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1

Intra-Tumoral Heterogeneity in Metastatic Potential and Survival Signaling between Iso-Clonal HCT116 and HCT116b Human Colon Carcinoma Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. The molecular mechanisms underlying this complex, multi-step pathway are yet to be completely elucidated. Recent reports have stressed the importance of intra-tumoral heterogeneity in the development of a metastatic phenotype. The purpose of this study was to characterize the intra-tumoral phenotypic heterogeneity between two iso-clonal human colon cancer sublines HCT116 and HCT116b on their ability to undergo metastatic colonization and survive under growth factor deprivation stress (GFDS). Materials and Methods HCT116 and HCT116b cells were transfected with green fluorescence protein and subcutaneously injected into BALB/c nude male mice. Once xenografts were established, they were excised and orthotopically implanted into other male BALB/c nude mice using microsurgical techniques. Animal tissues were studied for metastases using histochemical techniques. Microarray analysis was performed to generate gene signatures associated with each subline. In vitro assessment of growth factor signaling pathway was performed under GFDS for 3 and 5 days. Results Both HCT116 and HCT116b iso-clonal variants demonstrated 100% primary tumor growth, invasion and peritoneal spread. However, HCT116 was highly metastatic with 68% metastasis observed in liver and/or lungs compared to 4% in HCT116b. Microarray analysis revealed an upregulation of survival and metastatic genes in HCT116 cells compared to HCT116b cells. In vitro analysis showed that HCT116 upregulated survival and migratory signaling proteins and downregulated apoptotic agents under GFDS. However, HCT116b cells effectively showed the opposite response under stress inducing cell death. Conclusions We demonstrate the importance of clonal variation in determining metastatic potential of colorectal cancer cells using the HCT116/HCT116b iso-clonal variants in an orthotopic metastatic mouse model. Determination of clonal heterogeneity in patient tumors can serve as useful tools to identify clinically relevant biomarkers for diagnostic and therapeutic assessment of metastatic colorectal cancer.

Chowdhury, Sanjib; Ongchin, Melanie; Sharratt, Elizabeth; Dominguez, Ivan; Wang, Jing; Brattain, Michael G.; Rajput, Ashwani

2013-01-01

2

Galectin-1 and Galectin-3 Mediate Protocadherin-24-Dependent Membrane Localization of ?-catenin in Colon Cancer Cell Line HCT116  

PubMed Central

Protocadherin-24 (PCDH24) is linked to the suppression of tumor growth and the inhibition of cell proliferation in the colon cancer cell line HCT116. We previously observed that ?-catenin is localized to the plasma membrane when PCDH24 is expressed in these cells, but the molecular mechanisms by which PCDH24 induces the membrane localization of ?-catenin remain largely unknown. To clarify these mechanisms, we identified molecules that interact with ectopically expressed PCDH24 in HCT116 cells using a HaloTag® pull-down assay. We found that galectin-1 and galectin-3 physically interact with PCDH24 and are retained at the plasma membrane in association with PCDH24 expression. A luciferase-based pull-down assay using HaloTag-fused galectins revealed that an intracellular region of PCDH24 (amino acids 1186–1280) is essential for this interaction. Furthermore, the over-expression of galectin-1 or -3, or the depletion of endogenous galectins by small interfering RNA modulates ?-catenin translocation. We also revealed that the retention of galectin-1 and -3 at the plasma membrane results in the inactivation of PI3K activity. From these findings, we propose a model in which the galectin-anchoring activity of PCDH24 leads to the suppression of ?-catenin signaling by the localization of ?-catenin at the plasma membrane in PCDH24-expressing HCT116 colon cancer cells.

Ose, Rui; Oharaa, Osamu; Nagase, Takahiro

2012-01-01

3

Galectin-1 and Galectin-3 Mediate Protocadherin-24-Dependent Membrane Localization of ?-catenin in Colon Cancer Cell Line HCT116.  

PubMed

Protocadherin-24 (PCDH24) is linked to the suppression of tumor growth and the inhibition of cell proliferation in the colon cancer cell line HCT116. We previously observed that ?-catenin is localized to the plasma membrane when PCDH24 is expressed in these cells, but the molecular mechanisms by which PCDH24 induces the membrane localization of ?-catenin remain largely unknown. To clarify these mechanisms, we identified molecules that interact with ectopically expressed PCDH24 in HCT116 cells using a HaloTag® pull-down assay. We found that galectin-1 and galectin-3 physically interact with PCDH24 and are retained at the plasma membrane in association with PCDH24 expression. A luciferase-based pull-down assay using HaloTag-fused galectins revealed that an intracellular region of PCDH24 (amino acids 1186-1280) is essential for this interaction. Furthermore, the over-expression of galectin-1 or -3, or the depletion of endogenous galectins by small interfering RNA modulates ?-catenin translocation. We also revealed that the retention of galectin-1 and -3 at the plasma membrane results in the inactivation of PI3K activity. From these findings, we propose a model in which the galectin-anchoring activity of PCDH24 leads to the suppression of ?-catenin signaling by the localization of ?-catenin at the plasma membrane in PCDH24-expressing HCT116 colon cancer cells. PMID:23115611

Ose, Rui; Oharaa, Osamu; Nagase, Takahiro

2012-01-01

4

Human oesophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines JROECL 47 and JROECL 50 are admixtures of the human colon carcinoma cell line HCT 116  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two recently described human oesophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines JROECL 47 and JROECL 50, derived from one tumour, we detected identical E-cadherin and ?-catenin gene mutations as in colon carcinoma cell line HCT 116. We demonstrate by HLA-typing, mutation analysis and microsatellite analysis that cell lines JROECL 47 and JROECL 50 are admixtures of the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line

B P L Wijnhoven; M G J Tilanus; A G Morris; S J Darnton; H W Tilanus; W N M Dinjens

2000-01-01

5

Antiproliferative effects of metal complexes of new isatin hydrazones against HCT116, MCF7 and HELA tumour cell lines.  

PubMed

New hydrazone ligands (HL) derived from 5-substituted isatins and 1-(4-(2-methoxybenzyl)-6-arylpyridazin-3-yl)hydrazines and its complexes with Co(II) and Cu(II) were synthesized. The new hydrazones and their complexes were characterized by means of elemental, spectral analyses and magnetic studies. Primary cytotoxicity evaluation of HL 5a and the new complexes showed that these complexes could act as anticancer agents since they reduced the growth of samples of human tumour cell lines (HCT116((Colon)), MCF7((Breast)) and HELA((Cervix))) to ?18.5 ?g/mL for the new complexes. PMID:21699460

Kandile, Nadia G; Mohamed, Mansoura I; Ismaeel, Hind M

2012-06-01

6

UBC and YWHAZ as suitable reference genes for accurate normalisation of gene expression using MCF7, HCT116 and HepG2 cell lines.  

PubMed

Relative quantification of in vitro gene expression using real-time PCR requires stably expressed reference gene for normalisation. In this study, total RNA from MCF7, HCT116 and HepG2 cells were extracted and converted to cDNA using commercially available kit, and real-time PCR was then performed to analyse the expression levels of twelve reference genes to select the most ideal reference gene for accurate normalisation in gene expression study. geNorm and NormFinder software were used to analyse the stabilities of the reference genes, which showed a wide range of C(t) values. The geNorm analysis showed the following ranking for stability of genes: UBC, YWHAZ > RPLP > TBP > ACTB > HPRT1 > PPIA > GAPDH > GUSB > B2M > TUBB > RRN18S. A similar ranking of reference genes was obtained by NormFinder, and the four most stable reference genes were identical using both approaches. UBC and YWHAZ were proposed to be the two most suitable reference genes based on the above analyses. To further assess the stabilities of the UBC and YWHAZ in a formal experiment, MCF7, HCT116 and HepG2 cell lines were subjected to treatments with 5-aza-dC and TSA. Both UBC and YWHAZ exhibited stable expression levels across control and treatment groups. Therefore, we propose that UBC and YWHAZ are the two most suitable reference genes for our gene expression studies using MCF7, HCT116 and HepG2 cell lines. PMID:21850463

Chua, Siang Ling; See Too, Wei Cun; Khoo, Boon Yin; Few, Ling Ling

2011-12-01

7

Effects of gamma irradiation on cell cycle, apoptosis and telomerase activity in p53 wild-type and deficient HCT116 colon cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

Radiotherapy serves as adjunctive treatment to chemotherapy and surgical resection of colorectal cancer. However, the cellular response to irradiation varies depending on the expression of tumor suppressor p53, which plays a significant role in the regulation of cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and telomerase activity in various cancers. The present study aimed to investigate cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and telomerase activity with respect to p53 expression in p53 wild-type (+/+) and deficient (?/?) HCT116 colon cancer cell lines following 5 Gy ?-irradiation. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were evaluated using flow cytometry. The telomerase activity was measured using a TRAP (telomerase repeat amplification protocol) assay. Following treatment with irradiation, G1/S cell cycle arrest occurred in the p53+/+ cells, whereas the p53?/? cells accumulated in the G2 phase. No differences were observed in the apoptotic ratios between the two cell lines following irradiation. Decreased telomerase activity was observed in the p53+/+ cells, whereas telomerase activity was increased in the p53?/? cells. The results showed that while telomerase activity and G1 cell cycle arrest were regulated depending on the p53 status, G2 arrest and the apoptotic response were promoted via a p53-independent pathway.

HALACLI, SEVIL OSKAY; CANPINAR, HANDE; CIMEN, EREN; SUNGUROGLU, ASUMAN

2013-01-01

8

Structural Properties of Polyphenols Causing Cell Cycle Arrest at G1 Phase in HCT116 Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Plant-derived polyphenols are being tested as chemopreventive agents; some polyphenols arrest the cell cycle at G1 phase, whereas others inhibit cell cycle proliferation at G2/M phase. Therefore, polyphenols have been proposed to inhibit cell cycle progression at different phases via distinct mechanisms. Indeed, our previous studies showed that small structural differences in polyphenols cause large differences in their biological activities; however, the details of the structural properties causing G1 cell cycle arrest remain unknown. In this study, we prepared 27 polyphenols, including eight different scaffolds, to gain insight into the structural conditions that arrest the cell cycle at G1 phase in a quantitative structure–activity relationship study. We used cell cycle profiles to determine the biophores responsible for G1 cell cycle arrest and believe that the biophores identified in this study will help design polyphenols that cause G1 cell cycle arrest.

Shin, Soon Young; Yoon, Hyuk; Ahn, Seunghyun; Kim, Dong-Wook; Bae, Dong-Ho; Koh, Dongsoo; Lee, Young Han; Lim, Yoongho

2013-01-01

9

Transforming Growth Factor Beta Receptor 2 (TGFBR2) Changes Sialylation in the Microsatellite Unstable (MSI) Colorectal Cancer Cell Line HCT116  

PubMed Central

Aberrant glycosylation is a common feature of many malignancies including colorectal cancers (CRCs). About 15% of CRC show the microsatellite instability (MSI) phenotype that is associated with a high frequency of biallelic frameshift mutations in the A10 coding mononucleotide microsatellite of the transforming growth factor beta receptor 2 (TGFBR2) gene. If and how impaired TGFBR2 signaling in MSI CRC cells affects cell surface glycan pattern is largely unexplored. Here, we used the TGFBR2-deficient MSI colon carcinoma cell line HCT116 as a model system. Stable clones conferring doxycycline (dox)-inducible expression of a single copy wildtype TGFBR2 transgene were generated by recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE). In two independent clones, dox-inducible expression of wildtype TGFBR2 protein and reconstitution of its signaling function was shown. Metabolic labeling experiments using the tritiated sialic acid precursor N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc) revealed a significant decline (?30%) of its incorporation into newly synthesized sialoglycoproteins in a TGFBR2-dependent manner. In particular, we detected a significant decrease of sialylated ß1-integrin upon reconstituted TGFBR2 signaling which did not influence ß1-integrin protein turnover. Notably, TGFBR2 reconstitution did not affect the transcript levels of any of the known human sialyltransferases when examined by real-time RT- PCR analysis. These results suggest that reconstituted TGFBR2 signaling in an isogenic MSI cell line model system can modulate sialylation of cell surface proteins like ß1-integrin. Moreover, our model system will be suitable to uncover the underlying molecular mechanisms of altered MSI tumor glycobiology.

Lee, Jennifer; Ballikaya, Seda; Schonig, Kai; Ball, Claudia R.; Glimm, Hanno; Kopitz, Juergen; Gebert, Johannes

2013-01-01

10

Synthesis and evaluation of heteroaromatic 6,7-diaryl-2,3,8,8a-tetrahydroindolizin-5(1H)-ones for cytotoxicity against the HCT-116 colon cancer cell line  

PubMed Central

A heteroaromatic 6,7-diaryl-2,3,8,8a-tetrahydroindolizin-5(1H)-one analog library was prepared and tested for cytotoxic properties against the HCT-116 colon cancer cell line, thus providing additional information pertaining to structure-activity relationships for this class of compounds. The most active of the new analogs proved to be the C6 2-thiophene and 3-thiophene analogs with an IC50 value of 0.27 µM and 0.60 µM respectively.

Kimball, F. Scott; Himes, Richard H.

2008-01-01

11

Molecular cloning, genomic characterization and over-expression of a novel gene, XRRA1, identified from human colorectal cancer cell HCT116Clone2_XRR and macaque testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: As part of our investigation into the genetic basis of tumor cell radioresponse, we have isolated several clones with a wide range of responses to X-radiation (XR) from an unirradiated human colorectal tumor cell line, HCT116. Using human cDNA microarrays, we recently identified a novel gene that was down-regulated by two-fold in an XR-resistant cell clone, HCT116Clone2_XRR. We have

Felix M Mesak; Naoki Osada; Katsuyuki Hashimoto; Qing Y Liu; Cheng E Ng

2003-01-01

12

Inhibition of polyamine oxidase prevented cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor-induced apoptosis in HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Roscovitine and purvalanol are novel cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors that prevent cell proliferation and induce apoptotic cell death in various cancer cell lines. Although a number of studies have demonstrated the potential apoptotic role of roscovitine, there is limited data about the therapeutic efficiency of purvalanol on cancer cells. The natural polyamines (PAs) putrescine, spermidine, and spermine have essential roles in the regulation of cell differentiation, growth, and proliferation, and increased levels of these compounds have been associated with cancer progression. Recently, depletion of intracellular PA levels because of modulation of PA catabolic enzymes was shown to be an indicator of the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, our aim was to investigate the potential role of PA catabolic enzymes in CDK inhibitor-induced apoptosis in HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells. Exposure of cells to roscovitine or purvalanol decreased cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The selected concentrations of roscovitine and purvalanol inhibited cell viability by 50 % compared with control cells and induced apoptosis by activating the mitochondria-mediated pathway in a caspase-dependent manner. However, the apoptotic effect of purvalanol was stronger than that of roscovitine in HCT 116 cells. In addition, we found that CDK inhibitors decreased PA levels and significantly upregulated expression of key PA catabolic enzymes such as polyamine oxidase (PAO) and spermine oxidase (SMO). MDL-72,527, a specific inhibitor of PAO and SMO, decreased apoptotic potential of CDK inhibitors on HCT 116 cells. Moreover, transient silencing of PAO was also reduced prevented CDK inhibitor-induced apoptosis in HCT 116 cells. We conclude that the PA catabolic pathway, especially PAO, is a critical target for understanding the molecular mechanism of CDK inhibitor-induced apoptosis. PMID:23892915

Gürkan, Ajda Coker; Arisan, Elif Damla; Obakan, Pinar; Palavan-Ünsal, Narçin

2013-12-01

13

Coumarin polysulfides inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in HCT116 colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

Coumarins and coumarin derivatives as well as diallyl polysulfides are well known as anticancer drugs. In order to find new drugs with anticancer activities, we combined coumarins with polysulfides in the form of di-coumarin polysulfides. These novel compounds were tested in the HCT116 colorectal cancer cell line. It turned out that they reduced cell viability of cancer cells in a time and concentration dependent manner. Cells tested with these coumarin polysulfides accumulate in the G(2)/M phase of the cell cycle and finally they go into apoptosis. A decrease in bcl-2 level, and increase in the level of bax, cytochrome c release into the cytosol, cleavage of caspase 3/7and PARP suggested that coumarin polysulfides induced the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Comparison of these new coumarin compounds with the well known diallyl polysulfides revealed that the coumarin disulfides were more active than the corresponding diallyl disulfides. The activities of the coumarin tetrasulfides and the corresponding diallyl tetrasulfides are similar. The novel coumarin compounds regulated the phosphatase activity of the cell cycle regulating cdc25 family members, indicating that these phosphatases are implicated in the induction of cell cycle arrest and possibly in apoptosis induction as well. In addition, coumarin polysulfides also down-regulated the level of cdc25C, which also contributed to the arrest in the G(2)-phase of the cell cycle. PMID:22264758

Saidu, Nathaniel Edward Bennett; Valente, Sergio; Bana, Emilie; Kirsch, Gilbert; Bagrel, Denyse; Montenarh, Mathias

2012-02-15

14

Effect of hydroxyapatite particle size, morphology and crystallinity on proliferation of colon cancer HCT116 cells.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work is to chemically and physically characterize the synthesized Hydroxyapatite (HAp) micro and nanoparticles and to explore the inhibitory effect of nano-HAps on the in vitro growth of human colon cancerous cells HCT116. HAp powder was synthesized using three different routes to achieve micro and nanosized powders, with different morphologies and crystallinity. The synthesized powders were characterized using X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the average crystallite size of HAp powder varies from 11nm to 177nm and respective crystallinity of powder found to be in the range of 0.12 and 0.92. The effect of these physico-chemical properties of HAp powders on human colon cancer HCT116 cells inhibition was determined in vitro. It was found that decreasing the HAp powder crystallite size between 11nm and 22nm significantly increases the HCT116 cell inhibition. Our results demonstrate that apart from HAp powder size their crystallinity and morphology also play an important role in cellular inhibition of human colon cancer cells. PMID:24863233

Dey, Sangeeta; Das, Mitun; Balla, Vamsi Krishna

2014-06-01

15

Apoptosis inducing activity of benzophenanthridine-type alkaloids and 2-arylbenzofuran neolignans in HCT116 colon carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Thirteen compounds belonging to different classes of alkaloids (1-9) and lignans (10-13), isolated from the methanol extract of roots of the African medicinal plant Zanthoxylum capense, were assayed for their ability as apoptosis inducers in HCT116 colon carcinoma cells. The cytotoxicity of these compounds was evaluated in HCT116 colon carcinoma cells by the MTS assay. Out of the tested compounds, three benzophenanthridine alkaloids (1, 4, and 7), a dibenzyl butyrolactone lignan (10), and two 2-arylbenzofuran neolignans (12 and 13) displayed significant cytotoxicity to HCT116 cells, confirmed by the Guava ViaCount viability assay. The selected compounds (1, 4, 7, 10, 12, and 13) were further tested for apoptosis induction activity in HCT116 cells, by evaluation of nuclear morphology following Hoechst staining, and by caspase-3 like activity assays. Morphologic evaluation of HCT116 nuclei following Hoechst staining and fluorescence microscopy revealed that compounds 1, 4, 7, 10, 12, and 13 induced apoptosis in HCT116 colon carcinoma cells, producing similar, or higher, apoptosis levels when compared with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), the cornerstone cytotoxic used in colon cancer treatment for several decades. In fact, HCT116 cells developed morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis, including chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation and formation of apoptotic bodies. Importantly, compounds 4 and 13 at 20 ?M were the most promising in this study, inducing respectively ?11- and 7-fold increases in apoptotic cells as compared to vehicle control, whereas 5-FU increased apoptosis by ?2-fold. Apoptosis induction for compounds 4 and 13 was further confirmed by caspase-3-like activity assays, which showed respectively ?2- and 1.5-fold increases in caspase-3-like activity compared to vehicle control. These results suggested that specific benzophenanthridine alkaloids and 2-arylbenzofuran neolignans isolated from Zanthoxylum capense show strong anticancer activity in HCT116 colon carcinoma cells. PMID:23643093

Mansoor, Tayyab A; Borralho, Pedro M; Luo, Xuan; Mulhovo, Silva; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Ferreira, Maria-José U

2013-07-15

16

Secreted Human Adipose Leptin Decreases Mitochondrial Respiration in HCT116 Colon Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a key risk factor for the development of colon cancer; however, the endocrine/paracrine/metabolic networks mediating this connection are poorly understood. Here we hypothesize that obesity results in secreted products from adipose tissue that induce malignancy-related metabolic alterations in colon cancer cells. Human HCT116 colon cancer cells, were exposed to conditioned media from cultured human adipose tissue fragments of obese vs. non-obese subjects. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR, mostly mitochondrial respiration) and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR, mostly lactate production via glycolysis) were examined vis-ŕ-vis cell viability and expression of related genes and proteins. Our results show that conditioned media from obese (vs. non-obese) subjects decreased basal (40%, p<0.05) and maximal (50%, p<0.05) OCR and gene expression of mitochondrial proteins and Bax without affecting cell viability or expression of glycolytic enzymes. Similar changes could be recapitulated by incubating cells with leptin, whereas, leptin-receptor specific antagonist inhibited the reduced OCR induced by conditioned media from obese subjects. We conclude that secreted products from the adipose tissue of obese subjects inhibit mitochondrial respiration and function in HCT116 colon cancer cells, an effect that is at least partly mediated by leptin. These results highlight a putative novel mechanism for obesity-associated risk of gastrointestinal malignancies, and suggest potential new therapeutic avenues.

Yehuda-Shnaidman, Einav; Nimri, Lili; Tarnovscki, Tanya; Kirshtein, Boris; Rudich, Assaf; Schwartz, Betty

2013-01-01

17

Basic studies on radioimmunotargeting of CD133-positive HCT116 cancer stem cells.  

PubMed

As cancer stem cells (CSCs) are postulated to play critical roles in cancer development, including metastasis and recurrence, CSC imaging would provide valuable information for cancer treatment and lead to CSC-targeted therapy. To assess the possibility of in vivo CSC targeting, we conducted basic studies on radioimmunotargeting of cancer cells positive for CD133, a CSC marker recognized in various cancers. Antibodies against CD133 were labeled with ą˛?I, and their in vitro cell binding properties were tested. Using the same isotype IgG as a control, in vivo biodistribution of the labeled antibody retaining immunoreactivity was examined in mice bearing an HCT116 xenograft in which a population of the cancer cells expressed CD133. Intratumoral distribution of the labeled antibody was examined and compared to the CD133 expression pattern. The ą˛?I-labeled anti-CD133 antibody showed a modest but significantly higher accumulation in the HCT116 xenograft compared to the control IgG. The intratumoral distribution of the labeled antibody mostly overlapped with the CD133 expression, whereas the control IgG was found in the area close to the necrotic tumor center. Our results indicate that noninvasive in vivo targeting of CSCs could be possible with radiolabeled antibodies against cell membrane markers. PMID:23084245

Jin, Zhao-Hui; Sogawa, Chizuru; Furukawa, Takako; Saito, Yuriko; Aung, Winn; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Saga, Tsuneo

2012-01-01

18

A new in vivo model to analyze hepatic metastasis of the human colon cancer cell line HCT116 in NOD/Shi-scid/IL-2R?(null) (NOG) mice by (18)F-FDG PET/CT.  

PubMed

Clinically, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET/CT) is useful in the evaluation of various types of human cancers. While PET analysis has been established to evaluate subcutaneous lesions of human cancers in mice, its applications for internal lesions are still being developed. We are currently evaluating new PET approaches for the effective evaluation of in vivo metastatic lesions in the internal organs of small experimental animals. In this study, we analyzed in vivo hepatic metastases of human colonic cancer in immunodeficient mice (NOD/Shi-scid/IL-2R?(null), NOG) using PET imaging. This new PET approach has been proposed for the evaluation of in vivo metastatic lesions in internal organs. The human colon cancer line HCT116 (1.0x10(5) and 1.0x10(6) cells/mouse) was transplanted by intrasplenic injection. (18)F-FDG-PET/CT scans were performed 2 weeks after transplantation. After PET/CT scans, histopathological examinations were performed. PET/CT analysis disclosed multiple metastatic foci and increased standardized uptake values (SUV) of FDG in the livers of NOG mice (control, SUVmean 0.450±0.033, SUVmax 0.635±0.017; 1.0x10(5) cells, 0.853±0.087, 1.254±0.237; 1.0x10(6) cells, 1.211±0.108, 1.701±0.158). There were significant differences in FDG uptakes between the three groups (ANOVA, P=0.017 in SUVmean; P=0.044 in SUVmax, n=2). We clearly and quantitatively detected images of hepatic metastasis in the livers of NOG mice by (18)F-FDG-PET/CT in vivo. PET/CT analysis of internal organ lesions of human cancerous xenografts is a new reliable experimental system to simulate metastases. This model system is useful for analyzing metastatic mechanisms and for developing new novel drugs targeting hepatic metastases of cancer. PMID:23165994

Kawai, Kenji; Tamura, Katsumi; Sakata, Ikuko; Ishida, Jiro; Nagata, Masayoshi; Tsukada, Hideo; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Masato; Abe, Yoshiyuki; Chijiwa, Tsuyoshi

2013-02-01

19

Flow cytometric fluorescence pulse width analysis of etoposide-induced nuclear enlargement in HCT116 cells.  

PubMed

Fluorescence pulse width can provide size information on the fluorescence-emitting particle, such as the nuclei of propidium iodide-stained cells. To analyze nuclear size in the present study, rather than perform the simple doublet discrimination approach usually employed in flow cytometric DNA content analyses, we assessed the pulse width of the propidium iodide fluorescence signal. The anti-cancer drug etoposide is reportedly cytostatic, can induce a strong G2/M arrest, and results in nuclear enlargement. Based on these characteristics, we used etoposide-treated HCT116 cells as our experimental model system. The fluorescence pulse widths (FL2-W) of etoposide-treated (10 microM, 48 h) cells were distributed at higher positions than those of vehicle control, so the peak FL2-W value of etoposide-treated cells appeared at 400 while those of vehicle control cells appeared at 200 and 270. These results were consistent with our microscopic observations. This etoposide-induced increase in FL2-W was more apparent in G2/M phase than other cell cycle phases, suggesting that etoposide-induced nuclear enlargement preferentially occurred in G2/M phase cells rather than in G0/G1 or S phase cells. PMID:20429026

Kang, Kyungsu; Lee, Saet Byoul; Yoo, Ji-Hye; Nho, Chu Won

2010-08-01

20

Anticancer potential of an ethanol extract of Asiasari radix against HCT-116 human colon cancer cells in vitro  

PubMed Central

Radix of Asiasarum heterotropoides var. mandshuricum F. Maekawa (A. radix) has been prescribed for treating pain, allergies and inflammatory disorders in traditional oriental medicine. However, only limited information on the anticancer effects of A. radix is currently available. The aim of this study was to determine the anticancer effect of the ethanol extract of A. radix (EEAR) on HCT-116 human colon cancer cells and to investigate its underlying mechanisms of action. EEAR significantly induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HCT-116 cells. EEAR-induced apoptosis was observed in parallel with activation of caspases and an increased ratio of Bax (pro-apoptotic)/Bcl2 (anti-apoptotic). Western blot analyses revealed that EEAR elevated the expression of p53 and p21Waf/Cip1 and decreased the expression of the regulator proteins of G2/M phase progression, such as cdc2 and cyclin B. The upregulation of p53 by EEAR was due to the increased levels of p53 mRNA without a similar increase in proteasome-mediated p53 degradation. EEAR-induced apoptosis in HCT-116 cells was dependent on p53 expression, as determined by siRNA-mediated p53 knockdown. Taken together, these results suggest that EEAR inhibits the growth of the HCT-116 cells through induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, which are mediated by p53 expression.

OH, SE-MI; KIM, JINHEE; LEE, JUN; YI, JIN-MU; OH, DAL-SEOK; BANG, OK-SUN; KIM, NO SOO

2013-01-01

21

Dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans, gomisins J and N inhibit the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway in HCT116 cells  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram of the possible molecular mechanism underlying the inhibition of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway and the induction of G0/G1-phase arrest by gomisins J and N, derived from the fruits of S. chinensis, in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gomisins J and N inhibited Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway in HCT116 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gomisins J and N disrupted the binding of {beta}-catenin to specific DNA sequences, TBE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gomisins J and N inhibited the HCT116 cell proliferation through G0/G1 phase arrest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gomisins J and N inhibited the expression of Cyc D1, a Wnt/{beta}-catenin target gene. -- Abstract: Here, we report that gomisin J and gomisin N, dibenzocyclooctadiene type lignans isolated from Schisandra chinensis, inhibit Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling in HCT116 cells. Gomisins J and N appear to inhibit Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling by disrupting the interaction between {beta}-catenin and its specific target DNA sequences (TCF binding elements, TBE) rather than by altering the expression of the {beta}-catenin protein. Gomisins J and N inhibit HCT116 cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. The G0/G1 phase arrest induced by gomisins J and N appears to be caused by a decrease in the expression of Cyclin D1, a representative target gene of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway, as well as Cdk2, Cdk4, and E2F-1. Therefore, gomisins J and N, the novel Wnt/{beta}-catenin inhibitors discovered in this study, may serve as potential agents for the prevention and treatment of human colorectal cancers.

Kang, Kyungsu; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Yoo, Ji-Hye; Lee, Hee Ju [Functional Food Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of)] [Functional Food Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chul Young [Functional Food Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of) [Functional Food Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); College of Pharmacy, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Nho, Chu Won, E-mail: cwnho@kist.re.kr [Functional Food Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-11-16

22

Both stromal cell and colonocyte epidermal growth factor receptors control HCT116 colon cancer cell growth in tumor xenografts  

PubMed Central

Colon cancer growth requires growth-promoting interactions between malignant colonocytes and stromal cells. Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) are expressed on colonocytes and many stromal cells. Furthermore, EGFR is required for efficient tumorigenesis in experimental colon cancer models. To dissect the cell-specific role of EGFR, we manipulated receptor function on stromal cells and cancer cells. To assess the role of stromal EGFR, HCT116 human colon cancer cells were implanted into immunodeficient mice expressing dominant negative (DN) EgfrVelvet/+ or Egfr+/+. To assess the role of cancer cell EGFR, HCT116 transfectants expressing inducible DN-Egfr were implanted into immunodeficient mice. To dissect EGFR signals in vitro, we examined colon cancer cells in monoculture or in cocultures with fibroblasts for EGFR transactivation and prostaglandin synthase 2 (PTGS2) induction. EGFR signals were determined by blotting, immunostaining and real-time PCR. Tumor xenografts in EgfrVelvet/+ mice were significantly smaller than tumors in Egfr+/+ mice, with decreased proliferation (Ki67) and increased apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3) in cancer cells and decreased stromal blood vessels. Mouse stromal transforming growth factor alpha (TGFA), amphiregulin (AREG), PTGS2 and Il1b and interleukin-1 receptor 1 (Il1r1) transcripts and cancer cell beta catenin (CTNNB1) and cyclin D1 (CCND1) were significantly lower in tumors obtained from EgfrVelvet/+ mice. DN-EGFR HCT116 transfectants also formed significantly smaller tumors with reduced mouse Areg, Ptgs2, Il1b and Il1r1 transcripts. Coculture increased Caco-2 phospho-active ERBB (pERBB2), whereas DN-EGFR in Caco-2 cells suppressed fibroblast PTGS2 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). In monoculture, interleukin 1 beta (IL1B) transactivated EGFR in HCT116 cells. Stromal cell and colonocyte EGFRs are required for robust EGFR signals and efficient tumor growth, which involve EGFR–interleukin-1 crosstalk.

Bissonnette, Marc

2012-01-01

23

Stereospecific ligands and their complexes. Part XII. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro antiproliferative activity of platinum(IV) complexes with some O,O?-dialkyl esters of (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N?-di-2-propanoic acid against colon cancer (HCT-116) and breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cell lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthesis of three new platinum(IV) complexes C1-C3, with bidentate N,N?-ligand precursors, O,O?-dialkyl esters (alkyl = propyl, butyl and pentyl), of (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N?-di-2-propanoic acid, H2-S,S-eddp were reported. The reported platinum(IV) complexes characterized by elemental analysis and their structures were discussed on the bases of their infrared, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. In vitro antiproliferative activity was determined on tumor cell lines: human colon carcinoma HCT-116 and human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231, using MTT test.

Stojkovi?, Danijela Lj.; Jevti?, Verica V.; Radi?, Gordana P.; ?a?i?, Dragana S.; ?ur?i?, Milena G.; Markovi?, Snežana D.; Đinovi?, Vesna M.; Petrovi?, Vladimir P.; Trifunovi?, Sre?ko R.

2014-03-01

24

Blastocystis sp. subtype 3 triggers higher proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells, HCT116.  

PubMed

Blastocystis sp. is a commonly found intestinal microorganism and was reported to cause many nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms. Various subtypes have been previously reported, and the pathogenicity of different subtypes of Blastocystis is unclear and remains as a controversial issue. A recent study has shown that the Blastocystis antigen isolated from an unknown subtype could facilitate the proliferation of colon cancer cells. Current study was conducted to compare the effect of solubilized antigen isolated from five different subtypes of Blastocystis on colon cancer cells, HCT116. A statistically significant proliferation of these cells was observed when exposed to 1.0 ?g/ml solubilized antigen isolated from subtype 3 Blastocystis (37.22%, p < 0.05). Real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated the upregulation of Th2 cytokines especially transforming growth factor beta in subtype 3-treated cancer cells (p < 0.01, 3.71-fold difference). Of interest, subtype 3 Blastocystis antigen also caused a significantly higher upregulation of cathepsin B (subtypes 1 and 2, p < 0.01; subtypes 4 and 5, p < 0.001; 6.71-fold difference) which lead to the postulation that it may enhance the exacerbation of existing colon cancer cells by weakening the cellular immune response. The dysregulation of IFN-? and p53 expression also suggest Blastocystis as a proponent of carcinogenesis. Therefore, it is very likely for subtype 3 Blastocystis to have higher pathogenic potential as it caused an increased propagation of cancer cells and substantial amount of inflammatory reaction compared to other subtypes. PMID:23933809

Kumarasamy, Vinoth; Kuppusamy, Umah R; Samudi, Chandramathi; Kumar, Suresh

2013-10-01

25

Aloperine induces G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HCT116 human colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

Aloperine (ALO) is a quinolizidine alkaloid extracted from the leaves of Sophora alopecuroides (S. alopecuroides) and possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-allergenic, antitumor, and antiviral effects. In this study, when compared with seven other types of alkaloids extracted from S. alopecuroides, ALO treatment produced the most potent effects against HCT116 colon cancer cell types. ALO inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner as detected by MTT, clonogenic survival, and flow cytometric assays. Results of the western blot analysis and qPCR revealed that ALO increased the protein and mRNA of Bax and decreased Bcl-2 via the mitochondrial death pathway. In addition, ALO induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase with a concomitant increase in p21 and p53 and a decrease in cyclin D1 and B1. ALO also inhibited phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and JAK/Stat3. Generally, ALO exerted a significant anti-proliferative effect via apoptotic and cell cycle arrest induction in HCT116 cells. These results suggested that ALO should be investigated further as an agent of chemotherapeutic activity in human colon cancer. PMID:24682388

Zhang, Li; Zheng, Yanxin; Deng, Hongzhu; Liang, Lei; Peng, Juan

2014-06-01

26

Isoreserpine promotes {beta}-catenin degradation via Siah-1 up-regulation in HCT116 colon cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Aberrant accumulation of intracellular {beta}-catenin in intestinal epithelial cells is a frequent early event during the development of colon cancer. To identify small molecules that decrease the level of intracellular {beta}-catenin, we performed cell-based chemical screening using genetically engineered HEK293 reporter cells to detect compounds that inhibit TOPFlash reporter activity, which was stimulated by Wnt3a-conditioned medium. We found that isoreserpine promoted the degradation of intracellular {beta}-catenin by up-regulation of Siah-1 in HEK293 and HCT116 colon cancer cells. Moreover, isoreserpine repressed the expression of {beta}-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF)-dependent genes, such as cyclin D1 and c-myc, resulting in the suppression of HCT116 cell proliferation. Our findings suggest that isoreserpine can potentially be used as a chemotherapeutic agent against colon cancer.

Gwak, Jungsug; Song, Taeyun [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of)] [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jie-Young; Yun, Yeon-Sook [Laboratory of Radiation Cancer Science, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)] [Laboratory of Radiation Cancer Science, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Il-Whan [Department of Microbiology, Center for Viral Disease Research, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Microbiology, Center for Viral Disease Research, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yongsu [Department of Genetic Engineering, and Graduate School of Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Genetic Engineering, and Graduate School of Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jae-Gook [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of) [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sangtaek, E-mail: ohsa@inje.ac.kr [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of)] [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-09-25

27

Bone morphogenetic protein-4 is overexpressed in colonic adenocarcinomas and promotes migration and invasion of HCT116 cells  

SciTech Connect

Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), a member of the TGF-{beta} superfamily, is involved in development, morphogenesis, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Dysregulation of BMP signaling has been suggested in tumorigenesis. In an analysis of human colon normal mucosa and tumors at different stages by immunohistochemistry, we observed that the intensity of BMP-4 staining in late-adenocarcinomas was stronger than that in normal mucosa and adenomas, while there was no difference in the staining of its receptors (BMPR-IA and BMPR-II) at all stages. The up-regulation of BMP-4 was further validated in another panel of tumor tissues by real-time RT-PCR, showing that BMP-4 mRNA levels in primary colonic carcinomas with liver metastasis were significantly higher than that in the matched normal mucosa. In order to understand the functional relevance of BMP-4 expression in colon cancer progression, BMP-4-overexpressing cell clones were generated from HCT116 cells. Overexpression of BMP-4 did not affect the HCT116 cell growth. The cells overexpressing BMP-4 became resistant to serum-starvation-induced apoptosis and exhibited enhanced migration and invasion characteristics. Overexpression of BMP-4 changed cell morphology to invasive spindle phenotype and induced the expression and activity of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). These results indicate that BMP-4 confers invasive phenotype during progression of colon cancer.

Deng Haiyun [Division of Surgical Research, Department of Surgery, North Shore University Hospital and Long Island Jewish Medical Center, Manhasset, NY 11030 (United States); Makizumi, Ryouji [Division of Surgical Research, Department of Surgery, North Shore University Hospital and Long Island Jewish Medical Center, Manhasset, NY 11030 (United States); Ravikumar, T.S. [Division of Surgical Research, Department of Surgery, North Shore University Hospital and Long Island Jewish Medical Center, Manhasset, NY 11030 (United States); Dong Huali [Division of Surgical Research, Department of Surgery, North Shore University Hospital and Long Island Jewish Medical Center, Manhasset, NY 11030 (United States); Yang Wancai [Department of Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein Cancer Center, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Yang, W.-L. [Division of Surgical Research, Department of Surgery, North Shore University Hospital and Long Island Jewish Medical Center, Manhasset, NY 11030 (United States) and Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, 350 Community Drive, Manhasset, NY 11030 (United States)]. E-mail: wlyang@nshs.edu

2007-03-10

28

Raman micro-spectroscopic analysis of cultured HCT116 colon cancer cells in the presence of roscovitine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman micro-spectroscopic analysis of cultured HCT116 colon cancer cells in the presence of roscovitine, [seliciclib, 2-(1-ethyl-2-hydroxy-ethylamino)-6-benzylamino-9-isopropylpurine], a promising drug candidate in cancer therapy, has been performed for the first time. The aim of this study was to investigate modulations in colon cancer cells induced by roscovitine. Raman spectra of the cultured HCT116 colon cancer cells treated with roscovitine at different concentrations (0, 5, 10, 25 and 50 ?M) were recorded in the range 400-1850 cm -1. It was shown that the second derivative profile of the experimental spectrum gives valuable information about the wavenumbers and band widths of the vibrational modes of cell components, and it eliminates the appearance of false peaks arising from incorrect baseline corrections. In samples containing roscovitine, significant spectral changes were observed in the intensities of characteristic protein and DNA bands, which indicate roscovitine-induced apoptosis. Roscovitine-induced apoptosis was also assessed by flow cytometry analysis, and analysis of propidium iodide staining. We observed some modifications in amide I and III bands, which arise from alterations in the secondary structure of cell proteins caused by the presence of roscovitine.

Akyuz, S.; Ozel, A. E.; Balci, K.; Akyuz, T.; Coker, A.; Arisan, E. D.; Palavan-Unsal, N.; Ozalpan, A.

2011-05-01

29

Palladin, an actin-associated protein, is required for adherens junction formation and intercellular adhesion in HCT116 colorectal cancer cells.  

PubMed

Palladin is a scaffold protein involved in the formation of actin-associated protein complexes. Gene expression array analysis on the poorly metastatic HCT116 colon cancer cell line and a metastatic derivative cell line (E1) with EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) features showed a down-regulation of palladin gene expression in the latter. Knockdown of palladin expression in the HCT116 cells suppressed junctional localization of E-cadherin, reduced intercellular adhesion and collective cell migration, showing that palladin plays an important role in maintaining the integrity of adherens junctions. The acquisition of the EMT features by the E1 cell line was dependent on the Erk pathway. Inhibition of this pathway by U0126 treatment in E1 cells resulted in the re-expression of palladin, relocalization of E-cadherin to the adherens junctions and a reversal of EMT features. The re-establishment of intercellular adhesion was dependent on palladin expression. The down-regulation of palladin was also observed in poorly-differentiated tumor tubules and dissociated tumor cells that have undergone de-differentiation in human primary colon tumors. Our data show that palladin is an integral component of adherens junctions and plays a role in the localization of E-cadherin to the junctions. The loss of palladin may be an integral part of EMT, an early step in the metastatic spread of colon carcinoma. PMID:20811713

Tay, Puei Nam; Tan, Patrick; Lan, Yuhong; Leung, Carol Ho-Wing; Laban, Mirtha; Tan, Tze Chin; Ni, Hongmin; Manikandan, Jayapal; Rashid, Suhaimi Bin Abdul; Yan, Benedict; Yap, Celestial Therese; Lim, Lina Hsiu Kim; Lim, Yaw Chyn; Hooi, Shing Chuan

2010-10-01

30

Wogonin reverses hypoxia resistance of human colon cancer HCT116 cells via downregulation of HIF-1? and glycolysis, by inhibiting PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Hypoxia induced drug resistance is a major obstacle in the development of effective cancer therapy. In the present study, the reversal abilities of wogonin on the hypoxia resistance and the underlying mechanisms were discovered. MTT assay revealed that hypoxia increased maximal 1.71-, 2.08-, and 2.15-fold of IC50 toward paclitaxel, ADM, and DDP in human colon cancer cell lines HCT116, respectively. Furthermore, wogonin showed strong reversal potency in HCT116 cells in hypoxia and the RF reached 2.05. hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) can activate the expression of target genes involved in glycolysis. Wogonin decreased the expression of glycolysis-related proteins (HKII, PDHK1, LDHA), glucose uptake, and lactate generation in a dose-dependent manner. Further, Western blot experiments exhibited that wogonin could down regulate HIF-1? expression and glycolysis through inhibiting PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, which might be the mechanism of reversal resistance of wogonin. Also, wogonin could inhibit the growth of transplantable tumors and the expression of HIF-1?, glycolysis-related proteins and PI3K/Akt in vivo. In summary, wogonin could be a good candidate for the development of new multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal agent and its reversal mechanism probably is due to the suppression of HIF-1? expression via inhibiting PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. PMID:23761018

Wang, Hu; Zhao, Li; Zhu, Li-Tao; Wang, Yu; Pan, Di; Yao, Jing; You, Qi-Dong; Guo, Qing-Long

2014-02-01

31

Azaindolylsulfonamides, with a More Selective Inhibitory Effect on Histone Deacetylase 6 Activity, Exhibit Antitumor Activity in Colorectal Cancer HCT116 Cells.  

PubMed

A series of indolylsulfonylcinnamic hydroxamates has been synthesized. Compound 12, (E)-3-(3-((1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-1-yl)sulfonyl)phenyl)-N-hydroxyacrylamide, which has a 7-azaindole core cap, was shown to have antiproliferative activity against KB, H460, PC3, HSC-3, HONE-1, A549, MCF-7, TSGH, MKN45, HT29, and HCT116 human cancer cell lines. Pharmacological studies indicated that 12 functions as a potent HDAC inhibitor with an IC50 value of 0.1 ?M. It is highly selective for histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) and is 60-fold more active than against HDAC1 and 223-fold more active than against HDAC2. It has a good pharmacokinetic profile with oral bioavailability of 33%. In in vivo efficacy evaluations in colorectal HCT116 xenografts, compound 12 suppresses tumor growth more effectively than SAHA (1, N-hydroxy-N'-phenyloctanediamide) and is therefore seen as a suitable candidate for further investigation. PMID:24766560

Lee, Hsueh-Yun; Tsai, An-Chi; Chen, Mei-Chuan; Shen, Po-Jung; Cheng, Yun-Ching; Kuo, Ching-Chuan; Pan, Shiow-Lin; Liu, Yi-Min; Liu, Jin-Fen; Yeh, Teng-Kuang; Wang, Jing-Chi; Chang, Chi-Yen; Chang, Jang-Yang; Liou, Jing-Ping

2014-05-22

32

Synthesis of tetrahydrohonokiol derivates and their evaluation for cytotoxic activity against CCRF-CEM leukemia, U251 glioblastoma and HCT-116 colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

Biphenyl neolignans such as honokiol and magnolol, which are the major active constituents of the Asian medicinal plant Magnolia officinalis, are known to exert a multitude of pharmacological and biological activities. Among these, cytotoxic and tumor growth inhibitory activity against various tumour cell lines are well-documented. To further elucidate the cytotoxic effects of honokiol derivatives, derivatizations were performed using tetrahydrohonokiol as a scaffold. The derivatizations comprised the introduction of functional groups, e.g., nitro and amino groups, as well as alkylation. This way, 18 derivatives, of which 13 were previously undescribed compounds, were evaluated against CCRF-CEM leukemia cells, U251 glioblastoma and HCT-116 colon cancer cells. The results revealed no significant cytotoxic effects in any of the three tested cell lines at a test concentration of 10 µM. PMID:24448063

Bernaskova, Marketa; Kretschmer, Nadine; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Huefner, Antje; Weis, Robert; Bauer, Rudolf

2014-01-01

33

MLH1-deficient HCT116 colon tumor cells exhibit resistance to the cytostatic and cytotoxic effect of the poly(A) polymerase inhibitor cordycepin (3?-deoxyadenosine) in vitro  

PubMed Central

Cordycepin (3?-deoxyadenosine) is an inhibitor of poly(A) polymerase (PAP), an enzyme crucial to mRNA 3?-end processing, which produces the shortening of poly(A) tails, leading to the destabilization of mRNAs. Cordycepin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in tumor cells, indicating its antitumor activity. Defective 3?-end processing is associated with hypersensitivity to UV treatment. We investigated the effects of cordycepin on proliferation and apoptosis in MLH1-deficient and MLH1-proficient HCT116 colon tumor cells. MLH1 is a DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein involved in the processing of damaged DNA. Cells with defective MMR show resistance to certain anticancer drugs. The results showed that MLH1-deficient HCT116 cells are 2-fold less sensitive to the cytostatic effect of cordycepin, as compared to MLH1-proficient cells. This reduced sensitivity to cordycepin in MLH1-deficient cells was associated with reduced upregulation of the cell cycle inhibitor p21. MLH1-deficient cells also exhibited reduced susceptibility to apoptosis upon treatment with cordycepin, as demonstrated by the reduced PARP-1 cleavage. Our findings showed that MLH1-deficient HCT116 colon tumor cells are resistant to the cytostatic and cytotoxic effect of cordycepin, indicating a possible involvement of MMR in mRNA polyadenylation. The findings also suggest that cordycepin is not suitable to therapeutically encounter tumor cells lacking MLH1 expression.

IMESCH, PATRICK; GOERENS, ANOUK; FINK, DANIEL; FEDIER, ANDRE

2012-01-01

34

Effect of the orthoquinone moiety in 9,10-phenanthrenequinone on its ability to induce apoptosis in HCT-116 and HL-60 cells.  

PubMed

9,10-Phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PQ) is one of the most abundant quinones among diesel exhaust particulates. Recent data have suggested that quinones induce apoptosis in immune, epithelial and tumor cells, leading to respirator illness; however, the mechanisms by which quinones induce apoptosis and the structure required for this remain unknown. We studied the antitumor activity of 9,10-PQ analogs against two human tumor cell lines, HCT-116 colon tumor cells and HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells. The loss of the cis-orthoquinone unit in 9,10-PQ abrogated its ability to induce apoptosis in the two tumor cell lines, and the LC50 values of these analogs were indicated over 10 ?M. An analog of 9,10-PQ in which the biaryl unit had been deleted displayed a reduced ability to induce tumor cell apoptosis, while the analogs 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione (9) and pyrene-4,5-dione (10), which also had modified biaryl units, exhibited increased tumor cell apoptotic activity. The cis-orthoquinone unit in 9,10-PQ was identified as essential for its ability to induce apoptosis in tumor cells, and its biaryl unit is also considered to influence orthoquinone-mediated apoptotic activity. PMID:23816373

Hatae, Noriyuki; Nakamura, Jun; Okujima, Tetsuo; Ishikura, Minoru; Abe, Takumi; Hibino, Satoshi; Choshi, Tominari; Okada, Chiaki; Yamada, Hiroko; Uno, Hidemitsu; Toyota, Eiko

2013-08-15

35

Green Tea Polyphenol Epigallocatechin 3-Gallate, Contributes to the Degradation of DNMT3A and HDAC3 in HCT 116 Human Colon Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Colon cancer is still the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Epigenetic gene silencing involving DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) play an important role in the progression of colon cancer. Materials and Methods Here we found that the sensitivity of colon cancer cells to methylation plays a role in its response to alternative therapy involving the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin 3-gallate. HDAC and DNMT protein expression was reduced when methylation-sensitive HCT 116 human colon cancer cells was treated with EGCG, but was relatively stable in the HT-29 cell line. This decrease in expression may be partially explained by our finding that DNMT3A and HDAC3 are degraded in the methylation-sensitive colon cancer cells in part by inhibiting their association with the E3 ubiquitin ligase, UHRF1. Conclusion These findings provide a rationale for the development of a more targeted therapy for methylation-sensitive colon cancer that can include EGCG in combination with other DNMT and HDAC inhibitors.

MOSELEY, VONDINA R.; MORRIS, JAY; KNACKSTEDT, REBECCA W.; WARGOVICH, MICHAEL J.

2014-01-01

36

Delphinidin, an Anthocyanidin in Pigmented Fruits and Vegetables, Induces Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Colon Cancer HCT116 Cells  

PubMed Central

Because of unsatisfactory treatment options for colon cancer, there is a need to develop novel preventive approaches for this malignancy. One such strategy is through chemoprevention by the use of non-toxic dietary substances and botanical products. Delphinidin, an anthocyanidin in pigmented fruits and vegetables, possesses strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the antiproliferative and proapoptotic properties of delphinidin in human colon cancer HCT116 cells. We found that treatment of cells with delphinidin (30–240 ?M; 48 h) resulted in (i) decrease in cell viability (ii) induction of apoptosis, (iii) cleavage of PARP, (iv) activation of caspases-3, -8, and -9, (v) increase in Bax with a concomitant decrease in Bcl-2 protein, and (vi) G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. NF-?B provides a mechanistic link between inflammation and cancer, and is a major factor controlling the ability of both pre-neoplastic and malignant cells to resist apoptosis-based tumor surveillance mechanisms. We therefore, determined the effect of delphinidin on NF-?B signaling pathway. The immunoblot, ELISA and EMSA analysis demonstrated that the treatment of HCT116 cells with delphinidin resulted in the inhibition of (i) IKK?, (ii) phosphorylation and degradation of I?B?, (iii) phosphorylation of NF-?B/p65 at Ser536, (iv) nuclear translocation of NF-?B/p65, (v) NF-?B/p65 DNA binding activity, and (vi) transcriptional activation of NF-?B. Our results suggest that delphinidin treatment of HCT116 cells suppressed NF-?B pathway, resulting in G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis. We suggest that delphinidin could have potential in inhibiting colon cancer growth.

Yun, Jung-Mi; Afaq, Farrukh; Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan

2010-01-01

37

Regulation of Tumor Suppressor p53 and HCT116 Cell Physiology by Histone Demethylase JMJD2D/KDM4D  

PubMed Central

JMJD2D, also known as KDM4D, is a histone demethylase that removes methyl moieties from lysine 9 on histone 3 and from lysine 26 on histone 1.4. Here, we demonstrate that JMJD2D forms a complex with the p53 tumor suppressor in vivo and interacts with the DNA binding domain of p53 in vitro. A luciferase reporter plasmid driven by the promoter of p21, a cell cycle inhibitor and prominent target gene of p53, was synergistically activated by p53 and JMJD2D, which was dependent on JMJD2D catalytic activity. Likewise, overexpression of JMJD2D induced p21 expression in U2OS osteosarcoma cells in the absence and presence of adriamycin, an agent that induces DNA damage. Furthermore, downregulation of JMJD2D inhibited cell proliferation in wild-type and even more so in p53?/? HCT116 colon cancer cells, suggesting that JMJD2D is a pro-proliferative molecule. JMJD2D depletion also induced more strongly apoptosis in p53?/? compared to wild-type HCT116 cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that JMJD2D can stimulate cell proliferation and survival, suggesting that its inhibition may be helpful in the fight against cancer. Furthermore, our data imply that activation of p53 may represent a mechanism by which the pro-oncogenic functions of JMJD2D become dampened.

Kim, Tae-Dong; Oh, Sangphil; Shin, Sook; Janknecht, Ralf

2012-01-01

38

Pro-growth role of the JMJD2C histone demethylase in HCT-116 colon cancer cells and identification of curcuminoids as JMJD2 inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Colon tumors are a major cause of cancer death, yet their molecular intricacies are not fully understood. We demonstrate that the histone demethylases JMJD2A, JMJD2B and JMJD2C are overexpressed in colon cancer cell lines, whereas another related protein, JMJD2D, is not. Interestingly, despite their high homology, the intracellular localization of JMJD2A-C is different in colon and other cancer cells, with JMJD2A being present comparably in the cytoplasm and nucleus, JMJD2B more prevalent in the nucleus and JMJD2C strongly associated with chromatin. This suggests that each of these three proteins performs different, non-redundant functions. Moreover, we show that JMJD2C (also called KDM4C) forms complexes with ?-catenin, an oncoprotein whose overexpression is crucial for the development of most colonic tumors. In addition, JMJD2C downregulation reduced both growth and clonogenic capacity of HCT-116 colon cancer cells. Further, JMJD2C was required for efficient expression of the growth stimulatory proteins FRA1 and cyclin D1 as well as the survival factor BCL2. Lastly, we identified derivatives of curcumin as in vitro inhibitors of JMJD2 enzymes, suggesting that these curcuminoids could be useful for decreasing JMJD2 activity in vivo. In conclusion, our data highlight that overexpression of JMJD2C confers a pro-growth effect on colon cancer cells and, therefore, its inhibition by curcuminoids or other small molecules could be beneficial as an adjuvant therapy for colon cancer patients.

Kim, Tae-Dong; Fuchs, James R; Schwartz, Eric; Abdelhamid, Dalia; Etter, Jonathan; Berry, William L; Li, Chenglong; Ihnat, Michael A; Li, Pui-Kai; Janknecht, Ralf

2014-01-01

39

Double siRNA-targeting of cIAP2 and LIVIN results in synergetic sensitization of HCT-116 cells to oxaliplatin treatment  

PubMed Central

Purpose Most colon cancers show low sensitivity to treatment with oxaliplatin and a specific strategy is needed to overcome this problem. Our approach uses RNA interference to silence the expression of target genes responsible for the development of oxaliplatin resistance. Profile analysis of genes related to the regulation of apoptosis allowed identification of target genes showing the greatest degree of upregulation in response to oxaliplatin exposure. Methods We designed a panel of genes with functions closely related to inactivation of the caspase cascade, endoplasmic reticulum stress reduction, and drug metabolism. The candidate genes were silenced by means of specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) oligonucleotides. Results The caspase 3 and 9 inhibitors of apoptosis 2 (cIAP2) and LIVIN were found to be the most dose-responsive genes during the period of oxaliplatin treatment. Two-fold sensitization of cells to oxaliplatin was observed with independent knockdown of either cIAP2 or LIVIN expression. siRNA-silencing of both targets produced a five-fold increase in oxaliplatin sensitivity of HCT-116 cells. Conclusion A dose-dependent approach revealed reliable targets for siRNA-silencing under low doses of oxaliplatin. Targeting the key proapoptotic chain with several specific siRNAs resulted in synergetic sensitization of HCT-116 cells to oxaliplatin treatment.

Bavykin, Andrey S; Korotaeva, Alexandra A; Poyarkov, Stanislav V; Syrtsev, Alexandr V; Tjulandin, Sergei A; Karpukhin, Alexandr V

2013-01-01

40

5-Methoxyflavanone induces cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, apoptosis and autophagy in HCT116 human colon cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Natural flavonoids have diverse pharmacological activities, including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the action of 5-methoxyflavanone (5-MF) which has a strong bioavailability and metabolic stability. Our results show that 5-MF inhibited the growth and clonogenicity of HCT116 human colon cancer cells, and that it activated DNA damage responses, as revealed by the accumulation of p53 and the phosphorylation of DNA damage-sensitive proteins, including ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) at Ser1981, checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) at Thr68, and histone H2AX at Ser139. 5-MF-induced DNA damage was confirmed in a comet tail assay. We also found that 5-MF increased the cleavage of caspase-2 and -7, leading to the induction of apoptosis. Pretreatment with the ATM inhibitor KU55933 enhanced 5-MF-induced {gamma}-H2AX formation and caspase-7 cleavage. HCT116 cells lacking p53 (p53{sup -/-}) or p21 (p21{sup -/-}) exhibited increased sensitivity to 5-MF compared to wild-type cells. 5-MF further induced autophagy via an ERK signaling pathway. Blockage of autophagy with the MEK inhibitor U0126 potentiated 5-MF-induced {gamma}-H2AX formation and caspase-2 activation. These results suggest that a caspase-2 cascade mediates 5-MF-induced anti-tumor activity, while an ATM/Chk2/p53/p21 checkpoint pathway and ERK-mediated autophagy act as a survival program to block caspase-2-mediated apoptosis induced by 5-MF. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > 5-MF inhibits the proliferation of HCT116 colon cancer cells. > 5-MF inhibits cell cycle progression and induces apoptosis. > Inhibition of autophagy triggers 5-MF-induced apoptosis. > Inhibition of ERK signaling blocks 5-MF-induced autophagy but activates apoptosis. > Treatment with 5-MF in combination with an ERK inhibitor may be a potential therapeutic strategy in human colon cancer.

Shin, Soon Young [SMART Institute of Advanced Biomedical Science, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Science and Technology, Research Center for Transcription Control, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, Jiye [Division of Bioscience and Biotechnology, BMIC, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Jae-Ran [Department of Environmental and Tropical Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Yoongho, E-mail: yoongho@konkuk.ac.kr [Division of Bioscience and Biotechnology, BMIC, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Han, E-mail: yhlee58@konkuk.ac.kr [SMART Institute of Advanced Biomedical Science, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Science and Technology, Research Center for Transcription Control, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-08-01

41

Carnosine inhibits KRAS-mediated HCT116 proliferation by affecting ATP and ROS production.  

PubMed

Carnosine is a natural dipeptide that has generated particular interest for its antioxidant, anti-aging and especially for its antiproliferative properties. In this study, we demonstrate that carnosine inhibits the proliferation of human HCT116 colon cancer cells. In this cell line, the activating KRAS mutation induces mitochondrial ROS, the signaling molecules for cell proliferation. We observed that 50-100 mM carnosine decreases ATP and ROS concentration and induces cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. In HCT116 cells these effects are related to decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and increased p21waf1 protein. Our findings support the concept that carnosine could inhibit HCT116 cell growth via its antioxidant activity and its ability to affect glycolysis. PMID:22137144

Iovine, Barbara; Iannella, Maria Luigia; Nocella, Francesca; Pricolo, Maria Rosaria; Bevilacqua, Maria Assunta

2012-02-28

42

Antheraea pernyi Silk Fibroin-Coated PEI/DNA Complexes for Targeted Gene Delivery in HEK 293 and HCT 116 Cells  

PubMed Central

Polyethylenimine (PEI) has attracted much attention as a DNA condenser, but its toxicity and non-specific targeting limit its potential. To overcome these limitations, Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin (ASF), a natural protein rich in arginyl-glycyl-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides that contains negative surface charges in a neutral aqueous solution, was used to coat PEI/DNA complexes to form ASF/PEI/DNA ternary complexes. Coating these complexes with ASF caused fewer surface charges and greater size compared with the PEI/DNA complexes alone. In vitro transfection studies revealed that incorporation of ASF led to greater transfection efficiencies in both HEK (human embryonic kidney) 293 and HCT (human colorectal carcinoma) 116 cells, albeit with less electrostatic binding affinity for the cells. Moreover, the transfection efficiency in the HCT 116 cells was higher than that in the HEK 293 cells under the same conditions, which may be due to the target bonding affinity of the RGD peptides in ASF for integrins on the HCT 116 cell surface. This result indicated that the RGD binding affinity in ASF for integrins can enhance the specific targeting affinity to compensate for the reduction in electrostatic binding between ASF-coated PEI carriers and cells. Cell viability measurements showed higher cell viability after transfection of ASF/PEI/DNA ternary complexes than after transfection of PEI/DNA binary complexes alone. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release studies further confirmed the improvement in the targeting effect of ASF/PEI/DNA ternary complexes to cells. These results suggest that ASF-coated PEI is a preferred transfection reagent and useful for improving both the transfection efficiency and cell viability of PEI-based nonviral vectors.

Liu, Yu; You, Renchuan; Liu, Guiyang; Li, Xiufang; Sheng, Weihua; Yang, Jicheng; Li, Mingzhong

2014-01-01

43

B7-H1 Expression Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Colorectal Carcinoma and Regulates the Proliferation and Invasion of HCT116 Colorectal Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Background And Objective The investigation concerning the B7-H1 expression in colorectal cancer cells is at an early stage. It is unclear whether B7-H1 expression may have diagnostic or prognostic value in colorectal carcinoma. Additionally, how B7-H1 is associated with the clinical features of colorectal carcinoma is not known. In order to investigate the relationship between B7-H1 and colorectal cancer, we analyzed B7-H1 expression and its effect in clinical specimens and HCT116 cells. Methods Paraffin-embedded specimens from 143 eligible patients were used to investigate the expression of CD274 by immunohistochemistry. We also examined whether B7-H1 itself may be related to cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion in colon cancer HCT116 cells. Results Our results show that B7-H1 was highly expressed in colorectal carcinoma and was significantly associated with cell differentiation status and TNM (Tumor Node Metastasis) stage. Patients with positive B7-H1 expression showed a trend of shorter survival time. Using multivariate analysis, we demonstrate that positive B7-H1 expression is an independent predictor of colorectal carcinoma prognosis. Our results indicate that B7-H1 silencing with siRNA inhibits cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Furthermore, cell apoptosis was also increased by B7-H1 inhibition. Conclusions Positive B7-H1 expression is an independent predictor for colorectal carcinoma prognosis. Moreover, knockdown of B7-H1 can inhibit cell proliferation, migration and invasion.

Guo, Zhang-Yan; Wei, Ming; Meng, Yan-Ling; Yang, An-Gang; Wen, Wei-Hong

2013-01-01

44

Preparation of branched cyclomaltoheptaose with 3-O-?-L-fucopyranosyl-?-D-mannopyranose and changes in fucosylation of HCT116 cells treated with the fucose-modified cyclomaltoheptaose.  

PubMed

From a mixture of 4-nitrophenyl ?-L-fucopyranoside and D-mannopyranose, 3-O-?-L-fucopyranosyl-D-mannopyranose was synthesised through the transferring action of ?-fucosidase (Sumizyme PHY). 6(I),6(IV)-Di-O-(3-O-?-L-fucopyranosyl-?-D-mannopyranosyl)-cyclomaltoheptaose {8, 6(I),6(IV)-di-O-[?-L-Fuc-(1?3)-?-D-Man]-?CD} was chemically synthesised using the trichloroacetimidate method. The structures were confirmed by MS and NMR spectroscopy. A cell-based assay using the fucosyl ?CD derivatives, including the newly synthesised 8, showed that derivatives with two branches of the ?-L-Fuc or ?-L-Fuc-(1?3)-?-D-Man residues possessed slight growth-promoting effects and lower toxicity in HCT116 cells compared to those with one branch. These compounds may be useful as drug carriers in targeted drug delivery systems. PMID:23623960

Kimura, Madoka; Masui, Yuki; Shirai, Yuko; Honda, Chie; Moriwaki, Kenta; Imai, Taku; Takagi, Uichiro; Kiryu, Takaaki; Kiso, Taro; Murakami, Hiromi; Nakano, Hirofumi; Kitahata, Sumio; Miyoshi, Eiji; Tanimoto, Toshiko

2013-06-01

45

Debio 0507 primarily forms diaminocyclohexane-Pt-d(GpG) and -d(ApG) DNA adducts in HCT116 cells  

PubMed Central

Purpose To characterize the cellular action mechanism of Debio 0507, we compared the major DNA adducts formed by Debio 0507- and oxaliplatin-treated HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells by a combination of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Methods HCT116 cells were treated with IC50 doses of Debio 0507 or oxaliplatin for 3 days. Total cellular Pt–DNA adducts were determined by ICP-MS. The DNA was digested, and the major Pt–DNA adducts formed by both drugs were characterized by UPLC/MS/MS essentially as described previously for cisplatin (Baskerville-Abraham et al. in Chem Res Toxicol 22:905–912, 2009). Results The Pt level/deoxynucleotide was 7.4/104 for DNA from Debio 0507-treated cells and 5.5/104 for oxaliplatin-treated cells following a 3-day treatment at the IC50 for each drug. UPLC-MS/MS in the positive ion mode confirmed the major Pt–DNA adducts formed by both drugs were dach-Pt-d(GpG) (904.2 m/z ? 610 m/z and 904.2 m/z ? 459 m/z) and dach-Pt-d(ApG) (888.2 m/z ? 594 m/z and 888.2 m/z ? 459 m/z). Conclusions These data show that the major DNA adducts formed by Debio 0507 are the dach-Pt-d(GpG) and dach-Pt-d(ApG) adducts and at equitoxic doses Debio 0507 and oxaliplatin form similar levels of dach-Pt-d(GpG) and dach-Pt-d(ApG) adducts. This suggests that the action mechanisms of Debio 0507 and oxaliplatin are similar at a cellular level.

King, C. L.; Ramachandran, S.; Collins, L.; Swenberg, J. A.; deKrafft, K. E.; Lin, W.; Cicurel, L.; Barbier, M.

2013-01-01

46

Raman micro-spectroscopic investigation of the interaction of cultured HCT116 colon cancer cells with alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of cultured colon cancer cells with alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, has been investigated, using Raman micro-spectroscopy, in order to investigate DFMO induced effects. Raman spectra of the cultured HCT116 colon cancer cells treated with DFMO at different concentrations (0, 1, 2.5, 5, and 7.5 mM) were recorded in the range 550-2300 cm -1. It has been shown that second derivative profile of the raw Raman spectrum of the colon cancer cells (i.e., the original experimental spectrum without any computational corrections) discriminates the weak but sharp bands from the strong, broad fluorescence background, and gives information about the position of the peaks and their band widths. The relative integrated intensities of the 781 cm -1 and 788 cm -1 DNA/RNA marker bands to that of 1451 cm -1 band are found to decrease by addition of DFMO. Up to 65% reduction in the magnitude of the 1003 cm -1 band, the characteristic phenylalanine ring breathing mode, in comparison to that of 1451 band, is observed. The results indicate DFMO induced apoptosis. On the other hand the intensity ratio of the tyrosine Fermi doubled around 830 cm -1 and 850 cm -1, which is a marker of hydrogen-bonding state of phenolic OH, is changed. The addition of DFMO may alter the tyrosine environment in cells, and parts of tyrosine residues are exposed. We also observed some modifications in amide I band, pointing out the alterations of the secondary structure of cell proteins by the presence of DFMO.

Akyuz, S.; Ozel, A. E.; Balci, K.; Akyuz, T.; Coker, A.; Arisan, E. D.; Palavan-Unsal, N.; Ozalpan, A.

2011-05-01

47

Carnosine inhibits KRas-mediated HCT116 proliferation by affecting ATP and ROS production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carnosine is a natural dipeptide that has aroused particular interest for its antioxidant, anti-aging and especially for its antiproliferative activity. In this study we demonstrated that carnosine inhibits the proliferation of human HCT116 colon cancer cells. In this cell line, the activating KRas mutation induces mitochondrial ROS, the signaling molecules for cell proliferation. We observed that 50–100mM carnosine decreases ATP

Barbara Iovine; Maria Luigia Iannella; Francesca Nocella; Maria Rosaria Pricolo; Maria Rosaria Baldi; Maria Assunta Bevilacqua

48

Activations of Both Extrinsic and Intrinsic Pathways in HCT 116 Human Colorectal Cancer Cells Contribute to Apoptosis through p53-Mediated ATM/Fas Signaling by Emilia sonchifolia Extract, a Folklore Medicinal Plant.  

PubMed

Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC (Compositae), an herbaceous plant found in Taiwan and India, is used as folk medicine. The clinical applications include inflammation, rheumatism, cough, cuts fever, dysentery, analgesic, and antibacteria. The activities of Emilia sonchifolia extract (ESE) on colorectal cancer cell death have not been fully investigated. The purpose of this study explored the induction of apoptosis and its molecular mechanisms in ESE-treated HCT 116 human colorectal cancer cells in vitro. The methanolic ESE was characterized, and ?-humulene was formed as the major constituent (63.86%). ESE induced cell growth inhibition in a concentration- and time-dependent response by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells (DNA fragmentation, an apoptotic catachrestic) were found after ESE treatment by TUNEL assay and DNA gel electrophoresis. Alternatively, ESE stimulated the activities of caspase-3, -8, and -9 and their specific caspase inhibitors protected against ESE-induced cytotoxicity. ESE promoted the mitochondria-dependent and death-receptor-associated protein levels. Also, ESE increased ROS production and upregulated the levels of ATM, p53, and Fas in HCT 116 cells. Strikingly, p53 siRNA reversed ESE-reduced viability involved in p53-mediated ATM/Fas signaling in HCT 116 cells. In summary, our result is the first report suggesting that ESE may be potentially efficacious in the treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:22474491

Lan, Yu-Hsuan; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Huang, Wen-Wen; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Chung, Jing-Gung; Wu, Tian-Shung; Jhan, Jia-Hua; Lin, Kuei-Li; Pai, Shu-Jen; Chiu, Yu-Jen; Tsuzuki, Minoru; Yang, Jai-Sing

2012-01-01

49

Bax Plays a Pivotal Role in Thapsigargin-induced Apoptosis of Human Colon Cancer HCT116 Cells by Controlling Smac\\/Diablo and Omi\\/HtrA2 Release from Mitochondria1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bax is a crucial mediator of the mitochondrial pathway for apoptosis, and loss of this proapoptotic Bcl-2 family protein contributes to drug resistance in human cancers. We report here that the endoplasmic retic- ulum Ca2-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin (THG) induces apoptosis of human colon cancer HCT116 cells through a Bax-dependent signaling pathway controlling the cytosolic release of mitochondrial apoptogenic molecules. Treating

Hirohito Yamaguchi; Kapil Bhalla; Hong-Gang Wang

2003-01-01

50

Thymoquinone induces apoptosis in human colon cancer HCT116 cells through inactivation of STAT3 by blocking JAK2- and Src?mediated phosphorylation of EGF receptor tyrosine kinase.  

PubMed

Thymoquinone (TQ), a compound isolated from black seed oil (Nigella sativa), has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the anticancer effects of TQ remain poorly understood. In the present study, we found that TQ significantly reduced the viability of human colon cancer HCT116 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of cells with TQ induced apoptosis, which was associated with the upregulation of Bax and inhibition of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl expression. TQ also activated caspase-9,-7, and -3, and induced the cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Pretreatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk, abrogated TQ-induced apoptosis by blocking the cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP. Treatment of cells with TQ also diminished the constitutive phosphorylation, nuclear localization and the reporter gene activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3). TQ attenuated the expression of STAT3 target gene products, such as survivin, c-Myc, and cyclin-D1, -D2, and enhanced the expression of cell cycle inhibitory proteins p27 and p21. Treatment with TQ attenuated the phosphorylation of upstream kinases, such as Janus-activated kinase-2 (JAK2), Src kinase and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase. Pharmacological inhibition of JAK2 and Src blunted tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR and STAT3, while treatment with an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib inhibited phosphorylation of STAT3 without affecting that of JAK2 and Src in HCT116 cells. Collectively, our study revealed that TQ induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells by blocking STAT3 signaling via inhibition of JAK2- and Src-mediated phosphorylation of EGFR tyrosine kinase. PMID:24890449

Kundu, Juthika; Choi, Bu Young; Jeong, Chul-Ho; Kundu, Joydeb Kumar; Chun, Kyung-Soo

2014-08-01

51

Activating Mutations in ?-Catenin in Colon Cancer Cells Alter Their Interaction with Macrophages; the Role of Snail  

PubMed Central

Background Tumor cells become addicted to both activated oncogenes and to proliferative and pro-survival signals provided by the abnormal tumor microenvironment. Although numerous soluble factors have been identified that shape the crosstalk between tumor cells and stroma, it has not been established how oncogenic mutations in the tumor cells alter their interaction with normal cells in the tumor microenvironment. Principal Findings We showed that the isogenic HCT116 and Hke-3 cells, which differ only by the presence of the mutant kRas allele, both stimulate macrophages to produce IL1?. In turn, macrophages enhanced Wnt signaling, proliferation and survival in both HCT116 and Hke-3 cells, demonstrating that signaling by oncogenic kRas in tumor cells does not impact their interaction with macrophages. HCT116 cells are heterozygous for ?-catenin (HCT116WT/MT), harboring one wild type (WT) and one mutant (MT) allele, but isogenic lines that carry only the WT (HCT116WT) or MT ?-catenin allele (HCT116MT) have been generated. We showed that macrophages promoted Wnt signaling in cells that carry the MT ?-catenin allele, but not in HCT116WT cells. Consistent with this observation, macrophages and IL1? failed to stabilize Snail in HCT116WT cells, and to protect these cells from TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Finally, we demonstrated that HCT116 cells expressing dominant negative TCF4 (dnTCF4) or HCT116 cells with silenced Snail failed to stimulate IL1? production in macrophages, demonstrating that tumor cells activate macrophages via a Wnt-dependent factor. Significance Our data demonstrate that oncogenic ?-catenin mutations in tumor cells, and subsequent activation of Wnt signaling, not only trigger cell-intrinsic alterations, but also have a significant impact on the crosstalk of tumor cells with the tumor associated macrophages.

Kaler, Pawan; Augenlicht, Leonard; Klampfer, Lidija

2012-01-01

52

Seven genes that are differentially transcribed in colorectal tumor cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify genes which are differentially transcribed in colorectal tumor cells, we compared the two human tumor cell lines, SW480 and HCT116, with the cell line, NCM460, from normal colon epithelium as a control. Using the methods of differential display reverse transcription PCR and Northern blot hybridization, we detected the differential transcription of seven genes: cholecystokinin, reticulocalbin, Rab5 guanine nucleotide

Inko Nimmrich; Silke Erdmann; Ute Melchers; Ulrich Finke; Sebastian Hentsch; Mary Pat Moyer; Ingrid Hoffmann; Oliver Müller

2000-01-01

53

Inhibition of G1/S transition potentiates oxaliplatin-induced cell death in colon cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

In a series of colorectal cancer cell lines, both necrosis and apoptosis were induced upon exposure to oxaliplatin, and enhanced by co-administration of the Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG. We analyzed the effects of these interventions on the cell cycle, and found that oxaliplatin treatment caused G1 and G2 arrest in HCT116 cells, and S-phase accumulation in two p53-deficient cell lines (HT29 and DLD1). Addition of 17-AAG enhanced cell cycle effects of oxaliplatin in HCT116, and induced G1 arrest and decrease in S-phase population in the other cell lines. Analysis of cell cycle proteins revealed that the major difference between the cell lines was that in HCT116, 17-AAG resulted in profound inhibition of expression and phosphorylation of late G1 proteins cyclin E and cdk2, with no effect on p21/WAF1 induction. Consistent with these, an HCT116 p53(-/-) line, lacking p21, showed resistance to oxaliplatin, failure to enter apoptosis, and an accumulation of cells in S-phase. Introduction of p21 in these cells caused reversal of that phenotype, including restoration of the G1 block and re-sensitization to oxaliplatin. Inhibition of G1/S progression using cdk2 inhibitor also enhanced oxaliplatin cytotoxicity. We conclude that in colon cancer cells with impaired p53 function, interventions directed to cycle arrest in G1 may potentiate oxaliplatin activity. PMID:17343830

Rakitina, Tatiana V; Vasilevskaya, Irina A; O'Dwyer, Peter J

2007-06-01

54

p53 is important for the anti-proliferative effect of ibuprofen in colon carcinoma cells  

SciTech Connect

S-ibuprofen which inhibits the cyclooxygenase-1/-2 and R-ibuprofen which shows no COX-inhibition at therapeutic concentrations have anti-carcinogenic effects in human colon cancer cells; however, the molecular mechanisms for these effects are still unknown. Using HCT-116 colon carcinoma cell lines, expressing either the wild-type form of p53 (HCT-116 p53{sup wt}) or being p(HCT-116 p53{sup -/-}), we demonstrated that both induction of a cell cycle block and apoptosis after S- and R-ibuprofen treatment is in part dependent on p53. Also in the in vivo nude mice model HCT-116 p53{sup -/-} xenografts were less sensitive for S- and R-ibuprofen treatment than HCT-116 p53{sup wt} cells. Furthermore, results indicate that induction of apoptosis in HCT-116 p53{sup wt} cells after ibuprofen treatment is in part dependent on a signalling pathway including the neutrophin receptor p75{sup NTR}, p53 and Bax.

Janssen, Astrid; Schiffmann, Susanne; Birod, Kerstin; Maier, Thorsten J.; Wobst, Ivonne; Geisslinger, Gerd [pharmazentrum frankfurt/ZAFES, Institut fuer Klinische Pharmakologie, Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Groesch, Sabine [pharmazentrum frankfurt/ZAFES, Institut fuer Klinische Pharmakologie, Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590 Frankfur (Germany)], E-mail: groesch@em.uni-frankfurt.de

2008-01-25

55

Inhibition of G1\\/S transition potentiates oxaliplatin-induced cell death in colon cancer cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of colorectal cancer cell lines, both necrosis and apoptosis were induced upon exposure to oxaliplatin, and enhanced by co-administration of the Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG. We analyzed the effects of these interventions on the cell cycle, and found that oxaliplatin treatment caused G1 and G2 arrest in HCT116 cells, and S-phase accumulation in two p53-deficient cell lines (HT29

Tatiana V. Rakitina; Irina A. Vasilevskaya; Peter J. O’Dwyer

2007-01-01

56

Altered Growth of Human Colon Cancer Cell Lines Disrupted at Activated Ki-ras  

Microsoft Academic Search

Point mutations that activate the Ki-ras proto-oncogene are present in about 50 percent of human colorectal tumors. To study the functional significance of these mutations, the activated Ki-ras genes in two human colon carcinoma cell lines, DLD-1 and HCT 116, were disrupted by homologous recombination. Compared with parental cells, cells disrupted at the activated Ki-ras gene were morphologically altered, lost

Senji Shirasawa; Masanori Furuse; Nobuhiko Yokoyama; Takehiko Sasazuki

1993-01-01

57

Apoptosis-inducing activity of HPLC fraction from Voacanga globosa (Blanco) Merr. on the human colon carcinoma cell.  

PubMed

Voacanga globosa (Blanco), a plant endemic to the Philippines, is traditionally used especially by indigenous people of Bataan in the treatment of ulcers, wounds and tumorous growths. This study aimed to provide scientific evidence to therapeutic properties by determining cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic activity of HPLC fractions from leaves on HCT116 human colon carcinoma and A549 human lung carcinoma cell lines. Ethanolic extraction was performed on V globosa leaves followed by hexane and ethyl acetate partitioning. Silica gel column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) produced MP1, MP2 and MP3 fractions. Cytotoxic activity of the fractions was determined through MTT assay against the cancer cell lines HCT116 and A549 and the non-cancer AA8 Chinese hamster ovarian cell line. Pro-apoptotic activities of the most active fractions were further assessed through DAPI staining, TUNEL assay and JC-1 mitochondrial membrane potential assay with HCT116 cells. While the MP1 fraction exerted no significant activity against all cell lines tested, MP2 and MP3 fractions demonstrated high toxicity against HCT116 and A549 cells. The MP3 fraction induced formation of apoptotic bodies, condensed DNA and other morphological changes consistent with apoptosis of HCT116 cells and TUNEL assay showed significant increase in DNA fragmentation over time. In these cells, the MP3 fraction also induced mitochondrial membrane destabilization, which is generally associated with the beginning of apoptosis. Phytochemical analysis demonstrated the presence only of saponins and terpenoids in the MP3 fraction. The results indicate that the MP3 fraction exerts cytotoxic activity on HCT116 cells via induction of apoptosis triggered by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential crucial for cell survival. PMID:24568467

Acebedo, Alvin Resultay; Amor, Evangeline Cancio; Jacinto, Sonia Donaldo

2014-01-01

58

Synergistic anti-proliferative effect of resveratrol and etoposide on human hepatocellular and colon cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

Resveratrol is an active component of grape, which has been shown to inhibit proliferation of a wide variety of tumor cells. The ability of resveratrol to enhance anti-proliferative effects of etoposide in wild type p53 liver carcinoma (HepG2) and colon cancer (HCT-116) cells was investigated with focusing on p53 activation. HepG2 cells and HCT-116 cells were treated with resveratrol and/or etoposide in a time- and dose-dependent manner and their proliferative response was evaluated by XTT assay. The expression of p53 protein was assessed using Western blot. Resveratrol exerted anti-proliferative activity on both cell types in a dose (25-100 ?M)- and time (24-72 h)-dependent manner. Interestingly in HepG2 cells, resveratrol exhibited the same levels of cytotoxicity as etoposide (10 ?M) when the cells treated with ? 25 ?M for 48-72 h. In contrast to HepG2, resveratrol significantly enhanced anti-proliferative effects of etoposide in HCT-116 cells. P53 expression was up-regulated by resveratrol and etoposide and pre-incubation of both cells with resveratrol increased levels of etoposide-induced p53 expression. In line with cytotoxicity effect, combination therapy showed stronger activation of p53 in HCT-116 compared to HepG2. It seems that resveratrol exerts differential synergistic effect with etoposide on proliferation of cancer cells from different origin which is mainly accompanied by p53 activation. Our data represent a future strategy to provide much safer and more effective treatment for colon cancer. PMID:24055188

Amiri, Fatemehsadat; Zarnani, Amir-Hassan; Zand, Hamid; Koohdani, Fariba; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Vafa, Mohammadreza

2013-10-15

59

Quinacrine-mediated autophagy and apoptosis in colon cancer cells is through a p53- and p21-dependent mechanism.  

PubMed

We previously showed that quinacrine (QC), a small molecule antimalarial agent, also presented anticancer activity in breast cancer cells through activation of p53, p21, and inhibition of topoisomerase activity. Here we have systematically studied the detailed cell death mechanism of this drug using three colon cancer cell lines (HCT-116 parental, isogenic HCT-116 p53-/-, and HCT-116 p21-/- sublines). QC caused a dose-dependent reduction in cell viability in all three cell lines. However, the parental cells were more susceptible to QC-mediated cell death, suggesting that p53- and p21-dependent processes were involved. QC-mediated cell death was measured with the following endpoints: the Bax/Bcl-xL ratio, cleaved PARP, apoptotic nuclei visualized by DAPI staining, and COMET formation. In addition, markers of autophagy were measured. Acridine orange staining revealed increased accumulation of autophagic vacuoles (AVs) after QC treatment in a dose-dependent manner in parental cells, and decreased staining in isogenic HCT-116 p53-/- and HCT-116 p21-/- cells. Immunofluorescence of LC3B was significantly lowered in QC-treated cells lacking p53 or p21, compared to the parental cells. Interestingly, the expression of the autophagy marker LC3B-II after exposure to QC was decreased in either p53 or p21 null cells compared to parental cells. After deletion of p21 in HCT-116 p53-/- cells, no change in LC3B-II expression was noted following QC treatment. Collectively, the results suggest that QC-mediated autophagy and apoptosis dependent on p53 and p21. PMID:23193914

Mohapatra, Purusottam; Preet, Ranjan; Das, Dipon; Satapathy, Shakti Ranjan; Choudhuri, Tathagata; Wyatt, Michael D; Kundu, Chanakya Nath

2012-01-01

60

A novel histone deacetylase inhibitor, CG0006, induces cell death through both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways.  

PubMed

Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are potent anticancer drugs, and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid is used for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma patients. We synthesized a novel hydroxamate-based HDACI, CG0006, and assessed its antiproliferative effects on the NCI-60 cancer cell panel and cell lines from liver and stomach cancers that are common in Korea. Micromolar levels of CG0006 induced cell death in several breast, central nervous system, colon, hematopoietic, lung, melanoma, ovarian, prostatic, renal, and stomach cancer cell lines. We further analyzed cell death mechanisms activated by CG0006 in HCT116 (colon cancer) and K562 (leukemia) cells. First, to test the activity of CG0006, we analyzed acetylation of substrates of HDACs and effect on gene expression. CG0006 increased acetylation of histone 3, histone 4, and tubulin in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner in both HCT116 and K562 cells. Moreover, CG0006 increased the mRNA level of p21 and decreased that of Bcl-xl efficiently in HCT116 cells. Cell cycle analysis showed G2-M arrest, and increased apoptosis in populations of HCT116 and K562 cells treated with CG0006. Western blot analysis showed that CG0006 increased levels of p21 in HCT116 cells and of p21 and p27 in K562 cells. In addition, CG0006 activated caspase-9, caspase-3, and caspase-8. These results indicate that CG0006 induces death in HCT116 and K562 cells through both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. The HDACI CG0006 may be a potent anticancer drug for solid tumors and leukemia. PMID:19644355

Hwang, Jung Jin; Kim, Yong Sook; Kim, Mi Joung; Jang, Sejin; Lee, Je-Hwan; Choi, Jene; Ro, Seonggu; Hyun, Young-Lan; Lee, Jung Shin; Kim, Choung-Soo

2009-10-01

61

Human cell line authentication: the critical first step in any project using human cell lines.  

PubMed

Short tandem repeat (STR) typing is a standard procedure used in many laboratories for the authentication of human cell lines. This technology, which is based on the informativeness of known polymorphism of numerous loci to uniquely identify a human cell line, has allowed for direct-amplification of human DNA stored on FTA(®) paper. We describe an application of this technology to create a unique STR profile by direct amplification of HCT 116 (ATCC(®) CCL-247™) cell line DNA, a cell line commonly used in colon research. The ability to perform direct-amplification of DNA opens up the possibility of using FTA(®) paper as a way to maintain long-term storage of DNA samples from a cell line and other human tissues, such as buccal cells. PMID:23296621

McLaren, Robert S; Reid, Yvonne; Storts, Douglas R

2013-01-01

62

Folic acid inhibition of EGFR-mediated proliferation in human colon cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

Although accumulating evidence suggests a chemopreventive role for folic acid in colon cancer, the regulation of this process in unknown. We hypothesize that supplemental folic acid exerts its chemopreventive role by inhibiting mucosal hyperproliferation, an event considered to be central to the initiation of carcinogenesis in the gastrointestinal tract. The present investigation examines the effect of supplemental folic acid on proliferation of Caco-2 and HCT-116 colon cancer cell lines. Furthermore, because certain tyrosine kinases, particularly epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), play a role in regulating cell proliferation, we also examined the folic acid-induced changes in tyrosine kinase activity and expression of EGFR. In Caco-2 and HCT-116 cells, maintained in RPMI 1640 medium containing 1 microg/ml folic acid, we observed that the supplemental folic acid inhibited proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment of HCT-116 and Caco-2 cell lines with supplemental folic acid (1.25 microg/ml) completely abrogated transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha)-induced proliferation in both cell lines. Tyrosine kinase activity and the relative concentration of EGFR were markedly diminished in both cell lines following a 24-h exposure to supplemental folic acid. The folic acid-induced inhibition of EGFR tyrosine kinase activity in colon cancer cell lines was also associated with a concomitant reduction in the relative concentration of the 14-kDa membrane-bound precursor form of TGF-alpha. In conclusion, our data suggest that supplemental folic acid is effective in reducing proliferation in two unrelated colon cancer cell lines and that EGFR tyrosine kinase appears to be involved in regulating this process. PMID:10600765

Jaszewski, R; Khan, A; Sarkar, F H; Kucuk, O; Tobi, M; Zagnoon, A; Dhar, R; Kinzie, J; Majumdar, A P

1999-12-01

63

Apoptotic death in adenocarcinoma cell lines induced by butyrate and other histone deacetylase inhibitors.  

PubMed

n-Butyrate inhibits the growth of colon cancer cell lines. In the HCT 116 cell line, butyrate-induced growth inhibition is almost fully reversible, whereas in the VACO 5 cell line, a subpopulation undergoes apoptosis within 30 hr of treatment with butyrate. Concurrent treatment of VACO 5 cells with butyrate and the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) accelerates and increases the incidence of cell death to nearly 100% of the population, whereas HCT 116 cells largely remain alive during treatment with this combination. The action of butyrate as an inhibitor of histone deacetylase was assessed in these cell lines by examining extracted core histones for their electrophoretic mobility in Triton/acid/urea gels. The concentrations of butyrate that were effective for inducing apoptosis were similar to the concentrations that caused hyperacetylation of core histones in the VACO 5 cell line. Furthermore, an examination of other carboxylic acids for induction of apoptosis revealed a rank order that corresponded to the order of potency in causing hyperacetylation of core histones. Specifically, the active acids were 3-5 carbons in length and lacked substitution at the 2-position. Isovaleric and propionic acids, in particular, proved to be effective inducers of both hyperacetylation and apoptosis at 5 mM concentrations, a finding of potential relevance to the unusual pancytopenia occurring after acidotic episodes in isovaleric and propionic acidemias. The duration of butyrate treatment required for chromatin fragmentation (10-20 hr) corresponded to the time required for histone H4 to become predominantly tetraacetylated. Furthermore, trichostatin A, a structurally dissimilar inhibitor of histone deacetylase, mimicked butyrate-induced apoptosis of VACO 5 cells and growth inhibition of HCT 116 cells. The dramatic enhancement of VACO 5 cell death by TPA, and the high level resistance of HCT 116 cells to butyrate were not evident from histone acetylation determinations. Thus, applications of butyrate for cytoreduction therapy will benefit from pharmacodynamic assessment of histone acetylation, but will require additional work to predict susceptibility to butyrate-induced death. PMID:9214697

McBain, J A; Eastman, A; Nobel, C S; Mueller, G C

1997-05-01

64

Cell type- and promoter-dependent modulation of the Wnt signaling pathway by sodium butyrate.  

PubMed

The Wnt signaling pathway modulates the transcription of genes linked to proliferation, differentiation and tumor progression. beta-Catenin-Tcf (BCT)-dependent Wnt signaling is influenced by the short-chain fatty acid sodium butyrate, which induces growth arrest and/or maturation of colonic carcinoma cells. We have compared the effects of sodium butyrate on BCT-dependent signaling in 2 colon carcinoma cell lines that differ in their physiologic response to butyrate, with SW620 cells responding to butyrate by undergoing terminal differentiation and apoptosis, and HCT-116 cells undergoing reversible growth arrest, but no significant apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, these colon carcinoma cell lines differ in their mechanism of Wnt pathway activation, with adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutant SW620 cells having high levels of BCT complexes and APC wild-type HCT-116 cells having mutant beta-catenin, low levels of BCT complexes and correspondingly higher levels of free Tcf. We have demonstrated that in SW620 cells, butyrate downregulates BCT-dependent expression of the Tcf-TK, matrilysin and cyclin D1 promoters, whereas in HCT-116 cells, butyrate upregulates expression of these promoters. Cotransfection with expression vectors that interfere with the Wnt pathway suggests that butyrate enhances BCT complex-DNA binding. Butyrate reduces the expression of Tcf4 in HCT-116 cells, consistent with the induction by butyrate of Tcf-repressible promoters in these cells. These findings indicate that sodium butyrate modulates the Wnt pathway in SW620 and HCT-116 cells in a different manner and that these differences have consequences for promoter activity that may influence the physiologic response to butyrate. PMID:11774242

Bordonaro, Michael; Lazarova, Darina L; Augenlicht, Leonard H; Sartorelli, Alan C

2002-01-01

65

Luteolin sensitizes two oxaliplatin-resistant colorectal cancer cell lines to chemotherapeutic drugs via inhibition of the nrf2 pathway.  

PubMed

Oxaliplatin is a first-line therapy for colorectal cancer, but cancer cell resistance to the drug compromises its efficacy. To explore mechanisms of drug resistance, we treated colorectal cancer cells (HCT116 and SW620) long-term with oxaliplatin and established stable oxaliplatin-resistant lines (HCT116-OX and SW620-OX). Compared with parental cell lines, IC50s for various chemotherapeutic agents (oxaliplatin, cisplatin and doxorubicin) were increased in oxaliplatin-resistant cell lines and this was accompanied by activation of nuclear factor erythroid-2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and NADPH quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) . Furthermore, luteolin inhibited the Nrf2 pathway in oxaliplatin-resistant cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Luteolin also inhibited Nrf2 target gene [NQO1, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and GST?1/2] expression and decreased reduced glutathione in wild type mouse small intestinal cells. There was no apparent effect in Nrf2-/- mice. Luteolin combined with other chemotherapeutics had greater anti-cancer activity in resistant cell lines (combined index values below 1), indicating a synergistic effect. Therefore, adaptive activation of Nrf2 may contribute to the development of acquired drug-resistance and luteolin could restore sensitivity of oxaliplatin-resistant cell lines to chemotherapeutic drugs. Inhibition of the Nrf2 pathway may be the mechanism for this restored therapeutic response. PMID:24761924

Chian, Song; Li, Yin-Yan; Wang, Xiu-Jun; Tang, Xiu-Wen

2014-01-01

66

A Novel Aurora-A Inhibitor, BPR1K0609S1, Sensitizes Colorectal Tumor cells to 5-Fluorofracil (5-FU) Treatment  

PubMed Central

Small synthetic compounds have been implicated in treatment of human cancers. We have synthesized a small compound, BPR1K0609S1 (hereafter, BP), which inhibits Aurora-A kinase. In the present study, we studied the mechanism of BP suppression of tumorigenesis induced by Aurora-A. Given our previous results that inactivation of p53 accelerates MMTV-Aurora-A-mediated tumorigenesis in vivo, we studied the roles of p53 pathway using the isogenic human colon carcinoma cell lines of HCT116, in which p53, Puma, Bax, p21 or Chk2 is deleted. When these isogenic cell lines are treated with BP for 48 h, accumulation of G2M phase and aneuploidy are commonly observed, and HCT116 p21(-) cells show increase in apoptosis. In xenograft assay, s.c. injection of BP efficiently inhibits tumorigenesis of HCT116 deficient for Chk2 or p21. Re-transplantation of BP-resistant tumors indicates that these resistant cells do not acquire advanced tumor growth. Significantly, 5-FU (5-fluorouracil) treatment further induces apoptosis of BP-resistant HCT116 deficient for Chk2 or Puma. These results demonstrate that p21 deficiency enhances BP-mediated suppression of tumor growth, and that BP and 5-FU can collaborate for tumor regression.

Shionome, Yoshimi; Lin, Wen-Hsing; Shiao, Hui-Yi; Hsieh, Hsing-Pang; Hsu, John Tsu-An; Ouchi, Toru

2013-01-01

67

Cell diameter measurements obtained with a handheld cell counter could be used as a surrogate marker of G2/M arrest and apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines exposed to SN-38  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •Chemo-sensitivity to SN-38 was assayed by the automated cell counter. •Colon cancer cell line, HCT116 cells were more sensitive to SN-38 than HT29 cells. •Increase of cell size reflects G2/M arrest. •Appearance of small particles indicates cell apoptosis. -- Abstract: In vitro assessment of chemosensitivity are important for experiments evaluating cancer therapies. The Scepter 2.0 cell counter, an automated handheld device based on the Coulter principle of impedance-based particle detection, enables the accurate discrimination of cell populations according to cell size and volume. In this study, the effects of SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan, on the colon cancer cell lines HCT116 and HT29 were evaluated using this device. The cell count data obtained with the Scepter counter were compared with those obtained with the {sup 3}H-thymidine uptake assay, which has been used to measure cell proliferation in many previous studies. In addition, we examined whether the changes in the size distributions of these cells reflected alterations in the frequency of cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis induced by SN-38 treatment. In our experiments using the Scepter 2.0 cell counter, the cell counts were demonstrated to be accurate and reproducible measure and alterations of cell diameter reflected G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Our data show that easy-to-use cell counting tools can be utilized to evaluate the cell-killing effects of novel treatments on cancer cells in vitro.

Tahara, Makiko [Oncogene Research Unit/Cancer Prevention Unit, Tochigi Cancer Center Research Institute, Utsunomiya, Tochigi (Japan) [Oncogene Research Unit/Cancer Prevention Unit, Tochigi Cancer Center Research Institute, Utsunomiya, Tochigi (Japan); Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi (Japan); Inoue, Takeshi [Oncogene Research Unit/Cancer Prevention Unit, Tochigi Cancer Center Research Institute, Utsunomiya, Tochigi (Japan)] [Oncogene Research Unit/Cancer Prevention Unit, Tochigi Cancer Center Research Institute, Utsunomiya, Tochigi (Japan); Miyakura, Yasuyuki; Horie, Hisanaga; Yasuda, Yoshikazu [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi (Japan)] [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi (Japan); Fujii, Hirofumi [Division of Clinical Oncology, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi (Japan)] [Division of Clinical Oncology, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi (Japan); Kotake, Kenjiro [Department of Surgery, Tochigi Cancer Center, Utsunomiya, Tochigi (Japan)] [Department of Surgery, Tochigi Cancer Center, Utsunomiya, Tochigi (Japan); Sugano, Kokichi, E-mail: ksugano@tcc.pref.tochigi.lg.jp [Oncogene Research Unit/Cancer Prevention Unit, Tochigi Cancer Center Research Institute, Utsunomiya, Tochigi (Japan)] [Oncogene Research Unit/Cancer Prevention Unit, Tochigi Cancer Center Research Institute, Utsunomiya, Tochigi (Japan)

2013-05-17

68

Anti-proliferative effect of Melissa officinalis on human colon cancer cell line.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) is consumed as a traditional herbal tea in the Mediterranean region. The cytotoxic effect of the 50% ethanolic and aqueous extract, determined by the MTT and NR assays, was evaluated in vitro on Human Colon Cancer Cell Line (HCT-116), using Triton 10% as positive control. The 50% ethanolic extract showed significant differences after 72 h of treatment, reducing cell proliferation to values close to 40%, even the lowest dose tested (5 ?g/ml). In the MTT assay, the same extract caused the lowest cell viability with 13% at a concentration of 1,000 ?g/ml after 72 h of treatment, being a value lower than Triton 10%. The antioxidant activity was also confirmed evaluating the capacity of the extracts to scavenge ABTS and DPPH radicals, and IC(50) values were highly correlated with the total phenolic and flavonoid content. Bioassay guided fractionation led to the isolation of an anti-proliferative compound, rosmarinic acid. Its structural elucidation was performed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS analysis. High dose of rosmarinic acid (1,000 ?g/ml) was clearly cytotoxic against HCT-116 cells, with a significant decrease in cell number since the earliest time point (24 h). PMID:21964875

Encalada, Manuel Alejandro; Hoyos, Kelly Melissa; Rehecho, Sheyla; Berasategi, Izaskun; de Ciriano, Mikel García-Íńiguez; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar; Navarro-Blasco, Ińigo; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Calvo, María Isabel

2011-11-01

69

Evidence for a Connection between the Mismatch Repair System and the G2 Cell Cycle Checkpoint1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human colon tumor cell line HCT116 is deficient in wild-type liMIJII. is defective in mismatch repair (MMR), exhibits microsatellite instability, and is tolerant to JV-methylWV'-nitro-JV-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Transferring a normal copy of li.MI.III on chromosome 3 into the cell line restores MMR activity, stabilizes microsatellite loci, and increases the sensitivity of the cell to MNNG. Previous studies in other cell

Mary T. Hawn; Asad Umar; John M. Carethers; Giancarlo Marra; Thomas A. Kunkel; C. Richard Boland; Minoru Koi

70

iTRAQ analysis of colorectal cancer cell lines suggests Drebrin (DBN1) is overexpressed during liver metastasis.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancer is currently the third in cancer incidence worldwide and the fourth most common cause of cancer deaths. Mortality in colorectal cancer is often ascribed to liver metastasis. In an effort to elucidate the proteins involved in colorectal cancer liver metastasis, we compared the proteome profiles of the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116 with its metastatic derivative E1, using the iTRAQ labelling technology, coupled to 2D-LC and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. A total of 547 proteins were identified, of which 31 of them were differentially expressed in the E1 cell line. Among these proteins, the differential expressions of translationally controlled tumour protein 1, A-kinase anchor protein 12 and Drebrin (DBN1) were validated using Western blot. In particular, DBN1, a protein not previously known to be involved in colorectal cancer metastasis, was found to be overexpressed in E1 as compared to HCT-116 cells. The overexpression of DBN1 was further validated using immunohistochemistry on colorectal cancer tissue sections with matched lymph node and liver metastasis tissues. DBN1 is currently believed to be involved in actin cytoskeleton reorganisation and suppresses actin filament cross-linking and bundling. Since actin reorganisation is an important process for tumour cell migration and invasion, DBN1 may have an important role during colorectal cancer metastasis. PMID:24610677

Lin, Qifeng; Tan, Hwee Tong; Lim, Teck Kwang; Khoo, Avery; Lim, Kiat Hon; Chung, Maxey C M

2014-06-01

71

Functional Estrogen Receptor ? in Colon Cancer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence exists for expression of estrogen receptor ? (ER?) in human colonic mucosa. Here we investigated the expression of the classical ER (ER?) and of four isoforms of the human ER? in HCT116, HCT8, DLD-1, and LoVo colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. In addition, [3H]17?-estradiol (17?E2) binding to intact colon cancer cells was evaluated. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses showed lack

Gianna Fiorelli; Lucia Picariello; Valentina Martineti; Francesco Tonelli; Maria Luisa Brandi

1999-01-01

72

Enhanced antitumor activity of irofulven in combination with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin in human colon and ovarian carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Irofulven (6-hydroxymethylacylfulvene, MGI-114, NSC 683863) is a semisynthetic derivative of illudin S, a natural product obtained from the Omphalotus mushroom. Irofulven has demonstrated potent activity against a broad range of solid tumors in both cellular and xenograft models and has shown promising activity in clinical trials. To guide the clinical use of irofulven, the present study used the MTT viability assay to examine the cytotoxic effects obtained by combining irofulven with two other anticancer agents: cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The study was carried out with HT-29 and HCT-116 colorectal and A2780 ovarian carcinoma cells as well as with their irofulven- (HT-29/IF2, HCT-116/IF27) or cisplatin-resistant (A2780/CP70) variants. The combinations showed strong sequence specificity. Simultaneous exposure to cisplatin and irofulven was at least additive for four cell lines including the cisplatin-resistant A2780/CP70 ovarian cells which exhibit a multifactorial resistance phenotype. Cisplatin followed by irofulven was additive for parental HCT-116 and A2780 cells whereas irofulven followed by cisplatin was antagonistic in all cellular models. Simultaneous exposure to 5-FU and irofulven was at least additive for all six cell lines. 5-FU followed by irofulven was additive for the parental HT-29 and A2780 cells and synergistic for the irofulven-resistant HCT-116 cell line. Irofulven followed by 5-FU was synergistic for the two ovarian cell lines and additive for the two parental colon cell lines. These studies demonstrate that simultaneous exposure to irofulven and cisplatin is at least additive for most cell lines whereas simultaneous exposure to irofulven and 5-FU is additive to synergistic for all the cell lines tested, including the irofulven- and cisplatin-resistant variants. The enhanced cytotoxicity of irofulven in combination with cisplatin and 5-FU support the clinical application of these regimens. PMID:14532976

Poindessous, Virginie; Koeppel, Florence; Raymond, Eric; Cvitkovic, Esteban; Waters, Stephen J; Larsen, Annette K

2003-11-01

73

Oncolytic reovirus preferentially induces apoptosis in KRAS mutant colorectal cancer cells, and synergizes with irinotecan  

PubMed Central

Reovirus is a double stranded RNA virus, with an intrinsic preference for replication in KRAS mutant cells. As 45% of human colorectal cancers (CRC) harbor KRAS mutations, we sought to investigate its efficacy in KRAS mutant CRC cells, and examine its impact in combination with the topoisimerase-1 inhibitor, irinotecan. Reovirus efficacy was examined in the KRAS mutant HCT116, and the isogenic KRAS WT Hke3 cell line, and in the non-malignant rat intestinal epithelial cell line. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry and TUNEL staining. Combination treatment with reovirus and irintoecan was investigated in 15 CRC cell lines, including the HCT116 p21 isogenic cell lines. Reovirus preferentially induced apoptosis in KRAS mutant HCT116 cells compared to its isogenic KRAS WT derivative, and in KRAS mutant IEC cells. Reovirus showed a greater degree of caspase 3 activation with PARP 1 cleavage, and preferential inhibition of p21 protein expression in KRAS mutant cells. Reovirus synergistically induced growth inhibition when combined with irinotecan. This synergy was lost upon p21 gene knock out. Reovirus preferentially induces apoptosis in KRAS mutant colon cancer cells. Reovirus and irinotecan combination therapy is synergistic, p21 mediated, and represents a novel potential treatment for patients with CRC.

Maitra, Radhashree; Seetharam, Raviraja; Tesfa, Lydia; Augustine, Titto A.; Klampfer, Lidija; Coffey, Matthew C.; Mariadason, John M.; Goel, Sanjay

2014-01-01

74

Oncolytic reovirus preferentially induces apoptosis in KRAS mutant colorectal cancer cells, and synergizes with irinotecan.  

PubMed

Reovirus is a double stranded RNA virus, with an intrinsic preference for replication in KRAS mutant cells. As 45% of human colorectal cancers (CRC) harbor KRAS mutations, we sought to investigate its efficacy in KRAS mutant CRC cells, and examine its impact in combination with the topoisimerase-1 inhibitor, irinotecan. Reovirus efficacy was examined in the KRAS mutant HCT116, and the isogenic KRAS WT Hke3 cell line, and in the non-malignant rat intestinal epithelial cell line. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry and TUNEL staining. Combination treatment with reovirus and irintoecan was investigated in 15 CRC cell lines, including the HCT116 p21 isogenic cell lines. Reovirus preferentially induced apoptosis in KRAS mutant HCT116 cells compared to its isogenic KRAS WT derivative, and in KRAS mutant IEC cells. Reovirus showed a greater degree of caspase 3 activation with PARP 1 cleavage, and preferential inhibition of p21 protein expression in KRAS mutant cells. Reovirus synergistically induced growth inhibition when combined with irinotecan. This synergy was lost upon p21 gene knock out. Reovirus preferentially induces apoptosis in KRAS mutant colon cancer cells. Reovirus and irinotecan combination therapy is synergistic, p21 mediated, and represents a novel potential treatment for patients with CRC. PMID:24798549

Maitra, Radhashree; Seetharam, Raviraja; Tesfa, Lydia; Augustine, Titto A; Klampfer, Lidija; Coffey, Matthew C; Mariadason, John M; Goel, Sanjay

2014-05-15

75

LINE-1 and Alu retrotransposition exhibit clonal variation  

PubMed Central

Background The non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons, long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1) and Alu are currently active retroelements in humans. We, and others, have observed that different populations of HeLa cells from different laboratories support retrotransposition of LINE-1 and Alu to varying degrees. We therefore tested whether individual cell clones of HeLa and HCT116 cell lines supported different levels of LINE-1 and Alu retrotransposition, and whether these variations were stable upon re-cloning. Findings Standard retrotransposition tissue culture assays were used to measure a cell’s ability to support LINE-1 and Alu retrotransposition in clonal HeLa and HCT116 cell lines. We observed that both LINE-1 and Alu retrotransposition exhibited clonal variation in HeLa cells, with certain HeLa cell clones supporting high levels of LINE-1 and Alu retrotransposition and other cell clones being essentially retrotransposition-dead. This clonal variation was similarly observed in HCT116 cells, although possibly not to the same extent. These patterns of clonal variation are relatively consistent upon re-cloning. Conclusions Observations of the variability of LINE-1 and Alu retrotransposition in different populations of the same cell line are supported by our results that indicate in some cell types, individual cell clones can have dramatically differing capacity for retrotransposition. The mixed populations of cells commonly used in laboratories have often been passaged for many generations and accumulated significant genetic and epigenetic diversity. Our results suggest that the clonal variability observed by our cloning experiments may lead to a homogenization of retrotransposition capacity, with the resulting mixed population of cells being composed of individual variants having either increased or decreased retrotransposition potential compared to the starting population.

2013-01-01

76

Regulation of intracellular pH in cancer cell lines under normoxia and hypoxia.  

PubMed

Acid-extrusion by active transport is important in metabolically active cancer cells, where it removes excess intracellular acid and sets the intracellular resting pH. Hypoxia is a major trigger of adaptive responses in cancer, but its effect on acid-extrusion remains unclear. We studied pH-regulation under normoxia and hypoxia in eight cancer cell-lines (HCT116, RT112, MDA-MB-468, MCF10A, HT29, HT1080, MiaPaca2, HeLa) using the pH-sensitive fluorophore, cSNARF-1. Hypoxia responses were triggered by pre-incubation in low O(2) or with the 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase inhibitor dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG). By selective pharmacological inhibition or transport-substrate removal, acid-extrusion flux was dissected into components due to Na(+)/H(+) exchange (NHE) and Na(+)-dependent HCO(3)(-) transport. In half of the cell-lines (HCT116, RT112, MDA-MB-468, MCF10A), acid-extrusion on NHE was the dominant flux during an acid load, and in all of these, bar one (MDA-MB-468), NHE-flux was reduced following hypoxic incubation. Further studies in HCT116 cells showed that <4-h hypoxic incubation reduced NHE-flux reversibly with a time-constant of 1-2?h. This was not associated with a change in expression of NHE1, the principal NHE isoform. Following 48-h hypoxia, inhibition of NHE-flux persisted but became only slowly reversible and associated with reduced expression of the glycosylated form of NHE1. Acid-extrusion by Na(+)-dependent HCO(3)(-) transport was hypoxia-insensitive and comparable in all cell lines. This constitutive and stable element of pH-regulation was found to be important for setting and stabilizing resting pH at a mildly alkaline level (conducive for growth), irrespective of oxygenation status. In contrast, the more variable flux on NHE underlies cell-specific differences in their dynamic response to larger acid loads. PMID:22949268

Hulikova, Alzbeta; Harris, Adrian L; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D; Swietach, Pawel

2013-04-01

77

Seven genes that are differentially transcribed in colorectal tumor cell lines.  

PubMed

To identify genes which are differentially transcribed in colorectal tumor cells, we compared the two human tumor cell lines, SW480 and HCT116, with the cell line, NCM460, from normal colon epithelium as a control. Using the methods of differential display reverse transcription PCR and Northern blot hybridization, we detected the differential transcription of seven genes: cholecystokinin, reticulocalbin, Rab5 guanine nucleotide exchange factor Rabex5, caldesmon, differentiation related gene 1 (drg1), taxol resistant associated gene 3 (Trag-3) and the gene for the placental protein, diff33. The yet unidentified cDNA of the human Rabex5 gene and the 3' untranslated region of the human caldesmon gene were cloned. PMID:11098082

Nimmrich, I; Erdmann, S; Melchers, U; Finke, U; Hentsch, S; Moyer, M P; Hoffmann, I; Müller, O

2000-11-10

78

Genetic unmasking of epigenetically silenced tumor suppressor genes in colon cancer cells deficient in DNA methyltransferases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypermethylation associated silencing of the CpG islands of tumor suppressor genes is a common hallmark of human cancer. Here we report a functional search for hypermethylated CpG islands using the colorectal cancer cell line HCT-116, in which two major DNA methyltransferases, DNMT1 and DNMT3b, have been genetically disrupted (DKO cells). Using two molecular screenings for differentially methylated loci (differential methylation

Maria F. Paz; Susan Wei; Juan C. Cigudosa; Sandra Rodriguez-Perales; Miguel A. Peinado; Tim Hui-Ming Huang; Manel Esteller

2003-01-01

79

Celecoxib inhibits the expression of survivin via the suppression of promoter activity in human colon cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on human colon cancer cell lines to clarify the mechanisms underlying the chemopreventive effect of NSAIDs. Celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, induced apoptosis and strongly reduced the expression of an anti-apoptotic protein, survivin, in both protein and mRNA levels in HCT-116 cells. Subsequently, we conducted luciferase reporter assay using a

Naoko Sakoguchi-Okada; Fumi Takahashi-Yanaga; Kazuhiro Fukada; Fumie Shiraishi; Yoji Taba; Yoshikazu Miwa; Sachio Morimoto; Mitsuo Iida; Toshiyuki Sasaguri

2007-01-01

80

Antibody conjugated supported lipid bilayer for capturing and purification of viable tumor cells in blood for subsequent cell culture.  

PubMed

Interest in the identification and isolation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has been growing since the introduction of CTCs as an alternative to the tumor tissue biopsy, which can potentially be important indices for prognosis and cancer treatment. However, the contamination of non-specific binding of normal hematologic cells makes high purity CTCs detection problematic. Furthermore, preserving the viability of CTCs remains a challenge. In this study, we proposed to construct an anti-EpCAM functionalized supported lipid bilayer (SLB), a biomimetic and non-fouling membrane coating, for CTCs capturing, purification and maintaining the viability. Healthy human blood spiked with pre-stained colorectal cancer cell lines, HCT116 and colo205, were used to investigate interaction of cells with the anti-EpCAM functionalized SLB surfaces. Over 97% of HCT116, and 72% of colo205 were captured and adhered by the surface anti-EpCAM; conversely, the majority of blood cells were easily removed by gentle buffer exchange, with the overall purity of cancer cells exceeding 95%. The bound cancer cells were subsequently detached for cell culture. Both HCT116 and colo205 continued to proliferate over 2-week observation period, indicating that the anti-EpCAM functionalized SLB platform providing a simple strategy for capturing, purifying, and releasing viable targeted rare cells. PMID:23615560

Wu, Jen-Chia; Tseng, Po-Yuan; Tsai, Wen-Sy; Liao, Mei-Ying; Lu, Si-Hong; Frank, Curtis W; Chen, Jinn-Shiun; Wu, Han-Chung; Chang, Ying-Chih

2013-07-01

81

Total cranberry extract versus its phytochemical constituents: antiproliferative and synergistic effects against human tumor cell lines.  

PubMed

Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) are an excellent dietary source of phytochemicals that include flavonol glycosides, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins), and organic and phenolic acids. Using C-18 and Sephadex Lipophilic LH-20 column chromatography, HPLC, and tandem LC-ES/MS, the total cranberry extract (TCE) has been analyzed, quantified, and separated into fractions enriched in sugars, organic acids, total polyphenols, proanthocyanidins, and anthocyanins (39.4, 30.0, 10.6, 5.5, and 1.2% composition, respectively). Using a luminescent ATP cell viability assay, the antiproliferative effects of TCE (200 microg/mL) versus all fractions were evaluated against human oral (KB, CAL27), colon (HT-29, HCT116, SW480, SW620), and prostate (RWPE-1, RWPE-2, 22Rv1) cancer cell lines. The total polyphenol fraction was the most active fraction against all cell lines with 96.1 and 95% inhibition of KB and CAL27 oral cancer cells, respectively. For the colon cancer cells, the antiproliferative activity of this fraction was greater against HCT116 (92.1%) than against HT-29 (61.1%), SW480 (60%), and SW620 (63%). TCE and all fractions showed >/=50% antiproliferative activity against prostate cancer cells with total polyphenols being the most active fraction (RWPE-1, 95%; RWPE-2, 95%; 22Rv1, 99.6%). Cranberry sugars (78.8 microg/mL) did not inhibit the proliferation of any cancer cell lines. The enhanced antiproliferative activity of total polyphenols compared to TCE and its individual phytochemicals suggests synergistic or additive antiproliferative interactions of the anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and flavonol glycosides within the cranberry extract. PMID:15113149

Seeram, Navindra P; Adams, Lynn S; Hardy, Mary L; Heber, David

2004-05-01

82

Cloning and chromosomal localization of human WIG1\\/ PAG608 and demonstration of amplification with increased expression in primary squamous cell carcinoma of the lung  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, we describe the cloning of the coding region of human WIG-1 cDNA. The human 8 and 6 kb WIG-1 transcripts are both upregulated following ionizing irradiation of the human colon cancer cell lines HCT116 and LoVo which have wild type TP53 but not in DLD1 cells that lack wild type TP53. Basal levels of both WIG-1 transcripts

Shohreh Varmeh-Ziaie; Koichi Ichimura; Fengtang Yang; Pamela Rabbits; V. Peter Collins

2001-01-01

83

Lack of functional erythropoietin receptors of cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

Erythropoietin (Epo) therapy reduces red cell transfusion requirements and improves the quality of life of anemic cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. However, there is concern that Epo may promote tumor growth. We investigated by real-time RT-PCR, immunofluorescence microscopy, Western blotting and cell growth analysis whether human cancer cell lines (SH-SY5Y, MCF7, HepG2, U2-OS, HeLa, HEK293T, RCC4, HCT116, 7860wt and SW480) possess functional Epo receptors (EpoR). We detected EpoR mRNA in all cell lines. Neither hypoxia nor Epo treatment altered the level of EpoR mRNA expression. Four commonly used commercial antibodies proved to be unsuitable for immunoblot procedures because they cross-reacted with several proteins unrelated with EpoR. Depending on the antibody used, EpoR was localized to the plasma membrane, the cytoplasm or the nucleus. Experiments with small interfering RNA showed that EpoR protein was not expressed by the tumor cells except by UT7/Epo leukemia cells, which served as an EpoR positive control line, and by cells transfected with the human EpoR gene. Apart from UT7/Epo, none of the tumor cell lines responded to Epo treatment with phosphorylation of signaling molecules or with cell proliferation. PMID:17990315

Laugsch, Magdalena; Metzen, Eric; Svensson, Tanja; Depping, Reinhard; Jelkmann, Wolfgang

2008-03-01

84

Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides target a fas/caspase dependent pathway to induce apoptosis in human colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) extracted from Ganoderma lucidum have been shown to induce cell death in some kinds of cancer cells. This study investigated the cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of GLP on HCT-116 human colon cancer cells and the molecular mechanisms involved. Cell proliferation, cell migration, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels and intracellular free calcium levels ([Ca2+]i) were determined by MTT, wound-healing, LDH release and fluorescence assays, respectively. Cell apoptosis was observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. For the mechanism studies, caspase-8 activation, and Fas and caspase-3 expression were evaluated. Treatment of HCT-116 cells with various concentrations of GLP (0.625-5 mg/mL) resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability (P< 0.01). This study showed that the antitumor activity of GLP was related to cell migration inhibition, cell morphology changes, intracellular Ca2+ elevation and LDH release. Also, increase in the levels of caspase-8 activity was involved in GLP-induced apoptosis. Western blotting indicated that Fas and caspase-3 protein expression was up-regulated after exposure to GLP. This investigation demonstrated for the first time that GLP shows prominent anticancer activities against the HCT-116 human colon cancer cell line through triggering intracellular calcium release and the death receptor pathway. PMID:24935584

Liang, Zengenni; Guo, Yu-Tong; Yi, You-Jin; Wang, Ren-Cai; Hu, Qiu-Long; Xiong, Xing-Yao

2014-01-01

85

Dihydroartemisinin is a Hypoxia-Active Anti-Cancer Drug in Colorectal Carcinoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Tumor hypoxia is one main biological factor that drives resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. To develop a novel strategy for overcoming hypoxia-induced therapy resistance, we examined the anti-neoplastic activity of the reactive oxygen donor dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in human colon cancer cell lines in normoxia and severe hypoxia. In addition, we analyzed the involvement of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway for DHA-mediated cytotoxicity in HCT116 cells in short-term and long-term in vitro assays. When applied at lower concentrations (?25??M), DHA induced apoptosis in Colo205, HCT15, and HCT116 cells, whereas necrotic cell death was increased when cells were treated with higher DHA concentrations (50??M). However, no preference for DHA-induced apoptosis or necrosis could be detected between the treatment under normoxic or hypoxic conditions. Moreover, DHA potently reduced clonogenic survival of HCT116 cells in normoxia and hypoxia. Treatment of HCT116 cells with 25??M DHA resulted in activation of Bax under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Interestingly, cytochrome c release from the mitochondria and caspase-activation were observed only under normoxic conditions, whereas, under hypoxic conditions DHA induced a caspase-independent apoptosis-like cell death. However, under both conditions, generation of reactive oxygen species was an important mediator of DHA-induced toxicity. Further molecular analysis suggests that DHA-mediated cell death involves different sets of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members. The pronounced cytotoxic activity of DHA in severe hypoxia as well as normoxia offers new perspectives for targeting the hypoxic tumor cell fraction to improve treatment outcome for cancer patients.

Ontikatze, Teona; Rudner, Justine; Handrick, Rene; Belka, Claus; Jendrossek, Verena

2014-01-01

86

Dihydroartemisinin is a Hypoxia-Active Anti-Cancer Drug in Colorectal Carcinoma Cells.  

PubMed

Tumor hypoxia is one main biological factor that drives resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. To develop a novel strategy for overcoming hypoxia-induced therapy resistance, we examined the anti-neoplastic activity of the reactive oxygen donor dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in human colon cancer cell lines in normoxia and severe hypoxia. In addition, we analyzed the involvement of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway for DHA-mediated cytotoxicity in HCT116 cells in short-term and long-term in vitro assays. When applied at lower concentrations (?25??M), DHA induced apoptosis in Colo205, HCT15, and HCT116 cells, whereas necrotic cell death was increased when cells were treated with higher DHA concentrations (50??M). However, no preference for DHA-induced apoptosis or necrosis could be detected between the treatment under normoxic or hypoxic conditions. Moreover, DHA potently reduced clonogenic survival of HCT116 cells in normoxia and hypoxia. Treatment of HCT116 cells with 25??M DHA resulted in activation of Bax under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Interestingly, cytochrome c release from the mitochondria and caspase-activation were observed only under normoxic conditions, whereas, under hypoxic conditions DHA induced a caspase-independent apoptosis-like cell death. However, under both conditions, generation of reactive oxygen species was an important mediator of DHA-induced toxicity. Further molecular analysis suggests that DHA-mediated cell death involves different sets of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members. The pronounced cytotoxic activity of DHA in severe hypoxia as well as normoxia offers new perspectives for targeting the hypoxic tumor cell fraction to improve treatment outcome for cancer patients. PMID:24904829

Ontikatze, Teona; Rudner, Justine; Handrick, René; Belka, Claus; Jendrossek, Verena

2014-01-01

87

Resveratrol inhibits proliferation, angiogenesis and induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells: calorie restriction is the force to the cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the antitumour activity of resveratrol in human colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT116 and Caco2) and to explore its mechanism of action assuming that it is by calorie-restriction effect. Resveratrol inhibited the proliferation of colon cancer cells with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) equal to 50 and 130 ?M for HCT116 and Caco2, respectively. Caco2 cells appeared with significant time-dependent increase in the glycolytic pathway, a behaviour that was absent in HCT116 cells. Resveratrol (100 ?M) significantly decreased the glycolytic enzymes (pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase) in Caco2 cells, while an increase in citrate synthase activity and a decrease in glucose consumption were observed in both cell lines. Moreover, resveratrol downregulated the expressions of leptin and c-Myc, and decreased the content of vascular endothelial growth factor. The apoptotic markers, caspases 3 and 8, were activated and the Bax/BCl2 ratio was increased. The study suggested a promising anticancer activity of resveratrol, calorie-restriction pathway may be one of the driving forces for this activity. PMID:23536519

Fouad, M A; Agha, A M; Merzabani, M M Al; Shouman, S A

2013-10-01

88

Multiple promoter elements govern expression of the human ornithine decarboxylase gene in colon carcinoma cells.  

PubMed Central

Overexpression of the ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) gene may be important to the development and maintenance of colonic neoplasms, as well as tumors in general. In this study, we examined the promoter elements governing constitutive expression of the human ODC gene in HCT 116 human colon carcinoma cells and, for comparison, K562 human erythro-leukemia cells. It was determined by functional analysis that the promoter elements responsible reside within the 378 bp immediately upstream from the transcription start site. Within this sequence, there are at least three regions that modulate the efficiency of the ODC promoter cooperatively. Both DNA bandshift and footprint assays demonstrated all three regions to be rich in sites that bind to nuclear proteins isolated from HCT 116 and K562 cells; the protein binding pattern of non-transformed, diploid fibroblasts was found to be much less complex. Several of the protein binding sequences have little or no homology to common regulatory elements. We suggest that the constitutive activity of the ODC gene in HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells, and perhaps transformed cells in general, involves a complex interaction of multiple regulatory sequences and their associated nuclear proteins. Finally, the saturation of the promoter in these transformed cell lines suggests that high levels of protein binding in the ODC promoter may contribute to elevated constitutive expression of this gene. Images

Moshier, J A; Osborne, D L; Skunca, M; Dosescu, J; Gilbert, J D; Fitzgerald, M C; Polidori, G; Wagner, R L; Friezner Degen, S J; Luk, G D

1992-01-01

89

Proteomic profiling of human colon cancer cells treated with the histone deacetylase inhibitor belinostat.  

PubMed

The anticancer drug belinostat is a hydroxamate histone deacetylase inhibitor that has shown significant antitumour activity in various tumour models and also in clinical trials. In this study, we utilized a proteomic approach in order to evaluate the effect of this drug on protein expression in the human colon cancer cell line HCT116. Protein extracts from untreated HCT116 cells, and cells grown for 24 h in the presence of 1 and 10 muM belinostat were analysed by 2-D gel electrophoresis. Proteins were visualized by colloidal Coomassie blue staining and quantitative analysis of gel images revealed 45 unique differentially expressed proteins that were identified by LC-MSMS analysis. Among these proteins, of particular interest are the downregulated proteins nucleophosmin and stratifin, and the upregulated proteins nucleolin, gelsolin, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K, annexin 1, and HSP90B that all were related to the proto-oncogene proteins p53, Myc, activator protein 1, and c-fos protein. The modulation of these proteins is consistent with the observations that belinostat is able to inhibit clonogenic cell growth of HCT116 cells and the biological role of these proteins will be discussed. PMID:20717991

Beck, Hans Christian; Petersen, Jřrgen; Nielsen, Sřren Jensby; Morsczeck, Christian; Morszeck, Christian; Jensen, Peter B; Sehested, Maxwell; Grauslund, Morten

2010-08-01

90

The -1195G allele increases the transcriptional activity of cyclooxygenase-2 gene (COX-2) in colon cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

Up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an early and key event in human colorectal carcinogenesis (CRC). Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms leading to this over-expression are largely unknown. We previously reported an association between the -1195G allele and higher predisposition for CRC in a Caucasian population. The biological explanation for the involvement of this polymorphism in CRC remains elusive. We aimed to functionally characterize the influence of the -1195A>G promoter region polymorphism on COX-2 transcription activity in colon cancer cell lines. Luciferase reporter assays were performed to assess whether the -1195A/G alleles influenced COX-2 transcription. The COX-2 promoter's region containing either the -1195A or -1195G alleles was cloned into pGL3-basic reporter vector. The reporter vectors were transiently co-transfected with the pGL4.73 control plasmid to HCT-116 and HCA-7 colon cancer cell lines. The levels of reporter gene expression driven by the -1195G allele-containing COX-2 promoter were significantly higher in both colon cancer cell lines. A 2.2-fold increase in promoter activity was observed in the HCT-116 cell line (P < 0.001), and this over-expression was even more noticeable in the HCA-7 COX-2 expressing cell line with a threefold higher transcriptional activity (P = 0.001). The -1195G allele appeared to enhance COX-2 transcription, providing a molecular basis underlying the increased susceptibility for CRC and potentially a new mechanism for COX-2 overexpression. PMID:23776069

Pereira, Carina; Sousa, Hugo; Silva, Joana; Brandăo, Carla; Elgueta-Karstegl, Claudio; Farrell, Paul J; Medeiros, Rui; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário

2014-02-01

91

Lipid alterations in human colon epithelial cells induced to differentiation and/or apoptosis by butyrate and polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

PubMed

The present study highlights the important association between lipid alterations and differentiation/apoptotic responses in human colon differentiating (FHC) and nondifferentiating (HCT-116) cell lines after their treatment with short-chain fatty acid sodium butyrate (NaBt), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and/or their combination. Our data from GC/MS and LC/MS/MS showed an effective incorporation and metabolization of the supplemented arachidonic acid (AA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), resulting in an enhanced content of the respective PUFA in individual phospholipid (PL) classes and an altered composition of the whole cellular fatty acid spectrum in both FHC and HCT-116 cells. We provide novel evidence that NaBt combined with PUFAs additionally modulated AA and DHA cellular levels and caused their shift from triacylglycerol to PL fractions. NaBt increased, while AA, DHA and their combination with NaBt decreased endogenous fatty acid synthesis in FHC but not in HCT-116 cells. Fatty acid treatment also altered membrane lipid structure, augmented cytoplasmic lipid droplet accumulation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential. All these parameters were significantly enhanced by combined NaBt/PUFA treatment, but only in FHC cells was this accompanied by highly increased apoptosis and suppressed differentiation. Moreover, the most significant changes of ROS production, differentiation and apoptosis among the parameters studied, the highest effects of combined NaBt/PUFA treatment and a lower sensitivity of HCT-116 cells were confirmed using two-way ANOVA. Our results demonstrate an important role of fatty acid-induced lipid alterations in the different apoptotic/differentiation response of colon cells with various carcinogenic potential. PMID:21775115

Hofmanová, Ji?ina; Ciganek, Miroslav; Slavík, Josef; Kozubík, Alois; Stixová, Lenka; Vaculová, Alena; Dušek, Ladislav; Machala, Miroslav

2012-06-01

92

Sorbitol induces apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells via p38 MAPK signal transduction  

PubMed Central

Sorbitol has been reported to have anticancer effects in several tumor models, however its effects on colorectal cancer remain elusive. In the present study, the effects of sorbitol on growth inhibition and apoptosis in the colorectal cancer HCT116 cell line were evaluated and its mechanism of action was examined. An MTT assay was utilized to determine the effect of sorbitol on HCT116 cell proliferation at different time points and variable doses. Western blot analysis was used to examine the effect of sorbitol on apoptosis-related protein expression and the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. The results revealed that sorbitol may inhibit the growth of HCT116 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Following treatment with sorbitol for 3 h, western blotting demonstrated cleavage of the caspase-3 zymogen protein and a cleavage product of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), a known substrate of caspase-3, was also evident. During sorbitol-induced apoptosis, the mitochondrial pathway was activated by a dose-dependent increase in Bax expression and cytochrome c release, while the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The investigation for the downstream signal pathway revealed that sorbitol-induced apoptosis was mediated by an increase in phosphorylated p38 MAPK expression. Overall, the observations from the present study imply that sorbitol causes increased levels of Bax in response to p38 MAPK signaling, which results in the initiation of the mitochondrial death cascade. Therefore, sorbitol is a promising candidate as a potential chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of colorectal cancer HCT116 cells.

LU, XUE; LI, CHUN; WANG, YONG-KUN; JIANG, KUN; GAI, XIAO-DONG

2014-01-01

93

Multiplex Flow Cytometry Barcoding and Antibody Arrays Identify Surface Antigen Profiles of Primary and Metastatic Colon Cancer Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Colon cancer is a deadly disease affecting millions of people worldwide. Current treatment challenges include management of disease burden as well as improvements in detection and targeting of tumor cells. To identify disease state-specific surface antigen signatures, we combined fluorescent cell barcoding with high-throughput flow cytometric profiling of primary and metastatic colon cancer lines (SW480, SW620, and HCT116). Our multiplexed technique offers improvements over conventional methods by permitting the simultaneous and rapid screening of cancer cells with reduced effort and cost. The method uses a protein-level analysis with commercially available antibodies on live cells with intact epitopes to detect potential tumor-specific targets that can be further investigated for their clinical utility. Multiplexed antibody arrays can easily be applied to other tumor types or pathologies for discovery-based approaches to target identification.

Sukhdeo, Kumar; Paramban, Rosanto I.; Vidal, Jason G.; Elia, Jeanne; Martin, Jody; Rivera, Maricruz; Carrasco, Daniel R.; Jarrar, Awad; Kalady, Matthew F.; Carson, Christian T.; Balderas, Robert; Hjelmeland, Anita B.; Lathia, Justin D.; Rich, Jeremy N.

2013-01-01

94

The farnesyl transferase inhibitor RPR-130401 does not alter radiation susceptibility in human tumor cells with a K-Ras mutation in spite of large changes in ploidy and lamin B distribution  

PubMed Central

Background Growth inhibition by RPR-130401, a non-peptidomimetic farnesyltransferase inhibitor, was investigated without or with combined exposure to ionizing radiation in three human tumor cell lines (HCT-116, MiAPaCa-2 and A-549) bearing a point mutation in the K-Ras gene. Results RPR-130401 inhibited cell growth with an IC50 of 50 nM (HCT-116), 120 nM (MiAPaCa-2) and 710 nM (A-549), with a poor incidence of apoptosis. The drug brought about G1 and S phase depletion together with arrest of cells in G2 phase and induced a significant accumulation of hyperploid cells showing active S phase DNA synthesis, with HCT-116 and A-549 cells being the most and least responsive, respectively. The drug also produced dramatic changes of the nuclear lamin B pattern, without lamin B cleavage and perturbation of the actin cytoskeleton. On the other hand, RPR-130401 elicited strictly additive interaction in combined treatment with ionizing radiation with regard to cell kill, altered cell cycle progression and induced hyperploidy. Conclusions The data suggest that disruption of orderly progression through mitosis and cytokinesis, is a major outcome of drug action and that this effect proceeds from inhibition of lamin B farnesylation. It is anticipated from the strict additivity of RPR-130401 and radiation that neither induced radiation resistance nor acute or late complications of radiotherapy, should occur in combined treatment with RPR-130401.

Megnin-Chanet, Frederique; Lavelle, Francois; Favaudon, Vincent

2002-01-01

95

Effect of ?,?-Dimethylacrylshikonin on Inhibition of Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Growth in Vitro and in Vivo.  

PubMed

In traditional Chinese medicine, shikonin and its derivatives, has been used in East Asia for several years for the prevention and treatment of several diseases, including cancer. We previously identified that ?,?-dimethylacrylshikonin (DA) could inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma growth. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of DA on human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell line HCT-116 in vitro and in vivo. A viability assay showed that DA could inhibit tumor cell growth in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry showed that DA blocks the cell cycle at G(0)/G(1) phase. Western blotting results demonstrated that the induction of apoptosis by DA correlated with the induction of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, and Bid, and a decrease in the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl. Furthermore, treatment of HCT-116 bearing nude mice with DA significantly retarded the growth of xenografts. Consistent with the results in vitro, the DA-mediated suppression of HCT-116 xenografts correlated with Bax and Bcl-2. Taken together, these results suggest that DA could be a novel and promising approach to the treatment of CRC. PMID:22942759

Fan, Yingying; Jin, Shaoju; He, Jun; Shao, Zhenjun; Yan, Jiao; Feng, Ting; Li, Hong

2012-01-01

96

?,?-Dimethylacrylshikonin sensitizes human colon cancer cells to ionizing radiation through the upregulation of reactive oxygen species  

PubMed Central

Shikonin, a naphthoquinone derivative, has been shown to possess antitumor activity. In the present study, the effects of shikonin and its analog, ?,?-dimethylacrylshikonin, were investigated as radiosensitizers on the human colon cancer cell line, HCT-116. Shikonin and, to a greater extent, its analog-induced apoptosis of HCT-116 cells further synergistically potentiated the induction of apoptosis when combined with ionizing radiation (IR) treatment. Shikonins also stimulated an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and IR-induced DNA damage. Pre-treatment with the ROS scavenger, N-acetylcysteine, suppressed the enhancement of IR-induced DNA damage and apoptosis stimulated by shikonins, indicating that shikonins exert their radiosensitizing effects through ROS upregulation. The radiosensitizing effect of shikonins was also examined in vivo using the xenograft mouse model. Consistent with the in vitro results, injection of ?,?-dimethylacrylshikonin combined with IR treatment significantly suppressed tumor growth of the HCT-116 xenograft. Taken together, the results show that ?,?-dimethylacrylshikonin is a promising agent for developing an improved strategy for radiotherapy against tumors.

KWAK, SEO-YOUNG; JEONG, YOUN KYOUNG; KIM, BU-YEON; LEE, JI YOUNG; AHN, HYUN-JOO; JEONG, JAE-HOON; KIM, MI-SOOK; KIM, JOON; HAN, YOUNG-HOON

2014-01-01

97

Characterization of side population cells isolated from the colon cancer cell line SW480.  

PubMed

Side population (SP) cells may play a crucial role in tumorigenesis and the recurrence of cancer. Many types of cell lines and tissues have demonstrated the presence of SP cells, including colon cancer cell lines. This study aimed to identify cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the SP of the colon cancer cell line SW480. SP cells were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), followed by serum-free medium (SFM) culture. The self-renewal, differentiated progeny, clone formation, proliferation, invasion ability, cell cycle, chemosensitivity and tumorigenic properties in SP and non-SP (NSP) cells were investigated through in vitro culture and in vivo serial transplantation. The expression profiles of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein transporters and stem cell?related genes were examined by RT-PCR and western blot analysis. The human colon cancer cell lines SW480, Lovo and HCT116 contain 1.1±0.10, 0.93±0.11 and 1.33±0.05% SP cells, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that SP cells could differentiate into SP and NSP cells. SP cells had a higher proliferation potency and CFE than NSP cells. Compared to NSP cells, SP cells were also more resistant to CDDP and 5-FU, and were more invasive and displayed increased tumorigenic ability. Moreover, SP cells showed higher mRNA and protein expression of ABCG2, MDR1, OCT-4, NANOG, SOX-2, CD44 and CD133. SP cells isolated from human colon cancer cell lines harbor CSC properties that may be related to the invasive potential and therapeutic resistance of colon cancer. PMID:24926880

Xiong, Binghong; Ma, Li; Hu, Xiang; Zhang, Caiquan; Cheng, Yong

2014-09-01

98

Cytochemical staining for beta 1,6 branching of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides in variants of metastatic human colon carcinoma cells.  

PubMed Central

A positive correlation between tumor progression in human colon and increased beta 1,6 branching in oligosaccharides has recently been demonstrated. The present study was undertaken to elucidate whether such a correlation can be extended to variants of metastasizing human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells. The Phaseolus vulgaris leukoagglutinating lectin, which binds to beta 1,6 branched oligosaccharides, was employed. In blots, a band of approximately 140 kd was detectable in both the HCT116a and HCT116b sublines. However, in the more aggressive subline HCT116a, the intensity of this band was increased by 100%, and additional reactive bands of approximately 100 kd and approximately 170 kd were observed. Analysis by electron microscopy revealed lectin labeling in the Golgi apparatus, lysosomal elements, mucus droplets, cytoplasmic vesicles, and at the plasma membrane. Quantification of the lectin plasma membrane labeling revealed a significantly higher labeling intensity in HCT116a cells than in HCT116b cells. The difference in lectin plasma membrane labeling intensity could also be observed in paraffin sections. Thus, variants of metastatic HCT116 colon carcinoma cells differ quantitatively and qualitatively in glycoproteins carrying beta 1,6 branches. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7

Li, W. P.; Zuber, C.; Heitz, P. U.; Roth, J.

1994-01-01

99

Multiple antitumor effects of picropodophyllin in colon carcinoma cell lines: Clinical implications  

PubMed Central

Although colorectal cancer can be successfully treated by conventional strategies such as chemo/radiotherapy and surgery, a substantial number of cases, in particular those with liver metastases, remain incurable. Therefore, novel treatment approaches are warranted. The IGF-1R and its ligands, mainly IGF-1 and IGF-2, have been suggested to play pivotal roles in proliferation, survival and migration of adenocarcinoma cells of the colon/rectum. Therefore, interference with IGF-1R-mediated signaling may represent a therapeutic option for this malignancy. In this study, semi-quantitative RT-PCR analyses of 48 paired, colorectal cancer patient samples showed significant overexpression of tumor IGF-1R and IGF-2 mRNA. There was also an overexpression of MMP-7, which was significantly correlated with histopathological parameters. Based on these findings, the effect of the IGF-1R-inhibitory cyclolignan picropodophyllin (PPP) was assessed in the four colon carcinoma cell lines HT-29, HCT-116, DLD-1 and CaCO-2. PPP strongly and dose-dependently inhibited proliferation and migration in all cell lines. However, when exposed to 0.5 ?M PPP, only HT-29 showed a net decrease of viable cells as compared with the cell number at the beginning of the experiment, a finding that coincided with decreased expression/phosphorylation of IGF-1R, AKT and ERK. This cell line also exhibited PPP-induced downregulation of MMP-7 and MMP-9. Similar to the DLD-1 and HCT-116 cell lines, HT-29 also showed substantial cell detachment in response to PPP. Although a net reduction of cells by PPP seems to require a synchronized downregulation of IGF-1R, AKT and ERK1/2, part of the antitumor effect may be explained by other, possibly IGF-1R-unrelated mechanism(s). Such a multitude of inhibitory effects of PPP in colon cancer cells together with its low toxicity in vivo makes it a promising drug candidate in the treatment of this disease.

FENG, XIAOYING; ALEEM, EIMAN; LIN, YINGBO; AXELSON, MAGNUS; LARSSON, OLLE; STROMBERG, THOMAS

2012-01-01

100

Multiple antitumor effects of picropodophyllin in colon carcinoma cell lines: clinical implications.  

PubMed

Although colorectal cancer can be successfully treated by conventional strategies such as chemo/radiotherapy and surgery, a substantial number of cases, in particular those with liver metastases, remain incurable. Therefore, novel treatment approaches are warranted. The IGF-1R and its ligands, mainly IGF-1 and IGF-2, have been suggested to play pivotal roles in proliferation, survival and migration of adenocarcinoma cells of the colon/rectum. Therefore, interference with IGF-1R-mediated signaling may represent a therapeutic option for this malignancy. In this study, semi-quantitative RT-PCR analyses of 48 paired, colorectal cancer patient samples showed significant overexpression of tumor IGF-1R and IGF-2 mRNA. There was also an overexpression of MMP-7, which was significantly correlated with histopathological parameters. Based on these findings, the effect of the IGF-1R-inhibitory cyclolignan picropodophyllin (PPP) was assessed in the four colon carcinoma cell lines HT-29, HCT-116, DLD-1 and CaCO-2. PPP strongly and dose-dependently inhibited proliferation and migration in all cell lines. However, when exposed to 0.5 µM PPP, only HT-29 showed a net decrease of viable cells as compared with the cell number at the beginning of the experiment, a finding that coincided with decreased expression/phosphorylation of IGF-1R, AKT and ERK. This cell line also exhibited PPP-induced downregulation of MMP-7 and MMP-9. Similar to the DLD-1 and HCT-116 cell lines, HT-29 also showed substantial cell detachment in response to PPP. Although a net reduction of cells by PPP seems to require a synchronized downregulation of IGF-1R, AKT and ERK1/2, part of the antitumor effect may be explained by other, possibly IGF-1R-unrelated mechanism(s). Such a multitude of inhibitory effects of PPP in colon cancer cells together with its low toxicity in vivo makes it a promising drug candidate in the treatment of this disease. PMID:22159423

Feng, Xiaoying; Aleem, Eiman; Lin, Yingbo; Axelson, Magnus; Larsson, Olle; Strömberg, Thomas

2012-04-01

101

Bak Compensated for Bax in p53-null Cells to Release Cytochrome c for the Initiation of Mitochondrial Signaling during Withanolide D-Induced Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

The goal of cancer chemotherapy to induce multi-directional apoptosis as targeting a single pathway is unable to decrease all the downstream effect arises from crosstalk. Present study reports that Withanolide D (WithaD), a steroidal lactone isolated from Withania somnifera, induced cellular apoptosis in which mitochondria and p53 were intricately involved. In MOLT-3 and HCT116p53+/+ cells, WithaD induced crosstalk between intrinsic and extrinsic signaling through Bid, whereas in K562 and HCT116p53?/? cells, only intrinsic pathway was activated where Bid remain unaltered. WithaD showed pronounced activation of p53 in cancer cells. Moreover, lowered apoptogenic effect of HCT116p53?/? over HCT116p53+/+ established a strong correlation between WithaD-mediated apoptosis and p53. WithaD induced Bax and Bak upregulation in HCT116p53+/+, whereas increase only Bak expression in HCT116p53?/? cells, which was coordinated with augmented p53 expression. p53 inhibition substantially reduced Bax level and failed to inhibit Bak upregulation in HCT116p53+/+ cells confirming p53-dependent Bax and p53-independent Bak activation. Additionally, in HCT116p53+/+ cells, combined loss of Bax and Bak (HCT116Bax?Bak?) reduced WithaD-induced apoptosis and completely blocked cytochrome c release whereas single loss of Bax or Bak (HCT116Bax?Bak+/HCT116Bax+Bak?) was only marginally effective after WithaD treatment. In HCT116p53?/? cells, though Bax translocation to mitochondria was abrogated, Bak oligomerization helped the cells to release cytochrome c even before the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. WithaD also showed in vitro growth-inhibitory activity against an array of p53 wild type and null cancer cells and K562 xenograft in vivo. Taken together, WithaD elicited apoptosis in malignant cells through Bax/Bak dependent pathway in p53-wild type cells, whereas Bak compensated against loss of Bax in p53-null cells.

Mondal, Susmita; Bhattacharya, Kaushik; Mallick, Asish; Sangwan, Rajender; Mandal, Chitra

2012-01-01

102

Systems Analysis of Cancer Cell Heterogeneity in Caspase-dependent Apoptosis Subsequent to Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Permeabilization*  

PubMed Central

Deregulation of apoptosis is a hallmark of carcinogenesis. We here combine live cell imaging and systems modeling to investigate caspase-dependent apoptosis execution subsequent to mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) in several cancer cell lines. We demonstrate that, although most cell lines that underwent MOMP also showed robust and fast activation of executioner caspases and apoptosis, the colorectal cancer cell lines LoVo and HCT-116 Smac?/?, similar to X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP)-overexpressing HeLa (HeLa XIAPAdv) cells, only showed delayed and often no caspase activation, suggesting apoptosis impairment subsequent to MOMP. Employing APOPTO-CELL, a recently established model of apoptosis subsequent to MOMP, this impairment could be understood by studying the systemic interaction of five proteins that are present in the apoptosis pathway subsequent to MOMP. Using APOPTO-CELL as a tool to study detailed molecular mechanisms during apoptosis execution in individual cell lines, we demonstrate that caspase-9 was the most important regulator in DLD-1, HCT-116, and HeLa cells and identified additional cell line-specific co-regulators. Developing and applying a computational workflow for parameter screening, systems modeling identified that apoptosis execution kinetics are more robust against changes in reaction kinetics in HCT-116 and HeLa than in DLD-1 cells. Our systems modeling study is the first to draw attention to the variability in cell specific protein levels and reaction rates and to the emergent effects of such variability on the efficiency of apoptosis execution and on apoptosis impairment subsequent to MOMP.

Schmid, Jasmin; Dussmann, Heiko; Boukes, Gerhardt J.; Flanagan, Lorna; Lindner, Andreas U.; O'Connor, Carla L.; Rehm, Markus; Prehn, Jochen H. M.; Huber, Heinrich J.

2012-01-01

103

Dissimilar cytokine patterns in different human liver and colon cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

An accurate and simultaneous estimate of cellular levels of a large cytokine number is very useful to obtain information about an organ dysfunction leading to cancer because through the understanding of the evolution of cytokine patterns we can recognize and predict the disease progression. Cancer cell lines are commonly used to study the cancer microenvironment, to analyze their chemosensitivity and carcinogenesis as well as to test in vitro the effect of molecules, such as drugs or anti-oxidants, on the inflammation status and its progression. We noted that various cell lines commonly used as a model for studies on liver and colon cancer possess different patterns of cytokines. This aspect may generate data not comparable in laboratories using different cell lines; thus, to investigate the origin of these abnormalities we compared the cell lines HepG2 and Huh7, and HT-29 and HCT-116, for liver and colon cancer, respectively. In this context we have evaluated and compared the levels of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors in the supernatants of these cellular lines. Our aim was to identify what cytokines were significantly different correlating similarities and differences to the specific inflammation status of each cellular model of cancer. PMID:24064000

Guerriero, Eliana; Capone, Francesca; Rusolo, Fabiola; Colonna, Giovanni; Castello, Giuseppe; Costantini, Susan

2013-11-01

104

Butyrate suppresses expression of neuropilin I in colorectal cell lines through inhibition of Sp1 transactivation  

PubMed Central

Background Neuropilin is a transmembrane receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and is expressed in normal endothelial cells and upregulated in cancer cells. Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) has been shown to promote tumour cell migration and survival in colon cancer in response to VEGF binding. The expression profiles of neuropilins, associated co-receptors and known ligands have been mapped in three colorectal cell lines: Caco-2, HCT116 & HT29. We have previously shown that butyrate, a naturally occurring histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) produced by fermentation of fibre in the colon, causes apoptosis of colon cancer cell lines. Results Here we demonstrate that butyrate down-regulates NRP-1 and VEGF at the mRNA and protein level in colorectal cancer cell lines. NRP-1 is a known transcriptional target of Sp1, whose activity is regulated by acetylation. NRP-1 down-regulation by butyrate was associated with decreased binding affinity of Sp1 for canonical Sp-binding sites in the NRP-1 promoter. siRNA-mediated knock-down of Sp1 implied that Sp1 may have strong DNA binding activity but weak transactivation potential. Conclusion The downregulation of the key apoptotic and angiogenesis regulator NRP-1 by butyrate suggests a novel contributory mechanism to the chemopreventive effect of dietary fibre.

2010-01-01

105

Fucoidan present in brown algae induces apoptosis of human colon cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide found in brown algae; it has been shown to exhibit a number of biological effects, including anti-tumor effects. In this study, we evaluated the effects of fucoidan on apoptosis in HT-29 and HCT116 human colon cancer cells. METHODS: HT-29 and HCT116 cells were cultured with various concentrations of fucoidan (0 - 20 ?g\\/mL). Apoptosis

Eun Ji Kim; So Young Park; Jae-Yong Lee; Jung Han Yoon Park

2010-01-01

106

Role of protein kinase C and epidermal growth factor receptor signalling in growth stimulation by neurotensin in colon carcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

Background Neurotensin has been found to promote colon carcinogenesis in rats and mice, and proliferation of human colon carcinoma cell lines, but the mechanisms involved are not clear. We have examined signalling pathways activated by neurotensin in colorectal and pancreatic carcinoma cells. Methods Colon carcinoma cell lines HCT116 and HT29 and pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line Panc-1 were cultured and stimulated with neurotensin or epidermal growth factor (EGF). DNA synthesis was determined by incorporation of radiolabelled thymidine into DNA. Levels and phosphorylation of proteins in signalling pathways were assessed by Western blotting. Results Neurotensin stimulated the phosphorylation of both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt in all three cell lines, but apparently did so through different pathways. In Panc-1 cells, neurotensin-induced phosphorylation of ERK, but not Akt, was dependent on protein kinase C (PKC), whereas an inhibitor of the ?-isoform of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), TGX221, abolished neurotensin-induced Akt phosphorylation in these cells, and there was no evidence of EGF receptor (EGFR) transactivation. In HT29 cells, in contrast, the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib blocked neurotensin-stimulated phosphorylation of both ERK and Akt, indicating transactivation of EGFR, independently of PKC. In HCT116 cells, neurotensin induced both a PKC-dependent phosphorylation of ERK and a metalloproteinase-mediated transactivation of EGFR that was associated with a gefitinib-sensitive phosphorylation of the downstream adaptor protein Shc. The activation of Akt was also inhibited by gefitinib, but only partly, suggesting a mechanism in addition to EGFR transactivation. Inhibition of PKC blocked neurotensin-induced DNA synthesis in HCT116 cells. Conclusions While acting predominantly through PKC in Panc-1 cells and via EGFR transactivation in HT29 cells, neurotensin used both these pathways in HCT116 cells. In these cells, neurotensin-induced activation of ERK and stimulation of DNA synthesis was PKC-dependent, whereas activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway was mediated by stimulation of metalloproteinases and subsequent transactivation of the EGFR. Thus, the data show that the signalling mechanisms mediating the effects of neurotensin involve multiple pathways and are cell-dependent.

2011-01-01

107

Cell lines.  

PubMed

We review the properties and uses of cell lines in Drosophila research, emphasizing the variety of lines, the large body of genomic and transcriptional data available for many of the lines, and the variety of ways the lines have been used to provide tools for and insights into the developmental, molecular, and cell biology of Drosophila and mammals. PMID:24434506

Cherbas, Lucy; Gong, Lei

2014-06-15

108

Studies on the Synthesis of Derivatives of Marine-Derived Bostrycin and Their Structure-Activity Relationship against Tumor Cells  

PubMed Central

A series of new derivatives (5–29) of marine-derived bostrycin (1) were synthesized. The in vitro cytotoxic activities of all compounds were evaluated against MCF-7, MDA-MB-435, A549, HepG2, HCT-116 and MCF-10A cells using the MTT method. The compounds 7, 8, 22, 23, 25, 28 and 29 of the total showed comparable activity to epirubicin, the positive control, against the tested cancer cell lines. However, these compounds also exhibited cytotoxicity towards MCF-10A cells. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) of bostrycin derivatives was also discussed based on the obtained experimental data.

Chen, Hong; Zhong, Lili; Long, Yuhua; Li, Jia; Wu, Jueheng; Liu, Lan; Chen, Shengping; Lin, Yongcheng; Li, Mengfeng; Zhu, Xun; She, Zhigang

2012-01-01

109

Cell death by the quinoxaline dioxide DCQ in human colon cancer cells is enhanced under hypoxia and is independent of p53 and p21  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: We have shown that the radio sensitizer DCQ enhances sensitivity of HCT116 human colon cancer cells to hypoxia. However, it is not known whether the p53 or p21 genes influence cellular response to DCQ. In this study, we used HCT116 that are either wildtype for p53 and p21, null for p53 or null for p21 to understand the role

Mona El-Khatib; Fady Geara; Makhluf J Haddadin; Hala Gali-Muhtasib

2010-01-01

110

Protodioscin (NSC-698 796): its spectrum of cytotoxicity against sixty human cancer cell lines in an anticancer drug screen panel.  

PubMed

Protodioscin (NSC-698 796) is a furostanol saponin isolated from the rhizome of Dioscorea collettii var. hypoglauca (Dioscoreaceae), a Chinese herbal remedy for the treatment of cervical carcinoma, carcinoma of urinary bladder and renal tumor for centuries. To systematically evaluate its potential anticancer activity, protodioscin was tested for cytotoxicity in vitro against 60 human cancer cell lines in the NCI's (National Cancer Institute, USA) anticancer drug screen. As a result, protodioscin was cytotoxic against most cell lines from leukemia and solid tumors in the NCI's human cancer panel, especially selectively against one leukemia line (MOLT-4), one NSCLC line (A549/ATCC), two colon cancer lines (HCT-116 and SW-620), one CNS cancer line (SNB-75), one melanoma line (LOX IMVI), and one renal cancer line (786 - 0) with GI50 < or = 2.0 microM. In the general view of mean graphs, leukemia, colon cancer and prostate cancer are the most sensitive subpanels, while ovarian cancer is the least sensitive subpanel. Based on an analysis of COMPARE computer program with protodioscin as a seed compound, no compounds in the NCI's anticancer drug screen database have cytotoxicity patterns (mean graphs) similar to those of protodioscin, indicating that a potential novel mechanism of anticancer action is involved. PMID:11988850

Hu, Ke; Yao, Xinsheng

2002-04-01

111

Induction of apoptosis against cancer cell lines by four ascomycetes (endophytes) from Malaysian rainforest.  

PubMed

Endophytic fungi have been shown to be a promising source of biologically active natural products. In the present study, extracts of four endophytic fungi isolated from plants of the National Park, Pahang were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity and the nature of their active compounds determined. Those extracts exhibiting activity with IC(50) values less than 17 ?g/ml against HCT116, MCF-7 and K562 cell lines were shown to induce apoptosis in these cell lines. Molecular analysis, based on sequences of the rDNA internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS4, revealed all four endophytic fungi to be ascomycetes: three sordariomycetes and a dothideomycete. Six known compounds, cytochalasin J, dechlorogriseofulvin, demethylharzianic-acid, griseofulvin, harzianic acid and 2-hexylidene-3-methyl-succinic acid were identified from a rapid dereplication technique for fungal metabolites using an in-house UV library. The results from the present study suggest the potential of endophytic fungi as cytotoxic agents, and there is an indication that the isolates contain bioactive compounds that mainly kill cancer cells by apoptosis. PMID:22397996

Hazalin, Nurul Aqmar Mohamad Nor; Ramasamy, Kalavathy; Lim, Siong Meng; Cole, Anthony L J; Majeed, Abu Bakar Abdul

2012-05-15

112

Synthesis, properties, and antitumor effects of a new mixed phosphine gold(I) compound in human colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

The antineoplastic potential of a new stable mixed phosphine gold(I) complex containing tris(tert-butyl)phosphine (tBu3P) and bis(diphenylphosphino)ethene (dppet), namely [Au(tBu3P)(dppet)Cl], has been investigated in the human colon cancer HCT-116 cell line. The (31)P NMR solution study, confirms the structural features observed in the solid state and, in addition, indicates partial formation of dinuclear cationic [Au(tBu3P)2](+) and [Au(dppet)2](+) species. The ionic character and strong Au-P bonds of this gold(I) species are similar to those of the most active antitumor gold compounds so far studied. The title compound was found to exhibit strong cytotoxicity, showing 85 fold greater toxicity than cisplatin (IC50=0.45?M vs IC50=39.16 for cisplatin at 24h) on the HCT-116 line. The cytotoxic effects were, at least partly, mediated by the induction of apoptotic cell death as evidenced by the sub-G1 cell accumulation, oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation and the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. The gold(I) compound showed little interaction with DNA measured through fluorescence quenching studies with calf thymus DNA. The inhibitory effect of the gold(I) compound on intracellular redox proteins has been also observed in pretreated HCT-116 cells. The compound was particularly effective in inhibiting thioredoxin reductase, that is likely responsible for the increased ROS production, and subsequent apoptosis induction via the mitochondrial pathway. PMID:23632460

Lupidi, Giulio; Avenali, Luca; Bramucci, Massimo; Quassinti, Luana; Pettinari, Riccardo; Khalife, Hala K; Gali-Muhtasib, Hala; Marchetti, Fabio; Pettinari, Claudio

2013-07-01

113

Annexin II binds progastrin and gastrin-like peptides, and mediates growth factor effects of autocrine and exogenous gastrins on colon cancer and intestinal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

We and others have reported the presence of novel progastrin (PG)/gastrin receptors on normal and cancerous intestinal cells. We had earlier reported the presence of 33-36 kDa gastrin-binding proteins on cellular membranes of colon cancer cells. The goal of the current study was to identify the protein(s) in the 33-36 kDa band, and analyse its functional significance. A carbodiimide crosslinker was used for crosslinking radio-labeled gastrins to membrane proteins from gastrin/PG responsive cell lines. Native membrane proteins, crosslinked to the ligand, were solubulized and enriched by >1000-fold, and analysed by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry. The peptide masses were researched against the NCBInr database using the ProFound search engine. Annexin II (ANX II) was identified, and confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry. As HCT-116 cells express autocrine PG, the in situ association of PG with ANX II was demonstrated in pulldown assays. Direct binding of PG with ANX II was confirmed in an in vitro binding assay. In order to confirm a functional importance of these observations, sense and anti-sense (AS) ANX II RNA-expressing clones of intestinal epithelial (IEC-18) and human colon cancer (HCT-116) cell lines were generated. AS clones demonstrated a significant loss in the growth response to exogenous (IEC-18) and autocrine (HCT-116) PG. We have thus discovered that membrane-associated ANX II binds PG/gastrins, and partially mediates growth factor effects of the peptides. PMID:16832341

Singh, P; Wu, H; Clark, C; Owlia, A

2007-01-18

114

p53-independent downregulation of histone gene expression in human cell lines by high- and low-let radiation.  

PubMed

Using microarrays to analyze differential gene expression as a function of p53 status and radiation quality, we observed downregulation of a large set of histone genes in p53 wild-type TK6 cells 24 h after exposure to equitoxic doses of high-LET (1.67 Gy 1 GeV/amu (56)Fe ions) or low-LET (2.5 Gy ? rays) radiation. Quantitative real-time PCR of specific subtypes of core (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4) and linker (H1) histones confirmed this result. DNA synthesis and histone gene expression are tightly coordinated during the S phase of the cell cycle, and both processes are regulated by cell cycle checkpoints in response to DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation. However, we observed similar repression of histone gene expression in both TK6 cells and their p53-null derivative NH32 after radiation exposure, although the histone gene expression was not decreased to the same extent in NH32 cells as it was in TK6 cells. We also found decreased histone gene expression that was dose- and time-dependent in the colon cancer cell line HCT116 and its p53-null derivative. These results show that both high- and low-LET radiation exposure negatively regulate histone gene expression in human lymphoblastoid and colon cancer cell lines independent of p53 status. PMID:21520998

Meador, Jarah A; Ghandhi, Shanaz A; Amundson, Sally A

2011-06-01

115

Camel milk lactoferrin reduces the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells and exerts antioxidant and DNA damage inhibitory activities.  

PubMed

Lactoferrin (Lf), the main iron-binding protein of milk, has biological activities. We have evaluated the potential of camel milk lactoferrin for its ability to inhibit the proliferation of the colon cancer cell line, HCT-116, in vitro, DNA damage and its antioxidant activities for the first time. The antioxidant capacity of Lf was evaluated by different assays, including ferric-reducing/antioxidant power assay (FRAP), free radical-scavenging activity (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO) radical-scavenging assay, total antioxidant activity and DNA damage, compared with vitamin C and rutin. PMID:23768340

Habib, Hosam M; Ibrahim, Wissam H; Schneider-Stock, Regine; Hassan, Hassan M

2013-11-01

116

Identification of mutant K-Ras-dependent phenotypes using a panel of isogenic cell lines.  

PubMed

To assess the consequences of endogenous mutant K-Ras, we analyzed the signaling and biological properties of a small panel of isogenic cell lines. These include the cancer cell lines DLD1, HCT116, and Hec1A, in which either the WT or mutant K-ras allele has been disrupted, and SW48 colorectal cancer cells and human mammary epithelial cells in which a single copy of mutant K-ras was introduced at its endogenous genomic locus. We find that single copy mutant K-Ras causes surprisingly modest activation of downstream signaling to ERK and Akt. In contrast, a negative feedback signaling loop to EGFR and N-Ras occurs in some, but not all, of these cell lines. Mutant K-Ras also had relatively minor effects on cell proliferation and cell migration but more dramatic effects on cell transformation as assessed by growth in soft agar. Surprisingly, knock-out of the wild type K-ras allele consistently increased growth in soft agar, suggesting tumor-suppressive properties of this gene under these conditions. Finally, we examined the effects of single copy mutant K-Ras on global gene expression. Although transcriptional programs triggered by mutant K-Ras were generally quite distinct in the different cell lines, there was a small number of genes that were consistently overexpressed, and these could be used to monitor K-Ras inhibition in a panel of human tumor cell lines. We conclude that there are conserved components of mutant K-Ras signaling and phenotypes but that many depend on cell context and environmental cues. PMID:23188824

Vartanian, Steffan; Bentley, Carolyn; Brauer, Matthew J; Li, Li; Shirasawa, Senji; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Kim, Jung-Sik; Haverty, Pete; Stawiski, Eric; Modrusan, Zora; Waldman, Todd; Stokoe, David

2013-01-25

117

Reduced migration of MLH1 deficient colon cancer cells depends on SPTAN1  

PubMed Central

Introduction Defects in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein MLH1 are frequently observed in sporadic and hereditary colorectal cancers (CRC). Affected tumors generate much less metastatic potential than the MLH1 proficient forms. Although MLH1 has been shown to be not only involved in postreplicative MMR but also in several MMR independent processes like cytoskeletal organization, the connection between MLH1 and metastasis remains unclear. We recently identified non-erythroid spectrin ?II (SPTAN1), a scaffolding protein involved in cell adhesion and motility, to interact with MLH1. In the current study, the interaction of MLH1 and SPTAN1 and its potential consequences for CRC metastasis was evaluated. Methods Nine cancer cell lines as well as fresh and paraffin embedded colon cancer tissue from 12 patients were used in gene expression studies of SPTAN1 and MLH1. Co-expression of SPTAN1 and MLH1 was analyzed by siRNA knock down of MLH1 in HeLa, HEK293, MLH1 positive HCT116, SW480 and LoVo cells. Effects on cellular motility were determined in MLH1 deficient HCT116 and MLH1 deficient HEK293T compared to their MLH1 proficient sister cells, respectively. Results MLH1 deficiency is clearly associated with SPTAN1 reduction. Moreover, siRNA knock down of MLH1 decreased the mRNA level of SPTAN1 in HeLa, HEK293 as well as in MLH1 positive HCT116 cells, which indicates a co-expression of SPTAN1 by MLH1. In addition, cellular motility of MLH1 deficient HCT116 and MLH1 deficient HEK293T cells was impaired compared to the MLH1 proficient sister clones. Consequently, overexpression of SPTAN1 increased migration of MLH1 deficient cells while knock down of SPTAN1 decreased cellular mobility of MLH1 proficient cells, indicating SPTAN1-dependent migration ability. Conclusions These data suggest that SPTAN1 levels decreased in concordance with MLH1 reduction and impaired cellular mobility in MLH1 deficient colon cancer cells. Therefore, aggressiveness of MLH1-positive CRC might be related to SPTAN1.

2014-01-01

118

B7h triggering inhibits umbilical vascular endothelial cell adhesiveness to tumor cell lines and polymorphonuclear cells.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) are key players in leukocyte recruitment into tissues and metastatic dissemination of tumor cells. ECs express B7h, which is the ligand of the ICOS T cell costimulatory molecule. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of B7h triggering by a soluble form of ICOS (ICOS-Fc) on the adhesion of colon carcinoma cell lines to HUVECs. We found that B7h triggering inhibited HUVEC adhesiveness to HT29 and DLD1 cells (by 50 and 35%, respectively) but not to HCT116 cells. The effect was dependent on the ICOS-Fc dose and was detectable as early as 30 min after treatment and was still present after 24 h. It was inhibited by soluble anti-ICOS reagents (mAb and B7h-Fc) and silencing of B7h on HUVECs, and it was not displayed by an F119S mutated form of ICOS-Fc that does not bind B7h. HUVEC treatment with ICOS-Fc did not modulate expression of adhesion molecules and cytokines, but it substantially downmodulated ERK phosphorylation induced by E-selectin triggering or osteopontin, which may influence HUVEC adhesiveness. Moreover, HUVEC treatment with ICOS-Fc also inhibited adhesion of polymorphonuclear cells and several tumor cell lines from different origins. Therefore, the B7h-ICOS interaction may modulate spreading of cancer metastases and recruitment of polymorphonuclear cells in inflammatory sites, which opens a view on the use of ICOS-Fc as an immunomodulatory drug. PMID:20817864

Dianzani, Chiara; Minelli, Rosalba; Mesturini, Riccardo; Chiocchetti, Annalisa; Barrera, Giuseppina; Boscolo, Sabrina; Sarasso, Chiara; Gigliotti, Casimiro Luca; Sblattero, Daniele; Yagi, Junji; Rojo, Josč Maria; Fantozzi, Roberto; Dianzani, Umberto

2010-10-01

119

Impact of oncogenes in tumor angiogenesis: mutant K-ras up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor is necessary, but not sufficient for tumorigenicity of human colorectal carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Targeted disruption of the single mutant K-ras allele in two human colorectal carcinoma cell lines (DLD-1 and HCT-116) leads to loss of tumorigenic competence in nude mice with retention of ability to grow indefinitely in monolayer culture. Because expression of the mutant K-ras oncogene in these cell lines is associated with marked up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor (VEGF/VPF), we sought to determine whether this potent angiogenesis inducer plays a role in K-ras-dependent tumorigenic competence. Transfection of a VEGF121 antisense expression vector into DLD-1 and HCT-116 cells resulted in suppression of VEGF/VPF production by a factor of 3- to 4-fold. The VEGF/VPF-deficient sublines, unlike the parental population or vector controls, were profoundly suppressed in their ability to form tumors in nude mice for as long as 6 months after cell injection. In contrast, in vitro growth of these sublines was unaffected, thus demonstrating the critical importance of VEGF/VPF as an angiogenic factor for HCT-116 and DLD-1 cells. Transfection of a full-length VEGF121 cDNA into two nontumorigenic mutant K-ras knockout sublines resulted in a weak but detectable restoration of tumorigenic ability in vivo in a subset of the transfectants, with no consistent change in growth properties in vitro. The findings indicate that mutant ras-oncogene-dependent VEGF/VPF expression is necessary, but not sufficient, for progressive tumor growth in vivo and highlight the relative contribution of oncogenes, such as mutant K-ras, to the process of tumor angiogenesis. PMID:9520413

Okada, F; Rak, J W; Croix, B S; Lieubeau, B; Kaya, M; Roncari, L; Shirasawa, S; Sasazuki, T; Kerbel, R S

1998-03-31

120

Impact of oncogenes in tumor angiogenesis: Mutant K-ras up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor is necessary, but not sufficient for tumorigenicity of human colorectal carcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

Targeted disruption of the single mutant K-ras allele in two human colorectal carcinoma cell lines (DLD-1 and HCT-116) leads to loss of tumorigenic competence in nude mice with retention of ability to grow indefinitely in monolayer culture. Because expression of the mutant K-ras oncogene in these cell lines is associated with marked up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor (VEGF/VPF), we sought to determine whether this potent angiogenesis inducer plays a role in K-ras-dependent tumorigenic competence. Transfection of a VEGF121 antisense expression vector into DLD-1 and HCT-116 cells resulted in suppression of VEGF/VPF production by a factor of 3- to 4-fold. The VEGF/VPF-deficient sublines, unlike the parental population or vector controls, were profoundly suppressed in their ability to form tumors in nude mice for as long as 6 months after cell injection. In contrast, in vitro growth of these sublines was unaffected, thus demonstrating the critical importance of VEGF/VPF as an angiogenic factor for HCT-116 and DLD-1 cells. Transfection of a full-length VEGF121 cDNA into two nontumorigenic mutant K-ras knockout sublines resulted in a weak but detectable restoration of tumorigenic ability in vivo in a subset of the transfectants, with no consistent change in growth properties in vitro. The findings indicate that mutant ras-oncogene-dependent VEGF/VPF expression is necessary, but not sufficient, for progressive tumor growth in vivo and highlight the relative contribution of oncogenes, such as mutant K-ras, to the process of tumor angiogenesis.

Okada, Futoshi; Rak, Janusz W.; Croix, Brad St.; Lieubeau, Blandine; Kaya, Mitsunori; Roncari, Luba; Shirasawa, Senji; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Kerbel, Robert S.

1998-01-01

121

B7h triggering inhibits the migration of tumor cell lines.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and several cancer cells express B7h, which is the ligand of the ICOS T cell costimulatory molecule. We have previously shown that B7h triggering via a soluble form of ICOS (ICOS-Fc) inhibits the adhesion of polymorphonuclear and tumor cell lines to HUVECs; thus, we suggested that ICOS-Fc may act as an anti-inflammatory and antitumor agent. Because cancer cell migration and angiogenesis are crucial for metastasis dissemination, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of ICOS-Fc on the migration of cancer cells and ECs. ICOS-Fc specifically inhibited the migration of HUVECs, human dermal lymphatic ECs, and the HT29, HCT116, PC-3, HepG2, JR8, and M14 tumor cell lines expressing high levels of B7h, whereas it was ineffective in the RPMI7932, PCF-2, LM, and BHT-101 cell lines expressing low levels of B7h. Furthermore, ICOS-Fc downmodulated hepatocyte growth factor facilitated the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in HepG2 cells. Moreover, ICOS-Fc downmodulated the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and the expression of ?-Pix in both HUVECs and tumor cell lines. Finally, treatment with ICOS-Fc inhibited the development of lung metastases upon injection of NOD-SCID-IL2R?null mice with CF-PAC1 cells, as well as C57BL/6 mice with B16-F10 cells. Therefore, the B7h-ICOS interaction may modulate the spread of cancer metastases, which suggests the novel use of ICOS-Fc as an immunomodulatory drug. However, in the B16-F10-metastasized lungs, ICOS-Fc also increased IL-17A/RORc and decreased IL-10/Foxp3 expression, which indicates that it also exerts positive effects on the antitumor immune response. PMID:24729612

Dianzani, Chiara; Minelli, Rosalba; Gigliotti, Casimiro Luca; Occhipinti, Sergio; Giovarelli, Mirella; Conti, Laura; Boggio, Elena; Shivakumar, Yogesh; Baldanzi, Gianluca; Malacarne, Valeria; Orilieri, Elisabetta; Cappellano, Giuseppe; Fantozzi, Roberto; Sblattero, Daniele; Yagi, Junji; Rojo, Josč Maria; Chiocchetti, Annalisa; Dianzani, Umberto

2014-05-15

122

ER stress signaling in ARPE-19 cells after inhibition of protein kinase CK2 by CX-4945.  

PubMed

Protein kinase CK2 is a critical factor for the survival of cells. It is overexpressed in many cancer cells and provides protection against apoptosis in these cells. Inhibition of CK2 kinase activity in various cancer cells leads to apoptosis, which makes CK2 an attractive target for cancer therapy. Little is, however, known about CK2 inhibition in non-cancerous cells. Using the human retinal pigment epithelial cell line ARPE-19, we analyzed the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ER stress signaling pathway after CK2 inhibition with CX-4945. Following CK2 inhibition, we did not find any significant generation of ROS in neither ARPE-19 non-cancer cells nor in HCT116 cancer cells. We found an induction of the ER stress pathway including the activation of eIF2? and ATF4 in both cell types. This activation was sufficient for ARPE-19 cells to cope with the ER stress. Furthermore, in contrast to HCT116 cancer cells, there was no induction of the pro-apoptotic transcription factor CHOP and no induction of apoptosis in the ARPE-19 cells. Overexpression of CHOP, however, induced apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells indicating that this step in the ER stress pathway is abrogated in normal cells compared to cancer cell. PMID:24686080

Intemann, Johanna; Saidu, Nathaniel Edward Bennett; Schwind, Lisa; Montenarh, Mathias

2014-07-01

123

Expression and significance of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha and MDR1\\/P-glycoprotein in human colon carcinoma tissue and cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Hypoxia in tumors is generally associated with chemoresistance and radioresistance. However, the correlation between the heterodimeric\\u000a hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and the multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene\\/transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) has not been\\u000a clearly investigated. This study aims at examining the expression levels of HIF-1? and MDR1\\/P-gp in human colon carcinoma\\u000a tissues and cell lines (HCT-116, HT-29, LoVo, and SW480) and ascertaining whether

Zhenyu Ding; Li Yang; Xiaodong Xie; Fangwei Xie; Feng Pan; Jianjun Li; Jianming He; Houjie Liang

2010-01-01

124

Nur77 Agonists Induce Proapoptotic Genes and Responses in Colon Cancer Cells through Nuclear Receptor-Dependent and Nuclear Receptor-Independent Pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nerve growth factor-induced BA (NGFI-BA, Nur77) is an orphan nuclear receptor with no known endogenous ligands; however, recent studies on a series of methylene-substituted diindolylmethanes (C-DIM) have identified 1,1-bis(3¶-indolyl)- 1-(phenyl)methane (DIM-C-Ph) and 1,1-bis(3¶-indolyl)-1- (p-anisyl)methane (DIM-C-pPhOCH3 )a s Nur77 agonists. Nur77 is expressed in several colon cancer cell lines (RKO, SW480, HCT-116, HT-29, and HCT-15), and we also observed by immunostaining

Kyungsil Yoon; Sudhakar Chintharlapalli; Maen Abdelrahim; Shaheen Khan; Shashi K. Ramaiah; Stephen Safe

2007-01-01

125

Measurement of Cancer Cell Growth Heterogeneity through Lentiviral Barcoding Identifies Clonal Dominance as a Characteristic of In Vivo Tumor Engraftment  

PubMed Central

Advances in the fields of cancer initiating cells and high-throughput in vivo shRNA screens have highlighted a need to observe the growth of tumor cells in cancer models at the clonal level. While in vivo cancer cell growth heterogeneity in xenografts has been described, it has yet to be measured. Here, we tested an approach to quantify the clonal growth heterogeneity of cancer cells in subcutaneous xenograft mouse models. Using a high-throughput sequencing method, we followed the fate in vitro and in vivo of ten thousand HCT-116 cells individually tagged with a unique barcode delivered by lentiviral transduction. While growth in vitro was less homogeneous than anticipated, we still find that 95% of the final cells derived from 80% of the original cells. In xenografts, however, 95% of the retrieved barcoded cells originated from only 6% of the initially injected cells, an effect we term “clonal dominance”. We observed this clonal dominance in two additional xenograft models (MDA-MB-468 and A2780cis) and in two different host strains (NSG and Nude). By precisely and reproducibly quantifying clonal cancer cell growth in vivo, we find that a small subset of clones accounts for the vast majority of the descendant cells, even with HCT-116, a cell line reported to lack a tumor-initiating compartment. The stochastic in vivo selection process we describe has important implications for the fields of in vivo shRNA screening and tumor initiating cells.

Ragan, Seamus; Makhanov, Mikhail; Chenchik, Alex; Ruefli-Brasse, Astrid; Quon, Kim; Kassner, Paul D.

2013-01-01

126

Avenanthramides inhibit proliferation of human colon cancer cell lines in vitro.  

PubMed

A high intake of whole grain foods is associated with reduced risk of colon cancer, but the mechanism underlying this protection has yet to be elucidated. Chronic inflammation and associated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in the colon epithelium are causally related to epithelial carcinogenesis, proliferation, and tumor growth. We examined the effect of avenanthramides (Avns), unique polyphenols from oats with anti-inflammatory properties, on COX-2 expression in macrophages, colon cancer cell lines, and on proliferation of human colon cancer cell lines. We found that Avns-enriched extract of oats (AvExO) had no effect on COX-2 expression, but it did inhibit COX enzyme activity and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages. Avns (AvExO, Avn-C, and the methylated form of Avn-C (CH3-Avn-C)) significantly inhibited cell proliferation of both COX-2-positive HT29, Caco-2, and LS174T, and COX-2-negative HCT116 human colon cancer cell lines, CH3-Avn-C being the most potent. However, Avns had no effect on COX-2 expression and PGE(2) production in Caco-2 and HT29 colon cancer cells. These results indicate that the inhibitory effect of Avns on colon cancer cell proliferation may be independent of COX-2 expression and PGE(2) production. Thus, Avns might reduce colon cancer risk through inhibition of macrophage PGE(2) production and non-COX-related antiproliferative effects in colon cancer cells. Interestingly, Avns had no effect on cell viability of confluence-induced differentiated Caco-2 cells, which display the characteristics of normal colonic epithelial cells. Our results suggest that the consumption of oats and oat bran may reduce the risk of colon cancer not only because of their high fiber content but also due to Avns, which attenuate proliferation of colonic cancer cells. PMID:21058188

Guo, Weimin; Nie, Lin; Wu, Dayong; Wise, Mitchell L; Collins, F William; Meydani, Simin Nikbin; Meydani, Mohsen

2010-01-01

127

Peptides in common bean fractions inhibit human colorectal cancer cells.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterize peptides present in common bean non-digestible fractions (NDF) produced after enzymatic digestion and determine their antiproliferative action on human colorectal cancer cells. Five NDF peptides represented 70% of total protein (GLTSK, LSGNK, GEGSGA, MPACGSS and MTEEY) with antiproliferative activity on human colon cancer cells. Based on the antiproliferative effect, HCT116 cell line was most sensitive to bean Azufrado Higuera (IC50=0.53mg/ml) and RKO to Bayo Madero (IC50=0.51mg/ml) peptide extracts. Both cultivars increased significantly (p<0.05) the expression of p53 in HCT116 by 76% and 68%, respectively. Azufrado Higuera modified the expression of cell cycle regulation proteins p21 and cyclin B1. Bayo Madero modified the expression of mitochondrial activated apoptotic proteins BAD, cytC, c-casp3, Survivin, BIRC7. Results suggest that peptides present in common bean NDF contributed to the antiproliferative effect on human colorectal cancer cells by modifying molecules involved in either cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. PMID:24679790

Luna Vital, Diego A; González de Mejía, Elvira; Dia, Vermont P; Loarca-Pińa, Guadalupe

2014-08-15

128

A one-step cloning method for the construction of somatic cell gene targeting vectors: application to production of human knockout cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background Gene targeting is a powerful method that can be used for examining the functions of genes. Traditionally, the construction of knockout (KO) vectors requires an amplification step to obtain two homologous, large fragments of genomic DNA. Restriction enzymes that cut at unique recognitions sites and numerous cloning steps are then carried out; this is often a time-consuming and frustrating process. Results We have developed a one-step cloning method for the insertion of two arms into a KO vector using exonuclease III. We modified an adeno-associated virus KO shuttle vector (pTK-LoxP-NEO-AAV) to yield pAAV-LIC, which contained two cassettes at the two multiple-cloning sites. The vector was digested with EcoRV to give two fragments. The two homologous arms, which had an overlap of 16 bases with the ends of the vector fragments, were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. After purification, the four fragments were mixed and treated with exonuclease III, then transformed into Escherichia coli to obtain the desired clones. Using this method, we constructed SirT1 and HDAC2 KO vectors, which were used to establish SirT1 KO cells from the colorectal cancer cell line (HCT116) and HDAC2 KO cells from the colorectal cancer cell line (DLD1). Conclusions Our method is a fast, simple, and efficient technique for cloning, and has great potential for high-throughput construction of KO vectors.

2012-01-01

129

Structure and Activity Analysis of Inauhzin Analogs as Novel Antitumor Compounds That Induce p53 and Inhibit Cell Growth  

PubMed Central

Identifying effective small molecules that specifically target the p53 pathway in cancer has been an exciting, though challenging, approach for the development of anti-cancer therapy. We recently identified Inauhzin (INZ) as a novel p53 activator, selectively and efficiently suppressing tumor growth without displaying genotoxicity and with little toxicity to normal cells. In order to reveal the structural features essential for anti-cancer activity of this small molecule, we have synthesized a panel of INZ analogs and evaluated their ability to induce cellular p53 and to inhibit cell growth in cell-based assays. This study as described here leads to the discovery of INZ analog 37 that displays much better potency than INZ in both of p53 activation and cell growth inhibition in several human cancer cell lines including H460 and HCT116+/+ cells. This INZ analog exhibited much less effect on p53-null H1299 cells and HCT116?/? cells, and importantly no toxicity on normal human p53-containing WI-38 cells. Hence, our results not only unveil key chemical features for INZ activity, but also identify the newly synthesized INZ analog 37 as a better small molecule for further development of anti-cancer therapy.

Zeng, Shelya X.; Ye, Qi-Zhuang; Lu, Hua

2012-01-01

130

Heterogeneity in non-invasive detection of apoptosis among human tumor cell lines using annexin-V tagged with EGFP or Qdot-705.  

PubMed

The ability to measure apoptosis in vivo and in vitro provides an invaluable tool to assess the effects of anti-cancer agents. The annexin-V binding assay has been used extensively, including in the clinic as a Technetium conjugate to assess response to chemo- or radio-therapy. Our results reveal that not all tumor cell lines are amenable to this assay. We investigated ten different human cancer cell lines for their staining patterns with annexin-V during apoptosis. In six human tumor cell lines (HCT116, Jurkat, FADU, PA1, SkBr3 and Saos2) annexin-V staining correlated well with another measurement of apoptosis (APOSTAIN). Four cell lines (SW480, H460, MCF7 and DLD1) showed annexin-V staining, which could not be interpreted, where APOSTAIN demonstrated a clear apoptotic population. The poor annexin-V staining of some tumor cells undergoing apoptosis was not correlated with detachment procedures or choice of apoptosis-inducing agent. Use of annexin-V tagged with EGFP or Qdot-705 can reliably detect apoptosis in some but not all human tumors undergoing apoptosis in response to chemotherapy or TRAIL. PMID:16222122

Dicker, David T; Kim, Seok-Hyun; Jin, Zhaoyu; El-Deiry, Wafik S

2005-09-01

131

p53 is important for the anti-invasion of ganoderic acid T in human carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

The function of p53 induced by ganoderic acids (GAs) in anti-invasion was unknown, although our previous work reported the inhibition of tumor invasion and metastasis by Ganoderic acid T (GA-T). This work indicated that GA-T promoted cell aggregation, inhibited cell adhesion and surpressed cell migration with a dose-dependent manner in human colon tumor cell lines of HCT-116 p53(+/+) and p53(-/-). Furthermore, comparing the ratios of HCT-116 p53(+/+) and p53(-/-) cells, p53 modified GA-T inhibition of migration and adhesion and GA-T promotion of cell aggregation, and p53 also modified GA-T inhibition of NF-?B nuclear translocation, I?B? degradation, and down-regulation of urokinase-type plaminogen activator (uPA), matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 (MMP-2/9), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS/NOS2) protein expression and inducible nitric oxide (NO) production. The results indicated that p53 played an important role in anti-invasion of GA-T in human carcinoma cells. p53 may be an important target for GA-T inhibiting human carcinoma cells anti-invasion. PMID:21353507

Chen, Nian-Hong; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

2011-06-15

132

Chrysin promotes tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induced apoptosis in human cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

Chrysin exists widely in plants, honey and propolis. The anti-cancer property of chrysin has been demonstrated though the molecular mechanism is not clear. In this study, we found that pre-treatment with chrysin could promote the cell death induced by TRAIL according to the morphological changes and appearance of sub-G1 peak in four human cancer cell lines. In HCT-116 cells, the results of flow cytometry analysis showed that the percentage of sub-G1 reached (38.89 ± 3.78) % when pre-treatment of chrysin was used at 40 ?M, but that was only (2.53 ± 0.10) % in the untreated group and (13.22 ± 0.20) % in TRAIL alone group. The differences between the combination and the untreated or TRAIL alone group were all significant (P<0.05) and dose-dependent effect was obvious. Similar results were obtained in CNE1 cells. In the search of molecular mechanisms, we found that pre-treatment with chrysin could increase TRAIL-induced degradation of caspase 3, caspase 8, PARP proteins. Z-VAD-fmk, which is a pan-caspase inhibitor, could inhibit the apoptosis enhanced by the combination of chrysin and TRAIL. All data indicate that chrysin can enhance the apoptosis induced by TRAIL, and the apoptosis is caspase-dependent and related to the activation of caspase 8. PMID:21195158

Li, Xin; Wang, Jian-Ning; Huang, Jun-Ming; Xiong, Xi-Kun; Chen, Mei-Fen; Ong, Choon-Nam; Shen, Han-Ming; Yang, Xing-Fen

2011-04-01

133

Vascular mimicry in cultured head and neck tumour cell lines  

PubMed Central

Introduction Vascuologenesis is the de novo establishment of blood vessels and vascular networks from mesoderm-derived endothelial cell precursors (angioblasts). Recently a novel mechanism, by which some genetically deregulated and aggressive tumour cells generate "micro-vascular" channels without the participation of endothelial cells and independent of angiogenesis, has been proposed. This has been termed "vasculogenic mimicry" and has implications beyond angiogenesis and adds another layer of complexity to the current concept for the generation of tumour micro-circulation. We suggest this is common phenomenon in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines and other aggressive tumour cell lines. We present experimental evidence of vasculogenic mimicry in HNSCC cell lines and compare them with other tumours and a positive control vascular cell line. Materials and methods The cell lines used were HUVEC, HN 2a, 2b (primary and metastatic tongue base squamous carcinoma cell line), HCT116 (colonic carcinoma cell line) and DU145 (prostate carcinoma cell line). Pilot experiments were undertaken to assess growth of a bank of tumour cell lines on (growth factor reduced) matrigel (Sigma) with standard media (DMEM with 10% Fetal Calf Serum). A functional growth assay was performed by preparing the appropriate cell suspension in serum free medium plated onto either bare plastic or a well pre-coated with growth factor reduced type 4 collagen analogues. Phase contrast photomicrographs were taken at 4 hours and 24 hours. Image analysis was performed; particular features of interest were two dimensional area (surrogate of growth and migration), branch points and end point measurements (surrogate of intercellular complexity). Results There were observable differences in growth of the cells on laboratory plastic and collagen matrix. Tumour cells formed capillary like networks similar to HUVEC cells. Metastatic HNSCC cells lines were found to have vasculogenic properties similar to HUVEC cell lines when compared to cell lines from their corresponding primary tumour. The endothelial growth factor antibodies used did not inhibit or stimulate cell growth when compared to control but did discourage vascular mimicry. Other tumour cell lines also displayed this property. Discussion Tumour "vasculogenic mimicry" must still be regarded as a controversial issue whose existence is not proven. The clinical importance of this phenomenon however, is that it does explain the lack of complete efficacy of current anti-angiogenic treatments due to the added layer of complexity. It provides a feasible mechanism of early tumour vascular supply which can co-exist and incorporate with later angiogenic mechanisms. We suggest that "vasculogenic mimicry" maybe a common neoplastic phenomena which appears to also be dictated by the cells micro-environment. Its existence also suggests a further process that of the development of tumour mosaic vessels as the neo-vasculature integrates with the existing endothelial lined systems.

2011-01-01

134

Expression analysis of secreted and cell surface genes of five transformed human cell lines and derivative xenograft tumors  

PubMed Central

Background Since the early stages of tumorigenesis involve adhesion, escape from immune surveillance, vascularization and angiogenesis, we devised a strategy to study the expression profiles of all publicly known and putative secreted and cell surface genes. We designed a custom oligonucleotide microarray containing probes for 3531 secreted and cell surface genes to study 5 diverse human transformed cell lines and their derivative xenograft tumors. The origins of these human cell lines were lung (A549), breast (MDA MB-231), colon (HCT-116), ovarian (SK-OV-3) and prostate (PC3) carcinomas. Results Three different analyses were performed: (1) A PCA-based linear discriminant analysis identified a 54 gene profile characteristic of all tumors, (2) Application of MANOVA (Pcorr < .05) to tumor data revealed a larger set of 149 differentially expressed genes. (3) After MANOVA was performed on data from individual tumors, a comparison of differential genes amongst all tumor types revealed 12 common differential genes. Seven of the 12 genes were identified by all three analytical methods. These included late angiogenic, morphogenic and extracellular matrix genes such as ANGPTL4, COL1A1, GP2, GPR57, LAMB3, PCDHB9 and PTGER3. The differential expression of ANGPTL4 and COL1A1 and other genes was confirmed by quantitative PCR. Conclusion Overall, a comparison of the three analyses revealed an expression pattern indicative of late angiogenic processes. These results show that a xenograft model using multiple cell lines of diverse tissue origin can identify common tumorigenic cell surface or secreted molecules that may be important biomarker and therapeutic discoveries.

Stull, Robert A; Tavassoli, Roya; Kennedy, Scot; Osborn, Steve; Harte, Rachel; Lu, Yan; Napier, Cheryl; Abo, Arie; Chin, Daniel J

2005-01-01

135

Hyaluronic acid modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to CD44-overexpressing cancer cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a targeted drug delivery system has been developed based on hyaluronic acid (HA) modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs). HA-MSNs possess a specific affinity to CD44 over-expressed on the surface of a specific cancer cell line, HCT-116 (human colon cancer cells). The cellular uptake performance of fluorescently labelled MSNs with and without HA modification has been evaluated by confocal microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis. Compared to bare MSNs, HA-MSNs exhibit a higher cellular uptake via HA receptor mediated endocytosis. An anticancer drug, doxorubicin hydrochloride (Dox), has been loaded into MSNs and HA-MSNs as drug delivery vehicles. Dox loaded HA-MSNs show greater cytotoxicity to HCT-116 cells than free Dox and Dox-MSNs due to the enhanced cell internalization behavior of HA-MSNs. It is expected that HA-MSNs have a great potential in targeted delivery of anticancer drugs to CD44 over-expressing tumors.

Yu, Meihua; Jambhrunkar, Siddharth; Thorn, Peter; Chen, Jiezhong; Gu, Wenyi; Yu, Chengzhong

2012-12-01

136

Targeting colorectal cancer cells with single-walled carbon nanotubes conjugated to anticancer agent SN-38 and EGFR antibody.  

PubMed

In this study, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) conjugated with antibody C225 were used to achieve targeted therapy against EGFR over-expressed colorectal cancer cells. In addition, the control release of the chemotherapeutic drug, 7-Ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin (SN38), was studied. We used three different colorectal cancer cell lines, HCT116, HT29, and SW620, listed in the order of decreasing expression levels of EGFR. Our results showed that SWNT could use C225 to specifically bind to EGFR-expressed cells. The cellular uptakes of SWNT of EGFR over-expressed cells (HCT116 and HT29) were much higher than that of the negative control (SW620). We, next, demonstrated that receptor-mediated endocytosis was the primary cell entry route for SWNT. As a consequence, abundant amount of SN38 was released and EGFR over-expressed cells were killed. The drug control release process was studied by utilizing human carboxylesterase enzyme (hCE) that would break the bond linking SN38 and SWNT-carrier in cytoplasm. The intracellular SN38 release observed by confocal microscopy showed that SN38 actually dissociated from the SWNT-carrier first. SN38's entry to nucleus was then followed while the SWNT-carrier still remained in the cytoplasm. Overall, all these data suggested that SWNT could be a good carrier for targeting controlled release therapy. PMID:23937913

Lee, Pei-Chi; Chiou, Yu-Chi; Wong, Jau-Min; Peng, Cheng-Liang; Shieh, Ming-Jium

2013-11-01

137

The ganglioside GM3 is associated with cisplatin-induced apoptosis in human colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum, CDDP) is a well-known chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of several cancers. However, the precise mechanism underlying apoptosis of cancer cells induced by CDDP remains unclear. In this study, we show mechanistically that CDDP induces GM3-mediated apoptosis of HCT116 cells by inhibiting cell proliferation, and increasing DNA fragmentation and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis signals. CDDP induced apoptosis within cells through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), regulated the ROS-mediated expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and p53, and induced the degradation of the poly (ADP-ribosyl) polymerase (PARP). We also checked expression levels of different gangliosides in HCT116 cells in the presence or absence of CDDP. Interestingly, among the gangliosides, CDDP augmented the expression of only GM3 synthase and its product GM3. Reduction of the GM3 synthase level through ectopic expression of GM3 small interfering RNA (siRNA) rescued HCT116 cells from CDDP-induced apoptosis. This was evidenced by inhibition of apoptotic signals by reducing ROS production through the regulation of 12-lipoxigenase activity. Furthermore, the apoptotic sensitivity to CDDP was remarkably increased in GM3 synthase-transfected HCT116 cells compared to that in controls. In addition, GM3 synthase-transfected cells treated with CDDP exhibited an increased accumulation of intracellular ROS. These results suggest the CDDP-induced oxidative apoptosis of HCT116 cells is mediated by GM3. PMID:24829158

Chung, Tae-Wook; Choi, Hee-Jung; Kim, Seok-Jo; Kwak, Choong-Hwan; Song, Kwon-Ho; Jin, Un-Ho; Chang, Young-Chae; Chang, Hyeun Wook; Lee, Young-Choon; Ha, Ki-Tae; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

2014-01-01

138

The Ganglioside GM3 Is Associated with Cisplatin-Induced Apoptosis in Human Colon Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum, CDDP) is a well-known chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of several cancers. However, the precise mechanism underlying apoptosis of cancer cells induced by CDDP remains unclear. In this study, we show mechanistically that CDDP induces GM3-mediated apoptosis of HCT116 cells by inhibiting cell proliferation, and increasing DNA fragmentation and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis signals. CDDP induced apoptosis within cells through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), regulated the ROS-mediated expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and p53, and induced the degradation of the poly (ADP-ribosyl) polymerase (PARP). We also checked expression levels of different gangliosides in HCT116 cells in the presence or absence of CDDP. Interestingly, among the gangliosides, CDDP augmented the expression of only GM3 synthase and its product GM3. Reduction of the GM3 synthase level through ectopic expression of GM3 small interfering RNA (siRNA) rescued HCT116 cells from CDDP-induced apoptosis. This was evidenced by inhibition of apoptotic signals by reducing ROS production through the regulation of 12-lipoxigenase activity. Furthermore, the apoptotic sensitivity to CDDP was remarkably increased in GM3 synthase-transfected HCT116 cells compared to that in controls. In addition, GM3 synthase-transfected cells treated with CDDP exhibited an increased accumulation of intracellular ROS. These results suggest the CDDP-induced oxidative apoptosis of HCT116 cells is mediated by GM3.

Kim, Seok-Jo; Kwak, Choong-Hwan; Song, Kwon-Ho; Jin, Un-Ho; Chang, Young-Chae; Chang, Hyeun Wook; Lee, Young-Choon; Ha, Ki-Tae; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

2014-01-01

139

The relationship between intrinsic thymidylate synthase expression and sensitivity to THYMITAQ in human leukaemia and colorectal carcinoma cell lines.  

PubMed Central

Thymidylate synthase (TS) expression has been characterized for a panel of eight human colorectal carcinoma and five human leukaemia cell lines, to relate differences in intrinsic TS activity, protein and mRNA levels to growth inhibition caused by continuous exposure to THYMITAQ, a specific non-classical antifolate TS inhibitor. Although a 20-fold variation in sensitivity to THYMITAQ was found within the colorectal cell line panel (IC50 0.12-2.7 microM), sensitivity was not related to TS activity, TS protein or TS mRNA levels. For the leukaemic cell lines, only a twofold range in sensitivity to THYMITAQ was observed (IC50 0.87-2.3 microM), and this did not correlate with TS activity, TS protein or TS mRNA levels. Across all of the cell lines, TS activity was linearly related to TS protein levels (r2 = 0.87, P < 0.0001). However, for both the colorectal and leukaemia cell line panels, no relationship was found between TS mRNA/18S rRNA ratios and either TS activity or TS protein, consistent with the importance of post-transcriptional mechanisms in regulating TS activity. Two of the colorectal cell lines (BE and HCT116) and one of the human leukaemic cell lines (HL60), were intrinsically resistant to THYMITAQ (IC50 > 2 microM) in the absence of TS overexpression, suggesting that, subsequent to TS inhibition, events such as DNA repair and tolerance to apoptotic stimuli are also important determinants of sensitivity to THYMITAQ. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Estlin, E. J.; Balmanno, K.; Calvert, A. H.; Hall, A. G.; Lunec, J.; Newell, D. R.; Pearson, A. D.; Taylor, G. A.

1997-01-01

140

3-aminobenzamide and/or O6-benzylguanine evaluated as an adjuvant to temozolomide or BCNU treatment in cell lines of variable mismatch repair status and O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase activity.  

PubMed Central

O6-benzylguanine (O6-BG) and 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB) inhibit the DNA repair proteins O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) respectively. The effect of O6-BG and/or 3-AB on temozolomide and 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-nitrosourea (BCNU) cytotoxicity, was assessed in seven human tumour cell lines: six with an AGT activity of > 80 fmol mg-1 protein (Mer+) and one with an AGT activity of < 3 fmol mg-1 protein (Mer-). Three of the Mer+ cell lines (LS174T, DLD1 and HCT116) were considered to exhibit resistance to methylation by a mismatch repair deficiency (MMR-), each being known to exhibit microsatellite instability, and DLD1 and HCT116 having well-characterised defects in DNA mismatch binding. Potentiation was defined as the ratio between an IC50 achieved without and with a particular inhibitor treatment. Temozolomide or BCNU cytotoxicity was not potentiated by either inhibitor in the Mer- cell line. Preincubation with O6-BG (100 microM for 1 h) was found to potentiate the cytotoxicity of temozolomide by 1.35- to 1.57-old in Mer+/MMR+ cells, but had no significant effect in Mer+/MMR- cells. In comparison, O6-BG pretreatment enhanced BCNU cytotoxicity by 1.94- to 2.57-fold in all Mer+ cell lines. Post-incubation with 3-AB (2 mM, 48 h) potentiated temozolomide by 1.35- to 1.59-fold in Mer+/MMR+ cells, and when combined with O6-BG pretreatment produced an effect which was at least additive, enhancing cytotoxicity by 1.97- to 2.16-fold. 3-AB treatment also produced marked potentiation (2.20- to 3.12-fold) of temozolomide cytotoxicity in Mer+/MMR- cells. In contrast, 3-AB produced marginal potentiation of BCNU cytotoxicity in only three cell lines (1.19- to 1.35-fold), and did not enhance the cytotoxicity of BCNU with O6-BG treatment in any cell line. These data suggest that the combination of an AGT and PARP inhibitor may have a therapeutic role in potentiating temozolomide activity, but that the inhibition of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation has little effect on the cytotoxicity of BCNU.

Wedge, S. R.; Porteous, J. K.; Newlands, E. S.

1996-01-01

141

Evaluation of copper-64-labeled somatostatin agonists and antagonist in sstr2-transfected cell lines that are positive and negative for p53: implications for cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

Objectives Radiolabeled somatostatin analogs have become important agents for molecular imaging and targeted radiotherapy of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors. Here we determine the effect of the tumor suppressor protein, p53, on trafficking 64Cu to tumor cell nuclei from DOTA vs.CB-TE2A-conjugated agonist Y3-TATE and the antagonist 64Cu-CB-TE2A-sst2-ANT in cell lines that are positive or negative for p53. Methods Receptor binding, internalization, cAMP and nuclear localization studies were performed with the SSTr2 agonists, 64Cu-CB-TE2A-Y3-TATE and 64Cu-DOTA-Y3-TATE vs. antagonist, 64Cu-CB-TE2A-sst2-ANT, in SSTr2-transfected p53 +/+ and ?/? HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cells. Results The antagonist, 64Cu-CB-TE2A-sst2-ANT, bound 8-9-fold more SSTr2 binding sites than did the 64Cu-labeled agonists. 64Cu-CB-TE2A-Y3-TATE was more efficiently internalized than 64Cu-DOTA-Y3-TATE, while 64Cu-CB-TE2A-sst2-ANT showed lower, yet significant levels of internalization. CB-TE2A-Y3-TATE acted as a full agonist, inhibiting cAMP production, whereas CB-TE2A-sst2-ANT showed no inhibition of cAMP production.The 64Cu from agonists 64Cu-DOTA-Y3-TATE and 64Cu-CB-TE2A-Y3-TATE showed greater nuclear localization at 24 h in p53 +/+ vs. ?/? cells; however, there was no difference in the levels of 64Cu from the antagonist based on p53 status. Surprisingly, the DOTA and CB-TE2A-conjugated agonists showed similar nuclear localization in the p53 +/+ and ?/? cells, suggesting no difference in 64Cu release from these chelators in the HCT116 cell lines. Conclusion Based on thesein vitro data, the agonist 64Cu-CB-TE2A-Y3-TATE demonstrated the most promise as an agent for targeted radiotherapy in p53 positive, SSTr2-positive tumors.

Nguyen, Kim; Parry, Jesse J.; Rogers, Buck E.; Anderson, Carolyn J.

2011-01-01

142

Oyaksungisan, a Traditional Herbal Formula, Inhibits Cell Proliferation by Induction of Autophagy via JNK Activation in Human Colon Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Oyaksungisan (OY) is a traditional herbal formula broadly used to treat beriberi, vomiting, diarrhea, and circulatory disturbance in Asian countries from ancient times. The effect of OY on cancer, however, was not reported until now. In this study, we have demonstrated that OY inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell death via modulating the autophagy on human colon cancer cells. In HCT116 cells, OY increased the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I, a marker of autophagy, and treatment with 3-MA, an inhibitor of autophagy, and considerably reduced the formation of autophagosomes. In addition, OY regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades; especially, JNK activation was closely related with autophagy effect by OY in HCT116 cells. Our results indicate that autophagy induction is responsible for the antiproliferative effect by OY, despite the weak apoptosis induction in HCT116 cells. In conclusion, OY might have a potential to be developed as an herbal anticancer remedy.

Yim, Nam-Hui; Jung, Young Pil; Kim, Aeyung; Ma, Choong Je; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

2013-01-01

143

Potential Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Hydrophilic Fraction of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Seed Oil on Breast Cancer Cell Lines.  

PubMed

In this work, we characterized conjugated linolenic acids (e.g., punicic acid) as the major components of the hydrophilic fraction (80% aqueous methanol extract) from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed oil (PSO) and evaluated their anti-inflammatory potential on some human colon (HT29 and HCT116), liver (HepG2 and Huh7), breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and prostate (DU145) cancer lines. Our results demonstrated that punicic acid and its congeners induce a significant decrease of cell viability for two breast cell lines with a related increase of the cell cycle G0/G1 phase respect to untreated cells. Moreover, the evaluation of a great panel of cytokines expressed by MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells showed that the levels of VEGF and nine pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, IL-17, IP-10, MIP-1?, MIP-1?, MCP-1 and TNF-?) decreased in a dose dependent way with increasing amounts of the hydrophilic extracts of PSO, supporting the evidence of an anti-inflammatory effect. Taken together, the data herein suggest a potential synergistic cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant role of the polar compounds from PSO. PMID:24962397

Costantini, Susan; Rusolo, Fabiola; De Vito, Valentina; Moccia, Stefania; Picariello, Gianluca; Capone, Francesca; Guerriero, Eliana; Castello, Giuseppe; Volpe, Maria Grazia

2014-01-01

144

A role of zinc-finger protein 143 for cancer cell migration and invasion through ZEB1 and E-cadherin in colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

To investigate the role of zinc-finger protein 143 in cancer cells, we stably introduced ZNF143 expression knockdown by infecting colon cancer cells with short hairpin (sh) RNA-lentiviral particles against ZNF143 (HCT116 sh-ZNF143). Compared to sh-control cells, HCT116 sh-ZNF143 cells showed faster wound healing, increased migration through Transwell chambers, and increased invasion through Matrigel in Transwell chambers. ZNF143 knockdown increased transcriptional expression of ZEB1. Additionally, ZNF143 regulated E-cadherin transcriptional expression. Small interfering-RNA-mediated silencing of ZEB1 expression affected motility in HCT116 sh-ZNF143 cells. These data suggest that ZNF143 is involved in cellular motility through a ZEB1-E-cadherin-linked pathway in colon cancer cells. PMID:24009065

Paek, A Rome; Lee, Chang-Hoon; You, Hye Jin

2014-02-01

145

Cacospongionolide and Scalaradial, Two Marine Sesterterpenoids as Potent Apoptosis-Inducing Factors in Human Carcinoma Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death, is a critical defence mechanism against the formation and progression of cancer and acts by eliminating potentially deleterious cells without causing such adverse effects, as inflammatory response and ensuing scar formation. Therefore, targeting apoptotic pathways becomes an intriguing strategy for the development of chemotherapeutic agents. In last decades, marine natural products, such as sesterterpenoids, have played an important role in the discovery and development of new drugs. Interestingly, many of these compounds have a strong potential as anticancer drugs by inhibiting cell proliferation and/or inducing cell death. In the present study, we investigated the effects of scalaradial and cacospongionolide, two sesterterpenoids from Cacospongia scalaris and Fasciospongia cavernosa marine sponges, on the apoptotic signalling pathway in three different human tumoral cells. Results were obtained by using DNA fragmentation, comet and viability assays, quantification of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and Western blot. The T47D (human breast carcinoma), A431 (human epidermoid carcinoma), HeLa (human cervix carcinoma) and HCT116 (human colon carcinoma) cells were incubated for 24 h with scalaradial or cacospongionolide. Treatment of T47D cells with scalaradial or cacospongionolide for 24 h brought about a significant increase in DNA migration as well as fragmentation. Moreover, incubation of HCT116 and HeLa cells with scalaradial or cacospongionolide for 24 h caused an increased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins. Furthermore, scalaradial or cacospongionolide, added to HCT116 and HeLa cells overnight, induced a significant and concentration-dependent loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, an early apoptosis signalling event. These effects paralleled with those achieved with p50 and p65, NF-?B subunits, nuclear level. In conclusion, scalaradial and cacospongionolide, by determining human cancer cell apoptosis, may represent new promising compounds to inhibit cancer cell proliferation.

Malik, Shoaib Ahmad; Iodice, Carmine; De Rosa, Salvatore; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Carnuccio, Rosa

2012-01-01

146

The effect of sulfated (1?3)-?-l-fucan from the brown alga Saccharina cichorioides Miyabe on resveratrol-induced apoptosis in colon carcinoma Cells.  

PubMed

Accumulating data clearly indicate that the induction of apoptosis by nontoxic natural compounds is a potent defense against the development and progression of many malignancies, including colon cancer. Resveratrol and the fucoidans have been shown to possess potent anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the combination of a fucoidan from the brown alga Saccharina cichorioides Miyabe and resveratrol would be an effective preventive and/or therapeutic strategy against colon cancer. Based on NMR spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF analysis, the fucoidan isolated and purified from Saccharina cichorioides Miyabe was (1?3)-?-l-fucan with sulfate groups at C2 and C4 of the ?-l-fucopyranose residues. The fucoidan enhanced the antiproliferative activity of resveratrol at nontoxic doses and facilitated resveratrol-induced apoptosis in the HCT 116 human colon cancer cell line. Apoptosis was realized by the activation of initiator caspase-9 and effector caspase-7 and -3, followed by the cleavage of PARP. Furthermore, significant inhibition of HCT 116 colony formation was associated with the sensitization of cells to resveratrol by the fucoidan. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the combination of the algal fucoidan with resveratrol may provide a potential therapy against human colon cancer. PMID:23337253

Vishchuk, Olesia S; Ermakova, Svetlana P; Zvyagintseva, Tatyana N

2013-01-01

147

The Effect of Sulfated (1->3)-?-L-Fucan from the Brown Alga Saccharina cichorioides Miyabe on Resveratrol-Induced Apoptosis in Colon Carcinoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Accumulating data clearly indicate that the induction of apoptosis by nontoxic natural compounds is a potent defense against the development and progression of many malignancies, including colon cancer. Resveratrol and the fucoidans have been shown to possess potent anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the combination of a fucoidan from the brown alga Saccharina cichorioides Miyabe and resveratrol would be an effective preventive and/or therapeutic strategy against colon cancer. Based on NMR spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF analysis, the fucoidan isolated and purified from Saccharina cichorioides Miyabe was (1?3)-?-L-fucan with sulfate groups at C2 and C4 of the ?-L-fucopyranose residues. The fucoidan enhanced the antiproliferative activity of resveratrol at nontoxic doses and facilitated resveratrol-induced apoptosis in the HCT 116 human colon cancer cell line. Apoptosis was realized by the activation of initiator caspase-9 and effector caspase-7 and -3, followed by the cleavage of PARP. Furthermore, significant inhibition of HCT 116 colony formation was associated with the sensitization of cells to resveratrol by the fucoidan. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the combination of the algal fucoidan with resveratrol may provide a potential therapy against human colon cancer.

Vishchuk, Olesia S.; Ermakova, Svetlana P.; Zvyagintseva, Tatyana N.

2013-01-01

148

HERG K+ channel related chemosensitivity to sparfloxacin in colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

Potassium channels are essential for the regulation of cell proliferation. As reported, HERG protein is overexpressed in a wide range of human tumors, including colon carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of antibacterial agents sparfloxacin (SPFX), a blocker of HERG channel, on HERG K+ channel highly expressing colon cancer cells. Expression of HERG and apoptosis correlative proteins was examined by Western blotting. The MTT assay was used to detect the cytotoxicity of drugs and drug combination in vitro. Gene transfection was used to examine the changes in herg-related chemosensitivity. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. The migration and invasion capacity of tumor cells by SPFX was determined by gelatin zymography assay and Boyden chamber. The in vivo efficacy of SPFX was assessed in murine colon carcinoma C26 in BALB/c mice and human colon carcinoma HCT116 xenografts in nude mice. High expression of HERG protein was detected in colon cancer C26, HCT116 and HT-29 cells. The cell viability of the colon cancer cells was inhibited by SPFX in a dose-dependent manner. SPFX induced apoptosis and inhibited migration and invasion of colon cancer HCT116 cells. The increase in apoptosis was associated with a decrease in procaspase-3 and Bcl-2 protein expression. Study with herg-transfected HEK293 cells and siRNA-knock down HCT116 cells confirmed that the cell viability inhibition by SPFX was correlated with HERG expression. When combined with 5-fluorouracil, SPFX showed synergistic anti-proliferation activity in HCT116 and HT-29 cells. Furthermore, SPFX inhibited the growth of human colon carcinoma HCT116 xenografts and showed synergistic effect with 5-fluorouracil in vivo. Our finding suggested that SPFX could be a biochemical modulator in treatment of colon cancer with chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:20428834

Gong, Jian-Hua; Liu, Xiu-Jun; Shang, Bo-Yang; Chen, Shu-Zhen; Zhen, Yong-Su

2010-06-01

149

Cancer Cell Cytotoxicities of 1-(4-Substitutedbenzoyl)-4-(4-chlorobenzhydryl)piperazine Derivatives  

PubMed Central

A series of novel 1-(4-substitutedbenzoyl)-4-(4-chlorobenzhydryl)piperazine derivatives 5a–g was designed by a nucleophilic substitution reaction of 1-(4-chlorobenzhydryl)piperazine with various benzoyl chlorides and characterized by elemental analyses, IR and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. Cytotoxicity of the compounds was demonstrated on cancer cell lines from liver (HUH7, FOCUS, MAHLAVU, HEPG2, HEP3B), breast (MCF7, BT20, T47D, CAMA-1), colon (HCT-116), gastric (KATO-3) and endometrial (MFE-296) cancer cell lines. Time-dependent cytotoxicity analysis of compound 5a indicated the long-term in situ stability of this compound. All compounds showed significant cell growth inhibitory activity on the selected cancer cell lines.

Yarim, Mine; Koksal, Meric; Durmaz, Irem; Atalay, Rengul

2012-01-01

150

Preparation and characterization of lyophilised egg PC liposomes incorporating curcumin and evaluation of its activity against colorectal cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

Curcumin has been associated with the treatment of various diseases in traditional medicine, among them cancer. The major problems that prevent its approval as therapeutic agent are its low water solubility and its relatively low in vivo bioavailability. Liposomes are considered as effective drug carriers because of their ability to solubilize hydrophobic compounds and to alter their pharmacokinetic properties. The purpose of this study was the development of lyophilised liposomal curcumin fully characterized in terms of its physical properties [(zeta-potential, size, size distribution and Polydispercity index (PI)], and to evaluate its in vitro cytotoxic against colorectal cancer cell lines in a short-term and in a long-term (clonogenic) assay. Curcumin was incorporated in egg-phosphatidylcholine (EPC) liposomes at a drug to lipid molar ratio 1:14 achieving high incorporation efficiency close to 85%. The liposomal curcumin was lyophilized preserving thus its stability. The reconstitution of the formulation resulted in the original liposomal suspension. The release in FBS showed a plateau near 14% at 96 hours of incubation. The in vitro studies against colorectal cancer cell lines have shown that liposomes improve the activity of curcumin especially in the long-term assay and the liposomal formulation found to be more potent against HCT116 and HCT15, cell lines which express the MDR phenotype. EPC liposomal curcumin in a molar ratio of curcumin/EPC 1:14 has shown improved cytotoxic activity versus free curcumin against colorectal cancer cell lines. In vivo studies based on the recent findings are in progress in our laboratory. PMID:21456169

Pandelidou, Maria; Dimas, Konstantinos; Georgopoulos, Aristidis; Hatziantoniou, Sophia; Demetzos, Costas

2011-02-01

151

Multiple Effects of Berberine Derivatives on Colon Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

The pharmacological use of the plant alkaloid berberine is based on its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties; recently, anticancer activity has been attributed to this compound. To exploit this interesting feature, we synthesized three berberine derivatives, namely, NAX012, NAX014, and NAX018, and we tested their effects on two human colon carcinoma cell lines, that is, HCT116 and SW613-B3, which are characterized by wt and mutated p53, respectively. We observed that cell proliferation is more affected by cell treatment with the derivatives than with the lead compound; moreover, the derivatives proved to induce cell cycle arrest and cell death through apoptosis, thus suggesting that they could be promising anticancer drugs. Finally, we detected typical signs of autophagy in cells treated with berberine derivatives.

Guaman Ortiz, Luis Miguel; Dutto, Ilaria; Arcamone, Andrea G.; Buzzetti, Franco

2014-01-01

152

Curcumin cytotoxicity is enhanced by PTEN disruption in colorectal cancer cells  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effects of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) deficiency on the cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents toward colorectal cancer cells. METHODS: PTEN-deficient colorectal cancer (CRC) cells were generated by human somatic cell gene targeting using the adeno-associated virus system. The cytotoxic effects of compounds including curcumin, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), dihydroartemisinin (DHA), irinotecan (CPT-11) and oxaliplatin (OXA) on cancer cells were determined using the MTT assay. Enhanced cytotoxicity of curcumin in PTEN-deficient CRC cells was observed, and this was confirmed using clonogenic assays. Apoptosis and cell cycle progression were analyzed by flow cytometry. Levels of apoptosis and cell cycle-related proteins were examined by Western blotting. RESULTS: We developed an isogenic set of CRC cell lines that differed only in their PTEN status. Using this set of cell lines, we found that disruption of the PTEN gene had no effect on the sensitivity of CRC cells to 5-FU, CPT-11, DHA, or OXA, whereas PTEN disruption increased the sensitivity of CRC cells to curcumin. Loss of PTEN did not alter the curcumin-induced apoptosis in CRC cells. However, PTEN deficiency led to an altered pattern of curcumin-mediated cell cycle arrest. In HCT116 PTEN+/+ cells, curcumin caused a G2/M phase arrest, whereas it caused a G0/G1 phase arrest in HCT116 PTEN-/- cells. Levels of cell cycle-related proteins were consistent with these respective patterns of cell cycle arrest. CONCLUSION: Curcumin shows enhanced cytotoxicity toward PTEN-deficient cancer cells, suggesting that it might be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for cancers harboring PTEN mutations.

Chen, Lin; Li, Wen-Feng; Wang, Hong-Xiao; Zhao, Hai-Na; Tang, Jia-Jia; Wu, Chang-Jie; Lu, Li-Ting; Liao, Wan-Qin; Lu, Xin-Cheng

2013-01-01

153

Differential expression of nanog1 and nanogp8 in colon cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog is expressed in a majority of colon cancer cell lines examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both nanog1 and nanogp8 are expressed in colon cancer cells with varying ratios. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog mediates cell proliferation of colon cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog predominantly localizes in cytoplasm of colon cancer cells. -- Abstract: Nanog, a homeodomain transcription factor, is an essential regulator for promotion of self-renewal of embryonic stem cells and inhibition of their differentiation. It has been demonstrated that nanog1 as well as nanogp8, a retrogene of nanog1, is preferentially expressed in advanced stages of several types of cancer, suggesting their involvement during cancer progression. Here, we investigated the expression of Nanog in well-characterized colon cancer cell lines. Expression of Nanog was detectable in 5 (HCT116, HT29, RKO, SW48, SW620) out of seven cell lines examined. RNA expression analyses of nanog1 and nanogp8 indicated that, while nanog1 was a major form in SW620 as well as in teratoma cells Tera-2, nanogp8 was preferentially expressed in HT29 and HCT116. In accordance with this, shRNA-mediated knockdown of nanog1 caused the reduction of Nanog in SW620 but not in HT29. Inhibition of Nanog in SW620 cells negatively affected cell proliferation and tumor formation in mouse xenograft. Biochemical subcellular fractionation and immunostaining analyses revealed predominant localization of Nanog in cytoplasm in SW620 and HT29, while it was mainly localized in nucleus in Tera-2. Our data indicate that nanog1 and nanogp8 are differentially expressed in colon cancer cells, and suggest that their expression contributes to proliferation of colon cancer cells.

Ishiguro, Tatsuya; Sato, Ai; Ohata, Hirokazu; Sakai, Hiroaki [Division of Cancer Differentiation, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)] [Division of Cancer Differentiation, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Nakagama, Hitoshi, E-mail: hnakagam@ncc.go.jp [Division of Cancer Development System, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)] [Division of Cancer Development System, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Okamoto, Koji, E-mail: kojokamo@ncc.go.jo [Division of Cancer Differentiation, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)] [Division of Cancer Differentiation, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)

2012-02-10

154

Syndecan-2 is upregulated in colorectal cancer cells through interactions with extracellular matrix produced by stromal fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Background The extracellular matrix (ECM) influences the structure, viability and functions of cells and tissues. Recent evidence indicates that tumor cells and stromal cells interact through direct cell-cell contact, the production of ECM components and the secretion of growth factors. Syndecans are a family of transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycans that are involved in cell adhesion, motility, proliferation and differentiation. Syndecan-2 has been found to be highly expressed in colorectal cancer cell lines and appears to be critical for cancer cell behavior. We have examined the effect of stromal fibroblast-produced ECM on the production of proteoglycans by colorectal cancer cell lines. Results Our results showed that in a highly metastatic colorectal cancer cell line, HCT-116, syndecan-2 expression is enhanced by fibroblast ECM, while the expression of other syndecans decreased. Of the various components of the stromal ECM, fibronectin was the most important in stimulating the increase in syndecan-2 expression. The co-localization of syndecan-2 and fibronectin suggests that these two molecules are involved in the adhesion of HCT-116 cells to the ECM. Additionally, we demonstrated an increase in the expression of integrins alpha-2 and beta-1, in addition to an increase in the expression of phospho-FAK in the presence of fibroblast ECM. Furthermore, blocking syndecan-2 with a specific antibody resulted in a decrease in cell adhesion, migration, and organization of actin filaments. Conclusions Overall, these results show that interactions between cancer cells and stromal ECM proteins induce significant changes in the behavior of cancer cells. In particular, a shift from the expression of anti-tumorigenic syndecans to the tumorigenic syndecan-2 may have implications in the migratory behavior of highly metastatic tumor cells.

2013-01-01

155

Systematic Analyses of the Cytotoxic Effects of Compound 11a, a Putative Synthetic Agonist of Photoreceptor-Specific Nuclear Receptor (PNR), in Cancer Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Photoreceptor cell-specific receptor (PNR/NR2E3) is an orphan nuclear receptor that plays a critical role in retinal development and photoreceptor maintenance. The disease-causing mutations in PNR have a pleiotropic effect resulting in varying retinal diseases. Recently, PNR has been implicated in control of cellular functions in cancer cells. PNR was reported to be a novel regulator of ER? expression in breast cancer cells, and high PNR expression correlates with favorable response to tamoxifen treatment. Moreover, PNR was shown to increase p53 stability in HeLa cells, implying that PNR may be a therapeutic target in this and other cancers that retain a wild type p53 gene. To facilitate further understanding of PNR functions in cancer, we characterized compound 11a, a synthetic, putative PNR agonist in several cell-based assays. Interestingly, we showed that 11a failed to activate PNR and its cytotoxicity was independent of PNR expression, excluding PNR as a mediator for 11a cytotoxicity. Systematic analyses of the cytotoxic effects of 11a in NCI-60 cell lines revealed a strong positive correlation of cytotoxicity with p53 status, i.e., p53 wild type cell lines were significantly more sensitive to 11a than p53 mutated or null cell lines. Furthermore, using HCT116 p53+/+ and p53-/- isogenic cell lines we revealed that the mechanism of 11a-induced cytotoxicity occurred through G1/S phase cell cycle arrest rather than apoptosis. In conclusion, we observed a correlation of 11a sensitivity with p53 status but not with PNR expression, suggesting that tumors expressing wild type p53 might be responsive to this compound.

Zhao, Zibo; Wang, Lu; Wen, Zhi; Ayaz-guner, Serife; Wang, Yidan; Ahlquist, Paul; Xu, Wei

2013-01-01

156

Induction of Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cells by Candidaspongiolide, a Novel Sponge Polyketide  

PubMed Central

Background Candidaspongiolide (CAN), a novel polyketide from a marine sponge, is the active component of a mixture that was found to be potently cytotoxic in the National Cancer Institute’s 60-cell-line screen. Methods Effects of CAN on U251 glioma and HCT116 colorectal cancer cells and on normal fibroblasts were assessed using radiolabeling studies to measure protein synthesis, clonogenic assays to measure cell survival, flow cytometry of annexin V– and propidium iodide–stained cells to measure apoptosis, and western blots in the presence or absence of specific inhibitors to assess accumulation and phosphorylation of potential downstream target proteins. Results CAN inhibited protein synthesis and potently induced apoptosis in both U251 and HCT116 cells, the latter in part by a caspase 12–dependent pathway. For example, 25%–30% of U251 or HCT116 cells became apoptotic after 24 hours of treatment with 100 nM CAN. CAN also rapidly induced sustained phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2 (eIF2)-? at Ser51 and of the translation elongation factor eEF2 at Thr56, which could contribute to its dose-dependent inhibition of protein synthesis. Stable expression of dominant-negative eIF2? was sufficient to prevent CAN-induced eIF2? phosphorylation and induction of apoptosis but insufficient to prevent inhibition of protein synthesis. CAN induction of eIF2? phosphorylation did not occur by a classic endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway. However, an inhibitor of and small-interfering RNAs to the double-stranded RNA–dependent protein kinase PKR prevented CAN-mediated eIF2? phosphorylation and apoptosis, respectively. Although CAN inhibited protein synthesis in both cancer cells and normal human fibroblasts, it induced eIF2? phosphorylation and apoptosis only in cancer cells. Conclusions CAN triggers PKR/eIF2?/caspase 12–dependent apoptosis and inhibits protein synthesis in cancer cells but only inhibits protein synthesis in normal cells.

Trisciuoglio, Daniela; Uranchimeg, Badarch; Cardellina, John H.; Meragelman, Tamara L.; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Fusetani, Nobuhiru; Del Bufalo, Donatella; Shoemaker, Robert H.

2008-01-01

157

Dendritic cell-based immunotherapy for colon cancer using an HLA-A*0201-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope from tumor-associated antigen 90K.  

PubMed

Tumor-associated antigen 90K is implicated in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion through its interaction with galectin-3 and integrin-?1 and is highly expressed in malignant tissues, making it a novel target for the development of new immunotherapies. We investigated a potential immunotherapy treatment for colon cancer using 90K-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes induced by autologous dendritic cells and pulsed with 90K peptides. We selected three peptides (90K351, 90K5 and 90K523) that bind to HLA-A*0201 molecules on the basis of their binding affinity, as determined by a peptide-T2 binding assay. Dendritic cells pulsed with 90K peptides resulted in the efficient generation of mature dendritic cells and exhibited enhanced T-cell stimulation and polarization of naive T cells toward Th1. Dendritic cells pulsed with 90K peptides generated potent cytotoxic T-lymphocytes that lysed T2 cells loaded with each 90K peptide, and 90K(+)/HLA-A2(+) colon cancer cell lines, including HCT116 and SW480, in a dose-dependent and HLA-A*0201-restricted manner. No killing was observed in 90K(+)/HLA-A2(-) DLD1 or 90K(-)/HLA-A2(-) K562 cells. Therefore, we believe that cytotoxic T-lymphocytes stimulated by 90K peptide-pulsed dendritic cells naturally recognize the 90K peptide presented by colon cancer cells in the context of HLA-A2, and kill 90K-positive tumor cells. Dendritic cells pulsed with 90K peptides led to the induction of granzyme B and perforin positive CD8(+) T cells against HCT116 and SW480 cells, but not DLD1 cells. In conclusion, 90K-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, generated by stimulating T cells with 90K peptide-pulsed dendritic cells, could be useful effector cells for the immunotherapy treatment of colon cancer. PMID:23524651

Hee Lee, Ji; Park, Myong-Suk; Hwang, Jun-Eul; Cho, Sang-Hee; Bae, Woo-Kyun; Shim, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Dae-Eun; Chung, Ik-Joo

2013-05-01

158

p53-Independent expression of wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (Wip1) in methylmethane sulfonate-treated cancer cell lines and human tumors.  

PubMed

Wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (Wip1, PPM1D) is induced by p53 in response to various stressors and dephosphorylates cellular target proteins involved in DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint pathways. The Wip1 gene is frequently amplified or overexpressed in human cancers, promoting tumor growth by switching off major checkpoint kinases and p53. To explore wild-type p53-independent Wip1 induction, Wip1 promoter activity and its transcript level were evaluated by luciferase assay and real-time PCR, after methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) treatment in breast cancer cell lines and p53-null cell lines. Wip1 promoter activities in response to UV irradiation and various anti-cancer agents were compared between wild-type and a p53-response element (p53RE) mutated construct. Wip1 expression and its effects were examined in primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and colon tumor cells by using Wip1-specific siRNA. MMS induced Wip1 promoter activity in Hs578T, MDA-MB-231, and SK-BR-3 cells expressing DNA binding-deficient p53 mutants. A549-E6 and HCT116 (p53(-/-)) cells retained substantial Wip1 induction. Wip1 promoter activity was reduced, but not eliminated, in cells expressing a promoter containing a mutated p53-response element. Wip1 induction was not blocked by SB202190 or SP600125. MMS increased Wip1 expression in primary non-small cell lung cancer cells expressing a p53 R175H mutant. Our data indicate that Wip1 is induced in the absence of functional p53, like p38 MAPK and JNK, as a stress response terminator. PMID:22405851

Park, Ji-Young; Song, Ji-Young; Kim, Hyun Mi; Han, Hye-Sook; Seol, Hyang Sook; Jang, Se Jin; Choi, Jene

2012-06-01

159

Homeostatic Maintenance of Allele-Specific p16 Methylation in Cancer Cells Accompanied by Dynamic Focal Methylation and Hydroxymethylation  

PubMed Central

Aim p16 Methylation frequently occurs in carcinogenesis. While it has been hypothesized that the p16 methylation states are dynamically maintained in cancer cells, direct evidence supporting this hypothesis has not been available until now. Methods A fusion cell model was established which reprogrammed the native DNA methylation pattern of the cells. The methylation status of the p16 alleles was then repeatedly quantitatively analyzed in the fusion monoclonal, parental cancer cell lines (p16-completely methylated-AGS and unmethylated-MGC803), and HCT116 non-fusion cell using DHPLC and bisulfite sequencing. Histone methylation was analyzed using chromatin immuno-precipitation (ChIP)-PCR. P16 expression status was determined using immuno-staining and RT-PCR. Results The methylation status for the majority of the p16 alleles was stably maintained in the fusion monoclonal cells after up to 60 passages. Most importantly, focal de novo methylation, demethylation, and hydroxymethylation were consistently observed within about 27% of the p16 alleles in the fusion monoclones, but not the homozygously methylated or unmethylated parental cells. Furthermore, subclones of the monoclones consistently maintained the same p16 methylation pattern. A similar phenomenon was also observed using the p16 hemi-methylated HCT116 non-fusion cancer cell line. Interestingly, transcription was not observed in p16 alleles that were hydroxymethylated with an antisense-strand-specific pattern. Also, the levels of H3K9 and H3K4 trimethylation in the fusion cells were found to be slightly lower than the parental AGS and MGC803 cells, respectively. Conclusion The present study provides the first direct evidence confirming that the methylation states of p16 CpG islands is not only homeostatically maintained, but also accompanied by a dynamic process of transient focal methylation, demethylation, and hydroxymethylation in cancer cells.

Qin, Sisi; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Jing; Liu, Zhao-jun; Su, Na; Wilson, James; Lu, Zhe-ming; Deng, Dajun

2014-01-01

160

Starch-based microspheres for sustained-release of curcumin: preparation and cytotoxic effect on tumor cells.  

PubMed

Curcumin (CUR) has been proved to be highly cytotoxic against different tumor cell lines. However, its poor solubility in aqueous medium and fast degradation in physiological pH are the common drawbacks preventing its efficient practical use. Herein, we report the development of original microspheres based on the biopolymer starch crosslinked with N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) to be applied as an efficient delivering system for CUR. The starch-based microspheres showed high loading efficiency even in loading solution with different CUR concentrations. In vitro release assays data showed that the CUR release is governed by anomalous transport (n=0.73) and it is pH-dependent. Cytotoxicity assays showed that starch microspheres could improve the cytotoxicity of CUR toward Caco-2 and HCT-116 tumor cell lines up to 40 times than that found for pure CUR. This behavior was attributed to the slowly and sustained release of CUR from the microspheres. PMID:23987403

Pereira, Antonio G B; Fajardo, André R; Nocchi, Samara; Nakamura, Celso V; Rubira, Adley F; Muniz, Edvani C

2013-10-15

161

Single-photon emission computed tomography of spontaneous liver metastasis from orthotopically implanted human colon cancer cell line stably expressing human sodium/iodide symporter reporter gene  

PubMed Central

Background We aimed to develop a mouse spontaneous liver metastasis model from an orthotopically implanted human colon cancer cell line stably expressing a human sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) reporter gene, which can be imaged with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using 99mTcO4?. Methods A recombinant plasmid containing a constitutively driven NIS gene (pcDNA3-NIS) was transfected into the human colon cancer cell line HCT116, and stable cell lines were established. The stable cells were subcutaneously injected into the nude mice. When the diameter reached 10?mm, the xenografts were excised, cut into small fragments, and orthotopically implanted into the cecal walls of another nude mice. 99mTcO4? SPECT/CT imaging was initiated 8?weeks later and repeated every 1 to 2?weeks. Results The production and function of NIS protein was confirmed in vitro by Western blotting and 99mTcO4? uptake assay. On SPECT/CT imaging, focal 99mTcO4? uptake was detected in the liver. Necropsy revealed local growth of the orthotopic colon xenografts with extensive invasion, microscopic serosal metastasis, and metastatic foci in the corresponding hepatic regions showing focal 99mTcO4? uptake. Immunohistochemistry revealed high levels of NIS expression in cells forming liver tumor, indicating that the liver tumor cells originated from the orthotopic colon xenografts. Conclusions The present proof-of-concept study provided a rationale for employing a radionuclide reporter gene for the specific visualization of spontaneous liver metastasis in living mice. This unique animal model of clinically relevant and externally detectable liver metastasis will be a powerful tool for investigating tumor biology and developing novel therapies for cancer metastasis.

2012-01-01

162

Simultaneous Aurora-A/STK15 overexpression and centrosome amplification induce chromosomal instability in tumour cells with a MIN phenotype  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic instability is a hallmark of tumours and preneoplastic lesions. The predominant form of genome instability in human cancer is chromosome instability (CIN). CIN is characterized by chromosomal aberrations, gains or losses of whole chromosomes (aneuploidy), and it is often associated with centrosome amplification. Centrosomes control cell division by forming a bipolar mitotic spindle and play an essential role in the maintenance of chromosomal stability. However, whether centrosome amplification could directly cause aneuploidy is not fully established. Also, alterations in genes required for mitotic progression could be involved in CIN. A major candidate is represented by Aurora-A/STK15 that associates with centrosomes and is overexpressed in several types of human tumour. Methods Centrosome amplification were induced by hydroxyurea treatment and visualized by immunofluorescence microscopy. Aurora-A/STK15 ectopic expression was achieved by retroviral infection and puromycin selection in HCT116 tumour cells. Effects of Aurora-A/STK15 depletion on centrosome status and ploidy were determined by Aurora-A/STK15 transcriptional silencing by RNA interference. Changes in the expression levels of some mitotic genes were determined by Real time RT-PCR. Results We investigated whether amplification of centrosomes and overexpression of Aurora-A/STK15 induce CIN using as a model system a colon carcinoma cell line (HCT116). We found that in HCT116 cells, chromosomally stable and near diploid cells harbouring a MIN phenotype, centrosome amplification induced by hydroxyurea treatment is neither maintained nor induces aneuploidy. On the contrary, ectopic overexpression of Aurora-A/STK15 induced supernumerary centrosomes and aneuploidy. Aurora-A/STK15 transcriptional silencing by RNA interference in cells ectopically overexpressing this kinase promptly decreased cell numbers with supernumerary centrosomes and aneuploidy. Conclusion Our results show that centrosome amplification alone is not sufficient to induce chromosomal instability in colon cancer cells with a MIN phenotype. Alternatively, centrosome amplification has to be associated with alterations in genes regulating mitosis progression such as Aurora-A/STK15 to trigger CIN.

Lentini, Laura; Amato, Angela; Schillaci, Tiziana; Di Leonardo, Aldo

2007-01-01

163

Colon cancer mesenchymal stem cells modulate the tumorigenicity of colon cancer through interleukin 6.  

PubMed

Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been isolated from several tumors and are implicated to play critical roles to increase malignant cell growth, invasion and metastasis. Here, we show that the MSC-like cells were isolated from human colon cancer tissues. These isolated hCC-MSCs (human colon cancer-derived mesenchymal stem cells) shared similar characteristic features with bone marrow-derived MSCs, which include cell morphology, surface antigens and specific gene expression. Additionally, the hCC-MSCs could differentiate into osteocytes or adipocytes under appropriate culture conditions. The conditioned medium collected from the cultured hCC-MSCs was shown to enhance the migration and invasive activity of HCT-116 colon cancer cells in vitro. Besides, transplantation of HCT-116 cells along with hCC-MSCs in nude mice increased the tumor growth and metastasis. Further study revealed that IL-6 present in the hCC-MSC-conditioned medium sufficiently induced the levels of Notch-1 and CD44 in HCT-116 and HT-29 cells, which contribute to enhance tumorigenic activity of HCT-116 and HT-29 cells. By using immunohistochemical staining, the intense co-expression of IL-6, Notch-1 and CD44 was predominantly detected in human colon cancer tissues. Taken together, our findings suggest the importance of the IL-6/Notch-1/CD44 signaling axis in the interaction between hCC-MSCs and colon cancer cells. PMID:23751564

Lin, Jen-Tsun; Wang, Jeng-Yi; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Chen, Hong-Chang; Chang, Tung-Hao; Su, Bi-Wen; Chang, Pey-Jium

2013-08-15

164

Identification of a Novel Topoisomerase Inhibitor Effective in Cells Overexpressing Drug Efflux Transporters  

PubMed Central

Background Natural product structures have high chemical diversity and are attractive as lead structures for discovery of new drugs. One of the disease areas where natural products are most frequently used as therapeutics is oncology. Method and Findings A library of natural products (NCI Natural Product set) was screened for compounds that induce apoptosis of HCT116 colon carcinoma cells using an assay that measures an endogenous caspase-cleavage product. One of the apoptosis-inducing compounds identified in the screen was thaspine (taspine), an alkaloid from the South American tree Croton lechleri. The cortex of this tree is used for medicinal purposes by tribes in the Amazonas basin. Thaspine was found to induce conformational activation of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bak and Bax, mitochondrial cytochrome c release and mitochondrial membrane permeabilization in HCT116 cells. Analysis of the gene expression signature of thaspine-treated cells suggested that thaspine is a topoisomerase inhibitor. Inhibition of both topoisomerase I and II was observed using in vitro assays, and thaspine was found to have a reduced cytotoxic effect on a cell line with a mutated topoisomerase II enzyme. Interestingly, in contrast to the topoisomerase II inhibitors doxorubicin, etoposide and mitoxantrone, thaspine was cytotoxic to cell lines overexpressing the PgP or MRP drug efflux transporters. We finally show that thaspine induces wide-spread apoptosis in colon carcinoma multicellular spheroids and that apoptosis is induced in two xenograft mouse models in vivo. Conclusions The alkaloid thaspine from the cortex of Croton lechleri is a dual topoisomerase inhibitor effective in cells overexpressing drug efflux transporters and induces wide-spread apoptosis in multicellular spheroids.

Fayad, Walid; Fryknas, Marten; Brnjic, Slavica; Olofsson, Maria Hagg; Larsson, Rolf; Linder, Stig

2009-01-01

165

Effect of selenite combined with chemotherapeutic agents on the proliferation of human carcinoma cell lines.  

PubMed

Selenite is frequently used in combination with cancer chemotherapeutic agents to reduce side effects. However, the cytoprotective activity of selenite may also reduce the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs on tumor cells. This study was designed to examine the effects of selenite combined with cytotoxic agents used in clinical protocols [e.g., doxorubicine, docetaxel, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), methotrexate (MTX), mafosphamide, mitomycin C, gemcitabine, etoposide, cisplatin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin] on the proliferation of various carcinoma cell types. The data demonstrated that selenite had no marked effects on the antiproliferative activity of docetaxel, doxorubicine, 5-FU, MTX, and mafosphamide in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Likewise, no consistent changes were observed in A549 lung cancer cell proliferation when selenite was combined with cisplatin, etoposide, gemcitabine, or mitomycin C. On the other hand, selenite potentiated the cytotoxicity of 5-FU, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan in HCT116 colon cancer cells by approx 1.1-fold, 2.7-fold, and 2.6-fold, respectively. In SW620 colon cancer cells, selenite induced a 1.5-fold and 4.3-fold increase of the antiproliferative activity of 5-FU and oxaliplatin, respectively. Whereas irinotecan showed no effects on SW620 cell growth, a combination with selenite resulted in 23% inhibition. Our results indicate that selenite did not reduce the antiproliferative activity of chemotherapeutic agents in vitro. In addition, selenite was able to increase the inhibitory activity of docetaxel in A549 lung cancer cells, and of 5-FU, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan in HCT116 and SW620 colon cancer cells implying selenite is potentially useful as an adjuvant chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:15235138

Schroeder, Claudia P; Goeldner, Eva M; Schulze-Forster, Kai; Eickhoff, Christiane A; Holtermann, Peter; Heidecke, Harald

2004-01-01

166

PES1 regulates sensitivity of colorectal cancer cells to anticancer drugs  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? PES1 was overexpressed in diverse cancer cell lines. ? PES1-ablation enhances DNA damage response by decreasing DNA repair. ? PES1-ablation increases the sensitivity of HCT116 cells to chemotherapeutic agents. ? PES1-ablation is associated with diminished nuclear entry of RAD51. -- Abstract: PES1 (also known as Pescadillo), a nucleolar protein, was involved in biogenesis of ribosomal RNA. Up-regulation of PES1 has been documented in some human cancers, indicating that PES1 may play some crucial roles in tumorigenesis. In our previous study, it was found that silencing of PES1 resulted in decreased proliferation of colorectal cancer cells. We also noticed that depletion of PES1 altered expression profiles of diverse genes. In the present study, we validated the expression changes of a subset of genotoxic stress-related genes in PES1-silenced HCT116 cells by quantitative RT-PCR. The steady and etoposide-induced phosphorylated H2AX (?-H2AX) were higher in PES1-silenced cells than in control cells. Besides, etoposide-induced ?-H2AX persisted longer in PES1-silenced cells after removing the etoposide. Next, results of comet assay revealed decreased DNA repair after PES1-ablation. PES1-ablated cells were more sensitive to chemotherapeutic agents, which could be reversed by reconstitution with exogenous PES1. Furthermore, deletion of PES1 diminished steady and DNA damage-induced levels of nuclear RAD51. Our results uncover a potential role of PES1 in chemoresistance by regulating DNA damage response in colorectal cancer cells.

Xie, Wei [Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing 100142 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing 100142 (China); Qu, Like, E-mail: qulike@bjcancer.org [Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing 100142 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing 100142 (China); Meng, Lin; Liu, Caiyun; Wu, Jian [Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing 100142 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing 100142 (China); Shou, Chengchao, E-mail: scc@bjcancer.org [Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing 100142 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing 100142 (China)

2013-02-15

167

Interleukin-8 is associated with proliferation, migration, angiogenesis and chemosensitivity in vitro and in vivo in colon cancer cell line models  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-8 (IL-8), a chemokine with a defining CXC amino acid motif, is known to possess tumorigenic and proangiogenic properties. Overexpression of IL-8 has been detected in many human tumors, including colorectal cancer, and is associated with poor prognosis. The goal of our study was to determine the role of IL-8 overexpression in colorectal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We stably transfected the IL-8 cDNA into two human colon cancer cell lines, HCT116 and Caco2, and selected IL-8-secreting transfectants. Real time RT-PCR confirmed that IL-8 mRNA was overexpressed in IL-8 transfectants with 45?85-fold higher than parental cells. The IL-8-transfected clones secreted 19?28-fold more IL-8 protein than control and parental cells as detected by ELISA. The IL-8 transfectants demonstrated increased cellular proliferation, cell migration and invasion based on functional assays. Growth inhibition studies showed that IL-8 overexpression lead to a significant resistance to oxaliplatin (P < 0.0001). Inhibition of IL-8 overexpression with small interfering RNA reversed the observed increases in tumorigenic functions and oxaliplatin resistance suggesting that IL-8 not only provides a proliferative advantage, but also promotes the metastatic potential of colon cancer cells. Using a tumor xenograft model, IL-8-expressing cells formed significantly larger tumors than the control cells with increased microvessel density. Together, these findings indicate that overexpression of IL-8 promotes tumor growth, metastasis, chemoresistance and angiogenesis, implying IL-8 to be an important therapeutic target in colorectal cancers.

Ning, Yan; Manegold, Philipp C; Hong, Young Kwon; Zhang, Wu; Pohl, Alexandra; Lurje, Georg; Winder, Thomas; Yang, Dongyun; LaBonte, Melissa J; Wilson, Peter M; Ladner, Robert D; Lenz, Heinz-Josef

2010-01-01

168

Tick Cell Lines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to new continuous cell lines from embryonic tissues of ticks (Acari Ixodidae); the use of such cell lines for replicating selected microorganisms; and the use of the replicated microorganisms for diagnosis, prophylaxis and control o...

C. E. Yunker J. C. Cory H. R. Meibos

1981-01-01

169

Demethylation effect of the antineoplaston AS2-1 on genes in colon cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Antineoplastons are naturally occurring peptides and amino acid derivatives found in human blood and urine. Antineoplastons have been shown to control neoplastic growth. In the present study, we investigated demethylation effect of the antineoplaston AS2-1 (a mixture of phenylacetylglutamine and phenylacetate in the ratio of 1:4) on various genes in colon cancer cells. An HpaII-MspI methylation microarray was used to investigate the methylation status of 51 genes at the promoter region in HCT116 and KM12SM human colon cancer cells before and after treatment of AS2-1. The expression of protein and mRNA of the demethylated genes by AS2-1 in HCT116 cells was evaluated. In 19 of the 34 methylated genes in HCT116 and in 7 of the 8 methylated genes in KM12SM, the methylation status was downregulated after treatment with 2 mg/ml of AS2-1 for 24 h. AS2-1 dramatically downregulated the methylation status of p15 and ESR1 in HCT116 cells and of MTHFR and MUC2 in KM12SM cells. Both mRNA and protein expression of p15 increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner after treatment with AS2-1. The antineoplaston AS2-1 may normalize the hypermethylation status at the promoter region in various genes including tumor suppressor genes, resulting in activation of the transcription and translation in colon cancer.

USHIJIMA, MASATAKA; OGATA, YUTAKA; TSUDA, HIDEAKI; AKAGI, YOSHITO; MATONO, KEIKO; SHIROUZU, KAZUO

2014-01-01

170

Down-regulation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase through specific activation of RNAi pathway quickly results in cancer cell growth impairment.  

PubMed

Targeting of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) by different small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) resulted in a variable degree of telomerase activity inhibition in PC-3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells. In addition, transfection with siRNA5 and siRNA41, which caused high levels ( approximately 80 and approximately 55%, respectively) of enzyme activity inhibition in both cell lines, led to a marked reduction of hTERT mRNA and protein expression and a significant inhibition of cell proliferation within a few days, without concomitant telomere shortening or telomeric 3' overhang impairment. Such an antiproliferative effect was not ascribable to the activation of non-specific responses, since siRNA5 and siRNA41 did not induce the expression of 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase-1 and were able to cause a significant growth impairment also in HCT 116 colon cancer cells, which have a defective interferon pathway. Cell growth inhibition was indeed associated with hTERT down-regulation, as it was almost completely rescued in siRNA-treated HCT 116 cells co-transfected with an hTERT-expressing vector. Moreover, siRNA5 and siRNA41 failed to affect the proliferation of hTERT-negative U2-OS osteosarcoma cells. Interestingly, transfection with siRNA5 significantly reduced the tumorigenic and growth potential of PC-3 cells when xenotransplanted into nude mice. Such data suggest siRNA-mediated hTERT down-regulation as an efficient strategy to impair prostate cancer cell growth. PMID:17321502

Gandellini, Paolo; Folini, Marco; Bandiera, Roberto; De Cesare, Michelandrea; Binda, Mara; Veronese, Silvio; Daidone, Maria Grazia; Zunino, Franco; Zaffaroni, Nadia

2007-06-01

171

High mobility group box-1 is phosphorylated by protein kinase C zeta and secreted in colon cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specific enzyme for HMGB1 phosphorylation and its secretion is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of PKC-{zeta} leads to significant reduction of the secreted HMGB1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphorylation of specific site of HMGB1 redirects its secretion in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation of PKC-{zeta} in cancers explains the enhanced HMGB1 secretion. -- Abstract: High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), a nuclear protein, is overexpressed and secreted in cancer cells. Phosphorylation on two different nuclear localization signal regions are known to be important for the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic transport and secretion of HMGB1. However, little is known about the biochemical mechanism of HMGB1 modifications and its subsequent secretion from cancer cells. To identify the specific enzyme and important sites for HMGB1 phosphorylation, we screened the protein kinase C (PKC) family in a colon cancer cell line (HCT116) for HMGB1 binding by pull-down experiments using a 3XFLAG-HMGB1 construct. Strong interactions between atypical PKCs (PKC-{zeta}, {lambda}, and {iota}) and cytoplasmic HMGB1 were observed in HCT116 cells. We further identified the most critical PKC isotype that regulates HMGB1 secretion is PKC-{zeta} by using PKC inhibitors and siRNA experiments. The serine residues at S39, S53 and S181 of HMGB1 were related to enhancing HMGB1 secretion. We also demonstrated overexpression and activation of PKC-{zeta} in colon cancer tissues. Our findings suggest that PKC-{zeta} is involved in the phosphorylation of HMGB1, and the phosphorylation of specific serine residues in the nuclear localization signal regions is related to enhanced HMGB1 secretion in colon cancer cells.

Lee, Hanna; Park, Minhee; Shin, Nara; Kim, Gamin [Department of Pathology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Pathology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun Gi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jeon-Soo [Department of Microbiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Microbiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hoguen, E-mail: hkyonsei@yuhs.ac [Department of Pathology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Pathology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-07-27

172

Celecoxib Induced Tumor Cell Radiosensitization by Inhibiting Radiation Induced Nuclear EGFR Transport and DNA-Repair: A COX-2 Independent Mechanism  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms mediating radiosensitization of human tumor cells by the selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor celecoxib. Methods and Materials: Experiments were performed using bronchial carcinoma cells A549, transformed fibroblasts HH4dd, the FaDu head-and-neck tumor cells, the colon carcinoma cells HCT116, and normal fibroblasts HSF7. Effects of celecoxib treatment were assessed by clonogenic cell survival, Western analysis, and quantification of residual DNA damage by {gamma}H{sub 2}AX foci assay. Results: Celecoxib treatment resulted in a pronounced radiosensitization of A549, HCT116, and HSF7 cells, whereas FaDu and HH4dd cells were not radiosensitized. The observed radiosensitization could neither be correlated with basal COX-2 expression pattern nor with basal production of prostaglandin E2, but was depended on the ability of celecoxib to inhibit basal and radiation-induced nuclear transport of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The nuclear EGFR transport was strongly inhibited in A549-, HSF7-, and COX-2-deficient HCT116 cells, which were radiosensitized, but not in FaDu and HH4dd cells, which resisted celecoxib-induced radiosensitization. Celecoxib inhibited radiation-induced DNA-PK activation in A549, HSF7, and HCT116 cells, but not in FaDu and HH4dd cells. Consequentially, celecoxib increased residual {gamma}H2AX foci after irradiation, demonstrating that inhibition of DNA repair has occurred in responsive A549, HCT116, and HSF7 cells only. Conclusions: Celecoxib enhanced radiosensitivity by inhibition of EGFR-mediated mechanisms of radioresistance, a signaling that was independent of COX-2 activity. This novel observation may have therapeutic implications such that COX-2 inhibitors may improve therapeutic efficacy of radiation even in patients whose tumor radioresistance is not dependent on COX-2.

Dittmann, Klaus H. [Division of Radiobiology and Molecular Environmental Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany)], E-mail: klaus.dittmann@uni-tuebingen.de; Mayer, Claus; Ohneseit, Petra A. [Division of Radiobiology and Molecular Environmental Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Raju, Uma [Department of Experimental Radiation Oncology, University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Andratschke, Nickolaus H. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie, Klinikum Rechts Der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Milas, Luka [Department of Experimental Radiation Oncology, University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Rodemann, H. Peter [Division of Radiobiology and Molecular Environmental Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany)

2008-01-01

173

BAG-1 is up-regulated in colorectal tumour progression and promotes colorectal tumour cell survival through increased NF-kappaB activity.  

PubMed

Although expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2-associated athanogene-1 (BAG-1) has been reported as up-regulated in a number of malignancies, we show for the first time that BAG-1 is over-expressed in medium/large-sized colorectal adenomas and carcinomas compared with normal epithelium. To investigate whether expression of BAG-1 is important for colorectal tumour cell survival, microarray analysis was carried out on the HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cell line following transfection with BAG-1 small interfering RNA (siRNA). Analysis identified altered expression of a subset of potential nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)-regulated genes. Furthermore, knock down of BAG-1 was shown to inhibit NF-kappaB transcriptional activity. Inhibition of NF-kappaB activity using BAG-1 siRNA or the NF-kappaB inhibitor BAY-117082 suppressed HCT116 cell yield and induced apoptosis; combined treatment had no additive effect, suggesting that the decrease in cell yield associated with knock down of BAG-1 expression is mediated via inhibition of NF-kappaB. Of clinical relevance, BAG-1 siRNA sensitized colorectal carcinoma cells to apoptosis induced by potential therapeutic agent TRAIL as well as tumour necrosis factor-alpha, both inducers of NF-kappaB activity. In summary, knock down of BAG-1 leads to inhibition of NF-kappaB, identifying BAG-1 as a novel regulator of NF-kappaB. It is proposed that, by inhibiting NF-kappaB, suppression of BAG-1 could represent a novel strategy to impede colorectal cancer cell survival and as an adjuvant increase sensitivity to current therapeutic regimes. PMID:18204076

Clemo, Nadine K; Collard, Tracey J; Southern, Samantha L; Edwards, Kieron D; Moorghen, Moganaden; Packham, Graham; Hague, Angela; Paraskeva, Christos; Williams, Ann C

2008-04-01

174

Particled Mica, STB-HO has chemopreventive potential via G1 arrest, and inhibition of proliferation and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 in HCT colorectal cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background Though Mica, a thin and sheet like mineral, has been used as a mineral medicine for treatment of bleeding, dysentery and inflammation in traditional medicine including Ayurveda, the biological evidences of Mica were not clearly elucidated so far. Thus, in the present study, the antitumor mechanism of particled Mica (STB-HO) was examined in colorectal cancers. Methods Athymic nude mice were inoculated with HCT116 colon cancer cells and orally administered STB-HO daily for 41 days, and HCT116 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with STB-HO for 0?~?24 hours to perform immunoblotting, cytotoxicity assay, FACs analysis and measurement of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) secretion and other experiments. Significant differences of all date were evaluated using Student’s t-test and a Turkey-Kramer multiple-comparison post test. Results STB-HO significantly suppressed the tumor volume and weight in athymic nude mice inoculated with HCT116 cells at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Thus, the in vivo antitumor mechanism of STB-HO was to elucidated in vitro as well. STB-HO exerted cytotoxicity in HCT116, SW620 and HCT15 colorectal cancer cells. Also, STB-HO increased G1 cell population in a time and concentration dependent manner, enhanced the expression of p21, p27, p53 as cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, attenuated the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclin D1 and also reduced the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) in HCT116 cells. Consistently, STB-HO suppressed the phosphorylation of VEGFR2 in HCT116, SW620 and HCT15 cells. Also, STB-HO inhibited the VEGF mediated proliferation and also attenuated the phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and Akt in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Conclusions Collectively, these findings suggest that STB-HO has chemopreventive potential via G1 arrest and inhibition of proliferation and VEGFR2 in HCT116 colorectal cancer cells.

2013-01-01

175

p53 Modulates the Effect of Loss of DNA Mismatch Repair on the Sensitivity of Human Colon Cancer Cells to the Cytotoxic and Mutagenic Effects of Cisplatin1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system and p53 interact to maintain genomic integrity in the presence of the mutagenic stress induced by cisplatin (DDP). Sensitivity to the cytotoxic and mutagenic effect of DDP was assessed using a panel of sublines of the MMR-deficient HCT116 colon carcinoma cells in which MMR function had been restored by transfer

Xinjian Lin; Krishnan Ramamurthi; Misako Mishima; Akira Kondo; Randolph D. Christen; Stephen B. Howell

176

Variations in Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 status and DNA damage-induced S-phase arrest in the cell lines of the NCI60 panel  

PubMed Central

Background The Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN) complex is a regulator of cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair. Defects in MRN can lead to defective S-phase arrest when cells are damaged. Such defects may elicit sensitivity to selected drugs providing a chemical synthetic lethal interaction that could be used to target therapy to tumors with these defects. The goal of this study was to identify these defects in the NCI60 panel of cell lines and identify compounds that might elicit selective cytotoxicity. Methods We screened the NCI60 panel in search of cell lines that express low levels of MRN proteins, or that fail to arrest in S-phase in response to the topisomerase I inhibitor SN38. The NCI COMPARE program was used to discover compounds that preferentially target cells with these phenotypes. Results HCT116 cells were initially identified as defective in MRN and S phase arrest. Transfection with Mre11 also elevated Rad50 and Nbs1, and rescued the defective S-phase arrest. Cells of the NCI60 panel exhibited a large range of protein expression but a strong correlation existed between Mre11, Rad50 and Nbs1 consistent with complex formation determining protein stability. Mre11 mRNA correlated best with protein level suggesting it was the primary determinant of the overall level of the complex. Three other cell lines failed to arrest in response to SN38, two of which also had low MRN. However, other cell lines with low MRN still arrested suggesting low MRN does not predict an inability to arrest. Many compounds, including a family of benzothiazoles, correlated with the failure to arrest in S phase. The activity of benzothiazoles has been attributed to metabolic activation and DNA alkylation, but we note several cell lines in which sensitivity does not correlate with metabolism. We propose that the checkpoint defect imposes an additional mechanism of sensitivity on cells. Conclusions We have identified cells with possible defects in the MRN complex and S phase arrest, and a series of compounds that may preferentially target S phase-defective cells. We discuss limitations of the COMPARE program when attempting to identify compounds that selectively inhibit only a few cell lines.

2011-01-01

177

Binding of the Phage Display Derived Peptide CaIX-P1 on Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells Correlates with the Expression of Carbonic Anhydrase IX  

PubMed Central

Phage display represents an attractive screening strategy for the identification of novel, specific binding ligands that could be used for tumor targeting. Recently, a new peptide (CaIX-P1) with affinity for human carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) was identified and evaluated. The aim of the present study is to characterize the properties of CaIX-P1 for targeting human colorectal carcinoma and investigate the correlation of peptide binding with the expression of carbonic anhydrase IX. Human colorectal carcinoma HCT116 and HT29 cells were investigated for CAIX expression using Western Blot analysis. Binding and competition studies of 125I-radiolabeled CaIX-P1 were performed on HCT116 cells in vitro. FACS analysis and fluorescence microscopy studies were carried out after cell incubation with fluorescein-labeled CaIX-P1 and rhodamine-labeled anti-human CAIX-mAb. Our studies revealed an enhanced in vitro expression of carbonic anhydrase IX in HCT116 and HT29 cells with increasing cell density. Binding of 125I-labeled-CaIX-P1 on HCT116 cells increased with increasing cell density and correlated to the CAIX expression. FACS analysis demonstrated a correlation of cell labeling between FITC-CaIX-P1 and rhodamine-labeled anti-CAIX-mAb in both HCT116 and HT29 cells. The results of our study indicate that the phage display identified peptide CaIX-P1 might be an attractive candidate for the development of a ligand targeting CAIX in colorectal cancer.

Askoxylakis, Vasileios; Ehemann, Volker; Rana, Shoaib; Kramer, Susanne; Rahbari, Nuh N.; Debus, Jurgen; Haberkorn, Uwe

2012-01-01

178

Real-Time Monitoring of Cisplatin-Induced Cell Death  

PubMed Central

Since the discovery of cisplatin more than 40 years ago and its clinical introduction in the 1970s an enormous amount of research has gone into elucidating the mechanism of action of cisplatin on tumor cells. With a novel cell biosensor chip system allowing continuous monitoring of respiration, glycolysis, and impedance we followed cisplatin treatment of different cancer cell lines in real-time. Our measurements reveal a first effect on respiration, in all cisplatin treated cell lines, followed with a significant delay by interference with glycolysis in HT-29, HCT-116, HepG2, and MCF-7 cells but not in the cisplatin-resistant cell line MDA-MB-231. Most strikingly, cell death started in all cisplatin-sensitive cell lines within 8 to 11 h of treatment, indicating a clear time frame from exposure, first response to cisplatin lesions, to cell fate decision. The time points of most significant changes were selected for more detailed analysis of cisplatin response in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Phosphorylation of selected signal transduction mediators connected with cellular proliferation, as well as changes in gene expression, were analyzed in samples obtained directly from sensor chips at the time points when changes in glycolysis and impedance occurred. Our online cell biosensor measurements reveal for the first time the time scale of metabolic response until onset of cell death under cisplatin treatment, which is in good agreement with models of p53-mediated cell fate decision.

Alborzinia, Hamed; Can, Suzan; Holenya, Pavlo; Scholl, Catharina; Lederer, Elke; Kitanovic, Igor; Wolfl, Stefan

2011-01-01

179

In Vitro and In Vivo Enhancement of Chemoradiation Using the Oral PARP Inhibitor ABT-888 in Colorectal Cancer Cells  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase plays a critical role in the recognition and repair of DNA single-strand breaks and double-strand breaks (DSBs). ABT-888 is an orally available inhibitor of this enzyme. This study seeks to evaluate the use of ABT-888 combined with chemotherapy and radiation therapy (RT) in colorectal carcinoma models. Methods and Materials: RT clonogenic assays were performed on HCT116 and HT29 cells treated with 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan, or oxaliplatin with or without ABT. The surviving fraction at 2 Gy and dose-modifying factor at 10% survival were analyzed. Synergism was assessed by isobologram analysis for combination therapies. ?H2AX and neutral comet assays were performed to assess the effect of therapy on DSB formation/repair. In vivo assessments were made by use of HCT116 cells in a xenograft mouse model. Tumor growth delay was measured at a volume of 500 mm{sup 3}. Results: Both lines were radiosensitized by ABT alone, and ABT further increased chemotherapy dose-modifying factors to the 1.6 to 1.8 range. All combinations were synergistic (combination indices <0.9). ABT treatment significantly increased DSB after RT (?H2AX, 69% vs 43%; P=.017) and delayed repair. We found tumor growth delays of 7.22 days for RT; 11.90 days for RT and ABT; 13.5 days for oxaliplatin, RT, and ABT; 14.17 days for 5-fluorouracil, RT, and ABT; and 23.81 days for irinotecan, RT, and ABT. Conclusion: ABT-888 radiosensitizes at similar or higher levels compared with classic chemotherapies and acts synergistically with these chemotherapies to enhance RT effects. In vivo confirmation of these results indicates a potential role for combining its use with existing chemoradiation regimens.

Shelton, Joseph W., E-mail: jwshelt@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Waxweiler, Timothy V.; Landry, Jerome; Gao, Huiying; Xu, Yanbo; Wang, Lanfang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); El-Rayes, Bassel [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)] [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Shu, Hui-Kuo G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

2013-07-01

180

Oxidative stress-inducible truncated serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3 regulates interleukin-8 production in human colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

Serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3 (SRSF3) is a member of the SR protein family and plays wide-ranging roles in gene expression. The human SRSF3 gene generates two alternative splice transcripts, a major mRNA isoform (SRSF3-FL) encoding functional full-length protein and a premature termination codon (PTC)-containing isoform (SRSF3-PTC). The latter is degraded through nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Treatment of a human colon cancer cell line (HCT116) with 100 ?M sodium arsenite increased SRSF3-PTC mRNA levels without changing SRSF3-FL mRNA levels. A chemiluminescence-based NMD reporter assay system demonstrated that arsenite treatment inhibited NMD activity and increased SRSF3-PTC mRNA levels in the cytoplasm, facilitating translation of a truncated SRSF3 protein (SRSF3-TR) from SRSF3-PTC mRNA. SRSF3-TR lacked two-thirds of the Arg/Ser-rich (RS) domain whose phosphorylation state is known to be crucial for subcellular distribution. SRSF3-FL was localized in the nucleus, while overexpressed SRSF3-TR was diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. A part of SRSF3-TR was also associated with stress granules in the cytoplasm. Interestingly, treatment of HCT116 cells with a small interference RNA specifically targeting SRSF3-PTC mRNA significantly attenuated arsenite-stimulated induction of c-JUN protein, its binding activity to the AP-1 binding site (-126 to 120 bp) in the interleukin (IL)-8 gene promoter, and AP-1 promoter activity, resulting in significant reduction of arsenite-stimulated IL-8 production. Our results suggest that SRSF3-TR may function as a positive regulator of oxidative stress-initiated inflammatory responses in colon cancer cells. PMID:24284797

Kano, Shizuka; Nishida, Kensei; Kurebe, Hiroyuki; Nishiyama, Chihiro; Kita, Kentaro; Akaike, Yoko; Kajita, Keisuke; Kurokawa, Ken; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Kuwano, Yuki; Tanahashi, Toshihito; Rokutan, Kazuhito

2014-02-01

181

Colon Cancer Cell Separation by Dielectrophoresis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Separation of cancer cells from the other biological cells can be useful for clinical cancer diagnosis and cancer treatment. In this presentation, conventional dielectrophoresis (c-DEP) is used in a microfluidic chip to manipulate and collect colorectal cancer HCT116 cell, which is doped with Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells (HEK 293). It is noticed that, the HCT116 cell are deflected to a side channel from a main channel clearly by apply electric field at particular AC frequency band. This motion caused by negative DEP can be used to separate the cancer cell from others. In this manuscript, chip design, flow condition, the DEP spectrum of the cancer cell are reported respectively, and the separation and collection efficiency are investigated as well. The sorter is microfabricated using plastic laminate technology. -/abstract- This work has been financially supported by the NSF RII funding (EP

Yang, Fang; Yang, Xiaoming; Jiang, H.; Wood, P.; Hrushesky, W.; Wang, Guiren

2009-11-01

182

Impact of Mesenchymal Stem Cell secreted PAI-1 on colon cancer cell migration and proliferation  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •MSCs were directly co-cultured with colorectal cancer (CRC) cells on 3D scaffolds. •MSCs influence CRC protein/gene expression, proliferation and migration. •We report a significant functional role of MSC-secreted PAI-1 in colon cancer. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal Stem Cells are known to engraft and integrate into the architecture of colorectal tumours, with little known regarding their fate following engraftment. This study aimed to investigate mediators of Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) and colon cancer cell (CCC) interactions. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and colon cancer cells (HT29 and HCT-116) were cultured individually or in co-culture on 3-dimensional scaffolds. Conditioned media containing all secreted factors was harvested at day 1, 3 and 7. Chemokine secretion and expression were analyzed by Chemi-array, ELISA (Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1)) and RQ-PCR. Colon cancer cell migration and proliferation in response to recombinant PAI-1, MSCs and MSCs + antibody to PAI-1 was analyzed using Transwell inserts and an MTS proliferation assay respectively. Chemi-array revealed secretion of a wide range of factors by each cell population, including PAI-1and MIF. ELISA analysis revealed Mesenchymal Stem Cells to secrete the highest levels of PAI-1 (MSC mean 10.6 ng/mL, CCC mean 1.01 ng/mL), while colon cancer cells were the principal source of MIF. MSC-secreted PAI-1 stimulated significant migration of both CCC lines, with an antibody to the chemokine shown to block this effect (67–88% blocking,). A cell-line dependant effect on CCC proliferation was shown for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-secreted PAI-1 with HCT-116 cells showing decreased proliferation at all concentrations, and HT29 cells showing increased proliferation in the presence of higher PAI-1 levels. This is the first study to identify PAI-1 as an important mediator of Mesenchymal Stem Cell/colon cancer cell interactions and highlights the significant functional impact of Mesenchymal Stem Cell-secreted PAI-1 on colon cancer cells.

Hogan, Niamh M. [Discipline of Surgery, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland)] [Discipline of Surgery, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Joyce, Myles R. [Department of Colorectal Surgery, University College Hospital, Galway (Ireland)] [Department of Colorectal Surgery, University College Hospital, Galway (Ireland); Murphy, J. Mary; Barry, Frank P.; O’Brien, Timothy [Regenerative Medicine Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland)] [Regenerative Medicine Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Kerin, Michael J. [Discipline of Surgery, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland)] [Discipline of Surgery, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Dwyer, Roisin M., E-mail: roisin.dwyer@nuigalway.ie [Discipline of Surgery, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland)

2013-06-14

183

Interaction of celecoxib with different anti-cancer drugs is antagonistic in breast but not in other cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Celecoxib, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, is being investigated for enhancement of chemotherapy efficacy in cancer clinical trials. This study investigates the ability of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors to sensitize cells from different origins to several chemotherapeutic agents. The effect of the drug's mechanism of action and sequence of administration are also investigated. The sensitivity, cell cycle, apoptosis and DNA damage of five different cancer cell lines (HeLa, HCT116, HepG2, MCF7 and U251) to 5-FU, cisplatin, doxorubicin and etoposide {+-} celecoxib following different incubation schedules were analyzed. We found antagonism between celecoxib and the four drugs in the breast cancer cells MCF7 following all incubation schedules and between celecoxib and doxorubicin in all cell lines except for two combinations in HCT116 cells. Celecoxib with the other three drugs in the remaining four cell lines resulted in variable interactions. Mechanistic investigations revealed that celecoxib exerts different molecular effects in different cells. In some lines, it abrogates the drug-induced G2/M arrest enhancing pre-mature entry into mitosis with damaged DNA thus increasing apoptosis and resulting in synergism. In other cells, it enhances drug-induced G2/M arrest allowing time to repair drug-induced DNA damage before entry into mitosis and decreasing cell death resulting in antagonism. In some synergistic combinations, celecoxib-induced abrogation of G2/M arrest was not associated with apoptosis but permanent arrest in G1 phase. These results, if confirmed in-vivo, indicate that celecoxib is not a suitable chemosensitizer for breast cancer or with doxorubicin for other cancers. Moreover, combination of celecoxib with other drugs should be tailored to the tumor type, drug and administration schedule. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Celecoxib may enhance effects of anticancer drugs. > Its combination with four drugs was tested in five cancer cell lines. > It antagonized the effects of the four drugs in the breast cancer cell line MCF7. > Doxorubicin's cytotoxic effects were antagonized by celecoxib in four cell lines. > Cell cycle, apoptosis and DNA damage explain the different interactive effects.

El-Awady, Raafat A., E-mail: relawady@sharjah.ac.ae [Pharmacology unit, Department of Cancer Biology, National, Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Fom El-Khalig, Cairo (Egypt); Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Sharjah, University City road, 27272 Sharjah (United Arab Emirates); Saleh, Ekram M. [Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology unit, Department of Cancer Biology, National, Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Fom El-Khalig, Cairo (Egypt); Ezz, Marwa [College of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); Elsayed, Abeer M. [Tissue Culture unit, Pathology Department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University (Egypt)

2011-09-15

184

Turning T cells on: epigenetically enhanced expression of effector T-cell costimulatory molecules on irradiated human tumor cells  

PubMed Central

Background Sub-lethal doses of radiation can alter the phenotype of target tissue by modulating gene expression and making tumor cells more susceptible to T-cell-mediated immune attack. We have previously shown that sub-lethal tumor cell irradiation enhances killing of colorectal carcinoma cells by tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells by unknown mechanisms. Recent data from our lab indicates that irradiation of tumor cells results in the upregulation of OX40L and 41BBL, and that T cells incubated with irradiated tumor cells displayed improved CTL survival, activation and effector activity. The objective of this current study was to determine the mechanism of enhanced OX40L and 41BBL expression in human colorectal tumor cells. Methods Two colorectal carcinoma cell lines, HCT116 and SW620, were examined for changes in the expression of 41BBL and OX40L in response to inhibition of histone deacetylases (using TSA) and DNA methyltransferases (using 5-Aza-2?-deoxycytidine) to evaluate if epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression can modulate these genes. Tumor cells were treated with radiation, TSA, or 5-Aza-dC, and subsequently evaluated for changes in gene expression using RT-qPCR and flow cytometry. Moreover, we assessed levels of histone acetylation at the 41BBL promoter using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in irradiated HCT116 cells. Results Our data indicate that expression of 41BBL and OX40L can indeed be epigenetically regulated, as inhibition of histone deacetylases and of DNA methyltransferases results in increased OX40L and 41BBL mRNA and protein expression. Treatment of tumor cells with TSA enhanced the expression of these genes more than treatment with 5-Aza-dC, and co-incubation of T cells with TSA-treated tumor cells enhanced T-cell survival and activation, similar to radiation. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed significantly increased histone H3 acetylation of 41BBL promoters specifically following irradiation. Conclusions Full understanding of specific mechanisms of immunogenic modulation (altered expression of immune relevant genes) of irradiated tumor cells will be required to determine how to best utilize radiation as a tool to enhance cancer immunotherapy approaches. Overall, our results suggest that radiation can be used to make human tumors more immunogenic through epigenetic modulation of genes stimulatory to effector T-cells.

2013-01-01

185

Evaluation of Cancer Stem Cell Markers CD133, CD44, CD24: Association with AKT Isoforms and Radiation Resistance in Colon Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

The cell surface proteins CD133, CD24 and CD44 are putative markers for cancer stem cell populations in colon cancer, associated with aggressive cancer types and poor prognosis. It is important to understand how these markers may predict treatment outcomes, determined by factors such as radioresistance. The scope of this study was to assess the connection between EGFR, CD133, CD24, and CD44 (including isoforms) expression levels and radiation sensitivity, and furthermore analyze the influence of AKT isoforms on the expression patterns of these markers, to better understand the underlying molecular mechanisms in the cell. Three colon cancer cell-lines were used, HT-29, DLD-1, and HCT116, together with DLD-1 isogenic AKT knock-out cell-lines. All three cell-lines (HT-29, HCT116 and DLD-1) expressed varying amounts of CD133, CD24 and CD44 and the top ten percent of CD133 and CD44 expressing cells (CD133high/CD44high) were more resistant to gamma radiation than the ten percent with lowest expression (CD133low/CD44low). The AKT expression was lower in the fraction of cells with low CD133/CD44. Depletion of AKT1 or AKT2 using knock out cells showed for the first time that CD133 expression was associated with AKT1 but not AKT2, whereas the CD44 expression was influenced by the presence of either AKT1 or AKT2. There were several genes in the cell adhesion pathway which had significantly higher expression in the AKT2 KO cell-line compared to the AKT1 KO cell-line; however important genes in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition pathway (CDH1, VIM, TWIST1, SNAI1, SNAI2, ZEB1, ZEB2, FN1, FOXC2 and CDH2) did not differ. Our results demonstrate that CD133high/CD44high expressing colon cancer cells are associated with AKT and increased radiation resistance, and that different AKT isoforms have varying effects on the expression of cancer stem cell markers, which is an important consideration when targeting AKT in a clinical setting.

Sahlberg, Sara Haggblad; Spiegelberg, Diana; Glimelius, Bengt; Stenerlow, Bo; Nestor, Marika

2014-01-01

186

Evaluation of Cancer Stem Cell Markers CD133, CD44, CD24: Association with AKT Isoforms and Radiation Resistance in Colon Cancer Cells.  

PubMed

The cell surface proteins CD133, CD24 and CD44 are putative markers for cancer stem cell populations in colon cancer, associated with aggressive cancer types and poor prognosis. It is important to understand how these markers may predict treatment outcomes, determined by factors such as radioresistance. The scope of this study was to assess the connection between EGFR, CD133, CD24, and CD44 (including isoforms) expression levels and radiation sensitivity, and furthermore analyze the influence of AKT isoforms on the expression patterns of these markers, to better understand the underlying molecular mechanisms in the cell. Three colon cancer cell-lines were used, HT-29, DLD-1, and HCT116, together with DLD-1 isogenic AKT knock-out cell-lines. All three cell-lines (HT-29, HCT116 and DLD-1) expressed varying amounts of CD133, CD24 and CD44 and the top ten percent of CD133 and CD44 expressing cells (CD133high/CD44high) were more resistant to gamma radiation than the ten percent with lowest expression (CD133low/CD44low). The AKT expression was lower in the fraction of cells with low CD133/CD44. Depletion of AKT1 or AKT2 using knock out cells showed for the first time that CD133 expression was associated with AKT1 but not AKT2, whereas the CD44 expression was influenced by the presence of either AKT1 or AKT2. There were several genes in the cell adhesion pathway which had significantly higher expression in the AKT2 KO cell-line compared to the AKT1 KO cell-line; however important genes in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition pathway (CDH1, VIM, TWIST1, SNAI1, SNAI2, ZEB1, ZEB2, FN1, FOXC2 and CDH2) did not differ. Our results demonstrate that CD133high/CD44high expressing colon cancer cells are associated with AKT and increased radiation resistance, and that different AKT isoforms have varying effects on the expression of cancer stem cell markers, which is an important consideration when targeting AKT in a clinical setting. PMID:24760019

Sahlberg, Sara Häggblad; Spiegelberg, Diana; Glimelius, Bengt; Stenerlöw, Bo; Nestor, Marika

2014-01-01

187

Aberrant, ectopic expression of VEGF and VEGF receptors 1 and 2 in malignant colonic epithelial cells. Implications for these cells growth via an autocrine mechanism  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •Malignant colonic epithelial cells express VEGF and its receptors. •Cultured colon cancer cells secrete VEGF into the medium. •Inhibition of VEGF receptor significantly decreases colon cancer cell proliferation. •VEGF is critical for colon cancer cell growth. -- Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor A (referred to as VEGF) is implicated in colon cancer growth. Currently, the main accepted mechanism by which VEGF promotes colon cancer growth is via the stimulation of angiogenesis, which was originally postulated by late Judah Folkman. However, the cellular source of VEGF in colon cancer tissue; and, the expression of VEGF and its receptors VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 in colon cancer cells are not fully known and are subjects of controversy. Material and methods: We examined and quantified expression of VEGF, VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 in three different human colonic tissue arrays containing sections of adenocarcinoma (n = 43) and normal mucosa (n = 41). In human colon cancer cell lines HCT116 and HT29 and normal colon cell lines NCM356 and NCM460, we examined expression of VEGF, VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 mRNA and protein, VEGF production and secretion into the culture medium; and, the effect of a potent, selective inhibitor of VEGF receptors, AL-993, on cell proliferation. Results: Human colorectal cancer specimens had strong expression of VEGF in cancer cells and also expressed VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2.In vitro studies showed that human colon cancer cell lines, HCT116 and HT29, but not normal colonic cell lines, express VEGF, VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 and secrete VEGF into the medium up to a concentration 2000 pg/ml within 48 h. Furthermore, we showed that inhibition of VEGF receptors using a specific VEGF-R inhibitor significantly reduced proliferation (by >50%) of cultured colon cancer cell lines. Conclusions: Our findings support the contention that VEGF generated by colon cancer cells stimulates their growth directly through an autocrine mechanism that is independent of its primary function in the induction of angiogenesis.

Ahluwalia, Amrita [Veterans Affairs Long Beach Healthcare System, Long Beach, CA (United States)] [Veterans Affairs Long Beach Healthcare System, Long Beach, CA (United States); Jones, Michael K. [Veterans Affairs Long Beach Healthcare System, Long Beach, CA (United States) [Veterans Affairs Long Beach Healthcare System, Long Beach, CA (United States); Department of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Szabo, Sandor [Veterans Affairs Long Beach Healthcare System, Long Beach, CA (United States) [Veterans Affairs Long Beach Healthcare System, Long Beach, CA (United States); Department of Pathology, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Tarnawski, Andrzej S., E-mail: amrita.ahluwalia@va.gov [Veterans Affairs Long Beach Healthcare System, Long Beach, CA (United States); Department of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

2013-08-09

188

Short hairpin RNAs targeting Bcl-xL modulate senescence and apoptosis following SN38 and irinotecan exposure in a colon cancer model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bcl-xL is an anti-apoptotic protein over-expressed in colorectal cancers acting on both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways.\\u000a We stably expressed four different short hairpin RNA (pSNG-xL1-4) targeting Bcl-xL in HCT 116 cells. HCT 116 pSNG-xL#1 produced\\u000a a modest (30%) decrease in Bcl-xL expression whilst Bcl-2 levels were similar to the parental cell line, HCT 116 pSNG-xL#2\\u000a and 3 showed 50%

S. M. Guichard; M. L. Hua; P. Kang; J. S. Macpherson; D. I. Jodrell

2007-01-01

189

A Radioligand Binding Assay for Antitubulin Activity in Tumor Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benzamide RH-5854 is shown to be highly potent toward tumor cells and to arrest nuclear division by a highly specific covalent binding to the &bgr;-subunit of tubulin in the colchicine binding region. Binding of 3H-RH-5854 to &bgr;-tubulin in HCT-116 colon cancer cells is saturable and has been exploited in the development of a cell-based competitive binding assay, which allows

David H. Young; Fernando M. Rubio; Paul O. Danis

2006-01-01

190

Ginsenoside Rh2 induces apoptosis and paraptosis-like cell death in colorectal cancer cells through activation of p53  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ginsenosides are the main bioactive components in American ginseng, a commonly used herb. In this study, we showed that the ginsenoside Rh2 exhibited significantly more potent cell death activity than the ginsenoside Rg3 in HCT116 and SW480 colorectal cancer cells. Cell death induced by Rh2 is mediated in part by the caspase-dependent apoptosis and in part by the caspase-independent paraptosis,

Binghui Li; Jiong Zhao; Chong-Zhi Wang; Jennifer Searle; Tong-Chuan He; Chun-Su Yuan; Wei Du

2011-01-01

191

1,3-Bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea enhances the inhibitory effect of Resveratrol on 5-fluorouracil sensitive/resistant colon cancer cells  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study the mechanism of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) resistance in colon cancer cells and to develop strategies for overcoming such resistance by combination treatment. METHODS: We established and characterized a 5-FU resistance (5-FU-R) cell line derived from continuous exposure (25 ?mol/L) to 5-FU for 20 wk in 5-FU sensitive HCT-116 cells. The proliferation and expression of different representative apoptosis and anti-apoptosis markers in 5-FU sensitive and 5-FU resistance cells were measured by the MTT assay and by Western blotting, respectively, after treatment with Resveratrol (Res) and/or 1,3-Bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU). Apoptosis and cell cycle arrest was measured by 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole hydrochloride staining and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, respectively. The extent of DNA damage was measured by the Comet assay. We measured the visible changes in the DNA damage/repair cascade by Western blotting. RESULTS: The widely used chemotherapeutic agents BCNU and Res decreased the growth of 5-FU sensitive HCT-116 cells in a dose dependent manner. Combined application of BCNU and Res caused more apoptosis in 5-FU sensitive cells in comparison to individual treatment. In addition, the combined application of BCNU and Res caused a significant decrease of major DNA base excision repair components in 5-FU sensitive cells. We established a 5-FU resistance cell line (5-FU-R) from 5-FU-sensitive HCT-116 (mismatch repair deficient) cells that was not resistant to other chemotherapeutic agents (e.g., BCNU, Res) except 5-FU. The 5-FU resistance of 5-FU-R cells was assessed by exposure to increasing concentrations of 5-FU followed by the MTT assay. There was no significant cell death noted in 5-FU-R cells in comparison to 5-FU sensitive cells after 5-FU treatment. This resistant cell line overexpressed anti-apoptotic [e.g., AKT, nuclear factor ?B, FLICE-like inhibitory protein), DNA repair (e.g., DNA polymerase beta (POL-?), DNA polymerase eta (POLH), protein Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), DNA damage-binding protein 2 (DDB2)] and 5-FU-resistance proteins (thymidylate synthase) but under expressed pro-apoptotic proteins (e.g., DAB2, CK1) in comparison to the parental cells. Increased genotoxicity and apoptosis were observed in resistant cells after combined application of BCNU and Res in comparison to untreated or parental cells. BCNU increased the sensitivity to Res of 5-FU resistant cells compared with parental cells. Fifty percent cell death were noted in parental cells when 18 ?mol/L of Res was associated with fixed concentration (20 ?mol/L) of BCNU, but a much lower concentration of Res (8 ?mol/L) was needed to achieve the same effect in 5-FU resistant cells. Interestingly, increased levels of adenomatous polyposis coli and decreased levels POL-?, POLH, FEN1 and DDB2 were noted after the same combined treatment in resistant cells. CONCLUSION: BCNU combined with Res exerts a synergistic effect that may prove useful for the treatment of colon cancer and to overcome drug resistance.

Das, Dipon; Preet, Ranjan; Mohapatra, Purusottam; Satapathy, Shakti Ranjan; Kundu, Chanakya Nath

2013-01-01

192

Combinatorial inhibition of Plk1 and PKC? in cancer cells with different p53 status  

PubMed Central

PKC? and Plk1 are fascinating targets in cancer therapy. Therefore, we combined Enzastaurin targeting PKC? and SBE13 targeting Plk1 to test synergistic effects in cells with different p53 status. We analyzed cell proliferation and apoptosis induction, and did Western blot and FACScan analyses to examine the combined PKC? and Plk1 inhibition. p53-wild-type cells are more resistant to the combinatorial treatment than p53-deficient cells, which displayed a synergistic reduction of cell proliferation after the combination. HeLa, MCF-7 and HCT116p53wt and HCT116p53-/- cells differed in their cell cycle distribution after combinatorial treatment in dependence on a functional p53-dependent G1/S checkpoint (p53-deficient cells showed an enrichment in S and G2/M, p53-wild-type cells in G0/G1 phase). hTERT-RPE1 cells did not show the synergistic effects of cancer cells. Thus, we demonstrate for the first time that Plk1 inhibition using SBE13 enhances the effects of Enzastaurin in cancer cells. HCT116p53wt and HCT116p53-/- cells confirmed the p53-dependence of different effects after Plk1 and PKC? inhibition observed in HeLa and MCF-7 cells. Obviously, p53 protects cells from the cytotoxicity of Enzastaurin in combination with SBE13. For that reason this combination can be useful to treat p53-deficient cancers, without displaying toxicity to normal cells, which all have functional p53.

Grigat, Juline; Spankuch, Birgit

2014-01-01

193

Cell line provenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultured cell lines have become an extremely valuable resource, both in academic research and in industrial biotechnology.\\u000a However, their value is frequently compromised by misidentification and undetected microbial contamination. As detailed elsewhere\\u000a in this volume, the technology, both simple and sophisticated, is available to remedy the problems of misidentification and\\u000a contamination, given the will to apply it. Combined with proper

R. Ian Freshney

2002-01-01

194

Autophagonizer, a novel synthetic small molecule, induces autophagic cell death  

SciTech Connect

Autophagy is an apoptosis-independent mechanism of cell death that protects the cell from environmental imbalances and infection by pathogens. We identified a novel small molecule, 2-(3-Benzyl-4-oxo-3,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-benzo[4,5]thieno[2,3-d] pyrimidin-2-ylsulfanylmethyl)-oxazole-4-carboxylic acid (2-pyrrolidin-1-yl-ethyl)-amide (referred as autophagonizer), using high-content cell-based screening and the autophagosome marker EGFP-LC3. Autophagonizer inhibited growth and induced cell death in the human tumor cell lines MCF7, HeLa, HCT116, A549, AGS, and HT1080 via a caspase-independent pathway. Conversion of cytosolic LC3-I to autophagosome-associated LC3-II was greatly enhanced by autophagonizer treatment. Transmission electron microscopy and acridine orange staining revealed increased autophagy in the cytoplasm of autophagonizer-treated cells. In conclusion, autophagonizer is a novel autophagy inducer with unique structure, which induces autophagic cell death in the human tumor cell lines.

Choi, In-Kwon; Cho, Yoon Sun; Jung, Hye Jin [Chemical Genomics Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)] [Chemical Genomics Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Ho Jeong, E-mail: kwonhj@yonsei.ac.kr [Chemical Genomics Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-03-19

195

High glucose modulates antiproliferative effect and cytotoxicity of 5-fluorouracil in human colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy is widely used for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC). While optimal doses of 5-FU are generally established based on a patient's estimated body surface area, the plasma concentrations of 5-FU vary among patients. In addition, hyperglycemia in patients with CRC has been reported as a risk factor in poor prognosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether hyperglycemia affects antiproliferative effect of 5-FU on the human colon cancer cells (SW480, SW620, LoVo, and HCT116). Growth inhibition of 5-FU was accessed by WST-8 assay. The effect of high glucose (HG, 15?mM) and 5-FU on the cellular proliferation was evaluated by flow cytometry analysis using 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxy-uridine (EdU) incorporation plus 7-AAD. Cell death was determined by flow cytometry using Annexin V-FITC and PI. The results showed that HG, compared to physiological normal glucose (NG) concentration (5?mM), leads to increased cell proliferation and increased GI50 of 5-FU in the four colon cancer cell lines. When the cells were pretreated with a low-dose 5-FU in NG condition, subsequent HG treatment eliminated inhibitory effect of 5-FU in cancer cell growth. In the presence of 5-FU (0.5??g/mL for LoVo and HCT116; 1??g/mL for SW480 and SW620), culture with HG for 72?h does not significantly altered cell cycle profile in the four cell lines but significantly increased DNA replication in SW620 (21%) and LoVo (17%). Flow cytometric analysis showed that HG protects cells against 5-FU-induced cell death in SW480. Finally, HG did not alter intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), although 5-FU indeed induced higher intracellular level of ROS. In conclusion, HG attenuates growth inhibition of 5-FU and our results indicate that decreased cell death and increased DNA replication may account for the attenuating effect of a HG environment on 5-FU-induced tumor growth inhibition. PMID:24283362

Ma, Yi-Shing; Yang, I-Ping; Tsai, Hsiang-Lin; Huang, Ching-Wen; Juo, Suh-Hang Hank; Wang, Jaw-Yuan

2014-02-01

196

Wogonin induced G1 cell cycle arrest by regulating Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway and inactivating CDK8 in human colorectal cancer carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Wogonin, a naturally occurring mono-flavonoid, has been reported to have tumor therapeutic potential and good selectivity both in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we investigated the anti-proliferation effects and associated mechanisms of wogonin in human colorectal cancer in vitro. The flow-cytometric analysis showed that wogonin induced a G1 phase cell cycle arrest in HCT116 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Meanwhile, the cell cycle-related proteins, such as cyclin A, E, D1, and CDK2, 4 were down-regulated in wogonin-induced G1 cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we showed that the anti-proliferation and G1 arrest effect of wogonin on HCT116 cells was associated with deregulation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. Wogonin-treated cells showed decreased intracellular levels of Wnt proteins, and activated degradation complex to phosphorylated and targeted ?-catenin for proteasomal degradation. Wogonin inhibited ?-catenin-mediated transcription by interfering in the transcriptional activity of TCF/Lef, and repressing the kinase activity of CDK8 which has been considered as an oncogene involving in the development of colorectal cancers. Moreover, CDK8 siRNA-transfected HCT116 cells showed similar results to wogonin treated cells. Thus, our data suggested that wogonin induced anti-proliferation and G1 arrest via Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway and it can be developed as a therapeutic agent against human colorectal cancer. PMID:23907061

He, Licheng; Lu, Na; Dai, Qinsheng; Zhao, Yue; Zhao, Li; Wang, Hu; Li, Zhiyu; You, Qidong; Guo, Qinglong

2013-10-01

197

Lentivirus-mediated LIGHT overexpression inhibits human colorectal carcinoma cell growth in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

Human LIGHT (lymphotoxin-related inducible ligand that competes for glycoprotein D binding to herpesvirus entry mediator on T cells) is the 14th member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily and is therefore also known as TNFSF14. LIGHT has been proven to be a multifunctional molecule affecting cell proliferation, differentiation and a number of other biological processes, in particular, cell growth inhibition. However, the expression and molecular mechanisms of the LIGHT gene in human colorectal carcinoma cells remain largely unclear. In the present study, the LIGHT gene was overexpressed using a lentiviral expression vector in HCT116 human colorectal carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo, in order to explore the mechanism by which the LIGHT gene inhibits cell growth and suppresses tumor formation. The results showed that the recombinant lentivirus with LIGHT overexpression inhibited the proliferative capacity of the HCT116 cells and significantly decreased the xenografted tumor volumes in nude mice. Furthermore, LIGHT treatment effectively initiated increased caspase-3 and decreased Bcl-2 activities in the HCT116 cells. This study provides a basis for the improved understanding of the role and molecular mechanisms of the LIGHT gene in human colorectal carcinoma cells and may facilitate further functional studies of LIGHT.

WANG, HAIBO; YU, ZHUANG; LIU, SHIHAI; LIU, XIANGPING; SUI, AIHUA; YAO, RUYONG; LUO, ZHENG; LI, CHUANZHI

2013-01-01

198

Antitumor activity of 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde for human colon cancer cells through suppression of ?-catenin signaling.  

PubMed

The antiproliferative and antitumor activities of 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (1), a phenylpropanoid isolated from the bark of Cinnamomum cassia, were investigated using human colorectal cancer cells. Compound 1 exhibited antiproliferative effects in HCT116 colon cancer cells, accompanied by modulation of the Wnt/?-catenin cell signaling pathway. This substance was found also to inhibit ?-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF) transcriptional activity in HEK293 cells and HCT116 colon cancer cells. Further mechanistic investigations in human colon cancer cells with aberrantly activated Wnt/?-catenin signaling showed that 1 significantly suppressed the binding of ?-catenin/TCF complexes to their specific genomic targets in the nucleus and led to the down-regulation of Wnt target genes such as c-myc and cyclin D1. In an in vivo xenograft model, the intraperitoneal administration of 1 (10 or 20 mg/kg body weight, three times/week) for four weeks suppressed tumor growth in athymic nude mice implanted with HCT116 colon cancer cells significantly, without any apparent toxicity. In an ex vivo biochemical analysis of the tumors, compound 1 was also found to suppress Wnt target genes associated with tumor growth including ?-catenin, c-myc, cyclin D1, and survivin. The suppression of the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway is a plausible mechanism of action underlying the antiproliferative and antitumor activity of 1 in human colorectal cancer cells. PMID:23855266

Lee, Min Ai; Park, Hyen Joo; Chung, Hwa-Jin; Kim, Won Kyung; Lee, Sang Kook

2013-07-26

199

Spontaneous and 5-fluorouracil-induced centrosome amplification lowers the threshold to resveratrol-evoked apoptosis in colon cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently reported that caspase-6 activation is a major molecular event underlying resveratrol-triggered apoptosis in HCT116 colon cancer cells with or without p53. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between centrosome amplification and apoptosis sensitivity in cancer cells. We found that centrosome amplification, which occurs spontaneously in cancer cells, could be induced by a subtoxic concentration of 5-fluorouracil.

Shao Chin Lee; Jason Yongsheng Chan; Shazib Pervaiz

2010-01-01

200

Blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts inhibit growth and stimulate apoptosis of human cancer cells in vitro.  

PubMed

Berry fruits are widely consumed in our diet and have attracted much attention due to their potential human health benefits. Berries contain a diverse range of phytochemicals with biological properties such as antioxidant, anticancer, anti-neurodegerative, and anti-inflammatory activities. In the current study, extracts of six popularly consumed berries--blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry and strawberry--were evaluated for their phenolic constituents using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) detection. The major classes of berry phenolics were anthocyanins, flavonols, flavanols, ellagitannins, gallotannins, proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acids. The berry extracts were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of human oral (KB, CAL-27), breast (MCF-7), colon (HT-29, HCT116), and prostate (LNCaP) tumor cell lines at concentrations ranging from 25 to 200 micro g/mL. With increasing concentration of berry extract, increasing inhibition of cell proliferation in all of the cell lines were observed, with different degrees of potency between cell lines. The berry extracts were also evaluated for their ability to stimulate apoptosis of the COX-2 expressing colon cancer cell line, HT-29. Black raspberry and strawberry extracts showed the most significant pro-apoptotic effects against this cell line. The data provided by the current study and from other laboratories warrants further investigation into the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of berries using in vivo models. PMID:17147415

Seeram, Navindra P; Adams, Lynn S; Zhang, Yanjun; Lee, Rupo; Sand, Daniel; Scheuller, Henry S; Heber, David

2006-12-13

201

New alkylated benzoquinone from Iris nepalensis.  

PubMed

Chemical investigation of chloroform extract of rhizomes of Iris nepalensis yielded new alkylated 1,4-benzoquinone derivative (1). The structure of Compound 1 was established by analysis of spectroscopic data. Compound 1 was evaluated for cytotoxic activities against human cancer cell lines A549, HL-60, HCT116 and ZR-75. Compound 1 showed least cytotoxicity against HL-60, HCT116 and ZR-75-30. PMID:23362956

Tantry, Mudasir A; Ghazanfar, Khalid; Zargar, Ummer R

2013-10-01

202

Differential proteomics identifies PDIA3 as a novel chemoprevention target in human colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

Chemoprevention offers a promising strategy to prevent or delay the development of various cancers. Critical to this approach is the identification of molecular targets that may track with chemopreventive efficacy. To address this issue, we screened a panel of chemoprevention agents, including resveratrol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, ursodeoxycholic acid, and sulindac sulfide for their effects on human colon cancer cell viability. Resveratrol elicited the most potent effect in HCT116 cells and was selected for further study. Proteomic PF 2D maps were generated from HCT116 cells treated with resveratrol versus vehicle alone. Analysis of proteomic maps using tandem mass spectrometry (MS) identified a panel of differentially modified proteins. Two proteins, actin and Hsp60, were previously shown in other cell culture systems to be affected by resveratrol, validating our approach. PDIA3, RPL19, histone H2B and TCP1? were uniquely identified by our proteomic discovery platform. PDIA3 was of particular interest given its potential role in regulating chemosensitivity of cancer cells. Total levels of PDIA3 in HCT116 cells were unchanged following 24 h of resveratrol treatment, confirmed by Western blot analysis. Immunoprecipitation of PDIA3 revealed a new set of client proteins following resveratrol treatment, including ?, ?, and ?-catenins, and cellular fractionation identified decreased nuclear localization of ?-catenin by resveratrol. These data establish differential proteomic mapping as a powerful tool for identifying novel molecular targets of chemopreventive agents. PMID:23255428

Ménoret, Antoine; Drew, David A; Miyamoto, Shingo; Nakanishi, Masako; Vella, Anthony T; Rosenberg, Daniel W

2014-02-01

203

Thymoquinone Triggers Inactivation of the Stress Response Pathway Sensor CHEK1 and Contributes to Apoptosis in Colorectal Cancer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few reports describing the role of p53-dependent gene repression in apoptotic cell death. To identify such apoptosis-associated p53 target genes, we used the pro- oxidant plant-derived drug thymoquinone and compared p53+\\/+ and p53\\/ colon cancer cells HCT116. The p53 wild-type (wt) status correlated with more pronounced DNA damage and higher apoptosis after thymoquinone treatment. A significant up-regulation of

Doerthe Kuester; Christian Mawrin; Khuloud Bajbouj; Antje Diestel; Caroline Habold; Charlotte Foltzer-Jourdainne; Peter Schoenfeld; Brigitte Peters; Mona Diab-Assaf; Ulf Pommrich; Wafica Itani; Albert Roessner; Regine Schneider-Stock

2008-01-01

204

Identification of a Novel Topoisomerase Inhibitor Effective in Cells Overexpressing Drug Efflux Transporters  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundNatural product structures have high chemical diversity and are attractive as lead structures for discovery of new drugs. One of the disease areas where natural products are most frequently used as therapeutics is oncology.Method and FindingsA library of natural products (NCI Natural Product set) was screened for compounds that induce apoptosis of HCT116 colon carcinoma cells using an assay that

Walid Fayad; Mĺrten Fryknäs; Slavica Brnjic; Maria Hägg Olofsson; Rolf Larsson; Stig Linder

2009-01-01

205

Mutant PIK3CA-Bearing Colon Cancer Cells Display Increased Metastasis in an Orthotopic Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations in the PIK3CA gene are common in human cancers, including colon cancer. We compared two pairs of colon cancer cells (HCT116 and DLD1) bearing only the wild-type (WT) or mutant (MUT) PIK3CA allele for their survival capacity under stress conditions in vitro as well as their metastatic properties in an in vivo orthotopic model. When subjected to growth factor

Xiao-Ning Guo; Ashwani Rajput; Rebecca Rose; Jennie Hauser; Alexander Beko; Karen Kuropatwinski; Charles LeVea; Robert M. Hoffman; Michael G. Brattain; Jing Wang

2007-01-01

206

Hydrogen Sulfide Lowers Proliferation and Induces Protective Autophagy in Colon Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous bacterial metabolite that reaches high levels in the large intestine. In the present study, the effect of H2S on the proliferation of normal and cancerous colon epithelial cells was investigated. An immortalized colon epithelial cell line (YAMC) and a panel of colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, SW1116, HCT116) were exposed to H2S at concentrations similar to those found in the human colon. H2S inhibited normal and cancerous colon epithelial cell proliferation as measured by MTT assay. The anti-mitogenic effect of H2S was accompanied by G1-phase cell cycle arrest and the induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21Cip. Moreover, exposure to H2S led to features characteristic of autophagy, including increased formation of LC3B+ autophagic vacuoles and acidic vesicular organelles as determined by immunofluorescence and acridine orange staining, respectively. Abolition of autophagy by RNA interference targeting Vps34 or Atg7 enhanced the anti-proliferative effect of H2S. Further mechanistic investigation revealed that H2S stimulated the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibited the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and S6 kinase. Inhibition of AMPK significantly reversed H2S-induced autophagy and inhibition of cell proliferation. Collectively, we demonstrate that H2S inhibits colon epithelial cell proliferation and induces protective autophagy via the AMPK pathway.

Yu, Le; Chan, Francis K. L.; Cheng, Alfred S. L.; Yu, Jun; Sung, Joseph J. Y.; Wu, William K. K.; Cho, Chi H.

2012-01-01

207

Maple polyphenols, ginnalins A-C, induce S- and G2/M-cell cycle arrest in colon and breast cancer cells mediated by decreasing cyclins A and D1 levels.  

PubMed

Polyphenols are bioactive compounds found in plant foods. Ginnalins A-C are polyphenols present in the sap and other parts of the sugar and red maple species which are used to produce maple syrup. Here we evaluated the antiproliferative effects of ginnalins A-C on colon (HCT-116) and breast (MCF-7) tumourigenic and non-tumourigenic colon (CCD-18Co) cells and investigated whether these effects were mediated through cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis. Ginnalins A-C were twofold more effective against the tumourigenic than non-tumourigenic cells. Among the polyphenols, ginnalin A (84%, HCT-116; 49%, MCF-7) was more effective than ginnalins B and C (50%, HCT-116; 30%, MCF-7) at 50 ?M concentrations. Ginnalin A did not induce apoptosis of the cancer cells but arrested cell cycle (in the S- and G(2)/M-phases) and decreased cyclins A and D1 protein levels. These results suggest that maple polyphenols may have potential cancer chemopreventive effects mediated through cell cycle arrest. PMID:23122108

González-Sarrías, Antonio; Ma, Hang; Edmonds, Maxwell E; Seeram, Navindra P

2013-01-15

208

Role of Bax in resveratrol-induced apoptosis of colorectal carcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

Background The natural plant polyphenol resveratrol present in some foods including grapes, wine, and peanuts, has been implicated in the inhibition, delay, and reversion of cellular events associated with heart diseases and tumorigenesis. Recent work has suggested that the cancer chemoprotective effect of the compound is primarily linked to its ability to induce cell division cycle arrest and apoptosis, the latter possibly through the activation of pro-apoptotic proteins such as Bax. Methods The expression, subcellular localization, and importance of Bax for resveratrol-provoked apoptosis were assessed in human HCT116 colon carcinoma cells and derivatives with both bax alleles inactivated. Results Low to moderate concentrations of resveratrol induced co-localization of cellular Bax protein with mitochondria, collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of caspases 3 and 9, and finally, apoptosis. In the absence of Bax, membrane potential collapse was delayed, and apoptosis was reduced but not absent. Resveratrol inhibited the formation of colonies by both HCT116 and HCT116 bax -/- cells. Conclusion Resveratrol at physiological doses can induce a Bax-mediated and a Bax-independent mitochondrial apoptosis. Both can limit the ability of the cells to form colonies.

2002-01-01

209

Multi-color fluorescence imaging of sub-cellular dynamics of cancer cells in live mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have genetically engineered dual-color fluorescent cells with one color in the nucleus and the other in the cytoplasm that enables real-time nuclear-cytoplasmic dynamics to be visualized in living cells in the cytoplasm in vivo as well as in vitro. To obtain the dual-color cells, red fluorescent protein (RFP) was expressed of the cancer cells, and green fluorescent protein (GFP) linked to histone H2B was expressed in the nucleus. Mitotic cells were visualized by whole-body imaging after injection in the mouse ear. Common carotid artery or heart injection of dual-color cells and a reversible skin flap enabled the external visualization of the dual-color cells in microvessels in the mouse where extreme elongation of the cell body as well as the nucleus occurred. The migration velocities of the dual-color cancer cells in the capillaries were measured by capturing individual images of the dual-color fluorescent cells over time. Human HCT-116-GFP-RFP colon cancer and mouse mammary tumor (MMT)-GFP-RFP cells were injected in the portal vein of nude mice. Extensive clasmocytosis (destruction of the cytoplasm) of the HCT-116-GFP-RFP cells occurred within 6 hours. The data suggest rapid death of HCT-116-GFP-RFP cells in the portal vein. In contrast, MMT-GFP-RFP cells injected into the portal vein mostly survived and formed colonies in the liver. However, when the host mice were pretreated with cyclophosphamide, the HCT-116-GFP-RFP cells also survived and formed colonies in the liver after portal vein injection. These results suggest that a cyclophosphamide-sensitive host cellular system attacked the HCT-116-GFP-RFP cells but could not effectively kill the MMT-GFP-RFP cells. With the ability to continuously image cancer cells at the subcellular level in the live animal, our understanding of the complex steps of metastasis will significantly increase. In addition, new drugs can be developed to target these newly visible steps of metastasis.

Hoffman, Robert M.

2006-03-01

210

Tumour suppressor RNF43 is a stem-cell E3 ligase that induces endocytosis of Wnt receptors.  

PubMed

LGR5+ stem cells reside at crypt bottoms, intermingled with Paneth cells that provide Wnt, Notch and epidermal growth factor signals. Here we find that the related RNF43 and ZNRF3 transmembrane E3 ubiquitin ligases are uniquely expressed in LGR5+ stem cells. Simultaneous deletion of the two genes encoding these proteins in the intestinal epithelium of mice induces rapidly growing adenomas containing high numbers of Paneth and LGR5+ stem cells. In vitro, growth of organoids derived from these adenomas is arrested when Wnt secretion is inhibited, indicating a dependence of the adenoma stem cells on Wnt produced by adenoma Paneth cells. In the HEK293T human cancer cell line, expression of RNF43 blocks Wnt responses and targets surface-expressed frizzled receptors to lysosomes. In the RNF43-mutant colorectal cancer cell line HCT116, reconstitution of RNF43 expression removes its response to exogenous Wnt. We conclude that RNF43 and ZNRF3 reduce Wnt signals by selectively ubiquitinating frizzled receptors, thereby targeting these Wnt receptors for degradation. PMID:22895187

Koo, Bon-Kyoung; Spit, Maureen; Jordens, Ingrid; Low, Teck Y; Stange, Daniel E; van de Wetering, Marc; van Es, Johan H; Mohammed, Shabaz; Heck, Albert J R; Maurice, Madelon M; Clevers, Hans

2012-08-30

211

MSH3-Deficiency Initiates EMAST without Oncogenic Transformation of Human Colon Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim Elevated microsatellite instability at selected tetranucleotide repeats (EMAST) is a genetic signature in certain cases of sporadic colorectal cancer and has been linked to MSH3-deficiency. It is currently controversial whether EMAST is associated with oncogenic properties in humans, specifically as cancer development in Msh3-deficient mice is not enhanced. However, a mutator phenotype is different between species as the genetic positions of repetitive sequences are not conserved. Here we studied the molecular effects of human MSH3-deficiency. Methods HCT116 and HCT116+chr3 (both MSH3-deficient) and primary human colon epithelial cells (HCEC, MSH3-wildtype) were stably transfected with an EGFP-based reporter plasmid for the detection of frameshift mutations within an [AAAG]17 repeat. MSH3 was silenced by shRNA and changes in protein expression were analyzed by shotgun proteomics. Colony forming assay was used to determine oncogenic transformation and double strand breaks (DSBs) were assessed by Comet assay. Results Despite differential MLH1 expression, both HCT116 and HCT116+chr3 cells displayed comparable high mutation rates (about 4×10?4) at [AAAG]17 repeats. Silencing of MSH3 in HCECs leads to a remarkable increased frameshift mutations in [AAAG]17 repeats whereas [CA]13 repeats were less affected. Upon MSH3-silencing, significant changes in the expression of 202 proteins were detected. Pathway analysis revealed overexpression of proteins involved in double strand break repair (MRE11 and RAD50), apoptosis, L1 recycling, and repression of proteins involved in metabolism, tRNA aminoacylation, and gene expression. MSH3-silencing did not induce oncogenic transformation and DSBs increased 2-fold. Conclusions MSH3-deficiency in human colon epithelial cells results in EMAST, formation of DSBs and significant changes of the proteome but lacks oncogenic transformation. Thus, MSH3-deficiency alone is unlikely to drive human colon carcinogenesis.

Campregher, Christoph; Schmid, Gerald; Ferk, Franziska; Knasmuller, Siegfried; Khare, Vineeta; Kortum, Benedikt; Dammann, Kyle; Lang, Michaela; Scharl, Theresa; Spittler, Andreas; Roig, Andres I.; Shay, Jerry W.; Gerner, Christopher; Gasche, Christoph

2012-01-01

212

The synergistic apoptotic interaction of panaxadiol and epigallocatechin gallate in human colorectal cancer cells.  

PubMed

Panaxadiol (PD) is a purified sapogenin of ginseng saponins, which exhibits anticancer activity. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major catechin in green tea, is a strong botanical antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the possible synergistic anticancer effects of PD and EGCG on human colorectal cancer cells and explored the potential role of apoptosis in the synergistic activities. Effects of selected compounds on HCT-116 and SW-480 human colorectal cancer cells were evaluated by a modified trichrome stain cell proliferation analysis. Cell cycle distribution and apoptotic effects were analyzed by flow cytometry after staining with PI/RNase or annexin V/PI. Cell growth was suppressed after treatment with PD (10 and 20?µm) for 48?h. When PD (10 and 20?µm) was combined with EGCG (10, 20, and 30?µm), significantly enhanced antiproliferative effects were observed in both cell lines. Combining 20?µm of PD with 20 and 30?µm of EGCG significantly decreased S-phase fractions of cells. In the apoptotic assay, the combination of PD and EGCG significantly increased the percentage of apoptotic cells compared with PD alone (p?cells. PMID:22566066

Du, Guang-Jian; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Qi, Lian-Wen; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Calway, Tyler; He, Tong-Chuan; Du, Wei; Yuan, Chun-Su

2013-02-01

213

Overexpression of MT1-MMP is insufficient to increase experimental liver metastasis of human colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

The expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by tumor cells is correlated with invasive and metastatic potential. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of increased membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) expression on liver metastatic potential utilizing human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. Three human CRC cell lines, DLD1, HCT116 and HT29, were stably transfected with the MT1-MMP cDNA, and experimental liver metastasis was established by injecting the cells into the spleens of nude mice. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed increased expression of MT1-MMP mRNA in the stable tranfectants. In vitro analysis by gelatin zymography and morphological survey demonstrated that MT1-MMP transfectants displayed a matured gelatinolytic activity and invasive properties when cultured in 3D collagen gel, indicating that transduced MT1-MMP cDNA was functional. Although there was no difference in cell proliferation rate between MT1-MMP overexpressing cells and the Mock control cells, in vivo experiments indicated that the liver metastatic ability was not affected by MT1-MMP overexpression. Our findings indicated that conditional MT1-MMP overexpression was insufficient to increase experimental liver metastasis, suggesting a more complicated mechanism may be involved in the activation and regulation of MMPs cascades in vivo. PMID:19020773

Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Noura, Shingo; Okami, Jiro; Uemura, Mamoru; Takemasa, Ichiro; Ikeda, Masataka; Ishii, Hideshi; Sekimoto, Mitsugu; Matsuura, Nariaki; Monden, Morito; Mori, Masaki

2008-12-01

214

15-LOX-1 suppression of hypoxia-induced metastatic phenotype and HIF-1? expression in human colon cancer cells  

PubMed Central

The expression of 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) is downregulated in colon cancer and other major cancers, and 15-LOX-1 reexpression in cancer cells suppresses colonic tumorigenesis. Various lines of evidence indicate that 15-LOX-1 expression suppresses premetastatic stages of colonic tumorigenesis; nevertheless, the role of 15-LOX-1 loss of expression in cancer epithelial cells in metastases continues to be debated. Hypoxia, a common feature of the cancer microenvironment, promotes prometastatic mechanisms such as the upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1?, a transcriptional master regulator that enhances cancer cell metastatic potential, angiogenesis, and tumor cell invasion and migration. We have, therefore, tested whether restoring 15-LOX-1 in colon cancer cells affects cancer cells' hypoxia response that promotes metastasis. We found that 15-LOX-1 reexpression in HCT116, HT29LMM, and LoVo colon cancer cells inhibited survival, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, angiogenesis, cancer cell migration and invasion, and HIF-1? protein expression and stability under hypoxia. These findings demonstrate that 15-LOX-1 expression loss in cancer cells promotes metastasis and that therapeutically targeting ubiquitous 15-LOX-1 loss in cancer cells has the potential to suppress metastasis.

Wu, Yuanqing; Mao, Fei; Zuo, Xiangsheng; Moussalli, Micheline J; Elias, Elias; Xu, Weiguo; Shureiqi, Imad

2014-01-01

215

15-LOX-1 suppression of hypoxia-induced metastatic phenotype and HIF-1? expression in human colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

The expression of 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) is downregulated in colon cancer and other major cancers, and 15-LOX-1 reexpression in cancer cells suppresses colonic tumorigenesis. Various lines of evidence indicate that 15-LOX-1 expression suppresses premetastatic stages of colonic tumorigenesis; nevertheless, the role of 15-LOX-1 loss of expression in cancer epithelial cells in metastases continues to be debated. Hypoxia, a common feature of the cancer microenvironment, promotes prometastatic mechanisms such as the upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1?, a transcriptional master regulator that enhances cancer cell metastatic potential, angiogenesis, and tumor cell invasion and migration. We have, therefore, tested whether restoring 15-LOX-1 in colon cancer cells affects cancer cells' hypoxia response that promotes metastasis. We found that 15-LOX-1 reexpression in HCT116, HT29LMM, and LoVo colon cancer cells inhibited survival, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, angiogenesis, cancer cell migration and invasion, and HIF-1? protein expression and stability under hypoxia. These findings demonstrate that 15-LOX-1 expression loss in cancer cells promotes metastasis and that therapeutically targeting ubiquitous 15-LOX-1 loss in cancer cells has the potential to suppress metastasis. PMID:24634093

Wu, Yuanqing; Mao, Fei; Zuo, Xiangsheng; Moussalli, Micheline J; Elias, Elias; Xu, Weiguo; Shureiqi, Imad

2014-06-01

216

Astrocyte Elevated Gene-1 Mediates Glycolysis and Tumorigenesis in Colorectal Carcinoma Cells via AMPK Signaling  

PubMed Central

To investigate the role of AEG-1 in glycolysis and tumorigenesis, we construct myc-AEG-1 expression vector and demonstrate a novel mechanism that AEG-1 may increase the activity of AMPK by Thr172 phosphorylation. The higher expression levels of AEG-1 in colorectal carcinoma cells were found but showed significant difference in different cell lines. To study the role of AEG-1 in colorectal cells, myc-AEG-1 vector was constructed and transfected into NCM460 colonic epithelial cells. We observed consistent increasing of glucose consumption and lactate production, typical features of anaerobic glycolysis, suggesting that AEG-1 may promote anaerobic glycolysis. Moreover, we noted that AMPK phosphorylation at Thr172 as well as pPFK2 (Ser466) was increased in NCM460 cells overexpressing AEG-1. Compound C may block AMPK and PFK2 phosphorylation in both control and AEG-1-overexpressed cells and decrease the glucose consumption and lactate production. The present findings indicated that reduced AEG-1 protein levels by RNAi may decrease the glucose consumption and lactate production in HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cells. The present identified AEG-1/AMPK/PFK2 glycolysis cascade may be essential to cell proliferation and tumor growth. The present results may provide us with a mechanistic insight into novel targets controlled by AEG-1, and the components in the AEG-1/AMPK/PFK2 glycolysis process may be targeted for the clinical treatment of cancer.

Song, Hong-tao; Qin, Yu; Yao, Guo-dong; Tian, Zhen-nan; Fu, Song-bin; Geng, Jing-shu

2014-01-01

217

JNK confers 5-fluorouracil resistance in p53-deficient and mutant p53-expressing colon cancer cells by inducing survival autophagy  

PubMed Central

Deficiency or mutation in the p53 tumor suppressor gene commonly occurs in human cancer and can contribute to disease progression and chemotherapy resistance. Currently, although the pro-survival or pro-death effect of autophagy remains a controversial issue, increasing data seem to support the idea that autophagy facilitates cancer cell resistance to chemotherapy treatment. Here we report that 5-FU treatment causes aberrant autophagosome accumulation in HCT116 p53?/? and HT-29 cancer cells. Specific inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA, CQ or small interfering RNA treatment targeting Atg5 or Beclin 1 can potentiate the re-sensitization of these resistant cancer cells to 5-FU. In further analysis, we show that JNK activation and phosphorylation of Bcl-2 are key determinants in 5-FU-induced autophagy. Inhibition of JNK by the compound SP600125 or JNK siRNA suppressed autophagy and phosphorylation of c-Jun and Bcl-2 but increased 5-FU-induced apoptosis in both HCT116 p53?/? and HT29 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that JNK activation confers 5-FU resistance in HCT116 p53?/? and HT29 cells by promoting autophagy as a pro-survival effect, likely via inducing Bcl-2 phosphorylation. These results provide a promising strategy to improve the efficacy of 5-FU-based chemotherapy for colorectal cancer patients harboring a p53 gene mutation.

Sui, Xinbing; Kong, Na; Wang, Xian; Fang, Yong; Hu, Xiaotong; Xu, Yinghua; Chen, Wei; Wang, Kaifeng; Li, Da; Jin, Wei; Lou, Fang; Zheng, Yu; Hu, Hong; Gong, Liu; Zhou, Xiaoyun; Pan, Hongming; Han, Weidong

2014-01-01

218

Black raspberry-derived anthocyanins demethylate tumor suppressor genes through the inhibition of DNMT1 and DNMT3B in colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

We previously reported that oral administration of black raspberry powder decreased promoter methylation of tumor suppressor genes in tumors from patients with colorectal cancer. The anthocyanins (ACs) in black raspberries are responsible, at least in part, for their cancer-inhibitory effects. In the present study, we asked if ACs are responsible for the demethylation effects observed in colorectal cancers. Three days of treatment of ACs at 0.5, 5, and 25 ?g/ml suppressed activity and protein expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3B in HCT116, Caco2 and SW480 cells. Promoters of CDKN2A, and SFRP2, SFRP5, and WIF1, upstream of Wnt pathway, were demethylated by ACs. mRNA expression of some of these genes was increased. mRNA expression of ?-catenin and c-Myc, downstream of Wnt pathway, and cell proliferation were decreased; apoptosis was increased. ACs were taken up into HCT116 cells and were differentially localized with DNMT1 and DNMT3B in the same cells visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Although it was reported that DNMT3B is regulated by c-Myc in mouse lymphoma, DNMT3B did not bind with c-Myc in HCT116 cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that ACs are responsible, at least in part, for the demethylation effects of whole black raspberries in colorectal cancers. PMID:23368921

Wang, Li-Shu; Kuo, Chieh-Ti; Cho, Seung-Ju; Seguin, Claire; Siddiqui, Jibran; Stoner, Kristen; Weng, Yu-I; Huang, Tim H-M; Tichelaar, Jay; Yearsley, Martha; Stoner, Gary D; Huang, Yi-Wen

2013-01-01

219

Black Raspberry-Derived Anthocyanins Demethylate Tumor Suppressor Genes Through the Inhibition of DNMT1 and DNMT3B in Colon Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

We previously reported that oral administration of black raspberry powder decreased promoter methylation of tumor suppressor genes in tumors from patients with colorectal cancer. The anthocyanins (ACs) in black raspberries are responsible, at least in part, for their cancer-inhibitory effects. In the present study, we asked if ACs are responsible for the demethylation effects observed in colorectal cancers. Three days of treatment of ACs at 0.5, 5, and 25 ?g/ml suppressed activity and protein expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3B in HCT116, Caco2 and SW480 cells. Promoters of CDKN2A, and SFRP2, SFRP5, and WIF1, upstream of Wnt pathway, were demethylated by ACs. mRNA expression of some of these genes was increased. mRNA expression of ?-catenin and c-Myc, downstream of Wnt pathway, and cell proliferation were decreased; apoptosis was increased. ACs were taken up into HCT116 cells and were differentially localized with DNMT1 and DNMT3B in the same cells visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Although it was reported that DNMT3B is regulated by c-Myc in mouse lymphoma, DNMT3B did not bind with c-Myc in HCT116 cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that ACs are responsible, at least in part, for the demethylation effects of whole black raspberries in colorectal cancers.

Wang, Li-Shu; Kuo, Chieh-Ti; Cho, Seung-Ju; Seguin, Claire; Siddiqui, Jibran; Stoner, Kristen; Weng, Yu-I; Huang, Tim H.-M.; Tichelaar, Jay; Yearsley, Martha; Stoner, Gary D.; Huang, Yi-Wen

2013-01-01

220

Identification of four distinct pools of catenins in mammalian cells and transformation-dependent changes in catenin distributions among these pools.  

PubMed

Catenins are cytoplasmic proteins that were initially identified in a complex with cadherins, a superfamily of transmembrane glycoproteins important for cell adhesion in normal and disease states. We have used gel filtration to identify four complexes of catenins in extracts from normal and transformed epithelial cells. In normal Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells, a significant fraction of alpha- and beta-catenin and plakoglobin co-elute with cadherin in a high molecular weight complex (complex I). A portion of alpha-catenin and the remainder of beta-catenin and plakoglobin co-elute in a high molecular weight complex that does not contain cadherin (complex II). The remainder of alpha-catenin elutes in a low molecular weight fraction (complex III). In extracts from two colon carcinoma cell lines, HCT116 and SW480, beta-catenin elutes in an additional low molecular weight pool (complex IV) not present in Madin-Darby canine kidney cell extracts. In two subclones derived from SW480 cells, SW-E8 and SW-R2, beta-catenin is distributed evenly between high and low molecular weight pools in SW-E8 cells, whereas it elutes primarily in the low molecular weight pool (complex IV) in SW-R2 cells. These changes in beta-catenin elution profiles correlate with an increase in transformed phenotype and decreased cell-cell adhesion in the SW-R2 cells. PMID:9368032

Stewart, D B; Nelson, W J

1997-11-21

221

Growth inhibition of colon cancer cells by compounds affecting AMPK activity  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine if other molecules reported to modulate AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) activity would have effects resembling those of metformin and phenformin on colon cancer cell proliferation and metabolism. METHODS: Studies were performed with four human colon cancer cell lines, Caco-2, HCT116, HT29 and SW1116. The compounds that were studied included A-769662, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-ribofuranoside, butyrate, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), KU-55933, quercetin, resveratrol and salicylates. The parameters that were measured were cell proliferation and viability, glucose uptake, lactate production and acidification of the incubation medium. RESULTS: Investigations with several molecules that have been reported to be associated with AMPK activation (A-769662, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-b-D-ribofuranoside, EGCG, KU-55933, quercetin, resveratrol and salicylates) or AMPK inhibition (compound C) failed to reveal increased medium acidification and increased glucose uptake in colon cancer cells as previously established with metformin and phenformin. The only exception was 5-aminosalicylic acid with which there were apparently lower glucose levels in the medium after incubation for 72 h. Further study in the absence of cells revealed that the effect was an artifact due to inhibition of the enzyme-linked glucose assay. The compounds were studied at concentrations that inhibited cell proliferation. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that treatment with several agents that can affect AMPK activity resulted in the inhibition of the proliferation of colon cancer cells under conditions in which glucose metabolism is not enhanced, in contrast to the effect of biguanides.

Lea, Michael A; Pourat, Jacob; Patel, Rupali; desBordes, Charles

2014-01-01

222

Novel nitroimidazole alkylsulfonamides as hypoxic cell radiosensitisers.  

PubMed

A novel class of nitroimidazole alkylsulfonamides have been prepared and evaluated as hypoxia-selective cytotoxins and radiosensitisers. The sulfonamide side chain markedly influences the physicochemical properties of the analogues: lowering aqueous solubility and raising the electron affinity of the nitroimidazole group. The addition of hydroxyl or basic amine groups increased aqueous solubility, with charged amine groups contributing to increased electron affinity. The analogues covered the range of electron affinity for effective radiosensitisation with one-electron reduction potentials ranging from -503 to -342mV. Cytotoxicity under normoxia or anoxia against a panel of human tumour cell lines was determined using a proliferation assay. 2-Nitroimidazole sulfonamides displayed significant hypoxia-selective cytotoxicity (6 to 64-fold), while 4- and 5-nitroimidazole analogues did not display hypoxia-selective cytotoxicity. All analogues sensitised anoxic HCT-116 human colorectal cells to radiation at non-toxic concentrations. 2-Nitroimidazole analogues provided modest sensitisation due to the relatively low concentrations used while several 5-nitroimidazole analogues provided equivalent sensitisation to misonidazole and etanidazole at similar molar concentrations. PMID:24650701

Bonnet, Muriel; Hong, Cho Rong; Gu, Yongchuan; Anderson, Robert F; Wilson, William R; Pruijn, Frederik B; Wang, Jingli; Hicks, Kevin O; Hay, Michael P

2014-04-01

223

Dihydroceramide delays cell cycle G1/S transition via activation of ER stress and induction of autophagy.  

PubMed

Dihydroceramides, the precursors of ceramides in the de novo sphingolipid synthesis, have been recently implicated in active signalling. We previously demonstrated that dihydroceramide accumulation, in response to treatment with the dihydroceramide desaturase inhibitor XM462, induced autophagy with no sign of cell death in the gastric carcinoma HCG27 cell line. Here we show that XM462 treatment induces a transient early increase in dihydroceramides that are successively metabolized into other sphingolipids. Dihydroceramides accumulation is associated with cyclin D1 expression modulation, delayed G1/S transition of cell cycle and increased autophagy. Moreover, XM462 treatment induces ER stress via the activation of the translation inhibitor eIF2? and the pro-survival transcriptional factor Xbp1. Exogenous addition of a short chain dihydroceramide analog reproduces the effects of endogenous accumulation of dihydroceramides, causing cell cycle delay of the G1/S transition, autophagy enhancement, eIF2? activation and Xbp1 splicing. Blocking autophagy with 3-methyladenine abrogates the effect of XM462 on cell cycle and reduces cell survival to XM462 treatment. Furthermore, the XM462-induced survival response is able to reduce etoposide toxicity in HCG27 and HCT116 cancer cells. Our data suggest a role of dihydroceramide in regulating cell proliferation and survival. PMID:22960157

Gagliostro, Vincenzo; Casas, Josefina; Caretti, Anna; Abad, Jose L; Tagliavacca, Luigina; Ghidoni, Riccardo; Fabrias, Gemma; Signorelli, Paola

2012-12-01

224

Tax1 enhances cancer cell proliferation via Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Erbin is an ErbB2 binding protein, which belongs to the LAP (leucine-rich repeat (LRR) and PDZ domain) protein family. We previously reported that Tax1, a protein of the human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I), associated with Erbin by using Erbin PDZ domain as a bait to screen a human T lymphocyte cDNA library by a yeast two hybrid strategy. In the present study, we demonstrated that Tax1 enhances cancer cell proliferation via Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK signaling pathway by using molecular section strategy. The pull-down assay showed that the four amino acid domain, that is, Tax1 350-353, might specifically interact with Erbin, but not any other Tax1 deletion mutants. The coimmunoprecipitation assay confirmed that Tax1 350-353 domain bound with Erbin in vivo. Functional study demonstrated that overexpression of Tax1 in cancer cell lines of liver cancer SMMC-7721, colon cancer HCT-116, and breast cancer MCF-7 facilitated the cell proliferation. And the transfection of Tax1 353 in MCF-7 cells with endogenous Erbin expression markedly increased phosphorylation of Ras, Raf, MEK1/2, ERK1/2, PI3K, and IkappaBalpha, suggesting that Tax1-enhanced cell proliferation tracks Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK signaling pathway. PMID:19472191

Song, Chunjiao; Wang, Weimin; Li, Meng; Liu, Yanxin; Zheng, Dexian

2009-06-01

225

Patulin induces colorectal cancer cells apoptosis through EGR-1 dependent ATF3 up-regulation.  

PubMed

Patulin is a fungal mycotoxin of Aspergilus and Penicillium that is commonly found in rotting fruits and exerts its potential toxic effect mainly by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. However, the effect of patulin on cancer cells as well as its intracellular mechanism has been controversial and not clearly defined yet. In this study, patulin was found to induce G1/S accumulation and cell growth arrest accompanied by caspase-3 activation, PARP cleavage and ATF3 expression in human colon cancer cell line HCT116. Ser/Thr phosphorylation of a transcription factor, EGR-1, was increased while its expression did not change upon patulin treatment to the cells. Knockdown of ATF3 and EGR-1 using their respective siRNAs showed EGR-1 dependent ATF3 expression. Moreover, treatment of the cells with antioxidants N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and glutathione (GSH) revealed that patulin induced ATF3 expression and apoptosis were dependent on ROS generation. ATF3 expression was also increased by patulin in other colorectal cancer cell types, Caco2 and SW620. Collectively, our data present a new anti-cancer molecular mechanism of patulin, suggesting EGR-1 and ATF3 as critical targets for the development of anti-cancer chemotherapeutics. In this regard, patulin could be a candidate for the treatment of colorectal cancers. PMID:22230687

Kwon, Osong; Soung, Nak Kyun; Thimmegowda, N R; Jeong, Sook Jung; Jang, Jae Hyuk; Moon, Dong-Oh; Chung, Jong Kyeong; Lee, Kyung Sang; Kwon, Yong Tae; Erikson, Raymond Leo; Ahn, Jong Seog; Kim, Bo Yeon

2012-04-01

226

The Chinese herb isolate yuanhuacine (YHL-14) induces G2/M arrest in human cancer cells by up-regulating p21 protein expression through an p53 protein-independent cascade.  

PubMed

Yuanhuacine (YHL-14), the major component of daphnane diterpene ester isolated from the flower buds of Daphne genkwa, has been reported to have activity against cell proliferation in various cancer cell lines. Nevertheless, the potential mechanism has not been explored yet. Here we demonstrate that YHL-14 inhibits bladder and colon cancer cell growth through up-regulation of p21 expression in an Sp1-dependent manner. We found that YHL-14 treatment resulted in up-regulation of p21 expression and a significant G2/M phase arrest in T24T and HCT116 cells without affecting p53 protein expression and activation. Further studies indicate that p21 induction by YHL-14 occurs at the transcriptional level via up-regulation of Sp1 protein expression. Moreover, our results show that p38 is essential for YHL-14-mediated Sp1 protein stabilization, G2/M growth arrest induction, and anchorage-independent growth inhibition of cancer cells. Taken together, our studies demonstrate a novel mechanism of YHL-14 against cancer cell growth in bladder and colon cancer cell lines, which provides valuable information for the design and synthesis of other new conformation-constrained derivatives on the basis of the structure of YHL-14 for cancer therapy. PMID:24451377

Zhang, Ruowen; Wang, Yulei; Li, Jingxia; Jin, Honglei; Song, Shaojiang; Huang, Chuanshu

2014-03-01

227

Acetyl-keto-?-boswellic acid inhibits cellular proliferation through a p21-dependent pathway in colon cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Although there is increasing evidence showing that boswellic acid might be a potential anticancer agent, the mechanisms involved in its action are unclear. In the present study, we showed that acetyl-keto-?-boswellic acid (AKBA) inhibited cellular growth in several colon cancer cell lines. Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry showed that cells were arrested at the G1 phase after AKBA treatment. Further analysis showed that cyclin D1 and E, CDK 2 and 4 and phosphorylated Rb were decreased in AKBA-treated cells while p21 expression was increased. The growth inhibitory effect of AKBA was dependent on p21 but not p53. HCT-116 p53?/? cells were sensitized to the apoptotic effect of AKBA, suggesting that p21 may have protected cells against apoptosis by inducing a G1 arrest. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that AKBA inhibited cellular growth in colon cancer cells. These findings may have implications to the use of boswellic acids as potential anticancer agents in colon cancer.

Liu, Jian-Jun; Huang, Baohua; Hooi, Shing Chuan

2006-01-01

228

Acetyl-keto-beta-boswellic acid inhibits cellular proliferation through a p21-dependent pathway in colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

1. Although there is increasing evidence showing that boswellic acid might be a potential anticancer agent, the mechanisms involved in its action are unclear. 2. In the present study, we showed that acetyl-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA) inhibited cellular growth in several colon cancer cell lines. Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry showed that cells were arrested at the G1 phase after AKBA treatment. 3. Further analysis showed that cyclin D1 and E, CDK 2 and 4 and phosphorylated Rb were decreased in AKBA-treated cells while p21 expression was increased. 4. The growth inhibitory effect of AKBA was dependent on p21 but not p53. HCT-116 p53(-/-) cells were sensitized to the apoptotic effect of AKBA, suggesting that p21 may have protected cells against apoptosis by inducing a G1 arrest.5. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that AKBA inhibited cellular growth in colon cancer cells. These findings may have implications to the use of boswellic acids as potential anticancer agents in colon cancer. PMID:16783403

Liu, Jian-Jun; Huang, Baohua; Hooi, Shing Chuan

2006-08-01

229

Synthetic lethal targeting of PTEN-deficient cancer cells using selective disruption of polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase  

PubMed Central

A recent screen of 6961 siRNAs to discover possible synthetic lethal partners of the DNA repair protein polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP) led to the identification of the potent tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN). Here we have confirmed the PNKP/PTEN synthetic lethal partnership in a variety of different cell lines including the PC3 prostate cancer cell line, which is naturally deficient in PTEN. We provide evidence that co-depletion of PTEN and PNKP induces apoptosis. In HCT116 colon cancer cells the loss of PTEN is accompanied by an increased background level of DNA double strand breaks, which accumulate in the presence of an inhibitor of PNKP DNA 3?-phosphatase activity. Complementation of PC3 cells with several well-characterized mutated PTEN cDNAs indicated that the critical function of PTEN required to prevent toxicity induced by an inhibitor of PNKP is most likely associated with its cytoplasmic lipid phosphatase activity. Finally, we show that modest inhibition of PNKP in a PTEN knockout background enhances cellular radiosensitivity, suggesting that such a “synthetic sickness” approach involving the combination of PNKP inhibition with radiotherapy may be applicable to PTEN-deficient tumors.

Mereniuk, Todd R.; El Gendy, Mohamed A.M.; Mendes-Pereira, Ana M.; Lord, Christopher J.; Ghosh, Sunita; Foley, Edan; Ashworth, Alan; Weinfeld, Michael

2013-01-01

230

Cytohesins/ARNO: the function in colorectal cancer cells.  

PubMed

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) are critical regulators of cell differentiation, survival, proliferation, and migration in cancers. This study found that ARNO (cytohesin-2), an activator of the EGF and IGF-I pathways, was more highly expressed in colorectal cancer tissue than in benign adjacent colorectal tissue. When ARNO-siRNA or the chemical inhibitor SecinH3 blocked ARNO, the downstream of the EGF and IGF-I pathways decreased in colorectal cell lines HT29 and HCT116. This blocking also weakened cell proliferation, invasion, and migration in vitro. Furthermore, EGF receptor (EGFR)-dependent colorectal tumor xenografts in nude mouse exerted anti-proliferative and growth suppression effects by injecting secineH3. These data suggested that inhibiting cytohesins or ARNO as cytoplasmic activators of EGFR and IGF-I in colorectal cancer resulted in anti-proliferation, reduced invasion, decreased migration, and suppressed growth in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, cytohesins or ARNO may be a potential therapy target for some colorectal cancer. PMID:24618737

Pan, Tao; Sun, Junfeng; Hu, Jiyi; Hu, Yiwang; Zhou, Jun; Chen, Zhigang; Xu, Dong; Xu, Wenhong; Zheng, Shu; Zhang, Suzhan

2014-01-01

231

Antimutagenicity of Cinnamaldehyde and Vanillin in Human Cells: Global Gene Expression and Possible Role of DNA Damage and Repair  

PubMed Central

Vanillin (VAN) and cinnamaldehyde (CIN) are dietary flavorings that exhibit antimutagenic activity against mutagen-induced and spontaneous mutations in bacteria. Although these compounds were antimutagenic against chromosomal mutations in mammalian cells, they have not been studied for antimutagenesis against spontaneous gene mutations in mammalian cells. Thus, we initiated studies with VAN and CIN in human mismatch repair-deficient (hMLH1?) HCT116 colon cancer cells, which exhibit high spontaneous mutation rates (mutations/cell/generation) at the HPRT locus, permitting analysis of antimutagenic effects of agents against spontaneous mutation. Long-term (1–3-week) treatments of HCT116 cells with VAN at minimally toxic concentrations (0.5–2.5 mM) reduced the spontaneous HPRT mutant fraction (MF, mutants/106 survivors) in a concentration-related manner by 19% to 73%. A similar treatment with CIN at 2.5–7.5 ?M yielded a 13% to 56% reduction of the spontaneous MF. Short-term (4–h) treatments also reduced the spontaneous MF by 64% (VAN) and 31% (CIN). To investigate the mechanisms of antimutagenesis, we evaluated the ability of VAN and CIN to induce DNA damage (comet assay) and to alter global gene expression (Affymetrix GeneChip) after 4-h treatments. Both VAN and CIN induced DNA damage in both mismatch repair-proficient (HCT116 + chr3) and deficient (HCT116) cells at concentrations that were antimutagenic in HCT116 cells. There were 64 genes in common whose expression was changed similarly by both VAN and CIN; these included genes related to DNA damage, stress responses, oxidative damage, apoptosis, and cell growth. RT-PCR results paralleled the Affymetrix results for 4 selected genes (HMOX1, DDIT4, GCLM, and CLK4). Our results show for the first time that VAN and CIN are antimutagenic against spontaneous mutations in mammalian (human) cells. These and other data lead us to propose that VAN and CIN may induce DNA damage that elicits recombinational DNA repair and, consequently, reduces spontaneous mutation.

King, Audrey A.; Shaughnessy, Daniel T.; Mure, Kanae; Leszczynska, Joanna; Ward, William O.; Umbach, David M.; Xu, Zongli; Ducharme, Danica; Taylor, Jack A.; DeMarini, David M.; Klein, Catherine B.

2007-01-01

232

Inhibition of protein kinase CK2 expression and activity blocks tumor cell growth.  

PubMed

Protein kinase CK2 (CK2) is a highly conserved and ubiquitous serine/threonine kinase. It is a multifunctional and pleiotropic protein kinase implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Deregulation of CK2 is observed in a wide variety of tumors. It has been the focus of intensive research efforts to establish the cause-effect relationship between CK2 and neoplastic growth. Here, we further validate the role of CK2 in cancer cell growth using siRNA approach. We also screened a library of more than 200,000 compounds and identified several molecules, which inhibit CK2 with IC(50) < 1 microM. The binding mode of a representative compound with maize CK2 was determined. In addition, the cellular activity of the compounds was demonstrated by their inhibition of phosphorylation of PTEN Ser370 in HCT116 cells. Treatment of a variety of cancer cell lines with the newly identified CK2 inhibitor significantly blocked cell growth with IC(50)s as low as 300 nM. PMID:19629644

Zhu, Dan; Hensel, Jennifer; Hilgraf, Robert; Abbasian, Mahan; Pornillos, Owen; Deyanat-Yazdi, Gordafaried; Hua, Xuequn Helen; Cox, Sarah

2010-01-01

233

Anti-proliferative effect of horehound leaf and wild cherry bark extracts on human colorectal cancer cells.  

PubMed

Marubium vulgare (horehound) and Prunus serotina (wild cherry) have been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory-related symptoms such as cold, fever, and sore throat. In this report, we show that extracts of anti-inflammatory horehound leaves and wild cherry bark exhibit anti-proliferative activity in human colorectal cancer cells. Both horehound and wild cherry extracts cause suppression of cell growth as well as induction of apoptosis. We found that horehound extract up-regulates pro-apoptotic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene (NAG-1) through transactivation of the NAG-1 promoter. In contrast, wild cherry extract decreased cyclin D1 expression and increased NAG-1 expression in HCT-116 and SW480 cell lines. Treatment with wild cherry extract resulted in the suppression of beta-catenin/T cell factor transcription, as assessed by TOP/FOP reporter constructs, suggesting that suppressed beta-catenin signaling by wild cherry extract leads to the reduction of cyclin D1 expression. Our data suggest the mechanisms by which these extracts suppress cell growth and induce apoptosis involve enhanced NAG-1 expression and/or down-regulation of beta-catenin signaling, followed by reduced cyclin D1 expression in human colorectal cancer cells. These findings may provide mechanisms for traditional anti-inflammatory products as cancer chemopreventive agents. PMID:16328068

Yamaguchi, Kiyoshi; Liggett, Jason L; Kim, Nam-Cheol; Baek, Seung Joon

2006-01-01

234

Plant cell lines in cell morphogenesis research.  

PubMed

Plant organs and tissues consist of many various cell types, often in different phases of their development. Such complex structures do not allow direct studies on behavior of individual cells. In contrast, populations of in vitro-cultured plant cells represent valuable tool for studying processes on a single-cell level, including cell morphogenesis. Here we describe characteristics of well-established model tobacco and Arabidopsis cell lines and provide detailed protocol on their cultivation, characterization, and genetic transformation. PMID:24132432

Seifertová, Daniela; Klíma, Petr; Pa?ezová, Markéta; Petrášek, Jan; Zažímalová, Eva; Opatrný, Zden?k

2014-01-01

235

Ectopic expression of decorin protein core causes a generalized growth suppression in neoplastic cells of various histogenetic origin and requires endogenous p21, an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases.  

PubMed Central

Decorin belongs to a family of secreted, small, leucine-rich proteoglycans that affect matrix assembly and cellular growth. Ectopic expression of decorin proteoglycan or protein core as a mutated form lacking any glycosaminoglycan side chains induced growth suppression in neoplastic cells of various histogenetic origins, including tumor cells derived from gastrointestinal, genital, skeletal, cutaneous, or bone marrow tissues. Exogenously added recombinant decorin also suppressed overall growth of the parental cell lines. In all stably-transfected clones, growth retardation was specifically associated with induction of the potent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, but not p27, and subsequent translocation of p21 protein into the nuclei of decorin-expressing cells. This led to a greater proportion of the cells arrested in G1 phase of the cell cycle. These changes were independent of functional p53 or retinoblastoma protein. De novo expression of decorin in HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells harboring a disrupted p21 gene failed to induce growth suppression, in contrast to the wild-type cells in which p21 and growth arrest could be induced. These findings indicate that ectopic production of decorin protein core can retard the growth of a variety of tumor cells and that endogenous p21 is a required downstream effector of this biological axis.

Santra, M; Mann, D M; Mercer, E W; Skorski, T; Calabretta, B; Iozzo, R V

1997-01-01

236

New Arylthioindoles and Related Bioisosteres at the Sulfur Bridging Group. 4. Synthesis, Tubulin Polymerization, Cell Growth Inhibition, and Molecular Modeling Studies  

PubMed Central

New arylthioindoles along with the corresponding ketone and methylene compounds were potent tubulin assembly inhibitors. As growth inhibitors of MCF-7 cells, sulfur derivatives were superior or sometimes equivalent to the ketones, while methylene derivatives were substantially less effective. Esters 24, 27–29, 36, 39,and 41 showed ~50% of inhibition on human HeLa and HCT116/chr3 cells at 0.5 ?M, and these compounds inhibited the growth of HEK, M14, and U937 cells with IC50's in the 78–220 nM range. While murine macrophage J744.1 cell growth was significantly less affected (20% at higher concentrations), four other nontransformed cell lines remained sensitive to these esters. The effect of drug treatment on cell morphology was examined by time-lapse microscopy. In a protocol set up to evaluate toxicity on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 wild type strain, compounds 24 and 54 strongly reduced cell growth, and 29, 36, and 39 also showed significant inhibition.

La Regina, Giuseppe; Sarkar, Taradas; Bai, Ruoli; Edler, Michael C.; Saletti, Roberto; Coluccia, Antonio; Piscitelli, Francesco; Minelli, Lara; Gatti, Valerio; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Palermo, Vanessa; Mazzoni, Cristina; Falcone, Claudio; Scovassi, Anna Ivana; Giansanti, Vincenzo; Campiglia, Pietro; Porta, Amalia; Maresca, Bruno; Hamel, Ernest; Brancale, Andrea; Novellino, Ettore; Silvestri, Romano

2009-01-01

237

Genetic unmasking of epigenetically silenced tumor suppressor genes in colon cancer cells deficient in DNA methyltransferases.  

PubMed

Hypermethylation associated silencing of the CpG islands of tumor suppressor genes is a common hallmark of human cancer. Here we report a functional search for hypermethylated CpG islands using the colorectal cancer cell line HCT-116, in which two major DNA methyltransferases, DNMT1 and DNMT3b, have been genetically disrupted (DKO cells). Using two molecular screenings for differentially methylated loci [differential methylation hybridization (DMH) and amplification of inter-methylated sites (AIMS)], we found that DKO cells, but not the single DNMT1 or DNMT3b knockouts, have a massive loss of hypermethylated CpG islands that induces the re-activation of the contiguous genes. We have characterized a substantial number of these CpG island associated genes with potentially important roles in tumorigenesis, such as the cadherin member FAT, or the homeobox genes LMX-1 and DUX-4. For other genes whose role in transformation has not been characterized, such as the calcium channel alpha1I or the thromboxane A2 receptor, their re-introduction in DKO cells inhibited colony formation. Thus, our results demonstrate the role of DNMT1 and DNMT3b in CpG island methylation associated silencing and the usefulness of genetic disruption strategies in searching for new hypermethylated loci. PMID:12915469

Paz, Maria F; Wei, Susan; Cigudosa, Juan C; Rodriguez-Perales, Sandra; Peinado, Miguel A; Huang, Tim Hui-Ming; Esteller, Manel

2003-09-01

238

Induction of mitosis delay, apoptosis and aneuploidy in human cells by phenyl hydroquinone, an Ames test-negative carcinogen.  

PubMed

Ortho-phenyl phenol and its hepatic derivative, phenyl hydroquinone, do not generate base-substitution-type mutations, but cause bladder cancer in rats and mice. The mechanism of their carcinogenic effect is unknown. We have previously shown that o-phenyl phenol and phenyl hydroquinone induce mitotic arrest and aneuploidy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To further delineate the mechanism of action of phenyl hydroquinone, we examined its effect on human cells. Treatment of the colon cancer cell line HCT116 with 0 to 150 microM phenyl hydroquinone caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of growth, accumulation of cells having G2/M DNA content, and an increase in the mitotic index. Moreover, a dose-dependent increase in apoptotic cells was observed. Finally, a high frequency of aneuploid cells was found. On the other hand, no increase in gamma-H2AX foci was observed. The results show that phenyl hydroquinone does induce mitotic arrest, apoptosis and aneuploidy in the absence of DNA damage. Our results may be useful to understand the mechanisms of action of chemical substances that are Ames test-negative carcinogens. PMID:19420803

Imai, Masaru; Matsuno, Ryo; Komura, Jun-ichiro; Ono, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Kazuo

2009-02-01

239

Isolation and antiproliferative activity of Lotus corniculatus lectin towards human tumour cell lines.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to investigate the anti cancer activity of a lectin isolated from Lotus corniculatus seeds. A tetrameric 70kDa galactose specific lectin was purified using two step simple purification protocol which involved affinity chromatography on AF-BlueHC650M and gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. The lectin was adsorbed on AF-BlueHC650M and desorbed using 1M NaCl in the starting buffer. Gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 yielded a major peak absorbance that gave two bands of 15kDa and 20kDa in SDS PAGE. Hemagglutination activity was completely preserved, when the temperature was in the range of 20-60°C. However, drastic reduction in activity occurred at temperatures above 60°C. Full hemagglutination activity was retained at ambient pH 4-12. Thereafter no activity was observed above pH 13. Hemaglutination of the lectin was inhibited by d-galactose. The lectin showed a strong antiproliferative activity towards human leukemic (THP-1) cancer cells followed by lung cancer (HOP62) cells and HCT116 with an IC50 of 39?g/ml and 50?g/ml and 60?g/ml respectively. Flow cytometry analysis showed an increase in the percentage of cells in sub G0G1 phase confirming that Lotus corniculatus lectin induced apoptosis. Morphological observations showed that Lotus corniculatus lectin (LCL) treated THP-1 cells displayed apparent apoptosis characteristics such as nuclear fragmentation, appearance of membrane enclosed apoptotic bodies and DNA fragmentation. Lotus corniculatus lectin (LCL) effectively inhibits the cell migration in a dose dependent manner as indicated by the wound healing assay. PMID:24055517

Rafiq, Shaista; Majeed, Rabiya; Qazi, Asif Khurshid; Ganai, Bashir Ahmad; Wani, Ishfak; Rakhshanda, Syed; Qurishi, Yasrib; Sharma, P R; Hamid, Abid; Masood, Akbar; Hamid, Rabia

2013-12-15

240

Treatment with hydroxyurea and tyrphostin-1 significantly improves the transduction efficiency of recombinant adeno-associated viruses in human cancer cells.  

PubMed

To enhance the transduction efficiency (TE) of a recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (rAAV2) in human cancer cells, we examined the combined effects of various chemicals known to influence the rAAV2 transduction process at distinct steps. Among the agents tested were trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, MG-132, a proteosome inhibitor, the genotoxic agents hydroxyurea, aphidicolin, etoposide and camptothecin, and tyrphostin-1, an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor. During or after chemical treatment, various human cancer cells were infected with rAAV2 expressing beta-galactosidase. Treatment with hydroxy-urea or etoposide plus tyrphostin-1 dramatically increased the TE in most cell lines. The combination of hydroxyurea plus tyrphostin-1 increased TE to 37.7+/-7.9%, 32.8+/-2.0% and 31.8+/-2.1% in SK-Hep1, HeLa, and HCT116 cells, respectively. In addition, following rAAV2 infection and treatment with hydroxyurea plus tyrphostin-1, long-term transgene expression was observed for up to 6 months, with no damage to the transduced cells. These results indicate that rAAV2 transgene expression can be significantly enhanced by a combination of chemical agents with distinct activity and prolonged gene expression can occur following rAAV2 gene transfer into human cancer cells. PMID:16273241

Kim, Sung Jin; Nam, Young Ran; Shin, Ohkyu; Choi, Jene; Lee, Boyoung; Chang, Jin Woo; Kwon, Yunhee Kim; Park, Keerang; Lee, Heuiran

2005-12-01

241

p53 Regulates LIF expression in human medulloblastoma cells.  

PubMed

Medulloblastomas are highly malignant, poorly differentiated childhood tumours arising in the cerebellum. These tumors rarely lose TP53, which is the most commonly mutated gene in cancer. Recent work has shown that the basal level of p53 plays an important role in maternal reproduction by maintaining the expression of LIF in the uterus. Since LIF can maintain the undifferentiated state of stem cells we set out to ask if p53 regulates LIF in the human medulloblastoma cell lines DAOY and D283MED. We also used p53-/- and p53+/+ isogenic HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cell lines, already reported to exhibit p53-dependent expression of the LIF D transcript, to establish the extent of p53-dependency for LIF M and T alternative transcripts. Whilst all three known, full-length alternative transcripts are more abundant in p53+/+ cells, the alternative LIF M and T transcripts appear particularly sensitive to p53. In the p53 wild-type medulloblastoma cell line D283MED chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments showed p53 binding to the LIF gene. The mutant p53 expressed in line DAOY did not bind to this region or to the p21(WAF1) p53 binding site. RNA interference against either WIP1 or SIRT1 stabilized p53 and enhanced the transcription of LIF in D283MED cells. Interestingly, siRNA against WIP1 or SIRT1 also induced increased apoptosis in the medulloblastoma line D283MED and, over a longer time period, in DAOY cells. We speculate that suppression of p53 function by combined WIP1-mediated dephosphorylation and SIRT1 deacetylation enables medulloblastoma cell survival but p53-dependent and independent apoptotic pathways remain intact. Thus small molecule inhibitors of SIRT1 may be useful in treatment of medulloblastoma. PMID:19907922

Baxter, Euan W; Milner, Jo

2010-05-01

242

BI-69A11 enhances susceptibility of colon cancer cells to mda-7/IL-24-induced growth inhibition by targeting Akt.  

PubMed

Background:Akt and its downstream signalling pathways contribute to the aetiology and progression of colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Targeting the Akt pathway is an attractive strategy but few chemotherapeutic drugs have been used to treat CRC with only limited success. BI-69A11, a small molecule inhibitor of Akt, efficiently inhibits growth in melanoma cells. Melanoma differentiation associated gene-7 (mda-7)/interleukin-24 promotes cancer-selective apoptosis when delivered by a tropism-modified replication incompetent adenovirus (Ad.5/3-mda-7). However, Ad.5/3-mda-7 displays diminished antitumour efficacy in several CRC cell lines, which correlates with the expression of K-RAS.Methods:The individual and combinatorial effect of BI-69A11 and Ad.5/3-mda-7 in vitro was studied by cell viability, cell cycle, apoptosis and invasion assays in HT29 and HCT116 cells containing wild type or mutant K-ras, respectively. In vivo HT29 tumour xenografts were used to test the efficacy of the combination treatment.Results:BI-69A11 inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in CRC. However, combinatorial treatment was more effective compared with single treatment. This combination showed profound antitumour and anti angiogenic effects in vitro and in vivo by downregulating Akt activity.Conclusions:BI-69A11 enhances the antitumour efficacy of Ad.5/3-mda-7 on CRC overexpressing K-RAS by inducing apoptosis and regulating Akt activity thereby warranting further evaluation in treating CRC. PMID:24892445

Pal, I; Sarkar, S; Rajput, S; Dey, K K; Chakraborty, S; Dash, R; Das, S K; Sarkar, D; Barile, E; De, S K; Pellecchia, M; Fisher, P B; Mandal, M

2014-07-01

243

Assessing the anti-tumour properties of Iraqi propolis in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

The study was designed to evaluate anti-tumour properties of Iraqi propolis collected from Mosul region (M) on HL-60 and HCT-116 cell lines and on HCT-116 in vivo. M induced an inhibitory effect against the proliferation of HL-60 and colony potential of HCT-116 cells. The apoptosis in HL-60 cells was associated with down-regulation of Bcl-2 and activation of Bax, while in HCT-116 cells, necrotic features were observed; size of cells was dramatically increased by swelling of cytoplasm and loss of membrane integrity, cell rupture and release of cellular contents. Analysis of BrdU/DNA cell cycle in both cell lines showed that M induced cell cycle perturbations in both BrdU positive and BrdU negative cells. The exposure of HL-60 to M caused ?-H2AX in a dose dependent manner and was associated with induction of apoptosis. The experiments in HCT-116 tumor-bearing mice showed that oral administration of propolis at doses that caused no detectable toxicity was associated with a decrease in mitotic cells and an increase in endoreduplications, increased p53 and decreased Ki-67 expression of cells in tumor sections. This study provides the rationale to investigate the potential beneficial effect of propolis in the diet of patients receiving anti-cancer therapies. PMID:22306915

Sulaiman, Ghassan M; Ad'hiah, Ali H; Al-Sammarrae, Khulood W; Bagnati, Renzo; Frapolli, Roberta; Bello, Ezia; Uboldi, Sarah; Romano, Michela; Panini, Nicolň; Scanziani, Eugenio; Pezzolato, Marzia; Erba, Eugenio; D'Incalci, Maurizio

2012-05-01

244

INCREASED LEVELS OF SUPEROXIDE AND HYDROGEN PEROXIDE MEDIATE THE DIFFERENTIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CANCER CELLS VS. NORMAL CELLS TO GLUCOSE DEPRIVATION  

PubMed Central

Cancer cells, relative to normal cells, demonstrate increased sensitivity to glucose deprivation-induced cytotoxicity. To determine if oxidative stress mediated by O2•? and hydroperoxides contributed to the differential susceptibility of human epithelial cancer cells to glucose deprivation, oxidation of dihydroethidine (DHE; for O2•?) and 5-(and-6)-carboxy-2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (CDCFH2; for hydroperoxides) were measured in human colon and breast cancer cells (HT29, HCT116, SW480, MB231) and compared to normal human cells (FHC, 33Co, HMEC). Cancer cells showed significant increases in DHE (2–20 fold) and CDCFH2 (1.8–10 fold) oxidation, relative to normal cells that were more pronounced in the presence of the mitochondrial electron transport chain blocker, antimycin A. Furthermore, HCT116 and MB231 cells were more susceptible to glucose deprivation-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress, relative to 33Co and HMEC. HT-29 cells were also more susceptible to 2-deoxyglucose-(2DG)-induced cytotoxicity, relative to FHC. Over expression of manganese superoxide dismutase and mitochondrially targeted catalase significantly protected HCT116 and MB231 cells from glucose deprivation-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress, as well as protecting HT-29 cells from 2DG-induced cytotoxicity. These results show cancer cells (relative to normal cells) demonstrate increased steady-state levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, i.e. O2•? and H2O2) that contribute to differential susceptibility to glucose deprivation-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. These studies support the hypotheses that cancer cells increase glucose metabolism to compensate for excess metabolic production of ROS as well as that inhibition of glucose and hydroperoxide metabolism may provide a biochemical target for selectively enhancing cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in human cancer cells.

Aykin-Burns, Nukhet; Ahmad, Iman M.; Zhu, Yueming; Oberley, Larry W.; Spitz, Douglas R.

2009-01-01

245

Inhibition of REV3 expression induces persistent DNA damage and growth arrest in cancer cells.  

PubMed

REV3 is the catalytic subunit of DNA translesion synthesis polymerase ?. Inhibition of REV3 expression increases the sensitivity of human cells to a variety of DNA-damaging agents and reduces the formation of resistant cells. Surprisingly, we found that short hairpin RNA-mediated depletion of REV3 per se suppresses colony formation of lung (A549, Calu-3), breast (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231), mesothelioma (IL45 and ZL55), and colon (HCT116 +/-p53) tumor cell lines, whereas control cell lines (AD293, LP9-hTERT) and the normal mesothelial primary culture (SDM104) are less affected. Inhibition of REV3 expression in cancer cells leads to an accumulation of persistent DNA damage as indicated by an increase in phospho-ATM, 53BP1, and phospho-H2AX foci formation, subsequently leading to the activation of the ATM-dependent DNA damage response cascade. REV3 depletion in p53-proficient cancer cell lines results in a G(1) arrest and induction of senescence as indicated by the accumulation of p21 and an increase in senescence-associated ?-galactosidase activity. In contrast, inhibition of REV3 expression in p53-deficient cells results in growth inhibition and a G(2)/M arrest. A small fraction of the p53-deficient cancer cells can overcome the G(2)/M arrest, which results in mitotic slippage and aneuploidy. Our findings reveal that REV3 depletion per se suppresses growth of cancer cell lines from different origin, whereas control cell lines and a mesothelial primary culture were less affected. Thus, our findings indicate that depletion of REV3 not only can amend cisplatin-based cancer therapy but also can be applied for susceptible cancers as a potential monotherapy. PMID:22028621

Knobel, Philip A; Kotov, Ilya N; Felley-Bosco, Emanuela; Stahel, Rolf A; Marti, Thomas M

2011-10-01

246

Ras mutation, irrespective of cell type and p53 status, determines a cell's destiny to undergo apoptosis by okadaic acid, an inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1 and 2A.  

PubMed

Okadaic acid (OA), a toxin from the black sponge Halicondria okadai, is a specific inhibitor of serine/threonine protein phosphatases 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A). OA is a tumor promoter but also induces apoptosis in some tumor cell lines. In this study, we determined whether ras mutation and/or p53 status are characteristics associated with the cell's sensitivity to the induction of apoptosis by OA. Several cell lines that differed in ras and p53 mutations were treated with OA (10-100 nM). At 24 to 48 h after treatment, the percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis was quantitated. The cell lines with mutations in either H-ras (human bladder carcinoma cell line T24 and mouse keratinocyte cell line 308), or K-ras (human colon carcinoma cell lines DLD-1 and HCT116; human prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and PC-3; human lung cancer cell lines Calu-6 and SKLU-1; and human pancreatic cancer cell line MIAPaCa2) were more sensitive to OA-induced apoptosis (3- to 10-fold) than the cell lines that lacked the ras mutation (mouse epidermal cell lines C50 and JB6; murine fibroblast cell line NIH3T3; human colon cancer cell line HT29; human kidney epithelial cell line Hs715.K; and human pancreatic cancer cell line Bx-PC3). Similarly, using isogenic cell lines we found that overexpression of mutated H-ras in NIH3T3 and in SV40 immortalized human uroepithelial cells (SVHUC) enhanced their sensitivity to undergo apoptosis in response to OA treatment. The T24, DLD-1, SKLU-1, Calu-6, and MIAPaCa2 cell lines express mutated p53. The SVHUC as well as their ras-transfected counterparts have inactive p53 due to complex formation between large "T" antigen and p53. Taken together, these results imply that OA-induced apoptosis may involve a p53-independent pathway. The transfectants (NIH3T3-ras and SVHUC-ras), which express mutated H-ras, have up-regulated PP2A activity. OA treatment inhibited in vivo the levels of PP1 and PP2A activity, and induced apoptosis in SVHUC-ras and other cell lines. We conclude that OA-induced cell death pathway in ras-activated cell lines may involve a cross talk between PP1 and PP2A and ras signaling pathways. In light of the present results, the current theory that OA promotes mouse skin tumor formation by selective expansion of initiated cells that harbor ras mutations needs reevaluation. PMID:10462539

Rajesh, D; Schell, K; Verma, A K

1999-09-01

247

Imaging colon cancer response following treatment with AZD1152: a preclinical analysis of [18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose and 3'-deoxy-3'-[18F]fluorothymidine imaging  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine whether treatment response to the Aurora B kinase inhibitor, AZD1152, could be monitored early in the course of therapy by non-invasive [18F]FDG and/or [18F]FLT PET imaging. Experimental design AZD1152-treated and control HCT116 and SW620 xenograft-bearing animals were monitored for tumor size and by [18F]FDG and [18F]FLT PET imaging. Additional studies assessed the endogenous and exogenous contributions thymidine synthesis in the two cell lines. Results Both xenografts showed a significant volume-reduction to AZD1152. In contrast, [18F]FDG uptake did not demonstrate a treatment response. [18F]FLT uptake decreased to less than 20% of control values in AZD1152-treated HCT116 xenografts, whereas [18F]FLT uptake was near background levels in both treated and untreated SW620 xenografts. The EC50 for AZD1152-HQPA was ~10 nM in both SW620 and HCT116 cells; in contrast, SW620 cells were much more sensitive to Methotrexate (MTX) and 5-Fluorouracil (5FU) than HCT116 cells. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated marginally lower expression of thymidine kinase in SW620 compared to HCT116 cells. The above results suggest that SW620 xenografts have a higher dependency on the de novo pathway of thymidine utilization than HCT116 xenografts. Conclusions AZD1152 treatment showed anti-tumor efficacy in both colon cancer xenografts. Although [18F]FDG PET was inadequate in monitoring treatment-response, [18F]FLT PET was very effective in monitoring response in HCT116 xenografts, but not in SW620 xenografts. These observations suggest that de novo thymidine synthesis could be a limitation and confounding factor for [18F]FLT PET imaging and quantification of tumor proliferation, and this may apply to some clinical studies as well.

Moroz, Maxim A.; Kochetkov, Tatiana; Cai, Shangde; Wu, Jiyuan; Shamis, Mikhail; Nair, Jayasree; de Stanchina, Elisa; Serganova, Inna; Schwartz, Gary K.; Banerjee, Debabrata; Bertino, Joseph R.; Blasberg, Ronald G.

2010-01-01

248

Colon cancer cell apoptosis is induced by combined exposure to the n-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid and butyrate through promoter methylation  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation and histone acetylation contribute to the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in apoptosis. We have demonstrated that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) and butyrate enhance colonocyte apoptosis. To determine if DHA and/or butyrate elevate apoptosis through epigenetic mechanisms thereby restoring the transcription of apoptosis-related genes, we examined global methylation; gene-specific promoter methylation of 24 apoptosis-related genes; transcription levels of Cideb, Dapk1, and Tnfrsf25; and global histone acetylation in the HCT-116 colon cancer cell line. Cells were treated with combinations of (50 ?M) DHA or linoleic acid (18:2 n-6), (5 mM) butyrate or an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases, and 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC, 2 ?M). Among highly methylated genes, the combination of DHA and butyrate significantly reduced methylation of the proapoptotic Bcl2l11, Cideb, Dapk1, Ltbr, and Tnfrsf25 genes compared to untreated control cells. DHA treatment reduced the methylation of Cideb, Dapk1, and Tnfrsf25. These data suggest that the induction of apoptosis by DHA and butyrate is mediated, in part, through changes in the methylation state of apoptosis-related genes.

Cho, Youngmi; Turner, Nancy D; Davidson, Laurie A; Chapkin, Robert S; Carroll, Raymond J; Lupton, Joanne R

2014-01-01

249

Mitochondrial p53 mediates a transcription-independent regulation of cell respiration and interacts with the mitochondrial F?F0-ATP synthase.  

PubMed

We and others previously reported that endogenous p53 can be located at mitochondria in the absence of stress, suggesting that p53 has a role in the normal physiology of this organelle. The aim of this study was to characterize in unstressed cells the intramitochondrial localization of p53 and identify new partners and functions of p53 in mitochondria. We find that the intramitochondrial pool of p53 is located in the intermembrane space and the matrix. Of note, unstressed HCT116 p53(+/+) cells simultaneously show increased O? consumption and decreased mitochondrial superoxide production compared with their p53-null counterpart. This data was confirmed by stable H1299 cell lines expressing low levels of p53 specifically targeted to the matrix. Using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we identified the oligomycin sensitivity-conferring protein (OSCP), a subunit of the F?F?-ATP synthase complex, as a new partner of endogenous p53, specifically interacting with p53 localized in the matrix. Interestingly, this interaction seems implicated in mitochondrial p53 localization. Moreover, p53 localized in the matrix promotes the assembly of F?F?-ATP synthase. Taking into account that deregulations of mitochondrial respiration and reactive oxygen species production are tightly linked to cancer development, we suggest that mitochondrial p53 may be an important regulator of normal mitochondrial and cellular physiology, potentially exerting tumor suppression activity inside mitochondria. PMID:23966169

Bergeaud, Marie; Mathieu, Lise; Guillaume, Arnaud; Moll, Ute M; Mignotte, Bernard; Le Floch, Nathalie; Vayssičre, Jean-Luc; Rincheval, Vincent

2013-09-01

250

Withanolide sulfoxide from Aswagandha roots inhibits nuclear transcription factor-kappa-B, cyclooxygenase and tumor cell proliferation.  

PubMed

Investigation of the methanol extract of Aswagandha (Withania somnifera) roots for bioactive constituents yielded a novel withanolide sulfoxide compound (1) along with a known withanolide dimer ashwagandhanolide (2) with an S-linkage. The structure of compound 1 was established by extensive NMR and MS experiments. Compound 1 was highly selective in inhibiting cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme by 60% at 100 microm with no activity against COX-1 enzyme. The IC(50) values of compound 1 against human gastric (AGS), breast (MCF-7), central nervous system (SF-268) and colon (HCT-116) cancer cell lines were in the range 0.74-3.63 microm. Both S-containing dimeric withanolides, 1 and 2, completely suppressed TNF-induced NF-kappaB activation when tested at 100 microm. The isolation of a withanolide sulfoxide from W. somnifera roots and its ability to inhibit COX-2 enzyme and to suppress human tumor cell proliferation are reported here for the first time. In addition, this is the first report on the abrogation of TNF-induced NF-kappaB activation for compounds 1 and 2. PMID:19152372

Mulabagal, Vanisree; Subbaraju, Gottumukkala V; Rao, Chirravuri V; Sivaramakrishna, Chillara; Dewitt, David L; Holmes, Daniel; Sung, Bokyung; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Tsay, Hsin-Sheng; Nair, Muraleedharan G

2009-07-01

251

Platinum anticancer agents and antidepressants: desipramine enhances platinum-based cytotoxicity in human colon cancer cells  

PubMed Central

A unique synergistic effect on platinum drug cytotoxicity is noted in the presence of the tricyclic anti-depressant desipramine. Desipramine is used for treating neuropathic pain, particularly in prostate cancer patients. The clinically used drugs cisplatin (cis-[PtCl2(NH3)2]), oxaliplatin [1,2-diaminocyclohexaneoxalatoplatinum(II)], and the cationic trinuclear agent BBR3464 [{trans-PtCl(NH3)2}2-?-(trans-Pt(NH3)2(H2N(CH2)6NH2)2)]4+, which has undergone evaluation in phase II clinical trials for activity in lung and ovarian cancers, were evaluated. Surprisingly, desipramine greatly augments the cytotoxicity of all the platinum-based chemotherapeutics in HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cell lines. Desipramine enhanced cellular accumulation of cisplatin, but had no effect on the accumulation of oxaliplatin or BBR3464, suggesting that enhanced accumulation could not be a consistent means by which desipramine altered the platinum-drug-mediated cytotoxicity. The desipramine/cisplatin combination resulted in increased levels of p53 as well as mitochondrial damage, caspase activation, and poly(ADP ribose) polymerase cleavage, suggesting that desipramine may synergize with cisplatin more than with other platinum chemotherapeutics partly by activating distinct apoptotic pathways. The study argues that desipramine may be a means of enhancing chemoresponsiveness of platinum drugs and the results warrant further investigation. The results emphasize the importance of understanding the differential pharmacological action of adjuvants employed in combinations with cancer chemotherapeutics.

Kabolizadeh, Peyman; Engelmann, Brigitte J.; Pullen, Nicholas; Stewart, Jennifer K.; Ryan, John J.

2011-01-01

252

Platinum anticancer agents and antidepressants: desipramine enhances platinum-based cytotoxicity in human colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

A unique synergistic effect on platinum drug cytotoxicity is noted in the presence of the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine. Desipramine is used for treating neuropathic pain, particularly in prostate cancer patients. The clinically used drugs cisplatin (cis-[PtCl(2)(NH(3))(2)]), oxaliplatin [1,2-diaminocyclohexaneoxalatoplatinum(II)], and the cationic trinuclear agent BBR3464 [{trans-PtCl(NH(3))(2)}(2)-?-(trans-Pt(NH(3))(2)(H(2)N(CH(2))(6)NH(2))(2))](4+), which has undergone evaluation in phase II clinical trials for activity in lung and ovarian cancers, were evaluated. Surprisingly, desipramine greatly augments the cytotoxicity of all the platinum-based chemotherapeutics in HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cell lines. Desipramine enhanced cellular accumulation of cisplatin, but had no effect on the accumulation of oxaliplatin or BBR3464, suggesting that enhanced accumulation could not be a consistent means by which desipramine altered the platinum-drug-mediated cytotoxicity. The desipramine/cisplatin combination resulted in increased levels of p53 as well as mitochondrial damage, caspase activation, and poly(ADP ribose) polymerase cleavage, suggesting that desipramine may synergize with cisplatin more than with other platinum chemotherapeutics partly by activating distinct apoptotic pathways. The study argues that desipramine may be a means of enhancing chemoresponsiveness of platinum drugs and the results warrant further investigation. The results emphasize the importance of understanding the differential pharmacological action of adjuvants employed in combinations with cancer chemotherapeutics. PMID:21918844

Kabolizadeh, Peyman; Engelmann, Brigitte J; Pullen, Nicholas; Stewart, Jennifer K; Ryan, John J; Farrell, Nicholas P

2012-01-01

253

A New Cell-Selective Three-Dimensional Microincubator Based on Silicon Photonic Crystals  

PubMed Central

In this work, we show that vertical, high aspect-ratio (HAR) photonic crystals (PhCs), consisting of periodic arrays of 5 µm wide gaps with depth of 50 µm separated by 3 µm thick silicon walls, fabricated by electrochemical micromachining, can be used as three-dimensional microincubators, allowing cell lines to be selectively grown into the gaps. Silicon micromachined dice incorporating regions with different surface profiles, namely flat silicon and deeply etched PhC, were used as microincubators for culturing adherent cell lines with different morphology and adhesion properties. We extensively investigated and compared the proliferative behavior on HAR PhCs of eight human cell models, with different origins, such as the epithelial (SW613-B3; HeLa; SW480; HCT116; HT29) and the mesenchymal (MRC-5V1; CF; HT1080). We also verified the contribution of cell sedimentation into the silicon gaps. Fluorescence microscopy analysis highlights that only cell lines that exhibit, in the tested culture condition, the behavior typical of the mesenchymal phenotype are able to penetrate into the gaps of the PhC, extending their body deeply in the narrow gaps between adjacent silicon walls, and to grow adherent to the vertical surfaces of silicon. Results reported in this work, confirmed in various experiments, strongly support our statement that such three-dimensional microstructures have selection capabilities with regard to the cell lines that can actively populate the narrow gaps. Cells with a mesenchymal phenotype could be exploited in the next future as bioreceptors, in combination with HAR PhC optical transducers, e.g., for label-free optical detection of cellular activities involving changes in cell adhesion and/or morphology (e.g., apoptosis) in a three-dimensional microenvironment.

Carpignano, Francesca; Silva, Gloria; Surdo, Salvatore; Leva, Valentina; Montecucco, Alessandra; Aredia, Francesca; Scovassi, Anna Ivana; Merlo, Sabina; Barillaro, Giuseppe; Mazzini, Giuliano

2012-01-01

254

Tumor cell alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity and its involvement in GcMAF-related macrophage activation.  

PubMed

Alpha-N-acetyl galactosaminidase (alpha-NaGalase) has been reported to accumulate in serum of cancer patients and be responsible for deglycosylation of Gc protein, which is a precursor of GcMAF-mediated macrophage activation cascade, finally leading to immunosuppression in advanced cancer patients. We studied the biochemical characterization of alpha-NaGalase from several human tumor cell lines. We also examined its effect on the potency of GcMAF to activate mouse peritoneal macrophage to produce superoxide in GcMAF-mediated macrophage activation cascade. The specific activity of alpha-NaGalases from human colon tumor cell line HCT116, human hepatoma cell line HepG2, and normal human liver cells (Chang liver cell line) were evaluated using two types of substrates; GalNAc-alpha-PNP (exo-type substrate) and Gal-beta-GalNAc-alpha-PNP (endo-type substrate). Tumor-derived alpha-NaGalase having higher activity than normal alpha-NaGalase, had higher substrate specificity to the exo-type substrate than to the endo-type substrate, and still maintained its activity at pH 7. GcMAF enhance superoxide production in mouse macrophage, and pre-treatment of GcMAF with tumor cell lysate reduce the activity. We conclude that tumor-derived alpha-NaGalase is different in biochemical characterization compared to normal alpha-NaGalase from normal Chang liver cells. In addition, tumor cell-derived alpha-NaGalase decreases the potency of GcMAF on macrophage activation. PMID:12062184

Mohamad, Saharuddin B; Nagasawa, Hideko; Uto, Yoshihiro; Hori, Hitoshi

2002-05-01

255

Metabolites of Ginger Component [6]-Shogaol Remain Bioactive in Cancer Cells and Have Low Toxicity in Normal Cells: Chemical Synthesis and Biological Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Our previous study found that [6]-shogaol, a major bioactive component in ginger, is extensively metabolized in cancer cells and in mice. It is unclear whether these metabolites retain bioactivity. The aim of the current study is to synthesize the major metabolites of [6]-shogaol and evaluate their inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis in human cancer cells. Twelve metabolites of [6]-shogaol (M1, M2, and M4–M13) were successfully synthesized using simple and easily accessible chemical methods. Growth inhibition assays showed that most metabolites of [6]-shogaol had measurable activities against human cancer cells HCT-116 and H-1299. In particular, metabolite M2 greatly retained the biological activities of [6]-shogaol, with an IC50 of 24.43 µM in HCT-116 human colon cancer cells and an IC50 of 25.82 µM in H-1299 human lung cancer cells. Also exhibiting a relatively high potency was thiol-conjugate M13, with IC50 values of 45.47 and 47.77 µM toward HCT-116 and H-1299 cells, respectively. The toxicity evaluation of the synthetic metabolites (M1, M2, and M4–M13) against human normal fibroblast colon cells CCD-18Co and human normal lung cells IMR-90 demonstrated a detoxifying metabolic biotransformation of [6]-shogaol. The most active metabolite M2 had almost no toxicity to CCD-18Co and IMR-90 normal cells with IC50s of 99.18 and 98.30 µM, respectively. TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling) assay indicated that apoptosis was triggered by metabolites M2, M13, and its two diastereomers M13-1 and M13-2. There was no significant difference between the apoptotic effect of [6]-shogaol and the effect of M2 and M13 after 6 hour treatment.

Zhu, Yingdong; Chen, Huadong; Sang, Shengmin

2013-01-01

256

The BH3 mimetic ABT-263 synergizes with the MEK1/2 inhibitor selumetinib/AZD6244 to promote BIM-dependent tumour cell death and inhibit acquired resistance.  

PubMed

Tumour cells typically exhibit a G(1) cell cycle arrest in response to the MEK1/2 [mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) kinase 1/2] inhibitor selumetinib, but do not die, and thus they acquire resistance. In the present study we examined the effect of combining selumetinib with the BH3 [BCL2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) homology domain 3]-mimetic BCL2 inhibitor ABT-263. Although either drug alone caused little tumour cell death, the two agents combined to cause substantial caspase-dependent cell death and inhibit long-term clonogenic survival of colorectal cancer and melanoma cell lines with BRAF(V600E) or RAS mutations. This cell death absolutely required BAX (BCL2-associated X protein) and was inhibited by RNAi (RNA interference)-mediated knockdown of BIM (BCL2-interacting mediator of cell death) in the BRAF(V600E)-positive COLO205 cell line. When colorectal cancer cell lines were treated with selumetinib plus ABT-263 we observed a striking reduction in the incidence of cells emerging with acquired resistance to selumetinib. Similar results were observed when we combined ABT-263 with the BRAF(V600E)-selective inhibitor PLX4720, but only in cells expressing BRAF(V600E). Finally, cancer cells in which acquired resistance to selumetinib arises through BRAF(V600E) amplification remained sensitive to ABT-263, whereas selumetinib-resistant HCT116 cells (KRAS(G13D) amplification) were cross-resistant to ABT-263. Thus the combination of a BCL2 inhibitor and an ERK1/2 pathway inhibitor is synthetic lethal in ERK1/2-addicted tumour cells, delays the onset of acquired resistance and in some cases overcomes acquired resistance to selumetinib. PMID:23234544

Sale, Matthew J; Cook, Simon J

2013-03-01

257

Biomimetic macroporous hydrogel scaffolds in a high-throughput screening format for cell-based assays.  

PubMed

Macroporous hydrogels (MHs) hold great promise as scaffolds in tissue engineering and cell-based assays. In this study, the possibility of combination of three-dimensional (3D) cell culture with a miniaturized screening format was demonstrated on human colon cancer HCT116, human acute myeloid leukemia KG-1 cells, and embryonic fibroblasts cultured on MHs (12.5 mm x 7.1 mm I.D.) in a 96-minicolumn plate format. MHs were prepared by cryogelation technique and functionalized by coating with type I collagen and by copolymerization with agmatine-based mimetic of cell adhesive peptide RGD (abRGDm). Cancer cells formed multicellular aggregates while fibroblasts formed adhesions on abRGDm-containing and collagen-MHs but not on plain MHs, as was demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy. HCT116 and KG-1 cells grown as aggregates were more resistant to the treatment with cis-diaminedichloroplatinum (II) (cisplatin) and cytosine 1-beta-D-arabinofuranoside (Ara-C), respectively, during the first 18-24 h of incubation, than single cells grown on unmodified MH. HCT116 cells grown as 2D cultures in conventional 96-well tissue culture plates were 1.5- to 3.5-fold more sensitive to the treatment with 70 microM cisplatin than cells in 3D cultures in functionalized MHs. Further development of the described experimental system including matching of a specific cell type with appropriate extracellular matrix (ECM) components and 3D cocultures on ECM-modified MHs may provide a realistic in vitro experimental model for high-throughput toxicity tests. PMID:19194952

Dainiak, Maria B; Savina, Irina N; Musolino, Isabella; Kumar, Ashok; Mattiasson, Bo; Galaev, Igor Yu

2008-01-01

258

Molluscan cells in culture: primary cell cultures and cell lines  

PubMed Central

In vitro cell culture systems from molluscs have significantly contributed to our basic understanding of complex physiological processes occurring within or between tissue-specific cells, yielding information unattainable using intact animal models. In vitro cultures of neuronal cells from gastropods show how simplified cell models can inform our understanding of complex networks in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures from marine and freshwater bivalve and gastropod species are used as biomonitors for environmental contaminants, as models for gene transfer technologies, and for studies of innate immunity and neoplastic disease. Despite efforts to isolate proliferative cell lines from molluscs, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 embryonic (Bge) cell line is the only existing cell line originating from any molluscan species. Taking an organ systems approach, this review summarizes efforts to establish molluscan cell cultures and describes the varied applications of primary cell cultures in research. Because of the unique status of the Bge cell line, an account is presented of the establishment of this cell line, and of how these cells have contributed to our understanding of snail host-parasite interactions. Finally, we detail the difficulties commonly encountered in efforts to establish cell lines from molluscs and discuss how these difficulties might be overcome.

Yoshino, T. P.; Bickham, U.; Bayne, C. J.

2013-01-01

259

Synthesis and biological evaluation of 1,2,4-triazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives as potential cytotoxic agents.  

PubMed

A series of new 3-amino-5-sulfanyl-1,2,4-triazole and 2-amino-5-sulfanyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives have been synthesized and their cytotoxicities were evaluated on a panel of human cancer cell lines (BxPC-3, H1975, SKOV-3, A875, HCT116, etc.). The best one (compound 5m) exhibited activities with IC50 values ranging from 0.04 to 23.6?µM against nine human cancer cell lines. Further biological evaluation indicated that DNA replication was blocked by treatment with compound 5m in HCT116 cells. PMID:23934258

Shi, Yao-Jie; Song, Xue-Jiao; Li, Xiao; Ye, Ting-Hong; Xiong, Ying; Yu, Luo-Ting

2013-01-01

260

Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase promotes tumor cell resistance to chemotherapeutic agents via a mechanism involving delay in cell cycle progression  

SciTech Connect

Approaches to overcome chemoresistance in cancer cells have involved targeting specific signaling pathways such as the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, a stress response pathway known to be involved in the regulation of cell survival, apoptosis and growth. The present study determined the effect of PI3K inhibition on the clonogenic survival of human cancer cells following exposure to various chemotherapeutic agents. Treatment with the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 or Compound 15e resulted in increased survival of MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells after exposure to doxorubicin, etoposide, 5-fluorouracil, and vincristine. Increased survival following PI3K inhibition was also observed in DU-145 prostate, HCT-116 colon and A-549 lung carcinoma cell lines exposed to doxorubicin. Increased cell survival mediated by LY294002 was correlated with a decrease in cell proliferation, which was linked to an increase in the proportion of cells in the G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle. Inhibition of PI3K signaling also resulted in higher levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21{sup Waf1/Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1}; and knockdown of p27{sup kip1} with siRNA attenuated resistance to doxorubicin in cells treated with LY294002. Incubation in the presence of LY294002 after exposure to doxorubicin resulted in decreased cell survival. These findings provide evidence that PI3K inhibition leads to chemoresistance in human cancer cells by causing a delay in cell cycle; however, the timing of PI3K inhibition (either before or after exposure to anti-cancer agents) may be a critical determinant of chemosensitivity.

McDonald, Gail T.; Sullivan, Richard; Pare, Genevieve C.; Graham, Charles H., E-mail: grahamc@queensu.ca

2010-11-15

261

Curcumin Targets FOLFOX-surviving Colon Cancer Cells via Inhibition of EGFRs and IGF-1R  

PubMed Central

Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), which has no discernible toxicity, inhibits initiation, promotion and progression of carcinogenesis. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) or 5-FU plus oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) remains the backbone of colorectal cancer chemotherapeutics, but produces an incomplete response resulting in survival of cells (chemo-surviving cells) that may lead to cancer recurrence. The present investigation was, therefore, undertaken to examine whether addition of curcumin to FOLFOX is a superior therapeutic strategy for chemo-surviving cells. Forty-eight-hour treatment of colon cancer HCT-116 and HT-29 cells with FOLFOX resulted in 60–70% survival, accompanied by a marked activation of insulin like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and minor to moderate increase in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 (HER-2) as well as v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and cyclin-D1. However, inclusion of curcumin to continued FOLFOX treatment for another 48 h greatly reduced the survival of these cells, accompanied by a concomitant reduction in activation of EGFR, HER-2, IGF-1R and AKT, as well as expression of COX-2 and cyclin-D1. More importantly, EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib or attenuation of IGF-1R expression by the corresponding si-RNA caused a 30–60% growth inhibition of chemo-surviving HCT-116 cells. However, curcumin alone was found to be more effective than both gefitinib and IGF-1R si-RNA mediated growth inhibition of chemo-surviving HCT-116 cells and addition of FOLFOX to curcumin did not increase the growth inhibitory effect of curcumin. Our data suggest that inclusion of curcumin in conventional chemotherapeutic regimens could be an effective strategy to prevent the emergence of chemoresistant colon cancer cells.

Patel, Bhaumik B.; Gupta, Deepshika; Elliott, Althea A.; Sengupta, Vivek; Yu, Yingjie; Majumdar, Adhip P. N.

2013-01-01

262

The ?-catenin E3 ubiquitin ligase SIAH-1 is regulated by CSN5/JAB1 in CRC cells.  

PubMed

COP9 signalosome subunit 5 (CSN5) plays a decisive role in cellular processes such as cell cycle regulation and apoptosis via promoting protein degradation, gene transcription, and nuclear export. CSN5 regulates cullin-RING-E3 ligase (CRL) activity through its deNEDDylase function. It is overexpressed in several tumor entities, but its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) is poorly understood. Wnt/?-catenin signaling is aberrant in most CRC cells, resulting in increased levels of oncogenic ?-catenin and thus tumor progression. Under physiological conditions, ?-catenin levels are tightly regulated by continuous proteasomal degradation. We recently showed that knockdown of CSN5 in model and CRC cells results in decreased (phospho)-?-catenin levels. Reduced ?-catenin levels were associated with an attenuated proliferation rate of different CRC cell types after CSN5 knockdown. The canonical Wnt pathway involves degradation of ?-catenin by a ?-TrCP1-containing E3 ligase, but is mostly non-functional in CRC cells. We thus hypothesized that alternative ?-catenin degradation mediated by SIAH-1 (seven in absentia homolog-1), is responsible for the effect of CSN5 on ?-catenin signaling in CRC cells. We found that SIAH-1 plays an essential role in ?-catenin degradation in HCT116 CRC cells and that CSN5 affects ?-catenin target gene expression in these cells. Of note, CSN5 affected SIAH-1 mRNA and SIAH-1 protein levels. Moreover, ?-catenin and SIAH-1 form protein complexes with CSN5 in HCT116 cells. Lastly, we demonstrate that CSN5 promotes SIAH-1 degradation in HCT116 and SW480 cells and that this is associated with its deNEDDylase activity. In conclusion, we have identified a CSN5/?-catenin/SIAH-1 interaction network that might control ?-catenin degradation in CRC cells. PMID:24882689

Jumpertz, Sandra; Hennes, Thomas; Asare, Yaw; Vervoorts, Jörg; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Schütz, Anke K

2014-09-01

263

Generating Mammalian Stable Cell Lines by Electroporation  

PubMed Central

Expression of functional, recombinant mammalian proteins often requires expression in mammalian cells (see Single Cell Cloning of a Stable Mammalian Cell Line). If the expressed protein needs to be made frequently, it can be best to generate a stable cell line instead of performing repeated transient transfections into mammalian cells. Here, we describe a method to generate stable cell lines via electroporation followed by selection steps. This protocol will be limited to the CHO dhfr– Urlaub et al. (1983) and LEC1 cell lines, which in our experience perform the best with this method.

Longo, Patti A.; Kavran, Jennifer M.; Kim, Min-Sung; Leahy, Daniel J.

2014-01-01

264

Cytotoxicity studies of semi-synthetic derivatives of theveside derived from the aqueous extract of leaves of 'suicide tree' Cerbera odollam.  

PubMed

We report the isolation of two known iridoid glucosides theviridoside (1) and theveside (2) from the aqueous extract of leaves of Cerbera odollam and semi-synthetic derivatisation of theveside prepared in a single step under protection group-free conditions. Derivatives 2a-j were evaluated for cytotoxicity towards five human cancer cell lines of different origins, namely SKBR3 (breast), HeLa (cervical), A375 (skin), HepG2 (liver) and HCT-116 (colon), and IC50 values were determined. Derivatives 2b and 2h exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against HCT-116 and A375 cell lines, respectively. PMID:24805359

Gorantla, Jaggaiah N; Vellekkatt, Jamsheena; Nath, Lekshmi R; Anto, Ruby John; Lankalapalli, Ravi S

2014-09-01

265

Silencing VDAC1 Expression by siRNA Inhibits Cancer Cell Proliferation and Tumor Growth In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Alterations in cellular metabolism and bioenergetics are vital for cancer cell growth and motility. Here, the role of the mitochondrial protein voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC1), a master gatekeeper regulating the flux of metabolites and ions between mitochondria and the cytoplasm, in regulating the growth of several cancer cell lines was investigated by silencing VDAC1 expression using small interfering RNA (siRNA). A single siRNA specific to the human VDAC1 sequence at nanomolar concentrations led to some 90% decrease in VDAC1 levels in the lung A549 and H358, prostate PC-3, colon HCT116, glioblastoma U87, liver HepG2, and pancreas Panc-1 cancer cell lines. VDAC1 silencing persisted 144 hours post-transfection and resulted in profound inhibition of cell growth in cancer but not in noncancerous cells, with up to 90% inhibition being observed over 5 days that was prolonged by a second transfection. Cells expressing low VDAC1 levels showed decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and adenoside triphosphate (ATP) levels, suggesting limited metabolite exchange between mitochondria and cytosol. Moreover, cells silenced for VDAC1 expression showed decreased migration, even in the presence of the wound healing accelerator basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). VDAC1-siRNA inhibited cancer cell growth in a Matrigel-based assay in host nude mice. Finally, in a xenograft lung cancer mouse model, chemically modified VDAC1-siRNA not only inhibited tumor growth but also resulted in tumor regression. This study thus shows that VDAC1 silencing by means of RNA interference (RNAi) dramatically inhibits cancer cell growth and tumor development by disabling the abnormal metabolic behavior of cancer cells, potentially paving the way for a more effective pipeline of anticancer drugs.

Arif, Tasleem; Vasilkovsky, Lilia; Refaely, Yael; Konson, Alexander; Shoshan-Barmatz, Varda

2014-01-01

266

Silencing VDAC1 Expression by siRNA Inhibits Cancer Cell Proliferation and Tumor Growth In Vivo.  

PubMed

Alterations in cellular metabolism and bioenergetics are vital for cancer cell growth and motility. Here, the role of the mitochondrial protein voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC1), a master gatekeeper regulating the flux of metabolites and ions between mitochondria and the cytoplasm, in regulating the growth of several cancer cell lines was investigated by silencing VDAC1 expression using small interfering RNA (siRNA). A single siRNA specific to the human VDAC1 sequence at nanomolar concentrations led to some 90% decrease in VDAC1 levels in the lung A549 and H358, prostate PC-3, colon HCT116, glioblastoma U87, liver HepG2, and pancreas Panc-1 cancer cell lines. VDAC1 silencing persisted 144 hours post-transfection and resulted in profound inhibition of cell growth in cancer but not in noncancerous cells, with up to 90% inhibition being observed over 5 days that was prolonged by a second transfection. Cells expressing low VDAC1 levels showed decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and adenoside triphosphate (ATP) levels, suggesting limited metabolite exchange between mitochondria and cytosol. Moreover, cells silenced for VDAC1 expression showed decreased migration, even in the presence of the wound healing accelerator basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). VDAC1-siRNA inhibited cancer cell growth in a Matrigel-based assay in host nude mice. Finally, in a xenograft lung cancer mouse model, chemically modified VDAC1-siRNA not only inhibited tumor growth but also resulted in tumor regression. This study thus shows that VDAC1 silencing by means of RNA interference (RNAi) dramatically inhibits cancer cell growth and tumor development by disabling the abnormal metabolic behavior of cancer cells, potentially paving the way for a more effective pipeline of anticancer drugs. PMID:24781191

Arif, Tasleem; Vasilkovsky, Lilia; Refaely, Yael; Konson, Alexander; Shoshan-Barmatz, Varda

2014-01-01

267

GDNF increases cell motility in human colon cancer through VEGF-VEGFR1 interaction.  

PubMed

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a potent neurotrophic factor, has been shown to affect cancer cell metastasis and invasion. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying GDNF-induced colon cancer cell migration remain unclear. GDNF is found to be positively correlated with malignancy in human colon cancer patients. The migratory activities of two human colon cancer cell lines, HCT116 and SW480, were found to be enhanced in the presence of human GDNF. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was also increased in response to GDNF stimulation, along with VEGF mRNA expression and transcriptional activity. The enhancement of GDNF-induced cancer cell migration was antagonized by a VEGF-neutralizing antibody. Our results also showed that the expression of VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1) was increased in response to GDNF stimulation, whereas GDNF-induced cancer cell migration was reduced by a VEGFR inhibitor. The GDNF-induced VEGF expression was regulated by the p38 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Treatment with GDNF increased nuclear hypoxia-inducible factor 1 ? (HIF1?) accumulation and its transcriptional activity in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, GDNF increased hypoxia responsive element (HRE)-containing VEGF promoter transcriptional activity but not that of the HRE-deletion VEGF promoter construct. Inhibition of HIF1? by a pharmacological inhibitor or dominant-negative mutant reduced the GDNF-induced migratory activity in human colon cancer cells. These results indicate that GDNF enhances the migration of colon cancer cells by increasing VEGF-VEGFR interaction, which is mainly regulated by the p38, PI3K/Akt, and HIF1? signaling pathways. PMID:24165321

Huang, Ssu-Ming; Chen, Tzu-Sheng; Chiu, Chien-Ming; Chang, Leang-Kai; Liao, Kuan-Fu; Tan, Hsiao-Ming; Yeh, Wei-Lan; Chang, Gary Ro-Lin; Wang, Min-Ying; Lu, Dah-Yuu

2014-02-01

268

Effects of the kava chalcone flavokawain A differ in bladder cancer cells with wild-type versus mutant p53.  

PubMed

Flavokawain A is the predominant chalcone from kava extract. We have assessed the mechanisms of flavokawain A's action on cell cycle regulation. In a p53 wild-type, low-grade, and papillary bladder cancer cell line (RT4), flavokawain A increased p21/WAF1 and p27/KIP1, which resulted in a decrease in cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2) kinase activity and subsequent G(1) arrest. The increase of p21/WAF1 protein corresponded to an increased mRNA level, whereas p27/KIP1 accumulation was associated with the down-regulation of SKP2, which then increased the stability of the p27/KIP1 protein. The accumulation of p21/WAF1 and p27/KIP1 was independent of cell cycle position and thus not a result of the cell cycle arrest. In contrast, flavokawain A induced a G(2)-M arrest in six p53 mutant-type, high-grade bladder cancer cell lines (T24, UMUC3, TCCSUP, 5637, HT1376, and HT1197). Flavokawain A significantly reduced the expression of CDK1-inhibitory kinases, Myt1 and Wee1, and caused cyclin B1 protein accumulation leading to CDK1 activation in T24 cells. Suppression of p53 expression by small interfering RNA in RT4 cells restored Cdc25C expression and down-regulated p21/WAF1 expression, which allowed Cdc25C and CDK1 activation, which then led to a G(2)-M arrest and an enhanced growth-inhibitory effect by flavokawain A. Consistently, flavokawain A also caused a pronounced CDK1 activation and G(2)-M arrest in p53 knockout but not in p53 wild-type HCT116 cells. This selectivity of flavokawain A for inducing a G(2)-M arrest in p53-defective cells deserves further investigation as a new mechanism for the prevention and treatment of bladder cancer. PMID:19138991

Tang, Yaxiong; Simoneau, Anne R; Xie, Jun; Shahandeh, Babbak; Zi, Xiaolin

2008-11-01

269

Effects of the Kava Chalcone Flavokawain A Differ in Bladder Cancer Cells with Wild-type versus Mutant p53  

PubMed Central

Flavokawain A is the predominant chalcone from kava extract. We have assessed the mechanisms of flavokawain A's action on cell cycle regulation. In a p53 wild-type, low-grade, and papillary bladder cancer cell line (RT4), flavokawain A increased p21/WAF1 and p27/KIP1, which resulted in a decrease in cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2) kinase activity and subsequent G1 arrest. The increase of p21/WAF1 protein corresponded to an increased mRNA level, whereas p27/KIP1 accumulation was associated with the down-regulation of SKP2 and then increased the stability of the p27/KIP1 protein. The accumulation of p21/WAF1 and p27/KIP1 was independent of cell cycle position and thus not a result of the cell cycle arrest. In contrast, flavokawain A induced a G2-M arrest in six p53 mutant-type, high-grade bladder cancer cell lines (T24, UMUC3, TCCSUP, 5637, HT1376, and HT1197). Flavokawain A significantly reduced the expression of CDK1-inhibitory kinases, Myt1 and Wee1, and caused cyclin B1 protein accumulation leading to CDK1 activation in T24 cells. Suppression of p53 expression by small interfering RNA in RT4 cells restored Cdc25C expression and down-regulated p21/WAF1 expression, which allowed Cdc25C and CDK1 activation and then led to a G2-M arrest and an enhanced growth-inhibitory effect by flavokawain A. Consistently, flavokawain A also caused a pronounced CDK1 activation and G2-M arrest in p53 knockout but not in p53 wild-type HCT116 cells. This selectivity of flavokawain A for inducing a G2-M arrest in p53-defective cells deserves further investigation as a new mechanism for the prevention and treatment of bladder cancer.

Tang, Yaxiong; Simoneau, Anne R.; Xie, Jun; Shahandeh, Babbak; Zi, Xiaolin

2010-01-01

270

Pinocembrin triggers Bax-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis in colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

Bioflavanoids are the major pigments in plants with multitude of biological activities including inhibition of proliferation or induction of apoptosis in tumor cells. Even though the safety records of most flavanoids are exceptional, its therapeutic use is still in its infancy. We have isolated pinocembrin (5,7-dihydroxyflavanone) from Alpinia galanga that showed cytotoxicity against a variety of cancer cells including normal lung fibroblasts with relative nontoxicity to human umbilical cord endothelial cells. The compound induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential with subsequent release of cytochrome c and processing of caspase-9 and -3 in colon cancer cell line HCT 116. Processing of caspase-8 was minimal. The initial trigger for mitochondrial apoptosis appears to be by the translocation of cytosolic Bax protein to mitochondria. Overexpression of proapoptotic Bax protein sensitized the colon cancer cells to pinocembrin-induced apoptosis and Bax knockout cells were resistant to pinocembrin-induced apoptosis. Antiapoptotic protein Bcl-X(L) only partially prevented apoptosis induced by this compound. The Bax-dependent cell death involving classical cytochrome c release and processing of caspase-9 and -3 suggests that pinocembrin is a classical mitochondrial apoptosis inducer. But the failure of Bcl-X(L) overexpression to completely prevent apoptosis induced by this compound suggests that pinocembrin is capable of triggering mitochondrial-independent cell death that needs to be clarified. The existence of cell death upon Bcl-X(L) overexpression is a promising feature of this compound that can be exploited against drug resistant forms of cancer cells either alone or in combination with other drugs. PMID:17186548

Kumar, M A Suresh; Nair, Mangalam; Hema, P S; Mohan, John; Santhoshkumar, T R

2007-03-01

271

Pharmacogenomic profiling and pathway analyses identify MAPK-dependent migration as an acute response to SN38 in p53 null and mutant colorectal cancer cells  

PubMed Central

The topoisomerase I inhibitor irinotecan is used to treat advanced colorectal cancer and has been shown to have p53-independent anti-cancer activity. The aim of this study was to identify the p53-independent signalling mechanisms activated by irinotecan. Transcriptional profiling of isogenic HCT116 p53 wild-type and p53 null cells was carried out following treatment with the active metabolite of irinotecan, SN38. Unsupervised analysis methods demonstrated that p53 status had a highly significant impact on gene expression changes in response to SN38. Pathway analysis indicated that pathways involved in cell motility (adherens junction, focal adhesion, MAPK and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton) were significantly activated in p53 null cells, but not p53 wild-type cells, following SN38 treatment. In functional assays, SN38 treatment increased the migratory potential of p53 null and mutant colorectal cancer cell lines, but not p53 wild-type lines. Moreover, p53 null SN38-resistant cells were found to migrate at a faster rate than parental drug-sensitive p53 null cells, whereas p53 wild-type SN38-resistant cells failed to migrate. Notably, co-treatment with inhibitors of the MAPK pathway inhibited the increased migration observed following SN38 treatment in p53 null and mutant cells. Thus, in the absence of wild-type p53, SN38 promotes migration of colorectal cancer cells, and inhibiting MAPK blocks this potentially pro-metastatic adaptive response to this anti-cancer drug.

Allen, Wendy L.; Turkington, Richard C.; Stevenson, Leanne; Carson, Gail; Coyle, Vicky M.; Hector, Suzanne; Dunne, Philip; Van Schaeybroeck, Sandra; Longley, Daniel B.; Johnston, Patrick G.

2012-01-01

272

How Embryonic Stem Cell Lines are Made  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use of embryonic stem cells in research has been hotly debated for several years. This animation presents the basics on how stem cell lines are established. This animation from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory's Dolan DNA Learning Center presents how embryonic stem cell lines are made through a series of illustrations of the processes involved.

2012-03-23

273

Degradation of NF-?B, p53 and other regulatory redox-sensitive proteins by thiol-conjugating and -nitrosylating drugs in human tumor cells.  

PubMed

The ionized cysteines present on the surfaces of many redox-sensitive proteins play functionally essential roles and are readily targeted by the reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. Using disulfiram (DSF) and nitroaspirin (NCX4016) as the model compounds that mediate thiol-conjugating and nitrosylating reactions, respectively, we investigated the fate of p53, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) and other redox-responsive proteins following the exposure of human cancer cell lines to the drugs. Both drugs induced glutathionylation of bulk proteins in tumor cells and cell-free extracts. A prominent finding of this study was a time- and dose-dependent degradation of the redox-regulated proteins after brief treatments of tumor cells with DSF or NCX4016. DSF and copper-chelated DSF at concentrations of 50-200 µM induced the disappearance of wild-type p53, mutant p53, NF-?B subunit p50 and the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 (UBE1) in tumor cell lines. DSF also induced the glutathionylation of p53. The recombinant p53 protein modified by DSF was preferentially degraded by rabbit reticulocyte lysates. The proteasome inhibitor PS341 curtailed the DSF-induced degradation of p53 in HCT116 cells. Further, the NCX4016 induced a dose-dependent disappearance of the UBE1 and NF-?B p50 proteins in cell lines, besides a time-dependent degradation of aldehyde dehydrogenase in mouse liver after a single injection of 150 mg/kg. The loss of p53 and NF-kB proteins correlated with decreases in their specific binding to DNA. Our results demonstrate the hitherto unrecognized ability of the non-toxic thiolating and nitrosylating agents to degrade regulatory proteins and highlight the exploitable therapeutic benefits. PMID:23354308

Paranjpe, Ameya; Srivenugopal, Kalkunte S

2013-05-01

274

Degradation of NF-?B, p53 and other regulatory redox-sensitive proteins by thiol-conjugating and -nitrosylating drugs in human tumor cells  

PubMed Central

The ionized cysteines present on the surfaces of many redox-sensitive proteins play functionally essential roles and are readily targeted by the reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. Using disulfiram (DSF) and nitroaspirin (NCX4016) as the model compounds that mediate thiol-conjugating and nitrosylating reactions, respectively, we investigated the fate of p53, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) and other redox-responsive proteins following the exposure of human cancer cell lines to the drugs. Both drugs induced glutathionylation of bulk proteins in tumor cells and cell-free extracts. A prominent finding of this study was a time- and dose-dependent degradation of the redox-regulated proteins after brief treatments of tumor cells with DSF or NCX4016. DSF and copper-chelated DSF at concentrations of 50–200 µM induced the disappearance of wild-type p53, mutant p53, NF-?B subunit p50 and the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 (UBE1) in tumor cell lines. DSF also induced the glutathionylation of p53. The recombinant p53 protein modified by DSF was preferentially degraded by rabbit reticulocyte lysates. The proteasome inhibitor PS341 curtailed the DSF-induced degradation of p53 in HCT116 cells. Further, the NCX4016 induced a dose-dependent disappearance of the UBE1 and NF-?B p50 proteins in cell lines, besides a time-dependent degradation of aldehyde dehydrogenase in mouse liver after a single injection of 150mg/kg. The loss of p53 and NF-kB proteins correlated with decreases in their specific binding to DNA. Our results demonstrate the hitherto unrecognized ability of the non-toxic thiolating and nitrosylating agents to degrade regulatory proteins and highlight the exploitable therapeutic benefits.

Srivenugopal, Kalkunte S.

2013-01-01

275

MicroRNA-26a regulates glucose metabolism by direct targeting PDHX in colorectal cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background Reprogramming energy metabolism has been an emerging hallmark of cancer cells. MicroRNAs play important roles in glucose metabolism. Methods The targets of microRNA-26a (miR-26a) were predicted by bioinformatics tools. The efficacy of miR-26a binding the 3?-untranslated region (UTR) of pyruvate dehydrogenase protein X component (PDHX) mRNA was evaluated using a dual-luciferase reporter assay. The PDHX expression at the mRNA and protein level in several colon cancer cell lines was quantified with real-time PCR and Western blot analysis respectively. The effects of miR-26a on glucose metabolism were determined by detecting the content of glucose consumption, production of lactate, pyruvate, and acetyl-coenzyme A. Results The expression of miR-26a is inversely associated with the level of its targeting protein PDHX in several colon cancer cell lines with different malignancy potentials. MiR-26a inhibits PDHX expression by direct targeting the 3?-UTR of PDHX mRNA. The glucose consumption and lactate concentration were both greatly increased in colon cancer cells than the normal colon mucosal epithelia under physiological conditions. The overexpression of miR-26a in HCT116 cells efficiently improved the accumulation of pyruvate and decreased the production of acetyl coenzyme A. Meanwhile the inhibition of miR-26a expression induced inverse biological effects. Conclusions MiR-26a regulates glucose metabolism of colorectal cancer cells by direct targeting the PDHX, which inhibits the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A in the citric acid cycle.

2014-01-01

276

Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Neopeltolide and Analogs  

PubMed Central

The synthesis of neopeltolide analogs that contain variations in the oxazole-containing side chain and in the macrolide core are reported along with the GI50 values for these compounds against MCF7, HCT-116, and p53 knockout HCT-116 cell lines. Although biological activity is sensitive to changes in the macrocycle and the side chain, several analogs displayed GI50 values of <25 nM. Neopeltolide and several of the more potent analogs were significantly less potent against p53 knockout cells, suggesting that p53 plays an auxiliary role in the activity of these compounds.

Cui, Yubo; Balachandran, Raghavan

2012-01-01

277

Molecular Characterization of Putative Chordoma Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Immortal tumor cell lines are an important model system for cancer research, however, misidentification and cross-contamination of cell lines are a common problem. Seven chordoma cell lines are reported in the literature, but none has been characterized in detail. We analyzed gene expression patterns and genomic copy number variations in five putative chordoma cell lines (U-CH1, CCL3, CCL4, GB60, and CM319). We also created a new chordoma cell line, U-CH2, and provided genotypes for cell lines for identity confirmation. Our analyses revealed that CCL3, CCL4, and GB60 are not chordoma cell lines, and that CM319 is a cancer cell line possibly derived from chordoma, but lacking expression of key chordoma biomarkers. U-CH1 and U-CH2 both have gene expression profiles, copy number aberrations, and morphology consistent with chordoma tumors. These cell lines also harbor genetic changes, such as loss of p16, MTAP, or PTEN, that make them potentially useful models for studying mechanisms of chordoma pathogenesis and for evaluating targeted therapies.

Bruderlein, Silke; Sommer, Joshua B.; Meltzer, Paul S.; Li, Sufeng; Osada, Takuya; Ng, David; Moller, Peter; Alcorta, David A.; Kelley, Michael J.

2010-01-01

278

MicroRNA-21 induces stemness by downregulating transforming growth factor beta receptor 2 (TGF?R2) in colon cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Although microRNA-21 (miR-21) is emerging as an oncogene and has been shown to target several tumor suppressor genes, including programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), its precise mechanism of action on cancer stem cells (CSCs) is unclear. Herein, we report that FOLFOX-resistant HCT-116 and HT-29 cells that are enriched in CSCs show a 3- to 7-fold upregulation of pre- and mature miR-21 and downregulation of PDCD4. Likewise, overexpression of miR-21 in HCT-116 cells, achieved through stable transfection, led to the downregulation of PDCD4 and transforming growth factor beta receptor 2 (TGF?R2). In contrast, the levels of ?-catenin, TCF/LEF activity and the expression of c-Myc, Cyclin-D, which are increased in CSCs, are also augmented in miR-21 overexpressing colon cancer cells, accompanied by an increased sphere forming ability in vitro and tumor formation in SCID mice. Downregulation of TGF?R2 could be attributed to decreased expression of the receptor as evidenced by reduction in the activity of the luciferase gene construct comprising TGF?R2-3? untranslated region (UTR) sequence that binds to miR-21. Moreover, we observed that downregulation of miR-21 enhances luciferase-TGF?R2-3? UTR activity suggesting TGF?R2 as being one of the direct targets of miR-21. Further support is provided by the observation that transfection of TGF?R2 in HCT-116 cells attenuates TCF/LEF luciferase activity, accompanied by decreased expression of ?-catenin, c-Myc and Cyclin-D1. Our current data suggest that miR-21 plays an important role in regulating stemness by modulating TGF?R2 signaling in colon cancer cells.

Yu, Yingjie; Kanwar, Shailender S.; Patel, Bhaumik B.; Oh, Phil-Sun; Nautiyal, Jyoti; Sarkar, Fazlul H.; Majumdar, Adhip P.N.

2012-01-01

279

Synthesis of a novel legumain-cleavable colchicine prodrug with cell-specific toxicity.  

PubMed

Conventional chemotherapy has undesirable toxic side-effects to healthy tissues due to low cell selectivity of cytotoxic drugs. One approach to increase the specificity of a cytotoxic drug is to make a less toxic prodrug which becomes activated at the tumour site. The cysteine protease legumain have remarkable restricted substrate specificity and is the only known mammalian asparaginyl (Asn) endopeptidase. Over-expression of legumain is reported in cancers and unstable atherosclerotic plaques, and utilizing legumain is a promising approach to activate prodrugs. In this study we have synthesized the legumain-cleavable peptide sequence N-Boc-Ala-Ala-Asn-Val-OH. The peptide was subsequently conjugated to deacetyl colchicine during three steps to produce Suc-Ala-Ala-Asn-Val-colchicine (prodrug) with >90% chemical purity. Several cell lines with different expressions and activities of legumain were used to evaluate the general toxicity, specificity and efficacy of the microtubule inhibitor colchicine, valyl colchicine and the legumain-cleavable colchicine prodrug. The prodrug was more toxic to the colorectal cancer HCT116 cells (expressing both the 36kDa active and 56kDa proform of legumain) than SW620 cells (only expressing the 56kDa prolegumain) indicating a relationship between toxicity of the prodrug and activity of legumain in the cells. Also, in monoclonal legumain over-expressing HEK293 cells the prodrug toxicity was higher compared to native HEK293 cells. Furthermore, co-administration of the prodrug either with the potent legumain inhibitor cystatin E/M or the endocytosis inhibitor Dyngo-4a inhibited cell death, indicating that the prodrug toxicity was dependent on both asparaginyl endopeptidase activity and endocytosis. This colchicine prodrug adds to a legumain-activated prodrug strategy approach and could possibly be of use both in targeted anticancer and anti-inflammatory therapy. PMID:24842619

Smith, Robert Lřvsletten; Strand, Ove Alexander Hřgmoen; Nguyen, Luan Minh; Elvestrand, Tina; Hagelin, Gunnar; Solberg, Rigmor; Johansen, Harald Thidemann; Rongved, Pĺl

2014-07-01

280

CellLineMiner: a knowledge portal for human cell lines  

PubMed Central

Experimental models of human tissues and disease phenotypes frequently rely upon immortalized cell lines, which are easily accessible and simple to use due to their infinite capability of cell division. For decades, cell lines have been used to investigate cellular mechanisms of disease and the efficacy of drugs, most prominently for human cancers. However, the large body of knowledge with respect to human cell lines exists primarily in an unstructured fashion, that is, as free text in the scientific literature. Here we present CellLineMiner, a novel text mining-based web database that provides a comprehensive view of human cell line knowledge. The application offers a simple search in all indexed cell lines, accompanied by a rapid display of all identified literature associations. The CellLineMiner is intended to serve as a knowledge resource companion to the cellular model systems used in biomedical research. Availability CellLineMiner is accessible at http://dev.pubgene.com/cellmine

Nakken, Sigve; Johansen, Morten; Fillebeen, Julien; Berge, Ole Petter; Kirker?d, Harald; Jenssen, Tor-Kristian; Hovig, Eivind

2012-01-01

281

Human Esophageal Epithelial Cell Lines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Human esophageal epithelial cells having replicative capacity in cell culture that is enhanced compared to normal cells and are unable to produce tumors is disclosed. Normal human esophagus tissue from two autopsy specimens was explanted in serum-free med...

G. D. Stoner R. R. Reddel C. C. Harris R. Roger

1989-01-01

282

The PTEN/PI3K/Akt and Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathways are involved in the inhibitory effect of resveratrol on human colon cancer cell proliferation.  

PubMed

Colon cancer is one of the most common malignancies and the treatments for colon cancer have been developed substantially in the last decades, but there is still a great clinical need to explore new treatment regimens due to the undesirable prognosis. In this investigation, we demonstrated the anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities of resveratrol (Res) in human colon cancer cells, and the possible mechanisms underlying these effects. We used crystal violet staining, flow cytometry and western blotting to validate the anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects of Res on HCT116 cells. A xenograft tumor model was used to confirm the anti-proliferative effects of Res. We employed polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, recombinant adenovirus and luciferase reporter assay to explore the possible mechanism(s) of action. We found that Res inhibits significantly the proliferation and promotes apoptosis in HCT116 cells, as well as inhibits the xenograft tumor growth of colon cancer. Res upregulates the expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and decreases the phosphorylation of Akt1/2. The exogenous expression of PTEN inhibits the PI3K/Akt signal and promotes the anti-proliferative effects of Res in HCT116 cells, while knockdown of PTEN increases PI3K/Akt signal but reduces the anti-proliferative function of Res. The protein and mRNA expression of ?-catenin are all decreased by Res concentration-dependently. Thus, our findings strongly suggest that the anti-proliferative effects of Res in human colon cancer cells may be mediated by regulating separately the PTEN/PI3K/Akt and Wnt/?-catenin signaling. PMID:24756222

Liu, Ying-Zi; Wu, Ke; Huang, Jun; Liu, Yang; Wang, Xin; Meng, Zi-Jun; Yuan, Shuang-Xue; Wang, Dong-Xu; Luo, Jin-Yong; Zuo, Guo-Wei; Yin, Liang-Jun; Chen, Liang; Deng, Zhong-Liang; Yang, Jun-Qin; Sun, Wen-Juan; He, Bai-Cheng

2014-07-01

283

DAPK plays an important role in panobinostat-induced autophagy and commits cells to apoptosis under autophagy deficient conditions.  

PubMed

The histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) LBH589 has been verified as an effective anticancer agent. The identification and characterization of new targets for LBH589 action would further enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in HDACi therapy. The role of the tumor suppressor death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) in LBH589-induced cytotoxicity has not been investigated to date. Stable DAPK knockdown (shRNA) and DAPK overexpressing (DAPK+++) cell lines were generated from HCT116 wildtype colon cancer cells. LBH589 inhibited cell proliferation, reduced the long-term survival, and up-regulated and activated DAPK in colorectal cancer cells. Moreover, LBH589 significantly suppressed the growth of colon tumor xenografts and in accordance with the in vitro studies, increased DAPK levels were detected immunohistochemically. LBH589 induced a DAPK-dependent autophagy as assessed by punctuate accumulation of LC3-II, the formation of acidic vesicular organelles, and degradation of p62 protein. LBH589-induced autophagy seems to be predominantly caused by DAPK protein interactions than by its kinase activity. Caspase inhibitor zVAD increased autophagosome formation, decreased the cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP but didn't rescue the cells from LBH589-induced cell death in crystal violet staining suggesting both caspase-dependent as well as caspase-independent apoptosis pathways. Pre-treatment with the autophagy inhibitor Bafilomycin A1 caused caspase 3-mediated apoptosis in a DAPK-dependent manner. Altogether our data suggest that DAPK induces autophagy in response to HDACi-treatment. In autophagy deficient cells, DAPK plays an essential role in committing cells to HDACi-induced apoptosis. PMID:23011180

Gandesiri, Muktheshwar; Chakilam, Saritha; Ivanovska, Jelena; Benderska, Natalya; Ocker, Matthias; Di Fazio, Pietro; Feoktistova, Maria; Gali-Muhtasib, Hala; Rave-Fränk, Margret; Prante, Olaf; Christiansen, Hans; Leverkus, Martin; Hartmann, Arndt; Schneider-Stock, Regine

2012-12-01

284

Ferrocene and (arene)ruthenium(II) complexes of the natural anticancer naphthoquinone plumbagin with enhanced efficacy against resistant cancer cells and a genuine mode of action.  

PubMed

A series of ferrocene and (arene)ruthenium(II) complexes attached to the naturally occurring anticancer naphthoquinones plumbagin and juglone was tested for efficacy against various cancer cell lines and for alterations in the mode of action. The plumbagin ferrocene and (p-cymene)Ru(II) conjugates 1c and 2a overcame the multi-drug drug resistance of KB-V1/Vbl cervix carcinoma cells and showed IC50 (72h) values around 1?M in growth inhibition assays using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). They were further investigated for their influence on the cell cycle of KB-V1/Vbl and HCT-116 colon carcinoma cells, on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the latter cell line, for their substrate character for the P-glycoprotein drug eflux pump via the calcein-AM efflux assays, and for DNA affinity by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The derivatives 1c and 2a increased the number of dead cancer cells (sub-G0/G1 fraction) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. ROS levels were significantly increased upon treatment with 1c and 2a. These compounds also showed a greater affinity to linear DNA than plumbagin. While plumbagin did not affect calcein-AM transport by P-glycoprotein the derivatives 1c and 2a exhibited a 50% or 80% inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-mediated calcein-AM efflux relative to the clinically established sensitizer verapamil. PMID:24907976

Spoerlein-Guettler, Cornelia; Mahal, Katharina; Schobert, Rainer; Biersack, Bernhard

2014-09-01

285

Dichloroacetate induces autophagy in colorectal cancer cells and tumours  

PubMed Central

Background: Dichloroacetate (DCA) has been found to have antitumour properties. Methods: We investigated the cellular and metabolic responses to DCA treatment and recovery in human colorectal (HT29, HCT116 WT and HCT116 Bax-ko), prostate carcinoma cells (PC3) and HT29 xenografts by flow cytometry, western blotting, electron microscopy, 1H and hyperpolarised 13C-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results: Increased expression of the autophagy markers LC3B II was observed following DCA treatment both in vitro and in vivo. We observed increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mTOR inhibition (decreased pS6 ribosomal protein and p4E-BP1 expression) as well as increased expression of MCT1 following DCA treatment. Steady-state lactate excretion and the apparent hyperpolarised [1-13C] pyruvate-to-lactate exchange rate (kPL) were decreased in DCA-treated cells, along with increased NAD+/NADH ratios and NAD+. Steady-state lactate excretion and kPL returned to, or exceeded, control levels in cells recovered from DCA treatment, accompanied by increased NAD+ and NADH. Reduced kPL with DCA treatment was found in HT29 tumour xenografts in vivo. Conclusions: DCA induces autophagy in cancer cells accompanied by ROS production and mTOR inhibition, reduced lactate excretion, reduced kPL and increased NAD+/NADH ratio. The observed cellular and metabolic changes recover on cessation of treatment.

Lin, G; Hill, D K; Andrejeva, G; Boult, J K R; Troy, H; Fong, A-C L F W T; Orton, M R; Panek, R; Parkes, H G; Jafar, M; Koh, D-M; Robinson, S P; Judson, I R; Griffiths, J R; Leach, M O; Eykyn, T R; Chung, Y-L

2014-01-01

286

Hepatocytes Determine the Hypoxic Microenvironment and Radiosensitivity of Colorectal Cancer Cells Through Production of Nitric Oxide That Targets Mitochondrial Respiration  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether host hepatocytes may reverse hypoxic radioresistance through nitric oxide (NO)-induced oxygen sparing, in a model relevant to colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases. Methods and Materials: Hepatocytes and a panel of CRC cells were incubated in a tissue-mimetic coculture system with diffusion-limited oxygenation, and oxygen levels were monitored by an oxygen-sensing fluorescence probe. To activate endogenous NO production, cocultures were exposed to a cytokine mixture, and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase was analyzed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and NO/nitrite production. The mitochondrial targets of NO were examined by enzymatic activity. To assess hypoxic radioresponse, cocultures were irradiated and reseeded for colonies. Results: Resting hepatocytes consumed 10-40 times more oxygen than mouse CT26 and human DLD-1, HT29, HCT116, and SW480 CRC cells, and thus seemed to be the major effectors of hypoxic conditioning. As a result, hepatocytes caused uniform radioprotection of tumor cells at a 1:1 ratio. Conversely, NO-producing hepatocytes radiosensitized all CRC cell lines more than 1.5-fold, similar to the effect of selective mitochondrial inhibitors. The radiosensitizing effect was associated with a respiratory self-arrest of hepatocytes at the level of aconitase and complex II, which resulted in profound reoxygenation of tumor cells through oxygen sparing. Nitric oxide–producing hepatocytes were at least 10 times more active than NO-producing macrophages to reverse hypoxia-induced radioresistance. Conclusions: Hepatocytes were the major determinants of the hypoxic microenvironment and radioresponse of CRC cells in our model of metabolic hypoxia. We provide evidence that reoxygenation and radiosensitization of hypoxic CRC cells can be achieved through oxygen sparing induced by endogenous NO production in host hepatocytes.

Jiang, Heng; Verovski, Valeri N.; Leonard, Wim; Law, Ka Lun; Vermeersch, Marieke; Storme, Guy; Van den Berge, Dirk; Gevaert, Thierry; Sermeus, Alexandra [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); De Ridder, Mark, E-mail: mark.deridder@uzbrussel.be [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)

2013-03-01

287

Lactobacillus gasseri SF1183 Affects Intestinal Epithelial Cell Survival and Growth  

PubMed Central

It is now commonly accepted that the intestinal microbiota plays a crucial role in the gut physiology and homeostasis, and that both qualitative and quantitative alterations in the compositions of the gut flora exert profound effects on the host’s intestinal cells. In spite of this, the details of the interaction between commensal bacteria and intestinal cells are still largely unknown and only in few cases the molecular mechanisms have been elucidated. Here we analyze the effects of molecules produced and secreted by Lactobacillus gasseri SF1183 on human intestinal HCT116 cells. L. gasseri is a well known species of lactic acid bacteria, commonly associated to the human intestine and SF1183 is a human strain previously isolated from an ileal biopsy of an healthy volunteer. SF1183 produces and secretes, in a growth phase-dependent way, molecule(s) able to drastically interfere with HCT116 cell proliferation. Although several attempts to purify and identify the bioactive molecule(s) have been so far unsuccessful, a partial characterization has indicated that it is smaller than 3 kDa, thermostable and of proteinaceous nature. L. gasseri molecule(s) stimulate a G1-phase arrest of the cell cycle by up-regulation of p21WAF1 rendering cells protected from intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis. A L. gasseri-mediated reduction of apoptosis and of cell proliferation could be relevant in protecting epithelial barrier integrity and helping in reconstituting tissutal homeostasis.

Baccigalupi, Loredana; Calabro, Viola; Crescenzi, Elvira; Ricca, Ezio; Pollice, Alessandra

2013-01-01

288

Dihydroartemisinin induces apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells through the mitochondria-dependent pathway.  

PubMed

Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a semisynthetic derivative of artemisinin isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Artemisia annua, has been shown to exhibit antitumor activity in various cancer cells, including colorectal cancer. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying its antitumor activity in colorectal cancer remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated DHA-induced apoptosis in human colorectal cancer HCT-116 cells in vitro. The results showed that DHA treatment significantly reduced cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, DHA induced G1 cell cycle arrest, apoptotic cell death, and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also found that DHA decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential; activated the caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9; and increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Meanwhile, the translocation of apoptotic inducing factor (AIF) and the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria were observed. Strikingly, the free radical scavenger N-acetylcysteine or the caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO significantly prevented DHA-induced apoptotic cell death. Taken together, we concluded that DHA-triggered apoptosis in HCT-116 cells occurs through the ROS-mediated mitochondria-dependent pathway. Our data suggest that DHA has great potential to be developed as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of human colorectal cancer. PMID:24519064

Lu, Min; Sun, Luhaoran; Zhou, Jin; Yang, Jing

2014-06-01

289

Anthracycline resistance mediated by reductive metabolism in cancer cells: The role of aldo-keto reductase 1C3.  

PubMed

Pharmacokinetic drug resistance is a serious obstacle that emerges during cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we investigated the possible role of aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) in the resistance of cancer cells to anthracyclines. First, the reducing activity of AKR1C3 toward anthracyclines was tested using incubations with a purified recombinant enzyme. Furthermore, the intracellular reduction of daunorubicin and idarubicin was examined by employing the transfection of A549, HeLa, MCF7 and HCT 116 cancer cells with an AKR1C3 encoding vector. To investigate the participation of AKR1C3 in anthracycline resistance, we conducted MTT cytotoxicity assays with these cells, and observed that AKR1C3 significantly contributes to the resistance of cancer cells to daunorubicin and idarubicin, whereas this resistance was reversible by the simultaneous administration of 2'-hydroxyflavanone, a specific AKR1C3 inhibitor. In the final part of our work, we tracked the changes in AKR1C3 expression after anthracycline exposure. Interestingly, a reciprocal correlation between the extent of induction and endogenous levels of AKR1C3 was recorded in particular cell lines. Therefore, we suggest that the induction of AKR1C3 following exposure to daunorubicin and idarubicin, which seems to be dependent on endogenous AKR1C3 expression, eventually might potentiate an intrinsic resistance given by the normal expression of AKR1C3. In conclusion, our data suggest a substantial impact of AKR1C3 on the metabolism of daunorubicin and idarubicin, which affects their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic behavior. In addition, we demonstrate that the reduction of daunorubicin and idarubicin, which is catalyzed by AKR1C3, contributes to the resistance of cancer cells to anthracycline treatment. PMID:24832494

Hofman, Jakub; Malcekova, Beata; Skarka, Adam; Novotna, Eva; Wsol, Vladimir

2014-08-01

290

Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC) Human Cell Line  

Cancer.gov

A renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell line designated UOK171 has been developed from the resected tumor of a patient diagnosed with stage IV high nuclear grade clear cell type renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). The UOK171 cell line was immortalized spontaneously by mincing the resected tumor into pieces followed by propagation of the cells over more than twenty generations. One of the most prominent characteristics of this cell line is its intact, nonmutated von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene.

291

Thyroid cancer cell lines: an overview.  

PubMed

Human thyroid cancer cell lines are the most used models for thyroid cancer studies. They must be used with detailed knowledge of their characteristics. These in vitro cell lines originate from differentiated and dedifferentiated in vivo human thyroid tumors. However, it has been shown that mRNA expression profiles of these cell lines were closer to dedifferentiated in vivo thyroid tumors (anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, ATC) than to differentiated ones. Here an overview of the knowledge of these models was made. The mutational status of six human thyroid cancer cell lines (WRO, FTC133, BCPAP, TPC1, K1, and 8505C) was in line with previously reported findings for 10 genes frequently mutated in thyroid cancer. However, the presence of a BRAF mutation (T1799A: V600E) in WRO questions the use of this cell line as a model for follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC). Next, to investigate the biological meaning of the modulated mRNAs in these cells, a pathway analysis on previously obtained mRNA profiles was performed on five cell lines. In five cell lines, the MHC class II pathway was down-regulated and in four of them, ribosome biosynthesis and translation pathways were up-regulated. mRNA expression profiles of the cell lines were also compared to those of the different types of thyroid cancers. Three datasets originating from different microarray platforms and derived from distinct laboratories were used. This meta-analysis showed a significant higher correlation between the profiles of the thyroid cancer cell lines and ATC, than to differentiated thyroid tumors (i.e., PTC or FTC) specifically for DNA replication. This already observed higher correlation was obtained here with an increased number of in vivo tumors and using different platforms. In summary, this would suggest that some papillary thyroid carcinoma or follicular thyroid carcinoma (PTC or FTC) cell lines (i.e., TPC-1) might have partially lost their original DNA synthesis/replication regulation mechanisms during their in vitro cell adaptation/evolution. PMID:23162534

Saiselet, Manuel; Floor, Sébastien; Tarabichi, Maxime; Dom, Genevičve; Hébrant, Aline; van Staveren, Wilma C G; Maenhaut, Carine

2012-01-01

292

Thyroid cancer cell lines: an overview  

PubMed Central

Human thyroid cancer cell lines are the most used models for thyroid cancer studies. They must be used with detailed knowledge of their characteristics. These in vitro cell lines originate from differentiated and dedifferentiated in vivo human thyroid tumors. However, it has been shown that mRNA expression profiles of these cell lines were closer to dedifferentiated in vivo thyroid tumors (anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, ATC) than to differentiated ones. Here an overview of the knowledge of these models was made. The mutational status of six human thyroid cancer cell lines (WRO, FTC133, BCPAP, TPC1, K1, and 8505C) was in line with previously reported findings for 10 genes frequently mutated in thyroid cancer. However, the presence of a BRAF mutation (T1799A: V600E) in WRO questions the use of this cell line as a model for follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC). Next, to investigate the biological meaning of the modulated mRNAs in these cells, a pathway analysis on previously obtained mRNA profiles was performed on five cell lines. In five cell lines, the MHC class II pathway was down-regulated and in four of them, ribosome biosynthesis and translation pathways were up-regulated. mRNA expression profiles of the cell lines were also compared to those of the different types of thyroid cancers. Three datasets originating from different microarray platforms and derived from distinct laboratories were used. This meta-analysis showed a significant higher correlation between the profiles of the thyroid cancer cell lines and ATC, than to differentiated thyroid tumors (i.e., PTC or FTC) specifically for DNA replication. This already observed higher correlation was obtained here with an increased number of in vivo tumors and using different platforms. In summary, this would suggest that some papillary thyroid carcinoma or follicular thyroid carcinoma (PTC or FTC) cell lines (i.e., TPC-1) might have partially lost their original DNA synthesis/replication regulation mechanisms during their in vitro cell adaptation/evolution.

Saiselet, Manuel; Floor, Sebastien; Tarabichi, Maxime; Dom, Genevieve; Hebrant, Aline; van Staveren, Wilma C. G.; Maenhaut, Carine

2012-01-01

293

Non-thermal Plasma Causes p53-Dependent Apoptosis in Human Colon Carcinoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Non-thermal plasma (NTP) consists of a huge amount of biologically active particles, whereas its temperature is close to ambient. This combination allows one to use NTP as a perspective tool for solving different biomedical tasks, including antitumor therapy. The treatment of tumor cells with NTP caused dose-dependent effects, such as growth arrest and apoptosis. However, while the outcome of NTP treatment has been established, the molecular mechanisms of the interaction between NTP and eukaryotic cells have not been thoroughly studied thus far. In this work, the mechanisms and the type of death of human colon carcinoma HCT 116 cells upon application of non-thermal argon plasma were studied. The effect of NTP on the major stress-activated protein p53 was investigated. The results demonstrate that the viability of HCT116 cells upon plasma treatment is dependent on the functional p53 protein. NTP treatment caused an increase in the intracellular concentration of p53 and the induction of the p53-controlled regulon. The p53-dependent accumulation of active proapoptotic caspase-3 was shown in NTP-treated cells. The study was the first to demonstrate that treatment of human colon carcinoma cells with NTP results in p53-dependent apoptosis. The results obtained contribute to our understanding of the applicability of NTP in antitumor therapy.

Tuhvatulin, A.I.; Sysolyatina, E.V.; Scheblyakov, D.V.; Logunov, D.Yu.; Vasiliev, M.M.; Yurova, M.A.; Danilova, M.A.; Petrov, O.F.; Naroditsky, B.S.; Morfill, G.E.; Grigoriev, A.I.; Fortov, V.E.; Gintsburg, A.L.; Ermolaeva, S.A.

2012-01-01

294

Global dissociation of HuR-mRNA complexes promotes cell survival after ionizing radiation  

PubMed Central

Ionizing radiation (IR) triggers adaptive changes in gene expression. Here, we show that survival after IR strongly depends on the checkpoint kinase Chk2 acting upon its substrate HuR, an RNA-binding protein that stabilizes and/or modulates the translation of target mRNAs. Microarray analysis showed that in human HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cells (WT), IR-activated Chk2 triggered the dissociation of virtually all of HuR-bound mRNAs, since IR did not dissociate HuR target mRNAs in Chk2-null (CHK2?/?) HCT116 cells. Accordingly, several HuR-interacting mRNAs encoding apoptosis- and proliferation-related proteins (TJP1, Mdm2, TP53BP2, Bax, K-Ras) dissociated from HuR in WT cells, but remained bound and showed altered post-transcriptional regulation in CHK2?/? cells. Use of HuR mutants that were not phosphorylatable by Chk2 (HuR(3A)) and HuR mutants mimicking constitutive phosphorylation by Chk2 (HuR(3D)) revealed that dissociation of HuR target transcripts enhanced cell survival. We propose that the release of HuR-bound mRNAs via an IR-Chk2-HuR regulatory axis improves cell outcome following IR.

Masuda, Kiyoshi; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Kim, Mihee M; Srikantan, Subramanya; Lee, Eun Kyung; Tominaga, Kumiko; Selimyan, Roza; Martindale, Jennifer L; Yang, Xiaoling; Lehrmann, Elin; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G; Wang, Jian-Ying; Kim, Hyeon Ho; Gorospe, Myriam

2011-01-01

295

14-3-3?-mediated transport of plakoglobin to the cell border is required for the initiation of desmosome assembly in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

The regulation of cell-cell adhesion is important for the processes of tissue formation and morphogenesis. Here, we report that loss of 14-3-3? leads to a decrease in cell-cell adhesion and a defect in the transport of plakoglobin and other desmosomal proteins to the cell border in HCT116 cells and cells of the mouse testis. 14-3-3? binds to plakoglobin in a PKC?-dependent fashion, resulting in microtubule-dependent transport of plakoglobin to cell borders. Transport of plakoglobin to the border is dependent on the KIF5B-KLC1 complex. Knockdown of KIF5B in HCT116 cells, or in the mouse testis, results in a phenotype similar to that observed upon 14-3-3? knockdown. Our results suggest that loss of 14-3-3? leads to decreased desmosome formation and a decrease in cell-cell adhesion in vitro, and in the mouse testis in vivo, leading to defects in testis organization and spermatogenesis. PMID:24610948

Sehgal, Lalit; Mukhopadhyay, Amitabha; Rajan, Anandi; Khapare, Nileema; Sawant, Mugdha; Vishal, Sonali S; Bhatt, Khyati; Ambatipudi, Srikant; Antao, Noelle; Alam, Hunain; Gurjar, Mansa; Basu, Srikanta; Mathur, Rohit; Borde, Lalit; Hosing, Amol S; Vaidya, Milind M; Thorat, Rahul; Samaniego, Felipe; Kolthur-Seetharam, Ullas; Dalal, Sorab N

2014-05-15

296

Mitochondria-targeted plastoquinone derivatives as tools to interrupt execution of the aging program. 3. Inhibitory effect of SkQ1 on tumor development from p53-deficient cells.  

PubMed

It was proposed that increased level of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), mediating execution of the aging program of an organism, could also be critical for neoplastic transformation and tumorigenesis. This proposal was addressed using new mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 (10-(6'-plastoquinonyl) decyltriphenylphosphonium) that scavenges ROS in mitochondria at nanomolar concentrations. We found that diet supplementation with SkQ1 (5 nmol/kg per day) suppressed spontaneous development of tumors (predominantly lymphomas) in p53(-/-) mice. The same dose of SkQ1 inhibited the growth of human colon carcinoma HCT116/p53(-/-) xenografts in athymic mice. Growth of tumor xenografts of human HPV-16-associated cervical carcinoma SiHa was affected by SkQ1 only slightly, but survival of tumor-bearing animals was increased. It was also shown that SkQ1 inhibited the tumor cell proliferation, which was demonstrated for HCT116 p53(-/-) and SiHa cells in culture. Moreover, SkQ1 induced differentiation of various tumor cells in vitro. Coordinated SkQ1-initiated changes in cell shape, cytoskeleton organization, and E-cadherin-positive intercellular contacts were observed in epithelial tumor cells. In Ras- and SV40-transformed fibroblasts, SkQ1 was found to initiate reversal of morphological transformation of a malignant type, restoring actin stress fibers and focal adhesion contacts. SkQ1 suppressed angiogenesis in Matrigel implants, indicating that mitochondrial ROS could be important for tumor angiogenesis. This effect, however, was less pronounced in HCT116/p53(-/-) tumor xenografts. We have also shown that SkQ1 and related positively charged antioxidants are substrates of the P-glycoprotein multidrug resistance pump. The lower anti-tumor effect and decreased intracellular accumulation of SkQ1, found in the case of HCT116 xenografts bearing mutant forms of p53, could be related to a higher level of P-glycoprotein. The effects of traditional antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) on tumor growth and tumor cell phenotype were similar to the effects of SkQ1 but more than 1,000,000 times higher doses of NAC than those of SkQ1 were required. Extremely high efficiency of SkQ1, related to its accumulation in the mitochondrial membrane, indicates that mitochondrial ROS production is critical for tumorigenesis at least in some animal models. PMID:19120016

Agapova, L S; Chernyak, B V; Domnina, L V; Dugina, V B; Efimenko, A Yu; Fetisova, E K; Ivanova, O Yu; Kalinina, N I; Khromova, N V; Kopnin, B P; Kopnin, P B; Korotetskaya, M V; Lichinitser, M R; Lukashev, A L; Pletjushkina, O Yu; Popova, E N; Skulachev, M V; Shagieva, G S; Stepanova, E V; Titova, E V; Tkachuk, V A; Vasiliev, J M; Skulachev, V P

2008-12-01

297

Isolation and identification of strawberry phenolics with antioxidant and human cancer cell antiproliferative properties.  

PubMed

Studies suggest that consumption of berry fruits, including strawberries ( Fragaria x ananassa Duch.), may have beneficial effects against oxidative stress mediated diseases such as cancer. Berries contain multiple phenolic compounds, which are thought to contribute to their biological properties. Comprehensive profiling of phenolics from strawberries was previously reported using high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) detection. The current study reports the isolation and structural characterization of 10 phenolic compounds from strawberry extracts using a combination of Amberlite XAD16-resin and C18 columns, HPLC-UV, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy methods. The phenolics were cyanidin-3-glucoside ( 1), pelargonidin (2), pelargonidin-3-glucoside (3), pelargonidin-3-rutinoside (4), kaempferol (5), quercetin (6), kaempferol-3-(6'-coumaroyl)glucoside) (7), 3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl-acrylic acid (8), glucose ester of ( E)- p-coumaric acid (9), and ellagic acid . Strawberry crude extracts and purified compounds 1- 10 were evaluated for antioxidant and human cancer cell antiproliferative activities by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and luminescent ATP cell viability assays, respectively. Among the pure compounds, the anthocyanins 1 (7156 microM Trolox/mg), 2 (4922 microM Trolox/mg), and 4 (5514 microM Trolox/mg) were the most potent antioxidants. Crude extracts (250 microg/mL) and pure compounds (100 microg/mL) inhibited the growth of human oral (CAL-27, KB), colon (HT29, HCT-116), and prostate (LNCaP, DU145) cancer cells with different sensitivities observed between cell lines. This study adds to the growing body of data supporting the bioactivities of berry fruit phenolics and their potential impact on human health. PMID:18211028

Zhang, Yanjun; Seeram, Navindra P; Lee, Rupo; Feng, Lydia; Heber, David

2008-02-13

298

Inhibitor of DNA-binding protein 1 knockdown arrests the growth of colorectal cancer cells and suppresses hepatic metastasis in vivo.  

PubMed

Inhibitor of DNA-binding protein 1 (ID1) is commonly abnormally overexpressed in colorectal cancer (CRC); yet, the functional significance of ID1 in the growth and invasive properties of CRC cells remains largely unclear. The present study investigated the effects of ID1 downregulation on the cell growth and metastatic features of CRC. Using lentiviral shRNA infection, stable ID1-knockdown (KD) HCT116 and SW620 cells, human metastatic CRC cell lines, were created. In vitro, the migration/invasion capacity of the ID1-KD CRC cells was assessed by a wound healing assay. The activities of MMP2 and MMP-9 were measured by gelatin zymography. The expression of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), PCNA and survivin were determined by immunoblot analysis and qRT-PCR. The effects of ID1 knockdown on tumor growth and hepatic metastasis were demonstrated by a xenograft study in mice. The results showed evident decreases in proliferation, migration and invasion and an increased apoptosis rate in the ID1-KD CRC cells. Similarly, ID1 knockdown significantly decreased mRNA and protein levels of PCNA, survivin, CXCR4, MMP2 and MMP9. Overexpression of CXCR4 antagonized the negative effect on the migration and invasion abilities of the ID1-KD cells. As compared with the control, ID1 knockdown prevented tumor growth and profoundly suppressed hepatic metastasis in vivo. The present study demonstrated the significance of ID1 in colon cancer progression, and its effect on tumor invasiveness and metastatic properties may be partly dependent on CXCR4. PMID:24804700

Lai, Xiaolan; Liao, Jinrong; Lin, Wansong; Huang, Chuanzhong; Li, Jieyu; Lin, Jizhen; Chen, Qiang; Ye, Yunbin

2014-07-01

299

Chromosomes of human hepatoma cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The karyotypes of three human hepatoma cell lines Hep G2, Hep 3B and PLC\\/PRF\\/5 were investigated by G- and C-banding techniques. In addition to ploidy changes, typical for most carcinoma cell lines, certain markers were found that remained stable throughout passage of these cultures. Chromosome I is involved in multiple translocations, resulting in at least three copies of the chromosome

Daniela Simon; David P. Aden; Barbara B. Knowles

1982-01-01

300

Cell-host, LINE and environment  

PubMed Central

Long interspersed nuclear elements -1 (LINEs, L1s) are retroelements occupying almost 17% of the human genome. L1 retrotransposition can cause deleterious effects on the host-cell and it is generally inhibited by suppressive mechanisms, but it can occur in some specific cells during early development as well as in some tumor cells and in the presence of several environmental factors. In a recent publication we reported that extremely low frequency pulsed magnetic field can affect L1 retrotransposition in neuroblastoma cells. In this commentary we discuss the interaction between environment and L1 activity in the light of the new emerging paradigm of host-LINE relationship.

Del Re, Brunella; Giorgi, Gianfranco

2013-01-01

301

Bafilomycin A1 activates HIF-dependent signalling in human colon cancer cells via mitochondrial uncoupling  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial uncoupling is implicated in many patho(physiological) states. Using confocal live cell imaging and an optical O2 sensing technique, we show that moderate uncoupling of the mitochondria with plecomacrolide Baf (bafilomycin A1) causes partial depolarization of the mitochondria and deep sustained deoxygenation of human colon cancer HCT116 cells subjected to 6% atmospheric O2. A decrease in iO2 (intracellular O2) to 0–10 ?M, induced by Baf, is sufficient for stabilization of HIFs (hypoxia inducible factors) HIF-1? and HIF-2?, coupled with an increased expression of target genes including GLUT1 (glucose transporter 1), HIF PHD2 (prolyl hydroxylase domain 2) and CAIX (carbonic anhydrase IX). Under the same hypoxic conditions, treatment with Baf causes neither decrease in iO2 nor HIF-? stabilization in the low-respiring HCT116 cells deficient in COX (cytochrome c-oxidase). Both cell types display equal capacities for HIF-? stabilization by hypoxia mimetics DMOG (dimethyloxalylglycine) and CoCl2, thus suggesting that the effect of Baf under hypoxia is driven mainly by mitochondrial respiration. Altogether, by activating HIF signalling under moderate hypoxia, mitochondrial uncoupling can play an important regulatory role in colon cancer metabolism and modulate adaptation of cancer cells to natural hypoxic environments.

Zhdanov, Alexander V.; Dmitriev, Ruslan I.; Papkovsky, Dmitri B.

2012-01-01

302

Synthesis and biological evaluation of piperamide analogues as HDAC inhibitors.  

PubMed

Two natural piperamides (piperlonguminine and refrofractamide A) and their derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for inhibitory activity against histone deacetylases, as well as the HCT-116 human colon cancer cell line. The preliminary structure activity relationship was discussed. Compounds featuring a hydroxamic acid moiety exhibited moderate HDAC activity and in vitro cytotoxicity. PMID:21745740

Luo, Yu; Liu, Hao-Min; Su, Ming-Bo; Sheng, Li; Zhou, Yu-Bo; Li, Jia; Lu, Wei

2011-08-15

303

Impact of Phytolacca americana extracts on gene expression of colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

Native Americans have used Phytolacca americana to treat breast ailments, gastrointestinal disorders, rashes, and inflammation. Some anti-cancer and anti-viral research has been reported on this perennial herb, but none has been published concerning the effects of its extracts on cancer cell genes. In this study, changes in gene expression at the transcription level were evaluated in HCT-116 colon cancer cells after exposure to P. americana ethanol extract and its water fraction using the Human Cancer Pathway Finder PCR Array. Of the genes significantly affected in HCT-116 cells exposed to the ethanol extract at 3200?µg/ml, changes in expression of MYC, PLAU, and TEK may benefit the treatment of colon cancer. Exposing the cells to 1600?µg/ml of the water fraction resulted in several gene changes that may also be beneficial in the treatment of colon cancer: NME4, TEK, and THBS1. A few genes on this array that are known to play a specific role in colon cancer had activities changed in a way that may be detrimental in the treatment of colon cancer. Further studies should be performed to understand how these changes would impact colon cancer treatment. PMID:23553997

Maness, L; Goktepe, I; Chen, H; Ahmedna, M; Sang, S

2014-02-01

304

SCD1 inhibition causes cancer cell death by depleting mono-unsaturated fatty acids.  

PubMed

Increased metabolism is a requirement for tumor cell proliferation. To understand the dependence of tumor cells on fatty acid metabolism, we evaluated various nodes of the fatty acid synthesis pathway. Using RNAi we have demonstrated that depletion of fatty-acid synthesis pathway enzymes SCD1, FASN, or ACC1 in HCT116 colon cancer cells results in cytotoxicity that is reversible by addition of exogenous fatty acids. This conditional phenotype is most pronounced when SCD1 is depleted. We used this fatty-acid rescue strategy to characterize several small-molecule inhibitors of fatty acid synthesis, including identification of TOFA as a potent SCD1 inhibitor, representing a previously undescribed activity for this compound. Reference FASN and ACC inhibitors show cytotoxicity that is less pronounced than that of TOFA, and fatty-acid rescue profiles consistent with their proposed enzyme targets. Two reference SCD1 inhibitors show low-nanomolar cytotoxicity that is offset by at least two orders of magnitude by exogenous oleate. One of these inhibitors slows growth of HCT116 xenograft tumors. Our data outline an effective strategy for interrogation of on-mechanism potency and pathway-node-specificity of fatty acid synthesis inhibitors, establish an unambiguous link between fatty acid synthesis and cancer cell survival, and point toward SCD1 as a key target in this pathway. PMID:22457791

Mason, Paul; Liang, Beirong; Li, Lingyun; Fremgen, Trisha; Murphy, Erin; Quinn, Angela; Madden, Stephen L; Biemann, Hans-Peter; Wang, Bing; Cohen, Aharon; Komarnitsky, Svetlana; Jancsics, Kate; Hirth, Brad; Cooper, Christopher G F; Lee, Edward; Wilson, Sean; Krumbholz, Roy; Schmid, Steven; Xiang, Yibin; Booker, Michael; Lillie, James; Carter, Kara

2012-01-01

305

Cell Line Data Base: structure and recent improvements towards molecular authentication of human cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cell Line Data Base (CLDB) is a well-known reference information source on human and animal cell lines including information on more than 6000 cell lines. Main biological features are coded according to controlled vocabularies derived from international lists and taxonomies. HyperCLDB (http:\\/\\/bioinformatics.istge.it\\/hypercldb\\/) is a hyper- text version of CLDB that improves data accessibil- ity by also allowing information retrieval

Paolo Romano; Maria Assunta Manniello; Ottavia Aresu; Massimiliano Armento; Michela Cesaro; Barbara Parodi

2009-01-01

306

Generation of rabbit pluripotent stem cell lines.  

PubMed

Pluripotent stem cells have the capacity to divide indefinitely and to differentiate into all somatic cells and tissue lines. They can be genetically manipulated in vitro by knocking genes in or out, and therefore serve as an excellent tool for gene function studies and for the generation of models for some human diseases. Since 1981, when the first mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) line was generated, many attempts have been made to generate pluripotent stem cell lines from other species. Comparative characterization of ESCs from different species would help us to understand differences and similarities in the signaling pathways involved in the maintenance of pluripotency and the initiation of differentiation, and would reveal whether the fundamental mechanism controlling self-renewal of pluripotent cells is conserved across different species. This report gives an overview of research into embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells in the rabbit, an important nonrodent species with considerable merits as an animal model for specific diseases. A number of putative rabbit ESC and induced pluripotent stem cell lines have been described. All of them expressed stem cell-associated markers and maintained apparent pluripotency during multiple passages in vitro, but none have been convincingly proven to be fully pluripotent in vivo. Moreover, as in other domestic species, the markers currently used to characterize the putative rabbit ESCs are suboptimal because recent studies have revealed that they are not always specific to the pluripotent inner cell mass. Future validation of rabbit pluripotent stem cells would benefit greatly from a validated panel of molecular markers specific to pluripotent cells of the developing rabbit embryos. Using rabbit-specific pluripotency genes may improve the efficiency of somatic cell reprogramming for generating induced pluripotent stem cells and thereby overcome some of the challenges limiting the potential of this technology. PMID:22925641

Tancos, Z; Nemes, C; Polgar, Z; Gocza, E; Daniel, N; Stout, T A E; Maraghechi, P; Pirity, M K; Osteil, P; Tapponnier, Y; Markossian, S; Godet, M; Afanassieff, M; Bosze, Z; Duranthon, V; Savatier, P; Dinnyes, A

2012-11-01

307

Cytotoxic constituents of Pachyrhizus tuberosus from Peruvian amazon.  

PubMed

Investigations into the chemical constituents of the seeds of the neglected tuber crop Pachyrhizus tuberosus (Leguminosae) resulted in the isolation of seven components: five rotenoids [12a-hydroxyerosone (1), 12a-hydroxydolineone (2), erosone (3), 12a-hydroxyrotenone (4) and rotenone (6)], a phenylfuranocoumarin [pachyrrhizine (5)] and an isoflavanone [neotenone (7)]. The compounds were isolated using several chromatography techniques and characterized and verified by NMR and HPLC/MS. The MTT assay was used to examine the selective cytotoxic effects of the methanolic P. tuberosus extract and isolated compounds in two human cancer cell lines [breast (MCF-7) and colorectal (HCT-116)] and in non-transformed human fibroblasts (MRC-5); IC50 values were calculated. The methanolic P. tuberosus extract displayed respectable cytotoxic effects against HCT-116 and MCF-7 cells with IC50 values of 7.3 and 6.3 microg/mL, respectively. Of the compounds, 6 exacted greatest cytotoxicity and selectivity towards the cancer cell lines tested, yielding IC50 values of 0.3 microg/mL against both MCF-7 and HCT-116 cells, and a 6-fold reduced activity against MRC-5 fibroblasts. Compound 4 also demonstrated cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and HCT-116 (1.1 and 1.8 microg/mL, respectively), and reduced cytotoxicity towards MRC-5 cells (7.5 mirog/mL). The results revealed from the in vitro cytotoxic MTT assay are worthy of further antitumor investigation. PMID:24354192

Leuner, Olga; Havlik, Jaroslav; Budesinsky, Milos; Vrkoslav, Vladimir; Chu, Jessica; Bradshaw, Tracey D; Hummelova, Jana; Miksatkova, Petra; Lapcik, Oldrich; Valterova, Irena; Kokoska, Ladislav

2013-10-01

308

Bone marrow and tumor cell colony-forming units and human tumor xenograft efficacy of noncamptothecin and camptothecin topoisomerase I inhibitors.  

PubMed

Topoisomerase I (TopoI), an established anticancer target, is an enzyme producing a single-strand DNA break during transcription. Several noncamptothecin TopoI inhibitors have been identified. One of these, ARC-111, was compared with two clinically used camptothecins, topotecan and irinotecan/SN-38. In mouse and human bone marrow colony formation [colony-forming units granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM)] assays, the IC(90) values were 519 and 331 nmol/L for topotecan and SN-38 mouse CFU-GM and were 19 and 26 nmol/L for human CFU-GM, giving mouse to human differentials of 28- and 13-fold. ARC-111 produced IC(90) values of 28 nmol/L in mouse and 6.2 nmol/L in human CFU-GM, thus only a 4.5-fold differential between species. Human bone marrow CFU-GM was more sensitive to topotecan than were several human cancer cell lines, but ARC-111 cytotoxicity was similar for human bone marrow CFU-GM and the seven human tumor cell lines tested. In HCT-116 xenografts, tumor growth delays (TGD) were 17 days for irinotecan and 20 days for ARC-111. In HT-29 xenografts, the TGD was 9 days for both irinotecan and ARC-111. Both ARC-111 and docetaxel had a TGD of 21 days in NCI-H460 xenografts, and both ARC-111 and gemcitabine had a TGD of 7 days in MiaPaCa2 xenograft. Current TopoI inhibitors have broad antitumor activity in human tumor xenografts that is not achieved in the clinic. This may be due to greater sensitivity of human bone marrow than mouse to the cytotoxicity of these agents. It may be possible to achieve similar levels of ARC-111 in patients as in mice allowing improved antitumor activity. PMID:18852125

Kurtzberg, Leslie S; Battle, Traci; Rouleau, Cecile; Bagley, Rebecca G; Agata, Naoki; Yao, Min; Schmid, Steven; Roth, Stephanie; Crawford, Jennifer; Krumbholz, Roy; Ewesuedo, Reginald; Yu, Xian-Jie; Wang, Fei; Lavoie, Edmond J; Teicher, Beverly A

2008-10-01

309

5-Fluorouracil-induced apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells is caspase-9-dependent and mediated by activation of protein kinase C-?  

PubMed Central

Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms by which 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) induces apoptosis is required in order to understand the resistance of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells to 5-FU. In the current study, 5-FU-induced apoptosis was assessed using the propidium iodide method. Involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) was assessed by evaluating the extent of their activation in CRC, following treatment with 5-FU, using biochemical inhibitors and western blot analysis. The results revealed that 5-FU induces varying degrees of apoptosis in CRC cells; HCT116 cells were identified to be the most sensitive cells and SW480 were the least sensitive. In addition, 5-FU-induced apoptosis was caspase-dependent as it appeared to be initiated by caspase-9. Furthermore, PKC? was marginally expressed in CRC cells and no changes were observed in the levels of cleavage or phosphorylation following treatment with 5-FU. The treatment of HCT116 cells with 5-FU increased the expression, phosphorylation and cleavage of PKC?. The inhibition of PKC? was found to significantly inhibit 5-FU-induced apoptosis. These results indicated that 5-FU induces apoptosis in CRC by the activation of PKC? and caspase-9. In addition, the levels of PKC? activation may determine the sensitivity of CRC to 5-FU.

MHAIDAT, NIZAR M.; BOUKLIHACENE, MOHAMMED; THORNE, RICK F.

2014-01-01

310

The Cinnamon-derived Dietary Factor Cinnamic Aldehyde Activates the Nrf2-dependent Antioxidant Response in Human Epithelial Colon Cells  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of tumor-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent research suggests that pharmacological intervention using dietary factors that activate the redox sensitive Nrf2/Keap1-ARE signaling pathway may represent a promising strategy for chemoprevention of human cancer including CRC. In our search for dietary Nrf2 activators with potential chemopreventive activity targeting CRC, we have focused our studies on trans-cinnamic aldehyde (cinnamaldeyde, CA), the key flavor compound in cinnamon essential oil. Here we demonstrate that CA and an ethanolic extract (CE) prepared from Cinnamomum cassia bark, standardized for CA content by GC-MS analysis, display equipotent activity as inducers of Nrf2 transcriptional activity. In human colon cancer cells (HCT116, HT29) and non-immortalized primary fetal colon cells (FHC), CA- and CE-treatment upregulated cellular protein levels of Nrf2 and established Nrf2 targets involved in the antioxidant response including heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase (?-GCS, catalytic subunit). CA- and CE-pretreatment strongly upregulated cellular glutathione levels and protected HCT116 cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced genotoxicity and arsenic-induced oxidative insult. Taken together our data demonstrate that the cinnamon-derived food factor CA is a potent activator of the Nrf2-orchestrated antioxidant response in cultured human epithelial colon cells. CA may therefore represent an underappreciated chemopreventive dietary factor targeting colorectal carcinogenesis.

Wondrak, Georg T.; Villeneuve, Nicole F.; Lamore, Sarah D.; Bause, Alexandra S.; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Donna D.

2011-01-01

311

The Anti-Proliferative Effect of L-Carnosine Correlates with a Decreased Expression of Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 alpha in Human Colon Cancer Cells.  

PubMed

In recent years considerable attention has been given to the use of natural substances as anticancer drugs. The natural antioxidant dipeptide L-carnosine belongs to this class of molecules because it has been proved to have a significant anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies have shown that L-carnosine inhibits the proliferation of human colorectal carcinoma cells by affecting the ATP and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production. In the present study we identified the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1? (HIF-1?) as a possible target of L-carnosine in HCT-116 cell line. HIF-1? protein is over-expressed in multiple types of human cancer and is the major cause of resistance to drugs and radiation in solid tumours. Of particular interest are experimental data supporting the concept that generation of ROS provides a redox signal for HIF-1? induction, and it is known that some antioxidants are able to suppress tumorigenesis by inhibiting HIF-1?. In the current study we found that L-carnosine reduces the HIF-1? protein level affecting its stability and decreases the HIF-1 transcriptional activity. In addition, we demonstrated that L-carnosine is involved in ubiquitin-proteasome system promoting HIF-1? degradation. Finally, we compared the antioxidant activity of L-carnosine with that of two synthetic anti-oxidant bis-diaminotriazoles (namely 1 and 2, respectively). Despite these three compounds have the same ability in reducing intracellular ROS, 1 and 2 are more potent scavengers and have no effect on HIF-1? expression and cancer cell proliferation. These findings suggest that an analysis of L-carnosine antioxidant pathway will clarify the mechanism underlying the anti-proliferative effects of this dipeptide on colon cancer cells. However, although the molecular mechanism by which L-carnosine down regulates or inhibits the HIF-1? activity has not been yet elucidated, this ability may be promising in treating hypoxia-related diseases. PMID:24804733

Iovine, Barbara; Oliviero, Giorgia; Garofalo, Mariangela; Orefice, Maria; Nocella, Francesca; Borbone, Nicola; Piccialli, Vincenzo; Centore, Roberto; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Piccialli, Gennaro; Bevilacqua, Maria Assunta

2014-01-01

312

The Anti-Proliferative Effect of L-Carnosine Correlates with a Decreased Expression of Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 alpha in Human Colon Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

In recent years considerable attention has been given to the use of natural substances as anticancer drugs. The natural antioxidant dipeptide L-carnosine belongs to this class of molecules because it has been proved to have a significant anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies have shown that L-carnosine inhibits the proliferation of human colorectal carcinoma cells by affecting the ATP and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production. In the present study we identified the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1? (HIF-1?) as a possible target of L-carnosine in HCT-116 cell line. HIF-1? protein is over-expressed in multiple types of human cancer and is the major cause of resistance to drugs and radiation in solid tumours. Of particular interest are experimental data supporting the concept that generation of ROS provides a redox signal for HIF-1? induction, and it is known that some antioxidants are able to suppress tumorigenesis by inhibiting HIF-1?. In the current study we found that L-carnosine reduces the HIF-1? protein level affecting its stability and decreases the HIF-1 transcriptional activity. In addition, we demonstrated that L-carnosine is involved in ubiquitin-proteasome system promoting HIF-1? degradation. Finally, we compared the antioxidant activity of L-carnosine with that of two synthetic anti-oxidant bis-diaminotriazoles (namely 1 and 2, respectively). Despite these three compounds have the same ability in reducing intracellular ROS, 1 and 2 are more potent scavengers and have no effect on HIF-1? expression and cancer cell proliferation. These findings suggest that an analysis of L-carnosine antioxidant pathway will clarify the mechanism underlying the anti-proliferative effects of this dipeptide on colon cancer cells. However, although the molecular mechanism by which L-carnosine down regulates or inhibits the HIF-1? activity has not been yet elucidated, this ability may be promising in treating hypoxia-related diseases.

Iovine, Barbara; Oliviero, Giorgia; Garofalo, Mariangela; Orefice, Maria; Nocella, Francesca; Borbone, Nicola; Piccialli, Vincenzo; Centore, Roberto; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Piccialli, Gennaro; Bevilacqua, Maria Assunta

2014-01-01

313

Umbelliprenin Induces Apoptosis in CLL Cell Lines.  

PubMed

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) remains an incurable disease that requires innovative new approaches to improve therapeutic outcome. Many Ferula species, including F. asa-foetida, synthesize terpenyloxy coumarins. One of these coumarins is umbelliprenin, which has been implicated with induction of apoptosis in some cancer cell lines. In this study induction of apoptosis by umbelliprenin on Jurkat T-CLL and Raji B-CLL cell lines was studied. In this regard, cells were incubated with various concentrations of umbelliprenin in-vitro for different times and assayed for apoptosis with annexin V-FITC/PI double staining flowcytometry method. Results showed that umbelliprenin induced apoptosis in leukemic cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and that CLL cells were more susceptible to umbelliprenin induced cell death than normal peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMCs). Moreover, we study the induction of apoptosis in Jurkat cells by umbelliprenin in the presence of interleukin 4 (IL-4) as an agent that causes resistance to apoptosis in CLL cells, was also student. We showed that IL-4 can not reduce apoptotic effect of umbelliprenin. The preferential toxicity of umbelliprenin for CLL cells, supports the hypothesis that oral administration of umbelliprenin in the form of foods or folk medicines containing this coumarin, might enhance protection against the development of CLL in man with little side effects. In conclusion, umbelliprenin may be an effective therapeutic agent in the treatment of CLL, and thus clinical studies with umbelliprenin may be appropriate. PMID:24250490

Ziai, Seyed Ali; Gholami, Omid; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Zamani, Amir Hassan; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood

2012-01-01

314

Umbelliprenin Induces Apoptosis in CLL Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) remains an incurable disease that requires innovative new approaches to improve therapeutic outcome. Many Ferula species, including F. asa-foetida, synthesize terpenyloxy coumarins. One of these coumarins is umbelliprenin, which has been implicated with induction of apoptosis in some cancer cell lines. In this study induction of apoptosis by umbelliprenin on Jurkat T-CLL and Raji B-CLL cell lines was studied. In this regard, cells were incubated with various concentrations of umbelliprenin in-vitro for different times and assayed for apoptosis with annexin V–FITC/PI double staining flowcytometry method. Results showed that umbelliprenin induced apoptosis in leukemic cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and that CLL cells were more susceptible to umbelliprenin induced cell death than normal peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMCs). Moreover, we study the induction of apoptosis in Jurkat cells by umbelliprenin in the presence of interleukin 4 (IL-4) as an agent that causes resistance to apoptosis in CLL cells, was also student. We showed that IL-4 can not reduce apoptotic effect of umbelliprenin. The preferential toxicity of umbelliprenin for CLL cells, supports the hypothesis that oral administration of umbelliprenin in the form of foods or folk medicines containing this coumarin, might enhance protection against the development of CLL in man with little side effects. In conclusion, umbelliprenin may be an effective therapeutic agent in the treatment of CLL, and thus clinical studies with umbelliprenin may be appropriate.

Ziai, Seyed Ali; Gholami, Omid; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Zamani, Amir Hassan; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood

2012-01-01

315

CHARACTERIZATION OF A UNIQUE MUSCLE CELL LINE  

PubMed Central

A clonal cell line derived from a mouse neoplasm is described which shares many properties with smooth muscle. The cells have electrically excitable membranes capable of generating overshooting action potentials, and they contract both spontaneously and with electrical stimulation. They respond to the iontophoretic application of acetylcholine with a depolarizing response, and to norepinephrine with a hyperpolarizing response. Electron microscopy reveals that the cells have a morphology similar in many, but not all, respects to that of smooth muscle cells in vivo. The cells secrete soluble collagen-like molecules in addition to several proteins of undefined function. Finally, there is an increase in the specific activities of creatine phosphokinase and myokinase associated with increased cell density and the cessation of cell division.

Schubert, David; Harris, A. John; Devine, Carrick E.; Heinemann, Stephen

1974-01-01

316

Catecholamines in a macrophage cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides the first evidence for catecholamine synthesis and release in the RAW264.7 cell line, an important macrophage model. Although catecholamines were low in unstimulated cells, activation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA and increased extracellular norepinephrine and intracellular dopamine within 48 h. The catecholamine synthesis inhibitor ?-methyl-para-tyrosine (?-mpt) decreased extracellular norepinephrine levels, suggesting release and rapid

Scott W Brown; Randall T Meyers; Karen M Brennan; Julie M Rumble; Nedathur Narasimhachari; Edmund F Perozzi; John J Ryan; Jennifer K Stewart; Krista Fischer-Stenger

2003-01-01

317

Synergism from the combination of ulinastatin and curcumin offers greater inhibition against colorectal cancer liver metastases via modulating matrix metalloproteinase-9 and E-cadherin expression  

PubMed Central

Liver metastasis is a major cause of mortality in colorectal cancer (CRC). The current study was to investigate the ability of ulinastatin (UTI) and curcumin (CUR) to inhibit CRC liver metastases via modulating matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and E-cadherin expression. Human CRC HCT-116 cells were treated with compounds individually and in combination in order to understand the effect on cell migration and invasion. The HCT-116 cell line was established to stably express luciferase and green fluorescent protein (GFP) by lentiviral transduction (HCT-116-Luc-GFP). We identified an anti-metastasis effect of UTI and CUR on a CRC liver metastasis mouse model. Tumor development and therapeutic responses were dynamically tracked by bioluminescence imaging. Expression of MMP-9 and E-cadherin in metastatic tumors was detected by immunohistochemical assay. Results of wound healing and cell invasion assays suggest that treatment with UTI, CUR, and UTI plus CUR, respectively, significantly inhibit HCT-116 cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, results of CRC hepatic metastasis on a nude mouse model showed that treatment with UTI, CUR alone, and a combination notably inhibited hepatic metastases from CRC and prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice, especially in the UTI plus CUR group. These results suggest that the combination of UTI and CUR together may offer greater inhibition against metastasis of CRC.

Shen, Fei; Cai, Wen-Song; Li, Jiang-Lin; Feng, Zhe; Liu, Qi-cai; Xiao, Huan-qing; Cao, Jie; Xu, Bo

2014-01-01

318

Differential expression of CD133 based on microsatellite instability status in human colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

The association between the types of genomic instability and cancer stem cell (CSC) has not been elucidated. We aimed to investigate the expressions of CSC markers with respect to microsatellite instability (MSI) status in human colorectal cancer (CRC). Immunostainings for CD133, CD44, and CD166, and K-ras mutation analysis were performed on 50 MSI-high (MSI-H), and 50 microsatellite stable (MSS) CRC tissues. In 11 MSS and MSI-H CRC cell lines, CD133 expression and DNA methylation statuses of the CD133 promoter were determined. The proportion of CD133 positive cells and the ability of colosphere formation were compared between HCT116 cells and HCT116 + Chr3 cells (hMLH1-restored HCT116 cells). Immunohistochemistry for CSC markers revealed that high CD133 expression was more frequent in MSS cancers than in MSI-H (P < 0.001, 74.0% vs. 28.0%, respectively), and related with short disease-free survival. Neither CD44 nor CD166 expression differed significantly with respect to MSI status. K-ras mutation showed no association with expressions of CD133, CD44, or CD166. CD133 expression was relatively high in the MSS cell lines compared to those in MSI-H, and showed a reverse correlation with DNA methylation of the CD133 promoter. hMLH1-restored HCT116 cells increased proportions of CD133 positive cells and colosphere forming ability, compared to those in HCT116 cells. In conclusion, high levels of CD133 expression were observed more frequently in MSS CRC than in MSI-H, suggesting that differential expression of colon CSC markers may be linked to tumor characteristics dependent on MSI status. PMID:23065858

Park, Jae Jun; Kwon, Ji-hee; Oh, Sun-Hee; Choi, Junjeong; Moon, Chang Mo; Ahn, Joong Bae; Hong, Sung Pil; Cheon, Jae Hee; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Hoguen; Kim, Won Ho

2014-02-01

319

Baicalein, an active component of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, induces apoptosis in human colon cancer cells and prevents AOM/DSS-induced colon cancer in mice.  

PubMed

Flavonoids have been demonstrated to provide health benefits in humans. Baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone) is a phenolic flavonoid compound derived mainly from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, a medicinal plant traditionally used in oriental medicine. Baicalein is widely used in Korean and Chinese herbal medicines as anti-inflammatory and anticancer therapy. However, the molecular mechanisms of its activity remain poorly understood and warrant further investigation. This study was performed to investigate the anticancer effect of baicalein on HCT116 human colon cancer cells and the tumor preventing capacity of baicalein on colitis-associated cancer in mice. In in vivo experiments, we induced colon tumors in mice by azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and evaluated the effects of baicalein on tumor growth. Baicalein treatment on HCT116 cells resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptotic cell death. The induction of apoptosis was determined by morphological changes and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Baicalein also suppressed the activation of NF-?B through PPAR? activation. These results indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of baicalein may be mediated through PPAR? activation. Finally, administration with baicalein significantly decreased the incidence of tumor formation with inflammation. Our findings suggest that baicalein is one of the candidates for the prevention of inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis. PMID:24008356

Kim, Dong Hwan; Hossain, Mohammad Akbar; Kang, Yong Jung; Jang, Jung Yoon; Lee, Yu Jin; Im, Eunok; Yoon, Jeong-Hyun; Kim, Hyung Sik; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Nam Deuk

2013-11-01

320

Radiation sensitivity of Merkel cell carcinoma cell lines  

SciTech Connect

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), being a small cell carcinoma, would be expected to be sensitive to radiation. Clinical analysis of patients at our center, especially those with macroscopic disease, would suggest the response is quite variable. We have recently established a number of MCC cell lines from patients prior to radiotherapy, and for the first time are in a position to determine their sensitivity under controlled conditions. Some of the MCC lines grew as suspension cultures and could not be single cell cloned; therefore, it was not possible to use clonogenic survival for all cell lines. A tetrazolium based (MTT) assay was used for these lines, to estimate cell growth after {gamma} irradiation. Control experiments were conducted on lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) and the adherent MCC line, MCC13, to demonstrate that the two assays were comparable under the conditions used. We have examined cell lines from MCC, small cell lung cancer (SCLC), malignant melanomas, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) transformed lymphocytes (LCL), and skin fibroblasts for their sensitivity to {gamma} irradiation using both clonogenic cell survival and MTT assays. The results show that the tumor cell lines have a range of sensitivities, with melanoma being more resistant (surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) 0.57 and 0.56) than the small cell carcinoma lines, MCC (SF2 range 0.21-0.45, mean SF2 0.30, n = 8) and SCLC (SF2 0.31). Fibroblasts were the most sensitive (SF2 0.13-0.20, mean 0.16, n = 5). The MTT assay, when compared to clonogenic assay for the MCC13 adherent line and the LCL, gave comparable results under the conditions used. Both assays gave a range of SF2 values for the MCC cell lines, suggesting that these cancers would give a heterogeneous response in vivo. The results with the two derivative clones of MCC14 (SF2 for MCC14/1 0.38, MCC14/2 0.45) would further suggest that some of them may develop resistance during clonogenic evolution. 25 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Leonard, J.H.; Ramsay, J.R.; Birrell, G.W. [Queensland Institute of Medical Research (Australia)] [and others] [Queensland Institute of Medical Research (Australia); and others

1995-07-30

321

Granulocyte growth modulators elaborated by human cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two human monocyte-like cell lines have been established which produce colony stimulating activity (CSA) and colony inhibitory activity (CIA) for man and other species. Cell line CSA has been partially characterized. Cell line CIA, a low molecular weight hydrophobic molecule has been partially purified and shown to inhibit not only CFU-C growth but the growth of various lymphoid cell lines.

J. F. DiPersio; J. K. Brennan; M. A. Lichtman

1978-01-01

322

Effective inhibition of colon cancer cell growth with MgAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH) loaded 5-FU and PI3K/mTOR dual inhibitor BEZ-235 through apoptotic pathways  

PubMed Central

Colon cancer is the third most common cancer and the third largest cause of cancer-related death. Fluorouracil (5-FU) is the front-line chemotherapeutic agent for colon cancer. However, its response rate is less than 60%, even in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. The side effects of 5-FU also limit its application. Nanoparticles have been used to deliver 5-FU, to increase its effectiveness and reduce side effects. Another common approach for colon cancer treatment is targeted therapy against the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway. A recently-invented inhibitor of this pathway, BEZ-235, has been tested in several clinical trials and has shown effectiveness and low side effects. Thus, it is a very promising drug for colon cancer treatment. The combination of these two drugs, especially nanoparticle-packed 5-FU and BEZ-235, has not been studied. In the present study, we demonstrated that nanoparticles of layered double hydroxide (LDH) loaded with 5-FU were more effective than a free drug at inhibiting colon cancer cell growth, and that a combination treatment with BEZ-235 further increased the sensitivity of colon cancer cells to the treatment of LDH-packed 5-FU (LDH-5-FU). BEZ-235 alone can decrease colon cancer HCT-116 cell viability to 46% of the control, and the addition of LDH-5-FU produced a greater effect, reducing cell survival to 8% of the control. Our data indicate that the combination therapy of nanodelivered 5-FU with a PI3K/Akt inhibitor, BEZ-235, may promise a more effective approach for colon cancer treatment.

Chen, Jiezhong; Shao, Renfu; Li, Li; Xu, Zhi Ping; Gu, Wenyi

2014-01-01

323

Cancer stem cell-like cells from a single cell of oral squamous carcinoma cell lines  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} Four oral squamous cancer cell lines (OSCCL) were analyzed for cancer stem cells (CSCs). {yields} Single cell derived colonies of OSCCL express CSC-marker CD133 differentially. {yields} Monoclonal cell lines showed reduced sensitivity for Paclitaxel. {yields} In situ CD133{sup +} cells are slow cycling (Ki67-) indicating a reduced drug sensitivity. {yields} CD133{sup +} and CSC-like cells can be obtained from single colony forming cells of OSCCL. -- Abstract: Resistance of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) to conventional chemotherapy or radiation therapy might be due to cancer stem cells (CSCs). The development of novel anticancer drugs requires a simple method for the enrichment of CSCs. CSCs can be enriched from OSCC cell lines, for example, after cultivation in serum-free cell culture medium (SFM). In our study, we analyzed four OSCC cell lines for the presence of CSCs. CSC-like cells could not be enriched with SFM. However, cell lines obtained from holoclone colonies showed CSC-like properties such as a reduced rate of cell proliferation and a reduced sensitivity to Paclitaxel in comparison to cells from the parental lineage. Moreover, these cell lines differentially expressed the CSC-marker CD133, which is also upregulated in OSCC tissues. Interestingly, CD133{sup +} cells in OSCC tissues expressed little to no Ki67, the cell proliferation marker that also indicates reduced drug sensitivity. Our study shows a method for the isolation of CSC-like cell lines from OSCC cell lines. These CSC-like cell lines could be new targets for the development of anticancer drugs under in vitro conditions.

Felthaus, O. [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany) [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Ettl