaber, Steffi; Klusmann, Jan-Henning; Lachmann, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) such as embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells represent a promising cell type to gain novel insights into human biology. Understanding the differentiation process of PSCs in vitro may allow for the identification of cell extrinsic/intrinsic factors, driving the specification process toward all cell types of the three germ layers, which may be similar to the human in vivo scenario. This would not only lay the ground for an improved understanding of human embryonic development but would also contribute toward the generation of novel cell types used in cell replacement therapies. In this line, especially the developmental process of mesodermal cells toward the hematopoietic lineage is of great interest. Therefore, this review highlights recent progress in the field of hematopoietic specification of pluripotent stem cell sources. In addition, we would like to shed light on emerging factors controlling primitive and definitive hematopoietic development and to highlight recent approaches to improve the differentiation potential of PSC sources toward hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. While the generation of fully defined hematopoietic stem cells from PSCs remains challenging in vitro, we here underline the instructive role of cell extrinsic factors such as cytokines for the generation of PSC-derived mature hematopoietic cells. Thus, we have comprehensively examined the role of cytokines for the derivation of mature hematopoietic cell types such as macrophages, granulocytes, megakaryocytes, erythrocytes, dendritic cells, and cells of the B- and T-cell lineage. PMID:26174486

  5. Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles and Immune-Modulation.

    PubMed

    Burrello, Jacopo; Monticone, Silvia; Gai, Chiara; Gomez, Yonathan; Kholia, Sharad; Camussi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Extra-cellular vesicles (EVs) are bilayer membrane structures enriched with proteins, nucleic acids, and other active molecules and have been implicated in many physiological and pathological processes over the past decade. Recently, evidence suggests EVs to play a more dichotomic role in the regulation of the immune system, whereby an immune response may be enhanced or supressed by EVs depending on their cell of origin and its functional state. EVs derived from antigen (Ag)-presenting cells for instance, have been involved in both innate and acquired (or adaptive) immune responses, as Ag carriers or presenters, or as vehicles for delivering active signaling molecules. On the other hand, tumor and stem cell derived EVs have been identified to exert an inhibitory effect on immune responses by carrying immuno-modulatory effectors, such as transcriptional factors, non-coding RNA (Species), and cytokines. In addition, stem cell-derived EVs have also been reported to impair dendritic cell maturation and to regulate the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of B cells. They have been shown to control natural killer cell activity and to suppress the innate immune response (IIR). Studies reporting the role of EVs on T lymphocyte modulation are controversial. Discrepancy in literature may be due to stem cell culture conditions, methods of EV purification, EV molecular content, and functional state of both parental and target cells. However, mesenchymal stem cell-derived EVs were shown to play a more suppressive role by shifting T cells from an activated to a T regulatory phenotype. In this review, we will discuss how stem cell-derived EVs may contribute toward the modulation of the immune response. Collectively, stem cell-derived EVs mainly exhibit an inhibitory effect on the immune system. PMID:27597941

  6. Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles and Immune-Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Burrello, Jacopo; Monticone, Silvia; Gai, Chiara; Gomez, Yonathan; Kholia, Sharad; Camussi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Extra-cellular vesicles (EVs) are bilayer membrane structures enriched with proteins, nucleic acids, and other active molecules and have been implicated in many physiological and pathological processes over the past decade. Recently, evidence suggests EVs to play a more dichotomic role in the regulation of the immune system, whereby an immune response may be enhanced or supressed by EVs depending on their cell of origin and its functional state. EVs derived from antigen (Ag)-presenting cells for instance, have been involved in both innate and acquired (or adaptive) immune responses, as Ag carriers or presenters, or as vehicles for delivering active signaling molecules. On the other hand, tumor and stem cell derived EVs have been identified to exert an inhibitory effect on immune responses by carrying immuno-modulatory effectors, such as transcriptional factors, non-coding RNA (Species), and cytokines. In addition, stem cell-derived EVs have also been reported to impair dendritic cell maturation and to regulate the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of B cells. They have been shown to control natural killer cell activity and to suppress the innate immune response (IIR). Studies reporting the role of EVs on T lymphocyte modulation are controversial. Discrepancy in literature may be due to stem cell culture conditions, methods of EV purification, EV molecular content, and functional state of both parental and target cells. However, mesenchymal stem cell-derived EVs were shown to play a more suppressive role by shifting T cells from an activated to a T regulatory phenotype. In this review, we will discuss how stem cell-derived EVs may contribute toward the modulation of the immune response. Collectively, stem cell-derived EVs mainly exhibit an inhibitory effect on the immune system. PMID:27597941

  7. Gene screening of Wharton's jelly derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mechiche Alami, S; Velard, F; Draux, F; Siu Paredes, F; Josse, J; Lemaire, F; Gangloff, S C; Graesslin, O; Laurent-Maquin, D; Kerdjoudj, H

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells are the most powerful candidate for the treatment of various diseases. Suitable stem cell source should be harvested with minimal invasive procedure, found in great quantity, and transplanted with no risk of immune response and tumor formation. Fetal derived stem cells have been introduced as an excellent alternative to adult and embryonic stem cells use, but unfortunately, their degree of "stemness" and molecular characterization is still unclear. Several studies have been performed deciphering whether fetal stem cells meet the needs of regenerative medicine. We believe that a transcriptomic screening of Wharton's jelly stem cells will bring insights on cell population features. PMID:24928918

  8. Successful differentiation to T cells, but unsuccessful B-cell generation, from B-cell-derived induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wada, Haruka; Kojo, Satoshi; Kusama, Chie; Okamoto, Naoki; Sato, Yorino; Ishizuka, Bunpei; Seino, Ken-ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Forced expression of certain transcription factors in somatic cells results in generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, which differentiate into various cell types. We investigated T-cell and B-cell lineage differentiation from iPS cells in vitro. To evaluate the impact of iPS cell source, murine splenic B-cell-derived iPS (B-iPS) cells were generated after retroviral transduction of four transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc). B-iPS cells were identical to embryonic stem (ES) cells and mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF)-derived iPS cells in morphology, ES cell marker expression as well as teratoma and chimera mouse formation. Both B-iPS and MEF-derived iPS cells differentiated into lymphocytes in OP9 co-culture systems. Both efficiently differentiated into T-cell lineage that produced IFN-γ on T-cell receptor stimulation. However, iPS cells including B-iPS cells were relatively resistant to B-cell lineage differentiation. One of the reasons of the failure of B-cell lineage differentiation seemed due to a defect of Pax5 expression in the differentiated cells. Therefore, current in vitro differentiation systems using iPS cells are sufficient for inducing T-cell but not B-cell lineage. PMID:21135032

  9. Monocyte Heterogeneity: Consequences for Monocyte-Derived Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Teun J.; Everts, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Blood monocytes are precursors of dendritic cells, macrophages, and osteoclasts. They are a heterogeneous cell population with differences in size, phenotype, and function. Although monocytes maintain several tissue-specific populations of immune cells in homeostasis, their contribution to populations of dendritic cells, macrophages, and osteoclasts is significantly increased in inflammation. Identification of a growing number of functionally different subsets of cells within populations of monocyte-derived immune cells has recently put monocyte heterogeneity into sharp focus. Here, we summarize recent findings in monocyte heterogeneity and their differentiation into dendritic cells, macrophages, and osteoclasts. We also discuss these advances in the context of the formation of functionally different monocyte-derived subsets of dendritic cells, macrophages, and osteoclasts. PMID:27478854

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Pluripotent Human Spermatogonial Stem Cell-Derived Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kossack, Nina; Meneses, Juanito; Shefi, Shai; Nguyen, Ha Nam; Chavez, Shawn; Nicholas, Cory; Gromoll, Joerg; Turek, Paul J; Reijo-Pera, Renee A

    2009-01-01

    Several reports have documented the derivation of pluripotent cells (multipotent germline stem cells) from spermatogonial stem cells obtained from the adult mouse testis. These spermatogonia-derived stem cells express embryonic stem cell markers and differentiate to the three primary germ layers, as well as the germline. Data indicate that derivation may involve reprogramming of endogenous spermatogonia in culture. Here, we report the derivation of human multipotent germline stem cells (hMGSCs) from a testis biopsy. The cells express distinct markers of pluripotency, form embryoid bodies that contain derivatives of all three germ layers, maintain a normal XY karyotype, are hypomethylated at the H19 locus, and express high levels of telomerase. Teratoma assays indicate the presence of human cells 8 weeks post-transplantation but limited teratoma formation. Thus, these data suggest the potential to derive pluripotent cells from human testis biopsies but indicate a need for novel strategies to optimize hMGSC culture conditions and reprogramming. PMID:18927477

  11. Structural Phenotyping of Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Pasqualini, Francesco Silvio; Sheehy, Sean Paul; Agarwal, Ashutosh; Aratyn-Schaus, Yvonne; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2015-01-01

    Summary Structural phenotyping based on classical image feature detection has been adopted to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind genetically or pharmacologically induced changes in cell morphology. Here, we developed a set of 11 metrics to capture the increasing sarcomere organization that occurs intracellularly during striated muscle cell development. To test our metrics, we analyzed the localization of the contractile protein α-actinin in a variety of primary and stem-cell derived cardiomyocytes. Further, we combined these metrics with data mining algorithms to unbiasedly score the phenotypic maturity of human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. PMID:25733020

  12. Adipose-derived stem cells: Implications in tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Wakako; Rubin, J Peter; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that are obtained from abundant adipose tissue, adherent on plastic culture flasks, can be expanded in vitro, and have the capacity to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Unlike bone marrow-derived MSCs, ASCs can be obtained from abundant adipose tissue by a minimally invasive procedure, which results in a high number of cells. Therefore, ASCs are promising for regenerating tissues and organs damaged by injury and diseases. This article reviews the implications of ASCs in tissue regeneration. PMID:25126381

  13. Schizophrenia patient-derived olfactory neurosphere-derived cells do not respond to extracellular reelin.

    PubMed

    Tee, Jing Yang; Sutharsan, Ratneswary; Fan, Yongjun; Mackay-Sim, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Reelin expression is reduced in various regions in the post-mortem brain of schizophrenia patients but the exact role of reelin function in the neurobiology of schizophrenia remains elusive. Absence of reelin in knockout mouse causes inverted lamination of the neocortex due to aberrant neuronal migration. The aim of this study was to utilize patient-derived olfactory neurosphere-derived (ONS) cells to investigate whether extracellular reelin alters cell motility in schizophrenia patient-derived cells. ONS cells from nine patients were compared with cells from nine matched healthy controls. Automated high-throughput imaging and analysis were used to track motility of individual living cells on reelin-coated surfaces produced from reelin secreted into the medium by HEK293FT cells transfected with the full-length reelin plasmid pCrl. Automated assays were used to quantify intracellular cytoskeleton composition, cell morphology, and focal adhesions. Expression of reelin and components of the reelin signaling pathway were measured by western blot and flow cytometry. Reelin inhibited the motility of control cells but not patient cells, and increased the number and size of focal adhesions in control cells but not patient cells. Patient and control cells expressed similar levels of the reelin receptors and the reelin signaling protein, Dab1, but patient cells expressed less reelin. Patient cells were smaller than control cells and had less actin and acetylated α-tubulin, components of the cytoskeleton. These findings are the first direct evidence that cellular responses to reelin are impaired in schizophrenia and are consistent with the role of reelin in cytoarchitectural deficits observed in schizophrenia patient brains. PMID:27602387

  14. Schizophrenia patient-derived olfactory neurosphere-derived cells do not respond to extracellular reelin

    PubMed Central

    Tee, Jing Yang; Sutharsan, Ratneswary; Fan, Yongjun; Mackay-Sim, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Reelin expression is reduced in various regions in the post-mortem brain of schizophrenia patients but the exact role of reelin function in the neurobiology of schizophrenia remains elusive. Absence of reelin in knockout mouse causes inverted lamination of the neocortex due to aberrant neuronal migration. The aim of this study was to utilize patient-derived olfactory neurosphere-derived (ONS) cells to investigate whether extracellular reelin alters cell motility in schizophrenia patient-derived cells. ONS cells from nine patients were compared with cells from nine matched healthy controls. Automated high-throughput imaging and analysis were used to track motility of individual living cells on reelin-coated surfaces produced from reelin secreted into the medium by HEK293FT cells transfected with the full-length reelin plasmid pCrl. Automated assays were used to quantify intracellular cytoskeleton composition, cell morphology, and focal adhesions. Expression of reelin and components of the reelin signaling pathway were measured by western blot and flow cytometry. Reelin inhibited the motility of control cells but not patient cells, and increased the number and size of focal adhesions in control cells but not patient cells. Patient and control cells expressed similar levels of the reelin receptors and the reelin signaling protein, Dab1, but patient cells expressed less reelin. Patient cells were smaller than control cells and had less actin and acetylated α-tubulin, components of the cytoskeleton. These findings are the first direct evidence that cellular responses to reelin are impaired in schizophrenia and are consistent with the role of reelin in cytoarchitectural deficits observed in schizophrenia patient brains. PMID:27602387

  15. Myogenic potential of adipose-tissue-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Di Rocco, Giuliana; Iachininoto, Maria Grazia; Tritarelli, Alessandra; Straino, Stefania; Zacheo, Antonella; Germani, Antonia; Crea, Filippo; Capogrossi, Maurizio C

    2006-07-15

    Adipose-tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells can be directed towards a myogenic phenotype in vitro by the addition of specific inductive media. However, the ability of these or other adipose-tissue-associated cells to respond to ;natural' myogenic cues such as a myogenic environment has never been investigated in detail. Here, we provide evidence that a restricted subpopulation of freshly harvested adipose-tissue-derived cells possesses an intrinsic myogenic potential and can spontaneously differentiate into skeletal muscle. Conversion of adipose-tissue-derived cells to a myogenic phenotype is enhanced by co-culture with primary myoblasts in the absence of cell contact and is maximal when the two cell types are co-cultured in the same plate. Conversely, in vitro expanded adipose-tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells require direct contact with muscle cells to generate skeletal myotubes. Finally, we show that uncultured adipose-tissue-associated cells have a high regenerative capacity in vivo since they can be incorporated into muscle fibers following ischemia and can restore significantly dystrophin expression in mdx mice. PMID:16825428

  16. Glial cell derived neurotrophic factor induces spermatogonial stem cell marker genes in chicken mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Boozarpour, Sohrab; Matin, Maryam M; Momeni-Moghaddam, Madjid; Dehghani, Hesam; Mahdavi-Shahri, Naser; Sisakhtnezhad, Sajjad; Heirani-Tabasi, Asieh; Irfan-Maqsood, Muhammad; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza

    2016-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known with the potential of multi-lineage differentiation. Advances in differentiation technology have also resulted in the conversion of MSCs to other kinds of stem cells. MSCs are considered as a suitable source of cells for biotechnology purposes because they are abundant, easily accessible and well characterized cells. Nowadays small molecules are introduced as novel and efficient factors to differentiate stem cells. In this work, we examined the potential of glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) for differentiating chicken MSCs toward spermatogonial stem cells. MSCs were isolated and characterized from chicken and cultured under treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (RA) or glial cell derived neurotrophic factor. Expression analysis of specific genes after 7days of RA treatment, as examined by RT-PCR, proved positive for some germ cell markers such as CVH, STRA8, PLZF and some genes involved in spermatogonial stem cell maintenance like BCL6b and c-KIT. On the other hand, GDNF could additionally induce expression of POU5F1, and NANOG as well as other genes which were induced after RA treatment. These data illustrated that GDNF is relatively more effective in diverting chicken MSCs towards Spermatogonial stem cell -like cells in chickens and suggests GDNF as a new agent to obtain transgenic poultry, nevertheless, exploitability of these cells should be verified by more experiments. PMID:27026484

  17. In vitro differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells into islet-like clusters promoted by islet neogenesis-associated protein pentadecapeptide.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lili; Chen, Lijuan; Qi, Hui; Li, Furong; Gong, Feili

    2014-01-01

    Human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASCs) are considered an ideal tool for the supply of insulin-producing cells to treat diabetes mellitus, with high differentiation efficiency. Islet neogenesis-associated protein (INGAP) is an initiator of islet neogenesis, and the peptide sequence comprising amino acids 104-118, named INGAP pentadecapeptide (INGAP-PP), has been shown to increase β-cell mass in animals and human pathological states. Here, we report a novel 4-step method to promote hASCs to differentiate into islet-like clusters (ILCs) more efficiently by adding INGAP-PP. The hASCs were isolated, purified and differentiated using a 4-step protocol including trichostatin A, INGAP-PP/scrambled peptide (Scrambled-P), dexamethasone, nicotinamide, glucagon-like peptide-1, transforming growth factor β1 and exendin-4. Results showed that ILCs in the INGAP-PP group were more similar to the fresh islets with regard to both size and morphology and expressed significantly higher levels of both insulin and C-peptide than those in the Scrambled-P group. Moreover, the ILCs from the INGAP-PP group secreted higher levels of insulin and C-peptide than those from the Scrambled-P group in response to both a low (5.6 mM) and high (25 mM) glucose challenge and secreted 6 times more hormones under the high-glucose challenge. Real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry showed that ILCs of the INGAP-PP group expressed human pancreatic endocrine hormones and transcription factors. Transplantation of ILCs into diabetic rats partially reversed diabetes and prolonged their life span. In conclusion, the INGAP-PP protocol can efficiently induce hASCs to differentiate into ILCs in vitro, and thus hASCs could be a promising source of cells for transplantation to treat diabetes mellitus. PMID:25471531

  18. Cardiac Repair by Embryonic Stem-Derived cells

    PubMed Central

    Rubart, M.

    2008-01-01

    Cell transplantation approaches offer the potential to promote regenerative growth of diseased hearts. It is well established that donor cardiomyocytes stably engraft into recipient hearts when injected directly into the myocardial wall. Moreover, the transplanted donor cardiomyocytes participate in a functional syncytium with the host myocardium. Thus, transplantation of donor cardiomyocytes resulted in at least partial restoration of lost muscle mass. It is also well established that embryonic stem (ES) cells differentiate into cells of ecto-, endo-, and mesodermal lineages when cultured under appropriate conditions in vitro. Robust cardiomyogenic differentiation was frequently observed in spontaneously differentiating ES cultures. Cellular, molecular and physiologic analyses indicated that ES-derived cells were bona fide cardiomyocytes, with in vitro characteristics typical for cells obtained from early stages of cardiac development. Thus, ES-derived cardiomyocytes constitute a viable source of donor cells for cell transplantation therapies. PMID:16370325

  19. Stem cell-derived vascular endothelial cells and their potential application in regenerative medicine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although a 'vascular stem cell' population has not been identified or generated, vascular endothelial and mural cells (smooth muscle cells and pericytes) can be derived from currently known pluripotent stem cell sources, including human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. We rev...

  20. Differential effects of three echovirus strains on cell lysis and insulin secretion in beta cell derived lines.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Luis; Medina, Anya; Aziz, Kosrat; Anagandula, Mahesh; Cabrera-Rode, Eduardo; Fex, Malin; Frisk, Gun; Cilio, Corrado M

    2016-06-01

    In an earlier study, infection of human pancreatic islets with epidemic strains of echovirus (E4, E16, E30), with proven but differently ability to induce islet autoimmunity, resulted either in a severe damage (i.e., E16 and E30) or proceeded without visible changes in infected islets (i.e., E4). In this study, the ability of these strains to replicate in beta cells and the consequence of such an infection for beta cell lysis and beta cell function was studied in the pancreatic beta cell lines INS-1, MIN6, and NIT-1. The strains of E16 and E30 did replicate in INS1, MIN6, and NIT1 cells and resulted in a pronounced cytopathic effect within 3 days following infection. By contrast, E4 replicated in all examined insulinoma cells with no apparent cell destruction. The insulin release in response to high glucose stimulation was hampered in all infected cells (P < 0.05) when no evidence of cytolysis was present; however, the adverse effect of E16 and E30 on insulin secretion appeared to be higher than that of the E4 strain. The differential effects of echovirus infection on cell lysis, and beta cell function in the rodent insulinoma INS1, MIN6, and NIT 1 cells reflect those previously obtained in primary human islets and support the notion that the insulin-producing beta cells can harbor a non-cytopathic viral infection. J. Med. Virol. 88:971-978, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26629879

  1. Derivation of the human embryonic stem cell line RCM1.

    PubMed

    De Sousa, P A; Tye, B J; Sneddon, S; Bruce, K; Dand, P; Russell, G; Collins, D M; Greenshields, A; McDonald, K; Bradburn, H; Gardner, J; Downie, J M; Courtney, A; Brison, D R

    2016-03-01

    The human embryonic stem cell line RCM-1 was derived from a failed to fertilise egg undergoing parthenogenetic stimulation. The cell line shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. It has a normal 46XX female karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data is available. PMID:27346018

  2. Fluorescent Fructose Derivatives for Imaging Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Jelena; Cheng, Zhen; Gheysens, Olivier; Patel, Manish; Chan, Carmel T.; Wang, Yingbing; Namavari, Mohammad; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer cells are known to overexpress Glut5, a sugar transporter responsible for the transfer of fructose across the cell membrane. Since Glut5 transporter is not significantly expressed in normal breast cells, fructose uptake can potentially be used to differentiate between normal and cancerous cells. Fructose was labeled with two fluorophores at the C-1 position: 7-nitro-1,2,3-benzadiazole (NBD) and Cy5.5. The labeling site was chosen on the basis of the presence and substrate specificity of the key proteins involved in the first steps of fructose metabolism. Using fluorescence microscopy, the uptake of the probes was studied in three breast cancer cell lines: MCF 7, MDA-MB-435, and MDA-MB-231. Both fluorescent fructose derivatives showed a very good uptake in all tested cell lines. The level of uptake was comparable to that of the corresponding glucose analogs, 2-NBDG and Cy5.5-DG. Significant uptake of 1-NBDF derivative was not observed in cells lacking Glut5 transporter, while the uptake of the 1-Cy5.5-DF derivative was independent of the presence of a fructose-specific transporter. While 1-NBDF showed Glut5-specific accumulation, the coupling of a large fluorophore such as Cy5.5 likely introduces big structural and electronic changes, leading to a fructose derivative that does not accurately describe the uptake of fructose in cells. PMID:17444608

  3. Reduced protein synthesis in schizophrenia patient-derived olfactory cells

    PubMed Central

    English, J A; Fan, Y; Föcking, M; Lopez, L M; Hryniewiecka, M; Wynne, K; Dicker, P; Matigian, N; Cagney, G; Mackay-Sim, A; Cotter, D R

    2015-01-01

    Human olfactory neurosphere-derived (ONS) cells have the potential to provide novel insights into the cellular pathology of schizophrenia. We used discovery-based proteomics and targeted functional analyses to reveal reductions in 17 ribosomal proteins, with an 18% decrease in the total ribosomal signal intensity in schizophrenia-patient-derived ONS cells. We quantified the rates of global protein synthesis in vitro and found a significant reduction in the rate of protein synthesis in schizophrenia patient-derived ONS cells compared with control-derived cells. Protein synthesis rates in fibroblast cell lines from the same patients did not differ, suggesting cell type-specific effects. Pathway analysis of dysregulated proteomic and transcriptomic data sets from these ONS cells converged to highlight perturbation of the eIF2α, eIF4 and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) translational control pathways, and these pathways were also implicated in an independent induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem model, and cohort, of schizophrenia patients. Analysis in schizophrenia genome-wide association data from the Psychiatric Genetics Consortium specifically implicated eIF2α regulatory kinase EIF2AK2, and confirmed the importance of the eIF2α, eIF4 and mTOR translational control pathways at the level of the genome. Thus, we integrated data from proteomic, transcriptomic, and functional assays from schizophrenia patient-derived ONS cells with genomics data to implicate dysregulated protein synthesis for the first time in schizophrenia. PMID:26485547

  4. REPROGRAMMING PATIENT-DERIVED CELLS TO STUDY THE EPILEPIES

    PubMed Central

    Parent, Jack M.; Anderson, Stewart A.

    2015-01-01

    The epilepsies and related disorders of brain circuitry present significant challenges for using human cells to study disease mechanisms and develop new therapies. Some of these obstacles are being overcome with the use of induced pluripotent stem cell techniques to obtain patient-derived neural cells for in vitro studies and as a source of cell based treatments. The field is evolving rapidly with the addition of genome editing approaches and expanding protocols for generating different neural cell types and three-dimensional tissues, but the application to neurological disorders and particularly to the epilepsies is in its infancy. We discuss the progress made to date, the unique advantages and limitations of using patient-derived cells to study or treat epilepsy, and critical future directions for the field. PMID:25710838

  5. Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Bacterial Infections.

    PubMed

    Ost, Michael; Singh, Anurag; Peschel, Andreas; Mehling, Roman; Rieber, Nikolaus; Hartl, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) comprise monocytic and granulocytic innate immune cells with the capability of suppressing T- and NK-cell responses. While the role of MDSCs has been studied in depth in malignant diseases, the understanding of their regulation and function in infectious disease conditions has just begun to evolve. Here we summarize and discuss the current view how MDSCs participate in bacterial infections and how this knowledge could be exploited for potential future therapeutics. PMID:27066459

  6. Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Ost, Michael; Singh, Anurag; Peschel, Andreas; Mehling, Roman; Rieber, Nikolaus; Hartl, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) comprise monocytic and granulocytic innate immune cells with the capability of suppressing T- and NK-cell responses. While the role of MDSCs has been studied in depth in malignant diseases, the understanding of their regulation and function in infectious disease conditions has just begun to evolve. Here we summarize and discuss the current view how MDSCs participate in bacterial infections and how this knowledge could be exploited for potential future therapeutics. PMID:27066459

  7. OVCAR-3 Spheroid-Derived Cells Display Distinct Metabolic Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Vermeersch, Kathleen A.; Wang, Lijuan; Mezencev, Roman; McDonald, John F.; Styczynski, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recently, multicellular spheroids were isolated from a well-established epithelial ovarian cancer cell line, OVCAR-3, and were propagated in vitro. These spheroid-derived cells displayed numerous hallmarks of cancer stem cells, which are chemo- and radioresistant cells thought to be a significant cause of cancer recurrence and resultant mortality. Gene set enrichment analysis of expression data from the OVCAR-3 cells and the spheroid-derived putative cancer stem cells identified several metabolic pathways enriched in differentially expressed genes. Before this, there had been little previous knowledge or investigation of systems-scale metabolic differences between cancer cells and cancer stem cells, and no knowledge of such differences in ovarian cancer stem cells. Methods To determine if there were substantial metabolic changes corresponding with these transcriptional differences, we used two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry to measure the metabolite profiles of the two cell lines. Results These two cell lines exhibited significant metabolic differences in both intracellular and extracellular metabolite measurements. Principal components analysis, an unsupervised dimensional reduction technique, showed complete separation between the two cell types based on their metabolite profiles. Pathway analysis of intracellular metabolomics data revealed close overlap with metabolic pathways identified from gene expression data, with four out of six pathways found enriched in gene-level analysis also enriched in metabolite-level analysis. Some of those pathways contained multiple metabolites that were individually statistically significantly different between the two cell lines, with one of the most broadly and consistently different pathways, arginine and proline metabolism, suggesting an interesting hypothesis about cancerous and stem-like metabolic phenotypes in this pair of cell lines. Conclusions Overall, we demonstrate for the

  8. Tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Cima, Igor; Kong, Say Li; Sengupta, Debarka; Tan, Iain B; Phyo, Wai Min; Lee, Daniel; Hu, Min; Iliescu, Ciprian; Alexander, Irina; Goh, Wei Lin; Rahmani, Mehran; Suhaimi, Nur-Afidah Mohamed; Vo, Jess H; Tai, Joyce A; Tan, Joanna H; Chua, Clarinda; Ten, Rachel; Lim, Wan Jun; Chew, Min Hoe; Hauser, Charlotte A E; van Dam, Rob M; Lim, Wei-Yen; Prabhakar, Shyam; Lim, Bing; Koh, Poh Koon; Robson, Paul; Ying, Jackie Y; Hillmer, Axel M; Tan, Min-Han

    2016-06-29

    Clusters of tumor cells are often observed in the blood of cancer patients. These structures have been described as malignant entities for more than 50 years, although their comprehensive characterization is lacking. Contrary to current consensus, we demonstrate that a discrete population of circulating cell clusters isolated from the blood of colorectal cancer patients are not cancerous but consist of tumor-derived endothelial cells. These clusters express both epithelial and mesenchymal markers, consistent with previous reports on circulating tumor cell (CTC) phenotyping. However, unlike CTCs, they do not mirror the genetic variations of matched tumors. Transcriptomic analysis of single clusters revealed that these structures exhibit an endothelial phenotype and can be traced back to the tumor endothelium. Further results show that tumor-derived endothelial clusters do not form by coagulation or by outgrowth of single circulating endothelial cells, supporting a direct release of clusters from the tumor vasculature. The isolation and enumeration of these benign clusters distinguished healthy volunteers from treatment-naïve as well as pathological early-stage (≤IIA) colorectal cancer patients with high accuracy, suggesting that tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters could be used as a means of noninvasive screening for colorectal cancer. In contrast to CTCs, tumor-derived endothelial cell clusters may also provide important information about the underlying tumor vasculature at the time of diagnosis, during treatment, and throughout the course of the disease. PMID:27358499

  9. Large Scale Production of Stem Cells and Their Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweigerdt, Robert

    Stem cells have been envisioned to become an unlimited cell source for regenerative medicine. Notably, the interest in stem cells lies beyond direct therapeutic applications. They might also provide a previously unavailable source of valuable human cell types for screening platforms, which might facilitate the development of more efficient and safer drugs. The heterogeneity of stem cell types as well as the numerous areas of application suggests that differential processes are mandatory for their in vitro culture. Many of the envisioned applications would require the production of a high number of stem cells and their derivatives in scalable, well-defined and potentially clinical compliant manner under current good manufacturing practice (cGMP). In this review we provide an overview on recent strategies to develop bioprocesses for the expansion, differentiation and enrichment of stem cells and their progenies, presenting examples for adult and embryonic stem cells alike.

  10. Heterozygous Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Derived from Nonhuman Primate Parthenotes

    PubMed Central

    Dighe, Vikas; Clepper, Lisa; Pedersen, Darlene; Byrne, James; Ferguson, Betsy; Gokhale, Sumita; Penedo, M. Cecilia T.; Wolf, Don; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2009-01-01

    Monoparental parthenotes represent a potential source of histocompatible stem cells that should be isogenic with the oocyte donor and therefore suitable for use in cell or tissue replacement therapy. We generated five rhesus monkey parthenogenetic embryonic stem cell (PESC) lines with stable, diploid female karyotypes that were morphologically indistinguishable from biparental controls, expressed key pluripotent markers, and generated cell derivatives representative of all three germ layers following in vivo and in vitro differentiation. Interestingly, high levels of heterozygosity were observed at the majority of loci that were polymorphic in the oocyte donors. Some PESC lines were also heterozygous in the major histocompatibility complex region, carrying haplotypes identical to those of the egg donor females. Expression analysis revealed transcripts from some imprinted genes that are normally expressed from only the paternal allele. These results indicate that limitations accompanying the potential use of PESC-derived phenotypes in regenerative medicine, including aberrant genomic imprinting and high levels of homozygosity, are cell line-dependent and not always present. PESC lines were derived in high enough yields to be practicable, and their derivatives are suitable for autologous transplantation into oocyte donors or could be used to establish a bank of histocompatible cell lines for a broad spectrum of patients. PMID:18192229

  11. Dentin barrier test with transfected bovine pulp-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Schmalz, G; Schuster, U; Thonemann, B; Barth, M; Esterbauer, S

    2001-02-01

    Growth kinetics of SV40 large T-antigen-transfected bovine pulp-derived cells on dentin were investigated. These cells were used in a dentin barrier test device, and the system was evaluated by testing a set of dental filling materials. Cells (120 cells/mm2) were seeded on dentin slices and incubated for up to 21 days. Cell proliferation was recorded using MTT assay. For cytotoxicity tests 3500 cells/mm2 were seeded on dentin discs, which were then incorporated into the dentin barrier test device. After 72 h preincubation test materials were applied. After a 24 h exposure with or without perfusion of the pulpal part of the test device, cell survival was evaluated using MTT assay. The cells revealed similar growth kinetics on dentin slices and on tissue culture plates. In cytotoxicity tests the cells were more sensitive toward the test materials than previously used three-dimensional cultures of human foreskin fibroblasts and as anticipated from clinical experience. Further improvement is expected by using three-dimensional cultures of pulp-derived cells. PMID:11491647

  12. Cryopreservation of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Miyagi-Shiohira, Chika; Kurima, Kiyoto; Kobayashi, Naoya; Saitoh, Issei; Watanabe, Masami; Noguchi, Yasufumi; Matsushita, Masayuki; Noguchi, Hirofumi

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to differentiate into cells of mesodermal origin such as osteoblasts, adipocytes, myocytes, and chondrocytes. They possess an immunosuppressive effect, which makes them a viable cell population for the cell-based therapy of treatment-resistant immune diseases. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) have been demonstrated to have the ability to acquire the properties of subcutaneous adipose tissue particularly easily, and cryopreservation is currently performed as a routine method for preserving ASCs to safely acquire large numbers of cells. However, many studies have reported that cellular activity after freezing and thawing may be affected by the solutions used for cryopreservation. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is commonly used as a cryopreservation medium as it diffuses into the cell through the plasma membrane and protects the cells from the damage caused by freezing. As substitutes for DMSO or animal-derived serum, cell banker series, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), sericin and maltose, and methyl cellulose (MC) have been investigated for their clinical applications. It is critical to develop a reliable cell cryopreservation protocol for regenerative medicine using MSCs. PMID:26858903

  13. Cryopreservation of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Miyagi-Shiohira, Chika; Kurima, Kiyoto; Kobayashi, Naoya; Saitoh, Issei; Watanabe, Masami; Noguchi, Yasufumi; Matsushita, Masayuki; Noguchi, Hirofumi

    2015-12-17

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to differentiate into cells of mesodermal origin such as osteoblasts, adipocytes, myocytes, and chondrocytes. They possess an immunosuppressive effect, which makes them a viable cell population for the cell-based therapy of treatment-resistant immune diseases. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) have been demonstrated to have the ability to acquire the properties of subcutaneous adipose tissue particularly easily, and cryopreservation is currently performed as a routine method for preserving ASCs to safely acquire large numbers of cells. However, many studies have reported that cellular activity after freezing and thawing may be affected by the solutions used for cryopreservation. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is commonly used as a cryopreservation medium as it diffuses into the cell through the plasma membrane and protects the cells from the damage caused by freezing. As substitutes for DMSO or animal-derived serum, cell banker series, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), sericin and maltose, and methyl cellulose (MC) have been investigated for their clinical applications. It is critical to develop a reliable cell cryopreservation protocol for regenerative medicine using MSCs. PMID:26858903

  14. Genotypes and immunophenotypes of Hodgkin's disease-derived cell lines.

    PubMed

    Drexler, H G; Leber, B F; Norton, J; Yaxley, J; Tatsumi, E; Hoffbrand, A V; Minowada, J

    1988-06-01

    This report describes the geno- and immunophenotypic analysis of the Hodgkin's disease-derived cell lines HDLM-2, KM-H2, and L-428. The lines were all positive for the antigens CD15 (Leu-M1), CD30 (Ki-1), Hefi-1 (antigen detected by a monoclonal antibody produced against L-428), HLA class I and II, and activation/proliferation markers. The cells from all 3 cell lines lacked almost all cell lineage-associated/specific markers: HDLM-2 was only CD2+, KM-H2 was only CD9+ and CD21+, and L-428 was negative for all the specific markers tested. Genomic analysis of HDLM-2 cells revealed monoclonal rearrangements of T cell receptor beta and gamma loci and germ line configuration of immunoglobulin genes. Immunoglobulin heavy chain genes were rearranged in KM-H2 and L-428. These data suggest a possible lymphoid origin for HDLM-2, KM-H2, and L-428. Although the data presented do not provide formal proof of a lymphoid nature of Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells and do not unequivocally exclude a derivation from other hematopoietic cells, extrapolation of the results from the in vitro cultures to the in vivo situation suggests a lymphoid (T or B cell) origin of these cells. PMID:3131596

  15. Derivation of Genea057 human embryonic stem cell line.

    PubMed

    Dumevska, Biljana; Chami, Omar; McKernan, Robert; Goel, Divya; Schmidt, Uli

    2016-01-01

    The Genea057 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XX karyotype and female allele pattern through traditional karyotyping, CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea057 was demonstrated with 97% of cells expressing Nanog, 81% Oct4, 75% Tra1-60 and 97% SSEA4, a PluriTest Pluripotency score of 27.59 and Novelty score of 1.32. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination. PMID:27345782

  16. Derivation of Genea042 human embryonic stem cell line.

    PubMed

    Dumevska, Biljana; Chami, Omar; McKernan, Robert; Goel, Divya; Schmidt, Uli

    2016-03-01

    The Genea042 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XX karyotype and female allele pattern through traditional karyotyping, CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea042 was demonstrated with 81% of cells expressing Nanog, 95% Oct4, 53% Tra1-60 and 97% SSEA4, a PluriTest Pluripotency score of 30.06, Novelty score of 1.24 and Alkaline Phosphatase activity. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination. PMID:27345994

  17. Derivation of Genea002 human embryonic stem cell line.

    PubMed

    Dumevska, Biljana; Bosman, Alexis; McKernan, Robert; Goel, Divya; Peura, Teija; Schmidt, Uli

    2016-01-01

    The Genea002 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XY karyotype by CGH and male Allele pattern through STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea002 was demonstrated with 75% of cells expressing Nanog, 93% Oct4, 83% Tra1-60 and 98% SSEA4, a Pluritest pluripotency score of 24.55, Novelty score of 1.39, teratomas with tissues from all embryonic germ layers and Alkaline Phosphatase activity. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination. PMID:27345802

  18. Derivation of Genea052 human embryonic stem cell line.

    PubMed

    Dumevska, Biljana; Chami, Omar; McKernan, Robert; Goel, Divya; Schmidt, Uli

    2016-03-01

    The Genea052 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XY karyotype and male allele pattern through CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea052 was demonstrated with 85% of cells expressing Nanog, 87% Oct4, 60% Tra1-60 and 97% SSEA4, a PluriTest Pluripotency score of 27.21, Novelty score of 1.2 and tri-lineage teratoma formation. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination. PMID:27345996

  19. Derivation of human embryonic stem cell line Genea023.

    PubMed

    Dumevska, Biljana; Bosman, Alexis; McKernan, Robert; Goel, Divya; Schmidt, Uli; Peura, Teija

    2016-03-01

    The Genea023 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XY karyotype and male allele pattern through CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea023 was demonstrated with 85% of cells expressed Nanog, 98% Oct4, 55% Tra1-60 and 98% SSEA4, gave a Pluritest Pluripotency score of 42.76, Novelty of 1.23, demonstrated Alkaline Phosphatase activity and tri-lineage teratoma formation. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination. PMID:27346015

  20. Derivation of Genea015 human embryonic stem cell line.

    PubMed

    Dumevska, Biljana; Chami, Omar; McKernan, Robert; Goel, Divya; Schmidt, Uli

    2016-03-01

    The Genea015 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XY karyotype and male Allele pattern through traditional karyotyping, CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea015 was demonstrated with 80% of cells expressing Nanog, 97% Oct4, 75% Tra1-60 and 98% SSEA4, a PluriTest Pluripotency score of 29.52, Novelty score of 1.3 and Alkaline Phosphatase activity. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination. PMID:27346028

  1. Derivation of human embryonic stem cell line Genea022.

    PubMed

    Dumevska, Biljana; Bosman, Alexis; McKernan, Robert; Schmidt, Uli; Peura, Teija

    2016-03-01

    The Genea022 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XY karyotype and male allele pattern through CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea022 was demonstrated with 84% of cells expressed Nanog, 98% Oct4, 55% Tra1-60 and 97% SSEA4, gave a Pluritest Pluripotency score of 42.95, Novelty of 1.23, demonstrated Alkaline Phosphatase activity and tri-lineage teratoma formation. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination. PMID:27346017

  2. Derivation of Genea047 human embryonic stem cell line.

    PubMed

    Dumevska, Biljana; Chami, Omar; McKernan, Robert; Goel, Divya; Schmidt, Uli

    2016-03-01

    The Genea047 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XX karyotype and female allele pattern through traditional karyotyping, CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea047 was demonstrated with 88% of cells expressing Nanog, 95% Oct4, 59% Tra1-60 and 99% SSEA4, a PluriTest Pluripotency score of 30.86, Novelty score of 1.23 and tri-lineage teratoma formation. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination. PMID:27345995

  3. Derivation of Genea043 human embryonic stem cell line.

    PubMed

    Dumevska, Biljana; Chami, Omar; McKernan, Robert; Goel, Divya; Schmidt, Uli

    2016-01-01

    The Genea043 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XY karyotype and male allele pattern through traditional karyotyping, CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea043 was demonstrated with 92% of cells expressing Nanog, 95% Oct4, 61% Tra1-60 and 99% SSEA4, a PluriTest Pluripotency score of 31.74, Novelty score of 1.2 and Alkaline Phosphatase activity. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination. PMID:27345801

  4. Derivation of Genea016 human embryonic stem cell line.

    PubMed

    Dumevska, Biljana; Chami, Omar; McKernan, Robert; Goel, Divya; Peura, Teija; Schmidt, Uli

    2016-01-01

    The Genea016 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XX karyotype and female Allele pattern through traditional karyotyping, CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea016 was demonstrated with 77% of cells expressing Nanog, 95% Oct4, 53% Tra1-60 and 98% SSEA4, a PluriTest Pluripotency score of 28.4, Novelty score of 1.37 and Alkaline Phosphatase activity. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination. PMID:27345780

  5. Bone marrow–derived progenitor cells in pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Naozumi; Jin, Hong; Liu, Tianju; Chensue, Stephen W.; Phan, Sem H.

    2004-01-01

    The origin of fibroblasts in pulmonary fibrosis is assumed to be intrapulmonary, but their extrapulmonary origin and especially derivation from bone marrow (BM) progenitor cells has not been ruled out. To examine this possibility directly, adult mice were durably engrafted with BM isolated from transgenic mice expressing enhanced GFP. Induction of pulmonary fibrosis in such chimera mice by endotracheal bleomycin (BLM) injection caused large numbers of GFP+ cells to appear in active fibrotic lesions, while only a few GFP+ cells could be identified in control lungs. Flow-cytometric analysis of lung cells confirmed the BLM-induced increase in GFP+ cells in chimera mice and revealed a significant increase in GFP+ cells that also express type I collagen. GFP+ lung fibroblasts isolated from chimera mice expressed collagen and telomerase reverse transcriptase but not α-smooth muscle actin. Treatment of isolated GFP+ fibroblasts with TGF-β failed to induce myofibroblast differentiation. Cultured lung fibroblasts expressed the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR7 and responded chemotactically to their cognate ligands, stromal cell–derived factor-1α and secondary lymphoid chemokine, respectively. Thus the collagen-producing lung fibroblasts in pulmonary fibrosis can also be derived from BM progenitor cells. PMID:14722616

  6. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells: Common Traits in Immune Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaev, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    To protect host against immune-mediated damage, immune responses are tightly regulated. The regulation of immune responses is mediated by various populations of mature immune cells, such as T regulatory cells and B regulatory cells, but also by immature cells of different origins. In this review, we discuss regulatory properties and mechanisms whereby two distinct populations of immature cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and myeloid derived suppressor cells mediate immune regulation, focusing on their similarities, discrepancies, and potential clinical applications. PMID:27529074

  7. Characterization of a human ovarian teratocarcinoma-derived cell line.

    PubMed

    Zeuthen, J; Nørgaard, J O; Avner, P; Fellous, M; Wartiovaara, J; Vaheri, A; Rosén, A; Giovanella, B C

    1980-01-15

    A cell line (PA I), derived from human ovarian teratocarcinoma cells, was obtained by culturing ascitic fluid cells from a patient with recurrence of malignant ovarian teratoma. During early passages the cultured cells showed a variable morphology, a long doubling time, and a low plating efficiency (2%). After about 50 passages in vitro, a cell population which was more homogeneous and resembled embryonal carcinoma cells were obtained. These cells had a shorter doubling time (26 h), and increased plating efficiency (77%). The early-passage cells were aneuploid (P 24) whereas the late-passage cells had a normal diploid karyotype with one balanced translocation between chromosomes No. 15 and No. 20 (P 224). Details of the karyotype suggest that the cells are heterozygous, i.e. derived from a stage before the first meiotic division. One of the two X chromosomes were inactive, and the cells expressed HLA antigens (A28 and B12), and beta 2-microglobulin. Expression of F9 antigen, characteristic of two-cell and later preimplantation embryos, was absent, while expression of PCC4 antigen, expressed also by blastocysts, was present. This finding suggests that the line might express some embryonic characteristics. The PA I cell line maintained in monolayer cultures showed several characteristics of malignant cells. The proportion of malignant cells increased with successive passages in vitro. The late-passage cells represented a fairly homogenous population of malignant cells similar to embryonal carcinoma cells. Late-passage PA I cells, when seeded under conditions that prevented attachment of cells to the substratum, formed embryoid bodies consisting of an inner core of cells similar to embryonal carcinoma cells, surrounded by a rind of endoderm-like cells. These two cell layers were separated by a basement membrane-like structure containing fibronectin. The core embryonal carcinoma cells expressed high alkaline phosphatase activity whereas the endoderm-like cells had low

  8. A Mass Spectrometric-Derived Cell Surface Protein Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Bausch-Fluck, Damaris; Hofmann, Andreas; Bock, Thomas; Frei, Andreas P.; Cerciello, Ferdinando; Jacobs, Andrea; Moest, Hansjoerg; Omasits, Ulrich; Gundry, Rebekah L.; Yoon, Charles; Schiess, Ralph; Schmidt, Alexander; Mirkowska, Paulina; Härtlová, Anetta; Van Eyk, Jennifer E.; Bourquin, Jean-Pierre; Aebersold, Ruedi; Boheler, Kenneth R.; Zandstra, Peter; Wollscheid, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Cell surface proteins are major targets of biomedical research due to their utility as cellular markers and their extracellular accessibility for pharmacological intervention. However, information about the cell surface protein repertoire (the surfaceome) of individual cells is only sparsely available. Here, we applied the Cell Surface Capture (CSC) technology to 41 human and 31 mouse cell types to generate a mass-spectrometry derived Cell Surface Protein Atlas (CSPA) providing cellular surfaceome snapshots at high resolution. The CSPA is presented in form of an easy-to-navigate interactive database, a downloadable data matrix and with tools for targeted surfaceome rediscovery (http://wlab.ethz.ch/cspa). The cellular surfaceome snapshots of different cell types, including cancer cells, resulted in a combined dataset of 1492 human and 1296 mouse cell surface glycoproteins, providing experimental evidence for their cell surface expression on different cell types, including 136 G-protein coupled receptors and 75 membrane receptor tyrosine-protein kinases. Integrated analysis of the CSPA reveals that the concerted biological function of individual cell types is mainly guided by quantitative rather than qualitative surfaceome differences. The CSPA will be useful for the evaluation of drug targets, for the improved classification of cell types and for a better understanding of the surfaceome and its concerted biological functions in complex signaling microenvironments. PMID:25894527

  9. Derivation and characterization of human ESC-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ruenn Chai; Choo, Andre; Lim, Sai Kiang

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells that have been isolated from numerous sources including human embryonic stem cells (hES). Derivation from hES is unique in that hES must be differentiated. In our hands, trypsinizing hES into single cells and plating them on gelatin coated plates in a DMEM medium supplemented with serum replacement media and FGF2 with either PDGF AB or EGF will induce differentiation of hES and selectively enhance the survival of MSCs over hES. Repeated passaging by trypsinization results in a highly enriched MSC culture. Enriched MSC cultures can be further purified to homogeneity by limiting dilution or FACS sorting for a CD105+ or CD73+ and CD24- cell population. The resulting hES-MSCs fulfill the ISCT minimal defining criteria for human MSCs, namely adherence to plastic, a surface antigen expression profile of CD29+, CD44+, CD49a+ CD49e+, CD73+, CD105+, CD166+, CD34-, CD45-, and a differentiation potential that includes adipogenesis, osteogenesis, and chondrogenesis. Finally, hES-MSCs can be extensively and stably propagated. This method of deriving hES-MSCs without the need for a xenogeneic feeder and use of animal serum could be used to derive clinically compliant MSCs from hESCs. PMID:21431516

  10. Coelomic epithelium-derived cells in visceral morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ariza, Laura; Carmona, Rita; Cañete, Ana; Cano, Elena; Muñoz-Chápuli, Ramón

    2016-03-01

    Coelomic cavities of vertebrates are lined by a mesothelium which develops from the lateral plate mesoderm. During development, the coelomic epithelium is a highly active cell layer, which locally is able to supply mesenchymal cells that contribute to the mesodermal elements of many organs and provide signals which are necessary for their development. The relevance of this process of mesenchymal cell supply to the developing organs is becoming clearer because genetic lineage tracing techniques have been developed in recent years. Body wall, heart, liver, lungs, gonads, and gastrointestinal tract are populated by cells derived from the coelomic epithelium which contribute to their connective and vascular tissues, and sometimes to specialized cell types such as the stellate cells of the liver, the Cajal interstitial cells of the gut or the Sertoli cells of the testicle. In this review we collect information about the contribution of coelomic epithelium derived cells to visceral development, their developmental fates and signaling functions. The common features displayed by all these processes suggest that the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of the embryonic coelomic epithelium is an underestimated but key event of vertebrate development, and probably it is shared by all the coelomate metazoans. PMID:26638186

  11. Placental-derived stem cells: Culture, differentiation and challenges.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maira S; Barreto-Filho, João B

    2015-05-26

    Stem cell therapy is a promising approach to clinical healing in several diseases. A great variety of tissues (bone marrow, adipose tissue, and placenta) are potentially sources of stem cells. Placenta-derived stem cells (p-SCs) are in between embryonic and mesenchymal stem cells, sharing characteristics with both, such as non-carcinogenic status and property to differentiate in all embryonic germ layers. Moreover, their use is not ethically restricted as fetal membranes are considered medical waste after birth. In this context, the present review will be focused on the biological properties, culture and potential cell therapy uses of placental-derived stem cells. Immunophenotype characterization, mainly for surface marker expression, and basic principles of p-SC isolation and culture (mechanical separation or enzymatic digestion of the tissues, the most used culture media, cell plating conditions) will be presented. In addition, some preclinical studies that were performed in different medical areas will be cited, focusing on neurological, liver, pancreatic, heart, muscle, pulmonary, and bone diseases and also in tissue engineering field. Finally, some challenges for stem cell therapy applications will be highlighted. The understanding of the mechanisms involved in the p-SCs differentiation and the achievement of pure cell populations (after differentiation) are key points that must be clarified before bringing the preclinical studies, performed at the bench, to the medical practice. PMID:26029347

  12. Monocyte cell membrane-derived nanoghosts for targeted cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, S.; Gnanasammandhan, M. K.; Xie, C.; Huang, K.; Cui, M. Y.; Chan, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    Core-shell type `nanoghosts' were synthesized with a drug-loaded biodegradable PLGA core and a monocyte cell membrane-derived shell. The nanoghosts were monodisperse with an average size <200 nm, and showed good serum stability for 120 h. Doxorubicin-loaded nanoghosts showed greater cellular uptake and cytotoxicity compared to non-coated nanoparticle controls in metastatic MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines.Core-shell type `nanoghosts' were synthesized with a drug-loaded biodegradable PLGA core and a monocyte cell membrane-derived shell. The nanoghosts were monodisperse with an average size <200 nm, and showed good serum stability for 120 h. Doxorubicin-loaded nanoghosts showed greater cellular uptake and cytotoxicity compared to non-coated nanoparticle controls in metastatic MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07588b

  13. Phenotypic characterization of stem cell factor-dependent human foetal liver-derived mast cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, G; Forsberg, K; Bodger, M P; Ashman, L K; Zsebo, K M; Ishizaka, T; Irani, A M; Schwartz, L B

    1993-01-01

    Human foetal liver cells are an enriched source of mast cell progenitors that complete their differentiation and mature in response to stem cell factor, the ligand for Kit, in liquid culture. These mast cells are Kit+, metachromatic with toluidine blue+, tryptase+, histamine+ and show ultrastructure features of mast cells. Using a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against different cell-surface antigens (33 mAb were used), the cell-surface phenotype of human stem cell factor-dependent foetal liver-derived mast cells was examined by flow cytometry. Consistent with previous reports on tissue-derived mast cells, those derived from foetal liver in vitro expressed HLA class I, CD9, CD29, CD33, CD43, CD45 and Kit. Unlike mast cells dispersed from tissue, a high expression of CD13 was found. Also, these in vitro-derived mast cells express little, if any, high-affinity IgE receptor. However, small amounts of mRNA for the alpha-chain in foetal liver-derived mast cells compared to KU812 cells (a human basophil-like cell line) could be detected by Northern blotting. Full expression of Fc epsilon RI may require additional growth factor(s). Images Figure 2 PMID:7688344

  14. Immunomodulatory effects of mesenchymal stromal cells-derived exosome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wancheng; Huang, Yukai; Han, Jiaochan; Yu, Lili; Li, Yanli; Lu, Ziyuan; Li, Hongbo; Liu, Zenghui; Shi, Chenyan; Duan, Fengqi; Xiao, Yang

    2016-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying immunomodulatory ability of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) remain unknown. Recently, studies suggested that the immunomodulatory activity of MSCs is largely mediated by paracrine factors. Among which, exosome is considered to play a major role in the communication between MSCs and target tissue. The aim of our study is to investigate the effect of MSCs-derived exosome on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), especially T cells. We find that the MSCs-derived exosome extracted from healthy donors' bone marrow suppressed the secretion of pro-inflammatory factor TNF-α and IL-1β, but increased the concentration of anti-inflammatory factor TGF-β during in vitro culture. In addition, exosome may induce conversion of T helper type 1 (Th1) into T helper type 2 (Th2) cells and reduced potential of T cells to differentiate into interleukin 17-producing effector T cells (Th17). Moreover, the level of regulatory T cells (Treg) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 were also increased. These results suggested that MSC-derived exosome possesses the immunomodulatory properties. However, it showed no effects on the proliferation of PBMCs or CD3+ T cells, but increases the apoptosis of them. In addition, indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) was previously shown to mediate the immunoregulation of MSCs, which was increased in PBMCs co-cultured with MSCs. In our study, IDO showed no significant changes in PBMCs exposed to MSCs-derived exosome. We conclude that exosome and MSCs might differ in their immune-modulating activities and mechanisms. PMID:27115513

  15. Fas signal promotes lung cancer growth by recruiting myeloid-derived suppressor cells via cancer cell-derived PGE2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongliang; Liu, Qiuyan; Zhang, Minggang; Yu, Yizhi; Liu, Xia; Cao, Xuetao

    2009-03-15

    Fas/FasL system has been extensively investigated with respect to its capacity to induce cellular apoptosis. However, accumulated evidences show that Fas signaling also exhibits nonapoptotic functions, such as induction of cell proliferation and differentiation. Lung cancer is one of cancer's refractory to the immunotherapy, however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully understood. In this study, we show that Fas overexpression does not affect in vitro growth of 3LL cells, but promotes lung cancer growth in vivo. However, such tumor-promoting effect is not observed in FasL-deficient (gld) mice, and also not observed in the immune competent mice once inoculation with domain-negative Fas-overexpressing 3LL cells, suggesting the critical role of Fas signal in the promotion of lung cancer growth in vivo. More accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells is found in tumors formed by inoculation with Fas-overexpressing 3LL cells, but not domain-negative Fas-overexpressing 3LL cells. Accordingly, Fas-ligated 3LL lung cancer cells can chemoattract more MDSC but not regulatory T cells in vitro. Furthermore, Fas ligation induces 3LL lung cancer cells to produce proinflammatory factor PGE(2) by activating p38 pathway, and in turn, 3LL cells-derived PGE(2) contribute to the Fas ligation-induced MDSC chemoattraction. Furthermore, in vivo administration of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor can significantly reduce MDSC accumulation in the Fas-overexpressing tumor. Therefore, our results demonstrate that Fas signal can promote lung cancer growth by recruiting MDSC via cancer cell-derived PGE(2), thus providing new mechanistic explanation for the role of inflammation in cancer progression and immune escape. PMID:19265159

  16. TISSUE ENGINEERING WITH MENISCUS CELLS DERIVED FROM SURGICAL DEBRIS

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Brendon M.; Nathan, Ashwin S.; Huffman, G. Russell; Mauck, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Injuries to the avascular regions of the meniscus fail to heal and so are treated by resection of the damaged tissue. This alleviates symptoms but fails to restore normal load transmission in the knee. Tissue engineering functional meniscus constructs for re-implantation may improve tissue repair. While numerous studies have developed scaffolds for meniscus repair, the most appropriate autologous cell source remains to be determined. In this study, we hypothesized that the debris generated from common meniscectomy procedures would possess cells with potential for forming replacement tissue. We also hypothesized that donor age and the disease status would influence the ability of derived cells to generate functional, fibrocartilaginous matrix. Methods Meniscus derived cells (MDCs) were isolated from waste tissue of ten human donors (seven partial meniscectomies, three total knee arthroplasties) ranging in age from 18–84 years. MDCs were expanded in monolayer culture through passage two and seeded onto fiber-aligned biodegradable nanofibrous scaffolds and cultured in a chemically-defined media. Mechanical properties, biochemical content, and histological features were evaluated over ten weeks of culture. Results Results demonstrated that cells from every donor contributed to increasing biochemical content and mechanical properties of engineered constructs. Significant variability was observed in outcome parameters (cell infiltration, proteoglycan and collagen content, and mechanical properties) amongst donors, but these variations did not correlate with patient age or disease condition. Strong correlations were observed between the amount of collagen deposition within the construct and the tensile properties achieved. In scaffolds seeded with particularly robust cells, construct tensile moduli approached maxima of ~40MPa over the ten week culture period. Conclusions This study demonstrates that cells derived from surgical debris are a potent cell source

  17. Synthesis and cancer cell growth inhibitory activity of icaritin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Wu, Ping; Shi, Jing-Fang; Jiang, Zi-Hua; Wei, Xiao-Yi

    2015-07-15

    A series of icaritin derivatives bearing carboxylic acid or carboxylic ester groups are synthesized, and their in vitro cytotoxic activity against three cancer cell lines, MCF-7, MDA-MB-435s, and A549, are evaluated by MTT assay. Several derivatives including 2h, 2j, 5b and 5d show higher cytotoxic activity than the parent compound icaritin against these cancer cell lines. Compounds 5b and 5d are even more cytotoxic to MCF-7 cells than the clinic drug tamoxifen. Moreover, compound 5b is found to be non-toxic to normal cells (Vero) and both 5b and 5d exhibit good selectivity towards estrogen receptor positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells over estrogen receptor negative MDA-MB-435s breast cancer cells. The structure activity relationship analysis has revealed that mono-substitution at either C-3 or C-7 hydroxyl group of icaritin could improve the cytotoxicity of icaritin, and the C-3 hydroxyl group may be a preferable site for chemical modification. In addition, the length, the flexibility and the additional branching substituent group of the substitution chain(s) at both C-3 and C-7 hydroxyl groups can all affect the anti-cancer activity of these derivatives. PMID:26079090

  18. Dendritic cell-derived exosomes for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Jonathan M; André, Fabrice; Amigorena, Sebastian; Soria, Jean-Charles; Eggermont, Alexander; Kroemer, Guido; Zitvogel, Laurence

    2016-04-01

    DC-derived exosomes (Dex) are nanometer-sized membrane vesicles that are secreted by the sentinel antigen-presenting cells of the immune system: DCs. Like DCs, the molecular composition of Dex includes surface expression of functional MHC-peptide complexes, costimulatory molecules, and other components that interact with immune cells. Dex have the potential to facilitate immune cell-dependent tumor rejection and have distinct advantages over cell-based immunotherapies involving DCs. Accordingly, Dex-based phase I and II clinical trials have been conducted in advanced malignancies, showing the feasibility and safety of the approach, as well as the propensity of these nanovesicles to mediate T and NK cell-based immune responses in patients. This Review will evaluate the interactions of Dex with immune cells, their clinical progress, and the future of Dex immunotherapy for cancer. PMID:27035813

  19. Bone marrow-derived pancreatic stellate cells in rats.

    PubMed

    Sparmann, Gisela; Kruse, Marie-Luise; Hofmeister-Mielke, Nicole; Koczan, Dirk; Jaster, Robert; Liebe, Stefan; Wolff, Daniel; Emmrich, Jörg

    2010-03-01

    Origin and fate of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) before, during and after pancreatic injury are a matter of debate. The crucial role of PSCs in the pathogenesis of pancreatic fibrosis is generally accepted. However, the turnover of the cells remains obscure. The present study addressed the issue of a potential bone marrow (BM) origin of PSCs. We used a model of stable hematopoietic chimerism by grafting enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP)-expressing BM cells after irradiation of acceptor rats. Chimerism was detected by FACS analysis of eGFP-positive cells in the peripheral blood. Dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC) was used to induce acute pancreatic inflammation with subsequent recovery over 4 weeks. Investigations have been focused on isolated cells to detect the resting PSC population. The incidence of eGFP-positive PSC obtained from the pancreas of chimeric rats was approximately 7% in healthy pancreatic tissue and increased significantly to a mean of 18% in the restored pancreas 4 weeks after DBTC-induced acute inflammation. Our results suggest that BM-derived progenitor cells represent a source of renewable stellate cells in the pancreas. Increased numbers of resting PSCs after regeneration point toward enhanced recruitment of BM-derived cells to the pancreas and/or re-acquisition of a quiescent state after inflammation-induced activation. PMID:20101265

  20. Chondrogenic differentiation of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kolambkar, Yash M; Peister, Alexandra; Soker, Shay; Atala, Anthony; Guldberg, Robert E

    2007-10-01

    For regenerating damaged articular cartilage, it is necessary to identify an appropriate cell source that is easily accessible, can be expanded to large numbers, and has chondrogenic potential. Amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS) cells have recently been isolated from human and rodent amniotic fluid and shown to be highly proliferative and broadly pluripotent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chondrogenic potential of human AFS cells in pellet and alginate hydrogel cultures. Human AFS cells were expanded in various media conditions, and cultured for three weeks with growth factor supplementation. There was increased production of sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) and type II collagen in response to transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) supplementation, with TGF-beta1 producing greater increases than TGF-beta3. Modification of expansion media supplements and addition of insulin-like growth factor-1 during pellet culture further increased sGAG/DNA over TGF-beta1 supplementation alone. Compared to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, the AFS cells produced less cartilaginous matrix after three weeks of TGF-beta1 supplementation in pellet culture. Even so, this study demonstrates that AFS cells have the potential to differentiate along the chondrogenic lineage, thus establishing the feasibility of using these cells for cartilage repair applications. PMID:17668282

  1. Methods for derivation of multipotent neural crest cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Avery, John; Dalton, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Summary Multipotent, neural crest cells (NCCs) produce a wide-range of cell types during embryonic development. This includes melanocytes, peripheral neurons, smooth muscle cells, osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. The protocol described here allows for highly-efficient differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells to a neural crest fate within 15 days. This is accomplished under feeder-free conditions, using chemically defined medium supplemented with two small molecule inhibitors that block glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) and bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling. This technology is well-suited as a platform to understand in greater detail the pathogenesis of human disease associated with impaired neural crest development/migration. PMID:25986498

  2. Adult Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells in Muscle Connective Tissue and Satellite Cell Niches

    PubMed Central

    Dreyfus, Patrick A.; Chretien, Fabrice; Chazaud, Bénédicte; Kirova, Youlia; Caramelle, Philippe; Garcia, Luis; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Gherardi, Romain K.

    2004-01-01

    Skeletal muscle includes satellite cells, which reside beneath the muscle fiber basal lamina and mainly represent committed myogenic precursor cells, and multipotent stem cells of unknown origin that are present in muscle connective tissue, express the stem cell markers Sca-1 and CD34, and can differentiate into different cell types. We tracked bone marrow (BM)-derived stem cells in both muscle connective tissue and satellite cell niches of irradiated mice transplanted with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing BM cells. An increasing number of GFP+ mononucleated cells, located both inside and outside of the muscle fiber basal lamina, were observed 1, 3, and 6 months after transplantation. Sublaminal cells expressed unambiguous satellite cell markers (M-cadherin, Pax7, NCAM) and fused into scattered GFP+ muscle fibers. In muscle connective tissue there were GFP+ cells located close to blood vessels that expressed the ScaI or CD34 stem-cell antigens. The rate of settlement of extra- and intralaminal compartments by BM-derived cells was compatible with the view that extralaminal cells constitute a reservoir of satellite cells. We conclude that both muscle satellite cells and stem cell marker-expressing cells located in muscle connective tissue can derive from BM in adulthood. PMID:14982831

  3. Derivation of Human Skin Fibroblast Lines for Feeder Cells of Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Unger, Christian; Felldin, Ulrika; Rodin, Sergey; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Dilber, Sirac; Hovatta, Outi

    2016-01-01

    After the first derivations of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines on fetal mouse feeder cell layers, the idea of using human cells instead of mouse cells as feeder cells soon arose. Mouse cells bear a risk of microbial contamination, and nonhuman immunogenic proteins are absorbed from the feeders to hESCs. Human skin fibroblasts can be effectively used as feeder cells for hESCs. The same primary cell line, which can be safely used for up to 15 passages after stock preparations, can be expanded and used for large numbers of hESC derivations and cultures. These cells are relatively easy to handle and maintain. No animal facilities or animal work is needed. Here, we describe the derivation, culture, and cryopreservation procedures for research-grade human skin fibroblast lines. We also describe how to make feeder layers for hESCs using these fibroblasts. PMID:26840224

  4. Derivation of hair-inducing cell from human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gnedeva, Ksenia; Vorotelyak, Ekaterina; Cimadamore, Flavio; Cattarossi, Giulio; Giusto, Elena; Terskikh, Vasiliy V; Terskikh, Alexey V

    2015-01-01

    Dermal Papillae (DP) is a unique population of mesenchymal cells that was shown to regulate hair follicle formation and growth cycle. During development most DP cells are derived from mesoderm, however, functionally equivalent DP cells of cephalic hairs originate from Neural Crest (NC). Here we directed human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to generate first NC cells and then hair-inducing DP-like cells in culture. We showed that hESC-derived DP-like cells (hESC-DPs) express markers typically found in adult human DP cells (e.g., p-75, nestin, versican, SMA, alkaline phosphatase) and are able to induce hair follicle formation when transplanted under the skin of immunodeficient NUDE mice. Engineered to express GFP, hESC-derived DP-like cells incorporate into DP of newly formed hair follicles and express appropriate markers. We demonstrated that BMP signaling is critical for hESC-DP derivation since BMP inhibitor dorsomorphin completely eliminated hair-inducing activity from hESC-DP cultures. DP cells were proposed as the cell-based treatment for hair loss diseases. Unfortunately human DP cells are not suitable for this purpose because they cannot be obtained in necessary amounts and rapidly loose their ability to induce hair follicle formation when cultured. In this context derivation of functional hESC-DP cells capable of inducing a robust hair growth for the first time shown here can become an important finding for the biomedical science. PMID:25607935

  5. Derivation of Hair-Inducing Cell from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gnedeva, Ksenia; Vorotelyak, Ekaterina; Cimadamore, Flavio; Cattarossi, Giulio; Giusto, Elena; Terskikh, Vasiliy V.; Terskikh, Alexey V.

    2015-01-01

    Dermal Papillae (DP) is a unique population of mesenchymal cells that was shown to regulate hair follicle formation and growth cycle. During development most DP cells are derived from mesoderm, however, functionally equivalent DP cells of cephalic hairs originate from Neural Crest (NC). Here we directed human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to generate first NC cells and then hair-inducing DP-like cells in culture. We showed that hESC-derived DP-like cells (hESC-DPs) express markers typically found in adult human DP cells (e.g. p-75, nestin, versican, SMA, alkaline phosphatase) and are able to induce hair follicle formation when transplanted under the skin of immunodeficient NUDE mice. Engineered to express GFP, hESC-derived DP-like cells incorporate into DP of newly formed hair follicles and express appropriate markers. We demonstrated that BMP signaling is critical for hESC-DP derivation since BMP inhibitor dorsomorphin completely eliminated hair-inducing activity from hESC-DP cultures. DP cells were proposed as the cell-based treatment for hair loss diseases. Unfortunately human DP cells are not suitable for this purpose because they cannot be obtained in necessary amounts and rapidly loose their ability to induce hair follicle formation when cultured. In this context derivation of functional hESC-DP cells capable of inducing a robust hair growth for the first time shown here can become an important finding for the biomedical science. PMID:25607935

  6. Adipocyte-derived stem and regenerative cells in facial rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Steven R; Mailey, Brian

    2012-10-01

    The identification of regenerative cells in adult human fat has invigorated the field of facial fat grafting. This article reviews traditional and cell-enriched fat grafting methods and the use of fat to create or refine aesthetic results. The rationale and potential applications of adipocyte-derived stem and regenerative cells in facial surgery are also described. The reader is presented with surgical techniques for harvesting and delivering fat grafts to optimize engraftment. Mesotherapy and related applications currently under investigation are also discussed. PMID:23036296

  7. Polydatin Inhibits Formation of Macrophage-Derived Foam Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Min; Liu, Meixia; Guo, Gang; Zhang, Wengao; Liu, Longtao

    2015-01-01

    Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati, a Chinese herbal medicine, has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for a long time. Polydatin, one of the major active ingredients in Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati, has been recently shown to possess extensive cardiovascular pharmacological activities. In present study, we examined the effects of Polydatin on the formation of peritoneal macrophage-derived foam cells in Apolipoprotein E gene knockout mice (ApoE−/−) and explored the potential underlying mechanisms. Peritoneal macrophages were collected from ApoE−/− mice and cultured in vitro. These cells sequentially were divided into four groups: Control group, Model group, Lovastatin group, and Polydatin group. Our results demonstrated that Polydatin significantly inhibits the formation of foam cells derived from peritoneal macrophages. Further studies indicated that Polydatin regulates the metabolism of intracellular lipid and possesses anti-inflammatory effects, which may be regulated through the PPAR-γ signaling pathways. PMID:26557864

  8. Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells and Therapeutic Strategies in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Development of solid cancer depends on escape from host immunosurveillance. Various types of immune cells contribute to tumor-induced immune suppression, including tumor associated macrophages, regulatory T cells, type 2 NKT cells, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Growing body of evidences shows that MDSCs play pivotal roles among these immunosuppressive cells in multiple steps of cancer progression. MDSCs are immature myeloid cells that arise from myeloid progenitor cells and comprise a heterogeneous immune cell population. MDSCs are characterized by the ability to suppress both adaptive and innate immunities mainly through direct inhibition of the cytotoxic functions of T cells and NK cells. In clinical settings, the number of circulating MDSCs is associated with clinical stages and response to treatment in several cancers. Moreover, MDSCs are reported to contribute to chemoresistant phenotype. Collectively, targeting MDSCs could potentially provide a rationale for novel treatment strategies in cancer. This review summarizes recent understandings of MDSCs in cancer and discusses promissing clinical approaches in cancer patients. PMID:26078490

  9. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes facilitate nasopharyngeal carcinoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Si; Zhang, Qicheng; Xia, Yunfei; You, Bo; Shan, Ying; Bao, Lili; Li, Li; You, Yiwen; Gu, Zhifeng

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are capable of differentiating into multiple cell types, are reported to exert multiple effects on tumor development. However, the relationship between MSCs and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells remains unclear. Exosomes are small membrane vesicles that can be released by several cell types, including MSCs. Exosomes, which can carry membrane and cytoplasmic constituents, have been described as participants in a novel mechanism of cell-to-cell communication. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the interaction between MSCs and NPC cells. The data showed that MSCs secreted 40-100 nm heterogeneous small vesicles, which were defined as exosomes. Incubation of NPC cells with MSC-derived exosomes resulted in the uptake of exosomes by the cells, which promoted their proliferation, migration and tumorigenesis. After an extended treatment duration, the tumor cells showed morphological changes and significant changes in the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers. Moreover, we found that FGF19 was highly expressed in MSC-exosomes and that exosomes stimulated NPC progression by activating the FGF19-FGFR4-dependent ERK signaling cascade and by modulating the EMT. All of these data indicated that exosomes participate in a novel mechanism by which MSCs influence NPC progression. PMID:27186416

  10. Derivation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Human Disease Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Narsinh, Kamileh; Narsinh, Kazim H.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2011-01-01

    The successful derivation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) by de-differentiation of somatic cells offers significant potential to overcome obstacles in the field of cardiovascular disease. hiPSC derivatives offer incredible potential for new disease models and regenerative medicine therapies. However, many questions remain regarding the optimal starting materials and methods to enable safe, efficient derivation of hiPSCs suitable for clinical applications. Initial reprogramming experiments were carried out using lentiviral or retroviral gene delivery methods. More recently, various non-viral methods that avoid permanent and random transgene insertion have emerged as alternatives. These include transient DNA transfection approaches using transposons or minicircle plasmids, protein transduction approaches, and RNA transfection approaches. In addition, several small molecules have been found to significantly augment iPSC derivation efficiency, allowing the use of a fewer number of genes during pluripotency induction. Here, we review these various methods for the derivation of hiPSCs, focusing on their ultimate clinical applicability, with an emphasis on their potential for use as cardiovascular therapies and disease modeling platforms. PMID:21527744

  11. Myocardial regeneration potential of adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Xiaowen; Alt, Eckhard

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving tremendous attention from basic scientists and clinicians and hold great promise for myocardial regeneration. {yields} For practical reasons, human adipose tissue-derived stem cells are attractive stem cells for future clinical application in repairing damaged myocardium. {yields} This review summarizes the characteristics of cultured and freshly isolated stem cells obtained from adipose tissue, their myocardial regeneration potential and the, underlying mechanisms, and safety issues. -- Abstract: Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving attention from basic scientists and clinicians as they hold promise for myocardial regeneration. For practical reasons, adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) are attractive cells for clinical application in repairing damaged myocardium based on the following advantages: abundant adipose tissue in most patients and easy accessibility with minimally invasive lipoaspiration procedure. Several recent studies have demonstrated that both cultured and freshly isolated ASCs could improve cardiac function in animal model of myocardial infarction. The mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of ASCs on myocardial regeneration are not fully understood. Growing evidence indicates that transplantation of ASCs improve cardiac function via the differentiation into cardiomyocytes and vascular cells, and through paracrine pathways. Paracrine factors secreted by injected ASCs enhance angiogenesis, reduce cell apoptosis rates, and promote neuron sprouts in damaged myocardium. In addition, Injection of ASCs increases electrical stability of the injured heart. Furthermore, there are no reported cases of arrhythmia or tumorigenesis in any studies regarding myocardial regeneration with ASCs. This review summarizes the characteristics of both cultured and freshly isolated stem cells obtained from adipose tissue, their myocardial regeneration potential, and the

  12. Cognitive effects of cell-derived and synthetically-derived Aβ oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Miranda N.; Hofmeister, Jacki J.; Jungbauer, Lisa; Welzel, Alfred T.; Yu, Chunjiang; Sherman, Mathew A.; Lesné, Sylvain; LaDu, Mary Jo; Walsh, Dominic M.; Ashe, Karen H.; Cleary, James P.

    2010-01-01

    Soluble forms of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) are a molecular focus in Alzheimer's disease research. Soluble Aβ dimers (≈ 8 kDa), timers (≈ 12 kDa), tetramers (≈ 16 kDa) and Aβ*56 (≈ 56 kDa) have shown biological activity. These Aβ molecules have been derived from diverse sources, including chemical synthesis, transfected cells, and mouse and human brain, leading to uncertainty about toxicity and potency. Herein, synthetic Aβ peptide-derived oligomers, cell- and brain-derived low-n oligomers, and Aβ*56, were injected intracerebroventricularly (icv) into rats assayed under the Alternating Lever Cyclic Ratio (ALCR) cognitive assay. Cognitive deficits were detected at 1.3μM of synthetic Aβ oligomers and at low nanomolar concentrations of cell-secreted Aβ oligomers. Trimers, from transgenic mouse brain (Tg2576), did not cause cognitive impairment at any dose tested, whereas Aβ*56 induced concentration-dependent cognitive impairment at 0.9μM and 1.3μM. Thus, while multiple forms of Aβ have cognition impairing activity, there are significant differences in effective concentration and potency. PMID:20031278

  13. Effect of new berberine derivatives on colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Guamán Ortiz, Luis Miguel; Croce, Anna Leta; Aredia, Francesca; Sapienza, Simone; Fiorillo, Gaetano; Syeda, Tanjia Monir; Buzzetti, Franco; Lombardi, Paolo; Scovassi, Anna Ivana

    2015-10-01

    The natural alkaloid berberine has been recently described as a promising anticancer drug. In order to improve its efficacy and bioavailability, several derivatives have been designed and synthesized and found to be even more potent than the lead compound. Among the series of berberine derivatives we have produced, five compounds were identified to be able to heavily affect the proliferation of human HCT116 and SW613-B3 colon carcinoma cell lines. Remarkably, these active compounds exhibit high fluorescence emission property and ability to induce autophagy. PMID:26341980

  14. Fullerene derivatives as electron acceptors for organic photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Mi, Dongbo; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Hee Un; Xu, Fei; Hwang, Do-Hoon

    2014-02-01

    Energy is currently one of the most important problems humankind faces. Depletion of traditional energy sources such as coal and oil results in the need to develop new ways to create, transport, and store electricity. In this regard, the sun, which can be considered as a giant nuclear fusion reactor, represents the most powerful source of energy available in our solar system. For photovoltaic cells to gain widespread acceptance as a source of clean and renewable energy, the cost per watt of solar energy must be decreased. Organic photovoltaic cells, developed in the past two decades, have potential as alternatives to traditional inorganic semiconductor photovoltaic cells, which suffer from high environmental pollution and energy consumption during production. Organic photovoltaic cells are composed of a blended film of a conjugated-polymer donor and a soluble fullerene-derivative acceptor sandwiched between a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)-coated indium tin oxide positive electrode and a low-work-function metal negative electrode. Considerable research efforts aim at designing and synthesizing novel fullerene derivatives as electron acceptors with up-raised lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy, better light-harvesting properties, higher electron mobility, and better miscibility with the polymer donor for improving the power conversion efficiency of the organic photovoltaic cells. In this paper, we systematically review novel fullerene acceptors synthesized through chemical modification for enhancing the photovoltaic performance by increasing open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, and fill factor, which determine the performance of organic photovoltaic cells. PMID:24749413

  15. The potential of induced pluripotent stem cell derived hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hannoun, Zara; Steichen, Clara; Dianat, Noushin; Weber, Anne; Dubart-Kupperschmitt, Anne

    2016-07-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation remains the only curative treatment for liver disease. However, the number of patients who die while on the waiting list (15%) has increased in recent years as a result of severe organ shortages; furthermore the incidence of liver disease is increasing worldwide. Clinical trials involving hepatocyte transplantation have provided encouraging results. However, transplanted cell function appears to often decline after several months, necessitating liver transplantation. The precise aetiology of the loss of cell function is not clear, but poor engraftment and immune-mediated loss appear to be important factors. Also, primary human hepatocytes (PHH) are not readily available, de-differentiate, and die rapidly in culture. Hepatocytes are available from other sources, such as tumour-derived human hepatocyte cell lines and immortalised human hepatocyte cell lines or porcine hepatocytes. However, all these cells suffer from various limitations such as reduced or differences in functions or risk of zoonotic infections. Due to their significant potential, one possible inexhaustible source of hepatocytes is through the directed differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). This review will discuss the potential applications and existing limitations of hiPSC-derived hepatocytes in regenerative medicine, drug screening, in vitro disease modelling and bioartificial livers. PMID:26916529

  16. Ex Vivo Derived Primary Melanoma Cells: Implications for Immunotherapeutic Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Suriano, Robert; Rajoria, Shilpi; L.George, Andrea; Geliebter, Jan; Wallack, Marc; Tiwari, Raj K.

    2013-01-01

    Transformation of the pigment producing melanocytes into melanoma is a complex multi-step process involving the enhanced expression of various antigens considered as immunotherapeutic targets. Significant progress in melanoma research has been made over the years and has resulted in the identification of various antigens over expressed in melanoma as well as advances in immunotherapeutic treatments, which focus on modulating the immune systems response to melanoma. Despite these advances, incidences of melanoma are still on the rise thus warranting additional research in identifying new therapeutic treatments. Our focus is on developing a multivalent immunotherapeutic vaccine that targets various melanoma associated antigens. The approach focuses on the use of five primary patient derived melanoma cells (MEL-2, MEL-V, 3MM, KFM, and GLM-2, which have been characterized in this study. These cells express differential amounts of various melanoma associated antigens such as MART-1, gp100 (Pmel17), MAGE-A1 and tyrosinase as well a cell surface antigens essential for melanoma cell metastasis, such as CD146 and CD71. In addition these cells display differential in vitro migratory and invasive properties as well as have the ability to form solid tumors when implanted into BALB/c nude mice. The retention of the innate phenotype of these primary patient derived cells together with the expression of a multitude repertoire of melanoma associated antigens offers a novel opportunity to target melanoma so as to avoid immune evasion. PMID:23833682

  17. Tracing Synaptic Connectivity onto Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Isabella; Huang, Longwen; Ung, Kevin; Arenkiel, Benjamin R.

    2012-01-01

    Transsynaptic circuit tracing using genetically modified Rabies virus (RV) is an emerging technology for identifying synaptic connections between neurons. Complementing this methodology, it has become possible to assay the basic molecular and cellular properties of neuronal lineages derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells in vitro, and these properties are under intense investigation towards devising cell replacement therapies. Here, we report the generation of a novel mouse ES cell (mESC) line that harbors the genetic elements to allow RV-mediated transsynaptic circuit tracing in ES cell-derived neurons and their synaptic networks. To facilitate transsynaptic tracing, we have engineered a new reporter allele by introducing cDNA encoding tdTomato, the Rabies-G glycoprotein, and the avian TVA receptor into the ROSA26 locus by gene targeting. We demonstrate high-efficiency differentiation of these novel mESCs into functional neurons, show their capacity to functionally connect with primary neuronal cultures as evidenced by immunohistochemistry and electrophysiological recordings, and show their ability to act as source cells for presynaptic tracing of neuronal networks in vitro and in vivo. Together, our data highlight the potential for using genetically engineered stem cells to investigate fundamental mechanisms of synapse and circuit formation with unambiguous identification of presynaptic inputs onto neuronal populations of interest. PMID:22996827

  18. In vitro production of functional immune cells derived from human hematopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Payuhakrit, Witchuda; Panichakul, Tasanee; Charoenphon, Natthawut; Chalermsaenyakorn, Panus; Jaovisidha, Adithep; Wongborisuth, Chokdee; Udomsangpetch, Rachanee

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) from cord blood are potentially high sources for transplantation due to their low immunogenicity and the presence of the multipotent cells. These cells are capable of differentiating to produce various lineages of blood cells under specific conditions. We have enriched highly purified CD34+ cells from cord blood, determined in vitro growth of the cells in culture systems in the absence (condition A) or presence of GM-CSF and G-CSF (condition B), and determined the profile of immune cells during the period of cultivation by using flow cytometry. PhytohemagglutininA (PHA) was used as a mitogen to stimulate T lymphocytes derived from hematopoietic stem cells. GM-CSF and G-CSF prolonged the survival of the growing cells and also maintained expansion of cells in blastic stage. By day 12 of cultivation, when cell numbers peaked, various types of immune cells had appeared (CD14+ cells, CD40+HLA-DR+ cells, CD3+CD56+ cells, CD19+ cells, CD3+CD4+ cells, CD3+CD8+cells and CD3-CD56+). A significantly higher percentage of monocytes (p = 0.002) were observed under culture with GM-CSF, G-CSF when compared with culture without GM-CSF, G-CSF. In addition, T lymphocytes derived from HSC responded to 50 µg/ml of PHA. This is the first report showing the complete differentiation and proliferation of immune cells derived from CD34+ HSC under in vitro culture conditions. Lymphocytes, monocytes, dendritic cells and polymorph nuclear cells derived from HSC in vitro are unique, and thus may benefit various studies such as innate immunity and pathophysiology of immune disorders. PMID:26933404

  19. Adipose lineage specification of bone marrow-derived myeloid cells

    PubMed Central

    Majka, Susan M.; Miller, Heidi L.; Sullivan, Timothy; Erickson, Paul F.; Kong, Raymond; Weiser-Evans, Mary; Nemenoff, Raphael; Moldovan, Radu; Morandi, Shelley A.; Davis, James A.; Klemm, Dwight J.

    2012-01-01

    We have reported the production of white adipocytes in adipose tissue from hematopoietic progenitors arising from bone marrow. However, technical challenges have hindered detection of this adipocyte population by certain other laboratories. These disparate results highlight the need for sensitive and definitive techniques to identify bone marrow progenitor (BMP)-derived adipocytes. In these studies we exploited new models and methods to enhance detection of this adipocyte population. Here we showed that confocal microscopy with spectrum acquisition could effectively identify green fluorescent protein (GFP) positive BMP-derived adipocytes by matching their fluorescence spectrum to that of native GFP. Likewise, imaging flow cytometry made it possible to visualize intact unilocular and multilocular GFP-positive BMP-derived adipocytes and distinguished them from non-fluorescent adipocytes and cell debris in the cytometer flow stream. We also devised a strategy to detect marker genes in flow-enriched adipocytes from which stromal cells were excluded. This technique also proved to be an efficient means for detecting genetically labeled adipocytes and should be applicable to models in which marker gene expression is low or absent. Finally, in vivo imaging of mice transplanted with BM from adipocyte-targeted luciferase donors showed a time-dependent increase in luciferase activity, with the bulk of luciferase activity confined to adipocytes rather than stromal cells. These results confirmed and extended our previous reports and provided proof-of-principle for sensitive techniques and models for detection and study of these unique cells. PMID:23700536

  20. Tumor-derived factors modulating dendritic cell function.

    PubMed

    Zong, Jinbao; Keskinov, Anton A; Shurin, Galina V; Shurin, Michael R

    2016-07-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) play unique and diverse roles in the tumor occurrence, development, progression and response to therapy. First of all, DC can actively uptake tumor-associated antigens, process them and present antigenic peptides to T cells inducing and maintaining tumor-specific T cell responses. DC interaction with different immune effector cells may also support innate antitumor immunity, as well as humoral responses also known to inhibit tumor development in certain cases. On the other hand, DC are recruited to the tumor site by specific tumor-derived and stroma-derived factors, which may also impair DC maturation, differentiation and function, thus resulting in the deficient formation of antitumor immune response or development of DC-mediated tolerance and immune suppression. Identification of DC-stimulating and DC-suppressing/polarizing factors in the tumor environment and the mechanism of DC modulation are important for designing effective DC-based vaccines and for recovery of immunodeficient resident DC responsible for maintenance of clinically relevant antitumor immunity in patients with cancer. DC-targeting tumor-derived factors and their effects on resident and administered DC in the tumor milieu are described and discussed in this review. PMID:26984847

  1. Potential applications of keratinocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Movahednia, Mohammad M; Kidwai, Fahad K; Jokhun, Doorgesh S; Squier, Christopher A; Toh, Wei Seong; Cao, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Although skin grafting is one of the most advanced cell therapy technique, wide application of skin substitutes is hampered by the difficulty in securing sufficient amount of epidermal substitute. Additionally, in understanding the progression of skin aging and disease, and in screening the cosmetic and pharmaceutical products, there is lack of a satisfactory human skin-specific in vitro model. Recently, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been proposed as an unlimited and reliable cell source to obtain almost all cell types present in the human body. This review focuses on the potential off-the-shelf use of hESC-derived keratinocytes for future clinical applications as well as a powerful in vitro skin model to study skin function and integrity, host-pathogen interactions and disease pathogenesis. Furthermore, we discuss the industrial applications of hESC-derived keratinized multi-layer epithelium which provides a human-like test platform for understanding disease pathogenesis, evaluation of new therapeutic modalities and assessment of the safety and efficacy of skin cosmetics and therapeutics. Overall, we conclude that the hESC-derived keratinocytes have great potential for clinical, research and industrial applications. PMID:26663861

  2. Antigen Presentation by Monocytes and Monocyte-derived Cells

    PubMed Central

    Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Jakubzick, Claudia; Qu, Chunfeng

    2008-01-01

    Summary Monocytes are circulating mononuclear phagocytes with a fundamental capacity to differentiate into macrophages. This differentiation can, in the presence of the right environmental cues, be re-directed instead to dendritic cells (DCs). Recent advances have been made in understanding the role of monocytes and their derivatives in presenting antigen to drive immune responses, and we review this topic herein. We briefly discuss the heterogeneity of monocytes in the blood and subsequently raise the possibility that one of the major monocyte phenotypes in the blood corresponds with a population of “blood DCs” previously proposed to drive T-independent antibody reactions in the spleen. Then we evaluate the role of monocytes in T-dependent immunity, considering their role in acquiring antigens for presentation prior to exiting the bloodstream and their ability to differentiate into macrophages versus antigen-presenting DCs. Finally, we review recent literature on the role of monocyte-derived cells in cross-presentation and discuss the possibility that monocyte-derived cells participate critically in processing antigen for cross-priming, even if they do not present that antigen to T cells themselves. PMID:18160272

  3. Derivation, characterization and retinal differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mekala, Subba Rao; Vauhini, Vasundhara; Nagarajan, Usha; Maddileti, Savitri; Gaddipati, Subhash; Mariappan, Indumathi

    2013-03-01

    Millions of people world over suffer visual disability due to retinal dystrophies which can be age-related or a genetic disorder resulting in gradual degeneration of the retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells and photoreceptors. Therefore, cell replacement therapy offers a great promise in treating such diseases. Since the adult retina does not harbour any stem cells, alternative stem cell sources like the embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer a great promise for generating different cell types of the retina. Here, we report the derivation of four iPSC lines from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) using a cocktail of recombinant retroviruses carrying the genes for Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and cMyc. The iPS clone MEF-4F3 was further characterized for stemness marker expression and stable reprogramming by immunocytochemistry, FACS and RT-PCR analysis. Methylation analysis of the nanog promoter confirmed the reprogrammed epigenetic state. Pluripotency was confirmed by embryoid body (EB) formation and lineage-specific marker expression. Also, upon retinal differentiation, patches of pigmented cells with typical cobble-stone phenotype similar to RPE cells are generated within 6 weeks and they expressed ZO-1 (tight junction protein), RPE65 and bestrophin (mature RPE markers) and showed phagocytic activity by the uptake of fluorescent latex beads. PMID:23385820

  4. Embryonic germ cell lines and their derivation from mouse primordial germ cells.

    PubMed

    Labosky, P A; Barlow, D P; Hogan, B L

    1994-01-01

    When primordial germ cells of the mouse are cultured on feeder layers with the addition of the polypeptide signalling molecules leukaemia inhibitory factor, Steel factor and basic fibroblast growth factor they give rise to cells that resemble undifferentiated blastocyst-derived embryonic stem cells. These primordial germ cell-derived embryonic germ cells (EG cells) can be induced to differentiate extensively in culture and also form teratocarcinomas when injected into nude mice. Additionally, they contribute to chimeras when injected into host blastocysts. We have derived multiple EG cell lines from 8.5 days post coitum (dpc) embryos of C57BL/6 inbred mice. Four independent EG cell lines with normal male karyotypes have formed chimeras (up to 70% coat colour chimerism) when injected into BALB/c host blastocysts. Chimeric mice from all four cell lines are fertile, but only those from one line have transmitted coat colour markers through the germline. Studies have also been carried out to determine whether gonadal primordial germ cells can give rise to pluripotent EG cells. Germ cells from gonads of 15.5 dpc C57BL/6 embryos and newborn mice failed to produce EG cell lines. EG cell lines capable of forming teratocarcinomas and coat colour chimeras have been established from primordial germ cells of 12.5 dpc genital ridges. We are currently testing the genomic imprinting status of the insulin-like growth factor type 2 receptor gene (Igf2r) in our different EG cell lines. PMID:7835148

  5. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Microvesicles Support Ex Vivo Expansion of Cord Blood-Derived CD34+ Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hui; Sun, Li; Zhang, Liming; Liu, Teng; Chen, Li; Zhao, Aiqi; Lei, Qian; Gao, Fei; Zou, Ping; Li, Qiubai; Guo, An-yuan; Chen, Zhichao; Wang, Hongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to support the characteristic properties of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in the bone marrow hematopoietic microenvironment. MSCs are used in coculture systems as a feeder layer for the ex vivo expansion of umbilical cord blood (CB) to increase the relatively low number of HSPCs in CB. Findings increasingly suggest that MSC-derived microvesicles (MSC-MVs) play an important role in the biological functions of their parent cells. We speculate that MSC-MVs may recapitulate the hematopoiesis-supporting effects of their parent cells. In the current study, we found MSC-MVs containing microRNAs that are involved in the regulation of hematopoiesis. We also demonstrated that MSC-MVs could improve the expansion of CB-derived mononuclear cells and CD34+ cells and generate a greater number of primitive progenitor cells in vitro. Additionally, when MSC-MVs were added to the CB-MSC coculture system, they could improve the hematopoiesis-supporting effects of MSCs. These findings highlight the role of MSC-MVs in the ex vivo expansion of CB, which may offer a promising therapeutic approach in CB transplantation. PMID:27042183

  6. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Microvesicles Support Ex Vivo Expansion of Cord Blood-Derived CD34(+) Cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hui; Sun, Li; Zhang, Liming; Liu, Teng; Chen, Li; Zhao, Aiqi; Lei, Qian; Gao, Fei; Zou, Ping; Li, Qiubai; Guo, An-Yuan; Chen, Zhichao; Wang, Hongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to support the characteristic properties of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in the bone marrow hematopoietic microenvironment. MSCs are used in coculture systems as a feeder layer for the ex vivo expansion of umbilical cord blood (CB) to increase the relatively low number of HSPCs in CB. Findings increasingly suggest that MSC-derived microvesicles (MSC-MVs) play an important role in the biological functions of their parent cells. We speculate that MSC-MVs may recapitulate the hematopoiesis-supporting effects of their parent cells. In the current study, we found MSC-MVs containing microRNAs that are involved in the regulation of hematopoiesis. We also demonstrated that MSC-MVs could improve the expansion of CB-derived mononuclear cells and CD34(+) cells and generate a greater number of primitive progenitor cells in vitro. Additionally, when MSC-MVs were added to the CB-MSC coculture system, they could improve the hematopoiesis-supporting effects of MSCs. These findings highlight the role of MSC-MVs in the ex vivo expansion of CB, which may offer a promising therapeutic approach in CB transplantation. PMID:27042183

  7. Neuropharmacological properties of neurons derived from human stem cells.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Leanne; Shan, Mu; Przyborski, Stefan A; Hirakawa, Ryoko; Halliwell, Robert F

    2011-09-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells have enormous potential value in neuropharmacology and drug discovery yet there is little data on the major classes and properties of receptors and ion channels expressed by neurons derived from these stem cells. Recent studies in this lab have therefore used conventional patch-clamp electrophysiology to investigate the pharmacological properties of the ligand and voltage-gated ion channels in neurons derived and maintained in vitro from the human stem cell (hSC) line, TERA2.cl.SP12. TERA2.cl.SP12 stem cells were differentiated with retinoic acid and used in electrophysiological experiments 28-50 days after beginning differentiation. HSC-derived neurons generated large whole cell currents with depolarizing voltage steps (-80 to 30 mV) comprised of an inward, rapidly inactivating component and a delayed, slowly deactivating outward component. The fast inward current was blocked by the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (0.1 μM) and the outward currents were significantly reduced by tetraethylammonium ions (TEA, 5 mM) consistent with the presence of functional Na and K ion channels. Application of the inhibitory neurotransmitters, GABA (0.1-1000 μM) or glycine (0.1-1000 μM) evoked concentration dependent currents. The GABA currents were inhibited by the convulsants, picrotoxin (10 μM) and bicuculline (3 μM), potentiated by the NSAID mefenamic acid (10-100 μM), the general anaesthetic pentobarbital (100 μM), the neurosteroid allopregnanolone and the anxiolytics chlordiazepoxide (10 μM) and diazepam (10 μM) all consistent with the expression of GABA(A) receptors. Responses to glycine were reversibly blocked by strychnine (10 μM) consistent with glycine-gated chloride channels. The excitatory agonists, glutamate (1-1000 μM) and NMDA (1-1000 μM) activated concentration-dependent responses from hSC-derived neurons. Glutamate currents were inhibited by kynurenic acid (1 mM) and NMDA responses were blocked by MgCl(2) (2 mM) in a

  8. Selection of Phage Display Peptides Targeting Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Progenitor Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Bignone, Paola A; Krupa, Rachel A; West, Michael D; Larocca, David

    2016-01-01

    The ability of human pluripotent stem cells (hPS) to both self-renew and differentiate into virtually any cell type makes them a promising source of cells for cell-based regenerative therapies. However, stem cell identity, purity, and scalability remain formidable challenges that need to be overcome for translation of pluripotent stem cell research into clinical applications. Directed differentiation from hPS cells is inefficient and residual contamination with pluripotent cells that have the potential to form tumors remains problematic. The derivation of scalable (self-renewing) embryonic progenitor stem cell lines offers a solution because they are well defined and clonally pure. Clonally pure progenitor stem cell lines also provide a means for identifying cell surface targeting reagents that are useful for identification, tracking, and repeated derivation of the corresponding progenitor stem cell types from additional hPS cell sources. Such stem cell targeting reagents can then be applied to the manufacture of genetically diverse banks of human embryonic progenitor cell lines for drug screening, disease modeling, and cell therapy. Here we present methods to identify human embryonic progenitor stem cell targeting peptides by selection of phage display libraries on clonal embryonic progenitor cell lines and demonstrate their use for targeting quantum dots (Qdots) for stem cell labeling. PMID:25410289

  9. Organ-derived dendritic cells have differential effects on alloreactive T cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Theo D.; Terwey, Theis H.; Zakrzewski, Johannes L.; Suh, David; Kochman, Adam A.; Chen, Megan E.; King, Chris G.; Borsotti, Chiara; Grubin, Jeremy; Smith, Odette M.; Heller, Glenn; Liu, Chen; Murphy, George F.; Alpdogan, Onder

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are considered critical for the induction of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). In addition to their priming function, dendritic cells have been shown to induce organ-tropism through induction of specific homing molecules on T cells. Using adoptive transfer of CFSE-labeled cells, we first demonstrated that alloreactive T cells differentially up-regulate specific homing molecules in vivo. Host-type dendritic cells from the GVHD target organs liver and spleen or skin- and gut-draining lymph nodes effectively primed naive allogeneic T cells in vitro with the exception of liver-derived dendritic cells, which showed less stimulatory capacity. Gut-derived dendritic cells induced alloreactive donor T cells with a gut-homing phenotype that caused increased GVHD mortality and morbidity compared with T cells stimulated with dendritic cells from spleen, liver, and peripheral lymph nodes in an MHC-mismatched murine BMT model. However, in vivo analysis demonstrated that the in vitro imprinting of homing molecules on alloreactive T cells was only transient. In conclusion, organ-derived dendritic cells can efficiently induce specific homing molecules on alloreactive T cells. A gut-homing phenotype correlates with increased GVHD mortality and morbidity after murine BMT, underlining the importance of the gut in the pathophysiology of GVHD. PMID:18178870

  10. iPS-cell derived dendritic cells and macrophages for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Senju, Satoru

    2016-08-01

    Antibody-based anti-cancer immunotherapy was recently recognized as one of the truly effective therapies for cancer patients. Antibodies against cell surface cancer antigens, such as CD20, and also those against immune-inhibitory molecules called "immune checkpoint blockers", such as CTLA4 or PD1, have emerged. Large-scale clinical trials have confirmed that, in some cases, antibody-based drugs are superior to conventional chemotherapeutic agents. These antibody-based drugs are now being manufactured employing a mass-production system by pharmaceutical companies. Anti-cancer therapy by immune cells, i.e. cell-based immunotherapy, is expected to be more effective than antibody therapy, because immune cells can recognize, infiltrate, and act in cancer tissues more directly than antibodies. In order to achieve cell-based anti-cancer immunotherapy, it is necessary to develop manufacturing systems for mass-production of immune cells. Our group has been studying immunotherapy with myeloid cells derived from ES cells or iPS cells. These pluripotent stem cells can be readily propagated under constant culture conditions, with expansion into a large quantity. We consider these stem cells to be the most suitable cellular source for mass-production of immune cells. This review introduces our studies on anti-cancer therapy with iPS cell-derived dendritic cells and iPS cell-derived macrophages. PMID:27599426

  11. Involvement of marrow-derived endothelial cells in vascularization.

    PubMed

    Larrivée, B; Karsan, A

    2007-01-01

    Until recently, the adult neovasculature was thought to arise only through angiogenesis, the mechanism by which new blood vessels form from preexisting vessels through endothelial cell migration and proliferation. However, recent studies have provided evidence that postnatal neovasculature can also arise though vasculogenesis, a process by which endothelial progenitor cells are recruited and differentiate into mature endothelial cells to form new blood vessels. Evidence for the existence of endothelial progenitors has come from studies demonstrating the ability of bone marrow-derived cells to incorporate into adult vasculature. However, the exact nature of endothelial progenitor cells remains controversial. Because of the lack of definitive markers of endothelial progenitors, the in vivo contribution of progenitor cells to physiological and pathological neovascularization remains unclear. Early studies reported that endothelial progenitor cells actively integrate into the adult vasculature and are critical in the development of many types of vascular-dependent disorders such as neoplastic progression. Moreover, it has been suggested that endothelial progenitor cells can be used as a therapeutic strategy aimed at promoting vascular growth in a variety of ischemic diseases. However, increasing numbers of studies have reported no clear contribution of endothelial progenitors in physiological or pathological angiogenesis. In this chapter, we discuss the origin of the endothelial progenitor cell in the embryo and adult, and we discuss the cell's link to the primitive hematopoietic stem cell. We also review the potential significance of endothelial progenitor cells in the formation of a postnatal vascular network and discuss the factors that may account for the current lack of consensus of the scientific community on this important issue. PMID:17554506

  12. Harvesting Technique Affects Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Yield

    PubMed Central

    Iyyanki, Tejaswi; Hubenak, Justin; Liu, Jun; Chang, Edward I.; Beahm, Elisabeth K.; Zhang, Qixu

    2015-01-01

    Background The success of an autologous fat graft depends in part on its total stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). However, variations in the yields of ASCs and SVF cells as a result of different harvesting techniques and donor sites are poorly understood. Objective To investigate the effects of adipose tissue harvesting technique and donor site on the yield of ASCs and SVF cells. Methods Subcutaneous fat tissues from the abdomen, flank, or axilla were harvested from patients of various ages by mechanical liposuction, direct surgical excision, or Coleman's technique with or without centrifugation. Cells were isolated and then analyzed with flow cytometry to determine the yields of total SVF cells and ASCs (CD11b−, CD45−, CD34+, CD90+, D7-FIB+). Differences in ASC and total SVF yields were assessed with one-way analysis of variance. Differentiation experiments were performed to confirm the multilineage potential of cultured SVF cells. Results Compared with Coleman's technique without centrifugation, direct excision yielded significantly more ASCs (P < .001) and total SVF cells (P = .007); liposuction yielded significantly fewer ASCs (P < .001) and total SVF cells (P < .05); and Coleman's technique with centrifugation yielded significantly more total SVF cells (P < .005), but not ASCs. The total number of SVF cells in fat harvested from the abdomen was significantly larger than the number in fat harvested from the flank or axilla (P < .05). Cultured SVF cells differentiated to adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. Conclusions Adipose tissue harvested from the abdomen through direct excision or Coleman's technique with centrifugation was found to yield the most SVF cells and ASCs. PMID:25791999

  13. Derivation of human embryonic stem cell line Genea019.

    PubMed

    Dumevska, Biljana; Peura, Teija; McKernan, Robert; Goel, Divya; Schmidt, Uli

    2016-03-01

    The Genea019 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XX karyotype, female Allele pattern and unaffected Htt CAG repeat length, compared to HD affected sibling Genea020. Pluripotency of Genea019 was demonstrated with 75% of cells expressing Nanog, 89% Oct4, 48% Tra1-60 and 85% SSEA4, a Pluritest Pluripotency score of 22.97, Novelty score of 1.42, tri-lineage teratoma formation and Alkaline Phosphatase activity. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination. PMID:27346002

  14. Adipose-derived stem cells: selecting for translational success

    PubMed Central

    Johal, Kavan S; Lees, Vivien C; Reid, Adam J

    2016-01-01

    We have witnessed a rapid expansion of in vitro characterization and differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells, with increasing translation to both in vivo models and a breadth of clinical specialties. However, an appreciation of the truly heterogeneous nature of this unique stem cell group has identified a need to more accurately delineate subpopulations by any of a host of methods, to include functional properties or surface marker expression. Cells selected for improved proliferative, differentiative, angiogenic or ischemia-resistant properties are but a few attributes that could prove beneficial for targeted treatments or therapies. Optimizing cell culture conditions to permit re-introduction to patients is critical for clinical translation. PMID:25562354

  15. Anonymous sources: where do adult β cells come from?

    PubMed

    German, Michael S

    2013-05-01

    Evidence that the pool of insulin-producing β cells in the pancreas is reduced in both major forms of diabetes mellitus has led to efforts to understand β cell turnover in the adult pancreas. Unfortunately, previous studies have reached opposing conclusions regarding the source of new β cells during regeneration in the adult pancreas. In this issue of the JCI, Xiao et al. use a novel mouse model for detecting new β cells derived from non-β cells to demonstrate the absence of β cell neogenesis from non-β cells during normal postnatal growth and in models of β cell regeneration. This work adds to mounting evidence that in most physiological and pathological conditions, β cell neogenesis may not make large contributions to the postnatal β cell pool - at least not in rodents. PMID:23619356

  16. Hair regeneration using adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Su-Eon; Sung, Jong-Hyuk

    2016-03-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been used in tissue repair and regeneration. Recently, it was reported that ASC transplantation promotes hair growth in animal experiments, and a conditioned medium of ASCs (ASC-CM) induced the proliferation of hair-compositing cells in vitro. However, ASCs and their conditioned medium have shown limited effectiveness in clinical settings. ASC preconditioning is one strategy that can be used to enhance the efficacy of ASCs and ASC-CM. Therefore, we highlighted the functional role of ASCs in hair cycle progression and also the advantages and disadvantages of their application in hair regeneration. In addition, we introduced novel ASC preconditioning methods to enhance hair regeneration using ASC stimulators, such as vitamin C, platelet-derived growth factor, hypoxia, and ultraviolet B. PMID:26536569

  17. Role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in autoimmune disease

    PubMed Central

    Crook, Kristen R; Liu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) represent an important class of immunoregulatory cells that can be activated to suppress T cell functions. These MDSCs can inhibit T cell functions through cell surface interactions and the release of soluble mediators. MDSCs accumulate in the inflamed tissues and lymphoid organs of patients with autoimmune diseases. Much of our knowledge of MDSC function has come from studies involving cancer models, however many recent studies have helped to characterize MDSC involvement in autoimmune diseases. MDSCs are a heterogeneous group of immature myeloid cells with a number of different functions for the suppression of T cell responses. However, we have yet to fully understand their contributions to the development and regulation of autoimmune diseases. A number of studies have described beneficial functions of MDSCs during autoimmune diseases, and thus there appears to be a potential role for MDSCs in the treatment of these diseases. Nevertheless, many questions remain as to the activation, differentiation, and inhibitory functions of MDSCs. This review aims to summarize our current knowledge of MDSC subsets and suppressive functions in tissue-specific autoimmune disorders. We also describe the potential of MDSC-based cell therapy for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and note some of hurdles facing the implementation of this therapy. PMID:25621222

  18. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Jeong; Chang, Sun-Young; Ko, Hyun-Jeong

    2015-04-01

    Immature myeloid cells, also known as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), include neutrophilic and monocytic myeloid cells, and are found in inflammatory loci and secondary lymphoid organs in mice with intestinal inflammation, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, and tumor tissues. However, the roles of MDSCs in IBD are not yet well understood, and there are controversies regarding their immunosuppressive functions in IBD. In addition, recent studies have suggested that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in intestinal epithelial cells, especially in Paneth cells, is closely associated with the induction of IBD. However, the ER stress in MDSCs accumulated in the inflamed tissues of IBD patients is not yet fully understood. In the current review, we discuss the presence of accumulated MDSCs in the intestines of IBD patients, and further speculate on their physiological roles in the inflammatory condition with interleukin 17-producing cells, including Th17 cells. In particular, we will discuss the divergent functions of MDSCs in ER stressed intestinal environments, including their pro-inflammatory or immunosuppressive roles, based on the consideration of unfolded protein responses initiated in intestinal epithelial cells by ER stress. PMID:25931994

  19. Generation of functional endothelial-like cells from adult mouse germline-derived pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Julee; Eligehausen, Sarah; Stehling, Martin; Nikol, Sigrid; Ko, Kinarm; Waltenberger, Johannes; Klocke, Rainer

    2014-01-10

    Functional endothelial cells and their progenitors are required for vascular development, adequate vascular function, vascular repair and for cell-based therapies of ischemic diseases. Currently, cell therapy is limited by the low abundance of patient-derived cells and by the functional impairment of autologous endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). In the present study, murine germline-derived pluripotent stem (gPS) cells were evaluated as a potential source for functional endothelial-like cells. Cells displaying an endothelial cell-like morphology were obtained from gPS cell-derived embryoid bodies using a combination of fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-based selection of CD31-positive cells and their subsequent cultivation on OP9 stromal cells in the presence of VEGF-A. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, FACS analysis and immunofluorescence staining showed that the gPS cell-derived endothelial-like cells (gPS-ECs) expressed endothelial cell-specific markers including von Willebrand Factor, Tie2, VEGFR2/Flk1, intercellular adhesion molecule 2 and vascular endothelial-cadherin. The high expression of ephrin B2, as compared to Eph B4 and VEGFR3, suggests an arterial rather than a venous or lymphatic differentiation. Their capability to take up Dil-conjugated acetylated low-density lipoprotein and to form capillary-like networks on matrigel confirmed their functionality. We conclude that gPS cells could be a novel source of endothelial cells potentially suitable for regenerative cell-based therapies for ischemic diseases. PMID:24333870

  20. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 mediates human embryonic germ cell derivation.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Marc; Liu, Cyndi; Blumenthal, Paul D; Gearhart, John D; Kerr, Candace L

    2011-02-01

    Human primordial germ cells (PGCs) have proven to be a source of pluripotent stem cells called embryonic germ cells (EGCs). Unlike embryonic stem cells, virtually little is known regarding the factors that regulate EGC survival and maintenance. In mice, the growth factor bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) has been shown to be required for maintaining mouse embryonic stem cells, and disruptions in this gene lead to defects in mouse PGC specification. Here, we sought to determine whether recombinant human BMP4 could influence EGC derivation and/or human PGC survival. We found that the addition of recombinant BMP4 increased the number of human PGCs after 1 week of culture in a dose-responsive manner. The efficiency of EGC derivation and maintenance in culture was also enhanced by the presence of recombinant BMP4 based on alkaline phosphatase and OCT4 staining. In addition, an antagonist of the BMP4 pathway, Noggin, decreased PGC proliferation and led to an increase in cystic embryoid body formation. Quantitative real-time (qRT)-polymerase chain reaction analyses and immunostaining confirmed that the constituents of the BMP4 pathway were upregulated in EGCs versus PGCs. Downstream activators of the BMP4 pathway such as ID1 and phosphorylated SMADs 1 and 5 were also expressed, suggesting a role of this growth factor in EGC pluripotency. PMID:20486775

  1. Tumor microenvironment derived exosomes pleiotropically modulate cancer cell metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongyun; Yang, Lifeng; Baddour, Joelle; Achreja, Abhinav; Bernard, Vincent; Moss, Tyler; Marini, Juan C; Tudawe, Thavisha; Seviour, Elena G; San Lucas, F Anthony; Alvarez, Hector; Gupta, Sonal; Maiti, Sourindra N; Cooper, Laurence; Peehl, Donna; Ram, Prahlad T; Maitra, Anirban; Nagrath, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a major cellular component of tumor microenvironment in most solid cancers. Altered cellular metabolism is a hallmark of cancer, and much of the published literature has focused on neoplastic cell-autonomous processes for these adaptations. We demonstrate that exosomes secreted by patient-derived CAFs can strikingly reprogram the metabolic machinery following their uptake by cancer cells. We find that CAF-derived exosomes (CDEs) inhibit mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, thereby increasing glycolysis and glutamine-dependent reductive carboxylation in cancer cells. Through 13C-labeled isotope labeling experiments we elucidate that exosomes supply amino acids to nutrient-deprived cancer cells in a mechanism similar to macropinocytosis, albeit without the previously described dependence on oncogenic-Kras signaling. Using intra-exosomal metabolomics, we provide compelling evidence that CDEs contain intact metabolites, including amino acids, lipids, and TCA-cycle intermediates that are avidly utilized by cancer cells for central carbon metabolism and promoting tumor growth under nutrient deprivation or nutrient stressed conditions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10250.001 PMID:26920219

  2. Stem Cells and Stem Cell-derived Tissues and Their Use in Safety Assessment*

    PubMed Central

    Kolaja, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Toxicology has long relied on animal models in a tedious approach to understanding risk of exposure to an uncharacterized molecule. Stem cell-derived tissues can be made in high purity, quality, and quantity to enable a new approach to this problem. Currently, stem cell-derived tissues are primarily “generic” genetic backgrounds; the future will see the integration of various genetic backgrounds and complex three-dimensional models to create truly unique in vitro organoids. This minireview focuses on the state of the art of a number of stem cell-derived tissues and details their application in toxicology. PMID:24362027

  3. Endothelin-1 supports clonal derivation and expansion of cardiovascular progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Soh, Boon-Seng; Ng, Shi-Yan; Wu, Hao; Buac, Kristina; Park, Joo-Hye C.; Lian, Xiaojun; Xu, Jiejia; Foo, Kylie S.; Felldin, Ulrika; He, Xiaobing; Nichane, Massimo; Yang, Henry; Bu, Lei; Li, Ronald A.; Lim, Bing; Chien, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    Coronary arteriogenesis is a central step in cardiogenesis, requiring coordinated generation and integration of endothelial cell and vascular smooth muscle cells. At present, it is unclear whether the cell fate programme of cardiac progenitors to generate complex muscular or vascular structures is entirely cell autonomous. Here we demonstrate the intrinsic ability of vascular progenitors to develop and self-organize into cardiac tissues by clonally isolating and expanding second heart field cardiovascular progenitors using WNT3A and endothelin-1 (EDN1) human recombinant proteins. Progenitor clones undergo long-term expansion and differentiate primarily into endothelial and smooth muscle cell lineages in vitro, and contribute extensively to coronary-like vessels in vivo, forming a functional human–mouse chimeric circulatory system. Our study identifies EDN1 as a key factor towards the generation and clonal derivation of ISL1+ vascular intermediates, and demonstrates the intrinsic cell-autonomous nature of these progenitors to differentiate and self-organize into functional vasculatures in vivo. PMID:26952167

  4. Endothelin-1 supports clonal derivation and expansion of cardiovascular progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Soh, Boon-Seng; Ng, Shi-Yan; Wu, Hao; Buac, Kristina; Park, Joo-Hye C; Lian, Xiaojun; Xu, Jiejia; Foo, Kylie S; Felldin, Ulrika; He, Xiaobing; Nichane, Massimo; Yang, Henry; Bu, Lei; Li, Ronald A; Lim, Bing; Chien, Kenneth R

    2016-01-01

    Coronary arteriogenesis is a central step in cardiogenesis, requiring coordinated generation and integration of endothelial cell and vascular smooth muscle cells. At present, it is unclear whether the cell fate programme of cardiac progenitors to generate complex muscular or vascular structures is entirely cell autonomous. Here we demonstrate the intrinsic ability of vascular progenitors to develop and self-organize into cardiac tissues by clonally isolating and expanding second heart field cardiovascular progenitors using WNT3A and endothelin-1 (EDN1) human recombinant proteins. Progenitor clones undergo long-term expansion and differentiate primarily into endothelial and smooth muscle cell lineages in vitro, and contribute extensively to coronary-like vessels in vivo, forming a functional human-mouse chimeric circulatory system. Our study identifies EDN1 as a key factor towards the generation and clonal derivation of ISL1(+) vascular intermediates, and demonstrates the intrinsic cell-autonomous nature of these progenitors to differentiate and self-organize into functional vasculatures in vivo. PMID:26952167

  5. Micropost arrays for measuring stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte contractility.

    PubMed

    Beussman, Kevin M; Rodriguez, Marita L; Leonard, Andrea; Taparia, Nikita; Thompson, Curtis R; Sniadecki, Nathan J

    2016-02-01

    Stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes have the potential to be used to study heart disease and maturation, screen drug treatments, and restore heart function. Here, we discuss the procedures involved in using micropost arrays to measure the contractile forces generated by stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. Cardiomyocyte contractility is needed for the heart to pump blood, so measuring the contractile forces of cardiomyocytes is a straightforward way to assess their function. Microfabrication and soft lithography techniques are utilized to create identical arrays of flexible, silicone microposts from a common master. Micropost arrays are functionalized with extracellular matrix protein to allow cardiomyocytes to adhere to the tips of the microposts. Live imaging is used to capture videos of the deflection of microposts caused by the contraction of the cardiomyocytes. Image analysis code provides an accurate means to quantify these deflections. The contractile forces produced by a beating cardiomyocyte are calculated by modeling the microposts as cantilever beams. We have used this assay to assess techniques for improving the maturation and contractile function of stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. PMID:26344757

  6. Tooth-derived stem cells: Update and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Miki Taketomi; Silvério, Karina Gonzales; Casati, Márcio Zaffalon; Sallum, Enilson Antonio; Nociti Jr, Francisco Humberto

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering is an emerging field of science that focuses on creating suitable conditions for the regeneration of tissues. The basic components for tissue engineering involve an interactive triad of scaffolds, signaling molecules, and cells. In this context, stem cells (SCs) present the characteristics of self-renewal and differentiation capacity, which make them promising candidates for tissue engineering. Although they present some common markers, such as cluster of differentiation (CD)105, CD146 and STRO-1, SCs derived from various tissues have different patterns in relation to proliferation, clonogenicity, and differentiation abilities in vitro and in vivo. Tooth-derived tissues have been proposed as an accessible source to obtain SCs with limited morbidity, and various tooth-derived SCs (TDSCs) have been isolated and characterized, such as dental pulp SCs, SCs from human exfoliated deciduous teeth, periodontal ligament SCs, dental follicle progenitor cells, SCs from apical papilla, and periodontal ligament of deciduous teeth SCs. However, heterogeneity among these populations has been observed, and the best method to select the most appropriate TDSCs for regeneration approaches has not yet been established. The objective of this review is to outline the current knowledge concerning the various types of TDSCs, and discuss the perspectives for their use in regenerative approaches. PMID:25815123

  7. A strategy to ensure safety of stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelium cells.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Parul; Whiting, Paul John

    2016-01-01

    Cell replacement and regenerative therapy using embryonic stem cell-derived material holds promise for the treatment of several pathologies. However, the safety of this approach is of prime importance given the teratogenic potential of residual stem cells, if present in the differentiated cell product. Using the example of embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, we present a novel strategy for ensuring the absence of stem cells in the RPE population. Based on an unbiased screening approach, we identify and validate the expression of CD59, a cell surface marker expressed on RPE but absent on stem cells. We further demonstrate that flow sorting on the basis of CD59 expression can effectively purify RPE and deplete stem cells, resulting in a population free from stem cell impurity. This purification helps to ensure removal of stem cells and hence increases the safety of cells that may be used for clinical transplantation. This strategy can potentially be applied to other pluripotent stem cell-derived material and help mitigate concerns of using such cells for therapy. PMID:27590276

  8. Research Advancements in Porcine Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Dinesh; Shivakumar, Sharath Belame; Subbarao, Raghavendra Baregundi; Rho, Gyu-Jin

    2016-01-01

    In the present era of stem cell biology, various animals such as Mouse, Bovine, Rabbit and Porcine have been tested for the efficiency of their mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs before their actual use for stem cell based application in humans. Among them pigs have many similarities to humans in the form of organ size, physiology and their functioning, therefore they have been considered as a valuable model system for in vitro studies and preclinical assessments. Easy assessability, few ethical issues, successful MSC isolation from different origins like bone marrow, skin, umbilical cord blood, Wharton's jelly, endometrium, amniotic fluid and peripheral blood make porcine a good model for stem cell therapy. Porcine derived MSCs (pMSCs have shown greater in vitro differentiation and transdifferention potential towards mesenchymal lineages and specialized lineages such as cardiomyocytes, neurons, hepatocytes and pancreatic beta cells. Immunomodulatory and low immunogenic profiles as shown by autologous and heterologous MSCs proves them safe and appropriate models for xenotransplantation purposes. Furthermore, tissue engineered stem cell constructs can be of immense importance in relation to various osteochondral defects which are difficult to treat otherwise. Using pMSCs successful treatment of various disorders like Parkinson's disease, cardiac ischemia, hepatic failure, has been reported by many studies. Here, in this review we highlight current research findings in the area of porcine mesenchymal stem cells dealing with their isolation methods, differentiation ability, transplantation applications and their therapeutic potential towards various diseases. PMID:26201864

  9. Arteries are formed by vein-derived endothelial tip cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Cong; Hasan, Sana S.; Schmidt, Inga; Rocha, Susana F.; Pitulescu, Mara E.; Bussmann, Jeroen; Meyen, Dana; Raz, Erez; Adams, Ralf H.; Siekmann, Arndt F.

    2014-01-01

    Tissue vascularization entails the formation of a blood vessel plexus, which remodels into arteries and veins. Here we show, by using time-lapse imaging of zebrafish fin regeneration and genetic lineage tracing of endothelial cells in the mouse retina, that vein-derived endothelial tip cells contribute to emerging arteries. Our movies uncover that arterial-fated tip cells change migration direction and migrate backwards within the expanding vascular plexus. This behaviour critically depends on chemokine receptor cxcr4a function. We show that the relevant Cxcr4a ligand Cxcl12a selectively accumulates in newly forming bone tissue even when ubiquitously overexpressed, pointing towards a tissue-intrinsic mode of chemokine gradient formation. Furthermore, we find that cxcr4a mutant cells can contribute to developing arteries when in association with wild-type cells, suggesting collective migration of endothelial cells. Together, our findings reveal specific cell migratory behaviours in the developing blood vessel plexus and uncover a conserved mode of artery formation. PMID:25502622

  10. Nanostructured Tendon-Derived Scaffolds for Enhanced Bone Regeneration by Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Ko, Eunkyung; Alberti, Kyle; Lee, Jong Seung; Yang, Kisuk; Jin, Yoonhee; Shin, Jisoo; Yang, Hee Seok; Xu, Qiaobing; Cho, Seung-Woo

    2016-09-01

    Decellularized matrix-based scaffolds can induce enhanced tissue regeneration due to their biochemical, biophysical, and mechanical similarity to native tissues. In this study, we report a nanostructured decellularized tendon scaffold with aligned, nanofibrous structures to enhance osteogenic differentiation and in vivo bone formation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). Using a bioskiving method, we prepared decellularized tendon scaffolds from tissue slices of bovine Achilles and neck tendons with or without fixation, and investigated the effects on physical and mechanical properties of decellularized tendon scaffolds, based on the types and concentrations of cross-linking agents. In general, we found that decellularized tendon scaffolds without fixative treatments were more effective in inducing osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of hADSCs in vitro. When non-cross-linked decellularized tendon scaffolds were applied together with hydroxyapatite for hADSC transplantation in critical-sized bone defects, they promoted bone-specific collagen deposition and mineralized bone formation 4 and 8 weeks after hADSC transplantation, compared to conventional collagen type I scaffolds. Interestingly, stacking of decellularized tendon scaffolds cultured with osteogenically committed hADSCs and those containing human cord blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells (hEPCs) induced vascularized bone regeneration in the defects 8 weeks after transplantation. Our study suggests that biomimetic nanostructured scaffolds made of decellularized tissue matrices can serve as functional tissue-engineering scaffolds for enhanced osteogenesis of stem cells. PMID:27502160