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Sample records for cell killing ability

  1. Enhancement of CD3AK cell proliferation and killing ability by α-Thujone.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Liu, Jun-quan; Zhou, Zhong-hai; Lv, Xiao-ting; Chen, Yong-qiang; Sun, Lei-qing; Chen, Fu-xing

    2016-01-01

    Thujone is a monoterpene ketone natural substance found mainly in wormwood and sage. Previous studies have shown that Thujone has various pharmacological effects, such as anti-tumor, analgesic, and insecticide. The effect of α-Thujone to human immune cells is still unknown. Our study focuses on investigating the effects and mechanism of α-Thujone to CD3AK (anti- CD3 antibody induced activated killer) cells proliferation and cytotoxicity to colon cancer cell lines. With cell proliferation and FCM assay, it is found that α-Thujone could significantly enhance CD3AK cell proliferation and expression of CD107a in a dose-dependent manner. The cytotoxicity to colon cancer cells detected by CCK-8 assay is also improved. The expressions of TNF-α and FasL detected with ELISA assay were not significantly changed. Mechanically, the study shows that α-Thujone could enhance the expression of p-ERK1/2 and p-Akt. In addition, α-Thujone has no cytotoxicity to HCT116 and SW620 cells proliferation. In a word, α-Thujone enhances CD3AK cell proliferation and cytotoxicity via the improvement of expression of CD107a, p-Akt and p-ERK1/2. PMID:26655741

  2. HIV transcription is induced with cell killing

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Schreck, S.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei; Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R.

    1993-11-01

    In this report, we demonstrate that this induction of HIV-LTR transcription occurs when stably transfected HeLa cells are exposed to agents which mediate cell killing, such as UV radiation, electroporation of sucrose buffer, prolonged heating, and low and high pH. Cells cultured following UV exposure demonstrated a peak in CAT expression that is evident in viable (but not necessarily cell division-competent) cells 24 h after exposure; this inductive response continued until at least 72 h after exposure. HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent, and the amount of CAT transcription induced was correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture.

  3. Serial Killing of Tumor Cells by Human Natural Killer Cells – Enhancement by Therapeutic Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Rauf; Watzl, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    Background Natural killer cells are an important component of the innate immune system. Anti-cancer therapies utilizing monoclonal antibodies also rely on the cytotoxicity of NK cells for their effectiveness. Here, we study the dynamics of NK cell cytotoxicity. Methodology/Principal Findings We observe that IL-2 activated human NK cells can serially hit multiple targets. Using functional assays, we demonstrate that on an average, a single IL-2 activated NK cell can kill four target cells. Data using live video microscopy suggest that an individual NK cell can make serial contacts with multiple targets and majority of contacts lead to lysis of target cells. Serial killing is associated with a loss of Perforin and Granzyme B content. A large majority of NK cells survive serial killing, and IL-2 can replenish their granular stock and restore the diminished cytotoxicity of ‘exhausted’ NK cells. IL-2 and IL-15 are equally effective in enhancing the killing frequency of resting NK cells. Significantly, Rituximab, a therapeutic monoclonal antibody increases the killing frequency of both resting and IL-2 activated NK cells. Conclusion/Significance Our data suggest that NK cell-based therapies for overcoming tumors rely on their serial killing ability. Therefore, strategies augmenting the killing ability of NK cells can boost the immune system and enhance the effectiveness of monoclonal antibody-based therapies. PMID:17389917

  4. Can Nanomedicines Kill Cancer Stem Cells?

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yi; Alakhova, Daria Y.; Kabanov, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    Most tumors are heterogeneous and many cancers contain small population of highly tumorigenic and intrinsically drug resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs). Like normal stem cell, CSCs have ability to self-renew and differentiate to other tumor cell types. They are believed to be a source for drug resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasis. CSCs often overexpress drug efflux transporters, spend most of their time in non-dividing G0 cell cycle state, and therefore, can escape the conventional chemotherapies. Thus, targeting CSCs is essential for developing novel therapies to prevent cancer relapse and emerging of drug resistance. Nanocarrier-based therapeutic agents (nanomedicines) have been used to achieve longer circulation times, better stability and bioavailability over current therapeutics. Recently, some groups have successfully applied nanomedicines to target CSCs to eliminate the tumor and prevent its recurrence. These approaches include 1) delivery of therapeutic agents (small molecules, siRNA, antibodies) that affect embryonic signaling pathways implicated in self-renewal and differentiation in CSCs, 2) inhibiting drug efflux transporters in an attempt to sensitize CSCs to therapy, 3) targeting metabolism in CSCs through nanoformulated chemicals and field-responsive magnetic nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes, and 4) disruption of multiple pathways in drug resistant cells using combination of chemotherapeutic drugs with amphiphilic Pluronic block copolymers. Despite clear progress of these studies the challenges of targeting CSCs by nanomedicines still exist and leave plenty of room for improvement and development. This review summarizes biological processes that are related to CSCs, overviews the current state of anti-CSCs therapies, and discusses state-of-the-art nanomedicine approaches developed to kill CSCs. PMID:24120657

  5. The ability of insect-killing fungi to kill pecan aphids under laboratory conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is need for efficacious biocontrol agents for pecan aphids in commercial orchards. We determined the virulence (killing power) of several beneficial fungi to pecan aphids. We tested three species (kinds) of fungi: 1) Isaria fumosorosea (two strains of this species were tested: ARSEF 3581 a...

  6. HIV transcription is induced with cell killing

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Schreck, S.; Chang-Liu, Chin Mei; Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    Previous work has shown that HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct are induced to express chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) following exposure to DNA-damaging agents such as ultraviolet radiation, {gamma} rays, neutrons, and others. In this report, the authors demonstrate that this induction of HIV-LTR transcription occurs when stably transfected HeLa cells are exposed to agents which mediate cell killing, such as UV radiation, electroporation of sucrose buffer, prolonged heating, and low and high pH. Cells cultured following UV exposure demonstrated a peak in CAT expression that is evidence in viable (but not necessarily cell division-competent) cells 24 h after exposure; this inductive response continued until at least 72 h after exposure. HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent, and the amount of CAT transcription induced was correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture. Other agents which caused no cell killing (such as heat-shock for up to 2 h, treatment with metronidazole, exposure to sunlight, vitamin C treatment, and others) had no effect on HIV-LTR induction. These results suggest that HIV transcription is induced as a consequence of the turn on of a cellular death or apoptotic pathway.

  7. Targeting the Checkpoint to Kill Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Benada, Jan; Macurek, Libor

    2015-01-01

    Cancer treatments such as radiotherapy and most of the chemotherapies act by damaging DNA of cancer cells. Upon DNA damage, cells stop proliferation at cell cycle checkpoints, which provides them time for DNA repair. Inhibiting the checkpoint allows entry to mitosis despite the presence of DNA damage and can lead to cell death. Importantly, as cancer cells exhibit increased levels of endogenous DNA damage due to an excessive replication stress, inhibiting the checkpoint kinases alone could act as a directed anti-cancer therapy. Here, we review the current status of inhibitors targeted towards the checkpoint effectors and discuss mechanisms of their actions in killing of cancer cells. PMID:26295265

  8. Drug repurposing screen identifies lestaurtinib amplifies the ability of the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 inhibitor AG14361 to kill breast cancer associated gene-1 mutant and wild type breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer is a devastating disease that results in approximately 40,000 deaths each year in the USA. Current drug screening and chemopreventatitive methods are suboptimal, due in part to the poor specificity of compounds for cancer cells. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibitor (PARPi)-mediated therapy is a promising approach for familial breast cancers caused by mutations of breast cancer-associated gene-1 and -2 (BRCA1/2), yet drug resistance frequently occurs during the treatment. Moreover, PARPis exhibit very little effect on cancers that are proficient for DNA repair and clinical efficacy for PARPis as single-agent therapies has yet to be illustrated. Methods Using a quantitative high-throughput screening approach, we screened a library containing 2,816 drugs, most of which are approved for human or animal use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or other countries, to identify compounds that sensitize breast cancer cells to PARPi. After initial screening, we performed further cellular and molecular analysis on lestaurtinib, which is an orally bioavailable multikinase inhibitor and has been used in clinical trials for myeloproliferative disorders and acute myelogenous leukemia. Results Our study indicated that lestaurtinib is highly potent against breast cancers as a mono-treatment agent. It also strongly enhanced the activity of the potent PARPi AG14361 on breast cancer cell growth both in vitro and in vivo conditions. The inhibition of cancer growth is measured by increased apoptosis and reduced cell proliferation. Consistent with this, the treatment results in activation of caspase 3/7, and accumulation of cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle, irrespective of their BRCA1 status. Finally, we demonstrated that AG14361 inhibits NF-κB signaling, which is further enhanced by lestaurtinib treatment. Conclusions Lestaurtinib amplifies the ability of the PARP1 inhibitor AG14361 to kill BRCA1 mutant and wild-type breast cancer

  9. Univalent antibodies kill tumour cells in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glennie, M. J.; Stevenson, G. T.

    1982-02-01

    Antibody molecules are bivalent, or less often multivalent, with each antibody site within a single molecule having the same specificity. Bivalency must enhance the tenacity of antibody attachment to cell surfaces, as dissociation will require simultaneous release at both sites. However, the bivalency of the antibody sometimes induces a target cell to undergo antigenic modulation1-3, thereby offering the cell a means of evading complement and the various effector cells recruited by the antibody. We have investigated the attack by univalent antibodies, which, despite removal of one antibody site, retain their Fc zones and hence their ability to recruit the killing agents, on neoplastic B lymphocytes of the guinea pig L2C line. Rabbit antibodies raised against surface immunoglobulin of these cells were partially digested with papain to yield the univalent Fab/c derivatives4,5. We report here that these derivatives showed enhanced cell killing both in vitro and in vivo, and that this enhancement appeared to derive from avoiding antigenic modulation.

  10. HIV transcription is induced with some forms of cell killing

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Schreck, S.; Panozzo, J.; Chang-Liu, C.-M.; Libertin, C.R.

    1996-11-01

    Using HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct`, we demonstrated a peak in CAT induction that occurs in viable (but not necessarily cell-division-competent) cells 24 h following exposure to some cell-killing agents. {Gamma} rays were the only cell-killing agent which did not induce HIV transcription; this can be attributed to the fact that {gamma}-ray-induced apoptotic death requires function p53, which is missing in HeLa cells. For all other agents, HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent and correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture.

  11. Trogocytosis by Entamoeba histolytica contributes to cell killing and tissue invasion.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Katherine S; Solga, Michael D; Mackey-Lawrence, Nicole M; Somlata; Bhattacharya, Alok; Petri, William A

    2014-04-24

    Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amoebiasis, a potentially fatal diarrhoeal disease in the developing world. The parasite was named "histolytica" for its ability to destroy host tissues, which is probably driven by direct killing of human cells. The mechanism of human cell killing has been unclear, although the accepted model was that the parasites use secreted toxic effectors to kill cells before ingestion. Here we report the discovery that amoebae kill by ingesting distinct pieces of living human cells, resulting in intracellular calcium elevation and eventual cell death. After cell killing, amoebae detach and cease ingestion. Ingestion of human cell fragments is required for cell killing, and also contributes to invasion of intestinal tissue. The internalization of fragments of living human cells is reminiscent of trogocytosis (from Greek trogo, nibble) observed between immune cells, but amoebic trogocytosis differs because it results in death. The ingestion of live cell material and the rejection of corpses illuminate a stark contrast to the established model of dead cell clearance in multicellular organisms. These findings change the model for tissue destruction in amoebiasis and suggest an ancient origin of trogocytosis as a form of intercellular exchange. PMID:24717428

  12. Mechanisms of Dendritic Cell Lysosomal Killing of Cryptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Hole, Camaron R.; Bui, Hoang; Wormley, Floyd L.; Wozniak, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pulmonary fungal pathogen that disseminates to the CNS causing fatal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. Dendritic cells (DCs) phagocytose C. neoformans following inhalation. Following uptake, cryptococci translocate to the DC lysosomal compartment and are killed by oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms. DC lysosomal extracts kill cryptococci in vitro; however, the means of antifungal activity remain unknown. Our studies determined non-oxidative antifungal activity by DC lysosomal extract. We examined DC lysosomal killing of cryptococcal strains, anti-fungal activity of purified lysosomal enzymes, and mechanisms of killing against C. neoformans. Results confirmed DC lysosome fungicidal activity against all cryptococcal serotypes. Purified lysosomal enzymes, specifically cathepsin B, inhibited cryptococcal growth. Interestingly, cathepsin B combined with its enzymatic inhibitors led to enhanced cryptococcal killing. Electron microscopy revealed structural changes and ruptured cryptococcal cell walls following treatment. Finally, additional studies demonstrated that osmotic lysis was responsible for cryptococcal death. PMID:23074646

  13. Mechanisms of dendritic cell lysosomal killing of Cryptococcus.

    PubMed

    Hole, Camaron R; Bui, Hoang; Wormley, Floyd L; Wozniak, Karen L

    2012-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pulmonary fungal pathogen that disseminates to the CNS causing fatal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. Dendritic cells (DCs) phagocytose C. neoformans following inhalation. Following uptake, cryptococci translocate to the DC lysosomal compartment and are killed by oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms. DC lysosomal extracts kill cryptococci in vitro; however, the means of antifungal activity remain unknown. Our studies determined non-oxidative antifungal activity by DC lysosomal extract. We examined DC lysosomal killing of cryptococcal strains, anti-fungal activity of purified lysosomal enzymes, and mechanisms of killing against C. neoformans. Results confirmed DC lysosome fungicidal activity against all cryptococcal serotypes. Purified lysosomal enzymes, specifically cathepsin B, inhibited cryptococcal growth. Interestingly, cathepsin B combined with its enzymatic inhibitors led to enhanced cryptococcal killing. Electron microscopy revealed structural changes and ruptured cryptococcal cell walls following treatment. Finally, additional studies demonstrated that osmotic lysis was responsible for cryptococcal death. PMID:23074646

  14. Mechanisms of Dendritic Cell Lysosomal Killing of Cryptococcus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hole, Camaron R.; Bui, Hoang; Wormley, Floyd L.; Wozniak, Karen L.

    2012-10-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pulmonary fungal pathogen that disseminates to the CNS causing fatal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. Dendritic cells (DCs) phagocytose C. neoformans following inhalation. Following uptake, cryptococci translocate to the DC lysosomal compartment and are killed by oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms. DC lysosomal extracts kill cryptococci in vitro; however, the means of antifungal activity remain unknown. Our studies determined non-oxidative antifungal activity by DC lysosomal extract. We examined DC lysosomal killing of cryptococcal strains, anti-fungal activity of purified lysosomal enzymes, and mechanisms of killing against C. neoformans. Results confirmed DC lysosome fungicidal activity against all cryptococcal serotypes. Purified lysosomal enzymes, specifically cathepsin B, inhibited cryptococcal growth. Interestingly, cathepsin B combined with its enzymatic inhibitors led to enhanced cryptococcal killing. Electron microscopy revealed structural changes and ruptured cryptococcal cell walls following treatment. Finally, additional studies demonstrated that osmotic lysis was responsible for cryptococcal death.

  15. Individual motile CD4+ T cells can participate in efficient multi-killing through conjugation to multiple tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Liadi, Ivan; Singh, Harjeet; Romain, Gabrielle; Rey-Villamizar, Nicolas; Merouane, Amine; Adolacion, Jay R T.; Kebriaei, Partow; Huls, Helen; Qiu, Peng; Roysam, Badrinath; Cooper, Laurence J.N.; Varadarajan, Navin

    2015-01-01

    T cells genetically modified to express a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) for the investigational treatment of B-cell malignancies comprise a heterogeneous population, and their ability to persist and participate in serial killing of tumor cells is a predictor of therapeutic success. We implemented Timelapse Imaging Microscopy In Nanowell Grids (TIMING) to provide direct evidence that CD4+CAR+ T cells (CAR4 cells) can engage in multi-killing via simultaneous conjugation to multiple tumor cells. Comparisons of the CAR4 cells and CD8+CAR+ T cells (CAR8 cells) demonstrate that while CAR4 cells can participate in killing and multi-killing, they do so at slower rates, likely due to the lower Granzyme B content. Significantly, in both sets of T cells, a minor sub-population of individual T cells identified by their high motility, demonstrated efficient killing of single tumor cells. By comparing both the multi-killer and single killer CAR+ T cells it appears that the propensity and kinetics of T-cell apoptosis was modulated by the number of functional conjugations. T cells underwent rapid apoptosis, and at higher frequencies, when conjugated to single tumor cells in isolation and this effect was more pronounced on CAR8 cells. Our results suggest that the ability of CAR+ T cells to participate in multi-killing should be evaluated in the context of their ability to resist activation induced cell death (AICD). We anticipate that TIMING may be utilized to rapidly determine the potency of T-cell populations and may facilitate the design and manufacture of next-generation CAR+ T cells with improved efficacy. PMID:25711538

  16. A glycosylated antitumor ether lipid kills cells via paraptosis-like cell death.

    PubMed

    Samadder, Pranati; Bittman, Robert; Byun, Hoe-Sup; Arthur, Gilbert

    2009-04-01

    Glycosylated antitumor ether lipids (GAELs) have superior anticancer properties relative to the alkyllysophospholipid class, but there have been no studies of the mechanisms of these compounds. The prototype GAEL, 1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-methyl-3-O-(2'-amino-2'-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-sn-glycerol (Gln), effectively killed mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking key molecules involved in caspase-dependent apoptosis, and cell death was not prevented by caspase inhibitors. Gln did not cause a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, even in rounded-up dying cells. Gln stimulated the appearance and accumulation of LC3-II, a protein marker for autophagy, in a variety of cells, including wild-type MEFs, but not in MEFs lacking ATG5, a key protein required for autophagy. Gln induced LC3 puncta formation in Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing a LC3-green fluorescent protein fusion protein. Thus, Gln appears to induce autophagy. Autophagy was mTOR-independent and was not inhibited by 3-methyladenine or wortmannin. Although Gln is toxic, cellular ability to undergo autophagy was not essential for its toxicity. Furthermore, the GAEL analog 2-deoxy-C-Glc induced LC3 puncta formation but did not kill the cells. Gln, but not 2-deoxy-C-Glc, caused the accumulation of cytoplasmic acidic vacuoles in the cells. Our data suggest that GAELs may activate autophagy; however, GAELs do not kill cells by apoptosis or autophagy but rather by a paraptosis-like cell death mechanism. PMID:19370058

  17. DNA damage and cell killing. Cause and effect

    SciTech Connect

    Elkind, M.M.

    1985-11-15

    The evidence supporting a cause and effect relationship between DNA damage and cell killing is examined in the light of what is currently known about the organization and replication of genomic DNA in eukaryotic cells and the radio-energetics of DNA breakage. A large disparity is identified between characteristic doses for cell killing and for the production of DNA lesions (i.e., single- or double-strand breaks). In contrast, the sensitive phase of the inhibition of DNA synthesis has a dependence on dose quantitatively similar to that of cell killing. A model is developed in which single- and double-strand breaks are associated with the inhibition of replicon initiation, whereas only double-strand breaks are primarily responsible for strand elongation. Furthermore, the model points to the replisome and the region of replicated DNA just downstream from the fork as the locus of radiation action.

  18. Morphological effect of oscillating magnetic nanoparticles in killing tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Dengfeng; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Guoxin; Shi, Hongcheng

    2014-04-01

    Forced oscillation of spherical and rod-shaped iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) via low-power and low-frequency alternating magnetic field (AMF) was firstly used to kill cancer cells in vitro. After being loaded by human cervical cancer cells line (HeLa) and then exposed to a 35-kHz AMF, MNPs mechanically damaged cell membranes and cytoplasm, decreasing the cell viability. It was found that the concentration and morphology of the MNPs significantly influenced the cell-killing efficiency of oscillating MNPs. In this preliminary study, when HeLa cells were pre-incubated with 100 μg/mL rod-shaped MNPs (rMNP, length of 200 ± 50 nm and diameter of 50 to 120 nm) for 20 h, MTT assay proved that the cell viability decreased by 30.9% after being exposed to AMF for 2 h, while the cell viability decreased by 11.7% if spherical MNPs (sMNP, diameter of 200 ± 50 nm) were used for investigation. Furthermore, the morphological effect of MNPs on cell viability was confirmed by trypan blue assay: 39.5% rMNP-loaded cells and 15.1% sMNP-loaded cells were stained after being exposed to AMF for 2 h. It was also interesting to find that killing tumor cells at either higher (500 μg/mL) or lower (20 μg/mL) concentration of MNPs was less efficient than that achieved at 100 μg/mL concentration. In conclusion, the relatively asymmetric morphological rod-shaped MNPs can kill cancer cells more effectively than spherical MNPs when being exposed to AMF by virtue of their mechanical oscillations.

  19. Chew on this: Amoebic trogocytosis and host cell killing by Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Ralston, Katherine S.

    2015-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica was named “histolytica” (histo-: tissue; lytic-: dissolving) for its ability to destroy host tissues. Direct killing of host cells by the amoebae is likely to be the driving factor that underlies tissue destruction, but the mechanism was unclear. We recently showed that after attaching to host cells, amoebae bite off and ingest distinct host cell fragments, and that this contributes to cell killing. Here we review this process, termed “amoebic trogocytosis” (trogo-: nibble), and how this process interplays with phagocytosis, or whole cell ingestion, in this organism. “Nibbling” processes have been described in other microbes and in multicellular organisms. The discovery of amoebic trogocytosis in E. histolytica may also shed light on an evolutionarily conserved process for intercellular exchange. PMID:26070402

  20. Trichinella spiralis: killing of newborn larvae by lung cells.

    PubMed

    Falduto, Guido H; Vila, Cecilia C; Saracino, María P; Calcagno, Marcela A; Venturiello, Stella M

    2015-02-01

    The migratory stage of Trichinella spiralis, the newborn larva (NBL), travels along the pulmonary microvascular system on its way to the skeletal muscle cells. The present work studies the capability of lung cells to kill NBL. For this purpose, in vitro cytotoxicity assays were performed using NBL, lung cell suspensions from Wistar rats, rat anti-NBL surface sera, and fresh serum as complement source. The cytotoxic activity of lung cells from rats infected on day 6 p.i. was compared with that from noninfected rats. Two and 20 h-old NBL (NBL2 and NBL20) were used as they had shown to exhibit different surface antigens altering their biological activity. Sera antibodies were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay, and cell populations used in each assay were characterized by histological staining. The role of IgE in the cytotoxic attack against NBL was analyzed using heated serum. The FcεRI expression on cell suspensions was examined by flow cytometry. Results showed that lung cells were capable of killing NBL by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Lung cells from infected animals yielded the highest mortality percentages of NBL, with NBL20 being the most susceptible to such attack. IgE yielded a critical role in the cytotoxic attack. Regarding the analysis of cell suspensions, cells from infected rats showed an increase in the percentage of eosinophils, neutrophils, and the number of cells expressing the FcεRI receptor. We conclude that lung cells are capable of killing NBL in the presence of specific antibodies, supporting the idea that the lung is one of the sites where the NBL death occurs due to ADCC. PMID:25416332

  1. Zika Kills Vital Nervous System Cells in Adult Mice, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160505.html Zika Kills Vital Nervous System Cells in Adult Mice, ... 2016 THURSDAY, Aug. 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Zika virus kills neural stem cells in the brains ...

  2. Mitochondria: An intriguing target for killing tumour-initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bing; Dong, Lanfeng; Neuzil, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Tumour-initiating cells (TICs) play a pivotal role in cancer initiation, metastasis and recurrence, as well as in resistance to therapy. Therefore, development of drugs targeting TICs has become a focus of contemporary research. Mitochondria have emerged as a promising target of anti-cancer therapies due to their specific role in cancer metabolism and modulation of apoptotic pathways. Mitochondria of TICs possess special characteristics, some of which can be utilised to design drugs specifically targeting these cells. In this paper, we will review recent research on TICs and their mitochondria, and introduce drugs that kill these cells by way of mitochondrial targeting. PMID:26702582

  3. Attachment of killed Mycoplasma gallisepticum cells and membranes to erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Banai, M.; Kahane, I.; Feldner, J.; Razin, S.

    1981-11-01

    To correlate viability with attachment capacity, Mycoplasma gallisepticum cells harvested at different growth phases and treated by various agents were tested for their capacity to attach to human erythrocytes. The results show that viability per se is not essential for M. gallisepticum attachment to erythrocytes, as cells killed by ultraviolet irradiation and membranes isolated by lysing M. gallisepticum cells by various means retained attachment capacity. However, treatment of the mycoplasmas by protein-denaturing agents, such as heart, glutaraldehyde, or prolonged exposure to low pH, drastically affected or even abolished attachment, supporting the protein nature of the mycoplasma membrane components responsible for specific binding to the sialoglycoprotein receptors on the erythrocytes.

  4. Nexavar/Stivarga and viagra interact to kill tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Tavallai, Mehrad; Hamed, Hossein A; Roberts, Jane L; Cruickshanks, Nichola; Chuckalovcak, John; Poklepovic, Andrew; Booth, Laurence; Dent, Paul

    2015-09-01

    We determined whether the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib or its derivative regorafenib interacted with phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors such as Viagra (sildenafil) to kill tumor cells. PDE5 and PDGFRα/β were over-expressed in liver tumors compared to normal liver tissue. In multiple cell types in vitro sorafenib/regorafenib and PDE5 inhibitors interacted in a greater than additive fashion to cause tumor cell death, regardless of whether cells were grown in 10 or 100% human serum. Knock down of PDE5 or of PDGFRα/β recapitulated the effects of the individual drugs. The drug combination increased ROS/RNS levels that were causal in cell killing. Inhibition of CD95/FADD/caspase 8 signaling suppressed drug combination toxicity. Knock down of ULK-1, Beclin1, or ATG5 suppressed drug combination lethality. The drug combination inactivated ERK, AKT, p70 S6K, and mTOR and activated JNK. The drug combination also reduced mTOR protein expression. Activation of ERK or AKT was modestly protective whereas re-expression of an activated mTOR protein or inhibition of JNK signaling almost abolished drug combination toxicity. Sildenafil and sorafenib/regorafenib interacted in vivo to suppress xenograft tumor growth using liver and colon cancer cells. From multiplex assays on tumor tissue and plasma, we discovered that increased FGF levels and ERBB1 and AKT phosphorylation were biomarkers that were directly associated with lower levels of cell killing by 'rafenib + sildenafil. Our data are now being translated into the clinic for further determination as to whether this drug combination is a useful anti-tumor therapy for solid tumor patients. PMID:25704960

  5. Nexavar/Stivarga and Viagra Interact to Kill Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    TAVALLAI, MEHRAD; HAMED, HOSSEIN A.; ROBERTS, JANE L.; CRUICKSHANKS, NICHOLA; CHUCKALOVCAK, JOHN; POKLEPOVIC, ANDREW; BOOTH, LAURENCE; DENT, PAUL

    2016-01-01

    We determined whether the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib or its derivative regorafenib interacted with phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors such as Viagra (sildenafil) to kill tumor cells. PDE5 and PDGFRα/β were over-expressed in liver tumors compared to normal liver tissue. In multiple cell types in vitro sorafenib/regorafenib and PDE5 inhibitors interacted in a greater than additive fashion to cause tumor cell death, regardless of whether cells were grown in 10 or 100% human serum. Knock down of PDE5 or of PDGFRα/β recapitulated the effects of the individual drugs. The drug combination increased ROS/RNS levels that were causal in cell killing. Inhibition of CD95/FADD/caspase 8 signaling suppressed drug combination toxicity. Knock down of ULK-1, Beclin1, or ATG5 suppressed drug combination lethality. The drug combination inactivated ERK, AKT, p70 S6K, and mTOR and activated JNK. The drug combination also reduced mTOR protein expression. Activation of ERK or AKT was modestly protective whereas re-expression of an activated mTOR protein or inhibition of JNK signaling almost abolished drug combination toxicity. Sildenafil and sorafenib/regorafenib interacted in vivo to suppress xenograft tumor growth using liver and colon cancer cells. From multiplex assays on tumor tissue and plasma, we discovered that increased FGF levels and ERBB1 and AKT phosphorylation were biomarkers that were directly associated with lower levels of cell killing by ‘rafenib + sildenafil. Our data are now being translated into the clinic for further determination as to whether this drug combination is a useful anti-tumor therapy for solid tumor patients. PMID:25704960

  6. Biological Functionalization of Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles for Targeted Imaging and Photodynamic Killing of Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Feng, Liheng; Zhu, Jiarong; Wang, Zhijun

    2016-08-01

    Conjugated polymer nanoparticles composed of PFT/PS as a core and PEG-COOH on the surface were prepared by a reprecipitating method. The CPNs diaplay excellet properties such as good photostability, low cytotoxicity, and strong brightness, etc. The average diamater of CPNs is 30 nm with a spherical morphology. To realize specific imaging in different parts of tumor cells, the bare CPNs with the carboxyls on the surface were conjugated with antibody or peptide by a covalent mode. Studies display that CPNs modified with anti-EpCAM can recognize MCF-7 tumor cells and locate on the membrane, while CPNs conjugated with transcriptional activator protein (Tat) specifically locate in the cytoplasm of MCF-7 cells. On the basis of the ability of CPNs for producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) under light irradiation, photodynamic therapy for tumor cells was investigated. Due to the long distance and wide diffusion range, MCF-7 tumor cells with CPNs/anti-EpCAM have no obvious change with or without white light irradiation. However, CPNs/Tat exhibits higher killing ability for MCF-7 cells. Noticeably, multifunctional CPNs linked with anti-EpCAM and Tat simultaneously not only can specifically target MCF-7 tumor cells, but also may inhibit and kill these cells. This work develops a potential application platform for multifunctional CPNs in locating imaging, photodynamic therapy, and other aspects. PMID:27406913

  7. Colicin Killing: Foiled Cell Defense and Hijacked Cell Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Zamaroczy, Miklos; Chauleau, Mathieu

    The study of bacteriocins, notably those produced by E. coli (and named colicins), was initiated in 1925 by Gratia, who first discovered "un remarquable exemple d'antagonisme entre deux souches de colibacilles". Since this innovating observation, the production of toxic exoproteins has been widely reported in all major lineages of Eubacteria and in Archaebacteria. Bacteriocins belong to the most abundant and most diverse group of these bacterial defense systems. Paradoxically, these antimicrobial cytotoxins are actually powerful weapons in the intense battle for bacterial survival. They are also biotechnologically useful since several bacteriocins are used as preservatives in the food industry or as antibiotics or as potential antitumor agents in human health care. Most colicins kill bacteria in one of two ways. The first type is those that form pores in the phospholipid bilayer of the inner membrane. They are active immediately after their translocation across the outer membrane. The translocation pathway requires generally either the BtuB receptor and the Tol (OmpF/TolABQR) complex, or the FepA, FhuA, or Cir receptor and the Ton (TonB/ExbBD) system. The second type of colicins encodes specific endonuclease activities that target DNA, rRNA, or tRNAs in the cytoplasm. To be active, these colicins require translocation across both the outer and inner membranes. The molecular mechanisms implicated in the complex cascade of interactions, required for the transfers of colicin molecules from the extracellular medium through the different "cellular compartments" (outer membrane, periplasm, inner membrane, and cytoplasm), are still incompletely understood. It is clear, however, that the colicins "hijack" specific cellular functions to facilitate access to their target. In this chapter, following a general presentation of colicin biology, we describe, compare, and update several of the concepts related to colicin toxicity and discuss recent, often unexpected findings

  8. Low Temperature Plasma Kills SCaBER Cancer Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barekzi, Nazir; van Way, Lucas; Laroussi, Mounir

    2013-09-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder is a rare type of bladder cancer that forms as a result of chronic irritation of the epithelial lining of the bladder. The cell line used in this study is SCaBER (ATCC® HTB-3™) derived from squamous cell carcinoma of the human urinary bladder. Current treatments of bladder cancer include surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. However, the cost of these treatments, the potential toxicity of the chemotherapeutic agents and the systemic side-effects warrant an alternative to current cancer treatment. This paper represents preliminary studies to determine the effects of biologically tolerant plasma (BTP) on a cell line of human bladder cancer cells. Previous work by our group using the plasma pencil revealed the efficacy of BTP on leukemia cells suspended in solution. Based on these earlier findings we hypothesized that the plasma exposure would elicit a similar programmed cell death in the SCaBER cells. Trypan blue exclusion and MTT assays revealed the cell killing after exposure to BTP. Our study indicates that low temperature plasma generated by ionizing helium gas and the reactive species may be a suitable and safe alternative for cancer therapy.

  9. Phototoxic aptamers selectively enter and kill epithelial cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Cátia S. M.; Cheung, Melissa C.; Missailidis, Sotiris; Bisland, Stuart; Gariépy, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The majority of cancers arise from malignant epithelial cells. We report the design of synthetic oligonucleotides (aptamers) that are only internalized by epithelial cancer cells and can be precisely activated by light to kill such cells. Specifically, phototoxic DNA aptamers were selected to bind to unique short O-glycan-peptide signatures on the surface of breast, colon, lung, ovarian and pancreatic cancer cells. These surface antigens are not present on normal epithelial cells but are internalized and routed through endosomal and Golgi compartments by cancer cells, thus providing a focused mechanism for their intracellular delivery. When modified at their 5′ end with the photodynamic therapy agent chlorin e6 and delivered to epithelial cancer cells, these aptamers exhibited a remarkable enhancement (>500-fold increase) in toxicity upon light activation, compared to the drug alone and were not cytotoxic towards cell types lacking such O-glycan-peptide markers. Our findings suggest that these synthetic oligonucleotide aptamers can serve as delivery vehicles in precisely routing cytotoxic cargoes to and into epithelial cancer cells. PMID:19103663

  10. The role of macrophages in the cytotoxic killing of tumour cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zembala, M.; Ptak, W.; Hanczakowska, Maria

    1973-01-01

    Lymph node and spleen cells from normal mice were cultured for 3 days with polyoma virus-induced tumour, Ehrlich's ascites tumour or leukaemia L 1210 cells. This resulted in in vitro immunization of the lymphocytes, which were then transferred to irradiated target cells labelled with 51Cr. Normal, i.e. non-immune thioglycollate-stimulated peritoneal macrophages were also added to some tubes. Non-immune macrophages mixed with immunized lymphocytes showed a significantly increased ability to destroy tumour cells as compared with macrophages in the absence of immunized lymphocytes. The immunized lymphocytes were almost entirely inactive alone. When the number of macrophages was kept constant the cytotoxicity was dependent on the number of viable immunized lymphocytes placed on the target cells. Immunized lymphocytes, in the presence of macrophages, only exhibited strong killing of the target cells against which they had been immunized; some lysis of `bystander' cells was, however, seen provided specific target cells were present. Macrophage monolayers exposed to immunized lymphocytes upon contact with specific antigen became `armed' and showed a significant cytotoxicity for specific target cells. When immunized lymphocytes and normal macrophages were treated with actinomycin D and puromycin, cytotoxicity was inhibited in the immunized lymphocytes but not in the macrophages. The possible mechanism of normal macrophage cooperation with immunized lymphocytes in the cytotoxic killing reaction is discussed. Results presented in this paper favour the view that immunologically specific cytophilic factor (presumptive cytophilic antibody) is involved in the macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity in the system studied. PMID:4356674

  11. Scheduling Chemotherapy: Catch 22 between Cell Kill and Resistance Evolution

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gardner, Shea N.

    2000-01-01

    Dose response curves show that prolonged drug exposure at a low concentration may kill more cells than short exposures at higher drug concentrations, particularly for cell cycle phase specific drugs. Applying drugs at low concentrations for prolonged periods, however, allows cells with partial resistance to evolve higher levels of resistance through stepwise processes such as gene amplification. Models are developed for cell cycle specific (CS) and cell cycle nonspecific (CNS) drugs to identify the schedule of drug application that balances this tradeoff. The models predict that a CS drug may be applied most effectively by splitting the cumulative dose intomore » many (>40) fractions applied by long-term chemotherapy, while CNS drugs may be better applied in fewer than 10 fractions applied over a shorter term. The model suggests that administering each fraction by continuous infusion may be more effective than giving the drug as a bolus, whether the drug is CS or CNS. In addition, tumors with a low growth fraction or slow rate of cell division are predicted to be controlled more easily with CNS drugs, while those with a high proliferative fraction or fast cell division rate may respond better to CS drugs.« less

  12. A Sequential Model of Host Cell Killing and Phagocytosis by Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Sateriale, Adam; Huston, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is responsible for invasive intestinal and extraintestinal amebiasis. The virulence of Entamoeba histolytica is strongly correlated with the parasite's capacity to effectively kill and phagocytose host cells. The process by which host cells are killed and phagocytosed follows a sequential model of adherence, cell killing, initiation of phagocytosis, and engulfment. This paper presents recent advances in the cytolytic and phagocytic processes of Entamoeba histolytica in context of the sequential model. PMID:21331284

  13. Differences in estimates of cisplatin-induced cell kill in vitro between colorimetric and cell count/colony assays.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Eva; Kjellén, Elisabeth; Wahlberg, Peter; Wennerberg, Johan; Kjellström, Johan H

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate some bioassays that are different in principle: cell counting, colony forming assay, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT), sulforhodamine B (SRB), crystal violet, and alamarBlue, with respect to their ability to measure cisplatin-induced cell death of in vitro-cultivated squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Cisplatin was applied in concentrations of 1.0, 5.0, 10.0, 50.0, and 100 microM. The cells were incubated for 1 h, and the cell survival was measured 5 d after treatment. We found the colorimetric assays and cell counting to be comparable. The colony forming assay indicated a higher degree of cell kill compared with the other techniques. Measurement of cell survival after treatment with cisplatin can be done by use of any of the above tested assays. However, the majority of SCCHN cell lines available do not form colonies easily, or at all. Therefore, comparing the chemosensitivity between such cell lines is limited to alternative assays. In this respect, any of the tested colorimetric assays can be used. However, they seem to underestimate cell kill. Cell counting is also an alternative. This technique, however, is time consuming and operator dependent, as in the case of manual counting, or relatively expensive when counting is performed electronically, compared with the colorimetric assays. PMID:17316066

  14. The pro-oxidative drug WF-10 inhibits serial killing by primary human cytotoxic T-cells

    PubMed Central

    Wabnitz, G H; Balta, E; Schindler, S; Kirchgessner, H; Jahraus, B; Meuer, S; Samstag, Y

    2016-01-01

    Cytotoxic T-cells (CTLs) play an important role in many immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Targeting cytotoxicity of CTLs would allow to interfere with immune-mediated tissue destruction. Here we demonstrate that WF-10, a pro-oxidative compound, inhibits CTL-mediated cytotoxicity. WF-10 did not influence early steps of target-cell killing, but impaired the ability of CTLs to detach from the initial target cell and to move to a second target cell. This reduced serial killing was accompanied by stronger enrichment of the adhesion molecule LFA-1 in the cytolytic immune synapse. LFA-1 clustering requires activation of the actin-bundling protein L-plastin and was accordingly diminished in L-plastin knockdown cells. Interestingly, WF-10 likely acts through regulating L-plastin: (I) It induced L-plastin activation through phosphorylation leading to enhanced LFA-1-mediated cell adhesion, and, importantly, (II) WF-10 lost its influence on target-cell killing in L-plastin knockdown cells. Finally, we demonstrate that WF-10 can improve immunosuppression by conventional drugs. Thus, while cyclosporine A alone had no significant effect on cytotoxicity of CTLs, a combination of cyclosporine A and WF-10 blocked target-cell killing synergistically. Together, our findings suggest that WF-10 – either alone or in combination with conventional immunosuppressive drugs – may be efficient to control progression of diseases, in which CTLs are crucially involved. PMID:27551545

  15. The pro-oxidative drug WF-10 inhibits serial killing by primary human cytotoxic T-cells.

    PubMed

    Wabnitz, G H; Balta, E; Schindler, S; Kirchgessner, H; Jahraus, B; Meuer, S; Samstag, Y

    2016-01-01

    Cytotoxic T-cells (CTLs) play an important role in many immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Targeting cytotoxicity of CTLs would allow to interfere with immune-mediated tissue destruction. Here we demonstrate that WF-10, a pro-oxidative compound, inhibits CTL-mediated cytotoxicity. WF-10 did not influence early steps of target-cell killing, but impaired the ability of CTLs to detach from the initial target cell and to move to a second target cell. This reduced serial killing was accompanied by stronger enrichment of the adhesion molecule LFA-1 in the cytolytic immune synapse. LFA-1 clustering requires activation of the actin-bundling protein L-plastin and was accordingly diminished in L-plastin knockdown cells. Interestingly, WF-10 likely acts through regulating L-plastin: (I) It induced L-plastin activation through phosphorylation leading to enhanced LFA-1-mediated cell adhesion, and, importantly, (II) WF-10 lost its influence on target-cell killing in L-plastin knockdown cells. Finally, we demonstrate that WF-10 can improve immunosuppression by conventional drugs. Thus, while cyclosporine A alone had no significant effect on cytotoxicity of CTLs, a combination of cyclosporine A and WF-10 blocked target-cell killing synergistically. Together, our findings suggest that WF-10 - either alone or in combination with conventional immunosuppressive drugs - may be efficient to control progression of diseases, in which CTLs are crucially involved. PMID:27551545

  16. Nanotechnology for the detection and kill of circulating tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yang; Yuan, Zhou

    2014-09-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) represent a surrogate biomarker of hematogenous metastases and thus could be considered as a `liquid biopsy' which reveals metastasis in action. But it is absolutely a challenge to detect CTCs due to their extreme rarity. At present, the most common principle is to take advantage of the epithelial surface markers of CTCs which attach to a specific antibody. Antibody-magnetic nanobeads combine with the epithelial surface markers, and then the compound is processed by washing, separation, and detection. However, a proportion of CTC antigen expressions are down-regulated or lost in the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and thus, this part of CTCs cannot be detected by classical detection methods such as CellSearch. To resolve this problem, some multiple-marker CTC detections have been developed rapidly. Additionally, nanotechnology is a promising approach to kill CTCs with high efficiency. Implantable nanotubes coated with apoptosis-promoting molecules improve the disease-free survival and overall survival. The review introduces some novel CTC detection techniques and therapeutic methods by virtue of nanotechnology to provide a better knowledge of the progress about CTC study.

  17. Can dendritic cells improve whole cancer cell vaccines based on immunogenically killed cancer cells?

    PubMed Central

    Cicchelero, Laetitia; Denies, Sofie; Devriendt, Bert; de Rooster, Hilde; Sanders, Niek N

    2015-01-01

    Immunogenic cell death (ICD) offers interesting opportunities in cancer cell (CC) vaccine manufacture, as it increases the immunogenicity of the dead CC. Furthermore, fusion of CCs with dendritic cells (DCs) is considered a superior method for generating whole CC vaccines. Therefore, in this work, we determined in naive mice whether immunogenically killed CCs per se (CC vaccine) elicit an antitumoral immune response different from the response observed when immunogenically killed CCs are associated with DCs through fusion (fusion vaccine) or through co-incubation (co-incubation vaccine). After tumor inoculation, the type of immune response in the prophylactically vaccinated mice differed between the groups. In more detail, fusion vaccines elicited a humoral anticancer response, whereas the co-incubation and CC vaccine mainly induced a cellular response. Despite these differences, all three approaches offered a prophylactic protection against tumor development in the murine mammary carcinoma model. In summary, it can be concluded that whole CC vaccines based on immunogenically killed CCs may not necessarily require association with DCs to elicit a protective anticancer immune response. If this finding can be endorsed in other cancer models, the manufacture of CC vaccines would greatly benefit from this new insight, as production of DC-based vaccines is laborious, time-consuming and expensive. PMID:26587315

  18. Glioma Stemlike Cells Enhance the Killing of Glioma Differentiated Cells by Cytotoxic Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Bassoy, Esen Yonca; Chiusolo, Valentina; Jacquemin, Guillaume; Riccadonna, Cristina; Walker, Paul R; Martinvalet, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive primary brain tumor, is maintained by a subpopulation of glioma cells with self-renewal properties that are able to recapitulate the entire tumor even after surgical resection or chemo-radiotherapy. This typifies the vast heterogeneity of this tumor with the two extremes represented on one end by the glioma stemlike cells (GSC) and on the other by the glioma differentiated cells (GDC). Interestingly, GSC are more sensitive to immune effector cells than the GDC counterpart. However, how GSC impact on the killing on the GDC and vice versa is not clear. Using a newly developed cytotoxicity assay allowing to simultaneously monitor cytotoxic lymphocytes-mediated killing of GSC and GDC, we found that although GSC were always better killed and that their presence enhanced the killing of GDC. In contrast, an excess of GDC had a mild protective effect on the killing of GSC, depending on the CTL type. Overall, our results suggest that during combination therapy, immunotherapy would be the most effective after prior treatment with conventional therapies. PMID:27073883

  19. Glioma Stemlike Cells Enhance the Killing of Glioma Differentiated Cells by Cytotoxic Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bassoy, Esen Yonca; Chiusolo, Valentina; Jacquemin, Guillaume; Riccadonna, Cristina; Walker, Paul R.; Martinvalet, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive primary brain tumor, is maintained by a subpopulation of glioma cells with self-renewal properties that are able to recapitulate the entire tumor even after surgical resection or chemo-radiotherapy. This typifies the vast heterogeneity of this tumor with the two extremes represented on one end by the glioma stemlike cells (GSC) and on the other by the glioma differentiated cells (GDC). Interestingly, GSC are more sensitive to immune effector cells than the GDC counterpart. However, how GSC impact on the killing on the GDC and vice versa is not clear. Using a newly developed cytotoxicity assay allowing to simultaneously monitor cytotoxic lymphocytes-mediated killing of GSC and GDC, we found that although GSC were always better killed and that their presence enhanced the killing of GDC. In contrast, an excess of GDC had a mild protective effect on the killing of GSC, depending on the CTL type. Overall, our results suggest that during combination therapy, immunotherapy would be the most effective after prior treatment with conventional therapies. PMID:27073883

  20. Comparison of two mathematical models for describing heat-induced cell killing

    SciTech Connect

    Roti Roti, J.L.; Henle, K.J.

    1980-03-01

    A computer-based minimization algorithm is utilized to obtain the optimum fits of two models to hyperthermic cell killing data. The models chosen are the multitarget, single-hit equation, which is in general use, and the linear-quadratic equation, which has been applied to cell killing by ionizing irradiation but not to heat-induced cell killing. The linear-quadratic equation fits hyperthermic cell killing data as well as the multitarget, single-hit equation. Both parameters of the linear-quadratic equation obey the Arrhenius law, whereas only one of the two parameters of the multitarget, single-hit equation obeys the Arrhenius law. Thus the linear-quadratic function can completely define cell killing as a function of both time and temperature. In addition, the linear-quadratic model will provide a simplified approach to the study of the synergism between heat and X irradiation.

  1. Fractional killing arises from cell-to-cell variability in overcoming a caspase activity threshold

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Jérémie; Hafner, Marc; Bandara, Samuel; Sims, Joshua J; Hudson, Hannah; Chai, Diana; Sorger, Peter K

    2015-01-01

    When cells are exposed to death ligands such as TRAIL, a fraction undergoes apoptosis and a fraction survives; if surviving cells are re-exposed to TRAIL, fractional killing is once again observed. Therapeutic antibodies directed against TRAIL receptors also cause fractional killing, even at saturating concentrations, limiting their effectiveness. Fractional killing arises from cell-to-cell fluctuations in protein levels (extrinsic noise), but how this results in a clean bifurcation between life and death remains unclear. In this paper, we identify a threshold in the rate and timing of initiator caspase activation that distinguishes cells that live from those that die; by mapping this threshold, we can predict fractional killing of cells exposed to natural and synthetic agonists alone or in combination with sensitizing drugs such as bortezomib. A phenomenological model of the threshold also quantifies the contributions of two resistance genes (c-FLIP and Bcl-2), providing new insight into the control of cell fate by opposing pro-death and pro-survival proteins and suggesting new criteria for evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic TRAIL receptor agonists. PMID:25953765

  2. Fractional killing arises from cell-to-cell variability in overcoming a caspase activity threshold.

    PubMed

    Roux, Jérémie; Hafner, Marc; Bandara, Samuel; Sims, Joshua J; Hudson, Hannah; Chai, Diana; Sorger, Peter K

    2015-05-01

    When cells are exposed to death ligands such as TRAIL, a fraction undergoes apoptosis and a fraction survives; if surviving cells are re-exposed to TRAIL, fractional killing is once again observed. Therapeutic antibodies directed against TRAIL receptors also cause fractional killing, even at saturating concentrations, limiting their effectiveness. Fractional killing arises from cell-to-cell fluctuations in protein levels (extrinsic noise), but how this results in a clean bifurcation between life and death remains unclear. In this paper, we identify a threshold in the rate and timing of initiator caspase activation that distinguishes cells that live from those that die; by mapping this threshold, we can predict fractional killing of cells exposed to natural and synthetic agonists alone or in combination with sensitizing drugs such as bortezomib. A phenomenological model of the threshold also quantifies the contributions of two resistance genes (c-FLIP and Bcl-2), providing new insight into the control of cell fate by opposing pro-death and pro-survival proteins and suggesting new criteria for evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic TRAIL receptor agonists. PMID:25953765

  3. Cell killing and mutation induction on Chinese hamster cells by photoradiations

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, C.K.C.

    1982-11-01

    Applying radiation directly on cells, far-uv is more effective than black light, and black light is more effective than white light in inducing proliferative death and in inducing resistance to 6-thioguanine (6-TG), ouabain and diptheria toxin (DT). Gold light has no killing and mutagenic effects on CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cells. Use of filters showed that a small percentage of shorter wavelengths in the far-uv region is responsible for most of the killing and mutagenic effects in the unfiltered broad spectra of black and white light.

  4. Innate Immune Memory: Activation of Macrophage Killing Ability by Developmental Duties.

    PubMed

    Schneider, David; Tate, Ann Thomas

    2016-06-20

    Innate immune systems in many taxa exhibit hallmarks of memory in response to previous microbial exposure. A new study demonstrates that innate immune memory in Drosophila embryonic macrophages can also be induced by the successful engulfment of apoptotic cells, highlighting the importance of early exposure events for developing responsive immune systems. PMID:27326712

  5. Killing of Brain Tumor Cells by Hypoxia-Responsive Element Mediated Expression of BAX1

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Hangjun; Wang, Jingli; Hu, Lily; Lin, Ching-Shwun; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Deen, Dennis F

    1999-01-01

    Abstract The presence of radioresistant hypoxic cells in human brain tumors limits the overall effectiveness of conventional fractionated radiation therapy. Tumor-specific therapies that target hypoxic cells are clearly needed. We have investigated the expression of suicide genes under hypoxia by a hypoxia-responsive element (HRE), which can be activated through hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). We transfected plasmids containing multiple copies of HRE into U-87 MG and U-251 MG-NCI human brain tumor cells and tested their ability to induce LacZ gene expression under anoxia. Gene expression under anoxia versus oxia was increased about 12-fold for U-87 MG cells and about fourfold for U-251 MG-NCI cells. At intermediate hypoxic conditions, increased LacZ gene expression in U-87 MG cells was induced by the plasmid that contained three HREs, but not by the plasmid with two HREs. Lastly, when we placed a suicide gene BAX under the control of HREs, cells transfected with the BAX plasmids were preferentially killed through apoptosis under anoxia. Our studies demonstrate that HRE-regulated gene expression is active in brain tumor cells, and that the amount of increased gene expression obtained is dependent on the cell line, the HRE copy number, and the degree of hypoxia. PMID:10933058

  6. Studies on the mechanisms of mammalian cell killing by a freeze-thaw cycle: conditions that prevent cell killing using nucleated freezing

    SciTech Connect

    Shier, W.T.

    1988-04-01

    Normally a freeze-thaw cycle is a very efficient method of killing mammalian cells. However, this report describes conditions that prevent killing of cultured mammalian cells by nucleated freezing at -24 degrees C. Optimal protection from cell killing at -24 degrees C was obtained in isotonic solutions containing an organic cryoprotectant such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; 10%, v/v), a saccharide such as sucrose over a broad concentration range from 50 to 150 mM, and glucose. Glycerol was also an effective cryoprotectant but other organic solvents were ineffective, although in some cases they appeared to protect cell membranes, while not protecting other vital components. A wide variety of saccharide structures were effective at protecting cells from freeze-thaw killing, with trehalose being particularly effective. The degree of resistance to killing by a freeze-thaw cycle under these conditions varied widely among different cell lines. If toxicity of DMSO was responsible for this variability of cryoprotection, it must have been due to short-term, not longer term, toxicity of DMSO. Studies on the mechanism by which cells are protected from killing under these conditions indicated that neither vitrification of the medium nor the concentrating of components during freezing were involved. One model not eliminated by the mechanistic studies proposes that the organic solvent cryoprotectant component acts by fluidizing membranes under the thawing conditions, so that any holes produced by ice crystals propagating through membranes can reseal during the thawing process. In this model one of the mechanisms by which the saccharide component could act is by entering the cells and stabilizing vital intracellular components. Consistent with this, a freeze-thaw cycle promoted the uptake of labeled sucrose into cultured cells.

  7. IL12-mediated sensitizing of T-cell receptor-dependent and -independent tumor cell killing.

    PubMed

    Braun, Matthias; Ress, Marie L; Yoo, Young-Eun; Scholz, Claus J; Eyrich, Matthias; Schlegel, Paul G; Wölfl, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    Interleukin 12 (IL12) is a key inflammatory cytokine critically influencing Th1/Tc1-T-cell responses at the time of initial antigen encounter. Therefore, it may be exploited for cancer immunotherapy. Here, we investigated how IL12, and other inflammatory cytokines, shape effector functions of human T-cells. Using a defined culture system, we followed the gradual differentiation and function of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells from their initial activation as naïve T cells through their expansion phase as early memory cells to full differentiation as clonally expanded effector T cells. The addition of IL12 8 days after the initial priming event initiated two mechanistically separate events: First, IL12 sensitized the T-cell receptor (TCR) for antigen-specific activation, leading to an approximately 10-fold increase in peptide sensitivity and, in consequence, enhanced tumor cell killing. Secondly, IL12 enabled TCR/HLA-independent activation and cytotoxicity: this "non-specific" effect was mediated by the NK cell receptor DNAM1 (CD226) and dependent on ligand expression of the target cells. This IL12 regulated, DNAM1-mediated killing is dependent on src-kinases as well as on PTPRC (CD45) activity. Thus, besides enhancing TCR-mediated activation, we here identified for the first time a second IL12 mediated mechanism leading to activation of a receptor-dependent killing pathway via DNAM1. PMID:27622043

  8. Interactive effects of Na and K in killing by natural killer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schlichter, L.C.; MacCoubrey, I.C. )

    1989-09-01

    Contact-mediated lysis by human natural killer cells is inhibited by a number of drugs that block the predominant K channel. In this study the authors have further examined the role of the K channel and the interactions between passive K and Na transport in killing. Low external Na-inhibited killing and inhibition were not due to reduced inward current through the Na channels in the target cell. A role for the Na/H antiport is suggested since amiloride inhibited killing in a dose-dependent manner that was competitive with external Na. Depolarizing the killer cell with elevated external K did not inhibit killing. On the contrary, high K{sub 0} reduced the inhibition caused by low Na{sub 0} and by the K-channel blockers quinidine, verapamil, and retinoic acid. Hyperpolarizing the killer cell with low K{sub 0} or valinomycin inhibited killing. Hence, the primary role of the K channels during killing is not to maintain the negative membrane potential. On the contrary, depolarization may promote killing under conditions where killing is submaximal.

  9. BmKn-2 scorpion venom peptide for killing oral cancer cells by apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Tong-ngam, Pirut; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Sritanaudomchai, Hathaitip

    2015-01-01

    Scorpion venom peptides recently have attracted attention as alternative chemotherapeutic agents that may overcome the limitations of current drugs, providing specific cytotoxicity for cancer cells with an ability to bypass multidrug-resistance mechanisms, additive effects in combination therapy and safety. In the present study, BmKn-2 scorpion venom peptide and its derivatives were chosen for assessment of anticancer activities. BmKn-2 was identified as the most effective against human oral squamous cells carcinoma cell line (HSC-4) by screening assays with an IC50 value of 29 μg/ml. The BmKn-2 peptide killed HSC-4 cells through induction of apoptosis, as confirmed by phase contrast microscopy and RT-PCR techniques. Typical morphological features of apoptosis including cell shrinkage and rounding characteristics were observed in treated HSC-4 cells. The results were further confirmed by increased expression of pro-apoptotic genes such as caspase-3, -7, and -9 but decrease mRNA level of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 in BmKn-2 treated cells, as determined by RT-PCR assay. In summary, the BmKn-2 scorpion venom peptide demonstrates specific membrane binding, growth inhibition and apoptogenic activity against human oral cancer cells. PMID:25854366

  10. Cytotoxic T Cells Use Mechanical Force to Potentiate Target Cell Killing.

    PubMed

    Basu, Roshni; Whitlock, Benjamin M; Husson, Julien; Le Floc'h, Audrey; Jin, Weiyang; Oyler-Yaniv, Alon; Dotiwala, Farokh; Giannone, Gregory; Hivroz, Claire; Biais, Nicolas; Lieberman, Judy; Kam, Lance C; Huse, Morgan

    2016-03-24

    The immunological synapse formed between a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and an infected or transformed target cell is a physically active structure capable of exerting mechanical force. Here, we investigated whether synaptic forces promote the destruction of target cells. CTLs kill by secreting toxic proteases and the pore forming protein perforin into the synapse. Biophysical experiments revealed a striking correlation between the magnitude of force exertion across the synapse and the speed of perforin pore formation on the target cell, implying that force potentiates cytotoxicity by enhancing perforin activity. Consistent with this interpretation, we found that increasing target cell tension augmented pore formation by perforin and killing by CTLs. Our data also indicate that CTLs coordinate perforin release and force exertion in space and time. These results reveal an unappreciated physical dimension to lymphocyte function and demonstrate that cells use mechanical forces to control the activity of outgoing chemical signals. PMID:26924577

  11. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of heat killed Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) on various human cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Menaga; In, Lionel L A; Kumar, Ashutosh; Ahmed, Niyaz; Nagoor, Noor Hasima

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) is a non-pathogenic mycobacterium, which has been tested on several cancer types like lung and bladder where tumour regression and complete recovery was observed. In discovering the potential cytotoxic elements, a preliminary test was carried out using four different fractions consisting of live bacteria, culture supernatant, heat killed bacteria and heat killed culture supernatant of MIP against two human cancer cells A549 and CaSki by 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptosis was investigated in MCF-7 and ORL-115 cancer cells by poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and DNA fragmentation assays. Among four MIP fractions, only heat killed MIP fraction (HKB) showed significant cytotoxicity in various cancer cells with inhibitory concentration, IC50 in the range 5.6–35.0 μl/(1.0 × 106 MIP cells/ml), while cytotoxicity effects were not observed in the remaining fractions. HKB did not show cytotoxic effects on non-cancerous cells contrary to cancerous cells, suggesting its safe usage and ability to differentially recognize between these cells. Evaluation on PARP assay further suggested that cytotoxicity in cancer cells were potentially induced via caspase-mediated apoptosis. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of MIP HKB have indicated that this fraction can be a good candidate to further identify effective anti-cancer agents. PMID:26817684

  12. Adhering heat-killed human Lactobacillus acidophilus, strain LB, inhibits the process of pathogenicity of diarrhoeagenic bacteria in cultured human intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Coconnier, M H; Bernet, M F; Chauvière, G; Servin, A L

    1993-12-01

    Heat-killed L. acidophilus, strain LB, was tested for its ability to adhere in vitro onto human enterocyte-like Caco-2 and muco-secreting HT29-MTX cells in culture. The heat-killed LB bacteria exhibited a high adhesive property. A diffuse pattern of adhesion was observed to the undifferentiated cells, the apical brush border of the enterocytic cells, and to the mucus layer that covered the surface of the mucus-secreting cells. The inhibitory effect of heat-killed LB organisms against the human intestinal Caco-2 cell-adhesion and cell-invasion by a large variety of diarrhoeagenic bacteria was investigated. The following dose-dependent inhibitions were obtained: (i) against the cell-association of enterotoxigenic, diffusely-adhering and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, and Salmonella typhimurium; (ii) against the cell-invasion by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium. PMID:8188996

  13. Mitogen-activated Tasmanian devil blood mononuclear cells kill devil facial tumour disease cells.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gabriella K; Tovar, Cesar; Cooray, Anne A; Kreiss, Alexandre; Darby, Jocelyn; Murphy, James M; Corcoran, Lynn M; Bettiol, Silvana S; Lyons, A Bruce; Woods, Gregory M

    2016-08-01

    Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) is a transmissible cancer that has brought the host species, the Tasmanian devil, to the brink of extinction. The cancer cells avoid allogeneic immune recognition by downregulating cell surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I expression. This should prevent CD8(+) T cell, but not natural killer (NK) cell, cytotoxicity. The reason why NK cells, normally reactive to MHC-negative cells, are not activated to kill DFTD cells has not been determined. The immune response of wild devils to DFTD, if it occurs, is uncharacterised. To investigate this, we tested 12 wild devils with DFTD, and found suggestive evidence of low levels of antibodies against DFTD cells in one devil. Eight of these devils were also analysed for cytotoxicity, however, none showed evidence for cytotoxicity against cultured DFTD cells. To establish whether mimicking activation of antitumour responses could induce cytotoxic activity against DFTD, Tasmanian devil peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were treated with either the mitogen Concanavalin A, the Toll-like receptor agonist polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid or recombinant Tasmanian devil IL-2. All induced the PBMC cells to kill cultured DFTD cells, suggesting that activation does not occur after encounter with DFTD cells in vivo, but can be induced. The identification of agents that activate cytotoxicity against DFTD target cells is critical for developing strategies to protect against DFTD. Such agents could function as adjuvants to induce functional immune responses capable of targeting DFTD cells and tumours in vivo. PMID:27089941

  14. Interactions between neutrophils and macrophages promote macrophage killing of rat muscle cells in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hal X.; Tidball, James G.

    2003-01-01

    Current evidence indicates that the physiological functions of inflammatory cells are highly sensitive to their microenvironment, which is partially determined by the inflammatory cells and their potential targets. In the present investigation, interactions between neutrophils, macrophages and muscle cells that may influence muscle cell death are examined. Findings show that in the absence of macrophages, neutrophils kill muscle cells in vitro by superoxide-dependent mechanisms, and that low concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) protect against neutrophil-mediated killing. In the absence of neutrophils, macrophages kill muscle cells through a NO-dependent mechanism, and the presence of target muscle cells causes a three-fold increase in NO production by macrophages, with no change in the concentration of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Muscle cells that are co-cultured with both neutrophils and macrophages in proportions that are observed in injured muscle show cytotoxicity through a NO-dependent, superoxide-independent mechanism. Furthermore, the concentration of myeloid cells that is necessary for muscle killing is greatly reduced in assays that use mixed myeloid cell populations, rather than uniform populations of neutrophils or macrophages. These findings collectively show that the magnitude and mechanism of muscle cell killing by myeloid cells are modified by interactions between muscle cells and neutrophils, between muscle cells and macrophages and between macrophages and neutrophils.

  15. Trypanosoma brucei Co-opts NK Cells to Kill Splenic B2 B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, Deborah; Guirnalda, Patrick; Haynes, Carole; Bockstal, Viki; Magez, Stefan; Black, Samuel J.

    2016-01-01

    After infection with T. brucei AnTat 1.1, C57BL/6 mice lost splenic B2 B cells and lymphoid follicles, developed poor parasite-specific antibody responses, lost weight, became anemic and died with fulminating parasitemia within 35 days. In contrast, infected C57BL/6 mice lacking the cytotoxic granule pore-forming protein perforin (Prf1-/-) retained splenic B2 B cells and lymphoid follicles, developed high-titer antibody responses against many trypanosome polypeptides, rapidly suppressed parasitemia and did not develop anemia or lose weight for at least 60 days. Several lines of evidence show that T. brucei infection-induced splenic B cell depletion results from natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity: i) B2 B cells were depleted from the spleens of infected intact, T cell deficient (TCR-/-) and FcγRIIIa deficient (CD16-/-) C57BL/6 mice excluding a requirement for T cells, NKT cell, or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity; ii) administration of NK1.1 specific IgG2a (mAb PK136) but not irrelevant IgG2a (myeloma M9144) prevented infection-induced B cell depletion consistent with a requirement for NK cells; iii) splenic NK cells but not T cells or NKT cells degranulated in infected C57BL/6 mice co-incident with B cell depletion evidenced by increased surface expression of CD107a; iv) purified NK cells from naïve C57BL/6 mice killed purified splenic B cells from T. brucei infected but not uninfected mice in vitro indicating acquisition of an NK cell activating phenotype by the post-infection B cells; v) adoptively transferred C57BL/6 NK cells prevented infection-induced B cell population growth in infected Prf1-/- mice consistent with in vivo B cell killing; vi) degranulated NK cells in infected mice had altered gene and differentiation antigen expression and lost cytotoxic activity consistent with functional exhaustion, but increased in number as infection progressed indicating continued generation. We conclude that NK cells in T. brucei infected mice

  16. T cells kill bacteria captured by transinfection from dendritic cells and confer protection in mice.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Adalia, Aránzazu; Ramirez-Santiago, Guillermo; Calabia-Linares, Carmen; Torres-Torresano, Mónica; Feo, Lidia; Galán-Díez, Marta; Fernández-Ruiz, Elena; Pereiro, Eva; Guttmann, Peter; Chiappi, Michele; Schneider, Gerd; Carrascosa, José López; Chichón, Francisco Javier; Martínez Del Hoyo, Gloria; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Veiga, Esteban

    2014-05-14

    Dendritic cells (DCs) phagocytose, process, and present bacterial antigens to T lymphocytes to trigger adaptive immunity. In vivo, bacteria can also be found inside T lymphocytes. However, T cells are refractory to direct bacterial infection, leaving the mechanisms by which bacteria invade T cells unclear. We show that T cells take up bacteria from infected DCs by the process of transinfection, which requires direct contact between the two cells and is enhanced by antigen recognition. Prior to transfer, bacteria localize to the immunological synapse, an intimate DC/T cell contact structure that activates T cells. Strikingly, T cells efficiently eliminate the transinfecting bacteria within the first hours after infection. Transinfected T cells produced high levels of proinflammatory cytokines and were able to protect mice from bacterial challenge following adoptive transfer. Thus, T lymphocytes can capture and kill bacteria in a manner reminiscent of innate immunity. PMID:24832455

  17. Curcumin and cancer cells: how many ways can curry kill tumor cells selectively?

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Jayaraj; Prasad, Sahdeo; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2009-09-01

    Cancer is a hyperproliferative disorder that is usually treated by chemotherapeutic agents that are toxic not only to tumor cells but also to normal cells, so these agents produce major side effects. In addition, these agents are highly expensive and thus not affordable for most. Moreover, such agents cannot be used for cancer prevention. Traditional medicines are generally free of the deleterious side effects and usually inexpensive. Curcumin, a component of turmeric (Curcuma longa), is one such agent that is safe, affordable, and efficacious. How curcumin kills tumor cells is the focus of this review. We show that curcumin modulates growth of tumor cells through regulation of multiple cell signaling pathways including cell proliferation pathway (cyclin D1, c-myc), cell survival pathway (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, cFLIP, XIAP, c-IAP1), caspase activation pathway (caspase-8, 3, 9), tumor suppressor pathway (p53, p21) death receptor pathway (DR4, DR5), mitochondrial pathways, and protein kinase pathway (JNK, Akt, and AMPK). How curcumin selectively kills tumor cells, and not normal cells, is also described in detail. PMID:19590964

  18. Killing Hypoxic Cell Populations in a 3D Tumor Model with EtNBS-PDT

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Conor L.; Abu-Yousif, Adnan O.; Park, Yong Jin; Klein, Oliver J.; Celli, Jonathan P.; Rizvi, Imran; Zheng, Xiang; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2011-01-01

    An outstanding problem in cancer therapy is the battle against treatment-resistant disease. This is especially true for ovarian cancer, where the majority of patients eventually succumb to treatment-resistant metastatic carcinomatosis. Limited perfusion and diffusion, acidosis, and hypoxia play major roles in the development of resistance to the majority of front-line therapeutic regimens. To overcome these limitations and eliminate otherwise spared cancer cells, we utilized the cationic photosensitizer EtNBS to treat hypoxic regions deep inside in vitro 3D models of metastatic ovarian cancer. Unlike standard regimens that fail to penetrate beyond ∼150 µm, EtNBS was found to not only penetrate throughout the entirety of large (>200 µm) avascular nodules, but also concentrate into the nodules' acidic and hypoxic cores. Photodynamic therapy with EtNBS was observed to be highly effective against these hypoxic regions even at low therapeutic doses, and was capable of destroying both normoxic and hypoxic regions at higher treatment levels. Imaging studies utilizing multiphoton and confocal microscopies, as well as time-lapse optical coherence tomography (TL-OCT), revealed an inside-out pattern of cell death, with apoptosis being the primary mechanism of cell killing. Critically, EtNBS-based photodynamic therapy was found to be effective against the model tumor nodules even under severe hypoxia. The inherent ability of EtNBS photodynamic therapy to impart cytotoxicity across a wide range of tumoral oxygenation levels indicates its potential to eliminate treatment-resistant cell populations. PMID:21876751

  19. Vitamin D and the Human Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 Enhance Group A Streptococcus Resistance to Killing by Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Love, John F.; Tran-Winkler, Hien J.; Wessels, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The CsrRS two-component regulatory system of group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) responds to subinhibitory concentrations of the human antimicrobial peptide LL-37. LL-37 signaling through CsrRS results in upregulation of genes that direct synthesis of virulence factors, including the hyaluronic acid capsule and streptolysin O (SLO). Here, we demonstrate that a consequence of this response is augmented GAS resistance to killing by human oropharyngeal keratinocytes, neutrophils, and macrophages. LL-37-induced upregulation of SLO and hyaluronic acid capsule significantly reduced internalization of GAS by keratinocytes and phagocytic killing by neutrophils and macrophages. Because vitamin D induces LL-37 production by macrophages, we tested its effect on macrophage killing of GAS. In contrast to the reported enhancement of macrophage function in relation to other pathogens, treatment of macrophages with 1α,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 paradoxically reduced the ability of macrophages to control GAS infection. These observations demonstrate that LL-37 signals through CsrRS to induce a virulence phenotype in GAS characterized by heightened resistance to ingestion and killing by both epithelial cells and phagocytes. By inducing LL-37 production in macrophages, vitamin D may contribute to this paradoxical exacerbation of GAS infection. PMID:23093388

  20. Galactosylated poly(ethyleneglycol)-lithocholic Acid selectively kills hepatoma cells, while sparing normal liver cells.

    PubMed

    Gankhuyag, Nomundelger; Singh, Bijay; Maharjan, Sushila; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Cho, Chong-Su; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2015-06-01

    Delivering drugs selectively to cancer cells but not to nearby normal cells is a major obstacle in drug therapy. In this study, lithocholic acid (LCA), a potent anti-cancer drug, is converted to two forms of poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEG) conjugates, viz., PEG-LCA (PL) and lactobionic acid (LBA) conjugated PEG-LCA (LPL). The latter form contains a galactose ligand in LBA to target the hepatocytes. Both forms are self-assembled to form nanoparticle formulation, and they have high potency than LCA to kill HepG2 cancer cells, sparing normal LO2 cells. Besides, LPL has high specificity to mouse liver cells in vivo. Western blot results confirm that the cell death is occurred through apoptosis induced by LPL nanoparticles. In conclusion, the induction of apoptosis and cell death is much more efficient with LPL nanoparticles than LCA molecules. PMID:25657071

  1. LET and ion-species dependence for cell killing and mutation induction in normal human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Tsuruoka, Chizuru; Suzuki, Masao; Fujitaka, Kazunobu

    2003-10-01

    We have been studying LET and ion species dependence of RBE values in cell killing and mutation induction. Normal human skin fibroblasts were irradiated with heavy-ion beams such as carbon (290 Mev/u and 135 Mev/u), neon (230 Mev/u and 400 Mev/u), silicon (490 Mev/u) and iron (500 Mev/u) ion beams, generated by Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Cell killing effect was detected as reproductive cell death using a colony formation assay. Mutation induction in hprt locus was detected to measure 6-thioguanine resistant colonies. The RBE-LET curves of cell killing and mutation induction were different each ion beam. So, we plotted RBE for cell killing and mutation induction as function of Z*2/beta2 instead of LET. RBE-Z*2/beta2 curves of cell killing indicated that the discrepancy of RBE-LET curves was reconciled each ion species. But RBE-Z*2/beta2 curves of mutation induction didn't corresponded between carbon- and silicon-ion beams. These results suggested that different biological endpoints may be suitable for different physical parameter, which represent the track structure of energy deposition of ion beams. PMID:14676365

  2. Engineering Salmonella as intracellular factory for effective killing of tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Eva María; Mesa-Pereira, Beatriz; Medina, Carlos; Flores, Amando; Santero, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella have many desirable properties as antitumour-agent due to its ability to proliferate inside tumours and induce tumour regression. Additionally, this bacterium can be genetically engineered to deliver therapeutic proteins intratumourally. The main limitation of this approach is the efficient release of therapeutic molecules from intratumoural bacteria. Here we have developed an inducible autolysis system based in the lysis operon of the lambda phage that, in response to anhydrotetracycline, lysates Salmonella thus releasing its content. The system was combined with a salicylate cascade system that allows efficient production of therapeutic molecules in response to aspirin and with a sifA mutation that liberates bacteria from the vacuoles to a cytosolic location. The combination of these three elements makes this strain a putative powerful instrument in cancer treatment. We have used this engineered strain for the intracellular production and delivery of Cp53 peptide. The engineered strain is able to sequentially produce and release the cytotoxic peptide while proliferating inside tumour cells, thus inducing host cell death. Our results show that temporal separation of protein production from protein release is essential to efficiently kill tumour cells. The combined system is a further step in the engineering of more efficient bacteria for cancer therapy. PMID:27464652

  3. Engineering Salmonella as intracellular factory for effective killing of tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Eva María; Mesa-Pereira, Beatriz; Medina, Carlos; Flores, Amando; Santero, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella have many desirable properties as antitumour-agent due to its ability to proliferate inside tumours and induce tumour regression. Additionally, this bacterium can be genetically engineered to deliver therapeutic proteins intratumourally. The main limitation of this approach is the efficient release of therapeutic molecules from intratumoural bacteria. Here we have developed an inducible autolysis system based in the lysis operon of the lambda phage that, in response to anhydrotetracycline, lysates Salmonella thus releasing its content. The system was combined with a salicylate cascade system that allows efficient production of therapeutic molecules in response to aspirin and with a sifA mutation that liberates bacteria from the vacuoles to a cytosolic location. The combination of these three elements makes this strain a putative powerful instrument in cancer treatment. We have used this engineered strain for the intracellular production and delivery of Cp53 peptide. The engineered strain is able to sequentially produce and release the cytotoxic peptide while proliferating inside tumour cells, thus inducing host cell death. Our results show that temporal separation of protein production from protein release is essential to efficiently kill tumour cells. The combined system is a further step in the engineering of more efficient bacteria for cancer therapy. PMID:27464652

  4. Quantum dots modified with quaternized poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) for selective recognition and killing of bacteria over mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Tu, Qin; Ma, Chao; Tian, Chang; Yuan, Maosen; Han, Xiang; Wang, Dong-En; Cao, Chenyu; Wang, Jinyi

    2016-05-23

    Copper-free click chemistry has been used to graft quaternized poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (QPA) modified with azide to the quantum dots (QDs) derived with dibenzocyclooctynes (DBCO). The success of the quaternary ammonium polymer-modified QDs was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis), fluorescence spectroscopy, zeta (ζ) potential, size distribution, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The QPA-modified QDs exhibited properties of selective recognition and killing of bacteria. The novelty of this study lies in fact that the synthesis method of the antimicrobial QPA-modified QDs is simple. Moreover, from another standpoint, QPA-modified QDs simultaneously possess abilities of selective recognition and killing of bacteria over mammalian cells, which is very different from the currently designed multifunctional antimicrobial systems composed of complicated systematic compositions. PMID:27111264

  5. Irradiation Can Selectively Kill Tumor Cells while Preserving Erythrocyte Viability in a Co-Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yun-Qing; Tang, Li-Hui; Wang, Yin; Wang, Lie-Ju; Zhang, Feng-Jiang; Yan, Min

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of how to safely apply intraoperative blood salvage (IBS) in cancer surgery has not yet been obtained. Here, we investigated the optimal dose of 137Cs gamma-ray irradiation for killing human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2), gastrocarcinoma (SGC7901), and colonic carcinoma (SW620) tumor cells while preserving co-cultured erythrocytes obtained from 14 healthy adult volunteers. HepG2, SGC7901, or SW620 cells were mixed into the aliquots of erythrocytes. After the mixed cells were treated with 137Cs gamma-ray irradiation (30, 50, and 100 Gy), tumor cells and erythrocytes were separated by density gradient centrifugation in Percoll with a density of 1.063 g/ml. The viability, clonogenicity, DNA synthesis, tumorigenicity, and apoptosis of the tumor cells were determined by MTT assay, plate colony formation, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation, subcutaneous xenograft implantation into immunocompromised mice, and annexin V/7-AAD staining, respectively. The ATP concentration, 2,3-DPG level, free Hb concentration, osmotic fragility, membrane phosphatidylserine externalization, blood gas variables, reactive oxygen species levels, and superoxide dismutase levels in erythrocytes were analyzed. We found that 137Cs gamma-ray irradiation at 50 Gy effectively inhibited the viability, proliferation, and tumorigenicity of HepG2, SGC7901, and SW620 cells without markedly damaging the oxygen-carrying ability or membrane integrity or increasing the oxidative stress of erythrocytes in vitro. These results demonstrated that 50 Gy irradiation in a standard 137Cs blood irradiator might be a safe and effective method of inactivating HepG2, SGC7901, and SW620 cells mixed with erythrocytes, which might help to safely allow IBS in cancer surgery. PMID:26018651

  6. Preferential killing of glucose-depleted HeLa cells by menadione and hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Kim, S H; Dutta, P; Pinto, J

    1992-01-01

    Energy deprivation of cancer cells increases sensitivity to killing by hyperthermia. Recent cell culture studies suggest that certain naphthoquinones, especially menadione (vitamin K3), have anti-tumour activity by interfering with the energy metabolism of cells, resulting in the inhibition of aerobic glycolysis. We therefore studied the cytotoxic effects of menadione in HeLa cells in combination with hyperthermia. The cell culture data show that the cytotoxicity is markedly increased in cells deprived of glucose in the medium at 37 degrees C after exposure to menadione. When cells were exposed to menadione (20-40 microM) and hyperthermia (41-42 degrees C), there was a dramatic potentiation of heat-induced cytotoxicity in cells deprived of glucose in the medium. These data suggest that glucose-deficient cancer cells could be selectively killed by the combined treatment of menadione and mild hyperthermia, both of which can be readily achievable in humans. PMID:1545160

  7. Effective killing of Gleevec-resistant CML cells with T315I mutation by a natural compound PEITC through redox-mediated mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, H; Trachootham, D; Lu, W; Carew, J; Giles, FJ; Keating, MJ; Arlinghaus, RB; Huang, P

    2008-01-01

    Mutation of Bcr-Abl is an important mechanism by which chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells become resistant to Gleevec. The T315I mutation is clinically significant since CML cells harboring this mutation are insensitive to Gleevec and other Bcr-Abl-targeted drugs. Identification of new agents capable of effectively killing CML cells with T315I mutation would have important therapeutic implications in Gleevec-resistant CML. Here, we showed that β-phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a natural compound found in vegetables, is effective in killing CML cells expressing T315I BCR-ABL. Treatment of leukemia cell lines harboring wild-type or mutant Bcr-Abl with 10 μm PEITC resulted in an elevated ROS stress and a redox-mediated degradation of the BCR-ABL protein, leading to massive death of the leukemia cells. Antioxidant NAC attenuated the PEITC-induced oxidative stress in CML cells and prevented the degradation of BCR-ABL, caspase-3 activation and cell death. We further showed that the ROS-induced degradation of BCR-ABL was mediated partially by caspase-3 and the proteasome pathway. The ability of PEITC to effectively kill T315I-positive CML cells was further confirmed using primary leukemia cells isolated from CML patients. Our results suggest that PEITC is a promising compound capable of killing Gleevec-resistant CML cells through a ROS-mediated mechanism and warrants further investigations. PMID:18385754

  8. A Drosera-bioinspired hydrogel for catching and killing cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Shihui; Chen, Niancao; Gaddes, Erin R; Zhang, Xiaolong; Dong, Cheng; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    A variety of bioinspired materials have been successfully synthesized to mimic the sophisticated structures or functions of biological systems. However, it is still challenging to develop materials with multiple functions that can be performed synergistically or sequentially. The purpose of this work was to demonstrate a novel bioinspired hydrogel that can interact with cancer cells, functionally similar to Drosera in catching and killing prey. This hydrogel had two layers with the top one functionalized with oligonucleotide aptamers and the bottom one functionalized with double-stranded DNA. The results show that the top hydrogel layer was able to catch target cells with high efficiency and specificity, and that the bottom hydrogel layer could sequester doxorubicin (Dox) for sustained drug release. Importantly, the released Dox could kill 90% of the cells after 1-h residence of the cells on the hydrogel. After the cell release, this bifunctional hydrogel could be regenerated for continuous cell catching and killing. Therefore, the data presented in this study has successfully demonstrated the potential of developing a material system with the functions of attracting, catching and killing diseased cells (e.g., circulating tumor cells) or even invading microorganisms (e.g., bacteria). PMID:26396063

  9. Metabolic events mediating early killing of host cells infected by Shigella flexneri.

    PubMed

    Sansonetti, P J; Mounier, J

    1987-07-01

    J774, a continuous macrophage cell-line, was infected by M90T, an invasive isolate of Shigella flexneri serotype 5 and BS176, its non invasive derivative--which does not harbor the 220 kbase virulence plasmid pWR100. Killing of host cells by intracellular M90T, commenced one hour after infection and was completed by 4 hours. Intracellular BS176 did not kill cells during the same period. Cell protein biosynthesis was totally inhibited by both strains within 2 hours of infection thus indicating that shiga-like toxin 1 (SLT1) could not account for early killing. On the other hand a sharp decrease in intracellular ATP was observed after 1 hour in cells infected with M90T. No significant increase in ATPase activity could be detected. A sharp increase in pyruvate production starting immediately after infection indicated impairement in mitochondrial respiration, which accounts for most ATP produced intracellularly. In addition, fermentation appeared to be totally blocked thus leaving no chance of the infected cells regenerating NAD. Concurrent increase in cAMP concentration within the first hour of infection may contribute to the rapid and efficient cell killing. Cells infected by BS176 always showed an intermediate phenotype (i.e. ATP depletion, pyruvate increase, lactate decrease). Early lysis of the phagocytic vacuole by M90T may account for this difference by allowing toxic products of the bacteria to diffuse more efficiently within the cytosol. PMID:2848171

  10. A Drosera-bioinspired hydrogel for catching and killing cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shihui; Chen, Niancao; Gaddes, Erin R.; Zhang, Xiaolong; Dong, Cheng; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    A variety of bioinspired materials have been successfully synthesized to mimic the sophisticated structures or functions of biological systems. However, it is still challenging to develop materials with multiple functions that can be performed synergistically or sequentially. The purpose of this work was to demonstrate a novel bioinspired hydrogel that can interact with cancer cells, functionally similar to Drosera in catching and killing prey. This hydrogel had two layers with the top one functionalized with oligonucleotide aptamers and the bottom one functionalized with double-stranded DNA. The results show that the top hydrogel layer was able to catch target cells with high efficiency and specificity, and that the bottom hydrogel layer could sequester doxorubicin (Dox) for sustained drug release. Importantly, the released Dox could kill 90% of the cells after 1-h residence of the cells on the hydrogel. After the cell release, this bifunctional hydrogel could be regenerated for continuous cell catching and killing. Therefore, the data presented in this study has successfully demonstrated the potential of developing a material system with the functions of attracting, catching and killing diseased cells (e.g., circulating tumor cells) or even invading microorganisms (e.g., bacteria). PMID:26396063

  11. MAIT cells are licensed through granzyme exchange to kill bacterially sensitized targets

    PubMed Central

    Kurioka, A; Ussher, J E; Cosgrove, C; Clough, C; Fergusson, J R; Smith, K; Kang, Y-H; Walker, L J; Hansen, T H; Willberg, C B; Klenerman, P

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are an innate-like T-cell population restricted by the non-polymorphic, major histocompatibility complex class I-related protein 1, MR1. MAIT cells are activated by a broad range of bacteria through detection of riboflavin metabolites bound by MR1, but their direct cytolytic capacity upon recognition of cognate target cells remains unclear. We show that resting human MAIT cells are uniquely characterized by a lack of granzyme (Gr) B and low perforin expression, key granule proteins required for efficient cytotoxic activity, but high levels of expression of GrA and GrK. Bacterial activation of MAIT cells rapidly induced GrB and perforin, licensing these cells to kill their cognate target cells. Using a novel flow cytometry-based killing assay, we show that licensed MAIT cells, but not ex vivo MAIT cells from the same donors, can efficiently kill Escherichia coli-exposed B-cell lines in an MR1- and degranulation-dependent manner. Finally, we show that MAIT cells are highly proliferative in response to antigenic and cytokine stimulation, maintaining high expression of GrB, perforin, and GrA, but reduced expression of GrK following antigenic proliferation. The tightly regulated cytolytic capacity of MAIT cells may have an important role in the control of intracellular bacterial infections, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:25269706

  12. Depolarization Controls TRAIL-Sensitization and Tumor-Selective Killing of Cancer Cells: Crosstalk with ROS

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki-Karasaki, Yoshihiro; Suzuki-Karasaki, Miki; Uchida, Mayumi; Ochiai, Toyoko

    2014-01-01

    Conventional genotoxic anti-cancer drugs target the proliferative advantage of tumor cells over normal cells. This kind of approach lacks the selectivity of treatment to cancer cells, because most of the targeted pathways are essential for the survival of normal cells. As a result, traditional cancer treatments are often limited by undesirable damage to normal cells (side-effects). Ideal anti-cancer drugs are expected to be highly effective against malignant tumor cells with minimal cytotoxicity toward normal cells. Such selective killing can be achieved by targeting pathways essential for the survival of cancer cells, but not normal cells. As cancer cells are characterized by their resistance to apoptosis, selective apoptosis induction is a promising approach for selective killing of cancer cells. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising tumor-selective anti-cancer drug. However, the congenital and acquired resistance of some cancer cell types, including malignant melanoma cells, currently impedes effective TRAIL therapy, and an innovative approach that can override TRAIL resistance is urgently required. Apoptosis is characterized by cell shrinkage caused by disruption of the maintenance of the normal physiological concentrations of K+ and Na+ and intracellular ion homeostasis. The disrupted ion homeostasis leads to depolarization and apoptosis. Recent evidence suggests that depolarization is an early and prerequisite event during TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Moreover, diverse natural products and synthetic chemicals capable of depolarizing the cell membrane exhibit tumor-selective killing and TRAIL-sensitizing effects. Here, we discuss the role of depolarization in selective killing of cancer cells in connection with the emerging concept that oxidative stress is a critical mediator of mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum dysfunctions and serves as a tumor-selective target in cancer treatment. PMID:24910845

  13. In Vivo Killing Capacity of Cytotoxic T Cells Is Limited and Involves Dynamic Interactions and T Cell Cooperativity.

    PubMed

    Halle, Stephan; Keyser, Kirsten Anja; Stahl, Felix Rolf; Busche, Andreas; Marquardt, Anja; Zheng, Xiang; Galla, Melanie; Heissmeyer, Vigo; Heller, Katrin; Boelter, Jasmin; Wagner, Karen; Bischoff, Yvonne; Martens, Rieke; Braun, Asolina; Werth, Kathrin; Uvarovskii, Alexey; Kempf, Harald; Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Arens, Ramon; Kremer, Melanie; Sutter, Gerd; Messerle, Martin; Förster, Reinhold

    2016-02-16

    According to in vitro assays, T cells are thought to kill rapidly and efficiently, but the efficacy and dynamics of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated killing of virus-infected cells in vivo remains elusive. We used two-photon microscopy to quantify CTL-mediated killing in mice infected with herpesviruses or poxviruses. On average, one CTL killed 2-16 virus-infected cells per day as determined by real-time imaging and by mathematical modeling. In contrast, upon virus-induced MHC class I downmodulation, CTLs failed to destroy their targets. During killing, CTLs remained migratory and formed motile kinapses rather than static synapses with targets. Viruses encoding the calcium sensor GCaMP6s revealed strong heterogeneity in individual CTL functional capacity. Furthermore, the probability of death of infected cells increased for those contacted by more than two CTLs, indicative of CTL cooperation. Thus, direct visualization of CTLs during killing of virus-infected cells reveals crucial parameters of CD8(+) T cell immunity. PMID:26872694

  14. In Vivo Killing Capacity of Cytotoxic T Cells Is Limited and Involves Dynamic Interactions and T Cell Cooperativity

    PubMed Central

    Halle, Stephan; Keyser, Kirsten Anja; Stahl, Felix Rolf; Busche, Andreas; Marquardt, Anja; Zheng, Xiang; Galla, Melanie; Heissmeyer, Vigo; Heller, Katrin; Boelter, Jasmin; Wagner, Karen; Bischoff, Yvonne; Martens, Rieke; Braun, Asolina; Werth, Kathrin; Uvarovskii, Alexey; Kempf, Harald; Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Arens, Ramon; Kremer, Melanie; Sutter, Gerd; Messerle, Martin; Förster, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    Summary According to in vitro assays, T cells are thought to kill rapidly and efficiently, but the efficacy and dynamics of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated killing of virus-infected cells in vivo remains elusive. We used two-photon microscopy to quantify CTL-mediated killing in mice infected with herpesviruses or poxviruses. On average, one CTL killed 2–16 virus-infected cells per day as determined by real-time imaging and by mathematical modeling. In contrast, upon virus-induced MHC class I downmodulation, CTLs failed to destroy their targets. During killing, CTLs remained migratory and formed motile kinapses rather than static synapses with targets. Viruses encoding the calcium sensor GCaMP6s revealed strong heterogeneity in individual CTL functional capacity. Furthermore, the probability of death of infected cells increased for those contacted by more than two CTLs, indicative of CTL cooperation. Thus, direct visualization of CTLs during killing of virus-infected cells reveals crucial parameters of CD8+ T cell immunity. PMID:26872694

  15. Cytomegalovirus-Infected Cells Resist T Cell Mediated Killing in an HLA-Recognition Independent Manner.

    PubMed

    Proff, Julia; Walterskirchen, Christian; Brey, Charlotte; Geyeregger, Rene; Full, Florian; Ensser, Armin; Lehner, Manfred; Holter, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore the potential of HLA-independent T cell therapy for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections, we developed a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) directed against the HCMV encoded glycoprotein B (gB), which is expressed at high levels on the surface of infected cells. T cells engineered with this anti-gB CAR recognized HCMV-infected cells and released cytokines and cytotoxic granules. Unexpectedly, and in contrast to analogous approaches for HIV, Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C virus, we found that HCMV-infected cells were resistant to killing by the CAR-modified T cells. In order to elucidate whether this phenomenon was restricted to the use of CARs, we extended our experiments to T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated recognition of infected cells. To this end we infected fibroblasts with HCMV-strains deficient in viral inhibitors of antigenic peptide presentation and targeted these HLA-class I expressing peptide-loaded infected cells with peptide-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs). Despite strong degranulation and cytokine production by the T cells, we again found significant inhibition of lysis of HCMV-infected cells. Impairment of cell lysis became detectable 1 day after HCMV infection and gradually increased during the following 3 days. We thus postulate that viral anti-apoptotic factors, known to inhibit suicide of infected host cells, have evolved additional functions to directly abrogate T cell cytotoxicity. In line with this hypothesis, CAR-T cell cytotoxicity was strongly inhibited in non-infected fibroblasts by expression of the HCMV-protein UL37x1, and even more so by additional expression of UL36. Our data extend the current knowledge on Betaherpesviral evasion from T cell immunity and show for the first time that, beyond impaired antigen presentation, infected cells are efficiently protected by direct blockade of cytotoxic effector functions through viral proteins. PMID:27375569

  16. Cytomegalovirus-Infected Cells Resist T Cell Mediated Killing in an HLA-Recognition Independent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Proff, Julia; Walterskirchen, Christian; Brey, Charlotte; Geyeregger, Rene; Full, Florian; Ensser, Armin; Lehner, Manfred; Holter, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore the potential of HLA-independent T cell therapy for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections, we developed a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) directed against the HCMV encoded glycoprotein B (gB), which is expressed at high levels on the surface of infected cells. T cells engineered with this anti-gB CAR recognized HCMV-infected cells and released cytokines and cytotoxic granules. Unexpectedly, and in contrast to analogous approaches for HIV, Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C virus, we found that HCMV-infected cells were resistant to killing by the CAR-modified T cells. In order to elucidate whether this phenomenon was restricted to the use of CARs, we extended our experiments to T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated recognition of infected cells. To this end we infected fibroblasts with HCMV-strains deficient in viral inhibitors of antigenic peptide presentation and targeted these HLA-class I expressing peptide-loaded infected cells with peptide-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs). Despite strong degranulation and cytokine production by the T cells, we again found significant inhibition of lysis of HCMV-infected cells. Impairment of cell lysis became detectable 1 day after HCMV infection and gradually increased during the following 3 days. We thus postulate that viral anti-apoptotic factors, known to inhibit suicide of infected host cells, have evolved additional functions to directly abrogate T cell cytotoxicity. In line with this hypothesis, CAR-T cell cytotoxicity was strongly inhibited in non-infected fibroblasts by expression of the HCMV-protein UL37x1, and even more so by additional expression of UL36. Our data extend the current knowledge on Betaherpesviral evasion from T cell immunity and show for the first time that, beyond impaired antigen presentation, infected cells are efficiently protected by direct blockade of cytotoxic effector functions through viral proteins. PMID:27375569

  17. Doxorubicin loaded 17β-estradiol based SWNT dispersions for target specific killing of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Moumita; Das, Prasanta Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The present work reports the synthesis of a 17β-estradiol based amphiphiles comprising of polyethylene glycol (PEG) moiety linked through succinic acid that non-covalently dispersed (76%) the single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in water. The superior exfoliation of carbon nanotubes was characterized by microscopic and spectroscopic studies. Significant stability of these SWNT dispersions was observed in the presence of protein in cell culture media and the nanohybrids were highly biocompatible toward mammalian cells. Anticancer drug doxorubicin loaded on these nanohybrids was selectively delivered within estrogen receptor rich cancer cells, MCF7 (breast cancer cell) and A549 (lung cancer cell). Microscopic studies showed the localization of doxorubicin within the cancer cell nucleus whereas no such localization was observed in ER negative cells. Both these ER positive cancer cells were killed by ∼3 fold higher efficiency than that of ER negative MDA-MB-231 (advanced breast cancer cell) and HeLa cells that are deprived of estrogen receptors. Thus, judiciously designed estradiol based nanohybrids proved to be excellent tool for SWNT dispersion and also for selectively killing of ER positive cancer cells. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time non-covalently modified SWNTs by estradiol based amphiphilic dispersing agent have been used for selective killing of ER positive cancer cells by doxorubicin loaded on dispersed SWNTs. It holds immense promise to be exploited as a cancer therapeutic agent. PMID:26970825

  18. Too Much Protein May Kill Brain Cells As Parkinson's Progresses

    MedlinePlus

    ... NINDS (NS038377, NS072187), the JPB Foundation, the Maryland Stem Cell Research Fund (2007-MSCRFI-0420-00, 2009-MSCRFII-0125- ... 2013-MSCRFII-0105-00), and the New York Stem Cell Foundation. For more information ... leading funder of research on the brain and nervous system. The mission ...

  19. Killing of human tumor cells in culture with adriamycin conjugates of human transferrin

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, C.J.; Faulk, W.P.

    1984-07-01

    Receptors for human transferrin (Trf) in high density are found on reticulocytes and syncytiotrophoblast, but most unstimulated, normal adult cells do not bind Trf. In contrast, leukemia and breast adenocarcinoma cells have been shown to manifest Trf receptors, raising the possibility that these receptors might be employed to bind cytotoxic Trf conjugates. Trf was conjugated with adriamycin (Adr) and it was shown that the conjugates are bound by Trf receptors on plasma membranes of Daudi and HL-60 cells, following which Adr is identified in the nuclei of these cells. The biological effect of Adr is quantitated by the inhibition of tritiated thymidine uptake, and subsequent cell death is measured by trypan blue exclusion. The killing correlates directly with both the time of exposure and the amount of conjugate employed. These results suggest that such cytotoxic Trf conjugates hold promise for selective in vivo killing of some malignant cells.

  20. Residual chromatin breaks as biodosimetry for cell killing by carbon ions.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, M; Kase, Y; Nakano, T; Kanai, T; Ando, K

    1998-01-01

    We have studied the relationship between cell killing and the induction of residual chromatin breaks on various human cell lines and primary cultured cells obtained by biopsy from patients irradiated with either X-rays or heavy-ion beams to identify potential bio-marker of radiosensitivity for radiation-induced cell killing. The carbon-ion beams were accelerated with the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). Six primary cultures obtained by biopsy from 6 patients with carcinoma of the cervix were irradiated with two different mono-LET beams (LET = 13 keV/micrometer, 76 keV/micrometer) and 200kV X rays. Residual chromatin breaks were measured by counting the number of non-rejoining chromatin fragments detected by the premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique after a 24 hour post-irradiation incubation period. The induction rate of residual chromatin breaks per cell per Gy was the highest for 76 keV/micrometer beams on all of the cells. Our results indicated that cell which was more sensitive to the cell killing was similarly more susceptible to induction of residual chromatin breaks. Furthermore there is a good correlation between these two end points in various cell lines and primary cultured cells. This suggests that the detection of residual chromatin breaks by the PCC technique may be useful as a predictive assay of tumor response to cancer radiotherapy. PMID:11542410

  1. Maternal decidual macrophages inhibit NK cell killing of invasive cytotrophoblasts during human pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Co, Elizabeth C; Gormley, Matthew; Kapidzic, Mirhan; Rosen, David B; Scott, Marvin A; Stolp, Haley A R; McMaster, Michael; Lanier, Lewis L; Bárcena, Alicia; Fisher, Susan J

    2013-06-01

    Human pregnancy is an immunological paradox. Semiallogeneic (fetal) placental cells (extravillous cytotrophoblasts [CTBs]) invade the uterine lining (decidua), which contains a unique decidual natural killer (dNK) cell population, identified by the cell surface phenotype CD56(bright) CD16(-) CD3(-) and CD14(+) CD206(+) macrophages (dMac). Previous reports suggested that human dNK cells are not a threat to the fetoplacental unit because they are anergic. In contrast, here we showed that purified and exogenously stimulated dNK cells are capable killers of cellular targets, including semiallogeneic CTBs. However, dMacs in the decidual leukocyte (DL) population restrained dNK killing through a transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1)-dependent mechanism. Our findings support a new model whereby dNK cells, capable of killing CTBs, are prevented from doing so by neighboring macrophages, thus protecting the fetal cells from NK cell attack. We speculate that this mechanism would inhibit dNK cell-mediated killing, even under conditions where high levels of cytokines may stimulate dNK cells, which could pose a threat to the developing placenta. PMID:23553431

  2. Residual chromatin breaks as biodosimetry for cell killing by carbon ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, M.; Kase, Y.; Nakano, T.; Kanai, T.; Ando, K.

    1998-11-01

    We have studied the relationship between cell killing and the induction of residual chromatin breaks on various human cell lines and primary cultured cells obtained by biopsy from patients irradiated with either X-rays or heavy-ion beams to identify potential bio-marker of radiosensitivity for radiation-induced cell killing. The carbon-ion beams were accelerated with the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). Six primary cultures obtained by biopsy from 6 patients with carcinoma of the cervix were irradiated with two different mono-LET beams (LET = 13 keV/μm, 76 keV/μm) and 200kV X rays. Residual chromatin breaks were measured by counting the number of non-rejoining chromatin fragments detected by the premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique after a 24 hour post-irradiation incubation period. The induction rate of residual chromatin breaks per cell per Gy was the highest for 76 keV/μm beams on all of the cells. Our results indicated that cell which was more sensitive to the cell killing was similarly more susceptible to induction of residual chromatin breaks. Furthermore there is a good correlation between these two end points in various cell lines and primary cultured cells. This suggests that the detection of residual chromatin breaks by the PCC technique may be useful as a predictive assay of tumor response to cancer radiotherapy.

  3. Identification of compounds selectively killing multidrug resistant cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Türk, Dóra; Hall, Matthew D.; Chu, Benjamin F.; Ludwig, Joseph A.; Fales, Henry M.; Gottesman, Michael M.; Szakács, Gergely

    2009-01-01

    There is a great need for the development of novel chemotherapeutic agents that overcome the emergence of multidrug resistance in cancer. We catalogued the National Cancer Institute’s Developmental Therapeutics Program (DTP) drug repository in search of compounds showing increased toxicity in multidrug resistant (MDR) cells. By comparing the sensitivity of parental cell lines with multidrug resistant derivatives, we identified 22 compounds possessing MDR-selective activity. Analysis of structural congeners led to the identification of 15 additional drugs showing increased toxicity in Pgp-expressing cells. Analysis of MDR-selective compounds led to the formulation of structure activity relationships (SAR) and pharmacophore models. This data mining coupled with experimental data points to a possible mechanism of action linked to metal chelation. Taken together, the discovery of the MDR-selective compound set demonstrates the robustness of the developing field of MDR-targeting therapy as a new strategy for resolving Pgp-mediated multidrug resistance. PMID:19843850

  4. Cardiomyocytes display low mitochondrial priming and are highly resistant toward cytotoxic T-cell killing.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiang; Halle, Stephan; Yu, Kai; Mishra, Pooja; Scherr, Michaela; Pietzsch, Stefan; Willenzon, Stefanie; Janssen, Anika; Boelter, Jasmin; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Eder, Matthias; Förster, Reinhold

    2016-06-01

    Following heart transplantation, alloimmune responses can cause graft rejection by damaging donor vascular and parenchymal cells. However, it remains unclear whether cardiomyocytes are also directly killed by immune cells. Here, we used two-photon microscopy to investigate how graft-specific effector CD8(+) T cells interact with cardiomyocytes in a mouse heart transplantation model. Surprisingly, we observed that CD8(+) T cells are completely impaired in killing cardiomyocytes. Even after virus-mediated preactivation, antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells largely fail to lyse these cells although both cell types engage in dynamic interactions. Furthermore, we established a two-photon microscopy-based assay using intact myocardium to determine the susceptibility of cardiomyocytes to undergo apoptosis. This feature, also known as mitochondrial priming reveals an unexpected weak predisposition of cardiomyocytes to undergo apoptosis in situ. These observations together with the early exhaustion phenotype of graft-infiltrating specific T cells provide an explanation why cardiomyocytes are largely protected from direct CD8(+) T-cell-mediated killing. PMID:26970349

  5. Cadmium-induced cell killing in Sacharomyces cerevisiae involves increases in intracellular NO levels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lihua; Chen, Yanfei; Gao, Huixian; Yin, Jingjing; Huang, Liqun

    2016-03-01

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental pollutant and poses some potential risks to human health. However, the signaling events controlling cadmium toxicity are not fully understood. In this study, we examined the effect of cadmium chloride on cell viability and the intracellular nitric oxide (NO) level in yeast cells. The results showed that exposure of yeast cells to cadmium (0-100 μM) could induce cell killing with significantly increased intracellular NO levels. Morphological analysis of the nuclei with 4('),6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining and DNA strand breaks analysis showed that cadmium at 50 μM can induce cell apoptosis in yeast cells. Treatment of yeast cells with cadmium (50 μM) and the nitric oxide scavenger c-PTIO [2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-teramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide; 0.2 mM] showed that c-PTIO attenuated the cadmium-induced cell killing. Our findings indicated that cadmium-induced yeast cell killing is mediated by a directly increased intracellular NO level. PMID:26872495

  6. Interleukin-1-induced promotion of T-cell differentiation in mice immunized with killed Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, K; Mitsuyama, M; Muramori, K; Tsukada, H; Nomoto, K

    1990-01-01

    We studied the effects of administration of recombinant interleukin-1 alpha (rIL-1 alpha) to mice after immunization with killed Listeria monocytogenes cells on the promotion of the functional differentiation of T cells in vivo. Mice immunized with killed L. monocytogenes were unable to express cell-mediated immunity to specific antigen in vivo, as determined by delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and acquired cellular resistance (ACR), and splenic T cells obtained from such mice were unable to respond to rIL-2 and specific antigen and to produce IL-2 after antigenic restimulation in vitro. When rIL-1 alpha was given to mice after immunization with killed bacteria. T cells became capable of responding to rIL-2 and specific antigen in vitro. These functions of T cells were similar to those from mice immunized with viable listeriae. Moreover, using a local passive transfer system, it was found that effector T cells mediating DTH but not ACR to L. monocytogenes were generated in mice treated with rIL-1 alpha after immunization with killed bacteria. These T cells were able to produce macrophage chemotactic factor but not macrophage-activating factor or gamma interferon in vitro in response to stimulation with specific antigen. These results suggest that in vivo administration of rIL-1 alpha facilitates the maturation of antigen-specific T cells mediating DTH and that different effector T cells mediating DTH or ACR are involved in cell-mediated immunity to L. monocytogenes. PMID:2123829

  7. Cell kill by megavoltage protons with high LET.

    PubMed

    Kuperman, Vadim Y

    2016-07-21

    The aim of the current study is to develop a radiobiological model which describes the effect of linear energy transfer (LET) on cell survival and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of megavoltage protons. By assuming the existence of critical sites within a cell, analytical expression for cell survival S as a function of LET is derived. The obtained results indicate that in cases where dose per fraction is small, [Formula: see text] is a linear-quadratic (LQ) function of dose while both alpha and beta radio-sensitivities are non-linearly dependent on LET. In particular, in the current model alpha increases with increasing LET while beta decreases. Conversely, in the case of large dose per fraction, the LQ dependence of [Formula: see text] on dose is invalid. The proposed radiobiological model predicts cell survival probability and RBE which, in general, deviate from the results obtained by using conventional LQ formalism. The differences between the LQ model and that described in the current study are reflected in the calculated RBE of protons. PMID:27351166

  8. Cell kill by megavoltage protons with high LET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuperman, Vadim Y.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the current study is to develop a radiobiological model which describes the effect of linear energy transfer (LET) on cell survival and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of megavoltage protons. By assuming the existence of critical sites within a cell, analytical expression for cell survival S as a function of LET is derived. The obtained results indicate that in cases where dose per fraction is small, \\ln (S) is a linear–quadratic (LQ) function of dose while both alpha and beta radio-sensitivities are non-linearly dependent on LET. In particular, in the current model alpha increases with increasing LET while beta decreases. Conversely, in the case of large dose per fraction, the LQ dependence of \\ln (S) on dose is invalid. The proposed radiobiological model predicts cell survival probability and RBE which, in general, deviate from the results obtained by using conventional LQ formalism. The differences between the LQ model and that described in the current study are reflected in the calculated RBE of protons.

  9. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound enhances cell killing induced by X-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Buldakov, Mikhail A; Feril, Loreto B; Tachibana, Katsuro; Cherdyntseva, Nadejda V; Kondo, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effect of pulsed ultrasound (US) on radiation-induced cell killing, U937 and Molt-4 cell lines were exposed to 1.0 MHz US with 50% of duty factor at 0.3 W/cm(2) and pulsed at 1 Hz immediately after exposure to X-rays at 0, 0.5, 2.5 and 5 Gy. The cells were assayed 24 h after the treatments. The result showed significant enhancement of cell killing in the combined treatments. However, the ratio of apoptotic cells induced either by X-rays or US alone did not significantly change. These findings suggest that pulsed US can enhance the anticancer effect of X-irradiation due to US streaming under non-inertial cavitational condition. This combined treatment can potentially enhance the therapeutic effect of radiation therapy. PMID:23835401

  10. Multivalent nanobodies targeting death receptor 5 elicit superior tumor cell killing through efficient caspase induction

    PubMed Central

    Huet, Heather A; Growney, Joseph D; Johnson, Jennifer A; Li, Jing; Bilic, Sanela; Ostrom, Lance; Zafari, Mohammad; Kowal, Colleen; Yang, Guizhi; Royo, Axelle; Jensen, Michael; Dombrecht, Bruno; Meerschaert, Kris RA; Kolkman, Joost A; Cromie, Karen D; Mosher, Rebecca; Gao, Hui; Schuller, Alwin; Isaacs, Randi; Sellers, William R; Ettenberg, Seth A

    2014-01-01

    Multiple therapeutic agonists of death receptor 5 (DR5) have been developed and are under clinical evaluation. Although these agonists demonstrate significant anti-tumor activity in preclinical models, the clinical efficacy in human cancer patients has been notably disappointing. One possible explanation might be that the current classes of therapeutic molecules are not sufficiently potent to elicit significant response in patients, particularly for dimeric antibody agonists that require secondary cross-linking via Fcγ receptors expressed on immune cells to achieve optimal clustering of DR5. To overcome this limitation, a novel multivalent Nanobody approach was taken with the goal of generating a significantly more potent DR5 agonist. In the present study, we show that trivalent DR5 targeting Nanobodies mimic the activity of natural ligand, and furthermore, increasing the valency of domains to tetramer and pentamer markedly increased potency of cell killing on tumor cells, with pentamers being more potent than tetramers in vitro. Increased potency was attributed to faster kinetics of death-inducing signaling complex assembly and caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation. In vivo, multivalent Nanobody molecules elicited superior anti-tumor activity compared to a conventional DR5 agonist antibody, including the ability to induce tumor regression in an insensitive patient-derived primary pancreatic tumor model. Furthermore, complete responses to Nanobody treatment were obtained in up to 50% of patient-derived primary pancreatic and colon tumor models, suggesting that multivalent DR5 Nanobodies may represent a significant new therapeutic modality for targeting death receptor signaling. PMID:25484045

  11. Gambogenic Acid Kills Lung Cancer Cells through Aberrant Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Wang; Dong, Chen; Hui, Cheng; Bin, Li; Fenggen, Yan; Jingjing, Su; Cheng, Peng; Meiling, Sun; Yawen, Hu; Xiaoshan, Wang; Guanghui, Wang; Zhiwu, Chen; Qinglin, Li

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common types of cancer and causes 1.38 million deaths annually, as of 2008 worldwide. Identifying natural anti-lung cancer agents has become very important. Gambogenic acid (GNA) is one of the active compounds of Gamboge, a traditional medicine that was used as a drastic purgative, emetic, or vermifuge for treating tapeworm. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that GNA exerts promising anti-tumor effects; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present paper, we found that GNA could induce the formation of vacuoles, which was linked with autophagy in A549 and HeLa cells. Further studies revealed that GNA triggers the initiation of autophagy based on the results of MDC staining, AO staining, accumulation of LC3 II, activation of Beclin 1 and phosphorylation of P70S6K. However, degradation of p62 was disrupted and free GFP could not be released in GNA treated cells, which indicated a block in the autophagy flux. Further studies demonstrated that GNA blocks the fusion between autophagosomes and lysosomes by inhibiting acidification in lysosomes. This dysfunctional autophagy plays a pro-death role in GNA-treated cells by activating p53, Bax and cleaved caspase-3 while decreasing Bcl-2. Beclin 1 knockdown greatly decreased GNA-induced cell death and the effects on p53, Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and Bcl-2. Similar results were obtained using a xenograft model. Our findings show, for the first time, that GNA can cause aberrant autophagy to induce cell death and may suggest the potential application of GNA as a tool or viable drug in anticancer therapies. PMID:24427275

  12. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 7 (VAMP-7) is essential for target cell killing in a natural killer cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Marcet-Palacios, Marcelo; Odemuyiwa, Solomon O.; Coughlin, Jason J.; Garofoli, Daniella; Ewen, Catherine; Davidson, Courtney E.; Ghaffari, Mazyar; Kane, Kevin P.; Lacy, Paige; Logan, Michael R.; Befus, A. Dean; Bleackley, R. Chris; Moqbel, Redwan

    2008-02-15

    Natural killer cells recognize and induce apoptosis in foreign, transformed or virus-infected cells through the release of perforin and granzymes from secretory lysosomes. Clinically, NK-cell mediated killing is a major limitation to successful allo- and xenotransplantation. The molecular mechanisms that regulate the fusion of granzyme B-containing secretory lysosomes to the plasma membrane in activated NK cells, prior to target cell killing, are not fully understood. Using the NK cell line YT-Indy as a model, we have investigated the expression of SNAP REceptors (SNAREs), both target (t-) and vesicular (v-) SNAREs, and their function in granzyme B-mediated target cell killing. Our data showed that YT-Indy cells express VAMP-7 and SNAP-23, but not VAMP-2. VAMP-7 was associated with granzyme B-containing lysosomal granules. Using VAMP-7 small interfering RNA (siRNA), we successfully knocked down the expression of VAMP-7 protein in YT-Indy to less than 10% of untreated cells in 24 h. VAMP7-deficient YT-Indy cells activated via co-culture with Jurkat cells released <1 ng/mL of granzyme B, compared to 1.5-2.5 {mu}g/mL from controls. Using Jurkat cells as targets, we showed a 7-fold reduction in NK cell-mediated killing by VAMP-7 deficient YT-Indy cells. Our results show that VAMP-7 is a crucial component of granzyme B release and target cell killing in the NK cell line YT-Indy. Thus, targeting VAMP-7 expression specifically with siRNA, following transplantation, may be a viable strategy for preventing NK cell-mediated transplant rejection, in vivo.

  13. Hyperoxygenation enhances the direct tumor cell killing of photofrin-mediated photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zheng; Chen, Qun; Shakil, Abdus; Chen, Hua; Beckers, Jill; Shapiro, Howard; Hetzel, Fred W.

    2003-06-01

    Tumor hypoxia, either pre-existing or as a result of oxygen bleaching during Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) light irradiation, can significantly reduce the effectiveness of PDT induced cell killing. To overcome the effect of tumor hypoxia and improve tumor cell killing, we propose using supplemental hyperoxygenation during Photofrin PDT. Our previous study has demonstrated that, in an in vivo model, tumor control can be improved by normobaric or hyperbaric 100% oxygen supply. The mechanism for the tumor cure enhancement of the hyperoxygenation-PDT combined therapy is investigated in this study by using an in vivo/in vitro technique. A hypoxic tumor model was established by implanting mammary adenocarcinoma (MCA) in hind legs of C3H mice. Light irradiation (200 J/cm2 at either 75 or 150 mW/cm2), under various oxygen supplemental conditions (room air or carbogen or 100% normobaric or hyperbaric 100% oxygen), was delivered through an optical fiber with a microlens to animals who received 12.5 mg/kg Photofrin 24 hours prior to light irradiation. Tumors treated with PDT were harvested and grown in vitro for colony formation analysis. Treated tumors were also analyzed histologically. The results show that, when combined with hyperoxygenation, the cell killing rate immediately after a PDT treatment is significantly improved over that treated without hyperoxygenation, suggesting an enhanced direct cell killing. This study further confirms our earlier observation that when a PDT treatment is combined with hyperoxygenation, it can be more effective in controlling hypoxic tumors. H&E stain revealed that PDT induced tumor necrosis and hemorrhage. In conclusion, by using an in vivo/in vitro assay, we have shown that PDT combined with hyper-oxygenation can enhance direct cell killing and improve tumor cure.

  14. Acadesine Kills Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) Cells through PKC-Dependent Induction of Autophagic Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Guillaume; Ben Sahra, Issam; Puissant, Alexandre; Colosetti, Pascal; Belhacene, Nathalie; Gounon, Pierre; Hofman, Paul; Bost, Fréderic; Cassuto, Jill-Patrice; Auberger, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    CML is an hematopoietic stem cell disease characterized by the t(9;22) (q34;q11) translocation encoding the oncoprotein p210BCR-ABL. The effect of acadesine (AICAR, 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside) a compound with known antileukemic effect on B cell chronic lymphoblastic leukemia (B-CLL) was investigated in different CML cell lines. Acadesine triggered loss of cell metabolism in K562, LAMA-84 and JURL-MK1 and was also effective in killing imatinib-resistant K562 cells and Ba/F3 cells carrying the T315I-BCR-ABL mutation. The anti-leukemic effect of acadesine did not involve apoptosis but required rather induction of autophagic cell death. AMPK knock-down by Sh-RNA failed to prevent the effect of acadesine, indicating an AMPK-independent mechanism. The effect of acadesine was abrogated by GF109203X and Ro-32-0432, both inhibitor of classical and new PKCs and accordingly, acadesine triggered relocation and activation of several PKC isoforms in K562 cells. In addition, this compound exhibited a potent anti-leukemic effect in clonogenic assays of CML cells in methyl cellulose and in a xenograft model of K562 cells in nude mice. In conclusion, our work identifies an original and unexpected mechanism by which acadesine triggers autophagic cell death through PKC activation. Therefore, in addition to its promising effects in B-CLL, acadesine might also be beneficial for Imatinib-resistant CML patients. PMID:19924252

  15. Irradiated human endothelial progenitor cells induce bystander killing in human non-small cell lung and pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Turchan, William T; Shapiro, Ronald H; Sevigny, Garrett V; Chin-Sinex, Helen; Pruden, Benjamin; Mendonca, Marc S

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To investigate whether irradiated human endothelial progenitor cells (hEPC) could induce bystander killing in the A549 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and help explain the improved radiation-induced tumor cures observed in A549 tumor xenografts co-injected with hEPC. Materials and methods We investigated whether co-injection of CBM3 hEPC with A549 NSCLC cells would alter tumor xenograft growth rate or tumor cure after a single dose of 0 or 5 Gy of X-rays. We then utilized dual chamber Transwell dishes, to test whether medium from irradiated CBM3 and CBM4 hEPC would induce bystander cell killing in A549 cells, and as an additional control, in human pancreatic cancer MIA PaCa-2 cells. The CBM3 and CBM4 hEPC were plated into the upper Transwell chamber and the A549 or MIA PaCa-2 cells were plated in the lower Transwell chamber. The top inserts with the CBM3 or CBM4 hEPC cells were subsequently removed, irradiated, and then placed back into the Transwell dish for 3 h to allow for diffusion of any potential bystander factors from the irradiated hEPC in the upper chamber through the permeable membrane to the unirradiated cancer cells in the lower chamber. After the 3 h incubation, the cancer cells were re-plated for clonogenic survival. Results We found that co-injection of CBM3 hEPC with A549 NSCLC cells significantly increased the tumor growth rate compared to A549 cells alone, but paradoxically also increased A549 tumor cure after a single dose of 5 Gy of X-rays (p < 0.05). We hypothesized that irradiated hEPC may be inducing bystander killing in the A549 NSCLC cells in tumor xenografts, thus improving tumor cure. Bystander studies clearly showed that exposure to the medium from irradiated CBM3 and CBM4 hEPC induced significant bystander killing and decreased the surviving fraction of A549 and MIA PaCa-2 cells to 0.46 (46%) ± 0.22 and 0.74 ± 0.07 (74%) respectively (p < 0.005, p < 0.0001). In addition, antibody depletion

  16. Preferential killing of cancer cells with mitochondrial dysfunction by natural compounds

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Wang, Feng; Trachootham, Dunyaporn; Huang, Peng

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondria play essential roles in cellular metabolism, redox homeostasis, and regulation of cell death. Emerging evidences suggest that cancer cells exhibit various degrees of mitochondrial dysfunctions and metabolic alterations, which may serve as a basis to develop therapeutic strategies to preferentially kill the malignant cells. Mitochondria as a therapeutic target for cancer treatment is gaining much attention in the recent years, and agents that impact mitochondria with anticancer activity have been identified and tested in vitro and in vivo using various experimental systems. Anticancer agents that directly target mitochondria or indirectly affect mitochondrial functions are collectively classified as mitocans. This review article focuses on several natural compounds that preferentially kill cancer cells with mitochondrial dysfunction, and discusses the possible underlying mechanisms and their therapeutic implications in cancer treatment. Mitocans that have been comprehensively reviewed recently are not included in this article. Important issues such as therapeutic selectivity and the relevant biochemical basis are discussed in the context of future perspectives. PMID:20713185

  17. Piperlongumine selectively kills cancer cells and increases cisplatin antitumor activity in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Jong-Lyel; Kim, Eun Hye; Park, Jin Young; Kim, Ji Won; Kwon, Minsu; Lee, Byung-Heon

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation to cellular stress is not a vital function of normal cells but is required of cancer cells, and as such might be a sensible target in cancer therapy. Piperlongumine is a naturally occurring small molecule selectively toxic to cancer cells. This study assesses the cytotoxicity of piperlongumine and its combination with cisplatin in head-and-neck cancer (HNC) cells in vitro and in vivo. The effect of piperlongumine, alone and in combination with cisplatin, was assessed in human HNC cells and normal cells by measuring growth, death, cell cycle progression, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and protein expression, and in tumor xenograft mouse models. Piperlongumine killed HNC cells regardless of p53 mutational status but spared normal cells. It increased ROS accumulation in HNC cells, an effect that can be blocked by the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Piperlongumine induced selective cell death in HNC cells by targeting the stress response to ROS, leading to the induction of death pathways involving JNK and PARP. Piperlongumine increased cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in HNC cells in a synergistic manner in vitro and in vivo. Piperlongumine might be a promising small molecule with which to selectively kill HNC cells and increase cisplatin antitumor activity by targeting the oxidative stress response. PMID:25193861

  18. Piperlongumine selectively kills cancer cells and increases cisplatin antitumor activity in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Roh, Jong-Lyel; Kim, Eun Hye; Park, Jin Young; Kim, Ji Won; Kwon, Minsu; Lee, Byung-Heon

    2014-10-15

    Adaptation to cellular stress is not a vital function of normal cells but is required of cancer cells, and as such might be a sensible target in cancer therapy. Piperlongumine is a naturally occurring small molecule selectively toxic to cancer cells. This study assesses the cytotoxicity of piperlongumine and its combination with cisplatin in head-and-neck cancer (HNC) cells in vitro and in vivo. The effect of piperlongumine, alone and in combination with cisplatin, was assessed in human HNC cells and normal cells by measuring growth, death, cell cycle progression, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and protein expression, and in tumor xenograft mouse models. Piperlongumine killed HNC cells regardless of p53 mutational status but spared normal cells. It increased ROS accumulation in HNC cells, an effect that can be blocked by the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Piperlongumine induced selective cell death in HNC cells by targeting the stress response to ROS, leading to the induction of death pathways involving JNK and PARP. Piperlongumine increased cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in HNC cells in a synergistic manner in vitro and in vivo. Piperlongumine might be a promising small molecule with which to selectively kill HNC cells and increase cisplatin antitumor activity by targeting the oxidative stress response. PMID:25193861

  19. Killing multiple myeloma cells with the small molecule 3-bromopyruvate: implications for therapy.

    PubMed

    Majkowska-Skrobek, Grażyna; Augustyniak, Daria; Lis, Paweł; Bartkowiak, Anna; Gonchar, Mykhailo; Ko, Young H; Pedersen, Peter L; Goffeau, Andre; Ułaszewski, Stanisław

    2014-07-01

    The small molecule 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP), which has emerged recently as the first member of a new class of potent anticancer agents, was tested for its capacity to kill multiple myeloma (MM) cancer cells. Human MM cells (RPMI 8226) begin to lose viability significantly within 8 h of incubation in the presence of 3-BP. The Km (0.3 mmol/l) for intracellular accumulation of 3-BP in MM cells is 24 times lower than that in control cells (7.2 mmol/l). Therefore, the uptake of 3-BP by MM cells is significantly higher than that by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Further, the IC50 values for human MM cells and control peripheral blood mononuclear cells are 24 and 58 µmol/l, respectively. Therefore, specificity and selectivity of 3-BP toward MM cancer cells are evident on the basis of the above. In MM cells the transcription levels of the gene encoding the monocarboxylate transporter MCT1 is significantly amplified compared with control cells. The level of intracellular ATP in MM cells decreases by over 90% within 1 h after addition of 100 µmol/l 3-BP. The cytotoxicity of 3-BP, exemplified by a marked decrease in viability of MM cells, is potentiated by the inhibitor of glutathione synthesis buthionine sulfoximine. In addition, the lack of mutagenicity and its superior capacity relative to Glivec to kill MM cancer cells are presented in this study. PMID:24557015

  20. Both necrosis and apoptosis contribute to HIV-1-induced killing of CD4 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plymale, D. R.; Tang, D. S.; Comardelle, A. M.; Fermin, C. D.; Lewis, D. E.; Garry, R. F.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data currently available on HIV-1-induced cytopathology is unclear regarding the mechanism of cell killing. OBJECTIVE: To clarify the extent to which apoptosis or necrosis is involved in HIV-1-induced cell death in view of conflicting existing data. METHODS: T lymphoblastoid cells or peripheral blood mononuclear cells were infected by various strains of HIV-1 and the numbers of apoptotic or necrotic cells were quantified at various times after infection using video-image analysis techniques; the results were compared with the amount of fragmented DNA using a quantitative method. Measurement of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (deltapsi(m)) and intracellular calcium concentrations [Ca2+]i was performed with fluorescent probes and fluorescence concentration analysis (FCA). RESULTS: Although lymphoblastoid and monocytoid cells acutely infected by HIV-1 had increased levels of fragmented DNA, a marker of apoptotic cell death, few (<12%) had condensed chromatin and fragmented nuclei, the morphological features of apoptosis. The predominant alterations in acutely infected cells were distended endoplasmic reticulum and abnormal mitochondria; these ultrastructural changes are consistent with necrosis, although some infected cells simultaneously displayed features of both necrosis and apoptosis. Viability of cells persistently infected by HIV-1 was only minimally reduced from that of uninfected cells. This reduction was accounted for by an increased propensity of the persistently infected cells to die by apoptosis. Alterations in [Ca2+]i and deltapsi(m) occurred in both acutely and persistently infected cells. CONCLUSION: Both necrosis and apoptosis contribute to HIV-1-induced killing of CD4 cells.

  1. Mechanisms of Contact-Mediated Killing of Yeast Cells on Dry Metallic Copper Surfaces▿

    PubMed Central

    Quaranta, Davide; Krans, Travis; Santo, Christophe Espírito; Elowsky, Christian G.; Domaille, Dylan W.; Chang, Christopher J.; Grass, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    Surfaces made of copper or its alloys have strong antimicrobial properties against a wide variety of microorganisms. However, the molecular mode of action responsible for the antimicrobial efficacy of metallic copper is not known. Here, we show that dry copper surfaces inactivate Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae within minutes in a process called contact-mediated killing. Cellular copper ion homeostasis systems influenced the kinetics of contact-mediated killing in both organisms. Deregulated copper ion uptake through a hyperactive S. cerevisiae Ctr1p (ScCtr1p) copper uptake transporter in Saccharomyces resulted in faster inactivation of mutant cells than of wild-type cells. Similarly, lack of the C. albicans Crp1p (CaCrp1p) copper-efflux P-type ATPase or the metallothionein CaCup1p caused more-rapid killing of Candida mutant cells than of wild-type cells. Candida and Saccharomyces took up large quantities of copper ions as soon as they were in contact with copper surfaces, as indicated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis and by the intracellular copper ion-reporting dye coppersensor-1. Exposure to metallic copper did not cause lethality through genotoxicity, deleterious action on a cell's genetic material, as indicated by a mutation assay with Saccharomyces. Instead, toxicity mediated by metallic copper surfaces targeted membranes in both yeast species. With the use of Live/Dead staining, onset of rapid and extensive cytoplasmic membrane damage was observed in cells from copper surfaces. Fluorescence microscopy using the indicator dye DiSBaC2(3) indicated that cell membranes were depolarized. Also, during contact-mediated killing, vacuoles first became enlarged and then disappeared from the cells. Lastly, in metallic copper-stressed yeasts, oxidative stress in the cytoplasm and in mitochondria was elevated. PMID:21097600

  2. Tanshinone-1 induces tumor cell killing, enhanced by inhibition of secondary activation of signaling networks

    PubMed Central

    Xu, L; Feng, J-M; Li, J-X; Zhu, J-M; Song, S-S; Tong, L-J; Chen, Y; Yang, X-Y; Shen, Y-Y; Lian, F-L; Li, Y-P; Lin, D-H; Ding, J; Miao, Z-H

    2013-01-01

    Tumor multidrug resistance (MDR) can result from overexpression of drug transporters and deregulation of cellular signaling transduction. New agents and strategies are required for overcoming MDR. Here, we report that tanshinone-1, a bioactive ingredient in traditional Chinese medicine, directly killed MDR tumor cells and their corresponding parental cells, which was potentiated by inhibition of secondary activation of signaling networks. Tanshinone-1 was slightly more potent at inducing cytotoxicity and apoptosis in MDR cells than in corresponding parental cells. Tanshinone-1-induced MDR cell killing was independent of the function and expression of drug transporters but was partially correlated with the phosphatase-dependent reduction of phospho-705-Stat3, which secondarily activated p38-, AKT-, and ERK-involved signaling networks. Cotreatments with p38, AKT, and ERK inhibitors potentiated the anti-MDR effects of tanshinone-1. Our study presents a model for MDR cell killing using a compound of natural origin. This model could lead to new therapeutic strategies for targeting signaling network(s) in MDR cancers as well as new strategies for multitarget design. PMID:24201804

  3. Mechanisms of Enhanced Cell Killing at Low Doses: Implications for Radiation Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Peter J. Johnston; Dr. George D. Wilson

    2003-10-15

    We have shown that cell lethality actually measured after exposure to low-doses of low-LET radiation, is markedly enhanced relative to the cell lethality previously expected by extrapolation of the high-dose cell-killing response. Net cancer risk is a balance between cell transformation and cell kill and such enhanced lethality may more than compensate for transformation at low radiation doses over a least the first 10 cGy of low-LET exposure. This would lead to a non-linear, threshold, dose-risk relationship. Therefore our data imply the possibility that the adverse effects of small radiation doses (<10 cGy) could be overestimated in specific cases. It is now important to research the mechanisms underlying the phenomenon of low-dose hypersensitivity to cell killing, in order to determine whether this can be generalized to safely allow an increase in radiation exposure limits. This would have major cost-reduction implications for the whole EM program.

  4. Loss of DNAM-1 ligand expression by acute myeloid leukemia cells renders them resistant to NK cell killing.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Conor J; Ramsbottom, Kelly M; Voskoboinik, Ilia; Darcy, Phillip K; Oliaro, Jane

    2016-08-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with poor natural killer (NK) cell function through aberrant expression of NK-cell-activating receptors and their ligands on tumor cells. These alterations are thought to promote formation of inhibitory NK-target cell synapses, in which killer cell degranulation is attenuated. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation can be effective in treating AML, through restoration of NK cell lytic activity. Similarly, agents that augment NK-cell-activating signals within the immunological synapse may provide some therapeutic benefit. However, the receptor-ligand interactions that critically dictate NK cell function in AML remain undefined. Here, we demonstrate that CD112/CD155 expression is required for DNAM-1-dependent killing of AML cells. Indeed, the low, or absent, expression of CD112/CD155 on multiple AML cell lines resulted in failure to stimulate optimal NK cell function. Importantly, isolated clones with low CD112/155 expression were resistant to NK cell killing while those expressing abundant levels of CD112/155 were highly susceptible. Attenuated NK cell killing in the absence of CD112/CD155 originated from decreased NK-target cell conjugation. Furthermore, we reveal by time-lapse microscopy, a significant increase in NK cell 'failed killing' in the absence of DNAM-1 ligands. Consequently, NK cells preferentially lysed ligand-expressing cells within heterogeneous populations, driving clonal selection of CD112/CD155-negative blasts upon NK cell attack. Taken together, we identify reduced CD155 expression as a major NK cell escape mechanism in AML and an opportunity for targeted immunotherapy. PMID:27622064

  5. Polysaccharide nano-vesicular multidrug carriers for synergistic killing of cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramod, P. S.; Shah, Ruchira; Chaphekar, Sonali; Balasubramanian, Nagaraj; Jayakannan, Manickam

    2014-09-01

    Multi-drug delivery based on polymer nano-scaffolds is an essential protocol to be developed for better administration of anticancer drugs to enhance their therapeutic efficacies against cancer cells. Here, we report dual delivery polysaccharide nano-vesicles that are capable of loading and delivering both water soluble and water insoluble drugs together in a single polymer scaffold. The selective rupture of the nano-vesicular assembly under intracellular enzyme conditions allowed the simultaneous delivery of a hydrophobic drug camptothecin (CPT) and hydrophilic drug doxorubicin (DOX) supporting their synergistic killing of breast and colon cancer cells. The polysaccharide nano-vesicles have allowed us to address a few important questions regarding the need for multiple drug administration in cancer cells including (a) the role of simultaneous drug release, (b) antagonistic versus synergistic effects of drug combinations and (c) how these are affected by the ratio of drugs. Further, evaluation of the role of caveolae in endocytosis of these polymer scaffolds was also made. The vesicular scaffolds were found to preserve and deliver DOX resulting in 50-60% better killing of cancer cells than the free drug. Additionally, dual loaded nano-vesicles when compared to drug cocktails with individual drugs in separate nano-vesicles (at comparable molar ratios) suggest the relative drug concentration following release and mode of delivery to be both important in cancer cell killing. Results from these experiments have revealed newly developed polysaccharide nano-vesicles loaded with DOX and CPT drugs as potential candidates for improved breast cancer cell killing. Thus, these custom-designed polysaccharide nano-vesicles provide a new perspective on multi-anticancer drug delivery systems and their efficacy.Multi-drug delivery based on polymer nano-scaffolds is an essential protocol to be developed for better administration of anticancer drugs to enhance their therapeutic

  6. Killing Range

    PubMed Central

    Asal, Victor; Rethemeyer, R. Karl; Horgan, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the Provisional Irish Republican Army's (PIRA) brigade level behavior during the Northern Ireland Conflict (1970-1998) and identifies the organizational factors that impact a brigade's lethality as measured via terrorist attacks. Key independent variables include levels of technical expertise, cadre age, counter-terrorism policies experienced, brigade size, and IED components and delivery methods. We find that technical expertise within a brigade allows for careful IED usage, which significantly minimizes civilian casualties (a specific strategic goal of PIRA) while increasing the ability to kill more high value targets with IEDs. Lethal counter-terrorism events also significantly affect a brigade's likelihood of killing both civilians and high-value targets but in different ways. Killing PIRA members significantly decreases IED fatalities but also significantly decreases the possibility of zero civilian IED-related deaths in a given year. Killing innocent Catholics in a Brigade's county significantly increases total and civilian IED fatalities. Together the results suggest the necessity to analyze dynamic situational variables that impact terrorist group behavior at the sub-unit level. PMID:25838603

  7. Failed CTL/NK cell killing and cytokine hypersecretion are directly linked through prolonged synapse time

    PubMed Central

    Rudd-Schmidt, Jesse A.; Lopez, Jamie A.; Ramsbottom, Kelly M.; Mannering, Stuart I.; Andrews, Daniel M.; Voskoboinik, Ilia

    2015-01-01

    Failure of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) or natural killer (NK) cells to kill target cells by perforin (Prf)/granzyme (Gzm)-induced apoptosis causes severe immune dysregulation. In familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, Prf-deficient infants suffer a fatal “cytokine storm” resulting from macrophage overactivation, but the link to failed target cell death is not understood. We show that prolonged target cell survival greatly amplifies the quanta of inflammatory cytokines secreted by CTLs/NK cells and that interferon-γ (IFN-γ) directly invokes the activation and secondary overproduction of proinflammatory IL-6 from naive macrophages. Furthermore, using live cell microscopy to visualize hundreds of synapses formed between wild-type, Prf-null, or GzmA/B-null CTLs/NK cells and their targets in real time, we show that hypersecretion of IL-2, TNF, IFN-γ, and various chemokines is linked to failed disengagement of Prf- or Gzm-deficient lymphocytes from their targets, with mean synapse time increased fivefold, from ∼8 to >40 min. Surprisingly, the signal for detachment arose from the dying target cell and was caspase dependent, as delaying target cell death with various forms of caspase blockade also prevented their disengagement from fully competent CTLs/NK cells and caused cytokine hypersecretion. Our findings provide the cellular mechanism through which failed killing by lymphocytes causes systemic inflammation involving recruitment and activation of myeloid cells. PMID:25732304

  8. Failed CTL/NK cell killing and cytokine hypersecretion are directly linked through prolonged synapse time.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Misty R; Rudd-Schmidt, Jesse A; Lopez, Jamie A; Ramsbottom, Kelly M; Mannering, Stuart I; Andrews, Daniel M; Voskoboinik, Ilia; Trapani, Joseph A

    2015-03-01

    Failure of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) or natural killer (NK) cells to kill target cells by perforin (Prf)/granzyme (Gzm)-induced apoptosis causes severe immune dysregulation. In familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, Prf-deficient infants suffer a fatal "cytokine storm" resulting from macrophage overactivation, but the link to failed target cell death is not understood. We show that prolonged target cell survival greatly amplifies the quanta of inflammatory cytokines secreted by CTLs/NK cells and that interferon-γ (IFN-γ) directly invokes the activation and secondary overproduction of proinflammatory IL-6 from naive macrophages. Furthermore, using live cell microscopy to visualize hundreds of synapses formed between wild-type, Prf-null, or GzmA/B-null CTLs/NK cells and their targets in real time, we show that hypersecretion of IL-2, TNF, IFN-γ, and various chemokines is linked to failed disengagement of Prf- or Gzm-deficient lymphocytes from their targets, with mean synapse time increased fivefold, from ∼8 to >40 min. Surprisingly, the signal for detachment arose from the dying target cell and was caspase dependent, as delaying target cell death with various forms of caspase blockade also prevented their disengagement from fully competent CTLs/NK cells and caused cytokine hypersecretion. Our findings provide the cellular mechanism through which failed killing by lymphocytes causes systemic inflammation involving recruitment and activation of myeloid cells. PMID:25732304

  9. Evaluation of Bystander Cell Killing Effects in Suicide Gene Therapy of Cancer: Engineered Thymidylate Kinase (TMPK)/AZT Enzyme-Prodrug Axis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takeya; Neschadim, Anton; Nakagawa, Ryo; Yanagisawa, Teruyuki; Medin, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Suicide gene therapy of cancer (SGTC) entails the introduction of a cDNA sequence into tumor cells whose polypeptide product is capable of either directly activating apoptotic pathways itself or facilitating the activation of pharmacologic agents that do so. The latter class of SGTC approaches is of the greater utility in cancer therapy owing to the ability of some small, activated cytotoxic compounds to diffuse from their site of activation into neighboring malignant cells, where they can also mediate destruction. This phenomenon, termed "bystander killing", can be highly advantageous in driving significant tumor regression in vivo without the requirement of transduction of each and every tumor cell with the suicide gene. We have developed a robust suicide gene therapy enzyme/prodrug system based on an engineered variant of the human thymidylate kinase (TMPK), which has been endowed with the ability to drive azidothymidine (AZT) activation. Delivery of this suicide gene sequence into tumors by means of recombinant lentivirus-mediated transduction embodies an SGTC strategy that successfully employs bystander cell killing as a mechanism to achieve significant ablation of solid tumors in vivo. Thus, this engineered TMPK/AZT suicide gene therapy axis holds great promise for clinical application in the treatment of inoperable solid tumors in the neoadjuvant setting. Here we present detailed procedures for the preparation of recombinant TMPK-based lentivirus, transduction of target cells, and various approaches for the evaluation of bystander cell killing effects in SGCT in both in vitro and in vivo models. PMID:26072401

  10. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Enhance CD4 T Cell Susceptibility to NK Cell Killing but Reduce NK Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Matthew; Williams, James; Kurioka, Ayako; Gerry, Andrew B.; Jakobsen, Bent; Klenerman, Paul; Nwokolo, Nneka; Fox, Julie

    2016-01-01

    In the search for a cure for HIV-1 infection, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are being investigated as activators of latently infected CD4 T cells to promote their targeting by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL). However, HDACi may also inhibit CTL function, suggesting different immunotherapy approaches may need to be explored. Here, we study the impact of different HDACi on both Natural Killer (NK) and CTL targeting of HIV-1 infected cells. We found HDACi down-regulated HLA class I expression independently of HIV-1 Nef which, without significantly compromising CTL function, led to enhanced targeting by NK cells. HDACi-treated HIV-1-infected CD4 T cells were also more effectively cleared than untreated controls during NK co-culture. However, HDACi impaired NK function, reducing degranulation and killing capacity. Depending on the HDACi and dose, this impairment could counteract the benefit gained by treating infected target cells. These data suggest that following HDACi-induced HLA class I down-regulation NK cells kill HIV-1-infected cells, although HDACi-mediated NK cell inhibition may negate this effect. Our data emphasize the importance of studying the effects of potential interventions on both targets and effectors. PMID:27529554

  11. Gene expression profile of THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhi-De; Wei, Ting-Ting; Tang, Qing-Qin; Ma, Ning; Wang, Li-Li; Qin, Bao-Dong; Yin, Jian-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Background Mechanisms under immune response against Candida albicans (C. albicans) remain largely unknown. To better understand the mechanisms of innate immune response against C. albicans, we analyzed the gene expression profile of THP-1 cells stimulated with heat-killed C. albicans. Methods THP-1 cells were stimulated with heat-killed C. albicans for 9 hours at a ratio of 1:1, and gene expression profile of the cells was analyzed using Whole Human Genome Oligo Microarray. Differentially expressed genes were defined as change folds more than 2 and with statistical significance. Gene ontology (GO) and pathway analysis were used to systematically identify biological connections of differentially expressed genes, as well as the pathways associated with the immune response against C. albicans. Results A total of 355 genes were up-regulated and 715 genes were down-regulated significantly. The up-regulated genes were particularly involved in biological process of RNA processing and pathway of the spliceosome. In case of down-regulated genes, the particularly involved immune-related pathways were G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway, calcium signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway and Ras pathway. Conclusions We depict the gene expression profile of heat-killed C. albicans stimulated THP-1 cells, and identify the major pathways involved in immune response against C. albicans. These pathways are potential candidate targets for developing anti-C. albicans agent. PMID:27275483

  12. A Small-Molecule Inhibitor of BCL6 Kills DLBCL Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Cerchietti, L.C.; Ghetu, A.F.; Zhu, X.; Da Silva, G.F.; Zhong, S.; Matthews, M.; Bunting, K.L.; Polo, J.M.; Fares, C.; Arrowsmith, C.H.; Yang, S.N.; Garcia, M.; Coop, A.; Mackerell, A.D.; Prive, G.G.; Melnick, A.

    2010-09-22

    The BCL6 transcriptional repressor is the most frequently involved oncogene in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We combined computer-aided drug design with functional assays to identify low-molecular-weight compounds that bind to the corepressor binding groove of the BCL6 BTB domain. One such compound disrupted BCL6/corepressor complexes in vitro and in vivo, and was observed by X-ray crystallography and NMR to bind the critical site within the BTB groove. This compound could induce expression of BCL6 target genes and kill BCL6-positive DLBCL cell lines. In xenotransplantation experiments, the compound was nontoxic and potently suppressed DLBCL tumors in vivo. The compound also killed primary DLBCLs from human patients.

  13. Oncolytic herpes simplex virus kills stem-like tumor-initiating colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Susanne G; Haddad, Dana; Au, Joyce; Carson, Joshua S; O’Leary, Michael P; Lewis, Christina; Monette, Sebastien; Fong, Yuman

    2016-01-01

    Stem-like tumor-initiating cells (TICs) are implicated in cancer progression and recurrence, and can be identified by sphere-formation and tumorigenicity assays. Oncolytic viruses infect, replicate in, and kill a variety of cancer cells. In this study, we seek proof of principle that TICs are susceptible to viral infection. HCT8 human colon cancer cells were subjected to serum-free culture to generate TIC tumorspheres. Parent cells and TICs were infected with HSV-1 subtype NV1066. Cytotoxicity, viral replication, and Akt1 expression were assessed. TIC tumorigenicity was confirmed and NV1066 efficacy was assessed in vivo. NV1066 infection was highly cytotoxic to both parent HCT8 cells and TICs. In both populations, cell-kill of >80% was achieved within 3 days of infection at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1.0. However, the parent cells required 2-log greater viral replication to achieve the same cytotoxicity. TICs overexpressed Akt1 in vitro and formed flank tumors from as little as 100 cells, growing earlier, faster, larger, and with greater histologic atypia than tumors from parent cells. Treatment of TIC-induced tumors with NV1066 yielded tumor regression and slowed tumor growth. We conclude that colon TICs are selected for by serum-free culture, overexpress Akt1, and are susceptible to oncolytic viral infection. PMID:27347556

  14. Oncolytic herpes simplex virus kills stem-like tumor-initiating colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Warner, Susanne G; Haddad, Dana; Au, Joyce; Carson, Joshua S; O'Leary, Michael P; Lewis, Christina; Monette, Sebastien; Fong, Yuman

    2016-01-01

    Stem-like tumor-initiating cells (TICs) are implicated in cancer progression and recurrence, and can be identified by sphere-formation and tumorigenicity assays. Oncolytic viruses infect, replicate in, and kill a variety of cancer cells. In this study, we seek proof of principle that TICs are susceptible to viral infection. HCT8 human colon cancer cells were subjected to serum-free culture to generate TIC tumorspheres. Parent cells and TICs were infected with HSV-1 subtype NV1066. Cytotoxicity, viral replication, and Akt1 expression were assessed. TIC tumorigenicity was confirmed and NV1066 efficacy was assessed in vivo. NV1066 infection was highly cytotoxic to both parent HCT8 cells and TICs. In both populations, cell-kill of >80% was achieved within 3 days of infection at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1.0. However, the parent cells required 2-log greater viral replication to achieve the same cytotoxicity. TICs overexpressed Akt1 in vitro and formed flank tumors from as little as 100 cells, growing earlier, faster, larger, and with greater histologic atypia than tumors from parent cells. Treatment of TIC-induced tumors with NV1066 yielded tumor regression and slowed tumor growth. We conclude that colon TICs are selected for by serum-free culture, overexpress Akt1, and are susceptible to oncolytic viral infection. PMID:27347556

  15. TRAIL-mediated killing of acute lymphoblastic leukemia by plasmacytoid dendritic cell-activated natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Lelaidier, Martin; Dìaz-Rodriguez, Yildian; Cordeau, Martine; Cordeiro, Paulo; Haddad, Elie; Herblot, Sabine; Duval, Michel

    2015-10-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) still frequently recurs after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), underscoring the need to improve the graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) effect. Natural killer (NK) cells reconstitute in the first months following HSCT when leukemia burden is at its lowest, but ALL cells have been shown to be resistant to NK cell-mediated killing. We show here that this resistance is overcome by NK cell stimulation with TLR-9-activated plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). NK cell priming with activated pDCs resulted in TRAIL and CD69 up-regulation on NK cells and IFN-γ production. NK cell activation was dependent on IFN-α produced by pDCs, but was not reproduced by IFN-α alone. ALL killing was further enhanced by inhibition of KIR engagement. We showed that ALL lysis was mainly mediated by TRAIL engagement, while the release of cytolytic granules was involved when ALL expressed NK cell activating receptor ligands. Finally, adoptive transfers of activated-pDCs in ALL-bearing humanized mice delayed the leukemia onset and cure 30% of mice. Our data therefore demonstrate that TLR-9 activated pDCs are a powerful tool to overcome ALL resistance to NK cell-mediated killing and to reinforce the GvL effect of HSCT. These results open new therapeutic avenues to prevent relapse in children with ALL. PMID:26320191

  16. TRAIL-mediated killing of acute lymphoblastic leukemia by plasmacytoid dendritic cell-activated natural killer cells

    PubMed Central

    Lelaidier, Martin; Dìaz-Rodriguez, Yildian; Cordeau, Martine; Cordeiro, Paulo; Haddad, Elie; Herblot, Sabine; Duval, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) still frequently recurs after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), underscoring the need to improve the graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) effect. Natural killer (NK) cells reconstitute in the first months following HSCT when leukemia burden is at its lowest, but ALL cells have been shown to be resistant to NK cell-mediated killing. We show here that this resistance is overcome by NK cell stimulation with TLR-9-activated plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). NK cell priming with activated pDCs resulted in TRAIL and CD69 up-regulation on NK cells and IFN-γ production. NK cell activation was dependent on IFN-α produced by pDCs, but was not reproduced by IFN-α alone. ALL killing was further enhanced by inhibition of KIR engagement. We showed that ALL lysis was mainly mediated by TRAIL engagement, while the release of cytolytic granules was involved when ALL expressed NK cell activating receptor ligands. Finally, adoptive transfers of activated-pDCs in ALL-bearing humanized mice delayed the leukemia onset and cure 30% of mice. Our data therefore demonstrate that TLR-9 activated pDCs are a powerful tool to overcome ALL resistance to NK cell-mediated killing and to reinforce the GvL effect of HSCT. These results open new therapeutic avenues to prevent relapse in children with ALL. PMID:26320191

  17. Adenanthin targets peroxiredoxin I/II to kill hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Hou, J-K; Huang, Y; He, W; Yan, Z-W; Fan, L; Liu, M-H; Xiao, W-L; Sun, H-D; Chen, G-Q

    2014-01-01

    Adenanthin, a natural diterpenoid isolated from the leaves of Isodon adenanthus, has recently been reported to induce leukemic cell differentiation by targeting peroxiredoxins (Prx) I and II. On the other hand, increasing lines of evidence propose that these Prx proteins would become potential targets to screen drugs for the prevention and treatment of solid tumors. Therefore, it is of significance to explore the potential activities of adenanthin on solid tumor cells. Here, we demonstrate that Prx I protein is essential for the survival of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, and adenanthin can kill these malignant liver cells in vitro and xenografts. We also show that the cell death-inducing activity of adenanthin on HCC cells is mediated by the increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Furthermore, the silencing of Prx I or Prx II significantly enhances the cytotoxic activity of adenanthin on HCC, whereas the ectopic expression of Prx I and Prx II but not their mutants of adenanthin-bound cysteines can rescue adenanthin-induced cytotoxicity in Prxs-silenced HCC cells. Taken together, our results propose that adenanthin targets Prx I/II to kill HCC cells and its therapeutic significance warrants to be further explored in HCC patients. PMID:25188510

  18. Adenanthin targets peroxiredoxin I/II to kill hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hou, J-K; Huang, Y; He, W; Yan, Z-W; Fan, L; Liu, M-H; Xiao, W-L; Sun, H-D; Chen, G-Q

    2014-01-01

    Adenanthin, a natural diterpenoid isolated from the leaves of Isodon adenanthus, has recently been reported to induce leukemic cell differentiation by targeting peroxiredoxins (Prx) I and II. On the other hand, increasing lines of evidence propose that these Prx proteins would become potential targets to screen drugs for the prevention and treatment of solid tumors. Therefore, it is of significance to explore the potential activities of adenanthin on solid tumor cells. Here, we demonstrate that Prx I protein is essential for the survival of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, and adenanthin can kill these malignant liver cells in vitro and xenografts. We also show that the cell death-inducing activity of adenanthin on HCC cells is mediated by the increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Furthermore, the silencing of Prx I or Prx II significantly enhances the cytotoxic activity of adenanthin on HCC, whereas the ectopic expression of Prx I and Prx II but not their mutants of adenanthin-bound cysteines can rescue adenanthin-induced cytotoxicity in Prxs-silenced HCC cells. Taken together, our results propose that adenanthin targets Prx I/II to kill HCC cells and its therapeutic significance warrants to be further explored in HCC patients. PMID:25188510

  19. Oncolytic adenoviruses kill breast cancer initiating CD44+CD24-/low cells.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Minna; Guse, Kilian; Bauerschmitz, Gerd; Virkkunen, Pekka; Tarkkanen, Maija; Tanner, Minna; Hakkarainen, Tanja; Kanerva, Anna; Desmond, Renee A; Pesonen, Sari; Hemminki, Akseli

    2007-12-01

    Cancer stem cells have been indicated in the initiation of tumors and are even found to be responsible for relapses after apparently curative therapies have been undertaken. In breast cancer, they may reside in the CD44(+)CD24(-/low) population. The use of oncolytic adenoviruses presents an attractive anti-tumor approach for eradication of these cells because their entry occurs through infection and they are, therefore, not susceptible to those mechanisms that commonly render stem cells resistant to many drugs. We isolated CD44(+)CD24(-/low) cells from patient pleural effusions and confirmed stem cell-like features including oct4 and sox2 expression and Hoechst 33342 exclusion. CD44(+)CD24(-/low) cells, including the Hoechst excluding subpopulation, could be effectively killed by oncolytic adenoviruses Ad5/3-Delta24 and Ad5.pk7-Delta24. In mice, CD44(+)CD24(-/low) cells formed orthotopic breast tumors but virus infection prevented tumor formation. Ad5/3-Delta24 and Ad5.pk7-Delta24 were effective against advanced orthotopic CD44(+)CD24(-/low)-derived tumors. In summary, Ad5/3-Delta24 and Ad5.pk7-Delta24 can kill CD44(+)CD24(-/low), and also committed breast cancer cells, making them promising agents for treatment of breast cancer. PMID:17848962

  20. Regulatable killing of eukaryotic cells by the prokaryotic proteins Kid and Kis

    PubMed Central

    de la Cueva-Méndez, Guillermo; Mills, Anthony D.; Clay-Farrace, Lorena; Díaz-Orejas, Ramón; Laskey, Ronald A.

    2003-01-01

    Plasmid R1 inhibits growth of bacteria by synthesizing an inhibitor of cell proliferation, Kid, and a neutralizing antidote, Kis, which binds tightly to the toxin. Here we report that this toxin and antidote, which have evolved to function in bacteria, also function efficiently in a wide range of eukaryotes. Kid inhibits cell proliferation in yeast, Xenopus laevis and human cells, whilst Kis protects. Moreover, we show that Kid triggers apoptosis in human cells. These effects can be regulated in vivo by modulating the relative amounts of antidote and toxin using inducible eukaryotic promoters for independent transcriptional control of their genes. These findings allow highly regulatable, selective killing of eukaryotic cells, and could be applied to eliminate cancer cells or specific cell lineages in development. PMID:12514130

  1. Impact of Prolonged Fraction Delivery Times Simulating IMRT on Cultured Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cell Killing

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Xiaokang; Chen Longhua; Wang Wenjun; Ye Feng; Liu Jiabing; Li Qisheng; Sun Henwen

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact of prolonged fraction delivery times (FDTs) simulating intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) on cultured nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell killing. Methods and Material: Cultured NPC cell lines CNE1 and CNE2 were used in this study. The biological effectiveness of fractionated irradiation protocols simulating conventional external beam radiotherapy and IMRT (FDT of 15, 36, and 50 minutes) was estimated with standard colony assay, and the differences in cell surviving fractions after irradiation with different protocols were tested by use of the paired t test. The impact degree of prolonged FDTs (from 8 to 50 minutes) on cell killing was also assessed by the dose-modifying factors, which were estimated by comparing the effectiveness of intermittently delivered 2 Gy with that of continuously delivered 1.5 to 2 Gy. Results: The cell surviving fractions of both CNE1 and CNE2 after fractionated irradiation simulating IMRT were higher than those simulating conventional external beam radiotherapy (p < 0.05). The dose-modifying factors for a fraction dose of 2 Gy increased from 1.05 to 1.18 for CNE1 and from 1.05 to 1.11 for CNE2 with the FDT being prolonged from 15 to 50 minutes. Conclusions: This study showed that the prolonged FDTs simulating IMRT significantly decreased the cell killing in both CNE1 and CNE2 cell lines, and these negative effects increased with the FDT being prolonged from 15 to 50 minutes. These effects, if confirmed by in vivo and clinical studies, need to be considered in designing IMRT treatments for NPC.

  2. Biodegradable polymeric micelle-encapsulated doxorubicin suppresses tumor metastasis by killing circulating tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Senyi; Wu, Qinjie; Zhao, Yuwei; Zheng, Xin; Wu, Ni; Pang, Jing; Li, Xuejing; Bi, Cheng; Liu, Xinyu; Yang, Li; Liu, Lei; Su, Weijun; Wei, Yuquan; Gong, Changyang

    2015-03-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) play a crucial role in tumor metastasis, but it is rare for any chemotherapy regimen to focus on killing CTCs. Herein, we describe doxorubicin (Dox) micelles that showed anti-metastatic activity by killing CTCs. Dox micelles with a small particle size and high encapsulation efficiency were obtained using a pH-induced self-assembly method. Compared with free Dox, Dox micelles exhibited improved cytotoxicity, apoptosis induction, and cellular uptake. In addition, Dox micelles showed a sustained release behavior in vitro, and in a transgenic zebrafish model, Dox micelles exhibited a longer circulation time and lower extravasation from blood vessels into surrounding tissues. Anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities of Dox micelles were investigated in transgenic zebrafish and mouse models. In transgenic zebrafish, Dox micelles inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing zebrafish. Furthermore, Dox micelles suppressed tumor metastasis by killing CTCs. In addition, improved anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities were also confirmed in mouse tumor models, where immunofluorescent staining of tumors indicated that Dox micelles induced more apoptosis and showed fewer proliferation-positive cells. There were decreased side effects in transgenic zebrafish and mice after administration of Dox micelles. In conclusion, Dox micelles showed stronger anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities and decreased side effects both in vitro and in vivo, which may have potential applications in cancer therapy.

  3. Dynamic visualization the whole process of cytotoxic T lymphocytes killing the B16 tumor cells in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Shuhong; Zhang, Zhihong

    2016-03-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) played a key role in the immune system to destroy the tumor cells. Although some mechanisms of CTLs killing the tumor cells are revealed already, the dynamic information of CTLs interaction with tumor cells are still not known very clearly. Here we used confocal microscopy to visualize the whole process of CTLs killing the tumor cells in vitro. The imaging data showed that CTLs destroyed the target tumor cells rapidly and efficiently. Several CTLs surrounded one or some tumor cells and the average time for CTLs destroying one tumor cell is just a few minutes in vitro. The study displayed the temporal events of CTLs interacting with tumor cells at the beginning and finally killing them and directly presented the efficient tumor cell cytotoxicity of the CTLs. The results helped us to deeply understand the mechanism of the CTLs destroying the tumor cells and to develop the cancer immunotherapy.

  4. Vα24-invariant NKT cells mediate antitumor activity via killing of tumor-associated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Song, Liping; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Salo, Jill; Engell, Kelly; Wu, Hong-wei; Sposto, Richard; Ara, Tasnim; Silverman, Ayaka M.; DeClerck, Yves A.; Seeger, Robert C.; Metelitsa, Leonid S.

    2009-01-01

    Tumor infiltration with Vα24-invariant NKT cells (NKTs) associates with favorable outcome in neuroblastoma and other cancers. Although NKTs can be directly cytotoxic against CD1d+ cells, the majority of human tumors are CD1d–. Therefore, the role of NKTs in cancer remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CD68+ tumor-associated monocytes/macrophages (TAMs) represented the majority of CD1d-expressing cells in primary human neuroblastomas. TAMs stimulated neuroblastoma growth in human cell lines and their xenografts in NOD/SCID mice via IL-6 production. Indeed, TAMs produced IL-6 in primary tumors and in the BM of patients with metastatic neuroblastoma. Gene expression analysis using TaqMan low-density arrays of 129 primary human neuroblastomas without MYCN amplification revealed that high-level expression of TAM-specific genes (CD14, CD16, IL6, IL6R, and TGFB1) was associated with poor 5-year event-free survival. While NKTs were not cytotoxic against neuroblastoma cells, they effectively killed monocytes pulsed with tumor cell lysate. The killing of monocytes was CD1d restricted because it was inhibited by a CD1d-specific mAb. Cotransfer of human monocytes and NKTs to tumor-bearing NOD/SCID mice decreased monocyte number at the tumor site and suppressed tumor growth compared with mice transferred with monocytes alone. Thus, killing of TAMs reveals what we believe to be a novel mechanism of NKT antitumor activity that relates to the disease outcome. PMID:19411762

  5. Killing of targets by effector CD8 T cells in the mouse spleen follows the law of mass action

    SciTech Connect

    Ganusov, Vitaly V

    2009-01-01

    In contrast with antibody-based vaccines, it has been difficult to measure the efficacy of T cell-based vaccines and to correlate the efficacy of CD8 T cell responses with protection again viral infections. In part, this difficulty is due to poor understanding of the in vivo efficacy of CD8 T cells produced by vaccination. Using a: recently developed experimental method of in vivo cytotoxicity we have investigated quantitative aspects of killing of peptide-pulsed targets by effector and memory CD8 T cells, specific to three epitopes of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), in the mouse spleen. By analyzing data on killing of targets with varying number of epitope-specific effector and memory CD8 T cells, we find that killing of targets by effectors follows the law of mass-action, that is the death rate of peptide-pulsed targets is proportional to the frequency of CTLs in the spleen. In contrast, killing of targets by memory CD8 T cells does not follow the mass action law because the death rate of targets saturates at high frequencies of memory CD8 T cells. For both effector and memory cells, we also find little support for the killing term that includes the decrease of the death rate of targets with target cell density. Interestingly, our analysis suggests that at low CD8 T cell frequencies, memory CD8 T cells on the per capita basis are more efficient at killing peptide-pulsed targets than effectors, but at high frequencies, effectors are more efficient killers than memory T cells. Comparison of the estimated killing efficacy of effector T cells with the value that is predicted from theoretical physics and based on motility of T cells in lymphoid tissues, suggests that limiting step in the killing of peptide-pulsed targets is delivering the lethal hit and not finding the target. Our results thus form a basis for quantitative understanding of the process of killing of virus-infected cells by T cell responses in tissues and can be used to correlate the

  6. Repurposing a Prokaryotic Toxin-Antitoxin System for the Selective Killing of Oncogenically Stressed Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Preston, Mark A; Pimentel, Belén; Bermejo-Rodríguez, Camino; Dionne, Isabelle; Turnbull, Alice; de la Cueva-Méndez, Guillermo

    2016-07-15

    Prokaryotes express intracellular toxins that pass unnoticed to carrying cells until coexpressed antitoxin partners are degraded in response to stress. Although not evolved to function in eukaryotes, one of these toxins, Kid, induces apoptosis in mammalian cells, an effect that is neutralized by its cognate antitoxin, Kis. Here we engineered this toxin-antitoxin pair to create a synthetic system that becomes active in human cells suffering a specific oncogenic stress. Inspired by the way Kid becomes active in bacterial cells, we produced a Kis variant that is selectively degraded in human cells expressing oncoprotein E6. The resulting toxin-antitoxin system functions autonomously in human cells, distinguishing those that suffer the oncogenic insult, which are killed by Kid, from those that do not, which remain protected by Kis. Our results provide a framework for developing personalized anticancer strategies avoiding off-target effects, a challenge that has been hardly tractable by other means thus far. PMID:26230535

  7. TH17 cells promote microbial killing and innate immune sensing of DNA via interleukin 26

    PubMed Central

    Meller, Stephan; Domizio, Jeremy Di; Voo, Kui S; Friedrich, Heike C; Chamilos, Georgios; Ganguly, Dipyaman; Conrad, Curdin; Gregorio, Josh; Roy, Didier Le; Roger, Thierry; Ladbury, John E; Homey, Bernhard; Watowich, Stanley; Modlin, Robert L; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Liu, Yong-Jun; Arold, Stefan T; Gilliet, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin 17–producing helper T cells (TH17 cells) have a major role in protection against infections and in mediating autoimmune diseases, yet the mechanisms involved are incompletely understood. We found that interleukin 26 (IL-26), a human TH17 cell–derived cytokine, is a cationic amphipathic protein that kills extracellular bacteria via membrane-pore formation. Furthermore, TH17 cell–derived IL-26 formed complexes with bacterial DNA and self-DNA released by dying bacteria and host cells. The resulting IL-26–DNA complexes triggered the production of type I interferon by plasmacytoid dendritic cells via activation of Toll-like receptor 9, but independently of the IL-26 receptor. These findings provide insights into the potent antimicrobial and proinflammatory function of TH17 cells by showing that IL-26 is a natural human antimicrobial that promotes immune sensing of bacterial and host cell death. PMID:26168081

  8. Enhancing cell kill in vitro from hyperthermia through pre-sensitizing with ultrasound-stimulated microbubbles

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal, Goutam; Oelze, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound-stimulated microbubbles (MBs) were demonstrated to enhance cell kill from hyperthermia. Definity MBs were injected into wells containing 4T1 cells in culture media and scanned with 1-MHz ultrasound, an exposure duration of 30 s and a negative pressure of 0.5 or 1.3 MPa. Some cell samples were placed in a water bath heated to 42 °C for 5 min. Cell death was quantified. When combining MBs, ultrasound at 1.3 MPa and hyperthermia, more than 58.8% ± 7.21% of cells were nonviable. When exposed to hyperthermia alone or exposure to MBs and ultrasound but no hyperthermia, cell death was less than 10.1% ± 6.96% and 30.1% ± 10.8%, respectively. PMID:26723356

  9. Tumor cell-specific photothermal killing by SELEX-derived DNA aptamer-targeted gold nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekaran, Ramya; Lee, Alexander Sheng Wei; Yap, Lim Wei; Jans, David A.; Wagstaff, Kylie M.; Cheng, Wenlong

    2015-12-01

    Despite widespread availability of cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents, the killing of tumour cells without affecting healthy surrounding tissue remains elusive, although recent developments in terms of plasmonic nanoparticles capable of photothermal killing have some promise. Here we describe novel DNA aptamer-tethered gold nanorods (GNRs) that act as efficient photothermal therapeutics against tumour cells, but not their isogenic normal cell counterparts. A modified Cell-SELEX process was developed to select a novel DNA aptamer (KW16-13) that specifically recognised and was internalised by cells of the MCF10CA1h human breast ductal carcinoma line but not by those of its isogenic normal counterpart (MCF10A). GNRs conjugated to KW16-13 were readily internalized by the MCF10CA1h tumour cells with minimal uptake by MCF10A normal cells. Upon near infrared (NIR) light irradiation, tumour cell death of >96%, could be effected, compared to <1% in the normal cells or cells incubated with GNRs alone, our KW16-13 aptamer-targeted GNRs thus showing >71-fold tumor cell death than GNRs-targeted with a previously described aptamer. This demonstrates the significant potential for aptamer functionalised-GNRs to be used effective and above all selective anti-cancer photothermal therapeutics.Despite widespread availability of cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents, the killing of tumour cells without affecting healthy surrounding tissue remains elusive, although recent developments in terms of plasmonic nanoparticles capable of photothermal killing have some promise. Here we describe novel DNA aptamer-tethered gold nanorods (GNRs) that act as efficient photothermal therapeutics against tumour cells, but not their isogenic normal cell counterparts. A modified Cell-SELEX process was developed to select a novel DNA aptamer (KW16-13) that specifically recognised and was internalised by cells of the MCF10CA1h human breast ductal carcinoma line but not by those of its isogenic normal

  10. Functional Interrelationships between Cell Membrane and Cell Wall in Antimicrobial Peptide-Mediated Killing of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yan Q.; Mukhopadhyay, Kasturi; Yeaman, Michael R.; Adler-Moore, Jill; Bayer, Arnold S.

    2005-01-01

    Perturbation of the Staphylococcus aureus cytoplasmic membrane (CM) is felt to play a key role in the microbicidal mechanism of many antimicrobial peptides (APs). However, it is not established whether membrane permeabilization (MP) alone is sufficient to kill susceptible staphylococci or if the cell wall (CW) and/or intracellular targets contribute to AP-induced lethality. We hypothesized that the relationships between MP and killing may differ for distinct APs. In this study, we investigated the association between AP-induced MP and lethality in S. aureus whole cells versus CW-free protoplasts, and in comparison to the MP of liposomes modeled after whole CMs in terms of phospholipid composition, fluidity and charge. Four APs with different structure-activity relationships were examined: thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein 1 (tPMP-1), human neutrophil protein 1 (hNP-1), gramicidin D, and polymyxin B. MP was quantified fluorometrically by calcein release. All APs tested, except polymyxin B, caused concentration-dependent MP and killing of whole cells, but not of protoplasts. The reduced AP susceptibility of protoplasts was associated with increased cardiolipin and lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol content and reduced fluidity of their CMs. However, liposomal MP induced by tPMP-1, hNP-1, and gramicidin D paralleled that of whole cells. Collectively, these results indicate that (i) structurally distinct APs likely exert their staphylocidal effects by differing mechanisms, (ii) MP is not the sole event leading to AP-induced staphylocidal activity, (iii) a complex interrelationship exists between the CM and CW in AP-induced killing, and (iv) liposomes modeled upon whole cell or protoplast CMs can recapitulate the respective susceptibilities to killing by distinct APs. PMID:16048912

  11. Human regulatory T cells kill tumor cells through granzyme-dependent cytotoxicity upon retargeting with a bispecific antibody.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bryan D; Gedeon, Patrick C; Herndon, James E; Archer, Gary E; Reap, Elizabeth A; Sanchez-Perez, Luis; Mitchell, Duane A; Bigner, Darell D; Sampson, John H

    2013-09-01

    A major mechanism by which human regulatory T cells (T(regs)) have been shown to suppress and kill autologous immune cells is through the granzyme-perforin pathway. However, it is unknown whether T(regs) also possess the capacity to kill tumor cells using similar mechanisms. Bispecific antibodies (bscAbs) have emerged as a promising class of therapeutics that activate T cells against tumor antigens without the need for classical MHC-restricted TCR recognition. Here, we show that a bscAb targeting the tumor-specific mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFRvIII, redirects human CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T(regs) to kill glioblastoma (GBM) cells. This activity was significantly abrogated by inhibitors of the granzyme-perforin pathway. Notably, analyses of human primary GBM also displayed diffuse infiltration of granzyme-expressing FoxP3(+) T cells. Together, these data suggest that despite their known suppressive functions, tumor-infiltrating T(regs) possess potent cytotoxic mechanisms that can be co-opted for efficient tumor cell lysis. PMID:24570975

  12. Piperlongumine treatment inactivates peroxiredoxin 4, exacerbates endoplasmic reticulum stress, and preferentially kills high-grade glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Hyong; Song, Jieun; Kim, Sung-Hak; Parikh, Arav Krishnavadan; Mo, Xiaokui; Palanichamy, Kamalakannan; Kaur, Balveen; Yu, Jianhua; Yoon, Sung Ok; Nakano, Ichiro; Kwon, Chang-Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Backgrounds Piperlongumine, a natural plant product, kills multiple cancer types with little effect on normal cells. Piperlongumine raises intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a phenomenon that may underlie the cancer-cell killing. Although these findings suggest that piperlongumine could be useful for treating cancers, the mechanism by which the drug selectively kills cancer cells remains unknown. Methods We treated multiple high-grade glioma (HGG) sphere cultures with piperlongumine and assessed its effects on ROS and cell-growth levels as well as changes in downstream signaling. We also examined the levels of putative piperlongumine targets and their roles in HGG cell growth. Results Piperlongumine treatment increased ROS levels and preferentially killed HGG cells with little effect in normal brain cells. Piperlongumine reportedly increases ROS levels after interactions with several redox regulators. We found that HGG cells expressed higher levels of the putative piperlongumine targets than did normal neural stem cells (NSCs). Furthermore, piperlongumine treatment in HGG cells, but not in normal NSCs, increased oxidative inactivation of peroxiredoxin 4 (PRDX4), an ROS-reducing enzyme that is overexpressed in HGGs and facilitates proper protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Moreover, piperlongumine exacerbated intracellular ER stress, an effect that was mimicked by suppressing PRDX4 expression. Conclusions Our results reveal that the mechanism by which piperlongumine preferentially kills HGG cells involves PRDX4 inactivation, thereby inducing ER stress. Therefore, piperlongumine treatment could be considered as a novel therapeutic option for HGG treatment. PMID:24879047

  13. Killing of human lung cancer cells using a new ( sup 111 In)bleomycin complex ( sup 111 In)BLMC

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, D.Y.; Hamburger, A.W.; Beach, J.L.; Maruyama, Y. )

    1989-01-01

    The ability of a ({sup 111}In)bleomycin complex (({sup 111}In)BLMC) to kill five cell lines of human lung cancer (small cell lung cancer) was investigated. Cells were exposed to either 0.9% NaCl, ({sup 111}In)Cl3, BLM, ({sup 111}In)BLMC, nonradioactive InCl3, or In-BLMC for 60 minutes, plated in soft agarose, and assessed for colony formation. ({sup 111}In)BLMC (40-200 microCi carried by 15-25 micrograms BLM/ml) was more cytotoxic than BLM (15-25 micrograms BLM/ml) by a factor of 1.6-5.3 for five cell lines. The percent survival of N417 cells was 28.4 for ({sup 111}In)BLMC (40 microCi/15 micrograms BLM/ml) and 54.3 for BLM (15 micrograms/ml); 1.9 for ({sup 111}In)BLMC (200 microCi/25 micrograms BLM/ml), and 10.0 for BLM (25 micrograms/ml). {sup 111}InCl3 (200 microCi/ml) and nonradioactive InCl3 failed to inhibit colony formation. The new ({sup 111}In)BLMC may be useful for therapy of some lung cancer patients.

  14. Design Parameters for Granzyme-Mediated Cytotoxic Lymphocyte Target-Cell Killing and Specificity.

    PubMed

    Woodsworth, Daniel J; Dunsing, Valentin; Coombs, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Cytotoxic lymphocytes are key elements of the immune system that are primarily responsible for targeting cells infected with intracellular pathogens, or cells that have become malignantly transformed. Target cells are killed mainly via lymphocyte exocytosis of specialized lysosomes containing perforin, a pore-forming protein, and granzymes, which are proteases that induce apoptosis. Due to its central role in lymphocyte biology, as well as its implication in a host of pathologies from cancer to autoimmunity, the granzyme-perforin pathway has been the subject of extensive investigation. Nevertheless, the details of exactly how granzyme and perforin cooperate to induce target-cell death remain controversial. To further investigate this system, we developed a biophysical model of the immunological synapse between a cytotoxic lymphocyte and a target cell using a spatial stochastic simulation algorithm. We used this model to calculate the spatiotemporal evolution of granzyme B and perforin from the time of their exocytosis to granzyme internalization by the target cell. We used a metric of granzyme internalization to delineate which biological processes were critical for successful target-cell lysis. We found that the high aspect ratio of the immunological synapse was insufficient in this regard, and that molecular crowding within the synapse is critical to preserve sufficient concentrations of perforin and granzyme for consistent pore formation and granzyme transfer to target cells. However, even when pore formation occurs in our model, a large amount of both granzyme and perforin still escape from the synapse. We argue that a tight seal between the cytotoxic lymphocyte and its target cell is not required to avoid bystander killing. Instead, we propose that the requirement for spatiotemporal colocalization of granzyme and perforin acts as an effective bimolecular filter to ensure target specificity. PMID:26244730

  15. DNA polymerase activity in heat killing and hyperthermic radiosensitization of mammalian cells as observed after fractionated heat treatments.

    PubMed

    Jorritsma, J B; Burgman, P; Kampinga, H H; Konings, A W

    1986-03-01

    Possible relations between hyperthermic inactivation of alpha and beta DNA polymerase activity and hyperthermic cell killing or hyperthermic radiosensitization were investigated. Ehrlich Ascites Tumor (EAT) cells and HeLa S3 cells were treated with fractionated doses of hyperthermia. The heating schedules were chosen such that the initial heat treatment resulted in either thermotolerance or thermosensitization (step-down heating) for the second heat treatment. The results show that for DNA polymerase activity and heat radiosensitization (cell survival) no thermotolerance or thermosensitization is observed. Thus hyperthermic cell killing and DNA polymerase activity are not correlated. The correlation of hyperthermic radiosensitization and DNA polymerase activity was substantially less than observed in previous experiments with normotolerant and thermotolerant HeLa S3 cells. We conclude that alpha and beta DNA polymerase inactivation is not always the critical cellular process responsible for hyperthermic cell killing or hyperthermic radiosensitization. Other possible cellular systems that might determine these processes are discussed. PMID:3754338

  16. TRAIL-coated leukocytes that kill cancer cells in the circulation

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Michael J.; Wayne, Elizabeth; Rana, Kuldeepsinh; Schaffer, Chris B.; King, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis through the bloodstream contributes to poor prognosis in many types of cancer. Mounting evidence implicates selectin-based adhesive interactions between cancer cells and the blood vessel wall as facilitating this process, in a manner similar to leukocyte trafficking during inflammation. Here, we describe a unique approach to target and kill colon and prostate cancer cells in the blood that causes circulating leukocytes to present the cancer-specific TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) on their surface along with E-selectin adhesion receptor. This approach, demonstrated in vitro with human blood and also in mice, mimics the cytotoxic activity of natural killer cells and increases the surface area available for delivery of the receptor-mediated signal. The resulting “unnatural killer cells” hold promise as an effective means to neutralize circulating tumor cells that enter blood with the potential to form new metastases. PMID:24395803

  17. Comparative susceptibility of peripheral blood leucocytes and related cell lines to killing by T-cell perforin.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, J; Morgan, B P

    1994-01-01

    The comparative susceptibility of lymphocyte subsets, monocytes and polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) to killing by murine perforin was measured using physical separation techniques, cell-surface phenotyping and scatter characteristics to isolate cell types, together with propidium iodide (PI) uptake as a measure of cell death. In the majority of individuals, PMN were more resistant to perforin than other peripheral blood cells including natural killer (NK) cells and CD8+ lymphocytes. Among the lymphocytes, CD4+ cells were the most susceptible subset, followed by CD19+, CD8+ and CD56+ lymphocytes respectively. The human promyelocytic leukaemia cell line, HL-60, and the human histiocytic lymphoma cell line, U937, were readily killed by perforin. When HL-60 were differentiated to either macrophage- or neutrophil-like end cells, and U937 differentiated to macrophage-like end cells, there was no difference between differentiated and undifferentiated cells in their relative susceptibility to perforin. The relative resistance of PMN to perforin may be important in protecting them from damage in in vivo situations where both NK cells and neutrophils are localized in the same inflammatory areas. PMID:7835917

  18. Measurement of DNA damage and cell killing in Chinese hamster V79 cells irradiated with aluminum characteristic ultrasoft X rays

    SciTech Connect

    Prise, K.M.; Folkard, M.; Davies, S.; Michael, B.D.

    1989-03-01

    Chinese hamster V79 cells were irradiated with 1.487 keV aluminum characteristic X rays produced using a cold-cathode discharge tube. Under aerobic conditions a relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 2.18 for cell killing in comparison to 250-kVp X rays was measured using cells grown in suspension and irradiated on membrane filters. DNA damage in the form of single-strand (ssb) and double-strand breaks (dsb) was measured using the filter elution technique. The aerobic RBEs are 1.64 for dsb induction and 0.49 for ssb induction, consistent with the view that dsb are more closely related to cell kill than ssb. A reduced oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) for cell killing was measured for Al-K X rays, but the OER for dsb induction was similar to that measured for 250-kVp X rays. A curvilinear relationship between dsb induction and dose is observed, similar to that seen for 250-kVp X rays. This agrees with the concept that ultrasoft X rays produce critical lesions similar to hard X rays but with a greater efficiency per unit dose.

  19. Thiolated-2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine protected silver nanoparticles as novel photo-induced cell-killing agents.

    PubMed

    Sangsuwan, Arunee; Kawasaki, Hideya; Iwasaki, Yasuhiko

    2016-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have several medical applications as antimicrobial agents such as in drug delivery and cancer therapy. However, AgNPs are of limited use because of their toxicity, which may damage the surrounding healthy tissue. In this study, thiolated-2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC-SH) protected silver nanoparticles (MPC-AgNPs) are prepared as cell-killing agents under UV irradiation. MPC-AgNPs are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-visible spectrophotometry. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of MPC-AgNPs is observed at 404nm, and the average diameter of the particles is determined at 13.4±2.2nm through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and at 18.4nm (PDI=0.18) through dynamic light scattering (DLS). Cell viability in contact with MPC-AgNPs is relatively high, and MPC-AgNPs also exhibit a cell-killing effect under UV irradiation. PMID:26752209

  20. Synergistic killing effect of chloroquine and androgen deprivation in LNCaP cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kaini, Ramesh R.; Hu, Chien-An A.

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chloroquine synergistically killed LNCaP cells during androgen deprivation treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chloroquine inhibited the function of autolysosomes and decreases the cytosolic ATP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chloroquine induced nuclear and DNA fragmentation in androgen deprived LNCaP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chloroquine may be an useful adjuvant in hormone ablation therapy in PCa patients. -- Abstract: Modulation of autophagy is a new paradigm in cancer therapeutics. Recently a novel function of chloroquine (CLQ) in inhibiting degradation of autophagic vesicles has been revealed, which raises the question whether CLQ can be used as an adjuvant in targeting autophagic pro-survival mechanism in prostate cancer (PCa). We previously showed that autophagy played a protective role during hormone ablation therapy, in part, by consuming lipid droplets in PCa cells. In addition, blocking autophagy by genetic and pharmacological means in the presence of androgen deprivation caused cell death in PCa cells. To further investigate the importance of autophagy in PCa survival and dissect the role of CLQ in PCa death, we treated hormone responsive LNCaP cells with CLQ in combination with androgen deprivation. We observed that CLQ synergistically killed LNCaP cells during androgen deprivation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We further confirmed that CLQ inhibited the maturation of autophagic vesicles and decreased the cytosolic ATP. Moreover, CLQ induced nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation, a hallmark of apoptosis, in androgen deprived LNCaP cells. Taken together, our finding suggests that CLQ may be an useful adjuvant in hormone ablation therapy to improve the therapeutic efficacy.

  1. Sticky Patches on Lipid Nanoparticles Enable the Selective Targeting and Killing of Untargetable Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Sempkowski, Michelle; Zhu, Charles; Menzenski, Monica Zofia; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Morgenstern, Alfred; Sofou, Stavroula

    2016-08-23

    Effective targeting by uniformly functionalized nanoparticles is limited to cancer cells expressing at least two copies of targeted receptors per nanoparticle footprint (approximately ≥2 × 10(5) receptor copies per cell); such a receptor density supports the required multivalent interaction between the neighboring receptors and the ligands from a single nanoparticle. To enable selective targeting below this receptor density, ligands on the surface of lipid vesicles were displayed in clusters that were designed to form at the acidic pH of the tumor interstitium. Vesicles with clustered HER2-targeting peptides within such sticky patches (sticky vesicles) were compared to uniformly functionalized vesicles. On HER2-negative breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 {expressing (8.3 ± 0.8) × 10(4) and (5.4 ± 0.9) × 10(4) HER2 copies per cell, respectively}, only the sticky vesicles exhibited detectable specific targeting (KD ≈ 49-69 nM); dissociation (0.005-0.009 min(-1)) and endocytosis rates (0.024-0.026 min(-1)) were independent of HER2 expression for these cells. MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 were killed only by sticky vesicles encapsulating doxorubicin (32-40% viability) or α-particle emitter (225)Ac (39-58% viability) and were not affected by uniformly functionalized vesicles (>80% viability). Toxicities on cardiomyocytes and normal breast cells (expressing HER2 at considerably lower but not insignificant levels) were not observed, suggesting the potential of tunable clustered ligand display for the selective killing of cancer cells with low receptor densities. PMID:27468779

  2. Selective killing of methotrexate-resistant cells carrying amplified dihydrofolate reductase genes

    SciTech Connect

    Urlaub, G.; Landzberg, M.; Chasin, L.A.

    1981-05-01

    A method for the selective killing of methotrexate (MTX)-resistant cells has been developed. The selection is based on the incorporation of tritiated deoxyuridine into the DNA of MTX-resistant cells but not normal MTX-sensitive cells in the presence of the drug. A Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant that overproduces dihydrofolate reductase was used as an example of a MTX-resistant cell line. In this system, a 10,000-fold enrichment for wild-type MTX-sensitive cells could be achieved after 24 hr of exposure to the drug combination. This selection technique was applied to the isolation of MTX-sensitive segregants from hybrid cells formed between the MTX-resistant mutant and wild-type cells. The loss of MTX resistance and dihydrofolate reductase overproduction was always accompanied by the loss of a homogeneously staining region on chromosome 2 of the resistant parent that contains the amplified genes specifying this enzyme. While this region is always lost, other parts of chromosome 2 are almost always retained, suggesting that deletion rather than chromosome loss underlies marker segregation in this case. When the selection was applied to the resistant mutant itself, no MTX-sensitive revertants were obtained among 10(5) cells screened, attesting to the stability of gene amplification in this clone. It is suggested that this combination of drugs may be useful for the elimination of MTX-resistant tumor cells that develop after MTX chemotherapy.

  3. Decitabine Treatment of Glioma-Initiating Cells Enhances Immune Recognition and Killing.

    PubMed

    Riccadonna, Cristina; Yacoub Maroun, Céline; Vuillefroy de Silly, Romain; Boehler, Margaux; Calvo Tardón, Marta; Jueliger, Simone; Taverna, Pietro; Barba, Leticia; Marinari, Eliana; Pellegatta, Serena; Bassoy, Esen Yonca; Martinvalet, Denis; Dietrich, Pierre-Yves; Walker, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are aggressive brain tumours with very poor prognosis. The majority of glioma cells are differentiated (glioma-differentiated cells: GDCs), whereas the smaller population (glioma-initiating cells, GICs) is undifferentiated and resistant to conventional therapies. Therefore, to better target this pool of heterogeneous cells, a combination of diverse therapeutic approaches is envisaged. Here we investigated whether the immunosensitising properties of the hypomethylating agent decitabine can be extended to GICs. Using the murine GL261 cell line, we demonstrate that decitabine augments the expression of the death receptor FAS both on GDCs and GICs. Interestingly, it had a higher impact on GICs and correlated with an enhanced sensitivity to FASL-mediated cell death. Moreover, the expression of other critical molecules involved in cognate recognition by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, MHCI and ICAM-1, was upregulated by decitabine treatment. Consequently, T-cell mediated killing of both GDCs and GICs was enhanced, as was T cell proliferation after reactivation. Overall, although GICs are described to resist classical therapies, our study shows that hypomethylating agents have the potential to enhance glioma cell recognition and subsequent destruction by immune cells, regardless of their differentiation status. These results support the development of combinatorial treatment modalities including epigenetic modulation together with immunotherapy in order to treat heterogenous malignancies such as glioblastoma. PMID:27579489

  4. The multikinase inhibitor Sorafenib enhances glycolysis and synergizes with glycolysis blockade for cancer cell killing

    PubMed Central

    Tesori, Valentina; Piscaglia, Anna Chiara; Samengo, Daniela; Barba, Marta; Bernardini, Camilla; Scatena, Roberto; Pontoglio, Alessandro; Castellini, Laura; Spelbrink, Johannes N.; Maulucci, Giuseppe; Puglisi, Maria Ausiliatrice; Pani, Giovambattista; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Although the only effective drug against primary hepatocarcinoma, the multikinase inhibitor Sorafenib (SFB) usually fails to eradicate liver cancer. Since SFB targets mitochondria, cell metabolic reprogramming may underlie intrinsic tumor resistance. To characterize cancer cell metabolic response to SFB, we measured oxygen consumption, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ATP content in rat LCSC (Liver Cancer Stem Cells) -2 cells exposed to the drug. Genome wide analysis of gene expression was performed by Affymetrix technology. SFB cytotoxicity was evaluated by multiple assays in the presence or absence of metabolic inhibitors, or in cells genetically depleted of mitochondria. We found that low concentrations (2.5–5 μM) of SFB had a relatively modest effect on LCSC-2 or 293 T cell growth, but damaged mitochondria and increased intracellular ROS. Gene expression profiling of SFB-treated cells was consistent with a shift toward aerobic glycolysis and, accordingly, SFB cytotoxicity was dramatically increased by glucose withdrawal or the glycolytic inhibitor 2-DG. Under metabolic stress, activation of the AMP dependent Protein Kinase (AMPK), but not ROS blockade, protected cells from death. We conclude that mitochondrial damage and ROS drive cell killing by SFB, while glycolytic cell reprogramming may represent a resistance strategy potentially targetable by combination therapies. PMID:25779766

  5. Neutrophil killing of human umbilical vein endothelial cells is oxygen radical-mediated and enhanced by TNF-. alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Dame, M.K.; Varani, J.; Weinberg, J.M.; Ward, P.A. )

    1991-03-11

    Human umbilical vein endothelial cells are sensitive to killing by activated human neutrophils. Killing is inhibited in the presence of catalase and deferoxamine mesylate but not soybean trypsin inhibitor. Reagent hydrogen peroxide can substitute for activated neutrophils in producing endothelial cell injury. These data suggest that lethal injury is due to the production of oxygen radicals by activated neutrophils. In these respects, the human umbilical vein endothelial cells are similar to rat pulmonary artery endothelial cells in that pretreatment with TNF-{alpha} increases sensitivity to injury by activated neutrophils. In part, the increased endothelial cell sensitivity to killing by neutrophils may be due to up-regulation of surface adhesion molecules. However, it was observed that cells passaged more than two times in culture did not demonstrate increased killing after treatment with TNF-{alpha} while up-regulation of neutrophil adhesion could be detected through several additional passages. Although the human umbilical vein endothelial cells are qualitatively similar to rat pulmonary artery endothelial cells in their sensitivity to killing, they are quantitatively much more resistant. What accounts for the relative resistance of the human umbilical vein endothelial cells is not fully understood. In the rat pulmonary artery endothelial cells, killing is known to be dependent on an intraendothelial source of iron. Pre-treatment of the human umbilical vein endothelial cells with 8-hydroxyquinoline-bound iron increased their sensitivity to oxidant injury. These data suggest that the availability of iron within the human umbilical vein endothelial cells may be a limiting factor in sensitivity to oxygen radical-mediated injury.

  6. Human monocytes kill M-CSF-expressing glioma cells by BK channel activation.

    PubMed

    Hoa, Neil T; Zhang, Jian Gang; Delgado, Christina L; Myers, Michael P; Callahan, Linda L; Vandeusen, Gerald; Schiltz, Patric M; Wepsic, H Terry; Jadus, Martin R

    2007-02-01

    In this study, human monocytes/macrophages were observed to kill human U251 glioma cells expressing membrane macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mM-CSF) via a swelling and vacuolization process called paraptosis. Human monocytes responded to the mM-CSF-transduced U251 glioma cells, but not to viral vector control U251 glioma cells (U251-VV), by producing a respiratory burst within 20 min. Using patch clamp techniques, functional big potassium (BK) channels were observed on the membrane of the U251 glioma cell. It has been previously reported that oxygen indirectly regulates BK channel function. In this study, it was demonstrated that prolonged BK channel activation in response to the respiratory burst induced by monocytes initiates paraptosis in selected glioma cells. Forced BK channel opening within the glioma cells by BK channel activators (phloretin or pimaric acid) induced U251 glioma cell swelling and vacuolization occurred within 30 min. U251 glioma cell cytotoxicity, induced by using BK channel activators, required between 8 and 12 h. Swelling and vacuolization induced by phloretin and pimaric acid was prevented by iberiotoxin, a specific BK channel inhibitor. Confocal fluorescence microscopy demonstrated BK channels co-localized with the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, the two targeted organelles affected in paraptosis. Iberiotoxin prevented monocytes from producing death in mM-CSF-expressing U251glioma cells in a 24 h assay. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism whereby monocytes can induce paraptosis via the disruption of internal potassium ion homeostasis. PMID:17318194

  7. The requirement for DNAM-1, NKG2D, and NKp46 in the natural killer cell-mediated killing of myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbiny, Yasser M; Meade, Josephine L; Holmes, Tim D; McGonagle, Dennis; Mackie, Sarah L; Morgan, Ann W; Cook, Gordon; Feyler, Sylvia; Richards, Stephen J; Davies, Faith E; Morgan, Gareth J; Cook, Graham P

    2007-09-15

    Recent evidence suggests a role for natural killer (NK) cells in the control of multiple myeloma. We show that expression of the NK cell receptor DNAM-1 (CD226) is reduced on CD56(dim) NK cells from myeloma patients with active disease compared with patients in remission and healthy controls. This suggested that this receptor might play a role in NK-myeloma interactions. The DNAM-1 ligands Nectin-2 (CD112) and the poliovirus receptor (PVR; CD155) were expressed by most patient myeloma samples analyzed. NK killing of patient-derived myelomas expressing PVR and/or Nectin-2 was DNAM-1 dependent, revealing a functional role for DNAM-1 in myeloma cell killing. In myeloma cell lines, cell surface expression of PVR was associated with low levels of NKG2D ligands, whereas cells expressing high levels of NKG2D ligands did not express PVR protein or mRNA. Furthermore, NK cell-mediated killing of myeloma cell lines was dependent on either DNAM-1 or NKG2D but not both molecules. In contrast, the natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp46 was required for the killing of all myeloma cell lines analyzed. Thus, DNAM-1 is important in the NK cell-mediated killing of myeloma cells expressing the cognate ligands. The importance of NKp46, NKG2D, and DNAM-1 in myeloma killing mirrors the differential expression of NK cell ligands by myeloma cells, reflecting immune selection during myeloma disease progression. PMID:17875681

  8. Can the two mechanisms of tumor cell killing by radiation be exploited for therapeutic gain?

    PubMed

    Chapman, J D

    2014-01-01

    The radiation killing of tumor cells by ionizing radiation is best described by the linear-quadratic (LQ) model. Research into the underlying mechanisms of α- and β-inactivation has suggested that different molecular targets (DNA in different forms) and different microdosimetric energy deposits (spurs versus electron track-ends) are involved. Clinical protocols with fractionated doses of about 2.0 Gy/day were defined empirically, and we now know that they produce cancer cures mainly by the α-inactivation mechanism. Radiobiology studies indicate that α and β mechanisms exhibit widely different characteristics that should be addressed upfront as clinical fractionation schemes are altered. As radiation treatments attempt to exploit the advantages of larger dose fractions over shorter treatment times, the LQ model can be used to predict iso-effective tumor cell killing and possibly iso-effective normal tissue complications. Linking best estimates of radiobiology and tumor biology parameters with tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models will enable us to improve and optimize cancer treatment protocols, delivering no more fractions than are strictly necessary for a high therapeutic ratio. PMID:24105710

  9. Sorafenib/Regorafenib and Lapatinib interact to kill CNS tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Hamed, Hossein A.; Tavallai, Seyedmehrad; Grant, Steven; Poklepovic, Andrew; Dent, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The present studies were to determine whether the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib or its derivative regorafenib interacted with the ERBB1/ERBB2 inhibitor lapatinib to kill CNS tumor cells. In multiple CNS tumor cell types sorafenib and lapatinib interacted in a greater than additive fashion to cause tumor cell death. Tumor cells lacking PTEN, and anoikis or lapatinib resistant cells were as sensitive to the drug combination as cells expressing PTEN or parental cells, respectively. Similar data were obtained using regorafenib. Treatment of brain cancer cells with [sorafenib + lapatinib] enhanced radiation toxicity. The drug combination increased the numbers of LC3-GFP vesicles; this correlated with a reduction in endogenous LC3II, and p62 and LAMP2 degradation. Knock down of Beclin1 or ATG5 significantly suppressed drug combination lethality. Expression of c-FLIP-s, BCL-XL or dominant negative caspase 9 reduced drug combination toxicity; knock down of FADD or CD95 was protective. Expression of both activated AKT and activated MEK1 or activated mTOR was required to strongly suppress drug combination lethality. As both lapatinib and sorafenib are FDA approved agents, our data argue for further determination as to whether lapatinib and sorafenib is a useful glioblastoma therapy. PMID:24911215

  10. A Numerical Investigation of the Electric and Thermal Cell Kill Distributions in Electroporation-Based Therapies in Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Paulo A.; Davalos, Rafael V.; Miklavcic, Damijan

    2014-01-01

    Electroporation-based therapies are powerful biotechnological tools for enhancing the delivery of exogeneous agents or killing tissue with pulsed electric fields (PEFs). Electrochemotherapy (ECT) and gene therapy based on gene electrotransfer (EGT) both use reversible electroporation to deliver chemotherapeutics or plasmid DNA into cells, respectively. In both ECT and EGT, the goal is to permeabilize the cell membrane while maintaining high cell viability in order to facilitate drug or gene transport into the cell cytoplasm and induce a therapeutic response. Irreversible electroporation (IRE) results in cell kill due to exposure to PEFs without drugs and is under clinical evaluation for treating otherwise unresectable tumors. These PEF therapies rely mainly on the electric field distributions and do not require changes in tissue temperature for their effectiveness. However, in immediate vicinity of the electrodes the treatment may results in cell kill due to thermal damage because of the inhomogeneous electric field distribution and high current density during the electroporation-based therapies. Therefore, the main objective of this numerical study is to evaluate the influence of pulse number and electrical conductivity in the predicted cell kill zone due to irreversible electroporation and thermal damage. Specifically, we simulated a typical IRE protocol that employs ninety 100-µs PEFs. Our results confirm that it is possible to achieve predominant cell kill due to electroporation if the PEF parameters are chosen carefully. However, if either the pulse number and/or the tissue conductivity are too high, there is also potential to achieve cell kill due to thermal damage in the immediate vicinity of the electrodes. Therefore, it is critical for physicians to be mindful of placement of electrodes with respect to critical tissue structures and treatment parameters in order to maintain the non-thermal benefits of electroporation and prevent unnecessary damage to

  11. T cells raised against allogeneic HLA-A2/CD20 kill primary follicular lymphoma and acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsen, Ingerid Weum; Kjellevoll, Synneva; Greve-Isdahl, Margrethe; Mensali, Nadia; Wälchli, Sébastien; Kumari, Shraddha; Loland, Beate Fossum; Egeland, Torstein; Kolstad, Arne; Olweus, Johanna

    2012-04-15

    T cells mediating a graft-versus-leukemia/lymphoma effects without causing graft-versus-host disease would greatly improve the safety and applicability of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We recently demonstrated that highly peptide- and HLA-specific T cells can readily be generated against allogeneic HLA-A*02:01 in complex with a peptide from the B cell-restricted protein CD20. Here, we show that such CD20-specific T cells can easily be induced from naïve precursors in cord blood, demonstrating that they do not represent cross-reactive memory cells. The cells displayed high avidity and mediated potent cytotoxic effects on cells from patients with the CD20(pos) B cell malignancies follicular lymphoma (FL) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, the cytotoxicity was consistently lower for cells from two of the ALL patients. The ALL cells that were less efficiently killed did not display lower surface expression of CD20 or HLA-A*02:01, or mutations in the CD20 sequence. Peptide pulsing fully restored the levels of cytotoxicity, indicating that they are indeed susceptible to T cell-mediated killing. Adoptive transfer of CD20-specific T cells to an HLA-A*02:01(pos) patient requires an HLA-A*02:01(neg) , but otherwise HLA identical, donor. A search clarified that donors meeting these criteria can be readily identified even for patients with rare haplotypes. The results bear further promise for the clinical utility of CD20-specific T cells in B cell malignancies. PMID:21630262

  12. The role of DNA repair on cell killing by charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Murakami, M.; Itsukaichi, H.; Fukutsu, K.; Kanai, T.; Furusawa, Y.; Sato, K.; Ohara, H.; Yatagai, F.

    It can be noted that it is not simple double strand breaks (dsb) but the non-reparable breaks that are associated with high biological effectiveness in the cell killing effect for high LET radiation. Here, we have examined the effectiveness of fast neutrons and low (initial energy = 12 MeV/u) or high (135 MeV/u) energy charged particles on cell death in 19 mammalian cell lines including radiosensitive mutants. Some of the radiosensitive lines were deficient in DNA dsb repair such as LX830, M10, V3, and L5178Y-S cells and showed lower values of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for fast neutrons if compared with their parent cell lines. The other lines of human ataxia-telangiectasia fibroblasts, irs 1, irs 2, irs 3 and irs1SF cells, which were also radiosensitive but known as proficient in dsb repair, showed moderate RBEs. Dsb repair deficient mutants showed low RBE values for heavy ions. These experimental findings suggest that the DNA repair system does not play a major role against the attack of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiations. Therefore, we hypothesize that a main cause of cell death induced by high LET radiations is due to non-reparable dsb, which are produced at a higher rate compared to low LET radiations.

  13. Enhancing effects of gamma interferon on phagocytic cell association with and killing of Trypanosoma cruzi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirth, J. J.; Kierszenbaum, F.; Sonnenfeld, G.; Zlotnik, A.

    1985-01-01

    Results are reported from a study of the influence gamma interferon (GIFN) and interleukin 2 (IL2) have on the capability of P388D1 cells and mouse resident peritoneal macrophages (MPM) to attach to the blood-resident parasites Trypanosoma cruzi and kill them. Cultures of trypomastigote forms of the Tulahuen strain of T. cruzi grown in bovine serum were introduced into peritoneal cells of mice, along with P388D1 cells incubated with GIFN, IL2 and both. Control cells were also maintained. Statistical analysis were then performed on data on counts of the number of dead T. Cruzi cells. The GIFN enhanced the interaction of MPM and P388D1 cells with the surface of T. Cruzi, provided the interaction was given over 12 hr to take place. A depression of the cytotoxicity of P388D1 cells was attributed to mediation by H2O2, an effect partially offset by incubation with the lymphokine GIFN.

  14. Selective enhancement of hypoxic cell killing by tempol-regulated suicide gene expression.

    PubMed

    Kagiya, Go; Ogawa, Ryohei; Choudhuri, Rajani; Cook, John A; Hatashita, Masanori; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Koda, Kana; Yamashita, Kei; Kubo, Makoto; Kawakami, Fumitaka; Mitchell, James B

    2015-08-01

    The presence of hypoxic regions within solid tumors is caused by an imbalance between cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Such regions may facilitate the onset of recurrence after radiation therapy and chemotherapy, as hypoxic cells show resistance to these treatments. We found that tempol, a nitroxide, strongly induces the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, particularly under conditions of hypoxia. We, therefore, evaluated whether tempol enhances the gene expression via HIF-1α, potentially leading to various applications for cancer gene therapy targeting hypoxic cells. Consequently, following treatment with tempol under hypoxia, the luciferase (Luc) activity in the cells transfected with the plasmid containing the luc gene with the oxygen-dependent degradation domain and a promoter composed of hypoxia-responsive elements increased up to approximately 10-fold compared to that observed in cells treated identically with the exception of tempol. The plasmid constructed by replacing the luc gene with the fcy::fur fusion gene as a suicide gene, strongly induced the accumulation of the Fcy::Fur fusion protein, only when incubated in the presence of the hypoxic mimic CoCl2 and tempol. The transfected cells were successfully killed with the addition of 5-fluorocytosine to the cell culture according to the fcy::fur fusion gene expression. As similar but lesser enhancement of the Luc activity was also observed in solid tumor tissues in nude mice, this strategy may be applied for hypoxic cancer eradication. PMID:26034980

  15. Enhancing effects of gamma interferon on phagocytic cell association with and killing of Trypanosoma cruzi

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, J.J.; Kierszenbaum, F.; Sonnenfeld, G.; Zlotnik, A.

    1985-07-01

    Results are reported from a study of the influence gamma interferon (GIFN) and interleukin 2 (IL2) have on the capability of P388D1 cells and mouse resident peritoneal macrophages (MPM) to attach to the blood-resident parasites Trypanosoma cruzi and kill them. Cultures of trypomastigote forms of the Tulahuen strain of T. cruzi grown in bovine serum were introduced into peritoneal cells of mice, along with P388D1 cells incubated with GIFN, IL2 and both. Control cells were also maintained. Statistical analysis were then performed on data on counts of the number of dead T. Cruzi cells. The GIFN enhanced the interaction of MPM and P388D1 cells with the surface of T. Cruzi, provided the interaction was given over 12 hr to take place. A depression of the cytotoxicity of P388D1 cells was attributed to mediation by H2O2, an effect partially offset by incubation with the lymphokine GIFN. 23 references.

  16. Merocyanine 540 and Photofrin II as photosensitizers for in vitro killing of duck hepatitis B virus and human hepatoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tsung-I.; Shien, Yong-Shau; Kao, Ming-Chien

    1994-03-01

    The feasibility of using merocyanine 540 (MC 540) and Photofrin II (PII) as effective photodynamic therapeutic (PDT) agents for killing hepatoma cells and duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) in vitro was investigated. Cultured duck hepatocytes infected with DHBV and hepatoma cells, Hep 3B and HCC 36, were used as models. MC 540 and PII effectively inhibits the DHBV growth by 90 - 99% in a dose- and light-dependent manner. Photodynamic killing of MC 540 in the two hepatoma cell lines results in 94 - 99% growth inhibition. However, both photosensitizers exhibit dark cytotoxicity (37 - 56%). The present results suggest that MC 540 and PII could be promising and effective photodynamic agents for killing HBV and hepatoma cells.

  17. Competitive exclusion of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) from human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells by heat-killed Lactobacillus.

    PubMed

    Chauvière, G; Coconnier, M H; Kerneis, S; Darfeuille-Michaud, A; Joly, B; Servin, A L

    1992-03-15

    Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) bearing CFA/I or CFA/II adhesive factors specifically adhere onto the brush border of the polarized epithelial human intestinal Caco-2 cells in culture. Heat-killed Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB, that adheres onto Caco-2 cells, inhibits diarrheagenic Escherichia coli adhesion in a concentration-dependent manner. Since the L. acidophilus does not express ETEC-CFA adhesive factors, it can be postulated that the heat-killed L. acidophilus LB cells inhibit diarrheagenic E. coli attachment by steric hindrance of the human enterocytic ETEC receptors. PMID:1624102

  18. Radiation quality dependence of signal transmission and bystander induced cell killing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Bertolotti, Alessia; Facoetti, Angelica; Grande, Sveva; Mariotti, Luca; Ottolenghi, Andrea; Ranza, Elena; Simone, Giustina; Sorrentino, Eugenio; Antonella Tabocchini, Maria

    Low dose radiobiological studies have shown effects, observable in cells that are in the vicinity of irradiated cells, which are due to the release by irradiated cells of several cellular mediators among which Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species (ROS, NRS), and cytokines are likely to play a key role. Despite the large number in the literature of studies on bystander effects induced by ionizing radiation the results are still conflicting, and further studies are therefore needed on the possible underlying mechanisms. The dependence on radiation quality deserve particular attention because bystander mechanisms are probably more important with high-LET irradi-ations, where many cells are not hit (bystander). Moreover, due to the different patterns of energy deposition, the cellular response to low LET and high LET radiation can be different. Understanding whether these cells can contribute to the adverse effects of low radiation doses in a radiation quality-dependent fashion might have important implications in risk estimates for both cancer induction and non-cancer diseases. In this context, we addressed to the study of the bystander induced cell killing after incubation with "conditioned medium" from primary human fibroblasts irradiated with 0.1 and 0.5 Gy of α-particles or γ-rays. Medium transfer was performed after 1h incubation from irradiation. The results have confirmed a reduction in clonogenic survival after incubation with medium from α-irradiated cells, independently of the dose; similar results were obtained after γ-irradiation, although in this case a slight dose depen-dence could be envisaged. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels were measured in the conditioned medium collected up to 20 hours after irradiation with α-particles and γ-rays in the dose-range of 0.1-1.0 Gy, in parallel with evaluation of their receptor expression in irradi-ated and bystander cells. Concerning IL-6, we observed the strongest modulation of its release

  19. When and How Do Seizures Kill Neurons, and Is Cell Death Relevant to Epileptogenesis?

    PubMed Central

    Dingledine, Ray; Varvel, Nicholas H.; Dudek, F. Edward

    2015-01-01

    The effect of seizures on neuronal death and the role of seizure-induced neuronal death in acquired epileptogenesis have been debated for decades. Isolated brief seizures probably do not kill neurons; however, severe and repetitive seizures (i.e., status epilepticus) certainly do. Because status epilepticus both kills neurons and also leads to chronic epilepsy, neuronal death has been proposed to be an integral part of acquired epileptogenesis. Several studies, particularly in the immature brain, have suggested that neuronal death is not necessary for acquired epileptogenesis; however, the lack of neuronal death is difficult if not impossible to prove, and more recent studies have challenged this concept. Novel mechanisms of cell death, beyond the traditional concepts of necrosis and apoptosis, include autophagy, phagoptosis, necroptosis, and pyroptosis. The traditional proposal for why neuronal death may be necessary for epileptogenesis is based on the recapitulation of development hypothesis, where a loss of synaptic input from the dying neurons is considered a critical signal to induce axonal sprouting and synaptic-circuit reorganization. We propose a second hypothesis – the neuronal death pathway hypothesis, which states that the biochemical pathways causing programmed neurodegeneration, rather than neuronal death per se, are responsible for or contribute to epileptogenesis. The reprogramming of neuronal death pathways – if true – is proposed to derive from necroptosis or pyroptosis. The proposed new hypothesis may inform on why neuronal death seems closely linked to epileptogenesis, but may not always be. PMID:25012371

  20. Selective killing effect of oxytetracycline, propafenone and metamizole on A549 or Hela cells

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Guihua

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the selective killing effect of oxytetracycline, propafenone and metamizole on A549 or Hela cells. Methods Proliferation assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, apoptosis detecting, flow cytometry and western blot were performed. Results It was found that treatment with propafenone at the concentration of 0.014 g/L or higher for 48 h could induce apoptosis in Hela cells greatly, while it was not observed in oxytetracycline and metamizole at the concentration of 0.20 g/L for 48 h. Oxytetracycline, propafenone and metamizole all displayed evident inhibitory effects on the proliferation of A549 cells. The results of LDH assay demonstrated that the drugs at the test range of concentration did not cause necrosis in the cells. Propafenone could elevate the protein level of P53 effectively (P<0.01). Conclusions Oxytetracycline, propafenone and metamizol (dipyrone) all displayed evident inhibitory effects on the proliferation of A549 cells. Propafenone also displayed evident inhibitory effects on the proliferation of Hela cells. PMID:24385693

  1. Bipolar nanosecond electric pulses are less efficient at electropermeabilization and killing cells than monopolar pulses

    PubMed Central

    Ibey, Bennett L.; Ullery, Jody; Pakhomova, Olga N.; Roth, Caleb C.; Semenov, Iurri; Beier, Hope T.; Tarango, Melissa; Xiao, Shu; Schoenbach, Karl; Pakhomov, Andrei G.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple studies have shown that bipolar (BP) electric pulses in the microsecond range are more effective at permeabilizing cells while maintaining similar cell survival rates as compared to monopolar (MP) pulse equivalents. In this paper, we investigated whether the same advantage existed for BP nanosecond-pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) as compared to MP nsPEF. To study permeabilization effectiveness, MP or BP pulses were delivered to single Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and the response of three dyes, Calcium Green-1, Propidium Iodide (PI), and FM1-43, was measured by confocal microscopy. Results show that BP pulses were less effective at increasing intracellular calcium concentration or PI uptake and cause less membrane reorganization (FM1-43) than MP pulses. Twenty-four hour survival was measured in three cell lines (Jurkat, U937, CHO) and over ten times more BP pulses were required to induce death as compared to MP pulses of similar magnitude and duration. Flow cytometry analysis of CHO cells after exposure (15 minutes) revealed that to achieve positive FITC-Annexin V and PI expression, ten times more BP pulses were required than MP pulses. Overall, unlike longer pulse exposures, BP nsPEF exposures proved far less effective at both membrane permeabilization and cell killing than MP nsPEF. PMID:24332942

  2. PIM Kinase Inhibitors Kill Hypoxic Tumor Cells by Reducing Nrf2 Signaling and Increasing Reactive Oxygen Species.

    PubMed

    Warfel, Noel A; Sainz, Alva G; Song, Jin H; Kraft, Andrew S

    2016-07-01

    Intratumoral hypoxia is a significant obstacle to the successful treatment of solid tumors, and it is highly correlated with metastasis, therapeutic resistance, and disease recurrence in cancer patients. As a result, there is an urgent need to develop effective therapies that target hypoxic cells within the tumor microenvironment. The Proviral Integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus (PIM) kinases represent a prosurvival pathway that is upregulated in response to hypoxia, in a HIF-1-independent manner. We demonstrate that pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of PIM kinases is significantly more toxic toward cancer cells in hypoxia as compared with normoxia. Xenograft studies confirm that PIM kinase inhibitors impede tumor growth and selectively kill hypoxic tumor cells in vivo Experiments show that PIM kinases enhance the ability of tumor cells to adapt to hypoxia-induced oxidative stress by increasing the nuclear localization and activity of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which functions to increase the expression of antioxidant genes. Small molecule PIM kinase inhibitors prevent Nrf2 from accumulating in the nucleus, reducing the transcription of cytoprotective genes and leading to the build-up of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) to toxic levels in hypoxic tumor cells. This toxic effect of PIM inhibitors can be successfully blocked by ROS scavengers, including N-acetyl cystine and superoxide dismutase. Thus, inhibition of PIM kinases has the potential to oppose hypoxia-mediated therapeutic resistance and induce cell death in the hypoxic tumor microenvironment. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(7); 1637-47. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27196781

  3. Troxerutin, a natural flavonoid binds to DNA minor groove and enhances cancer cell killing in response to radiation.

    PubMed

    Panat, Niranjan A; Singh, Beena G; Maurya, Dharmendra K; Sandur, Santosh K; Ghaskadbi, Saroj S

    2016-05-01

    Troxerutin, a flavonoid best known for its radioprotective and antioxidant properties is of considerable interest of study due to its broad pharmacological activities. The present study on troxerutin highlights its abilities to bind DNA and enhance cancer cell killing in response to radiation. Troxerutin showed strong binding with calf thymus DNA in vitro. Troxerutin-DNA interaction was confirmed by CD spectropolarimetry. The mode of binding of troxerutin to DNA was assessed by competing troxerutin with EtBr or DAPI, known DNA intercalator and a minor groove binder, respectively. DAPI fluorescence was drastically reduced with linear increase in troxerutin concentration suggesting possible binding of troxerutin to DNA minor groove. Further, computational studies of docking of troxerutin molecule on mammalian DNA also indicated possible troxerutin-DNA interaction at minor groove of DNA. Troxerutin was found to mainly localize in the nucleus of prostate cancer cells. It induced cytotoxicity in radioresistant (DU145) and sensitive (PC3) prostate cancer cells. When troxerutin pre-treated DU145 and PC3 cells were exposed to γ-radiation, cytotoxicity as estimated by MTT assay, was found to be further enhanced. In addition, the % subG1 population detected by propidium iodide staining also showed similar response when combined with radiation. A similar trend was observed in terms of ROS generation and DNA damage in DU145 cells when troxerutin and radiation were combined. DNA binding at minor groove by troxerutin may have contributed to strand breaks leading to increased radiation induced cell death. PMID:27016192

  4. IL-17A promotes migration and tumor killing capability of B cells in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lin; Weng, Chengyin; Mao, Haibo; Fang, Xisheng; Liu, Xia; Wu, Yong; Cao, Xiaofei; Li, Baoxiu; Chen, Xiaojun; Gan, Qinquan; Xia, Jianchuan; Liu, Guolong

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported that the accumulation of IL-17-producing cells could mediate tumor protective immunity by promoting the migration of NK cells, T cells and dendritic cells in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. However, there were no reports concerning the effect of IL-17A on tumor infiltrating B cells. In this study, we investigated the accumulation of CD20+ B cells in the ESCC tumor nests and further addressed the effect of IL-17A on the migration and cytotoxicity of B cells. There was positive correlation between the levels of CD20+ B cells and IL-17+ cells. IL-17A could promote the ESCC tumor cells to produce more chemokines CCL2, CCL20 and CXCL13, which were associated with the migration of B cells. In addition, IL-17A enhanced the IgG-mediated antibody and complement mediated cytotoxicity of B cells against tumor cells. IL-17A-stimulated B cells gained more effective direct killing capability through enhanced expression of Granzyme B and FasL. The effect of IL-17A on the migration and cytotoxicity of B cells was IL-17A pathway dependent, which could be inhibited by IL-17A inhibitor. This study provides further understanding of the roles of IL-17A in humoral response, which may contribute to the development of novel tumor immunotherapy strategy. PMID:26942702

  5. 220D-F2 from Rubus ulmifolius Kills Streptococcus pneumoniae Planktonic Cells and Pneumococcal Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Talekar, Sharmila J.; Chochua, Sopio; Nelson, Katie; Klugman, Keith P.; Quave, Cassandra L.; Vidal, Jorge E.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) forms organized biofilms to persist in the human nasopharynx. This persistence allows the pneumococcus to produce severe diseases such as pneumonia, otitis media, bacteremia and meningitis that kill nearly a million children every year. While bacteremia and meningitis are mediated by planktonic pneumococci, biofilm structures are present during pneumonia and otitis media. The global emergence of S. pneumoniae strains resistant to most commonly prescribed antibiotics warrants further discovery of alternative therapeutics. The present study assessed the antimicrobial potential of a plant extract, 220D-F2, rich in ellagic acid, and ellagic acid derivatives, against S. pneumoniae planktonic cells and biofilm structures. Our studies first demonstrate that, when inoculated together with planktonic cultures, 220D-F2 inhibited the formation of pneumococcal biofilms in a dose-dependent manner. As measured by bacterial counts and a LIVE/DEAD bacterial viability assay, 100 and 200 µg/ml of 220D-F2 had significant bactericidal activity against pneumococcal planktonic cultures as early as 3 h post-inoculation. Quantitative MIC’s, whether quantified by qPCR or dilution and plating, showed that 80 µg/ml of 220D-F2 completely eradicated overnight cultures of planktonic pneumococci, including antibiotic resistant strains. When preformed pneumococcal biofilms were challenged with 220D-F2, it significantly reduced the population of biofilms 3 h post-inoculation. Minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC)50 was obtained incubating biofilms with 100 µg/ml of 220D-F2 for 3 h and 6 h of incubation. 220D-F2 also significantly reduced the population of pneumococcal biofilms formed on human pharyngeal cells. Our results demonstrate potential therapeutic applications of 220D-F2 to both kill planktonic pneumococcal cells and disrupt pneumococcal biofilms. PMID:24823499

  6. 220D-F2 from Rubus ulmifolius kills Streptococcus pneumoniae planktonic cells and pneumococcal biofilms.

    PubMed

    Talekar, Sharmila J; Chochua, Sopio; Nelson, Katie; Klugman, Keith P; Quave, Cassandra L; Vidal, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) forms organized biofilms to persist in the human nasopharynx. This persistence allows the pneumococcus to produce severe diseases such as pneumonia, otitis media, bacteremia and meningitis that kill nearly a million children every year. While bacteremia and meningitis are mediated by planktonic pneumococci, biofilm structures are present during pneumonia and otitis media. The global emergence of S. pneumoniae strains resistant to most commonly prescribed antibiotics warrants further discovery of alternative therapeutics. The present study assessed the antimicrobial potential of a plant extract, 220D-F2, rich in ellagic acid, and ellagic acid derivatives, against S. pneumoniae planktonic cells and biofilm structures. Our studies first demonstrate that, when inoculated together with planktonic cultures, 220D-F2 inhibited the formation of pneumococcal biofilms in a dose-dependent manner. As measured by bacterial counts and a LIVE/DEAD bacterial viability assay, 100 and 200 µg/ml of 220D-F2 had significant bactericidal activity against pneumococcal planktonic cultures as early as 3 h post-inoculation. Quantitative MIC's, whether quantified by qPCR or dilution and plating, showed that 80 µg/ml of 220D-F2 completely eradicated overnight cultures of planktonic pneumococci, including antibiotic resistant strains. When preformed pneumococcal biofilms were challenged with 220D-F2, it significantly reduced the population of biofilms 3 h post-inoculation. Minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC)50 was obtained incubating biofilms with 100 µg/ml of 220D-F2 for 3 h and 6 h of incubation. 220D-F2 also significantly reduced the population of pneumococcal biofilms formed on human pharyngeal cells. Our results demonstrate potential therapeutic applications of 220D-F2 to both kill planktonic pneumococcal cells and disrupt pneumococcal biofilms. PMID:24823499

  7. Reduction of radiation-induced cell cycle blocks by caffeine does not necessarily lead to increased cell killing

    SciTech Connect

    Musk, S.R. )

    1991-03-01

    The effect of caffeine upon the radiosensitivities of three human tumor lines was examined and correlated with its action upon the radiation-induced S-phase and G2-phase blocks. Caffeine was found to reduce at least partially the S-phase and G2-phase blocks in all the cell lines examined but potentiated cytotoxicity in only one of the three tumor lines. That reductions have been demonstrated to occur in the absence of increased cell killing provides supporting evidence for the hypothesis that reductions may not be causal in those cases when potentiation of radiation-induced cytotoxicity is observed in the presence of caffeine.

  8. Two-stage model of radon-induced malignant lung tumors in rats: effects of cell killing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebeck, E. G.; Curtis, S. B.; Cross, F. T.; Moolgavkar, S. H.

    1996-01-01

    A two-stage stochastic model of carcinogenesis is used to analyze lung tumor incidence in 3750 rats exposed to varying regimens of radon carried on a constant-concentration uranium ore dust aerosol. New to this analysis is the parameterization of the model such that cell killing by the alpha particles could be included. The model contains parameters characterizing the rate of the first mutation, the net proliferation rate of initiated cells, the ratio of the rates of cell loss (cell killing plus differentiation) and cell division, and the lag time between the appearance of the first malignant cell and the tumor. Data analysis was by standard maximum likelihood estimation techniques. Results indicate that the rate of the first mutation is dependent on radon and consistent with in vitro rates measured experimentally, and that the rate of the second mutation is not dependent on radon. An initial sharp rise in the net proliferation rate of initiated cell was found with increasing exposure rate (denoted model I), which leads to an unrealistically high cell-killing coefficient. A second model (model II) was studied, in which the initial rise was attributed to promotion via a step function, implying that it is due not to radon but to the uranium ore dust. This model resulted in values for the cell-killing coefficient consistent with those found for in vitro cells. An "inverse dose-rate" effect is seen, i.e. an increase in the lifetime probability of tumor with a decrease in exposure rate. This is attributed in large part to promotion of intermediate lesions. Since model II is preferable on biological grounds (it yields a plausible cell-killing coefficient), such as uranium ore dust. This analysis presents evidence that a two-stage model describes the data adequately and generates hypotheses regarding the mechanism of radon-induced carcinogenesis.

  9. Novel antioxidants are not toxic to normal tissues but effectively kill cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kovalchuk, Anna; Aladedunye, Felix; Rodriguez-Juarez, Rocio; Li, Dongping; Thomas, James; Kovalchuk, Olga; Przybylski, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Free radicals are formed as a result of cellular processes and play a key role in predisposition to and development of numerous diseases and of premature aging. Recently, we reported the syntheses of a number of novel phenolic antioxidants for possible application in food industry. In the present study, analyses of the cellular processes and molecular gene expression effects of some of the novel antioxidants in normal human tissues and in cancer cells were undertaken. Results indicated that whereas the examined antioxidants showed no effects on morphology and gene expression of normal human oral and gingival epithelial tissues, they exerted a profound cell killing effect on breast cancer cells, including on chemotherapy-resistant breast cancer cells and on oral squamous carcinoma cells. Among the tested antioxidants, N-decyl-N-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzyl)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) propanamide and N-decyl-N-(3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzyl)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) propanamide were the most promising, with excellent potential for cancer treatment. Moreover, our gene expression databases can be used as a roadmap for future analysis of mechanisms of antioxidant action. PMID:23917379

  10. A nonpromoting phorbol from the samoan medicinal plant Homalanthus nutans inhibits cell killing by HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, K R; Cardellina, J H; McMahon, J B; Gulakowski, R J; Ishitoya, J; Szallasi, Z; Lewin, N E; Blumberg, P M; Weislow, O S; Beutler, J A

    1992-05-29

    Extracts of Homalanthus nutans, a plant used in Samoan herbal medicine, exhibited potent activity in an in vitro, tetrazolium-based assay which detects the inhibition of the cytopathic effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). The active constituent was identified as prostratin, a relatively polar 12-deoxyphorbol ester. Noncytotoxic concentrations of prostratin from greater than or equal to 0.1 to greater than 25 microM protected T-lymphoblastoid CEM-SS and C-8166 cells from the killing effects of HIV-1. Cytoprotective concentrations of prostratin greater than or equal to 1 microM essentially stopped virus reproduction in these cell lines, as well as in the human monocytic cell line U937 and in freshly isolated human monocyte/macrophage cultures. Prostratin bound to and activated protein kinase C in vitro in CEM-SS cells and elicited other biochemical effects typical of phorbol esters in C3H10T1/2 cells; however, the compound does not appear to be a tumor promoter. In skin of CD-1 mice, high doses of prostratin induced ornithine decarboxylase only to 25-30% of the levels induced by typical phorbol esters at doses 1/30 or less than that used for prostratin, produced kinetics of edema formation characteristic of the nonpromoting 12-deoxyphorbol 13-phenylacetate, and failed to induce the acute or chronic hyperplasias typically caused by tumor-promoting phorbols at doses of 1/100 or less than that used for prostratin. PMID:1597853

  11. Synergistic killing of lung cancer cells by cisplatin and radiation via autophagy and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Ma, Shumei; Liu, Mingbo; Hou, Yufei; Liang, Bing; Su, Xu; Liu, Xiaodong

    2014-06-01

    Cisplatin is a commonly used drug for chemotherapy, however, whether it may be used synergistically with radiotherapy remains unclear. The present study investigated the underlying mechanisms of synergistic killing by radiosensitization and cisplatin, with a focus on the growth inhibition, apoptosis and autophagy of non-small cell human lung cancer cells in vitro and in a tumor xenograft in vivo. A549 cells were used for the in vitro experiments and divided into the following four treatment groups: Sham-irradiated; conventional radiotherapy (CRT) of five doses of 2 Gy every day; hyperfractionated radiotherapy of five doses of 2 Gy (1 Gy twice a day at 4 h intervals) every day; and CRT plus cisplatin. A xenograft tumor-bearing C57BL/6 model was established for the in vivo experiments and the above-mentioned treatments were administered. MTT and colony formation assays were used to detect cell viability and western blotting was performed to detect the levels of protein expression. Monodansylcadaverine staining and the immunofluorescence technique were used to analyze the autophagy rate, while flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry were performed to detect the expression levels of the genes associated with apoptosis and autophagy, including microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (MAPLC3)-II, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) III, Beclin1, phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-AKT), damage-regulated autophagy modulator (DRAM), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein, caspase-3 and p21. The MTT assay demonstrated that cisplatin exhibits a dose-dependent cytotoxicity in A549 cells and synergizes with radiation to promote the cell-killing effect of radiation. In the xenograft mouse model of Lewis cells, cisplatin plus ionizing radiation (IR) (five doses of 2 Gy) yielded the most significant tumor suppression. The autophagic vacuoles, the ratio of MAPLC3-II to MAPLC3-I (LC3-II/LC3-I) and the levels of Beclin1 were found to increase in all treatment

  12. Anti-HIV Designer T Cells Progressively Eradicate a Latently Infected Cell Line by Sequentially Inducing HIV Reactivation then Killing the Newly Gp120-Positive Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Gautam K; Sango, Kaori; Selliah, Nithianandan; Ma, Qiangzhong; Skowron, Gail; Junghans, Richard P

    2013-01-01

    The current antiretroviral therapy (ART) can effectively reduce plasma HIV loads to undetectable levels, but cannot eliminate latently infected resting memory CD4 T cells that persist for the lifetime of infected patients. Therefore, designing new therapeutic approaches to eliminate these latently infected cells or the cells that produce HIV upon reactivation from latency is a priority in the ART era in order to progress to a cure of HIV. Here, we show that “designer” T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), CD4-CD28-CD3ζ, can target and kill HIV Env-expressing cells. Further, they secrete effector cytokines upon contact with HIV Env+ target cells that can reactivate latent HIV in a cell line model, thereby exposing those cells to recognition and killing by anti-HIV CAR+ T cells. Taken to the limit, this process could form the basis for an eventual functional or sterilizing cure for HIV in patients. PMID:24074590

  13. Pro-Oxidant Activity of Amine-Pyridine-Based Iron Complexes Efficiently Kills Cancer and Cancer Stem-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    González-Bártulos, Marta; Aceves-Luquero, Clara; Qualai, Jamal; Cussó, Olaf; Martínez, Mª Angeles; Fernández de Mattos, Silvia; Menéndez, Javier A.; Villalonga, Priam; Costas, Miquel; Ribas, Xavi; Massaguer, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Differential redox homeostasis in normal and malignant cells suggests that pro-oxidant-induced upregulation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) should selectively target cancer cells without compromising the viability of untransformed cells. Consequently, a pro-oxidant deviation well-tolerated by nonmalignant cells might rapidly reach a cell-death threshold in malignant cells already at a high setpoint of constitutive oxidative stress. To test this hypothesis, we took advantage of a selected number of amine-pyridine-based Fe(II) complexes that operate as efficient and robust oxidation catalysts of organic substrates upon reaction with peroxides. Five of these Fe(II)-complexes and the corresponding aminopyridine ligands were selected to evaluate their anticancer properties. We found that the iron complexes failed to display any relevant activity, while the corresponding ligands exhibited significant antiproliferative activity. Among the ligands, none of which were hemolytic, compounds 1, 2 and 5 were cytotoxic in the low micromolar range against a panel of molecularly diverse human cancer cell lines. Importantly, the cytotoxic activity profile of some compounds remained unaltered in epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT)-induced stable populations of cancer stem-like cells, which acquired resistance to the well-known ROS inducer doxorubicin. Compounds 1, 2 and 5 inhibited the clonogenicity of cancer cells and induced apoptotic cell death accompanied by caspase 3/7 activation. Flow cytometry analyses indicated that ligands were strong inducers of oxidative stress, leading to a 7-fold increase in intracellular ROS levels. ROS induction was associated with their ability to bind intracellular iron and generate active coordination complexes inside of cells. In contrast, extracellular complexation of iron inhibited the activity of the ligands. Iron complexes showed a high proficiency to cleave DNA through oxidative-dependent mechanisms, suggesting a likely mechanism of

  14. Mammalian cells are not killed by DNA single-strand breaks caused by hydroxyl radicals from hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.F.; Blakely, W.F.; Joner, E.I.

    1985-09-01

    Cell killing by ionizing radiation has been shown to be caused by hydroxyl free radicals formed by water radiolysis. The authors have previously suggested that the killing is not caused by individual OH free radicals but by the interaction of volumes of high radical density with DNA to cause locally multiple damaged sites (LMDS). Here they test this hypothesis using hydrogen dioxide as an alternate source of OH radicals. The route to OH production from H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ is expected to cause singly damaged sites rather than LMDS. Chinese hamster V79-171 cells were treated with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ at varying concentrations for varying times at 0/sup 0/C. The yield of DNA damage produced increases with increasing concentration of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and with time of exposure. H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ is efficient in producing single-strand breaks; treatment with 50 ..mu..M for 30 min produces damage equivalent to that formed by 10 Gy of ..cap alpha.. irradiation. In the presence of a hydroxyl radical scavenger, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), the yield of damage decreases with increasing DMSO concentration consistent with the scavenging of hydroxyl radicals. In contrast to DNA damage production, cell killing by H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ treatment at 0/sup 0/C is inefficient. The conclusion drawn is that individual DNA damage sites are ineffectual in killing cells. Mechanisms are suggested for killing at 0/sup 0/C at high concentrations and for the efficient cell killing by H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ at 37/sup 0/C at much lower concentrations.

  15. Human Vγ9Vδ2-T cells efficiently kill influenza virus-infected lung alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong; Xiang, Zheng; Feng, Ting; Li, Jinrong; Liu, Yinping; Fan, Yingying; Lu, Qiao; Yin, Zhongwei; Yu, Meixing; Shen, Chongyang; Tu, Wenwei

    2013-01-01

    γδ-T cells play an indispensable role in host defense against different viruses, including influenza A virus. However, whether these cells have cytotoxic activity against influenza virus-infected lung alveolar epithelial cells and subsequently contribute to virus clearance remains unknown. Using influenza virus-infected A549 cells, human lung alveolar epithelial cells, we investigated the cytotoxic activity of aminobisphosphonate pamidronate (PAM)-expanded human Vγ9Vδ2-T cells and their underlying mechanisms. We found that PAM could selectively activate and expand human Vγ9Vδ2-T cells. PAM-expanded human Vγ9Vδ2-T cells efficiently killed influenza virus-infected lung alveolar epithelial cells and inhibited virus replication. The cytotoxic activity of PAM-expanded Vγ9Vδ2-T cells was dependent on cell-to-cell contact and required NKG2D activation. Perforin–granzyme B, tumor-necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and Fas–Fas ligand (FasL) pathways were involved in their cytotoxicity. Our study suggests that targeting γδ-T cells by PAM can potentially offer an alternative option for the treatment of influenza virus. PMID:23353835

  16. Metformin-Induced Killing of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells is Mediated by Reduction in Fatty Acid Synthase via miRNA-193b

    PubMed Central

    Wahdan-Alaswad, Reema S.; Cochrane, Dawn R.; Spoelstra, Nicole S.; Howe, Erin N.; Edgerton, Susan M.; Anderson, Steven M.; Thor, Ann D.; Richer, Jennifer K.

    2015-01-01

    The anti-diabetic drug metformin (1,1-dimethylbiguanide hydrochloride) reduces both the incidence and mortality of several types of cancer. Metformin has been shown to selectively kill cancer stem cells and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines are more sensitive to the effects of metformin. However, the mechanism underlying the enhanced susceptibility of TNBC to metformin had not been elucidated. Expression profiling of metformin-treated TNBC lines revealed fatty acid synthase (FASN) as one of the genes most significantly downregulated following 24 hours of treatment and a decrease in FASN protein was also observed. Since FASN is critical for de novo fatty acid synthesis, and is important for survival of TNBC, we hypothesized that FASN downregulation facilitates metformin-induced apoptosis. Profiling studies also exposed a rapid metformin-induced increase in miR-193 family members, and miR-193b was found to directly target the FASN 3′UTR. Addition of exogenous miR-193b mimic to untreated TNBC cells resulted in decreased FASN protein expression and increased apoptosis of TNBC cells, while spontaneously immortalized, non-transformed breast epithelial cells remained unaffected. Conversely, antagonizing miR-193 activity impaired the ability of metformin to decrease FASN and cause cell death. Further, the metformin-stimulated increase in miR-193 resulted in reduced mammosphere formation by TNBC lines. These studies provide mechanistic insight into the metformin-induced killing of TNBC. PMID:25213330

  17. Metformin-induced killing of triple-negative breast cancer cells is mediated by reduction in fatty acid synthase via miRNA-193b.

    PubMed

    Wahdan-Alaswad, Reema S; Cochrane, Dawn R; Spoelstra, Nicole S; Howe, Erin N; Edgerton, Susan M; Anderson, Steven M; Thor, Ann D; Richer, Jennifer K

    2014-12-01

    The anti-diabetic drug metformin (1,1-dimethylbiguanide hydrochloride) reduces both the incidence and mortality of several types of cancer. Metformin has been shown to selectively kill cancer stem cells, and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines are more sensitive to the effects of metformin as compared to luminal breast cancer. However, the mechanism underlying the enhanced susceptibility of TNBC to metformin has not been elucidated. Expression profiling of metformin-treated TNBC lines revealed fatty acid synthase (FASN) as one of the genes most significantly downregulated following 24 h of treatment, and a decrease in FASN protein was also observed. Since FASN is critical for de novo fatty acid synthesis and is important for the survival of TNBC, we hypothesized that FASN downregulation facilitates metformin-induced apoptosis. Profiling studies also exposed a rapid metformin-induced increase in miR-193 family members, and miR-193b directly targets the FASN 3'UTR. Addition of exogenous miR-193b mimic to untreated TNBC cells decreased FASN protein expression and increased apoptosis of TNBC cells, while spontaneously immortalized, non-transformed breast epithelial cells remained unaffected. Conversely, antagonizing miR-193 activity impaired the ability of metformin to decrease FASN and cause cell death. Further, the metformin-stimulated increase in miR-193 resulted in reduced mammosphere formation by TNBC lines. These studies provide mechanistic insight into metformin-induced killing of TNBC. PMID:25213330

  18. Vitamin C selectively kills KRAS and BRAF mutant colorectal cancer cells by targeting GAPDH.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jihye; Mullarky, Edouard; Lu, Changyuan; Bosch, Kaitlyn N; Kavalier, Adam; Rivera, Keith; Roper, Jatin; Chio, Iok In Christine; Giannopoulou, Eugenia G; Rago, Carlo; Muley, Ashlesha; Asara, John M; Paik, Jihye; Elemento, Olivier; Chen, Zhengming; Pappin, Darryl J; Dow, Lukas E; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Gross, Steven S; Cantley, Lewis C

    2015-12-11

    More than half of human colorectal cancers (CRCs) carry either KRAS or BRAF mutations and are often refractory to approved targeted therapies. We found that cultured human CRC cells harboring KRAS or BRAF mutations are selectively killed when exposed to high levels of vitamin C. This effect is due to increased uptake of the oxidized form of vitamin C, dehydroascorbate (DHA), via the GLUT1 glucose transporter. Increased DHA uptake causes oxidative stress as intracellular DHA is reduced to vitamin C, depleting glutathione. Thus, reactive oxygen species accumulate and inactivate glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Inhibition of GAPDH in highly glycolytic KRAS or BRAF mutant cells leads to an energetic crisis and cell death not seen in KRAS and BRAF wild-type cells. High-dose vitamin C impairs tumor growth in Apc/Kras(G12D) mutant mice. These results provide a mechanistic rationale for exploring the therapeutic use of vitamin C for CRCs with KRAS or BRAF mutations. PMID:26541605

  19. Synergistically killing activity of aspirin and histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) on hepatocellular cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaofei; Zhu, Yanshuang; He, Huabin; Lou, Lianqing; Ye, Weiwei; Chen, Yongxin; Wang, Jinghe

    2013-06-28

    Highlights: •Novel combination therapy using aspirin and valproic acid (VPA). •Combination of aspirin and VPA elicits synergistic cytotoxic effects. •Combination of aspirin and VPA significantly reduces the drug dosage required alone. •Combination of aspirin and VPA significantly inhibit tumor growth. •Lower dose of aspirin in combination therapy will minimize side effects of aspirin. -- Abstract: Aspirin and valproic acid (VPA) have been extensively studied for inducing various malignancies growth inhibition respectively, despite their severe side effects. Here, we developed a novel combination by aspirin and VPA on hepatocellular cancer cells (HCCs). The viability of HCC lines were analyzed by MTT assay, apoptotic analysis of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cell was performed. Real time-PCR and Western blotting were performed to determine the expression of apoptosis related genes and proteins such as Survivin, Bcl-2/Bax, Cyclin D1 and p15. Moreover, orthotopic xenograft tumors were challenged in nude mice to establish murine model, and then therapeutic effect was analyzed after drug combination therapy. The viability of HCC lines’ significantly decreased after drug combination treatment, and cancer cell apoptosis in combination group increasingly induced compared with single drug use. Therapeutic effect was significantly enhanced by combination therapy in tumor volume and tumor weight decrease. From the data shown here, aspirin and VPA combination have a synergistic killing effect on hepatocellular cancers cells proliferation and apoptosis.

  20. Comparison between sonodynamic effect and photodynamic effect with photosensitizers on free radical formation and cell killing.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Wakako; Honda, Hidemi; Feril, Loreto B; Kudo, Nobuki; Kondo, Takashi

    2006-09-01

    Although enhancement of ultrasound-induced cell killing by photodynamic reagents has been shown, the sonochemical mechanism in detail is still not clear. Here, comparison between sonodynamic effect and photodynamic effect with photosensitizers at a concentration of 10 microM on free radical formation and cell killing was made. When electron paramagnetic-resonance spectroscopy (EPR) was used to detect 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone-N-oxyl (TAN) after photo-irradiation or sonication with 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone (TMPD), the order of TAN formation in the photo-irradiated samples was as follows: rhodamine 6G (R6) > sulforhodamine B (SR) > hematoporphyrin (Hp) > rhodamine 123 (R123) > rose bengal (RB)>erythrosine B (Er) = 0; although there was time-dependent TAN formation when the samples were sonicated, no significant difference among these agents were observed. All these agents suppressed ultrasound-induced OH radical formation detected by EPR-spin trapping. Sensitizer-derived free radicals were markedly observed in SR, RB and Er, while trace level of radicals derived from R6 and R123 were observed. Enhancement of ultrasound-induced decrease of survival in human lymphoma U937 cells was observed at 1.5 W/cm(2) (less than inertial cavitation threshold) for R6, R123, SR and Er, and at 2.3 W/cm(2) for R6, R123, Er, RB and SR. On the other hand, photo-induced decrease of survival was observed for R6, Hp and RB at the same concentration (10 microM). These comparative results suggest that (1) (1)O(2) is not involved in the enhancement of ultrasound-induced loss of cell survival, (2) OH radicals and sensitizer-derived free radicals do not take part in the enhancement, and (3) the mechanism is mainly due to certain mechanical stress such as augmentation of physical disruption of cellular membrane by sensitizers in the close vicinity of cells and/or cavitation bubbles. PMID:16325451

  1. 40 CFR 180.1325 - Heat-killed Burkholderia spp. strain A396 cells and spent fermentation media exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... A396 cells and spent fermentation media exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1325 Section...-killed Burkholderia spp. strain A396 cells and spent fermentation media exemption from the requirement of...-killed Burkholderia spp. strain A396 cells and spent fermentation media in or on all food...

  2. High vancomycin MICs within the susceptible range in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia isolates are associated with increased cell wall thickness and reduced intracellular killing by human phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Falcón, Rocío; Martínez, Alba; Albert, Eliseo; Madrid, Silvia; Oltra, Rosa; Giménez, Estela; Soriano, Mario; Vinuesa, Víctor; Gozalbo, Daniel; Gil, María Luisa; Navarro, David

    2016-05-01

    Vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) at the upper end of the susceptible range for Staphylococcus aureus have been associated with poor clinical outcomes of bloodstream infections. We tested the hypothesis that high vancomycin MICs in S. aureus bacteraemia isolates are associated with increased cell wall thickness and suboptimal bacterial internalisation or lysis by human phagocytes. In total, 95 isolates were evaluated. Original vancomycin MICs were determined by Etest. The susceptibility of S. aureus isolates to killing by phagocytes was assessed in a human whole blood assay. Internalisation of bacterial cells by phagocytes was investigated by flow cytometry. Cell wall thickness was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. Genotypic analysis of S. aureus isolates was performed using a DNA microarray system. Vancomycin MICs were significantly higher (P=0.006) in isolates that were killed suboptimally (killing index <60%) compared with those killed efficiently (killing index >70%) and tended to correlate inversely (P=0.08) with the killing indices. Isolates in both killing groups were internalised by human neutrophils and monocytes with comparable efficiency. The cell wall was significantly thicker (P=0.03) in isolates in the low killing group. No genotypic differences were found between the isolates in both killing groups. In summary, high vancomycin MICs in S. aureus bacteraemia isolates were associated with increased cell wall thickness and reduced intracellular killing by phagocytes. PMID:27056298

  3. Off to the Organelles - Killing Cancer Cells with Targeted Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kodiha, Mohamed; Wang, Yi Meng; Hutter, Eliza; Maysinger, Dusica; Stochaj, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are excellent tools for cancer cell imaging and basic research. However, they have yet to reach their full potential in the clinic. At present, we are only beginning to understand the molecular mechanisms that underlie the biological effects of AuNPs, including the structural and functional changes of cancer cells. This knowledge is critical for two aspects of nanomedicine. First, it will define the AuNP-induced events at the subcellular and molecular level, thereby possibly identifying new targets for cancer treatment. Second, it could provide new strategies to improve AuNP-dependent cancer diagnosis and treatment. Our review summarizes the impact of AuNPs on selected subcellular organelles that are relevant to cancer therapy. We focus on the nucleus, its subcompartments, and mitochondria, because they are intimately linked to cancer cell survival, growth, proliferation and death. While non-targeted AuNPs can damage tumor cells, concentrating AuNPs in particular subcellular locations will likely improve tumor cell killing. Thus, it will increase cancer cell damage by photothermal ablation, mechanical injury or localized drug delivery. This concept is promising, but AuNPs have to overcome multiple hurdles to perform these tasks. AuNP size, morphology and surface modification are critical parameters for their delivery to organelles. Recent strategies explored all of these variables, and surface functionalization has become crucial to concentrate AuNPs in subcellular compartments. Here, we highlight the use of AuNPs to damage cancer cells and their organelles. We discuss current limitations of AuNP-based cancer research and conclude with future directions for AuNP-dependent cancer treatment. PMID:25699096

  4. Therapies with diverse mechanisms of action kill cells by a similar exponential process in advanced cancers.

    PubMed

    Blagoev, Krastan B; Wilkerson, Julia; Stein, Wilfred D; Yang, James; Bates, Susan E; Fojo, Tito

    2014-09-01

    Successful cancer treatments are generally defined as those that decrease tumor quantity. In many cases, this decrease occurs exponentially, with deviations from a strict exponential being attributed to a growing fraction of drug-resistant cells. Deviations from an exponential decrease in tumor quantity can also be expected if drugs have a nonuniform spatial distribution inside the tumor, for example, because of interstitial pressure inside the tumor. Here, we examine theoretically different models of cell killing and analyze data from clinical trials based on these models. We show that the best description of clinical outcomes is by first-order kinetics with exponential decrease of tumor quantity. We analyzed the total tumor quantity in a diverse group of clinical trials with various cancers during the administration of different classes of anticancer agents and in all cases observed that the models that best fit the data describe the decrease of the sensitive tumor fraction exponentially. The exponential decrease suggests that all drug-sensitive cancer cells have a single rate-limiting step on the path to cell death. If there are intermediate steps in the path to cell death, they are not rate limiting in the observational time scale utilized in clinical trials--tumor restaging at 6- to 8-week intervals. On shorter time scales, there might be intermediate steps, but the rate-limiting step is the same. Our analysis, thus, points to a common pathway to cell death for cancer cells in patients. See all articles in this Cancer Research section, "Physics in Cancer Research." PMID:25183789

  5. Hypofractionation Results in Reduced Tumor Cell Kill Compared to Conventional Fractionation for Tumors With Regions of Hypoxia

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, David J.; Keall, Paul J.; Loo, Billy W.; Chen, Zhe J.; Brown, J. Martin

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: Tumor hypoxia has been observed in many human cancers and is associated with treatment failure in radiation therapy. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effect of different radiation fractionation schemes on tumor cell killing, assuming a realistic distribution of tumor oxygenation. Methods and Materials: A probability density function for the partial pressure of oxygen in a tumor cell population is quantified as a function of radial distance from the capillary wall. Corresponding hypoxia reduction factors for cell killing are determined. The surviving fraction of a tumor consisting of maximally resistant cells, cells at intermediate levels of hypoxia, and normoxic cells is calculated as a function of dose per fraction for an equivalent tumor biological effective dose under normoxic conditions. Results: Increasing hypoxia as a function of distance from blood vessels results in a decrease in tumor cell killing for a typical radiotherapy fractionation scheme by a factor of 10{sup 5} over a distance of 130 {mu}m. For head-and-neck cancer and prostate cancer, the fraction of tumor clonogens killed over a full treatment course decreases by up to a factor of {approx}10{sup 3} as the dose per fraction is increased from 2 to 24 Gy and from 2 to 18 Gy, respectively. Conclusions: Hypofractionation of a radiotherapy regimen can result in a significant decrease in tumor cell killing compared to standard fractionation as a result of tumor hypoxia. There is a potential for large errors when calculating alternate fractionations using formalisms that do not account for tumor hypoxia.

  6. How the Necrotrophic Fungus Alternaria brassicicola Kills Plant Cells Remains an Enigma

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Alternaria species are mainly saprophytic fungi, but some are plant pathogens. Seven pathotypes of Alternaria alternata use secondary metabolites of host-specific toxins as pathogenicity factors. These toxins kill host cells prior to colonization. Genes associated with toxin synthesis reside on conditionally dispensable chromosomes, supporting the notion that pathogenicity might have been acquired several times by A. alternata. Alternaria brassicicola, however, seems to employ a different mechanism. Evidence on the use of host-specific toxins as pathogenicity factors remains tenuous, even after a diligent search aided by full-genome sequencing and efficient reverse-genetics approaches. Similarly, no individual genes encoding lipases or cell wall-degrading enzymes have been identified as strong virulence factors, although these enzymes have been considered important for fungal pathogenesis. This review describes our current understanding of toxins, lipases, and cell wall-degrading enzymes and their roles in the pathogenesis of A. brassicicola compared to those of other pathogenic fungi. It also describes a set of genes that affect pathogenesis in A. brassicicola. They are involved in various cellular functions that are likely important in most organisms and probably indirectly associated with pathogenesis. Deletion or disruption of these genes results in weakly virulent strains that appear to be sensitive to the defense mechanisms of host plants. Finally, this review discusses the implications of a recent discovery of three important transcription factors associated with pathogenesis and the putative downstream genes that they regulate. PMID:25681268

  7. Low-density lipoprotein-mediated delivery of docosahexaenoic acid selectively kills murine liver cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Lacy; Mulik, Rohit S.; Wen, Xiaodong; Dilip, Archana; Corbin, Ian R.

    2014-01-01

    Aim The natural omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has recently been credited for possessing anticancer properties. Herein, we investigate the cytotoxic actions of DHA-loaded low-density lipoprotein (LDL) nanoparticles in normal and liver cancer cells. Materials & methods LDL-DHA nanoparticles were prepared and subjected to extensive biophysical characterization. The therapeutic utility of LDL-DHA nanoparticles was evaluated in normal and malignant murine hepatocyte cell lines, TIB-73 and TIB-75, respectively. Results & discussion The engineered LDL-DHA nanoparticles possessed enhanced physical and oxidative stabilities over native LDL and free DHA. Dose–response studies showed that therapeutic doses of LDL-DHA nanoparticles that completely killed TIB-75 were innocuous to TIB-73. The selective induction of lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species in the cancer cells was shown to play a central role in LDL-DHA nanoparticle-mediated cytotoxicity. Conclusion In summary, these findings indicate that LDL-DHA nanoparticles show great promise as a selective anticancer agent against hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:24397600

  8. PD-L1 Expression on Retrovirus-Infected Cells Mediates Immune Escape from CD8+ T Cell Killing.

    PubMed

    Akhmetzyanova, Ilseyar; Drabczyk, Malgorzata; Neff, C Preston; Gibbert, Kathrin; Dietze, Kirsten K; Werner, Tanja; Liu, Jia; Chen, Lieping; Lang, Karl S; Palmer, Brent E; Dittmer, Ulf; Zelinskyy, Gennadiy

    2015-10-01

    Cytotoxic CD8+ T Lymphocytes (CTL) efficiently control acute virus infections but can become exhausted when a chronic infection develops. Signaling of the inhibitory receptor PD-1 is an important mechanism for the development of virus-specific CD8+ T cell dysfunction. However, it has recently been shown that during the initial phase of infection virus-specific CD8+ T cells express high levels of PD-1, but are fully competent in producing cytokines and killing virus-infected target cells. To better understand the role of the PD-1 signaling pathway in CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity during acute viral infections we analyzed the expression of the ligand on retrovirus-infected cells targeted by CTLs. We observed increased levels of PD-L1 expression after infection of cells with the murine Friend retrovirus (FV) or with HIV. In FV infected mice, virus-specific CTLs efficiently eliminated infected target cells that expressed low levels of PD-L1 or that were deficient for PD-L1 but the population of PD-L1high cells escaped elimination and formed a reservoir for chronic FV replication. Infected cells with high PD-L1 expression mediated a negative feedback on CD8+ T cells and inhibited their expansion and cytotoxic functions. These findings provide evidence for a novel immune escape mechanism during acute retroviral infection based on PD-L1 expression levels on virus infected target cells. PMID:26484769

  9. PD-L1 Expression on Retrovirus-Infected Cells Mediates Immune Escape from CD8+ T Cell Killing

    PubMed Central

    Neff, C. Preston; Gibbert, Kathrin; Dietze, Kirsten K.; Werner, Tanja; Liu, Jia; Chen, Lieping; Lang, Karl S.; Palmer, Brent E.; Dittmer, Ulf; Zelinskyy, Gennadiy

    2015-01-01

    Cytotoxic CD8+ T Lymphocytes (CTL) efficiently control acute virus infections but can become exhausted when a chronic infection develops. Signaling of the inhibitory receptor PD-1 is an important mechanism for the development of virus-specific CD8+ T cell dysfunction. However, it has recently been shown that during the initial phase of infection virus-specific CD8+ T cells express high levels of PD-1, but are fully competent in producing cytokines and killing virus-infected target cells. To better understand the role of the PD-1 signaling pathway in CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity during acute viral infections we analyzed the expression of the ligand on retrovirus-infected cells targeted by CTLs. We observed increased levels of PD-L1 expression after infection of cells with the murine Friend retrovirus (FV) or with HIV. In FV infected mice, virus-specific CTLs efficiently eliminated infected target cells that expressed low levels of PD-L1 or that were deficient for PD-L1 but the population of PD-L1high cells escaped elimination and formed a reservoir for chronic FV replication. Infected cells with high PD-L1 expression mediated a negative feedback on CD8+ T cells and inhibited their expansion and cytotoxic functions. These findings provide evidence for a novel immune escape mechanism during acute retroviral infection based on PD-L1 expression levels on virus infected target cells. PMID:26484769

  10. The respiratory burst is not required for killing of intracellular and extracellular parasites by a lymphokine-activated macrophage cell line.

    PubMed

    Scott, P; James, S; Sher, A

    1985-06-01

    The macrophage cell line, IC-21, was found to be incapable of producing the oxygen products associated with the respiratory burst. However, IC-21 cells were activated by lymphokine (LK) to kill intracellular (Leishmania donovani amastigotes) and extracellular (Schistosoma mansoni larvae) parasites, as well as tumor cells. In each case, the cytotoxicity exhibited by activated IC-21 cells and activated peritoneal macrophages was indistinguishable. However, nonactivated IC-21 cells were unable to kill L. donovani log-growth phase promastigotes, while nonactivated peritoneal macrophages destroyed greater than 90% of the initial infection. These results indicate that amastigotes and schistosome larvae are susceptible to killing by nonoxidative cytotoxic mechanism induced by lymphokine activation but, on the other hand, support the concept that the killing of log-growth phase promastigotes by nonactivated cells is dependent upon the respiratory burst. We propose that the IC-21 cell line may be a useful model for studying nonoxidative killing functions of activated macrophages. PMID:2988973

  11. Enhanced apoptotic cancer cell killing after Foscan photodynamic therapy combined with fenretinide via de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Boppana, Nithin B; DeLor, Jeremy S; Van Buren, Eric; Bielawska, Alicja; Bielawski, Jacek; Pierce, Jason S; Korbelik, Mladen; Separovic, Duska

    2016-06-01

    We and others have shown that stresses, including photodynamic therapy (PDT), can disrupt the de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis pathway, leading to changes in the levels of sphingolipids, and subsequently, modulation of cell death. The de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis pathway includes a ceramide synthase-dependent reaction, giving rise to dihydroceramide, which is then converted in a desaturase-dependent reaction to ceramide. In this study we tested the hypothesis that combining Foscan-mediated PDT with desaturase inhibitor fenretinide (HPR) enhances cancer cell killing. We discovered that by subjecting SCC19 cells, a human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line, to PDT+HPR resulted in enhanced accumulation of C16-dihydroceramide, not ceramide. Concomitantly, mitochondrial depolarization was enhanced by the combined treatment. Enhanced activation of caspase-3 after PDT+HPR was inhibited by FB. Enhanced clonogenic cell death after the combination was sensitive to FB, as well as Bcl2- and caspase inhibitors. Treatment of mouse SCCVII squamous cell carcinoma tumors with PDT+HPR resulted in improved long-term tumor cures. Overall, our data showed that combining PDT with HPR enhanced apoptotic cancer cell killing and antitumor efficacy of PDT. The data suggest the involvement of the de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis pathway in enhanced apoptotic cell killing after PDT+HPR, and identify the combination as a novel more effective anticancer treatment than either treatment alone. PMID:27085050

  12. Hepatocellular carcinoma cell sensitivity to Vγ9Vδ2 T lymphocyte-mediated killing is increased by zoledronate

    PubMed Central

    SUGAI, SHIORI; YOSHIKAWA, TOSHIAKI; IWAMA, TATSUAKI; TSUCHIYA, NOBUHIRO; UEDA, NORIHIRO; FUJINAMI, NORIHIRO; SHIMOMURA, MANAMI; ZHANG, RONG; KANEKO, SHIN; UEMURA, YASUSHI; NAKATSURA, TETSUYA

    2016-01-01

    The limited efficacy of vaccines in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), due to the low frequency of tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), indicates the importance of innate immune surveillance, which assists acquired immunity by directly recognizing and eliminating HCC. Innate Vγ9Vδ2 T cells have major histocompatibility complex-unrestricted antitumor activity and are activated by phosphoantigens, which are upregulated in cancer cells by the nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, zoledronate (Zol). A better understanding of HCC susceptibility to Zol and downstream γδ T cell-mediated killing is essential to optimize γδ T cell-mediated immunotherapy. This study systematically examined the interactions between γδ T cells and Zol-treated HCC cell lines (HepG2, HLE, HLF, HuH-1, JHH5, JHH7, and Li-7) in vitro. All HCC cell lines expressed the DNAX accessory molecule-1 ligands, poliovirus receptor, and Nectin-2, and γδ T cell-mediated killing of these cells was significantly enhanced by Zol. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of these ligands did not affect the susceptibility to γδ T cell lysis. This killing activity was partly inhibited by mevastatin, an inhibitor of the mevalonate pathway, and markedly reduced by a monoclonal antibody to γ- and δ-chain T cell receptor, indicating that this is crucial for Zol-induced HCC killing. In addition, Zol-treated HCC cell lines triggered γδ T cell proliferation and induced production of Th1 and Th2, but not Th17, cytokines. The Zol concentration that enhanced HCC cell susceptibility to γδ T cell killing was lower than that required to directly inhibit HCC proliferation. Thus, γδ T cells may be important effector cells in the presence of Zol, especially where there are insufficient number of cancer antigen-specific CTLs to eliminate HCC. Our in vitro data support the proposal that Zol-treatment, combined with adaptive γδ T cell immunotherapy, may provide a feasible and effective approach for

  13. Hepatocellular carcinoma cell sensitivity to Vγ9Vδ2 T lymphocyte-mediated killing is increased by zoledronate.

    PubMed

    Sugai, Shiori; Yoshikawa, Toshiaki; Iwama, Tatsuaki; Tsuchiya, Nobuhiro; Ueda, Norihiro; Fujinami, Norihiro; Shimomura, Manami; Zhang, Rong; Kaneko, Shin; Uemura, Yasushi; Nakatsura, Tetsuya

    2016-05-01

    The limited efficacy of vaccines in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), due to the low frequency of tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), indicates the importance of innate immune surveillance, which assists acquired immunity by directly recognizing and eliminating HCC. Innate Vγ9Vδ2 T cells have major histocompatibility complex-unrestricted antitumor activity and are activated by phosphoantigens, which are upregulated in cancer cells by the nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, zoledronate (Zol). A better understanding of HCC susceptibility to Zol and downstream γδ T cell-mediated killing is essential to optimize γδ T cell-mediated immunotherapy. This study systematically examined the interactions between γδ T cells and Zol-treated HCC cell lines (HepG2, HLE, HLF, HuH-1, JHH5, JHH7, and Li-7) in vitro. All HCC cell lines expressed the DNAX accessory molecule-1 ligands, poliovirus receptor, and Nectin-2, and γδ T cell-mediated killing of these cells was significantly enhanced by Zol. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of these ligands did not affect the susceptibility to γδ T cell lysis. This killing activity was partly inhibited by mevastatin, an inhibitor of the mevalonate pathway, and markedly reduced by a monoclonal antibody to γ- and δ-chain T cell receptor, indicating that this is crucial for Zol-induced HCC killing. In addition, Zol-treated HCC cell lines triggered γδ T cell proliferation and induced production of Th1 and Th2, but not Th17, cytokines. The Zol concentration that enhanced HCC cell susceptibility to γδ T cell killing was lower than that required to directly inhibit HCC proliferation. Thus, γδ T cells may be important effector cells in the presence of Zol, especially where there are insufficient number of cancer antigen-specific CTLs to eliminate HCC. Our in vitro data support the proposal that Zol-treatment, combined with adaptive γδ T cell immunotherapy, may provide a feasible and effective

  14. Selective killing of B-cell hybridomas targeting proteinase 3, Wegener's autoantigen

    PubMed Central

    Reiners, Katrin S; Hansen, Hinrich P; Krüssmann, Anne; Schön, Gisela; Csernok, Elena; Gross, Wolfgang L; Engert, Andreas; von Strandmann, Elke Pogge

    2004-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is a rare disease characterized by granulomatous lesions, small vessel vasculitis and the presence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (C-ANCAs) in the sera of affected patients. Their main target antigen is proteinase 3 (PR3), a neutrophil and monocyte-derived neutral serine protease. Since the standard treatment of this severe autoimmune disease, with cyclophosphamide and corticosteroids, is associated with potential side-effects, the development of a more specific immunotherapeutic agent is warranted. The key role of ANCA in the pathogenesis of vasculitis and the effectiveness of anti-CD20 antibodies in patients with refractory WG points towards the importance of B cells in WG. We thus evaluated a new approach to selectively eliminate PR3-specific autoreactive B cells by targeting the B-cell receptor. For this purpose we used a bifunctional recombinant fusion protein consisting of the antigen PR3 and a toxin. The cytotoxic component of this novel fusion protein was the ribonuclease angiogenin, a human toxin with low immunogenicity. The toxin was stabilized by exchanging the catalytically relevant histidine in position 44 with glutamine to eliminate the autoproteolytic activity. PR3H44Q was fused either to the N terminus or to the C terminus of angiogenin. The recombinant proteins were expressed in 293T cells. Binding assays demonstrated the appropriate size and recognition by anti-PR3 antibodies. Using TUNEL technology, we demonstrated that these autoantigen toxins kill proteinase 3-specific B-cell hybridomas selectively by inducing apoptosis. The data indicate that autoantigen-toxins are promising tools in the treatment or co-treatment of autoimmune diseases in which the antigen is known. PMID:15147566

  15. Preferential kill of hypoxic EMT6 mammary tumor cells by the bioreductive alkylating agent porfiromycin.

    PubMed

    Sartorelli, A C; Belcourt, M F; Hodnick, W F; Keyes, S R; Pritsos, C A; Rockwell, S

    1995-01-01

    Hypoxic cells in solid tumors represent a therapeutically resistant population that limits the curability of many solid tumors by irradiation and by most chemotherapeutic agents. The oxygen deficit, however, creates an environment conducive to reductive processes; this results in a major exploitable difference between normal and neoplastic tissues. The mitomycin antibiotics can be reductively activated by a number of oxidoreductases, in a process required for the production of their therapeutic effects. Preferential activation of these drugs under hypoxia and greater toxicity to oxygen-deficient cells than to their oxygenated counterparts are obtained in most instances. The demonstration that mitomycin C and porfiromycin, used to kill the hypoxic fraction, in combination with irradiation, to eradicate the oxygenated portion of the tumor, produced enhanced cytodestructive effects on solid tumors in animals has led to the clinical evaluation of the mitomycins in combination with radiation therapy in patients with head and neck cancer. The findings from these clinical trials have demonstrated the value of directing a concerted therapeutic attack on the hypoxic fraction of solid tumors as an approach toward enhancing the curability of localized neoplasms by irradiation. PMID:7572339

  16. Efficient killing of CD22{sup +} tumor cells by a humanized diabody-RNase fusion protein

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Juergen . E-mail: juergen.krauss@uni-essen.de; Arndt, Michaela A.E.; Vu, Bang K.; Newton, Dianne L.; Seeber, Siegfried; Rybak, Susanna M.

    2005-06-03

    We report on the generation of a dimeric immunoenzyme capable of simultaneously delivering two ribonuclease (RNase) effector domains on one molecule to CD22{sup +} tumor cells. As targeting moiety a diabody derived from the previously humanized scFv SGIII with grafted specificity of the murine anti-CD22 mAb RFB4 was constructed. Further engineering the interface of this construct (V{sub L}36{sub Leu{yields}}{sub Tyr}) resulted in a highly robust bivalent molecule that retained the same high affinity as the murine mAb RFB4 (K{sub D} 0.2 nM). A dimeric immunoenzyme comprising this diabody and Rana pipiens liver ribonuclease I (rapLRI) was generated, expressed as soluble protein in bacteria, and purified to homogeneity. The dimeric fusion protein killed several CD22{sup +} tumor cell lines with high efficacy (IC{sub 50} = 3-20 nM) and exhibited 9- to 48-fold stronger cytotoxicity than a monovalent rapLRI-scFv counterpart. Our results demonstrate that engineering of dimeric antibody-ribonuclease fusion proteins can markedly enhance their biological efficacy.

  17. Benzothiazinones Mediate Killing of Corynebacterineae by Blocking Decaprenyl Phosphate Recycling Involved in Cell Wall Biosynthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Shipra; Alderwick, Luke J.; Mishra, Arun K.; Krumbach, Karin; Marienhagen, Jan; Eggeling, Lothar; Bhatt, Apoorva; Besra, Gurdyal S.

    2014-01-01

    Benzothiazinones (BTZs) are a new class of sulfur containing heterocyclic compounds that target DprE1, an oxidoreductase involved in the epimerization of decaprenyl-phosphoribose (DPR) to decaprenyl-phosphoarabinose (DPA) in the Corynebacterineae, such as Corynebacterium glutamicum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. As a result, BTZ inhibition leads to inhibition of cell wall arabinan biosynthesis. Previous studies have demonstrated the essentiality of dprE1. In contrast, Cg-UbiA a ribosyltransferase, which catalyzes the first step of DPR biosynthesis prior to DprE1, when genetically disrupted, produced a viable mutant, suggesting that although BTZ biochemically targets DprE1, killing also occurs through chemical synthetic lethality, presumably through the lack of decaprenyl phosphate recycling. To test this hypothesis, a derivative of BTZ, BTZ043, was examined in detail against C. glutamicum and C. glutamicum::ubiA. The wild type strain was sensitive to BTZ043; however, C. glutamicum::ubiA was found to be resistant, despite possessing a functional DprE1. When the gene encoding C. glutamicum Z-decaprenyl-diphosphate synthase (NCgl2203) was overexpressed in wild type C. glutamicum, resistance to BTZ043 was further increased. This data demonstrates that in the presence of BTZ, the bacilli accumulate DPR and fail to recycle decaprenyl phosphate, which results in the depletion of decaprenyl phosphate and ultimately leads to cell death. PMID:24446451

  18. Benzothiazinones mediate killing of Corynebacterineae by blocking decaprenyl phosphate recycling involved in cell wall biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Grover, Shipra; Alderwick, Luke J; Mishra, Arun K; Krumbach, Karin; Marienhagen, Jan; Eggeling, Lothar; Bhatt, Apoorva; Besra, Gurdyal S

    2014-02-28

    Benzothiazinones (BTZs) are a new class of sulfur containing heterocyclic compounds that target DprE1, an oxidoreductase involved in the epimerization of decaprenyl-phosphoribose (DPR) to decaprenyl-phosphoarabinose (DPA) in the Corynebacterineae, such as Corynebacterium glutamicum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. As a result, BTZ inhibition leads to inhibition of cell wall arabinan biosynthesis. Previous studies have demonstrated the essentiality of dprE1. In contrast, Cg-UbiA a ribosyltransferase, which catalyzes the first step of DPR biosynthesis prior to DprE1, when genetically disrupted, produced a viable mutant, suggesting that although BTZ biochemically targets DprE1, killing also occurs through chemical synthetic lethality, presumably through the lack of decaprenyl phosphate recycling. To test this hypothesis, a derivative of BTZ, BTZ043, was examined in detail against C. glutamicum and C. glutamicum::ubiA. The wild type strain was sensitive to BTZ043; however, C. glutamicum::ubiA was found to be resistant, despite possessing a functional DprE1. When the gene encoding C. glutamicum Z-decaprenyl-diphosphate synthase (NCgl2203) was overexpressed in wild type C. glutamicum, resistance to BTZ043 was further increased. This data demonstrates that in the presence of BTZ, the bacilli accumulate DPR and fail to recycle decaprenyl phosphate, which results in the depletion of decaprenyl phosphate and ultimately leads to cell death. PMID:24446451

  19. Killing defect of natural killer cells with the absence of natural killer cytotoxic factors in a child with Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Komiyama, A.; Kawai, H.; Yamada, S.; Kato, M.; Yanagisawa, M.; Miyagawa, Y.; Akabane, T.

    1987-06-01

    A killing defect of natural killer (NK) cells in the absence of NK cytotoxic factors (NKCF) was first demonstrated in a child with Hodgkin's disease. The patient lacked detectable NK cell activity in every phase of the disease as measured by a four-hour /sup 51/Cr-release assay using K562 cells as a target. The percent lysis at a 40:1 effector:target ratio by the patient's lymphocytes was persistently below 0.3% as compared with the normal lymphocyte value of 46.2% +/- 5.8% (mean +/- SD). NK cell activity was not detectable at effector:target ratios of 10:1 to 80:1 and by prolongation of the incubation time, and the NK cell defect was not restored or improved by lymphocyte stimulation with polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid, interferon (IFN)-alpha, or interleukin 2 (IL 2). The numbers of Leu-7+ cells and Leu-11+ cells were normal as counted by flow cytometry. A single cell-in-agarose assay demonstrated normal numbers of target binding cells (TBCs), and they showed the morphology of large granular lymphocytes. However, there were no TBCs with dead targets. These results indicated that the patient's lymphocytes contained normal numbers of NK cells that were capable of recognizing and binding to a target but were incapable of killing the bound target cell. The patient's lymphocytes were then studied for their release of NKCF upon interaction with K562 cells. The patient's cells did not release NKCF, and the NK cell defect was not restored or improved by stimulation of the cells with IFN or IL 2. It is suggested that the deficient release of NKCF may have been related to the killing defect of the NK cells in this patient.

  20. Mechanical cell competition kills cells via induction of lethal p53 levels.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Laura; Goschorska, Maja; Kozyrska, Kasia; Duclos, Guillaume; Kucinski, Iwo; Chessel, Anatole; Hampton-O'Neil, Lea; Bradshaw, Charles R; Allen, George E; Rawlins, Emma L; Silberzan, Pascal; Carazo Salas, Rafael E; Piddini, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Cell competition is a quality control mechanism that eliminates unfit cells. How cells compete is poorly understood, but it is generally accepted that molecular exchange between cells signals elimination of unfit cells. Here we report an orthogonal mechanism of cell competition, whereby cells compete through mechanical insults. We show that MDCK cells silenced for the polarity gene scribble (scrib(KD)) are hypersensitive to compaction, that interaction with wild-type cells causes their compaction and that crowding is sufficient for scrib(KD) cell elimination. Importantly, we show that elevation of the tumour suppressor p53 is necessary and sufficient for crowding hypersensitivity. Compaction, via activation of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) and the stress kinase p38, leads to further p53 elevation, causing cell death. Thus, in addition to molecules, cells use mechanical means to compete. Given the involvement of p53, compaction hypersensitivity may be widespread among damaged cells and offers an additional route to eliminate unfit cells. PMID:27109213

  1. Mechanical cell competition kills cells via induction of lethal p53 levels

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, Laura; Goschorska, Maja; Kozyrska, Kasia; Duclos, Guillaume; Kucinski, Iwo; Chessel, Anatole; Hampton-O'Neil, Lea; Bradshaw, Charles R.; Allen, George E.; Rawlins, Emma L.; Silberzan, Pascal; Carazo Salas, Rafael E.; Piddini, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Cell competition is a quality control mechanism that eliminates unfit cells. How cells compete is poorly understood, but it is generally accepted that molecular exchange between cells signals elimination of unfit cells. Here we report an orthogonal mechanism of cell competition, whereby cells compete through mechanical insults. We show that MDCK cells silenced for the polarity gene scribble (scribKD) are hypersensitive to compaction, that interaction with wild-type cells causes their compaction and that crowding is sufficient for scribKD cell elimination. Importantly, we show that elevation of the tumour suppressor p53 is necessary and sufficient for crowding hypersensitivity. Compaction, via activation of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) and the stress kinase p38, leads to further p53 elevation, causing cell death. Thus, in addition to molecules, cells use mechanical means to compete. Given the involvement of p53, compaction hypersensitivity may be widespread among damaged cells and offers an additional route to eliminate unfit cells. PMID:27109213

  2. Killing and conformal Killing tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heil, Konstantin; Moroianu, Andrei; Semmelmann, Uwe

    2016-08-01

    We introduce an appropriate formalism in order to study conformal Killing (symmetric) tensors on Riemannian manifolds. We reprove in a simple way some known results in the field and obtain several new results, like the classification of conformal Killing 2-tensors on Riemannian products of compact manifolds, Weitzenböck formulas leading to non-existence results, and construct various examples of manifolds with conformal Killing tensors.

  3. Complete sucrose hydrolysis by heat-killed recombinant Pichia pastoris cells entrapped in calcium alginate

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An ideal immobilized biocatalyst for the industrial-scale production of invert sugar should stably operate at elevated temperatures (60-70°C) and high sucrose concentrations (above 60%, w/v). Commercial invertase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is thermolabile and suffers from substrate inhibition. Thermotoga maritima β-fructosidase (BfrA) is the most thermoactive and thermostable sucrose-hydrolysing enzyme so far identified and allows complete inversion of the substrate in highly concentrated solutions. Results In this study, heat-killed Pichia pastoris cells bearing N-glycosylated BfrA in the periplasmic space were entrapped in calcium alginate beads. The immobilized recombinant yeast showed maximal sucrose hydrolysis at pH 5–7 and 90°C. BfrA was 65% active at 60°C and had no activity loss after incubation without the substrate at this temperature for 15 h. Complete inversion of cane sugar (2.04 M) at 60°C was achieved in batchwise and continuous operation with respective productivities of 4.37 and 0.88 gram of substrate hydrolysed per gram of dry beads per hour. The half-life values of the biocatalyst were 14 and 20 days when operated at 60°C in the stirred tank and the fixed-bed column, respectively. The reaction with non-viable cells prevented the occurrence of sucrose fermentation and the formation of by-products. Six-month storage of the biocatalyst in 1.46 M sucrose (pH 5.5) at 4°C caused no reduction of the invertase activity. Conclusions The features of the novel thermostable biocatalyst developed in this study are more attractive than those of immobilized S. cerevisiae cells for application in the enzymatic manufacture of inverted sugar syrup in batch and fixed-bed reactors. PMID:24943124

  4. Killing Coyotes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Conger, Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Presents different viewpoints concerning the federal government's Animal Damage Control (ADC) Program cited as responsible for killing millions of predators. Critics provide evidence of outdated and inhumane methods exemplified in the coyote killings. The ADC emphasizes new, nonlethal methods of controlling animals cited as "noxious." (MCO)

  5. The DNA damage-induced cell death response: a roadmap to kill cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Matt, Sonja; Hofmann, Thomas G

    2016-08-01

    Upon massive DNA damage cells fail to undergo productive DNA repair and trigger the cell death response. Resistance to cell death is linked to cellular transformation and carcinogenesis as well as radio- and chemoresistance, making the underlying signaling pathways a promising target for therapeutic intervention. Diverse DNA damage-induced cell death pathways are operative in mammalian cells and finally culminate in the induction of programmed cell death via activation of apoptosis or necroptosis. These signaling routes affect nuclear, mitochondria- and plasma membrane-associated key molecules to activate the apoptotic or necroptotic response. In this review, we highlight the main signaling pathways, molecular players and mechanisms guiding the DNA damage-induced cell death response. PMID:26791483

  6. Cell killing, radiosensitization and cell cycle redistribution induced by chronic hypoxia

    SciTech Connect

    Spiro, I.J.; Rice, G.C.; Durand, R.E.; Stickler, R.; Ling, C.C.

    1984-08-01

    Some of the biological changes associated with extreme hypoxia at 37/sup 0/C (less than 10 ppM pO/sub 2/) were examined in Chinese hamster V79 cells. Specifically, extreme hypoxia caused an initial decrease in plating efficiency to 55% in 4 hr after the onset of hypoxia. Beyond this time, the decline in plating efficiency was more gradual reaching 35% of control at 20 hr. Flow microfluorimetry (FMF) studies, in which cells are sorted on the basis of DNA content and then assayed for viability, demonstrated that mid S phase cells were most sensitive to chronic hypoxia. Hypoxia also caused alterations in the cell cycle distribution of initially asynchronous cells, as determined by dual parameter FMF measurements of both cellular DNA content and incorporated BudR. Lastly, cells stored in chronic hypoxia displayed an enhanced radiosensitivity when compared to acutely hypoxic cells.

  7. BIM mediates synergistic killing of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells by BCL-2 and MEK inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Korfi, K; Smith, M; Swan, J; Somervaille, T C P; Dhomen, N; Marais, R

    2016-01-01

    B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is an aggressive hematological disease that kills ~50% of adult patients. With the exception of some BCR-ABL1+ patients who benefit from tyrosine kinase inhibitors, there are no effective targeted therapies for adult B-ALL patients and chemotherapy remains first-line therapy despite adverse side effects and poor efficacy. We show that, although the MEK/ERK pathway is activated in B-ALL cells driven by different oncogenes, MEK inhibition does not suppress B-ALL cell growth. However, MEK inhibition synergized with BCL-2/BCL-XL family inhibitors to suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in B-ALL cells. We show that this synergism is mediated by the pro-apoptotic factor BIM, which is dephosphorylated as a result of MEK inhibition, allowing it to bind to and neutralize MCL-1, thereby enhancing BCL-2/BCL-XL inhibitor-induced cell death. This cooperative effect is observed in B-ALL cells driven by a range of genetic abnormalities and therefore has significant therapeutic potential. PMID:27054332

  8. BIM mediates synergistic killing of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells by BCL-2 and MEK inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Korfi, K; Smith, M; Swan, J; Somervaille, T C P; Dhomen, N; Marais, R

    2016-01-01

    B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is an aggressive hematological disease that kills ~50% of adult patients. With the exception of some BCR-ABL1(+) patients who benefit from tyrosine kinase inhibitors, there are no effective targeted therapies for adult B-ALL patients and chemotherapy remains first-line therapy despite adverse side effects and poor efficacy. We show that, although the MEK/ERK pathway is activated in B-ALL cells driven by different oncogenes, MEK inhibition does not suppress B-ALL cell growth. However, MEK inhibition synergized with BCL-2/BCL-XL family inhibitors to suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in B-ALL cells. We show that this synergism is mediated by the pro-apoptotic factor BIM, which is dephosphorylated as a result of MEK inhibition, allowing it to bind to and neutralize MCL-1, thereby enhancing BCL-2/BCL-XL inhibitor-induced cell death. This cooperative effect is observed in B-ALL cells driven by a range of genetic abnormalities and therefore has significant therapeutic potential. PMID:27054332

  9. Potential of Radiation-Induced Cellular Stress for Reactivation of Latent HIV-1 and Killing of Infected Cells.

    PubMed

    Iordanskiy, Sergey; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2016-02-01

    The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy against HIV-1 for last two decades has reduced mortality of patients through extension of nonsymptomatic phase of infection. However, HIV-1 can be preserved in long-lived resting CD4(+) T cells, which form a viral reservoir in infected individuals, and potentially in macrophages and astrocytes. Reactivation of viral replication is critical since the host immune response in combination with antiretroviral therapy may eradicate the virus (shock and kill strategy). In this opinion piece, we consider potential application of therapeutic doses of irradiation, the well-known and effective stress signal that induces DNA damage and activates cellular stress response, to resolve two problems: activate HIV-1 replication and virion production in persistent reservoirs under cART and deplete infected cells through selective cell killing using DNA damage responses. PMID:26765533

  10. Structural Factors and Mechanisms Underlying the Improved Photodynamic Cell Killing with Silicon Phthalocyanine Photosensitizers Directed to Lysosomes Versus Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Myriam E.; Zhang, Ping; Azizuddin, Kashif; Delos Santos, Grace B.; Chiu, Song-mao; Xue, Liang-yan; Berlin, Jeffery C.; Peng, Xinzhan; Wu, Hongqiao; Lam, Minh; Nieminen, Anna-Liisa; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Oleinick, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    The phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 has been shown to bind preferentially to mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Upon photoirradiation of Pc 4-loaded cells, membrane components, especially Bcl-2, are photodamaged and apoptosis, as indicated by activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, is triggered. A series of analogs of Pc 4 were synthesized, and the results demonstrate that Pcs with the aminopropylsiloxy ligand of Pc 4 or a similar one on one side of the Pc ring and a second large axial ligand on the other side of the ring have unexpected properties, including enhanced cell uptake, greater monomerization resulting in greater intracellular fluorescence and three-fold higher affinity constants for liposomes. The hydroxyl-bearing axial ligands tend to reduce aggregation of the Pc and direct it to lysosomes, resulting in four to six times more killing of cells, as defined by loss of clonogenicity, than with Pc 4. Whereas Pc 4-PDT photodamages Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, Pc 181-PDT causes much less photodamage to Bcl-2 over the same dose–response range relative to cell killing, with earlier cleavage of Bid and slower caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Therefore, within this series of photosensitizers, these hydroxyl-bearing axial ligands are less aggregated than is Pc 4, tend to localize to lysosomes and are more effective in overall cell killing than is Pc 4, but induce apoptosis more slowly and by a modified pathway. PMID:19508642

  11. Multidrug-resistant hela cells overexpressing MRP1 exhibit sensitivity to cell killing by hyperthermia: Interactions with etoposide

    SciTech Connect

    Souslova, Tatiana; Averill-Bates, Diana A. . E-mail: averill.diana@uqam.ca

    2004-12-01

    Purpose: Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains one of the primary obstacles in cancer chemotherapy and often involves overexpression of drug efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1). Regional hyperthermia is undergoing clinical investigation in combination with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. This study evaluates whether hyperthermia can reverse MDR mediated by MRP1 in human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa) cells. Methods and materials: Cytotoxicity of hyperthermia and/or etoposide was evaluated using sulforhodamine-B in HeLa cells overexpressing MRP1 and their drug-sensitive counterparts. Glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were quantified by spectrophotometry. GST isoenzymes were quantified by immunodetection. Caspase activation was evaluated by fluorometry and chromatin condensation by fluorescence microscopy using Hoechst 33258. Necrosis was determined using propidium iodide. Results: The major finding is that HeLa and HeLaMRP cells are both sensitive to cytotoxicity of hyperthermia (41-45 deg C). Hyperthermia induced activation of caspase 3 and chromatin condensation. Although total levels of cell killing were similar, there was a switch from apoptotic to necrotic cell death in MDR cells. This could be explained by decreased glutathione and GPx in MDR cells. MDR cells also contained very low levels of GST and were resistant to etoposide-induced apoptosis. Hyperthermia caused a modest increase in etoposide-induced apoptosis in HeLa and HeLaMRP cells, which required appropriate heat-drug scheduling. Conclusions: Hyperthermia could be useful in eliminating MDR cells that overexpress MRP1.

  12. Piperlongumine selectively kills hepatocellular carcinoma cells and preferentially inhibits their invasion via ROS-ER-MAPKs-CHOP.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Liu, Ju Mei; Xiong, Xin Xin; Qiu, Xin Yao; Pan, Feng; Liu, Di; Lan, Shu Jue; Jin, Si; Yu, Shang Bin; Chen, Xiao Qian

    2015-03-20

    Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) are highly malignant and aggressive tumors lack of effective therapeutic drugs. Piperlongumine (PL), a natural product isolated from longer pepper plants, is recently identified as a potent cytotoxic compound highly selective to cancer cells. Here, we reported that PL specifically suppressed HCC cell migration/invasion via endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-MAPKs-CHOP signaling pathway. PL selectively killed HCC cells but not normal hepatocytes with an IC50 of 10-20 µM while PL at much lower concentrations only suppressed HCC cell migration/invasion. PL selectively elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HCC cells, which activated or up-regulated downstream PERK/Ire 1α/Grp78, p38/JNK/Erk and CHOP subsequently. Administration of antioxidants completely abolished PL's effects on cell death and migration/invasion. However, pharmacological inhibition of ER stress-responses or MAPKs signaling pathways with corresponding specific inhibitors only reversed PL's effect on cell migration/invasion but not on cell death. Consistently, knocking-down of CHOP by RNA interference only reversed PL-suppressed HCC cell migration. Finally, PL significantly suppressed HCC development and activated the ER-MAPKs-CHOP signaling pathway in HCC xenografts in vivo. Taken together, PL selectively killed HCC cells and preferentially inhibited HCC cell migration/invasion via ROS-ER-MAPKs-CHOP axis, suggesting a novel therapeutic strategy for the highly malignant and aggressive HCC clinically. PMID:25788268

  13. Piperlongumine selectively kills hepatocellular carcinoma cells and preferentially inhibits their invasion via ROS-ER-MAPKs-CHOP

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Liu, Ju Mei; Xiong, Xin Xin; Qiu, Xin Yao; Pan, Feng; Liu, Di; Lan, Shu Jue; Jin, Si; Yu, Shang Bin; Chen, Xiao Qian

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) are highly malignant and aggressive tumors lack of effective therapeutic drugs. Piperlongumine (PL), a natural product isolated from longer pepper plants, is recently identified as a potent cytotoxic compound highly selective to cancer cells. Here, we reported that PL specifically suppressed HCC cell migration/invasion via endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-MAPKs-CHOP signaling pathway. PL selectively killed HCC cells but not normal hepatocytes with an IC50 of 10-20 μM while PL at much lower concentrations only suppressed HCC cell migration/invasion. PL selectively elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HCC cells, which activated or up-regulated downstream PERK/Ire 1α/Grp78, p38/JNK/Erk and CHOP subsequently. Administration of antioxidants completely abolished PL's effects on cell death and migration/invasion. However, pharmacological inhibition of ER stress-responses or MAPKs signaling pathways with corresponding specific inhibitors only reversed PL's effect on cell migration/invasion but not on cell death. Consistently, knocking-down of CHOP by RNA interference only reversed PL-suppressed HCC cell migration. Finally, PL significantly suppressed HCC development and activated the ER-MAPKs-CHOP signaling pathway in HCC xenografts in vivo. Taken together, PL selectively killed HCC cells and preferentially inhibited HCC cell migration/invasion via ROS-ER-MAPKs-CHOP axis, suggesting a novel therapeutic strategy for the highly malignant and aggressive HCC clinically. PMID:25788268

  14. Cyclic hypoxia does not alter RAD51 expression or PARP inhibitor cell kill in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Kumareswaran, Ramya; Chaudary, Naz; Jaluba, Karolina; Meng, Alice; Sykes, Jenna; Borhan, Asm; Hill, Richard P; Bristow, Robert G

    2015-09-01

    Solid tumors contain regions of chronic and cyclic hypoxia. Chronic hypoxia can downregulate RAD51 and sensitize cells to PARP inhibition. Herein, we show that RAD51 expression, cell survival and toxicity to PARP inhibition is not affected under cyclic hypoxic conditions. This suggests that PARP inhibition may be selectively toxic in tumor sub-regions associated with chronic hypoxia. PMID:25842967

  15. UV-inactivated HSV-1 potently activates NK cell killing of leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Samudio, Ismael; Rezvani, Katayoun; Shaim, Hila; Hofs, Elyse; Ngom, Mor; Bu, Luke; Liu, Guoyu; Lee, Jason T C; Imren, Suzan; Lam, Vivian; Poon, Grace F T; Ghaedi, Maryam; Takei, Fumio; Humphries, Keith; Jia, William; Krystal, Gerald

    2016-05-26

    Herein we demonstrate that oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) potently activates human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to lyse leukemic cell lines and primary acute myeloid leukemia samples, but not healthy allogeneic lymphocytes. Intriguingly, we found that UV light-inactivated HSV-1 (UV-HSV-1) is equally effective in promoting PBMC cytolysis of leukemic cells and is 1000- to 10 000-fold more potent at stimulating innate antileukemic responses than UV-inactivated cytomegalovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, reovirus, or adenovirus. Mechanistically, UV-HSV-1 stimulates PBMC cytolysis of leukemic cells, partly via Toll-like receptor-2/protein kinase C/nuclear factor-κB signaling, and potently stimulates expression of CD69, degranulation, migration, and cytokine production in natural killer (NK) cells, suggesting that surface components of UV-HSV-1 directly activate NK cells. Importantly, UV-HSV-1 synergizes with interleukin-15 (IL-15) and IL-2 in inducing activation and cytolytic activity of NK cells. Additionally, UV-HSV-1 stimulates glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation-dependent oxygen consumption in NK cells, but only glycolysis is required for their enhanced antileukemic activity. Last, we demonstrate that T cell-depleted human PBMCs exposed to UV-HSV-1 provide a survival benefit in a murine xenograft model of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Taken together, our results support the preclinical development of UV-HSV-1 as an adjuvant, alone or in combination with IL-15, for allogeneic donor mononuclear cell infusions to treat AML. PMID:26941401

  16. UV-inactivated HSV-1 potently activates NK cell killing of leukemic cells

    PubMed Central

    Samudio, Ismael; Rezvani, Katayoun; Shaim, Hila; Hofs, Elyse; Ngom, Mor; Bu, Luke; Liu, Guoyu; Lee, Jason T. C.; Imren, Suzan; Lam, Vivian; Poon, Grace F. T.; Ghaedi, Maryam; Takei, Fumio; Humphries, Keith; Jia, William

    2016-01-01

    Herein we demonstrate that oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) potently activates human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to lyse leukemic cell lines and primary acute myeloid leukemia samples, but not healthy allogeneic lymphocytes. Intriguingly, we found that UV light–inactivated HSV-1 (UV-HSV-1) is equally effective in promoting PBMC cytolysis of leukemic cells and is 1000- to 10 000-fold more potent at stimulating innate antileukemic responses than UV-inactivated cytomegalovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, reovirus, or adenovirus. Mechanistically, UV-HSV-1 stimulates PBMC cytolysis of leukemic cells, partly via Toll-like receptor-2/protein kinase C/nuclear factor-κB signaling, and potently stimulates expression of CD69, degranulation, migration, and cytokine production in natural killer (NK) cells, suggesting that surface components of UV-HSV-1 directly activate NK cells. Importantly, UV-HSV-1 synergizes with interleukin-15 (IL-15) and IL-2 in inducing activation and cytolytic activity of NK cells. Additionally, UV-HSV-1 stimulates glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation–dependent oxygen consumption in NK cells, but only glycolysis is required for their enhanced antileukemic activity. Last, we demonstrate that T cell–depleted human PBMCs exposed to UV-HSV-1 provide a survival benefit in a murine xenograft model of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Taken together, our results support the preclinical development of UV-HSV-1 as an adjuvant, alone or in combination with IL-15, for allogeneic donor mononuclear cell infusions to treat AML. PMID:26941401

  17. Piperlongumine selectively kills glioblastoma multiforme cells via reactive oxygen species accumulation dependent JNK and p38 activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ju Mei; Pan, Feng; Li, Li; Liu, Qian Rong; Chen, Yong; Xiong, Xin Xin; Cheng, Kejun; Yu, Shang Bin; Shi, Zhi; Yu, Albert Cheung-Hoi; Chen, Xiao Qian

    2013-07-19

    Piperlongumine (PL), a natural alkaloid isolated from the long pepper, may have anti-cancer properties. It selectively targets and kills cancer cells but leaves normal cells intact. Here, we reported that PL selectively killed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells via accumulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) to activate JNK and p38. PL at 20μM could induce severe cell death in three GBM cell lines (LN229, U87 and 8MG) but not astrocytes in cultures. PL elevated ROS prominently and reduced glutathione levels in LN229 and U87 cells. Antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) completely reversed PL-induced ROS accumulation and prevented cell death in LN229 and U87 cells. In LN229 and U87 cells, PL-treatment activated JNK and p38 but not Erk and Akt, in a dosage-dependent manner. These activations could be blocked by NAC pre-treatment. JNK and p38 specific inhibitors, SB203580 and SP600125 respectively, significantly blocked the cytotoxic effects of PL in LN229 and U87 cells. Our data first suggests that PL may have therapeutic potential for one of the most malignant and refractory tumors GBM. PMID:23796709

  18. Correlation between cell killing and massive second-round superinfection by members of some subgroups of avian leukosis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Weller, S K; Joy, A E; Temin, H M

    1980-01-01

    Avian leukosis viruses of subgroups B, D, and F are cytopathic for chicken cells, whereas viruses of subgroups A, C, and E are not. The amounts of unintegrated linear viral DNA in cells at different times after infection with cytopathic or noncytopathic viruses were determined by hybridization and transfection assays. Shortly after infection, there is a transient accumulation of unintegrated linear viral DNA in cells infected with cytopathic avian leukosis viruses. By 10 days after infection, the majority of this unintegrated viral DNA is not present in the infected cells. The transient cytopathic effect seen in these infected cells also disappears by this time. Low amounts of unintegrated linear viral DNA persist in these cells. Cells infected with noncytopathic viruses do not show this transient accumulation of unintegrated viral DNA. Cells infected with cytopathic viruses and subsequently grown in the presence of neutralizing antibody do not show the transient accumulation of unintegrated viral DNA or cytopathic effects. These results demonstrate a correlation between envelope subgroup, transient accumulation of unintegrated linear viral DNA, and transient cell killing by avian leukosis viruses. The cell killing appears to be the result of massive second-round superinfection by the cytopathic avian leukosis viruses. Images PMID:6245246

  19. Killing of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-infected fibroblasts during latent infection by activated natural killer cells

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Nick C; Goodier, Martin R; Robey, Rebecca C; Bower, Mark; Gotch, Frances M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) establishes life-long infection by evading clearance by the host immune system. In de novo infection and lytic replication, KSHV escapes cytotoxic T cells and NK cells through downregulation of MHC class-I and ICAM-1 molecules and associated antigens involved in forming and sustaining the immunological synapse. However, the efficacy of such mechanisms in the context of the predominantly latent KSHV infection reported in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) lesions is unclear. Using primary dermal fibroblasts in a novel in vitro model of chronic latent KSHV infection, we generated target cells with viral loads similar to those in spindle cells extracted from KS lesions. We show that latently KSHV-infected fibroblasts had normal levels of MHC-class I, ICAM-1, HLA-E and NKG2D ligand expression, were resistant to NK-cell natural cytotoxicity and were highly susceptible to killing by cytokine-activated immunocompetent NK cells. KSHV-infected fibroblasts expressed normal levels of IFN-γR1 and responded to exogenous IFN-γ by upregulating MHC class I, ICAM-1 and HLA-E and resisting activated NK-cell killing. These data demonstrate that physiologically relevant levels of latent KSHV infection in primary cells cause limited activation of resting NK cells and confer little specific resistance to control by activated NK cells. PMID:21509779

  20. The oxidoreductase DsbA plays a key role in the ability of the Crohn's disease-associated adherent-invasive Escherichia coli strain LF82 to resist macrophage killing.

    PubMed

    Bringer, Marie-Agnès; Rolhion, Nathalie; Glasser, Anne-Lise; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette

    2007-07-01

    Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) isolated from Crohn's disease patients is able to adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cells and to replicate in mature phagolysosomes within macrophages. Here, we show that the dsbA gene, encoding a periplasmic oxidoreductase, was required for AIEC strain LF82 to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells and to survive within macrophages. The LF82-DeltadsbA mutant did not express flagella and, probably as a consequence of this, did not express type 1 pili. The role of DsbA in adhesion is restricted to the loss of flagella and type 1 pili, as forced contact between bacteria and cells and induced expression of type 1 pili restored the wild-type phenotype. In contrast, the dsbA gene is essential for AIEC LF82 bacteria to survive within macrophages, irrespective of the loss of flagella and type 1 pilus expression, and the survival ability of LF82-DeltadsbA was as low as that of the nonpathogenic E. coli K-12, which was efficiently killed by macrophages. We also provide evidence that the dsbA gene is needed for LF82 bacteria to grow and survive in an acidic and nutrient-poor medium that partly mimics the harsh environment of the phagocytic vacuole. In addition, under such stress conditions dsbA transcription is highly up-regulated. Finally, the CpxRA signaling pathway does not play a role in regulation of dsbA expression in AIEC LF82 bacteria under conditions similar to those of mature phagolysosomes. PMID:17449627

  1. Hyperthermic killing and hyperthermic radiosensitization in Chinese hamster ovary cells: effects of pH and thermal tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Holahan, E.V.; Highfield, D.P.; Holahan, P.K.; Dewey, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    To quantitatively relate heat killing and heat radiosensitization, asynchronous or G/sub 1/ Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) at pH 7.1 or 6.75 were heated and/or X-irradiated 10 min. later. Since no progression of G/sub 1/cells into S phase occurred during the heat and radiation treatments, cell cycle artifacts were minimized. Hyperthermic radiosensitizaiton was expressed as the thermal enhancement factor (TEF), defined as the ratio of the D/sub 0/ of the radiation survival curve to that of the D/sub 0/ radiation survival curve for heat plus radiation. The TEF increased continuously with increased of the heat killing at 45.5/sup 0/ C, and for a given amount of heat killing, the amount of heat radiosensitization was the same for both pH's. When cells were heated chronically at 42.4/sup 0/ C at pH 7.4, the TEF increased initially to 2.0-2.5 and then returned to near 1.0 during continued heating as thermal tolerance developed for both heat killing and heat radiosensitization. However, the shoulder (D/sub q/) of the radiation survival curve for heat plus radiation did not manifest thermal tolerance. These results suggest that heat killing and heat radiosensitization have a target(s) in common (TEF results), along with either a different target(s) or a difference in the manifestation of heat damage (D/sub q/ results). Since low pH reduced the rate of development of thermal tolerance during heating at low temperatures, low pH enhanced heat killing more at 42-42.5/sup 0/ C than at 45.5 C where thermal tolerance did not develop. These findings agree with animal experiments suggesting that in the clinic, a therapeutic gain for tumor cells at low pH may be greater for temperatures of 42-42.5/sup 0/ C than of 45.5/sup 0/ C.

  2. Effect of biomimetic shear stress on intracellular uptake and cell-killing efficiency of doxorubicin in a free and liposomal formulation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Taehee; Cho, Younhee; Park, Chulhun; Kim, Soo-Dong; Oh, Euichaul; Cui, Jing-Hao; Cao, Qing-Ri; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2016-08-20

    Shear stress could be considered in the context of cellular uptake and cell-killing efficiency. Thus, mimicking the dynamic characteristics of in vivo environment is important in targeted drug delivery. We investigated the intracellular uptake and cell-killing efficiency of doxorubicin (DOX) in a free and liposomal form (Doxil(®)) under biomimetic shear stress to mimic in vivo environment. In this dynamic environment, cells demonstrated significantly higher fluorescence intensity than that of the static environment, and fluorescence microscopy images indicated increased intracellular uptake of DOX in the presence of fluidic shear stress. In cells treated with free DOX and liposomal Doxil(®), cell-killing efficiency was affected by shear stress. Taken together, shear stress, affecting drug uptake and cell-killing efficiency, is important in intracellular drug targeting. PMID:27286636

  3. Melatonin Protects Human Cells from Clustered DNA Damages, Killing and Acquisition of Soft Agar Growth Induced by X-rays or 970 MeV/n Fe ions

    SciTech Connect

    Das, B.; Sutherland, B.; Bennett, P. V.; Cutter, N. C.; Sutherland, J. C.

    2011-06-01

    We tested the ability of melatonin (N-acetyl-5 methoxytryptamine), a highly effective radical scavenger and human hormone, to protect DNA in solution and in human cells against induction of complex DNA clusters and biological damage induced by low or high linear energy transfer radiation (100 kVp X-rays, 970 MeV/nucleon Fe ions). Plasmid DNA in solution was treated with increasing concentrations of melatonin (0.0-3.5 mM) and were irradiated with X-rays. Human cells (28SC monocytes) were also irradiated with X-rays and Fe ions with and without 2 mM melatonin. Agarose plugs containing genomic DNA were subjected to Contour Clamped Homogeneous Electrophoretic Field (CHEF) followed by imaging and clustered DNA damages were measured by using Number Average length analysis. Transformation experiments on human primary fibroblast cells using soft agar colony assay were carried out which were irradiated with Fe ions with or without 2 mM melatonin. In plasmid DNA in solution, melatonin reduced the induction of single- and double-strand breaks. Pretreatment of human 28SC cells for 24 h before irradiation with 2 mM melatonin reduced the level of X-ray induced double-strand breaks by {approx}50%, of abasic clustered damages about 40%, and of Fe ion-induced double-strand breaks (41% reduction) and abasic clusters (34% reduction). It decreased transformation to soft agar growth of human primary cells by a factor of 10, but reduced killing by Fe ions only by 20-40%. Melatonin's effective reduction of radiation-induced critical DNA damages, cell killing, and striking decrease of transformation suggest that it is an excellent candidate as a countermeasure against radiation exposure, including radiation exposure to astronaut crews in space travel.

  4. Cell killing and chromatid damage in primary human bronchial epithelial cells irradiated with accelerated 56Fe ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, M.; Piao, C.; Hall, E. J.; Hei, T. K.

    2001-01-01

    We examined cell killing and chromatid damage in primary human bronchial epithelial cells irradiated with high-energy 56Fe ions. Cells were irradiated with graded doses of 56Fe ions (1 GeV/nucleon) accelerated with the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The survival curves for cells plated 1 h after irradiation (immediate plating) showed little or no shoulder. However, the survival curves for cells plated 24 h after irradiation (delayed plating) had a small initial shoulder. The RBE for 56Fe ions compared to 137Cs gamma rays was 1.99 for immediate plating and 2.73 for delayed plating at the D10. The repair ratio (delayed plating/immediate plating) was 1.67 for 137Cs gamma rays and 1.22 for 56Fe ions. The dose-response curves for initially measured and residual chromatid fragments detected by the Calyculin A-mediated premature chromosome condensation technique showed a linear response. The results indicated that the induction frequency for initially measured fragments was the same for 137Cs gamma rays and 56Fe ions. On the other hand, approximately 85% of the fragments induced by 137Cs gamma rays had rejoined after 24 h of postirradiation incubation; the corresponding amount for 56Fe ions was 37%. Furthermore, the frequency of chromatid exchanges induced by gamma rays measured 24 h after irradiation was higher than that induced by 56Fe ions. No difference in the amount of chromatid damage induced by the two types of radiations was detected when assayed 1 h after irradiation. The results suggest that high-energy 56Fe ions induce a higher frequency of complex, unrepairable damage at both the cellular and chromosomal levels than 137Cs gamma rays in the target cells for radiation-induced lung cancers.

  5. Targeted Killing of Cancer Cells In vivo and In vitro with EGF-directed Carbon Nanotube-based Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Bhirde, Ashwin A.; Patel, Vyomesh; Gavard, Julie; Zhang, Guofeng; Sousa, Alioscka A.; Masedunskas, Andrius; Leapman, Richard D.; Weigert, Roberto; Gutkind, J. Silvio

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotube-based drug delivery holds great promise for cancer therapy. Herein we report the first targeted, in vivo killing of cancer cells using a drug-single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) bioconjugate, and demonstrate efficacy superior to non-targeted bioconjugates. First line anti-cancer agent cisplatin and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were attached to SWNTs to specifically target squamous cancer, and the non-targeted control was SWNT-cisplatin without EGF. Initialin vitro imaging studies with head and neck squamous carcinoma cells (HNSCC) overexpressing EGF receptors (EGFR) using Qdot luminescence and confocal microscopy showed that SWNT-Qdot-EGF bioconjugates internalized rapidly into the cancer cells. Limited uptake occurred for control cells without EGF, and uptake was blocked by siRNA knockdown of EGFR in cancer cells, revealing the importance of EGFEGFR binding. Three color, two-photon intra-vital video imagingin vivo showed that SWNT-Qdot-EGF injected into live mice was selectively taken up by HNSCC tumors, but SWNT-Qdot controls with no EGF were cleared from the tumor region in <20 min. HNSCC cells treated with SWNT-cisplatin-EGF were also killed selectively, while control systems that did not feature EGF-EGFR binding did not influence cell proliferation. Most significantly, regression of tumor growth was rapid in mice treated with targeted SWNT-cisplatin-EGF relative to non-targeted SWNT-cisplatin. PMID:19236065

  6. Photodynamic killing of cancer cells by a Platinum(II) complex with cyclometallating ligand.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Rachel E; Sazanovich, Igor V; McKenzie, Luke K; Stasheuski, Alexander S; Coyle, Rachel; Baggaley, Elizabeth; Bottomley, Sarah; Weinstein, Julia A; Bryant, Helen E

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy that uses photosensitizers which only become toxic upon light-irradiation provides a strong alternative to conventional cancer treatment due to its ability to selectively target tumour material without affecting healthy tissue. Transition metal complexes are highly promising PDT agents due to intense visible light absorption, yet the majority are toxic even without light. This study introduces a small, photostable, charge-neutral platinum-based compound, Pt(II) 2,6-dipyrido-4-methyl-benzenechloride, complex 1, as a photosensitizer, which works under visible light. Activation of the new photosensitizer at low concentrations (0.1-1 μM) by comparatively low dose of 405 nm light (3.6 J cm(-2)) causes significant cell death of cervical, colorectal and bladder cancer cell lines, and, importantly, a cisplatin resistant cell line EJ-R. The photo-index of the complex is 8. We demonstrate that complex 1 induces irreversible DNA single strand breaks following irradiation, and that oxygen is essential for the photoinduced action. Neither light, nor compound alone led to cell death. The key advantages of the new drug include a remarkably fast accumulation time (diffusion-controlled, minutes), and photostability. This study demonstrates a highly promising new agent for photodynamic therapy, and attracts attention to photostable metal complexes as viable alternatives to conventional chemotherapeutics, such as cisplatin. PMID:26940077

  7. Photodynamic killing of cancer cells by a Platinum(II) complex with cyclometallating ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Rachel E.; Sazanovich, Igor V.; McKenzie, Luke K.; Stasheuski, Alexander S.; Coyle, Rachel; Baggaley, Elizabeth; Bottomley, Sarah; Weinstein, Julia A.; Bryant, Helen E.

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy that uses photosensitizers which only become toxic upon light-irradiation provides a strong alternative to conventional cancer treatment due to its ability to selectively target tumour material without affecting healthy tissue. Transition metal complexes are highly promising PDT agents due to intense visible light absorption, yet the majority are toxic even without light. This study introduces a small, photostable, charge-neutral platinum-based compound, Pt(II) 2,6-dipyrido-4-methyl-benzenechloride, complex 1, as a photosensitizer, which works under visible light. Activation of the new photosensitizer at low concentrations (0.1–1 μM) by comparatively low dose of 405 nm light (3.6 J cm‑2) causes significant cell death of cervical, colorectal and bladder cancer cell lines, and, importantly, a cisplatin resistant cell line EJ-R. The photo-index of the complex is 8. We demonstrate that complex 1 induces irreversible DNA single strand breaks following irradiation, and that oxygen is essential for the photoinduced action. Neither light, nor compound alone led to cell death. The key advantages of the new drug include a remarkably fast accumulation time (diffusion-controlled, minutes), and photostability. This study demonstrates a highly promising new agent for photodynamic therapy, and attracts attention to photostable metal complexes as viable alternatives to conventional chemotherapeutics, such as cisplatin.

  8. Antibody-directed natural cytotoxicity results in enhanced killing of HIV gp120-coated CEMNKR cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, M; Roberts, R L; Ank, B J; Marmet, J G; Stiehm, E R

    1997-05-01

    Cellular cytotoxicity may be an important defense in the control of HIV progression. In the present study antibodies were attached to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by exposing them to polyethylene glycol and phthalate oil in the presence of HIV human hyperimmune IVIG (HIVIG). The attachment procedure is known as "franking" and the resultant cytotoxicity is termed "antibody-directed." The majority of the cells that are franked with attached HIVIG are CD16+ (Fc gamma RIII), placing them in the natural killer cell population. Franking increased the cytotoxicity of PBMC from both healthy controls and HIV-seropositive patients approximately fourfold compared to conventional antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity using CEM cells coated with HIV gp120 antigen as targets. Use of anti-HIV monoclonal antibodies for franking was less efficient than polyclonal HIVIG. The HIVIG-franked PBMC suppressed p24 production of in vitro HIV IIIb-infected human PBMC. The ability of HIVIG to enhance and direct cytotoxicity to HIV targets may suggest a new therapeutic approach to HIV control. PMID:9143374

  9. Photodynamic killing of cancer cells by a Platinum(II) complex with cyclometallating ligand

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Rachel E.; Sazanovich, Igor V.; McKenzie, Luke K.; Stasheuski, Alexander S.; Coyle, Rachel; Baggaley, Elizabeth; Bottomley, Sarah; Weinstein, Julia A.; Bryant, Helen E.

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy that uses photosensitizers which only become toxic upon light-irradiation provides a strong alternative to conventional cancer treatment due to its ability to selectively target tumour material without affecting healthy tissue. Transition metal complexes are highly promising PDT agents due to intense visible light absorption, yet the majority are toxic even without light. This study introduces a small, photostable, charge-neutral platinum-based compound, Pt(II) 2,6-dipyrido-4-methyl-benzenechloride, complex 1, as a photosensitizer, which works under visible light. Activation of the new photosensitizer at low concentrations (0.1–1 μM) by comparatively low dose of 405 nm light (3.6 J cm−2) causes significant cell death of cervical, colorectal and bladder cancer cell lines, and, importantly, a cisplatin resistant cell line EJ-R. The photo-index of the complex is 8. We demonstrate that complex 1 induces irreversible DNA single strand breaks following irradiation, and that oxygen is essential for the photoinduced action. Neither light, nor compound alone led to cell death. The key advantages of the new drug include a remarkably fast accumulation time (diffusion-controlled, minutes), and photostability. This study demonstrates a highly promising new agent for photodynamic therapy, and attracts attention to photostable metal complexes as viable alternatives to conventional chemotherapeutics, such as cisplatin. PMID:26940077

  10. Cell killing by simian virus 40: impairment of membrane formation and function.

    PubMed Central

    Norkin, L C

    1977-01-01

    Simian virus 40 infection of the CV-1 line of green monkey kidney cells results in the release of mitochondrial malic dehydrogenase as early as 24 h. Released malic dehydrogenase is detected in the cytoplasm prior to its appearance in the overlay medium. Infected cells lose the ability to consume oxygen between 48 and 56 h, and damage to the elctron transport system is indicated. Nevertheless, cellular ATP levels remain high as late as 72 h. Infection leads to a stimulation of membrane phospholipid synthesis, which reaches a peak at about 32 h. This is followed by a severe decline in new membrane synthesis, which correlates in time with the release of cytoplasmic lactic dehydrogenase into the overlay media. Lactic dehydrogenase release precedes the accumulation of trypan blue-stainable cells by about 6 h. Infection had no effect on the turnover of prelabeled membrane phospholipids. An early simian virus 40 mutant, tsA58, and a late mutant, tsB11, are both less effective than wild-type virus at causing reduced levels of phospholipid synthesis, enzyme release, and the accumulation of trypan blue-stainable cells. Another late mutant, tsB8, is similar to wild-type virus in these respects. At 64 h, there is no detectable cell-associated lactic dehydrogenase and nearly all the cells are trypan blue stainable. Nevertheless, at concentrations of deoxyglucose in the medium below the transport Km, deoxyglucose uptake was similar in infected and control cultures. With higher concentrations of deoxyglucose in the medium, uptake by the infected cultures exceeded that by the control cultures. PMID:191651

  11. Rapid dimerization of quercetin through an oxidative mechanism in the presence of serum albumin decreases its ability to induce cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Anh; Bortolazzo, Anthony; White, J. Brandon

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quercetin cannot be detected intracellularly despite killing MDA-MB-231 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quercetin forms a heterodimer through oxidation in media with serum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The quercetin heterodimer does not kill MDA-MB-231 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ascorbic acid stabilizes quercetin increasing cell death in quercetin treated cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quercetin, and not a modified form, is responsible for apoptosis and cell death. -- Abstract: Quercetin is a member of the flavonoid family and has been previously shown to have a variety of anti-cancer activities. We and others have reported anti-proliferation, cell cycle arrest, and induction of apoptosis of cancer cells after treatment with quercetin. Quercetin has also been shown to undergo oxidation. However, it is unclear if quercetin or one of its oxidized forms is responsible for cell death. Here we report that quercetin rapidly oxidized in cell culture media to form a dimer. The quercetin dimer is identical to a dimer that is naturally produced by onions. The quercetin dimer and quercetin-3-O-glucopyranoside are unable to cross the cell membrane and do not kill MDA-MB-231 cells. Finally, supplementing the media with ascorbic acid increases quercetin's ability to induce cell death probably by reduction oxidative dimerization. Our results suggest that an unmodified quercetin is the compound that elicits cell death.

  12. NK cell killing of AML and ALL blasts by Killer-Immunoglobulin Receptor (KIR) negative NK cells after NKG2A and LIR-1 blockade

    PubMed Central

    Godal, Robert; Bachanova, Veronika; Gleason, Michelle; McCullar, Valarie; Yun, Gong H.; Cooley, Sarah; Verneris, Michael R.; McGlave, Philip B.; Miller, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Although NK cell alloreactivity has been dominated by studies of KIR, we hypothesized that NKG2A and LIR-1, present on 53±13% and 36±18% of normal NK cells, plays a role in NK cell killing of primary leukemia targets. KIR− cells, which comprise nearly half of the circulating NK cell population, exhibited tolerance to primary leukemia targets, suggesting signaling through other inhibitory receptors. Both AML and ALL targets could be rendered susceptible to lysis by fresh resting KIR− NK cells when inhibitory receptor-MHC class I interactions were blocked by pan-HLA antibodies demonstrating that these cells were functionally competent. Blockade of a single inhibitory receptor resulted in slight increases in killing, while combined LIR-1 and NKG2A blockade consistently resulted in increased NK cell cytotoxicity. Dual blockade of NKG2A and LIR-1 led to significant killing of targets by resting KIR− NK cells showing that this population is not hyporesponsive. Together these results suggest that alloreactivity of a significant fraction of KIR− NK cells is determined by NKG2A and LIR-1. Thus strategies to interrupt NKG2A and LIR-1 in combination with anti-KIR blockade hold promise for exploiting NK cell therapy in acute leukemia. PMID:20139023

  13. Recruitment of Oligoclonal Viral-Specific T cells to Kill Human Tumor Cells Using Single-Chain Antibody-Peptide-HLA Fusion Molecules.

    PubMed

    Noy, Roy; Haus-Cohen, Maya; Oved, Kfir; Voloshin, Tali; Reiter, Yoram

    2015-06-01

    Tumor progression is often associated with the development of diverse immune escape mechanisms. One of the main tumor escape mechanism is HLA loss, in which human solid tumors exhibit alterations in HLA expression. Moreover, tumors that present immunogenic peptides via class I MHC molecules are not susceptible to CTL-mediated lysis, because of the relatively low potency of the tumor-specific CLTs. Here, we present a novel cancer immunotherapy approach that overcomes these problems by using the high affinity and specificity of antitumor antibodies to recruit potent antiviral memory CTLs to attack tumor cells. We constructed a recombinant molecule by genetic fusion of a cytomegalovirus (CMV)-derived peptide pp65 (NLVPMVATV) to scHLA-A2 molecules that were genetically fused to a single-chain Fv Ab fragment specific for the tumor cell surface antigen mesothelin. This fully covalent fusion molecule was expressed in E. coli as inclusion bodies and refolded in vitro. The fusion molecules could specifically bind mesothelin-expressing cells and mediate their lysis by NLVPMVATV-specific HLA-A2-restricted human CTLs. More importantly, these molecules exhibited very potent antitumor activity in vivo in a nude mouse model bearing preestablished human tumor xenografts that were adoptively transferred along with human memory CTLs. These results represent a novel and powerful approach to immunotherapy for solid tumors, as demonstrated by the ability of the CMV-scHLA-A2-SS1(scFv) fusion molecule to mediate specific and efficient recruitment of CMV-specific CTLs to kill tumor cells. PMID:25852061

  14. B-Raf inhibitor vemurafenib in combination with temozolomide and fotemustine in the killing response of malignant melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Krumm, Andrea; Merz, Stephanie; Switzeny, Olivier Jérôme; Christmann, Markus; Loquai, Carmen; Kaina, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    In the treatment of metastatic melanoma, a highly therapy-refractory cancer, alkylating agents are used and, for the subgroup of BRAFV600E cancers, the B-Raf inhibitor vemurafenib. Although vemurafenib is initially beneficial, development of drug resistance occurs leading to tumor relapse, which necessitates the requirement for combined or sequential therapy with other drugs, including genotoxic alkylating agents. This leads to the question whether vemurafenib and alkylating agents act synergistically and whether chronic vemurafenib treatment alters the melanoma cell response to alkylating agents. Here we show that a) BRAFV600E melanoma cells are killed by vemurafenib, driving apoptosis, b) BRAFV600E melanoma cells are neither more resistant nor sensitive to temozolomide/fotemustine than non-mutant cells, c) combined treatment with vemurafenib plus temozolomide or fotemustine has an additive effect on cell kill, d) acquired vemurafenib resistance of BRAFV600E melanoma cells does not affect MGMT, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2 and MLH1, nor does it affect the resistance to temozolomide and fotemustine, e) metastatic melanoma biopsies obtained from patients prior to and after vemurafenib treatment did not show a change in the MGMT promoter methylation status and MGMT expression level. The data suggest that consecutive treatment with vemurafenib and alkylating drugs is a reasonable strategy for metastatic melanoma treatment. PMID:25557167

  15. Comparative efficacy and toxicity of a ribosomal vaccine, acetone-killed cells, lipopolysaccharide, and a live cell vaccine prepared from Salmonella typhhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Angerman, C R; Eisenstein, T K

    1978-01-01

    The protective and toxic properties of a ribosomal vaccine prepared from Salmonella typhimurium W118-2 were systematicaly compared with those of an acetone-killed whole cell vaccine, purified lipopolysaccharide, and living cells in CD-1 mice. Tests of graded immunizing doses of each vaccine against several challenge doses of live strain W118-2 showed that, although the protection given by ribosomes approached the levels of protection conferred by living organisms, acetone-killed cells administered in appropriate dosages provided levels of protection comparable to that of ribosomes. Lipopolysaccharide was found to be significantly less protective than the other vaccines. On a dry-weight basis, ribosomes were the least toxic with a 50% toxic dose (TD50) of 5,000 microgram; acetone-killed cells had an intermediate TD50 of 1,400 microgram; and lipolysaccharide was the most toxic, with a TD50 of 320 microgram. The dose of each vaccine that protected 50% of the mice against a challenge of 1,00 times the 50% lethal dose was determined and divided by the TD50 to give the therapeutic index. This ratio also indicated that the ribosomes and acetone-killed cells were equally effective, whereas lipopolysaccharide was markedly inferior. PMID:344216

  16. Glycoprotein isolated from Solanum nigrum L. kills HT-29 cells through apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kye-Taek

    2005-01-01

    apoptosis by its ability to modulate anti-apoptotic signals. We suggest that SNL glycoprotein is a natural anti-cancer agent due to its potential to induce apoptosis in HT-29 cells. PMID:16117614

  17. A comparison of cell killing by heat and/or x rays in Chinese hamster V79 cells, Friend erythroleukemia mouse cells, and human thymocyte MOLT-4 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Raaphorst, G.P.; Szekely, J.; Lobreau, A.; Azzam, E.I.

    1983-05-01

    The radiation and/or heat sensitivity of Chinese hamster V79 cells, Friend erythroleukemia (FELC) mouse cells, and MOLT-4 human transformed thymocytes were compared. MOLT-4 cells were more radiosensitive (D/sub o/=0.50 Gy) than FELC (D/sub o/ = 0.65 Gy) and V79 cells (D/sub o/ = 1.43 Gy). Arrhenius analysis showed that MOLT-4 cells were more heat sensitive than FELC or V79 cells below 42.0/sup 0/C, but more heat resistant at higher temperatures. In addition, the MOLT-4 cells showed a single-heat inactivation energy between 41.0 and 45.0/sup 0/C, while FELC and V79 cells both showed a transition in the inactivation energy at about 43.0 and 43.5/sup 0/C, respectively. These differences may be related to the fact that the upper temperature limit for the development of thermal tolerance during continuous heating was lower for MOLT-4 cells than for FELC or V79 cells. Killing of FELC and V79 cells was dependent on the sequence in which heat and X rays were applied, but the greatest effect was obtained when both treatments were given simultaneously. Recovery occurred when treatments were separated by incubation at 37.0/sup 0/C. The MOLT-4 cells did not show a sequence dependence for heating and irradiation. Survival of MOLT-4 cells after heating and/or irradiation was compared using trypan blue dye exclusion or colony formation. Both assays showed similar qualitative responses, but survival levels measured by the trypan blue assay were much higher than those determined from the colony-forming assay.

  18. Immune evasion of mantle cell lymphoma: expression of B7-H1 leads to inhibited T-cell response to and killing of tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijuan; Qian, Jianfei; Lu, Yong; Li, Haiyan; Bao, Hanying; He, Donghua; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Yuhuan; He, Jin; Li, Yi; Neelapu, Sattva; Yang, Jing; Kwak, Larry W.; Yi, Qing; Cai, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Clinical trials of immunotherapy in mantle cell lymphoma have not yet delivered desirable results, partly because of the inhibitory machinery of the tumor and its microenvironment. Here we investigated the role of B7-H1, a member of the B7 family of co-stimulatory/co-inhibitory ligands, in mantle cell lymphoma-mediated immunosuppression. Allogeneic CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were purified and co-cultured with irradiated mantle cell lymphoma cells. Mantle cell lymphoma-reactive T-cell lines from HLA-A*0201+ healthy blood donors were generated after in vitro restimulation, and were subjected to functional tests. We found that B7-H1 expressed on mantle cell lymphoma cells was able to inhibit T-cell proliferation induced by the tumor cells, impair the generation of antigen-specific T-cell responses, and render mantle cell lymphoma cells resistant to T-cell-mediated cytolysis. Blocking or knocking down B7-H1 on mantle cell lymphoma cells enhanced T-cell responses and restored tumor-cell sensitivity to T-cell-mediated killing in vitro and in vivo. Knocking down B7-H1 on mantle cell lymphoma cells primed more CD4+ or CD8+ memory effector T cells. Our study demonstrates for the first time that lymphoma cell-expressed B7-H1 may lead to the suppression of host anti-tumor immune responses in mantle cell lymphoma and targeting tumor cell B7-H1 may represent a novel approach to improve the efficacy of immunotherapy in patients with mantle cell lymphoma. PMID:23508008

  19. Selective killing of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells by three-dimensional nanographene nanoparticles based on triptycene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiaoqin; Gan, Lu; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Chun; Yong, Tuying; Wang, Ziyi; Xu, Huibi; Yang, Xiangliang

    2015-03-01

    Carbon-based materials have been widely used in the biomedical fields including drug delivery and cancer therapies. In this paper, a recently synthesized three-dimensional nanographene (NG) based on triptycene self-assembles into nanoparticles which selectively kill human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells as compared to human normal liver HL7702 cells. Obvious differences in cellular accumulation, the endocytic pathway and intracellular trafficking of NG nanoparticles are observed in HepG2 cells and HL7702 cells. Further studies reveal that NG nanoparticles significantly increase the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HepG2 cells, but not in HL7702 cells. NG nanoparticle-induced ROS result in apoptosis induction and the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 cells. Moreover, IKK/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling is found to be activated by NG nanoparticle-induced ROS and serves to antagonize NG nanoparticle-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Our studies show that the distinct behaviors of cellular uptake and ROS-mediated cytotoxicity are responsible for the selective killing of HepG2 cells. This study provides a foundation for understanding the mechanism of selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells by NG nanoparticles and designing more effective chemotherapeutical agents.Carbon-based materials have been widely used in the biomedical fields including drug delivery and cancer therapies. In this paper, a recently synthesized three-dimensional nanographene (NG) based on triptycene self-assembles into nanoparticles which selectively kill human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells as compared to human normal liver HL7702 cells. Obvious differences in cellular accumulation, the endocytic pathway and intracellular trafficking of NG nanoparticles are observed in HepG2 cells and HL7702 cells. Further studies reveal that NG nanoparticles significantly increase the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HepG2 cells, but not in HL7702

  20. NADPH oxidase of human dendritic cells: role in Candida albicans killing and regulation by interferons, dectin-1 and CD206.

    PubMed

    Donini, Marta; Zenaro, Elena; Tamassia, Nicola; Dusi, Stefano

    2007-05-01

    Human monocyte-derived DC express the enzyme NADPH oxidase, responsible for ROS production. We show that Candida albicans did not activate NADPH oxidase in DC, and was poorly killed by these cells. However, Candida-killing activity increased upon DC stimulation with the NADPH oxidase activator PMA and was further enhanced by DC treatment with IFN-alpha or IFN-gamma. This fungicidal activity took place at high DC-to-Candida ratio, but decreased at low DC-to-yeast ratio, when Candida inhibited the NADPH oxidase by contrasting the assembly of the enzyme on DC plasma membrane. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyliodonium chloride abrogated the PMA-dependent DC candidacidal capacity. Engagement of beta-glucan receptor dectin-1 induced NADPH oxidase activation in DC that was depressed by mannose-binding receptor CD206 co-stimulation. Candida was internalized by DC through mannose-binding receptors, but not through dectin-1, thus explaining why Candida did not elicit NADPH oxidase activity. Our results indicate that NADPH oxidase is involved in DC Candida-killing activity, which is increased by IFN. However, Candida escapes the oxidative damage by inhibiting NADPH oxidase and by entering DC through receptors not involved in NADPH oxidase activation. PMID:17407098

  1. Selective Killing Effects of Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma with NO Induced Dysfunction of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Om, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Yong-Hee; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP)-induced radicals on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is overexpressed by oral squamous cell carcinoma, to determine the underlying mechanism of selective killing. CAP-induced highly reactive radicals were observed in both plasma plume and cell culture media. The selective killing effect was observed in oral squamous cell carcinoma compared with normal human gingival fibroblast. Degradation and dysfunction of EGFRs were observed only in the EGFR-overexpressing oral squamous cell carcinoma and not in the normal cell. Nitric oxide scavenger pretreatment in cell culture media before CAP treatment rescued above degradation and dysfunction of the EGFR as well as the killing effect in oral squamous cell carcinoma. CAP may be a promising cancer treatment method by inducing EGFR dysfunction in EGFR-overexpressing oral squamous cell carcinoma via nitric oxide radicals. PMID:26919318

  2. Identification and Structural Analysis of an l-Asparaginase Enzyme from Guinea Pig with Putative Tumor Cell Killing Properties*

    PubMed Central

    Schalk, Amanda M.; Nguyen, Hien-Anh; Rigouin, Coraline; Lavie, Arnon

    2014-01-01

    The initial observation that guinea pig serum kills lymphoma cells marks the serendipitous discovery of a new class of anti-cancer agents. The serum cell killing factor was shown to be an enzyme with l-asparaginase (ASNase) activity. As a direct result of this observation, several bacterial l-asparaginases were developed and are currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of the subset of hematological malignancies that are dependent on the extracellular pool of the amino acid asparagine. As drugs, these enzymes act to hydrolyze asparagine to aspartate, thereby starving the cancer cells of this amino acid. Prior to the work presented here, the precise identity of this guinea pig enzyme has not been reported in the peer-reviewed literature. We discovered that the guinea pig enzyme annotated as H0W0T5_CAVPO, which we refer to as gpASNase1, has the required low Km property consistent with that possessed by the cell-killing guinea pig serum enzyme. Elucidation of the ligand-free and aspartate complex gpASNase1 crystal structures allows a direct comparison with the bacterial enzymes and serves to explain the lack of l-glutaminase activity in the guinea pig enzyme. The structures were also used to generate a homology model for the human homolog hASNase1 and to help explain its vastly different kinetic properties compared with gpASNase1, despite a 70% sequence identity. Given that the bacterial enzymes frequently present immunogenic and other toxic side effects, this work suggests that gpASNase1 could be a promising alternative to these bacterial enzymes. PMID:25320094

  3. Anti-tumor activity of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum BF-LP284 on Meth-A tumor cells in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ryoichi; Itoh, Yukie; Kataoka, Motoyuki; Iino-Miura, Shiori; Miura, Ryosuke; Mizutani, Takeo; Fujisawa, Tomohiko

    2016-09-01

    Probiotics exert numerous effects on human well-being. Here, heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum BF-LP284 (H-Lp) was isolated as a potent immuno-modulator among 15 strains of lactobacilli in terms of TNF-α induction ability in peritoneal macrophages. In vitro TNF-α and IFN-γ induction in Peyer's patch (PP) cells was higher when incubated with H-Lp than with live L. plantarum BF-LP284 (L-Lp). Suppression of syngeneic Meth-A tumors in a murine model by oral administration of H-Lp was also greater than that of L-Lp and of controls. H-Lp stimulated IFN-γ production in spleen cells, which displayed inhibited tumor growth in Winn assays when treated with H-Lp. Moreover, H-Lp increased the ratio of CD3(+ )cells among peripheral blood mononuclear cells in Meth-A tumor-bearing mice, suggesting an H-Lp-mediated anti-tumor mechanism whereby immune cells that are activated by H-Lp in PP and acquire anti-tumor activity in the spleen migrate to tumor sites through lymphocyte homing to inhibit tumor growth. PMID:27198983

  4. Polyaniline shell cross-linked Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles for heat activated killing of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rana, Suman; Jadhav, Neena V; Barick, K C; Pandey, B N; Hassan, P A

    2014-08-28

    Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles are appealing materials for heat activated killing of cancer cells. Here, we report a novel method to enhance the heat activated killing of cancer cells under an AC magnetic field (AMF) by introducing a polyaniline impregnated shell onto the surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. These polyaniline shell cross-linked magnetic nanoparticles (PSMN) were prepared by in situ polymerization of aniline hydrochloride on the surface of carboxyl PEGylated Fe3O4 nanoparticles. XRD and TEM analyses revealed the formation of single phase inverse spinel Fe3O4 nanoparticles of a size of about 10 nm. The successful growth of the polyaniline shell on the surface of carboxyl PEGylated magnetic nanoparticles (CPMN) is evident from FTIR spectra, DLS, TGA, zeta-potential and magnetic measurements. Both CPMN and PSMN show good colloidal stability, superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature and excellent heating efficacy under AMF. It has been observed that the heating efficacy of PSMN under AMF was slightly reduced as compared to that of CPMN. The enhanced toxicity of PSMN to cancer cells under AMF suggests their strong potential for magnetic hyperthermia. Furthermore, PSMN shows high loading affinity for an anticancer drug (doxorubicin), its sustained release and substantial internalization in tumor cells. PMID:24948377

  5. Targeting and Killing of Metastatic Cells in the Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate Model With Vesicular Stomatitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Moussavi, Maryam; Tearle, Howard; Fazli, Ladan; Bell, John C; Jia, William; Rennie, Paul S

    2013-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an oncolytic virus which selectively infects and kills cancer cells. The goal of the present study was to determine whether VSV is capable of targeting metastatic lesions that arise in situ in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. The interferon (IFN)-responsive luciferase containing VSV(AV3) strain was injected intraprostatically into both control and TRAMP mice. Distribution, infectivity, apoptosis, and status of the IFN response were evaluated at the site of viral injection (prostate), as well as in metastatic lesions (lymph nodes), through plaque, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and immunohistochemical analysis. Bioluminescence analyses demonstrated that VSV(AV3) persisted at high levels in the prostate region of TRAMP mice for up to 96 hours, but at relatively low levels and for only 48 hours in control mice. Live virus was discovered in the lymph nodes of TRAMP mice, but not in control mice. TUNEL staining revealed increased cell death in VSV(AV3) infected metastatic cells present in the lymph nodes of TRAMP mice. There was an evidence of IFN activation in lymph nodes containing metastatic cells. Our results indicate that intraprostatic injections of VSV(AV3) can be used as a means to infect and kill metastatic lesions associated with advanced prostate cancer. PMID:23337981

  6. Isolation and characterization of a Chinese hamster ovary mutant cell line with altered sensitivity to vaccinia virus killing.

    PubMed Central

    Bair, C H; Chung, C S; Vasilevskaya, I A; Chang, W

    1996-01-01

    The Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line is nonpermissive for vaccinia virus, and translation of viral intermediate genes was reported to be blocked (A. Ramsey-Ewing and B. Moss, Virology 206:984-993, 1995). However, cells are readily killed by vaccinia virus. A vaccinia virus-resistant CHO mutant, VV5-4, was isolated by retroviral insertional mutagenesis. Parental CHO cells, upon infection with vaccinia virus, die within 2 to 3 days, whereas VV5-4 cells preferentially survive this cytotoxic effect. The survival phenotype of VV5-4 is partial and in inverse correlation with the multiplicity of infection used. In addition, viral infection fails to shut off host protein synthesis in VV5-4. VV5-4 was used to study the relationship of progression of the virus life cycle and cell fate. We found that in parental CHO cells, vaccinia virus proceeds through expression of viral early genes, uncoating, viral DNA replication, and expression of intermediate and late promoters. In contrast, we detect only expression of early genes and uncoating in VV5-4 cells, whereas viral DNA replication appears to be blocked. Consistent with the cascade regulation model of viral gene expression, we detect little intermediate- and late-gene expression in VV5-4 cells. Since vaccinia virus is known to be cytolytic, isolation of this mutant therefore demonstrates a new mode of the cellular microenvironment that affects progression of the virus life cycle, resulting in a different cell fate. This process appears to be mediated by a general mechanism, since VV5-4 is also resistant to Shope fibroma virus and myxoma virus killing. On the other hand, VV5-4 remains sensitive to cowpox virus killing. To examine the mechanism of VV5-4 survival, we investigated whether apoptosis is involved. DNA laddering and staining of apoptotic nuclei with Hoechst 33258 were observed in both CHO and VV5-4 cells infected with vaccinia virus. We concluded that the cellular pathway, which blocks viral DNA replication and

  7. Clinical-scale laser-based scanning and processing of live cells: selective photothermal killing of fluorescent tumor targets for autologous stem cell transplantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koller, Manfred R.; Hanania, Elie G.; Eisfeld, Timothy; O'Neal, Robert A.; Khovananth, Kevin M.; Palsson, Bernhard O.

    2001-04-01

    High-dose chemotherapy, followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation, is widely used for the treatment of cancer. However, contaminating tumor cells within HSC harvests continue to be of major concern since re-infused tumor cells have proven to contribute to disease relapse. Many tumor purging methods have been evaluated, but all leave detectable tumor cells in the transplant and result in significant loss of HSCs. These shortcomings cause engraftment delays and compromise the therapeutic value of purging. A novel approach integrating automated scanning cytometry, image analysis, and selective laser-induced killing of labeled cells within a cell mixture is described here. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) cells were spiked into cell mixtures, and fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies were used to label tumor cells within the mixture. Cells were then allowed to settle on a surface, and as the surface was scanned with a fluorescence excitation source, a laser pulse was fired at every detected tumor cell using high-speed beam steering mirrors. Tumor cells were selectively killed with little effect on adjacent non-target cells, demonstrating the feasibility of this automated cell processing approach. This technology has many potential research and clinical applications, one example of which is tumor cell purging for autologous HSC transplantation.

  8. Inhibition of DNA Synthesis by a Platinum–Acridine Hybrid Agent Leads to Potent Cell Kill in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The platinum–acridine anticancer agent [PtCl(en)(LH)](NO3)2 (1) [en = ethane-1,2-diamine, LH = N-(2-(acridin-9-ylamino)ethyl)-N-methylpropionimidamide, acridinium cation] and the clinical drug cisplatin were studied in chemoresistant nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines for their cytotoxic potency and cell kill mechanisms. In the three cell lines tested (NCI-H460, NCI-H522, and NCI-H1435), compound 1 shows a pronounced cytotoxic enhancement of 40–200-fold as compared to cisplatin at inhibitory concentrations reaching the low nanomolar range. On the basis of changes in cell adhesion and cell morphology, monitored in real time by impedance measurements, compound 1 kills NCI-H460 cells significantly more efficiently than cisplatin at equitoxic concentrations. Flow cytometry analysis of NCI-H460 cells reveals a robust S phase arrest of cells treated with compound 1, whereas cells treated with cisplatin progress to G2/M of the cell cycle. A pronounced inhibition of DNA replication in 75% of viable cells is observed in NCI-H460 cells treated with compound 1 at an IC90 molar concentration for 48 h, based on the reduced incorporation of the fluorophore-clickable nucleoside analogue 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) into newly synthesized DNA. The distinct cell cycle perturbations and cell kill potential of compound 1 are discussed in the light of the DNA interactions of this agent and its potential to overcome cisplatin resistance in NSCLC. PMID:22328962

  9. Inhibition of DNA Synthesis by a Platinum-Acridine Hybrid Agent Leads to Potent Cell Kill in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Smyre, Christopher L; Saluta, Gilda; Kute, Timothy E; Kucera, Gregory L; Bierbach, Ulrich

    2011-08-31

    The platinum-acridine anti-cancer agent [PtCl(en)(LH)](NO(3))(2) (1) (en = ethane-1,2-diamine, LH = N-(2-(acridin-9-ylamino)ethyl)-N-methylpropionimidamide, acridinium cation) and the clinical drug cisplatin were studied in chemoresistant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines for their cytotoxic potency and cell-kill mechanisms. In the three cell lines tested (NCI-H460, NCI-H522, and NCI-H1435) compound 1 shows a pronounced cytotoxic enhancement of 40-200-fold compared to cisplatin at inhibitory concentrations reaching the low-nanomolar range. Based on changes in cell adhesion and cell morphology, monitored in real time by impedance measurements, compound 1 kills NCI-H460 cells significantly more efficiently than cisplatin at equitoxic concentrations. Flow cytometry analysis of NCI-H460 cells reveals a robust S-phase arrest of cells treated with compound 1, whereas cells treated with cisplatin progress to G2/M of the cell cycle. A pronounced inhibition of DNA replication in 75% of viable cells is observed in NCI-H460 cells treated with compound 1 at an IC(90) molar concentration for 48 h, based on the reduced incorporation of the fluorophore-clickable nucleoside analogue 5-ethynyl-2´-deoxyuridine (EdU) into newly synthesized DNA. The distinct cell-cycle perturbations and cell-kill potential of compound 1 are discussed in the light of the DNA interactions of this agent and its potential to overcome cisplatin resistance in NSCLC. PMID:22328962

  10. Triptolide Induces Cell Killing in Multidrug-Resistant Tumor Cells via CDK7/RPB1 Rather than XPB or p44.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jun-Mei; Huan, Xia-Juan; Song, Shan-Shan; Zhou, Hu; Wang, Ying-Qing; Miao, Ze-Hong

    2016-07-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major cause of tumor treatment failure; therefore, drugs that can avoid this outcome are urgently needed. We studied triptolide, which directly kills MDR tumor cells with a high potency and a broad spectrum of cell death. Triptolide did not inhibit P-glycoprotein (P-gp) drug efflux and reduced P-gp and MDR1 mRNA resulting from transcription inhibition. Transcription factors including c-MYC, SOX-2, OCT-4, and NANOG were not correlated with triptolide-induced cell killing, but RPB1, the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, was critical in mediating triptolide's inhibition of MDR cells. Triptolide elicited antitumor and anti-MDR activity through a universal mechanism: by activating CDK7 by phosphorylating Thr170 in both parental and MDR cell lines and in SK-OV-3 cells. The CDK7-selective inhibitor BS-181 partially rescued cell killing induced by 72-hour treatment of triptolide, which may be due to partial rescue of RPB1 degradation. We suggest that a precise phosphorylation site on RPB1 (Ser1878) was phosphorylated by CDK7 in response to triptolide. In addition, XPB and p44, two transcription factor TFIIH subunits, did not contribute to triptolide-driven RPB1 degradation and cell killing, although XPB was reported to covalently bind to triptolide. Several clinical trials are underway to test triptolide and its analogues for treating cancer and other diseases, so our data may help expand potential clinical uses of triptolide, as well as offer a compound that overcomes tumor MDR. Future investigations into the primary molecular target(s) of triptolide responsible for RPB1 degradation may suggest novel anti-MDR target(s) for therapeutic development. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(7); 1495-503. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197304

  11. In silico investigation into dendritic cell regulation of CD8Treg mediated killing of Th1 cells in murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis has been used extensively as an animal model of T cell mediated autoimmunity. A down-regulatory pathway through which encephalitogenic CD4Th1 cells are killed by CD8 regulatory T cells (Treg) has recently been proposed. With the CD8Treg cells being primed by dendritic cells, regulation of recovery may be occuring around these antigen presenting cells. CD4Treg cells provide critical help within this process, by licensing dendritic cells to prime CD8Treg cells, however the spatial and temporal aspects of this help in the CTL response is currently unclear. Results We have previously developed a simulator of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (ARTIMMUS). We use ARTIMMUS to perform novel in silico experimentation regarding the priming of CD8Treg cells by dendritic cells, and the resulting CD8Treg mediated killing of encephalitogenic CD4Th1 cells. Simulations using dendritic cells that present antigenic peptides in a mutually exclusive manner (either MBP or TCR-derived, but not both) suggest that there is no significant reliance on dendritic cells that can prime both encephalitogenic CD4Th1 and Treg cells. Further, in silico experimentation suggests that dynamics of CD8Treg priming are significantly influenced through their spatial competition with CD4Treg cells and through the timing of Qa-1 expression by dendritic cells. Conclusion There is no requirement for the encephalitogenic CD4Th1 cells and cytotoxic CD8Treg cells to be primed by the same dendritic cells. We conjecture that no significant portion of CD4Th1 regulation by Qa-1 restricted CD8Treg cells occurs around individual dendritic cells, and as such, that CD8Treg mediated killing of CD4Th1 cells occurring around dendritic cells is not critical for recovery from the murine autoimmune disease. Furthermore, the timing of the CD4Treg licensing of dendritic cells and the spatial competition between CD4Treg and CD8Treg cells around the dendritic cell is

  12. Smart Plasmonic Glucose Nanosensors as Generic Theranostic Agents for Targeting-Free Cancer Cell Screening and Killing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Limei; Li, Haijuan; He, Haili; Wu, Haoxi; Jin, Yongdong

    2015-07-01

    Fast and accurate identification of cancer cells from healthy normal cells in a simple, generic way is very crucial for early cancer detection and treatment. Although functional nanoparticles, like fluorescent quantum dots and plasmonic Au nanoparticles (NPs), have been successfully applied for cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy, they suffer from the main drawback of needing time-consuming targeting preparation for specific cancer cell detection and selective ablation. The lack of a generic and effective method therefore limits their potential high-throughput cancer cell preliminary screening and theranostic applications. We report herein a generic in vitro method for fast, targeting-free (avoiding time-consuming preparations of targeting moiety for specific cancer cells) visual screening and selective killing of cancer cells from normal cells, by using glucose-responsive/-sensitive glucose oxidase-modified Ag/Au nanoshells (Ag/Au-GOx NSs) as a smart plasmonic theranostic agent. The method is generic to some extent since it is based on the distinct localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) responses (and colors) of the smart nanoprobe with cancer cells (typically have a higher glucose uptake level) and normal cells. PMID:26027697

  13. Involvement of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase in killing of human melanoma cells by the sphingosine kinase analogue FTY720.

    PubMed

    Tay, Kwang Hong; Liu, Xiaoying; Chi, Mengna; Jin, Lei; Jiang, Chen Chen; Guo, Su Tang; Verrills, Nicole M; Tseng, Hsin-Yi; Zhang, Xu Dong

    2015-03-01

    Targeting the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor (S1PR) signalling axis is emerging as a promising strategy in the treatment of cancer. However, the effect of such an approach on survival of human melanoma cells remains less understood. Here, we show that the sphingosine analogue FTY720 that functionally antagonises S1PRs kills human melanoma cells through a mechanism involving the vacuolar H(+) -ATPase activity. Moreover, we demonstrate that FTY720-triggered cell death is characterized by features of necrosis and is not dependent on receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 or lysosome cathepsins, nor was it associated with the activation of protein phosphatase 2A. Instead, it is mediated by increased production of reactive oxygen species and is antagonized by activation of autophagy. Collectively, these results suggest that FTY720 and its analogues are promising candidates for further development as new therapeutic agents in the treatment of melanoma. PMID:25358761

  14. Influence of metronidazole and some electron acceptors on the chlorin e6 photosensitized killing of Ehrlich carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekulayev, V.; Shevchuk, Igor; Mihkelsoo, Virgo T.; Kallikorm, A. P.

    1992-06-01

    A decrease in the effectiveness of photosensitized killing of neoplasm cells was observed in the presence of chlorin-e6 at a reduced concentration of oxygen. But when metronidazole (MZ) was injected in vitro as well as in vivo, a significant increase in the photosensitized killing of Ehrlich carcinoma cells by chlorin-e6 was observed. Moreover, contrary to the hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD), MZ increases the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) by using chlorin-e6 not only in the hypoxic but also in the aerobic conditions. The interaction between MZ and the excited photosensitizer may account for an increased phototoxicity of chlorin-e6. The formation of cytotoxic nitroimidazole radicals as a result of photochemical processes of type 1 is discussed. This property of the photosensitizer may be successfully used in working out a method of potentiating PDT in combination not only with nitroimidazoles, but also with other electron acceptor compounds (EACp), e.g., quinone antitumor antibiotics.

  15. Hyaluronic Acid-Modified Multifunctional Q-Graphene for Targeted Killing of Drug-Resistant Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yanan; Cai, Xiaoli; Li, He; Lin, Yuehe; Du, Dan

    2016-02-17

    Considering the urgent need to explore multifunctional drug delivery system for overcoming multidrug resistance, we prepared a new nanocarbon material Q-Graphene as a nanocarrier for killing drug-resistant lung cancer cells. Attributing to the introduction of hyaluronic acid and rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RBITC), the Q-Graphene-based drug delivery system was endowed with dual function of targeted drug delivery and fluorescence imaging. Additionally, doxorubicin (DOX) as a model drug was loaded on the surface of Q-Graphene via π-π stacking. Interestingly, the fluorescence of DOX was quenched by Q-Graphene due to its strong electron-accepting capability, and a significant recovery of fluorescence was observed, while DOX was released from Q-Graphene. Because of the RBITC labeling and the effect of fluorescence quenching/restoring of Q-Graphene, the uptake of nanoparticles and intracellular DOX release can be tracked. Overall, a highly promising multifunctional nanoplatform was developed for tracking and monitoring targeted drug delivery for efficiently killing drug-resistant cancer cells. PMID:26785717

  16. A double suicide gene system driven by vascular endothelial growth factor promoter selectively kills human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    WU, KAI; YANG, LIUCHENG; HUANG, ZONGHAI; ZHAO, HAIJUN; WANG, JIANJUN; XU, SHUAI

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the selective killing effect on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells of an adenovirus (Ad)-mediated cytosine deaminase (CD) in combination with thymidine kinase (TK) suicide gene system, driven by the vascular endothelial growth factor promoter (VEGFp), in vitro and in vivo. A double suicide gene system with VEGFp, named Ad-VEGFp-CDglyTK, was constructed and transfected into human HCC cells (BEL-7402 or HepG2; the latter cell type is deficient in VEGF) and human umbilical vein vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC). Green fluorescent protein expression was detected by fluoroscopy to verify transfection efficiency, and CDglyTK gene expression was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The selective killing effect of Ad-VEGFp-CDglyTK was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and flow cytometry (FCM) in vitro and by xenograft studies in vivo. PCR revealed that the transgenic CDglyTK gene was expressed in BEL-7402 cells and HUVEC, but not in HepG2 cells. The cell survival rate significantly decreased in line with increasing concentrations of the prodrugs, ganciclovir (GCV) alone, 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) alone or a combination of the two, in HUVEC and BEL-7402 cells with the transfected CDglyTK gene, but not in untransfected HUVEC or BEL-7402 cells, or in transfected or untransfected HepG2 cells. This result was additionally confirmed by FCM. GCV and 5-FC inhibited the HUVEC and BEL-7402 cells containing the transfected CDglyTK gene and also inhibited adjacent unmodified cells via the ‘bystander effect’. No similar results were observed in HepG2 cells. Compared with the control group, tumors with the transfected CDglyTK gene were smaller and the microvessel density of the tumor tissue was significantly decreased. It was concluded that a combination TK/GCV and CD/5-FC suicide gene system driven by VEGFp may provide a promising treatment strategy for HCC

  17. Requirements regarding dose rate and exposure time for killing of tumour cells in beta particle radionuclide therapy

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Veronika; Stenerlöw, Bo; Lundqvist, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to identify combinations of dose rate and exposure time that have the potential to provide curative treatment with targeted radionuclide therapy applying low dose rate beta irradiation. Methods Five tumour cell lines, U-373MG and U-118MG gliomas, HT-29 colon carcinoma, A-431 cervical squamous carcinoma and SKBR-3 breast cancer, were used. An experimental model with 105 tumour cells in each sample was irradiated with low dose rate beta particles. The criterion for successful treatment was absence of recovery of cells during a follow-up period of 3 months. The initial dose rates were in the range 0.1–0.8 Gy/h, and the cells were continuously exposed for 1, 3 or 7 days. These combinations covered dose rates and doses achievable in targeted radionuclide therapy. Results Continuous irradiation with dose rates of 0.2–0.3 and 0.4–0.6 Gy/h for 7 and 3 days, respectively, could kill all cells in each tumour cell sample. These treatments gave total radiation doses of 30–40 Gy. However, when exposed for just 24 h with about 0.8 Gy/h, only the SKBR-3 cells were successfully treated; all the other cell types recovered. There were large cell type-dependent variations in the growth delay patterns for the cultures that recovered. The U-118MG cells were most resistant and the U-373MG and SKBR-3 cells most sensitive to the treatments. The HT-29 and A-431 cells were intermediate. Conclusion The results serve as a guideline for the combinations of dose rate and exposure time necessary to kill tumour cells when applying low dose rate beta irradiation. The shift from recovery to “cure” fell within a narrow range of dose rate and exposure time combinations. PMID:16718515

  18. MicroRNA-145 regulates oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 for selective killing of human non-small cell lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, and novel treatment modalities to improve the prognosis of patients with advanced disease are highly desirable. Oncolytic virotherapy is a promising approach for the treatment of advanced NSCLC. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) may be a factor in the regulation of tumor-specific viral replication. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether miRNA-145 regulated oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) can selectively kill NSCLC cells with reduced collateral damage to normal cells. Methods We incorporated 4 copies of miRNA-145 target sequences into the 3′-untranslated region of an HSV-1 essential viral gene, ICP27, to create AP27i145 amplicon viruses and tested their target specificity and toxicity on normal cells and lung cancer cells in vitro. Results miRNA-145 expression in normal cells was higher than that in NSCLC cells. AP27i145 replication was inversely correlated with the expression of miRNA-145 in infected cells. This oncolytic HSV-1 selectively reduced cell proliferation and prevented the colony formation of NSCLC cells. The combination of radiotherapy and AP27i145 infection was significantly more potent in killing cancer cells than each therapy alone. Conclusions miRNA-145-regulated oncolytic HSV-1 is a promising agent for the treatment of NSCLC. PMID:23876001

  19. CD8+CD122+CD49dlow regulatory T cells maintain T-cell homeostasis by killing activated T cells via Fas/FasL-mediated cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Akane, Kazuyuki; Kojima, Seiji; Mak, Tak W; Shiku, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Haruhiko

    2016-03-01

    The Fas/FasL (CD95/CD178) system is required for immune regulation; however, it is unclear in which cells, when, and where Fas/FasL molecules act in the immune system. We found that CD8(+)CD122(+) cells, which are mostly composed of memory T cells in comparison with naïve cells in the CD8(+)CD122(-) population, were previously shown to include cells with regulatory activity and could be separated into CD49d(low) cells and CD49d(high) cells. We established in vitro and in vivo experimental systems to evaluate the regulatory activity of CD122(+) cells. Regulatory activity was observed in CD8(+)CD122(+)CD49d(low) but not in CD8(+)CD122(+)CD49d(high) cells, indicating that the regulatory cells in the CD8(+)CD122(+) population could be narrowed down to CD49d(low) cells. CD8(+)CD122(-) cells taken from lymphoproliferation (lpr) mice were resistant to regulation by normal CD122(+) Tregs. CD122(+) Tregs taken from generalized lymphoproliferative disease (gld) mice did not regulate wild-type CD8(+)CD122(-) cells, indicating that the regulation by CD122(+) Tregs is Fas/FasL-dependent. CD122(+) Tregs taken from IL-10-deficient mice could regulate CD8(+)CD122(-) cells as equally as wild-type CD122(+) Tregs both in vitro and in vivo. MHC class I-missing T cells were not regulated by CD122(+) Tregs in vitro. CD122(+) Tregs also regulated CD4(+) cells in a Fas/FasL-dependent manner in vitro. These results suggest an essential role of Fas/FasL as a terminal effector of the CD122(+) Tregs that kill activated T cells to maintain immune homeostasis. PMID:26869716

  20. Cytokine-induced killer cells efficiently kill stem-like cancer cells of nasopharyngeal carcinoma via the NKG2D-ligands recognition.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fang; Rong, Xiao-Xiang; Xie, Rao-Ying; Jia, Li-Ting; Wang, Hui-Yan; Qin, Yu-Juan; Chen, Lin; Shen, Hong-Fen; Lin, Xiao-Lin; Yang, Jie; Yang, Sheng; Hao, Wei-Chao; Chen, Yan; Xiao, Sheng-Jun; Zhou, Hui-Rong; Lin, Tao-Yan; Chen, Yu-Shuang; Sun, Yan; Yao, Kai-Tai; Xiao, Dong

    2015-10-27

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered to be the root cause for cancer treatment failure. Thus, there remains an urgent need for more potent and safer therapies against CSCs for curing cancer. In this study, the antitumor activity of cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells against putative CSCs of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) was fully evaluated in vitro and in vivo. To visualize putative CSCs in vitro by fluorescence imaging, and image and quantify putative CSCs in tumor xenograft-bearing mice by in vivo bioluminescence imaging, NPC cells were engineered with CSC detector vector encoding GFP and luciferase (Luc) under control of Nanog promoter. Our study reported in vitro intense tumor-killing activity of CIK cells against putative CSCs of NPC, as revealed by percentage analysis of side population cells, tumorsphere formation assay and Nanog-promoter-GFP-Luc reporter gene strategy plus time-lapse recording. Additionally, time-lapse imaging firstly illustrated that GFP-labeled or PKH26-labeled putative CSCs or tumorspheres were usually attacked simultaneously by many CIK cells and finally killed by CIK cells, suggesting the necessity of achieving sufficient effector-to-target ratios. We firstly confirmed that NKG2D blockade by anti-NKG2D antibody significantly but partially abrogated CIK cell-mediated cytolysis against putative CSCs. More importantly, intravenous infusion of CIK cells significantly delayed tumor growth in NOD/SCID mice, accompanied by a remarkable reduction in putative CSC number monitored by whole-body bioluminescence imaging. Taken together, our findings suggest that CIK cells demonstrate the intense tumor-killing activity against putative CSCs of NPC, at least in part, by NKG2D-ligands recognition. These results indicate that CIK cell-based therapeutic strategy against CSCs presents a promising and safe approach for cancer treatment. PMID:26418951

  1. Stimulating the RIG-I pathway to kill cells in the latent HIV reservoir following viral reactivation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peilin; Kaiser, Philipp; Lampiris, Harry W.; Kim, Peggy; Yukl, Steven A.; Havlir, Diane V.; Greene, Warner C.; Wong, Joseph K.

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of latent HIV proviruses in long-lived CD4+ T cells despite antiretroviral therapy (ART)1–3 is a major obstacle to viral eradication4–6. Because current candidate latency-reversing agents (LRAs) induce HIV transcription but fail to clear these cellular reservoirs,7–8 new approaches for killing these reactivated latent HIV reservoir cells are urgently needed. HIV latency depends upon transcriptional quiescence of the integrated provirus and circumvention of immune defense mechanisms4–6,9. These defenses include cell-intrinsic innate responses that use pattern-recognition receptors (PRR) to detect viral pathogens and subsequently induce apoptosis of the infected cell10. Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) forms one class of pattern-recognition receptors that mediates apoptosis and elimination of infected cells after recognition of viral RNA11–14. Here we show that acitretin, an FDA-approved retinoic-acid derivative, enhances RIG-I signaling ex vivo, increases HIV transcription, and induces preferential apoptosis of HIV-infected cells. These effects are abrogated by RIG-I knockdown. Acitretin also decreases proviral DNA levels in CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected subjects on suppressive ART, an effect amplified by combination with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Pharmacologic enhancement of an innate cellular defense network could provide a means to eliminate reactivated cells in the latent HIV reservoir. PMID:27294875

  2. [Establishment of lentivirus-mediated system of double suicide genes and its killing effects on K562 cells].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi-Rong; Liu, Chun-Sheng; Chen, Xue-Liang; Ma, Dao-Xin

    2004-02-01

    To establish lentivirus-mediated system of double suicide genes and explore its killing effects on K562 cells, lentivirus transfer vector for double suicide genes was constructed using molecular methods, three plasmids of lentivirus gene transfer vector system were transferred into packaging cell line 293T using lipofectine method, the transfer effect was observed through fluorescence microscopy, the lentivirus particles were observed by means of electron microscopy. High titer of lentivirus was harvested from the supernatant of virus-producing cell culture and concentrated by high-speed centrifugation with Poly-L-Lysine (PLL). The K562 cells were infected with the concentrated supernatant containing the virus with the double suicide genes. Fluorescence microscopy and RT- PCR confirmed the integration and expression of extraneous gene. The cytotoxicity to these transgenic cells treated with 5-FC and GCV was measured by MTT assays. The growth inhibition ratio (GIR) of cells and inhibition concentration 50 (IC(50)) were counted. After administration of GCV and 5-FC, the changes of those cells were observed through scanning electron microscope. The results showed that lentivirus transfer vector with double suicide genes was constructed successfully. The above-mentioned plasmids were effectively transferred into 293T cells. So much green fluorescence was observed through fluorescence microscope. A lot of lentivirus particles were observed through transmission electron microscope. Double suicide genes mediated by lentivirus were stably integrated and expressed in K562 cells after infection with the concentrated virus using fluorescence microscopy and RT-PCR. The GIR of K562 cells using GCV or 5-FC was 48.73% or 50.69% respectively and it was apparently higher than that of untransfected cells (P < 0.01). When using GCV and 5-FC together, the GIR was 87.69%, which was apparently higher than that of group using GCV or 5-FC alone (P < 0.01). In conclusion, lentivirus

  3. Short communication: Determination of the ability of Thymox to kill or inhibit various species of microorganisms associated with infectious causes of bovine lameness in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kulow, Megan; Zibaee, Fahimeh; Allard, Marianne; Döpfer, Dörte

    2015-11-01

    Infectious claw diseases continue to plague cattle in intensively managed husbandry systems. Poor foot hygiene and constant moist environments lead to the infection and spread of diseases such as digital dermatitis (hairy heel warts), interdigital dermatitis, and interdigital phlegmon (foot rot). Currently, copper sulfate and formalin are the most widely used disinfecting agents in bovine footbaths; however, the industry could benefit from more environmentally and worker friendly substitutes. This study determined the in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of Thymox (Laboratoire M2, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada) for a selection of microorganisms related to infectious bovine foot diseases. Thymox is a broad-spectrum agricultural disinfectant that is nontoxic, noncorrosive, and readily biodegradable. The values for minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration indicated that Thymox inhibited growth and killed the various species of microorganisms under study at much lower concentrations compared with the recommended working concentration of a 1% solution. Overall, the values found in this study of minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of Thymox show its potential as an alternative antibacterial agent used in bovine footbaths; however, field trials are needed to determine its effectiveness for the control and prevention of infectious claw diseases. PMID:26364111

  4. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Interact with Melanoma Differentiation Associated-7/Interleukin-24 to Kill Primary Human Glioblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hamed, Hossein A.; Yacoub, Adly; Park, Margaret A.; Archer, Kellie; Das, Swadesh K.; Sarkar, Devanand; Grant, Steven; Fisher, Paul B.

    2013-01-01

    We presently demonstrate that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) enhance toxicity of melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7/interleukin 24 (mda-7/IL-24) in invasive primary human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells. Additionally, a method is described to augment the efficacy of adenoviral delivery of mda-7/IL-24 in these cells. HDACIs synergized with melanoma differentiation-associated (MDA)-7/IL-24 killing GBM cells. Enhanced lethality correlated with increased autophagy that was dependent on the expression of ceramide synthase 6. HDACIs interacted with MDA-7/IL-24 prolonging generation of reactive oxygen species and Ca2+. Quenching of reactive oxygen species and Ca2+ blocked HDACI and MDA-7/IL-24 killing. In vivo MDA-7/IL-24 prolonged the survival of animals carrying orthotopic tumors, and HDACIs enhanced survival further. A serotype 5/3 adenovirus more effectively delivers mda-7/IL-24 to GBM tumors than a serotype 5 virus. Hence, we constructed a serotype 5/3 adenovirus that conditionally replicates in tumor cells expressing MDA-7/IL-24, in which the adenoviral early region 1A (E1A) gene was driven by the cancer-specific promoter progression elevated gene-3 [Ad.5/3 (INGN 241)-PEG-E1A-mda-7; also called Ad.5/3-CTV (cancer terminator virus)]. Ad.5/3-CTV increased the survival of mice carrying GBM tumors to a significantly greater extent than did a nonreplicative virus Ad.5/3-mda-7. Ad.5/3-CTV exhibited no toxicity in the brains of Syrian hamsters. Collectively our data demonstrate that HDACIs enhance MDA-7/IL-24 lethality, and adenoviral delivery of mda-7/IL-24 combined with tumor-specific viral replication is an effective preclinical GBM therapeutic. PMID:23661648

  5. ENHANCED AND SELECTIVE KILLING OF CHRONIC MYELOGENOUS LEUKEMIA CELLS WITH AN ENGINEERED BCR-ABL BINDING PROTEIN AND IMATINIB

    PubMed Central

    Constance, Jonathan E.; Woessner, David W.; Matissek, Karina J.; Mossalam, Mohanad; Lim, Carol S.

    2012-01-01

    The oncoprotein Bcr-Abl stimulates pro-survival pathways and suppresses apoptosis from its exclusively cytoplasmic locale, but when targeted to the mitochondrial compartment of leukemia cells, Bcr-Abl was potently cytotoxic. Therefore, we designed a protein construct to act as a mitochondrial chaperone to move Bcr-Abl to the mitochondria. The chaperone (i.e., the 43.6 kDa intracellular cryptic escort (iCE)) contains an EGFP tag and two previously characterized motifs: 1) An optimized Bcr-Abl binding motif that interacts with the coiled-coil domain of Bcr (ccmut3; 72 residues), and 2) A cryptic mitochondrial targeting signal (cMTS; 51 residues) that selectively targets the mitochondria in oxidatively stressed cells (i.e., Bcr-Abl positive leukemic cells) via phosphorylation at a key residue (T193) by protein kinase C. While the iCE colocalized with Bcr-Abl it did not re-localize to the mitochondria. However, the iCE was selectively toxic to Bcr-Abl positive K562 cells as compared to Bcr-Abl negative Cos-7 fibroblasts and 1471.1 murine breast cancer cells. The toxicity of the iCE to leukemic cells was equivalent to 10μM imatinib at 48 hours and the iCE combined with imatinib potentiated cell death beyond imatinib or the iCE alone. Substitution of either the ccmut3 or the cMTS with another Bcr-Abl binding domain (derived from Ras/Rab interaction protein 1 (RIN1; 295 residues)) or MTS (i.e., the canonical IMS derived from Smac/Diablo; 49 residues) did not match the cytotoxicity of the iCE. Additionally, a phosphorylation null mutant of the iCE also abolished the killing effect. The mitochondrial toxicity of Bcr-Abl and the iCE in Bcr-Abl positive K562 leukemia cells was confirmed by flow cytometric analysis of 7-AAD, TUNEL, and annexin-V staining. DNA segmentation and cell viability were assessed by microscopy. Subcellular localization of constructs was determined using confocal microscopy (including statistical colocalization analysis). Overall, the iCE was highly

  6. Anticancer compound Oplopantriol A kills cancer cells through inducing ER stress and BH3 proteins Bim and Noxa

    PubMed Central

    Jin, H R; Liao, Y; Li, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, J; Wang, C-Z; Huang, W-H; Li, S-P; Yuan, C-S; Du, W

    2014-01-01

    Oplopantriol-A (OPT) is a natural polyyne from Oplopanax horridus. We show here that OPT preferentially kills cancer cells and inhibits tumor growth. We demonstrate that OPT-induced cancer cell death is mediated by excessive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Decreasing the level of ER stress either by inactivating components of the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway or by expression of ER chaperone protein glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) decreases OPT-induced cell death. We show that OPT induces the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and the stabilization of unstable proteins, suggesting that OPT functions, at least in part, through interfering with the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. In support of this, inhibition of protein synthesis significantly decreased the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins, which is correlated with significantly decreased OPT-induced ER stress and cell death. Finally, we show that OPT treatment significantly induced the expression of BH3-only proteins, Noxa and Bim. Knockdown of both Noxa and Bim significantly blocked OPT-induced cell death. Taken together, our results suggest that OPT is a potential new anticancer agent that induces cancer cell death through inducing ER stress and BH3 proteins Noxa and Bim. PMID:24763047

  7. Repair-deficient 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase homozygous mutant mouse cells have increased sensitivity to alkylation-induced chromosome damage and cell killing.

    PubMed Central

    Engelward, B P; Dreslin, A; Christensen, J; Huszar, D; Kurahara, C; Samson, L

    1996-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, the repair of 3-methyladenine (3MeA) DNA lesions prevents alkylation-induced cell death because unrepaired 3MeA blocks DNA replication. Whether this lesion is cytotoxic to mammalian cells has been difficult to establish in the absence of 3MeA repair-deficient cell lines. We previously isolated and characterized a mouse 3MeA DNA glycosylase cDNA (Aag) that provides resistance to killing by alkylating agents in E. coli. To determine the in vivo role of Aag, we cloned a large fragment of the Aag gene and used it to create Aag-deficient mouse cells by targeted homologous recombination. Aag null cells have no detectable Aag transcripts or 3MeA DNA glycosylase activity. The loss of Aag renders cells significantly more sensitive to methyl methanesulfonate-induced chromosome damage, and to cell killing induced by two methylating agents, one of which produces almost exclusively 3MeAs. Aag null embryonic stem cells become sensitive to two cancer chemotherapeutic alkylating agents, namely 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea and mitomycin C, indicating that Aag status is an important determinant of cellular resistance to these agents. We conclude that this mammalian 3MeA DNA glycosylase plays a pivotal role in preventing alkylation-induced chromosome damage and cytotoxicity. Images PMID:8631315

  8. Cell competition time line: winners kill losers, which are extruded and engulfed by hemocytes.

    PubMed

    Lolo, Fidel-Nicolás; Casas-Tintó, Sergio; Moreno, Eduardo

    2012-09-27

    Cell competition is a mechanism that eliminates slow dividing cells from a growing population. It is believed that the genes wasp, psr, and draper are active in the cells that win the competition ("winner cells") and that they are essential in the winner cells for the induction of apoptosis and for the elimination of the "loser cells." Here, we show that lack of those genes in winner cells appears to be dispensable for cell-competition-induced apoptosis and during dmyc-induced supercompetition. Moreover, winner clones do not need those genes in order to preserve their growth advantage. Finally, we find that most of the clearance of the apoptotic debris is not performed by winners but by recruited hemocytes, which are required for the removal of the apoptotic corpses at the very end. Therefore, engulfment is a consequence-not a cause-of loser cells' death. PMID:22981235

  9. Selective killing of ovarian cancer cells through induction of apoptosis by nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iseki, Sachiko; Nakamura, Kae; Hayashi, Moemi; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Kondo, Hiroki; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Kano, Hiroyuki; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Hori, Masaru

    2012-03-01

    Two independent ovarian cancer cell lines and fibroblast controls were treated with nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP). Most ovarian cancer cells were detached from the culture dish by continuous plasma treatment to a single spot on the dish. Next, the plasma source was applied over the whole dish using a robot arm. In vitro cell proliferation assays showed that plasma treatments significantly decreased proliferation rates of ovarian cancer cells compared to fibroblast cells. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis showed that plasma treatment of ovarian cancer cells induced apoptosis. NEAPP could be a promising tool for therapy for ovarian cancers.

  10. Selective killing of ovarian cancer cells through induction of apoptosis by nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Iseki, Sachiko; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Kondo, Hiroki; Hori, Masaru; Nakamura, Kae; Hayashi, Moemi; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Kano, Hiroyuki

    2012-03-12

    Two independent ovarian cancer cell lines and fibroblast controls were treated with nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP). Most ovarian cancer cells were detached from the culture dish by continuous plasma treatment to a single spot on the dish. Next, the plasma source was applied over the whole dish using a robot arm. In vitro cell proliferation assays showed that plasma treatments significantly decreased proliferation rates of ovarian cancer cells compared to fibroblast cells. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis showed that plasma treatment of ovarian cancer cells induced apoptosis. NEAPP could be a promising tool for therapy for ovarian cancers.

  11. A Heterotypic Bystander Effect for Tumor Cell Killing after AAVP-mediated Vascular-targeted Suicide Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Trepel, Martin; Stoneham, Charlotte A.; Eleftherohorinou, Hariklia; Mazarakis, Nicholas D.; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih; Hajitou, Amin

    2009-01-01

    Suicide gene transfer is the most commonly used cytotoxic approach in cancer gene therapy; however, a successful suicide gene therapy depends on the generation of efficient targeted systemic gene delivery vectors. We recently reported that selective systemic delivery of suicide genes such as the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) to tumor endothelial cells via a novel targeted AAVP vector leads to suppression of tumor growth. This marked effect has been postulated to result primarily from the death of cancer cells by hypoxia following the targeted disruption of tumor blood vessels. Here we investigated whether an additional mechanism of action is involved. We show that there is a heterotypic bystander effect between endothelial cells expressing the HSVtk suicide gene and tumor cells. Treatment of co-cultures of HSVtk-transduced endothelial cells and non-HSVtk-transduced tumor cells with ganciclovir results in the death of both endothelial and tumor cells. Blocking of this effect by 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid indicates that gap junctions between endothelial and tumor cells are largely responsible for this phenomenon. Moreover, the observed bystander killing is mediated by connexin (Cx)43 and Cx26, which are expressed in both endothelial and tumor cell types. Finally, this heterotypic bystander effect is accompanied by a suppression of tumor growth in vivo that is independent of primary gene transfer into host-derived tumor vascular endothelium. These findings add an alternative non-mutually exclusive and potentially synergistic cytotoxic mechanism to cancer gene therapy based on targeted AAVP, and further support the promising role of non-malignant tumor stromal cells as therapeutic targets. PMID:19671758

  12. The radioresistance to killing of A1-5 cells derives from activation of the Chk1 pathway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, B.; Zhou, X. Y.; Wang, X.; Zeng, Z. C.; Iliakis, G.; Wang, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Checkpoints respond to DNA damage by arresting the cell cycle to provide time for facilitating repair. In mammalian cells, the G(2) checkpoint prevents the Cdc25C phosphatase from removing inhibitory phosphate groups from the mitosis-promoting kinase Cdc2. Both Chk1 and Chk2, the checkpoint kinases, can phosphorylate Cdc25C and inactivate its in vitro phosphatase activity. Therefore, both Chk1 and Chk2 are thought to regulate the activation of the G(2) checkpoint. Here we report that A1-5, a transformed rat embryo fibroblast cell line, shows much more radioresistance associated with a much stronger G(2) arrest response when compared with its counterpart, B4, although A1-5 and B4 cells have a similar capacity for nonhomologous end-joining DNA repair. These phenotypes of A1-5 cells are accompanied by a higher Chk1 expression and a higher phosphorylation of Cdc2. On the other hand, Chk2 expression increases slightly following radiation; however, it has no difference between A1-5 and B4 cells. Caffeine or UCN-01 abolishes the extreme radioresistance with the strong G(2) arrest and at the same time reduces the phosphorylation of Cdc2 in A1-5 cells. In addition, Chk1 but not Chk2 antisense oligonucleotide sensitizes A1-5 cells to radiation-induced killing and reduces the G(2) arrest of the cells. Taken together these results suggest that the Chk1/Cdc25C/Cdc2 pathway is the major player for the radioresistance with G(2) arrest in A1-5 cells.

  13. Beyond killing

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Pedro F.; McNally, Luke; Doeschl-Wilson, Andrea; King, Kayla C.; Popat, Roman; Domingo-Sananes, Maria R.; Allen, Judith E.; Soares, Miguel P.; Kümmerli, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The antibiotic pipeline is running dry and infectious disease remains a major threat to public health. An efficient strategy to stay ahead of rapidly adapting pathogens should include approaches that replace, complement or enhance the effect of both current and novel antimicrobial compounds. In recent years, a number of innovative approaches to manage disease without the aid of traditional antibiotics and without eliminating the pathogens directly have emerged. These include disabling pathogen virulence-factors, increasing host tissue damage control or altering the microbiota to provide colonization resistance, immune resistance or disease tolerance against pathogens. We discuss the therapeutic potential of these approaches and examine their possible consequences for pathogen evolution. To guarantee a longer half-life of these alternatives to directly killing pathogens, and to gain a full understanding of their population-level consequences, we encourage future work to incorporate evolutionary perspectives into the development of these treatments. PMID:27016341

  14. Murine cytomegalovirus stimulates natural killer cell function but kills genetically resistant mice treated with radioactive strontium.

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, A; Bennett, M

    1981-01-01

    Treatment of C3H/St mice with 100 microCi of 89Sr weakened their genetic resistance to murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection. The criteria utilized to detect increased susceptibility were: (i) survival of mice; (ii) numbers of MCMV-infected cells in the spleens and liver; and (iii) serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase levels. The natural killer (NK) cell activity of spleen cells from mice treated with 89Sr is very low. However, the NK activities of spleen cells of both normal and 89Sr-treated mice were greatly augmented 3 days after infection with MCMV. These NK cells lysed a variety of tumor cells and shared several features with conventional NK cells, but were not lysed by anti-Nk-1.2 serum (specific for NK cells) plus complement. Splenic adherent cells did not lyse tumor cells themselves but were necessary for the stimulation of NK cells by MCMV. The paradox of high NK cell function and poor survival in 89Sr-treated mice infected with MCMV was a surprise. We conclude that these augmented NK cells, of themselves, cannot account for the genetic resistance of C3H/St mice to infection with MCMV. Images PMID:6277794

  15. Bacterial growth state distinguished by single-cell protein profiling: Does chlorination kill coliforms in municipal effluent?

    SciTech Connect

    Rockabrand, D.; Austin, T.; Kaiser, R.; Blum, P.

    1999-09-01

    Municipal effluent is the largest reservoir of human enteric bacteria. Its public health significance, however, depends upon the physiological status of the wastewater bacterial community. A novel immunofluorescence assay was developed and used to examine the bacterial growth state during wastewater disinfection. Quantitative levels of three highly conserved cytosolic proteins (DnaK, Dps, and Fis) were determined by using enterobacterium-specific antibody fluorochrome-coupled probes. Enterobacterial Fis homologs were abundant in growing cells and nearly undetectable in stationary-phase cells. In contrast, enterobacterial Dps homologs were abundant in stationary-phase cells but virtually undetectable in growing cells. The range of variation in the abundance of both proteins was at least 100-fold as determined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis. Enterobacterial DnaK homologs were nearly invariant with growth state, enabling their use as permeabilization controls. The cellular growth states of individual enterobacteria in wastewater samples were determined by measurement of Fis, Dps, and DnaK abundance (protein profiling). Intermediate levels of Fis and Dps were evident and occurred in response to physiological transitions. The results indicate that chlorination failed to kill coliforms but rather elicited nutrient starvation and a reversible nonculturable state. These studies suggest that the current standard procedures for wastewater analysis which rely on detection of culturable cells likely underestimate fecal coliform content.

  16. Oxidative stress contributes to the tamoxifen-induced killing of breast cancer cells: implications for tamoxifen therapy and resistance

    PubMed Central

    Bekele, Raie T.; Venkatraman, Ganesh; Liu, Rong-Zong; Tang, Xiaoyun; Mi, Si; Benesch, Matthew G. K.; Mackey, John R.; Godbout, Roseline; Curtis, Jonathan M.; McMullen, Todd P. W.; Brindley, David N.

    2016-01-01

    Tamoxifen is the accepted therapy for patients with estrogen receptor-α (ERα)-positive breast cancer. However, clinical resistance to tamoxifen, as demonstrated by recurrence or progression on therapy, is frequent and precedes death from metastases. To improve breast cancer treatment it is vital to understand the mechanisms that result in tamoxifen resistance. This study shows that concentrations of tamoxifen and its metabolites, which accumulate in tumors of patients, killed both ERα-positive and ERα-negative breast cancer cells. This depended on oxidative damage and anti-oxidants rescued the cancer cells from tamoxifen-induced apoptosis. Breast cancer cells responded to tamoxifen-induced oxidation by increasing Nrf2 expression and subsequent activation of the anti-oxidant response element (ARE). This increased the transcription of anti-oxidant genes and multidrug resistance transporters. As a result, breast cancer cells are able to destroy or export toxic oxidation products leading to increased survival from tamoxifen-induced oxidative damage. These responses in cancer cells also occur in breast tumors of tamoxifen-treated mice. Additionally, high levels of expression of Nrf2, ABCC1, ABCC3 plus NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone-1 in breast tumors of patients at the time of diagnosis were prognostic of poor survival after tamoxifen therapy. Therefore, overcoming tamoxifen-induced activation of the ARE could increase the efficacy of tamoxifen in treating breast cancer. PMID:26883574

  17. Selective killing of G2 decatenation checkpoint defective colon cancer cells by catalytic topoisomerase II inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Jain, Chetan Kumar; Roychoudhury, Susanta; Majumder, Hemanta Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Cancer cells with defective DNA decatenation checkpoint can be selectively targeted by the catalytic inhibitors of DNA topoisomerase IIα (topo IIα) enzyme. Upon treatment with catalytic topo IIα inhibitors, cells with defective decatenation checkpoint fail to arrest their cell cycle in G2 phase and enter into M phase with catenated and under-condensed chromosomes resulting into impaired mitosis and eventually cell death. In the present work we analyzed decatenation checkpoint in five different colon cancer cell lines (HCT116, HT-29, Caco2, COLO 205 and SW480) and in one non-cancerous cell line (HEK293T). Four out of the five colon cancer cell lines i.e. HCT116, HT-29, Caco2, and COLO 205 were found to be compromised for the decatenation checkpoint function at different extents, whereas SW480 and HEK293T cell lines were found to be proficient for the checkpoint function. Upon treatment with ICRF193, decatenation checkpoint defective cell lines failed to arrest the cell cycle in G2 phase and entered into M phase without proper chromosomal decatenation, resulting into the formation of tangled mass of catenated and under-condensed chromosomes. Such cells underwent mitotic catastrophe and rapid apoptosis like cell death and showed higher sensitivity for ICRF193. Our study suggests that catalytic inhibitors of topoisomerase IIα are promising therapeutic agents for the treatment of colon cancers with defective DNA decatenation checkpoint. PMID:25746763

  18. Killing Cancer Cells with the Help of Infrared Light – Photoimmunotherapy

    Cancer.gov

    Near-infrared photoimmunotherapy uses an antibody–photoabsorber conjugate that binds to cancer cells. When near-infrared light is applied, the cells swell and then burst, causing the cancer cell to die. Photoimmunotherapy is in clinical trials in patients with inoperable tumors.

  19. Comparison of immune responses to a killed bivalent whole cell oral cholera vaccine between endemic and less endemic settings.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sachin N; Akalu, Zenebe; Teferi, Mekonnen; Manna, Byomkesh; Teshome, Samuel; Park, Ju Yeon; Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Deok Ryun; Kanungo, Suman; Digilio, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Studies on safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the killed, bivalent whole cell oral cholera vaccine (Shanchol) have been conducted in historically endemic settings of Asia. Recent cholera vaccination campaigns in Haiti and Guinea have also demonstrated favourable immunogenicity and effectiveness in nonendemic outbreak settings. We performed a secondary analysis, comparing immune responses of Shanchol from two randomised controlled trials performed in an endemic and a less endemic area (Addis Ababa) during a nonoutbreak setting. While Shanchol may offer some degree of immediate protection in primed populations living in cholera endemic areas, as well as being highly immunogenic in less endemic settings, understanding the characteristics of immune responses in each of these areas is vital in determining ideal dosing strategies that offer the greatest public health impact to populations from areas with varying degrees of cholera endemicity. PMID:26681205

  20. Inductive heating kills cells that contribute to plaque: a proof-of-concept

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gwangseong

    2015-01-01

    Inducing cell death by heating targeted particles shows promise in cancer treatment. Here, we aim to demonstrate the feasibility of extending the use of this technique to treat and remove vascular deposits and thrombosis. We used induction heating of macrophages, which are key contributors to atherosclerosis and have demonstrated clear feasibility for heating and destroying these cells using ferromagnetic and pure iron particles. Specifically, iron particles achieved maximum temperatures of 51 ± 0.5 °C and spherical particles achieved a maximum temperature of 43.9 ± 0.2 °C (N = 6) after 30 min of inductive heating. Two days of subsequent observation demonstrated that inductive heating led to a significant reduction in cell number. Prior to induction heating, cell density was 105,000 ± 20,820 cells/ml (N = 3). This number was reduced to 6,666 ± 4,410 cells/ml for the spherical particles and 16,666 ± 9,280 cells/ml for the iron particles 24 h after inductive heating. Though cell density increased on the second day following inductive heating, the growth was minimal. Cells grew to 26,667 ± 6,670 cells/ml and 30,000 ± 15,280 cells/ml respectively. Compared to cell cultures with iron and spherical particles that were not subjected to induction heating, we observed a 97% reduction in cell count for the spherical particles and a 91% reduction for the iron particles after the first 24 h. After 48 h we observed a 95% reduction in cell growth for both spherical and iron particles. Induction heating of microparticles was thus highly effective in reducing the macrophage population and preventing their growth. These results demonstrate the feasibility of targeting cells involved in atherosclerosis and warrant further research into potential clinical applications. PMID:25945318

  1. Targeting lactate-fueled respiration selectively kills hypoxic tumor cells in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sonveaux, Pierre; Végran, Frédérique; Schroeder, Thies; Wergin, Melanie C.; Verrax, Julien; Rabbani, Zahid N.; De Saedeleer, Christophe J.; Kennedy, Kelly M.; Diepart, Caroline; Jordan, Bénédicte F.; Kelley, Michael J.; Gallez, Bernard; Wahl, Miriam L.; Feron, Olivier; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2008-01-01

    Tumors contain oxygenated and hypoxic regions, so the tumor cell population is heterogeneous. Hypoxic tumor cells primarily use glucose for glycolytic energy production and release lactic acid, creating a lactate gradient that mirrors the oxygen gradient in the tumor. By contrast, oxygenated tumor cells have been thought to primarily use glucose for oxidative energy production. Although lactate is generally considered a waste product, we now show that it is a prominent substrate that fuels the oxidative metabolism of oxygenated tumor cells. There is therefore a symbiosis in which glycolytic and oxidative tumor cells mutually regulate their access to energy metabolites. We identified monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) as the prominent path for lactate uptake by a human cervix squamous carcinoma cell line that preferentially utilized lactate for oxidative metabolism. Inhibiting MCT1 with α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (CHC) or siRNA in these cells induced a switch from lactate-fueled respiration to glycolysis. A similar switch from lactate-fueled respiration to glycolysis by oxygenated tumor cells in both a mouse model of lung carcinoma and xenotransplanted human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells was observed after administration of CHC. This retarded tumor growth, as the hypoxic/glycolytic tumor cells died from glucose starvation, and rendered the remaining cells sensitive to irradiation. As MCT1 was found to be expressed by an array of primary human tumors, we suggest that MCT1 inhibition has clinical antitumor potential. PMID:19033663

  2. Differential killing of CD56-expressing cells by drug-conjugated human antibodies targeting membrane-distal and membrane-proximal non-overlapping epitopes.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yang; Wang, Yanping; Zhu, Zhongyu; Li, Wei; Sussman, Robyn T; Randall, Michael; Bosse, Kristopher R; Maris, John M; Dimitrov, Dimiter S

    2016-01-01

    CD56 (NCAM, neural cell adhesion molecule) is over-expressed in many tumor types, including neuroblastoma, multiple myeloma, small cell lung cancer, ovarian cancer, acute myeloid leukemia, NK-T lymphoma, neuroendocrine cancer and pancreatic cancer. Using phage display, we identified 2 high-affinity anti-CD56 human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), m900 and m906, which bound to spatially separated non-overlapping epitopes with similar affinity (equilibrium dissociation constant 2.9 and 4.5 nM, respectively). m900 bound to the membrane proximal fibronectin type III-like domains, whereas m906 bound to the N-terminal IgG-like domains. m906 induced significant down-regulation of CD56 in 4 neuroblastoma cell lines tested, while m900-induced downregulation of CD56 was much lower. Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) made by conjugation with a highly potent pyrrolobenzodiazepine dimer (PBD) exhibited killing activity that correlated with CD56 down-regulation, and to some extent with in vivo binding ability of the antibodies. The m906PBD ADC was much more potent than m900PBD, likely due to higher CD56-mediated downregulation and stronger binding to cells. Treatment with m906PBD ADC resulted in very potent cytotoxicity (IC50: 0.05-1.7 pM). These results suggest a novel approach for targeting CD56-expressing neuroblastoma cells. Further studies in animal models and in humans are needed to find whether these antibodies and their drug conjugates are promising candidate therapeutics. PMID:26910291

  3. Action of caffeine on x-irradiated HeLa cells. IV. Progression delays and enhanced cell killing at high caffeine concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Tolmach, L.J.; Busse, P.M.

    1980-05-01

    The response of x-irradiated and unirradiated HeLa S3 cells to treatment with caffeine at concentrations between 1 and 10 nM has been examined with respect to both delay in progression through the cell generation cycle and enhancement of the expression of potentially lethal x-ray damage. Progression is delayed in a concentration-dependent fashion: the generation time is doubled at about 4 mM. The duration of G/sub 1/ is lengthened, and the rate of DNA synthesis is reduced, although the kinetics are different in the two phases; the rate of DNA synthesis is usually unaffected at 1 or 2 mM, while there is no concentration threshold for the slowing of progression through G/sub 1/. Progression through G/sub 2/ appears to be unaffected by concentrations up to at least 10 mM. Killing of irradiated cells in G/sub 2/ is somewhat greater after treatment with the higher caffeine concentrations than reported previously for 1 mM. Moreover, an additional mode of killing is observed in irradiated G/sub 1/ cells which had been found previously to be only slightly affected by 1 mM caffeine; they suffer extensive killing at concentrations above 5 mM. The time-survival curves for irradiated, caffeine-treated G/sub 1/ and G/sub 2/ cells have characteristically different shapes. The dose-survival curves for cells treated with the higher caffeine concentrations display steeper terminal slopes and narrower shoulders.

  4. A novel, native-format bispecific antibody triggering T-cell killing of B-cells is robustly active in mouse tumor models and cynomolgus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Eric J.; Olson, Kara; Haber, Lauric J.; Varghese, Bindu; Duramad, Paurene; Tustian, Andrew D.; Oyejide, Adelekan; Kirshner, Jessica R.; Canova, Lauren; Menon, Jayanthi; Principio, Jennifer; MacDonald, Douglas; Kantrowitz, Joel; Papadopoulos, Nicholas; Stahl, Neil; Yancopoulos, George D.; Thurston, Gavin; Davis, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Bispecific antibodies, while showing great therapeutic potential, pose formidable challenges with respect to their assembly, stability, immunogenicity, and pharmacodynamics. Here we describe a novel class of bispecific antibodies with native human immunoglobulin format. The design exploits differences in the affinities of the immunoglobulin isotypes for Protein A, allowing efficient large-scale purification. Using this format, we generated a bispecific antibody, REGN1979, targeting the B cell marker, CD20, and the CD3 component of the T cell receptor, which triggers redirected killing of B cells. In mice, this antibody prevented growth of B cell tumors and also caused regression of large established tumors. In cynomolgus monkeys, low doses of REGN1979 caused prolonged depletion of B cells in peripheral blood with a serum half-life of approximately 14 days. Further, the antibody induced a deeper depletion of B cells in lymphoid organs than rituximab. This format has broad applicability for development of clinical bispecific antibodies. PMID:26659273

  5. Depletion of tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase 2 activity enhances etoposide-mediated double-strand break formation and cell killing.

    PubMed

    Kont, Yasemin Saygideger; Dutta, Arijit; Mallisetty, Apurva; Mathew, Jeena; Minas, Tsion; Kraus, Christina; Dhopeshwarkar, Priyanka; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Mitra, Sankar; Üren, Aykut; Adhikari, Sanjay

    2016-07-01

    DNA topoisomerase 2 (Top2) poisons, including common anticancer drugs etoposide and doxorubicin kill cancer cells by stabilizing covalent Top2-tyrosyl-DNA 5'-phosphodiester adducts and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Proteolytic degradation of the covalently attached Top2 leaves a 5'-tyrosylated blocked termini which is removed by tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2), prior to DSB repair through non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Thus, TDP2 confers resistance of tumor cells to Top2-poisons by repairing such covalent DNA-protein adducts, and its pharmacological inhibition could enhance the efficacy of Top2-poisons. We discovered NSC111041, a selective inhibitor of TDP2, by optimizing a high throughput screening (HTS) assay for TDP2's 5'-tyrosyl phosphodiesterase activity and subsequent validation studies. We found that NSC111041 inhibits TDP2's binding to DNA without getting intercalated into DNA and enhanced etoposide's cytotoxicity synergistically in TDP2-expressing cells but not in TDP2 depleted cells. Furthermore, NSC111041 enhanced formation of etoposide-induced γ-H2AX foci presumably by affecting DSB repair. Immuno-histochemical analysis showed higher TDP2 expression in a sub-set of different type of tumor tissues. These findings underscore the feasibility of clinical use of suitable TDP2 inhibitors in adjuvant therapy with Top2-poisons for a sub-set of cancer patients with high TDP2 expression. PMID:27235629

  6. A H(+)-triggered bubble-generating nanosystem for killing cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lili; Wen, Zuhuang; Long, Yijuan; Huang, Ning; Cheng, Yuan; Zhao, Li; Zheng, Huzhi

    2016-09-18

    We constructed a H(+)-triggered bubble-generating nanosystem (BGNS), which generated CO2 bubbles in the acidic environment of lysosomes after being internalized by cancer cells. The quickly generated bubbles caused enhanced lysosomal membrane permeabilization. As expected, H(+)-triggered BGNS possessed remarkable cytotoxicity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and successfully overcame the multidrug resistance of MCF-7/ADR cells. PMID:27488856

  7. Trastuzumab triggers phagocytic killing of high HER2 cancer cells in vitro and in vivo by interaction with Fcγ receptors on macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yun; Fan, Xuejun; Deng, Hui; Brezski, Randall J; Rycyzyn, Michael; Jordan, Robert E; Strohl, William R; Zou, Quanming; Zhang, Ningyan; An, Zhiqiang

    2015-05-01

    Trastuzumab has been used for the treatment of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer for more than a decade, but the mechanisms of action for the therapy are still being actively investigated. Ab-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity mediated by NK cells is well recognized as one of the key mechanisms of action for trastuzumab, but trastuzumab-mediated Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) has not been established. In this study, we demonstrate that macrophages, by way of phagocytic engulfment, can mediate ADCP and cancer cell killing in the presence of trastuzumab. Increased infiltration of macrophages in the tumor tissue was associated with enhanced efficacy of trastuzumab whereas depletion of macrophages resulted in reduced antitumor efficacy in mouse xenograft tumor models. Among the four mouse FcγRs, FcγRIV exhibits the strongest binding affinity to trastuzumab. Knockdown of FcγRIV in mouse macrophages reduced cancer cell killing and ADCP activity triggered by trastuzumab. Consistently, an upregulation of FcγRIV expression by IFN-γ triggered an increased ADCP activity by trastuzumab. In an analogous fashion, IFN-γ priming of human macrophages increased the expression of FcγRIII, the ortholog of murine FcγRIV, and increased trastuzumab-mediated cancer cell killing. Thus, in two independent systems, the results indicated that activation of macrophages in combination with trastuzumab can serve as a therapeutic strategy for treating high HER2 breast cancer by boosting ADCP killing of cancer cells. PMID:25795760

  8. GLI inhibitor GANT61 kills melanoma cells and acts in synergy with obatoclax.

    PubMed

    Vlčková, Kateřina; Réda, Jiri; Ondrušová, Lubica; Krayem, Mohammad; Ghanem, Ghanem; Vachtenheim, Jiri

    2016-09-01

    MEK kinase inhibitors (trametinib and selumetinib) or kinase inhibitors directed against mutated BRAF(V600E) (vemurafenib and dabrafenib) have initial encouraging effects in the treatment of melanoma but acquired resistance appears almost invariably after some months. Studies revealed mutually exclusive NRAS and BRAF activating mutations driving the MAPK/ERK pathway among human melanomas. Although combination therapy exerts significantly better antitumor cell efficacy, complete remission is rarely achieved. To employ an alternative approach, we have targeted the Hedgehog/GLI pathway, which is deregulated in melanomas, through the GLI1/2 inhibitor GANT61, alone or accompanied with the treatment by the BCL2 family inhibitor obatoclax in 9 melanoma cell lines. Thus, we targeted melanoma cells irrespective of their NRAS or BRAF mutational status. After GANT61 treatment, the cell viability was drastically diminished via apoptosis, as substantial nuclear DNA fragmentation was detected. In all tested melanoma cell lines, the combined treatment was more efficient than the application of each drug alone at the end of the cell growth with inhibitors. GANT61 was efficient also alone in most cell lines without the addition of obatoclax, which had only a limited effect when used as a single drug. In most cell lines, tumor cells were eradicated after 5-9 days of combined treatment in colony outgrowth assay. To conclude, GANT61 treatment might become a hopeful and effective anti-melanoma targeted therapy, especially when combined with the BCL2 family inhibitor obatoclax. PMID:27572939

  9. Influence of caffeine on X-ray-induced killing and mutation in V79 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, S.B.; Bhattacharyya, N.; Chatterjee, S.

    1987-02-01

    Effects produced by caffeine on X-irradiated Chinese hamster V79 cells depended on the growth conditions of the cells. For exponentially growing cells, nontoxic concentrations of caffeine decreased the shoulder width from the survival curve, but the slope remained unchanged. The yield of mutants under the same conditions also remained unaffected. In case of density-inhibited cells, delaying trypsinization for 24 h after X irradiation increased the survival and decreased the yield of mutants. The presence of caffeine during this incubation period inhibited such recovery and significantly increased the yield of X-ray-induced mutants.

  10. Neuroblastoma killing properties of V-delta 2 and V-delta2 negative gamma delta T cells following expansion by artificial antigen presenting cells

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jonathan P.H.; Yan, Mengyong; Heuijerjens, Jennifer; Carter, Lisa; Abolhassani, Ayda; Frosch, Jennifer; Wallace, Rebecca; Flutter, Barry; Capsomidis, Anna; Hubank, Mike; Klein, Nigel; Callard, Robin; Gustafsson, Kenth; Anderson, John

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The majority of circulating human γδT lymphocytes are of the Vγ9Vδ2 lineage, and have TCR specificity for non-peptide phosphoantigens. Previous attempts to stimulate and expand these cells have therefore focussed on stimulation using ligands of the Vγ9Vδ2 receptor, whilst relatively little is known about variant blood γδT subsets and their potential role in cancer immunotherapy. Experimental Design To expand the full repertoire of γδT without bias towards specific T cell receptors, we made use of artificial antigen presenting cells loaded with an anti gamma delta T cell receptor antibody that promoted unbiased expansion of the γδT repertoire. Expanded cells from adult blood donors were sorted into 3 populations expressing respectively Vδ2 TCR chains (Vδ2+), Vδ1 chains (Vδ1+) and TCR of other delta chain subtypes (Vδ1negVδ2neg) Results Both freshly isolated and expanded cells showed heterogeneity of differentiation markers, with a less differentiated phenotype in the Vδ1 and Vδ1negVδ2neg populations. Expanded cells were largely of an effector memory phenotype although there were higher numbers of less differentiated cells in the Vδ1+ and Vδ1negVδ2neg populations. Using neuroblastoma tumor cells and the anti-GD2 therapeutic monoclonal antibody ch14.18 as a model system, all three populations showed clinically relevant cytotoxicity. Whilst killing by expanded Vδ2 cells was predominantly antibody dependent and proportionate to upregulated CD16, Vδ1 cells killed by antibody independent mechanisms. Conclusions In conclusion we have demonstrated that polyclonal expanded populations of γδT cells are capable of both antibody dependent and independent effector functions in neuroblastoma. PMID:24893631

  11. Perforin facilitates beta cell killing and regulates autoreactive CD8+ T-cell responses to antigen in mouse models of type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Prerak; Graham, Kate L; Krishnamurthy, Balasubramaninan; Fynch, Stacey; Slattery, Robyn M; Kay, Thomas W H; Thomas, Helen E

    2016-04-01

    In type 1 diabetes, cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes (CTLs) directly interact with pancreatic beta cells through major histocompatibility complex class I. An immune synapse facilitates delivery of cytotoxic granules, comprised mainly of granzymes and perforin. Perforin deficiency protects the majority of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice from autoimmune diabetes. Intriguingly perforin deficiency does not prevent diabetes in CD8(+) T-cell receptor transgenic NOD8.3 mice. We therefore investigated the importance of perforin-dependent killing via CTL-beta cell contact in autoimmune diabetes. Perforin-deficient CTL from NOD mice or from NOD8.3 mice were significantly less efficient at adoptive transfer of autoimmune diabetes into NODRag1(-/-) mice, confirming that perforin is essential to facilitate beta cell destruction. However, increasing the number of transferred in vitro-activated perforin-deficient 8.3 T cells reversed the phenotype and resulted in diabetes. Perforin-deficient NOD8.3 T cells were present in increased proportion in islets, and proliferated more in response to antigen in vivo indicating that perforin may regulate the activation of CTLs, possibly by controlling cytokine production. This was confirmed when we examined the requirement for direct interaction between beta cells and CD8(+) T cells in NOD8.3 mice, in which beta cells specifically lack major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I through conditional deletion of β2-microglobulin. Although diabetes was significantly reduced, 40% of these mice developed diabetes, indicating that NOD8.3 T cells can kill beta cells in the absence of direct interaction. Our data indicate that although perforin delivery is the main mechanism that CTL use to destroy beta cells, they can employ alternative mechanisms to induce diabetes in a perforin-independent manner. PMID:26446877

  12. Rapid dimerization of quercetin through an oxidative mechanism in the presence of serum albumin decreases its ability to induce cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231 cells.

    PubMed

    Pham, Anh; Bortolazzo, Anthony; White, J Brandon

    2012-10-19

    Quercetin is a member of the flavonoid family and has been previously shown to have a variety of anti-cancer activities. We and others have reported anti-proliferation, cell cycle arrest, and induction of apoptosis of cancer cells after treatment with quercetin. Quercetin has also been shown to undergo oxidation. However, it is unclear if quercetin or one of its oxidized forms is responsible for cell death. Here we report that quercetin rapidly oxidized in cell culture media to form a dimer. The quercetin dimer is identical to a dimer that is naturally produced by onions. The quercetin dimer and quercetin-3-O-glucopyranoside are unable to cross the cell membrane and do not kill MDA-MB-231 cells. Finally, supplementing the media with ascorbic acid increases quercetin's ability to induce cell death probably by reduction oxidative dimerization. Our results suggest that an unmodified quercetin is the compound that elicits cell death. PMID:23000408

  13. Bispecific Antibodies that Mediate Killing of Cells Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus of Any Strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Jorg; Lotscher, Erika; Steimer, Kathelyn S.; Capon, Daniel J.; Baenziger, Jurg; Jack, Hans-Martin; Wabl, Matthias

    1991-06-01

    Although AIDS patients lose human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific cytotoxic T cells, their remaining CD8-positive T lymphocytes maintain cytotoxic function. To exploit this fact we have constructed bispecific antibodies that direct cytotoxic T lymphocytes of any specificity to cells that express gp120 of HIV. These bispecific antibodies comprise one heavy/light chain pair from an antibody to CD3, linked to a heavy chain whose variable region has been replaced with sequences from CD4 plus a second light chain. CD3 is part of the antigen receptor on T cells and is responsible for signal transduction. In the presence of these bispecific antibodies, T cells of irrelevant specificity effectively lyse HIV-infected cells in vitro.

  14. Potentiation of a tumor cell susceptibility to autologous CTL killing by restoration of wild-type p53 function.

    PubMed

    Thiery, Jérôme; Dorothée, Guillaume; Haddada, Hedi; Echchakir, Hamid; Richon, Catherine; Stancou, Rodica; Vergnon, Isabelle; Benard, Jean; Mami-Chouaib, Fathia; Chouaib, Salem

    2003-06-15

    Inactivation of p53 has been implicated in many types of tumors particularly in non-small cell lung carcinoma, one of the most common cancers in which p53 mutation has been frequently identified. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of p53 status on the regulation of tumor susceptibility to specific CTL-mediated cell death. For this purpose, we used a cytotoxic T lymphocyte clone, Heu127, able to lyse the human autologous lung carcinoma cell line, IGR-Heu, in a HLA-A2-restricted manner. Direct genomic DNA sequencing revealed that IGR-Heu expresses a mutated p53 at codon 132 of the exon 5 which results in the loss of p53 capacity to induce the expression of the p53-regulated gene product p21(waf/CIP1). Initial experiments demonstrated that IGR-Heu was resistant to Fas, TNF, and TRAIL apoptotic pathways. This correlated with the lack of p55 TNFRI, Fas, DR4, and DR5 expression. The effect of wild-type (wt) p53 restoration on the sensitization of IGR-Heu to autologous CTL clone lysis was investigated following infection of the tumor cell line with a recombinant adenovirus encoding the wt p53 (Adwtp53). We demonstrate that the restoration of wt p53 expression and function resulted in a significant potentiation of target cell susceptibility to CTL-mediated lysis. The wt p53-induced optimization of tumor cell killing by specific CTL involves at least in part Fas-mediated pathway via induction of CD95 expression by tumor cells but does not appear to interfere with granzyme B cytotoxic pathway. PMID:12794118

  15. ROS Accumulation by PEITC Selectively Kills Ovarian Cancer Cells via UPR-Mediated Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yoon-Hee; Uddin, Md. Hafiz; Jo, Untek; Kim, Boyun; Song, Jiyoung; Suh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Hee Seung; Song, Yong Sang

    2015-01-01

    Unfolded protein response (UPR) is crucial for both survival and death of mammalian cells, which is regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nutrient depletion. In this study, we demonstrated the effect of ROS-accumulation, induced by β-phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), on UPR-mediated apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. We used ovarian cancer cell lines, PA-1 and SKOV-3, with different p53 status (wild- and null-type, respectively). PEITC caused increased ROS-accumulation and inhibited proliferation selectively in ovarian cancer cells, and glutathione (GSH) depletion in SKOV-3. However, PEITC did not cause any effect in normal ovarian epithelial cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. After 48 h of PEITC treatment (5 μM), apoptotic cell death was shown to increase significantly in the ovarian cancer cells and not in the normal cells. The key regulator of UPR-mediated apoptosis, CHOP/GADD153 and endoplasmic reticulum resident chaperone BiP/GRP78 were parallely up-regulated with activation of two major sensors of the UPR [PERK and ATF-6 in PA-1; PERK, and IRE1α in SKOV-3) in response to ROS accumulation induced by PEITC (5 μM). ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), attenuated the effect of PEITC on UPR signatures (P-PERK, IRE1α, CHOP/GADD153, and BiP/GRP78), suggesting the involvement of ROS in UPR-mediated apoptosis. Altogether, PEITC induces UPR-mediated apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells via accumulation of ROS in a cancer-specific manner. PMID:26284193

  16. Engineered metal nanoparticles in the sub-nanomolar levels kill cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Vodyanoy, Vitaly; Daniels, Yasmine; Pustovyy, Oleg; MacCrehan, William A; Muramoto, Shin; Stan, Gheorghe

    2016-01-01

    Background Small metal nanoparticles obtained from animal blood were observed to be toxic to cultured cancer cells, whereas noncancerous cells were much less affected. In this work, engineered zinc and copper metal nanoparticles were produced from bulk metal rods by an underwater high-voltage discharge method. The metal nanoparticles were characterized by atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The metal nanoparticles, with estimated diameters of 1 nm–2 nm, were determined to be more than 85% nonoxidized. A cell viability assay and high-resolution light microscopy showed that exposure of RG2, cultured rat brain glioma cancer cells, to the zinc and copper nanoparticles resulted in cell morphological changes, including decreased cell adherence, shrinking/rounding, nuclear condensation, and budding from cell bodies. The metal-induced cell injuries were similar to the effects of staurosporine, an active apoptotic reagent. The viability experiments conducted for zinc and copper yielded values of dissociation constants of 0.22±0.08 nmol/L (standard error [SE]) and 0.12±0.02 nmol/L (SE), respectively. The noncancerous astrocytes were not affected at the same conditions. Because metal nanoparticles were lethal to the cancer cells at sub-nanomolar concentrations, they are potentially important as nanomedicine. Purpose Lethal concentrations of synthetic metal nanoparticles reported in the literature are a few orders of magnitude higher than the natural, blood-isolated metal nanoparticles; therefore, in this work, engineered metal nanoparticles were examined to mimic the properties of endogenous metal nanoparticles. Materials and methods RG2, rat brain glioma cells CTX TNA2 brain rat astrocytes, obtained from the American Type Culture Collection, high-voltage discharge, atomic force microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, high-resolution light microscopy, zeta potential measurements, and 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium

  17. Monitoring the Bystander Killing Effect of Human Multipotent Stem Cells for Treatment of Malignant Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Leten, Cindy; Trekker, Jesse; Struys, Tom; Roobrouck, Valerie D; Dresselaers, Tom; Vande Velde, Greetje; Lambrichts, Ivo; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Himmelreich, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Tumor infiltrating stem cells have been suggested as a vehicle for the delivery of a suicide gene towards otherwise difficult to treat tumors like glioma. We have used herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase expressing human multipotent adult progenitor cells in two brain tumor models (hU87 and Hs683) in immune-compromised mice. In order to determine the best time point for the administration of the codrug ganciclovir, the stem cell distribution and viability were monitored in vivo using bioluminescence (BLI) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment was assessed by in vivo BLI and MRI of the tumors. We were able to show that suicide gene therapy using HSV-tk expressing stem cells can be followed in vivo by MRI and BLI. This has the advantage that (1) outliers can be detected earlier, (2) GCV treatment can be initiated based on stem cell distribution rather than on empirical time points, and (3) a more thorough follow-up can be provided prior to and after treatment of these animals. In contrast to rodent stem cell and tumor models, treatment success was limited in our model using human cell lines. This was most likely due to the lack of immune components in the immune-compromised rodents. PMID:26880961

  18. Enhanced radiation-induced cell killing by Herbimycin A pre-treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Miho; Hirayama, Ryoichi; Druzhinin, Sergey; Okayasu, Ryuichi

    2009-12-01

    Herbimycin A (HA), as in Geldanamycin, binds to conserved pockets of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and inhibits its chaperone functions. Hsp90 plays an integral role in cancer cell growth and survival, because it maintains the stability of several key proteins by its chaperone's activity. It is known that some of the proteins associated with radiation responses are functionally stabilized by Hsp90. In this study, we investigated the effect of HA on radiosensitivity in human cancer cells and the mechanism related to the sensitization. In order to gain a mechanistic insight of this sensitization, we examined repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in irradiated human cancer cells pre-treated with HA, as unrepaired DSBs are thought to be the main cause of radiation-induced cell death. Cellular radiosensitivity was determined by clonogenic assay, and the DSB rejoining kinetics was examined by constant field gel electrophoresis. SQ-5, a lung squamous carcinoma cell line, showed synergistic increase in radiosensitivity when cells were pre-treated with HA. In addition, HA significantly inhibited repair of radiation-induced DSBs. These results suggest that the combination of HA and ionizing radiation may be a useful therapeutic strategy for treating certain cancer cells.

  19. Monitoring the Bystander Killing Effect of Human Multipotent Stem Cells for Treatment of Malignant Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Leten, Cindy; Trekker, Jesse; Struys, Tom; Roobrouck, Valerie D.; Dresselaers, Tom; Vande Velde, Greetje; Lambrichts, Ivo; Verfaillie, Catherine M.; Himmelreich, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Tumor infiltrating stem cells have been suggested as a vehicle for the delivery of a suicide gene towards otherwise difficult to treat tumors like glioma. We have used herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase expressing human multipotent adult progenitor cells in two brain tumor models (hU87 and Hs683) in immune-compromised mice. In order to determine the best time point for the administration of the codrug ganciclovir, the stem cell distribution and viability were monitored in vivo using bioluminescence (BLI) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment was assessed by in vivo BLI and MRI of the tumors. We were able to show that suicide gene therapy using HSV-tk expressing stem cells can be followed in vivo by MRI and BLI. This has the advantage that (1) outliers can be detected earlier, (2) GCV treatment can be initiated based on stem cell distribution rather than on empirical time points, and (3) a more thorough follow-up can be provided prior to and after treatment of these animals. In contrast to rodent stem cell and tumor models, treatment success was limited in our model using human cell lines. This was most likely due to the lack of immune components in the immune-compromised rodents. PMID:26880961

  20. Smad7 induces plasticity in tumor-infiltrating Th17 cells and enables TNF-alpha-mediated killing of colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Angelamaria; De Mare, Vincenzo; Rocchi, Chiara; Stolfi, Carmine; Colantoni, Alfredo; Neurath, Markus F; Macdonald, Thomas T; Pallone, Francesco; Monteleone, Giovanni; Fantini, Massimo C

    2014-07-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is deeply involved in colorectal cancer development and the disruption of the TGF-β signaling in dysplastic cells is required for tumor to grow. Nevertheless, tumor cells express TGF-β to escape the immune surveillance mediated by T cells. T-cell expression of Smad7, an intracellular inhibitor of the TGF-β signaling, protects against colitis-associated colorectal cancer. However, whether Smad7 in T cells might influence colorectal cancer growth independently of chronic inflammation and which T-cell subset is involved in this process is unknown. To address this issue, T-cell-specific Smad7 transgenic mice and wild-type (WT) littermates were subcutaneously transplanted with syngenic MC38 colon carcinoma cells. Smad7Tg mice were resistant to tumor development compared with WT mice and protection was dependent on CD4(+) T cells. Smad7 expression in T cells increased the number of tumor-infiltrating Tbet/ROR-γ-t double-positive CD4 T cells characterized by the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interferon-gamma but lower IL17A. The low expression of IL17A caused by the Smad7 expression in tumor-infiltrating CD4(+) T cells enabled the TNF-α-mediated killing of cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, thus indicating that the Smad7-mediated plastic effect on T-cell phenotype induces protection against colorectal cancer. PMID:24480808

  1. Evidence for induction of humoral and cytotoxic immune responses against devil facial tumor disease cells in Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) immunized with killed cell preparations.

    PubMed

    Kreiss, A; Brown, G K; Tovar, C; Lyons, A B; Woods, G M

    2015-06-12

    Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) risk extinction from a contagious cancer, devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) in which the infectious agent is the tumor cell itself. Because devils are unable to produce an immune response against the tumor cells no devil has survived 'infection'. To promote an immune response we immunized healthy devils with killed DFTD tumor cells in the presence of adjuvants. Immune responses, including cytotoxicity and antibody production, were detected in five of the six devils. The incorporation of adjuvants that act via toll like receptors may provide additional signals to break 'immunological ignorance'. One of these devils was protected against a challenge with viable DFTD cells. This was a short-term protection as re-challenge one year later resulted in tumor growth. These results suggest that Tasmanian devils can generate immune responses against DFTD cells. With further optimization of immune stimulation it should be possible to protect Tasmanian devils against DFTD with an injectable vaccine. PMID:25708088

  2. Enhanced killing effects of caffein post-treatment in ultraviolet-light irradiated mouse lymphoma cells: is cAMP a mediator of the effects?

    PubMed

    Kuwashima, Y; Miyachi, Y; Okada, S; Iio, M; Nakamura, N

    1983-01-01

    Effects of post-treatment with caffein, cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cAMP) and N6, O2-dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP) were investigated in ultraviolet light (UV)-irradiated mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells. Under conditions where UV or each chemical alone caused only slight cytotoxic effects, caffein post-treatment showed clear synergistic effects in cell killing but not for cAMP or dbcAMP. Subsequently, a mutant clone resistant to cAMP was isolated. This mutant was supposed to be deficient in cAMP-mediated cellular functions. Using the mutant cells, it was found that these cells were also sensitive to caffein post-treatment as wild cells after UV-irradiation. The results imply that the enhanced killing effects by caffein post-treatment in UV irradiated cells is not mediated by cAMP. PMID:6093199

  3. Toward an HIV Cure Based on Targeted Killing of Infected Cells: Different Approaches Against Acute Versus Chronic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Barna; Berger, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Current regimens of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) offer effective control of HIV infection, with maintenance of immune health and near-normal life expectancy. What will it take to progress beyond the status quo, whereby infectious virus can be eradicated (a “sterilizing cure”) or fully controlled without the need for ongoing cART (a “functional cure”)? Recent findings Based on therapeutic advances in the cancer field, we propose that targeted cytotoxic therapy to kill HIV-infected cells represents a logical complement to cART for achieving an HIV cure. This concept is based on the fact that cART effectively blocks replication of the virus, but does not eliminate cells that are already infected; targeted cytotoxic therapy would contribute precisely this missing component. We suggest that different modalities are suited for curing primary acute versus established chronic infection. For acute infection, relatively short-acting potent agents such as recombinant immunotoxins might prove sufficient for HIV eradication whereas for chronic infection, a long-lasting (lifelong?) modality is required to maintain full virus control, as might be achieved with genetically modified autologous T cells. Summary We present perspectives for complementing cART with targeted cytotoxic therapy whereby HIV infection is either eradicated or fully controlled, thereby eliminating the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy. PMID:25710815

  4. Near-infrared light triggered photodynamic therapy in combination with gene therapy using upconversion nanoparticles for effective cancer cell killing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Kai; Yang, Guangbao; Cheng, Liang; He, Lu; Liu, Yumeng; Li, Yonggang; Guo, Liang; Liu, Zhuang

    2014-07-01

    Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have drawn much attention in cancer imaging and therapy in recent years. Herein, we for the first time report the use of UCNPs with carefully engineered surface chemistry for combined photodynamic therapy (PDT) and gene therapy of cancer. In our system, positively charged NaGdF4:Yb,Er UCNPs with multilayered polymer coatings are synthesized via a layer by layer strategy, and then loaded simultaneously with Chlorin e6 (Ce6), a photosensitizing molecule, and small interfering RNA (siRNA), which targets the Plk1 oncogene. On the one hand, under excitation by a near-infrared (NIR) light at 980 nm, which shows greatly improved tissue penetration compared with visible light, cytotoxic singlet oxygen can be generated via resonance energy transfer from UCNPs to photosensitizer Ce6, while the residual upconversion luminescence is utilized for imaging. On the other hand, the silencing of Plk1 induced by siRNA delivered with UCNPs could induce significant cancer cell apoptosis. As the result of such combined photodynamic and gene therapy, a remarkably enhanced cancer cell killing effect is realized. Our work thus highlights the promise of UCNPs for imaging guided combination therapy of cancer.Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have drawn much attention in cancer imaging and therapy in recent years. Herein, we for the first time report the use of UCNPs with carefully engineered surface chemistry for combined photodynamic therapy (PDT) and gene therapy of cancer. In our system, positively charged NaGdF4:Yb,Er UCNPs with multilayered polymer coatings are synthesized via a layer by layer strategy, and then loaded simultaneously with Chlorin e6 (Ce6), a photosensitizing molecule, and small interfering RNA (siRNA), which targets the Plk1 oncogene. On the one hand, under excitation by a near-infrared (NIR) light at 980 nm, which shows greatly improved tissue penetration compared with visible light, cytotoxic singlet oxygen can be generated via

  5. Non-genetic cancer cell plasticity and therapy-induced stemness in tumour relapse: ‘What does not kill me strengthens me'

    PubMed Central

    Pisco, A O; Huang, S

    2015-01-01

    Therapy resistance and tumour relapse after drug therapy are commonly explained by Darwinian selection of pre-existing drug-resistant, often stem-like cancer cells resulting from random mutations. However, the ubiquitous non-genetic heterogeneity and plasticity of tumour cell phenotype raises the question: are mutations really necessary and sufficient to promote cell phenotype changes during tumour progression? Cancer therapy inevitably spares some cancer cells, even in the absence of resistant mutants. Accumulating observations suggest that the non-killed, residual tumour cells actively acquire a new phenotype simply by exploiting their developmental potential. These surviving cells are stressed by the cytotoxic treatment, and owing to phenotype plasticity, exhibit a variety of responses. Some are pushed into nearby, latent attractor states of the gene regulatory network which resemble evolutionary ancient or early developmental gene expression programs that confer stemness and resilience. By entering such stem-like, stress-response states, the surviving cells strengthen their capacity to cope with future noxious agents. Considering non-genetic cell state dynamics and the relative ease with which surviving but stressed cells can be tipped into latent attractors provides a foundation for exploring new therapeutic approaches that seek not only to kill cancer cells but also to avoid promoting resistance and relapse that are inherently linked to the attempts to kill them. PMID:25965164

  6. Drug Redeployment to Kill Leukemia and Lymphoma Cells by Disrupting SCD1-Mediated Synthesis of Monounsaturated Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Southam, Andrew D; Khanim, Farhat L; Hayden, Rachel E; Constantinou, Julia K; Koczula, Katarzyna M; Michell, Robert H; Viant, Mark R; Drayson, Mark T; Bunce, Chris M

    2015-06-15

    The redeployed drug combination of bezafibrate and medroxyprogesterone acetate (designated BaP) has potent in vivo anticancer activity in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) patients; however, its mechanism-of-action is unclear. Given that elevated fatty acid biosynthesis is a hallmark of many cancers and that these drugs can affect lipid metabolism, we hypothesized that BaP exerts anticancer effects by disrupting lipogenesis. We applied mass spectrometry-based lipidomics and gene and protein expression measurements of key lipogenic enzymes [acetyl CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1)] to AML and eBL cell lines treated with BaP. BaP treatment decreased fatty acid and phospholipid biosynthesis from (13)C D-glucose. The proportion of phospholipid species with saturated and monounsaturated acyl chains was also decreased after treatment, whereas those with polyunsaturated chains increased. BaP decreased SCD1 protein levels in each cell line (0.46- to 0.62-fold; P < 0.023) and decreased FASN protein levels across all cell lines (0.87-fold decrease; P = 1.7 × 10(-4)). Changes to ACC1 protein levels were mostly insignificant. Supplementation with the SCD1 enzymatic product, oleate, rescued AML and e-BL cells from BaP cell killing and decreased levels of BaP-induced reactive oxygen species, whereas supplementation with the SCD1 substrate (and FASN product), palmitate, did not rescue cells. In conclusion, these data suggest that the critical anticancer actions of BaP are decreases in SCD1 levels and monounsaturated fatty acid synthesis. To our knowledge, this is the first time that clinically available antileukemic and antilymphoma drugs targeting SCD1 have been reported. PMID:25943877

  7. A New Triglycyl Peptide Linker for Antibody-Drug Conjugates (ADCs) with Improved Targeted Killing of Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajeeva; Setiady, Yulius Y; Ponte, Jose; Kovtun, Yelena V; Lai, Katharine C; Hong, E Erica; Fishkin, Nathan; Dong, Ling; Jones, Gregory E; Coccia, Jennifer A; Lanieri, Leanne; Veale, Karen; Costoplus, Juliet A; Skaletskaya, Anna; Gabriel, Rabih; Salomon, Paulin; Wu, Rui; Qiu, Qifeng; Erickson, Hans K; Lambert, John M; Chari, Ravi V J; Widdison, Wayne C

    2016-06-01

    A triglycyl peptide linker (CX) was designed for use in antibody -: drug conjugates (ADC), aiming to provide efficient release and lysosomal efflux of cytotoxic catabolites within targeted cancer cells. ADCs comprising anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (anti-EpCAM) and anti-EGFR antibodies with maytansinoid payloads were prepared using CX or a noncleavable SMCC linker (CX and SMCC ADCs). The in vitro cytotoxic activities of CX and SMCC ADCs were similar for several cancer cell lines; however, the CX ADC was more active (5-100-fold lower IC50) than the SMCC ADC in other cell lines, including a multidrug-resistant line. Both CX and SMCC ADCs showed comparable MTDs and pharmacokinetics in CD-1 mice. In Calu-3 tumor xenografts, antitumor efficacy was observed with the anti-EpCAM CX ADC at a 5-fold lower dose than the corresponding SMCC ADC in vivo Similarly, the anti-EGFR CX ADC showed improved antitumor activity over the respective SMCC conjugate in HSC-2 and H1975 tumor models; however, both exhibited similar activity against FaDu xenografts. Mechanistically, in contrast with the charged lysine-linked catabolite of SMCC ADC, a significant fraction of the carboxylic acid catabolite of CX ADC could be uncharged in the acidic lysosomes, and thus diffuse out readily into the cytosol. Upon release from tumor cells, CX catabolites are charged at extracellular pH and do not penetrate and kill neighboring cells, similar to the SMCC catabolite. Overall, these data suggest that CX represents a promising linker option for the development of ADCs with improved therapeutic properties. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(6); 1311-20. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197308

  8. Cisplatin combined with hyperthermia kills HepG2 cells in intraoperative blood salvage but preserves the function of erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-ting; Tang, Li-hui; Liu, Yun-qing; Wang, Yin; Wang, Lie-ju; Zhang, Feng-jiang; Yan, Min

    2015-05-01

    The safe use of intraoperative blood salvage (IBS) in cancer surgery remains controversial. Here, we investigated the killing effect of cisplatin combined with hyperthermia on human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells and erythrocytes from IBS in vitro. HepG2 cells were mixed with concentrated erythrocytes and pretreated with cisplatin (50, 100, and 200 μg/ml) alone at 37 °C for 60 min and cisplatin (25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/ml) combined with hyperthermia at 42 °C for 60 min. After pretreatment, the cell viability, colony formation and DNA metabolism in HepG2 and the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) concentration, free hemoglobin (Hb) level, osmotic fragility, membrane phosphatidylserine externalization, and blood gas variables in erythrocytes were determined. Pretreatment with cisplatin (50, 100, and 200 μg/ml) combined with hyperthermia (42 °C) for 60 min significantly decreased HepG2 cell viability, and completely inhibited colony formation and DNA metabolism when the HepG2 cell concentration was 5×10(4) ml(-1) in the erythrocyte (P<0.01). Erythrocytic Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, 2,3-DPG level, phosphatidylserine externalization, and extra-erythrocytic free Hb were significantly altered by hyperthermia plus high concentrations of cisplatin (100 and 200 μg/ml) (P<0.05), but not by hyperthermia plus 50 μg/ml cisplatin (P>0.05). In conclusion, pretreatment with cisplatin (50 μg/ml) combined with hyperthermia (42 °C) for 60 min effectively eliminated HepG2 cells from IBS but did not significantly affect erythrocytes in vitro. PMID:25990057

  9. Genetically Modified T Cells Targeting Interleukin-11 Receptor α-Chain Kill Human Osteosarcoma Cells and Induce the Regression of Established Osteosarcoma Lung Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Laurence JN; Hollomon, Mario; Huls, Helen; Kleinerman, Eugenie S

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of osteosarcoma (OS) pulmonary metastases remains a challenge. T cells genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), which recognizes a tumor-associated antigen, have shown activity against hematopoetic malignancies in clinical trials, but this requires the identification of a specific receptor on the tumor cell. In the current study, we found that interleukin (IL)-11Rα was selectively expressed on 14 of 16 OS patients’ lung metastases and 4 different human OS cell lines, indicating that IL-11Rα may be a novel target for CAR-specific T-cell therapy. IL-11Rα expression was absent or low in normal organ tissues, with the exception of the GI track. IL-11Rα-CAR-specific T cells were obtained by non-viral gene transfer of Sleeping Beauty DNA plasmids and selectively expanded ex vivo using artificial antigen presenting cells derived from IL-11Rα + K562 cells genetically modified to co-express T-cell co-stimulatory molecules. IL-11Rα-CAR+ T cells killed all 4 OS cell lines in vitro; cytotoxicity correlated with the level of IL-11Rα expression on the tumor cells. Intravenous injection of IL-11Rα-CAR+ T cells into mice resulted in the regression of OS pulmonary metastases with no organ toxicity. Together, the data suggest that IL-11Rα-CAR T cells may represent a new therapy for OS patients with pulmonary metastases. PMID:22075555

  10. Mitochondrial-Targeting MET Kinase Inhibitor Kills Erlotinib-Resistant Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tianming; Ng, Wai Har; Chen, Huan; Chomchopbun, Kamon; Huynh, The Hung; Go, Mei Lin; Kon, Oi Lian

    2016-08-11

    Lung cancer cells harboring activating EGFR mutations acquire resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) by activating several bypass mechanisms, including MET amplification and overexpression. We show that a significant proportion of activated MET protein in EGFR TKI-resistant HCC827 lung cancer cells resides within the mitochondria. Targeting the total complement of MET in the plasma membrane and mitochondria should render these cells more susceptible to cell death and hence provide a means of circumventing drug resistance. Herein, the mitochondrial targeting triphenylphosphonium (TPP) moiety was introduced to the selective MET kinase inhibitor PHA665752. The resulting TPP analogue rapidly localized to the mitochondria of MET-overexpressing erlotinib-resistant HCC827 cells, partially suppressed the phosphorylation (Y1234/Y1235) of MET in the mitochondrial inner membrane and was as cytotoxic and apoptogenic as the parent compound. These findings provide support for the targeting of mitochondrial MET with a TPP-TKI conjugate as a means of restoring responsiveness to chemotherapy. PMID:27563407

  11. Targeted killing of rhabdomyosarcoma cells by a MAP-based human cytolytic fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Brehm, Hannes; Hristodorov, Dmitrij; Pardo, Alessa; Mladenov, Radoslav; Niesen, Judith; Fischer, Rainer; Tur, Mehmet K; Barth, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    The treatment of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is challenging, and the prognosis remains especially poor for high-grade RMS with metastasis. The conventional treatment of RMS is based on multi-agent chemotherapy combined with resection and radiotherapy, which are often marked by low success rate. Alternative therapeutic options include the combination of standard treatments with immunotherapy. We generated a microtubule-associated protein (MAP)-based fully human cytolytic fusion protein (hCFP) targeting the fetal acetylcholine receptor, which is expressed on RMS cells. We were able to express and purify functional scFv35-MAP from Escherichia coli cells. Moreover, we found that scFv35-MAP is rapidly internalized by target cells after binding its receptor, and exhibits specific cytotoxicity toward FL-OH1 and RD cells in vitro. We also confirmed that scFv35-MAP induces apoptosis in FL-OH1 and RD cells. The in vivo potential of scFv35-MAP will need to be considered in further studies. PMID:25888452

  12. How to kill tumor cells with inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation.

    PubMed

    Mangerich, Aswin; Bürkle, Alexander

    2011-01-15

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a post-translational modification catalyzed by the enzyme family of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). PARPs exhibit pleiotropic cellular functions ranging from maintenance of genomic stability and chromatin remodeling to regulation of cell death, thereby rendering PARP homologues promising targets in cancer therapy. Depending on the molecular status of a cancer cell, low-molecular weight PARP inhibitors can (i) either be used as monotherapeutic agents following the concept of synthetic lethality or (ii) to support classical chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The rationales are the following: (i) in cancers with selective defects in homologous recombination repair, inactivation of PARPs directly causes cell death. In cancer treatment, this phenomenon can be employed to specifically target tumor cells while sparing nonmalignant tissue. (ii) PARP inhibitors can also be used to sensitize cells to cytotoxic DNA-damaging treatments, as some PARPs actively participate in genomic maintenance. Apart from that, PARP inhibitors possess antiangiogenic functions, thus opening up a further option to inhibit tumor growth. In view of the above, a number of high-potency PARP inhibitors have been developed during the last decade and are currently evaluated as cancer therapeutics in clinical trials by several leading pharmaceutical companies. PMID:20853319

  13. Deazaneplanocin A Is a Promising Drug to Kill Multiple Myeloma Cells in Their Niche

    PubMed Central

    Gaudichon, Jérémie; Milano, Francesco; Cahu, Julie; DaCosta, Lætitia; Martens, Anton C.; Renoir, Jack-Michel; Sola, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Tumoral plasma cells has retained stemness features and in particular, a polycomb-silenced gene expression signature. Therefore, epigenetic therapy could be a mean to fight for multiple myeloma (MM), still an incurable pathology. Deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), a S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase inhibitor, targets enhancer of zest homolog 2 (EZH2), a component of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and is capable to induce the death of cancer cells. We show here that, in some MM cell lines, DZNep induced both caspase-dependent and -independent apoptosis. However, the induction of cell death was not mediated through its effect on EZH2 and the trimethylation on lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3). DZNep likely acted through non-epigenetic mechanisms in myeloma cells. In vivo, in xenograft models, and in vitro DZNep showed potent antimyeloma activity alone or in combination with bortezomib. These preclinical data let us to envisage new therapeutic strategies for myeloma. PMID:25255316

  14. Hypersensitivity of skin fibroblasts from basal cell nevus syndrome patients to killing by ultraviolet B but not by ultraviolet C radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Applegate, L.A.; Goldberg, L.H.; Ley, R.D.; Ananthaswamy, H.N. )

    1990-02-01

    Basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder in which the afflicted individuals are extremely susceptible to sunlight-induced skin cancers, particularly basal cell carcinomas. However, the cellular and molecular basis for BCNS is unknown. To ascertain whether there is any relationship between genetic predisposition to skin cancer and increased sensitivity of somatic cells from BCNS patients to killing by UV radiation, we exposed skin fibroblasts established from unexposed skin biopsies of several BCNS and age- and sex-matched normal individuals to either UV-B (280-320 nm) or UV-C (254 nm) radiation and determined their survival. The results indicated that skin fibroblasts from BCNS patients were hypersensitive to killing by UV-B but not UV-C radiation as compared to skin fibroblasts from normal individuals. DNA repair studies indicated that the increased sensitivity of BCNS skin fibroblasts to killing by UV-B radiation was not due to a defect in the excision repair of pyrimidine dimers. These results indicate that there is an association between hypersensitivity of somatic cells to killing by UV-B radiation and the genetic predisposition to skin cancer in BCNS patients. In addition, these results suggest that DNA lesions (and repair processes) other than the pyrimidine dimer are also involved in the pathogenesis of sunlight-induced skin cancers in BCNS patients. More important, the UV-B sensitivity assay described here may be used as a diagnostic tool to identify presymptomatic individuals with BCNS.

  15. Theory and Experimental Validation of a Spatio-temporal Model of Chemotherapy Transport to Enhance Tumor Cell Kill

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhihui; Chuang, Yao-Li; Dogra, Prashant; Butner, Joseph D.; Day, Armin; Xu, Rong; Shen, Haifa; Simbawa, Eman; AL-Fhaid, A. S.; Mahmoud, S. R.; Curley, Steven A.; Ferrari, Mauro; Cristini, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that continuously releasing drug molecules into the tumor over an extended period of time may significantly improve the chemotherapeutic efficacy by overcoming physical transport limitations of conventional bolus drug treatment. In this paper, we present a generalized space- and time-dependent mathematical model of drug transport and drug-cell interactions to quantitatively formulate this hypothesis. Model parameters describe: perfusion and tissue architecture (blood volume fraction and blood vessel radius); diffusion penetration distance of drug (i.e., a function of tissue compactness and drug uptake rates by tumor cells); and cell death rates (as function of history of drug uptake). We performed preliminary testing and validation of the mathematical model using in vivo experiments with different drug delivery methods on a breast cancer mouse model. Experimental data demonstrated a 3-fold increase in response using nano-vectored drug vs. free drug delivery, in excellent quantitative agreement with the model predictions. Our model results implicate that therapeutically targeting blood volume fraction, e.g., through vascular normalization, would achieve a better outcome due to enhanced drug delivery. Author Summary Cancer treatment efficacy can be significantly enhanced through the elution of drug from nano-carriers that can temporarily stay in the tumor vasculature. Here we present a relatively simple yet powerful mathematical model that accounts for both spatial and temporal heterogeneities of drug dosing to help explain, examine, and prove this concept. We find that the delivery of systemic chemotherapy through a certain form of nano-carriers would have enhanced tumor kill by a factor of 2 to 4 over the standard therapy that the patients actually received. We also find that targeting blood volume fraction (a parameter of the model) through vascular normalization can achieve more effective drug delivery and tumor kill. More importantly

  16. Ag nanoparticles generated using bio-reduction and -coating cause microbial killing without cell lysis.

    PubMed

    Gade, Aniket; Adams, Joshua; Britt, David W; Shen, Fen-Ann; McLean, Joan E; Jacobson, Astrid; Kim, Young-Cheol; Anderson, Anne J

    2016-04-01

    Cost-effective "green" methods of producing Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are being examined because of the potential of these NPs as antimicrobials. Ag NPs were generated from Ag ions using extracellular metabolites from a soil-borne Pythium species. The NPs were variable in size, but had one dimension less than 50 nm and were biocoated; aggregation and coating changed with acetone precipitation. They had dose-dependent lethal effects on a soil pseudomonad, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6, and were about 30-fold more effective than Ag(+) ions. A role of reactive oxygen species in cell death was demonstrated by use of fluorescent dyes responsive to superoxide anion and peroxide accumulation. Also mutants of the pseudomonad, defective in enzymes that protect against oxidative stress, were more sensitive than the wild type strain; mutant sensitivity differed between exposure to Ag NPs and Ag(+) ions demonstrating a nano-effect. Imaging of bacterial cells treated with the biocoated Ag NPs revealed no cell lysis, but there were changes in surface properties and cell height. These findings support that biocoating the NPs results in limited Ag release and yet they retained potent antimicrobial activity. PMID:26805711

  17. New 2-Thiopyridines as Potential Candidates for Killing both Actively Growing and Dormant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ryabova, Olga; Kaprelyants, Arseny; Makarov, Vadim

    2014-01-01

    From in vivo observations, a majority of M. tuberculosis cells in latently infected individuals are in a dormant and probably nonculturable state, display little metabolic activity, and are phenotypically resistant to antibiotics. Despite many attempts, no specific antimicrobials effective against latent tuberculosis have yet been found, partly because of a lack of reliable and adequate in vitro models for screening of drug candidates. We propose here a novel in vitro model of M. tuberculosis dormancy that meets the important criteria of latency, namely, nonculturability of cells, considerable reduction of metabolic activity, and significant phenotypic resistance to the first-line antibiotics rifampin and isoniazid. Using this model, we found a new group of 2-thiopyridine derivatives that had potent antibacterial activity against both actively growing and dormant M. tuberculosis cells. By means of the model of M. tuberculosis nonculturability, several new 2-thiopyridine derivatives were found to have potent antitubercular activity. The compounds are effective against both active and dormant M. tuberculosis cells. The bactericidal effects of compounds against dormant M. tuberculosis was confirmed by using three different in vitro models of tuberculosis dormancy. The model of nonculturability could be used as a reliable tool for screening drug candidates, and 2-thiopyridine derivatives may be regarded as prominent compounds for further development of new drugs for curing latent M. tuberculosis infection. PMID:24126578

  18. Application of Organosilane Monolayer Template to Quantitative Evaluation of Cancer Cell Adhesive Ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanii, Takashi; Sasaki, Kosuke; Ichisawa, Kota; Demura, Takanori; Beppu, Yuichi; Vu, Hoan Anh; Thanh Chi, Hoan; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Sato, Yuko

    2011-06-01

    The adhesive ability of two human pancreatic cancer cell lines was evaluated using organosilane monolayer templates (OMTs). Using the OMT, the spreading area of adhered cells can be limited, and this enables us to focus on the initial attachment process of adhesion. Moreover, it becomes possible to arrange the cells in an array and to quantitatively evaluate the number of attached cells. The adhesive ability of the cancer cells cultured on the OMT was controlled by adding (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which blocks a receptor that mediates cell adhesion and is overexpressed in cancer cells. Measurement of the relative ability of the cancer cells to attach to the OMT revealed that the ability for attachment decreased with increasing EGCG concentration. The results agreed well with the western blot analysis, indicating that the OMT can potentially be employed to evaluate the adhesive ability of various cancer cells.

  19. The Effect of Latency Reversal Agents on Primary CD8+ T Cells: Implications for Shock and Kill Strategies for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Eradication.

    PubMed

    Walker-Sperling, Victoria E; Pohlmeyer, Christopher W; Tarwater, Patrick M; Blankson, Joel N

    2016-06-01

    Shock and kill strategies involving the use of small molecules to induce viral transcription in resting CD4+ T cells (shock) followed by immune mediated clearance of the reactivated cells (kill), have been proposed as a method of eliminating latently infected CD4+ T cells. The combination of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor romidepsin and protein kinase C (PKC) agonist bryostatin-1 is very effective at reversing latency in vitro. However, we found that primary HIV-1 specific CD8+ T cells were not able to eliminate autologous resting CD4+ T cells that had been reactivated with these drugs. We tested the hypothesis that the drugs affected primary CD8+ T cell function and found that both agents had inhibitory effects on the suppressive capacity of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells from patients who control viral replication without antiretroviral therapy (elite suppressors/controllers). The inhibitory effect was additive and multi-factorial in nature. These inhibitory effects were not seen with prostratin, another PKC agonist, either alone or in combination with JQ1, a bromodomain-containing protein 4 inhibitor. Our results suggest that because of their adverse effects on primary CD8+ T cells, some LRAs may cause immune-suppression and therefore should be used with caution in shock and kill strategies. PMID:27428432

  20. Methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) conjugated doxorubicin micelles for effective killing of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liming; Xia, Kai; Deng, Yan; Li, Song; Zhang, Chuanxiang; Lu, Zhuoxuan; He, Nongyue

    2014-08-01

    Methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) conjugated doxorubicin (mPEG-DOX) micelles are prepared for delivering drug effectively. The core of the unimolecular micelle is a DOX (doxorubicin) which is an anti-cancer chemotherapy drug, while the outer hydrophilic shell is composed of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) segments. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis shows that the unimolecular micelles are uniform with a mean hydrodynamic diameter around 250 nm. The mPEG-DOX micelles can be internalized by the cancer cells and exhibit good cell uptake by the fluorescence microscopy. Obvious cytotoxicity is also observed when the concentration (count on DOX) is over 1 μg/mL. These findings indicate that these unique unimolecular micelles may offer a very promising approach for targeted cancer therapy. PMID:25936136

  1. How radiation kills cells: Survival of Deinococcus radiodurans and Shewanella oneidensis under oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosal, D; Omelchenko, M V.; Gaidamakova, E; Matrosova, V; Vasilenko, A; Venkateswaran, Amudhan; Zhai, M; Kostandarithes, Heather M.; Brim, Hassan; Makarova, Kira S.; Wackett, L. P.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Daly, Michael J.

    2005-04-01

    The radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans accumulates very high intracellular manganese and relatively low iron levels compared to the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis which is extremely sensitive. For Fe-rich, Mn-poor cells, death at low doses might be caused by the release of Fe(II) from proteins during irradiation, followed by Fe(II)-dependent reduction of hydrogen peroxide produced by metabolism after irradiation. In contrast, Mn(II) ions concentrated in D. radiodurans might serve as antioxidants that reinforce enzymic systems which defend against oxidative stress during recovery. We extend our hypothesis here to include consideration of respiration, tricarboxylic acid cycle activity, peptide transport, and metal reduction, which together with Mn(II) transport represent potential new targets to control cell recovery from radiation injury.

  2. Immobilized N-alkylated polyethylenimine avidly kills bacteria by rupturing cell membranes with no resistance developed.

    PubMed

    Milović, Nebojsa M; Wang, Jun; Lewis, Kim; Klibanov, Alexander M

    2005-06-20

    Several critical mechanistic and phenomenological aspects of the microbicidal surface coatings based on immobilized hydrophobic polycations, previously developed by us, are addressed. Using Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) bacteria, remarkable bactericidal action (up to a 10(9)-fold reduction in live bacteria count in the surface-exposed solution and a 100% inactivation of the surface-adhered bacteria) of an amino-glass slide covalently derivatized with N-hexyl,methyl-polyethylenimine (PEI) is found to be due to rupturing bacterial cell membranes by the polymeric chains. The bacteria fail to develop noticeable resistance to this lethal action over the course of many successive generations. Finally, the immobilized N-alkyl-PEI, while deadly to bacteria, is determined to be harmless to mammalian (monkey kidney) cells. PMID:15803464

  3. Curcumin a potent cancer preventive agent: Mechanisms of cancer cell killing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    There is no doubt that diet could effectively improve health and halt cancers. Dietary phytochemical compounds and their derivatives represent a cornucopia of effectively anticancer compounds. This review discusses existing data on the anticancer activities of curcumin, and then offers possible explanations for and mechanisms of its cancer-preventive action. This review also offers insights into the molecular mechanism and targets through which curcumin modulates cell cycle, apoptotic signals, anti-apoptotic proteins, miRNAs, Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, protein kinases, nuclear factor-κB, proteasome activation, epigenetic regulation including DNA methylation and histone modification. Finally, this review provides explanations for how curcumin reverses the multi-drug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells. PMID:25598986

  4. The switch from latent to productive infection in epstein-barr virus-infected B cells is associated with sensitization to NK cell killing.

    PubMed

    Pappworth, Isabel Y; Wang, Eddie C; Rowe, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Following activation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected B cells from latent to productive (lytic) infection, there is a concomitant reduction in the level of cell surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules and an impaired antigen-presenting function that may facilitate evasion from EBV-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. In some other herpesviruses studied, most notably human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), evasion of virus-specific CD8+ effector responses via downregulation of surface MHC class I molecules is supplemented with specific mechanisms for evading NK cells. We now report that EBV differs from HCMV in this respect. While latently infected EBV-positive B cells were resistant to lysis by two NK lines and by primary polyclonal NK cells from peripheral blood, these effectors efficiently killed cells activated into the lytic cycle. Susceptibility to NK lysis coincided not only with downregulation of HLA-A, -B, and -C molecules that bind to the KIR family of inhibitory receptors on NK cells but also with downregulation of HLA-E molecules binding the CD94/NKG2A inhibitory receptors. Conversely, ULBP-1 and CD112, ligands for the NK cell-activating receptors NKG2D and DNAM-1, respectively, were elevated. Susceptibility of the virus-producing target cells to NK cell lysis was partially reversed by blocking ULBP-1 or CD112 with specific antibodies. These results highlight a fundamental difference between EBV and HCMV with regards to evasion of innate immunity. PMID:17079298

  5. Antioxidants potentiate American ginseng-induced killing of colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Binghui; Wang, Chong-Zhi; He, Tong-Chuan; Yuan, Chun-Su; Du, Wei

    2009-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Novel prevention or therapeutic agents are needed to better manage this disease. American ginseng is a commonly used herb and is believed to have lots of health benefits, including anticancer activities. However there have been very few in-depth studies of the activities of this herb at the molecular level. In this report we showed that 4 hour-steamed American ginseng root extract (S4h) induced mitochondrial damage, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. We showed that the NF-κB pathway was activated by S4h and that removal of ROS inhibited S4h-induced NF-κB activation. We further showed that both antioxidants and a specific inhibitor of the NF-κB pathway enhanced S4h-induced cell death. Finally, we showed that protecting the mitochondria decreased both the level of ROS and apoptosis. Taken together, these results indicate that S4h-induced apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells is mediated by mitochondria damage and that damage to the mitochondria activates both the apoptosis pathway and the ROS/NF-κB mediated survival pathway. These results further suggest that the anticancer effect of steamed ginseng can be enhanced by antioxidants or inhibitors of the NF-κB pathway. PMID:19716228

  6. WE-G-BRE-05: Nanoparticle-Aided Microwave Hyperthermia Is Accompanied By Free Radical Generation and Enhanced Cell Kill

    SciTech Connect

    Paudel, N; Shvydka, D; Karpov, V; Findsen, E; Parsai, E

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Hyperthermia, an established method of cancer treatment used in adjuvant to radiation and chemotherapy, can utilize metallic nanoparticles (NPs) for tumor heating with a microwave electromagnetic field. The high surface-area-to-volume ratio of nanoparticles makes them effective catalysts for free radical generation, thus amplifying the cell-killing effect of hyperthermia. We explore the effect of gold and platinum NPs in generating free radicals in aqueous media under a microwave field. Methods: Spin trap 5,5-Dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) was mixed separately with 3.2 nm Mesogold and Mesoplatinum colloidal nanoparticle suspensions in deionized water to trap radicals. The mixtures were injected into a number of glass capillaries and exposed to the 9.68GHz microwave field of an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer. The microwave radiation from the spectrometer served to both generate and detect the trapped radicals. Each sample was scanned at 12mW microwave power to obtain the initial signal of hydroxyl radicals (OH.), then at 39.8mW followed by 79.8 or 125mW, and finally re-scanned at 12mW. Radical signal intensities obtained by double integration of EPR spectra from the initial and the final scans were then compared. Results: Nanoparticle samples had no intentionally-added free radicals before the initial measurement. While samples with DMPO-water solution showed no OH. signal, all those with AuNPs or PtNPs developed an OH. signal during their first exposure to the microwave field. Depending upon the applied microwave power and time interval between the initial and the final EPR scans, an OH. intensity increase of ∼10-60% was found. This contradicts the typical trend of exponential decay of the OH. signal with time. Conclusion: The consistent increase in OH. intensity establishes that gold and platinum nanoparticles facilitate free radical generation under microwave irradiation. Our results suggest that NP-aided hyperthermia is

  7. Golden Berry-Derived 4β-hydroxywithanolide E for Selectively Killing Oral Cancer Cells by Generating ROS, DNA Damage, and Apoptotic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chien-Chih; Haung, Jo-Wen; Chang, Fang-Rong; Huang, Kuang-Jing; Huang, Hsuan-Min; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Chou, Chon-Kit; Wu, Yang-Chang; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background Most chemotherapeutic drugs for killing cancer cells are highly cytotoxic in normal cells, which limits their clinical applications. Therefore, a continuing challenge is identifying a drug that is hypersensitive to cancer cells but has minimal deleterious effects on healthy cells. The aims of this study were to evaluate the potential of 4β-hydroxywithanolide (4βHWE) for selectively killing cancer cells and to elucidate its related mechanisms. Methodology and Principal Findings Changes in survival, oxidative stress, DNA damage, and apoptosis signaling were compared between 4βHWE-treated oral cancer (Ca9-22) and normal fibroblast (HGF-1) cells. At 24 h and 48 h, the numbers of Ca9-22 cells were substantially decreased, but the numbers of HGF-1 cells were only slightly decreased. Additionally, the IC50 values for 4βHWE in the Ca9-22 cells were 3.6 and 1.9 µg/ml at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Time-dependent abnormal increases in ROS and dose-responsive mitochondrial depolarization can be exploited by using 4βHWE in chemotherapies for selectively killing cancer cells. Dose-dependent DNA damage measured by comet-nuclear extract assay and flow cytometry-based γ-H2AX/propidium iodide (PI) analysis showed relatively severer damage in the Ca9-22 cells. At both low and high concentrations, 4βHWE preferably perturbed the cell cycle in Ca9-22 cells by increasing the subG1 population and arrest of G1 or G2/M. Selective induction of apoptosis in Ca9-22 cells was further confirmed by Annexin V/PI assay, by preferential expression of phosphorylated ataxia-telangiectasia- and Rad3-related protein (p-ATR), and by cleavage of caspase 9, caspase 3, and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). Conclusions/Significance Together, the findings of this study, particularly the improved understanding of the selective killing mechanisms of 4βHWE, can be used to improve efficiency in killing oral cancer cells during chemoprevention and therapy. PMID:23705007

  8. Inactivation of enveloped viruses and killing of cells by fatty acids and monoglycerides.

    PubMed Central

    Thormar, H; Isaacs, C E; Brown, H R; Barshatzky, M R; Pessolano, T

    1987-01-01

    Lipids in fresh human milk do not inactivate viruses but become antiviral after storage of the milk for a few days at 4 or 23 degrees C. The appearance of antiviral activity depends on active milk lipases and correlates with the release of free fatty acids in the milk. A number of fatty acids which are normal components of milk lipids were tested against enveloped viruses, i.e., vesicular stomatitis virus, herpes simplex virus, and visna virus, and against a nonenveloped virus, poliovirus. Short-chain and long-chain saturated fatty acids had no or a very small antiviral effect at the highest concentrations tested. Medium-chain saturated and long-chain unsaturated fatty acids, on the other hand, were all highly active against the enveloped viruses, although the fatty acid concentration required for maximum viral inactivation varied by as much as 20-fold. Monoglycerides of these fatty acids were also highly antiviral, in some instances at a concentration 10 times lower than that of the free fatty acids. None of the fatty acids inactivated poliovirus. Antiviral fatty acids were found to affect the viral envelope, causing leakage and at higher concentrations, a complete disintegration of the envelope and the viral particles. They also caused disintegration of the plasma membranes of tissue culture cells resulting in cell lysis and death. The same phenomenon occurred in cell cultures incubated with stored antiviral human milk. The antimicrobial effect of human milk lipids in vitro is therefore most likely caused by disintegration of cellular and viral membranes by fatty acids. Studies are needed to establish whether human milk lipids have an antimicrobial effect in the stomach and intestines of infants and to determine what role, if any, they play in protecting infants against gastrointestinal infections. Images PMID:3032090

  9. D-polyglutamine amyloid recruits L-polyglutamine monomers and kills cells

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Karunakar; Arduini, Irene; Drombosky, Kenneth W.; van der Wel, Patrick C. A.; Wetzel, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Polyglutamine (polyQ) amyloid fibrils are observed in disease tissue and have been implicated as toxic agents responsible for neurodegeneration in expanded CAG repeat diseases like Huntington’s disease (HD). Despite intensive efforts, the mechanism of amyloid toxicity remains unknown. As a novel approach to probing polyQ toxicity, we investigate here how some cellular and physical properties of polyQ amyloid vary with the chirality of the glutamine residues in the polyQ. We challenged PC12 cells with small amyloid fibrils composed of either L- or D-polyQ peptides and found that D-fibrils are as cytotoxic as L-fibrils. We also found using fluorescence microscopy that both aggregates effectively seed the aggregation of cell-produced L-polyQ proteins, suggesting a surprising lack of stereochemical restriction in seeded elongation of polyQ amyloid. To investigate this effect further, we studied chemically synthesized D- and L-polyQ in vitro. We found that, as expected, D-polyQ monomers are not recognized by proteins that recognize L-polyQ monomers. However, amyloid fibrils prepared from D-polyQ peptides can efficiently seed the aggregation of L-polyQ monomers in vitro, and vice versa. This result is consistent with our cell results on polyQ recruitment, but is inconsistent with previous literature reports on the chiral specificity of amyloid seeding. This chiral cross-seeding can be rationalized by a model for seeded elongation featuring a “rippled β-sheet” interface between seed fibril and docked monomers of opposite chirality. The lack of chiral discrimination in polyQ amyloid cytotoxicity is consistent with several toxicity mechanisms, including recruitment of cellular polyQ proteins. PMID:24291210

  10. Adult stem cells and their ability to differentiate.

    PubMed

    Tarnowski, Maciej; Sieron, Aleksander L

    2006-08-01

    This is a review of the current status of knowledge on adult stem cells as well as the criteria and evidence for their potential to transform into different cell types and cell lineages. Reports on stem cell sources, focusing on tissues from adult subjects, were also investigated. Numerous reports have been published on the search for early markers of both stem cells and the precursors of various cell lineages. The question is still open about the characteristics of the primary stem cell. The existing proofs and hypotheses have not yielded final solutions to this problem. From a practical point of view it is also crucial to find a minimal set of markers determining the phenotypes of the precursor cells of a particular cell lineage. Several lines of evidence seem to bring closer the day when we will be able to detect the right stem cell niche and successfully isolate precursor cells that are needed for the treatment of a particular disorder. Recent reports on cases of cancer in patients subjected to stem cell therapy are yet another controversial issue looked into in this review, although the pros and cons emerging from the results of published studies still do not provide satisfying evidence to fully understand this issue. PMID:16865077

  11. Macrophage response to oncolytic paramyxoviruses potentiates virus-mediated tumor cell killing.

    PubMed

    Tan, Darren Qiancheng; Zhang, LiFeng; Ohba, Kenji; Ye, Min; Ichiyama, Koji; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are known to regulate tumor response to many anti-cancer therapies, including oncolytic virotherapy. Oncolytic virotherapy employing oncolytic paramyxoviruses, such as attenuated measles (MeV) and mumps (MuV) viruses, has demonstrated therapeutic potential against various malignancies. However, the response of TAMs to oncolytic paramyxoviruses and the consequent effect on virotherapeutic efficacy remains to be characterized. Here, we demonstrate that the presence of human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), irrespective of initial polarization state, enhances the virotherapeutic effect of MeV and MuV on breast cancer cells. Notably, our finding contrasts those of several studies involving other oncolytic viruses, which suggest that TAMs negatively impact virotherapeutic efficacy by impeding virus replication and dissemination. We found that the enhanced virotherapeutic effect in the presence of MDMs was due to slightly delayed proliferation and significantly elevated cell death that was not a result of increased virus replication. Instead, we found that the enhanced virotherapeutic effect involved several macrophage-associated anti-tumor mediators, and was associated with the modulation of MDMs towards an anti-tumor phenotype. Our findings present an alternative view on the role of TAMs in oncolytic virotherapy, and highlight the immunotherapeutic potential of oncolytic paramyxoviruses; possibly contributing towards the overall efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy. PMID:26763072

  12. Body cell mass evaluation in critically ill patients: killing two birds with one stone.

    PubMed

    Fiaccadori, Enrico; Morabito, Santo; Cabassi, Aderville; Regolisti, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Body cell mass (BCM) is the metabolically active cell mass involved in O₂ consumption, CO₂ production and energy expenditure. BCM measurement has been suggested as a tool for the evaluation of nutritional status. Since BCM is closely related to energy expenditure, it could also represent a good reference value for the calculation of nutrient needs. In a recent issue of Critical Care, Ismael and colleagues used bioelectrical impedance analysis parameters and anthropometric variables to evaluate BCM in patients with acute kidney injury, before and after a hemodialysis session. The results of this study suggest that BCM is relatively insensitive to major body fluid shifts, a well known factor interfering with nutritional evaluation/monitoring and energy need calculations in the ICU. Thus, BCM seems to be a more 'stable' nutritional variable, as it is apparently less influenced by non-nutritional factors. The results of this paper emphasize the need to identify biologically sound parameters for nutritional status evaluation and energy need calculation in critically ill patients; in this regard, BCM could fulfill these expectations. PMID:25033220

  13. Cell killing and mutation to 6-thioguanine resistance after exposure to tritiated amino acids and tritiated thymidine in cultured mammalian cells (L5178Y)

    SciTech Connect

    Furuno-Fukushi, I.; Ueno, A.M.; Matsudaira, H.

    1987-06-01

    Cell killing and mutation to 6-thioguanine resistance were studied in growing mouse leukemia cells in culture after exposure to tritiated amino acids and tritiated thymidine. These effects varied widely among the tritiated compounds tested, being greatest for tritiated thymidine followed by tritiated arginine and tritiated lysine, in that order, for a given concentration of /sup 3/H expressed in kBq/ml of /sup 3/H in the medium. The differences between each tritiated amino acid disappeared almost totally when the effects were compared on the basis of the absorbed dose to the cells. The effects of tritiated thymidine, however, remained more than twofold greater compared to other tritiated compounds. These results indicate the importance of determining the absorbed dose for assessment of the radiotoxicity of tritiated organic compounds. For an exceptional case (tritiated thymidine), contribution of a mechanism(s) other than beta irradiation should also be taken into account.

  14. The Engineered Thymidylate Kinase (TMPK)/AZT Enzyme-Prodrug Axis Offers Efficient Bystander Cell Killing for Suicide Gene Therapy of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lavie, Arnon; Yanagisawa, Teruyuki; Medin, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    We previously described a novel suicide (or ‘cell fate control’) gene therapy enzyme/prodrug system based on an engineered variant of human thymidylate kinase (TMPK) that potentiates azidothymidine (AZT) activation. Delivery of a suicide gene sequence into tumors by lentiviral transduction embodies a cancer gene therapy that could employ bystander cell killing as a mechanism driving significant tumor regression in vivo. Here we present evidence of a significant bystander cell killing in vitro and in vivo mediated by the TMPK/AZT suicide gene axis that is reliant on the formation of functional gap-junctional intercellular communications (GJICs). Potentiation of AZT activation by the engineered TMPK expressed in the human prostate cancer cell line, PC-3, resulted in effective bystander killing of PC-3 cells lacking TMPK expression – an effect that could be blocked by the GJIC inhibitor, carbenoxolone. Although GJICs are mainly formed by connexins, a new family of GJIC molecules designated pannexins has been recently identified. PC-3 cells expressed both connexin43 (Cx43) and Pannexin1 (Panx1), but Panx1 expression predominated at the plasma membrane, whereas Cx43 expression was primarily localized to the cytosol. The contribution of bystander effects to the reduction of solid tumor xenografts established by the PC-3 cell line was evaluated in an animal model. We demonstrate the contribution of bystander cell killing to tumor regression in a xenograft model relying on the delivery of expression of the TMPK suicide gene into tumors via direct intratumoral injection of recombinant therapeutic lentivirus. Taken together, our data underscore that the TMPK/AZT enzyme-prodrug axis can be effectively utilized in suicide gene therapy of solid tumors, wherein significant tumor regression can be achieved via bystander effects mediated by GJICs. PMID:24194950

  15. The engineered thymidylate kinase (TMPK)/AZT enzyme-prodrug axis offers efficient bystander cell killing for suicide gene therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takeya; Neschadim, Anton; Lavie, Arnon; Yanagisawa, Teruyuki; Medin, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    We previously described a novel suicide (or 'cell fate control') gene therapy enzyme/prodrug system based on an engineered variant of human thymidylate kinase (TMPK) that potentiates azidothymidine (AZT) activation. Delivery of a suicide gene sequence into tumors by lentiviral transduction embodies a cancer gene therapy that could employ bystander cell killing as a mechanism driving significant tumor regression in vivo. Here we present evidence of a significant bystander cell killing in vitro and in vivo mediated by the TMPK/AZT suicide gene axis that is reliant on the formation of functional gap-junctional intercellular communications (GJICs). Potentiation of AZT activation by the engineered TMPK expressed in the human prostate cancer cell line, PC-3, resulted in effective bystander killing of PC-3 cells lacking TMPK expression--an effect that could be blocked by the GJIC inhibitor, carbenoxolone. Although GJICs are mainly formed by connexins, a new family of GJIC molecules designated pannexins has been recently identified. PC-3 cells expressed both connexin43 (Cx43) and Pannexin1 (Panx1), but Panx1 expression predominated at the plasma membrane, whereas Cx43 expression was primarily localized to the cytosol. The contribution of bystander effects to the reduction of solid tumor xenografts established by the PC-3 cell line was evaluated in an animal model. We demonstrate the contribution of bystander cell killing to tumor regression in a xenograft model relying on the delivery of expression of the TMPK suicide gene into tumors via direct intratumoral injection of recombinant therapeutic lentivirus. Taken together, our data underscore that the TMPK/AZT enzyme-prodrug axis can be effectively utilized in suicide gene therapy of solid tumors, wherein significant tumor regression can be achieved via bystander effects mediated by GJICs. PMID:24194950

  16. Natural killer cell killing of acute myelogenous leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia blasts by killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor-negative natural killer cells after NKG2A and LIR-1 blockade.

    PubMed

    Godal, Robert; Bachanova, Veronika; Gleason, Michelle; McCullar, Valarie; Yun, Gong H; Cooley, Sarah; Verneris, Michael R; McGlave, Philip B; Miller, Jeffrey S

    2010-05-01

    Although the study of natural killer (NK) cell alloreactivity has been dominated by studies of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), we hypothesized that NKG2A and LIR-1, present on 53% +/- 13% and 36% +/- 18% of normal NK cells, respectively, play roles in the NK cell killing of primary leukemia targets. KIR(-) cells, which compose nearly half of the circulating NK cell population, exhibit tolerance to primary leukemia targets, suggesting signaling through other inhibitory receptors. Both acute myelogenous leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia targets were rendered susceptible to lysis by fresh resting KIR(-) NK cells when inhibitory receptor-major histocompatibility class I interactions were blocked by pan-HLA antibodies, demonstrating that these cells are functionally competent. Blockade of a single inhibitory receptor resulted in slightly increased killing, whereas combined LIR-1 and NKG2A blockade consistently resulted in increased NK cell cytotoxicity. Dual blockade of NKG2A and LIR-1 led to significant killing of targets by resting KIR(-) NK cells, demonstrating that this population is not hyporesponsive. Together these results suggest that alloreactivity of a significant fraction of KIR(-) NK cells is mediated by NKG2A and LIR-1. Thus strategies to interrupt NKG2A and LIR-1 in combination with anti-KIR blockade hold promise for exploiting NK cell therapy in acute leukemias. PMID:20139023

  17. Enhanced killing of SCC17B human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells after photodynamic therapy plus fenretinide via the de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis pathway and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Boppana, Nithin B; Stochaj, Ursula; Kodiha, Mohamed; Bielawska, Alicja; Bielawski, Jacek; Pierce, Jason S; Korbelik, Mladen; Separovic, Duska

    2015-05-01

    Because photodynamic therapy (PDT) alone is not always effective as an anticancer treatment, PDT is combined with other anticancer agents for improved efficacy. The clinically-relevant fenretinide [N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide; 4HPR], was combined with the silicon phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc4-mediated PDT to test for their potential to enhance killing of SCC17B cells, a clinically-relevant model of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Because each of these treatments induces apoptosis and regulates the de novo sphingolipid (SL) biosynthesis pathway, the role of ceramide synthase, the pathway-associated enzyme, in PDT+4HPR-induced apoptotic cell death was determined using the ceramide synthase inhibitor fumonisin B1 (FB). PDT+4HPR enhanced loss of clonogenicity. zVAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, and FB, protected cells from death post-PDT+4HPR. In contrast, the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 inhibitor ABT199 enhanced cell killing after PDT+4HPR. Combining PDT with 4HPR led to FB-sensitive, enhanced Bax associated with mitochondria and cytochrome c redistribution. Mass spectrometry data showed that the accumulation of C16-dihydroceramide, a precursor of ceramide in the de novo SL biosynthesis pathway, was enhanced after PDT+4HPR. Using quantitative confocal microscopy, we found that PDT+4HPR enhanced dihydroceramide/ceramide accumulation in the ER, which was inhibited by FB. The results suggest that SCC17B cells are sensitized to PDT by 4HPR via the de novo SL biosynthesis pathway and apoptosis, and imply potential clinical relevance of the combination for cancer treatment. PMID:25739041

  18. A whole-genome RNAi screen uncovers a novel role for human potassium channels in cell killing by the parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Marie, Chelsea; Verkerke, Hans P.; Theodorescu, Dan; Petri, William A.

    2015-01-01

    The parasite Entamoeba histolytica kills human cells resulting in ulceration, inflammation and invasion of the colonic epithelium. We used the cytotoxic properties of ameba to select a genome-wide RNAi library to reveal novel host factors that control susceptibility to amebic killing. We identified 281 candidate susceptibility genes and bioinformatics analyses revealed that ion transporters were significantly enriched among susceptibility genes. Potassium (K+) channels were the most common transporter identified. Their importance was further supported by colon biopsy of humans with amebiasis that demonstrated suppressed K+ channel expression. Inhibition of human K+ channels by genetic silencing, pharmacologic inhibitors and with excess K+ protected diverse cell types from E. histolytica-induced death. Contact with E. histolytica parasites triggered K+ channel activation and K+ efflux by intestinal epithelial cells, which preceded cell killing. Specific inhibition of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels was highly effective in preventing amebic cytotoxicity in intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages. Blockade of K+ efflux also inhibited caspase-1 activation, IL-1β secretion and pyroptotic death in THP-1 macrophages. We concluded that K+ channels are host mediators of amebic cytotoxicity in multiple cells types and of inflammasome activation in macrophages. PMID:26346926

  19. "Kill" the messenger: Targeting of cell-derived microparticles in lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Christoffer T; Rasmussen, Niclas S; Heegaard, Niels H H; Jacobsen, Søren

    2016-07-01

    Immune complex (IC) deposition in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is a key early pathogenic event in lupus nephritis (LN). The clarification of the mechanisms behind IC deposition will enable targeted therapy in the future. Circulating cell-derived microparticles (MPs) have been proposed as major sources of extracellular autoantigens and ICs and triggers of autoimmunity in LN. The overabundance of galectin-3-binding protein (G3BP) along with immunoglobulins and a few other proteins specifically distinguish circulating MPs in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and this is most pronounced in patients with active LN. G3BP co-localizes with deposited ICs in renal biopsies from LN patients supporting a significant presence of MPs in the IC deposits. G3BP binds strongly to glomerular basement membrane proteins and integrins. Accordingly, MP surface proteins, especially G3BP, may be essential for the deposition of ICs in kidneys and thus for the ensuing formation of MP-derived electron dense structures in the GBM, and immune activation in LN. This review focuses on the notion of targeting surface molecules on MPs as an entirely novel treatment strategy in LN. By targeting MPs, a double hit may be achieved by attenuating both the autoantigenic fueling of immune complexes and the triggering of the adaptive immune system. Thereby, early pathogenic events may be blocked in contrast to current treatment strategies that primarily target and modulate later events in the cellular and humoral immune response. PMID:26970484

  20. Antibacterial Surface Design of Titanium-Based Biomaterials for Enhanced Bacteria-Killing and Cell-Assisting Functions Against Periprosthetic Joint Infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaxing; Li, Jinhua; Qian, Shi; Guo, Geyong; Wang, Qiaojie; Tang, Jin; Shen, Hao; Liu, Xuanyong; Zhang, Xianlong; Chu, Paul K

    2016-05-01

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the formidable and recalcitrant complications after orthopedic surgery, and inhibiting biofilm formation on the implant surface is considered crucial to prophylaxis of PJI. However, it has recently been demonstrated that free-floating biofilm-like aggregates in the local body fluid and bacterial colonization on the implant and peri-implant tissues can coexist and are involved in the pathogenesis of PJI. An effective surface with both contact-killing and release-killing antimicrobial capabilities can potentially abate these concerns and minimize PJI caused by adherent/planktonic bacteria. Herein, Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are embedded in titania (TiO2) nanotubes by anodic oxidation and plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) to form a contact-killing surface. Vancomycin is then incorporated into the nanotubes by vacuum extraction and lyophilization to produce the release-killing effect. A novel clinical PJI model system involving both in vitro and in vivo use of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST239 is established to systematically evaluate the antibacterial properties of the hybrid surface against planktonic and sessile bacteria. The vancomycin-loaded and Ag-implanted TiO2 nanotubular surface exhibits excellent antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects against planktonic/adherent bacteria without appreciable silver ion release. The fibroblasts/bacteria cocultures reveal that the surface can help fibroblasts to combat bacteria. We first utilize the nanoarchitecture of implant surface as a bridge between the inorganic bactericide (Ag NPs) and organic antibacterial agent (vancomycin) to achieve total victory in the battle of PJI. The combination of contact-killing and release-killing together with cell-assisting function also provides a novel and effective strategy to mitigate bacterial infection and biofilm formation on biomaterials and has large potential in orthopedic applications. PMID:27054673

  1. Porphyromonas gingivalis Evasion of Autophagy and Intracellular Killing by Human Myeloid Dendritic Cells Involves DC-SIGN-TLR2 Crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    El-Awady, Ahmed R.; Miles, Brodie; Scisci, Elizabeth; Kurago, Zoya B.; Palani, Chithra D.; Arce, Roger M.; Waller, Jennifer L.; Genco, Caroline A.; Slocum, Connie; Manning, Matthew; Schoenlein, Patricia V.; Cutler, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Signaling via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) expressed on professional antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs), is crucial to the fate of engulfed microbes. Among the many PRRs expressed by DCs are Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and C-type lectins such as DC-SIGN. DC-SIGN is targeted by several major human pathogens for immune-evasion, although its role in intracellular routing of pathogens to autophagosomes is poorly understood. Here we examined the role of DC-SIGN and TLRs in evasion of autophagy and survival of Porphyromonas gingivalis in human monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs). We employed a panel of P. gingivalis isogenic fimbriae deficient strains with defined defects in Mfa-1 fimbriae, a DC-SIGN ligand, and FimA fimbriae, a TLR2 agonist. Our results show that DC-SIGN dependent uptake of Mfa1+P. gingivalis strains by MoDCs resulted in lower intracellular killing and higher intracellular content of P. gingivalis. Moreover, Mfa1+P. gingivalis was mostly contained within single membrane vesicles, where it survived intracellularly. Survival was decreased by activation of TLR2 and/or autophagy. Mfa1+P. gingivalis strain did not induce significant levels of Rab5, LC3-II, and LAMP1. In contrast, P. gingivalis uptake through a DC-SIGN independent manner was associated with early endosomal routing through Rab5, increased LC3-II and LAMP-1, as well as the formation of double membrane intracellular phagophores, a characteristic feature of autophagy. These results suggest that selective engagement of DC-SIGN by Mfa-1+P. gingivalis promotes evasion of antibacterial autophagy and lysosome fusion, resulting in intracellular persistence in myeloid DCs; however TLR2 activation can overcome autophagy evasion and pathogen persistence in DCs. PMID:25679217

  2. Adenoviral E4orf3 and E4orf6 Proteins, But Not E1B55K, Increase Killing of Cancer Cells by Radiotherapy in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Liikanen, Ilkka; Dias, Joao D.; Nokisalmi, Petri; Sloniecka, Marta; Kangasniemi, Lotta; Rajecki, Mari; Dobner, Thomas; Tenhunen, Mikko; Kanerva, Anna; Pesonen, Sari; Ahtiainen, Laura Ph.D.; Hemminki, Akseli

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: Radiotherapy is widely used for treatment of many tumor types, but it can damage normal tissues. It has been proposed that cancer cells can be selectively sensitized to radiation by adenovirus replication or by using radiosensitizing transgenes. Adenoviral proteins E1B55K, E4orf3, and E4orf6 play a role in radiosensitization, by targeting the Mre11, Rad50, and NBS1 complex (MRN) and inhibiting DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. We hypothesize that combined with irradiation, these adenoviral proteins increase cell killing through the impairment of DSB repair. Methods and Materials: We assessed the radiosensitizing/additive potential of replication-deficient adenoviruses expressing E1B55K, E4orf3, and E4orf6 proteins. Combination treatments with low-dose external photon beam radiotherapy were studied in prostate cancer (PC-3MM2 and DU-145), breast cancer (M4A4-LM3), and head and neck cancer (UT-SCC8) cell lines. We further demonstrated radiosensitizing or additive effects in mice with PC-3MM2 tumors. Results: We show enhanced cell killing with adenovirus and radiation combination treatment. Co-infection with several of the viruses did not further increase cell killing, suggesting that both E4orf6 and E4orf3 are potent in MRN inhibition. Our results show that adenoviral proteins E4orf3 and E4orf6, but not E1B55K, are effective also in vivo. Enhanced cell killing was due to inhibition of DSB repair resulting in persistent double-strand DNA damage, indicated by elevated phospho-H2AX levels at 24 h after irradiation. Conclusions: This knowledge can be applied for improving the treatment of malignant tumors, such as prostate cancer, for development of more effective combination therapies and minimizing radiation doses and reducing side effects.

  3. Differences in heat-induced cell killing as determined in three mammalian cell lines do not correspond with the extent of heat radiosensitization.

    PubMed

    Kampinga, H H; Jorritsma, J B; Burgman, P; Konings, A W

    1986-10-01

    Three different cell lines, Ehrlich ascites tumour (EAT) cells, HeLa S3 cells and LM mouse fibroblasts, were used to investigate whether or not the extent of heat killing (44 degrees C) and heat radio-sensitization (44 degrees C before 0-6 Gy X-irradiation) are related. Although HeLa cells were the most heat-resistant cell line and showed the least heat radiosensitization, we found that the most heat-sensitive EAT cells (D0, EAT = 8.0 min; D0, LM = 10.0 min; D0, HeLa = 12.5 min) showed less radiosensitization than the more heat-resistant LM fibroblasts (TERHeLa less than TEREAT less than TERLM). Therefore, it is concluded that the routes leading to heat-induced cell death are not identical to those determining heat radiosensitization. Furthermore the inactivation of DNA polymerase alpha and beta activities by heat seemed not to correlate with heat survival alone but showed a positive relationship to heat radiosensitization. The possibility of these enzymes being a determinant in heat radiosensitization is discussed. PMID:3489689

  4. EWS-FLI-1-targeted cytotoxic T-cell killing of multiple tumor types belonging to the Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumors*

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Christopher H.; Liu, Fangjun; Porter, Ryan M.; O’Sullivan, Regina P.; Merghoub, Taha; Lunsford, Elaine P.; Robichaud, Kyle; Van Valen, Frans; Lessnick, Stephen L.; Gebhardt, Mark C.; Wells, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumors (ESFTs) comprises a group of aggressive, malignant bone and soft tissue tumors that predominantly affect children and young adults. These tumors frequently share expression of the EWS-FLI-1 translocation, which is central to tumor survival but not present in healthy cells. In this study, we examined EWS-FLI-1 antigens for their capacity to induce immunity against a range of ESFT types. Design Computer prediction analysis of peptide binding, HLA-A2.1 stabilization assays, and induction of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes (CTL) in immunized HLA-A2.1 transgenic mice were used to assess the immunogenicity of native and modified peptides derived from the fusion region of EWS-FLI-1 type 1. CTL-killing of multiple ESFT family members in vitro, and control of established xenografts in vivo, was assessed. We also examined whether these peptides could induce human CTLs in vitro. Results EWS-FLI-1 type 1 peptides were unable to stabilize cell surface HLA-A2.1 and induced weak CTL activity against Ewing Sarcoma cells. In contrast, peptides with modified anchor residues induced potent CTL killing of Ewing Sarcoma cells presenting endogenous (native) peptides. The adoptive transfer of CTL specific for the modified peptide YLNPSVDSV resulted in enhanced survival of mice with established Ewing Sarcoma xenografts. YLNPSVDSV-specific CTL displayed potent killing of multiple ESFT types in vitro: Ewing Sarcoma, pPNET, Askin’s Tumor, and Biphenotypic Sarcoma. Stimulation of human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells with YLNPSVDSV peptide resulted in potent CTL-killing. Conclusions These data show that YLNPSVDSV peptide is a promising antigen for ESFT immunotherapy and warrants further clinical development. PMID:22879388

  5. Distinct roles of Ape1 protein, an enzyme involved in DNA repair, in high or low linear energy transfer ionizing radiation-induced cell killing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Xiang; Chen, Guangnan; Zhang, Xiangming; Tang, Xiaobing; Park, Dongkyoo; Cucinotta, Francis A; Yu, David S; Deng, Xingming; Dynan, William S; Doetsch, Paul W; Wang, Ya

    2014-10-31

    High linear energy transfer (LET) radiation from space heavy charged particles or a heavier ion radiotherapy machine kills more cells than low LET radiation, mainly because high LET radiation-induced DNA damage is more difficult to repair. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is the ratio of the effects generated by high LET radiation to low LET radiation. Previously, our group and others demonstrated that the cell-killing RBE is involved in the interference of high LET radiation with non-homologous end joining but not homologous recombination repair. This effect is attributable, in part, to the small DNA fragments (≤40 bp) directly produced by high LET radiation, the size of which prevents Ku protein from efficiently binding to the two ends of one fragment at the same time, thereby reducing non-homologous end joining efficiency. Here we demonstrate that Ape1, an enzyme required for processing apurinic/apyrimidinic (known as abasic) sites, is also involved in the generation of small DNA fragments during the repair of high LET radiation-induced base damage, which contributes to the higher RBE of high LET radiation-induced cell killing. This discovery opens a new direction to develop approaches for either protecting astronauts from exposure to space radiation or benefiting cancer patients by sensitizing tumor cells to high LET radiotherapy. PMID:25210033

  6. The ability of mouse nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells to differentiate into primordial germ cells

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Vahid; Salehi, Mohammad; Nourozian, Mohsen; Fadaei, Fatemeh; Farahani, Reza Mastery; Piryaei, Abbas; Delbari, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells (ntESCs) show stem cell characteristics such as pluripotency but cause no immunological disorders. Although ntESCs are able to differentiate into somatic cells, the ability of ntESCs to differentiate into primordial germ cells (PGCs) has not been examined. In this work, we examined the capacity of mouse ntESCs to differentiate into PGCs in vitro. ntESCs aggregated to form embryoid bodies (EB) in EB culture medium supplemented with bone morphogenetic protein 4(BMP4) as the differentiation factor. The expression level of specific PGC genes was compared at days 4 and 8 using real time PCR. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemical staining were used to detect Mvh as a specific PGC marker. ntESCs expressed particular genes related to different stages of PGC development. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemical staining confirmed the presence of Mvh protein in a small number of cells. There were significant differences between cells that differentiated into PGCs in the group treated with Bmp4 compared to non-treated cells. These findings indicate that ntESCs can differentiate into putative PGCs. Improvement of ntESC differentiation into PGCs may be a reliable means of producing mature germ cells. PMID:26273226

  7. Stem-like tumor initiating cells isolated from IL13Rα2-expressing gliomas are targeted and killed by IL13-zetakine redirected T cells

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Christine E.; Starr, Renate; Aguilar, Brenda; Shami, Andrew F.; Martinez, Catalina; D’Apuzzo, Massimo; Barish, Michael E.; Forman, Stephen J.; Jensen, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate IL13Rα2 as an immunotherapeutic target for eliminating glioma stem-like initiating cells (GSC) of high-grade gliomas, with particular focus on the potential of genetically engineered IL13Rα2-specific primary human CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (IL13-zetakine+ CTL) to target this therapeutically resistant glioma subpopulation. Experimental Design A panel of low-passage GSC tumor sphere and serum-differentiated glioma lines were expanded from patient glioblastoma specimens. These glioblastoma lines were evaluated for expression of IL13Rα2 and for susceptibility to IL13-zetakine+ CTL-mediated killing in vitro and in vivo. Results We observed that while glioma IL13Rα2 expression varies between patients, for IL13Rα2pos cases this antigen was detected on both GSCs and more differentiated tumor cell populations. IL13-zetakine+ CTL were capable of efficient recognition and killing of both IL13Rα2pos GSC and IL13Rα2pos differentiated cells in vitro, as well as eliminating glioma initiating activity in an orthotopic mouse tumor model. Furthermore, intracranial administration of IL13-zetakine+ CTL displayed robust anti-tumor activity against established IL13Rα2pos GSC tumor sphere-initiated orthotopic tumors in mice. Conclusions Within IL13Rα2-expressing high-grade gliomas, this receptor is expressed by GSCs and differentiated tumor populations, rendering both targetable by IL13-zetakine+ CTLs. Thus, our results support the potential utility of IL13Rα2-directed immunotherapeutic approaches for eradicating therapeutically resistant GSC populations. PMID:22407828

  8. Transient activation of human cytomegalovirus lytic gene expression during latency allows cytotoxic T cell killing of latently infected cells.

    PubMed

    Krishna, B A; Lau, B; Jackson, S E; Wills, M R; Sinclair, J H; Poole, E

    2016-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) latency in the myeloid lineage is maintained by repressive histone modifications around the major immediate early promoter (MIEP), which results in inhibition of the lytic viral life cycle. We now show that pharmacological inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) relieves this repression of the MIEP and induces transient expression of the viral lytic immediate early (IE) antigens but, importantly, not full virus reactivation. In turn, these latently infected cells now become targets for IE-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) which are present at high frequency in all normal healthy HCMV positive carriers but would normally be unable to target latent (lytic antigen-negative) cells. This approach of transiently inducing viral lytic gene expression by HDAC inhibition, in otherwise latently infected cells, offers a window of opportunity to target and purge the latent myeloid cell reservoir by making these normally immunologically undetectable cells visible to pre-existing host immune responses to viral lytic antigens. PMID:27091512

  9. Transient activation of human cytomegalovirus lytic gene expression during latency allows cytotoxic T cell killing of latently infected cells

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, B. A.; Lau, B.; Jackson, S. E.; Wills, M. R.; Sinclair, J. H.; Poole, E.

    2016-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) latency in the myeloid lineage is maintained by repressive histone modifications around the major immediate early promoter (MIEP), which results in inhibition of the lytic viral life cycle. We now show that pharmacological inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) relieves this repression of the MIEP and induces transient expression of the viral lytic immediate early (IE) antigens but, importantly, not full virus reactivation. In turn, these latently infected cells now become targets for IE-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) which are present at high frequency in all normal healthy HCMV positive carriers but would normally be unable to target latent (lytic antigen-negative) cells. This approach of transiently inducing viral lytic gene expression by HDAC inhibition, in otherwise latently infected cells, offers a window of opportunity to target and purge the latent myeloid cell reservoir by making these normally immunologically undetectable cells visible to pre-existing host immune responses to viral lytic antigens. PMID:27091512

  10. Surfaces modified with nanometer-thick silver-impregnated polymeric films that kill bacteria but support growth of mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ankit; Weis, Tahlia L; Schurr, Michael J; Faith, Nancy G; Czuprynski, Charles J; McAnulty, Jonathan F; Murphy, Christopher J; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2010-02-01

    Silver is widely used as a biocidal agent in ointments and wound dressings. However, it has also been associated with tissue toxicity and impaired healing. In vitro characterization has also revealed that typical loadings of silver employed in ointments and dressings (approximately 100 microg/cm(2)) lead to cytotoxicity. In this paper, we report the results of an initial study that sought to determine if localization of carefully controlled loadings of silver nanoparticles within molecularly thin films immobilized on surfaces can lead to antimicrobial activity without inducing cytotoxicity. Polymeric thin films of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were prepared by layer-by-layer deposition and loaded with approximately 0.4 microg/cm(2) to approximately 23.6 microg/cm(2) of silver nanoparticles. Bacterial killing efficiencies of the silver-loaded films were investigated against Staphylococcus epidermidis, a gram-positive bacterium, and it was determined that as little as approximately 0.4 microg/cm(2) of silver in the polymeric films caused a reduction of 6log(10)CFU/mL (99.9999%) bacteria in suspensions incubated in contact with the films (water-borne assays). Significantly, whereas the antibacterial films containing high loadings of silver were found to be toxic to a murine fibroblast cell line (NIH-3T3), the polymeric films containing approximately 0.4 microg/cm(2) of silver were not toxic and allowed attachment, and growth of the mammalian cells. Thus, the results of this study go beyond prior reports by identifying silver-impregnated, polymeric thin films that are compatible with in vitro mammalian cell culture yet exhibit antibacterial activity. These results support the hypothesis that localization of carefully controlled loadings of silver nanoparticles within molecularly thin polymeric films can lead to antimicrobial activity without cytotoxicity. More broadly, this strategy of modifying surfaces with minimal loadings of

  11. Two inhibitors of neutrophil chemotaxis are produced by hyperimmunoglobulin E recurrent infection syndrome mononuclear cells exposed to heat-killed staphylococci.

    PubMed Central

    Donabedian, H; Gallin, J I

    1983-01-01

    Mononuclear cells from normal volunteers and from patients with the hyperimmunoglobulin E recurrent infection syndrome (HIE) were cultured for 18 h with and without opsonized, heat-killed Staphylococcus aureus (OS). The supernatants from normal mononuclear cell cultures without OS revealed no inhibitory activity for neutrophil chemotaxis, whereas those from HIE patients revealed the previously reported 61,000-dalton factor. However, when normal cells were cultured with OS, they produced a proteinaceous, 56 degrees C-stable, 30,000- to 45,000-dalton factor which preferentially inhibited neutrophil versus monocyte chemotaxis. When HIE cells were exposed to OS, they produced the same 30,000- to 45,000-dalton factor as normal cells, as well as the 61,000-dalton factor that they produced spontaneously. Assay of 1,000-fold dilutions of supernatants from cultures of normal mononuclear cells with OS revealed a mean production of 7.8 +/- 5.4% inhibition of chemotaxis, whereas assay of 1,000-fold dilutions of supernatants from cultures of HIE mononuclear cells (spontaneously producing the 61,000-dalton factor) with OS revealed a 26.6 +/- 3.6% inhibition (P less than 0.02). The data indicate that in short-term culture both normal and HIE mononuclear cells produce an inhibitor of neutrophil chemotaxis when exposed to particulate heat-killed staphylococci but that HIE cells produce qualitatively and quantitatively more inhibitory activity. PMID:6343237

  12. IL15 promotes growth and invasion of endometrial stromal cells and inhibits killing activity of NK cells in endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jia-Jun; Sun, Hui-Ting; Zhang, Zhong-Fang; Shi, Ru-Xia; Liu, Li-Bing; Shang, Wen-Qing; Wei, Chun-Yan; Chang, Kai-Kai; Shao, Jun; Wang, Ming-Yan; Li, Ming-Qing

    2016-08-01

    Endometriosis (EMS) is associated with an abnormal immune response to endometrial cells, which can facilitate the implantation and proliferation of ectopic endometrial tissues. It has been reported that human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) express interleukin (IL)15. The aim of our study was to elucidate whether or not IL15 regulates the cross talk between ESCs and natural killer (NK) cells in the endometriotic milieu and, if so, how this regulation occurs. The ESC behaviors in vitro were verified by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), Annexin/PI, and Matrigel invasion assays, respectively. To imitate the local immune microenvironment, the co-culture system between ESCs and NK cells was constructed. The effect of IL15 on NK cells in the co-culture unit was investigated by flow cytometry (FCM). In this study, we found that ectopic endometrium from patients with EMS highly expressed IL15. Rapamycin, an autophagy inducer, decreased the level of IL15 receptors (i.e. IL15Rα and IL2Rβ). IL15 inhibits apoptosis and promotes the invasiveness, viability, and proliferation of ESCs. Meanwhile, a co-culture with ESCs led to a decrease in CD16 on NK cells. In the co-culture system, IL15 treatment downregulated the levels of Granzyme B and IFN-γ in CD16(+)NK cells, NKG2D in CD56(dim)CD16(-)NK cells, and NKP44 in CD56(bright)CD16(-)NK cells. On the one hand, these results indicated that IL15 derived from ESCs directly stimulates the growth and invasion of ESCs. On the other hand, IL15 may help the immune escape of ESCs by suppressing the cytotoxic activity of NK cells in the ectopic milieu, thereby facilitating the progression of EMS. PMID:27190213

  13. Preclinical characterization of 1-7F9, a novel human anti–KIR receptor therapeutic antibody that augments natural killer–mediated killing of tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    André, Pascale; Spee, Pieter; Zahn, Stefan; Anfossi, Nicolas; Gauthier, Laurent; Capanni, Marusca; Ruggeri, Loredana; Benson, Don M.; Blaser, Bradley W.; Della Chiesa, Mariella; Moretta, Alessandro; Vivier, Eric; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Velardi, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitory-cell killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) negatively regulate natural killer (NK) cell–mediated killing of HLA class I–expressing tumors. Lack of KIR-HLA class I interactions has been associated with potent NK-mediated antitumor efficacy and increased survival in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients upon haploidentical stem cell transplantation from KIR-mismatched donors. To exploit this pathway pharmacologically, we generated a fully human monoclonal antibody, 1-7F9, which cross-reacts with KIR2DL1, -2, and -3 receptors, and prevents their inhibitory signaling. The 1-7F9 monoclonal antibody augmented NK cell–mediated lysis of HLA-C–expressing tumor cells, including autologous AML blasts, but did not induce killing of normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, suggesting a therapeutic window for preferential enhancement of NK-cell cytotoxicity against malignant target cells. Administration of 1-7F9 to KIR2DL3-transgenic mice resulted in dose-dependent rejection of HLA-Cw3–positive target cells. In an immunodeficient mouse model in which inoculation of human NK cells alone was unable to protect against lethal, autologous AML, preadministration of 1-7F9 resulted in long-term survival. These data show that 1-7F9 confers specific, stable blockade of KIR, boosting NK-mediated killing of HLA-matched AML blasts in vitro and in vivo, providing a preclinical basis for initiating phase 1 clinical trials with this candidate therapeutic antibody. PMID:19553639

  14. Hemangiosarcoma and its cancer stem cell subpopulation are effectively killed by a toxin targeted through epidermal growth factor and urokinase receptors.

    PubMed

    Schappa, Jill T; Frantz, Aric M; Gorden, Brandi H; Dickerson, Erin B; Vallera, Daniel A; Modiano, Jaime F

    2013-10-15

    Targeted toxins have the potential to overcome intrinsic or acquired resistance of cancer cells to conventional cytotoxic agents. Here, we hypothesized that EGFuPA-toxin, a bispecific ligand-targeted toxin (BLT) consisting of a deimmunized Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE) conjugated to epidermal growth factor and urokinase, would efficiently target and kill cells derived from canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA), a highly chemotherapy resistant tumor, as well as cultured hemangiospheres, used as a surrogate for cancer stem cells (CSC). EGFuPA-toxin showed cytotoxicity in four HSA cell lines (Emma, Frog, DD-1 and SB) at a concentration of ≤100 nM, and the cytotoxicity was dependent on specific ligand-receptor interactions. Monospecific targeted toxins also killed these chemoresistant cells; in this case, a "threshold" level of EGFR expression appeared to be required to make cells sensitive to the monospecific EGF-toxin, but not to the monospecific uPA-toxin. The IC₅₀ of CSCs was higher by approximately two orders of magnitude as compared to non-CSCs, but these cells were still sensitive to EGFuPA-toxin at nanomolar (i.e., pharmacologically relevant) concentrations, and when targeted by EGFuPA-toxin, resulted in death of the entire cell population. Taken together, our results support the use of these toxins to treat chemoresistant tumors such as sarcomas, including those that conform to the CSC model. Our results also support the use of companion animals with cancer for further translational development of these cytotoxic molecules. PMID:23553371

  15. Breast tumor cells isolated from in vitro resistance to trastuzumab remain sensitive to trastuzumab anti-tumor effects in vivo and to ADCC killing.

    PubMed

    Kute, Timothy E; Savage, Lori; Stehle, John R; Kim-Shapiro, Jung W; Blanks, Michael J; Wood, James; Vaughn, James P

    2009-11-01

    An understanding of model systems of trastuzumab (Herceptin) resistance is of great importance since the humanized monoclonal antibody is now used as first line therapy with paclitaxel in patients with metastatic Her2 overexpressing breast cancer, and the majority of their tumors has innate resistance or develops acquired resistance to the treatment. Previously, we selected trastuzumab-resistant clonal cell lines in vitro from trastuzumab-sensitive parental BT-474 cells and showed that cloned trastuzumab-resistant cell lines maintain similar levels of the extracellular Her2 receptor, bind trastuzumab as efficiently as the parental cells, but continue to grow in the presence of trastuzumab and display cell cycle profiles and growth rates comparable to parental cells grown in the absence of trastuzumab (Kute et al. in Cytometry A 57:86-93, 2004). We now show that trastuzumab-resistant and trastuzumab-sensitive cells both surprisingly display trastuzumab-mediated growth inhibition in athymic nude mice. This demonstrates that resistance developed in vitro is not predictive of resistance in vivo. The observation that in vitro resistant cells are sensitive to trastuzumab in vivo could be explained by antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Therefore, both parental and trastuzumab-resistant cells were assayed for ADCC in real time on electroplates with and without trastuzumab in the presence of a natural killer cell line (NK-92), and granulocyte or mononuclear cellular fractions isolated from human peripheral blood. Mononuclear cells and NK-92 cells were more effective in killing both parental and trastuzumab-resistant cells in the presence of trastuzumab. Both trastuzumab-resistant cells and trastuzumab-sensitive cells showed similar susceptibility to ADCC despite displaying divergent growth responses to trastuzumab. The granulocyte fraction was able to kill these cells with equal efficacy in the presence or absence of trastuzumab. These results support a model

  16. Irradiation-Induced Up-Regulation of HLA-E on Macrovascular Endothelial Cells Confers Protection against Killing by Activated Natural Killer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Riederer, Isabelle; Sievert, Wolfgang; Eissner, Günther; Molls, Michael; Multhoff, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    Background Apart from the platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1, CD31), endoglin (CD105) and a positive factor VIII-related antigen staining, human primary and immortalized macro- and microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) differ in their cell surface expression of activating and inhibitory ligands for natural killer (NK) cells. Here we comparatively study the effects of irradiation on the phenotype of ECs and their interaction with resting and activated NK cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Primary macrovascular human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) only express UL16 binding protein 2 (ULBP2) and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I chain-related protein MIC-A (MIC-A) as activating signals for NK cells, whereas the corresponding immortalized EA.hy926 EC cell line additionally present ULBP3, membrane heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), intercellular adhesion molecule ICAM-1 (CD54) and HLA-E. Apart from MIC-B, the immortalized human microvascular endothelial cell line HMEC, resembles the phenotype of EA.hy926. Surprisingly, primary HUVECs are more sensitive to Hsp70 peptide (TKD) plus IL-2 (TKD/IL-2)-activated NK cells than their immortalized EC counterpatrs. This finding is most likely due to the absence of the inhibitory ligand HLA-E, since the activating ligands are shared among the ECs. The co-culture of HUVECs with activated NK cells induces ICAM-1 (CD54) and HLA-E expression on the former which drops to the initial low levels (below 5%) when NK cells are removed. Sublethal irradiation of HUVECs induces similar but less pronounced effects on HUVECs. Along with these findings, irradiation also induces HLA-E expression on macrovascular ECs and this correlates with an increased resistance to killing by activated NK cells. Irradiation had no effect on HLA-E expression on microvascular ECs and the sensitivity of these cells to NK cells remained unaffected. Conclusion/Significance These data emphasize that an irradiation

  17. mTOR kinase inhibitors synergize with histone deacetylase inhibitors to kill B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Beagle, Brandon R; Nguyen, Duc M; Mallya, Sharmila; Tang, Sarah S; Lu, Mengrou; Zeng, Zhihong; Konopleva, Marina; Vo, Thanh-Trang; Fruman, David A

    2015-02-10

    High activity of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is associated with poor prognosis in pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), suggesting that inhibiting mTOR might be clinically useful. However, emerging data indicate that mTOR inhibitors are most effective when combined with other target agents. One strategy is to combine with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, since B-ALL is often characterized by epigenetic changes that silence the expression of pro-apoptotic factors. Here we tested combinations of mTOR and pan-HDAC inhibitors on B-ALL cells, including both Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) and non-Ph cell lines. We found that mTOR kinase inhibitors (TOR-KIs) synergize with HDAC inhibitors to cause apoptosis in B-ALL cells and the effect is greater when compared to rapamycin plus HDAC inhibitors. The combination of TOR-KIs with the clinically approved HDAC inhibitor vorinostat increased apoptosis in primary pediatric B-ALL cells in vitro. Mechanistically, TOR-KI and HDAC inhibitor combinations increased expression of pro-death genes, including targets of the Forkhead Box O (FOXO) transcription factors, and increased sensitivity to apoptotic triggers at the mitochondria. These findings suggest that targeting epigenetic factors can unmask the cytotoxic potential of TOR-KIs towards B-ALL cells. PMID:25576920

  18. Cell killing by simian virus 40: variation in the pattern of lysosomal enzyme release, cellular enzyme release, and cell death during productive infection of normal and simian virus 40-transformed simian cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Norkin, L C; Ouellette, J

    1976-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) growth on rhesus kidney cells and on the T-22 line of SV40-transformed green monkey kidney (GMK) cells is largely limited by the low plating efficiency of SV40 on these cells. In addition, a fraction of the rhesus kidney and T-22 cells are resistant to infection by SV40. Nevertheless, 72-h viral yields per infected rhesus kidney and T-22 cell are nearly equivalent to that obtained on normal GMK cells and are independent of the multiplicity of infection. Despite the production of high viral yields, infected rhesus kidney and T-22 cells are killed slowly by SV40. Monolayers of these cells are also refractory to plaque formation by SV40. SV40 induces the release of lysosomal N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase into the cytoplasmic fractions of rhesus kidney and T-22 cells to an extent equal to that observed during infection of rapidly killed normal GMK cells. In contrast, damage to the plasma membrane, as indicated by the release of the cellular enzymes lactic dehydrogenase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase into the overlay media, occurred to a much greater extent in the normal GMK cells than in the rhesus kidney or T-22 cells. Neither a lysosomal hydrolase mechanism nor viral release appear to be responsible for this phenomenon. The different rates and extents of the SV40 cytocidal process on these cells do not result from the differences in the viral plating efficiency on them. PMID:176470

  19. Androgen deprivation therapy sensitizes prostate cancer cells to T-cell killing through androgen receptor dependent modulation of the apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Ardiani, Andressa; Gameiro, Sofia R; Kwilas, Anna R; Donahue, Renee N; Hodge, James W

    2014-10-15

    Despite recent advances in diagnosis and management, prostrate cancer remains the second most common cause of death from cancer in American men, after lung cancer. Failure of chemotherapies and hormone-deprivation therapies is the major cause of death in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Currently, the androgen inhibitors enzalutamide and abiraterone are approved for treatment of metastatic CRPC. Here we show for the first time that both enzalutamide and abiraterone render prostate tumor cells more sensitive to T cell-mediated lysis through immunogenic modulation, and that these immunomodulatory activities are androgen receptor (AR)-dependent. In studies reported here, the NAIP gene was significantly down-regulated in human prostate tumor cells treated in vitro and in vivo with enzalutamide. Functional analysis revealed that NAIP played a critical role in inducing CTL sensitivity. Amplification of AR is a major mechanism of resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). Here, we show that enzalutamide enhances sensitivity to immune-mediated killing of prostate tumor cells that overexpress AR. The immunomodulatory properties of enzalutamide and abiraterone provide a rationale for their use in combination with immunotherapeutic agents in CRPC, especially for patients with minimal response to enzalutamide or abiraterone alone, or for patients who have developed resistance to ADT. PMID:25344864

  20. Cloning and characterization of the 2B4 gene encoding a molecule associated with non-MHC-restricted killing mediated by activated natural killer cells and T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, P.A.; Garni-Wagner, B.A.; Land, K.; Takashima, A.; Stoneman, E.; Bennett, M.; Kumar, V. )

    1993-11-15

    The authors have recently described a signal transducing molecule, 2B4, expressed on all NK and T cells that mediate non-MHC-restricted killing. The gene encoding this molecule was cloned and its nucleotide sequence determined. The encoded protein of 398 amino acids has a leader peptide of 18 amino acids and a transmembrane region of 24 amino acids. The predicted protein has eight N-linked glycosylation sites, suggesting that it is highly glycosylated. Comparison of 2B4 with sequences in the databanks indicates that 2B4 is a member of the Ig supergene family, and it shows homology to murine and rat CD48 and human LFA-3. Northern blot analysis has shown at least three transcripts for 2B4 in adherent lymphokine-activated killer cells of several mouse strains and TCR-[gamma]/[delta] dendritic epidermal T cell lines but not in allospecific T cell clones. These three mRNA are the products of differential splicing of heterogeneous nuclear RNA. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA from several mouse strains revealed that 2B4 belongs to a family of closely related genes. The 2B4 gene has been mapped to mouse chromosome 1 by analysis of 2B4 expression in recombinant inbred mouse strains. 48 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. A combination of curcumin with either gramicidin or ouabain selectively kills cells that express the multidrug resistance-linked ABCG2 transporter.

    PubMed

    Rao, Divya K; Liu, Haiyan; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Mayer, Michael

    2014-11-01

    This paper introduces a strategy to kill selectively multidrug-resistant cells that express the ABCG2 transporter (also called breast cancer resistance protein, or BCRP). The approach is based on specific stimulation of ATP hydrolysis by ABCG2 transporters with subtoxic doses of curcumin combined with stimulation of ATP hydrolysis by Na(+),K(+)-ATPase with subtoxic doses of gramicidin A or ouabain. After 72 h of incubation with the drug combinations, the resulting overconsumption of ATP by both pathways inhibits the efflux activity of ABCG2 transporters, leads to depletion of intracellular ATP levels below the viability threshold, and kills resistant cells selectively over cells that lack ABCG2 transporters. This strategy, which was also tested on a clinically relevant human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7/FLV1), exploits the overexpression of ABCG2 transporters and induces caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death selectively in resistant cells. This work thus introduces a novel strategy to exploit collateral sensitivity (CS) with a combination of two clinically used compounds that individually do not exert CS. Collectively, this work expands the current knowledge on ABCG2-mediated CS and provides a potential strategy for discovery of CS drugs against drug-resistant cancer cells. PMID:25253691

  2. Prostate tumor cells with cancer progenitor properties have high telomerase activity and are rapidly killed by telomerase interference

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tong; He, Kaijie; Wang, Lina; Goldkorn, Amir

    2011-01-01

    Background Cancer progenitor cells (CPC) have been postulated to promote treatment resistance and disease progression in prostate and other malignancies. We investigated whether the enzyme telomerase, which is active in cancer cells and in normal stem cells, plays an important role in CPC which can be exploited to neutralize these cells. Methods We used flow cytometry and assays of gene expression, clonogenicity and invasiveness to isolate and characterize a putative CPC subpopulation from freshly-resected human prostatectomy specimens. Telomerase activity was measured by qPCR-based Telomeric Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP). Telomerase interference was achieved by ectopic expression of a mutated telomerase RNA construct which reprograms telomerase to generate “toxic” uncapped telomeres. Treated cells were assayed for apoptosis, proliferation in culture, and xenograft tumor formation. Results CPC in prostate tumors expressed elevated levels of genes associated with a progenitor phenotype and were highly clonogenic and invasive. Significantly, CPC telomerase activity was 20 to 200-fold higher than in non-CPC from the same tumors, and CPC were exquisitely sensitive to telomerase interference which induced rapid apoptosis and growth inhibition. Similarly, induction of telomerase interference in highly-tumorigenic CPC isolated from a prostate cancer cell line abrogated their ability to form tumor xenografts. Conclusions Human prostate tumors contain a CPC subpopulation with markedly elevated telomerase activity which renders them acutely susceptible to telomerase interference. These findings offer the first tumor-derived and in vivo evidence that telomerase may constitute a CPC “Achilles heel” which may ultimately form the basis for more effective new CPC-targeting therapies. PMID:21321978

  3. "Shock and kill" effects of class I-selective histone deacetylase inhibitors in combination with the glutathione synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine in cell line models for HIV-1 quiescence

    PubMed Central

    Savarino, Andrea; Mai, Antonello; Norelli, Sandro; El Daker, Sary; Valente, Sergio; Rotili, Dante; Altucci, Lucia; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Garaci, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    Latently infected, resting memory CD4+ T cells and macrophages represent a major obstacle to the eradication of HIV-1. For this purpose, "shock and kill" strategies have been proposed (activation of HIV-1 followed by stimuli leading to cell death). Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) induce HIV-1 activation from quiescence, yet class/isoform-selective HDACIs are needed to specifically target HIV-1 latency. We tested 32 small molecule HDACIs for their ability to induce HIV-1 activation in the ACH-2 and U1 cell line models. In general, potent activators of HIV-1 replication were found among non-class selective and class I-selective HDACIs. However, class I selectivity did not reduce the toxicity of most of the molecules for uninfected cells, which is a major concern for possible HDACI-based therapies. To overcome this problem, complementary strategies using lower HDACI concentrations have been explored. We added to class I HDACIs the glutathione-synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), in an attempt to create an intracellular environment that would facilitate HIV-1 activation. The basis for this strategy was that HIV-1 replication decreases the intracellular levels of reduced glutathione, creating a pro-oxidant environment which in turn stimulates HIV-1 transcription. We found that BSO increased the ability of class I HDACIs to activate HIV-1. This interaction allowed the use of both types of drugs at concentrations that were non-toxic for uninfected cells, whereas the infected cell cultures succumbed more readily to the drug combination. These effects were associated with BSO-induced recruitment of HDACI-insensitive cells into the responding cell population, as shown in Jurkat cell models for HIV-1 quiescence. The results of the present study may contribute to the future design of class I HDACIs for treating HIV-1. Moreover, the combined effects of class I-selective HDACIs and the glutathione synthesis inhibitor BSO suggest the existence of an Achilles

  4. Planning a dynamic kill

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, L.W.

    1996-05-01

    This article discusses the methodology, design philosophy, and guidelines for planning a dynamic-kill operation for a wild well. The topics covered are two methods of computer analysis for designing dynamic-kill requirements, the design process, determining the pumping spread, and the pitfalls that a designer faces in planning a dynamic kill.

  5. Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin killed by extended freeze-drying targets plasmacytoid dendritic cells to regulate lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Lagranderie, Micheline; Abolhassani, Mohammad; Vanoirbeek, Jeroen A J; Lima, Carla; Balazuc, Anne-Marie; Vargaftig, B Boris; Marchal, Gilles

    2010-01-15

    We have previously shown that bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) inactivated by extended freeze-drying (EFD) reduces airway hyperresponsiveness, whereas live and heat-killed BCG fail to do so. However, the cells involved in the protective effect and the signaling and transcriptional networks that could reprogram T cell commitment after EFD BCG treatment remained to be elucidated. We investigated whether EFD BCG targets plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) potentially involved in the polarization of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and the transcriptional factors that regulate allergic inflammation. OVA-sensitized mice were s.c. injected with EFD, live, or heat-killed BCG. We analyzed after the injection of the various BCG preparations: 1) pDCs recruited in the draining lymph nodes (day 4); 2) transcription factors involved in inflammation and T cell commitment in spleen and lungs after OVA challenge (day 28). Airway hyperresponsiveness and transcription factors were determined after in vivo depletion of pDCs or Tregs in EFD BCG-treated and OVA-challenged mice. EFD BCG reduced inflammation via the recruitment of pDCs polarizing the differentiation of naive CD4+ T lymphocytes into Tregs. In vivo, pDC or Treg depletion at the time of EFD BCG treatment abrogated the protection against inflammation. EFD BCG treatment upregulated Forkhead-winged helix transcription factor (Treg signature) and downregulated GATA-3 and RORgammat (Th2 and Th17 signatures) more efficiently than live and heat-killed BCG. Moreover, only EFD BCG enhanced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma expression and blocked NF-kappaB activation, cyclooxygenase expression, and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. EFD BCG reduced allergic inflammation by recruiting pDCs that promoted Tregs; EFD BCG acted as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist and thus could be used in asthma and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:20007537

  6. A pan inhibitor of DASH family enzymes induces immunogenic modulation and sensitizes murine and human carcinoma cells to antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte killing: implications for combination therapy with cancer vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Donahue, Renee N.; Duncan, Brynn B.; Fry, Terry J.; Jones, Barry; Bachovchin, William W.; Kiritsy, Christopher P.; Lai, Jack H.; Wu, Wengen; Zhao, Peng; Liu, Yuxin; Tsang, Kwong-Yok; Hodge, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that pan inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activity and/or structure homologs (DASH), including ARI-4175, can mediate tumor regression by immune-mediated mechanisms. This study assessed the potential of combining ARI-4175 with cancer vaccines. We evaluated ARI-4175's effect on immunogenic modulation, ability to sensitize tumor cells to antigen-specific CTL killing, effect on immune-cell subsets and function, and antitumor activity in 2 tumor models, both as a monotherapy and in combination with a recombinant viral or dendritic cell (DC)-based tumor-cell vaccine. ARI-4175's effects on the growth, surface phenotype, and antigen-specific CTL-mediated lysis of murine and human carcinoma cell lines were assessed in vitro. In vivo, C57BL-6 mice were treated orally with ARI-4175, after which splenocytes were assessed by flow cytometry and functional assays. Antitumor studies were performed in murine models of colon carcinoma (MC38-CEA+ in CEA-transgenic C57BL-6 mice) and rhabdomyosarcoma (M3-9-M in C57BL-6 mice). Mice received oral ARI-4175 alone or in combination with a vaccine consisting of recombinant vaccinia/fowlpox CEA-TRICOM (colon model) or a DC-based tumor-cell vaccine (rhabdomyosarcoma model). Exposure to ARI-4175 had no effect on the proliferation or viability of carcinoma cells in vitro; however, it did alter tumor phenotype, making murine and human tumor cells more sensitive to antigen-specific CTL killing. Assessment of immune-cell subsets and function indicated that ARI-4175 increased levels of natural killer cells and DCs. Detrimental immune effects, including reduced T effector cells and increased immunosuppressive cells (Tregs, MDSCs), were normalized when treatment stopped, suggesting that scheduling is critical when combining this agent with vaccine. As a monotherapy, ARI-4175 had potent antitumor activity in both tumor models, and had even greater effects when combined with a vaccine (either DC-based or poxviral vector

  7. A pan inhibitor of DASH family enzymes induces immunogenic modulation and sensitizes murine and human carcinoma cells to antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte killing: implications for combination therapy with cancer vaccines.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Renee N; Duncan, Brynn B; Fry, Terry J; Jones, Barry; Bachovchin, William W; Kiritsy, Christopher P; Lai, Jack H; Wu, Wengen; Zhao, Peng; Liu, Yuxin; Tsang, Kwong-Yok; Hodge, James W

    2014-05-30

    Recent studies have suggested that pan inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activity and/or structure homologs (DASH), including ARI-4175, can mediate tumor regression by immune-mediated mechanisms. This study assessed the potential of combining ARI-4175 with cancer vaccines. We evaluated ARI-4175's effect on immunogenic modulation, ability to sensitize tumor cells to antigen-specific CTL killing, effect on immune-cell subsets and function, and antitumor activity in 2 tumor models, both as a monotherapy and in combination with a recombinant viral or dendritic cell (DC)-based tumor-cell vaccine. ARI-4175's effects on the growth, surface phenotype, and antigen-specific CTL-mediated lysis of murine and human carcinoma cell lines were assessed in vitro. In vivo, C57BL-6 mice were treated orally with ARI-4175, after which splenocytes were assessed by flow cytometry and functional assays. Antitumor studies were performed in murine models of colon carcinoma (MC38-CEA(+) in CEA-transgenic C57BL-6 mice) and rhabdomyosarcoma (M3-9-M in C57BL-6 mice). Mice received oral ARI-4175 alone or in combination with a vaccine consisting of recombinant vaccinia/fowlpox CEA-TRICOM (colon model) or a DC-based tumor-cell vaccine (rhabdomyosarcoma model). Exposure to ARI-4175 had no effect on the proliferation or viability of carcinoma cells in vitro; however, it did alter tumor phenotype, making murine and human tumor cells more sensitive to antigen-specific CTL killing. Assessment of immune-cell subsets and function indicated that ARI-4175 increased levels of natural killer cells and DCs. Detrimental immune effects, including reduced T effector cells and increased immunosuppressive cells (Tregs, MDSCs), were normalized when treatment stopped, suggesting that scheduling is critical when combining this agent with vaccine. As a monotherapy, ARI-4175 had potent antitumor activity in both tumor models, and had even greater effects when combined with a vaccine (either DC-based or poxviral

  8. Combining Heavy Ion Radiation and Artificial MicroRNAs to Target the Homologous Recombination Repair Gene Efficiently Kills Human Tumor Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Zhiming; Wang Ping; Wang Hongyan; Zhang Xiangming; Wang Minli; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wang Ya

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Previously, we demonstrated that heavy ions kill more cells at the same dose than X-rays because DNA-clustered lesions produced by heavy ions affect nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair but not homologous recombination repair (HRR). We have also shown that our designed artificial microRNAs (amiRs) could efficiently target XRCC4 (an essential factor for NHEJ) or XRCC2 (an essential factor for HRR) and sensitize human tumor cells to X-rays. Based on these data, we were interested in testing the hypothesis that combining heavy ions and amiRs to target HRR but not NHEJ should more efficiently kill human tumor cells. Methods and Materials: Human tumor cell lines (U87MG, a brain tumor cell line, and A549, a lung cancer cell line) and their counterparts, overexpressed with amiR to target XRCC2, XRCC4 or both, were used in this study. Survival sensitivities were examined using a clonogenic assay after these cells were exposed to X-rays or heavy ions. In addition, these cell lines were subcutaneously injected into nude mice to form xenografts and the tumor size was compared after the tumor areas were exposed to X-rays or heavy ions. Results: Although targeting either XRCC4 (NHEJ factor) or XRCC2 (HRR factor) sensitized the human tumor cells to X-rays, in vitro and the xenograft animal model, targeting only XRCC2 but not XRCC4 sensitized the human tumor cells to heavy ions in vitro and in the xenograft animal model. Conclusions: Combining heavy ions with targeting the HRR pathway, but not the NHEJ pathway, could significantly improve the efficiency of tumor cell death.

  9. Hyaluronic Acid Engineered Nanomicelles Loaded with 3,4-Difluorobenzylidene Curcumin for Targeted Killing of CD44+ Stem-Like Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Kesharwani, Prashant; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Padhye, Subhash; Sarkar, Fazlul H; Iyer, Arun K

    2015-09-14

    Cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) play a pivotal role in acquiring multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotypes. It has been established that pancreatic cancers overexpressing CD44 receptors (a target of hyaluronic acid; HA) is one of the major contributors for causing MDR. Therefore, targeted killing of CD44 expressing tumor cells using HA based active targeting strategies may be beneficial for eradicating MDR-pancreatic cancers. Here, we report the synthesis of a new HA conjugate of copoly(styrene maleic acid) (HA-SMA) that could be engineered to form nanomicelles with a potent anticancer agent, 3,4-difluorobenzylidene curcumin (CDF). The anticancer activity of CDF loaded nanomicelles against MiaPaCa-2 and AsPC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells revealed dose-dependent cell killing. Results of cellular internalization further confirmed better uptake of HA engineered nanomicelles in triple-marker positive (CD44+/CD133+/EpCAM+) pancreatic CSLCs compared with triple-marker negative (CD44-/CD133-/EpCAM-) counterparts. More importantly, HA-SMA-CDF exhibited superior anticancer response toward CD44+ pancreatic CSLCs. Results further confirmed that triple-marker positive cells treated with HA-SMA-CDF caused significant reduction in CD44 expression and marked inhibition of NF-κB that in-turn can mitigate their proliferative and invasive behavior. Conclusively, these results suggest that the newly developed CD44 targeted nanomicelles may have great implications in treating pancreatic cancers including the more aggressive pancreatic CSLCs. PMID:26302089

  10. Comparison of the killing effects between nitrogen-doped and pure TiO2 on HeLa cells with visible light irradiation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The killing effect of nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-TiO2) nanoparticles on human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells by visible light photodynamic therapy (PDT) was higher than that of TiO2 nanoparticles. To study the mechanism of the killing effect, the reactive oxygen species produced by the visible-light-activated N-TiO2 and pure-TiO2 were evaluated and compared. The changes of the cellular parameters, such as the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), intracellular Ca2+, and nitrogen monoxide (NO) concentrations after PDT were measured and compared for N-TiO2- and TiO2-treated HeLa cells. The N-TiO2 resulted in more loss of MMP and higher increase of Ca2+ and NO in HeLa cells than pure TiO2. The cell morphology changes with time were also examined by a confocal microscope. The cells incubated with N-TiO2 exhibited serious distortion and membrane breakage at 60 min after the PDT. PMID:23433090

  11. Selective killing of breast cancer cells expressing activated CD44 using CD44 ligand-coated nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huizhen; Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Wenjuan; Du, Yan; Gao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The cell surface glycoprotein CD44 is expressed in cancer cells and has been used as a therapeutic target in preclinical studies. However, the ubiquitous expression of CD44 in numerous cell types, including hematopoietic cells, has hindered its application in targeted therapy. Here, we demonstrated that CD44 was activated on breast cancer cells but was inactive on normal cells in vitro and in vivo. We analyzed 34 clinical primary tumor and normal breast tissues and demonstrated that CD44 was in an active state on breast cancer cells but in an inactive state on normal cells. Furthermore, based on the binding property of CD44 with its ligand hyaluronan (HA), we self-assembled HA-coated nanoparticles and studied their selective targeting efficacy. Our results indicate that HA-coated nanoparticles bearing the CD44 ligand selectively targeted cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, killing breast cancer cells while sparing normal cells. Our study suggested that the active state of CD44 plays a crucial role in the selective targeting of breast cancer cells by avoiding nonspecific toxicity to CD44-quiescent normal cells. These findings may provide a new idea for the selective targeting of cancer cells in other human cancers. PMID:25909172

  12. Bi20 (fBTA05), a novel trifunctional bispecific antibody (anti-CD20 x anti-CD3), mediates efficient killing of B-cell lymphoma cells even with very low CD20 expression levels.

    PubMed

    Stanglmaier, Michael; Faltin, Margot; Ruf, Peter; Bodenhausen, Annette; Schröder, Petra; Lindhofer, Horst

    2008-09-01

    Trifunctional bispecific antibodies can efficiently mediate tumor cell killing by redirecting T cells and immune accessory cells to the tumor cell. Here, we describe the new trifunctional antibody, Bi20 (FBTA05, anti-CD20 x anti-CD3), that connects B cells and T cells via its variable regions and recruits FcgammaRI(+) accessory immune cells via its Fc region. Bi20 mediated efficient and specific lysis of B-cell lines and of B cells with low CD20 expression levels that were derived from CLL patients. Remarkably, T-cell activation and tumor cell killing occurred in an entirely autologous setting without additional effector cells in 5 of 8 samples. In comparison, rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal CD20 antibody, demonstrated a significantly lower B-cell eradication rate. Additionally, Bi20, but not rituximab, upregulated the activation markers CD25 and CD69 on both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the presence of accessory immune cells. CD14(+) accessory cells and the monocyte cell line THP-1 were activated via binding of the Fc region of Bi20, given that T cells were simultaneously engaged by the antibody. Bi20 induced a strong Th1 cytokine pattern characterized by high IFN-gamma and very low IL-4 secretion. In conclusion, Bi20 may offer new immunotherapeutic options for the treatment of B-cell lymphomas. PMID:18546289

  13. A potent tumoricidal co-drug ‘Bet-CA' - an ester derivative of betulinic acid and dichloroacetate selectively and synergistically kills cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Suchandrima; Ghosh, Monisankar; Dutta, Samir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Selective targeting of cancer cells employing multiple combinations as co-drug holds promise for new generation therapeutics. Betulinic acid (BA), a plant secondary metabolite kills cancer cells and Dichloroacetate (DCA) is capable of reversing the Warburg phenotype by inhibiting pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK). Here, we report synthesis, characterization and tumoricidal potential of a co-drug Bet-CA, where a DCA molecule has been appended on C-3 hydroxyl group of BA to generate an ester derivative for increased solubility and subsequent cleavage by internal esterase(s) to release one unit each of BA and DCA. In vitro studies revealed pronounced synergistic cytotoxicity of Bet-CA against a broad spectrum of cancer cells and it selectively killed them when co-cultured with human fibroblasts. Bet-CA treatment increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, significantly altered mitochondrial membrane potential gradient (ΔΨm); followed by the release of cytochrome c (Cyt c) which prompted cells to undergo mitochondria mediated apoptosis. In vivo experimentation expectedly exhibited tumor inhibitory potential of Bet-CA and clinically achievable doses did not produce any apparent toxicity. Taken together, results suggestively raise an important corollary hypothesis stating that Bet-CA selectively and synergistically combats cancer without producing toxic manifestations and emerges to be the prospect for the new generation therapeutics. PMID:25585916

  14. HecA, a member of a class of adhesins produced by diverse pathogenic bacteria, contributes to the attachment, aggregation, epidermal cell killing, and virulence phenotypes of Erwinia chrysanthemi EC16 on Nicotiana clevelandii seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Clemencia M.; Ham, Jong Hyun; Deng, Wen-Ling; Doyle, Jeff J.; Collmer, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Erwinia chrysanthemi is representative of a broad class of bacterial pathogens that are capable of inducing necrosis in plants. The E. chrysanthemi EC16 hecA gene predicts a 3,850-aa member of the Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin family of adhesins. A hecA∷Tn7 mutant was reduced in virulence on Nicotiana clevelandii seedlings after inoculation without wounding. Epifluorescence and confocal laser-scanning microscopy observations of hecA and wild-type cells expressing the green fluorescent protein revealed that the mutant is reduced in its ability to attach and then form aggregates on leaves and to cause an aggregate-associated killing of epidermal cells. Cell killing also depended on production of the major pectate lyase isozymes and the type II, but not the type III, secretion pathway in E. chrysanthemi. HecA homologs were found in bacterial pathogens of plants and animals and appear to be unique to pathogens and universal in necrogenic plant pathogens. Phylogenetic comparison of the conserved two-partner secretion domains in the proteins and the 16S rRNA sequences in respective bacteria revealed the two datasets to be fundamentally incongruent, suggesting horizontal acquisition of these genes. Furthermore, hecA and its two homologs in Yersinia pestis had a G+C content that was 10% higher than that of their genomes and similar to that of plant pathogenic Ralstonia, Xylella, and Pseudomonas spp. Our data suggest that filamentous hemagglutinin-like adhesins are broadly important virulence factors in both plant and animal pathogens. PMID:12271135

  15. Effects of the Oral Administration of Viable and Heat-Killed Streptococcus bovis HC5 Cells to Pre-Sensitized BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Aline D.; Fernandes, Kenner M.; Dias, Roberto S.; Rocha, Alípio S.; de Oliveira, Leandro L.; Neves, Clóvis A.; de Paula, Sérgio O.; Mantovani, Hilário C.

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides have been suggested as an alternative to classical antibiotics in livestock production and bacteriocin-producing bacteria could be added to animal feeds to deliver bacteriocins in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of ruminant and monogastric animals. In this study, viable (V) and heat-killed (HK) Streptococcus bovis HC5 cells were orally administered to pre-sensitized mice in order to assess the effects of a bacteriocin-producing bacteria on histological parameters and the immune response of the GI tract of monogastric animals. The administration of V and HK S. bovis HC5 cells during 58 days to BALB/c mice did not affect weight gain, but an increase in gut permeability was detected in animals receiving the HK cells. Viable and heat killed cells caused similar morphological alterations in the GI tract of the animals, but the most prominent effects were detected in the small intestine. The oral administration of S. bovis HC5 also influenced cytokine production in the small intestine, and the immune-mediated activity differed between V and HK cells. The relative expression of IL-12 and INF-γ was significantly higher in the small intestine of mice treated with V cells, while an increase in IL-5, IL-13 and TNF-α expression was only detected in mice treated with HK cells. Considering that even under a condition of severe challenge (pre-sensitization followed by daily exposure to the same bacterial immunogen) the general health of the animals was maintained, it appears that oral administration of S. bovis HC5 cells could be a useful route to deliver bacteriocin in the GI tract of livestock animals. PMID:23144752

  16. TGF-β-induced CD4+Foxp3+ T cells attenuate acute graft-versus-host disease by suppressing expansion and killing of effector CD8+ cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jian; Lu, Ling; Chen, Maogen; Xu, Lili; Lan, Qin; Li, Qiang; Liu, Zhongmin; Chen, Guihua; Wang, Ping; Wang, Xuehao; Brand, David; Olsen, Nancy; Zheng, Song Guo

    2014-10-01

    The use of TGF-β-induced CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T cells (induced regulatory T cells [iTregs]) is an important prevention and treatment strategy in autoimmune diseases and other disorders. However, the potential use of iTregs as a treatment modality for acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) has not been realized because they may be unstable and less suppressive in this disease. We restudied the ability of iTregs to prevent and treat aGVHD in two mouse models. Our results showed that, as long as an appropriate iTreg-generation protocol is used, these iTregs consistently displayed a potent ability to control aGVHD development and reduce mortality in the aGVHD animal models. iTreg infusion markedly suppressed the engraftment of donor CD8(+) cells and CD4(+) cells, the expression of granzyme A and B, the cytotoxic effect of donor CD8(+) cells, and the production of T cell cytokines in aGVHD. Therefore, we conclude that as long as the correct methods for generating iTregs are used, they can prevent and even treat aGVHD. PMID:25156367

  17. Ischemic preconditioning of rat livers from non-heart-beating donors decreases parenchymal cell killing and increases graft survival after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Currin, Robert T; Peng, Xing-Xi; Lemasters, John J

    2012-01-01

    A critical shortage of donors exists for liver transplantation, which non-heart-beating cadaver donors could help ease. This study evaluated ischemic preconditioning to improve graft viability after non-heart-beating liver donation in rats. Ischemic preconditioning was performed by clamping the portal vein and hepatic artery for 10 min followed by unclamping for 5 min. Subsequently, the aorta was cross-clamped for up to 120 min. After 2 h of storage, livers were either transplanted or perfused with warm buffer containing trypan blue. Aortic clamping for 60 and 120 min prior to liver harvest markedly decreased 30-day graft survival from 100% without aortic clamping to 50% and 0%, respectively, which ischemic preconditioning restored to 100 and 50%. After 60 min of aortic clamping, loss of viability of parenchymal and nonparenchymal cells was 22.6 and 5.6%, respectively, which preconditioning decreased to 3.0 and 1.5%. Cold storage after aortic clamping further increased parenchymal and non-parenchymal cell killing to 40.4 and 10.1%, respectively, which ischemic preconditioning decreased to 12.4 and 1.8%. In conclusion, ischemic preconditioning markedly decreased cell killing after subsequent sustained warm ischemia. Most importantly, ischemic preconditioning restored 100% graft survival of livers harvested from non-heart-beating donors after 60 min of aortic clamping. PMID:22888183

  18. Changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology with metastatic ability in cancer cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, Mark F.; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.

    2013-12-01

    Metastatic outcome is impacted by the biophysical state of the primary tumor cell. To determine if changes in cancer cell biophysical properties facilitate metastasis, we quantified cytoskeletal biophysics in well-characterized human skin, bladder, prostate and kidney cell line pairs that differ in metastatic ability. Using magnetic twisting cytometry with optical detection, cytoskeletal dynamics was observed through spontaneous motion of surface bound marker beads and nonlinear rheology was characterized through large amplitude forced oscillations of probe beads. Measurements of cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology differed between strongly and weakly metastatic cells. However, no set of biophysical parameters changed systematically with metastatic ability across all cell lines. Compared to their weakly metastatic counterparts, the strongly metastatic kidney cancer cells exhibited both increased cytoskeletal dynamics and stiffness at large deformation which are thought to facilitate the process of vascular invasion.

  19. Bystander Effects Induced by Continuous Low-Dose-Rate {sup 125}I Seeds Potentiate the Killing Action of Irradiation on Human Lung Cancer Cells In Vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.H. Jia, R.F.; Yu, L.; Zhao, M.J.; Shao, C.L.; Cheng, W.Y.

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate bystander effects of low-dose-rate (LDR) {sup 125}I seed irradiation on human lung cancer cells in vitro. Methods and Materials: A549 and NCI-H446 cell lines of differing radiosensitivity were directly exposed to LDR {sup 125}I seeds irradiation for 2 or 4 Gy and then cocultured with nonirradiated cells for 24 hours. Induction of micronucleus (MN), {gamma}H2AX foci, and apoptosis were assayed. Results: After 2 and 4 Gy irradiation, micronucleus formation rate (MFR) and apoptotic rate of A549 and NCI-H446 cells were increased, and the MFR and apoptotic rate of NCI-H446 cells was 2.1-2.8 times higher than that of A549 cells. After coculturing nonirradiated bystander cells with {sup 125}I seed irradiated cells for 24 hours, MFR and the mean number of {gamma}H2AX foci/cells of bystander A549 and NCI-H446 cells were similar and significantly higher than those of control (p <0.05), although they did not increase with irradiation dose. However, the proportion of bystander NCI-H446 cells with MN numbers {>=}3 and {gamma}H2AX foci numbers 15-19 and 20-24 was higher than that of bystander A549 cells. In addition, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment could completely suppress the bystander MN of NCI-H446 cells, but it suppressed only partly the bystander MN of A549 cells, indicating that reactive oxygen species are involved in the bystander response to NCI-H446 cells, but other signaling factors may contribute to the bystander response of A549 cells. Conclusions: Continuous LDR irradiation of {sup 125}I seeds could induce bystander effects, which potentiate the killing action on tumor cells and compensate for the influence of nonuniform distribution of radiation dosage on therapeutic outcomes.

  20. Aryl-Alkyl-Lysines: Agents That Kill Planktonic Cells, Persister Cells, Biofilms of MRSA and Protect Mice from Skin-Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Chandradhish; Manjunath, Goutham B.; Konai, Mohini M.; Uppu, Divakara S. S. M.; Hoque, Jiaul; Paramanandham, Krishnamoorthy; Shome, Bibek R.; Haldar, Jayanta

    2015-01-01

    Development of synthetic strategies to combat Staphylococcal infections, especially those caused by methicillin resistant Staphyloccus aureus (MRSA), needs immediate attention. In this manuscript we report the ability of aryl-alkyl-lysines, simple membrane active small molecules, to treat infections caused by planktonic cells, persister cells and biofilms of MRSA. A representative compound, NCK-10, did not induce development of resistance in planktonic cells in multiple passages and retained activity in varying environments of pH and salinity. At low concentrations the compound was able to depolarize and permeabilize the membranes of S. aureus persister cells rapidly. Treatment with the compound not only eradicated pre-formed MRSA biofilms, but also brought down viable counts in bacterial biofilms. In a murine model of MRSA skin infection, the compound was more effective than fusidic acid in bringing down the bacterial burden. Overall, this class of molecules bears potential as antibacterial agents against skin-infections. PMID:26669634

  1. Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Derived from Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection Kill Bystander Cells via Fas-FasL Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Gremion, Christel; Grabscheid, Benno; Wölk, Benno; Moradpour, Darius; Reichen, Jürg; Pichler, Werner; Cerny, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    The role of Fas-mediated lysis of hepatocytes in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced injury is frequently discussed. We therefore analyzed the effect of the number of HCV antigen-expressing cells, the mode of antigen presentation, and the number of cytotoxic T lymphocytes in a coculture system mimicking cellular components of the liver. Here, we show that endogenously processed HCV proteins are capable of inducing bystander killing. We further demonstrate that 0.8 to 1.5% of cells presenting HCV antigens suffice to induce lysis of 10 to 29% of bystander cells, suggesting that the mechanism may be operative at low fractions of infected versus uninfected hepatocytes in vivo. Our data underscore the role of the Fas pathway in HCV-related liver injury and support the exploration of Fas-based treatment strategies for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. PMID:14747581

  2. Critical high-dimensional state transitions in cell populations or why cancers follow the principle ``What does not kill me makes me stronger''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Sui

    Transitions between high-dimensional attractor states in the quasi-potential landscape of the gene regulatory network, induced by environmental perturbations and/or facilitated by mutational rewiring of the network, underlie cell phenotype switching in development as well as in cancer progression, including acquisition of drug-resistant phenotypes. Considering heterogeneous cell populations as statistical ensembles of cells, and single-cell resolution gene expression profiling of cell populations undergoing a cell phenotype shift allow us now to map the topography of the landscape and its distortion. From snapshots of single-cell expression patterns of a cell population measured during major transitions we compute a quantity that identifies symmetry-breaking destabilization of attractors (bifurcation) and concomitant dimension-reduction of the state space manifold (landscape distortion) which precede critical transitions to new attractor states. The model predicts, and we show experimentally, the almost inevitable generation of aberrant cells associated with such critical transitions in multi-attractor landscapes: therapeutic perturbations which seek to push cancer cells to the apoptotic state, almost always produce ``rebellious'' cells which move in the ``opposite direction'': instead of dying they become more stem-cell-like and malignant. We show experimentally that the inadvertent generation of more malignant cancer cells by therapy indeed results from transition of surviving (but stressed) cells into unforeseen attractor states and not simply from selection of inherently more resistant cells. Thus, cancer cells follow not so much Darwin, as generally thought (survival of the fittest), but rather Nietzsche (What does not kill me makes me stronger). Supported by NIH (NCI, NIGMS), Alberta Innovates.

  3. Accelerated killing of cancer cells using a multifunctional single-walled carbon nanotube-based system for targeted drug delivery in combination with photothermal therapy

    PubMed Central

    Jeyamohan, Prashanti; Hasumura, Takashi; Nagaoka, Yutaka; Yoshida, Yasuhiko; Maekawa, Toru; Kumar, D Sakthi

    2013-01-01

    The photothermal effect of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in combination with the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) for targeting and accelerated destruction of breast cancer cells is demonstrated in this paper. A targeted drug-delivery system was developed for selective killing of breast cancer cells with polyethylene glycol biofunctionalized and DOX-loaded SWCNTs conjugated with folic acid. In our work, in vitro drug-release studies showed that the drug (DOX) binds at physiological pH (pH 7.4) and is released only at a lower pH, ie, lysosomal pH (pH 4.0), which is the characteristic pH of the tumor environment. A sustained release of DOX from the SWCNTs was observed for a period of 3 days. SWCNTs have strong optical absorbance in the near-infrared (NIR) region. In this special spectral window, biological systems are highly transparent. Our study reports that under laser irradiation at 800 nm, SWCNTs exhibited strong light–heat transfer characteristics. These optical properties of SWCNTs open the way for selective photothermal ablation in cancer therapy. It was also observed that internalization and uptake of folate-conjugated NTs into cancer cells was achieved by a receptor-mediated endocytosis mechanism. Results of the in vitro experiments show that laser was effective in destroying the cancer cells, while sparing the normal cells. When the above laser effect was combined with DOX-conjugated SWCNTs, we found enhanced and accelerated killing of breast cancer cells. Thus, this nanodrug-delivery system, consisting of laser, drug, and SWCNTs, looks to be a promising selective modality with high treatment efficacy and low side effects for cancer therapy. PMID:23926428

  4. Antibodies against invasive phenotype-specific antigens increase Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis translocation across a polarized epithelial cell model and enhance killing by bovine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Everman, Jamie L; Bermudez, Luiz E

    2015-01-01

    Johne's disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), is a severe chronic enteritis which affects large populations of ruminants globally. Prevention strategies to combat the spread of Johne's disease among cattle herds involve adhering to strict calving practices to ensure young susceptible animals do not come in contact with MAP-contaminated colostrum, milk, or fecal material. Unfortunately, the current vaccination options available are associated with high cost and suboptimal efficacy. To more successfully combat the spread of Johne's disease to young calves, an efficient method of protection is needed. In this study, we examined passive immunization as a mode of introducing protective antibodies against MAP to prevent the passage of the bacterium to young animals via colostrum and milk. Utilizing the infectious MAP phenotype developed after bacterial exposure to milk, we demonstrate that in vitro opsonization with serum from Johne's-positive cattle results in enhanced translocation across a bovine MDBK polarized epithelial cell monolayer. Furthermore, immune serum opsonization of MAP results in a rapid host cell-mediated killing by bovine macrophages in an oxidative-, nitrosative-, and extracellular DNA trap-independent manner. This study illustrates that antibody opsonization of MAP expressing an infectious phenotype leads to the killing of the bacterium during the initial stage of macrophage infection. PMID:26301206

  5. Antibodies against invasive phenotype-specific antigens increase Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis translocation across a polarized epithelial cell model and enhance killing by bovine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Everman, Jamie L.; Bermudez, Luiz E.

    2015-01-01

    Johne's disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), is a severe chronic enteritis which affects large populations of ruminants globally. Prevention strategies to combat the spread of Johne's disease among cattle herds involve adhering to strict calving practices to ensure young susceptible animals do not come in contact with MAP-contaminated colostrum, milk, or fecal material. Unfortunately, the current vaccination options available are associated with high cost and suboptimal efficacy. To more successfully combat the spread of Johne's disease to young calves, an efficient method of protection is needed. In this study, we examined passive immunization as a mode of introducing protective antibodies against MAP to prevent the passage of the bacterium to young animals via colostrum and milk. Utilizing the infectious MAP phenotype developed after bacterial exposure to milk, we demonstrate that in vitro opsonization with serum from Johne's-positive cattle results in enhanced translocation across a bovine MDBK polarized epithelial cell monolayer. Furthermore, immune serum opsonization of MAP results in a rapid host cell-mediated killing by bovine macrophages in an oxidative-, nitrosative-, and extracellular DNA trap-independent manner. This study illustrates that antibody opsonization of MAP expressing an infectious phenotype leads to the killing of the bacterium during the initial stage of macrophage infection. PMID:26301206

  6. Water disinfection using silver nanoparticle impregnated activated carbon: Escherichia coli cell-killing in batch and continuous packed column operation over a long duration.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Pritam; Bandyopadhyaya, Rajdip

    2016-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) were selectively impregnated on the external surface of plasma treated activated carbon (AC) granules (referred to as Ag-AC hybrid, having 0.8 wt% of Ag), for achieving continuous disinfection of water in a single flow-column set-up. First, Ag-NPs (28 nm mean size) were synthesized by UV reduction. Subsequently, Escherichia coli cell-killing experiments were performed in both shake flask (i. e. batch-mode) and flow-column (i. e. continuous-mode) operations, using E. coli K12 (MTCC 1302) as a model organism. Batch results using 8 mg Ag-AC hybrid/ml of cell suspension showed that, 10(4) CFU/ml of cells were killed within 25 min contact time, with cell concentration decaying exponentially in time. Maintaining almost the same contact time as in the batch experiments, three columns packed with Ag-AC (all having a height of 25 cm but increasing diameters of 1, 5 and 8 cm, respectively) were used for monitoring cell-killing performance over a long duration. For all columns, inlet water having 10(4) CFU/ml E. coli could be completely disinfected to produce treated, outlet water having zero cell count. Specifically for the 8 cm diameter column, a maximum throughput of treating 1.62 L of contaminated water per hour could be maintained for at least up to 16 days. Moreover, the Ag concentration in the outlet water was only up to 29.8 μg/L at steady state, which is well within the recommended limit of 100 μg/L for drinking water. Hence, water disinfection for potable quality water (zero E. coli count and <100 μg/L Ag) can be achieved in a continuous manner over a long duration, with our packed Ag-AC column. PMID:27179597

  7. Redirected T-cell killing of solid cancers targeted with an anti-CD3/Trop-2-bispecific antibody is enhanced in combination with interferon-α.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Edmund A; Rossi, Diane L; Cardillo, Thomas M; Chang, Chien-Hsing; Goldenberg, David M

    2014-10-01

    Trop-2 has limited presence on normal tissues but is highly expressed in diverse epithelial cancers. (E1)-3s is a T-cell-redirecting trivalent bispecific antibody (bsAb), comprising an anti-CD3 scFv covalently linked to a stabilized dimer of a Trop-2-targeting Fab using Dock-and-Lock. We show for the first time that bsAb-mediated bidirectional trogocytosis occurs between target and T cells and involves immunologic synapses. We studied the effects of interferon-α (INFα) on (E1)-3s-mediated T-cell killing of human gastric and pancreatic cancer cell lines. T-cell activation, cytokine induction, and cytotoxicity were evaluated ex vivo using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or T cells with NCI-N87 gastric cancer as target cells. In vivo activity was assayed with NCI-N87 and Capan-1 (pancreatic) xenografts. In the presence of target cells and PBMCs, (E1)-3s did not cause excess cytokine production. When combined with (E1)-3s, peginterferonalfa-2a--which alone did not increase T-cell activation or raise cytokine levels over baseline--increased CD69 expression but did not significantly increase cytokine induction. (E1) 3s mediated a highly potent T-cell lysis of NCI-N87 target cells in vitro. Inclusion of peginterferonalfa-2a or a more potent form of INFα, 20*-2b, significantly potentiated the activity of (E1)-3s by more than 2.5- or 7-fold, respectively. In vivo, combining peginterferonalfa-2a with (E1)-3s delayed Capan-1 growth longer than each single agent. Similarly, combination therapy delayed tumor proliferation of NCI-N87 compared with (E1)-3s or peginterferonalfa-2a single-treatment groups. (E1)-3s effectively induced T-cell-mediated killing of Trop-2-expressing pancreatic and gastric cancers, which was enhanced with INFα. PMID:25053819

  8. Effect of Bisphenol A on invasion ability of human trophoblastic cell line BeWo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zi-Yi; Lu, Jing; Zhang, Yuan-Zhen; Zhang, Ming; Liu, Teng; Qu, Xin-Lan

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a kind of environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) that interfere embryo implantation. Trophoblast invasion plays a crucial role during embryo implantation. In this study, the effects of BPA on invasion ability of human trophoblastic cell line BeWo and its possible mechanism were investigated. BeWo cells were exposed to BPA and co-cultured with human endometrial cells to mimic embryo implantation in transwell model. The proliferation and invasion capability of BeWo cells were detected. The expression of E-cadherin, DNMT1, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were also analyzed. The results showed that the invasion capability of BeWo was reduced after daily exposure to BPA. BPA had biphasic effect on E-cadherin expression level in BeWo cells and expression level of DNMT1 was decreased when treated with BPA. Moreover, BPA treatment also changed the balance of MMPs/TIMPs in BeWo cells by down-regulating MMP-2, MMP-9 and up-regulating TIMP-1, TIMP-2 with increasing BPA concentration. Taken together, these results showed that BPA treatment could reduce the invasion ability of BeWo cells and alter the expression level of E-cadherin, DNMT1, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, MMP-2, and MMP-9. Our study would help us to understand the possible mechanism of BPA effect on invasion ability of human trophoblastic cell line BeWo. PMID:26823751

  9. Killing tumor cells: the effect of photodynamic therapy using mono-l-aspartyl chlorine and NS-398

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Elizabeth H.; Webber, John; Kessel, David; Fromm, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a useful treatment for malignant tumors. PDT involves the administration of a photosensitive drug that is selected by neoplastic tissues and their vasculature. One such photosensitizer is mono-l-aspartyl chlorine e6 (NPe6). Recent evidence suggests that the presence of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor NS-398 may potentiate the effect of photosensitizing agents. This study was designed to determine if the addition of NS-398 to NPe6-induced PDT in single or fractionated dosing would result in greater tumor kill. Methods Colon-38 tumor was subcutaneously implanted into both flanks of mice and allowed to grow to 0.5 to 1.0 cm. Mice were randomly allocated to 5 groups: (1) single dose of NPe6; (2) fractionated dose of NPe6; (3) NS-398 only; (4) single dose of NPe6 + NS-398; and (5) fractionated dose of NPe6 + NS-398. The left flank was shielded from exposure to irradiation. Tumor size was measured before initiation of PDT and at the time of sacrifice. Results The initial tumor weights of both flanks were not significantly different between all groups. Tumor weights at the time of death after PDT using NPe6 were significantly less than their paired tumors in the untreated flanks (P <0.0001). Tumor weights in the treated flanks were significantly less in the group receiving the fractionated dosing of NPe6 as compared to the single dose of NPe6 (P = 0.0037). NS-398 plus the single dose of NPe6 significantly decreased tumor weight in the PDT-treated flank (P = 0.035) at a level equivalent to that observed with fractionated dosing of the photosensitizer in the absence of NS-398. NS-398 did not significantly further decrease tumor weight in the group that received the fractionated dose of NPe6. Conclusions Fractionated dosing of NPe6 demonstrated the best tumor kill. However, NS-398 did not potentiate the effect of PDT using fractionated dosing of NPe6. While PDT using the single NPe6 dose significantly decreased tumor weight

  10. Hybrid Theranostic Platform for Second Near-IR Window Light Triggered Selective Two-Photon Imaging and Photothermal Killing of Targeted Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Tchounwou, Christine; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Viraka Nellore, Bhanu Priya; Pramanik, Avijit; Kanchanapally, Rajashekhar; Jones, Stacy; Chavva, Suhash Reddy; Ray, Paresh Chandra

    2015-09-23

    Despite advances in the medical field, even in the 21st century cancer is one of the leading causes of death for men and women in the world. Since the second near-infrared (NIR) biological window light between 950 and 1350 nm offers highly efficient tissue penetration, the current article reports the development of hybrid theranostic platform using anti-GD2 antibody attached gold nanoparticle (GNP) conjugated, single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) for second near-IR light triggered selective imaging and efficient photothermal therapy of human melanoma cancer cell. Reported results demonstrate that due to strong plasmon-coupling, two-photon luminescence (TPL) intensity from theranostic GNP attached SWCNT materials is 6 orders of magnitude higher than GNP or SWCNT alone. Experimental and FDTD simulation data indicate that the huge enhancement of TPL intensity is mainly due to strong resonance enhancement coupled with the stronger electric field enhancement. Due to plasmon coupling, the theranostic material serves as a local nanoantennae to enhance the photothermal capability via strong optical energy absorption. Reported data show that theranostic SWCNT can be used for selective two-photon imaging of melanoma UACC903 cell using 1100 nm light. Photothermal killing experiment with 1.0 W/cm(2) 980 nm laser light demonstrates that 100% of melanoma UACC903 cells can be killed using theranostic SWCNT bind melanoma cells after just 8 min of exposure. These results demonstrate that due to plasmon coupling, the theranostic GNP attached SWCNT material serves as a two-photon imaging and photothermal source for cancer cells in biological window II. PMID:26327304

  11. Ion-kill dosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Fromm, M.; Chambaudet, A.

    2001-01-01

    Unanticipated late effects in neutron and heavy ion therapy, not attributable to overdose, imply a qualitative difference between low and high LET therapy. We identify that difference as 'ion kill', associated with the spectrum of z/beta in the radiation field, whose measurement we label 'ion-kill dosimetry'.

  12. Equine neonates have attenuated humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to a killed adjuvanted vaccine compared to adult horses.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Clare; Giguère, Steeve

    2010-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare relative vaccine-specific serum immunoglobulin concentrations, vaccine-specific lymphoproliferative responses, and cytokine profiles of proliferating lymphocytes between 3-day-old foals, 3-month-old foals, and adult horses after vaccination with a killed adjuvanted vaccine. Horses were vaccinated intramuscularly twice at 3-week intervals with a vaccine containing antigens from bovine viral respiratory pathogens to avoid interference from maternal antibody. Both groups of foals and adult horses responded to the vaccine with a significant increase in vaccine-specific IgGa and IgG(T) concentrations. In contrast, only adult horses and 3-month-old foals mounted significant vaccine-specific total IgG, IgGb, and IgM responses. Vaccine-specific concentrations of IgM and IgG(T) were significantly different between all groups, with the highest concentrations occurring in adult horses, followed by 3-month-old foals and, finally, 3-day-old foals. Only the adult horses mounted significant vaccine-specific lymphoproliferative responses. Baseline gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) concentrations were significantly lower in 3-day-old foals than in adult horses. Vaccination resulted in a significant decrease in IFN-γ concentrations in adult horses and a significant decrease in IL-4 concentrations in 3-day-old foals. After vaccination, the ratio of IFN-γ/IL-4 in both groups of foals was significantly higher than that in adult horses. The results of this study indicate that the humoral and lymphoproliferative immune responses to this killed adjuvanted vaccine are modest in newborn foals. Although immune responses improve with age, 3-month-old foals do not respond with the same magnitude as adult horses. PMID:20943883

  13. Microchip-Based Single-Cell Imaging Reveals That CD56dimCD57-KIR-NKG2A+ NK Cells Have More Dynamic Migration Associated with Increased Target Cell Conjugation and Probability of Killing Compared to CD56dimCD57-KIR-NKG2A- NK Cells.

    PubMed

    Forslund, Elin; Sohlberg, Ebba; Enqvist, Monika; Olofsson, Per E; Malmberg, Karl-Johan; Önfelt, Björn

    2015-10-01

    NK cells are functionally educated by self-MHC specific receptors, including the inhibitory killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIRs) and the lectin-like CD94/NKG2A heterodimer. Little is known about how NK cell education influences qualitative aspects of cytotoxicity such as migration behavior and efficacy of activation and killing at the single-cell level. In this study, we have compared the behavior of FACS-sorted CD56(dim)CD57(-)KIR(-)NKG2A(+) (NKG2A(+)) and CD56(dim)CD57(-)KIR(-)NKG2A(-) (lacking inhibitory receptors; IR(-)) human NK cells by quantifying migration, cytotoxicity, and contact dynamics using microchip-based live cell imaging. NKG2A(+) NK cells displayed a more dynamic migration behavior and made more contacts with target cells than IR(-) NK cells. NKG2A(+) NK cells also more frequently killed the target cells once a conjugate had been formed. NK cells with serial killing capacity were primarily found among NKG2A(+) NK cells. Conjugates involving IR(-) NK cells were generally more short-lived and IR(-) NK cells did not become activated to the same extent as NKG2A(+) NK cells when in contact with target cells, as evident by their reduced spreading response. In contrast, NKG2A(+) and IR(-) NK cells showed similar dynamics in terms of duration of conjugation periods and NK cell spreading response in conjugates that led to killing. Taken together, these observations suggest that the high killing capacity of NKG2A(+) NK cells is linked to processes regulating events in the recognition phase of NK-target cell contact rather than events after cytotoxicity has been triggered. PMID:26320254

  14. Cloning, killing, and identity.

    PubMed Central

    McMahan, J

    1999-01-01

    One potentially valuable use of cloning is to provide a source of tissues or organs for transplantation. The most important objection to this use of cloning is that a human clone would be the sort of entity that it would be seriously wrong to kill. I argue that entities of the sort that you and I essentially are do not begin to exist until around the seventh month of fetal gestation. Therefore to kill a clone prior to that would not be to kill someone like you or me but would be only to prevent one of us from existing. And even after one of us begins to exist, the objections to killing it remain comparatively weak until its psychological capacities reach a certain level of maturation. These claims support the permissibility of killing a clone during the early stages of its development in order to use its organs for transplantation. PMID:10226909

  15. Canonical Wnts, specifically Wnt-10b, show ability to maintain dermal papilla cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ouji, Yukiteru Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Yoshikawa, Masahide

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: •First report on effects of various Wnts on DP cells. •Wnt-10b promoted trichogenesis, while Wnt-3a showed to a limited extent. •Canonical Wnts, specifically Wnt-10b, is important for DP cells maintenance. -- Abstract: Although Wnts are expressed in hair follicles (HFs) and considered to be crucial for maintaining dermal papilla (DP) cells, the functional differences among them remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Wnts (Wnt-3a, 5a, 10b, 11) on the proliferation of mouse-derived primary DP cells in vitro as well as their trichogenesis-promoting ability using an in vivo skin reconstitution protocol. Wnt-10b promoted cell proliferation and trichogenesis, while Wnt-3a showed those abilities to a limited extent, and Wnt-5a and 11 had no effects. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of these Wnts on cultured DP cells obtained from versican-GFP transgenic mice and found that Wnt-10b had a potent ability to sustain their GFP-positivity. These results suggest that canonical Wnts, specifically Wnt-10b, play important roles in the maintenance of DP cells and trichogenesis.

  16. High-affinity ligand probes of CD22 overcome the threshold set by cis ligands to allow for binding, endocytosis, and killing of B cells.

    PubMed

    Collins, Brian E; Blixt, Ola; Han, Shoufa; Duong, Bao; Li, Hongyi; Nathan, Jay K; Bovin, Nicolai; Paulson, James C

    2006-09-01

    CD22 (Siglec-2) is a key regulator of B cell signaling whose function is modulated by interaction with extracellular glycan ligands mediated through its N-terminal Ig domain. Its preferred ligand is the sequence Sia alpha2-6Gal that is abundantly expressed on N-linked glycans of B cell glycoproteins, and by binding to CD22 in cis causes CD22 to appear "masked" from binding to synthetic sialoside probes. Yet, despite the presence of cis ligands, CD22 redistributes to sites of cell contact by binding to trans ligands on neighboring cells. In this study, we demonstrate the dynamic equilibrium that exists between CD22 and its cis and trans ligands, using a high-affinity multivalent sialoside probe that competes with cis ligands and binds to CD22 on native human and murine B cells. Consistent with the constitutive endocytosis reported for CD22, the probes are internalized once bound, demonstrating that CD22 is an endocytic receptor that can carry ligand-decorated "cargo" to intracellular compartments. Conjugation of the sialoside probes to the toxin saporin resulted in toxin uptake and toxin-mediated killing of B lymphoma cell lines, suggesting an alternative approach for targeting CD22 for treatment of B cell lymphomas. PMID:16920935

  17. Modeling the Effects of Vorinostat In Vivo Reveals both Transient and Delayed HIV Transcriptional Activation and Minimal Killing of Latently Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Ruian; Lewin, Sharon R.; Elliott, Julian H; Perelson, Alan S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent efforts to cure human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection have focused on developing latency reversing agents as a first step to eradicate the latent reservoir. The histone deacetylase inhibitor, vorinostat, has been shown to activate HIV RNA transcription in CD4+ T-cells and alter host cell gene transcription in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy. In order to understand how latently infected cells respond dynamically to vorinostat treatment and determine the impact of vorinostat on reservoir size in vivo, we have constructed viral dynamic models of latency that incorporate vorinostat treatment. We fitted these models to data collected from a recent clinical trial in which vorinostat was administered daily for 14 days to HIV-infected individuals on suppressive ART. The results show that HIV transcription is increased transiently during the first few hours or days of treatment and that there is a delay before a sustained increase of HIV transcription, whose duration varies among study participants and may depend on the long term impact of vorinostat on host gene expression. Parameter estimation suggests that in latently infected cells, HIV transcription induced by vorinostat occurs at lower levels than in productively infected cells. Furthermore, the estimated loss rate of transcriptionally induced cells remains close to baseline in most study participants, suggesting vorinostat treatment does not induce latently infected cell killing and thus reduce the latent reservoir in vivo. PMID:26496627

  18. Modeling the effects of vorinostat in vivo reveals both transient and delayed HIV transcriptional activation and minimal killing of latently infected cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, Ruian; Lewin, Sharon R.; Elliott, Julian H.; Perelson, Alan S.; Chakraborty, Arup K.

    2015-10-23

    Recent efforts to cure human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection have focused on developing latency reversing agents as a first step to eradicate the latent reservoir. The histone deacetylase inhibitor, vorinostat, has been shown to activate HIV RNA transcription in CD4+ T-cells and alter host cell gene transcription in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy. In order to understand how latently infected cells respond dynamically to vorinostat treatment and determine the impact of vorinostat on reservoir size in vivo, we have constructed viral dynamic models of latency that incorporate vorinostat treatment. We fitted these models to data collected from a recent clinical trial in which vorinostat was administered daily for 14 days to HIV-infected individuals on suppressive ART. The results show that HIV transcription is increased transiently during the first few hours or days of treatment and that there is a delay before a sustained increase of HIV transcription, whose duration varies among study participants and may depend on the long term impact of vorinostat on host gene expression. Parameter estimation suggests that in latently infected cells, HIV transcription induced by vorinostat occurs at lower levels than in productively infected cells. Lastly, the estimated loss rate of transcriptionally induced cells remains close to baseline in most study participants, suggesting vorinostat treatment does not induce latently infected cell killing and thus reduce the latent reservoir in vivo.

  19. Modeling the Effects of Vorinostat In Vivo Reveals both Transient and Delayed HIV Transcriptional Activation and Minimal Killing of Latently Infected Cells.

    PubMed

    Ke, Ruian; Lewin, Sharon R; Elliott, Julian H; Perelson, Alan S

    2015-10-01

    Recent efforts to cure human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection have focused on developing latency reversing agents as a first step to eradicate the latent reservoir. The histone deacetylase inhibitor, vorinostat, has been shown to activate HIV RNA transcription in CD4+ T-cells and alter host cell gene transcription in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy. In order to understand how latently infected cells respond dynamically to vorinostat treatment and determine the impact of vorinostat on reservoir size in vivo, we have constructed viral dynamic models of latency that incorporate vorinostat treatment. We fitted these models to data collected from a recent clinical trial in which vorinostat was administered daily for 14 days to HIV-infected individuals on suppressive ART. The results show that HIV transcription is increased transiently during the first few hours or days of treatment and that there is a delay before a sustained increase of HIV transcription, whose duration varies among study participants and may depend on the long term impact of vorinostat on host gene expression. Parameter estimation suggests that in latently infected cells, HIV transcription induced by vorinostat occurs at lower levels than in productively infected cells. Furthermore, the estimated loss rate of transcriptionally induced cells remains close to baseline in most study participants, suggesting vorinostat treatment does not induce latently infected cell killing and thus reduce the latent reservoir in vivo. PMID:26496627

  20. Modeling the effects of vorinostat in vivo reveals both transient and delayed HIV transcriptional activation and minimal killing of latently infected cells

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ke, Ruian; Lewin, Sharon R.; Elliott, Julian H.; Perelson, Alan S.; Chakraborty, Arup K.

    2015-10-23

    Recent efforts to cure human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection have focused on developing latency reversing agents as a first step to eradicate the latent reservoir. The histone deacetylase inhibitor, vorinostat, has been shown to activate HIV RNA transcription in CD4+ T-cells and alter host cell gene transcription in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy. In order to understand how latently infected cells respond dynamically to vorinostat treatment and determine the impact of vorinostat on reservoir size in vivo, we have constructed viral dynamic models of latency that incorporate vorinostat treatment. We fitted these models to data collected from a recentmore » clinical trial in which vorinostat was administered daily for 14 days to HIV-infected individuals on suppressive ART. The results show that HIV transcription is increased transiently during the first few hours or days of treatment and that there is a delay before a sustained increase of HIV transcription, whose duration varies among study participants and may depend on the long term impact of vorinostat on host gene expression. Parameter estimation suggests that in latently infected cells, HIV transcription induced by vorinostat occurs at lower levels than in productively infected cells. Lastly, the estimated loss rate of transcriptionally induced cells remains close to baseline in most study participants, suggesting vorinostat treatment does not induce latently infected cell killing and thus reduce the latent reservoir in vivo.« less

  1. Ability of Escherichia coli isolates that cause meningitis in newborns to invade epithelial and endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Meier, C; Oelschlaeger, T A; Merkert, H; Korhonen, T K; Hacker, J

    1996-01-01

    Escherichia coli isolates that cause meningitis in newborns are able to invade the circulation and subsequently cross the blood-brain barrier. One mechanism for traversing the blood-brain barrier might involve transcytosis through the endothelial cells. The ability of the meningitis isolate E. coli IHE3034, of serotype 018:K1:H7, to invade epithelial (T24) and endothelial (EA-hy926) cells was investigated by the standard gentamicin survival assay and by electron microscopy. Human bladder epithelial and endothelial cells were efficiently invaded by strain IHE3034, whereas epithelial human colon Caco-2 cells, canine kidney MDCK cells, and the opossum [correction of opposum] epithelial kidney cell line OK were not invaded. The ability to invade human epithelial cells of the bladder could also be demonstrated for several other newborn meningitis E. coli strains and one septicemic E. coli strain. Studies utilizing inhibitors which act on eukaryotic cells revealed a dependence on microfilaments as well as on microtubules in the process of E. coli IHE3034 entry into T24 and EA-hy926 cells. These results indicated that cell cytoskeletal rearrangements are involved in bacterial uptake and suggest that there are either two pathways (microtubule dependent and microfilament dependent) or one complex pathway involving both microtubules and microfilaments. The intracellular IHE3034 organisms were contained in a host-membrane-confined compartment mainly as single microorganisms. Intracellular replication of 1HE3034 was not detected, nor did the number of intracellular bacteria decrease significantly during a 48-h period. The ability of E. coli O18:K1 to invade and survive within certain eukaryotic cells may be another virulence factor of meningitis-associated E. coli. PMID:8698457

  2. Specific killing of cytotoxic T cells and antigen-presenting cells by CD4+ cytotoxic T cell clones. A novel potentially immunoregulatory T-T cell interaction in man.

    PubMed

    Ottenhoff, T H; Mutis, T

    1990-06-01

    Mycobacterial antigens not only stimulate Th cells that produce macrophage-activating factors, but also CD4+ and CD8+ CTL that lyse human macrophages. The mycobacterial recombinant 65-kD hsp was previously found to be an important target antigen for polyclonal CD4+ CTL. Because of the major role of 65-kD hsp in the immune response to mycobacterial as well as autoantigens, we have studied CTL activity to this protein at the clonal level. HLA-DR or HLA-DQ restricted, CD4+CD8- T cell clones that recognize different peptides of the M. leprae 65-kD hsp strongly lysed EBV-BLCL pulsed with specific but not irrelevant peptide. No bystander lysis of B cells, T cells, or tumor cells was seen. Target cell lysis could not be triggered by PMA + Ca2+ ionophore alone and depended on active metabolism. Interestingly, these CD4+ CTL also strongly lysed themselves and other HLA-class II compatible CD4+ (TCR-alpha/beta or -gamma/delta) or CD8+ CTL clones in the presence of peptide, suggesting that CTL are not actively protected from CTL-mediated lysis. Cold target competition experiments suggested that EBV-BLCL targets were more efficiently recognized than CD4+ CTL targets. These results demonstrate that hsp65 peptide-specific HLA class II-restricted CD4+ T cell clones display strong peptide-dependent cytolytic activity towards both APCs, and, unexpectedly, CD4+ and CD8+ CTL clones, including themselves. Since, in contrast to murine T cells human T cells express class II, CTL-mediated T cell killing may represent a novel immunoregulatory pathway in man. PMID:1972178

  3. There Is No Shame in Pain: Coping and Functional Ability in Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, M. Renee

    1999-01-01

    Discusses coping and personal adjustment to chronic pain for adolescents with sickle cell anemia and presents a model of illness behavior for these adolescents. Offers a framework of disease severity and disease impact, and suggests using functional ability as an index of coping and personal adjustment. Contains 59 references. (SLD)

  4. Evolution of coalitionary killing.

    PubMed

    Wrangham, R W

    1999-01-01

    Warfare has traditionally been considered unique to humans. It has, therefore, often been explained as deriving from features that are unique to humans, such as the possession of weapons or the adoption of a patriarchal ideology. Mounting evidence suggests, however, that coalitional killing of adults in neighboring groups also occurs regularly in other species, including wolves and chimpanzees. This implies that selection can favor components of intergroup aggression important to human warfare, including lethal raiding. Here I present the principal adaptive hypothesis for explaining the species distribution of intergroup coalitional killing. This is the "imbalance-of-power hypothesis," which suggests that coalitional killing is the expression of a drive for dominance over neighbors. Two conditions are proposed to be both necessary and sufficient to account for coalitional killing of neighbors: (1) a state of intergroup hostility; (2) sufficient imbalances of power between parties that one party can attack the other with impunity. Under these conditions, it is suggested, selection favors the tendency to hunt and kill rivals when the costs are sufficiently low. The imbalance-of-power hypothesis has been criticized on a variety of empirical and theoretical grounds which are discussed. To be further tested, studies of the proximate determinants of aggression are needed. However, current evidence supports the hypothesis that selection has favored a hunt-and-kill propensity in chimpanzees and humans, and that coalitional killing has a long history in the evolution of both species. PMID:10601982

  5. Apoptotic Killing of Breast Cancer Cells by IgYs Produced Against a Small 21 Aminoacid Epitope of the Human TRAIL-2 Receptor.

    PubMed

    Amirijavid1, Shaghayegh; Entezari, Maliheh; Movafagh, Abolfazl; Hashemi, Mehrdad; Mosavi-Jarahi, Alireza; Dehghani, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    TRAIL, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand belongs to one of important cytokine superfamilIES, tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) . TRAIL-2 receptor agonists activate several cell signaling pathways in cells in different manners and could lead to apoptosis or necrosis. Agonistic egg yolk antibodies like IgY which have been developed in a selective manner could activate TRAIL death receptors such as TRAIL-2 (DR5) and thus apoptosis signaling. We here investigated induction of apoptosis in human breast cancer cells (MCF7 cell line) by an IgY produced against an 21 aminoacid epitope of the human TRAIL-2 receptor. As the first step a small peptide of 21 aminoacids choosen from the extracellular domain of DR5 protein was produced with a peptide synthesizer. After control assays and confirmation of the correct amino acid sequence, it was injected to hens immunized to achieve high affinity IgYs. At the next step, the produced IgYs were extracted and examined for specificity against DR5 protein by ELISA assay. Subsequently, the anticancer effect of such IgYs was determined by MTT assay in the MCF7 human breast cancer cell line. The produced peptides successfully immunized hens and the produced antibodies which accumulated in egg yolk specifically recognized the DR5 protein. IgYs exerted significant toxicity and killed MCF7 cells as shown by MTT assay. PMID:27165241

  6. Targeting the membrane-anchored serine protease testisin with a novel engineered anthrax toxin prodrug to kill tumor cells and reduce tumor burden

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Erik W.; Buzza, Marguerite S.; Driesbaugh, Kathryn H.; Liu, Shihui; Fortenberry, Yolanda M.; Leppla, Stephen H.; Antalis, Toni M.

    2015-01-01

    The membrane-anchored serine proteases are a unique group of trypsin-like serine proteases that are tethered to the cell surface via transmembrane domains or glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchors. Overexpressed in tumors, with pro-tumorigenic properties, they are attractive targets for protease-activated prodrug-like anti-tumor therapies. Here, we sought to engineer anthrax toxin protective antigen (PrAg), which is proteolytically activated on the cell surface by the proprotein convertase furin to instead be activated by tumor cell-expressed membrane-anchored serine proteases to function as a tumoricidal agent. PrAg's native activation sequence was mutated to a sequence derived from protein C inhibitor (PCI) that can be cleaved by membrane-anchored serine proteases, to generate the mutant protein PrAg-PCIS. PrAg-PCIS was resistant to furin cleavage in vitro, yet cytotoxic to multiple human tumor cell lines when combined with FP59, a chimeric anthrax toxin lethal factor-Pseudomonas exotoxin fusion protein. Molecular analyses showed that PrAg-PCIS can be cleaved in vitro by several serine proteases including the membrane-anchored serine protease testisin, and mediates increased killing of testisin-expressing tumor cells. Treatment with PrAg-PCIS also potently attenuated the growth of testisin-expressing xenograft tumors in mice. The data indicates PrAg can be engineered to target tumor cell-expressed membrane-anchored serine proteases to function as a potent tumoricidal agent. PMID:26392335

  7. Distinct mechanisms of cell-kill by triapine and its terminally dimethylated derivative Dp44mT due to a loss or gain of activity of their copper(II) complexes

    PubMed Central

    Ishiguro, Kimiko; Lin, Z. Ping; Penketh, Philip G.; Shyam, Krishnamurthy; Zhu, Rui; Baumann, Raymond P.; Zhu, Yong-Lian; Sartorelli, Alan C.; Rutherford, Thomas J.; Ratner, Elena S.

    2014-01-01

    Triapine, currently being evaluated as an antitumor agent in phase II clinical trials, and its terminally dimethylated derivative Dp44mT share the α-pyridyl thiosemicarbazone backbone that functions as ligands for transition metal ions. Yet, Dp44mT is approximately 100-fold more potent than triapine in cytotoxicity assays. The aims of this study were to elucidate the mechanisms underlying their potency disparity and to determine their kinetics of cell-kill in culture to aid in the formulation of their clinical dosing schedules. The addition of Cu2+ inactivated triapine in a 1:1 stoichiometric fashion, while it potentiated the cytotoxicity of Dp44mT. Clonogenic assays after finite-time drug-exposure revealed that triapine produced cell-kill in two phases, one completed within 20 min that caused limited cell-kill, and the other occurring after 16 h of exposure that produced extensive cell-kill. The ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor triapine at 0.4 µM caused immediate complete arrest of DNA synthesis, whereas Dp44mT at this concentration did not appreciably inhibit DNA synthesis. The inhibition of DNA synthesis by triapine was reversible upon its removal from the medium. Cell death after 16 h exposure to triapine paralleled the appearance of phospho-(γ)H2AX, a marker of DNA double-strand breaks induced by collapse of DNA replication forks after prolonged replication arrest. In contrast to triapine, Dp44mT produced robust cell-kill within 1 h in a concentration-dependent manner. The short-term action of both agents was prevented by thiols, indicative of the involvement of reactive oxygen species. The time dependency in the production of cell-kill by triapine should be considered in treatment regimens. PMID:25130544

  8. Distinct mechanisms of cell-kill by triapine and its terminally dimethylated derivative Dp44mT due to a loss or gain of activity of their copper(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Kimiko; Lin, Z Ping; Penketh, Philip G; Shyam, Krishnamurthy; Zhu, Rui; Baumann, Raymond P; Zhu, Yong-Lian; Sartorelli, Alan C; Rutherford, Thomas J; Ratner, Elena S

    2014-10-01

    Triapine, currently being evaluated as an antitumor agent in phase II clinical trials, and its terminally dimethylated derivative Dp44mT share the α-pyridyl thiosemicarbazone backbone that functions as ligands for transition metal ions. Yet, Dp44mT is approximately 100-fold more potent than triapine in cytotoxicity assays. The aims of this study were to elucidate the mechanisms underlying their potency disparity and to determine their kinetics of cell-kill in culture to aid in the formulation of their clinical dosing schedules. The addition of Cu(2+) inactivated triapine in a 1:1 stoichiometric fashion, while it potentiated the cytotoxicity of Dp44mT. Clonogenic assays after finite-time drug-exposure revealed that triapine produced cell-kill in two phases, one completed within 20 min that caused limited cell-kill, and the other occurring after 16 h of exposure that produced extensive cell-kill. The ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor triapine at 0.4 μM caused immediate complete arrest of DNA synthesis, whereas Dp44mT at this concentration did not appreciably inhibit DNA synthesis. The inhibition of DNA synthesis by triapine was reversible upon its removal from the medium. Cell death after 16 h exposure to triapine paralleled the appearance of phospho-(γ)H2AX, a marker of DNA double-strand breaks induced by collapse of DNA replication forks after prolonged replication arrest. In contrast to triapine, Dp44mT produced robust cell-kill within 1h in a concentration-dependent manner. The short-term action of both agents was prevented by thiols, indicative of the involvement of reactive oxygen species. The time dependency in the production of cell-kill by triapine should be considered in treatment regimens. PMID:25130544

  9. How neutrophils kill fungi.

    PubMed

    Gazendam, Roel P; van de Geer, Annemarie; Roos, Dirk; van den Berg, Timo K; Kuijpers, Taco W

    2016-09-01

    Neutrophils play a critical role in the prevention of invasive fungal infections. Whereas mouse studies have demonstrated the role of various neutrophil pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), signal transduction pathways, and cytotoxicity in the murine antifungal immune response, much less is known about the killing of fungi by human neutrophils. Recently, novel primary immunodeficiencies have been identified in patients with a susceptibility to fungal infections. These human 'knock-out' neutrophils expand our knowledge to understand the role of PRRs and signaling in human fungal killing. From the studies with these patients it is becoming clear that neutrophils employ fundamentally distinct mechanisms to kill Candida albicans or Aspergillus fumigatus. PMID:27558342

  10. Adhesion-mediated self-renewal abilities of Ph+ blastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Funayama, Keiji; Saito-Kurimoto, Yumi; Ebihara, Yasuhiro; Shimane, Miyuki; Nomura, Hitoshi; Tsuji, Ko-ichiro; Asano, Shigetaka

    2010-05-28

    The Philadelphia chromosome-positive blastoma, maintained by serial subcutaneous transplantation in nude mice, is a highly proliferating biological mass consisting of homogenous CD34{sup +}CD38{sup -} myeloblastoid cells. These cells newly evolved from pluripotent leukemia stem cells of chronic myeloid leukemia in the chronic phase. Therefore, this mass may provide a unique tool for better understanding cellular and molecular mechanisms of self-renewal of leukemia stem cells. In this paper, we demonstrated that intravenously injected blastoma cells can cause Ph+ blastic leukemia with multiple invasive foci in NOD/SCID mice but not in nude mice. In addition, using an in vitro culture system, we clearly showed that blastoma cell adhesion to OP9 stromal cells accelerates blastoma cell proliferation that is associated with up-regulation of BMI1 gene expression; increased levels of {beta}-catenin and the Notch1 intra-cellular domain; and changed the expression pattern of variant CD44 forms, which are constitutively expressed in these blastoma cells. These findings strongly suggest that adhesion of leukemic stem cells to stromal cells via CD44 might be indispensable for their cellular defense against attack by immune cells and for maintenance of their self-renewal ability.

  11. Treatment with 5-Aza-2'-Deoxycytidine Induces Expression of NY-ESO-1 and Facilitates Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-Mediated Tumor Cell Killing

    PubMed Central

    Klar, Agnes S.; Gopinadh, Jakka; Kleber, Sascha; Wadle, Andreas; Renner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Background NY-ESO-1 belongs to the cancer/testis antigen (CTA) family and represents an attractive target for cancer immunotherapy. Its expression is induced in a variety of solid tumors via DNA demethylation of the promoter of CpG islands. However, NY-ESO-1 expression is usually very low or absent in some tumors such as breast cancer or multiple myeloma. Therefore, we established an optimized in vitro treatment protocol for up-regulation of NY-ESO-1 expression by tumor cells using the hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC). Methodology/Principal Findings We demonstrated de novo induction of NY-ESO-1 in MCF7 breast cancer cells and significantly increased expression in U266 multiple myeloma cells. This effect was time- and dose-dependent with the highest expression of NY-ESO-1 mRNA achieved by the incubation of 10 μM DAC for 72 hours. NY-ESO-1 activation was also confirmed at the protein level as shown by Western blot, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence staining. The detection and quantification of single NY-ESO-1 peptides presented at the tumor cell surface in the context of HLA-A*0201 molecules revealed an increase of 100% and 50% for MCF7 and U266 cells, respectively. Moreover, the enhanced expression of NY-ESO-1 derived peptides at the cell surface was accompanied by an increased specific lysis of MCF7 and U266 cells by HLA-A*0201/NY-ESO-1(157–165) peptide specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) CD8+ T cells. In addition, the killing activity of CAR T cells correlated with the secretion of higher IFN-gamma levels. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that NY-ESO-1 directed immunotherapy with specific CAR T cells might benefit from concomitant DAC treatment. PMID:26447882

  12. Paclitaxel Combined with Inhibitors of Glucose and Hydroperoxide Metabolism Enhances Breast Cancer Cell Killing Via H2O2-Mediated Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Hadzic, Tanja; Aykin-Burns, Nükhet; Zhu, Yueming; Coleman, Mitchell C.; Leick, Katie; Jacobson, Geraldine M.; Spitz, Douglas R.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer cells (relative to normal cells) demonstrate alterations in oxidative metabolism characterized by increased steady-state levels of reactive oxygen species [i.e. hydrogen peroxide, H2O2] that may be compensated for by increased glucose metabolism but the therapeutic significance of these observations is unknown. In the current study, inhibitors of glucose [i.e., 2-deoxy-D-glucose, 2DG] and hydroperoxide [i.e., L-buthionine-S, R-sulfoximine, BSO] metabolism were utilized in combination with a chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel [PTX], thought to induce oxidative stress, to treat breast cancer cells. 2DG+PTX were found to be more toxic than either agent alone in T47D and MDA-MB231 human breast cancer cells, but not in normal human fibroblasts or normal human mammary epithelial cells. Increases in parameters indicative of oxidative stress, including steady-state levels of H2O2, total glutathione, and glutathione disulfide accompanied the enhanced toxicity of 2DG+PTX in cancer cells. Antioxidants, including N-acetyl-cysteine [NAC], polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase [PEG-CAT] and superoxide dismutase [PEG-SOD], inhibited the toxicity of 2DG+PTX and suppressed parameters indicative of oxidative stress in cancer cells, while inhibition of glutathione synthesis using BSO further sensitized breast cancer cells to 2DG+PTX. These results show that combining inhibitors of glucose [2DG] and hydroperoxide [BSO] metabolism with PTX selectively (relative to normal cells) enhances breast cancer cell killing via H2O2-induced metabolic oxidative stress, and suggests that this biochemical rationale may be effectively utilized to treat breast cancers. PMID:20083194

  13. Lysis of small cell carcinoma of the lung tumor cell lines by gamma interferon-activated allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cells: abrogation of killing by pretreatment of tumor cells with gamma interferon.

    PubMed

    Ball, E D; Nichols, K E; Pettengill, O S; Sorenson, G D; Fanger, M W

    1986-01-01

    Interferon has been shown to enhance the ability of nonspecific cytotoxic mononuclear cells to lyse some, but not all, tumor cells. We have examined the effect of recombinant human gamma interferon (rIFN gamma) on the cell-mediated cytolysis of tumor target cells derived from continuously cultured lines of small cell carcinoma of the lung (SCCL). Cells from the SCCL lines DMS 44, 53, 79, 92, and 406 were labeled with 51Cr and incubated with normal and rIFN gamma-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells for 18 h at 37 degrees C and tumor cell lysis estimated by measuring 51Cr release. Although cells from certain SCCL lines were good targets for cell mediated cytotoxicity, susceptibility to lysis was heterogeneous among the different SCCL lines. DMS 406 and 79 were, on average, maximally lysed, while DMS 44, 53, and 92 showed less susceptibility to lysis by either control or rIFN gamma-stimulated effector cells. In addition, although pretreatment with rIFN gamma increased the cytolytic capacity of normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells from several different donors, preincubation of the tumor cell lines with rIFN gamma resulted in inhibition of cytolysis mediated by both control and IFN-activated effector cells. These findings suggest that although rIFN gamma may enhance cell-mediated lysis of SCCL tumor cells, it may also decrease susceptibility to lysis. PMID:3015408

  14. Isolation and killing of candidate chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells by antibody targeting of IL-1 receptor accessory protein.

    PubMed

    Järås, Marcus; Johnels, Petra; Hansen, Nils; Agerstam, Helena; Tsapogas, Panagiotis; Rissler, Marianne; Lassen, Carin; Olofsson, Tor; Bjerrum, Ole Weis; Richter, Johan; Fioretos, Thoas

    2010-09-14

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is genetically characterized by the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome, formed through a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 and giving rise to the constitutively active tyrosine kinase P210 BCR/ABL1. Therapeutic strategies aiming for a cure of CML will require full eradication of Ph chromosome-positive (Ph(+)) CML stem cells. Here we used gene-expression profiling to identify IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP) as up-regulated in CML CD34(+) cells and also in cord blood CD34(+) cells as a consequence of retroviral BCR/ABL1 expression. To test whether IL1RAP expression distinguishes normal (Ph(-)) and leukemic (Ph(+)) cells within the CML CD34(+)CD38(-) cell compartment, we established a unique protocol for conducting FISH on small numbers of sorted cells. By using this method, we sorted cells directly into drops on slides to investigate their Ph-chromosome status. Interestingly, we found that the CML CD34(+)CD38(-)IL1RAP(+) cells were Ph(+), whereas CML CD34(+)CD38(-)IL1RAP(-) cells were almost exclusively Ph(-). By performing long-term culture-initiating cell assays on the two cell populations, we found that Ph(+) and Ph(-) candidate CML stem cells could be prospectively separated. In addition, by generating an anti-IL1RAP antibody, we provide proof of concept that IL1RAP can be used as a target on CML CD34(+)CD38(-) cells to induce antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. This study thus identifies IL1RAP as a unique cell surface biomarker distinguishing Ph(+) from Ph(-) candidate CML stem cells and opens up a previously unexplored avenue for therapy of CML. PMID:20805474

  15. Biology of cell killing by 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine and its relevance to molecular mechanisms of cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Crowther, P J; Cooper, I A; Woodcock, D M

    1985-09-01

    Cells of the Chinese hamster ovary cell line were used to study the process of cell death induced by pulse treatment with 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C). Cells were synchronized by mitotic selection and pulse treated in early S phase with a concentration of ara-C (1 mM) which was sufficient to reduce plating efficiency to a few percentages of the control. The process of when and how the lethally damaged cells die was studied using a series of techniques in parallel. These included time-lapse microcinematography, flow microfluorimetry, and chromosome morphology in both anaphases/telophases and Colcemid-arrested metaphases. Most of the lethally damaged Chinese hamster ovary cells progressed through one, and many through two, cell cycles before death occurred. The cell death and abnormal divisions can be accounted for by the chromosome aberrations observed in Colcemid metaphases and anaphases/telophases. Death without any attempted division occurred between 3 and 9 normal cell cycle times after ara-C treatment. Chinese hamster ovary cells were also treated continuously with 1 mM ara-C. Under these conditions, cell death was still primarily division related. We argue that these data are not consistent with the actual incorporation of ara-C moieties into DNA being the primary cause of cell death. The data are discussed in relation to the postulated molecular mechanisms of toxicity of this drug. PMID:4028015

  16. Nonhemolytic Cell-Penetrating Peptides: Site Specific Introduction of Glutamine and Lysine Residues into the α-Helical Peptide Causes Deletion of Its Direct Membrane Disrupting Ability but Retention of Its Cell Penetrating Ability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seoyeon; Hyun, Soonsil; Lee, Yuri; Lee, Yan; Yu, Jaehoon

    2016-09-12

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) often have cationic and amphipathic characteristics that are commonly associated with α-helical peptides. These features give CPPs both membrane demolishing and penetrating abilities. To make CPPs safe for biomedical applications, their toxicities resulting from their membrane demolishing abilities must be removed while their cell penetrating abilities must be retained. In this study, we systematically constructed mutants of the amphipathic α-helical model peptide (LKKLLKLLKKLLKLAG, LK peptide). The hydrophobic amino acid leucine in the LK peptide was replaced with hydrophilic amino acids to reduce hemolytic or cell toxicity. Most of the mutants were found to have weakened membrane disrupting abilities, but their cell penetrating abilities were also weakened. However, the L8Q and L8K mutants were found to have low micromolar range cell penetrating ability and almost no membrane disrupting ability. These selected mutants utilize energy-dependent endocytosis mechanisms instead of an energy-independent direct cell penetrating mechanism to enter cells. In addition, the mutants can be used to deliver the anticancer drug methotrexate (MTX) to cells, thereby overcoming resistance to this drug. To determine if the effect of these mutations on the membrane disrupting and cell penetrating abilities is general, Q and K mutations of the natural amphipathic α-helical antimicrobial peptide (AMP), LL37, were introduced. Specific positional Q and K mutants of LL37 were found to have lower hemolytic toxicities and preserved the ability to penetrate eukaryotic cells such as MDA-MB-231 cells. Taken together, observations made in this work suggest that interrupting the global hydrophobicity of amphipathic α-helical CPPs and AMPs, by replacing hydrophobic residues with mildly hydrophilic amino acids such as Q and K, might be an ideal strategy for constructing peptides that have strong cell penetrating abilities and weak cell membrane disrupting

  17. Inhibition of B-Raf/MEK/ERK signaling suppresses DR5 expression and impairs response of cancer cells to DR5-mediated apoptosis and T cell-induced killing.

    PubMed

    Oh, Y-T; Deng, J; Yue, P; Owonikoko, T K; Khuri, F R; Sun, S-Y

    2016-01-28

    Inhibition of B-Raf/MEK/ERK signaling is an effective therapeutic strategy against certain types of cancers such as melanoma and thyroid cancer. While demonstrated to be effective anticancer agents, B-Raf or MEK inhibitors have also been associated with early tumor progression and development of secondary neoplasms. The ligation of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) with its receptor, death receptor 5 (DR5), leading to induction of apoptosis, offers a promising anticancer strategy. Importantly, this is also a natural immunosurveillance mechanism against cancer development. We previously demonstrated that activated B-Raf/MEK/ERK signaling positively regulates DR5 expression. Hence, our current work sought to address whether B-Raf/MEK/ERK inhibition and the consequent suppression of DR5 expression impede cancer cell response to DR5 activation-induced apoptosis and activated immune cell-induced killing. We found that both B-Raf (for example, PLX4032) and MEK inhibitors (for example, AZD6244 and PD0325901) effectively inhibited ERK1/2 phosphorylation and reduced DR5 levels in both human thyroid cancer and melanoma cells. Similar to the observed effect of genetic knockdown of the B-Raf gene, pre-treatment of cancer cell lines with either B-Raf or MEK inhibitors attenuated or abolished cellular apoptotic response induced by TRAIL or the DR5 agonistic antibody AMG655 or cell killing by activated T cells. Our findings clearly show that inhibition of B-Raf/MEK/ERK signaling suppresses DR5 expression and impairs DR5 activation-induced apoptosis and T cell-mediated killing of cancer cells. These findings suggest a potential negative impact of B-Raf or MEK inhibition on TRAIL- or DR5-mediated anticancer therapy and on TRAIL/DR5-mediated immune-clearance of cancer cells. PMID:25867065

  18. FISH KILLS, NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data related to fish kills in North Carolina are collected and stored in tables on the Web at the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources. http://www.esb.enr.state.nc.us/Fishkill/fishkill00.htm

  19. Extracts from Calendula officinalis offer in vitro protection against H2 O2 induced oxidative stress cell killing of human skin cells.

    PubMed

    Alnuqaydan, Abdullah M; Lenehan, Claire E; Hughes, Rachel R; Sanderson, Barbara J

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro safety and antioxidant potential of Calendula officinalis flower head extracts was investigated. The effect of different concentrations (0.125, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0% (v/v)) of Calendula extracts on human skin cells HaCaT in vitro was explored. Doses of 1.0% (v/v) (0.88 mg dry weight/mL) or less showed no toxicity. Cells were also exposed to the Calendula extracts for either 4, 24 or 48 h before being exposed to an oxidative insult (hydrogen peroxide H2 O2 ) for 1 h. Using the MTT cytotoxicity assay, it was observed that two independent extracts of C. officinalis gave time-dependent and concentration-dependent H2 O2 protection against induced oxidative stress in vitro using human skin cells. Pre-incubation with the Calendula extracts for 24 and 48 h increased survival relative to the population without extract by 20% and 40% respectively following oxidative challenge. The antioxidant potential of the Calendula extracts was confirmed using a complimentary chemical technique, the DPPH(●) assay. Calendula extracts exhibited free radical scavenging abilities. This study demonstrates that Calendula flower extracts contain bioactive and free radical scavenging compounds that significantly protect against oxidative stress in a human skin cell culture model. PMID:25266574

  20. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial Evaluating Safety and Immunogenicity of the Killed, Bivalent, Whole-Cell Oral Cholera Vaccine in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Sachin N.; Akalu, Zenebe; Teshome, Samuel; Teferi, Mekonnen; Yamuah, Lawrence; Kim, Deok Ryun; Yang, Jae Seung; Hussein, Jemal; Park, Ju Yeong; Jang, Mi Seon; Mesganaw, Chalachew; Taye, Hawult; Beyene, Demissew; Bedru, Ahmed; Singh, Ajit Pal; Wierzba, Thomas F.; Aseffa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Killed whole-cell oral cholera vaccine (OCV) has been a key component of a comprehensive package including water and sanitation measures for recent cholera epidemics. The vaccine, given in a two-dose regimen, has been evaluated in a large number of human volunteers in India, Vietnam, and Bangladesh, where it has demonstrated safety, immunogenicity, and clinical efficacy. We conducted a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial in Ethiopia, where we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine in 216 healthy adults and children. OCV was found to be safe and elicited a robust immunological response against Vibrio cholerae O1, with 81% adults and 77% children demonstrating seroconversion 14 days after the second dose of vaccine. This is the first study to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine in a population outside Asia using a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized study design. PMID:26078323

  1. Plant cyclopeptide RA-V kills human breast cancer cells by inducing mitochondria-mediated apoptosis through blocking PDK1–AKT interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Xian-Ying; Chen, Wei; Fan, Jun-Ting; Song, Ran; Wang, Lu; Gu, Yan-Hong; Zeng, Guang-Zhi; Shen, Yan; Wu, Xue-Feng; Tan, Ning-Hua; Xu, Qiang; Sun, Yang

    2013-02-15

    In the present paper, we examined the effects of a natural cyclopeptide RA-V on human breast cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms. RA-V significantly inhibited the growth of human breast cancer MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 cells and murine breast cancer 4T1 cells. In addition, RA-V triggered mitochondrial apoptotic pathway which was indicated by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the release of cytochrome c, and the activation of caspase cascade. Further study showed that RA-V dramatically inhibited phosphorylation of AKT and 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, RA-V disrupted the interaction between PDK1 and AKT in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, RA-V-induced apoptosis could be enhanced by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor or attenuated by over-expression of AKT in all the three kinds of breast cancer cells. Taken together, this study shows that RA-V, which can induce mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, exerts strong anti-tumor activity against human breast cancer. The underlying anti-cancer mechanism of RA-V is related to the blockage of the interaction between PDK1 and AKT. - Highlights: ► Plant cyclopeptide RA-V kills human breast cancer cells. ► RA-V triggered mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human breast cancer cells. ► RA-V inhibited phosphorylation of AKT and PDK1 in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. ► Its mechanism is related to the blockage of the interaction between PDK1 and AKT.

  2. Novel anti–B-cell maturation antigen antibody-drug conjugate (GSK2857916) selectively induces killing of multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Mayes, Patrick A.; Acharya, Chirag; Zhong, Mike Y.; Cea, Michele; Cagnetta, Antonia; Craigen, Jenny; Yates, John; Gliddon, Louise; Fieles, William; Hoang, Bao; Tunstead, James; Christie, Amanda L.; Kung, Andrew L.; Richardson, Paul; Munshi, Nikhil C.; Anderson, Kenneth C.

    2014-01-01

    B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA), highly expressed on malignant plasma cells in human multiple myeloma (MM), has not been effectively targeted with therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. We here show that BCMA is universally expressed on the MM cell surface and determine specific anti-MM activity of J6M0-mcMMAF (GSK2857916), a novel humanized and afucosylated antagonistic anti-BCMA antibody-drug conjugate via a noncleavable linker. J6M0-mcMMAF specifically blocks cell growth via G2/M arrest and induces caspase 3–dependent apoptosis in MM cells, alone and in coculture with bone marrow stromal cells or various effector cells. It strongly inhibits colony formation by MM cells while sparing surrounding BCMA-negative normal cells. J6M0-mcMMAF significantly induces effector cell-mediated lysis against allogeneic or autologous patient MM cells, with increased potency and efficacy compared with the wild-type J6M0 without Fc enhancement. The antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and apoptotic activity of J6M0-mcMMAF is further enhanced by lenalidomide. Importantly, J6M0-mcMMAF rapidly eliminates myeloma cells in subcutaneous and disseminated mouse models, and mice remain tumor-free up to 3.5 months. Furthermore, J6M0-mcMMAF recruits macrophages and mediates antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis of MM cells. Together, these results demonstrate that GSK2857916 has potent and selective anti-MM activities via multiple cytotoxic mechanisms, providing a promising next-generation immunotherapeutic in this cancer. PMID:24569262

  3. Novel anti-B-cell maturation antigen antibody-drug conjugate (GSK2857916) selectively induces killing of multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Tai, Yu-Tzu; Mayes, Patrick A; Acharya, Chirag; Zhong, Mike Y; Cea, Michele; Cagnetta, Antonia; Craigen, Jenny; Yates, John; Gliddon, Louise; Fieles, William; Hoang, Bao; Tunstead, James; Christie, Amanda L; Kung, Andrew L; Richardson, Paul; Munshi, Nikhil C; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2014-05-15

    B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA), highly expressed on malignant plasma cells in human multiple myeloma (MM), has not been effectively targeted with therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. We here show that BCMA is universally expressed on the MM cell surface and determine specific anti-MM activity of J6M0-mcMMAF (GSK2857916), a novel humanized and afucosylated antagonistic anti-BCMA antibody-drug conjugate via a noncleavable linker. J6M0-mcMMAF specifically blocks cell growth via G2/M arrest and induces caspase 3-dependent apoptosis in MM cells, alone and in coculture with bone marrow stromal cells or various effector cells. It strongly inhibits colony formation by MM cells while sparing surrounding BCMA-negative normal cells. J6M0-mcMMAF significantly induces effector cell-mediated lysis against allogeneic or autologous patient MM cells, with increased potency and efficacy compared with the wild-type J6M0 without Fc enhancement. The antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and apoptotic activity of J6M0-mcMMAF is further enhanced by lenalidomide. Importantly, J6M0-mcMMAF rapidly eliminates myeloma cells in subcutaneous and disseminated mouse models, and mice remain tumor-free up to 3.5 months. Furthermore, J6M0-mcMMAF recruits macrophages and mediates antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis of MM cells. Together, these results demonstrate that GSK2857916 has potent and selective anti-MM activities via multiple cytotoxic mechanisms, providing a promising next-generation immunotherapeutic in this cancer. PMID:24569262

  4. MafA has strong cell transforming ability but is a weak transactivator.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Makoto; Kataoka, Kohsuke; Vogt, Peter K

    2003-09-11

    The maf oncogene of the avian oncogenic retrovirus AS42 encodes a nuclear bZip protein, v-Maf, that recognizes sequences related to the AP-1 target site. The corresponding cellular protein, c-Maf belongs to a family of related bZip proteins together with MafA and MafB. In this paper, we compare the transactivation and cell transforming abilities of MafA and MafB along with two forms of the c-Maf protein. These proteins induce cellular transformation when expressed in chicken embryo fibroblasts. In reporter assays, MafA is a much less effective transactivator than the other Maf proteins, but unexpectedly shows the strongest activity in cell transformation. Chimeras of MafA and MafB correlate the strong cell transforming ability of MafA with its DNA-binding domain. The DNA-binding domain of MafA is also correlated with weak transactivation. Additional mutagenesis experiments show that transactivation and transformation by MafA are also controlled by phosphorylation of two conserved serine residues in the transactivation domain. Finally, we constructed MafA-estrogen receptor fusion molecules that show tightly hormone-dependent cell transforming ability. These regulatable constructs permit a kinetic characterization of target gene responses and facilitate discrimination between direct and indirect targets. PMID:12970735

  5. APOBEC3G has the ability to programme T cell plasticity.

    PubMed

    Garg, Anuradha; Kaul, Deepak

    2016-07-01

    Recently Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, Catalytic Polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G) biology has assumed importance because of its role in oncogenesis. In this context, the present study was addressed to understand the immune-modulatory role of APOBEC3G through its effect upon the T-cell plasticity phenomenon. Such an attempt revealed that APOBEC3G has the inherent capacity to regulate genes coding for STAT3, NF-κB, CCL5, IL-6, IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-17 coupled with downregulation of Treg cells within human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) without any noticeable influence upon CD4(+) and CD8(+) cell number. On the basis of these findings, we propose that APOBEC3G has the ability to induce T cell plasticity and modulate immune response. PMID:27282578

  6. Mononucleated Blood Cell Populations Display Different Abilities To Transmit Prion Disease by the Transfusion Route

    PubMed Central

    Douet, Jean-Yves; Lacroux, Caroline; Litaise, Claire; Lugan, Séverine; Corbière, Fabien; Arnold, Mark; Simmons, Hugh; Aron, Naima; Costes, Pierrette; Tillier, Cécile; Cassard, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Previous experiments carried out in a sheep scrapie model demonstrated that the transfusion of 200 μl of prion-infected whole blood has an apparent 100% efficacy for disease transmission. These experiments also indicated that, despite the apparent low infectious titer, the intravenous administration of white blood cells (WBC) resulted in efficient disease transmission. In the study presented here, using the same transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) animal model, our aim was to determine the minimal number of white blood cells and the specific abilities of mononucleated cell populations to transmit scrapie by the transfusion route. Our results confirmed that the transfusion of 100 μl, but not 10 μl, of fresh whole blood collected in asymptomatic scrapie-infected donor sheep can transmit the disease. The data also show that the intravenous administration of 105 WBCs is sufficient to cause scrapie in recipient sheep. Cell-sorted CD45R+ (predominantly B lymphocytes), CD4+/CD8+ (T lymphocytes), and CD14+ (monocytes/macrophages) blood cell subpopulations all were shown to contain prion infectivity by bioassays in ovine PrP transgenic mice. However, while the intravenous administration of 106 CD45+ or CD4+/8+ living cells was able to transmit the disease, similar numbers of CD14+ cells failed to infect the recipients. These data support the contention that mononucleated blood cell populations display different abilities to transmit TSE by the transfusion route. They also represent an important input for the risk assessment of blood-borne prion disease transmission and for refining the target performance of leukoreduction processes that currently are applied to mitigate the transmission risk in transfusion medicine. IMPORTANCE Interindividual variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) transmission through blood and blood-derived products is considered a major public health issue in transfusion medicine. Over the last decade, TSE in sheep has emerged as a

  7. Optimal selection of natural killer cells to kill myeloma: the role of HLA-E and NKG2A.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Subhashis; van Gelder, Michel; Noort, Willy; Xu, Yunping; Rouschop, Kasper M A; Groen, Richard; Schouten, Harry C; Tilanus, Marcel G J; Germeraad, Wilfred T V; Martens, Anton C M; Bos, Gerard M J; Wieten, Lotte

    2015-08-01

    Immunotherapy with allogeneic natural killer (NK) cells offers therapeutic perspectives for multiple myeloma patients. Here, we aimed to refine NK cell therapy by evaluation of the relevance of HLA-class I and HLA-E for NK anti-myeloma reactivity. We show that HLA-class I was strongly expressed on the surface of patient-derived myeloma cells and on myeloma cell lines. HLA-E was highly expressed by primary myeloma cells but only marginally by cell lines. HLA-E(low) expression on U266 cells observed in vitro was strongly upregulated after in vivo (bone marrow) growth in RAG-2(-/-) γc(-/-) mice, suggesting that in vitro HLA-E levels poorly predict the in vivo situation. Concurrent analysis of inhibitory receptors (KIR2DL1, KIR2DL2/3, KIR3DL1 and NKG2A) and NK cell degranulation upon co-culture with myeloma cells revealed that KIR-ligand-mismatched NK cells degranulate more than matched subsets and that HLA-E abrogates degranulation of NKG2A+ subsets. Inhibition by HLA-class I and HLA-E was also observed with IL-2-activated NK cells and at low oxygen levels (0.6 %) mimicking hypoxic bone marrow niches where myeloma cells preferentially reside. Our study demonstrates that NKG2A-negative, KIR-ligand-mismatched NK cells are the most potent subset for clinical application. We envision that infusion of high numbers of this subclass will enhance clinical efficacy. PMID:25920521

  8. Cryptococcus Neoformans Modulates Extracellular Killing by Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Asfia; Grey, Angus; Rose, Kristie L.; Schey, Kevin L.; Del Poeta, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    We recently established a key role for host sphingomyelin synthase (SMS) in regulating the killing activity of neutrophils against Cryptococcus neoformans. In this paper, we studied the effect of C. neoformans on the killing activity of neutrophils and whether SMS would still be a player against C. neoformans in immunocompromised mice lacking T and natural killer (NK) cells (Tgε26 mice). To this end, we analyzed whether C. neoformans would have any effect on neutrophil survival and killing in vitro and in vivo. We show that unlike Candida albicans, neither the presence nor the capsule size of C. neoformans cells have any effect on neutrophil viability. Interestingly, melanized C. neoformans cells totally abrogated the killing activity of neutrophils. We monitored how exposure of neutrophils to C. neoformans cells would interfere with any further killing activity of the conditioned medium and found that pre-incubation with live but not “heat-killed” fungal cells significantly inhibits further killing activity of the medium. We then studied whether activation of SMS at the site of C. neoformans infection is dependent on T and NK cells. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption–ionization tissue imaging in infected lung we found that similar to previous observations in the isogenic wild-type CBA/J mice, SM 16:0 levels are significantly elevated at the site of infection in mice lacking T and NK cells, but only at early time points. This study highlights that C. neoformans may negatively regulate the killing activity of neutrophils and that SMS activation in neutrophils appears to be partially independent of T and/or NK cells. PMID:21960987

  9. Development of microarray device for functional evaluation of PC12D cell axonal extension ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamachi, Eiji; Yanagimoto, Junpei; Murakami, Shinya; Morita, Yusuke

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we developed a microarray bio-MEMS device that could trap PC12D (rat pheochromocytoma cells) cells to examine the intercellular interaction effect on the cell activation and the axonal extension ability. This is needed to assign particular patterns of PC12D cells to establish a cell functional evaluation technique. This experimental observation-based technique can be used for design of the cell sheet and scaffold for peripheral and central nerve regeneration. We have fabricated a micropillar-array bio-MEMS device, whose diameter was approximately 10 μm, by using thick photoresist SU-8 on the glass slide substrate. A maximum trapped PC12D cell ratio, 48.5%, was achieved. Through experimental observation of patterned PC12D "bi-cells" activation, we obtained the following results. Most of the PC12D "bi-cells" which had distances between 40 and 100 μm were connected after 24 h with a high probability. On the other hand, "bi-cells" which had distances between 110 and 200 μm were not connected. In addition, we measured axonal extension velocities in cases where the intercellular distance was between 40 and 100 μm. A maximum axonal extension velocity, 86.4 μm/h, was obtained at the intercellular distance of 40 μm.

  10. Divergent expression and roles for caveolin-1 in mouse hepatocarcinoma cell lines with varying invasive ability

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Huimin; Jia Li; Wang Shujing; Wang Hongmei; Chu Haiying; Hu Yichuan; Cao Jun; Zhang Jianing . E-mail: jnzhang@dlmedu.edu.cn

    2006-06-23

    Caveolin-1 is the major component protein of caveolae and associated with a lot of cellular events such as endocytosis, cholesterol homeostasis, signal transduction, and tumorigenesis. The majority of results suggest that caveolin-1 might not only act as a tumor suppressor gene but also a promoting metastasis gene. In this study, the divergent expression and roles of caveolin-1 were investigated in mouse hepatocarcinoma cell lines Hca-F, Hca-P, and Hepa1-6, which have high, low, and no metastatic potential in the lymph nodes, as compared with normal mouse liver cell line IAR-20. The results showed that expression of caveolin-1 mRNA and protein along with the amount of caveolae number in Hca-F cells was higher than that in Hca-P cells, but was not detectable in Hepa1-6 cells. When caveolin-1 expression in Hca-F cells was down-regulated by RNAi approach, Hca-F cells proliferation rate in vitro declined and the expression of lymphangiogenic factor VEGFA in Hca-F decreased as well. Furthermore, in vivo implantation assay indicated that reduction of caveolin-1 expression in Hca-F prevented the lymphatic metastasis tumor burden of Hca-F cells in 615 mice. These results suggest that caveolin-1 facilities the lymphatic metastasis ability of mouse hepatocarcinoma cells via regulation tumor cell growth and VEGFA expression.

  11. Candida albicans killing by RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells: effects of Candida genotype, infection ratios, and gamma interferon treatment.

    PubMed

    Marcil, A; Harcus, D; Thomas, D Y; Whiteway, M

    2002-11-01

    Phagocytic cells such as neutrophils and macrophages are potential components of the immune defense that protects mammals against Candida albicans infection. We have tested the interaction between the mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and a variety of mutant strains of C. albicans. We used an end point dilution assay to monitor the killing of C. albicans at low multiplicities of infection (MOIs). Several mutants that show reduced virulence in mouse systemic-infection models show reduced colony formation in the presence of macrophage cells. To permit analysis of the macrophage-Candida interaction at higher MOIs, we introduced a luciferase reporter gene into wild-type and mutant Candida cells and used loss of the luminescence signal to quantify proliferation. This assay gave results similar to those for the end point dilution assay. Activation of the macrophages with mouse gamma interferon did not enhance anti-Candida activity. Continued coculture of the Candida and macrophage cells eventually led to death of the macrophages, but for the RAW 264.7 cell line this was not due to apoptotic pathways involving caspase-8 or -9 activation. In general Candida cells defective in the formation of hyphae were both less virulent in animal models and more sensitive to macrophage engulfment and growth inhibition. However the nonvirulent, hypha-defective cla4 mutant line was considerably more resistant to macrophage-mediated inhibition than the wild-type strain. Thus although mutants sensitive to engulfment are typically less virulent in systemic-infection models, sensitivity to phagocytic macrophage cells is not the unique determinant of C. albicans virulence. PMID:12379711

  12. ADAM10 new selective inhibitors reduce NKG2D ligand release sensitizing Hodgkin lymphoma cells to NKG2D-mediated killing

    PubMed Central

    Zocchi, Maria Raffaella; Camodeca, Caterina; Nuti, Elisa; Rossello, Armando; Venè, Roberta; Tosetti, Francesca; Dapino, Irene; Costa, Delfina; Musso, Alessandra; Poggi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) resistant to conventional therapies is increasing, making of interest the search for new schemes of treatment. Members of the “A Disintegrin And Metalloproteases” (ADAMs) family, mainly ADAM10 or ADAM17, have been proposed as therapeutic targets in solid tumors and some ADAMs inhibitors have been shown to exert antitumor effects. We have previously described an overexpression of ADAM10 in HL, together with increased release of NKG2D ligands (NKG2D-L) and reduced activation of effector T lymphocytes with anti-lymphoma capacity. Aim of the present work was to verify whether inhibition of ADAM10 in HL cells could restore the triggering of NKG2D-dependent anti-lymphoma T cell response. As no selective ADAM10 blockers have been reported so far, we synthesized the two hydroxamate compounds LT4 and MN8 with selectivity for ADAM10 over metalloproteases (MMPs), LT4 showing higher specificity for ADAM10 over ADAM17. We show that (i) HL lymph nodes (LN) and cultured HL cells express high levels of the mature active membrane form of ADAM10; (ii) ADAM10 is the major sheddase for the NKG2D-L in HL cells; (iii) the new LT4 and MN8 compounds strongly reduce the shedding of NKG2D-L by HL cell lines and enhance the binding of NKG2D receptor; (iv) of note, these new ADAM10 inhibitors increase the sensitivity of HL cell lines to NKG2D-dependent cell killing exerted by natural killer and γδ T cells. Overall, the biologic activity of LT4 and MN8 appears to be more potent than that of the commercial inhibitor GI254023X. PMID:27467923

  13. ADAM10 new selective inhibitors reduce NKG2D ligand release sensitizing Hodgkin lymphoma cells to NKG2D-mediated killing.

    PubMed

    Zocchi, Maria Raffaella; Camodeca, Caterina; Nuti, Elisa; Rossello, Armando; Venè, Roberta; Tosetti, Francesca; Dapino, Irene; Costa, Delfina; Musso, Alessandra; Poggi, Alessandro

    2016-05-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) resistant to conventional therapies is increasing, making of interest the search for new schemes of treatment. Members of the "A Disintegrin And Metalloproteases" (ADAMs) family, mainly ADAM10 or ADAM17, have been proposed as therapeutic targets in solid tumors and some ADAMs inhibitors have been shown to exert antitumor effects. We have previously described an overexpression of ADAM10 in HL, together with increased release of NKG2D ligands (NKG2D-L) and reduced activation of effector T lymphocytes with anti-lymphoma capacity. Aim of the present work was to verify whether inhibition of ADAM10 in HL cells could restore the triggering of NKG2D-dependent anti-lymphoma T cell response. As no selective ADAM10 blockers have been reported so far, we synthesized the two hydroxamate compounds LT4 and MN8 with selectivity for ADAM10 over metalloproteases (MMPs), LT4 showing higher specificity for ADAM10 over ADAM17. We show that (i) HL lymph nodes (LN) and cultured HL cells express high levels of the mature active membrane form of ADAM10; (ii) ADAM10 is the major sheddase for the NKG2D-L in HL cells; (iii) the new LT4 and MN8 compounds strongly reduce the shedding of NKG2D-L by HL cell lines and enhance the binding of NKG2D receptor; (iv) of note, these new ADAM10 inhibitors increase the sensitivity of HL cell lines to NKG2D-dependent cell killing exerted by natural killer and γδ T cells. Overall, the biologic activity of LT4 and MN8 appears to be more potent than that of the commercial inhibitor GI254023X. PMID:27467923

  14. Preferential killing of human lung cancer cell lines with mitochondrial dysfunction by nonthermal dielectric barrier discharge plasma

    PubMed Central

    Panngom, K; Baik, K Y; Nam, M K; Han, J H; Rhim, H; Choi, E H

    2013-01-01

    The distinctive cellular and mitochondrial dysfunctions of two human lung cancer cell lines (H460 and HCC1588) from two human lung normal cell lines (MRC5 and L132) have been studied by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma treatment. This cytotoxicity is exposure time-dependent, which is strongly mediated by the large amount of H2O2 and NOx in culture media generated by DBD nonthermal plasma. It is found that the cell number of lung cancer cells has been reduced more than that of the lung normal cells. The mitochondrial vulnerability to reactive species in H460 may induce distinctively selective re