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Sample records for cell lines hct-116

  1. Expression of γ-synuclein in colorectal cancer tissues and its role on colorectal cancer cell line HCT116

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qing; Feng, Bo; Peng, Yuan-Fei; Chen, Xue-Hua; Cai, Qu; Yu, Bei-Qin; Li, Liang-Hui; Qiu, Ming-Yuan; Liu, Bing-Ya; Zheng, Min-Hua

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression pattern of γ-synuclein in colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues, and to study the effects of γ-synuclein on CRC cell line HCT116 biological features in vitro. METHODS: The expression pattern of γ-synuclein was determined in 54 CRC tissues and 30 tumor-matched nonneoplastic adjacent tissues (NNAT) 5 cm away from the tumor via real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. The relationship between γ-synuclein protein expression and clinicopathological factors of CRC tissues was analyzed. Three small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting γ-synuclein mRNA plasmids were constructed and transfected into the CRC cell line HCT116. The stable cell lines were selected with G-418 for 28 d, and the biological features of these cells were examined by cell growth curve, soft agar assay, and cell migration and invasion assays in vitro. RESULTS: The expression of γ-synuclein mRNA and protein was much higher in CRC tissue samples than in NNAT samples (P = 0.02, P = 0.036). There was a significant correlation between the γ-synuclein protein expression and clinical stage and lymph node involvement of CRC (P = 0.02, P = 0.033). In functional analysis we found that down-regulation of γ-synuclein expression in HCT116 cells could inhibit the growth, colony formation rate, and migration and invasion ability of HCT116 cells. CONCLUSION: Increased expression of γ-synuclein in CRC tissues and the biological effects of reduced γ-synuclein expression on HCT116 cells suggest that γ-synuclein may play a positive role in the progression of CRC. PMID:19859996

  2. In situ Proteomic Profiling of Curcumin Targets in HCT116 Colon Cancer Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jigang; Zhang, Jianbin; Zhang, Chong-Jing; Wong, Yin Kwan; Lim, Teck Kwang; Hua, Zi-Chun; Liu, Bin; Tannenbaum, Steven R; Shen, Han-Ming; Lin, Qingsong

    2016-01-01

    To date, the exact targets and mechanism of action of curcumin, a natural product with anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, remain elusive. Here we synthesized a cell permeable curcumin probe (Cur-P) with an alkyne moiety, which can be tagged with biotin for affinity enrichment, or with a fluorescent dye for visualization of the direct-binding protein targets of curcumin in situ. iTRAQ(TM) quantitative proteomics approach was applied to distinguish the specific binding targets from the non-specific ones. In total, 197 proteins were confidently identified as curcumin binding targets from HCT116 colon cancer cell line. Gene Ontology analysis showed that the targets are broadly distributed and enriched in the nucleus, mitochondria and plasma membrane, and they are involved in various biological functions including metabolic process, regulation, response to stimulus and cellular process. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis(TM) (IPA) suggested that curcumin may exert its anticancer effects over multiple critical biological pathways including the EIF2, eIF4/p70S6K, mTOR signaling and mitochondrial dysfunction pathways. Functional validations confirmed that curcumin downregulates cellular protein synthesis, and induces autophagy, lysosomal activation and increased ROS production, thus leading to cell death. PMID:26915414

  3. In situ Proteomic Profiling of Curcumin Targets in HCT116 Colon Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jigang; Zhang, Jianbin; Zhang, Chong-Jing; Wong, Yin Kwan; Lim, Teck Kwang; Hua, Zi-Chun; Liu, Bin; Tannenbaum, Steven R.; Shen, Han-Ming; Lin, Qingsong

    2016-01-01

    To date, the exact targets and mechanism of action of curcumin, a natural product with anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, remain elusive. Here we synthesized a cell permeable curcumin probe (Cur-P) with an alkyne moiety, which can be tagged with biotin for affinity enrichment, or with a fluorescent dye for visualization of the direct-binding protein targets of curcumin in situ. iTRAQTM quantitative proteomics approach was applied to distinguish the specific binding targets from the non-specific ones. In total, 197 proteins were confidently identified as curcumin binding targets from HCT116 colon cancer cell line. Gene Ontology analysis showed that the targets are broadly distributed and enriched in the nucleus, mitochondria and plasma membrane, and they are involved in various biological functions including metabolic process, regulation, response to stimulus and cellular process. Ingenuity Pathway AnalysisTM (IPA) suggested that curcumin may exert its anticancer effects over multiple critical biological pathways including the EIF2, eIF4/p70S6K, mTOR signaling and mitochondrial dysfunction pathways. Functional validations confirmed that curcumin downregulates cellular protein synthesis, and induces autophagy, lysosomal activation and increased ROS production, thus leading to cell death. PMID:26915414

  4. Changes in Subcellular Localization of Visfatin in Human Colorectal HCT-116 Carcinoma cell Line After Cytochalasin-B Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Skonieczna, M.; Bu?dak, ?; Matysiak, N.; Miela?czyk, ?; Wyrobiec, G.; Kukla, M.; Michalski, M.; ?wirska-Korczala, K.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the expression and subcellular localization of visfatin in HCT-116 colorectal carcinoma cells after cytokinesis failure using Cytochalasin B (CytB) and the mechanism of apoptosis of cells after CytB. We observed translocation of visfatins antigen in cytB treated colorectal carcinoma HCT-116 cells from cytosol to nucleus. Statistical and morphometric analysis revealed significantly higher area-related numerical density visfatin-bound nano-golds in the nuclei of cytB-treated HCT-116 cells compared to cytosol. Reverse relation to visfatin subcellular localization was observed in un-treated HCT-116 cells. The total amount of visfatin protein and visfatin mRNA level in HCT-116 cells was also decreased after CytB treatment. Additionally, CytB significantly decreased cell survival, increased levels of G2/M fractions, induced bi-nuclei formation as well as increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in HCT-116 cells. CytB treatment showed cytotoxic effect that stem from oxidative stress and is connected with the changes in the cytoplasmic/nuclear amount of visfatin in HCT-116 cells. PMID:25308845

  5. Changes in subcellular localization of visfatin in human colorectal HCT-116 carcinoma cell line after cytochalasin B treatment.

    PubMed

    Bu?dak, R J; Skonieczna, M; Bu?dak, ?; Matysiak, N; Miela?czyk, ?; Wyrobiec, G; Kukla, M; Michalski, M; ?wirska-Korczala, K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the expression and subcellular localization of visfatin in HCT-116 colorectal carcinoma cells after cytokinesis failure using Cytochalasin B (CytB) and the mechanism of apoptosis of cells after CytB. We observed translocation of visfatin's antigen in cytB treated colorectal carcinoma HCT-116 cells from cytosol to nucleus. Statistical and morphometric analysis revealed significantly higher area-related numerical density visfatin-bound nano-golds in the nuclei of cytB-treated HCT-116 cells compared to cytosol. Reverse relation to visfatin subcellular localization was observed in un-treated HCT-116 cells. The total amount of visfatin protein and visfatin mRNA level in HCT-116 cells was also decreased after CytB treatment. Additionally, CytB significantly decreased cell survival, increased levels of G2/M fractions, induced bi-nuclei formation as well as increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in HCT-116 cells. CytB treatment showed cytotoxic effect that stem from oxidative stress and is connected with the changes in the cytoplasmic/nuclear amount of visfatin in HCT-116 cells. PMID:25308845

  6. Metabolomics study on the antitumor effect of marine natural compound flexibilide in HCT-116 colon cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Gao, Dan; Wang, Yini; Xie, Weiyi; Yang, Ti; Jiang, Yuyang; Guo, Yuewei; Guan, Jin; Liu, Hongxia

    2016-03-01

    A marine natural compound flexibilide isolated from the soft coral Sinularia flexibilis has been found to have antitumor activity. However, its pharmacological mechanism on tumor cells has not been studied. Herein, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS) based metabolomics approach was established to investigate the antitumor effect of flexibilide on HCT-116 cells and its action mechanism. Q-TOF MS and MS/MS were used to identify significantly different metabolites. Comparing flexibilide-treated HCT-116 cells group with control group (dimethyl sulfoxide), 19 distinct metabolites involved in sphingolipid metabolism, alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, d-glutamine and d-glutamate metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, pyrimidine metabolism and others were discovered and identified. The significant decrease of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphocholine levels and increase of lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) levels in flexibilide treated cells suggested down-regulation of PC biosynthesis pathway. The decrease of sphingolipids reflected the lesions of cell membrane, and the up-regulation of sphingosine-1-phosphate indicated that TRAF2 and caspase-8 were likely to be activated by flexibilide and further caused cell apoptosis. Furthermore, TCA cycle was deemed to be down-regulated after flexibilide treatment, which might lead to an unsustainable of mitochondrial transmembrane potential MMP). The further measured descreased MMP with the increasing concentration of flexibilide treatment indiciated the dysfunction of mitochondrial which might finally lead to apoptosis. The UPLC/Q-TOF MS based metabolomics approach provides new insights into the mechanistic studies of flexibilide on tumor cells, which benefit its further improvement and application. PMID:26859520

  7. Proliferative and Inhibitory Activity of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) Extract on Cancer Cell Lines; A-549, XWLC-05, HCT-116, CNE and Beas-2b.

    PubMed

    Cichello, Simon Angelo; Yao, Qian; Dowell, Ashley; Leury, Brian; He, Xiao-Qiong

    2015-01-01

    Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) is used primarily as an adaptogen herb and also for its immune stimulant properties in Western herbal medicine. Another closely related species used in East Asian medicine systems i.e. Kampo, TCM (Manchuria, Korea, Japan and Ainu of Hokkaido) and also called Siberian ginseng (Acanthopanax senticosus) also displays immune-stimulant and anti-cancer properties. These may affect tumour growth and also provide an anti-fatigue effect for cancer patients, in particular for those suffering from lung cancer. There is some evidence that a carbohydrate in Siberian ginseng may possess not only immune stimulatory but also anti-tumour effects and also display other various anti-cancer properties. Our study aimed to determine the inhibitory and also proliferative effects of a methanol plant extract of Siberan ginseng (E. senticosus) on various cancer and normal cell lines including: A-549 (small cell lung cancer), XWLC-05 (Yunnan lung cancer cell line), CNE (human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line), HCT-116 (human colon cancer) and Beas-2b (human lung epithelial). These cell lines were treated with an extract from E. senticosus that was evaporated and re- constituted in DMSO. Treatment of A-549 (small cell lung cancer) cells with E. senticosus methanolic extract showed a concentration-dependent inhibitory trend from 12.5 - 50?g/mL, and then a plateau, whereas at 12.5 and 25 ?g/mL, there is a slight growth suppression in QBC-939 cells, but then a steady suppression from 50, 100 and 200?g/mL. Further, in XWLC-05 (Yunnan lung cancer cell line), E. senticosus methanolic extract displayed an inhibitory effect which plateaued with increasing dosage. Next, in CNE (human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line) there was a dose dependent proliferative response, whereas in Beas-2 (human lung epithelial cell line), an inhibitory effect. Finally in colon cancer cell line (HCT-116) we observed an initially weak inhibitory effect and then plateau. PMID:26107240

  8. Effects of gamma irradiation on cell cycle, apoptosis and telomerase activity in p53 wild-type and deficient HCT116 colon cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    HALACLI, SEVIL OSKAY; CANPINAR, HANDE; CIMEN, EREN; SUNGUROGLU, ASUMAN

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy serves as adjunctive treatment to chemotherapy and surgical resection of colorectal cancer. However, the cellular response to irradiation varies depending on the expression of tumor suppressor p53, which plays a significant role in the regulation of cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and telomerase activity in various cancers. The present study aimed to investigate cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and telomerase activity with respect to p53 expression in p53 wild-type (+/+) and deficient (?/?) HCT116 colon cancer cell lines following 5 Gy ?-irradiation. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were evaluated using flow cytometry. The telomerase activity was measured using a TRAP (telomerase repeat amplification protocol) assay. Following treatment with irradiation, G1/S cell cycle arrest occurred in the p53+/+ cells, whereas the p53?/? cells accumulated in the G2 phase. No differences were observed in the apoptotic ratios between the two cell lines following irradiation. Decreased telomerase activity was observed in the p53+/+ cells, whereas telomerase activity was increased in the p53?/? cells. The results showed that while telomerase activity and G1 cell cycle arrest were regulated depending on the p53 status, G2 arrest and the apoptotic response were promoted via a p53-independent pathway. PMID:24137415

  9. Effects of ghrelin, leptin and melatonin on the levels of reactive oxygen species, antioxidant enzyme activity and viability of the HCT 116 human colorectal carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Bułdak, Rafał Jakub; Pilc-Gumuła, Katarzyna; Bułdak, Łukasz; Witkowska, Daria; Kukla, Michał; Polaniak, Renata; Zwirska-Korczala, Krystyna

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of certain types of cancer, including colon cancer. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that produces biologically active substances, such as leptin and ghrelin. Recent research has suggested that adipose-derived hormones may be associated with mechanisms linked to tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Furthermore, previous studies have demonstrated that pineal gland-derived melatonin possesses important oncostatic and antioxidant properties. The present study aimed to determine the effects of the adipokines ghrelin and leptin, and the melatonin on intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activity of selected antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase. The effects of these compounds were also determined on the viability of HCT 116 human colorectal carcinoma cells in vitro. The pro-oxidant and growth inhibitory effects of melatonin resulted in an accumulation of ROS and decreased antioxidant capacity in melatonin-treated cells. Ghrelin administration alone caused a significant decrease in the levels of ROS, due to an increased activity of CAT in the HCT 116 cells. In addition, the present study observed increased lipid peroxidation following melatonin treatment, and decreased levels of malondialdehyde following ghrelin or leptin treatment. In conclusion, ghrelin, leptin and melatonin have various influences on the antioxidant capacity of HCT 116 cells. Compared with the adipokines, treatment with melatonin increased ROS levels and decreased cellular viability. PMID:25873273

  10. Structural Properties of Polyphenols Causing Cell Cycle Arrest at G1 Phase in HCT116 Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Soon Young; Yoon, Hyuk; Ahn, Seunghyun; Kim, Dong-Wook; Bae, Dong-Ho; Koh, Dongsoo; Lee, Young Han; Lim, Yoongho

    2013-01-01

    Plant-derived polyphenols are being tested as chemopreventive agents; some polyphenols arrest the cell cycle at G1 phase, whereas others inhibit cell cycle proliferation at G2/M phase. Therefore, polyphenols have been proposed to inhibit cell cycle progression at different phases via distinct mechanisms. Indeed, our previous studies showed that small structural differences in polyphenols cause large differences in their biological activities; however, the details of the structural properties causing G1 cell cycle arrest remain unknown. In this study, we prepared 27 polyphenols, including eight different scaffolds, to gain insight into the structural conditions that arrest the cell cycle at G1 phase in a quantitative structureactivity relationship study. We used cell cycle profiles to determine the biophores responsible for G1 cell cycle arrest and believe that the biophores identified in this study will help design polyphenols that cause G1 cell cycle arrest. PMID:23965967

  11. Natural product-based design, synthesis and biological evaluation of Albiziabioside A derivatives that selectively induce HCT116 cell death.

    PubMed

    Wei, Gaofei; Cui, Shanshan; Luan, Weijing; Wang, Shuai; Hou, Zhuang; Liu, Yongxiang; Liu, Yang; Cheng, Maosheng

    2016-05-01

    A series of Albiziabioside A coupled substituents of cinnamoyl derivatives were designed and synthesized. The synthesized compounds were screened for anticancer activity against a panel of six human cancer cell lines using a MTT assay. Synthetic derivatives showed excellent selectivity, as they were toxic against only HCT116 cell line. Some compounds exhibited better anti-cancer activity against HCT116 compared to positive controls, such as 5-fluorouracil and Albiziabioside A. Compound 8n was the most active derivative. Importantly, it was also found that the anti-proliferative activity of 8n could be attributed to the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HCT116 cells. PMID:26922223

  12. Transforming Growth Factor Beta Receptor 2 (TGFBR2) Changes Sialylation in the Microsatellite Unstable (MSI) Colorectal Cancer Cell Line HCT116

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jennifer; Ballikaya, Seda; Schönig, Kai; Ball, Claudia R.; Glimm, Hanno; Kopitz, Juergen; Gebert, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant glycosylation is a common feature of many malignancies including colorectal cancers (CRCs). About 15% of CRC show the microsatellite instability (MSI) phenotype that is associated with a high frequency of biallelic frameshift mutations in the A10 coding mononucleotide microsatellite of the transforming growth factor beta receptor 2 (TGFBR2) gene. If and how impaired TGFBR2 signaling in MSI CRC cells affects cell surface glycan pattern is largely unexplored. Here, we used the TGFBR2-deficient MSI colon carcinoma cell line HCT116 as a model system. Stable clones conferring doxycycline (dox)-inducible expression of a single copy wildtype TGFBR2 transgene were generated by recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE). In two independent clones, dox-inducible expression of wildtype TGFBR2 protein and reconstitution of its signaling function was shown. Metabolic labeling experiments using the tritiated sialic acid precursor N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc) revealed a significant decline (∼30%) of its incorporation into newly synthesized sialoglycoproteins in a TGFBR2-dependent manner. In particular, we detected a significant decrease of sialylated ß1-integrin upon reconstituted TGFBR2 signaling which did not influence ß1-integrin protein turnover. Notably, TGFBR2 reconstitution did not affect the transcript levels of any of the known human sialyltransferases when examined by real-time RT- PCR analysis. These results suggest that reconstituted TGFBR2 signaling in an isogenic MSI cell line model system can modulate sialylation of cell surface proteins like ß1-integrin. Moreover, our model system will be suitable to uncover the underlying molecular mechanisms of altered MSI tumor glycobiology. PMID:23468914

  13. Butyrate-induced apoptosis in HCT116 colorectal cancer cells includes induction of a cell stress response.

    PubMed

    Fung, Kim Y C; Brierley, Gemma V; Henderson, Steve; Hoffmann, Peter; McColl, Shaun R; Lockett, Trevor; Head, Richard; Cosgrove, Leah

    2011-04-01

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFA), principally butyrate, propionate, and acetate, are produced in the gut through the fermentation of dietary fiber by the colonic microbiotica. Butyrate in particular is the preferred energy source for the cells in the colonic mucosa and has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in colorectal cancer cell lines. We have used proteomics, specifically 2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry, to identify proteins involved in butyrate-induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells and also to identify proteins involved in the development of butyrate insensitivity in its derivative, the HCT116-BR cells. The HCT116-BR cell line was characterized as being less responsive to the apoptotic effects of butyrate in comparison to its parent cell line. Our analysis has revealed that butyrate likely induces a cellular stress response in HCT116 cells characterized by p38 MAPK activation and an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, resulting in caspase 3/7 activation and cell death. Adaptive cellular responses to stress-induced apoptosis in HCT116-BR cells may be responsible for the development of resistance to apoptosis in this cell line. We also report for the first time additional cellular processes altered by butyrate, such as heme biosynthesis and dysregulated expression of nuclear lamina proteins, which may be involved in the apoptotic response observed in these cell lines. PMID:21235278

  14. Evodiamine Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Migration of HCT-116 Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lv-Cui; Li, Jing; Liao, Ke; Luo, Nian; Shi, Qing-Qiang; Feng, Zi-Qiang; Chen, Di-Long

    2015-01-01

    Evodiamine (EVO) exhibits strong anti-cancer effects. However, the effect of EVO on the human colorectal cancer cell line HCT-116 has not been explored in detail, and its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In the present study, cell viability was assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). Cell cycle and apoptosis were measured by flow cytometry, and morphological changes in the nucleus were examined by fluorescence microscopy and Hoechst staining. Cell motility was detected by Transwell assay. ELISA was used to assess the protein levels of autocrine motility factor (AMF) in the cell supernatant, and protein expression was determined by Western blotting. Our results showed that EVO inhibited the proliferation of HCT-116 cells, caused accumulation of cells in S and G2/M phases, and reduced the levels of the secreted form of AMF. The protein levels of tumor suppressor protein (p53), Bcl-2 Associated X protein (Bax), B cell CLL/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), phosphorylated signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) and matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) were altered in cells treated with EVO. Taken together, our results suggest that EVO modulates the activity of the p53 signaling pathway to induce apoptosis and downregulate MMP3 expression by inactivating the JAK2/STAT3 pathway through the downregulation of PGI to inhibit migration of HCT-116 human colorectal cancer cells. PMID:26580615

  15. A novel microtubule depolymerizing colchicine analogue triggers apoptosis and autophagy in HCT-116 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok; Singh, Baljinder; Sharma, Parduman R; Bharate, Sandip B; Saxena, Ajit K; Mondhe, D M

    2016-03-01

    Colchicine is a tubulin-binding natural product isolated from Colchicum autumnale. Here we report the in vitro anticancer activity of C-ring modified semi-synthetic derivative of colchicine; N-[(7S)-1,2,3-trimethoxy-9-oxo-10-(4-phenyl-piperidin-1-yl)-5,6,7,9 tetrahydrobenzo[a]heptalen-7-yl]acetamide (4h) on colon cancer HCT-116 cell line. The compound 4h was screened for anti-proliferative activity against different human cancer cell lines and was found to exhibit higher cytotoxicity against colon cancer cell lines HCT-116 and Colo-205 with IC50 of 1 and 0.8 μM respectively. Cytotoxicity of the compound to the normal fR2 breast epithelial cells and normal HEK293 human embryonic kidney cells was evaluated in concentration and time-dependent manner to estimate its selectivity for cancer cells which showed much better selectivity than that of colchicine. Compound 4h induced cell death in HCT-116 cells by activating apoptosis and autophagy pathways. Autophagy inhibitor 3-MA blocked the production of LC3-II and reduced the cytotoxicity in response to 4h, but did not affect apoptosis, suggesting thereby that these two were independent events. Reactive oxygen species scavenger ascorbic acid pretreatment not only decreased the reactive oxygen species level but also reversed 4h induced cytotoxicity. Treatment with compound 4h depolymerized microtubules and the majority of cells arrested at the G2/M transition. Together, these data suggest that 4h has better selectivity and is a microtubule depolymerizer, which activates dual cell-death machineries, and thus, it could be a potential novel therapeutic agent in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26919061

  16. Fulvic Acid Attenuates Resistin-Induced Adhesion of HCT-116 Colorectal Cancer Cells to Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Shih; Yang, Jen-Tsung; Lu, Chien-Chang; Chang, Shun-Fu; Chen, Cheng-Nan; Su, Yu-Ping; Lee, Ko-Chao

    2015-01-01

    A high level of serum resistin has recently been found in patients with a number of cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Hence, resistin may play a role in CRC development. Fulvic acid (FA), a class of humic substances, possesses pharmacological properties. However, the effect of FA on cancer pathophysiology remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resistin on the endothelial adhesion of CRC and to determine whether FA elicits an antagonistic mechanism to neutralize this resistin effect. Human HCT-116 (p53-negative) and SW-48 (p53-positive) CRC cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used in the experiments. Treatment of both HCT-116 and SW-48 cells with resistin increases the adhesion of both cells to HUVECs. This result indicated that p53 may not regulate this resistin effect. A mechanistic study in HCT-116 cells further showed that this resistin effect occurs via the activation of NF-?B and the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Co-treating cells with both FA and resistin revealed that FA significantly attenuated the resistin-increased NF-?B activation and ICAM-1/VCAM-1 expression and the consequent adhesion of HCT-116 cells to HUVECs. These results demonstrate the role of resistin in promoting HCT-116 cell adhesion to HUVECs and indicate that FA might be a potential candidate for the inhibition of the endothelial adhesion of CRC in response to resistin. PMID:26690142

  17. Fulvic Acid Attenuates Resistin-Induced Adhesion of HCT-116 Colorectal Cancer Cells to Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Shih; Yang, Jen-Tsung; Lu, Chien-Chang; Chang, Shun-Fu; Chen, Cheng-Nan; Su, Yu-Ping; Lee, Ko-Chao

    2015-01-01

    A high level of serum resistin has recently been found in patients with a number of cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Hence, resistin may play a role in CRC development. Fulvic acid (FA), a class of humic substances, possesses pharmacological properties. However, the effect of FA on cancer pathophysiology remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resistin on the endothelial adhesion of CRC and to determine whether FA elicits an antagonistic mechanism to neutralize this resistin effect. Human HCT-116 (p53-negative) and SW-48 (p53-positive) CRC cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used in the experiments. Treatment of both HCT-116 and SW-48 cells with resistin increases the adhesion of both cells to HUVECs. This result indicated that p53 may not regulate this resistin effect. A mechanistic study in HCT-116 cells further showed that this resistin effect occurs via the activation of NF-κB and the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Co-treating cells with both FA and resistin revealed that FA significantly attenuated the resistin-increased NF-κB activation and ICAM-1/VCAM-1 expression and the consequent adhesion of HCT-116 cells to HUVECs. These results demonstrate the role of resistin in promoting HCT-116 cell adhesion to HUVECs and indicate that FA might be a potential candidate for the inhibition of the endothelial adhesion of CRC in response to resistin. PMID:26690142

  18. Viability and oxidative response of human colorectal HCT-116 cancer cells treated with visfatin/eNampt in vitro.

    PubMed

    Buldak, R J; Gowarzewski, M; Buldak, L; Skonieczna, M; Kukla, M; Polaniak, R; Zwirska-Korczala, K

    2015-08-01

    Visfatin/eNampt is a novel adipokine, secreted by visceral and subcutaneous fat, which could be involved in the development of obesity-associated cancer. Only few studies revealed reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent action of visfatin in endothelial cells, myotubes and melanoma cells. The potential pro-apoptotic properties of visfatin/eNampt in human colorectal HCT-116 cells remain unknown. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of visfatin/eNampt on cell viability along with the determination of apoptosis/necrosis extent and ROS level in HCT-116 cells. Additionally antioxidant enzymes' activities (i.e catalase (CAT), gluthatione peroxidase (GSH-Px)), and lipid peroxidation intensity in HCT-116 cells line was evaluated. Viability of HCT-116 cells was decreased after visfatin/eNampt treatment for 24 hours. The number of apoptotic cells in tested cells treated with increasing visfatin/eNampt concentrations (10, 100, 250 ng/ml) was elevated compared to untreated cells (6.4%, 9.7%, 16% vs. 3.2%; respectively). After 24 hours in the visfatin/eNampt treated group (10 - 100 ng/ml) CAT and GSH-Px activities significantly increased and this observation was accompanied by the decrease of ROS level when compared to the control group. Interestingly ROS level (using DCF detection technique) and lipid peroxidation ratio were increased in cells stimulated by visfatin/eNampt in concentration of 250 ng/ml along with the decreased activity of selected antioxidant enzymes when compared to remaining study groups, including control. We concluded that visfatin/eNampt induces decrease of cell viability and apoptosis boost in human colorectal cancer HCT-116 cells line. Visfatin/eNampt affected the level of ROS as well as antioxidant capacity, however the association of ROS level and apoptosis rate was not linear. The role for visfatin/eNampt in cancer redox status in vitro may provide a greater insight into the association between fat derived visfatin/eNampt and its endocrine action in colorectal carcinoma cells. PMID:26348080

  19. Herbal Formulation C168 Attenuates Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in HCT 116 Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells: Role of Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Lek Mun; Chan, Kok Meng; Hamid, Asmah; Latip, Jalifah; Rajab, Nor Fadilah

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbal formulations has gained scientific interest, particularly in cancer treatment. In this study, the herbal formulation of interest, denoted as C168, is a mixture of eight genera of plants. This study aims to investigate the antiproliferative effect of C168 methanol extract (CME) on various cancer cells and its underlying mechanism of action on the most responsive cell line, namely, HCT 116 cells. CME exerted antiproliferative activities on HCT 116 colorectal carcinoma cells and HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells but not on CCD-841-CoN normal colon epithelial cells, Jurkat E6.1 lymphoblastic leukemic cells, and V79-4 Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts. Further investigation on HCT 116 cells showed that CME induced G2/M cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Treatment of CME induced oxidative stress in HCT 116 cells by increasing the superoxide anion level and decreasing the intracellular glutathione. CME also increased tail moment value and H2AX phosphorylation in HCT 116 cells, suggesting DNA damage as an early signal of CME induced apoptosis. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in CME-treated cells also indicated the involvement of mitochondria in CME induced apoptosis. This study indicated the selectivity of CME toward colon cancer cells with the involvement of oxidative damage as its possible mechanism of action. PMID:26884792

  20. Herbal Formulation C168 Attenuates Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in HCT 116 Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells: Role of Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Leong, Lek Mun; Chan, Kok Meng; Hamid, Asmah; Latip, Jalifah; Rajab, Nor Fadilah

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbal formulations has gained scientific interest, particularly in cancer treatment. In this study, the herbal formulation of interest, denoted as C168, is a mixture of eight genera of plants. This study aims to investigate the antiproliferative effect of C168 methanol extract (CME) on various cancer cells and its underlying mechanism of action on the most responsive cell line, namely, HCT 116 cells. CME exerted antiproliferative activities on HCT 116 colorectal carcinoma cells and HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells but not on CCD-841-CoN normal colon epithelial cells, Jurkat E6.1 lymphoblastic leukemic cells, and V79-4 Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts. Further investigation on HCT 116 cells showed that CME induced G2/M cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Treatment of CME induced oxidative stress in HCT 116 cells by increasing the superoxide anion level and decreasing the intracellular glutathione. CME also increased tail moment value and H2AX phosphorylation in HCT 116 cells, suggesting DNA damage as an early signal of CME induced apoptosis. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in CME-treated cells also indicated the involvement of mitochondria in CME induced apoptosis. This study indicated the selectivity of CME toward colon cancer cells with the involvement of oxidative damage as its possible mechanism of action. PMID:26884792

  1. Dichlorvos-induced toxicity in HCT116 cells: involvement of oxidative stress and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ben Salem, Intidhar; Boussabbeh, Manel; Bacha, Hassen; Abid, Salwa

    2015-03-01

    Organophosphorous (OP) pesticides are widely used in the agriculture and home. Among those pesticides, Dichlorvos (DDVP) is a worldwide used insecticide for pest control. DDVP is commonly used as an insecticide for maintenance and growth of agricultural products, to control the internal and external parasites of farm animals, and to eradicate insects threatening the household, public health, and stored products. Although substantial information is available regarding the environmental and ecological impact of DDVP, not much is known in regard to its toxicity in the mammalian system. Therefore a study was conducted for the assessment of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of DDVP in human colon carcinoma (HCT116) cell line. We demonstrated that DDVP significantly decreased cell viability as assessed by the MTT assay. The increase in cell death was accompanied by a reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Besides, pretreatment with Z-VAD-FMK, a general caspases inhibitor, decreased significantly the DDVP-induced cell death. We also shown that DDVP induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation followed by lipid peroxidation as evidenced by an increase in the MDA levels. Our results also indicate that DDVP induced a concentration-dependent increase in DNA damage as evident by the comet assay. These data indicate that DDVP produces cytotoxicity and DNA damage in mammalian cells and should be used with caution. PMID:25868818

  2. p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} deficiency induces mitochondrial dysfunction in HCT116 colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ae Jeong; Jee, Hye Jin; Song, Naree; Kim, Minjee; Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan ; Jeong, Seon-Young; Department of Medical Genetics, Ajou University School of Medicine ; Yun, Jeanho; Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p21{sup -/-} HCT116 cells exhibited an increase in mitochondrial mass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The expression levels of PGC-1{alpha} and AMPK were upregulated in p21{sup -/-} HCT116 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proliferation of p21{sup -/-} HCT116 cells in galactose medium was significantly impaired. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p21 may play a role in maintaining proper mitochondrial mass and respiratory function. -- Abstract: p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} is a critical regulator of cell cycle progression. However, the role of p21 in mitochondrial function remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined the effect of p21 deficiency on mitochondrial function in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. We found that there was a significant increase in the mitochondrial mass of p21{sup -/-} HCT116 cells, as measured by 10-N-nonyl-acridine orange staining, as well as an increase in the mitochondrial DNA content. In contrast, p53{sup -/-} cells had a mitochondrial mass comparable to that of wild-type HCT116 cells. In addition, the expression levels of the mitochondrial biogenesis regulators PGC-1{alpha} and TFAM and AMPK activity were also elevated in p21{sup -/-} cells, indicating that p21 deficiency induces the rate of mitochondrial biogenesis through the AMPK-PGC-1{alpha} axis. However, the increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in p21{sup -/-} cells did not accompany an increase in the cellular steady-state level of ATP. Furthermore, p21{sup -/-} cells exhibited significant proliferation impairment in galactose medium, suggesting that p21 deficiency induces a defect in the mitochondrial respiratory chain in HCT116 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that the loss of p21 results in an aberrant increase in the mitochondrial mass and in mitochondrial dysfunction in HCT116 cells, indicating that p21 is required to maintain proper mitochondrial mass and respiratory function.

  3. DZNep inhibits the proliferation of colon cancer HCT116 cells by inducing senescence and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Mingquan; Mao, Genxiang; Wang, Guofu; Chen, Yufeng; Wu, Xiaojian; Wang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    EZH2 is over-expressed in human colon cancer and is closely associated with tumor proliferation, metastasis and poor prognosis. Targeting and inhibiting EZH2 may be an effective therapeutic strategy for colon cancer. 3-Deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), as an EZH2 inhibitor, can suppress cancer cell growth. However, the anti-cancer role of DZNep in colon cancer cells has been rarely studied. In this study, we demonstrate that DZNep can inhibit the growth and survival of colon cancer HCT116 cells by inducing cellular senescence and apoptosis. The study provides a novel view of anti-cancer mechanisms of DZNep in human colon cancer cells. PMID:26579445

  4. OrexinA induces autophagy in HCT-116 human colon cancer cells through the ERK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jing; Zhao, Yuyan; Guo, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Orexins are a class of peptides which have a potent influence on a broad variety of cancer cells. Autophagy is closely associated with tumors; however, its function is not yet completely understood. In this study, we aimed to determine whether orexinA induces autophagy in HCT?116human colon cancer cells and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved. For this purpose, HCT?116cells were treated with orexinA, and cell viability was then measured by MTT assay, and apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. The expression levels of autophagy?related proteins were measured by western blot analysis. Quantitative analysis of autophagy following acridine orange(AO) staining was performed using fluorescence microscopy, and cellular morphology was observed under a transmission electron microscope. In addition, the HCT?116cells were treated with the extracellular signal?regulated kinase(ERK) inhibitor, U0126, or the autophagy inhibitor, chloroquine, in combination with orexinA in order to examine the activation of ERK. We found that orexinA significantly inhibited the viability of the HCT?116cells. Both autophagy and apoptosis were activated during the orexinA?induced death of HCT?116cells. When the HCT?116cells were treated with orexinA for 24h, an accumulation of punctate microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain3(LC3) and an increase in LC3?? protein levels were also detected, indicating the activation of autophagy. Moreover, orexinA upregulated ERK phosphorylation; however, U0126 or chloroquine abrogated ERK phosphorylation and decreased autophagy, compared to treatment with orexinA alone. Therefore, our findings demonstratedm that orexinA induced autophagy through the ERK pathway in HCT?116human colon cancer cells. The inhibition of autophagy may thus prove to be an effective strategy for enhancing the antitumor potential of orexinA as a treatment for colon cancer. PMID:26572581

  5. Balsalazide Potentiates Parthenolide-Mediated Inhibition of Nuclear Factor-κB Signaling in HCT116 Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Young; Kim, Se-Lim; Park, Young-Ran; Liu, Yu-Chuan; Seo, Seung Young; Kim, Seong Hun; Kim, In Hee; Lee, Seung Ok; Lee, Soo Teik

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Balsalazide is an anti-inflammatory drug used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Balsalazide can reduce inflammatory responses via several mechanisms, including inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity. Parthenolide (PT) inhibits NF-κB and exerts promising anticancer effects by promoting apoptosis. The present investigated the antitumor effects of balsalazide, combined with PT, on NF-κB in a representative human colorectal carcinoma cell line, HCT116. Methods We counted cells and conducted annexin-V assays and cell cycle analysis to measure apoptotic cell death. Western blotting was used investigate the levels of proteins involved in apoptosis. Results PT and balsalazide produced synergistic anti-proliferative effects and induced apoptotic cell death. The combination of balsalazide and PT markedly suppressed nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit and the phosphorylation of inhibitor of NF-κB. Moreover, PT and balsalazide dramatically enhanced NF-κB p65 phosphorylation. Apoptosis, through the mitochondrial pathway, was confirmed by detecting effects on Bcl-2 family members, cytochrome c release, and activation of caspase-3 and -8. Conclusions Combination treatment with PT and balsalazide may offer an effective strategy for the induction of apoptosis in HCT116 cells. PMID:26130998

  6. Stereospecific ligands and their complexes. Part XII. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro antiproliferative activity of platinum(IV) complexes with some O,O‧-dialkyl esters of (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N‧-di-2-propanoic acid against colon cancer (HCT-116) and breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojković, Danijela Lj.; Jevtić, Verica V.; Radić, Gordana P.; Đačić, Dragana S.; Ćurčić, Milena G.; Marković, Snežana D.; Ðinović, Vesna M.; Petrović, Vladimir P.; Trifunović, Srećko R.

    2014-03-01

    Synthesis of three new platinum(IV) complexes C1-C3, with bidentate N,N‧-ligand precursors, O,O‧-dialkyl esters (alkyl = propyl, butyl and pentyl), of (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N‧-di-2-propanoic acid, H2-S,S-eddp were reported. The reported platinum(IV) complexes characterized by elemental analysis and their structures were discussed on the bases of their infrared, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. In vitro antiproliferative activity was determined on tumor cell lines: human colon carcinoma HCT-116 and human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231, using MTT test.

  7. Piper betle leaf extract enhances the cytotoxicity effect of 5-fluorouracil in inhibiting the growth of HT29 and HCT116 colon cancer cells*

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Pek Leng; Rajab, Nor Fadilah; Then, Sue Mian; Mohd Yusof, Yasmin Anum; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah; Pin, Kar Yong; Looi, Mee Lee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The combination effect of Piper betle (PB) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in enhancing the cytotoxic potential of 5-FU in inhibiting the growth of colon cancer cells was investigated. Methods: HT29 and HCT116 cells were subjected to 5-FU or PB treatment. 5-FU and PB were then combined and their effects on both cell lines were observed after 24 h of treatment. PB-5-FU interaction was elucidated by isobologram analysis. Apoptosis features of the treated cells were revealed by annexin V/PI stain. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed to exclude any possible chemical interaction between the compounds. Results: In the presence of PB extract, the cytotoxicity of 5-FU was observed at a lower dose (IC50 12.5 ?mol/L) and a shorter time (24 h) in both cell lines. Both cell lines treated with 5-FU or PB alone induced a greater apoptosis effect compared with the combination treatment. Isobologram analysis indicated that PB and 5-FU interacted synergistically and antagonistically in inhibiting the growth of HT29 and HCT116 cells, respectively. Conclusions: In the presence of PB, a lower dosage of 5-FU is required to achieve the maximum drug effect in inhibiting the growth of HT29 cells. However, PB did not significantly reduce 5-FU dosage in HCT116 cells. Our result showed that this interaction may not solely contribute to the apoptosis pathway. PMID:25091987

  8. Dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans, gomisins J and N inhibit the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway in HCT116 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Kyungsu; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Yoo, Ji-Hye; Lee, Hee Ju; Kim, Chul Young; College of Pharmacy, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791 ; Nho, Chu Won

    2012-11-16

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram of the possible molecular mechanism underlying the inhibition of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway and the induction of G0/G1-phase arrest by gomisins J and N, derived from the fruits of S. chinensis, in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gomisins J and N inhibited Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway in HCT116 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gomisins J and N disrupted the binding of {beta}-catenin to specific DNA sequences, TBE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gomisins J and N inhibited the HCT116 cell proliferation through G0/G1 phase arrest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gomisins J and N inhibited the expression of Cyc D1, a Wnt/{beta}-catenin target gene. -- Abstract: Here, we report that gomisin J and gomisin N, dibenzocyclooctadiene type lignans isolated from Schisandra chinensis, inhibit Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling in HCT116 cells. Gomisins J and N appear to inhibit Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling by disrupting the interaction between {beta}-catenin and its specific target DNA sequences (TCF binding elements, TBE) rather than by altering the expression of the {beta}-catenin protein. Gomisins J and N inhibit HCT116 cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. The G0/G1 phase arrest induced by gomisins J and N appears to be caused by a decrease in the expression of Cyclin D1, a representative target gene of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway, as well as Cdk2, Cdk4, and E2F-1. Therefore, gomisins J and N, the novel Wnt/{beta}-catenin inhibitors discovered in this study, may serve as potential agents for the prevention and treatment of human colorectal cancers.

  9. Molecular cloning, genomic characterization and over-expression of a novel gene, XRRA1, identified from human colorectal cancer cell HCT116Clone2_XRR and macaque testis

    PubMed Central

    Mesak, Felix M; Osada, Naoki; Hashimoto, Katsuyuki; Liu, Qing Y; Ng, Cheng E

    2003-01-01

    Background As part of our investigation into the genetic basis of tumor cell radioresponse, we have isolated several clones with a wide range of responses to X-radiation (XR) from an unirradiated human colorectal tumor cell line, HCT116. Using human cDNA microarrays, we recently identified a novel gene that was down-regulated by two-fold in an XR-resistant cell clone, HCT116Clone2_XRR. We have named this gene as X-ray radiation resistance associated 1 (XRRA1) (GenBank BK000541). Here, we present the first report on the molecular cloning, genomic characterization and over-expression of the XRRA1 gene. Results We found that XRRA1 was expressed predominantly in testis of both human and macaque. cDNA microarray analysis showed three-fold higher expression of XRRA1 in macaque testis relative to other tissues. We further cloned the macaque XRRA1 cDNA (GenBank AB072776) and a human XRRA1 splice variant from HCT116Clone2_XRR (GenBank AY163836). In silico analysis revealed the full-length human XRRA1, mouse, rat and bovine Xrra1 cDNAs. The XRRA1 gene comprises 11 exons and spans 64 kb on chromosome 11q13.3. Human and macaque cDNAs share 96% homology. Human XRRA1 cDNA is 1987 nt long and encodes a protein of 559 aa. XRRA1 protein is highly conserved in human, macaque, mouse, rat, pig, and bovine. GFP-XRRA1 fusion protein was detected in both the nucleus and cytoplasm of HCT116 clones and COS-7 cells. Interestingly, we found evidence that COS-7 cells which over-expressed XRRA1 lacked Ku86 (Ku80, XRCC5), a non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) DNA repair molecule, in the nucleus. RT-PCR analysis showed differential expression of XRRA1 after XR in HCT116 clones manifesting significantly different XR responses. Further, we found that XRRA1 was expressed in most tumor cell types. Surprisingly, mouse Xrra1 was detected in mouse embryonic stem cells R1. Conclusions Both XRRA1 cDNA and protein are highly conserved among mammals, suggesting that XRRA1 may have similar functions. Our results also suggest that the genetic modulation of XRRA1 may affect the XR responses of HCT116 clones and that XRRA1 may have a role in the response of human tumor and normal cells to XR. XRRA1 might be correlated with cancer development and might also be an early expressed gene. PMID:12908878

  10. Both stromal cell and colonocyte epidermal growth factor receptors control HCT116 colon cancer cell growth in tumor xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Bissonnette, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Colon cancer growth requires growth-promoting interactions between malignant colonocytes and stromal cells. Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) are expressed on colonocytes and many stromal cells. Furthermore, EGFR is required for efficient tumorigenesis in experimental colon cancer models. To dissect the cell-specific role of EGFR, we manipulated receptor function on stromal cells and cancer cells. To assess the role of stromal EGFR, HCT116 human colon cancer cells were implanted into immunodeficient mice expressing dominant negative (DN) EgfrVelvet/+ or Egfr+/+. To assess the role of cancer cell EGFR, HCT116 transfectants expressing inducible DN-Egfr were implanted into immunodeficient mice. To dissect EGFR signals in vitro, we examined colon cancer cells in monoculture or in cocultures with fibroblasts for EGFR transactivation and prostaglandin synthase 2 (PTGS2) induction. EGFR signals were determined by blotting, immunostaining and real-time PCR. Tumor xenografts in EgfrVelvet/+ mice were significantly smaller than tumors in Egfr+/+ mice, with decreased proliferation (Ki67) and increased apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3) in cancer cells and decreased stromal blood vessels. Mouse stromal transforming growth factor alpha (TGFA), amphiregulin (AREG), PTGS2 and Il1b and interleukin-1 receptor 1 (Il1r1) transcripts and cancer cell beta catenin (CTNNB1) and cyclin D1 (CCND1) were significantly lower in tumors obtained from EgfrVelvet/+ mice. DN-EGFR HCT116 transfectants also formed significantly smaller tumors with reduced mouse Areg, Ptgs2, Il1b and Il1r1 transcripts. Coculture increased Caco-2 phospho-active ERBB (pERBB2), whereas DN-EGFR in Caco-2 cells suppressed fibroblast PTGS2 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). In monoculture, interleukin 1 beta (IL1B) transactivated EGFR in HCT116 cells. Stromal cell and colonocyte EGFRs are required for robust EGFR signals and efficient tumor growth, which involve EGFRinterleukin-1 crosstalk. PMID:22791816

  11. Deoxyelephantopin from Elephantopus scaber Inhibits HCT116 Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Growth through Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chim Kei; Chan, Gomathi; Awang, Khalijah; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

    2016-01-01

    Deoxyelephantopin (DET), one of the major sesquiterpene lactones derived from Elephantopus scaber was reported to possess numerous pharmacological functions. This study aimed to assess the apoptosis inducing effects and cell cycle arrest by DET followed by elucidation of the mechanisms underlying cell death in HCT116 cells. The anticancer activity of DET was evaluated by a MTT assay. Morphological and biochemical changes were detected by Hoescht 33342/PI and Annexin V/PI staining. The results revealed that DET and isodeoxyelephantopin (isoDET) could be isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of E. scaber leaves via a bioassay-guided approach. DET induced significant dose- and time-dependent growth inhibition of HCT116 cells. Characteristics of apoptosis including nuclear morphological changes and externalization of phosphatidylserine were observed. DET also significantly resulted in the activation of caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. Additionally, DET induced cell cycle arrest at the S phase along with dose-dependent upregulation of p21 and phosphorylated p53 protein expression. DET dose-dependently downregulated cyclin D1, A2, B1, E2, CDK4 and CDK2 protein expression. In conclusion, our data showed that DET induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in HCT116 colorectal carcinoma, suggesting that DET has potential as an anticancer agent for colorectal carcinoma. PMID:27007366

  12. Isoreserpine promotes {beta}-catenin degradation via Siah-1 up-regulation in HCT116 colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gwak, Jungsug; Song, Taeyun; Song, Jie-Young; Yun, Yeon-Sook; Choi, Il-Whan; Jeong, Yongsu; Shin, Jae-Gook; Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Busan 614-735 ; Oh, Sangtaek

    2009-09-25

    Aberrant accumulation of intracellular {beta}-catenin in intestinal epithelial cells is a frequent early event during the development of colon cancer. To identify small molecules that decrease the level of intracellular {beta}-catenin, we performed cell-based chemical screening using genetically engineered HEK293 reporter cells to detect compounds that inhibit TOPFlash reporter activity, which was stimulated by Wnt3a-conditioned medium. We found that isoreserpine promoted the degradation of intracellular {beta}-catenin by up-regulation of Siah-1 in HEK293 and HCT116 colon cancer cells. Moreover, isoreserpine repressed the expression of {beta}-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF)-dependent genes, such as cyclin D1 and c-myc, resulting in the suppression of HCT116 cell proliferation. Our findings suggest that isoreserpine can potentially be used as a chemotherapeutic agent against colon cancer.

  13. Preclinical Study of Treatment Response in HCT-116 Cells and Xenografts with 1H-decoupled 31P MRS

    PubMed Central

    Darpolor, Moses M.; Kennealey, Peter T.; Carl Le, H; Zakian, Kristen L.; Ackerstaff, Ellen; Rizwan, Asif; Chen, Jin-Hong; Sambol, Elliot B.; Schwartz, Gary K.; Singer, Samuel; Koutcher, Jason A.

    2011-01-01

    The topoisomerase I inhibitor, irinotecan, and its active metabolite SN-38 have been shown to induce G2/M cell cycle arrest without significant cell death in human colon carcinoma cells (HCT-116). Subsequent treatment of these G2/M-arrested cells with the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, flavopiridol, induced these cells to undergo apoptosis. The goal of this study was to develop a noninvasive metabolic biomarker for early tumor response and target inhibition of irinotecan followed by flavopiridol treatment in a longitudinal study. A total of eleven mice bearing HCT-116 xenografts were separated into two cohorts where one cohort was administered saline and the other treated with a sequential course of irinotecan followed by flavopiridol. Each mouse xenograft was longitudinally monitored with proton (1H)-decoupled phosphorus (31P) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) before and after treatment. A statistically significant decrease in phosphocholine (p = 0.0004) and inorganic phosphate (p = 0.0103) levels were observed in HCT-116 xenografts following treatment, which were evidenced within twenty-four hours of treatment completion. Also, a significant growth delay was found in treated xenografts. To discern the underlying mechanism for the treatment response of the xenografts, in vitro HCT-116 cell cultures were investigated with enzymatic assays, cell cycle analysis, and apoptotic assays. Flavopiridol had a direct effect on choline kinase as measured by a 67% reduction in the phosphorylation of choline to phosphocholine. Cells treated with SN-38 alone underwent 835% G2/M cell cycle arrest compared to untreated cells. In cells, flavopiridol alone induced 51% apoptosis while the sequential treatment (SN-38 then flavopiridol) resulted in 3910% apoptosis. In vivo 1H-decoupled 31P MRS indirectly measures choline kinase activity. The decrease in phosphocholine may be a potential indicator of early tumor response to the sequential treatment of irinotecan followed by flavopiridol in noninvasive and/or longitudinal studies. PMID:21994185

  14. Flavokawain C Inhibits Cell Cycle and Promotes Apoptosis, Associated with Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Regulation of MAPKs and Akt Signaling Pathways in HCT 116 Human Colon Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Phang, Chung-Weng; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Sethi, Gautam; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri

    2016-01-01

    Flavokawain C (FKC) is a naturally occurring chalcone which can be found in Kava (Piper methysticum Forst) root. The present study evaluated the effect of FKC on the growth of various human cancer cell lines and the underlying associated mechanisms. FKC showed higher cytotoxic activity against HCT 116 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner in comparison to other cell lines (MCF-7, HT-29, A549 and CaSki), with minimal toxicity on normal human colon cells. The apoptosis-inducing capability of FKC on HCT 116 cells was evidenced by cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and increased phosphatidylserine externalization. FKC was found to disrupt mitochondrial membrane potential, resulting in the release of Smac/DIABLO, AIF and cytochrome c into the cytoplasm. Our results also revealed that FKC induced intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis via upregulation of the levels of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bak) and death receptors (DR5), while downregulation of the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins (XIAP, cIAP-1, c-FlipL, Bcl-xL and survivin), resulting in the activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). FKC was also found to cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as suggested by the elevation of GADD153 protein after FKC treatment. After the cells were exposed to FKC (60μM) over 18hrs, there was a substantial increase in the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2. The expression of phosphorylated Akt was also reduced. FKC also caused cell cycle arrest in the S phase in HCT 116 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner and with accumulation of cells in the sub-G1 phase. This was accompanied by the downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK2 and CDK4), consistent with the upregulation of CDK inhibitors (p21Cip1 and p27Kip1), and hypophosphorylation of Rb. PMID:26859847

  15. Antiproliferative activity of O4-benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids against HCT-116 and HL-60 tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Hatae, Noriyuki; Fujita, Erina; Shigenobu, Saori; Shimoyama, Sayumi; Ishihara, Yuhsuke; Kurata, Yuhki; Choshi, Tominari; Nishiyama, Takashi; Okada, Chiaki; Hibino, Satoshi

    2015-07-15

    The O4-benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids exhibit potent antiproliferative activity against cancer cells, which is derived from their ability to inhibit of topoisomerase I and II. It has been reported that in the alkaloids a cationic quaternary ammonium atom, which results in resonance effects between ring A and B, is necessary for increased antiproliferative activity. These findings indicate the role of their substituents at ring A on inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. In the present study, we systematically assessed the cytotoxic activities of naturally occurring alkaloids and their derivatives containing various ring A substituents against two tumor cell lines, HCT-116 colon tumor cells and HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells. Among the cationic iminium alkaloids, which displayed more potent activity than the corresponding neutral derivatives, and the 7,8-oxygenated benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids, chelerythrine and NK109, exhibited stronger antiproliferative activity than the 8,9- and 9,10-oxygenated alkaloids. The activity of cationic iminium alkaloids could be correlated with the bond lengths of their ring A substituents and the electrostatic potentials of their ammonium molecules by DFT calculation. PMID:26026362

  16. Predominant requirement of Bax for apoptosis in HCT116 cells is determined by Mcl-1's inhibitory effect on Bak.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Wang C; Youle RJ

    2012-06-28

    The intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway acts through two core pro-apoptotic proteins Bax (Bcl2-associated X protein) and Bak (Bcl2-antagonist/killer 1). Although Bax and Bak seem to have redundant roles in apoptosis, accumulating evidence also suggests that they might not be interchangeable under certain conditions, at least in some human cell lines. Here we report the generation of Bak knockout as well as BaxBak double knockout HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells. We show that Bak is dispensable for apoptosis induced by a variety of stimuli including ABT-737 but not for fluorouracil-induced apoptosis. In addition, Bax deficiency only provides partial protection against camptothecin and cisplatin-induced apoptosis and no protection against killing by Puma or ABT-737 plus Noxa overexpression. Moreover, Bak is activated normally in response to many chemotherapeutic drugs in the presence of Bax, but remains kept in check by Mcl-1 in the absence of Bax. Our data suggest that Bax and Bak are functionally redundant, but they are counteracted by distinct anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins in different species.

  17. Predominant requirement of Bax for apoptosis in HCT116 cells is determined by Mcl-1's inhibitory effect on Bak.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Youle, R J

    2012-06-28

    The intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway acts through two core pro-apoptotic proteins Bax (Bcl2-associated X protein) and Bak (Bcl2-antagonist/killer 1). Although Bax and Bak seem to have redundant roles in apoptosis, accumulating evidence also suggests that they might not be interchangeable under certain conditions, at least in some human cell lines. Here we report the generation of Bak knockout as well as BaxBak double knockout HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells. We show that Bak is dispensable for apoptosis induced by a variety of stimuli including ABT-737 but not for fluorouracil-induced apoptosis. In addition, Bax deficiency only provides partial protection against camptothecin and cisplatin-induced apoptosis and no protection against killing by Puma or ABT-737 plus Noxa overexpression. Moreover, Bak is activated normally in response to many chemotherapeutic drugs in the presence of Bax, but remains kept in check by Mcl-1 in the absence of Bax. Our data suggest that Bax and Bak are functionally redundant, but they are counteracted by distinct anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins in different species. PMID:22056880

  18. Predominant requirement of Bax for apoptosis in HCT116 cells is determined by Mcl-1s inhibitory effect on Bak

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunxin; Youle, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    The intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway acts through two core pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bak. While Bax and Bak seem to play redundant roles in apoptosis, accumulating evidence also suggests that they might not be interchangeable under certain conditions, at least in some human cell lines. Here we report the generation of Bak knockout as well as BaxBak double knockout HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells. We show that Bak is dispensable for apoptosis induced by a variety of stimuli including ABT-737 but not for 5-FU-induced apoptosis. In addition, Bax deficiency only provides partial protection against camptothecin and cisplatin-induced apoptosis and no protection against killing by Puma or ABT-737 plus Noxa overexpression. Moreover, Bak is activated normally in response to many chemotherapeutic drugs in the presence of Bax but remains kept in check by Mcl-1 in the absence of Bax. Our data suggest that Bax and Bak are functionally redundant but they are counteracted by distinct anti-apopotic Bcl-2 family proteins in different species. PMID:22056880

  19. Eugenia jambolana (Java Plum) Fruit Extract Exhibits Anti-Cancer Activity against Early Stage Human HCT-116 Colon Cancer Cells and Colon Cancer Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Charepalli, Venkata; Reddivari, Lavanya; Vadde, Ramakrishna; Walia, Suresh; Radhakrishnan, Sridhar; Vanamala, Jairam K P

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization predicts over a 70% increase in cancer incidents in developing nations over the next decade. Although these nations have limited access to novel therapeutics, they do have access to foods that contain chemopreventive bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins, and as such, consumption of these foods can be encouraged to combat cancer. We and others have previously characterized the anti-colon cancer properties of dietary anthocyanins from different sources. Eugenia jambolana (Java plum) is a tropical medicinal fruit rich in anthocyanins, however, its anti-colon cancer properties are not well characterized. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that colon cancer stem cells (colon CSCs) promote resistance to chemotherapy, relapse of tumors and contribute to poor prognosis. The objectives of this study were to 1) characterize the anthocyanin profile of Java plum using HPLC-MS; and 2) determine the anti-proliferative (cell counting and MTT) and pro-apoptotic (TUNEL and caspase 3/7 glo assay) properties of Java plum fruit extract (JPE) using HCT-116 colon cancer cell line and colon CSCs (positive for CD 44, CD 133 and ALDH1b1 markers). HPLC-MS analysis showed that JPE contains a variety of anthocyanins including glucosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. JPE anthocyanins suppressed (p < 0.05) proliferation in HCT-116 cells and elevated (p < 0.05) apoptosis in both HCT-116 cells and colon CSCs. JPE also suppressed the stemness in colon CSCs as evaluated using colony formation assay. These results warrant further assessment of the anti-cancer activity of JPE, and its molecular mechanisms using pre-clinical models of colon cancer. PMID:26927179

  20. Blockade of irradiation-induced autophagosome formation impairs proliferation but does not enhance cell death in HCT-116 human colorectal carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    DE ALBUQUERQUE-XAVIER, ANA CRISTINA; BASTOS, LILIAN GONALVES R.; DE FREITAS, JULIO CESAR MADUREIRA; LEVE, FERNANDA; DE SOUZA, WALDEMIR FERNNDEZ; DE ARAUJO, WALLACE MARTINS; WANDERLEY, JOO LUIZ MENDES; TANAKA, MARCELO NEVES; DE SOUZA, WANDERLEY; MORGADO-DAZ, JOS ANDRS

    2012-01-01

    This work was undertaken to gain further information on the molecular mechanisms underlying autophagosome formation and its relation with tumor cell survival in response to radiation in colon cancer. A human colon cancer cell line, HCT-116, was examined with respect to cell survival after blockade of irradiation-induced autophagosome formation by pharmacological interference. Autophagosome formation was confirmed using a kinetic study with incorporated bovine serum albumin gold-conjugate (BSA-Au) analyzed by electron microscopy and an autophagosome-associated LC3B antibody measured by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Annexin V/PI double staining was used to monitor cell death by apoptosis, and cell cycle profiles by flow cytometry. Ionizing radiation (IR) promoted autophagosome formation in the HCT-116 IR-surviving cells. Pharmacological interference showed that PI3K/Akt and Src were involved in early stages of autophagosome formation. IR alone decreased cell proliferation by arresting cells in the G2/M phase, and pharmacological interference of autophagosome formation decreased proliferation, but did not affect cell survival. Also, our data suggest that decreased proliferation caused by PI3K and Src inhibitors could be through S phase cell cycle delay. Our results clearly indicate that blockade of IR-induced autophagosome formation impairs proliferation but does not enhance cell death in colon cancer cells. PMID:22246348

  1. Prolonged sulforaphane treatment activates survival signaling in nontumorigenic NCM460 colon cells but apoptotic signaling in tumorigenic HCT116 colon cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huawei; Trujillo, Olivia N; Moyer, Mary P; Botnen, James H

    2011-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is a naturally occurring chemopreventive agent; the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis is a key mechanism by which SFN exerts its colon cancer prevention. However, little is known about the differential effects of SFN on colon cancer and normal cells. In this study, we demonstrated that SFN (15 ?mol/L) exposure (72 h) inhibited cell proliferation by up to 95% in colon cancer cells (HCT116) and by 52% in normal colon mucosa-derived (NCM460) cells. Our data also showed that SFN exposure (5 and 10 ?mol/L) led to the reduction of G1 phase cell distribution and an induction of apoptosis in HCT116 cells, but to a much lesser extent in NCM460 cells. Furthermore, the examination of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling status revealed that SFN upregulated the phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in NCM460 cells but not in HCT116 cells. In contrast, SFN enhanced the phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) and decreased cellular myelocytomatosis oncogene (c-Myc) expression in HCT116 cells but not NCM460 cells. Taken together, the activation of survival signaling in NCM460 cells and apoptotic signaling in HCT116 cells may play a critical role in SFN's stronger potential of inhibiting cell proliferation in colon cancer cells than in normal colon cells. PMID:21271458

  2. Iron depletion in HCT116 cells diminishes the upregulatory effect of phenethyl isothiocyanate on heme oxygenase-1.

    PubMed

    Bolloskis, Michael P; Carvalho, Fabiana P; Loo, George

    2016-04-15

    Some of the health-promoting properties of cruciferous vegetables are thought to be partly attributed to isothiocyanates. These phytochemicals can upregulate the expression of certain cytoprotective stress genes, but it is unknown if a particular nutrient is involved. Herein, the objective was to ascertain if adequate iron is needed for enabling HCT116 cells to optimally express heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) when induced by phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC). PEITC increased HO-1 expression and also nuclear translocation of Nrf2, which is a transcription factor known to activate the HO-1 gene. However, in HCT116 cells that were made iron-deficient by depleting intracellular iron with deferoxamine (DFO), PEITC was less able to increase HO-1 expression and nuclear translocation of Nrf2. These suppressive effects of DFO were overcome by replenishing the iron-deficient cells with the missing iron. To elucidate these findings, it was found that PEITC-induced HO-1 upregulation can be inhibited with thiol antioxidants (glutathione and N-acetylcysteine). Furthermore, NADPH oxidase inhibitors (diphenyleneiodonium and apocynin) and a superoxide scavenger (Tiron) each inhibited PEITC-induced HO-1 upregulation. In doing so, diphenyleneiodonium was the most potent and also inhibited nuclear translocation of redox-sensitive Nrf2. Collectively, the results imply that the HO-1 upregulation by PEITC involves an iron-dependent, oxidant signaling pathway. Therefore, it is concluded that ample iron is required to enable PEITC to fully upregulate HO-1 expression in HCT116 cells. As such, it is conceivable that iron-deficient individuals may not reap the full health benefits of eating PEITC-containing cruciferous vegetables that via HO-1 may help protect against multiple chronic diseases. PMID:26945724

  3. Methylselenol, a selenium metabolite, plays common and different roles in cancerous colon HCT116 cell and noncancerous NCM460 colon cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huawei; Briske-Anderson, Mary; Wu, Min; Moyer, Mary P

    2012-01-01

    Methylselenol is hypothesized to be a critical selenium metabolite for anticancer action, and differential chemopreventive effects of methylselenol on cancerous and noncancerous cells may play an important role. In this study, the submicromolar concentrations of methylselenol were generated by incubating methionase with seleno-L methionine, and colon-cancer-derived HCT-116 cells and noncancerous colon NCM460 cells were exposed to methylselenol. Methylselenol exposure inhibited cell growth and led to an increase in G1 and G2 fractions with a concomitant drop in S-phase and an induction of apoptosis in HCT116, but to a much lesser extent in NCM460 colon cells. Similarly, the examination of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cellular myelocytomatosis oncogene (c-Myc) signaling status revealed that methylselenol inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and the expression of c-Myc in HCT116 cells, but also to a lesser extent in NCM460 cells. The other finding is that methylselenol inhibits sarcoma kinase phosphorylation in HCT116 cells. In contrast, methylselenol upregulated the phosphorylation of sarcoma and focal adhesion kinase survival signals in the noncancerous NCM460 cells. Collectively, methylselenol's stronger potential of inhibiting cell proliferation/survival signals in the cancerous HCT116 cells when compared with that in noncancerous NCM460 cells may partly explain the potential of methylselenol's anticancer action. PMID:22171558

  4. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 is overexpressed in colonic adenocarcinomas and promotes migration and invasion of HCT116 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Haiyun; Makizumi, Ryouji; Ravikumar, T.S.; Dong Huali; Yang Wancai; Yang, W.-L. . E-mail: wlyang@nshs.edu

    2007-03-10

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), a member of the TGF-{beta} superfamily, is involved in development, morphogenesis, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Dysregulation of BMP signaling has been suggested in tumorigenesis. In an analysis of human colon normal mucosa and tumors at different stages by immunohistochemistry, we observed that the intensity of BMP-4 staining in late-adenocarcinomas was stronger than that in normal mucosa and adenomas, while there was no difference in the staining of its receptors (BMPR-IA and BMPR-II) at all stages. The up-regulation of BMP-4 was further validated in another panel of tumor tissues by real-time RT-PCR, showing that BMP-4 mRNA levels in primary colonic carcinomas with liver metastasis were significantly higher than that in the matched normal mucosa. In order to understand the functional relevance of BMP-4 expression in colon cancer progression, BMP-4-overexpressing cell clones were generated from HCT116 cells. Overexpression of BMP-4 did not affect the HCT116 cell growth. The cells overexpressing BMP-4 became resistant to serum-starvation-induced apoptosis and exhibited enhanced migration and invasion characteristics. Overexpression of BMP-4 changed cell morphology to invasive spindle phenotype and induced the expression and activity of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). These results indicate that BMP-4 confers invasive phenotype during progression of colon cancer.

  5. Phytochemical investigation of Gynura bicolor leaves and cytotoxicity evaluation of the chemical constituents against HCT 116 cells.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Wuen Yew; Tan, Hooi Poay; Ling, Sui Kiong; Abdul Wahab, Norhanom; Sim, Kae Shin

    2016-02-01

    Gynura bicolor (Compositae) is a popular vegetable in Asia and believed to confer a wide range of benefits including anti-cancer. Our previous findings showed that the ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor possessed cytotoxicity and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death in human colon carcinoma cells (HCT 116). A combination of column chromatography had been used to purify chemical constituents from the ethyl acetate and water extract of G. bicolor leaves. Eight chemical constituents 5-p-trans-coumaroylquinic acid (I), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (II), rutin (III), kampferol-3-O-rutinoside (IV), 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (V), kampferol-3-O-glucoside (VI), guanosine (VII) and chlorogenic acid (VIII) were isolated from G. bicolor grown in Malaysia. To our best knowledge, all chemical constituents were isolated for the first time from G. bicolor leaves except rutin (III). 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (V), guanosine (VII) and chlorogenic acid (VIII) demonstrated selective cytotoxicity (selective index>3) against HCT 116 cancer cells compared to CCD-18Co human normal colon cells. PMID:25738869

  6. Crocin and Quercetin protect HCT116 and HEK293 cells from Zearalenone-induced apoptosis by reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Ben Salem, Intidhar; Prola, Alexandre; Boussabbeh, Manel; Guilbert, Arnaud; Bacha, Hassen; Abid-Essefi, Salwa; Lemaire, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    Mycotoxins are considered to be significant contaminants of food and animal feed. Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced by several species of Fusarium in cereals and agricultural products. ZEN has been shown to be cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic in different cell types. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in ZEN-mediated toxicity in human intestine (HCT116) and kidney (HEK293) cells and evaluated the effects of the two common dietary compounds Quercetin (QUER) and Crocin (CRO). We show that ZEN treatment induces ER stress and activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) as evidenced by XBP1 mRNA splicing and upregulation of GRP78, ATF4, GADD34, PDIA6, and CHOP. Activation of the ER stress response is associated with activation of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. This apoptotic process is characterized by an increase in ROS generation and lipid peroxidation, a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), and an activation of caspases and DNA damages. We also demonstrate that the antioxidant properties of QUER and CRO help to prevent ER stress and reduce ZEN-induced apoptosis in HCT116 and HEK293 cells. Our results suggest that antioxidant molecule might be helpful to prevent ZEN-induced ER stress and toxicity. PMID:26134454

  7. 150 kDa glycoprotein isolated from Solanum nigrum Linne stimulates caspase-3 activation and reduces inducible nitric oxide production in HCT-116 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sei-Jung; Lim, Kye-Taek

    2006-10-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the apoptotic effects of glycoprotein (SNL glycoprotein, 150-kDa) isolated from Solanum nigrum Linne, which has been used as an antipyretic and anticancer agent in folk medicine. We found that SNL glycoprotein consists of carbohydrate content (69.74%) and protein content (30.26%), which contains more than 50% hydrophobic amino acids such as glycine and proline. SNL glycoprotein showed remarkable cytotoxic and apoptotic effects at 40 microg/ml of SNL glycoprotein for 4 h in HCT-116 cells. In the activity of the apoptotic related proteins [caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP)], the results showed that SNL glycoprotein (40 microg/ml) has a stimulatory effect on caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage in HCT-116 cells. Moreover, SNL glycoprotein blocked nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation and reduced inducible nitric oxide (iNO) production. Interestingly, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, for NF-kappaB inhibitor) and N omega-Nitro-L-arginine methylester hydrochloride (L-NAME, for NO inhibitor) effectively stimulated the caspase-3 activation in HCT-116 cells. The results in this experiment indicated that SNL glycoprotein induces apoptosis through the NF-kappaB activation and inducible nitric oxide (iNO) production in HCT-116 cells. Here, we speculate that SNL glycoprotein is one of the chemotherapeutic agents and of the modulators for apoptotic signals in HCT-116 cells. PMID:16527444

  8. Methylselenol, a selenium metabolite, plays common and different roles in cancerous colon HCT116 cell and noncancerous NCM460 colon cell proliferation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methylselenol has been hypothesized to be a critical selenium (Se) metabolite for anticancer activity in vivo. To determine differential chemopreventive effects of methylselenol on colon cancer cells versus colon noncancerous cells, colon-cancer-derived HCT-116 cells and noncancerous colonic NCM460 ...

  9. Overexpression of p65/RelA potentiates curcumin-induced apoptosis in HCT116 human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Collett, Gavin P; Campbell, Frederick C

    2006-06-01

    Curcumin, the yellow pigment in the spice turmeric, has potent chemopreventive activities that involve diverse molecular pathways. It is widely believed that curcumin pro-apoptotic properties are mediated by downregulation of NF kappa B (NFkappaB). The p65/RelA subunit of NFkappaB may influence cell death, in part by activation of NFkappaB anti-apoptotic target genes including X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), A20, bcl-xL and inhibition of sustained activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). We have shown previously that curcumin inhibits NFkappaB, activates JNK and promotes apoptosis in HCT116 colorectal cancer cells. Here, we show that forced overexpression of p65 does not affect curcumin-induced JNK activation. Indeed, overexpression of p65 enhanced curcumin-mediated apoptosis as assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assay and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. This potentiating effect of p65 upon curcumin-mediated apoptosis was reversed by transfection of cells with an IkappaB super-repressor (DeltaNIkappaB). Curcumin treatment inhibited expression of NFkappaB anti-apoptotic target genes in mock-transfected and in p65-overexpressing HCT116 cells, although expression levels remained higher in the latter. Taken together, these results show that curcumin-mediated activation of JNK or induction of apoptosis does not require inhibition of p65. Furthermore, curcumin/p65 synergy in promotion of apoptosis cannot be attributed to active repression of NFkappaB anti-apoptotic genes. PMID:16497702

  10. Monoterpene indole alkaloid hydrazone derivatives with apoptosis inducing activity in human HCT116 colon and HepG2 liver carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Paterna, Angela; Borralho, Pedro M; Gomes, Sofia E; Mulhovo, Silva; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Ferreira, Maria-José U

    2015-09-01

    The derivatization of dregamine (1) and tabernaemontanine (2), two epimeric monoterpene indole alkaloids isolated from the methanol extract of the roots of Tabernaemontana elegans, with several hydrazines and hydroxylamine gave rise to ten new derivatives (3-12). Their structures were assigned by spectroscopic methods, including 2D NMR experiments. The compounds were tested for their ability to induce apoptosis in HCT116 colon and HepG2 liver cancer cells. Firstly, the cytotoxicity of all compounds (1-12) was evaluated in both cell lines by the MTS assay. The most active compounds (6, 9, 10) along with 1 and 2 were further investigated for their apoptosis induction capability by Guava ViaCount flow cytometry assays, nuclear morphology evaluation by Hoechst staining, and caspase-3/7 activity assays. Compounds 9 and 10 showed promising apoptosis induction profile, displaying higher activities than 5-fluorouracil, the mainstay in colon cancer treatment. PMID:26169128

  11. The effects of a novel aliphatic-chain hydroxamate derivative WMJ-S-001 in HCT116 colorectal cancer cell death

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Han; Huang, Shiu-Wen; Hsu, Ya-Fen; Ou, George; Huang, Wei-Jan; Hsu, Ming-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxamate derivatives have attracted considerable attention due to their broad pharmacological properties and have been extensively investigated. We recently demonstrated that WMJ-S-001, a novel aliphatic hydroxamate derivative, exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic activities. In this study, we explored the underlying mechanisms by which WMJ-S-001 induces HCT116 colorectal cancer cell death. WMJ-S-001 inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis in HCT116 cells. These actions were associated with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, p53 phosphorylation and acetylation, as well as the modulation of p21cip/Waf1, cyclin D1, survivin and Bax. AMPK-p38MAPK signaling blockade reduced WMJ-S-001-induced p53 phosphorylation. Transfection with AMPK dominant negative mutant (DN) reduced WMJ-S-001s effects on p53 and Sp1 binding to the survivn promoter region. Transfection with HDAC3-Flag or HDAC4-Flag also abrogated WMJ-S-001s enhancing effect on p53 acetylation. WMJ-S-001s actions on p21cip/Waf1, cyclin D1, survivin, Bax were reduced in p53-null HCT116 cells. Furthermore, WMJ-S-001 was shown to suppress the growth of subcutaneous xenografts of HCT116 cells in vivo. In summary, the death of HCT116 colorectal cancer cells exposed to WMJ-S-001 may involve AMPK-p38MAPK-p53-survivin cascade. These results support the role of WMJ-S-001 as a potential drug candidate and warrant the clinical development in the treatment of cancer. PMID:26510776

  12. Activation of ER stress and apoptosis by α- and β-zearalenol in HCT116 cells, protective role of Quercetin.

    PubMed

    Ben Salem, Intidhar; Prola, Alexandre; Boussabbeh, Manel; Guilbert, Arnaud; Bacha, Hassen; Lemaire, Christophe; Abid-Essefi, Salwa

    2016-03-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) and its metabolites are found in many food products and are known to induce many toxic effects. The major ZEN metabolites are α-zearalenol (α-ZOL) and β-zearalenol (β-ZOL). The mechanisms by which they mediate their cytotoxic effects are not well known and seem to differ depending on the type of cells. We investigated the possible underlying mechanism in α-ZOL and β-ZOL-induced toxicity in HCT116 cells. We showed that cell treatment with α-ZOL/β-ZOL generated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activated the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) as evidenced by XBP1 mRNA splicing and up-regulation of GADD34, GRP78, ATF4 and CHOP. Apoptosis was triggered by ZEN metabolites-induced ER stress, and executed through a mitochondria-dependent pathway, characterized by a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), a downstream generation of O2•(-) and caspase 3 activation. Cellular deficiency of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bak protected cells against α/β-ZOL-induced toxicity. However, treatment with α-ZOL or β-ZOL combined with Quercetin (QUER), a common dietary flavonoid with well-known antioxidant activity, significantly reduced damage induced by α and β-ZOL in all tested markers. We concluded that QUER protects against the cellular toxicity of α and β-ZOL.×. PMID:26584763

  13. Kaempferol induces apoptosis in human HCT116 colon cancer cells via the Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated-p53 pathway with the involvement of p53 Upregulated Modulator of Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Du, Bingna; Wang, Tianyi; Wang, Siling; Zhang, Jinghai

    2009-01-27

    Dietary flavonols have been found to possess preventive and therapeutic potential against several kinds of cancers. This study is conducted to investigate the anti-proliferation effects of kaempferol, a major component of food flavonols, against colon cancer cells. In the human HCT116 colon cancer cell line, kaempferol induced p53-dependent growth inhibition and apoptosis. Furthermore, kaempferol was found to induce cytochrome c release from mitochondria and activate caspase-3 cleavage. The Bcl-2 family proteins including PUMA were involved in this process. Kaempferol also induced ATM and H2AX phosphorylation in HCT116 cells, inhibition of ATM by a chemical inhibitor resulted in abrogation of the downstream apoptotic cascades. These findings suggest kaempferol could be a potent candidate for colorectal cancer management. PMID:19028473

  14. Butyrate and deoxycholic acid play common and distinct roles in HCT116 human colon cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huawei; Claycombe, Kate J; Reindl, Katie M

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of a high-fat diet causes an increase in bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) in colon lumen and colon cancer risk, while butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, has been shown to exhibit colon cancer-preventive effects. To distinguish these opposing effects of DCA and butyrate (two major metabolites in colon lumen), we examined the effects of physiologically relevant doses of butyrate (0.5-2 mmol/l) and DCA (0.05-0.3 mmol/l) on colon cell proliferation. We hypothesize that butyrate and DCA each modulates the cell cycle and apoptosis via common and distinct cellular signaling targets. In this study, we demonstrated that both butyrate and DCA inhibited cell proliferation by up to 89% and 92% and increased cell apoptosis rate by up to 3.1- and 4.5-fold, respectively. Cell cycle analyses revealed that butyrate led to an increase in G1 and G2 fractions with a concomitant drop in the S-phase fraction, but DCA induced an increase in only G1 fraction with a concomitant drop in the S-phase fraction when compared with the untreated cells. The examination of early cellular signaling revealed that DCA but not butyrate increased intracellular reactive oxygen species, genomic DNA breakage, the activation of ERK1/2, caspase-3 and PARP. In contrast, DCA decreased activated Rb protein level, and butyrate but not DCA increased p21 expression. Collectively, although both butyrate and DCA inhibit colonic cell proliferation, butyrate increases tumor suppressor gene expression, whereas DCA decreases tumor suppressor activation in cell cycle and apoptosis pathways. PMID:26026836

  15. Crataegus azarolus Leaves Induce Antiproliferative Activity, Cell Cycle Arrest, and Apoptosis in Human HT-29 and HCT-116 Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Mustapha, Nadia; Pinon, Aline; Limami, Youness; Simon, Alain; Ghedira, Kamel; Hennebelle, Thierry; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2016-05-01

    Limited success has been achieved in extending the survival of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). There is a strong need for novel agents in the treatment and prevention of CRC. Therefore, in the present study we evaluated the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic potential of Crataegus azarolus ethyl acetate extract in HCT-116 and HT-29 human colorectal cancer cell lines. Moreover, we attempted to investigate the signaling pathways that should be involved in its cytotoxic effect. The Crataegus azarolus ethyl acetate extract-induced growth inhibitory effect was associated with DNA fragmentation, sub-G1 peak, loss of mitochondrial potential, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. In addition, ethyl acetate extract of Crataegus azarolus induced the cleavage of caspase-8. It has no effect on steady-state levels of total Bcl-2 protein. Whereas Bax levels decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner in both tested cell lines. Taken together, these findings confirm the involvement of the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. The apoptotic cell death induced by ethyl acetate extract of Crataegus azarolus was accompanied by an enhancement of the p21 expression but not through p53 activation in human colorectal cancer cells. The above-mentioned data provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of Crataegus azarolus ethyl acetate extract-induced apoptosis in CRC. Therefore, this compound should be a potential anticancer agent for the treatment of CRC. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1262-1272, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26495895

  16. Novel structurally similar chromene derivatives with opposing effects on p53 and apoptosis mechanisms in colorectal HCT116 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lima, Cristovao F; Costa, Marta; Proena, M F; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2015-05-25

    In the present work, novel chromene derivatives fused with the imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine nucleus were tested for their anticancer potential in the human colorectal cancer HCT116 cells. Compounds 2a and 2c showed significant growth inhibitory activity with GI50 of 15 ?M and 11 ?M, respectively. Compound 2c, the most potent, has a carbamate group in position 8 of the pyridine ring, and showed significant cell cycle arrest and induction of cell death by apoptosis, even at 5 ?M. Besides different potencies, chromene analogs 2a and 2c showed different mechanisms of action. Whereas the carbamate-free chromene 2a induced cell cycle arrest at G1/G0 phase, compound 2c showed to arrest cell cycle at both S and G2 phases. Chromene derivative 2a at concentrations higher than its GI50 remarkably induced caspases-dependent apoptosis in a p53-independent manner. On the other hand, compound 2c increased significantly p53 levels and induced apoptosis in a p53- and caspases-dependent manner, even at concentrations lower than its GI50. Both compounds increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, induced mitochondria depolarization and activated MAP kinases. In conclusion, two novel and structurally similar chromene derivatives showed cytotoxicity to HCT16 cells through opposing effects on p53 levels and apoptosis mechanisms, which may be relevant for further development of drugs acting on distinct molecular targets useful in the treatment of cancers with different genetic profiles and for personalized medicine. PMID:25746954

  17. Tumor Suppressor DLEC1 can Stimulate the Proliferation of Cancer Cells When AP-2ɑ2 is Down-Regulated in HCT116

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Guo-Hua; Xie, Xiaojin; Deng, Linhong; Hooi, Shing Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The molecular mechanisms of tumor suppressor gene DLEC1 are largely unknown. Objectives: In this study, we established DLEC1 over-expression stable clones to study the cellular function of DLEC1 in the colorectal cancer cell line, HCT116. Materials and Methods: Stable clones with DLEC1 over-expression were first established by the transfection of DLEC1 expression construct pcDNA31DLEC1 in HCT116. On G418 selection, positive stable clones were screened for DLEC1 expression level by conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and verified by real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. Subsequently, these stable clones were subjected to colony formation and cell cycle analyses and identification of factors involved in G1 arrest. Lastly, three stable clones, DLEC1-7 (highest DLEC1 expression), DLEC1-3 (lowest expression) and pcDNA31 vector control, were employed to analyze cell proliferation and cell cycle after AP-2α2 knockdown by siRNAs. Results: The DLEC1 over-expression was found to reduce the number of colonies in colony formation and to induce G1 arrest in seven clones, and apoptosis in one clone in the cell cycle analysis. Furthermore, regardless of the different cell cycle defects in all eight stable clones, the expression level of transcriptional factor AP-2α2 was found to be elevated. More interestingly, we found that when AP-2α2 was knocked down, DLEC1 over-expression neither suppressed cancer cell growth nor induced G1 arrest, yet, instead promoted cell growth and decreased cells in the G1 fraction. This promotion of cell proliferation and release of G1 cells also seemed to be proportional to DLEC1 expression levels in DLEC1 stable clones. Conclusions: DLEC1 suppresses tumor cell growth the presence of AP-2α2 and stimulates cell proliferation in the down-regulation of AP-2α2 in DLEC1 over-expression stable clones of HTC116. PMID:26834787

  18. Methanol extract of Flacourtia indica aerial parts induces apoptosis via generation of ROS and activation of caspases in human colon cancer HCT116 cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki-Woong; Kundu, Juthika; Chae, In Gyeong; Bachar, Sitesh Chandra; Bae, Jung-Woo; Chun, Kyung-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Different plant parts of Flacourtia indica have long been used in Ayurvedic medicine. Previous studies have demonstrated that the methanolic extract of F. indica possess anti-inflammatory properties. The present study was aimed at investigating the anticancer effects of methanol extract of Flacourtia indica (FIM) aerial parts in human colon cancer (HCT116) cells. Treatment of cells with FIM at a concentration of 500 ?g/ml for 24 hours significantly reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis, which was associated with the increased cytoplasmic expression of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-3, and the cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Incubation with FIM also inhibited the levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-xl and survivin, which are the markers of cell proliferation, whereas the expression of Bax remained unchanged. Treatment with FIM led to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a concentration-dependent manner. Pharmacological inhibition of ROS generation by pretreatment of cells with N-acetyl cysteine abrogated FIM-induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells. Thus, these results demonstrate that FIM has anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in HCT116 cells and the effects are, at least in part, due to the ROS dependent activation of caspases. PMID:25227831

  19. Loss of Nek11 Prevents G2/M Arrest and Promotes Cell Death in HCT116 Colorectal Cancer Cells Exposed to Therapeutic DNA Damaging Agents

    PubMed Central

    Sabir, Sarah R.; Sahota, Navdeep K.; Jones, George D. D.; Fry, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    The Nek11 kinase is a potential mediator of the DNA damage response whose expression is upregulated in early stage colorectal cancers (CRCs). Here, using RNAi-mediated depletion, we examined the role of Nek11 in HCT116 WT and p53-null CRC cells exposed to ionizing radiation (IR) or the chemotherapeutic drug, irinotecan. We demonstrate that depletion of Nek11 prevents the G2/M arrest induced by these genotoxic agents and promotes p53-dependent apoptosis both in the presence and absence of DNA damage. Interestingly, Nek11 depletion also led to long-term loss of cell viability that was independent of p53 and exacerbated following IR exposure. CRC cells express four splice variants of Nek11 (L/S/C/D). These are predominantly cytoplasmic, but undergo nucleocytoplasmic shuttling mediated through adjacent nuclear import and export signals in the C-terminal non-catalytic domain. In HCT116 cells, Nek11S in particular has an important role in the DNA damage response. These data provide strong evidence that Nek11 contributes to the response of CRC cells to genotoxic agents and is essential for survival either with or without exposure to DNA damage. PMID:26501353

  20. p53-dependent p21-mediated growth arrest pre-empts and protects HCT116 cells from PUMA-mediated apoptosis induced by EGCG

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Vijay S; Amin, A.R.M. Ruhul; Paul, Rajib K; Gupta, Kalpana; Hastak, Kedar; Agarwal, Mukesh K; Jackson, Mark W; Wald, David N; Mukhtar, Hasan; Agarwal, Munna L

    2010-01-01

    The tumor suppressor protein p53 plays a key role in regulation of negative cellular growth in response to EGCG. To further explore the role of p53 signaling and elucidate the molecular mechanism, we employed colon cancer HCT116 cell line and its derivatives in which a specific transcriptional target of p53 is knocked down by homologous recombination. Cells expressing p53 and p21 accumulate in G1 upon treatment with EGCG. In contrast, same cells lacking p21 traverse through the cell cycle and eventually undergo apoptosis as revealed by TUNEL staining. Treatment with EGCG leads to induction of p53, p21 and PUMA in p21 wild-type, and p53 and PUMA in p21?/? cells. Ablation of p53 by RNAi protects p21?/? cells, thus indicating a p53-dependent apoptosis by EGCG. Furthermore, analysis of cells lacking PUMA or Bax with or without p21 but with p53 reveals that all the cells expressing p53 and p21 survived after EGCG treatment. More interestingly, cells lacking both PUMA and p21 survived ECGC treatment whereas those lacking p21 and Bax did not. Taken together, our results present a novel concept wherein p21-dependent growth arrest pre-empts and protects cells from otherwise, in its absence, apoptosis which is mediated by activation of pro-apoptotic protein PUMA. Furthermore, we find that p53-dependent activation of PUMA in response to EGCG directly leads to apoptosis with out requiring Bax as is the case in response to agents that induce DNA damage. p21, thus can be used as a molecular switch for therapeutic intervention of colon cancer. PMID:20444544

  1. Carnosine inhibits KRAS-mediated HCT116 proliferation by affecting ATP and ROS production.

    PubMed

    Iovine, Barbara; Iannella, Maria Luigia; Nocella, Francesca; Pricolo, Maria Rosaria; Bevilacqua, Maria Assunta

    2012-02-28

    Carnosine is a natural dipeptide that has generated particular interest for its antioxidant, anti-aging and especially for its antiproliferative properties. In this study, we demonstrate that carnosine inhibits the proliferation of human HCT116 colon cancer cells. In this cell line, the activating KRAS mutation induces mitochondrial ROS, the signaling molecules for cell proliferation. We observed that 50-100 mM carnosine decreases ATP and ROS concentration and induces cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. In HCT116 cells these effects are related to decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and increased p21waf1 protein. Our findings support the concept that carnosine could inhibit HCT116 cell growth via its antioxidant activity and its ability to affect glycolysis. PMID:22137144

  2. Bufalin Inhibits HCT116 Colon Cancer Cells and Its Orthotopic Xenograft Tumor in Mice Model through Genes Related to Apoptotic and PTEN/AKT Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Chen, Chao; Wang, Shiying; Zhang, Yong; Yin, Peihao; Gao, Zhongxiang; Xu, Jie; Feng, Dianxu; Zuo, Qinsong; Zhao, Ronghua; Chen, Teng

    2015-01-01

    Aims. To investigate the anticolorectal cancer (CRC) effects of Bufalin, a bioactive polyhydroxysteroid from Venenum Bufonis, using HCT116 human CRC cell and an established orthotopic xenograft model in mice, and to explore the mechanisms of action. Material and Methods. Cultured HCT116 cells or BALB/c mice with orthotopic tumor were treated by Bufalin (positive control: 5-FU). Cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cycling were determined by MTT, Annexin V/PI staining, and flow cytometry, respectively. In mice, tumor inhibition rate and animal survival were calculated. The expressions of PTEN/phosphate-PTEN, AKT/phosphate-AKT, Bad, Bcl-xl, Bax, or Caspase-3 in cells and/or tumors were determined by Western blot or immunohistochemical staining. Results. Bufalin significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis and cycle arrest in a dose/time-dependent manner. In the animal model, Bufalin treatment resulted in significant inhibition of tumor growth and prolonged survival. In the Bufalin-treated cultured cells and/or xenograft tumors, the expressions of PTEN, Bad, Bax, and Caspase-3 were significantly increased, while p-AKT and Bcl-xL significantly decreased. Conclusions. Our results indicate that Bufalin inhibit cell proliferation and orthotopic tumor growth by inducing cell apoptosis through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, which is of pivotal significance in the identification of an anticancer drug that may synergize with Bufalin. PMID:26770191

  3. Tunable Biodegradable Nanocomposite Hydrogel for Improved Cisplatin Efficacy on HCT-116 Colorectal Cancer Cells and Decreased Toxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Bar, Hend Mohamed; Osman, Rihab; Abdel-Reheem, Amal Youssef; Mortada, Nahed; Awad, Gehanne A S

    2016-02-01

    This work describes the development of a modified nanocomposite thermosensitive hydrogel for controlled cisplatin release and improved cytotoxicity with decreased side effects. The system was characterized in terms of physical properties, morphological architecture and in vitro cisplatin release. Cytotoxicity was tested against human colorectal carcinoma HCT-116. In vivo studies were conducted to evaluate the acute toxicity in terms of rats' survival rate and body weight loss. Nephro and hepatotoxicities were evaluated followed by histopathological alterations of various tissue organs. Nanocomposite thermosensitive hydrogel containing nanosized carrier conferred density and stiffness allowing a zero order drug release for 14 days. Enhanced cytotoxicity with 2-fold decrease in cisplatin IC50 was accomplished. A linear in vivo-in vitro correlation was proved for the system degradation. Higher animal survival rate and lower tissue toxicities proved the decreased toxicity of cisplatin nanocomposite compared to its solution. PMID:26709447

  4. Induction of intrinsic apoptosis pathway in colon cancer HCT-116 cells by novel 2-substituted-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Gamal-Eldeen, Amira M; Hamdy, Nehal A; Abdel-Aziz, Hatem A; El-Hussieny, Enas A; Fakhr, Issa M I

    2014-04-22

    2-Acetyl tetralin (1) reacted with N,N-dimethylformamide dimethylacetal (DMF-DMA) to afford theenaminone 3. The reaction of 3 with piperidine and morpholine afforded the trans enaminone 5a,b,respectively. Compound 3 was treated with primary aromatic amines to give secondary enaminones 6a-e. The enaminone 3 reacted with acetylglycine and hippuric acid to yield pyranones 10a, b, respectively. The reaction of enaminone 3 with 1,4-benzoquinone and 1,4-naphthoquinone gave benzofuranyl tetralin derivatives 14a,b, respectively. Also, when 3 reacted with 5-amino-3-phenyl-1H-pyrazole 15a and 5-amino-1,2,3-triazole 15b, it afforded the new pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine 17a and 1,2,3-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine 17b, respectively. While the reaction of 3 with pyrimidines 18a, b resulted in the formation of pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives 20a, b, respectively. Investigations of the cytotoxic effect of those compounds against different human cell lines indicated that some compounds showed high selective cytotoxicity against colon cancer HCT-116 cells. Some of these compounds led to DNA damaging and fragmentation that was associated with the induction of apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway. This pathway is initiated by the impairment of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m) and in response to that the mitochondria released cytochrome c increased, that in turn activated caspase-9 and caspase-3 and induced apoptosis. Compounds 17b and 20b were promising anti-cancer agents that induced intrinsic apoptosis pathway in colon cancer cells. PMID:24657569

  5. The flavonoid morin from Moraceae induces apoptosis by modulation of Bcl-2 family members and Fas receptor in HCT 116 cells.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Hwang-Bo; Lee, Won Sup; Go, Se-Il; Nagappan, Arulkumar; Park, Cheol; Han, Min Ho; Hong, Su Hyun; Kim, Gonsup; Kim, Gi Young; Cheong, Jaehun; Ryu, Chung Ho; Shin, Sung Chul; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2015-01-01

    It is evident based on literature that flavonoids from fruit can safely modulate cancer cell biology and induce apoptosis. Therefore, we investigated the anticancer activity of morin, a flavonoid which is plentiful in twigs of mulberry focusing on apoptosis, and its mechanisms. Morin upregulated the Fas receptor, and activates caspase-8, -9 and -3 in HCT-116 cells. Morin also activates Bid, and induced the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ??m) with Bax protein activation and cytochrome c release. In addition, morin induced ROS generation which was not blocked by N-acetylcysteine. Morin also suppressed Bcl-2 and cIAP-1, anti-apoptotic proteins, which may contribute to augmentation of morin-triggered apoptosis. As an upstream signaling pathway, suppressed Akt activity by morin was associated to apoptosis. This study suggests that morin induces caspase-dependent apoptosis through extrinsic pathway by upregulating Fas receptor as well as through the intrinsic pathway by modulating Bcl-2 and IAP family members, and ROS generation, and that Akt is the critical upstream signaling that regulates the apoptotic effect of morin in human colon cancer HCT-116 cells. PMID:25892545

  6. 5-Methoxyflavanone induces cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, apoptosis and autophagy in HCT116 human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Soon Young; Hyun, Jiye; Yu, Jae-Ran; Lim, Yoongho; Lee, Young Han

    2011-08-01

    Natural flavonoids have diverse pharmacological activities, including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the action of 5-methoxyflavanone (5-MF) which has a strong bioavailability and metabolic stability. Our results show that 5-MF inhibited the growth and clonogenicity of HCT116 human colon cancer cells, and that it activated DNA damage responses, as revealed by the accumulation of p53 and the phosphorylation of DNA damage-sensitive proteins, including ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) at Ser1981, checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) at Thr68, and histone H2AX at Ser139. 5-MF-induced DNA damage was confirmed in a comet tail assay. We also found that 5-MF increased the cleavage of caspase-2 and -7, leading to the induction of apoptosis. Pretreatment with the ATM inhibitor KU55933 enhanced 5-MF-induced {gamma}-H2AX formation and caspase-7 cleavage. HCT116 cells lacking p53 (p53{sup -/-}) or p21 (p21{sup -/-}) exhibited increased sensitivity to 5-MF compared to wild-type cells. 5-MF further induced autophagy via an ERK signaling pathway. Blockage of autophagy with the MEK inhibitor U0126 potentiated 5-MF-induced {gamma}-H2AX formation and caspase-2 activation. These results suggest that a caspase-2 cascade mediates 5-MF-induced anti-tumor activity, while an ATM/Chk2/p53/p21 checkpoint pathway and ERK-mediated autophagy act as a survival program to block caspase-2-mediated apoptosis induced by 5-MF. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > 5-MF inhibits the proliferation of HCT116 colon cancer cells. > 5-MF inhibits cell cycle progression and induces apoptosis. > Inhibition of autophagy triggers 5-MF-induced apoptosis. > Inhibition of ERK signaling blocks 5-MF-induced autophagy but activates apoptosis. > Treatment with 5-MF in combination with an ERK inhibitor may be a potential therapeutic strategy in human colon cancer.

  7. Antheraea pernyi Silk Fibroin-Coated PEI/DNA Complexes for Targeted Gene Delivery in HEK 293 and HCT 116 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; You, Renchuan; Liu, Guiyang; Li, Xiufang; Sheng, Weihua; Yang, Jicheng; Li, Mingzhong

    2014-01-01

    Polyethylenimine (PEI) has attracted much attention as a DNA condenser, but its toxicity and non-specific targeting limit its potential. To overcome these limitations, Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin (ASF), a natural protein rich in arginyl-glycyl-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides that contains negative surface charges in a neutral aqueous solution, was used to coat PEI/DNA complexes to form ASF/PEI/DNA ternary complexes. Coating these complexes with ASF caused fewer surface charges and greater size compared with the PEI/DNA complexes alone. In vitro transfection studies revealed that incorporation of ASF led to greater transfection efficiencies in both HEK (human embryonic kidney) 293 and HCT (human colorectal carcinoma) 116 cells, albeit with less electrostatic binding affinity for the cells. Moreover, the transfection efficiency in the HCT 116 cells was higher than that in the HEK 293 cells under the same conditions, which may be due to the target bonding affinity of the RGD peptides in ASF for integrins on the HCT 116 cell surface. This result indicated that the RGD binding affinity in ASF for integrins can enhance the specific targeting affinity to compensate for the reduction in electrostatic binding between ASF-coated PEI carriers and cells. Cell viability measurements showed higher cell viability after transfection of ASF/PEI/DNA ternary complexes than after transfection of PEI/DNA binary complexes alone. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release studies further confirmed the improvement in the targeting effect of ASF/PEI/DNA ternary complexes to cells. These results suggest that ASF-coated PEI is a preferred transfection reagent and useful for improving both the transfection efficiency and cell viability of PEI-based nonviral vectors. PMID:24776757

  8. D. candidum has in vitro anticancer effects in HCT-116 cancer cells and exerts in vivo anti-metastatic effects in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xin; Sun, Peng; Qian, Yu

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES D. candidum is a traditional Chinese food or medicine widely used in Asia. There has been little research into the anticancer effects of D. candidum, particularly the effects in colon cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the anticancer effects of D. candidum in vitro and in vivo. MATERIALS/METHODS The in vitro anti-cancer effects on HCT-116 colon cancer cells and in vivo anti-metastatic effects of DCME (Dendrobium canidum methanolic extract) were examined using the experimental methods of MTT assay, DAPI staining, flow cytometry analysis, RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis. RESULTS At a concentration of 1.0 mg/mL, DCME inhibited the growth of HCT-116 cells by 84%, which was higher than at concentrations of 0.5 and 0.25 mg/mL. Chromatin condensation and formation of apoptotic bodies were observed in cancer cells cultured with DCME as well. In addition, DCME induced significant apoptosis in cancer cells by upregulation of Bax, caspase 9, and caspase 3, and downregulation of Bcl-2. Expression of genes commonly associated with inflammation, NF-?B, iNOS, and COX-2, was significantly downregulated by DCME. DCME also exerted an anti-metastasis effect on cancer cells as demonstrated by decreased expression of MMP genes and increased expression of TIMPs, which was confirmed by the inhibition of induced tumor metastasis in colon 26-M3.1 cells in BALB/c mice. CONCLUSIONS Our results demonstrated that D. candidum had a potent in vitro anti-cancer effect, induced apoptosis, exhibited anti-inflammatory activities, and exerted in vivo anti-metastatic effects. PMID:25324926

  9. Combination of lactate calcium salt with 5-indanesulfonamide and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid to enhance the antitumor effect on HCT116 cells via intracellular acidification

    PubMed Central

    JEONG, KEUN-YEONG; MANDER, POONAM; SIM, JAE JUN; KIM, HWAN MOOK

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of a neutral intracellular pH (pHi) is favorable for the survival of tumors, and maintenance of highly acidic extracellular pH (pHe) facilitates tumor invasiveness. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antitumor effects of lactate calcium salt (CaLa), 5-indanesulfonamide (IS) and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CA) via pH regulation in colon cancer cells. HCT116 cells were treated with CaLa, IS, CA and combinations of the three. Subsequently, the concentration of intracellular lactate was determined. pHi and pHe were measured using cell lysates and culture media. Colony formation assay, cell viability assay and western blot analysis were additionally performed to analyze the consequences of the pH changes. CaLa, IS, CA and combination treatments induced an increase in the concentration of intracellular lactate. Lactate influx into the tumor microenvironment produced an acidic pHi in colon cancer cells. Consequently, colony formation and cell viability were significantly decreased, as well as poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase degradation. The tumor microenvironment may be exploited therapeutically by disrupting the mechanism that regulates pHi, leading to cell apoptosis. The present study indicated that treatment with CaLa, IS and CA induced intracellular acidification via lactate influx, causing apoptosis of colon cancer cells. Additionally, the findings suggested that the combination of CaLa with IS and CA may enhance antitumor activity, and may provide a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of colon cancer.

  10. Raman micro-spectroscopic investigation of the interaction of cultured HCT116 colon cancer cells with alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyuz, S.; Ozel, A. E.; Balci, K.; Akyuz, T.; Coker, A.; Arisan, E. D.; Palavan-Unsal, N.; Ozalpan, A.

    2011-05-01

    The interaction of cultured colon cancer cells with alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, has been investigated, using Raman micro-spectroscopy, in order to investigate DFMO induced effects. Raman spectra of the cultured HCT116 colon cancer cells treated with DFMO at different concentrations (0, 1, 2.5, 5, and 7.5 mM) were recorded in the range 550-2300 cm -1. It has been shown that second derivative profile of the raw Raman spectrum of the colon cancer cells (i.e., the original experimental spectrum without any computational corrections) discriminates the weak but sharp bands from the strong, broad fluorescence background, and gives information about the position of the peaks and their band widths. The relative integrated intensities of the 781 cm -1 and 788 cm -1 DNA/RNA marker bands to that of 1451 cm -1 band are found to decrease by addition of DFMO. Up to 65% reduction in the magnitude of the 1003 cm -1 band, the characteristic phenylalanine ring breathing mode, in comparison to that of 1451 band, is observed. The results indicate DFMO induced apoptosis. On the other hand the intensity ratio of the tyrosine Fermi doubled around 830 cm -1 and 850 cm -1, which is a marker of hydrogen-bonding state of phenolic OH, is changed. The addition of DFMO may alter the tyrosine environment in cells, and parts of tyrosine residues are exposed. We also observed some modifications in amide I band, pointing out the alterations of the secondary structure of cell proteins by the presence of DFMO.

  11. Activations of Both Extrinsic and Intrinsic Pathways in HCT 116 Human Colorectal Cancer Cells Contribute to Apoptosis through p53-Mediated ATM/Fas Signaling by Emilia sonchifolia Extract, a Folklore Medicinal Plant

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Yu-Hsuan; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Huang, Wen-Wen; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Chung, Jing-Gung; Wu, Tian-Shung; Jhan, Jia-Hua; Lin, Kuei-Li; Pai, Shu-Jen; Chiu, Yu-Jen; Tsuzuki, Minoru; Yang, Jai-Sing

    2012-01-01

    Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC (Compositae), an herbaceous plant found in Taiwan and India, is used as folk medicine. The clinical applications include inflammation, rheumatism, cough, cuts fever, dysentery, analgesic, and antibacteria. The activities of Emilia sonchifolia extract (ESE) on colorectal cancer cell death have not been fully investigated. The purpose of this study explored the induction of apoptosis and its molecular mechanisms in ESE-treated HCT 116 human colorectal cancer cells in vitro. The methanolic ESE was characterized, and ?-humulene was formed as the major constituent (63.86%). ESE induced cell growth inhibition in a concentration- and time-dependent response by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells (DNA fragmentation, an apoptotic catachrestic) were found after ESE treatment by TUNEL assay and DNA gel electrophoresis. Alternatively, ESE stimulated the activities of caspase-3, -8, and -9 and their specific caspase inhibitors protected against ESE-induced cytotoxicity. ESE promoted the mitochondria-dependent and death-receptor-associated protein levels. Also, ESE increased ROS production and upregulated the levels of ATM, p53, and Fas in HCT 116 cells. Strikingly, p53 siRNA reversed ESE-reduced viability involved in p53-mediated ATM/Fas signaling in HCT 116 cells. In summary, our result is the first report suggesting that ESE may be potentially efficacious in the treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:22474491

  12. Activations of Both Extrinsic and Intrinsic Pathways in HCT 116 Human Colorectal Cancer Cells Contribute to Apoptosis through p53-Mediated ATM/Fas Signaling by Emilia sonchifolia Extract, a Folklore Medicinal Plant.

    PubMed

    Lan, Yu-Hsuan; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Huang, Wen-Wen; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Chung, Jing-Gung; Wu, Tian-Shung; Jhan, Jia-Hua; Lin, Kuei-Li; Pai, Shu-Jen; Chiu, Yu-Jen; Tsuzuki, Minoru; Yang, Jai-Sing

    2012-01-01

    Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC (Compositae), an herbaceous plant found in Taiwan and India, is used as folk medicine. The clinical applications include inflammation, rheumatism, cough, cuts fever, dysentery, analgesic, and antibacteria. The activities of Emilia sonchifolia extract (ESE) on colorectal cancer cell death have not been fully investigated. The purpose of this study explored the induction of apoptosis and its molecular mechanisms in ESE-treated HCT 116 human colorectal cancer cells in vitro. The methanolic ESE was characterized, and ?-humulene was formed as the major constituent (63.86%). ESE induced cell growth inhibition in a concentration- and time-dependent response by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells (DNA fragmentation, an apoptotic catachrestic) were found after ESE treatment by TUNEL assay and DNA gel electrophoresis. Alternatively, ESE stimulated the activities of caspase-3, -8, and -9 and their specific caspase inhibitors protected against ESE-induced cytotoxicity. ESE promoted the mitochondria-dependent and death-receptor-associated protein levels. Also, ESE increased ROS production and upregulated the levels of ATM, p53, and Fas in HCT 116 cells. Strikingly, p53 siRNA reversed ESE-reduced viability involved in p53-mediated ATM/Fas signaling in HCT 116 cells. In summary, our result is the first report suggesting that ESE may be potentially efficacious in the treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:22474491

  13. Resveratrol induces AMPK-dependent MDR1 inhibition in colorectal cancer HCT116/L-OHP cells by preventing activation of NF-?B signaling and suppressing cAMP-responsive element transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziyuan; Zhang, Long; Ni, Zhenhua; Sun, Jian; Gao, Hong; Cheng, Zhuoan; Xu, Jianhua; Yin, Peihao

    2015-12-01

    Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound found in foods and beverages, has attracted increasing attention in recent years because of its potent chemopreventive and anti-tumor effects. In this study, the effects of resveratrol on the expression of P-glycoprotein/multi-drug resistance protein 1 (P-gp/MDR1), and the underlying molecular mechanisms, were investigated in oxaliplatin (L-OHP)-resistant colorectal cancer cells (HCT116/L-OHP). Resveratrol downregulated MDR1 protein and mRNA expression levels and reduced MDR1 promoter activity. It also enhanced the intracellular accumulation of rhodamine 123, suggesting that resveratrol can reverse multi-drug resistance by downregulating MDR1 expression and reducing drug efflux. Resveratrol treatment also reduced nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activity, reduced phosphorylation levels of I?B?, and reduced nuclear translocation of the NF-?B subunit p65. Moreover, downregulation of MDR1 expression and promoter activity was mediated by resveratrol-induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation. The inhibitory effects of resveratrol on MDR1 expression and cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation were reversed by AMPK? siRNA transfection. We found that the transcriptional activity of cAMP-responsive element (CRE) was inhibited by resveratrol. These results demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of resveratrol on MDR1 expression in HCT116/L-OHP cells were closely associated with the inhibition of NF-?B signaling and CREB activation in an AMPK-dependent manner. PMID:26124005

  14. Deoxycholic Acid and Selenium Metabolite Methylselenol Exert Common and Distinct Effects on Cell Cycle, Apoptosis, and MAP Kinase Pathway in HCT116 Human Colon Cancer Cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) is a known tumor promoter in colon tumor development. The cell growth inhibition induced by DCA may cause compensatory hyperproliferation of colonic epithelial cells and provide selection for subpopulations of cells resistant to DCA’s inhibitory effect. These survivi...

  15. A delay prior to mitotic entry triggers caspase 8-dependent cell death in p53-deficient Hela and HCT-116 cells

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Victoria C; Plooster, Melissa; Leung, Jessica C; Cassimeris, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Stathmin/Oncoprotein 18, a microtubule destabilizing protein, is required for survival of p53-deficient cells. Stathmin-depleted cells are slower to enter mitosis, but whether delayed mitotic entry triggers cell death or whether stathmin has a separate pro-survival function was unknown. To test these possibilities, we abrogated the cell cycle delay by inhibiting Wee1 in synchronized, stathmin-depleted cells and found that apoptosis was reduced to control levels. Synchronized cells treated with a 4 hour pulse of inhibitors to CDK1 or both Aurora A and PLK1 delayed mitotic entry and apoptosis was triggered only in p53-deficient cells. We did not detect mitotic defects downstream of the delayed mitotic entry, indicating that cell death is activated by a mechanism distinct from those activated by prolonged mitotic arrest. Cell death is triggered by initiator caspase 8, based on its cleavage to the active form and by rescue of viability after caspase 8 depletion or treatment with a caspase 8 inhibitor. In contrast, initiator caspase 9, activated by prolonged mitotic arrest, is not activated and is not required for apoptosis under our experimental conditions. P53 upregulates expression of cFLIPL, a protein that blocks caspase 8 activation. cFLIPL levels are lower in cells lacking p53 and these levels are reduced to a greater extent after stathmin depletion. Expression of FLAG-tagged cFLIPL in p53-deficient cells rescues them from apoptosis triggered by stathmin depletion or CDK1 inhibition during G2. These data indicate that a cell cycle delay in G2 activates caspase 8 to initiate apoptosis specifically in p53-deficient cells. PMID:25602147

  16. Deoxycholic acid and selenium metabolite methylselenol exert common and distinct effects on cell cycle, apoptosis, and MAP kinase pathway in HCT116 human colon cancer cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cell growth inhibition induced by bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) may cause compensatory hyperproliferation of colonic epithelial cells, and consequently increase colon cancer risk. On the other hand, there is increasing evidence for the efficacy of certain forms of selenium (Se) as anticancer ...

  17. Deoxycholic acid and selenium metabolite methylselenol exert common and distinct effects on cell cycle, apoptosis, and MAP kinase pathway in HCT116 human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huawei; Botnen, James H; Briske-Anderson, Mary

    2010-01-01

    The cell growth inhibition induced by bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) may cause compensatory hyperproliferation of colonic epithelial cells and consequently increase colon cancer risk. On the other hand, there is increasing evidence for the efficacy of certain forms of selenium (Se) as anticancer nutrients. Methylselenol has been hypothesized to be a critical Se metabolite for anticancer activity in vivo. In this study, we demonstrated that both DCA (75-300 micromol/l) and submicromolar methylselenol inhibited colon cancer cell proliferation by up to 64% and 63%, respectively. In addition, DCA and methylselenol each increased colon cancer cell apoptosis rate by up to twofold. Cell cycle analyses revealed that DCA induced an increase in only the G1 fraction with a concomitant drop in G2 and S-phase; in contrast, methylselenol led to an increase in the G1 and G2 fractions with a concomitant drop only in the S-phase. Although both DCA and methylselenol significantly promoted apoptosis and inhibited cell growth, examination of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway activation showed that DCA, but not methylselenol, induced SAPK/JNK1/2, p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 activation. Thus, our data provide, for the first time, the molecular basis for opposite effects of methylselenol and DCA on colon tumorigenesis. PMID:20043263

  18. Prolonged sulforaphane treatment activates survival signaling in nontumorigenic NCM460 colon cells but apoptotic signaling in tumorigenic HCT116 colon cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is a naturally occurring member of the isothiocyanate family of chemopreventive agents and the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis is a key mechanism by which SFN exerts its colon cancer prevention. However, little is known about the differential effects of SFN on colon c...

  19. Differential effects of deoxycholic acid versus selenium metabolite methylselenol on cell cycle, apoptosis, and MAP kinase pathway in HCT116 human colon cancer cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: A typical part of the Western diet is a high fat intake that leads to increased levels of fecal bile acids, and these bile acids, primarily deoxycholic acid (DCA) in humans, have been believed to be tumor promoters of colon cancer. The cell growth inhibition induced by bile acid deoxyc...

  20. Glycoprotein isolated from Styrax japonica Siebold etal. Zuccarini inhibits oxidative and pro-inflammatory responses in HCT116 colonic epithelial cells and dextran sulfate sodium-treated ICR mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sei-Jung; Lee, Jin; Song, Sooyeon; Lim, Kye-Taek

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory potentials of a 38kDa glycoprotein isolated from Styrax japonica Siebold etal Zuccarini (SJSZ glycoprotein). We found that SJSZ glycoprotein has concentration-dependent scavenging activity against DPPH and hydroxyl radicals in the cell-free systems. In colonic epithelial cells (HCT116 cells), the results showed that SJSZ glycoprotein inhibits the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by glucose/glucose oxidase (G/GO) in a concentration-dependent manner. Experimental mouse colitis was induced by adding dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to the drinking water at a concentration of 4%(w/v) for 7 days. We figured out that administration of SJSZ glycoprotein (10mg/kg) lowers the levels of disease activity index, myeloperoxidase activity, and histological inflammation in DSS-treated mice. In addition, SJSZ glycoprotein inhibited plasmic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation, nitric oxide (NO) production, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, accompanying the inhibition of colonic inflammatory signal proteins (NF-?B, iNOS, and COX-2) and inflammation-related cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-?). These results indicate that SJSZ glycoprotein inhibits oxidative and pro-inflammatory responses in mouse colitis. PMID:26631293

  1. The Dermal Layer of Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) Stalk, a Byproduct of Biofuel Production and Source of Unique 3-Deoxyanthocyanidins, Has More Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Activity than the Pith in p53 Variants of HCT116 and Colon Cancer Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Massey, Aaron R; Reddivari, Lavanya; Vanamala, Jairam

    2014-03-31

    There is a growing interest in the utilization of sweet sorghum as a renewable resource for biofuels. During the biofuel production process, large quantities of biomass are generated, creating a rich source of bioactive compounds. However, knowledge of sweet sorghum stalk is lacking. We measured the phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), antioxidant activity (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assay), and phytochemical composition (LC-MS) in both the pith and dermal layer of the stalk. We further tested the antiproliferative (5-bromo-2'- deoxyuridine assay) and proapoptotic (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay) activities of these extracts using HCT116 cells and colon cancer stem cells (CCSCs) with and without the tumor suppressor gene p53. For the first time, we show that the dermal layer extract of sweet sorghum contains more of the 3-deoxyanthocyanidins apigeninidin and luteolinidin than the pith, and this is associated with more anticancer activity. Furthermore, luteolinidin suppressed CCSC proliferation more than apigeninidin. In addition to being renewable biofuel, sweet sorghum may also serve as a source of health-promoting compounds. PMID:24655033

  2. Growth inhibition and antioxidative status induced by selenium-enriched broccoli extract and selenocompounds in DNA mismatch repair-deficient human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Ou, Bor-Rung; Liang, Yu-Chuan; Yeh, Jan-Ying

    2013-08-15

    The effects of enzymatic-digested Se-enriched broccoli extracts (SeB) and selenocompounds on growth and antioxidative status in human colon cancer cells was investigated in this study. HCT116 and HCT116+Chr.3 cells were treated with selenocompounds (sodium selenite, sodium selenate, Se-Met, MeSeCys) or SeB [high-Se (H-SeB) or low-Se (L-SeB)]. The cytotoxicity induced by selenocompounds in HCT116 cells was not associated with cellular H2O2 level, while the differential cytotoxicity observed by sodium selenite between HCT116 and HCT116+Chr.3 cell lines was related to cellular H2O2 production with the change in antioxidative enzyme activity, and the restoration of chromosome 3. H-SeB was found to reduce the cellular H2O2 content in HCT116+Chr.3 cells. The results in this study indicate that regardless of Se content, the cytotoxicity in HCT116 cells of both SeB forms appeared to be H2O2-independent, whereas the cytotoxicity in HCT116+Chr.3 of either SeB form appeared to be H2O2-dependent with an increase in antioxidative ability for H-SeB. PMID:23561105

  3. Stability of XIST repression in relation to genomic imprinting following global genome demethylation in a human cell line

    PubMed Central

    de Arajo, E.S.S.; Vasques, L.R.; Stabellini, R.; Krepischi, A.C.V.; Pereira, L.V.

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is essential in X chromosome inactivation and genomic imprinting, maintaining repression of XIST in the active X chromosome and monoallelic repression of imprinted genes. Disruption of the DNA methyltransferase genes DNMT1 and DNMT3B in the HCT116 cell line (DKO cells) leads to global DNA hypomethylation and biallelic expression of the imprinted gene IGF2 but does not lead to reactivation of XIST expression, suggesting that XIST repression is due to a more stable epigenetic mark than imprinting. To test this hypothesis, we induced acute hypomethylation in HCT116 cells by 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) treatment (HCT116-5-aza-CdR) and compared that to DKO cells, evaluating DNA methylation by microarray and monitoring the expression of XIST and imprinted genes IGF2, H19, and PEG10. Whereas imprinted genes showed biallelic expression in HCT116-5-aza-CdR and DKO cells, the XIST locus was hypomethylated and weakly expressed only under acute hypomethylation conditions, indicating the importance of XIST repression in the active X to cell survival. Given that DNMT3A is the only active DNMT in DKO cells, it may be responsible for ensuring the repression of XIST in those cells. Taken together, our data suggest that XIST repression is more tightly controlled than genomic imprinting and, at least in part, is due to DNMT3A. PMID:25387668

  4. The anticancer effect of saffron in two p53 isogenic colorectal cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Saffron extract, a natural product, has been shown to induce apoptosis in several tumor cell lines. Nevertheless, the p53-dependency of saffrons mechanism of action in colon cancer remains unexplored. Material and methods In order to examine saffrons anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in colorectal cancer cells, we treated two p53 isogenic HCT116 cell lines (HCT wildtype and HCT p53?/?) with different doses of the drug and analyzed cell proliferation and apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. MTT viability and crystal violet assays were performed in order to determine the effective dose of saffron on both cell lines. The cell cycle progress was examined by Flow cytometric analysis. Apoptosis was assessed using Annexin-PI-staining and Western Blotting for caspase 3 and PARP cleavage. Autophagy was determined by Western Blotting of the light chain 3 (LC3)-II and Beclin 1 proteins. The protein content of phospho-H2AX (?H2AX), a sensor of DNA double strand breaks, was also analyzed by Western Blotting. Results Saffron extract induced a p53-dependent pattern of cell cycle distribution with a full G2/M stop in HCT116 p53 wildtype cells. However, it induced a remarkable delay in S/G2 phase transit with entry into mitosis in HCT116 p53 ?/? cells. The apoptotic Pre-G1 cell fraction as well as Annexin V staining and caspase 3 cleavage showed a more pronounced apoptosis induction in HCT116 p53 wildtype cells. Obviously, the significantly higher DNA-damage, reflected by ?H2AX protein levels in cells lacking p53, was coped by up-regulation of autophagy. The saffron-induced LC3-II protein level was a remarkable indication of the accumulation of autophagosomes, a response to the cellular stress condition of drug treatment. Conclusions This is the first study showing the effect of saffron in HCT116 colorectal cancer cells with different p53 status. Saffron induced DNA-damage and apoptosis in both cell lines. However, autophagy has delayed the induction of apoptosis in HCT116 p53 ?/? cells. Considering the fact that most tumors show a functional p53 inactivation, further research is needed to elucidate the long-term effects of saffron in p53 ?/? tumors. PMID:22640402

  5. p53 is important for the anti-proliferative effect of ibuprofen in colon carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, Astrid; Schiffmann, Susanne; Birod, Kerstin; Maier, Thorsten J.; Wobst, Ivonne; Geisslinger, Gerd

    2008-01-25

    S-ibuprofen which inhibits the cyclooxygenase-1/-2 and R-ibuprofen which shows no COX-inhibition at therapeutic concentrations have anti-carcinogenic effects in human colon cancer cells; however, the molecular mechanisms for these effects are still unknown. Using HCT-116 colon carcinoma cell lines, expressing either the wild-type form of p53 (HCT-116 p53{sup wt}) or being p(HCT-116 p53{sup -/-}), we demonstrated that both induction of a cell cycle block and apoptosis after S- and R-ibuprofen treatment is in part dependent on p53. Also in the in vivo nude mice model HCT-116 p53{sup -/-} xenografts were less sensitive for S- and R-ibuprofen treatment than HCT-116 p53{sup wt} cells. Furthermore, results indicate that induction of apoptosis in HCT-116 p53{sup wt} cells after ibuprofen treatment is in part dependent on a signalling pathway including the neutrophin receptor p75{sup NTR}, p53 and Bax.

  6. Curcumin suppresses proliferation of colon cancer cells by targeting CDK2.

    PubMed

    Lim, Tae-Gyu; Lee, Sung-Young; Huang, Zunnan; Lim, Do Young; Chen, Hanyong; Jung, Sung Keun; Bode, Ann M; Lee, Ki Won; Dong, Zigang

    2014-04-01

    Curcumin, the yellow pigment of turmeric found in Southeast Indian food, is one of the most popular phytochemicals for cancer prevention. Numerous reports have demonstrated modulation of multiple cellular signaling pathways by curcumin and its molecular targets in various cancer cell lines. To identify a new molecular target of curcumin, we used shape screening and reverse docking to screen the Protein Data Bank against curcumin. Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), a major cell-cycle protein, was identified as a potential molecular target of curcumin. Indeed, in vitro and ex vivo kinase assay data revealed a dramatic suppressive effect of curcumin on CDK2 kinase activity. Furthermore, curcumin induced G1 cell-cycle arrest, which is regulated by CDK2 in HCT116 cells. Although the expression levels of CDK2 and its regulatory subunit, cyclin E, were not changed, the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma (Rb), a well-known CDK2 substrate, was reduced by curcumin. Because curcumin induced cell-cycle arrest, we investigated the antiproliferative effect of curcumin on HCT116 colon cancer cells. In this experiment, curcumin suppressed HCT116 cell proliferation effectively. To determine whether CDK2 is a direct target of curcumin, CDK2 expression was knocked down in HCT116 cells. As expected, HCT116 sh-CDK2 cells exhibited G1 arrest and reduced proliferation. Because of the low levels of CDK2 in HCT116 sh-CDK2 cells, the effects of curcumin on G1 arrest and cell proliferation were not substantially relative to HCT116 sh-control cells. From these results, we identified CDK2 as a direct target of curcumin in colon cancer cells. PMID:24550143

  7. Curcumin suppresses proliferation of colon cancer cells by targeting CDK2

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Tae-Gyu; Lee, Sung-Young; Huang, Zunnan; Lim, Do Young; Chen, Hanyong; Jung, Sung Keun; Bode, Ann M.; Lee, Ki Won; Dong, Zigang

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin, the yellow pigment of turmeric found in Southeast Indian food, is one of the most popular phytochemicals for cancer prevention. Numerous reports have demonstrated modulation of multiple cellular signaling pathways by curcumin and its molecular targets in various cancer cell lines. To identify a new molecular target of curcumin, we used shape screening and reverse docking to screen the protein data bank against curcumin. Cyclin dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), a major cell cycle protein, was identified as a potential molecular target of curcumin. Indeed, in vitro and ex vivo kinase assay data revealed a dramatic suppressive effect of curcumin on CDK2 kinase activity. Furthermore, curcumin induced G1 cell cycle arrest, which is regulated by CDK2 in HCT116 cells. Although the expression levels of CDK2 and its regulatory subunit, cyclin E, were not changed, the phosphorylation of Rb, a well-known CDK2 substrate, was reduced by curcumin. Because curcumin induced cell cycle arrest, we investigated the anti-proliferative effect of curcumin on HCT116 colon cancer cells. In this experiment, curcumin suppressed HCT116 cell proliferation effectively. To determine if CDK2 is a direct target of curcumin, CDK2 expression was knocked down in HCT116 cells. As expected, HCT116 sh-CDK2 cells exhibited G1 arrest and reduced proliferation. Because of the low levels of CDK2 in HCT116 sh-CDK2 cells, the effects of curcumin on G1 arrest and cell proliferation were not substantial relative to HCT116 sh-control cells. From these results, we identified CDK2 as a direct target of curcumin in colon cancer cells. PMID:24550143

  8. Antitumor activity of sorafenib in human cancer cell lines with acquired resistance to EGFR and VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Morgillo, Floriana; Martinelli, Erika; Troiani, Teresa; Orditura, Michele; De Vita, Ferdinando; Ciardiello, Fortunato

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) have substantially changed in the last years with the introduction of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors in the clinical practice. The understanding of mechanisms which regulate cells sensitivity to these drugs is necessary for their optimal use.An in vitro model of acquired resistance to two tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) targeting the EGFR, erlotinib and gefitinib, and to a TKI targeting EGFR and VEGFR, vandetanib, was developed by continuously treating the human NSCLC cell line CALU-3 and the human CRC cell line HCT116 with escalating doses of each drug. MTT, western blot analysis, migration, invasion and anchorage-independent colony forming assays were conducted in vitro and experiments with established xenografts in athymic nude mice were performed in vivo in sensitive, wild type (WT) and TKI-resistant CALU-3 and HCT116 cell lines.As compared to WT CALU-3 and HCT116 human cancer cells, TKI-resistant cell lines showed a significant increase in the levels of activated, phosphorylated AKT, MAPK, and of survivin. Considering the role of RAS and RAF as downstream signals of both the EGFR and VEGFR pathways, we treated resistant cells with sorafenib, an inhibitor of C-RAF, B-RAF, c-KIT, FLT-3, RET, VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3, and PDGFR-?. Sorafenib reduced the activation of MEK and MAPK and caused an inhibition of cell proliferation, invasion, migration, anchorage-independent growth in vitro and of tumor growth in vivo of all TKI-resistant CALU-3 and HCT116 cell lines.These data suggest that resistance to EGFR inhibitors is predominantly driven by the RAS/RAF/MAPK pathway and can be overcame by treatment with sorafenib. PMID:22174910

  9. PKM2 Subcellular Localization Is Involved in Oxaliplatin Resistance Acquisition in HT29 Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Gins, Alba; Bystrup, Sara; Ruiz de Porras, Vicen; Guardia, Cristina; Musuln, Eva; Martnez-Cards, Anna; Manzano, Jos Luis; Layos, Laura; Abad, Albert; Martnez-Balibrea, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Chemoresistance is the main cause of treatment failure in advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). However, molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain to be elucidated. In a previous work we identified low levels of PKM2 as a putative oxaliplatin-resistance marker in HT29 CRC cell lines and also in patients. In order to assess how PKM2 influences oxaliplatin response in CRC cells, we silenced PKM2 using specific siRNAs in HT29, SW480 and HCT116 cells. MTT test demonstrated that PKM2 silencing induced resistance in HT29 and SW480 cells and sensitivity in HCT116 cells. Same experiments in isogenic HCT116 p53 null cells and double silencing of p53 and PKM2 in HT29 cells failed to show an influence of p53. By using trypan blue stain and FITC-Annexin V/PI tests we detected that PKM2 knockdown was associated with an increase in cell viability but not with a decrease in apoptosis activation in HT29 cells. Fluorescence microscopy revealed PKM2 nuclear translocation in response to oxaliplatin in HCT116 and HT29 cells but not in OXA-resistant HTOXAR3 cells. Finally, by using a qPCR Array we demonstrated that oxaliplatin and PKM2 silencing altered cell death gene expression patterns including those of BMF, which was significantly increased in HT29 cells in response to oxaliplatin, in a dose and time-dependent manner, but not in siPKM2-HT29 and HTOXAR3 cells. BMF gene silencing in HT29 cells lead to a decrease in oxaliplatin-induced cell death. In conclusion, our data report new non-glycolytic roles of PKM2 in response to genotoxic damage and proposes BMF as a possible target gene of PKM2 to be involved in oxaliplatin response and resistance in CRC cells. PMID:25955657

  10. Oncogenic KRAS modulates mitochondrial metabolism in human colon cancer cells by inducing HIF-1? and HIF-2? target genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Activating KRAS mutations are important for cancer initiation and progression; and have recently been shown to cause primary resistance to therapies targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor. Therefore, strategies are currently in development to overcome treatment resistance due to oncogenic KRAS. The hypoxia-inducible factors-1? and -2? (HIF-1? and HIF-2?) are activated in cancer due to dysregulated ras signaling. Methods To understand the individual and combined roles of HIF-1? and HIF-2? in cancer metabolism and oncogenic KRAS signaling, we used targeted homologous recombination to disrupt the oncogenic KRAS, HIF-1?, and HIF-2? gene loci in HCT116 colon cancer cells to generate isogenic HCT116WT KRAS, HCT116HIF-1?-/-, HCT116HIF-2?-/-, and HCT116HIF-1?-/-HIF-2?-/- cell lines. Results Global gene expression analyses of these cell lines reveal that HIF-1? and HIF-2? work together to modulate cancer metabolism and regulate genes signature overlapping with oncogenic KRAS. Cancer cells with disruption of both HIF-1? and HIF-2? or oncogenic KRAS showed decreased aerobic respiration and ATP production, with increased ROS generation. Conclusion Our findings suggest novel strategies for treating tumors with oncogenic KRAS mutations. PMID:21073737

  11. Trisubstituted and tetrasubstituted pyrazolines as a novel class of cell-growth inhibitors in tumor cells with wild type p53.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Halim, Mohammad; Keeton, Adam B; Gurpinar, Evrim; Gary, Bernard D; Vogel, Simon M; Engel, Matthias; Piazza, Gary A; Boeckler, Frank M; Hartmann, Rolf W; Abadi, Ashraf H

    2013-12-01

    Derivatives with scaffolds of 1,3,5-tri-substituted pyrazoline and 1,3,4,5-tetra-substituted pyrazoline were synthesized and tested for their inhibitory effects versus the p53(+/+) HCT116 and p53(-/-) H1299 human tumor cell lines. Several compounds were active against the two cell lines displaying IC50 values in the low micromolar range with a clearly more pronounced effect on the p53(+/+) HCT116 cells. The compound class shows excellent developability due to the modular synthesis, allowing independent optimization of all three to four key substituents to improve the properties of the molecules. PMID:24139845

  12. [Corrigendum] Activation of platelet protease-activated receptor-1 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and chemotaxis of colon cancer cell line SW620.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yitao; Zhang, Suqiao; Miao, Lingling; Wang, Jingbao; Jin, Zujian; Gu, Bin; Duan, Zhihui; Zhao, Zhaolong; Ma, Shunmao; Zhang, Wenjin; Li, Zhongxin

    2016-02-01

    After the publication of the article, it has been brought to the authors' attention by an interested reader that we had made an error regarding the colon cancer cell line in the manuscript. The error relates to Materials and methods, as well as Results, the colon cancer cell line in the Transwell migration assay and Flow cytometric detection of CXCR4 expression is HCT-116 rather than SW620. Accordingly, the correct legends in Figs.3 and6 in the paper are HCT-116 cells. This error does not affect the overall conclusions reported in the present study. We sincerely apologize for this mistake, and thank the reader of our article who drew this matter to our attention. Furthermore, we regret any inconvenience this error may have caused. [the original article was published in the Oncology Reports 33: 2681-2688, 2015; DOI: 10.3892/or.2015.3897]. PMID:26718652

  13. Butyrate and deoxycholic acid play common and distinct roles in HCT116 human colon cell proliferation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of a high fat diet causes an increase in bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) in colon lumen and colon cancer risk while butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, has been shown to exhibit colon cancer preventive effects. To distinguish these opposing effects of D...

  14. Butyrate and deoxycholic acid play common and distinct roles in HCT116 human colon cell proliferation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of a high fat diet causes an increase in bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) in colon lumen and colon cancer risk while butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, has been shown to exhibit colon cancer preventive effects. To distinguish these opposing effects of DCA and...

  15. Differential Modulation of Nods Signaling Pathways by Fatty Acids in Human Colonic Epithelial HCT116 cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing proteins (Nods) are intracellular pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognizing conserved moieties of bacterial peptidoglycan through their leucine-rich repeats (LRR) domain. The agonists for Nods activate proinflammtory signaling pathways incl...

  16. In-vitro assessment of cytotoxicity of halloysite nanotubes against HepG2, HCT116 and human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Farrukh Rafiq; Shoaib, Muhammad Harris; Azhar, Mudassar; Um, Soong Ho; Yousuf, Rabia Ismail; Hashmi, Shahkamal; Dar, Ahsana

    2015-11-01

    Halloysite is a clay mineral with chemical similarity to kaolin, a pharmaceutical ingredient. It consists of mainly aluminosilicate nanotubular particles in the size range of ?200-1000nm. Many studies have tried to empirically explore this novel clay for its potential in drug delivery systems but no work has yet studied its cytotoxicity from the perspective of oral drug delivery system. In this study, the halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were subjected to size distribution analyses, which reveal more than 50% of nanotubes in the size range of 500nm and rest mainly in the sub micrometer range. HNTs were then evaluated for in-vitro cytotoxicity against HCT116 (colorectal carcinoma) and HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma) cells which represent the earliest entry point and the first accumulating organ, respectively, for nanoparticles en-route to systemic circulation after oral delivery. Moreover, HNTs were tested for their cytogenetic toxicity against human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Both these results collectively indicated that HNTs are generally safe at practical concentrations of excipients for oral dosage forms. PMID:26241916

  17. SOP: Thawing, Propagation and Cryopreservation of NCI-PBCF-CCL247 (HCT 116)

    Cancer.gov

    A. THAWING CELLS............................................................................................................................ 6 B. PROPAGATING CELLS .................................................................................................................... 7 C. SUBCULTURING CELLS................................................................................................................... 8 5. HARVESTING OF CELLS FOR CRYOPRESERVATION............................................................. 9 6. CRYOPRESERVATION OF CELLS ............................................................................................11 A. CRYOPRESERVATIONUSINGARATE-CONTROLLEDPROGRAMMABLEFREEZER ................................11 i. Using the Cryomed ...............................................................................................................11 B. CRYOPRESERVATION USING MR. FROSTY ..................................................................................12 7. STORAGE.

  18. Annona squamosa Linn: cytotoxic activity found in leaf extract against human tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, De-Shen; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Guo, Huiqin; Ahmed, Mansoor; Ahmed, Maryam; Hassan, Syed Zeeshan; Hassan, Amir; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Xu, Rui-Hua

    2014-09-01

    Cancer is a common cause of death in human populations. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy still remain the corner stone of treatment. However, herbal medicines are gaining popularity on account of their lesser harmful side effects on non-targeted human cells and biological environment. Annona squamosa Linn is a common delicious edible fruit and its leaf have been used for the treatment in various types of diseases. The objective of present study is to determine the anticancer potential of the organic and aqueous extracts of leaf of Annona squamosa L. MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2yl)-2, 5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay against hepatocellular carcinoma cell line BEL-7404, lung cancer line H460, human epidermoid carcinoma cell line KB-3-1, prostatic cancer cell line DU145, breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-435, and colon cancer cell line HCT-116 Human primary embryonic kidney cell line HEK293 as control were used for the study. The crude extract (Zcd) and Ethyl acetate extract (ZE) were found significant anticancer activity only on human epidermoid carcinoma cell line KB-3-1 and colon cancer cell line HCT-116. PMID:25176251

  19. New benzimidazole acridine derivative induces human colon cancer cell apoptosis in vitro via the ROS-JNK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kang; Chu, Bi-zhu; Liu, Feng; Li, Bin; Gao, Chun-mei; Li, Lu-lu; Sun, Qin-sheng; Shen, Zhi-fa; Jiang, Yu-yang

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the mechanisms underlying anticancer action of the benzimidazole acridine derivative N-{(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)methyl}-2-butylacridin-9-amine(8m) against human colon cancer cells in vitro. Methods: Human colon cancer cell lines SW480 and HCT116 were incubated in the presence of 8m, and then the cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured. The expression of apoptotic/signaling genes and proteins was detected using RT-PCR and Western blotting. ROS generation and mitochondrial membrane depolarization were visualized with fluorescence microscopy. Results: 8m dose-dependently suppressed the proliferation of SW480 and HCT116 cells with IC50 values of 6.77 and 3.33 ?mol/L, respectively. 8m induced apoptosis of HCT116 cells, accompanied by down-regulation of Bcl-2, up-regulation of death receptor-5 (DR5), truncation of Bid, cleavage of PARP, and activation of caspases (including caspase-8 and caspase-9 as well as the downstream caspases-3 and caspase-7). Moreover, 8m selectively activated JNK and p38 without affecting ERK in HCT116 cells. Knockout of JNK1, but not p38, attenuated 8m-induced apoptosis. In addition, 8m induced ROS production and mitochondrial membrane depolarization in HCT116 cells. Pretreatment with the antioxidants N-acetyl cysteine or glutathione attenuated 8m-induced apoptosis and JNK activation in HCT116 cells. Conclusion: The new benzimidazole acridine derivative, 8m exerts anticancer activity against human colon cancer cells in vitro by inducing both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways via the ROS-JNK1 pathway. PMID:26235743

  20. Cell Context Dependent p53 Genome-Wide Binding Patterns and Enrichment at Repeats

    PubMed Central

    Botcheva, Krassimira; McCorkle, Sean R.

    2014-01-01

    The p53 ability to elicit stress specific and cell type specific responses is well recognized, but how that specificity is established remains to be defined. Whether upon activation p53 binds to its genomic targets in a cell type and stress type dependent manner is still an open question. Here we show that the p53 binding to the human genome is selective and cell context-dependent. We mapped the genomic binding sites for the endogenous wild type p53 protein in the human cancer cell line HCT116 and compared them to those we previously determined in the normal cell line IMR90. We report distinct p53 genome-wide binding landscapes in two different cell lines, analyzed under the same treatment and experimental conditions, using the same ChIP-seq approach. This is evidence for cell context dependent p53 genomic binding. The observed differences affect the p53 binding sites distribution with respect to major genomic and epigenomic elements (promoter regions, CpG islands and repeats). We correlated the high-confidence p53 ChIP-seq peaks positions with the annotated human repeats (UCSC Human Genome Browser) and observed both common and cell line specific trends. In HCT116, the p53 binding was specifically enriched at LINE repeats, compared to IMR90 cells. The p53 genome-wide binding patterns in HCT116 and IMR90 likely reflect the different epigenetic landscapes in these two cell lines, resulting from cancer-associated changes (accumulated in HCT116) superimposed on tissue specific differences (HCT116 has epithelial, while IMR90 has mesenchymal origin). Our data support the model for p53 binding to the human genome in a highly selective manner, mobilizing distinct sets of genes, contributing to distinct pathways. PMID:25415302

  1. CELLFOOD™ induces apoptosis in human mesothelioma and colorectal cancer cells by modulating p53, c-myc and pAkt signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background CELLFOOD™ (CF) is a nutraceutical non-addictive, non-invasive, and completely non-toxic unique proprietary colloidal-ionic formula. Little is known about its effect on cancer cells in solid tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect that CF has on different cancer cell lines and the mechanism by which the nutraceutical works. Methods The effect of CF on HFF (normal fibroblasts), Met5A (mesothelium), MSTO-211H, NCI-2452, Ist-Mes1, MPP89, Ist-Mes2 (mesothelioma), M14 (melanoma), H1650, H1975 (lung cancer), SKRB3 (breast cancer), and HCT-116 (colorectal cancer) cell growth was tested by cell proliferation and clonogenic assay. Among all of them, MSTO-211 and HCT-116 were analyzed for cell cycle by flow cytometry and western blot. Results All human cancer lines were suppressed on cell growth upon 1:200 CF treatment for 24 and 48 hours. Death was not observed in HFF and Met5A cell lines. Cell cycle analysis showed an increased sub-G1 with reduction of G1 in MSTO-211 and a cell cycle arrest of in G1 in HCT116. Activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP confirmed an apoptotic death for both cell lines. Increased expression levels of p53, p21, and p27, downregulation of c-myc and Bcl-2, and inhibition of Akt activation were also found in CF-treated MSTO-211 and HCT-116 cells. Conclusions These findings ascertained an interaction between p53, c-myc, p21, p27, Bcl-2, PI3K/Akt pathway, and CF-induced apoptosis in MSTO-211H and HCT-116 cells, suggesting that CF acts as an important regulator of cell growth in human cancer cell lines. CF could be a useful nutraceutical intervention for prevention in colon cancer and mesothelioma. PMID:24598211

  2. Transcriptomic profiling of radiation-resistant or -sensitive human colorectal cancer cells: acute effects of a single X-radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Ng, Cheng E; Liu, Qing Y; Qutob, Sami S; Scott, Bradley J; Tan, Wei L; Mesak, Felix M

    2007-06-01

    We previously isolated several clones that were closely-related genetically from a human colorectal tumor (HCT116) cell line. These clones displayed significantly different X-radiation response phenotypes. In this paper, we investigated how a single dose of X-radiation modulated the transcriptomic profiles of either the radiation-resistant (HCT116Clone2_XRR) or the radiation-sensitive (HCT116CloneK_XRS) clone when each was compared to a reference clone, HCT116Clone10_control. The latter represented a control clone that displayed a similar X-radiation response as the parental HCT116 cells. Pooled RNAs were obtained from HCT116Clone2_XRR, HCT116CloneK_XRS or HCT116Clone10_control cells either before or at 10 min, 6 or 24 h after treatment with 4-Gy X-radiation. Transcriptomic profiles were assessed by cDNA microarrays. At least three independent experiments were carried out for each time point and statistical analysis was performed by paired t-test (p<0.05). From 19,200 genes/ESTs examined, we identified only 120 genes/ESTs that were differentially expressed at any one of these four time points. Interestingly, different patterns of gene modulation were observed between the radiation-sensitive and radiation-resistant clones. However, the fold changes of gene modulation were generally small (2-3 fold). Surprisingly, only 12.7% of 79 genes involved in DNA damage sensor/repair and cell cycle and between 2.6 and 9.2% of 76 genes involved in apoptosis, were significantly modulated in these early time points following irradiation. By comparison, up to 10% of 40 known housekeeping genes were differentially expressed. Thus in our experimental model, we were able to detect the up-regulation or down-regulation of mostly novel genes and/or pathways in the acute period (up to 24 h) following a single dose of 4-Gy X-radiation. PMID:17487357

  3. MicroRNA-203 induces apoptosis by upregulating Puma expression in colon and lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Funamizu, Naotake; Lacy, Curtis R; Kamada, Minori; Yanaga, Katsuhiko; Manome, Yoshinobu

    2015-11-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between microRNA-203 (miR-203) and the p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (Puma) in colon (HCT116) and lung cancer (A549) cells. Colon and lung cancer cell lines were selected for this study since a relationship between p53/miR-203 and p53/Puma has been established in both cancers. In the present study, adriamycin and nutlin-3 were used to activate p53, which induced both miR-203 and Puma expression in HCT116 cells. In contrast, HCT 116 cells with downregulated p53 showed decreased miR-203 and Puma expression. Importantly, we found that overexpressed miR-203 in HCT116 cells resulted in significantly increased Puma expression (P<0.05). Based on these findings, we hypothesized that another limb of the p53/Puma axis depends on miR-203 expression. To further validate this relationship, we used lung cancer cells (A549) and found that activated p53 increased both miR-203 and Puma expression. In addition, we found that Puma expression remained elevated in cells with overexpressed miR-203 in the presence of p53 downregulation. Cumulatively, our data purport that p53 not only increased Puma expression directly, but that it may also do so through miR-203. Additionally, functional studies revealed that miR-203 overexpression induced apoptosis and inhibited cell invasiveness. PMID:26397233

  4. Sulforaphane inhibits hypoxia-induced HIF-1? and VEGF expression and migration of human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hwan; Sung, Bokyung; Kang, Yong Jung; Hwang, Seong Yeon; Kim, Min Jeong; Yoon, Jeong-Hyun; Im, Eunok; Kim, Nam Deuk

    2015-12-01

    The effects of sulforaphane (a natural product commonly found in broccoli) was investigated on hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) expression in HCT116 human colon cancer cells and AGS human gastric cancer cells. We found that hypoxia-induced HIF-1? protein expression in HCT116 and AGS cells, while treatment with sulforaphane markedly and concentration-dependently inhibited HIF-1? expression in both cell lines. Treatment with sulforaphane inhibited hypoxia-induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in HCT116 cells. Treatment with sulforaphane modulated the effect of hypoxia on HIF-1? stability. However, degradation of HIF-1? by sulforaphane was not mediated through the 26S proteasome pathway. We also found that the inhibition of HIF-1? by sulforaphane was not mediated through AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation under hypoxic conditions. Finally, hypoxia-induced HCT116 cell migration was inhibited by sulforaphane. These data suggest that sulforaphane may inhibit human colon cancer progression and cancer cell angiogenesis by inhibiting HIF-1? and VEGF expression. Taken together, these results indicate that sulforaphane is a new and potent chemopreventive drug candidate for treating patients with human colon cancer. PMID:26498863

  5. Cox-2 is needed but not sufficient for apoptosis induced by Cox-2 selective inhibitors in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, B; Swaroop, P; Protiva, P; Raj, S V; Shirin, H; Holt, P R

    2003-12-01

    The role of Cox-2 in NSAID-induced apoptosis is debated. We studied the role of Cox-2 inhibition in apoptosis induced by a selective Cox-2 inhibitor, SC236 (a structural analogue of celecoxib) in two colon cancer cell lines, HT29 (expressing Cox-2 protein) and HCT116 (not expressing Cox-2 protein). Apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometry. SC236 0-75 microM decreased cell numbers and induced apoptosis to identical levels in HT29 and HCT116 cells. However, SC236, concentrations >75 microM reduced Cox-2 protein expression in HT29 cells and induced greater levels of apoptosis in HT29 than in HCT116 cells. In contrast, sulindac sulfide (SSD) (which inhibits Cox-1 and Cox-2) 0-200 microM or sulindac sulfone (SSN) 0-500 microM (without significant activity against Cox-1 or Cox-2) caused identical decreases in cell number and increases in apoptosis in HT29 and HCT116 cells. Neither SSD nor SSN altered the expression of Cox-2 in HT29 cells. To determine that the higher levels of apoptosis in HT29 cells with SC236 >75 microM were related to decreased Cox-2 protein levels, we decreased Cox-2 protein expression in HT29 cells with curcumin (diferuloylmethane) and studied its effect on SC236-induced apoptosis. Curcumin augmented apoptosis induced by SC236 in HT29 cells but not in Cox-2 lacking HCT116 cells. In conclusion, selective Cox-2 inhibitors can induce apoptosis independent of Cox-2 expression. However they may selectively target cells that express Cox-2 by decreasing their Cox-2 protein expression. PMID:14739610

  6. Synergistic anticancer activity of curcumin and catechin: an in vitro study using human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, R; Beulaja, M; Arulvasu, C; Sellamuthu, S; Dinesh, D; Prabhu, D; Babu, G; Vaseeharan, B; Prabhu, N M

    2012-02-01

    The most practical approach to reduce morbidity and mortality of cancer is to delay the process of carcinogenesis by usage of anticancer agents. This necessitates that safer compounds are to be critically examined for anticancer activity especially, those derived from natural sources. A spice commonly found in India and the surrounding regions, is turmeric, derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa and the major active component is a phytochemical termed curcumin. Green tea is one of the most popular beverages used worldwide, produced from the leaves of evergreen plant Camellia sinensis and the major active ingredients are polyphenolic compounds known as catechins. In this study, synergistic anticancer activity of curcumin and catechin was evaluated in human colon adenocarcinoma HCT 15, HCT 116, and human larynx carcinoma Hep G-2 cell lines. Although, both curcumin or catechin inhibited the growth of above cell lines, interestingly, in combination of both these compounds highest level of growth control was observed. The anticancer activity shown is due to cytotoxicity, nuclear fragmentation as well as condensation, and DNA fragmentation associated with the appearance of apoptosis. These results suggest that curcumin and catechin in combination can inhibit the proliferation of HCT 15, HCT 116, as well as Hep G-2 cells efficiently through induction of apoptosis. PMID:21780253

  7. Crude Extracts of Marine-derived and Soil Fungi of the Genus Neosartorya Exhibit Selective Anticancer Activity by Inducing Cell Death in Colon, Breast and Skin Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Alice Abreu; Castro-Carvalho, Bruno; Prata-Sena, Maria; Dethoup, Tida; Buttachon, Suradet; Kijjoa, Anake; Rocha, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Background: The crude ethyl acetate extracts of marine-derived fungi Neosartorya tsunodae KUFC 9213 (E1) and N. laciniosa KUFC 7896 (E2), and soil fungus N. fischeri KUFC 6344 (E3) were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer activities on a panel of seven human cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was performed, after 48 h treatments with different concentrations of extracts, to determine their concentration of the extract or Dox that inhibits cell viability by 50% for each cell line. The effects of the crude extracts on DNA damage, clonogenic potential and their ability to induce cell death were also assessed. Results: E1 was found to the void of anti-proliferative effects. E2 was shown to decrease the clonogenic potential in human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT116), human malignant melanoma cell line (A375), human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7), and human caucasian colon adenocarcinoma Grade II cell line (HT29) cells, whereas E3 showed such effect only in HCT116 and MCF7 cells. Both extracts were found to increase DNA damage in some cell lines. E2 was found to induce cell death in HT29, HCT116, MCF7, and A375 cells while extract E3 increased cell death in MCF7 and HCT116 cell lines. Conclusion: The results reveal that E2 and E3 possess anticancer activities in human colon carcinoma, breast adenocarcinoma, and melanoma cells, validating the interest for an identification of molecular targets involved in the anticancer activity. SUMMARY The crude ethyl acetate extract of N. tsunodae (E1) did not decrease cell viability in any of the tested cell linesThe crude ethyl acetate extracts of N. laciniosa (E2) and N. fischeri (E3) decreased cell proliferation in some human cancer cell lines tested at both short- and long-termN. laciniosa (E2) induced a significant increase in the number of cell death, in part, due to the induction of DNA damageN. fischeri (E3) induce cell death but in some cell lines without induction of DNA damage detected by comet assayCrude ethyl extracts of N. laciniosa (E2) and N. fischeri (E3) exert an anticancer activity in human colon carcinoma, breast adenocarcinoma, and malignant melanoma cells. Abbreviations Used: A375: Human malignant melanoma cell line; A549: Human non-small lung cancer cell line; DAPI: 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; DMEM: Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium; DMSO: Dimethylsulfoxide; Dox: Doxorubicin; E1: Neosartorya tsunodae KUFC 9213; E2: Neosartorya laciniosa KUFC 7896; E3: Neosartorya fischeri KUFC 6344; FBS: Fetal bovine serum; HCT116: Human colorectal carcinoma cell line; HEPES: (N-[2-hydroxyethyl] piperazine-N’-[2-ethane-sulfonic acid]); HepG2: Human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line; HT29: Human caucasian colon adenocarcinoma Grade II cell line; IC50: Concentration of the extract or Dox that inhibits cell viability by 50%; MCF7: Human breast adenocarcinoma cell line; MEM: Minimum Essential Medium Eagle; MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; NCI-H460: Human non-small lung cancer cell line; PBS: Phosphate buffered saline; PE: Plating efficiency; RPMI: Roswell park memorial institute medium; SF: Surviving fraction; U-251: Human malignant glioblastoma cell line. PMID:26941530

  8. The p53, Bax and p21 dependent inhibition of colon cancer cell growth by 5-hydroxy polymethoxyflavones

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Peiju; Guan, Huashi; Dong, Ping; Li, Shiming; Ho, Chi-Tang; Pan, Min-Hsiung; McClements, David Julian; Xiao, Hang

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we reported that 5 hydroxy polymethoxyflavones (5OH-PMFs) isolated from orange, namely 5-hydroxy-6,7,8,3?,4?-pentamethoxyflavone (5HPMF), 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,8,3?,4?-hexamethoxyflavone (5HHMF), and 5-hydroxy-6,7,8,4-tetramethoxyflavone (5HTMF) potently induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in multiple human colon cancer cells. Herein, using isogenic variants of HCT116 human colon cancer cells, we investigated the effects of p53, Bax and p21 on the apoptosis and cell cycle arrest induced by different 5OH-PMFs. Annexin V/PI co-staining assay demonstrated that 5HHMF and 5HTMF significantly induced apoptosis in HCT116 (p53 +/+) cells, but not in HCT116 (p53 ?/?) cells. Further more, 5HHMF and 5HTMF significantly induced apoptosis in HCT116 (Bax +/?) cells, while their pro-apoptotic effects on HCT116 (Bax ?/?) cells were marginal. All three 5OH-PMFs increased G0/G1 cell population of HCT116 (p53 +/+) cells, and these effects were abolished in HCT116 (p53 ?/?) and HCT116 (p21 ?/?) cells. Immunoblotting analysis showed that 5HHMF and 5HTMF increased the levels of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP in both HCT116 (p53 +/+) and HCT116 (Bax +/?) cells, and these effects were much weaker in HCT116 (p53 ?/?) and HCT116 (Bax ?/?) cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated that 5OH-PMFs, especially 5HHMF and 5HTMF induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by p53, Bax and p21 dependent mechanisms. PMID:21462329

  9. Oridonin triggers apoptosis in colorectal carcinoma cells and suppression of microRNA-32 expression augments oridonin-mediated apoptotic effects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Jiang, Hai; Wang, Chunyu; Yang, Bo; Zhao, Lijun; Hu, Dongling; Qiu, Guihua; Dong, Xiaolin; Xiao, Bin

    2015-05-01

    Oridonin, a bioactive diterpenoid isolated from Rabdosia rubescens, has been found to exhibit various anti-tumor effects. In this work, to investigate its pharmacological effects on human colorectal carcinoma HCT-116 and LoVo cells, cell proliferation and apoptosis were respectively evaluated by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, annexin V-FITC, and propidium iodide (PI) staining. Western blotting was used to detect the expression levels of Bim, Bax, Bcl-2, cytosolic cytochrome c, procaspase-9, cleaved caspase-9, procaspase-3, and caspase-3 proteins. Caspase-Glo-9 and Caspase-Glo-3 assays were applied to determine caspase-9 and caspase-3 activity. MicroRNA-32 (miR-32) expression level was detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The in vivo anti-tumor effects of oridonin were evaluated using cell lines HCT-116 and LoVo xenograft model. The results indicated that oridonin effectively inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HCT-116 and LoVo cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Oridonin treatment upregulated the expression levels of Bim, Bax, cytosolic cytochrome c, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3 proteins, downregulated the expression levels of Bcl-2, procaspase-9 and procaspase-3 proteins, and meanwhile obviously activated caspase-9 and caspase-3 in a dose-dependent manner in HCT-116 and LoVo cells. The results of qRT-PCR demonstrated that oridonin treatment significantly decreased miR-32 expression, and furthermore, suppression of miR-32 expression by miR-32 inhibitors augmented oridonin-mediated inhibitory and apoptotic effects in HCT-116 and LoVo cells. In vivo results indicated that oridonin administration through intraperitoneal injection suppressed tumor growth in nude mice. Therefore, these findings suggest that oridonin maybe is a potential candidate for colorectal cancer treatment. PMID:26054686

  10. Tcf3 and cell cycle factors contribute to butyrate resistance in colorectal cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chiaro, Christopher; Lazarova, Darina L.; Bordonaro, Michael

    2012-11-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate mechanisms responsible for butyrate resistance in colon cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tcf3 modulates butyrate's effects on Wnt activity and cell growth in resistant cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tcf3 modulation of butyrate's effects differ by cell context. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell cycle factors are overexpressed in the resistant cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reversal of altered gene expression can enhance the anti-cancer effects of butyrate. -- Abstract: Butyrate, a fermentation product of dietary fiber, inhibits clonal growth in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells dependent upon the fold induction of Wnt activity. We have developed a CRC cell line (HCT-R) that, unlike its parental cell line, HCT-116, does not respond to butyrate exposure with hyperactivation of Wnt signaling and suppressed clonal growth. PCR array analyses revealed Wnt pathway-related genes, the expression of which differs between butyrate-sensitive HCT-116 CRC cells and their butyrate-resistant HCT-R cell counterparts. We identified overexpression of Tcf3 as being partially responsible for the butyrate-resistant phenotype, as this DNA-binding protein suppresses the hyperinduction of Wnt activity by butyrate. Consequently, Tcf3 knockdown in HCT-R cells restores their sensitivity to the effects of butyrate on Wnt activity and clonal cell growth. Interestingly, the effects of overexpressed Tcf3 differ between HCT-116 and HCT-R cells; thus, in HCT-116 cells Tcf3 suppresses proliferation without rendering the cells resistant to butyrate. In HCT-R cells, however, the overexpression of Tcf3 inhibits Wnt activity, and the cells are still able to proliferate due to the higher expression levels of cell cycle factors, particularly those driving the G{sub 1} to S transition. Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms determining the variable sensitivity of CRC cells to butyrate may assist in developing approaches that prevent or reverse butyrate resistance.

  11. FRET-Based Probe for Monitoring pH Changes in Lipid-Dense Region of Hct116 Cells.

    PubMed

    Reddy G, Upendar; A, Anila H; Ali, Firoj; Taye, Nandaraj; Chattopadhyay, Samit; Das, Amitava

    2015-11-20

    A rhodamine conjugate (L) with a pseudo Stokes shift of 165 nm is used for probing changes in solution pH under physiological conditions. This reagent is found to be nontoxic, and the luminescence response could be used for imaging changes in endogenous pH induced by dexamethanose (DMT) in the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:26555683

  12. Anomalous dystroglycan in carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Losasso, C; Di Tommaso, F; Sgambato, A; Ardito, R; Cittadini, A; Giardina, B; Petrucci, T C; Brancaccio, A

    2000-11-10

    Dystroglycan is a receptor responsible for crucial interactions between extracellular matrix and cytoplasmic space. We provide the first evidence that dystroglycan is truncated. In HC11 normal murine and the 184B5 non-tumorigenic mammary human cell lines, the expected beta-dystroglycan 43 kDa band was found but human breast T47D, BT549, MCF7, colon HT29, HCT116, SW620, prostate DU145 and cervical HeLa cancer cells expressed an anomalous approximately 31 kDa beta-dystroglycan band. alpha-Dystroglycan was udetectable in most of the cell lines in which beta-dystroglycan was found as a approximately 31 kDa species. An anomalous approximately 31 kDa beta-dystroglycan band was also observed in N-methyl-N-nitrosurea-induced primary rat mammary tumours. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction experiments confirmed the absence of alternative splicing events and/or expression of eventual dystroglycan isoforms. Using protein extraction procedures at low- and high-ionic strength, we demonstrated that both the 43 kDa and approximately 31 kDa beta-dystroglycan bands harbour their transmembrane segment. PMID:11078877

  13. Relative biological effectiveness of light ions in human tumoural cell lines: role of protein p53

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baggio, L.; Cavinato, M.; Cherubini, R.; Conzato, M.; Cucinotta, F.; Favaretto, S.; Gerardi, S.; Lora, S.; Stoppa, P.; Williams, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    Protons and alpha particles of high linear energy transfer (LET) have shown an increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE) with respect to X/gamma rays for several cellular and molecular endpoints in different in vitro cell systems. To contribute to understanding the biochemical mechanisms involved in the increased effectiveness of high LET radiation, an extensive study has been designed. The present work reports the preliminary result of this study on two human tumoural cell lines, DLD1 and HCT116, (with different p53 status), which indicate that for these cell lines, p53 does not appear to take a part in the response to radiation induced DNA damage, suggesting an alternative p53-independent pathway and a cell biochemical mechanism dependent on the cell type.

  14. Cytoplasmic sequestration of the tumor suppressor p53 by a heat shock protein 70 family member, mortalin, in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Gestl, Erin E.; Anne Boettger, S.

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eight human colorectal cell lines were evaluated for p53 and mortalin localization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Six cell lines displayed cytoplasmic sequestration of the tumor suppressor p53. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Direct interaction between mortalin and p53 was shown in five cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell lines positive for p53 sequestration yielded elevated p53 expression levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study yields the first evidence of cytoplasmic sequestration p53 by mortalin. -- Abstract: While it is known that cytoplasmic retention of p53 occurs in many solid tumors, the mechanisms responsible for this retention have not been positively identified. Since heatshock proteins like mortalin have been associated with p53 inactivation in other tumors, the current study sought to characterize this potential interaction in never before examined colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines. Six cell lines, one with 3 different fractions, were examined to determine expression of p53 and mortalin and characterize their cellular localization. Most of these cell lines displayed punctate p53 and mortalin localization in the cell cytoplasm with the exception of HCT-8 and HCT116 379.2 cells, where p53 was not detected. Nuclear p53 was only observed in HCT-116 40-16, LS123, and HT-29 cell lines. Mortalin was only localized in the cytoplasm in all cell lines. Co-immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemistry revealed that p53 and mortalin were bound and co-localized in the cytoplasmic fraction of four cell lines, HCT-116 (40-16 and 386; parental and heterozygous fractions respectively of the same cell line), HT-29, LS123 and LoVo, implying that p53 nuclear function is limited in those cell lines by being restricted to the cytoplasm. Mortalin gene expression levels were higher than gene expression levels of p53 in all cell lines. Cell lines with cytoplasmic sequestration of p53, however, also displayed elevated p53 gene expression levels compared to cell lines without p53 sequestration. Our data reveal the characteristic cytoplasmic sequestration of p53 by the heat shock protein mortalin in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines, as is the case for other cancers, such as glioblastomas and hepatocellular carcinomas.

  15. Spontaneous ?H2AX Foci in Human Solid Tumor-Derived Cell Lines in Relation to p21WAF1 and WIP1 Expression.

    PubMed

    Mirzayans, Razmik; Andrais, Bonnie; Scott, April; Wang, Ying W; Weiss, Robert H; Murray, David

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation of H2AX on Ser139 (?H2AX) after exposure to ionizing radiation produces nuclear foci that are detectable by immunofluorescence microscopy. These so-called ?H2AX foci have been adopted as quantitative markers for DNA double-strand breaks. High numbers of spontaneous ?H2AX foci have also been reported for some human solid tumor-derived cell lines, but the molecular mechanism(s) for this response remains elusive. Here we show that cancer cells (e.g., HCT116; MCF7) that constitutively express detectable levels of p21WAF1 (p21) exhibit low numbers of ?H2AX foci (<3/nucleus), whereas p21 knockout cells (HCT116p21-/-) and constitutively low p21-expressing cells (e.g., MDA-MB-231) exhibit high numbers of foci (e.g., >50/nucleus), and that these foci are not associated with apoptosis. The majority (>95%) of cells within HCT116p21-/- and MDA-MB-231 cultures contain high levels of phosphorylated p53, which is localized in the nucleus. We further show an inverse relationship between ?H2AX foci and nuclear accumulation of WIP1, an oncogenic phosphatase. Our studies suggest that: (i) p21 deficiency might provide a selective pressure for the emergence of apoptosis-resistant progeny exhibiting genomic instability, manifested as spontaneous ?H2AX foci coupled with phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation of p53; and (ii) p21 might contribute to positive regulation of WIP1, resulting in dephosphorylation of ?H2AX. PMID:26006237

  16. Spontaneous ?H2AX Foci in Human Solid Tumor-Derived Cell Lines in Relation to p21WAF1 and WIP1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Mirzayans, Razmik; Andrais, Bonnie; Scott, April; Wang, Ying W.; Weiss, Robert H.; Murray, David

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation of H2AX on Ser139 (?H2AX) after exposure to ionizing radiation produces nuclear foci that are detectable by immunofluorescence microscopy. These so-called ?H2AX foci have been adopted as quantitative markers for DNA double-strand breaks. High numbers of spontaneous ?H2AX foci have also been reported for some human solid tumor-derived cell lines, but the molecular mechanism(s) for this response remains elusive. Here we show that cancer cells (e.g., HCT116; MCF7) that constitutively express detectable levels of p21WAF1 (p21) exhibit low numbers of ?H2AX foci (<3/nucleus), whereas p21 knockout cells (HCT116p21?/?) and constitutively low p21-expressing cells (e.g., MDA-MB-231) exhibit high numbers of foci (e.g., >50/nucleus), and that these foci are not associated with apoptosis. The majority (>95%) of cells within HCT116p21?/? and MDA-MB-231 cultures contain high levels of phosphorylated p53, which is localized in the nucleus. We further show an inverse relationship between ?H2AX foci and nuclear accumulation of WIP1, an oncogenic phosphatase. Our studies suggest that: (i) p21 deficiency might provide a selective pressure for the emergence of apoptosis-resistant progeny exhibiting genomic instability, manifested as spontaneous ?H2AX foci coupled with phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation of p53; and (ii) p21 might contribute to positive regulation of WIP1, resulting in dephosphorylation of ?H2AX. PMID:26006237

  17. Essential Oil Content of the Rhizome of Curcuma purpurascens Bl. (Temu Tis) and Its Antiproliferative Effect on Selected Human Carcinoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sok-Lai; Lee, Guan-Serm; Ahmed Hamdi, Omer Abdalla; Awang, Khalijah; Aznam Nugroho, Nurfina

    2014-01-01

    Curcuma purpurascens Bl., belonging to the Zingiberaceae family, is known as temu tis in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. In this study, the hydrodistilled dried ground rhizome oil was investigated for its chemical content and antiproliferative activity against selected human carcinoma cell lines (MCF7, Ca Ski, A549, HT29, and HCT116) and a normal human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC5). Results from GC-MS and GC-FID analysis of the rhizome oil of temu tis showed turmerone as the major component, followed by germacrone, ar-turmerone, germacrene-B, and curlone. The rhizome oil of temu tis exhibited strong cytotoxicity against HT29 cells (IC50 value of 4.9 0.4??g/mL), weak cytotoxicity against A549, Ca Ski, and HCT116 cells (with IC50 values of 46.3 0.7, 32.5 1.1, and 35.0 0.3??g/mL, resp.), and no inhibitory effect against MCF7 cells. It exhibited mild cytotoxicity against a noncancerous human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC5), with an IC50 value of 25.2 2.7??g/mL. This is the first report on the chemical composition of this rhizome's oil and its selective antiproliferative effect on HT29. The obtained data provided a basis for further investigation of the mode of cell death. PMID:25177723

  18. Oncolytic reovirus preferentially induces apoptosis in KRAS mutant colorectal cancer cells, and synergizes with irinotecan

    PubMed Central

    Maitra, Radhashree; Seetharam, Raviraja; Tesfa, Lydia; Augustine, Titto A.; Klampfer, Lidija; Coffey, Matthew C.; Mariadason, John M.; Goel, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Reovirus is a double stranded RNA virus, with an intrinsic preference for replication in KRAS mutant cells. As 45% of human colorectal cancers (CRC) harbor KRAS mutations, we sought to investigate its efficacy in KRAS mutant CRC cells, and examine its impact in combination with the topoisimerase-1 inhibitor, irinotecan. Reovirus efficacy was examined in the KRAS mutant HCT116, and the isogenic KRAS WT Hke3 cell line, and in the non-malignant rat intestinal epithelial cell line. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry and TUNEL staining. Combination treatment with reovirus and irintoecan was investigated in 15 CRC cell lines, including the HCT116 p21 isogenic cell lines. Reovirus preferentially induced apoptosis in KRAS mutant HCT116 cells compared to its isogenic KRAS WT derivative, and in KRAS mutant IEC cells. Reovirus showed a greater degree of caspase 3 activation with PARP 1 cleavage, and preferential inhibition of p21 protein expression in KRAS mutant cells. Reovirus synergistically induced growth inhibition when combined with irinotecan. This synergy was lost upon p21 gene knock out. Reovirus preferentially induces apoptosis in KRAS mutant colon cancer cells. Reovirus and irinotecan combination therapy is synergistic, p21 mediated, and represents a novel potential treatment for patients with CRC. PMID:24798549

  19. Zinc Finger Nuclease Mediated Knockout of ADP-Dependent Glucokinase in Cancer Cell Lines: Effects on Cell Survival and Mitochondrial Oxidative Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Susan; Morrison, Shona; Connor, Tim; Su, Jiechuang; Print, Cristin G.; Ronimus, Ron S.; McGee, Sean L.; Wilson, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc finger nucleases (ZFN) are powerful tools for editing genes in cells. Here we use ZFNs to interrogate the biological function of ADPGK, which encodes an ADP-dependent glucokinase (ADPGK), in human tumour cell lines. The hypothesis we tested is that ADPGK utilises ADP to phosphorylate glucose under conditions where ATP becomes limiting, such as hypoxia. We characterised two ZFN knockout clones in each of two lines (H460 and HCT116). All four clones had frameshift mutations in all alleles at the target site in exon 1 of ADPGK, and were ADPGK-null by immunoblotting. ADPGK knockout had little or no effect on cell proliferation, but compromised the ability of H460 cells to survive siRNA silencing of hexokinase-2 under oxic conditions, with clonogenic survival falling from 213% for the parental line to 6.40.8% (p?=?0.002) and 4.30.8% (p?=?0.001) for the two knockouts. A similar increased sensitivity to clonogenic cell killing was observed under anoxia. No such changes were found when ADPGK was knocked out in HCT116 cells, for which the parental line was less sensitive than H460 to anoxia and to hexokinase-2 silencing. While knockout of ADPGK in HCT116 cells caused few changes in global gene expression, knockout of ADPGK in H460 cells caused notable up-regulation of mRNAs encoding cell adhesion proteins. Surprisingly, we could discern no consistent effect on glycolysis as measured by glucose consumption or lactate formation under anoxia, or extracellular acidification rate (Seahorse XF analyser) under oxic conditions in a variety of media. However, oxygen consumption rates were generally lower in the ADPGK knockouts, in some cases markedly so. Collectively, the results demonstrate that ADPGK can contribute to tumour cell survival under conditions of high glycolytic dependence, but the phenotype resulting from knockout of ADPGK is cell line dependent and appears to be unrelated to priming of glycolysis in these lines. PMID:23799003

  20. Simultaneous inhibition of ATR and PARP sensitizes colon cancer cell lines to irinotecan

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Sanad, Atlal; Wang, Yunzhe; Hasheminasab, Fatemeh; Panasci, Justin; Noë, Alycia; Rosca, Lorena; Davidson, David; Amrein, Lilian; Sharif-Askari, Bahram; Aloyz, Raquel; Panasci, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced DNA damage repair is one mechanism involved in colon cancer drug resistance. Thus, targeting molecular components of repair pathways with specific small molecule inhibitors may improve the efficacy of chemotherapy. ABT-888 and VE-821, inhibitors of poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase (PARP) and the serine/threonine-kinase Ataxia telangiectasia related (ATR), respectively, were used to treat colon cancer cell lines in combination with the topoisomerase-I inhibitor irinotecan (SN38). Our findings show that each of these DNA repair inhibitors utilized alone at nontoxic single agent concentrations resulted in sensitization to SN38 producing a 1.4–3 fold reduction in the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of SN38 in three colon cancer cell lines. When combined together, nontoxic concentrations of ABT-888 and VE-821 produced a 4.5–27 fold reduction in the IC50 of SN38 with the HCT-116 colon cancer cells demonstrating the highest sensitization as compared to LoVo and HT-29 colon cancer cells. Furthermore, the combination of all three agents was associated with maximal G2 −M arrest and enhanced DNA-damage (γH2AX) in all three colon cancer cell lines. The mechanism of this enhanced sensitization was associated with: (a) maximal suppression of SN38 induced PARP activity in the presence of both inhibitors and (b) ABT-888 producing partial abrogation of the VE-821 enhancement of SN38 induced DNA-PK phosphorylation, resulting in more unrepaired DNA damage; these alterations were only present in the HCT-116 cells which have reduced levels of ATM. This novel combination of DNA repair inhibitors may be useful to enhance the activity of DNA damaging chemotherapies such as irinotecan and help produce sensitization to this drug in colon cancer. PMID:26257651

  1. NCI in vitro and in silico anticancer screen, cell cycle pertubation and apoptosis-inducing potential of new acylated, benzylidene and isopropylidene derivatives of andrographolide.

    PubMed

    Wong, Charng Choon; Sagineedu, Sreenivasa Rao; Sumon, Shariful Hasan; Sidik, Shiran Mohamad; Phillips, Roger; Lajis, Nordin H; Stanslas, Johnson

    2014-09-01

    Andrographolide (AGP) is the main bioactive constituent isolated from the traditional medicinal, Andrographis paniculata which contributes towards its various biological activities, including anticancer property. In this study, a series of new AGP derivatives were semi-synthesised and screened against the NCI in vitro 60 cell lines. From the screening results, we had identified SRS07 as the most potent AGP derivative, against breast and colon cancer cell lines. Subsequently, SRS07 was tested for its capability to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MCF-7 and HCT116 cancer cells. SRS07 effectively induced G1 cell cycle arrest in both cell lines and ultimately apoptosis by inducing DNA fragmentation in HCT116 cells. The apoptotic cell death induced by SRS07 was confirmed via FITC Annexin-V double staining. Western blot analysis of SRS07-treated HCT116 cells revealed that the compound induced apoptosis be activating caspase 8 which in turn cleaved Bid to t-Bid to initiate cell death cascade. Prediction of the possible mode of action of SRS07 by utilising NCI COMPARE analysis failed to reveal a distinct mechanism category. Hence, it is speculated that SRS07 possesses novel mechanism of action. In conclusion, SRS07 demonstrated superior in vitro anticancer profiles and emerged as a potential lead anticancer candidate. PMID:25168151

  2. In vitro anticancer activity of extracts of Mentha Spp. against human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vikas; Hussain, Shabir; Gupta, Moni; Saxena, Ajit Kumar

    2014-10-01

    In vitro anticancer potential of methanolic and aqueous extracts of whole plants of Mentha arvensis, M. longifolia, M. spicata and M. viridis at concentration of 100 ?g/ml was evaluated against eight human cancer cell lines--A-549, COLO-205, HCT-116, MCF-7, NCI-H322, PC-3, THP-1 and U-87MG from six different origins (breast, colon, glioblastoma, lung, leukemia and prostate) using sulphorhodamine blue (SRB) assay. Methanolic extracts of above-mentioned Mentha Spp. displayed anti-proliferative effect in the range of 70-97% against four human cancer cell lines, namely COLO-205, MCF-7, NCI-H322 and THP-1; however, aqueous extracts were found to be active against HCT-116 and PC-3. The results indicate that Mentha Spp. contain certain constituents with cytotoxic properties which may find use in developing anticancer agents. PMID:25630112

  3. Novel seleno- and thio-urea derivatives with potent in vitro activities against several cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Alcolea, Verónica; Plano, Daniel; Karelia, Deepkamal N; Palop, Juan Antonio; Amin, Shantu; Sanmartín, Carmen; Sharma, Arun K

    2016-05-01

    A series of novel selenourea derivatives and corresponding thiourea analogs were synthesized and tested against a panel of six human cancer cell lines: melanoma (1205Lu), lung carcinoma (A549), prostatic carcinoma (DU145), colorectal carcinoma (HCT116), pancreatic epithelioid carcinoma (PANC-1) and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (BxPC3). In general, we found that the selenium-containing derivatives were more potent than their isosteric sulfur analogs. Four selenourea derivatives (1e, 1f, 1g and 1i) showed IC50 values below 10 μM in all of tested cell lines at 72 h. On the basis of its potent activity, compound 1g was selected for further biological evaluation in different colon cancer cell lines. Our results indicated that compound 1g induced apoptosis by caspase activation, along with inhibition of anti-apoptotic proteins. PMID:26922233

  4. Salinomycin inhibits the growth of colorectal carcinoma by targeting tumor stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Tian, Yaping; Song, Feiyu; Fu, Changhao; Han, Bo; Wang, Yi

    2015-11-01

    Salinomycin is a monocarboxylic polyether antibiotic that has been reported to induce apoptosis in various types of cancer cells with specificity for cancer stem cells. However, its anticancer effect in colorectal cancer stem cells has never been reported. In the present study, we examined the ability of salinomycin to induce cell death in the colorectal cancer stem cell line CD44+EpCAM+HCT-116, and we measured its invivo tumor inhibition capacity. Salinomycin dose-dependently induced cytotoxicity in the CD44+EpCAM+HCT-116cells and inhibited colony formation. Salinomycin treatment was shown to induce apoptosis, as evidenced by nuclear fragmentation, an increase in the proportion of acridine orange/ethidium bromide-positive cells and an increase in the percentage of AnnexinV-positive cells. Apoptosis was induced in colorectal cancer stem cells in a caspase-dependent manner, as shown by an increase in the levels of cleaved caspase-3,-8 and-9. JC-1 staining further revealed that salinomycin induced colorectal cancer cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. In addition, salinomycin treatment of xenograft mice inhibited the growth of tumors derived from the CD44+EpCAM+HCT-116cells. The present study demonstrated that the antibiotic salinomycin exerts an anti-colorectal cancer effect invitro and invivo, suggesting salinomycin as a potential drug for colorectal cancer therapy. PMID:26352531

  5. Identification of Phosphorylated p38 as a Novel DAPK-Interacting Partner during TNF?-Induced Apoptosis in Colorectal Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bajbouj, Khuloud; Poehlmann, Angela; Kuester, Doerthe; Drewes, Thomas; Haase, Kathrin; Hartig, Roland; Teller, Anne; Kliche, Stefanie; Walluscheck, Diana; Ivanovska, Jelena; Chakilam, Saritha; Ulitzsch, Annika; Bommhardt, Ursula; Leverkus, Martin; Roessner, Albert; Schneider-Stock, Regine

    2009-01-01

    Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is a serine/threonine kinase that contributes to pro-apoptotic signaling on cytokine exposure. The role of DAPK in macrophage-associated tumor cell death is currently unknown. Recently, we suggested a new function for DAPK in the induction of apoptosis during the interaction between colorectal tumor cells and tumor-associated macrophages. Using a cell-culture model with conditioned supernatants of differentiated/activated macrophages (U937) and human HCT116 colorectal tumor cells, we replicated DAPK-associated tumor cell death; this model likely reflects the in vivo tumor setting. In this study, we show that tumor necrosis factor-? exposure under conditions of macrophage activation induced DAPK-dependent apoptosis in the colorectal tumor cell line HCT116. Simultaneously, early phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (phospho-p38) was observed. We identified the phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase as a novel interacting protein of DAPK in tumor necrosis factor-?induced apoptosis. The general relevance of this interaction was verified in two colorectal cell lines without functional p53 (ie, HCT116 p53?/? and HT29 mutant) and in human colon cancer and ulcerative colitis tissues. Supernatants of freshly isolated human macrophages were also able to induce DAPK and phospho-p38. Our findings highlight the mechanisms that underlie DAPK regulation in tumor cell death evoked by immune cells. PMID:19628771

  6. Ochratoxin A and T-2 Toxin Induce Clonogenicity and Cell Migration in Human Colon Carcinoma and Fetal Lung Fibroblast Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Abassi, Haila; Ayed-Boussema, Imen; Shirley, Sarah; Abid, Salwa; Bacha, Hassen

    2016-03-01

    T-2 toxin and Ochratoxin A (OTA) are toxic secondary metabolites produced by various fungi, and together they contaminate feedstuffs worldwide. T-2 toxin and OTA may exert carcinogenic action in rodent. Despite the various in vivo experiments, carcinogenicity of these two mycotoxins has not yet been proven for human. In this current study, we proposed to investigate, in Human colon carcinoma cells and fetal lung fibroblast-like cells transfected with MYC, the effect of T-2 toxin and OTA on cell clonogenicity and cell migration. Results of the present investigation showed that T2-toxin as well as OTA has an important clonogenic effect in all cell lines, suggesting that these mycotoxins could promote the transcription of c-myc gene. Furthermore, T-2 toxin and OTA enhanced the migration effect of HCT116 cells at very low concentrations, proposing that these mycotoxins may exhibit carcinogenesis-like properties in the studied cells. PMID:26849850

  7. Role of miR-100 in the radioresistance of colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Shu-Yu; Wu, Yong; Xing, Chun-Gen; Ru, Gan; Xu, Hong-Tao; Cao, Jian-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The prognosis of radioresistant colorectal cancer (CRC) is generally poor. Abnormal expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is involved in the radiosensitivity of various tumor cells as these RNAs regulate biological signaling pathways. However, radioresistance-associated miRNAs in CRC have not yet been identified. In this study, we filtered out HCT116 and CCL-244 from seven CRC cell lines that showed the highest difference in radiosensitivity in a clonogenic assay. MiRNA sequencing identified 33 differentially expressed miRNAs (13 up-regulated and 20 down-regulated) in CCL-244 and 37 in HCT116 (20 up-regulated and 17 down-regulated) cells. MiR-100 was significantly down-regulated in CCL-244 cells after X-ray irradiation but not in HCT116 cells. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the expression of miR-100 in CRC tissues was significantly lower than that in normal tissues. Thus, miR-100 seems to be involved in the radioresistance of CCL-244 cells. MiR-100 up-regulation sensitized CCL-244 cells to X-ray irradiation, which probably led to apoptosis and DNA double-strand breaks in these. In conclusion, to our knowledge, this is the first study to show that miR-100 may play an important role in regulating the radiosensitivity of CRC, and it may act as a new clinical target for CRC radiotherapy. PMID:25973296

  8. Cell diameter measurements obtained with a handheld cell counter could be used as a surrogate marker of G2/M arrest and apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines exposed to SN-38

    SciTech Connect

    Tahara, Makiko; Inoue, Takeshi; Fujii, Hirofumi; Kotake, Kenjiro; Sugano, Kokichi

    2013-05-17

    Highlights: •Chemo-sensitivity to SN-38 was assayed by the automated cell counter. •Colon cancer cell line, HCT116 cells were more sensitive to SN-38 than HT29 cells. •Increase of cell size reflects G2/M arrest. •Appearance of small particles indicates cell apoptosis. -- Abstract: In vitro assessment of chemosensitivity are important for experiments evaluating cancer therapies. The Scepter 2.0 cell counter, an automated handheld device based on the Coulter principle of impedance-based particle detection, enables the accurate discrimination of cell populations according to cell size and volume. In this study, the effects of SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan, on the colon cancer cell lines HCT116 and HT29 were evaluated using this device. The cell count data obtained with the Scepter counter were compared with those obtained with the {sup 3}H-thymidine uptake assay, which has been used to measure cell proliferation in many previous studies. In addition, we examined whether the changes in the size distributions of these cells reflected alterations in the frequency of cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis induced by SN-38 treatment. In our experiments using the Scepter 2.0 cell counter, the cell counts were demonstrated to be accurate and reproducible measure and alterations of cell diameter reflected G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Our data show that easy-to-use cell counting tools can be utilized to evaluate the cell-killing effects of novel treatments on cancer cells in vitro.

  9. Lipid alterations in human colon epithelial cells induced to differentiation and/or apoptosis by butyrate and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Hofmanová, Jiřina; Ciganek, Miroslav; Slavík, Josef; Kozubík, Alois; Stixová, Lenka; Vaculová, Alena; Dušek, Ladislav; Machala, Miroslav

    2012-06-01

    The present study highlights the important association between lipid alterations and differentiation/apoptotic responses in human colon differentiating (FHC) and nondifferentiating (HCT-116) cell lines after their treatment with short-chain fatty acid sodium butyrate (NaBt), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and/or their combination. Our data from GC/MS and LC/MS/MS showed an effective incorporation and metabolization of the supplemented arachidonic acid (AA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), resulting in an enhanced content of the respective PUFA in individual phospholipid (PL) classes and an altered composition of the whole cellular fatty acid spectrum in both FHC and HCT-116 cells. We provide novel evidence that NaBt combined with PUFAs additionally modulated AA and DHA cellular levels and caused their shift from triacylglycerol to PL fractions. NaBt increased, while AA, DHA and their combination with NaBt decreased endogenous fatty acid synthesis in FHC but not in HCT-116 cells. Fatty acid treatment also altered membrane lipid structure, augmented cytoplasmic lipid droplet accumulation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential. All these parameters were significantly enhanced by combined NaBt/PUFA treatment, but only in FHC cells was this accompanied by highly increased apoptosis and suppressed differentiation. Moreover, the most significant changes of ROS production, differentiation and apoptosis among the parameters studied, the highest effects of combined NaBt/PUFA treatment and a lower sensitivity of HCT-116 cells were confirmed using two-way ANOVA. Our results demonstrate an important role of fatty acid-induced lipid alterations in the different apoptotic/differentiation response of colon cells with various carcinogenic potential. PMID:21775115

  10. The farnesyl transferase inhibitor RPR-130401 does not alter radiation susceptibility in human tumor cells with a K-Ras mutation in spite of large changes in ploidy and lamin B distribution

    PubMed Central

    Mgnin-Chanet, Frdrique; Lavelle, Franois; Favaudon, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    Background Growth inhibition by RPR-130401, a non-peptidomimetic farnesyltransferase inhibitor, was investigated without or with combined exposure to ionizing radiation in three human tumor cell lines (HCT-116, MiAPaCa-2 and A-549) bearing a point mutation in the K-Ras gene. Results RPR-130401 inhibited cell growth with an IC50 of 50 nM (HCT-116), 120 nM (MiAPaCa-2) and 710 nM (A-549), with a poor incidence of apoptosis. The drug brought about G1 and S phase depletion together with arrest of cells in G2 phase and induced a significant accumulation of hyperploid cells showing active S phase DNA synthesis, with HCT-116 and A-549 cells being the most and least responsive, respectively. The drug also produced dramatic changes of the nuclear lamin B pattern, without lamin B cleavage and perturbation of the actin cytoskeleton. On the other hand, RPR-130401 elicited strictly additive interaction in combined treatment with ionizing radiation with regard to cell kill, altered cell cycle progression and induced hyperploidy. Conclusions The data suggest that disruption of orderly progression through mitosis and cytokinesis, is a major outcome of drug action and that this effect proceeds from inhibition of lamin B farnesylation. It is anticipated from the strict additivity of RPR-130401 and radiation that neither induced radiation resistance nor acute or late complications of radiotherapy, should occur in combined treatment with RPR-130401. PMID:11929613

  11. Cytotoxicity of Probiotics from Philippine Commercial Dairy Products on Cancer Cells and the Effect on Expression of cfos and cjun Early Apoptotic-Promoting Genes and Interleukin-1? and Tumor Necrosis Factor-? Proinflammatory Cytokine Genes

    PubMed Central

    Shyu, Peter T.; Oyong, Glenn G.; Cabrera, Esperanza C.

    2014-01-01

    This study determined cytotoxicity of probiotic Lactobacillus spp. from Philippine dairy products on cancer cells and normal fibroblasts and their effects on expression of early apoptotic-promoting cfos, cjun and proinflammatory cytokine IL-1?, TNF-? genes. Cultures were from Yakult, Bear Brand Probiotic Drink, Nido3+ Powdered Milk. Filter-sterilized supernatants from cultures of Lactobacillus spp. were evaluated for cytotoxicity to colon cancer cells (HT-29 and HCT116), leukemia cells (THP-1), and normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDFn) using PrestoBlue. Bleomycin was the positive control. Absolute quantification of transcript levels was conducted using qRT-PCR. Cytotoxicity index profiles on HDFn, THP-1 of all probiotic supernatants and negative controls suggest nontoxicity to the cells when compared to bleomycin, whereas all probiotic supernatants were found to be cytotoxic to HT-29 and HCT-116 colon cancer cell lines. Expression of cfos, cjun transcripts was significantly upregulated in HT-29 and HCT116 cells treated with probiotic supernatants compared to untreated baseline levels (P < 0.05). Expression of IL-1? and TNF-? by lipopolysaccharide-treated macrophages was significantly downregulated in cells with probiotic supernatants compared to those exposed to MRS medium (P < 0.05). Results provide strong support for the role of Lactobacillus spp. studied in anticancer therapy and in prevention of inflammation that may act as precursor to carcinogenesis. PMID:25276792

  12. Cytotoxicity of probiotics from Philippine commercial dairy products on cancer cells and the effect on expression of cfos and cjun early apoptotic-promoting genes and Interleukin-1 ? and Tumor Necrosis Factor-? proinflammatory cytokine genes.

    PubMed

    Shyu, Peter T; Oyong, Glenn G; Cabrera, Esperanza C

    2014-01-01

    This study determined cytotoxicity of probiotic Lactobacillus spp. from Philippine dairy products on cancer cells and normal fibroblasts and their effects on expression of early apoptotic-promoting cfos, cjun and proinflammatory cytokine IL-1?, TNF-? genes. Cultures were from Yakult, Bear Brand Probiotic Drink, Nido3+ Powdered Milk. Filter-sterilized supernatants from cultures of Lactobacillus spp. were evaluated for cytotoxicity to colon cancer cells (HT-29 and HCT116), leukemia cells (THP-1), and normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDFn) using PrestoBlue. Bleomycin was the positive control. Absolute quantification of transcript levels was conducted using qRT-PCR. Cytotoxicity index profiles on HDFn, THP-1 of all probiotic supernatants and negative controls suggest nontoxicity to the cells when compared to bleomycin, whereas all probiotic supernatants were found to be cytotoxic to HT-29 and HCT-116 colon cancer cell lines. Expression of cfos, cjun transcripts was significantly upregulated in HT-29 and HCT116 cells treated with probiotic supernatants compared to untreated baseline levels (P < 0.05). Expression of IL-1? and TNF-? by lipopolysaccharide-treated macrophages was significantly downregulated in cells with probiotic supernatants compared to those exposed to MRS medium (P < 0.05). Results provide strong support for the role of Lactobacillus spp. studied in anticancer therapy and in prevention of inflammation that may act as precursor to carcinogenesis. PMID:25276792

  13. Withaferin-A Inhibits Colon Cancer Cell Growth by Blocking STAT3 Transcriptional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Bu Young; Kim, Bong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Withania somnifera (known as Ashwagandha) is a medicinal plant used in the ayurvedic medicines in India. Withaferin-A, a withanolide derived from the leaf extract of W. somnifera, has been reported to exhibit anti-tumor activity against various cancer cells, such as leukemia, breast cancer and colon cancer cells. Methods: We investigated the anti-cancer effects of withaferin-A on the proliferation and migration of human colorectal cancer (HCT116) cells. And we evaluated the effects of withaferin-A on the transcriptional activity of STAT3 and the growth of HCT116 cells in xenograft mouse tumor model. Results: In the present study, we found that withaferin-A inhibited the proliferation and migration of HCT116 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment of HCT116 cells with withaferin-A attenuated interleukin-6-induced activation of STAT3, which has been implicated in the development and progression of colon cancer. To examine the effect of withaferin-A on HCT116 cells proliferation in vivo, we generated HCT116 cells xenograft tumors in Balb/c nude mice and treated the tumor bearing mice with or without withaferin-A intraperitoneally. Treatment with withaferin-A exhibited significant decrease in the volume and weight of tumors as compared to untreated controls. Conclusions: The present study suggests that withaferin-A holds the potential to be developed as a small molecule inhibitor of STAT3 for the treatment of HCT116. PMID:26473157

  14. Targeting KRAS Oncogene in Colon Cancer Cells with 7-Carboxylate Indolo[3,2-b]quinoline Tri-Alkylamine Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Hugo; Martins, Ana Cláudia; Lavrado, João; Mendes, Eduarda; Francisco, Ana Paula; Santos, Sofia A.; Ohnmacht, Stephan A.; Kim, Nam-Soon; Rodrigues, Cecília M. P.; Moreira, Rui; Neidle, Stephen; Borralho, Pedro M.; Paulo, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Background A guanine-rich strand within the promoter of the KRAS gene can fold into an intra-molecular G-quadruplex structure (G4), which has an important role in the regulation of KRAS transcription. We have previously identified indolo[3,2-b]quinolines with a 7-carboxylate group and three alkylamine side chains (IQ3A) as effective G4 stabilizers and promising selective anticancer leads. Herein we investigated the anticancer mechanism of action of these compounds, which we hypothesized due to stabilization of the G4 sequence in the KRAS promoter and subsequent down-regulation of gene expression. Methodology/Principal Findings IQ3A compounds showed greater stabilization of G4 compared to duplex DNA structures and reduced KRAS promoter activity in a dual luciferase reporter assay. Moreover, IQ3A compounds showed high anti-proliferative activity in HCT116 and SW620 colon cancer cells (IC50 < 2.69 μM), without eliciting cell death in non-malignant HEK293T human embryonic kidney, and human colon fibroblasts CCD18co. IQ3A compounds significantly reduced KRAS mRNA and protein steady-state levels at IC50 concentrations, and increased p53 protein steady-state levels and cell death by apoptosis in HCT116 cells (mut KRAS, wt p53). Furthermore, KRAS silencing in HCT116 p53 wild-type (p53(+/+)) and null (p53(-/-)) isogenic cell lines induced a higher level of cell death, and a higher IQ3A-induced cell death in HCT116 p53(+/+) compared to HCT116 p53(-/-). Conclusions Herein we provide evidence that G4 ligands such as IQ3A compounds can target G4 motifs present in KRAS promoter, down-regulate the expression of the mutant KRAS gene through inhibition of transcription and translation, and induce cell death by apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines. Thus, targeting KRAS at the genomic level with G4 ligands may be a new anticancer therapy strategy for colon cancer. PMID:26024321

  15. Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Cherbas, Lucy; Gong, Lei

    2014-01-01

    We review the properties and uses of cell lines in Drosophila research, emphasizing the variety of lines, the large body of genomic and transcriptional data available for many of the lines, and the variety of ways the lines have been used to provide tools for and insights into the developmental, molecular, and cell biology of Drosophila and mammals. PMID:24434506

  16. Cytotoxicity of Elaoephorbia drupifera and other Cameroonian medicinal plants against drug sensitive and multidrug resistant cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major hurdle for cancer treatment worldwide and accounts for chemotherapy failure in over 90% of patients with metastatic cancer. Evidence of the cytotoxicity of Cameroonian plants against cancer cell lines including MDR phenotypes is been intensively and progressively provided. The present work was therefore designed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts of twenty-two Cameroonian medicinal plants against sensitive and MDR cancer cell lines. Methods The methanol maceration was used to obtain the crude plant extracts whilst the cytotoxicity of the studied extracts was determined using a resazurin reduction assay. Results A preliminary assay on leukemia CCRF-CEM cells at 40 μg/mL shows that six of the twenty plant extract were able to enhance less than 50% of the growth proliferation of CCRF-CEM cells. These include Crinum zeylanicum (32.22%), Entada abyssinica (34.67%), Elaoephorbia drupifera (35.05%), Dioscorea bulbifera (45.88%), Eremomastax speciosa (46.07%) and Polistigma thonningii (45.11%). Among these six plants, E. drupifera showed the best activity with IC50 values below or around 30 μg/mL against the nine tested cancer cell lines. The lowest IC50 value of 8.40 μg/mL was recorded with the extract of E. drupifera against MDA-MB231 breast cancer cell line. The IC50 values below 10 μg/mL were recorded with the extracts of E. drupifera against MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells, C. zeylanicum against HCT116 p53+/+ and HCT116p53-/- colon cancer cells and E. abyssinica against HCT116 p53+/+ cells. Conclusion The results of the present study provide evidence of the cytotoxic potential of some Cameroonian medicinal plants and a baseline information for the potential use of Elaoephorbia drupifera in the treatment of sensitive and drug-resistant cancer cell lines. PMID:24088184

  17. Molecular portrait of cisplatin induced response in human testis cancer cell lines based on gene expression profiles

    PubMed Central

    Duale, Nur; Lindeman, Birgitte; Komada, Mitsuko; Olsen, Ann-Karin; Andreassen, Ashild; Soderlund, Erik J; Brunborg, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    Background Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) respond well to cisplatin-based chemotherapy and show a low incidence of acquired resistance compared to most somatic tumors. The reasons for these specific characteristics are not known in detail but seem to be multifactorial. We have studied gene expression profiles of testicular and colon cancer derived cell lines treated with cisplatin. The main goal of this study was to identify novel gene expression profiles with their functional categories and the biochemical pathways that are associated with TGCT cells' response to cisplatin. Results Genes that were differentially expressed between the TGCT cell lines vs the (somatic) HCT116 cell line, after cisplatin treatment, were identified using the significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) method. The response of TGCT cells was strikingly different from that of HCT116, and we identified 1794 genes that were differentially expressed. Functional classification of these genes showed that they participate in a variety of different and widely distributed functional categories and biochemical pathways. Database mining showed significant association of genes (n = 41) induced by cisplatin in our study, and genes previously reported to by expressed in differentiated TGCT cells. We identified 37 p53-responsive genes that were altered after cisplatin exposure. We also identified 40 target genes for two microRNAs, hsa-mir-372 and 373 that may interfere with p53 signaling in TGCTs. The tumor suppressor genes NEO1 and LATS2, and the estrogen receptor gene ESR1, all have binding sites for p53 and hsa-mir-372/373. NEO1 and LATS2 were down-regulated in TGCT cells following cisplatin exposure, while ESR1 was up-regulated in TGCT cells. Cisplatin-induced genes associated with terminal growth arrest through senescence were identified, indicating associations which were not previously described for TGCT cells. Conclusion By linking our gene expression data to publicly available databases and literature, we provide a global pattern of cisplatin induced cellular response that is specific for testicular cancer cell lines. We have identified cisplatin-responsive functional classes and pathways, such as the angiogenesis, Wnt, integrin, and cadherin signaling pathways. The identification of differentially expressed genes in this study may contribute to a better understanding of the unusual sensitivity of TGCT to some DNA-damaging agents. PMID:17711579

  18. Selective killing of G2 decatenation checkpoint defective colon cancer cells by catalytic topoisomerase II inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Jain, Chetan Kumar; Roychoudhury, Susanta; Majumder, Hemanta Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Cancer cells with defective DNA decatenation checkpoint can be selectively targeted by the catalytic inhibitors of DNA topoisomerase II? (topo II?) enzyme. Upon treatment with catalytic topo II? inhibitors, cells with defective decatenation checkpoint fail to arrest their cell cycle in G2 phase and enter into M phase with catenated and under-condensed chromosomes resulting into impaired mitosis and eventually cell death. In the present work we analyzed decatenation checkpoint in five different colon cancer cell lines (HCT116, HT-29, Caco2, COLO 205 and SW480) and in one non-cancerous cell line (HEK293T). Four out of the five colon cancer cell lines i.e. HCT116, HT-29, Caco2, and COLO 205 were found to be compromised for the decatenation checkpoint function at different extents, whereas SW480 and HEK293T cell lines were found to be proficient for the checkpoint function. Upon treatment with ICRF193, decatenation checkpoint defective cell lines failed to arrest the cell cycle in G2 phase and entered into M phase without proper chromosomal decatenation, resulting into the formation of tangled mass of catenated and under-condensed chromosomes. Such cells underwent mitotic catastrophe and rapid apoptosis like cell death and showed higher sensitivity for ICRF193. Our study suggests that catalytic inhibitors of topoisomerase II? are promising therapeutic agents for the treatment of colon cancers with defective DNA decatenation checkpoint. PMID:25746763

  19. Infant intestinal Enterococcus faecalis down-regulates inflammatory responses in human intestinal cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shugui; Ng, Lydia Hui Mei; Chow, Wai Ling; Lee, Yuan Kun

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the ability of Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to modulate inflammatory reaction in human intestinal cell lines (Caco-2, HT-29 and HCT116). Different strains of LAB isolated from new born infants and fermented milk, together with the strains obtained from culture collections were tested. METHODS: LABs were treated with human intestinal cell lines. ELISA was used to detect IL-8 and TGF-? protein secretion. Cytokines and Toll like receptors (TLRs) gene expression were assessed using RT-PCR. Conditional medium, sonicated bacteria and UV killed bacteria were used to find the effecter molecules on the bacteria. Carbohydrate oxidation and protein digestion were applied to figure out the molecules residues. Adhesion assays were further carried out. RESULTS: It was found that Enterococcus faecalis is the main immune modulator among the LABs by downregulation of IL-8 secretion and upregulation of TGF-?. Strikingly, the effect was only observed in four strains of E. faecalis out of the 27 isolated and tested. This implies strain dependent immunomodulation in the host. In addition, E. faecalis may regulate inflammatory responses through TLR3, TLR4, TLR9 and TRAF6. Carbohydrates on the bacterial cell surface are involved in both its adhesion to intestinal cells and regulation of inflammatory responses in the host. CONCLUSION: These data provide a case for the modulation of intestinal mucosal immunity in which specific strains of E. faecalis have uniquely evolved to maintain colonic homeostasis and regulate inflammatory responses. PMID:18286689

  20. Involvement of glutathione and glutathione metabolizing enzymes in human colorectal cancer cell lines and tissues.

    PubMed

    Kim, Areum Daseul; Zhang, Rui; Han, Xia; Kang, Kyoung Ah; Piao, Mei Jing; Maeng, Young Hee; Chang, Weon Young; Hyun, Jin Won

    2015-09-01

    Reduced glutathione (GSH) is an abundant tripeptide present in the majority of cell types. GSH is highly reactive and is often conjugated to other molecules, via its sulfhydryl moiety. GSH is synthesized from glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine via two sequential ATP?consuming steps, which are catalyzed by glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) and GSH synthetase (GSS). However, the role of GSH in cancer remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to determine the levels of GSH and GSH synthetic enzymes in human colorectal cancer. The mRNA and protein expression levels of GSH, the catalytic subunit of GCL (GCLC) and GSS were significantly higher in the following five colon cancer cell lines: Caco?2, SNU?407, SNU?1033, HCT?116, and HT?29, as compared with the normal colon cell line, FHC. Similarly, in 9 out of 15 patients with colon cancer, GSH expression levels were higher in tumor tissue, as compared with adjacent normal tissue. In addition, the protein expression levels of GCLC and GSS were higher in the tumor tissue of 8 out of 15, and 10 out of 15 patients with colon cancer respectively, as compared with adjacent normal tissue. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed that GCLC and GSS were expressed at higher levels in colon cancer tissue, as compared with normal mucosa. Since GSH and GSH metabolizing enzymes are present at elevated levels in colonic tumors, they may serve as clinically useful biomarkers of colon cancer, and/or targets for anti-colon cancer drugs. PMID:26059756

  1. A combination of eicosapentaenoic acid-free fatty acid, epigallocatechin-3-gallate and proanthocyanidins has a strong effect on mTOR signaling in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Leonarda; Piazzi, Giulia; Pacilli, Annalisa; Prossomariti, Anna; Fazio, Chiara; Montanaro, Lorenzo; Graziani, Giulia; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Munarini, Alessandra; Bianchi, Francesca; Belluzzi, Andrea; Bazzoli, Franco; Ricciardiello, Luigi

    2014-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the major causes of cancer death worldwide. The development of novel anti-CRC agents able to overcome drug resistance and/or off-target toxicity is of pivotal importance. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays a critical role in CRC, regulating protein translation and controlling cell growth, proliferation, metabolism and survival. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of a combination of three natural compounds, eicosapentaenoic acid-free fatty acid (EPA-FFA), epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and proanthocyanidins (grape seed [GS] extract) at low cytotoxic concentrations on CRC cells and test their activity on mTOR and translational regulation. The CRC cell lines HCT116 and SW480 were treated for 24h with combinations of EPA-FFA (0-150 M), EGCG (0-175 M) and GS extract (0-15 M) to evaluate the effect on cell viability. The low cytotoxic combination of EPA-FFA 150 M, EGCG 175 M and GS extract 15 M completely inhibited the mTOR signaling in HCT116 and SW480 cells, reaching an effect stronger than or comparable to that of the mTOR inhibitor Rapamycin in HCT116 or SW480 cells, respectively. Moreover, the treatment led to changes of protein translation of ribosomal proteins, c-Myc and cyclin D1. In addition, we found a reduction of clonal capability in both cell lines, with block of cell cycle in G0G1 and induction of apoptosis. Our data suggest that the low cytotoxic combination of EPA-FFA, EGCG and GS extract, tested for the first time here, inhibits mTOR signaling and thus could be considered for CRC treatment. PMID:25123131

  2. Association of DNA methyltransferases expression with global and gene-specific DNA methylation in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sarabi, Mostafa Moradi; Naghibalhossaini, Fakhraddin

    2015-10-01

    There are conflicting reports regarding the association between DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) expression and global or gene-specific DNA methylation in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. To correlate DNMTs expression with DNA methylation, we quantified DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B mRNA levels in five CRC cell lines (HCT116, LS180, HT29/219, Caco2 and SW742) by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. In addition, we examined the global 5-methyl cytosine levels and the methylation patterns of 12 CpG islands in these CRC cells by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and methylation-specific PCR methods, respectively. The average expression levels of three DNMTs in HCT116, Caco2, HT29/219 and SW742, relative to the expression level in LS180 (taken to be 1), were 901, 316, 266 and 186. Our data indicated that overall about 145%, 103%, 098%, 086% and 085% of the cytosines were methylated in the genome of HCT116, Caco2, HT29/219, SW742 and LS180 cells, respectively. The 5-mC percentages were positively correlated with the relative cellular DNMTs expression in five CRC cell lines as verified by Pearson correlation test. However, we found no positive correlation between mRNA expression of DNMTs and gene promoter hypermethylation in these cells. Our results suggest that cellular DNMT expression is positively correlated with global DNA methylation level but not with regional DNA hypermethylation at each locus. Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26416384

  3. MicroRNA-101 down-regulates sphingosine kinase 1 in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min-Bin; Yang, Lan; Lu, Pei-Hua; Fu, Xing-Li; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Ya-Qun; Tian, Ye

    2015-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) dysregulation is a general feature of colorectal cancer (CRC) and other solid tumors, and is associated cancer progression. In the current study, we demonstrate that microRNA-101 (miR-101) inhibits CRC cells probably through down-regulating sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1). Our results showed that exogenously expressing miR-101 inhibited CRC cell (HT-29 and HCT-116 lines) growth in vitro. At the molecular level, miR-101 dramatically down-regulated SphK1 mRNA and protein expression, causing pro-apoptotic ceramide production in above CRC cells. On the other hand, inhibition of miR-101 through expressing antagomiR-101 increased SphK1 expression to down-regulate ceramide level in HT-29 cells. miR-101 expression increased the in vitro anti-CRC activity of conventional chemo-agents: paclitaxel and doxorubicin. CRC cells with SphK1-shRNA knockdown showed similar phenotypes as the miR-101-expressed CRC cells, presenting with elevated level of ceramide and high sensitivity to paclitaxel or doxorubicin. In vivo, HCT-116 xenograft growth in severe combined immuno-deficient (SCID) mice was dramatically inhibited by over-expressing miR-101. Further, miR-101 enhanced paclitaxel-induced anti-HCT-116 activity in vivo. Together, these results indicate that miR-101 exerts its anti-CRC activities probably through down-regulating SphK1. PMID:26071354

  4. Zinc Finger Nuclease Knock-out of NADPH:Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (POR) in Human Tumor Cell Lines Demonstrates That Hypoxia-activated Prodrugs Differ in POR Dependence*

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jiechuang; Gu, Yongchuan; Pruijn, Frederik B.; Smaill, Jeff B.; Patterson, Adam V.; Guise, Christopher P.; Wilson, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia, a ubiquitous feature of tumors, can be exploited by hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) that are substrates for one-electron reduction in the absence of oxygen. NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is considered one of the major enzymes responsible, based on studies using purified enzyme or forced overexpression in cell lines. To examine the role of POR in HAP activation at endogenous levels of expression, POR knock-outs were generated in HCT116 and SiHa cells by targeted mutation of exon 8 using zinc finger nucleases. Absolute quantitation by proteotypic peptide mass spectrometry of DNA sequence-confirmed multiallelic mutants demonstrated expression of proteins with residual one-electron reductase activity in some clones and identified two (Hko2 from HCT116 and S2ko1 from SiHa) that were functionally null by multiple criteria. Sensitivities of the clones to 11 HAP (six nitroaromatics, three benzotriazine N-oxides, and two quinones) were compared with wild-type and POR-overexpressing cells. All except the quinones were potentiated by POR overexpression. Knocking out POR had a marked effect on antiproliferative activity of the 5-nitroquinoline SN24349 in both genetic backgrounds after anoxic exposure but little or no effect on activity of most other HAP, including the clinical stage 2-nitroimidazole mustard TH-302, dinitrobenzamide mustard PR-104A, and benzotriazine N-oxide SN30000. Clonogenic cell killing and reductive metabolism of PR-104A and SN30000 under anoxia also showed little change in the POR knock-outs. Thus, although POR expression is a potential biomarker of sensitivity to some HAP, identification of other one-electron reductases responsible for HAP activation is needed for their rational clinical development. PMID:24196959

  5. IND2, a pyrimido[1”,2”:1,5]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline derivative, circumvents multi-drug resistance and causes apoptosis in colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, Chandrabose; Lee, Crystal; Moore, Joshua; Mittal, Roopali; Suswam, Esther A.; Abbott, Kodye L; Pondugula, Satyanarayana R.; Manne, Upender; Narayanan, Narayanan K.; Trivedi, Piyush; Tiwari, Amit K.

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring condensed quinolines have anticancer properties. In efforts to find active analogues, we designed and synthesized eight polycyclic heterocycles with a pyrimido[1”,2”:1,5]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline framework (IND series). The compounds were evaluated for activity against colon (HCT-116 and S1-MI-80), prostate (PC3 and DU-145), breast (MCF-7 and MDAMB-231), ovarian (ov2008 and A2780), and hepatocellular (HepG2) cancer cells and against non-cancerous Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK), mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3), and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293). IND-2, a 4-chloro-2-methyl pyrimido[1”,2”:1,5]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline, exhibited more than tenfold selectivity and potent cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cells relative to the other cancer and non-cancer cells. With five additional colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, LS-180, LS-174, and LoVo), IND-2 had similar cytotoxicity and selectivity, and submicromolar concentrations caused changes in the morphology of HCT-116 and HCT-15 cells. IND-2 did not activate the transactivating function of the pregnane X receptor (PXR), indicating that it does not induce PXR-regulated ABCB1 or ABCG2 transporters. Indeed, IND-2 was not a substrate of ABCB1 or ABCG2, and it induced cytotoxicity in HEK293 cells overexpressing ABCB1 or ABCG2 to the same extent as in normal HEK293 cells. IND-2 was cytotoxic to resistant colon carcinoma S1-MI-80 cells, approximately three- and fivefold more than SN-38 and topotecan, respectively. In HCT-116 colon cancer cells, IND-2 produced concentration-dependent changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, leading to apoptosis, and sub-micromolar concentrations caused chromosomal DNA fragmentation. These findings suggest that, by increasing apoptosis, IND-2 has potential therapeutic efficacy for colorectal cancer. PMID:25537531

  6. Comparative study of genotoxic, antigenotoxic and cytotoxic activities of monoterpenes camphor, eucalyptol and thujone in bacteria and mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Nikoli?, Biljana; Vasilijevi?, Bojana; Miti?-?ulafi?, Dragana; Vukovi?-Ga?i?, Branka; Kneevi?-Vuk?evi?, Jelena

    2015-12-01

    Genotoxic/antigenotoxic, mutagenic/antimutagenic and cytotoxic effects of monoterpenes camphor, eucalyptol and thujone were determined in bacteria and mammalian cells using alkaline comet assay, Escherichia coli K12 reversion test and MTT assay, respectively. When applied in low doses (up to 200?M in bacterial assay and 50?M in comet assay) monoterpenes protected repair proficient E.coli and Vero cells against UV-induced mutagenesis and 4NQO-induced DNA strand breaks, respectively. Antimutagenic response was not detected in nucleotide excision repair (NER) deficient bacteria. When monoterpenes were applied in higher doses, a weak mutagenic effect was found in mismatch repair (MMR) and NER deficient E.coli strains, while induction of DNA strand breaks was evident in human fetal lung fibroblasts MRC-5, colorectal carcinoma HT-29 and HCT 116 cells, as well as in Vero cells. Moreover, the involvement of NER, MMR and RecBCD pathways in repair of DNA lesions induced by monoterpenes was demonstrated in E.coli. Camphor, eucalyptol and thujone were cytotoxic to MRC-5, HT-29 and HCT 116 cells. The most susceptible cell line was HCT 116, with IC50 values of 4.5mM for camphor, 4mM for eucalyptol and 1mM for thujone. Observed effects of monoterpenes are consistent with hormesis response, characterized by a low dose beneficial effect and a high dose adverse effect of a stressor agent, and provide a basis for further study of both chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential of camphor, eucalyptol and thujone. PMID:26482939

  7. The flavonoid quercetin transiently inhibits the activity of taxol and nocodazole through interference with the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Temesgen; Fadlalla, Khalda; Turner, Timothy; Yehualaeshet, Teshome E.

    2010-01-01

    Quercetin is a flavonoid with anticancer properties. In this study, we examined the effects of quercetin on cell cycle, viability and proliferation of cancer cells, either singly or in combination with the microtubule-targeting drugs taxol and nocodazole. Although quercetin induced cell death in a dose dependent manner, 12.5-50μM quercetin inhibited the activity of both taxol and nocodazole to induce G2/M arrest in various cell lines. Quercetin also partially restored drug-induced loss in viability of treated cells for up to 72 hours. This antagonism of microtubule-targeting drugs was accompanied by a delay in cell cycle progression and inhibition of the buildup of cyclin-B1 at the microtubule organizing center of treated cells. However, quercetin did not inhibit the microtubule targeting of taxol or nocodazole. Despite the short-term protection of cells by quercetin, colony formation and clonogenicity of HCT116 cells were still suppressed by quercetin or quercetin-taxol combination. The status of cell adherence to growth matrix was critical in determining the sensitivity of HCT116 cells to quercetin. We conclude that while long-term exposure of cancer cells to quercetin may prevent cell proliferation and survival, the interference of quercetin with cell cycle progression diminishes the efficacy of microtubule-targeting drugs to arrest cells at G2/M. PMID:21058190

  8. Physalin B not only inhibits the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway but also induces incomplete autophagic response in human colon cancer cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yi-ming; Han, Wei; Li, Jia; Hu, Li-hong; Zhou, Yu-bo

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of physalin B insolated from Physalis divericata on human colon cancer cells in vitro and its anticancer mechanisms. Methods: Human HCT116 colon cancer cell line was tested. Cell viability and apoptosis were detected, and relevant proteins were measured using Western blot analyses. Autophagosomes were observed in stable GFP-LC3 HCT116 cells. Localization of autophagosomes and lysosomes was evaluated in GFP-LC3/RFP-LAMP1-co-transfected cells. Microtubules and F-actin microfilaments were observed with confocal microscope. Mitochondrial ROS (mito-ROS) was detected with flow cytometry in the cells stained with MitoSox dye. Results: Physalin B inhibited the viability of HCT116 cells with an IC50 value of 1.35 μmol/L. Treatment of the cells with physalin B (2.5–10 μmol/L) induced apoptosis and the cleavage of PARP and caspase-3. Meanwhile, physalin B treatment induced autophagosome formation, and accumulation of LC3-II and p62, but decreased Beclin 1 protein level. Marked changes of microtubules and F-actin microfilaments were observed in physalin B-treated cells, which led to the blockage of co-localization of autophagosomes and lysosomes. Physalin B treatment dose-dependently increased the phosphorylation of p38, ERK and JNK in the cells, whereas the p38 inhibitor SB202190, ERK inhibitor U0126 or JNK inhibitor SP600125 could partially reduce physalin B-induced PARP cleavage and p62 accumulation. Moreover, physalin B treatment dose-dependently increased mito-ROS production in the cells, whereas the ROS scavenger NAC could reverse physalin B-induced effects, including incomplete autophagic response, accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins, changes of microtubules and F-actin, activation of p38, ERK and JNK, as well as cell death and apoptosis. Conclusion: Physalin B induces mito-ROS, which not only inhibits the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway but also induces incomplete autophagic response in HCT116 cells in vitro. PMID:25832431

  9. Targeting c-kit receptor in neuroblastomas and colorectal cancers using stem cell factor (SCF)-based recombinant bacterial toxins.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Swati; Pardo, Alessa; Rosinke, Reinhard; Batra, Janendra K; Barth, Stefan; Verma, Rama S

    2016-01-01

    Autocrine activation of c-kit (KIT receptor tyrosine kinase) has been postulated to be a potent oncogenic driver in small cell lung cancer, neuroblastoma (NB), and poorly differentiated colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Although targeted therapy involving tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as imatinib mesylate is highly effective for gastrointestinal stromal tumor carrying V560G c-kit mutation, it does not show much potential for targeting wild-type KIT (WT-KIT). Our study demonstrates the role of stem cell factor (SCF)-based toxin conjugates for targeting WT-KIT-overexpressing malignancies such as NBs and CRCs. We constructed SCF-based recombinant bacterial toxins by genetically fusing mutated form of natural ligand SCF to receptor binding deficient forms of Diphtheria toxin (DT) or Pseudomonas exotoxin A (ETA') and evaluated their efficacy in vitro. Efficient targeting was achieved in all receptor-positive neuroblastoma (IMR-32 and SHSY5Y) and colon cancer cell lines (COLO 320DM, HCT 116, and DLD-1) but not in receptor-negative breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7) thereby proving specificity. While dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity was observed in both neuroblastoma cell lines, COLO 320DM and HCT 116 cells, only an anti-proliferative effect was observed in DLD-1 cells. We prove that these novel targeting agents have promising potential as KIT receptor tyrosine kinase targeting system. PMID:26428235

  10. Epigenetic regulation of E-cadherin expression by the histone demethylase UTX in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zha, Lin; Cao, Qiang; Cui, Xin; Li, Fenfen; Liang, Houjie; Xue, Bingzhong; Shi, Hang

    2016-03-01

    Decreased epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) gene expression, a hallmark of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), is essential for triggering metastatic advantage of the colon cancer. Genetic mechanisms underlying the regulation of E-cadherin expression in EMT have been extensively investigated; however, much is unknown about the epigenetic mechanism underlying this process. Here, we identified ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat on chromosome X (UTX), a histone demethylase involved in demethylating di- or tri-methylated histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me2/3), as a positive regulator for the expression of E-cadherin in the colon cancer cell line HCT-116. We showed that inactivation of UTX down-regulated E-cadherin gene expression, while overexpression of UTX did the opposite. Notably, overexpression of UTX inhibited migration and invasion of HCT-116 cells. Moreover, UTX demethylated H3K27me3, a histone transcriptional repressive mark, leading to decreased H3K27me3 at the E-cadherin promoter. Further, UTX interacted with the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) protein CBP and recruited it to the E-cadherin promoter, resulting in increased H3K27 acetylation (H3K27ac), a histone transcriptional active mark. UTX positively regulates E-cadherin expression through coordinated regulation of H3K27 demethylation and acetylation, switching the transcriptional repressive state to the transcriptional active state at the E-cadherin promoter. We conclude that UTX may play a role in regulation of E-cadherin gene expression in HCT-116 cells and that UTX may serve as a therapeutic target against the metastasis in the treatment of colon cancer. PMID:26819089

  11. Anti-proliferative activity of 2,6-dichloro-9- or 7-(ethoxycarbonylmethyl)-9H- or 7H-purines against several human solid tumour cell lines.

    PubMed

    Morales, Ftima; Ramrez, Alberto; Conejo-Garca, Ana; Morata, Cynthia; Marchal, Juan A; Campos, Joaqun M

    2014-04-01

    As leads we took several benzo-fused seven- and six-membered scaffolds linked to the pyrimidine or purine moieties with notable anti-proliferative activity against human breast, colon and melanoma cancerous cell lines. We then decided to maintain the double-ringed nitrogenous bases and change the other components to the ethyl acetate moiety. This way six purine and two 5-fluorouracil derivatives were obtained and evaluated against the MCF-7, HCT-116, A-375 and G-361 cancer cell lines. Two QSARs are obtained between the anti-proliferative IC?? values for compounds 26-33 and the clog P against the melanoma cell lines A-375 and G-361. Our results show that two of the analogues [ethyl 2-(2,6-dichloro-9H- or 7H-purine-9- or 7-yl)acetates (30 and 33, respectively)] are potent cytotoxic agents against all the tumour cell lines assayed, showing single-digit micromolar IC?? values. This exemplifies the potential of our previously reported purine compounds to qualify as lead structures for medicinal chemistry campaigns, affording simplified analogues easy to synthesize and with a noteworthy bioactivity. The selective activity of 30 and 33 against the melanoma cell line A-375, via apoptosis, supposes a great advantage for a future therapeutic use. PMID:24583351

  12. KRAS G13D Mutation and Sensitivity to Cetuximab or Panitumumab in a Colorectal Cancer Cell Line Model

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Shalini Sree; Price, Timothy J.; Mohyieldin, Omar; Borg, Matthew; Townsend, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) includes drugs targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Mutation in codon 12 or 13 in the Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) gene, downstream of the EGFR, evokes constitutive activation of the RAS/RAF/MAPK signaling pathway and correlates with resistance to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapies. However, a retrospective study reported that a proportion of patients with the KRAS G13D mutation may respond to cetuximab. A similar analysis for panitumumab was not as conclusive. We sought to determine the sensitivity of CRC cell lines to cetuximab or panitumumab treatment and to investigate the correlation of the KRAS mutational status of the CRC cell lines to the responsiveness to cetuximab or panitumumab. METHODS: To determine the responsiveness of CRC cell lines to cetuximab or panitumumab, cell lines were treated with an optimized concentration of each mAb, and proliferation assays were conducted. RESULTS: After treatment with cetuximab or panitumumab, at the optimum concentration of 8 ?g/well, the KRAS G13D mutant cell lines HCT-116, LoVo, and T84 showed intermediate sensitivity to both treatments, between the resistant KRAS G12V mutant cell line SW480 and the sensitive KRAS wild-type cell line LIM1215. One of the G13D cell lines was significantly more sensitive to panitumumab than to cetuximab (P = .02). CONCLUSION: The specific KRAS mutation determines the responsiveness to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody treatment, corresponding to reported clinical observations. PMID:24558511

  13. Effect of glycosylation patterns of Chinese eggplant anthocyanins and other derivatives on antioxidant effectiveness in human colon cell lines.

    PubMed

    Jing, Pu; Qian, Bingjun; Zhao, Shujuan; Qi, Xin; Ye, Ludan; Mónica Giusti, M; Wang, Xingya

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we compared the scavenging ROS of anthocyanins from Chinese eggplant var. Niu Jiao Qie and other delphinidin derivatives with different glycosylation patterns in HT-29 and HCT-116 cell lines. The eggplant anthocyanins were isolated and identified using LC-MSn and (1)H/(13)C NMR as delphinidin-3-[(4"-trans-p-coumaroyl)-rhamnosyl (1 → 6)glucoside]-5-glucoside, also known as nasunin. Delphinidin derivatives with glycosylation only on C3 (delphinidin-3-glucoside, 3-sambubioside, or 3-rutinoside) exhibited greater effects on ROS reduction as compared to delphinidin derivatives that have glycosylation on C3 and C5 (delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside>delphinidin-3-rutinoside-5-glucoside). Nasunin has glycosylation on C3 and C5 and an acyl group (p-coumaric acid), demonstrated the least effect on ROS reduction. Meanwhile, their ROS reduction activities were consistent with glutathione reductase protein expression levels in HT-29. Although not potent in ROS reduction, nasunin and its deacylated derivatives protected cells from DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggest that the anthocyanins isolated from Chinese eggplant var. Niu Jiao Qie and other delphinidin have antioxidant activities in colon cancer cells and also protect cells from DNA damage. PMID:25442541

  14. ?-Glutamyl hydrolase modulation and folate influence chemosensitivity of cancer cells to 5-fluorouracil and methotrexate

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S-E; Cole, P D; Cho, R C; Ly, A; Ishiguro, L; Sohn, K-J; Croxford, R; Kamen, B A; Kim, Y-I

    2013-01-01

    Background: ?-Glutamyl hydrolase (GGH) regulates intracellular folate and antifolates for optimal nucleotide biosynthesis and antifolate-induced cytotoxicity, respectively. The modulation of GGH may therefore affect chemosensitivity of cancer cells, and exogenous folate levels may further modify this effect. Methods: We generated a novel model of GGH modulation in human HCT116 and MDA-MB-435 cancer cells and investigated the effect of GGH modulation on chemosensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and methotrexate (MTX) at different folate concentrations in vitro and in vivo. Results: Overexpression of GGH significantly decreased chemosensitivity of MDA-MB-435 cells to 5FU and MTX at all folate concentrations as expected. In contrast, in HCT116 cells this predicted effect was observed only at very high folate concentration, and as the folate concentration decreased this effect became null or paradoxically increased. This in vitro observation was confirmed in vivo. Inhibition of GGH significantly increased chemosensitivity of both cancer cells to 5FU at all folate concentrations. Unexpectedly, GGH inhibition significantly decreased chemosensitivity of both cancer cells to MTX at all folate concentrations. In both GGH modulation systems and cell lines, the magnitude of chemosensitivity effect incrementally increased as folate concentration increased. Conclusion: Modulation of GGH affects chemosensitivity of cancer cells to 5FU and MTX, and exogenous folate levels can further modify the effects. PMID:24045662

  15. Gallotannin is a DNA damaging compound that induces senescence independently of p53 and p21 in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Al-Halabi, Racha; Abou Merhi, Raghida; Chakilam, Saritha; El-Baba, Chirine; Hamade, Eva; Di Fazio, Pietro; Ocker, Matthias; Schneider-Stock, Regine; Gali-Muhtasib, Hala

    2015-10-01

    The plant secondary metabolite gallotannin (GT) is the simplest hydrolyzable tannin shown to have anti-carcinogenic properties in several cell lines and to inhibit tumor development in different animal models. Here, we determined if GT induces senescence and DNA damage and investigated the involvement of p53 and p21 in this response. Using HCT116 human colon cancer cells wildtype for p53(+/+) /p21(+/+) and null for p53(+/+) /p21(-/-) or p53(-/-) /p21(+/+) , we found that GT induces senescence independently of p21 and p53. GT was found to increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by altering the redox balance in the cell, mainly by reducing the levels of glutathione and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Using the key antioxidants N-acetyl cysteine, dithiothreitol, SOD, and catalase, we showed that ROS were partially involved in the senescence response. Furthermore, GT-induced cell cycle arrest in S-phase in all HCT116 cell lines. At later time points, we noticed that p53 and p21 null cells escaped complete arrest and re-entered cell cycle provoking higher rates of multinucleation. The senescence induction by GT was irreversible and was accompanied by significant DNA damage as evidenced by p-H2AX staining. Our findings indicate that GT is an interesting anti colon cancer agent which warrants further study. PMID:24798519

  16. Evaluation of copper-64-labeled somatostatin agonists and antagonist in sstr2-transfected cell lines that are positive and negative for p53: implications for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Kim; Parry, Jesse J.; Rogers, Buck E.; Anderson, Carolyn J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Radiolabeled somatostatin analogs have become important agents for molecular imaging and targeted radiotherapy of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors. Here we determine the effect of the tumor suppressor protein, p53, on trafficking 64Cu to tumor cell nuclei from DOTA vs.CB-TE2A-conjugated agonist Y3-TATE and the antagonist 64Cu-CB-TE2A-sst2-ANT in cell lines that are positive or negative for p53. Methods Receptor binding, internalization, cAMP and nuclear localization studies were performed with the SSTr2 agonists, 64Cu-CB-TE2A-Y3-TATE and 64Cu-DOTA-Y3-TATE vs. antagonist, 64Cu-CB-TE2A-sst2-ANT, in SSTr2-transfected p53 +/+ and ?/? HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cells. Results The antagonist, 64Cu-CB-TE2A-sst2-ANT, bound 8-9-fold more SSTr2 binding sites than did the 64Cu-labeled agonists. 64Cu-CB-TE2A-Y3-TATE was more efficiently internalized than 64Cu-DOTA-Y3-TATE, while 64Cu-CB-TE2A-sst2-ANT showed lower, yet significant levels of internalization. CB-TE2A-Y3-TATE acted as a full agonist, inhibiting cAMP production, whereas CB-TE2A-sst2-ANT showed no inhibition of cAMP production.The 64Cu from agonists 64Cu-DOTA-Y3-TATE and 64Cu-CB-TE2A-Y3-TATE showed greater nuclear localization at 24 h in p53 +/+ vs. ?/? cells; however, there was no difference in the levels of 64Cu from the antagonist based on p53 status. Surprisingly, the DOTA and CB-TE2A-conjugated agonists showed similar nuclear localization in the p53 +/+ and ?/? cells, suggesting no difference in 64Cu release from these chelators in the HCT116 cell lines. Conclusion Based on thesein vitro data, the agonist 64Cu-CB-TE2A-Y3-TATE demonstrated the most promise as an agent for targeted radiotherapy in p53 positive, SSTr2-positive tumors. PMID:22056254

  17. pH dependent poly[2-(methacryloyloxyethyl)trimetylammonium chloride-co-methacrylic acid]hydrogels for enhanced targeted delivery of 5-fluorouracil in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mishra, R K; Ramasamy, K; Ahmad, N A; Eshak, Z; Majeed, A B A

    2014-04-01

    Stimuli responsive hydrogels have shown enormous potential as a carrier for targeted drug delivery. In this study we have developed novel pH responsive hydrogels for the delivery of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in order to alleviate its antitumor activity while reducing its toxicity. We used 2-(methacryloyloxyethyl) trimetylammonium chloride a positively charged monomer and methacrylic acid for fabricating the pH responsive hydrogels. The released 5-FU from all except hydrogel (GEL-5) remained biologically active against human colon cancer cell lines [HT29 (IC50 = 110-190 ?g ml(-1)) and HCT116 (IC50 = 210-390 ?g ml(-1))] but not human skin fibroblast cells [BJ (CRL2522); IC50 ? 1000 ?g ml(-1)]. This implies that the copolymer hydrogels (1-4) were able to release 5-FU effectively to colon cancer cells but not normal human skin fibroblast cells. This is probably due to the shorter doubling time that results in reduced pH in colon cancer cells when compared to fibroblast cells. These pH sensitive hydrogels showed well defined cell apoptosis in HCT116 cells through series of events such as chromatin condensation, membrane blebbing, and formation of apoptotic bodies. No cell killing was observed in the case of blank hydrogels. The results showed the potential of these stimuli responsive polymer hydrogels as a carrier for colon cancer delivery. PMID:24398912

  18. p53 is involved in clearance of ionizing radiation-induced RAD51 foci in a human colon cancer cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Orre, Lukas M. . E-mail: Lukas.Orre@ki.se; Stenerloew, Bo; Dhar, Sumeer; Larsson, Rolf; Lewensohn, Rolf; Lehtioe, Janne

    2006-04-21

    We have investigated p53-related differences in cellular response to DNA damaging agents, focusing on p53s effects on RAD51 protein level and sub-cellular localization post exposure to ionizing radiation. In a human colon cancer cell line, HCT116 and its isogenic p53-/- subcell line we show here p53-independent RAD51 foci formation but interestingly the resolution of RAD51 foci showed clear p53 dependence. In p53 wt cells, but not in p53-/- cells, RAD51 protein level decreased 48 h post irradiation and fluorescence immunostaining showed resolution of RAD51 foci and relocalization of RAD51 to nucleoli at time points corresponding to the decrease in RAD51 protein level. Both cell lines rejoined DNA double strand breaks efficiently with similar kinetics and p53 status did not influence sensitivity to DNA damaging agents. We suggest that p53 has a role in RAD51 clearance post DSB repair and that nucleoli might be sites of RAD51 protein degradation.

  19. Hyaluronic acid modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to CD44-overexpressing cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Meihua; Jambhrunkar, Siddharth; Thorn, Peter; Chen, Jiezhong; Gu, Wenyi; Yu, Chengzhong

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, a targeted drug delivery system has been developed based on hyaluronic acid (HA) modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs). HA-MSNs possess a specific affinity to CD44 over-expressed on the surface of a specific cancer cell line, HCT-116 (human colon cancer cells). The cellular uptake performance of fluorescently labelled MSNs with and without HA modification has been evaluated by confocal microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis. Compared to bare MSNs, HA-MSNs exhibit a higher cellular uptake via HA receptor mediated endocytosis. An anticancer drug, doxorubicin hydrochloride (Dox), has been loaded into MSNs and HA-MSNs as drug delivery vehicles. Dox loaded HA-MSNs show greater cytotoxicity to HCT-116 cells than free Dox and Dox-MSNs due to the enhanced cell internalization behavior of HA-MSNs. It is expected that HA-MSNs have a great potential in targeted delivery of anticancer drugs to CD44 over-expressing tumors.

  20. Anti-Proliferative Effect of Naringenin through p38-Dependent Downregulation of Cyclin D1 in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Hun Min; Park, Gwang Hun; Eo, Hyun Ji; Lee, Jin Wook; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Lee, Jeong Rak; Lee, Man Hyo; Koo, Jin Suk; Jeong, Jin Boo

    2015-07-01

    Naringenin (NAR) as one of the flavonoids observed in grapefruit has been reported to exhibit an anti-cancer activity. However, more detailed mechanism by which NAR exerts anti-cancer properties still remains unanswered. Thus, in this study, we have shown that NAR down-regulates the level of cyclin D1 in human colorectal cancer cell lines, HCT116 and SW480. NAR inhibited the cell proliferation in HCT116 and SW480 cells and decreased the level of cyclin D1 protein. Inhibition of proteasomal degradation by MG132 blocked NAR-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation and the half-life of cyclin D1 was decreased in the cells treated with NAR. In addition, NAR increased the phosphorylation of cyclin D1 at threonine-286 and a point mutation of threonine-286 to alanine blocked cyclin D1 downregulation by NAR. p38 inactivation attenuated cyclin D1 downregulation by NAR. From these results, we suggest that NAR-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation may result from proteasomal degradation through p38 activation. The current study provides new mechanistic link between NAR, cyclin D1 downregulation and cell growth in human colorectal cancer cells. PMID:26157550

  1. Anti-Proliferative Effect of Naringenin through p38-Dependent Downregulation of Cyclin D1 in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hun Min; Park, Gwang Hun; Eo, Hyun Ji; Lee, Jin Wook; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Lee, Jeong Rak; Lee, Man Hyo; Koo, Jin Suk; Jeong, Jin Boo

    2015-01-01

    Naringenin (NAR) as one of the flavonoids observed in grapefruit has been reported to exhibit an anti-cancer activity. However, more detailed mechanism by which NAR exerts anti-cancer properties still remains unanswered. Thus, in this study, we have shown that NAR down-regulates the level of cyclin D1 in human colorectal cancer cell lines, HCT116 and SW480. NAR inhibited the cell proliferation in HCT116 and SW480 cells and decreased the level of cyclin D1 protein. Inhibition of proteasomal degradation by MG132 blocked NAR-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation and the half-life of cyclin D1 was decreased in the cells treated with NAR. In addition, NAR increased the phosphorylation of cyclin D1 at threonine-286 and a point mutation of threonine-286 to alanine blocked cyclin D1 downregulation by NAR. p38 inactivation attenuated cyclin D1 downregulation by NAR. From these results, we suggest that NAR-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation may result from proteasomal degradation through p38 activation. The current study provides new mechanistic link between NAR, cyclin D1 downregulation and cell growth in human colorectal cancer cells. PMID:26157550

  2. IWR-1 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of colorectal cancer cells through suppressing Wnt/?-catenin signaling as well as survivin expression

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Chul; Kim, Ok-Hee; Lee, Sang Kuon; Kim, Say-June

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant activation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling is frequently observed in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and is considered a major determinant of CRC pathogenesis. CRC pathogenesis is particularly accompanied by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and survivin expression. Here, we investigated the potential and mechanism of a novel Wnt/?-catenin inhibitor IWR-1 to suppress tumor metastasis in relation with EMT and survivin expression. We first determined the EMT reversal effects of IWR-1 in in vitro (HCT116 and HT29 cells) and ex vivo (specimens of CRC patients) CRC models. It was shown that IWR-1 inhibited cell proliferation and EMT even in the presence of TNF-?-induced cancer cell stimulation. IWR-1 also significantly suppressed cell migration, invasion, and matrix metalloproteinase activities of CRC cell lines. Furthermore, we showed the evidence that IWR-1 provides EMT reversal effects by directly suppressing survivin expression by the followings: 1) IWR-1 could not completely inhibit EMT in survivin-overexpressing HCT116 cells, 2) EMT reversal effects of IWR-1 were more pronounced in survivin-suppressed cells, and 3) Survivin promoter assay directly identified the survivin promoter region responsible for inhibition of survivin transcription by IWR-1. Taken altogether, our results demonstrate that IWR-1 has the potential to suppress tumor metastasis by inhibiting Wnt/?-catenin pathway as well as survivin expression. Therefore, IWR-1 could be considered for future clinical use as a therapeutic agent to treat CRC. PMID:26450645

  3. Overexpression of Livin promotes migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cells by induction of epithelial–mesenchymal transition via NF-κB activation

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Yang; Cao, Xiankui; Wang, Dalu; Sun, Wei; Sun, Hongli; Han, Bing; Cui, Junpeng; Liu, Baolin

    2016-01-01

    Livin is a novel member of the inhibitors of apoptosis protein family and has been implicated in the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the underlying mechanisms of Livin in CRC remain not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of Livin expression on the proliferation and metastasis of CRC cells and also addressed its related molecular mechanism to metastasis. The expression of Livin in CRC cells (HCT116, SW480, and HT-29 cell lines) was determined by Western blot analysis. Our results show that the overexpression of Livin significantly promotes the proliferation, migration, and invasion of SW480 cells. Concurrently, the inhibition of Livin reduces the proliferation, migration, and invasion of HCT116 cells. In addition, Livin overexpression promotes the epithelial–mesenchymal transition, as evidenced by a decrease in epithelial E-cadherin expression and an increase in mesenchymal markers, including vimentin, Slug, and Snail. Furthermore, adding the NF-κB inhibitor, BAY 11-7028, or transfecting with small interfering RNA against p65 notably restores the expression level of E-cadherin and attenuates the invasive ability of Livin-overexpressing cells. Taken together, these results indicate that Livin potentiates migration and invasion of CRC cells partially through the induction of epithelial–mesenchymal transition via NF-κB activation. Livin may be a potential therapeutic target for CRC. PMID:27013894

  4. The Ganglioside GM3 Is Associated with Cisplatin-Induced Apoptosis in Human Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seok-Jo; Kwak, Choong-Hwan; Song, Kwon-Ho; Jin, Un-Ho; Chang, Young-Chae; Chang, Hyeun Wook; Lee, Young-Choon; Ha, Ki-Tae; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum, CDDP) is a well-known chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of several cancers. However, the precise mechanism underlying apoptosis of cancer cells induced by CDDP remains unclear. In this study, we show mechanistically that CDDP induces GM3-mediated apoptosis of HCT116 cells by inhibiting cell proliferation, and increasing DNA fragmentation and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis signals. CDDP induced apoptosis within cells through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), regulated the ROS-mediated expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and p53, and induced the degradation of the poly (ADP-ribosyl) polymerase (PARP). We also checked expression levels of different gangliosides in HCT116 cells in the presence or absence of CDDP. Interestingly, among the gangliosides, CDDP augmented the expression of only GM3 synthase and its product GM3. Reduction of the GM3 synthase level through ectopic expression of GM3 small interfering RNA (siRNA) rescued HCT116 cells from CDDP-induced apoptosis. This was evidenced by inhibition of apoptotic signals by reducing ROS production through the regulation of 12-lipoxigenase activity. Furthermore, the apoptotic sensitivity to CDDP was remarkably increased in GM3 synthase-transfected HCT116 cells compared to that in controls. In addition, GM3 synthase-transfected cells treated with CDDP exhibited an increased accumulation of intracellular ROS. These results suggest the CDDP-induced oxidative apoptosis of HCT116 cells is mediated by GM3. PMID:24829158

  5. Che-1 arrests human colon carcinoma cell proliferation by displacing HDAC1 from the p21WAF1/CIP1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Di Padova, Monica; Bruno, Tiziana; De Nicola, Francesca; Iezzi, Simona; D'Angelo, Carmen; Gallo, Rita; Nicosia, Daniela; Corbi, Nicoletta; Biroccio, Annamaria; Floridi, Aristide; Passananti, Claudio; Fanciulli, Maurizio

    2003-09-19

    Che-1 is a recently identified human RNA polymerase II binding protein involved in the regulation of gene transcription and cell proliferation. We previously demonstrated that Che-1 inhibits the Rb growth-suppressing function by interfering with Rb-mediated HDAC1 recruitment on E2F target gene promoters. By hybridization of cancer profile arrays, we found that Che-1 expression is strongly down-regulated in several tumors, including colon and kidney carcinomas, compared with the relative normal tissues. Consistent with these data, Che-1 overexpression inhibits proliferation of HCT116 and LoVo human colon carcinoma cell lines by activation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/Cip1 in a p53-independent manner and by promoting growth arrest at the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Che-1 activates p21WAF1/Cip1 by displacing histone deacetylase (HDAC)1 from the Sp1 binding sites of the p21WAF1/Cip1 gene promoter and accumulating acetylated histone H3 on these sites. Accordingly, Che-1-specific RNA interference negatively affects p21WAF1/Cip1 transactivation and increases cell proliferation in HCT116 cells. Taken together, our results indicate that Che-1 can be considered a general HDAC1 competitor and its down-regulation is involved in colon carcinoma cell proliferation. PMID:12847090

  6. Oyaksungisan, a Traditional Herbal Formula, Inhibits Cell Proliferation by Induction of Autophagy via JNK Activation in Human Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Nam-Hui; Jung, Young Pil; Kim, Aeyung; Ma, Choong Je; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2013-01-01

    Oyaksungisan (OY) is a traditional herbal formula broadly used to treat beriberi, vomiting, diarrhea, and circulatory disturbance in Asian countries from ancient times. The effect of OY on cancer, however, was not reported until now. In this study, we have demonstrated that OY inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell death via modulating the autophagy on human colon cancer cells. In HCT116 cells, OY increased the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I, a marker of autophagy, and treatment with 3-MA, an inhibitor of autophagy, and considerably reduced the formation of autophagosomes. In addition, OY regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades; especially, JNK activation was closely related with autophagy effect by OY in HCT116 cells. Our results indicate that autophagy induction is responsible for the antiproliferative effect by OY, despite the weak apoptosis induction in HCT116 cells. In conclusion, OY might have a potential to be developed as an herbal anticancer remedy. PMID:23573119

  7. Capsaicin-mediated tNOX (ENOX2) up-regulation enhances cell proliferation and migration in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nei-Chi; Hsieh, Pei-Fang; Hsieh, Ming-Kun; Zeng, Zih-Ming; Cheng, Hsiao-Ling; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Chueh, Pin Ju

    2012-03-14

    Cancer chemoprevention is employed to block or reverse the progression of malignancies. To date, several thousands of agents have been found to possess chemopreventative activity, one of which is capsaicin, a component of chili peppers that exhibits antigrowth activity against various cancer cell lines. However, the role of capsaicin in tumorigenesis remains controversial because both cancer prevention and promotion have been proposed. Here, we made the unexpected discovery that treatment with low concentrations of capsaicin up-regulates tNOX (tumor-associated NADH oxidase) expression in HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells in association with enhanced cell proliferation and migration, as evidenced by down-regulation of epithelial markers and up-regulation of mesenchymal markers. Importantly, tNOX-knockdown in HCT116 cells by RNA interference reversed capsaicin-induced cell proliferation and migration in vitro and decreased tumor growth in vivo. Collectively, these findings provide a basis for explaining the tumor-promoting effect of capsaicin and might imply that caution should be taken when using capsaicin as a chemopreventive agent. PMID:22353011

  8. Loss of LSD1 (lysine-specific demethylase 1) suppresses growth and alters gene expression of human colon cancer cells in a p53- and DNMT1(DNA methyltransferase 1)-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lihua; Hanigan, Christin L; Wu, Yu; Wang, Wei; Park, Ben Ho; Woster, Patrick M; Casero, Robert A

    2013-01-15

    Epigenetic silencing of gene expression is important in cancer. Aberrant DNA CpG island hypermethylation and histone modifications are involved in the aberrant silencing of tumour-suppressor genes. LSD1 (lysine-specific demethylase 1) is a H3K4 (histone H3 Lys4) demethylase associated with gene repression and is overexpressed in multiple cancer types. LSD1 has also been implicated in targeting p53 and DNMT1 (DNA methyltransferase 1), with data suggesting that the demethylating activity of LSD1 on these proteins is necessary for their stabilization. To examine the role of LSD1 we generated LSD1 heterozygous (LSD1+/-) and homozygous (LSD1-/-) knockouts in the human colorectal cancer cell line HCT116. The deletion of LSD1 led to a reduced cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Surprisingly, the knockout of LSD1 in HCT116 cells did not result in global increases in its histone substrate H3K4me2 (dimethyl-H3K4) or changes in the stability or function of p53 or DNMT1. However, there was a significant difference in gene expression between cells containing LSD1 and those null for LSD1. The results of the present study suggested that LSD1 is critical in the regulation of cell proliferation, but also indicated that LSD1 is not an absolute requirement for the stabilization of either p53 or DNMT1. PMID:23072722

  9. Antitumor Activity of Americanin A Isolated from the Seeds of Phytolacca americana by Regulating the ATM/ATR Signaling Pathway and the Skp2-p27 Axis in Human Colon Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Cholomi; Hong, Ji-Young; Bae, Song Yi; Kang, Sam Sik; Park, Hyen Joo; Lee, Sang Kook

    2015-12-24

    The antiproliferative and antitumor activities of americanin A (1), a neolignan isolated from the seeds of Phytolacca americana, were investigated in human colon cancer cells. Compound 1 inhibited the proliferation of HCT116 human colon cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. The induction of G2/M cell-cycle arrest by 1 was concomitant with regulation of the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated/ATM and Rad3-related (ATM/ATR) signaling pathway. Treatment with 1 activated ATM and ATR, initiating the subsequent signal transduction cascades that include checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1), checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2), and tumor suppressor p53. Another line of evidence underlined the significance of 1 in regulation of the S phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2)-p27 axis. Compound 1 targeted selectively Skp2 for degradation and thereby stabilized p27. Therefore, compound 1 suppressed the activity of cyclin B1 and its partner cell division cycle 2 (cdc2) to prevent entry into mitosis. Furthermore, prolonged treatment with 1 induced apoptosis by producing excessive reactive oxygen species. The intraperitoneal administration of 1 inhibited the growth of HCT116 tumor xenografts in nude mice without any overt toxicity. Modulation of the ATM/ATR signaling pathway and the Skp2-p27 axis might be plausible mechanisms of action for the antiproliferative and antitumor activities of 1 in human colon cancer cells. PMID:26595875

  10. Piceatannol promotes apoptosis via up-regulation of microRNA-129 expression in colorectal cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haogang; Jia, Ruichun; Wang, Chunjing; Hu, Tianming; Wang, Fujing

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • Piceatannol induces apoptosis in cultured CRC cells. • Piceatannol promotes expression of miR-129. • miR-129 mediates proapoptotic effects of piceatannol. - Abstract: Piceatannol, a naturally occurring analog of resveratrol, has been confirmed as an antitumor agent by inhibiting proliferation, migration, and metastasis in diverse cancer. However, the effect and mechanisms of piceatannol on colorectal cancer (CRC) have not been well understood. This study aimed to test whether piceatannol could inhibit growth of CRC cells and reveal its underlying molecular mechanism. MTT assay was used to detect the cell viability in HCT116 and HT29 cells. Flow cytometry analysis was employed to measure apoptosis of CRC cells. Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 levels were analyzed by Western blot and miR-129 levels were determined by real-time RT-PCR. Our study showed that piceatannol inhibited HCT116 and HT29 cells growth in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Piceatannol induced apoptosis by promoting expression of miR-129, and then inhibiting expression of Bcl-2, an known target for miR-129. Moreover, knock down of miR-129 could reverse the reduction of cell viability induced by piceatannol in HCT116 and HT29 cells. Taken together, our study unraveled the ability of piceatannol to suppress colorectal cancer growth and elucidated the participation of miR-129 in the anti-cancer action of piceatannol. Our findings suggest that piceatannol can be considered to be a promising anticancer agent for CRC.

  11. Epibrassinolide alters PI3K/MAPK signaling axis via activating Foxo3a-induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Deniz; Obakan, Pinar; Arisan, Elif Damla; oker-Grkan, Ajda; Palavan-nsal, Narin

    2015-10-15

    Epibrassinolide (EBR), a steroid-derived plant growth regulator, has been recently suggested as an apoptotic inducer in different cancer cells. In this experimental study, we investigated the potential apoptotic effect of EBR on stress-related and survival signaling molecules in colon carcinoma cells. EBR decreased cell viability and colony formation in HCT 116 and HT-29 colon carcinoma cells. The inactivation of PI3K/AKT by EBR treatment led to upregulation of Foxo3a, which in turn induced apoptosis in HCT 116 and HT-29 cells. In addition, the upstream non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase Src was found elevated allowing to the upregulation of p38, stress-activated protein kinase/Jun amino-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and their target genes c-jun, c-fos and c-myc in a time-dependent manner in HCT 116 cells within 48h. The alterations in PA metabolism caused intracellular PA pool decrease. The upregulation of pro-apoptotic Bak, Bax, Puma and Bim were accompanied with the decrease in Mcl-1 in HCT 116 and Bcl-xL expression profiles in HT-29 following 48h EBR treatment. We suggest that the upregulation of Bim expression levels might be related with one of the PI3K/AKT target transcription factor Foxo3a, which was dephosphorylated by EBR treatment in HCT 116 and HT-29 cells. PMID:26318418

  12. Active specific immunotherapy for metastatic colorectal carcinoma: phase I study of an allogeneic cell vaccine plus low-dose interleukin-1 alpha.

    PubMed

    Woodlock, T J; Sahasrabudhe, D M; Marquis, D M; Greene, D; Pandya, K J; McCune, C S

    1999-05-01

    A vaccine consisting of four allogeneic colon carcinoma cell lines (DLD-1, HCT116, WiDr, and T84) mixed with the adjuvant DETOX (Mycobacterium phlei cell wall and Salmonella minnesota lipid A) was administered to 25 patients with low-volume metastatic colorectal carcinoma. The first eight patients received vaccine only, given intradermally on three occasions at 3-week intervals. Subsequent patients also received subcutaneous interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), 0.3-0.5 microgram/m2 per day for 8 days after each vaccination in an outpatient setting. Vaccine alone caused local erythema, induration, and pruritus. IL-1 caused fevers, chills, and rigors that started in 4 h and lasted 1-2 h. One patient developed a brief loss of consciousness with a rigor that resolved without sequelae. One episode of mild hypotension occurred. Fatigue occurred by day 8 of IL-1. A substantial increase in the number of patients with positive skin tests to DLD-1 and HCT116 occurred after vaccine treatment both without and with IL-1 alpha. An allogeneic cell vaccine plus subcutaneous IL-1 was administered safely to outpatients with some evidence of in vivo effect observed. PMID:10335485

  13. Selenium compounds activate ATM-dependent DNA damage response via the mismatch repair protein hMLH1 in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yongmei; Schoene, Norberta W; Lartey, Frederick M; Cheng, Wen-Hsing

    2010-10-22

    Epidemiological and animal studies indicate that selenium supplementation suppresses risk of colorectal and other cancers. The majority of colorectal cancers are characterized by a defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR). Here, we have employed the MMR-deficient HCT 116 colorectal cancer cells and the MMR-proficient HCT 116 cells with hMLH1 complementation to investigate the role of hMLH1 in selenium-induced DNA damage response, a tumorigenesis barrier. The ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) protein responds to clastogens and initiates DNA damage response. We show that hMLH1 complementation sensitizes HCT 116 cells to methylseleninic acid, methylselenocysteine, and sodium selenite via reactive oxygen species and facilitates the selenium-induced oxidative 8-oxoguanine damage, DNA breaks, G(2)/M checkpoint response, and ATM pathway activation. Pretreatment of the hMLH1-complemented HCT 116 cells with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine or 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl or the ATM kinase inhibitor KU55933 suppresses hMLH1-dependent DNA damage response to selenium exposure. Selenium treatment stimulates the association between hMLH1 and hPMS2 proteins, a heterodimer critical for functional MMR, in a manner dependent on ATM and reactive oxygen species. Taken together, the results suggest a new role of selenium in mitigating tumorigenesis by targeting the MMR pathway, whereby the lack of hMLH1 renders the HCT 116 colorectal cancer cells resistant to selenium-induced DNA damage response. PMID:20709753

  14. Transcriptional modulator ZBED6 affects cell cycle and growth of human colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar Ali, Muhammad; Younis, Shady; Wallerman, Ola; Gupta, Rajesh; Andersson, Leif; Sjblom, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor ZBED6 (zinc finger, BED-type containing 6) is a repressor of IGF2 whose action impacts development, cell proliferation, and growth in placental mammals. In human colorectal cancers, IGF2 overexpression is mutually exclusive with somatic mutations in PI3K signaling components, providing genetic evidence for a role in the PI3K pathway. To understand the role of ZBED6 in tumorigenesis, we engineered and validated somatic cell ZBED6 knock-outs in the human colorectal cancer cell lines RKO and HCT116. Ablation of ZBED6 affected the cell cycle and led to increased growth rate in RKO cells but reduced growth in HCT116 cells. This striking difference was reflected in the transcriptome analyses, which revealed enrichment of cell-cyclerelated processes among differentially expressed genes in both cell lines, but the direction of change often differed between the cell lines. ChIP sequencing analyses displayed enrichment of ZBED6 binding at genes up-regulated in ZBED6-knockout clones, consistent with the view that ZBED6 modulates gene expression primarily by repressing transcription. Ten differentially expressed genes were identified as putative direct gene targets, and their down-regulation by ZBED6 was validated experimentally. Eight of these genes were linked to the Wnt, Hippo, TGF-?, EGF receptor, or PI3K pathways, all involved in colorectal cancer development. The results of this study show that the effect of ZBED6 on tumor development depends on the genetic background and the transcriptional state of its target genes. PMID:26056301

  15. Multiple Effects of Berberine Derivatives on Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guamn Ortiz, Luis Miguel; Dutto, Ilaria; Arcamone, Andrea G.; Buzzetti, Franco

    2014-01-01

    The pharmacological use of the plant alkaloid berberine is based on its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties; recently, anticancer activity has been attributed to this compound. To exploit this interesting feature, we synthesized three berberine derivatives, namely, NAX012, NAX014, and NAX018, and we tested their effects on two human colon carcinoma cell lines, that is, HCT116 and SW613-B3, which are characterized by wt and mutated p53, respectively. We observed that cell proliferation is more affected by cell treatment with the derivatives than with the lead compound; moreover, the derivatives proved to induce cell cycle arrest and cell death through apoptosis, thus suggesting that they could be promising anticancer drugs. Finally, we detected typical signs of autophagy in cells treated with berberine derivatives. PMID:25045712

  16. Highly skewed distribution of miRNAs and proteins between colorectal cancer cells and their exosomes following Cetuximab treatment: biomolecular, genetic and translational implications

    PubMed Central

    Barbagallo, Cristina; Passanisi, Roberta; Alhamdani, Mohamed S.; Destri, Giovanni Li; Cappellani, Alessandro; Barbagallo, Davide; Scalia, Marina; Valadi, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Exchange of molecules via exosomes is a means of eukaryotic intercellular communication, especially within tumour microenvironments. However, no data are available on alterations of exosomal molecular cargo by environmental cues (eg, pharmacological treatments). To approach this issue, we compared the abundance of 754 miRNAs and 741 cancer-related proteins in exosomes secreted by Caco-2 (Cetuximab-responsive) and HCT- 116 (Cetuximab-resistant) CRC cells, before and after Cetuximab treatment, with that in their source cells. Cetuximab significantly altered the cargo of Caco-2 exosomes: it increased abundance of miRNAs and proteins activating proliferation and inflammation and reduced miRNAs and proteins related to immune suppression. These alterations did not precisely mirror those in source cells, suggesting a Cetuximab-linked effect. Analogous alterations were detected in HCT-116. Transfection of exosomes from Cetuximab-treated Caco-2 into HCT-116 significantly increased HCT-116 viability; conversely, no viability alteration was detected in Caco-2 transfected with exosomes from Cetuximab-treated HCT-116. Analysis of networks, comprising targets of differentially expressed (DE) exosomal miRNAs and DE exosomal proteins, demonstrates a significant involvement of processes related to proliferation, inflammation, immune response, apoptosis. Our data extend existing knowledge on molecular mechanisms of eukaryotic intercellular communication, especially in oncological processes. Their translation to clinical settings may add new weapons to existing therapeutic repertoires against cancer. PMID:25594007

  17. Role of Bax in quercetin-induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Szczepanski, Miroslaw; Lee, Yong J

    2008-06-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of quercetin, a flavonoid, on the apoptotic pathway in a human prostate cell line (LNCaP). We observed that treatment of cells for 24h with quercetin-induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. A sustained inhibition of the major survival signal, Akt, occurred in quercetin-treated cells. Treatment of LNCaP cells with an apoptosis inducing concentration of quercetin (100 microM) resulted in a rapid decrease in the inhibitory Ser473 phosphorylation of Akt leading to inhibition of its kinase activity. Quercetin treatment (100 microM) also caused a decrease in Ser136 phosphorylation of Bad, which is a downstream target of Akt. Protein interaction assay revealed that during treatment with quercetin, Bcl-xL dissociated from Bax and then associated with Bad. Our results also show that quercetin decreases the Bcl-xL:Bax ratio and increases translocation and multimerization of Bax to the mitochondrial membrane. The translocation is accompanied by cytochrome c release, and procaspases-3, -8 and -9 cleavage and increased poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Similar results were observed in human colon cancer HCT116Bax+/+ cell line, but not HCT116Bax-/- cell line. Interestingly, at similar concentrations (100 microM), quercetin treatment did not affect the viability or rate of apoptosis in normal human prostate epithelial cell line (PrEC) and rat prostate epithelial cell line (YPEN-1). Our results indicate that the apoptotic processes caused by quercetin are mediated by the dissociation of Bax from Bcl-xL and the activation of caspase families in human prostate cancer cells. PMID:18455702

  18. Lipoic acid induces p53-independent cell death in colorectal cancer cells and potentiates the cytotoxicity of 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Drsam, Bastian; Gder, Anja; Seiwert, Nina; Kaina, Bernd; Fahrer, Jrg

    2015-10-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (LA), which plays a pivotal role in mitochondrial energy metabolism, is an endogenous dithiol compound with an array of antioxidative functions. It has been shown that LA triggers cell death in tumor cell lines, whereas non-transformed cells are hardly affected. In the present study, we analyzed the cytotoxicity of LA on colorectal cancer (CRC) cells differing in their p53 status and investigated a putative synergistic effect with the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). We show that LA induces a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability, which was independent of the p53 status as attested in isogenic p53-proficient and p53-deficient cell lines. This effect was largely attributable to cell death induction as revealed by Annexin-V/PI staining. LA-treated HCT116 cells underwent caspase-dependent and caspase-independent cell death, which was blocked by the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD and the RIP-kinase inhibitor Necrostatin-1, respectively. In CaCO-2 and HT29 cells, LA induced caspase-dependent cell demise via activation of caspase-9, caspase-3 and caspase-7 with subsequent PARP-1 cleavage as demonstrated by immunoblot analysis, activity assays and pan-caspase inhibition. Interestingly, LA treatment did neither activate p53 nor induced genotoxic effects as shown by lack of DNA strand breaks and phosphorylation of histone 2AX. Finally, we provide evidence that LA increases the cytotoxic effect induced by the anticancer drug 5-FU as revealed by significantly enhanced cell death rates in HCT116 and CaCO-2 cells. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that LA induces CRC cell death independent of their p53 status and potentiates the cytotoxicity of 5-FU without causing DNA damage on its own, which makes it a candidate for tumor therapy. PMID:25526924

  19. Differential expression of proteins in response to ceramide-mediated stress signal in colon cancer cells by 2-D gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Fillet, M; Cren-Oliv, C; Renert, A-F; Piette, J; Vandermoere, F; Rolando, Ch; Merville, M-P

    2005-01-01

    Comparative cancer cell proteome analysis is a strategy to study the implication of ceramides in the transmission of stress signals. To better understand the mechanisms by which ceramide regulate some physiological or pathological events and the response to the pharmacological treatment of cancer, we performed a differential analysis of the proteome of HCT-116 (human colon carcinoma) cells in response to these substances. We first established the first 2-dimensional map of the HCT-116 proteome. Then, HCT116 cell proteome treated or not with C6-ceramide have been compared using two-dimensional electrophoresis, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry and bioinformatic (genomic databases). 2-DE gel analysis revealed more than fourty proteins that were differentially expressed in control cells and cells treated with ceramide. Among them, we confirmed the differential expression of proteins involved in apoptosis and cell adhesion. PMID:15952734

  20. Divalent metal-ion transporter 1 is decreased in intestinal epithelial cells and contributes to the anemia in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Song, Yang; He, Chong; Liu, Changqin; Wu, Ruijin; Fang, Leilei; Cong, Yingzi; Miao, Yinglei; Liu, Zhanju

    2015-01-01

    Divalent metal-ion transporter 1 (DMT1) has been found to play an important role in the iron metabolism and hemogenesis. However, little is known about the potential role of DMT1 in the pathogenesis of anemia from patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Herein, we investigated expression of DMT1 in the intestinal mucosa by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry, and found that DMT1 was significantly decreased in the inflamed mucosa of active IBD patients compared with that in those patients at remission stage and healthy controls. To further study the mechanism, we cultured HCT 116 cell line in vitro. Expression of DMT1 in HCT116 was demonstrated to be markedly decreased under stimulation with TNF for 24 and 48 h, while JNK inhibitor (JNK-IN-7) could significantly reverse the decrease. Interestingly, anti-TNF therapy successfully improved anemia in clinical responsive Crohn’s disease patients, and DMT1 was found to be markedly up-regulated in intestinal mucosa. Taken together, our studies demonstrate that decreased expression of DMT1 in intestinal mucosa leads to compromised absorption and transportation of iron and that blockade of TNF could rescue anemia and promote DMT1 expression in gut mucosa. This work provides a therapeutic approach in the management of anemia in IBD. PMID:26572590

  1. Differential expression of nanog1 and nanogp8 in colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ishiguro, Tatsuya; Sato, Ai; Ohata, Hirokazu; Sakai, Hiroaki; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Koji

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog is expressed in a majority of colon cancer cell lines examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both nanog1 and nanogp8 are expressed in colon cancer cells with varying ratios. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog mediates cell proliferation of colon cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog predominantly localizes in cytoplasm of colon cancer cells. -- Abstract: Nanog, a homeodomain transcription factor, is an essential regulator for promotion of self-renewal of embryonic stem cells and inhibition of their differentiation. It has been demonstrated that nanog1 as well as nanogp8, a retrogene of nanog1, is preferentially expressed in advanced stages of several types of cancer, suggesting their involvement during cancer progression. Here, we investigated the expression of Nanog in well-characterized colon cancer cell lines. Expression of Nanog was detectable in 5 (HCT116, HT29, RKO, SW48, SW620) out of seven cell lines examined. RNA expression analyses of nanog1 and nanogp8 indicated that, while nanog1 was a major form in SW620 as well as in teratoma cells Tera-2, nanogp8 was preferentially expressed in HT29 and HCT116. In accordance with this, shRNA-mediated knockdown of nanog1 caused the reduction of Nanog in SW620 but not in HT29. Inhibition of Nanog in SW620 cells negatively affected cell proliferation and tumor formation in mouse xenograft. Biochemical subcellular fractionation and immunostaining analyses revealed predominant localization of Nanog in cytoplasm in SW620 and HT29, while it was mainly localized in nucleus in Tera-2. Our data indicate that nanog1 and nanogp8 are differentially expressed in colon cancer cells, and suggest that their expression contributes to proliferation of colon cancer cells.

  2. Assessing chemical constituents of Mimosa caesalpiniifolia stem bark: possible bioactive components accountable for the cytotoxic effect of M. caesalpiniifolia on human tumour cell lines.

    PubMed

    Mono, Nayana Bruna Nery; Arajo, Bruno Quirino; Silva, Jurandy do Nascimento; Lima, Daisy Jereissati Barbosa; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Airoldi, Flavia Pereira da Silva; Pessoa, Cludia; Cit, Antonia Maria das Graas Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Mimosa caesalpiniifolia is a native plant of the Brazilian northeast, and few studies have investigated its chemical composition and biological significance. This work describes the identification of the first chemical constituents in the ethanolic extract and fractions of M. caesalpiniifolia stem bark based on NMR, GC-qMS and HRMS analyses, as well as an assessment of their cytotoxic activity. GC-qMS analysis showed fatty acid derivatives, triterpenes and steroid substances and confirmed the identity of the chemical compounds isolated from the hexane fraction. Metabolite biodiversity in M. caesalpiniifolia stem bark revealed the differentiated accumulation of pentacyclic triterpenic acids, with a high content of betulinic acid and minor amounts of 3-oxo and 3?-acetoxy derivatives. Bioactive analysis based on total phenolic and flavonoid content showed a high amount of these compounds in the ethanolic extract, and ESI-(-)-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS identified caffeoyl hexose at high intensity, as well as the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Furthermore, the evaluation of the ethanolic extract and fractions, including betulinic acid, against colon (HCT-116), ovarian (OVCAR-8) and glioblastoma (SF-295) tumour cell lines showed that the crude extract, hexane and dichloromethane fractions possessed moderate to high inhibitory activity, which may be related to the abundance of betulinic acid. The phytochemical and biological study of M. caesalpiniifolia stem bark thus revealed a new alternative source of antitumour compounds, possibly made effective by the presence of betulinic acid and by chemical co-synergism with other compounds. PMID:25751783

  3. Reducing Compounds Equivocally Influence Oxidation during Digestion of a High-Fat Beef Product, which Promotes Cytotoxicity in Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Van Hecke, Thomas; Wouters, An; Rombouts, Caroline; Izzati, Tazkiyah; Berardo, Alberto; Vossen, Els; Claeys, Erik; Van Camp, John; Raes, Katleen; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Peeters, Marc; De Vos, Winnok H; De Smet, Stefaan

    2016-02-24

    We studied the formation of malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxy-nonenal, and hexanal (lipid oxidation products, LOP) during in vitro digestion of a cooked low-fat and high-fat beef product in response to the addition of reducing compounds. We also investigated whether higher LOP in the digests resulted in a higher cyto- and genotoxicity in Caco-2, HT-29 and HCT-116 cell lines. High-fat compared to low-fat beef digests contained approximately 10-fold higher LOP concentrations (all P < 0.001), and induced higher cytotoxicity (P < 0.001). During digestion of the high-fat product, phenolic acids (gallic, ferulic, chlorogenic, and caffeic acid) displayed either pro-oxidant or antioxidant behavior at lower and higher doses respectively, whereas ascorbic acid was pro-oxidant at all doses, and the lipophilic reducing compounds (α-tocopherol, quercetin, and silibinin) all exerted a clear antioxidant effect. During digestion of the low-fat product, the hydrophilic compounds and quercetin were antioxidant. Decreases or increases in LOP concentrations amounted to 100% change versus controls. PMID:26836477

  4. LPA Induces Colon Cancer Cell Proliferation through a Cooperation between the ROCK and STAT-3 Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Leve, Fernanda; Peres-Moreira, Rubem J.; Binato, Renata; Abdelhay, Eliana; Morgado-Díaz, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) plays a critical role in the proliferation and migration of colon cancer cells; however, the downstream signaling events underlying these processes remain poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate the signaling pathways triggered by LPA to regulate the mechanisms involved in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). We have used three cell line models of CRC, and initially analyzed the expression profile of LPA receptors (LPAR). Then, we treated the cells with LPA and events related to their tumorigenic potential, such as migration, invasion, anchorage-independent growth, proliferation as well as apoptosis and cell cycle were evaluated. We used the Chip array technique to analyze the global gene expression profiling that occurs after LPA treatment, and we identified cell signaling pathways related to the cell cycle. The inhibition of these pathways verified the conclusions of the transcriptomic analysis. We found that the cell lines expressed LPAR1, -2 and -3 in a differential manner and that 10 μM LPA did not affect cell migration, invasion and anchorage-independent growth, but it did induce proliferation and cell cycle progression in HCT-116 cells. Although LPA in this concentration did not induce transcriptional activity of β-catenin, it promoted the activation of Rho and STAT-3. Moreover, ROCK and STAT-3 inhibitors prevented LPA-induced proliferation, but ROCK inhibition did not prevent STAT-3 activation. Finally, we observed that LPA regulates the expression of genes related to the cell cycle and that the combined inhibition of ROCK and STAT-3 prevented cell cycle progression and increased the LPA-induced expression of cyclins E1, A2 and B1 to a greater degree than either inhibitor alone. Overall, these results demonstrate that LPA increases the proliferative potential of colon adenocarcinoma HCT-116 cells through a mechanism involving cooperation between the Rho-ROCK and STAT3 pathways involved in cell cycle control. PMID:26418031

  5. LPA Induces Colon Cancer Cell Proliferation through a Cooperation between the ROCK and STAT-3 Pathways.

    PubMed

    Leve, Fernanda; Peres-Moreira, Rubem J; Binato, Renata; Abdelhay, Eliana; Morgado-Díaz, José A

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) plays a critical role in the proliferation and migration of colon cancer cells; however, the downstream signaling events underlying these processes remain poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate the signaling pathways triggered by LPA to regulate the mechanisms involved in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). We have used three cell line models of CRC, and initially analyzed the expression profile of LPA receptors (LPAR). Then, we treated the cells with LPA and events related to their tumorigenic potential, such as migration, invasion, anchorage-independent growth, proliferation as well as apoptosis and cell cycle were evaluated. We used the Chip array technique to analyze the global gene expression profiling that occurs after LPA treatment, and we identified cell signaling pathways related to the cell cycle. The inhibition of these pathways verified the conclusions of the transcriptomic analysis. We found that the cell lines expressed LPAR1, -2 and -3 in a differential manner and that 10 μM LPA did not affect cell migration, invasion and anchorage-independent growth, but it did induce proliferation and cell cycle progression in HCT-116 cells. Although LPA in this concentration did not induce transcriptional activity of β-catenin, it promoted the activation of Rho and STAT-3. Moreover, ROCK and STAT-3 inhibitors prevented LPA-induced proliferation, but ROCK inhibition did not prevent STAT-3 activation. Finally, we observed that LPA regulates the expression of genes related to the cell cycle and that the combined inhibition of ROCK and STAT-3 prevented cell cycle progression and increased the LPA-induced expression of cyclins E1, A2 and B1 to a greater degree than either inhibitor alone. Overall, these results demonstrate that LPA increases the proliferative potential of colon adenocarcinoma HCT-116 cells through a mechanism involving cooperation between the Rho-ROCK and STAT3 pathways involved in cell cycle control. PMID:26418031

  6. The Apoptotic Effect of Plant Based Nanosilver in Colon Cancer Cells is a p53 Dependent Process Involving ROS and JNK Cascade.

    PubMed

    Satapathy, Shakti Ranjan; Mohapatra, Purusottam; Das, Dipon; Siddharth, Sumit; Kundu, Chanakya Nath

    2015-04-01

    Here, we report the p53 dependent mitochondria-mediated apoptotic mechanism of plant derived silver-nanoparticle (PD-AgNPs) in colorectal cancer cells (CRCs). PD-AgNPs was synthesized by reduction of AgNO3 with leaf extract of a medicinal plant periwinkle and characterized. Uptake of PD-AgNPs (? - 2.52 4.31 mV) in HCT116 cells was 3 fold higher in comparison to synthetic AgNPs (? +2.293 5.1 mV). A dose dependent increase in ROS production, activated JNK and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were noted in HCT116 but not in HCT116 p53(-/-) cells after PD-AgNP exposure. PD-AgNP-mediated apoptosis in CRCs is a p53 dependent process involving ROS and JNK cascade. PMID:25359126

  7. p53-Independent expression of wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (Wip1) in methylmethane sulfonate-treated cancer cell lines and human tumors.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Young; Song, Ji-Young; Kim, Hyun Mi; Han, Hye-Sook; Seol, Hyang Sook; Jang, Se Jin; Choi, Jene

    2012-06-01

    Wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (Wip1, PPM1D) is induced by p53 in response to various stressors and dephosphorylates cellular target proteins involved in DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint pathways. The Wip1 gene is frequently amplified or overexpressed in human cancers, promoting tumor growth by switching off major checkpoint kinases and p53. To explore wild-type p53-independent Wip1 induction, Wip1 promoter activity and its transcript level were evaluated by luciferase assay and real-time PCR, after methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) treatment in breast cancer cell lines and p53-null cell lines. Wip1 promoter activities in response to UV irradiation and various anti-cancer agents were compared between wild-type and a p53-response element (p53RE) mutated construct. Wip1 expression and its effects were examined in primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and colon tumor cells by using Wip1-specific siRNA. MMS induced Wip1 promoter activity in Hs578T, MDA-MB-231, and SK-BR-3 cells expressing DNA binding-deficient p53 mutants. A549-E6 and HCT116 (p53(-/-)) cells retained substantial Wip1 induction. Wip1 promoter activity was reduced, but not eliminated, in cells expressing a promoter containing a mutated p53-response element. Wip1 induction was not blocked by SB202190 or SP600125. MMS increased Wip1 expression in primary non-small cell lung cancer cells expressing a p53 R175H mutant. Our data indicate that Wip1 is induced in the absence of functional p53, like p38 MAPK and JNK, as a stress response terminator. PMID:22405851

  8. Development of an Optimized Protocol for NMR Metabolomics Studies of Human Colon Cancer Cell Lines and First Insight from Testing of the Protocol Using DNA G-Quadruplex Ligands as Novel Anti-Cancer Drugs.

    PubMed

    Lauri, Ilaria; Savorani, Francesco; Iaccarino, Nunzia; Zizza, Pasquale; Pavone, Luigi Michele; Novellino, Ettore; Engelsen, Sren Balling; Randazzo, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The study of cell lines by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy metabolomics represents a powerful tool to understand how the local metabolism and biochemical pathways are influenced by external or internal stimuli. In particular, the use of adherent mammalian cells is emerging in the metabolomics field in order to understand the molecular mechanism of disease progression or, for example, the cellular response to drug treatments. Hereto metabolomics investigations for this kind of cells have generally been limited to mass spectrometry studies. This study proposes an optimized protocol for the analysis of the endo-metabolome of human colon cancer cells (HCT116) by NMR. The protocol includes experimental conditions such as washing, quenching and extraction. In order to test the proposed protocol, it was applied to an exploratory study of cancer cells with and without treatment by anti-cancer drugs, such as DNA G-quadruplex binders and Adriamycin (a traditional anti-cancer drug). The exploratory NMR metabolomics analysis resulted in NMR assignment of all endo-metabolites that could be detected and provided preliminary insights about the biological behavior of the drugs tested. PMID:26784246

  9. A new method for detection of tumor driver-dependent changes of protein sialylation in a colon cancer cell line reveals nectin-3 as TGFBR2 target.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jennifer; Warnken, Uwe; Schnlzer, Martina; Gebert, Johannes; Kopitz, Jrgen

    2015-10-01

    Protein-linked glycans play key roles in cell differentiation, cell-cell interactions, cell growth, adhesion and immune response. Aberrant glycosylation is a characteristic feature of tumor cells and is involved in tumor growth, escape from apoptosis, metastasis formation, and resistance to therapy. It can serve as cancer biomarker and treatment target. To enable comprehensive screening for the impact of tumor driving mutations in colorectal cancer cells we present a method for specific analysis of tumor driver-induced glycome changes. The strategy is based on a combination of three technologies, that is recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE), Click-It chemistry and mass spectrometry. The new method is exemplified by the analysis of the impact of inactivating mutations of the TGF--receptor type II (TGFBR2) on sialic acid incorporation into protein-linked glycans of the colon cancer cell line HCT116. Overall, 70 proteins were found to show de novo sialic acid incorporation exclusively upon TGFBR2 expression whereas 7 proteins lost sialylation upon TGFBR2 reconstitution. Validation of detected candidate glycoproteins is demonstrated with the cell surface glycoprotein nectin-3 known to be involved in metastasis, invasion and prognosis of various cancers. Altogether, our new approach can help to systematically puzzle out the influence of tumor-specific mutations in a major signaling pathway, as exemplified by the TGFBR2 tumor suppressor, on the tumor glycome. It facilitates the identification of glycan-based tumor markers that could be used for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In principle the outlined strategy can be adapted to any cancer cell line, tumor driver mutation and several glycan-building blocks. PMID:26177744

  10. Thymoquinone hydrazone derivatives cause cell cycle arrest in p53-competent colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    WIRRIES, ANDR; BREYER, SANDRA; QUINT, KARL; SCHOBERT, RAINER; OCKER, MATTHIAS

    2010-01-01

    Thymoquinone (TQ), the major compound of black seed oil, has been shown to induce pro-apoptotic signaling pathways in various human cancer models. Although TQ is commonly used in traditional medicine, its use in humans is limited due to its chemical properties and poor membrane penetration capacity. We therefore attached saturated and unsaturated fatty acid residues to TQ and evaluated the effect on cell proliferation, apoptosis and underlying signaling pathways in HCT116 and HCT116p53?/? colon cancer and HepG2 hepatoma cells in vitro. Treatment with thymoquinone-4-?-linolenoylhydrazone (TQ-H-10) or thymoquinone-4-palmitoylhydrazone (TQ-H-11) induced a cytostatic effect, particularly in p53-competent HCT116 cells, mediated by an up-regulation of p21cip1/waf1 and a down-regulation of cyclin E, and associated with an S/G2 arrest of the cell cycle. Cells lacking p53 (HCT116p53?/?) or HepG2 liver cancer cells showed only a minor response to TQ-H-10. These findings demonstrate that derivatives of TQ inhibit cell proliferation dependent on p53 status by activating the cell cycle inhibitor p21cip1/waf1 at lower concentrations than unmodified TQ. Structural modifications can therefore contribute to the further clinical development of TQ. PMID:22993551

  11. Anticancer effects of fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol on colorectal cancer cell lines and colorectal cancer tissues

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, KAZUTO; HOSOKAWA, MASASHI; KASAJIMA, HIROYUKI; HATANAKA, KAZUTERU; KUDO, KAZUHIRO; SHIMOYAMA, NORIHIKO; MIYASHITA, KAZUO

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most malignant neoplasms worldwide. Fucoxanthin is a carotenoid present in the chloroplasts of brown seaweeds. In the present study, the anticancer effects of fucoxanthin and its metabolite, fucoxanthinol, on 6 colorectal cancer cell lines and 20 tissue samples from surgically resected clinical colorectal cancer specimens were examined using a collagen-gel droplet embedded culture drug sensitivity test (CD-DST). The in vitro sensitivity to fucoxanthin, fucoxanthinol and the anticancer drugs is expressed as T/C (%), where T is the absorbance of cells which stained by neutral red treated with carotenoids and C is the absorbance of non-staining cells. Fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol decreased the T/C (%) of Caco-2, WiDr, HCT116, and DLD-1 cell lines at doses of 20 M. Fucoxanthinol also decreased the T/C (%) of SW620 cells, while the T/C (%) of Colo205 cells was not reduced by treatment with either carotenoid. Specifically, the T/C (%) of Caco-2 and WiDr cells, which were incubated in carotenoid-free medium for 6 days following treatment with 20 M fucoxanthinol for 24 h, was markedly decreased to 1.40.2 and 12.00.3%, respectively. Furthermore, fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol decreased the T/C (%) in colorectal cancer tissue samples. Notably, 20 M fucoxanthinol treatment resulted in a higher proportion of colorectal cancer samples with a T/C (%) of <50% (13/20, 65%) compared with samples treated with 20 M fucoxanthin (2/20, 10%). The median T/C (%) value of 35.1% for the 20 cancers specimens treated with 20 M fucoxanthinol was lower than the median T/C (%) values of 86.3% and 75.8% for those treated with fluorouracil and paclitaxel, respectively. These results suggested that fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol may be of use as chemotherapeutic agents in colorectal cancer. PMID:26622691

  12. Neurotensin-induced Erk1/2 phosphorylation and growth of human colonic cancer cells are independent from growth factors receptors activation

    SciTech Connect

    Massa, Fabienne; Tormo, Aurelie; Beraud-Dufour, Sophie; Coppola, Thierry; Mazella, Jean

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} We compare intracellular pathways of NT and EGF in HT29 cells. {yields} NT does not transactivate EGFR. {yields} Transactivation of EGFR is not a general rule in cancer cell growth. -- Abstract: Neurotensin (NT) promotes the proliferation of human colonic cancer cells by undefined mechanisms. We already demonstrated that, in the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT29, the effects of NT were mediated by a complex formed between the NT receptor-1 (NTSR1) and-3 (NTSR3). Here we examined cellular mechanisms that led to NT-induced MAP kinase phosphorylation and growth factors receptors transactivation in colonic cancer cells and proliferation in HT29 cells. With the aim to identify upstream signaling involved in NT-elicited MAP kinase activation, we found that the stimulatory effects of the peptide were totally independent from the activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) both in the HT29 and the HCT116 cells. NT was unable to promote phosphorylation of EGFR and to compete with EGF for its binding to the receptor. Pharmacological approaches allowed us to differentiate EGF and NT signaling in HT29 cells since only NT activation of Erk1/2 was shown to be sensitive to PKC inhibitors and since only NT increased the intracellular level of calcium. We also observed that NT was not able to transactivate Insulin-like growth factor receptor. Our findings indicate that, in the HT29 and HCT116 cell lines, NT stimulates MAP kinase phosphorylation and cell growth by a pathway which does not involve EGF system but rather NT receptors which transduce their own intracellular effectors. These results indicate that depending on the cell line used, blocking EGFR is not the general rule to inhibit NT-induced cancer cell proliferation.

  13. Differential Regulation of Specific Sphingolipids in Colon Cancer Cells during Staurosporine-Induced Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Del Solar, Virginia; Lizardo, Darleny Y; Li, Nasi; Hurst, Jerod J; Brais, Christopher J; Atilla-Gokcumen, G Ekin

    2015-12-17

    Apoptosis is accompanied by distinct morphological changes at the plasma and organelle membrane level. Involvement of certain lipids in apoptosis hasbeen established; however, we have limited understanding of the specific lipid structures that participate in this process. We used untargeted comparative lipidomics to study the changes in lipidcomposition during staurosporine-induced apoptosis in HCT-116. Our results revealed that ceramides, dihydroceramides, and sphingomyelins, with defined acyl chains, constitute the majority of changes in the lipidome. Expression levels and activities of enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of lipids that change suggest that de novo synthesis causes these specific changes. Further analysis of the lipidome during apoptosis in other cancer and non-cancer cell lines suggested that accumulation of ceramides and dihydroceramides is specific to cancer cells. Taken together, our data propose that these molecules are regulated at the lipid-specific level during apoptosis and that this regulation differs between cancer and non-cancer cells. PMID:26687483

  14. Wild celery (Smyrnium olusatrum L.) oil and isofuranodiene induce apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Quassinti, Luana; Maggi, Filippo; Barboni, Luciano; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Cortese, Manuela; Papa, Fabrizio; Garulli, Chiara; Kalogris, Cristina; Vittori, Sauro; Bramucci, Massimo

    2014-09-01

    Smyrnium olusatrum (Apiaceae), well known as wild celery, is a biennal celery-scented plant used for many centuries as a vegetable, then abandoned after the introduction of celery. In the present work, the essential oil obtained from inflorescences and the amounts of its main constituents isofuranodiene, curzerene and germacrone were analyzed by GC as well as by HPLC because of their degradation (Cope rearrangement) occurring at high temperatures. The oil and the main constituents were assayed for cytotoxic activity on the human colon cancer cell line (HCT116) by MTT assay. Flower oil and isofuranodiene showed noteworthy activity on tumor cells with IC50 of 10.71 and 15.06 ?g/ml, respectively. Analysis of the cytotoxic activity showed that wild celery oil and isofuranodiene are able to induce apoptosis in colon cancer cells in a time and concentration-dependent manner suggesting a potential role as models for the development of chemopreventive agents. PMID:24924290

  15. Cytotoxic Compounds from Juglans sinensis Dode Display Anti-Proliferative Activity by Inducing Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoo Jin; Cui, Jun; Lee, Jun; Han, Ah-Reum; Lee, Eun Byul; Jang, Ho Hee; Seo, Eun Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the bark of Juglans sinensis Dode (Juglandaceae) led to the isolation of two active compounds, 8-hydroxy-2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (1) and 5-hydroxy-2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (2), together with 15 known compounds 3-17. All compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments. Compounds 1-17 were tested for their cytotoxicity against the A549 human lung cancer cell line; compounds 1 and 2 exhibited significant cytotoxicity and additionally had potent cytotoxicity against six human cancer cell lines, MCF7 (breast cancer), SNU423 (liver cancer), SH-SY5Y (neuroblastoma), HeLa (cervical cancer), HCT116 (colorectal cancer), and A549 (lung cancer). In particular, breast, colon, and lung cancer cells were more sensitive to the treatment using compound 1. In addition, compounds 1 and 2 showed strong cytotoxic activity towards human breast cancer cells MCF7, HS578T, and T47D, but not towards MCF10A normal-like breast cells. They also inhibited the colony formation of MCF7, A549, and HCT116 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the percentage of apoptotic cells significantly increased in MCF7 cells upon the treatment with compounds 1 and 2. The mechanism of cell death caused by compounds 1 and 2 may be attributed to the upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl2. These findings suggest that compounds 1 and 2 may be regarded as potential therapeutic agents against cancer. PMID:26805799

  16. Lgr5 Methylation in Cancer Stem Cell Differentiation and Prognosis-Prediction in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jieqiong; Liang, Yan; Chen, Kequan; Wang, Xinying; Wang, Zhongqiu; Wang, Zhiqing; Chang, Cassie; Han, Weihua; Gong, Wei; Qin, Haitao; Jiang, Bo; Xiong, Huabao; Peng, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Objective Leucine-rich-repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (lgr5) is a candidate marker for colorectal cancer stem cells (CSC). In the current study, we investigated the methylation status within thelgr5 promoter and evaluated its relationship with CSC differentiation, prognosis for colorectal cancer, and its clinicopathological features. Methods The methylation status within Lgr5 promoter was detected with a methylation-specific PCR in six colorectal cancer cell lines as well as 169 primary colorectal tumor tissues. Differentiation of CSC was examined with immunofluorescence and immunocytochemistry. Down-regulation of lgr5 was achieved with gene-specific siRNA. The associations between lgr5 methylation and the clinicopathological features as well as survival of patients were analyzed with statistical methods. Results The lgr5 promoter was methylated to different degrees for the six colorectal cell lines examined, with complete methylation observed in HCT116 cells in which the lgr5 expression was partially recovered following DAC treatment. The stem-cell sphere formation from HCT116 cells was accompanied by increasing methylation within the lgr5 promoter and decreasing expression of lgr5. Knocking down lgr5 by siRNA also led to stem-cell spheres formation. Among primary colorectal tumors, 40% (67/169) were positive for lgr5 methylation, while none of the normal colon tissues were positive for lgr5 methylation. Furthermore, lgr5 methylation significantly associated with higher tumor grade, and negative distant metastasis (p < 0.05), as well as better prognosis (p = 0.001) in patients with colorectal cancer. Conclusions Our data suggests that lgr5 methylation, through the regulation of lgr5 expression and colorectal CSC differentiation, may constitute a novel prognostic marker for colorectal cancer patients. PMID:26599100

  17. Modulation of transforming growth factor?? signaling transducers in colon adenocarcinoma cells induced by staphylococcal enterotoxin B.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Abolfazl; Mobini, Gholam Reza; Maghsoudi, Reza; Akhtari, Javad; Faghihloo, Ebrahim; Farahnejad, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a notable cause of cancer?associated mortality worldwide, making it a pertinent topic for the study of cancer and its treatment. Staphylococcal enterotoxinB (SEB), an enterotoxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus, has been demonstrated to exert anticancer and antimetastatic effects due to its ability to modify cell immunity and cellular signaling pathways. In the current study, SEB was investigated, including whether it exerts its growth inhibitory effects on colon adenocarcinoma cells. This may occur through the manipulation of a key tumor growth factor, termed transforming growth factor?? (TGF??), and its signaling pathway transducer, Smad2/3. The human colon adenocarcinoma HCT116 cell line was treated with different concentrations of SEB, and cell number was measured using MTT assay at different treatment times. Smad2/3 RNA expression level was analyzed in untreated or SEB?treated cells using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, which indicated significant differences between cell viability and Smad2/3 expression levels. SEB effectively downregulated Smad2/3 expression in the HCT116 cells at concentrations of 1and 2g/ml (P=0.0021 and P=0.0017, respectively). SEB concentrations that were effective at inhibiting Smad2/3 expression were correlated with those able to inhibit the proliferation of the cancer cells. SEB inhibited Smad2/3 expression at the mRNA level in a concentration? and time?dependent manner. The present study thus proposed SEB as an agent able to significantly reduce Smad2/3 expression in colon cancer cells, provoking moderate TGF?? growth signaling and the reduction of tumor cell proliferation. PMID:26647993

  18. Effect of a nutrient mixture on matrix metalloproteinase-9 dimers in various human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Roomi, M W; Kalinovsky, T; Rath, M; Niedzwiecki, A

    2014-03-01

    Strong clinical and experimental evidence demonstrates association of elevated levels of matrix metalloproteinase MMP-9 with cancer progression, metastasis and shortened patient survival, as it plays a key role in tumor cell invasion and metastasis by digesting the basement membrane and ECM components. MMP-9 is secreted in both the monomeric and dimeric form. Although there is little research on MMP-9 dimers, some studies have shown the dimer to be associated with more aggressive tumor progression. Our objective was to study the relative secretion patterns of MMP-9 monomer and dimer in a variety of cancer cell lines and the effect of a nutrient mixture (NM) containing lysine, proline, ascorbic acid and green tea extract on MMP-9 secretion. The cancer cell lines were grown in their respective media, supplemented with 10% FBS, penicillin (100U/ml) and streptomycin (100g/ml) in 24-well tissue culture plates. At near confluence, the cells were treated with NM at 0,10, 50, 100, 500 and 1000g/ml. Parallel sets of cultures were treated with PMA (100ng/ml) for induction of MMP-9. Cell MMP-9 secretion was assayed by gelatinase zymography. MMP-9 dimer secretion patterns of cancer cells fell into different categories. We observed no MMP-9 dimer in prostate DU-145 and PC-3, pancreatic MIA-Pa-Ca2, colon HCT-116, bladder T-24, head and neck FaDu, glioblastoma A-172, T-98 and LN-18 and leukemia HL-60, Jurkat, and Raji cell lines. MMP-dimer secretion only with PMA induction was seen in breast MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, uterine SK-UT-1, lung A-549, tongue SC-25, melanoma A2058, osteosarcoma U-2OS, rhabdomyosarcoma, fibrosarcoma HT-1080, chondrosarcoma SW-1350 and liposarcoma SW-872. Cervical HeLa and DoTc24510, renal 786-0 and HCC SK-Hep-1 cells exhibited MMP-9 dimer without PMA treatment and increased secretion with PMA treatment. Sarcomas had the highest levels of MMP-9 monomer and dimer with and without PMA among these cancer cell lines. Cervical, uterine and male breast cancer cell lines showed the next highest levels of MMP-9, followed by breast cancer cell lines. Melanoma, renal, lung, head and neck and HCC showed lower levels and prostate, glioblastoma, bladder and leukemia cell lines the lowest. NM showed dose-dependent inhibition of MMP-9 monomer and dimer in all cell lines tested. In conclusion, high MMP-9 and dimer secretion levels correlated with the most aggressive cancer cell lines. NM was effective in inhibiting MMP-9 and dimer secretion in all cell lines tested, suggesting its therapeutic potential as an antimetastatic agent. PMID:24378964

  19. DAPK loss in colon cancer tumor buds: implications for migration capacity of disseminating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Ivanovska, Jelena; Zlobec, Inti; Forster, Stefan; Karamitopoulou, Eva; Dawson, Heather; Koelzer, Viktor Hendrik; Agaimy, Abbas; Garreis, Fabian; Sder, Stephan; Laqua, William; Lugli, Alessandro; Hartmann, Arndt; Rau, Tilman T; Schneider-Stock, Regine

    2015-11-01

    Defining new therapeutic strategies to overcome therapy resistance due to tumor heterogeneity in colon cancer is challenging. One option is to explore the molecular profile of aggressive disseminating tumor cells. The cytoskeleton-associated Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is involved in the cross talk between tumor and immune cells at the invasion front of colorectal cancer. Here dedifferentiated tumor cells histologically defined as tumor budding are associated with a high risk of metastasis and poor prognosis. Analyzing samples from 144 colorectal cancer patients we investigated immunhistochemical DAPK expression in different tumor regions such as center, invasion front, and buds. Functional consequences for tumor aggressiveness were studied in a panel of colon tumor cell lines using different migration, wound healing, and invasion assays. DAPK levels were experimentally modified by siRNA transfection and overexpression as well as inhibitor treatments. We found that DAPK expression was reduced towards the invasion front and was nearly absent in tumor buds. Applying the ECIS system with HCT116 and HCT116 stable lentiviral DAPK knock down cells (HCTshDAPK) we identified an important role for DAPK in decreasing the migratory capacity whereas proliferation was not affected. Furthermore, the migration pattern differed with HCTshDAPK cells showing a cluster-like migration of tumor cell groups. DAPK inhibitor treatment revealed that the migration rate was independent of DAPK's catalytic activity. Modulation of DAPK expression level in SW480 and DLD1 colorectal cancer cells significantly influenced wound closure rate. DAPK seems to be a major player that influences the migratory capability of disseminating tumor cells and possibly affects the dynamic interface between pro- and anti-survival factors at the invasion front of colorectal cancer. This interesting and new finding requires further evaluation. PMID:26405175

  20. PES1 regulates sensitivity of colorectal cancer cells to anticancer drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Wei; Qu, Like; Meng, Lin; Liu, Caiyun; Wu, Jian; Shou, Chengchao

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ? PES1 was overexpressed in diverse cancer cell lines. ? PES1-ablation enhances DNA damage response by decreasing DNA repair. ? PES1-ablation increases the sensitivity of HCT116 cells to chemotherapeutic agents. ? PES1-ablation is associated with diminished nuclear entry of RAD51. -- Abstract: PES1 (also known as Pescadillo), a nucleolar protein, was involved in biogenesis of ribosomal RNA. Up-regulation of PES1 has been documented in some human cancers, indicating that PES1 may play some crucial roles in tumorigenesis. In our previous study, it was found that silencing of PES1 resulted in decreased proliferation of colorectal cancer cells. We also noticed that depletion of PES1 altered expression profiles of diverse genes. In the present study, we validated the expression changes of a subset of genotoxic stress-related genes in PES1-silenced HCT116 cells by quantitative RT-PCR. The steady and etoposide-induced phosphorylated H2AX (?-H2AX) were higher in PES1-silenced cells than in control cells. Besides, etoposide-induced ?-H2AX persisted longer in PES1-silenced cells after removing the etoposide. Next, results of comet assay revealed decreased DNA repair after PES1-ablation. PES1-ablated cells were more sensitive to chemotherapeutic agents, which could be reversed by reconstitution with exogenous PES1. Furthermore, deletion of PES1 diminished steady and DNA damage-induced levels of nuclear RAD51. Our results uncover a potential role of PES1 in chemoresistance by regulating DNA damage response in colorectal cancer cells.

  1. Characterization of the Loss of SUMO Pathway Function on Cancer Cells and Tumor Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    He, Xingyue; Riceberg, Jessica; Pulukuri, Sai M.; Grossman, Steve; Shinde, Vaishali; Shah, Pooja; Brownell, James E.; Dick, Larry; Newcomb, John; Bence, Neil

    2015-01-01

    SUMOylation is a post-translational ubiquitin-like protein modification pathway that regulates important cellular processes including chromosome structure, kinetochore function, chromosome segregation, nuclear and sub-nuclear organization, transcription and DNA damage repair. There is increasing evidence that the SUMO pathway is dysregulated in cancer, raising the possibility that modulation of this pathway may have therapeutic potential. To investigate the importance of the SUMO pathway in the context of cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth, we applied lentivirus-based short hairpin RNAs (shRNA) to knockdown SUMO pathway genes in human cancer cells. shRNAs for SAE2 and UBC9 reduced SUMO conjugation activity and inhibited proliferation of human cancer cells. To expand upon these observations, we generated doxycycline inducible conditional shRNA cell lines for SAE2 to achieve acute and reversible SAE2 knockdown. Conditional SAE2 knockdown in U2OS and HCT116 cells slowed cell growth in vitro, and SAE2 knockdown induced multiple terminal outcomes including apoptosis, endoreduplication and senescence. Multinucleated cells became senescent and stained positive for the senescence marker, SA-? Gal, and displayed elevated levels of p53 and p21. In an attempt to explain these phenotypes, we confirmed that loss of SUMO pathway activity leads to a loss of SUMOylated Topoisomerase II? and the appearance of chromatin bridges which can impair proper cytokinesis and lead to multinucleation. Furthermore, knockdown of SAE2 induces disruption of PML nuclear bodies which may further promote apoptosis or senescence. In an in vivo HCT116 xenograft tumor model, conditional SAE2 knockdown strongly impaired tumor growth. These data demonstrate that the SUMO pathway is required for cancer cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo, implicating the SUMO pathway as a potential cancer therapeutic target. PMID:25860128

  2. Increased SPHK2 Transcription of Human Colon Cancer Cells in Serum-Depleted Culture: The Involvement of CREB Transcription Factor.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Naoki; Omori, Yukari; Tanaka, Koji; Ito, Hiromi; Takagi, Akira; Kojima, Tetsuhito; Nakatochi, Masahiro; Ogiso, Hideo; Kawamoto, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Suzuki, Motoshi; Kyogashima, Mamoru; Tamiya-Koizumi, Keiko; Nozawa, Yoshinori; Murate, Takashi

    2015-10-01

    Sphingosine kinases (SPHK) are important to determine cells' fate by producing sphingosine 1-phosphate. Reportedly, exogenous SPHK2 overexpression induces cell cycle arrest or cell death. However, the regulatory mechanism of SPHK2 expression has not been fully elucidated. Here, we analyzed this issue using human colon cancer cell lines under various stress conditions. Serum depletion (FCS(-)) but not hypoxia and glucose depletion increased mRNA, protein and enzyme activity of SPHK2 but not SPHK1. In HCT116 cells mostly used, SPHK2 activity was predominant over SPHK1, and serum depletion increased both nuclear and cytoplasmic SPHK2 activity. Based on previous reports analyzing cellular response after serum depletion, the temporal changes of intracellular signaling molecules and candidate transcription factors for SPHK2 were examined using serum-depleted HCT116 cells, and performed transfection experiments with siRNA or cDNA of candidate transcription factors. Results showed that the rapid and transient JNK activation followed by CREB activation was the major regulator of increased SPHK2 transcription in FCS(-) culture. EMSA and ChIP assay confirmed the direct binding of activated CREB to the CREB binding site of 5' SPHK2 promoter region. Colon cancer cells examined continued to grow in FCS(-) culture, although mildly, while hypoxia and glucose depletion suppressed cell proliferation or induced cell death, suggesting the different role of SPHK2 in different stress conditions. Because of the unique relationship observed after serum depletion, we examined effects of siRNA for SPHK2, and found the role of SPHK2 as a growth or survival factor but not a cell proliferation inhibitor in FCS(-) culture. PMID:25808826

  3. Methylselenol, a selenium metabolite, plays a critical role in inhibiting colon cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methylselenol is hypothesized to be a critical selenium (Se) metabolite for anticancer activity. In this study, submicromolar methylselenol was generated by incubating methionase with seleno-L methionine, and both colon-cancer-derived HCT-116 cells and noncancerous colon NCM460 cells were exposed to...

  4. Expression of DNA damage checkpoint 53BP1 is correlated with prognosis, cell proliferation and apoptosis in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Bi, Jianping; Huang, Ai; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Tao; Ma, Hong

    2015-01-01

    53BP1, an important mediator of DNA damage checkpoint, plays an essential role in maintaining the cell genome stability, and the aberrant expression of 53BP1 was found to contribute to tumor occurrence and development. In this study, we explored the clinical significance of 53BP1 expression in colorectal cancer and investigated the effects of 53BP1 expression on tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis and its possible mechanisms. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to detect the expression of 53BP1 in 95 cases of tumor tissues. After establishment of shRNA-mediated knockdown stable HCT-116 cell lines, cell proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were detected by MTT and flow cytometry, and expression of up-and down-steam related proteins as ?-H2AX, CHK2 and P53 were tested by Western blot. 53BP1 intensity was found to be associated with tumor location (P < 0.05), and the low expression of 53BP1 revealed decreased survival time compared with high expression in subgroups as male, tumor size > 5 cm, tumor located at right side, T stage as T3-T4, N0, clinical stage as I-II (P < 0.05). In vitro, shRNA-mediated loss of 53BP1 obviously inhibited HCT-116 tumor cell apoptosis, promoted cell proliferation and increased accumulation of cells in S phase. Meanwhile, the expression of ?-H2AX, CHK2 and P53 was significantly reduced (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest 53BP1 may serve as a candidate biomarker for predicting prognosis and disease development in colorectal cancer. PMID:26261485

  5. TMPRSS4 correlates with colorectal cancer pathological stage and regulates cell proliferation and self-renewal ability

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ao; Zhou, Houmin; Zhao, Hongchao; Quan, Yingjun; Feng, Bo; Zheng, Minhua

    2014-01-01

    Transmembrane protease/serine 4 (TMPRSS4) is a member of the type II transmembrane serine protease (TTSP) family and it was found highly expressed in several cancers. This study aims to evaluate the expression of TMPRSS4 in colorectal cancer (CRC) and investigate its role in proliferation and self-renewal of colon cancer cells. qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression level of TMRPSS4 in CRC samples respectively. Loss of function assay was conducted with RNAi technique. Cell proliferation was done with WST-8 assay; cell apoptosis and cell cycle analysis were performed with flow cytometry; invasion and migration were done with transwell assay. Plate and soft agarose clonogenic assays were used to detect clone-formation ability. CD44 and CD133 expressions were analyzed by flow cytometry and western blot. We found that TMPRSS4 was highly expressed in CRC tissues both at mRNA and protein level and correlated with pathological stage. Knockdown of TMPRSS4 in highly expressed colon cancer cell line HCT116 resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of cell apoptosis and suppression of invasion and migration; moreover, knockdown of TMPRSS4 suppressed the in vitro clone-formation ability of HCT116 and reduced the expressions of CD44 and CD133. The findings in this research showed that TMPRSS4 was associated with CRC stage and regulated the proliferation and self-renewal ability of colon cancer cells; TMRPSS4 was involved in the development and progression of CRC. PMID:24335200

  6. Depletion of Securin Induces Senescence After Irradiation and Enhances Radiosensitivity in Human Cancer Cells Regardless of Functional p53 Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Wenshu; Yu Yichu; Lee Yijang; Chen, J.-H.; Hsu, H.-Y.; Chiu, S.-J.

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy is one of the best choices for cancer treatment. However, various tumor cells exhibit resistance to irradiation-induced apoptosis. The development of new strategies to trigger cancer cell death besides apoptosis is necessary. This study investigated the role of securin in radiation-induced apoptosis and senescence in human cancer cells. Methods and Materials: Cell survival was determined using clonogenic assays. Western blot analysis was used to analyze levels of securin, caspase-3, PARP, p53, p21, Rb, gamma-H2AX, and phospho-Chk2. Senescent cells were analyzed using a beta-galactosidase staining assay. A securin-expressed vector (pcDNA-securin) was stably transfected into securin-null HCT116 cells. Securin gene knockdown was performed by small interfering RNA and small hairpin RNA in HCT116 and MDA-MB-231 cells, respectively. Results: Radiation was found to induce apoptosis in securin wild type HCT116 cells but induced senescence in securin-null cells. Restoration of securin reduced senescence and increased cell survival in securin-null HCT116 cells after irradiation. Radiation-induced gamma-H2AX and Chk2 phosphorylation were induced transiently in securin-wild-type cells but exhibited sustained activation in securin-null cells. Securin gene knockdown switches irradiation-induced apoptosis to senescence in both HCT116 p53-null and MDA-MB-231 cells. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that the level of securin expression plays a determining role in the radiosensitivity and fate of cells. Depletion of securin impairs DNA repair after irradiation, increasing DNA damage and promoting senescence in the residual surviving cells regardless of functional p53 expression. The knockdown of securin may contribute to a novel radiotherapy protocol for the treatment of human cancer cells that are resistant to irradiation.

  7. Anticolorectal cancer effects and pharmacokinetic application of 2, 2-Bis [4-(4-amino-3-hydroxyphenoxy) phenyl] adamantane

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Po-Sheng; Wang, Jane-Jen; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Wang, Yea-Hwey; Jan, Woan-Ching; Cheng, Shih-Ping; Chi, Chin-Wen; Hsu, Yi-Chiung

    2015-01-01

    2, 2-Bis (4-(4-amino-3-hydroxyphenoxy) phenyl) adamantane (DPA) induced growth inhibition in human cancer cells using the national cancer institute (NCI) anticancer drug screen. In our previous study, we demonstrated that DPA exerted growth inhibitory activities in the three human colon cancer cell lines (Colo 205, HT-29, and HCT-15). To identify the detailed mechanism, we examined the functional importance of p21 and p53 in DPA-induced anticancer effect. We used three isogenic colon cancer cell lines, HCT-116, HCT-116 p53-/-, and HCT-116 p21-/-, to evaluate the roles of p21 and p53 in the in vitro anticancer effects of DPA. DPA dose-dependently inhibited cell growth, cell migration and increased cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase in HCT116 cells but not in p21-/- and p53-/- isogenic HCT-116 cells. Additionally, Western blot showed that DPA treatment induced the p21, p53, and cyclin-E protein expressions in HCT-116 cells. The p21 associated cell cycle regulatory protein such as cyclin D, CDK4, and pRb were decreased after DPA treatment in HCT-116 cells. DPA decreased cell migration in HCT-116 and HCT-116 p53-/- but not in HCT-116 p21-/- cells. We observed the up-regulation of E-cadherin, p-p38, and p-Erk in DPA-treated HCT-116 group but not in HCT-116 p21-/- and HCT-116 p53-/- groups. We assumed that p21 was required for DPA-induced anti-colon cancer effect through the Erk and p38 pathway leading to cell cycle arrest and inhibition of cell motility. Mean ( SE) pharmacokinetic parameters of the DPA were as follows: AUC = 64.44 8.41, Cmax = 1.56 0.48 and t1/2 = 113.92 58.19. The pharmacokinetic data suggest DPA can be applied to further clinical study. This is the first pharmacokinetic study of DPA, and indicated that anti-proliferation and the cell mobility inhibition effects of DPA in HCT116 WT cells may result from the induction of p21 through activation of ERK and p38 pathway. PMID:26628962

  8. ANRIL regulates the proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells in both two- and three-dimensional culture.

    PubMed

    Naemura, Madoka; Tsunoda, Toshiyuki; Inoue, Yasutoshi; Okamoto, Haruna; Shirasawa, Senji; Kotake, Yojiro

    2016-01-01

    ANRIL is a long noncoding RNA transcribed from the INK4 locus that encodes three tumor suppressor genes, p15, p16, and ARF. Previous studies demonstrated that ANRIL represses p15 and p16, which positively regulate the pRB pathway, leading to repression of cellular senescence of human normal fibroblasts. However, the role of ANRIL in cancer cell proliferation is less well understood. Here we report that ANRIL is involved in the proliferation of colorectal cancer HCT116 cells in two- and three-dimensional culture. Silencing ANRIL by both transfection with small interfering RNA and retrovirally produced small hairpin RNA reduced HCT116 cell proliferation in both two- and three-dimensional culture. HCT116 cells depleted for ANRIL were arrested in the S phase of cell cycle. Notably, silencing ANRIL did not result in the activation of expression of the INK4 locus. These results suggest that ANRIL positively regulates the proliferation of HCT116 cells in two- and three-dimensional culture in a p15/p16-pRB pathway-independent manner. PMID:26708220

  9. LRH-1 drives colon cancer cell growth by repressing the expression of the CDKN1A gene in a p53-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Holly B.; Lai, Chun-Fui; Patel, Hetal; Periyasamy, Manikandan; Lin, Meng-Lay; Feller, Stephan M.; Fuller-Pace, Frances V.; Meek, David W.; Ali, Simak; Buluwela, Laki

    2016-01-01

    Liver receptor homologue 1 (LRH-1) is an orphan nuclear receptor that has been implicated in the progression of breast, pancreatic and colorectal cancer (CRC). To determine mechanisms underlying growth promotion by LRH-1 in CRC, we undertook global expression profiling following siRNA-mediated LRH-1 knockdown in HCT116 cells, which require LRH-1 for growth and in HT29 cells, in which LRH-1 does not regulate growth. Interestingly, expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 (CDKN1A) was regulated by LRH-1 in HCT116 cells. p21 regulation was not observed in HT29 cells, where p53 is mutated. p53 dependence for the regulation of p21 by LRH-1 was confirmed by p53 knockdown with siRNA, while LRH-1-regulation of p21 was not evident in HCT116 cells where p53 had been deleted. We demonstrate that LRH-1-mediated p21 regulation in HCT116 cells does not involve altered p53 protein or phosphorylation, and we show that LRH-1 inhibits p53 recruitment to the p21 promoter, likely through a mechanism involving chromatin remodelling. Our study suggests an important role for LRH-1 in the growth of CRC cells that retain wild-type p53. PMID:26400164

  10. LRH-1 drives colon cancer cell growth by repressing the expression of the CDKN1A gene in a p53-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Holly B; Lai, Chun-Fui; Patel, Hetal; Periyasamy, Manikandan; Lin, Meng-Lay; Feller, Stephan M; Fuller-Pace, Frances V; Meek, David W; Ali, Simak; Buluwela, Laki

    2016-01-29

    Liver receptor homologue 1 (LRH-1) is an orphan nuclear receptor that has been implicated in the progression of breast, pancreatic and colorectal cancer (CRC). To determine mechanisms underlying growth promotion by LRH-1 in CRC, we undertook global expression profiling following siRNA-mediated LRH-1 knockdown in HCT116 cells, which require LRH-1 for growth and in HT29 cells, in which LRH-1 does not regulate growth. Interestingly, expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 (CDKN1A) was regulated by LRH-1 in HCT116 cells. p21 regulation was not observed in HT29 cells, where p53 is mutated. p53 dependence for the regulation of p21 by LRH-1 was confirmed by p53 knockdown with siRNA, while LRH-1-regulation of p21 was not evident in HCT116 cells where p53 had been deleted. We demonstrate that LRH-1-mediated p21 regulation in HCT116 cells does not involve altered p53 protein or phosphorylation, and we show that LRH-1 inhibits p53 recruitment to the p21 promoter, likely through a mechanism involving chromatin remodelling. Our study suggests an important role for LRH-1 in the growth of CRC cells that retain wild-type p53. PMID:26400164

  11. Lack of functional p53 renders DENSpm-induced autophagy and apoptosis in time dependent manner in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    oker-Grkan, Ajda; Arisan, Elif Damla; Obakan, P?nar; Palavan-Unsal, Narin

    2015-01-01

    Polyamines (PAs), such as putrescine, spermidine and spermine, are alkyl-amines that are essential for cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and cancer progression in eukaryotic cells. A designed PA analogue; DENSpm, induces cell cycle arrest, inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in melanoma, breast, prostate, lung and colon cancer cells. Although the mechanism by which DENSpm induces apoptosis has been examined, the effect of DENSpm on autophagy has not been investigated yet. Therefore, in this study, our objective was to determine the role of p53 in the DENSpm-induced autophagy/apoptotic regulation in a time-dependent manner in colon cancer cells. Exposure of HCT 116 colon cancer cells to DENSpm decreased cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, the p53 mutant, SW480, and deficient HCT 116 p53(-/-) cells were more resistant to DENSpm treatment compared to HCT 116 p53(+/+) cells. The resistant profile caused by p53 defect also caused a cell type-specific response to PA pool depletion and SSAT overexpression. In addition to PA depletion, DENSpm induced apoptosis by activating the mitochondria-mediated pathway in a caspase-dependent manner regardless of p53 expression in colon cancer cells. Concomitantly, we determined that DENSpm also affected autophagy in HCT 116 p53(+/+), SW480 and HCT 116 p53(-/-) colon cancer cells for different periods of exposure to DENSpm. Therefore, this study revealed that effect of DENSpm on cell death differs due to p53 protein expression profile. In addition, DENSpm-induced autophagy may be critical in drug resistance in colon cancer cells. PMID:25311224

  12. Sp1 and Sp3 Are the Transcription Activators of Human ek1 Promoter in TSA-Treated Human Colon Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kuan, Chee Sian; See Too, Wei Cun; Few, Ling Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethanolamine kinase (EK) catalyzes the phosphorylation of ethanolamine, the first step in the CDP-ethanolamine pathway for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Human EK exists as EK1, EK2α and EK2β isoforms, encoded by two separate genes, named ek1 and ek2. EK activity is stimulated by carcinogens and oncogenes, suggesting the involvement of EK in carcinogenesis. Currently, little is known about EK transcriptional regulation by endogenous or exogenous signals, and the ek gene promoter has never been studied. Methodology/Principal Findings In this report, we mapped the important regulatory regions in the human ek1 promoter. 5’ deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis identified a Sp site at position (-40/-31) that was essential for the basal transcription of this gene. Treatment of HCT116 cells with trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, significantly upregulated the ek1 promoter activity through the Sp(-40/-31) site and increased the endogenous expression of ek1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that TSA increased the binding of Sp1, Sp3 and RNA polymerase II to the ek1 promoter in HCT116 cells. The effect of TSA on ek1 promoter activity was cell-line specific as TSA treatment did not affect ek1 promoter activity in HepG2 cells. Conclusion/Significance In conclusion, we showed that Sp1 and Sp3 are not only essential for the basal transcription of the ek1 gene, their accessibility to the target site on the ek1 promoter is regulated by histone protein modification in a cell line dependent manner. PMID:26807725

  13. Expression of thymidylate synthase in human cells is an early G1 event regulated by CDK4 and p16INK4A but not E2F

    PubMed Central

    Le Franois, B G; Maroun, J A; Birnboim, H C

    2007-01-01

    Thymidylate synthase (TS) is the enzyme that catalyses the last step in de novo thymidylate synthesis. It is of interest clinically because it is an effective target for drugs such as 5-fluorouracil, often used in combination therapy. Despite a number of earlier reports indicating that TS is a cell cycle-dependent enzyme, this remains equivocal. Here, we show that in HCT116 cells synchronised by serum starvation, there is a clear dissociation between the expression of cyclin E (a well-characterised cell-cycle protein) and TS. Although both cyclin E and TS mRNA and protein increased during G1, TS upregulation was delayed. Moreover, TS levels did not decrease following S-phase completion while cyclin E decreased sharply. Similarly, clear differences were seen between cyclin E and TS as asynchronously growing HCT116 cells were growth-inhibited by low-serum treatment. In contrast to previous reports using rodent cells, adenovirus-mediated over-expression of E2F1 and cyclin E in three human cell lines had no effect on TS. Cell-cycle progression was blocked by treatment of cells with pharmacological inhibitors of CDK2 and CDK4 and by ectopic expression of p16INK4A. Whereas CDK2 inhibition had no effect on TS levels, inhibition of CDK4 was associated with decreased TS protein levels. These results provide the first evidence that drugs targeting CDK4 may be useful with anti-TS drugs as combination therapy for cancer. PMID:17923872

  14. High mobility group box-1 is phosphorylated by protein kinase C zeta and secreted in colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hanna; Park, Minhee; Shin, Nara; Kim, Gamin; Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul ; Kim, Yun Gi; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Kim, Hoguen; Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specific enzyme for HMGB1 phosphorylation and its secretion is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of PKC-{zeta} leads to significant reduction of the secreted HMGB1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphorylation of specific site of HMGB1 redirects its secretion in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation of PKC-{zeta} in cancers explains the enhanced HMGB1 secretion. -- Abstract: High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), a nuclear protein, is overexpressed and secreted in cancer cells. Phosphorylation on two different nuclear localization signal regions are known to be important for the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic transport and secretion of HMGB1. However, little is known about the biochemical mechanism of HMGB1 modifications and its subsequent secretion from cancer cells. To identify the specific enzyme and important sites for HMGB1 phosphorylation, we screened the protein kinase C (PKC) family in a colon cancer cell line (HCT116) for HMGB1 binding by pull-down experiments using a 3XFLAG-HMGB1 construct. Strong interactions between atypical PKCs (PKC-{zeta}, {lambda}, and {iota}) and cytoplasmic HMGB1 were observed in HCT116 cells. We further identified the most critical PKC isotype that regulates HMGB1 secretion is PKC-{zeta} by using PKC inhibitors and siRNA experiments. The serine residues at S39, S53 and S181 of HMGB1 were related to enhancing HMGB1 secretion. We also demonstrated overexpression and activation of PKC-{zeta} in colon cancer tissues. Our findings suggest that PKC-{zeta} is involved in the phosphorylation of HMGB1, and the phosphorylation of specific serine residues in the nuclear localization signal regions is related to enhanced HMGB1 secretion in colon cancer cells.

  15. Involvement of autophagy inhibition in Brucea javanica oil emulsion-induced colon cancer cell death

    PubMed Central

    YAN, ZHENG; ZHANG, BEI; HUANG, YUANYUAN; QIU, HUIJUAN; CHEN, PING; GUO, GUI-FANG

    2015-01-01

    Brucea javanica oil emulsion (BJOE), the petroleum ether extract of B. javanica emulsified by phospholipid, is widely used in China as an anticancer agent. The extracts from B. javanica induce cancer cell death by various mechanisms; however, it is not known whether these mechanisms involve autophagy, which is an important process in cancer development and treatment. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate whether BJOE modulates autophagy in HCT116 human colon cancer cells and whether modulation of autophagy is an anticancer mechanism of BJOE. Immunoblotting was employed to analyze the protein expression levels of microtubule-associated protein light-chain 3 (LC3), a specific protein marker of autophagy, in HCT116 cancer cells following exposure to BJOE. The apoptosis rate of the HCT116 cancer cells was detected by performing an Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide assay. According to the effect of BJOE administration on autophagy in the HCT116 cancer cells (induction or suppression), a functionally opposite agent (autophagy suppressor or inducer) was applied to counteract this effect, and the apoptosis rate of the cancer cells was detected again. The role of autophagy (pro-survival or pro-death) was demonstrated by comparing the rates of apoptotic cancer cells prior to and following the counteraction. The results revealed that BJOE suppressed the protein expression levels of LC3, including the LC3-I and LC3-II forms, and induced apoptosis in the HCT116 cancer cells with a high level of basal LC3. The apoptosis-inducing activity of BJOE was significantly attenuated when autophagy was induced by the administration of trehalose, an autophagy inducer. The data indicates that autophagy inhibition is involved in BJOE-induced cancer cell death, and that this inhibition may be a potential anticancer mechanism of BJOE. PMID:25663926

  16. Cytotoxicity of 5-fluorouracil-loaded pH-sensitive liposomal nanoparticles in colorectal cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Udofot, Ofonime; Affram, Kevin; Israel, Bridg'ette; Agyare, Edward

    2015-01-01

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is widely used in cancer therapy, either alone or in combination with other anti-cancer drugs. However, poor membrane permeability and a short half-life (5-20 min) due to rapid metabolism in the body necessitate the continuous administration of high doses of 5-FU to maintain the minimum therapeutic serum concentration. This is associated with significant side effects and a possibility of severe toxic effects. This study aimed to formulate 5-FU-loaded pH-sensitive liposomal nanoparticles (pHLNps-5-FU) and evaluate 5-FU release characteristics and anti-cancer effect of pHLNps-5-FU. Particle size and zeta potential were determined using a particle size analyzer. The release patterns of pHLNps-5-FU formulations were evaluated at 37C at pH 3, 5, 6.5, and 7.4, while drug release kinetics of 5-FU from a pHLNp35-FU formulation were determined at pH 3 and 7.4 at different time points (37C). Cell viability and clonogenic studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of pHLNps-5-FU against HCT-116 and HT-29 cell lines while cellular uptake of rhodamine-labeled pHLNps-5-FU was determined by flow cytometry and confocal imaging. The average sizes of the pHLNp15-FU, pHLNp25-FU and pHLNp35-FU liposomes were 200nm 9.8nm, 181.9 nm 9.1 nm, and 164.3 nm 8.4 nm respectively. In vitro drug release of 5-FU from different pHLNps-5-FU formulations was the highest at pH 3.8. Both cell lines treated with pHLNps-5-FU exhibited reduced viability, two- or three-fold lower than that of 5-FU-treated cells. Flow cytometry and confocal imaging confirmed high uptake of rhodamine-labeled pHLNps-5-FU in both cell lines. The drug release profile of the chosen pHLNp3-5-FU formulation was optimal at pH 3 and had the poorest release profile at pH 7.4. The release profile of pHLNp3-5-FU showed that 5-FU release was two-fold higher at pH 3 than that at pH 7.4. This study demonstrates that pHLNp3-5-FU may be a potential candidate for the treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:26691592

  17. Resveratrol Inhibits Invasion and Metastasis of Colorectal Cancer Cells via MALAT1 Mediated Wnt/?-Catenin Signal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiaoling; Zhang, Long; Sui, Hua; Zhou, Lihong; Sun, Jian; Cai, Jianfeng; Qin, Jianmin; Ren, Jianlin; Li, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Resveratrol, extracted from Chinese herbal medicine Polygonum cuspidatum, is known to inhibit invasion and metastasis of human colorectal cancer (CRC), in which long non-coding Metastasis Associated Lung Adenocarcinoma Transcript 1 (RNA-MALAT1) also plays an important role. Using MALAT1 lentiviral shRNA and over-expression constructs in CRC derived cell lines, LoVo and HCT116, we demonstrated that the anti-tumor effects of resveratrol on CRC are through inhibiting Wnt/?-catenin signaling, thus the expression of its target genes such as c-Myc, MMP-7, as well as the expression of MALAT1. In detail, resveratrol down-regulates MALAT1, resulting in decreased nuclear localization of ?-catenin thus attenuated Wnt/?-catenin signaling, which leads to the inhibition of CRC invasion and metastasis. This finding of ours surely provides important pre-clinical evidence supporting future use of resveratrol in prevention and treatment of CRC. PMID:24244343

  18. Polyphenol-rich extract of Salvia chinensis exhibits anticancer activity in different cancer cell lines, and induces cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1-phase, apoptosis and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, QUAN; HUO, XUE-CHEN; SUN, FU-DONG; DONG, RUI-QIAN

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most aggressive types of human malignancy, which has an overall 5-year survival rate of <2%. PC is the fourth most common cause of cancer-associated mortality in the western world. At present, there is almost no effective treatment available for the treatment of PC. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anticancer potential of a polyphenol enriched extract obtained from Salvia chinensis, a Chinese medicinal plant. An MTT assay was used to evaluate the cell viability of five cancer cell lines and one normal cell line. In addition, the effects of the extract on apoptotic induction, cell cycle phase distribution, DNA damage and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) were evaluated in MiapaCa-2 human PC cells. The effects of the extract on cell cycle phase distribution and ??m were assessed by flow cytometry, using propidium iodide and rhodamine-123 DNA-binding fluorescent dyes, respectively. Fluorescence microscopy, using 4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole as a staining agent, was performed in order to detect the morphological changes of the MiapaCa-2 cancer cells and the presence of apoptotic bodies following treatment with the extract. The results of the present study demonstrated that the polyphenol-rich extract from S. chinensis induced potent cytotoxicity in the MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, A549 human lung cancer cells, HCT-116 and COLO 205 human colon cancer cells, and MiapaCa-2 human PC cells. The COLO 205 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines were the most susceptible to treatment with the extract, which exhibited increased rate of growth inhibition. Fluorescence microscopy revealed characteristic morphological features of apoptosis and detected the appearance of apoptotic bodies following treatment with the extract in the PC cells. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the extract induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, treatment with the extract induced a significant and concentration-dependent reduction in the ??m of the PC cells. PMID:26165362

  19. Synthetic Development of New 3-(4-Arylmethylamino)butyl-5-arylidene-rhodanines under Microwave Irradiation and Their Effects on Tumor Cell Lines and against Protein Kinases.

    PubMed

    Dago, Camille Dliko; Ambeu, Christelle N'ta; Coulibaly, Wacothon-Karime; Bkro, Yves-Alain; Mamyrbkova, Janat; Defontaine, Audrey; Baratte, Blandine; Bach, Stphane; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Guvel, Rmy Le; Ravache, Myriam; Corlu, Anne; Bazureau, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    A new route to 3-(4-arylmethylamino)butyl-5-arylidene-2-thioxo-1,3-thiazolidine-4-one 9 was developed in six steps from commercial 1,4-diaminobutane 1 as starting material. The key step of this multi-step synthesis involved a solution phase "one-pot two-steps" approach assisted by microwave dielectric from N-(arylmethyl)butane-1,4-diamine hydrochloride 6a-f (as source of the first point diversity) and commercial bis-(carboxymethyl)-trithiocarbonate reagent 7 for construction of the rhodanine platform. This platform was immediately functionalized by Knoevenagel condensation under microwave irradiation with a series of aromatic aldehydes 3 as second point of diversity. These new compounds were prepared in moderate to good yields and the fourteen synthetic products 9a-n have been obtained with a Z-geometry about their exocyclic double bond. These new 5-arylidene rhodanines derivatives 9a-n were tested for their kinase inhibitory potencies against four protein kinases: Human cyclin-dependent kinase 5-p25, HsCDK5-p25; porcine Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3, GSK-3?/?; porcine Casein Kinase 1, SsCK1 and human HsHaspin. They have also been evaluated for their in vitro inhibition of cell proliferation (HuH7 D12, Caco 2, MDA-MB 231, HCT 116, PC3, NCI-H727, HaCat and fibroblasts). Among of all these compounds, 9j presented selective micromolar inhibition activity on SsCK1 and 9i exhibited antitumor activities in the HuH7 D12, MDA-MBD231 cell lines. PMID:26184130

  20. Celecoxib Induced Tumor Cell Radiosensitization by Inhibiting Radiation Induced Nuclear EGFR Transport and DNA-Repair: A COX-2 Independent Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Dittmann, Klaus H. Mayer, Claus; Ohneseit, Petra A.; Raju, Uma; Andratschke, Nickolaus H.; Milas, Luka; Rodemann, H. Peter

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms mediating radiosensitization of human tumor cells by the selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor celecoxib. Methods and Materials: Experiments were performed using bronchial carcinoma cells A549, transformed fibroblasts HH4dd, the FaDu head-and-neck tumor cells, the colon carcinoma cells HCT116, and normal fibroblasts HSF7. Effects of celecoxib treatment were assessed by clonogenic cell survival, Western analysis, and quantification of residual DNA damage by {gamma}H{sub 2}AX foci assay. Results: Celecoxib treatment resulted in a pronounced radiosensitization of A549, HCT116, and HSF7 cells, whereas FaDu and HH4dd cells were not radiosensitized. The observed radiosensitization could neither be correlated with basal COX-2 expression pattern nor with basal production of prostaglandin E2, but was depended on the ability of celecoxib to inhibit basal and radiation-induced nuclear transport of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The nuclear EGFR transport was strongly inhibited in A549-, HSF7-, and COX-2-deficient HCT116 cells, which were radiosensitized, but not in FaDu and HH4dd cells, which resisted celecoxib-induced radiosensitization. Celecoxib inhibited radiation-induced DNA-PK activation in A549, HSF7, and HCT116 cells, but not in FaDu and HH4dd cells. Consequentially, celecoxib increased residual {gamma}H2AX foci after irradiation, demonstrating that inhibition of DNA repair has occurred in responsive A549, HCT116, and HSF7 cells only. Conclusions: Celecoxib enhanced radiosensitivity by inhibition of EGFR-mediated mechanisms of radioresistance, a signaling that was independent of COX-2 activity. This novel observation may have therapeutic implications such that COX-2 inhibitors may improve therapeutic efficacy of radiation even in patients whose tumor radioresistance is not dependent on COX-2.

  1. Selenium compounds activate ATM-dependent DNA damage responses via the mismatch repair protein hMLH1 in colorectal cancer cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epidemiological and animal studies indicate that selenium supplementation suppresses risk of colorectal and other cancers. The majority of colorectal cancers are characterized by a defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR) process. Here, we have employed the MMR-deficient HCT 116 colorectal cancer cells ...

  2. Differential Effects of Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4? Isoforms on Tumor Growth and T-Cell Factor 4/AP-1 Interactions in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Linh M; Chellappa, Karthikeyani; Dhahbi, Joseph M; Deans, Jonathan R; Fang, Bin; Bolotin, Eugene; Titova, Nina V; Hoverter, Nate P; Spindler, Stephen R; Waterman, Marian L; Sladek, Frances M

    2015-10-01

    The nuclear receptor hepatocyte nuclear factor 4? (HNF4?) is tumor suppressive in the liver but amplified in colon cancer, suggesting that it also might be oncogenic. To investigate whether this discrepancy is due to different HNF4? isoforms derived from its two promoters (P1 and P2), we generated Tet-On-inducible human colon cancer (HCT116) cell lines that express either the P1-driven (HNF4?2) or P2-driven (HNF4?8) isoform and analyzed them for tumor growth and global changes in gene expression (transcriptome sequencing [RNA-seq] and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing [ChIP-seq]). The results show that while HNF4?2 acts as a tumor suppressor in the HCT116 tumor xenograft model, HNF4?8 does not. Each isoform regulates the expression of distinct sets of genes and recruits, colocalizes, and competes in a distinct fashion with the Wnt/?-catenin mediator T-cell factor 4 (TCF4) at CTTTG motifs as well as at AP-1 motifs (TGAXTCA). Protein binding microarrays (PBMs) show that HNF4? and TCF4 share some but not all binding motifs and that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in sites bound by both HNF4? and TCF4 can alter binding affinity in vitro, suggesting that they could play a role in cancer susceptibility in vivo. Thus, the HNF4? isoforms play distinct roles in colon cancer, which could be due to differential interactions with the Wnt/?-catenin/TCF4 and AP-1 pathways. PMID:26240283

  3. Overexpression of Arginine Transporter CAT-1 Is Associated with Accumulation of L-Arginine and Cell Growth in Human Colorectal Cancer Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junchen; Yang, Chunzhang; Mao, Huiming; Fu, Xuelian; Wu, Yanling; Cai, Jingping; Han, Junyi; Xu, Zengguang; Zhuang, Zhengping; Liu, Zhongmin; Hu, Hai; Chen, Bingguan

    2013-01-01

    We previously showed that L-arginine (Arg) accumulates in colorectal cancer tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which Arg accumulates and determine its biological significance. The concentration of Arg and Citrulline (Cit) in sera and tumor tissues from colorectal cancer (CRC) patients was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The expression of Arg transporters was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarray. We also transfected the colon cancer cell line HCT-116 with siRNA specific for the Arg transporter CAT-1 and measured the induction of apoptosis by flow cytometry and cell proliferation by MTT assay. Consistent with our previous results, serum Arg and Cit concentrations in colorectal cancer patients were significantly lower than those in normal volunteers, while Arg and Cit concentrations in colorectal cancer tissues were significantly higher than in matched adjacent normal colon tissues. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the CAT-1 gene was highly overexpressed in 70.5% of colorectal cancer tissue samples relative to adjacent normal colon tissues in all 122 patients with colorectal cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarray confirmed that the expression of CAT-1 was higher in all 25 colorectal cancer tissues tested. CAT-1 siRNA significantly induced apoptosis of HCT-116 cells and subsequently inhibited cell growth by 2050%. Our findings indicate that accumulation of L-Arg and Cit and cell growth in colorectal cancer tissues is associated with over-expression of the Arg transporter gene CAT-1. Our results may be useful for the development of molecular diagnostic tools and targeted therapy for colorectal cancer. PMID:24040099

  4. Effects of folylpolyglutamate synthase modulation on global and gene-specific DNA methylation and gene expression in human colon and breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Eun; Hinoue, Toshinori; Kim, Michael S; Sohn, Kyoung-Jin; Cho, Robert C; Weisenberger, Daniel J; Laird, Peter W; Kim, Young-In

    2016-03-01

    Folylpolyglutamate synthase (FPGS) plays a critical role in intracellular folate homeostasis. FPGS-induced polyglutamylated folates are better substrates for several enzymes involved in the generation of S-adenosylmethionine, the primary methyl group donor, and hence FPGS modulation may affect DNA methylation. DNA methylation is an important epigenetic determinant in gene expression and aberrant DNA methylation is mechanistically linked cancer development. We investigated whether FPGS modulation would affect global and gene-specific promoter DNA methylation with consequent functional effects on gene expression profiles in HCT116 colon and MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells. Although FPGS modulation altered global DNA methylation and DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) activity, the effects of FPGS modulation on global DNA methylation and DNMT activity could not be solely explained by intracellular folate concentrations and content of long-chain folylpolyglutamates, and it may be cell-specific. FPGS modulation influenced differential gene expression and promoter cytosine-guanine dinucleotide sequences (CpG) DNA methylation involved in cellular development, cell cycle, cell death and molecular transport. Some of the altered gene expression was associated with promoter CpG DNA methylation changes. In both the FPGS-overexpressed HCT116 and MDA-MB-435 cell lines, we identified several differentially expressed genes involved in folate biosynthesis and one-carbon metabolism, which might in part have contributed to the observed increased efficacy of 5-fluorouracil in response to FPGS overexpression. Our data suggest that FPGS modulation affects global and promoter CpG DNA methylation and expression of several genes involved in important biological pathways. The potential role of FPGS modulation in DNA methylation and its associated downstream functional effects warrants further studies. PMID:26895662

  5. Insulin, CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Proteins and Lactate Regulate the Human 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 Gene Expression in Colon Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Alikhani-Koupaei, Rasoul; Ignatova, Irena D.; Guettinger, Andreas; Frey, Felix J.; Frey, Brigitte M.

    2014-01-01

    11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11beta-HSD) modulate mineralocorticoid receptor transactivation by glucocorticoids and regulate access to the glucocorticoid receptor. The isozyme 11beta-HSD2 is selectively expressed in mineralocorticoid target tissues and its activity is reduced in various disease states with abnormal sodium retention and hypertension, including the apparent mineralocorticoid excess. As 50% of patients with essential hypertension are insulin resistant and hyperinsulinemic, we hypothesized that insulin downregulates the 11beta-HSD2 activity. In the present study we show that insulin reduced the 11beta-HSD2 activity in cancer colon cell lines (HCT116, SW620 and HT-29) at the transcriptional level, in a time and dose dependent manner. The downregulation was reversible and required new protein synthesis. Pathway analysis using mRNA profiling revealed that insulin treatment modified the expression of the transcription factor family C/EBPs (CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins) but also of glycolysis related enzymes. Western blot and real time PCR confirmed an upregulation of C/EBP beta isoforms (LAP and LIP) with a more pronounced increase in the inhibitory isoform LIP. EMSA and reporter gene assays demonstrated the role of C/EBP beta isoforms in HSD11B2 gene expression regulation. In addition, secretion of lactate, a byproduct of glycolysis, was shown to mediate insulin-dependent HSD11B2 downregulation. In summary, we demonstrate that insulin downregulates HSD11B2 through increased LIP expression and augmented lactate secretion. Such mechanisms are of interest and potential significance for sodium reabsorption in the colon. PMID:25133511

  6. Binding of the phage display derived peptide CaIX-P1 on human colorectal carcinoma cells correlates with the expression of carbonic anhydrase IX.

    PubMed

    Askoxylakis, Vasileios; Ehemann, Volker; Rana, Shoaib; Krmer, Susanne; Rahbari, Nuh N; Debus, Jrgen; Haberkorn, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Phage display represents an attractive screening strategy for the identification of novel, specific binding ligands that could be used for tumor targeting. Recently, a new peptide (CaIX-P1) with affinity for human carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) was identified and evaluated. The aim of the present study is to characterize the properties of CaIX-P1 for targeting human colorectal carcinoma and investigate the correlation of peptide binding with the expression of carbonic anhydrase IX. Human colorectal carcinoma HCT116 and HT29 cells were investigated for CAIX expression using Western Blot analysis. Binding and competition studies of 125I-radiolabeled CaIX-P1 were performed on HCT116 cells in vitro. FACS analysis and fluorescence microscopy studies were carried out after cell incubation with fluorescein-labeled CaIX-P1 and rhodamine-labeled anti-human CAIX-mAb. Our studies revealed an enhanced in vitro expression of carbonic anhydrase IX in HCT116 and HT29 cells with increasing cell density. Binding of 125I-labeled-CaIX-P1 on HCT116 cells increased with increasing cell density and correlated to the CAIX expression. FACS analysis demonstrated a correlation of cell labeling between FITC-CaIX-P1 and rhodamine-labeled anti-CAIX-mAb in both HCT116 and HT29 cells. The results of our study indicate that the phage display identified peptide CaIX-P1 might be an attractive candidate for the development of a ligand targeting CAIX in colorectal cancer. PMID:23202936

  7. Lipoic acid inhibits the DNA repair protein O 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and triggers its depletion in colorectal cancer cells with concomitant autophagy induction.

    PubMed

    Gder, Anja; Nagel, Georg; Kraus, Alexander; Drsam, Bastian; Seiwert, Nina; Kaina, Bernd; Fahrer, Jrg

    2015-08-01

    Alkylating agents are present in food and tobacco smoke, but are also used in cancer chemotherapy, inducing the DNA lesion O (6)-methylguanine. This critical adduct is repaired by O (6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), resulting in MGMT inactivation and degradation. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of the natural disulfide compound lipoic acid (LA) on MGMT in vitro and in colorectal cancer cells. We show that LA, but not its reduced form dihydrolipoic acid, potently inhibits the activity of recombinant MGMT by interfering with its catalytic Cys-145 residue, which was partially reversible by N-acetyl cysteine. Incubation of HCT116 colorectal cancer cells with LA altered their glutathione pool and caused a decline in MGMT activity. This was mirrored by LA-induced depletion of MGMT protein, which was not attributable to changes in MGMT messenger RNA levels. Loss of MGMT protein coincided with LA-induced autophagy, a process resulting in lysosomal degradation of proteins, including presumably MGMT. LA-stimulated autophagy in a p53-independent manner as revealed by the response of isogenic HCT116 cell lines. Knockdown of the crucial autophagy component beclin-1 and chemical inhibitors blocked LA-induced autophagy, but did not abrogate LA-triggered MGMT degradation. Concomitant with MGMT depletion, LA pretreatment resulted in enhanced O (6)-methylguanine levels in DNA. It also increased the cytotoxicity of the alkylating anticancer drug temozolomide in temozolomide-resistant colorectal cancer cells. Taken together, our study showed that the natural compound LA inhibits MGMT and induces autophagy. Furthermore, LA enhanced the cytotoxic effects of temozolomide, which makes it a candidate for a supplement in cancer therapy. PMID:25998848

  8. CLO: The cell line ontology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cell lines have been widely used in biomedical research. The community-based Cell Line Ontology (CLO) is a member of the OBO Foundry library that covers the domain of cell lines. Since its publication two years ago, significant updates have been made, including new groups joining the CLO consortium, new cell line cells, upper level alignment with the Cell Ontology (CL) and the Ontology for Biomedical Investigation, and logical extensions. Construction and content Collaboration among the CLO, CL, and OBI has established consensus definitions of cell line-specific terms such as cell line, cell line cell, cell line culturing, and mortal vs. immortal cell line cell. A cell line is a genetically stable cultured cell population that contains individual cell line cells. The hierarchical structure of the CLO is built based on the hierarchy of the in vivo cell types defined in CL and tissue types (from which cell line cells are derived) defined in the UBERON cross-species anatomy ontology. The new hierarchical structure makes it easier to browse, query, and perform automated classification. We have recently added classes representing more than 2,000 cell line cells from the RIKEN BRC Cell Bank to CLO. Overall, the CLO now contains ~38,000 classes of specific cell line cells derived from over 200 in vivo cell types from various organisms. Utility and discussion The CLO has been applied to different biomedical research studies. Example case studies include annotation and analysis of EBI ArrayExpress data, bioassays, and host-vaccine/pathogen interaction. CLOs utility goes beyond a catalogue of cell line types. The alignment of the CLO with related ontologies combined with the use of ontological reasoners will support sophisticated inferencing to advance translational informatics development. PMID:25852852

  9. In Vitro and In Vivo Enhancement of Chemoradiation Using the Oral PARP Inhibitor ABT-888 in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, Joseph W.; Waxweiler, Timothy V.; Landry, Jerome; Gao, Huiying; Xu, Yanbo; Wang, Lanfang; El-Rayes, Bassel; Shu, Hui-Kuo G.

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase plays a critical role in the recognition and repair of DNA single-strand breaks and double-strand breaks (DSBs). ABT-888 is an orally available inhibitor of this enzyme. This study seeks to evaluate the use of ABT-888 combined with chemotherapy and radiation therapy (RT) in colorectal carcinoma models. Methods and Materials: RT clonogenic assays were performed on HCT116 and HT29 cells treated with 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan, or oxaliplatin with or without ABT. The surviving fraction at 2 Gy and dose-modifying factor at 10% survival were analyzed. Synergism was assessed by isobologram analysis for combination therapies. γH2AX and neutral comet assays were performed to assess the effect of therapy on DSB formation/repair. In vivo assessments were made by use of HCT116 cells in a xenograft mouse model. Tumor growth delay was measured at a volume of 500 mm{sup 3}. Results: Both lines were radiosensitized by ABT alone, and ABT further increased chemotherapy dose-modifying factors to the 1.6 to 1.8 range. All combinations were synergistic (combination indices <0.9). ABT treatment significantly increased DSB after RT (γH2AX, 69% vs 43%; P=.017) and delayed repair. We found tumor growth delays of 7.22 days for RT; 11.90 days for RT and ABT; 13.5 days for oxaliplatin, RT, and ABT; 14.17 days for 5-fluorouracil, RT, and ABT; and 23.81 days for irinotecan, RT, and ABT. Conclusion: ABT-888 radiosensitizes at similar or higher levels compared with classic chemotherapies and acts synergistically with these chemotherapies to enhance RT effects. In vivo confirmation of these results indicates a potential role for combining its use with existing chemoradiation regimens.

  10. Available Lepidopteran Insect Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Dwight E; Harrison, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    This chapter lists the known cell lines from Lepidoptera, largely based on previous compilations of insect cell lines published by W. Fred Hink. More than 320 lines from 65 species are listed. The official designation is given for each cell line as well as the species, tissue source, and, when known, the susceptibilities to baculoviruses. PMID:26820856

  11. Impact of Mesenchymal Stem Cell secreted PAI-1 on colon cancer cell migration and proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Niamh M.; Joyce, Myles R.; Murphy, J. Mary; Barry, Frank P.; O’Brien, Timothy; Kerin, Michael J.; Dwyer, Roisin M.

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •MSCs were directly co-cultured with colorectal cancer (CRC) cells on 3D scaffolds. •MSCs influence CRC protein/gene expression, proliferation and migration. •We report a significant functional role of MSC-secreted PAI-1 in colon cancer. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal Stem Cells are known to engraft and integrate into the architecture of colorectal tumours, with little known regarding their fate following engraftment. This study aimed to investigate mediators of Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) and colon cancer cell (CCC) interactions. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and colon cancer cells (HT29 and HCT-116) were cultured individually or in co-culture on 3-dimensional scaffolds. Conditioned media containing all secreted factors was harvested at day 1, 3 and 7. Chemokine secretion and expression were analyzed by Chemi-array, ELISA (Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1)) and RQ-PCR. Colon cancer cell migration and proliferation in response to recombinant PAI-1, MSCs and MSCs + antibody to PAI-1 was analyzed using Transwell inserts and an MTS proliferation assay respectively. Chemi-array revealed secretion of a wide range of factors by each cell population, including PAI-1and MIF. ELISA analysis revealed Mesenchymal Stem Cells to secrete the highest levels of PAI-1 (MSC mean 10.6 ng/mL, CCC mean 1.01 ng/mL), while colon cancer cells were the principal source of MIF. MSC-secreted PAI-1 stimulated significant migration of both CCC lines, with an antibody to the chemokine shown to block this effect (67–88% blocking,). A cell-line dependant effect on CCC proliferation was shown for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-secreted PAI-1 with HCT-116 cells showing decreased proliferation at all concentrations, and HT29 cells showing increased proliferation in the presence of higher PAI-1 levels. This is the first study to identify PAI-1 as an important mediator of Mesenchymal Stem Cell/colon cancer cell interactions and highlights the significant functional impact of Mesenchymal Stem Cell-secreted PAI-1 on colon cancer cells.

  12. Interaction of celecoxib with different anti-cancer drugs is antagonistic in breast but not in other cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    El-Awady, Raafat A.; Saleh, Ekram M.; Ezz, Marwa; Elsayed, Abeer M.

    2011-09-15

    Celecoxib, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, is being investigated for enhancement of chemotherapy efficacy in cancer clinical trials. This study investigates the ability of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors to sensitize cells from different origins to several chemotherapeutic agents. The effect of the drug's mechanism of action and sequence of administration are also investigated. The sensitivity, cell cycle, apoptosis and DNA damage of five different cancer cell lines (HeLa, HCT116, HepG2, MCF7 and U251) to 5-FU, cisplatin, doxorubicin and etoposide {+-} celecoxib following different incubation schedules were analyzed. We found antagonism between celecoxib and the four drugs in the breast cancer cells MCF7 following all incubation schedules and between celecoxib and doxorubicin in all cell lines except for two combinations in HCT116 cells. Celecoxib with the other three drugs in the remaining four cell lines resulted in variable interactions. Mechanistic investigations revealed that celecoxib exerts different molecular effects in different cells. In some lines, it abrogates the drug-induced G2/M arrest enhancing pre-mature entry into mitosis with damaged DNA thus increasing apoptosis and resulting in synergism. In other cells, it enhances drug-induced G2/M arrest allowing time to repair drug-induced DNA damage before entry into mitosis and decreasing cell death resulting in antagonism. In some synergistic combinations, celecoxib-induced abrogation of G2/M arrest was not associated with apoptosis but permanent arrest in G1 phase. These results, if confirmed in-vivo, indicate that celecoxib is not a suitable chemosensitizer for breast cancer or with doxorubicin for other cancers. Moreover, combination of celecoxib with other drugs should be tailored to the tumor type, drug and administration schedule. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Celecoxib may enhance effects of anticancer drugs. > Its combination with four drugs was tested in five cancer cell lines. > It antagonized the effects of the four drugs in the breast cancer cell line MCF7. > Doxorubicin's cytotoxic effects were antagonized by celecoxib in four cell lines. > Cell cycle, apoptosis and DNA damage explain the different interactive effects.

  13. Aberrant, ectopic expression of VEGF and VEGF receptors 1 and 2 in malignant colonic epithelial cells. Implications for these cells growth via an autocrine mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, Amrita; Jones, Michael K.; Department of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA ; Szabo, Sandor; Department of Pathology, University of California, Irvine, CA ; Tarnawski, Andrzej S.

    2013-08-09

    Highlights: •Malignant colonic epithelial cells express VEGF and its receptors. •Cultured colon cancer cells secrete VEGF into the medium. •Inhibition of VEGF receptor significantly decreases colon cancer cell proliferation. •VEGF is critical for colon cancer cell growth. -- Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor A (referred to as VEGF) is implicated in colon cancer growth. Currently, the main accepted mechanism by which VEGF promotes colon cancer growth is via the stimulation of angiogenesis, which was originally postulated by late Judah Folkman. However, the cellular source of VEGF in colon cancer tissue; and, the expression of VEGF and its receptors VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 in colon cancer cells are not fully known and are subjects of controversy. Material and methods: We examined and quantified expression of VEGF, VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 in three different human colonic tissue arrays containing sections of adenocarcinoma (n = 43) and normal mucosa (n = 41). In human colon cancer cell lines HCT116 and HT29 and normal colon cell lines NCM356 and NCM460, we examined expression of VEGF, VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 mRNA and protein, VEGF production and secretion into the culture medium; and, the effect of a potent, selective inhibitor of VEGF receptors, AL-993, on cell proliferation. Results: Human colorectal cancer specimens had strong expression of VEGF in cancer cells and also expressed VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2.In vitro studies showed that human colon cancer cell lines, HCT116 and HT29, but not normal colonic cell lines, express VEGF, VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 and secrete VEGF into the medium up to a concentration 2000 pg/ml within 48 h. Furthermore, we showed that inhibition of VEGF receptors using a specific VEGF-R inhibitor significantly reduced proliferation (by >50%) of cultured colon cancer cell lines. Conclusions: Our findings support the contention that VEGF generated by colon cancer cells stimulates their growth directly through an autocrine mechanism that is independent of its primary function in the induction of angiogenesis.

  14. The natural product peiminine represses colorectal carcinoma tumor growth by inducing autophagic cell death.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Qing; Tou, Fangfang; Su, Hong; Wu, Xiaoyong; Chen, Xinyi; Zheng, Zhi

    2015-06-19

    Autophagy is evolutionarily conservative in eukaryotic cells that engulf cellular long-lived proteins and organelles, and it degrades the contents through fusion with lysosomes, via which the cell acquires recycled building blocks for the synthesis of new molecules. In this study, we revealed that peiminine induces cell death and enhances autophagic flux in colorectal carcinoma HCT-116 cells. We determined that peiminine enhances the autophagic flux by repressing the phosphorylation of mTOR through inhibiting upstream signals. Knocking down ATG5 greatly reduced the peiminine-induced cell death in wild-type HCT-116 cells, while treating Bax/Bak-deficient cells with peiminine resulted in significant cell death. In summary, our discoveries demonstrated that peiminine represses colorectal carcinoma cell proliferation and cell growth by inducing autophagic cell death. PMID:25935480

  15. Nuclear cathepsin L activity is required for cell cycle progression of colorectal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tamhane, Tripti; Lllukkumbura, Rukshala; Lu, Shiying; Maelandsmo, Gunhild M; Haugen, Mads H; Brix, Klaudia

    2016-03-01

    Prominent tasks of cysteine cathepsins involve endo-lysosomal proteolysis and turnover of extracellular matrix constituents or plasma membrane proteins for maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. Here we report on enhanced levels and altered subcellular localization of distinct cysteine cathepsins in adenocarcinoma tissue in comparison to adjacent normal colon. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting investigations revealed the presence of cathepsin L in the nuclear compartment in addition to its expected endo-lysosomal localization in colorectal carcinoma cells. Cathepsin L was represented as the full-length protein in the nuclei of HCT116 cells from which stefin B, a potent cathepsin L inhibitor, was absent. Fluorescence activated cell sorting analyses with synchronized cell cultures revealed deceleration of cell cycle progression of HCT116 cells upon inhibition of cathepsin L activity, while expression of cathepsin L-enhanced green fluorescent protein chimeras accelerated S-phase entry. We conclude that the activity of cathepsin L is high in the nucleus of colorectal carcinoma cells because of lacking stefin B inhibitory activity. Furthermore, we hypothesize that nuclear cathepsin L accelerates cell cycle progression of HCT116 cells thereby supporting the notion that cysteine cathepsins may play significant roles in carcinogenesis due to deregulated trafficking. PMID:26343556

  16. Optimized pregelatinized starch technique for cell block preparation in cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ya-Zhen; Cui, Feng-Yun; Yang, Yu; Peng, Hui; Li, Wei-Ping; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Zhu, Hong-Guang; He, Qing-Lian; Zheng, Guang-Juan

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to optimize the pregelatinized starch technique for cell block preparation and apply this approach in cultured cells of all types of growing forms, suspension and adherent. In order to evenly mix the starch powder and the cell suspension, we crafted a special plastic dropper. To prove the effectiveness of this optimized technique we used different cell lines, NCI-H69, NCI-H345, HCT-116, SKBR3 and MDA-MB-231. The morphology features, immunocytochemistry (ICC) and fluorescent/chromogenic in-situ hybridization (FISH/CISH) on the cell block sections were evaluated. The morphology features, the ICC and ISH results of cell block sections prepared by the new method were satisfactory comparing with the results obtained in biopsies, the gold standard test for this kind of analysis. The most attractive advantage of our optimized pregelatinized starch technique is that this new method is based on cell suspensions instead of cell sediment, so with our technique every section will contain cells due to the even distribution of the starch powder and the cells forming a homogeneous cell block. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description on cell block preparation based on cell suspension. PMID:23797005

  17. Identification of a distinct population of CD133+CXCR4+ cancer stem cells in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cioffi, Michele; DAlterio, Crescenzo; Camerlingo, Rosalba; Tirino, Virginia; Consales, Claudia; Riccio, Anna; Ieran, Caterina; Cecere, Sabrina Chiara; Losito, Nunzia Simona; Greggi, Stefano; Pignata, Sandro; Pirozzi, Giuseppe; Scala, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    CD133 and CXCR4 were evaluated in the NCI-60 cell lines to identify cancer stem cell rich populations. Screening revealed that, ovarian OVCAR-3, -4 and -5 and colon cancer HT-29, HCT-116 and SW620 over expressed both proteins. We aimed to isolate cells with stem cell features sorting the cells expressing CXCR4+CD133+ within ovarian cancer cell lines. The sorted population CD133+CXCR4+ demonstrated the highest efficiency in sphere formation in OVCAR-3, OVCAR-4 and OVCAR-5 cells. Moreover OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and NANOG were highly expressed in CD133+CXCR4+ sorted OVCAR-5 cells. Most strikingly CXCR4+CD133+ sorted OVCAR-5 and -4 cells formed the highest number of tumors when inoculated in nude mice compared to CD133?CXCR4?, CD133+CXCR4?, CD133?CXCR4+ cells. CXCR4+CD133+ OVCAR-5 cells were resistant to cisplatin, overexpressed the ABCG2 surface drug transporter and migrated toward the CXCR4 ligand, CXCL12. Moreover, when human ovarian cancer cells were isolated from 37 primary ovarian cancer, an extremely variable level of CXCR4 and CD133 expression was detected. Thus, in human ovarian cancer cells CXCR4 and CD133 expression identified a discrete population with stem cell properties that regulated tumor development and chemo resistance. This cell population represents a potential therapeutic target. PMID:26020117

  18. 1,3-Bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea enhances the inhibitory effect of Resveratrol on 5-fluorouracil sensitive/resistant colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Das, Dipon; Preet, Ranjan; Mohapatra, Purusottam; Satapathy, Shakti Ranjan; Kundu, Chanakya Nath

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study the mechanism of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) resistance in colon cancer cells and to develop strategies for overcoming such resistance by combination treatment. METHODS: We established and characterized a 5-FU resistance (5-FU-R) cell line derived from continuous exposure (25 ?mol/L) to 5-FU for 20 wk in 5-FU sensitive HCT-116 cells. The proliferation and expression of different representative apoptosis and anti-apoptosis markers in 5-FU sensitive and 5-FU resistance cells were measured by the MTT assay and by Western blotting, respectively, after treatment with Resveratrol (Res) and/or 1,3-Bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU). Apoptosis and cell cycle arrest was measured by 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole hydrochloride staining and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, respectively. The extent of DNA damage was measured by the Comet assay. We measured the visible changes in the DNA damage/repair cascade by Western blotting. RESULTS: The widely used chemotherapeutic agents BCNU and Res decreased the growth of 5-FU sensitive HCT-116 cells in a dose dependent manner. Combined application of BCNU and Res caused more apoptosis in 5-FU sensitive cells in comparison to individual treatment. In addition, the combined application of BCNU and Res caused a significant decrease of major DNA base excision repair components in 5-FU sensitive cells. We established a 5-FU resistance cell line (5-FU-R) from 5-FU-sensitive HCT-116 (mismatch repair deficient) cells that was not resistant to other chemotherapeutic agents (e.g., BCNU, Res) except 5-FU. The 5-FU resistance of 5-FU-R cells was assessed by exposure to increasing concentrations of 5-FU followed by the MTT assay. There was no significant cell death noted in 5-FU-R cells in comparison to 5-FU sensitive cells after 5-FU treatment. This resistant cell line overexpressed anti-apoptotic [e.g., AKT, nuclear factor ?B, FLICE-like inhibitory protein), DNA repair (e.g., DNA polymerase beta (POL-?), DNA polymerase eta (POLH), protein Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), DNA damage-binding protein 2 (DDB2)] and 5-FU-resistance proteins (thymidylate synthase) but under expressed pro-apoptotic proteins (e.g., DAB2, CK1) in comparison to the parental cells. Increased genotoxicity and apoptosis were observed in resistant cells after combined application of BCNU and Res in comparison to untreated or parental cells. BCNU increased the sensitivity to Res of 5-FU resistant cells compared with parental cells. Fifty percent cell death were noted in parental cells when 18 ?mol/L of Res was associated with fixed concentration (20 ?mol/L) of BCNU, but a much lower concentration of Res (8 ?mol/L) was needed to achieve the same effect in 5-FU resistant cells. Interestingly, increased levels of adenomatous polyposis coli and decreased levels POL-?, POLH, FEN1 and DDB2 were noted after the same combined treatment in resistant cells. CONCLUSION: BCNU combined with Res exerts a synergistic effect that may prove useful for the treatment of colon cancer and to overcome drug resistance. PMID:24259968

  19. Combinatorial inhibition of Plk1 and PKC? in cancer cells with different p53 status

    PubMed Central

    Grigat, Juline; Spnkuch, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    PKC? and Plk1 are fascinating targets in cancer therapy. Therefore, we combined Enzastaurin targeting PKC? and SBE13 targeting Plk1 to test synergistic effects in cells with different p53 status. We analyzed cell proliferation and apoptosis induction, and did Western blot and FACScan analyses to examine the combined PKC? and Plk1 inhibition. p53-wild-type cells are more resistant to the combinatorial treatment than p53-deficient cells, which displayed a synergistic reduction of cell proliferation after the combination. HeLa, MCF-7 and HCT116p53wt and HCT116p53-/- cells differed in their cell cycle distribution after combinatorial treatment in dependence on a functional p53-dependent G1/S checkpoint (p53-deficient cells showed an enrichment in S and G2/M, p53-wild-type cells in G0/G1 phase). hTERT-RPE1 cells did not show the synergistic effects of cancer cells. Thus, we demonstrate for the first time that Plk1 inhibition using SBE13 enhances the effects of Enzastaurin in cancer cells. HCT116p53wt and HCT116p53-/- cells confirmed the p53-dependence of different effects after Plk1 and PKC? inhibition observed in HeLa and MCF-7 cells. Obviously, p53 protects cells from the cytotoxicity of Enzastaurin in combination with SBE13. For that reason this combination can be useful to treat p53-deficient cancers, without displaying toxicity to normal cells, which all have functional p53. PMID:24810255

  20. Autophagonizer, a novel synthetic small molecule, induces autophagic cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, In-Kwon; Cho, Yoon Sun; Jung, Hye Jin; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2010-03-19

    Autophagy is an apoptosis-independent mechanism of cell death that protects the cell from environmental imbalances and infection by pathogens. We identified a novel small molecule, 2-(3-Benzyl-4-oxo-3,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-benzo[4,5]thieno[2,3-d] pyrimidin-2-ylsulfanylmethyl)-oxazole-4-carboxylic acid (2-pyrrolidin-1-yl-ethyl)-amide (referred as autophagonizer), using high-content cell-based screening and the autophagosome marker EGFP-LC3. Autophagonizer inhibited growth and induced cell death in the human tumor cell lines MCF7, HeLa, HCT116, A549, AGS, and HT1080 via a caspase-independent pathway. Conversion of cytosolic LC3-I to autophagosome-associated LC3-II was greatly enhanced by autophagonizer treatment. Transmission electron microscopy and acridine orange staining revealed increased autophagy in the cytoplasm of autophagonizer-treated cells. In conclusion, autophagonizer is a novel autophagy inducer with unique structure, which induces autophagic cell death in the human tumor cell lines.

  1. The CDX1-microRNA-215 axis regulates colorectal cancer stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Jones, Matthew F; Hara, Toshifumi; Francis, Princy; Li, Xiao Ling; Bilke, Sven; Zhu, Yuelin; Pineda, Marbin; Subramanian, Murugan; Bodmer, Walter F; Lal, Ashish

    2015-03-31

    The transcription factor caudal-type homeobox 1 (CDX1) is a key regulator of differentiation in the normal colon and in colorectal cancer (CRC). CDX1 activates the expression of enterocyte genes, but it is not clear how the concomitant silencing of stem cell genes is achieved. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important mediators of gene repression and have been implicated in tumor suppression and carcinogenesis, but the roles of miRNAs in differentiation, particularly in CRC, remain poorly understood. Here, we identified microRNA-215 (miR-215) as a direct transcriptional target of CDX1 by using high-throughput small RNA sequencing to profile miRNA expression in two pairs of CRC cell lines: CDX1-low HCT116 and HCT116 with stable CDX1 overexpression, and CDX1-high LS174T and LS174T with stable CDX1 knockdown. Validation of candidate miRNAs identified by RNA-seq in a larger cell-line panel revealed miR-215 to be most significantly correlated with CDX1 expression. Quantitative ChIP-PCR and promoter luciferase assays confirmed that CDX1 directly activates miR-215 transcription. miR-215 expression is depleted in FACS-enriched cancer stem cells compared with unsorted samples. Overexpression of miR-215 in poorly differentiated cell lines causes a decrease in clonogenicity, whereas miR-215 knockdown increases clonogenicity and impairs differentiation in CDX1-high cell lines. We identified the genome-wide targets of miR-215 and found that miR-215 mediates the repression of cell cycle and stemness genes downstream of CDX1. In particular, the miR-215 target gene BMI1 has been shown to promote stemness and self-renewal and to vary inversely with CDX1. Our work situates miR-215 as a link between CDX1 expression and BMI1 repression that governs differentiation in CRC. PMID:25775580

  2. The CDX1microRNA-215 axis regulates colorectal cancer stem cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Matthew F.; Hara, Toshifumi; Francis, Princy; Li, Xiao Ling; Bilke, Sven; Zhu, Yuelin; Pineda, Marbin; Subramanian, Murugan; Bodmer, Walter F.; Lal, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor caudal-type homeobox 1 (CDX1) is a key regulator of differentiation in the normal colon and in colorectal cancer (CRC). CDX1 activates the expression of enterocyte genes, but it is not clear how the concomitant silencing of stem cell genes is achieved. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important mediators of gene repression and have been implicated in tumor suppression and carcinogenesis, but the roles of miRNAs in differentiation, particularly in CRC, remain poorly understood. Here, we identified microRNA-215 (miR-215) as a direct transcriptional target of CDX1 by using high-throughput small RNA sequencing to profile miRNA expression in two pairs of CRC cell lines: CDX1-low HCT116 and HCT116 with stable CDX1 overexpression, and CDX1-high LS174T and LS174T with stable CDX1 knockdown. Validation of candidate miRNAs identified by RNA-seq in a larger cell-line panel revealed miR-215 to be most significantly correlated with CDX1 expression. Quantitative ChIPPCR and promoter luciferase assays confirmed that CDX1 directly activates miR-215 transcription. miR-215 expression is depleted in FACS-enriched cancer stem cells compared with unsorted samples. Overexpression of miR-215 in poorly differentiated cell lines causes a decrease in clonogenicity, whereas miR-215 knockdown increases clonogenicity and impairs differentiation in CDX1-high cell lines. We identified the genome-wide targets of miR-215 and found that miR-215 mediates the repression of cell cycle and stemness genes downstream of CDX1. In particular, the miR-215 target gene BMI1 has been shown to promote stemness and self-renewal and to vary inversely with CDX1. Our work situates miR-215 as a link between CDX1 expression and BMI1 repression that governs differentiation in CRC. PMID:25775580

  3. Hyaluronic acid-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles for efficient photodynamic therapy of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gary-Bobo, Magali; Brevet, David; Benkirane-Jessel, Nadia; Raehm, Laurence; Maillard, Philippe; Garcia, Marcel; Durand, Jean-Olivier

    2012-09-01

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) for photodynamic therapy (PDT) were coated with poly-(L-lysine) and hyaluronic acid (HA) by using the layer-by-layer method. HA is able to target cancer cells over-expressing the corresponding CD44 receptor. MSN functionalized with HA (MSN-HA) were more efficient than MSN without the targeting moiety when PDT was performed at low fluence (14 Jcm(-2)) and low dosage of MSN (20 ?gmL(-1)) on HCT 116 colorectal cancer cells, known to over-express the CD44 receptor. Incubation of HCT-116 cancer cells with an excess of HA impaired the PDT effect with MSN-HA thus demonstrating that an active endocytosis mechanism was involved in the uptake of MSN-HA by these cells. PMID:22959805

  4. The impact of ATRA on shaping human myeloid cell responses to epithelial cell-derived stimuli and on T-lymphocyte polarization.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Arunima; Gogolak, Pter; Blottire, Herv M; Rajnavlgyi, va

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin A plays an essential role in the maintenance of gut homeostasis but its interplay with chemokines has not been explored so far. Using an in vitro model system we studied the effects of human colonic epithelial cells (Caco2, HT-29, and HCT116) derived inflammatory stimuli on monocyte-derived dendritic cells and macrophages. Unstimulated Caco2 and HT-29 cells secreted CCL19, CCL21, and CCL22 chemokines, which could attract dendritic cells and macrophages and induced CCR7 receptor up-regulation by retinoic-acid resulting in dendritic cell migration. The chemokines Mk, CXCL16, and CXCL7 were secreted by all the 3 cell lines tested, and upon stimulation by IL-1? or TNF-? this effect was inhibited by ATRA but had no impact on CXCL1, CXCL8, and CCL20 secretion in response to IL-1?. In the presence of ATRA the supernatants of these cells induced CD103 expression on monocyte-derived dendritic cells and when conditioned by ATRA and cocultured with CD4(+) T-lymphocytes they reduced the proportion of Th17 T-cells. However, in the macrophage-T-cell cocultures the number of these effector T-cells was increased. Thus cytokine-activated colonic epithelial cells trigger the secretion of distinct combinations of chemokines depending on the proinflammatory stimulus and are controlled by retinoic acid, which also governs dendritic cell and macrophage responses. PMID:25944986

  5. The Impact of ATRA on Shaping Human Myeloid Cell Responses to Epithelial Cell-Derived Stimuli and on T-Lymphocyte Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Gogolak, Pter; Blottire, Herv M.; Rajnavlgyi, va

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin A plays an essential role in the maintenance of gut homeostasis but its interplay with chemokines has not been explored so far. Using an in vitro model system we studied the effects of human colonic epithelial cells (Caco2, HT-29, and HCT116) derived inflammatory stimuli on monocyte-derived dendritic cells and macrophages. Unstimulated Caco2 and HT-29 cells secreted CCL19, CCL21, and CCL22 chemokines, which could attract dendritic cells and macrophages and induced CCR7 receptor up-regulation by retinoic-acid resulting in dendritic cell migration. The chemokines Mk, CXCL16, and CXCL7 were secreted by all the 3 cell lines tested, and upon stimulation by IL-1? or TNF-? this effect was inhibited by ATRA but had no impact on CXCL1, CXCL8, and CCL20 secretion in response to IL-1?. In the presence of ATRA the supernatants of these cells induced CD103 expression on monocyte-derived dendritic cells and when conditioned by ATRA and cocultured with CD4+ T-lymphocytes they reduced the proportion of Th17 T-cells. However, in the macrophage-T-cell cocultures the number of these effector T-cells was increased. Thus cytokine-activated colonic epithelial cells trigger the secretion of distinct combinations of chemokines depending on the proinflammatory stimulus and are controlled by retinoic acid, which also governs dendritic cell and macrophage responses. PMID:25944986

  6. Blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts inhibit growth and stimulate apoptosis of human cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Navindra P; Adams, Lynn S; Zhang, Yanjun; Lee, Rupo; Sand, Daniel; Scheuller, Henry S; Heber, David

    2006-12-13

    Berry fruits are widely consumed in our diet and have attracted much attention due to their potential human health benefits. Berries contain a diverse range of phytochemicals with biological properties such as antioxidant, anticancer, anti-neurodegerative, and anti-inflammatory activities. In the current study, extracts of six popularly consumed berries--blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry and strawberry--were evaluated for their phenolic constituents using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) detection. The major classes of berry phenolics were anthocyanins, flavonols, flavanols, ellagitannins, gallotannins, proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acids. The berry extracts were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of human oral (KB, CAL-27), breast (MCF-7), colon (HT-29, HCT116), and prostate (LNCaP) tumor cell lines at concentrations ranging from 25 to 200 micro g/mL. With increasing concentration of berry extract, increasing inhibition of cell proliferation in all of the cell lines were observed, with different degrees of potency between cell lines. The berry extracts were also evaluated for their ability to stimulate apoptosis of the COX-2 expressing colon cancer cell line, HT-29. Black raspberry and strawberry extracts showed the most significant pro-apoptotic effects against this cell line. The data provided by the current study and from other laboratories warrants further investigation into the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of berries using in vivo models. PMID:17147415

  7. Role of specific endocytic pathways in electrotransfection of cells

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chun-Chi; Wu, Mina; Yuan, Fan

    2014-01-01

    Electrotransfection is a technique utilized for gene delivery in both preclinical and clinical studies. However, its mechanisms are not fully understood. The goal of this study was to investigate specific pathways of endocytosis involved in electrotransfection. In the study, three different human cell lines (HEK293, HCT116, and HT29) were either treated with ice cold medium postelectrotransfection or endocytic inhibitors prior to electrotransfection. The inhibitors were pharmacological agents (chlorpromazine, genistein, and amiloride) or different small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules that could knockdown expression of clathrin heavy chain (CLTC), caveolin-1, and Rab34, respectively. The reduction in gene expressions was confirmed with western blot analysis at 48-72h post-siRNA treatment. It was observed that treatments with either ice cold medium, chlorpromazine, or genistein resulted in significant reductions in electrotransfection efficiency (eTE) in all three cell lines, compared to the matched controls, but amiloride treatment had insignificant effects on eTE. For cells treated with siRNA, only CLTC knockdown resulted in eTE reduction for all three cell lines. Together, these data demonstrated that the clathrin-mediated endocytosis played an important role in electrotransfection. PMID:26052524

  8. c-Met Targeting Enhances the Effect of Irradiation and Chemical Agents against Malignant Colon Cells Harboring a KRAS Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Han, Weihua; Zheng, Yongxiang; Xu, Huan; Zhang, Chuanling; He, Qiuchen; Zhang, Lihe; Li, Zhongxin; Zhou, Demin

    2014-01-01

    Although EGFR-targeted therapy has been beneficial to colorectal cancer patients, several studies have showed this clinical benefit was restricted to patients with wild-type KRAS exon 2 colorectal cancer. Therefore, it is crucial to explore efficient treatment strategies in patients with KRAS mutations. c-Met is an emerging target for the development of therapeutics against colorectal cancer. In this study, we first used the SW620 cell line, which has an activating KRAS mutation, to generate a stable cell line with conditional regulation of c-Met, which is an essential gene for growth and an oncogene. Using this approach, we evaluated the benefits of combined c-Met-targeted therapy with irradiation or chemical agents. In this cell line, we observed that the proliferation and migration of SW620 cells were reduced by the induction of c-Met shRNA. Furthermore, c-Met knockdown enhanced the anti-proliferative effects of 5-FU and Taxol but not cisplatin, irinotecan or sorafenib. These enhancements were also observed in another colon cancer cells line HCT-116, which also has a KRAS mutation. The response of SW620 cells to irradiation was also enhanced by c-Met knockdown. This method and obtained data might have important implications for exploring the combinatory effects of targeted therapies with conventional medications. Moreover, the data suggested that the combination of c-Met-targeted therapy with chemotherapy or irradiation might be an effective strategy against colorectal cancer harboring a KRAS mutation. PMID:25427200

  9. UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 1A Determinates Intracellular Accumulation and Anti-Cancer Effect of ?-Lapachone in Human Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huiying; Li, Qingran; Cheng, Xuefang; Wang, Hong; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Haiping

    2015-01-01

    ?-lapachone (?-lap), an NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) targeting antitumor drug candidate in phase II clinical trials, is metabolically eliminated via NQO1 mediated quinone reduction and subsequent UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyzed glucuronidation. This study intends to explore the inner link between the cellular glucuronidation and pharmacokinetics of ?-lap and its apoptotic effect in human colon cancer cells. HT29 cells S9 fractions exhibited high glucuronidation activity towards ?-lap, which can be inhibited by UGT1A9 competitive inhibitor propofol. UGT1A siRNA treated HT29 cells S9 fractions displayed an apparent low glucuronidation activity. Intracellular accumulation of ?-lap in HCT116 cells was much higher than that in HT29 cells, correlated with the absence of UGT1A in HCT116 cells. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of ?-lap in HT29 cells were much lower than that in HCT116 cells; moreover, ?-lap triggered activation of SIRT1-FOXO1 apoptotic pathway was observed in HCT116 cells but not in HT29 cells. Pretreatment of HT29 cells with UGT1A siRNA or propofol significantly decreased ?-laps cytotoxic and apoptotic effects, due to the repression of glucuronidation and the resultant intracellular accumulation. In conclusion, UGT1A is an important determinant, via switching NQO1-triggered redox cycle to metabolic elimination, in the intracellular accumulation of ?-lap and thereafter its cytotoxicity in human colon cancer cells. Together with our previous works, we propose that UGTs determined cellular pharmacokinetics is an important determinant in the apoptotic effects of NQO1 targeting substrates serving as chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:25692465

  10. Prominin-1 (CD133, AC133) and dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (CD26) are indicators of infinitive growth in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Grunt, Thomas W; Hebar, Alexandra; Laffer, Sylvia; Wagner, Renate; Peter, Barbara; Herrmann, Harald; Graf, Alexandra; Bilban, Martin; Posch, Martin; Hoermann, Gregor; Mayerhofer, Matthias; Eisenwort, Gregor; Zielinski, Christoph C; Selzer, Edgar; Valent, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Advanced colorectal cancer is characterized by uncontrolled growth and resistance against anti-cancer agents, including ErbB inhibitors. Recent data suggest that cancer stem cells (CSC) are particularly resistant. These cells may reside within a CD133+ fraction of the malignant cells. Using HCT116 cells we explored the role of CD133 and other CSC markers in drug resistance in colon cancer cells. CD133+ cells outnumbered CD133- cells over time in long-term culture. Both populations displayed the KRAS mutation 38G > A and an almost identical target profile, including EGFR/ErbB1, ErbB2, and ErbB4. Microarray analyses and flow cytometry identified CD26 as additional CSC marker co-expressed on CD133+ cells. However, knock-down of CD133 or CD26 did not affect short-term growth of HCT116 cells, and both cell-populations were equally resistant to various targeted drugs except irreversible ErbB inhibitors, which blocked growth and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in CD133- cells more efficiently than in CD133+ cells. Moreover, the MEK inhibitor AS703026 was found to overcome resistance against ErbB blockers in CD133+ cells. Together, CD133 and CD26 are markers of long-term growth and resistance to ErbB blockers in HCT116 cells, which may be mediated by constitutive ERK activity. PMID:25973297

  11. Prominin-1 (CD133, AC133) and dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (CD26) are indicators of infinitive growth in colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Grunt, Thomas W; Hebar, Alexandra; Laffer, Sylvia; Wagner, Renate; Peter, Barbara; Herrmann, Harald; Graf, Alexandra; Bilban, Martin; Posch, Martin; Hoermann, Gregor; Mayerhofer, Matthias; Eisenwort, Gregor; Zielinski, Christoph C; Selzer, Edgar; Valent, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Advanced colorectal cancer is characterized by uncontrolled growth and resistance against anti-cancer agents, including ErbB inhibitors. Recent data suggest that cancer stem cells (CSC) are particularly resistant. These cells may reside within a CD133+ fraction of the malignant cells. Using HCT116 cells we explored the role of CD133 and other CSC markers in drug resistance in colon cancer cells. CD133+ cells outnumbered CD133- cells over time in long-term culture. Both populations displayed the KRAS mutation 38G > A and an almost identical target profile, including EGFR/ErbB1, ErbB2, and ErbB4. Microarray analyses and flow cytometry identified CD26 as additional CSC marker co-expressed on CD133+ cells. However, knock-down of CD133 or CD26 did not affect short-term growth of HCT116 cells, and both cell-populations were equally resistant to various targeted drugs except irreversible ErbB inhibitors, which blocked growth and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in CD133- cells more efficiently than in CD133+ cells. Moreover, the MEK inhibitor AS703026 was found to overcome resistance against ErbB blockers in CD133+ cells. Together, CD133 and CD26 are markers of long-term growth and resistance to ErbB blockers in HCT116 cells, which may be mediated by constitutive ERK activity. PMID:25973297

  12. A fluorescent probe for specific detection of cysteine in the lipid dense region of cells.

    PubMed

    Ali, Firoj; H A, Anila; Taye, Nandaraj; Gonnade, Rajesh G; Chattopadhyay, Samit; Das, Amitava

    2015-12-11

    A new cysteine (Cys) specific chemodosimetric reagent () is used in imaging of endogenous Cys localized in the lipid dense region of the live Hct116 cells and the release of Cys within HepG2 cells from a drug following a biochemical transformation. A silica surface, modified with , could be used for quantitative estimation of Cys present in aqueous solution (pH 7.2) and in a human blood plasma (HBP). PMID:26442642

  13. Targeting colorectal cancer cells by a novel sphingosine kinase 1 inhibitor PF-543.

    PubMed

    Ju, TongFa; Gao, DaQuan; Fang, Zheng-Yu

    2016-02-12

    In this study, we showed that PF-543, a novel sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) inhibitor, exerted potent anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effects against a panel of established (HCT-116, HT-29 and DLD-1) and primary human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Its sensitivity was negatively associated with SphK1 expression level in the CRC cells. Surprisingly, PF-543 mainly induced programmed necrosis, but not apoptosis, in the CRC cells. CRC cell necrotic death was detected by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) collapse and mitochondrial P53-cyclophilin-D (Cyp-D) complexation. Correspondingly, the necrosis inhibitor necrostatin-1 largely attenuated PF-543-induced cytotoxicity against CRC cells. Meanwhile, the Cyp-D inhibitors (sanglifehrin A and cyclosporin A), or shRNA-mediated knockdown of Cyp-D, remarkably alleviated PF-543-induced CRC cell necrotic death. Reversely, over-expression of wild-type Cyp-D in HCT-116cells significantly increased PF-543's sensitivity. Invivo, PF-543 intravenous injection significantly suppressed HCT-116 xenograft growth in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, whiling remarkably improving the mice survival. The invivo activity by PF-543 was largely attenuated when combined with the Cyp-D inhibitor cyclosporin A. Collectively, our results demonstrate that PF-543 exerts potent anti-CRC activity invitro and invivo. Mitochondrial programmed necrosis pathway is likely the key mechanism responsible for PF-543's actions in CRC cells. PMID:26775841

  14. Sasa quelpaertensis Leaf Extract Inhibits Colon Cancer by Regulating Cancer Cell Stemness in Vitro and in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Min, Soo Jin; Lim, Ji Ye; Kim, Haeng Ran; Kim, Se-Jae; Kim, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    A rare subpopulation of cancer cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs), may be responsible for tumor relapse and resistance to conventional chemotherapy. The development of a non-toxic, natural treatment for the elimination of CSCs is considered a strategy for cancer treatment with minimal side effects. In the present study, the potential for Sasa quelpaertensis leaf extract (SQE) and its two bioactive compounds, tricin and p-coumaric acid, to exert anti-CSC effects by suppressing cancer stemness characteristics were evaluated in colon cancer cells. CD133+CD44+ cells were isolated from HT29 and HCT116 cell lines using flow-activated cell sorting (FACs). SQE treatment was found to significantly suppress the self-renewal capacity of both cell lines. SQE treatment was also associated with the down-regulation of β-catenin and phosphorylated GSK3β, while significantly enhancing cell differentiation by up-regulating CK20 expression and blocking the expression of several stem cell markers, including DLK1, Notch1, and Sox-2. In vivo, SQE supplementation suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft model by down-regulating stem cell markers and β-catenin as well as HIF-1α signaling. Compared with two bioactive compounds of SQE, SQE exhibited the most effective anti-CSC properties. Taken together, these results provide evidence that SQE inhibits colon cancer by regulating the characteristics of CSCs. PMID:25941936

  15. Sasa quelpaertensis Leaf Extract Inhibits Colon Cancer by Regulating Cancer Cell Stemness in Vitro and in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Min, Soo Jin; Lim, Ji Ye; Kim, Haeng Ran; Kim, Se-Jae; Kim, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    A rare subpopulation of cancer cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs), may be responsible for tumor relapse and resistance to conventional chemotherapy. The development of a non-toxic, natural treatment for the elimination of CSCs is considered a strategy for cancer treatment with minimal side effects. In the present study, the potential for Sasa quelpaertensis leaf extract (SQE) and its two bioactive compounds, tricin and p-coumaric acid, to exert anti-CSC effects by suppressing cancer stemness characteristics were evaluated in colon cancer cells. CD133+CD44+ cells were isolated from HT29 and HCT116 cell lines using flow-activated cell sorting (FACs). SQE treatment was found to significantly suppress the self-renewal capacity of both cell lines. SQE treatment was also associated with the down-regulation of ?-catenin and phosphorylated GSK3?, while significantly enhancing cell differentiation by up-regulating CK20 expression and blocking the expression of several stem cell markers, including DLK1, Notch1, and Sox-2. In vivo, SQE supplementation suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft model by down-regulating stem cell markers and ?-catenin as well as HIF-1? signaling. Compared with two bioactive compounds of SQE, SQE exhibited the most effective anti-CSC properties. Taken together, these results provide evidence that SQE inhibits colon cancer by regulating the characteristics of CSCs. PMID:25941936

  16. Oncogenic K-Ras Activates p38 to Maintain Colorectal Cancer Cell Proliferation during MEK Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    van Houdt, Winan J.; de Bruijn, Menno T.; Emmink, Benjamin L.; Raats, Danielle; Hoogwater, Frederik J. H.; Rinkes, Inne H. M. Borel; Kranenburg, Onno

    2010-01-01

    Background: Colon carcinomas frequently contain activating mutations in the K-ras proto-oncogene. K-ras itself is a poor drug target and drug development efforts have mostly focused on components of the classical Ras-activated MEK/ERK pathway. Here we have studied whether endogenous oncogenic K-ras affects the dependency of colorectal tumor cells on MEK/ERK signaling. Methods: K-ras mutant colorectal tumor cell lines C26, HCT116 and L169 were used. K-ras or components of the MEK/ERK and p38 pathway were suppressed by RNA interference (RNAi). MEK was inhibited by U0126. p38 was inhibited by SB203850. Results: MEK inhibition, or suppression of MEK1/2 or ERK1/2 by RNA interference, reduced the proliferation rate of all colorectal cancer cell lines. However, cell proliferation returned to normal after two weeks of chronic inhibition, despite the continued suppression of MEK or ERK. In contrast, K-ras-suppressed tumor cells entered an irreversible senescent-like state following ERK pathway inhibition. MEK inhibition or ERK1/2 suppression caused activation of p38? in a K-ras-dependent manner. Inhibition or suppression of p38? prevented the recovery of K-ras mutant tumor cells during prolonged MEK inhibition. Conclusions: Oncogenic K-ras activates p38? to maintain cell proliferation during MEK inhibition. MEK-targeting therapeutics can create an acquired tumor cell dependency on p38?. PMID:20413844

  17. Synergistic apoptosis-inducing effect of aspirin and isosorbide mononitrate on human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaodong; Diao, Yuwen; Liu, Yu; Gao, Ningning; Gao, Dong; Wan, Yanyan; Zhong, Jingjing; Jin, Guangyi

    2015-09-01

    Aspirin and isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN) are two commonly used drugs, which are clinically applied for the treatment of inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases, respectively. Recently, aspirin has attracted interest due to its potential application for the treatment of cancer, particularly colon cancer. NO-aspirin, an aspirin derivative containing a covalently bound NO-donating moiety, has been proven to be an effective anti?tumor agent with apoptosis-inducing ability. In the present study, ISMN was used as an NO donor and its synergic effect with aspirin was assessed in human colon cancer cells. In vitro, an MTT assay demonstrated that ISMN had a synergistic effect on the growth inhibitory effects of aspirin on HCT116 and SW620 colon cancer cells, while the growth of EA.hy926 normal endothelial cells was unaffected. This synergistic anti?tumor effect was further validated in vivo using nude mouse HCT116 cell xenograft model. Observation of nuclear morphology, Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double staining and a caspase-3 activity assay suggested that the combination of the two drugs induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of the apoptotic effect of the drugs was assessed using an NO release assay, reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, western blot analysis and a luciferase reporter assay. It was certified that the increase in the amount of NO release, the decrease in the luciferase promoter activity and the expression of cyclin D1 and c-myc in HCT116 cells were affected by aspirin and ISMN in a synergistic manner. In conclusion, the present study was the first, to the best of our knowledge, to report on the synergistic apoptosis-inducing effects of aspirin and ISMN in human colon cancer cells, which were mediated via Wnt and NO signaling pathways. The results of the present study will facilitate the development of future therapeutic strategies. PMID:26094902

  18. Tricin 4'-O-(erythro-?-guaiacylglyceryl) ether and tricin 4'-O-(threo-?-guaiacylglyceryl) ether isolated from Njavara (Oryza sativa L. var. Njavara), induce apoptosis in multiple tumor cells by mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Mohanlal, Smitha; Maney, Sathish Kumar; Santhoshkumar, Thankayyan Retnabai; Jayalekshmy, Ananthasankaran

    2013-07-01

    Njavara is an important medicinal rice variety of Kerala, India widely used in Ayurveda for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, paralysis, neurodegenerative diseases and in rejuvenation therapy. The study evaluated, for the first time, antitumor effects of the two rare flavonolignans, tricin 4'-O-(erythro-?-guaiacylglyceryl) ether (compound 1) and tricin 4'-O-(threo-?-guaiacylglyceryl) ether (compound 2), isolated from 'Njavara' black. Both the compounds induced apoptosis in three cancer cell lines colon adenocarcinoma cell line HCT 116, ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 and breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Chromatin condensation in the three cancer cell lines by Hoechst staining showed >50% of apoptosis by compounds 1 and 2 at concentration 40 and 30?g/ml, respectively after 48h. Further studies substantiated that both the compounds targeted cancer cells through mitochondrial membrane potential loss and subsequent chromatin condensation. Both compounds significantly increased the Annexin V binding thus confirming compounds 1 and 2 to be potential apoptotic agents. PMID:23054487

  19. PAMAM-Camptothecin Conjugate Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Nuclear Fragmentation in Colorectal Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Thiagarajan, Giridhar; Ray, Abhijit; Malugin, Alexander; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To synthesize and characterize a poly (amido amine) dendrimer-camptothecin (PAMAM-CPT) conjugate and evaluate its activity on human colorectal carcinoma cells (HCT-116). Methods The attachment of CPT to amine-terminated PAMAM was facilitated through a succinic acid-glycine linker. The conjugate was characterized for absence of small molecular weight impurities, size and drug content. Stability of the conjugate in PBS and growth media and its in vitro activity on HCT-116 were studied. Cell cycle arrest and nuclear fragmentation upon PAMAM-CPT treatment were investigated. Results The conjugate was stable under physiological pH (7.4) in PBS and in growth media (with 10% FBS) with minimal release of 4% and 6% drug, respectively, at 48 h. PAMAM-CPT inhibited proliferation of HCT-116 cells with an IC50 value of 1.60.3 ?M. The conjugate induced signs of cell cycle arrest with up to 68% of cells blocked in the G2 phase. Confocal images of cells treated with PAMAM-CPT suggest nuclear fragmentation and formation of apoptotic bodies. Conclusions Results show that the PAMAM-CPT conjugate was active against colorectal cancer cells in vitro, inhibiting their growth and inducing nuclear fragmentation. Coupled with the ability to target macromolecular therapeutics to tumors, this conjugate shows promise for cancer chemotherapy. PMID:20552256

  20. Momordica charantia Extract Induces Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cells through Caspase- and Mitochondria-Dependent Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chia-Jung; Tsang, Shih-Fang; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Tsai, Hsin-Yi; Chyuan, Jong-Ho; Hsu, Hsue-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Plants are an invaluable source of potential new anti-cancer drugs. Momordica charantia is one of these plants with both edible and medical value and reported to exhibit anticancer activity. To explore the potential effectiveness of Momordica charantia, methanol extract of Momordica charantia (MCME) was used to evaluate the cytotoxic activity on four human cancer cell lines, Hone-1 nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells, AGS gastric adenocarcinoma cells, HCT-116 colorectal carcinoma cells, and CL1-0 lung adenocarcinoma cells, in this study. MCME showed cytotoxic activity towards all cancer cells tested, with the approximate IC50 ranging from 0.25 to 0.35 mg/mL at 24 h. MCME induced cell death was found to be time-dependent in these cells. Apoptosis was demonstrated by DAPI staining and DNA fragmentation analysis using agarose gel electrophoresis. MCME activated caspase-3 and enhanced the cleavage of downstream DFF45 and PARP, subsequently leading to DNA fragmentation and nuclear condensation. The apoptogenic protein, Bax, was increased, whereas Bcl-2 was decreased after treating for 24 h in all cancer cells, indicating the involvement of mitochondrial pathway in MCME-induced cell death. These findings indicate that MCME has cytotoxic effects on human cancer cells and exhibits promising anti-cancer activity by triggering apoptosis through the regulation of caspases and mitochondria. PMID:23091557

  1. hcrcn81 promotes cell proliferation through Wnt signaling pathway in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao; Jiang, Tingting; Shi, Lihong; He, Kunyan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the role of hcrcn81 gene in Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway related to human colorectal cancer. A total of 30 pairs of human colorectal cancer tissues with control normal tissues were analyzed by qRT-PCR. The proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, cell colony and metastasis of LS174T(-hcrcn81), HCT116(-hcrcn81), LoVo(+hcrcn81) and SMMC-7721(+hcrcn81) cells were tested, of which hcrcn81 was knockdown in LS174T, HCT116 cells and hcrcn81 was overexpressed in LoVo, SMMC-7721 cells. Besides, the mRNA and protein levels of hcrcn81, ?-catenin, c-Myc, cyclinD1, GSK-3? and survivin in colon cancer cell lines were evaluated by qRT-PCR and western blot. The mRNA levels of ?-catenin and Survivin were up-regulated in 76.7% (23/30) and 63.3% (19/30) of the tumor samples, respectively. hcrcn81 and GSK-3? mRNA expression levels were down-regulated in 20/30 (66.7%) and 21/30 (70.0%) of the tumor samples as compared to the adjacent normal tissues, respectively. Furthermore, in LoVo(+hcrcn81) and SMMC-7721(+hcrcn81) cells, the mRNA and protein levels of ?-catenin, c-Myc, cyclinD1 and Survivin were up-regulated, whereas those of GSK-3 were down-regulated. In LS174T(-hcrcn81) and HCT116(-hcrcn81) cells, the mRNA levels of ?-catenin, c-Myc, cyclinD1 and Survivin were down-regulated, whereas GSK-3?mRNA was up-regulated. Cell proliferation in LoVo(+hcrcn81) and SMMC-7721(+hcrcn81) groups was significantly enhanced (P<0.05). Proliferation index in both LoVo(+hcrcn81) and SMMC-7721(+hcrcn81) groups was significantly higher than that in the control groups (P<0.05). The number of colony in LoVo(+hcrcn81) and SMMC-7721(+hcrcn81) cells were significantly higher than that in the control groups (P<0.05). In addition, the percentage of apoptotic cells in LoVo(+hcrcn81) and SMMC-7721(+hcrcn81) groups were significantly lower than that in the control groups (P<0.01, P<0.01). Finally, the number of migrating cells was significantly higher in LoVo(+hcrcn81) and SMMC-7721(+hcrcn81) groups than that in the control group (P<0.05). hcrcn81 might promote carcinogenesis and progression through regulation of the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway and plays an important role in the carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer. PMID:26607374

  2. Hydrogen sulfide lowers proliferation and induces protective autophagy in colon epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ya C; Wang, Xiao J; Yu, Le; Chan, Francis K L; Cheng, Alfred S L; Yu, Jun; Sung, Joseph J Y; Wu, William K K; Cho, Chi H

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a gaseous bacterial metabolite that reaches high levels in the large intestine. In the present study, the effect of H(2)S on the proliferation of normal and cancerous colon epithelial cells was investigated. An immortalized colon epithelial cell line (YAMC) and a panel of colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, SW1116, HCT116) were exposed to H(2)S at concentrations similar to those found in the human colon. H(2)S inhibited normal and cancerous colon epithelial cell proliferation as measured by MTT assay. The anti-mitogenic effect of H(2)S was accompanied by G(1)-phase cell cycle arrest and the induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(Cip). Moreover, exposure to H(2)S led to features characteristic of autophagy, including increased formation of LC3B(+) autophagic vacuoles and acidic vesicular organelles as determined by immunofluorescence and acridine orange staining, respectively. Abolition of autophagy by RNA interference targeting Vps34 or Atg7 enhanced the anti-proliferative effect of H(2)S. Further mechanistic investigation revealed that H(2)S stimulated the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibited the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and S6 kinase. Inhibition of AMPK significantly reversed H(2)S-induced autophagy and inhibition of cell proliferation. Collectively, we demonstrate that H(2)S inhibits colon epithelial cell proliferation and induces protective autophagy via the AMPK pathway. PMID:22679478

  3. Resveratrol-induced transcriptional up-regulation of ASMase (SMPD1) of human leukemia and cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Naoki; Omori, Yukari; Kawamoto, Yoshiyuki; Sobue, Sayaka; Ichihara, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Motoshi; Kyogashima, Mamoru; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Tamiya-Koizumi, Keiko; Nozawa, Yoshinori; Murate, Takashi

    2016-02-19

    Resveratrol (RSV) is a plant-derived phytoalexin present in plants, whose pleiotropic effects for health benefits have been previously reported. Its anti-cancer activity is among the current topics for novel cancer treatment. Here, effects of RSV on cell proliferation and the sphingolipid metabolism of K562, a human leukemia cell line, were analyzed. Some experiments were also performed in HCT116, a human colon cancer cell line. RSV inhibited cell proliferation of both cell lines. Increased cellular ceramide and decreased sphingomyelin and S1P by RSV were observed in RSV-treated K562 cells. Further analysis revealed that acid sphingomyelinase mRNA and enzyme activity levels were increased by RSV. Desipramine, a functional ASMase inhibitor, prevented RSV-induced ceramide increase. RSV increased ATF3, EGR1, EGR3 proteins and phosphorylated c-Jun and FOXO3. However, co-transfection using these transcription factor expression vectors and ASMase promoter reporter vector revealed positive effects of EGR1 and EGR3 but not others. Electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) and Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay demonstrated the direct binding of EGR1/3 transcription factors with ASMase 5'-promoter. These results indicate that increased EGR1/3 and ASMase expression play an important role in cellular ceramide increase by RSV treatment. PMID:26809095

  4. Selective resistance of tetraploid cancer cells against DNA damage-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Castedo, Maria; Coquelle, Arnaud; Vitale, Ilio; Vivet, Sonia; Mouhamad, Shahul; Viaud, Sophie; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido

    2006-12-01

    Aneuploidy and chromosomal instability, which are frequent in cancer, can result from the asymmetric division of tetraploid precursors. Genomic instability may favor the generation of more aggressive tumor cells with a reduced propensity for undergoing apoptosis. To assess the impact of tetraploidization on apoptosis regulation, we generated a series of stable tetraploid HCT116 and RKO colon carcinoma cell lines. When comparing diploid parental cells with tetraploid clones, we found that such cells were equally sensitive to a series of cytotoxic agents (staurosporine [STS], hydroxyurea, etoposide), as well as to the lysis by natural killer cells. In strict contrast, tetraploid cells were found to be relatively resistant against a series of DNA-damaging agents, namely cisplatin, oxaliplatin, camptothecin, and gamma- and UVC-irradiation. This increased resistance correlated with a reduced manifestation of apoptotic parameters (such as the dissipation of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the degradation of nuclear DNA) in tetraploid as compared to diploid cells subjected to DNA damage. Moreover, tetraploid cells manifested an enhanced baseline level of p53 activation. Inhibition of p53 abolished the difference in the susceptibility of diploid and tetraploid cancer cells to DNA damage-induced apoptosis. These data point to an intrinsic resistance of tetraploid cells against radiotherapy and DNA-targeted chemotherapy that may be linked to the status of the p53 system. PMID:17384245

  5. Encapsulation of selenium in chitosan nanoparticles improves selenium availability and protects cells from selenium-induced DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Luo, Yangchao; Zeng, Huawei; Wang, Qin; Tian, Fei; Song, Jiuzhou; Cheng, Wen-Hsing

    2011-12-01

    Selenium, an essential mineral, plays important roles in optimizing human health. Chitosan (CS) is an effective, naturally oriented material for synthesizing nanoparticles with preferable properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradation and resistance to certain enzymes. We have recently shown that cellular exposure to selenium compounds activates ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent DNA damage responses, a tumorigenesis barrier. To test whether nanoencapsulation of selenium modulates the cellular response to selenium compounds, the HCT 116 cancerous and the MRC-5 normal cells were treated with Na(2)SeO(3) and methylseleninic acid (MSeA) encapsulated in CS/polyphosphate nanoparticles. Analyses of cellular selenium levels demonstrate that (1) the nanoencapsulation enhances selenium levels in cells after exposure to Na(2)SeO(3) and MSeA (1-10 ?M); (2) cells retained more selenium when treated with Na(2)SeO(3) than with MSeA; (3) selenium levels are greater in HCT 116 than in MRC-5 cells after Na(2)SeO(3), but not MSeA, exposure. Survival analysis shows that CS encapsulation desensitizes HCT 116 and MRC-5 cells to Na(2)SeO(3) or MSeA exposure. Immunofluorescent analysis demonstrates that CS encapsulation attenuates the selenium-induced ATM phosphorylation on Ser-1981, and the extent is greater in HCT 116 than in MRC-5 cells. Our results reveal features of selenium nanoencapsulation in CS, including increased selenium retention in cells and decreased cellular sensitivity and DNA damage response to selenium exposure. PMID:21292467

  6. Zoledronate can promote apoptosis and inhibit the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Jiang, Bo; Zou, Shitao; Zhang, Ting; Qi, Xiaowei; Jin, Linfang; Ge, Xiaosong; Tang, Shou-Ching; Hua, Dong; Chen, Weichang

    2015-07-01

    Zoledronate (ZOL) is a third-generation bisphosphonate (BP), clinically used to treat lytic bone lesions caused by malignancies or bone resorption disorders. Mechanistically, ZOL was recently shown to have direct pro-apoptotic effects on tumor cells and to inhibit cancer cell invasion, adhesion, proliferation, and angiogenesis. The molecular mechanism of ZOL-induced apoptosis remains unknown. In this study, we observed that ZOL induced apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells HCT116 and Caco-2. After HCT116 and Caco-2 cells were treated with ZOL, decreased fluorescence of JC-1 aggregates (590 nm) was seen in mitochondria. Western blotting analysis showed that cytochrome c was decreased in the mitochondria and increased in the cytosol, respectively. The effects were dependent on the concentration and treatment time by ZOL. In vivo experiments showed that ZOL inhibited the growth of xenograft tumor in mice. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of tissue samples showed a significantly increased apoptosis body in the ZOL-treated xenografts compared to control. Taken together, our data demonstrated that ZOL inhibits growth of HCT116 cells both in vitro and in vivo and induce apoptosis through the mitochondria pathway. PMID:25682285

  7. Carvacrol inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Kai; Li, Xiaolei; Cao, Yonggang; Qi, Hanping; Li, Lei; Zhang, Qianhui; Sun, Hongli

    2015-09-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide and has a high mortality rate. Carvacrol is a major component of oregano and thyme essential oils and shows antitumor properties. Here, we investigated the effects of carvacrol on the proliferation and apoptosis of two human colon cancer cell lines, HCT116 and LoVo, and studied the molecular mechanisms of its antitumor properties. We found that carvacrol inhibited the proliferation and migration of the two colon cancer cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. Cell invasion was suppressed after carvacrol treatment by decreasing the expression of matrix metalloprotease-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9. Carvacrol treatment also caused cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and decreased cyclin B1 expression. Finally, carvacrol induced cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. At the molecular level, carvacrol downregulated the expression of Bcl-2 and induced the phosphorylation of the extracellular-regulated protein kinase and protein kinase B (p-Akt). In parallel, carvacrol upregulated the expression of Bax and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. These results indicate that carvacrol might induce apoptosis in colon cancer cells through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and the MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Together, our results suggest that carvacrol may have therapeutic potential for the prevention and treatment of colon cancer. PMID:26214321

  8. Molecular mechanisms for inhibition of colon cancer cells by combined epigenetic-modulating epigallocatechin gallate and sodium butyrate

    SciTech Connect

    Saldanha, Sabita N.; Kala, Rishabh; Tollefsbol, Trygve O.

    2014-05-15

    Bioactive compounds are considered safe and have been shown to alter genetic and epigenetic profiles of tumor cells. However, many of these changes have been reported at molecular concentrations higher than physiologically achievable levels. We investigated the role of the combinatorial effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a predominant polyphenol in green tea, and sodium butyrate (NaB), a dietary microbial fermentation product of fiber, in the regulation of survivin, which is an overexpressed anti-apoptotic protein in colon cancer cells. For the first time, our study showed that the combination treatment induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in RKO, HCT-116 and HT-29 colorectal cancer cells. This was found to be regulated by the decrease in HDAC1, DNMT1, survivin and HDAC activity in all three cell lines. A G2/M arrest was observed for RKO and HCT-116 cells, and G1 arrest for HT-29 colorectal cancer cells for combinatorial treatment. Further experimentation of the molecular mechanisms in RKO colorectal cancer (CRC) cells revealed a p53-dependent induction of p21 and an increase in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-p65. An increase in double strand breaks as determined by gamma-H2A histone family member X (γ-H2AX) protein levels and induction of histone H3 hyperacetylation was also observed with the combination treatment. Further, we observed a decrease in global CpG methylation. Taken together, these findings suggest that at low and physiologically achievable concentrations, combinatorial EGCG and NaB are effective in promoting apoptosis, inducing cell cycle arrest and DNA-damage in CRC cells. - Highlights: • EGCG and NaB as a combination inhibits colorectal cancer cell proliferation. • The combination treatment induces DNA damage, G2/M and G1 arrest and apoptosis. • Survivin is effectively down-regulated by the combination treatment. • p21 and p53 expressions are induced by the combination treatment. • Epigenetic proteins DNMT1 and HDAC1 are effectively down-regulated by the treatment.

  9. Thyroid cell lines in research on goitrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gerber, H; Peter, H J; Asmis, L; Studer, H

    1991-12-01

    Thyroid cell lines have contributed a lot to the understanding of goitrogenesis. The cell lines mostly used in thyroid research are briefly discussed, namely the rat thyroid cell lines FRTL and FRTL-5, the porcine thyroid cell lines PORTHOS and ARTHOS, The sheep thyroid cell lines OVNIS 5H and 6H, the cat thyroid cell lines PETCAT 1 to 4 and ROMCAT, and the human thyroid cell lines FTC-133 and HTh 74. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and COS-7 cells, stably transfected with TSH receptor cDNA and expressing a functional TSH receptor, are discussed as examples for non-thyroidal cells, transfected with thyroid genes. PMID:1726925

  10. Multi-color fluorescence imaging of sub-cellular dynamics of cancer cells in live mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Robert M.

    2006-02-01

    We have genetically engineered dual-color fluorescent cells with one color in the nucleus and the other in the cytoplasm that enables real-time nuclear-cytoplasmic dynamics to be visualized in living cells in the cytoplasm in vivo as well as in vitro. To obtain the dual-color cells, red fluorescent protein (RFP) was expressed of the cancer cells, and green fluorescent protein (GFP) linked to histone H2B was expressed in the nucleus. Mitotic cells were visualized by whole-body imaging after injection in the mouse ear. Common carotid artery or heart injection of dual-color cells and a reversible skin flap enabled the external visualization of the dual-color cells in microvessels in the mouse where extreme elongation of the cell body as well as the nucleus occurred. The migration velocities of the dual-color cancer cells in the capillaries were measured by capturing individual images of the dual-color fluorescent cells over time. Human HCT-116-GFP-RFP colon cancer and mouse mammary tumor (MMT)-GFP-RFP cells were injected in the portal vein of nude mice. Extensive clasmocytosis (destruction of the cytoplasm) of the HCT-116-GFP-RFP cells occurred within 6 hours. The data suggest rapid death of HCT-116-GFP-RFP cells in the portal vein. In contrast, MMT-GFP-RFP cells injected into the portal vein mostly survived and formed colonies in the liver. However, when the host mice were pretreated with cyclophosphamide, the HCT-116-GFP-RFP cells also survived and formed colonies in the liver after portal vein injection. These results suggest that a cyclophosphamide-sensitive host cellular system attacked the HCT-116-GFP-RFP cells but could not effectively kill the MMT-GFP-RFP cells. With the ability to continuously image cancer cells at the subcellular level in the live animal, our understanding of the complex steps of metastasis will significantly increase. In addition, new drugs can be developed to target these newly visible steps of metastasis.

  11. The silence of p66Shc in HCT8 cells inhibits the viability via PI3K/AKT/Mdm-2/p53 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Zhu, Shengtao; Shi, Xuesen; Sha, Weihong

    2015-01-01

    Colon cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death, indicating that some of its cancer cells are not eradicated by current therapies. The previous studies demonstrated that p66Shc protein, a member of Shc family, is highly expressed in colon cancer cells, but the role of p66Shc in the progress of colon cancer still unknown. In this study, we found that p66Shc highly expressed in colon cancer tissue and colon cancer cell line SW620 cells, HCT8 cells, HCT116 cells and CaCO2 cells. The silence of p66Shc in HCT8 cells reduced the proliferation and accelerated the apoptosis, in addition, the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins caspase-3, caspase-9, Bax was enhanced and the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was declined. Moreover, the cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase after HCT8 cells treated with p66Shc siRNA. Furthermore, after HCT8 cells treated with p66Shc siRNA, the phosphorylation of PI3K and AKT was significantly suppressed, and the expression of Mdm-2, a downstream of AKT, was obviously prohibited, while the expression of p53 was enhanced. These results indicate that the silence of p66Shc in HCT8 cells inhibits the viability via PI3K/AKT/Mdm-2/p53 signaling pathway, it may provide a promising approach to prevent the progress of colon cancer cell. PMID:26464652

  12. The silence of p66(Shc) in HCT8 cells inhibits the viability via PI3K/AKT/Mdm-2/p53 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Zhu, Shengtao; Shi, Xuesen; Sha, Weihong

    2015-01-01

    Colon cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death, indicating that some of its cancer cells are not eradicated by current therapies. The previous studies demonstrated that p66(Shc) protein, a member of Shc family, is highly expressed in colon cancer cells, but the role of p66(Shc) in the progress of colon cancer still unknown. In this study, we found that p66(Shc) highly expressed in colon cancer tissue and colon cancer cell line SW620 cells, HCT8 cells, HCT116 cells and CaCO2 cells. The silence of p66(Shc) in HCT8 cells reduced the proliferation and accelerated the apoptosis, in addition, the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins caspase-3, caspase-9, Bax was enhanced and the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was declined. Moreover, the cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase after HCT8 cells treated with p66(Shc) siRNA. Furthermore, after HCT8 cells treated with p66(Shc) siRNA, the phosphorylation of PI3K and AKT was significantly suppressed, and the expression of Mdm-2, a downstream of AKT, was obviously prohibited, while the expression of p53 was enhanced. These results indicate that the silence of p66(Shc) in HCT8 cells inhibits the viability via PI3K/AKT/Mdm-2/p53 signaling pathway, it may provide a promising approach to prevent the progress of colon cancer cell. PMID:26464652

  13. Construction of a plasmid coding for green fluorescent protein tagged cathepsin L and data on expression in colorectal carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Tamhane, Tripti; Wolters, Brit K.; Illukkumbura, Rukshala; Maelandsmo, Gunhild M.; Haugen, Mads H.; Brix, Klaudia

    2015-01-01

    The endo-lysosomal cysteine cathepsin L has recently been shown to have moonlighting activities in that its unexpected nuclear localization in colorectal carcinoma cells is involved in cell cycle progression (Tamhane et al., 2015) [1]. Here, we show data on the construction and sequence of a plasmid coding for human cathepsin L tagged with an enhanced green fluorescent protein (phCL-EGFP) in which the fluorescent protein is covalently attached to the C-terminus of the protease. The plasmid was used for transfection of HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cells, while data from non-transfected and pEGFP-N1-transfected cells is also shown. Immunoblotting data of lysates from non-transfected controls and HCT116 cells transfected with pEGFP-N1 and phCL-EGFP, showed stable expression of cathepsin L-enhanced green fluorescent protein chimeras, while endogenous cathepsin L protein amounts exceed those of hCL-EGFP chimeras. An effect of phCL-EGFP expression on proliferation and metabolic states of HCT116 cells at 24h post-transfection was observed. PMID:26594658

  14. Construction of a plasmid coding for green fluorescent protein tagged cathepsin L and data on expression in colorectal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tamhane, Tripti; Wolters, Brit K; Illukkumbura, Rukshala; Maelandsmo, Gunhild M; Haugen, Mads H; Brix, Klaudia

    2015-12-01

    The endo-lysosomal cysteine cathepsin L has recently been shown to have moonlighting activities in that its unexpected nuclear localization in colorectal carcinoma cells is involved in cell cycle progression (Tamhane et al., 2015) [1]. Here, we show data on the construction and sequence of a plasmid coding for human cathepsin L tagged with an enhanced green fluorescent protein (phCL-EGFP) in which the fluorescent protein is covalently attached to the C-terminus of the protease. The plasmid was used for transfection of HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cells, while data from non-transfected and pEGFP-N1-transfected cells is also shown. Immunoblotting data of lysates from non-transfected controls and HCT116 cells transfected with pEGFP-N1 and phCL-EGFP, showed stable expression of cathepsin L-enhanced green fluorescent protein chimeras, while endogenous cathepsin L protein amounts exceed those of hCL-EGFP chimeras. An effect of phCL-EGFP expression on proliferation and metabolic states of HCT116 cells at 24h post-transfection was observed. PMID:26594658

  15. The synergistic apoptotic interaction of panaxadiol and epigallocatechin gallate in human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Guang-Jian; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Qi, Lian-Wen; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Calway, Tyler; He, Tong-Chuan; Du, Wei; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2013-02-01

    Panaxadiol (PD) is a purified sapogenin of ginseng saponins, which exhibits anticancer activity. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major catechin in green tea, is a strong botanical antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the possible synergistic anticancer effects of PD and EGCG on human colorectal cancer cells and explored the potential role of apoptosis in the synergistic activities. Effects of selected compounds on HCT-116 and SW-480 human colorectal cancer cells were evaluated by a modified trichrome stain cell proliferation analysis. Cell cycle distribution and apoptotic effects were analyzed by flow cytometry after staining with PI/RNase or annexin V/PI. Cell growth was suppressed after treatment with PD (10 and 20?m) for 48?h. When PD (10 and 20?m) was combined with EGCG (10, 20, and 30?m), significantly enhanced antiproliferative effects were observed in both cell lines. Combining 20?m of PD with 20 and 30?m of EGCG significantly decreased S-phase fractions of cells. In the apoptotic assay, the combination of PD and EGCG significantly increased the percentage of apoptotic cells compared with PD alone (p?cells. PMID:22566066

  16. Anti-tumor activity of ESX1 on cancer cells harboring oncogenic K-ras mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Junta; Ishikawa, Susumu; Hamada, Jun-Ichi; Yanagihara, Masatomo; Koike, Takao; Hatakeyama, Masanori

    2008-05-23

    Human ESX1 is a 65-kilodalton (kDa) paired-like homeoprotein that is proteolytically processed into N-terminal 45-kDa and C-terminal 20-kDa fragments. The N-terminal ESX1 fragment, which contains the homeodomain, localizes to the nucleus and represses mRNA transcription from the K-ras gene. When we inoculated human colorectal carcinoma HCT116 constitutive expressing N-terminal region of ESX1 (N-ESX1) into nude mice, transfectant cells uniformly showed decreased tumor-forming activity compared with that of the parental cells. Furthermore, pretreatment of HCT116 carcinoma cells with a fusion protein consisting of N-ESX1 and the protein-transduction domain derived from the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 TAT protein gave rise to a dramatic reduction in the tumorigenicity of HCT116 cells in nude mice. Our results provide first in vivo evidence for the molecular targeting therapeutic application of the K-ras repressor ESX1, especially TAT-mediated transduction of N-ESX1, in the treatment of human cancers having oncogenic K-ras mutations.

  17. Using real-time impedance-based assays to monitor the effects of fibroblast-derived media on the adhesion, proliferation, migration and invasion of colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, CatronaM.; Herranz Ors, Carmen; Kiely, PatrickA.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing our knowledge of the mechanisms regulating cell proliferation, migration and invasion are central to understanding tumour progression and metastasis. The local tumour microenvironment contributes to the transformed phenotype in cancer by providing specific environmental cues that alter the cells behaviour and promotes metastasis. Fibroblasts have a strong association with cancer and in recent times there has been some emphasis in designing novel therapeutic strategies that alter fibroblast behaviour in the tumour microenvironment. Fibroblasts produce growth factors, chemokines and many of the proteins laid down in the ECM (extracellular matrix) that promote angiogenesis, inflammation and tumour progression. In this study, we use a label-free RTCA (real-time cell analysis) platform (xCELLigence) to investigate how media derived from human fibroblasts alters cancer cell behaviour. We used a series of complimentary and novel experimental approaches to show HCT116 cells adhere, proliferate and migrate significantly faster in the presence of media from human fibroblasts. As well as this, we used the xCELLigence CIM-plates system to show that HCT116 cells invade matrigel layers aggressively when migrating towards media derived from human fibroblasts. These data strongly suggest that fibroblasts have the ability to increase the migratory and invasive properties of HCT116 cells. This is the first study that provides real-time data on fibroblast-mediated migration and invasion kinetics of colon cancer cells. PMID:24935351

  18. Curcumin Suppresses Crosstalk between Colon Cancer Stem Cells and Stromal Fibroblasts in the Tumor Microenvironment: Potential Role of EMT

    PubMed Central

    Buhrmann, Constanze; Kraehe, Patricia; Lueders, Cora; Shayan, Parviz; Goel, Ajay; Shakibaei, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Interaction of stromal and tumor cells plays a dynamic role in initiating and enhancing carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated the crosstalk between colorectal cancer (CRC) cells with stromal fibroblasts and the anti-cancer effects of curcumin and 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), especially on cancer stem cell (CSC) survival in a 3D-co-culture model that mimics in vivo tumor microenvironment. Methods Colon carcinoma cells HCT116 and MRC-5 fibroblasts were co-cultured in a monolayer or high density tumor microenvironment model in vitro with/without curcumin and/or 5-FU. Results Monolayer tumor microenvironment co-cultures supported intensive crosstalk between cancer cells and fibroblasts and enhanced up-regulation of metastatic active adhesion molecules (?1-integrin, ICAM-1), transforming growth factor-? signaling molecules (TGF-?3, p-Smad2), proliferation associated proteins (cyclin D1, Ki-67) and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) factor (vimentin) in HCT116 compared with tumor mono-cultures. High density tumor microenvironment co-cultures synergistically increased tumor-promoting factors (NF-?B, MMP-13), TGF-?3, favored CSC survival (characterized by up-regulation of CD133, CD44, ALDH1) and EMT-factors (increased vimentin and Slug, decreased E-cadherin) in HCT116 compared with high density HCT116 mono-cultures. Interestingly, this synergistic crosstalk was even more pronounced in the presence of 5-FU, but dramatically decreased in the presence of curcumin, inducing biochemical changes to mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET), thereby sensitizing CSCs to 5-FU treatment. Conclusion Enrichment of CSCs, remarkable activation of tumor-promoting factors and EMT in high density co-culture highlights that the crosstalk in the tumor microenvironment plays an essential role in tumor development and progression, and this interaction appears to be mediated at least in part by TGF-? and EMT. Modulation of this synergistic crosstalk by curcumin might be a potential therapy for CRC and suppress metastasis. PMID:25238234

  19. 15-LOX-1 suppression of hypoxia-induced metastatic phenotype and HIF-1α expression in human colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuanqing; Mao, Fei; Zuo, Xiangsheng; Moussalli, Micheline J; Elias, Elias; Xu, Weiguo; Shureiqi, Imad

    2014-01-01

    The expression of 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) is downregulated in colon cancer and other major cancers, and 15-LOX-1 reexpression in cancer cells suppresses colonic tumorigenesis. Various lines of evidence indicate that 15-LOX-1 expression suppresses premetastatic stages of colonic tumorigenesis; nevertheless, the role of 15-LOX-1 loss of expression in cancer epithelial cells in metastases continues to be debated. Hypoxia, a common feature of the cancer microenvironment, promotes prometastatic mechanisms such as the upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, a transcriptional master regulator that enhances cancer cell metastatic potential, angiogenesis, and tumor cell invasion and migration. We have, therefore, tested whether restoring 15-LOX-1 in colon cancer cells affects cancer cells' hypoxia response that promotes metastasis. We found that 15-LOX-1 reexpression in HCT116, HT29LMM, and LoVo colon cancer cells inhibited survival, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, angiogenesis, cancer cell migration and invasion, and HIF-1α protein expression and stability under hypoxia. These findings demonstrate that 15-LOX-1 expression loss in cancer cells promotes metastasis and that therapeutically targeting ubiquitous 15-LOX-1 loss in cancer cells has the potential to suppress metastasis. PMID:24634093

  20. p53 interferes with microtubule-stabilizing agent-induced apoptosis in prostate and colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Chung, Jin-Yong; Lee, Seung Gee; Kim, Yoon-Jae; Park, Ji-Eun; Yun, Jeanho; Park, Young Chul; Kim, Byeong Gee; Yoo, Young Hyun; Kim, Jong-Min

    2013-06-01

    Taxanes are microtubule-stabilizing agents that have anticancer activity against several types of human solid tumors. Although the primary mechanism of action of these drugs is well understood, the signaling pathways that confer resistance to these agents in certain types of cancer remain poorly understood. In particular, the association of p53 with the mechanism(s) of taxane-mediated cell death is still controversial. In this study, we showed that p53 has a profound inhibitory effect on docetaxel (Doc)-induced apoptosis in prostate and colorectal cancer cells and that caspases play a critical role in this process. Doc induced prostate cancer cell apoptosis at high levels in p53-null PC3 cells, at intermediate levels in p53-mutant DU145 cells and at low levels in p53 wild-type LNCaP cells. While transient overexpression of p53 in PC3 cells suppressed Doc-induced apoptosis, knockdown of p53 in LNCaP cells increased apoptosis. This finding was further confirmed using an isogenic pair of colorectal cancer cell lines, HCT-116 p53-/- and p53+/+, indicating that p53 inhibits induction of apoptosis by Doc. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing that chemical or genetic knockout of p53 enhances the susceptibility of both prostate and colorectal cancer cells to Doc-induced apoptosis. These results may suggest an approach to stratify patients for regimens involving Doc. PMID:23563592

  1. Anti-Colon Cancer Effects of 6-Shogaol Through G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest by p53/p21-cdc2/cdc25A Crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Qi, Lian-Wen; Zhang, Zhiyu; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Anderson, Samantha; Liu, Qun; Yuan, Chun-Su; Wang, Chong-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Chemopreventive agents can be identified from botanicals. Recently, there has been strong support for the potential of 6-shogaol, a natural compound from dietary ginger (Zingiber officinale), in cancer chemoprevention. However, whether 6-shogaol inhibits the growth of colorectal tumors in vivo remains unknown, and the underlying anticancer mechanisms have not been well characterized. In this work, we observed that 6-shogaol (15 mg/kg) significantly inhibited colorectal tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model. We show that 6-shogaol inhibited HCT-116 and SW-480 cell proliferation with IC50 of 7.5 and 10 ?M, respectively. Growth of HCT-116 cells was arrested at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, primarily mediated by the up-regulation of p53, the CDK inhibitor p21(waf1/cip1) and GADD45?, and by the down-regulation of cdc2 and cdc25A. Using p53(-/-) and p53(+/+) HCT-116 cells, we confirmed that p53/p21 was the main pathway that contributed to the G2/M cell cycle arrest by 6-shogaol. 6-Shogaol induced apoptosis, mainly through the mitochondrial pathway, and the bcl-2 family might act as a key regulator. Our results demonstrated that 6-shogaol induces cancer cell death by inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. 6-Shogaol could be an active natural product in colon cancer chemoprevention. PMID:26119958

  2. Enhancement of CD3AK cell proliferation and killing ability by ?-Thujone.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Liu, Jun-Quan; Zhou, Zhong-Hai; Lv, Xiao-Ting; Chen, Yong-Qiang; Sun, Lei-Qing; Chen, Fu-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Thujone is a monoterpene ketone natural substance found mainly in wormwood and sage. Previous studies have shown that Thujone has various pharmacological effects, such as anti-tumor, analgesic, and insecticide. The effect of ?-Thujone to human immune cells is still unknown. Our study focuses on investigating the effects and mechanism of ?-Thujone to CD3AK (anti- CD3 antibody induced activated killer) cells proliferation and cytotoxicity to colon cancer cell lines. With cell proliferation and FCM assay, it is found that ?-Thujone could significantly enhance CD3AK cell proliferation and expression of CD107a in a dose-dependent manner. The cytotoxicity to colon cancer cells detected by CCK-8 assay is also improved. The expressions of TNF-? and FasL detected with ELISA assay were not significantly changed. Mechanically, the study shows that ?-Thujone could enhance the expression of p-ERK1/2 and p-Akt. In addition, ?-Thujone has no cytotoxicity to HCT116 and SW620 cells proliferation. In a word, ?-Thujone enhances CD3AK cell proliferation and cytotoxicity via the improvement of expression of CD107a, p-Akt and p-ERK1/2. PMID:26655741

  3. Pterostilbine, an active component of blueberries, sensitizes colon cancer cells to 5-fluorouracil cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Tolba, Mai F.; Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z.

    2015-01-01

    Although colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is the first line of therapy for this debilitating disease, treatment effectiveness is often hampered by the development of drug resistance and toxicity at high doses. ER-β can play an important role in CRC development and possibly in its response to therapy. Pterostilbene (PT) possesses antioxidant and anticancer effects that are mediated by ER-β. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that PT sensitizes colon cancer cells to 5-FU and we examine the underlying mechanism(s) by which PT exerts its cytotoxic effects in CRC cells. Our data indicate that PT exhibited a more potent cytotoxic effect in Caco-2 compared to HCT-116 cells. PT/5-FU co-treatment was more effective in Caco-2 cells. Our data indicate that ER-β is expressed at higher levels in Caco-2 cells and its levels are further boosted with PT treatment. PT significantly suppressed Akt and ERK phosphorylations, and enhanced FOXO-1 and p27kip1 levels in Caco-2 cells. PT also induced a significant increase in Caco-2 cells at pre-G phase coupled with increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and PARP cleavage. These results provide a rationale for novel combination treatment strategies, especially for patients with 5-FU-resistant tumors expressing ER-β protein. PMID:26472352

  4. Pterostilbine, an active component of blueberries, sensitizes colon cancer cells to 5-fluorouracil cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Tolba, Mai F; Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z

    2015-01-01

    Although colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is the first line of therapy for this debilitating disease, treatment effectiveness is often hampered by the development of drug resistance and toxicity at high doses. ER-β can play an important role in CRC development and possibly in its response to therapy. Pterostilbene (PT) possesses antioxidant and anticancer effects that are mediated by ER-β. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that PT sensitizes colon cancer cells to 5-FU and we examine the underlying mechanism(s) by which PT exerts its cytotoxic effects in CRC cells. Our data indicate that PT exhibited a more potent cytotoxic effect in Caco-2 compared to HCT-116 cells. PT/5-FU co-treatment was more effective in Caco-2 cells. Our data indicate that ER-β is expressed at higher levels in Caco-2 cells and its levels are further boosted with PT treatment. PT significantly suppressed Akt and ERK phosphorylations, and enhanced FOXO-1 and p27(kip1) levels in Caco-2 cells. PT also induced a significant increase in Caco-2 cells at pre-G phase coupled with increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and PARP cleavage. These results provide a rationale for novel combination treatment strategies, especially for patients with 5-FU-resistant tumors expressing ER-β protein. PMID:26472352

  5. Growth inhibition of colon cancer cells by compounds affecting AMPK activity

    PubMed Central

    Lea, Michael A; Pourat, Jacob; Patel, Rupali; desBordes, Charles

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine if other molecules reported to modulate AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) activity would have effects resembling those of metformin and phenformin on colon cancer cell proliferation and metabolism. METHODS: Studies were performed with four human colon cancer cell lines, Caco-2, HCT116, HT29 and SW1116. The compounds that were studied included A-769662, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-ribofuranoside, butyrate, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), KU-55933, quercetin, resveratrol and salicylates. The parameters that were measured were cell proliferation and viability, glucose uptake, lactate production and acidification of the incubation medium. RESULTS: Investigations with several molecules that have been reported to be associated with AMPK activation (A-769662, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-b-D-ribofuranoside, EGCG, KU-55933, quercetin, resveratrol and salicylates) or AMPK inhibition (compound C) failed to reveal increased medium acidification and increased glucose uptake in colon cancer cells as previously established with metformin and phenformin. The only exception was 5-aminosalicylic acid with which there were apparently lower glucose levels in the medium after incubation for 72 h. Further study in the absence of cells revealed that the effect was an artifact due to inhibition of the enzyme-linked glucose assay. The compounds were studied at concentrations that inhibited cell proliferation. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that treatment with several agents that can affect AMPK activity resulted in the inhibition of the proliferation of colon cancer cells under conditions in which glucose metabolism is not enhanced, in contrast to the effect of biguanides. PMID:25024815

  6. Resveratrol induces DNA damage in colon cancer cells by poisoning topoisomerase II and activates the ATM kinase to trigger p53-dependent apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Demoulin, Benjamin; Hermant, Maryse; Castrogiovanni, Cdric; Staudt, Catherine; Dumont, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    Resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) is a natural polyphenol synthesized by various plants such as grape vine. Resveratrol (RSV) is a widely studied molecule, largely for its chemopreventive effect in different mouse cancer models. We propose a mechanism underlying the cytotoxic activity of RSV on colon cancer cells. Our data show that resveratrol induces apoptosis, as observed by the cleavage of PARP-1 and chromatin condensation. We show that the tumor suppressor p53 is activated in response to RSV and participates to the apoptotic process. Additionally, we show that HCT-116 p53 wt colon carcinoma cells are significantly more sensitive than HCT-116 p53-/- cells to RSV. RSV induces DNA damage including double strand breaks, as evidenced by the presence of multiple ?-H2AX foci in 50% of cells after a 24 h treatment with 25 ?M RSV. The formation of DNA damage does not appear to rely on a pro-oxidant effect of the molecule, inhibition of topoisomerase I, or DNA intercalation. Rather, we show that DNA damage is the consequence of type II topoisomerase poisoning. Exposure of HCT-116 cells to RSV leads to activation of the Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) kinase, and ATM is required to activate p53. PMID:25952326

  7. JNK confers 5-fluorouracil resistance in p53-deficient and mutant p53-expressing colon cancer cells by inducing survival autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Xinbing; Kong, Na; Wang, Xian; Fang, Yong; Hu, Xiaotong; Xu, Yinghua; Chen, Wei; Wang, Kaifeng; Li, Da; Jin, Wei; Lou, Fang; Zheng, Yu; Hu, Hong; Gong, Liu; Zhou, Xiaoyun; Pan, Hongming; Han, Weidong

    2014-01-01

    Deficiency or mutation in the p53 tumor suppressor gene commonly occurs in human cancer and can contribute to disease progression and chemotherapy resistance. Currently, although the pro-survival or pro-death effect of autophagy remains a controversial issue, increasing data seem to support the idea that autophagy facilitates cancer cell resistance to chemotherapy treatment. Here we report that 5-FU treatment causes aberrant autophagosome accumulation in HCT116 p53−/− and HT-29 cancer cells. Specific inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA, CQ or small interfering RNA treatment targeting Atg5 or Beclin 1 can potentiate the re-sensitization of these resistant cancer cells to 5-FU. In further analysis, we show that JNK activation and phosphorylation of Bcl-2 are key determinants in 5-FU-induced autophagy. Inhibition of JNK by the compound SP600125 or JNK siRNA suppressed autophagy and phosphorylation of c-Jun and Bcl-2 but increased 5-FU-induced apoptosis in both HCT116 p53−/− and HT29 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that JNK activation confers 5-FU resistance in HCT116 p53−/− and HT29 cells by promoting autophagy as a pro-survival effect, likely via inducing Bcl-2 phosphorylation. These results provide a promising strategy to improve the efficacy of 5-FU-based chemotherapy for colorectal cancer patients harboring a p53 gene mutation. PMID:24733045

  8. Black Raspberry-Derived Anthocyanins Demethylate Tumor Suppressor Genes Through the Inhibition of DNMT1 and DNMT3B in Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-Shu; Kuo, Chieh-Ti; Cho, Seung-Ju; Seguin, Claire; Siddiqui, Jibran; Stoner, Kristen; Weng, Yu-I; Huang, Tim H.-M.; Tichelaar, Jay; Yearsley, Martha; Stoner, Gary D.; Huang, Yi-Wen

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that oral administration of black raspberry powder decreased promoter methylation of tumor suppressor genes in tumors from patients with colorectal cancer. The anthocyanins (ACs) in black raspberries are responsible, at least in part, for their cancer-inhibitory effects. In the present study, we asked if ACs are responsible for the demethylation effects observed in colorectal cancers. Three days of treatment of ACs at 0.5, 5, and 25 ?g/ml suppressed activity and protein expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3B in HCT116, Caco2 and SW480 cells. Promoters of CDKN2A, and SFRP2, SFRP5, and WIF1, upstream of Wnt pathway, were demethylated by ACs. mRNA expression of some of these genes was increased. mRNA expression of ?-catenin and c-Myc, downstream of Wnt pathway, and cell proliferation were decreased; apoptosis was increased. ACs were taken up into HCT116 cells and were differentially localized with DNMT1 and DNMT3B in the same cells visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Although it was reported that DNMT3B is regulated by c-Myc in mouse lymphoma, DNMT3B did not bind with c-Myc in HCT116 cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that ACs are responsible, at least in part, for the demethylation effects of whole black raspberries in colorectal cancers. PMID:23368921

  9. Synthesis of Tolmetin Hydrazide-Hydrazones and Discovery of a Potent Apoptosis Inducer in Colon Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Kkgzel, ? Gniz; Ko, Derya; ?kla-Szgn, Pelin; zsavc?, Derya; Bingl-zakp?nar, zlem; Mega-Tiber, P?nar; Orun, Oya; Erzincan, P?nar; Sa?-Erdem, Safiye; ?ahin, Fikrettin

    2015-10-01

    Tolmetin hydrazide and a novel series of tolmetin hydrazide-hydrazones 4a-l were synthesized in this study. The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectral (FT-IR, (1)H NMR) methods. N'-[(2,6-Dichlorophenyl)methylidene]-2-[1-methyl-5-(4-methylbenzoyl)-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]acetohydrazide (4g) was evaluated in vitro using the MTT colorimetric method against the colon cancer cell lines HCT-116 (ATCC, CCL-247) and HT-29 (ATCC, HTB-38) to determine growth inhibition and cell viability at different doses. Compound 4g exhibited anti-cancer activity with an IC50 value of 76??M against colon cancer line HT-29 (ATCC, HTB-38) and did not display cytotoxicity toward control NIH3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cells compared to tolmetin. In addition, this compound was evaluated for caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and annexin-V activation in the apoptotic pathway, which plays a key role in the treatment of cancer. We demonstrated that the anti-cancer activity of this compound was due to the activation of caspase-8 and caspase-9 involved in the apoptotic pathway. In addition, in this study, we investigated the catalytical effect of COX on the HT-29 cancer line, the apoptotic mechanism, and the moleculer binding of tolmetin and compound 4g on the COX enzyme active site. PMID:26287512

  10. Identifying clinically relevant drug resistance genes in drug-induced resistant cancer cell lines and post- chemotherapy tissues

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Mengsha; Zheng, Weicheng; Lu, Xingrong; Ao, Lu; Li, Xiangyu; Guan, Qingzhou; Cai, Hao; Li, Mengyao; Yan, Haidan; Guo, You; Chi, Pan; Guo, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, few molecular signatures of drug resistance identified in drug-induced resistant cancer cell models can be translated into clinical practice. Here, we defined differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between pre-chemotherapy colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue samples of non-responders and responders for 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin-based therapy as clinically relevant drug resistance genes (CRG5-FU/L-OHP). Taking CRG5-FU/L-OHP as reference, we evaluated the clinical relevance of several types of genes derived from HCT116 CRC cells with resistance to 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin, respectively. The results revealed that DEGs between parental and resistant cells, when both were treated with the corresponding drug for a certain time, were significantly consistent with the CRG5-FU/L-OHP as well as the DEGs between the post-chemotherapy CRC specimens of responders and non-responders. This study suggests a novel strategy to extract clinically relevant drug resistance genes from both drug-induced resistant cell models and post-chemotherapy cancer tissue specimens. PMID:26515599

  11. Tussilagone suppresses colon cancer cell proliferation by promoting the degradation of β-catenin

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hua; Lee, Hwa Jin; Ahn, Yeon Hwa; Kwon, Hye Jin; Jang, Chang-Young; Kim, Woo-Young; Ryu, Jae-Ha

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •Tussilagone (TSL) was purified from plant as an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. •TSL suppressed the β-catenin/T-cell factor transcriptional activity. •The proteasomal degradation of β-catenin was induced by TSL. •TSL suppressed the Wnt/β-catenin target genes, cyclin D1 and c-myc. •TSL inhibit the proliferation of colon cancer cells. -- Abstract: Abnormal activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway frequently induces colon cancer progression. In the present study, we identified tussilagone (TSL), a compound isolated from the flower buds of Tussilago farfara, as an inhibitor on β-catenin dependent Wnt pathway. TSL suppressed β-catenin/T-cell factor transcriptional activity and down-regulated β-catenin level both in cytoplasm and nuclei of HEK293 reporter cells when they were stimulated by Wnt3a or activated by an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3β. Since the mRNA level was not changed by TSL, proteasomal degradation might be responsible for the decreased level of β-catenin. In SW480 and HCT116 colon cancer cell lines, TSL suppressed the β-catenin activity and also decreased the expression of cyclin D1 and c-myc, representative target genes of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and consequently inhibited the proliferation of colon cancer cells. Taken together, TSL might be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of human colon cancer.

  12. The Chinese Herb Isolate Yuanhuacine (YHL-14) Induces G2/M Arrest in Human Cancer Cells by Up-regulating p21 Protein Expression through an p53 Protein-independent Cascade*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruowen; Wang, Yulei; Li, Jingxia; Jin, Honglei; Song, Shaojiang; Huang, Chuanshu

    2014-01-01

    Yuanhuacine (YHL-14), the major component of daphnane diterpene ester isolated from the flower buds of Daphne genkwa, has been reported to have activity against cell proliferation in various cancer cell lines. Nevertheless, the potential mechanism has not been explored yet. Here we demonstrate that YHL-14 inhibits bladder and colon cancer cell growth through up-regulation of p21 expression in an Sp1-dependent manner. We found that YHL-14 treatment resulted in up-regulation of p21 expression and a significant G2/M phase arrest in T24T and HCT116 cells without affecting p53 protein expression and activation. Further studies indicate that p21 induction by YHL-14 occurs at the transcriptional level via up-regulation of Sp1 protein expression. Moreover, our results show that p38 is essential for YHL-14-mediated Sp1 protein stabilization, G2/M growth arrest induction, and anchorage-independent growth inhibition of cancer cells. Taken together, our studies demonstrate a novel mechanism of YHL-14 against cancer cell growth in bladder and colon cancer cell lines, which provides valuable information for the design and synthesis of other new conformation-constrained derivatives on the basis of the structure of YHL-14 for cancer therapy. PMID:24451377

  13. Generation of a human antibody that inhibits TSPAN8-mediated invasion of metastatic colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taek-Keun; Park, Chang Sik; Jeoung, Mee Hyun; Lee, Woo Ran; Go, Nam Kyung; Choi, Jong Rip; Lee, Tae Sup; Shim, Hyunbo; Lee, Sukmook

    2015-12-25

    Tetraspanin 8 (TSPAN8) is a tumor-associated antigen implicated in tumor progression and metastasis. However, the validation of TSPAN8 as a potential therapeutic target in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) has not yet been studied. In this study, through several invitro methodologies, we identified a large extracellular loop of TSPAN8 (TSPAN8-LEL) as a key domain for regulating mCRC invasion. Using phage display technology, we developed a novel anti-TSPAN8-LEL human antibody with subnanomolar affinity that specifically recognizes amino acids 140-205 of TSPAN8-LEL in a conformation-dependent manner. Finally, we demonstrated that the antibody specifically reduces invasion in the HCT116 and LoVo mCRC cell lines more potently than in the HCT-8 and SW480 non-mCRC cell lines. Our data suggest that TSPAN8-LEL may play an important role in mCRC cell invasion, and that the antibody we have developed could be a useful tool for inhibiting the invasion of TSPAN8-expressing mCRCs. PMID:26562525

  14. Acetyl-keto-?-boswellic acid inhibits cellular proliferation through a p21-dependent pathway in colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian-Jun; Huang, Baohua; Hooi, Shing Chuan

    2006-01-01

    Although there is increasing evidence showing that boswellic acid might be a potential anticancer agent, the mechanisms involved in its action are unclear. In the present study, we showed that acetyl-keto-?-boswellic acid (AKBA) inhibited cellular growth in several colon cancer cell lines. Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry showed that cells were arrested at the G1 phase after AKBA treatment. Further analysis showed that cyclin D1 and E, CDK 2 and 4 and phosphorylated Rb were decreased in AKBA-treated cells while p21 expression was increased. The growth inhibitory effect of AKBA was dependent on p21 but not p53. HCT-116 p53?/? cells were sensitized to the apoptotic effect of AKBA, suggesting that p21 may have protected cells against apoptosis by inducing a G1 arrest. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that AKBA inhibited cellular growth in colon cancer cells. These findings may have implications to the use of boswellic acids as potential anticancer agents in colon cancer. PMID:16783403

  15. Anti-proliferative effect of horehound leaf and wild cherry bark extracts on human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Kiyoshi; Liggett, Jason L; Kim, Nam-Cheol; Baek, Seung Joon

    2006-01-01

    Marubium vulgare (horehound) and Prunus serotina (wild cherry) have been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory-related symptoms such as cold, fever, and sore throat. In this report, we show that extracts of anti-inflammatory horehound leaves and wild cherry bark exhibit anti-proliferative activity in human colorectal cancer cells. Both horehound and wild cherry extracts cause suppression of cell growth as well as induction of apoptosis. We found that horehound extract up-regulates pro-apoptotic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene (NAG-1) through transactivation of the NAG-1 promoter. In contrast, wild cherry extract decreased cyclin D1 expression and increased NAG-1 expression in HCT-116 and SW480 cell lines. Treatment with wild cherry extract resulted in the suppression of beta-catenin/T cell factor transcription, as assessed by TOP/FOP reporter constructs, suggesting that suppressed beta-catenin signaling by wild cherry extract leads to the reduction of cyclin D1 expression. Our data suggest the mechanisms by which these extracts suppress cell growth and induce apoptosis involve enhanced NAG-1 expression and/or down-regulation of beta-catenin signaling, followed by reduced cyclin D1 expression in human colorectal cancer cells. These findings may provide mechanisms for traditional anti-inflammatory products as cancer chemopreventive agents. PMID:16328068

  16. The novel HDAC inhibitor AR-42-induced anti-colon cancer cell activity is associated with ceramide production.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weihong; Xu, Bin; Yao, Yiting; Yu, Xiaoling; Shen, Jie

    2015-08-01

    In the current study, we investigated the potential activity of AR-42, a novel histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, against colon cancer cells. Our invitro results showed that AR-42 induced ceramide production, exerted potent anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities in established (SW-620 and HCT-116 lines) and primary human colon cancer cells. Exogenously-added sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) suppressed AR-42-induced activity, yet a cell-permeable ceramide (C4) facilitated AR-42-induced cytotoxicity against colon cancer cells. In addition, AR-42-induced ceramide production and anti-colon cancer cell activity were inhibited by the ceramide synthase inhibitor fumonisin B1, but were exacerbated by PDMP, which is a ceramide glucosylation inhibitor. Invivo, oral administration of a single dose of AR-42 dramatically inhibited SW-620 xenograft growth in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, without inducing overt toxicities. Together, these results show that AR-42 dramatically inhibits colon cancer cell proliferation invitro and invivo, and ceramide production might be the key mechanism responsible for its actions. PMID:26026677

  17. Derricin and Derricidin Inhibit Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling and Suppress Colon Cancer Cell Growth In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Barbara F.; Predes, Danilo; Cerqueira, Debora M.; Reis, Alice H.; Amado, Nathalia G.; Cayres, Marina C. L.; Kuster, Ricardo M.; Oliveira, Felipe L.; Mendes, Fabio A.; Abreu, Jose G.

    2015-01-01

    Overactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in adult tissues has been implicated in many diseases, such as colorectal cancer. Finding chemical substances that can prevent this phenomenon is an emerging problem. Recently, several natural compounds have been described as Wnt/β-catenin inhibitors and might be promising agents for the control of carcinogenesis. Here, we describe two natural substances, derricin and derricidin, belonging to the chalcone subclass, that show potent transcriptional inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Both chalcones are able to affect the cell distribution of β-catenin, and inhibit Wnt-specific reporter activity in HCT116 cells and in Xenopus embryos. Derricin and derricidin also strongly inhibited canonical Wnt activity in vitro, and rescued the Wnt-induced double axis phenotype in Xenopus embryos. As a consequence of Wnt/β-catenin inhibition, derricin and derricidin treatments reduce cell viability and lead to cell cycle arrest in colorectal cancer cell lines. Taken together, our results strongly support these chalcones as novel negative modulators of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and colon cancer cell growth in vitro. PMID:25775405

  18. NPRL-Z-1, as a new topoisomerase II poison, induces cell apoptosis and ROS generation in human renal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Szu-Ying; Pan, Shiow-Lin; Xiao, Zhi-Yan; Hsu, Jui-Ling; Chen, Mei-Chuan; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Teng, Che-Ming

    2014-01-01

    NPRL-Z-1 is a 4?-[(4"-benzamido)-amino]-4'-O-demethyl-epipodophyllotoxin derivative. Previous reports have shown that NPRL-Z-1 possesses anticancer activity. Here NPRL-Z-1 displayed cytotoxic effects against four human cancer cell lines (HCT 116, A549, ACHN, and A498) and exhibited potent activity in A498 human renal carcinoma cells, with an IC50 value of 2.38 M via the MTT assay. We also found that NPRL-Z-1 induced cell cycle arrest in G1-phase and detected DNA double-strand breaks in A498 cells. NPRL-Z-1 induced ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) protein kinase phosphorylation at serine 1981, leading to the activation of DNA damage signaling pathways, including Chk2, histone H2AX, and p53/p21. By ICE assay, the data suggested that NPRL-Z-1 acted on and stabilized the topoisomerase II (TOP2)-DNA complex, leading to TOP2cc formation. NPRL-Z-1-induced DNA damage signaling and apoptotic death was also reversed by TOP2? or TOP2? knockdown. In addition, NPRL-Z-1 inhibited the Akt signaling pathway and induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. These results demonstrated that NPRL-Z-1 appeared to be a novel TOP2 poison and ROS generator. Thus, NPRL-Z-1 may present a significant potential anticancer candidate against renal carcinoma. PMID:25372714

  19. Relative inhibition of lipid peroxidation, cyclooxygenase enzymes, and human tumor cell proliferation by natural food colors.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Muntha K; Alexander-Lindo, Ruby L; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2005-11-16

    The most abundant water soluble natural food colors are betacyanins and anthocyanins. Similarly, lycopene, bixin, beta-carotene, and chlorophyll are water insoluble colors. Pure betanin, bixin, lycopene, chlorophyll, beta-carotene, and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside were isolated from Beta vulgaris, Bixa orellana,Lycopersicum esculentum, Spinacia oleracea, Daucus carrota, and Prunus cerasus, respectively. These natural pigments, alone and in combination, were evaluated for their relative potencies against cyclooxygenase enzymes and tumor cell growth inhibition by using MCF-7 (breast), HCT-116 (colon), AGS (stomach), CNS (central nervous system), and NCI-H460 (lung) tumor cell lines. Among the colors tested, betanin, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, lycopene, and beta-carotene inhibited lipid peroxidation. However, all pigments tested gave COX-1 and COX-2 inhibition and showed a dose-dependent growth inhibition against breast, colon, stomach, central nervous system, and lung tumor cells, respectively. The mixtures of these pigments were also evaluated for their synergistic effects and chemical interactions at various concentrations. The mixture of anthocyanin and betanin negated their efficacy in the cell growth inhibitory assay and did not enhance the COX enzyme inhibitory activity. This is the first report of a comparative evaluation and the impact on biological activities of these pigments alone and in combination. PMID:16277432

  20. Selenite-induced autophagy antagonizes apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    YANG, YANG; LUO, HUI; HUI, KAIYUAN; CI, YALI; SHI, KEJIAN; CHEN, GE; SHI, LEI; XU, CAIMIN

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis in selenite-treated colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. The effects of selenite on HCT116 and SW480 cell apoptosis were investigated with an Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining kit by flow cytometry. The punctate of LC3 protein following treatment with selenite was observed by a laser scanning confocal microscope and by transmission electron microscopy. Using western blot assays, we detected the apoptotic and autophagic markers in both CRC cells and mouse xenograft tumor models. We found that sodium selenite induced autophagy in the two CRC cell lines. Consistent with the in vitro results, we observed that the expression of autophagy marker LC3 was increased. Finally, we discovered that modulation of reactive oxygen species by MnTMPyP inhibited autophagy, while H2O2 activated autophagy. These results help to elucidate the anticancer effect of selenium, providing further evidence to exploit novel anticancer drugs targeting selenium. PMID:26676801

  1. Selenite-induced autophagy antagonizes apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Luo, Hui; Hui, Kaiyuan; Ci, Yali; Shi, Kejian; Chen, Ge; Shi, Lei; Xu, Caimin

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis in selenite?treated colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. The effects of selenite on HCT116 and SW480 cell apoptosis were investigated with an AnnexinV/propidium iodide (PI) double staining kit by flow cytometry. The punctate of LC3 protein following treatment with selenite was observed by a laser scanning confocal microscope and by transmission electron microscopy. Using western blot assays, we detected the apoptotic and autophagic markers in both CRC cells and mouse xenograft tumor models. We found that sodium selenite induced autophagy in the two CRC cell lines. Consistent with the invitro results, we observed that the expression of autophagy marker LC3 was increased. Finally, we discovered that modulation of reactive oxygen species by MnTMPyP inhibited autophagy, while H2O2 activated autophagy. These results help to elucidate the anticancer effect of selenium, providing further evidence to exploit novel anticancer drugs targeting selenium. PMID:26676801

  2. The different radiation response and radiation-induced bystander effects in colorectal carcinoma cells differing in p53 status.

    PubMed

    Widel, Maria; Lalik, Anna; Krzywon, Aleksandra; Poleszczuk, Jan; Fujarewicz, Krzysztof; Rzeszowska-Wolny, Joanna

    2015-08-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect, appearing as different biological changes in cells that are not directly exposed to ionizing radiation but are under the influence of molecular signals secreted by irradiated neighbors, have recently attracted considerable interest due to their possible implication for radiotherapy. However, various cells present diverse radiosensitivity and bystander responses that depend, inter alia, on genetic status including TP53, the gene controlling the cell cycle, DNA repair and apoptosis. Here we compared the ionizing radiation and bystander responses of human colorectal carcinoma HCT116 cells with wild type or knockout TP53 using a transwell co-culture system. The viability of exposed to X-rays (0-8 Gy) and bystander cells of both lines showed a roughly comparable decline with increasing dose. The frequency of micronuclei was also comparable at lower doses but at higher increased considerably, especially in bystander TP53-/- cells. Moreover, the TP53-/- cells showed a significantly elevated frequency of apoptosis, while TP53+/+ counterparts expressed high level of senescence. The cross-matched experiments where irradiated cells of one line were co-cultured with non-irradiated cells of opposite line show that both cell lines were also able to induce bystander effects in their counterparts, however different endpoints revealed with different strength. Potential mediators of bystander effects, IL-6 and IL-8, were also generated differently in both lines. The knockout cells secreted IL-6 at lower doses whereas wild type cells only at higher doses. Secretion of IL-8 by TP53-/- control cells was many times lower than that by TP53+/+ but increased significantly after irradiation. Transcription of the NF?BIA was induced in irradiated TP53+/+ mainly, but in bystanders a higher level was observed in TP53-/- cells, suggesting that TP53 is required for induction of NF?B pathway after irradiation but another mechanism of activation must operate in bystander cells. PMID:26099456

  3. Cytotoxicity of the Sesquiterpene Lactones Neoambrosin and Damsin from Ambrosia maritima Against Multidrug-Resistant Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Mohamed; Jacob, Stefan; Sandjo, Louis P.; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Khalid, Hassan E.; Opatz, Till; Thines, Eckhard; Efferth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance is a prevailing phenomenon leading to chemotherapy treatment failure in cancer patients. In the current study two known cytotoxic pseudoguaianolide sesquiterpene lactones; neoambrosin (1) and damsin (2) that circumvent MDR were identified. The two cytotoxic compounds were isolated using column chromatography, characterized using 1D and 2D NMR, MS, and compared with literature values. The isolated compounds were investigated for their cytotoxic potential using resazurin assays and thereafter confirmed with immunoblotting and in silico studies. MDR cells overexpressing ABC transporters (P-glycoprotein, BCRP, ABCB5) did not confer cross-resistance toward (1) and (2), indicating that these compounds are not appropriate substrates for any of the three ABC transporters analyzed. Resistance mechanisms investigated also included; the loss of the functions of the TP53 and the mutated EGFR. The HCT116 p53-/- cells were sensitive to 1 but resistant to 2. It was interesting to note that resistant cells transfected with oncogenic ΔEGFR exhibited hypersensitivity CS toward (1) and (2) (degrees of resistances were 0.18 and 0.15 for (1) and (2), respectively). Immunoblotting and in silico analyses revealed that 1 and 2 silenced c-Src kinase activity. It was hypothesized that inhibition of c-Src kinase activity may explain CS in EGFR-transfected cells. In conclusion, the significant cytotoxicity of 1 and 2 against different drug-resistant tumor cell lines indicate that they may be promising candidates to treat refractory tumors. PMID:26617519

  4. Depletion of the thiol oxidoreductase ERp57 in tumor cells inhibits proliferation and increases sensitivity to ionizing radiation and chemotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, Philip; Neumann, Fabian; Mersch, Evgenija; Baumann, Melanie; Goepelt, Kirsten; Brockmeier, Ulf; Metzen, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly growing tumor cells must synthesize proteins at a high rate and therefore depend on an efficient folding and quality control system for nascent secretory proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The ER resident thiol oxidoreductase ERp57 plays an important role in disulfide bond formation. Lentiviral, doxycycline-inducible ERp57 knockdown was combined with irradiation and treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. The knockdown of ERp57 significantly enhanced the apoptotic response to anticancer treatment in HCT116 colon cancer cells via a p53-dependent mechanism. Instead of a direct interaction with p53, depletion of ERp57 induced cell death via a selective activation of the PERK branch of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). In contrast, apoptosis was reduced in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells harboring mutant p53. Nevertheless, we observed a strong reduction of proliferation in response to ERp57 knockdown in both cell lines regardless of the p53 status. Depletion of ERp57 reduced the phosphorylation activity of the mTOR-complex1 (mTORC1) as demonstrated by reduction of p70S6K phosphorylation. Our data demonstrate that ERp57 is a promising target for anticancer therapy due to synergistic p53-dependent induction of apoptosis and p53-independent inhibition of proliferation. PMID:26513173

  5. Effects of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids on IGF-I receptor signalling in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Seti, Hila; Leikin-Frenkel, Alicia; Werner, Haim

    2009-07-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system plays a critical role in normal growth and development as well as in malignant states. Most of the biological activities of the IGFs are mediated by the IGF-IR, which is over-expressed in most tumours and cancer cell lines. Fatty acids have critical roles in both systemic physiological processes (e.g. metabolism) and cellular events (e.g. proliferation, apoptosis, signal transduction, and gene expression). Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA) are essential fatty acids of the omega-3 and omega-6 families, respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential interactions between fatty acids and the IGF signal transduction pathways, and to evaluate the impact of this interplay on colon cancer cells survival and proliferation. Results of Western blot analyses revealed that ALA and LA enhanced the ligand-induced IGF-IR phosphorylation and, in addition, increased receptor phosphorylation in an IGF-I independent manner. Furthermore, fatty acid treatment led to phosphorylation of downstream signalling molecules, including Akt and Erk. In addition, FACS analysis and apoptosis measurements indicated that ALA and LA have a potential mitogenic effect on HCT116 cells, as reflected by the number of cells in S phase and by a reduction of PARP cleavage, implying a reduction in apoptotic activity. In summary, our results provide evidence that omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids modulate IGF-I action in colon cancer cells. PMID:19480565

  6. RASSF10 suppresses colorectal cancer growth by activating P53 signaling and sensitizes colorectal cancer cell to docetaxel

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jing; Yang, Yage; Yang, Yunsheng; Linghu, Enqiang; Zhan, Qimin; Brock, Malcolm V.; Herman, James G.; Zhang, Bingyong; Guo, Mingzhou

    2015-01-01

    RASSF10 has previously been reported to be frequently methylated in a number of malignancies. To understand the importance of RASSF10 inactivation in colorectal carcinogenesis, eight colorectal cancer cell lines, 89 cases of primary colorectal cancer and 5 cases of normal colorectal mucosa were examined. Methylation specific PCR, western blot, siRNA, gene expression array and xenograft mice were employed. The expression of RASSF10 was regulated by promoter regional methylation in colorectal cancer cells. RASSF10 was methylated in 60.7% (54/89) of primary colorectal cancers and was positively associated with tumor stage (p < 0.05) and metastasis (p < 0.05). Restoration of RASSF10 led to inhibition of colorectal cancer cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo and increased apoptosis. Gene expression arrays discovered RASSF10 inhibition of MDM2 expression as a mediator of these effects, which was confirmed with RT-PCR and western blot. RASSF10 was shown to activate P53 signaling in RKO and HCT116 cells after UV exposure, and sensitized these cells to docetaxel. In conclusion, our study demonstrates RASSF10 is frequently methylated in human colorectal cancer leading to loss of expression. RASSF10 normally suppresses human colorectal cancer growth by activating P53 signaling in colorectal cancer, and restored expression sensitizes colorectal cancer to docetaxel. PMID:25638156

  7. Molluscan cells in culture: primary cell cultures and cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, T. P.; Bickham, U.; Bayne, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro cell culture systems from molluscs have significantly contributed to our basic understanding of complex physiological processes occurring within or between tissue-specific cells, yielding information unattainable using intact animal models. In vitro cultures of neuronal cells from gastropods show how simplified cell models can inform our understanding of complex networks in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures from marine and freshwater bivalve and gastropod species are used as biomonitors for environmental contaminants, as models for gene transfer technologies, and for studies of innate immunity and neoplastic disease. Despite efforts to isolate proliferative cell lines from molluscs, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 embryonic (Bge) cell line is the only existing cell line originating from any molluscan species. Taking an organ systems approach, this review summarizes efforts to establish molluscan cell cultures and describes the varied applications of primary cell cultures in research. Because of the unique status of the Bge cell line, an account is presented of the establishment of this cell line, and of how these cells have contributed to our understanding of snail host-parasite interactions. Finally, we detail the difficulties commonly encountered in efforts to establish cell lines from molluscs and discuss how these difficulties might be overcome. PMID:24198436

  8. Asymmetric triplex metallohelices with high and selective activity against cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, Alan D.; Kaner, Rebecca A.; Abdallah, Qasem M. A.; Clarkson, Guy; Fox, David J.; Gurnani, Pratik; Howson, Suzanne E.; Phillips, Roger M.; Roper, David I.; Simpson, Daniel H.; Scott, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Small cationic amphiphilic α-helical peptides are emerging as agents for the treatment of cancer and infection, but they are costly and display unfavourable pharmacokinetics. Helical coordination complexes may offer a three-dimensional scaffold for the synthesis of mimetic architectures. However, the high symmetry and modest functionality of current systems offer little scope to tailor the structure to interact with specific biomolecular targets, or to create libraries for phenotypic screens. Here, we report the highly stereoselective asymmetric self-assembly of very stable, functionalized metallohelices. Their anti-parallel head-to-head-to-tail ‘triplex’ strand arrangement creates an amphipathic functional topology akin to that of the active sub-units of, for example, host-defence peptides and p53. The metallohelices display high, structure-dependent toxicity to the human colon carcinoma cell-line HCT116 p53++, causing dramatic changes in the cell cycle without DNA damage. They have lower toxicity to human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MDA-MB-468) and, most remarkably, they show no significant toxicity to the bacteria methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

  9. Identification and Functional Analysis of Epigenetically Silenced MicroRNAs in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hongli; Choi, Ae-jin; Lee, Byron H.; Ting, Angela H.

    2011-01-01

    Abnormal microRNA (miRNA) expression has been linked to the development and progression of several human cancers, and such dysregulation can result from aberrant DNA methylation. While a small number of miRNAs is known to be regulated by DNA methylation, we postulated that such epigenetic regulation is more prevalent. By combining MBD-isolated Genome Sequencing (MiGS) to evaluate genome-wide DNA methylation patterns and microarray analysis to determine miRNA expression levels, we systematically searched for candidate miRNAs regulated by DNA methylation in colorectal cancer cell lines. We found 64 miRNAs to be robustly methylated in HCT116 cells; eighteen of them were located in imprinting regions or already reported to be regulated by DNA methylation. For the remaining 46 miRNAs, expression levels of 18 were consistent with their DNA methylation status. Finally, 8 miRNAs were up-regulated by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine treatment and identified to be novel miRNAs regulated by DNA methylation. Moreover, we demonstrated the functional relevance of these epigenetically silenced miRNAs by ectopically expressing select candidates, which resulted in inhibition of growth and migration of cancer cells. In addition to reporting these findings, our study also provides a reliable, systematic strategy to identify DNA methylation-regulated miRNAs by combining DNA methylation profiles and expression data. PMID:21698188

  10. Arginine deprivation induces endoplasmic reticulum stress in human solid cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bobak, Yaroslav; Kurlishchuk, Yuliya; Vynnytska-Myronovska, Bozhena; Grydzuk, Olesia; Shuvayeva, Galyna; Redowicz, Maria J; Kunz-Schughart, Leoni A; Stasyk, Oleh

    2016-01-01

    Deprivation for the single amino acid arginine is a rapidly developing metabolic anticancer therapy, which allows growth control in a number of highly malignant tumors. Here we report that one of the responses of human solid cancer cells to arginine starvation is the induction of prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Systematic study of two colorectal carcinoma HCT-116 and HT29, glioblastoma U251 MG and ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cell lines revealed, however, that the ER stress triggered by the absence of arginine does not result in massive apoptosis despite a profound upregulation of the proapoptotic gene CHOP. Instead, Akt- and MAPK-dependent pathways were activated which may counteract proapoptotic signaling. Treatment with DMSO as a disaggregating agent or with cycloheximide to block protein synthesis reduced ER stress evoked by arginine deprivation. On the other hand, ER stress and apoptosis induction in arginine-starved cells could be critically augmented by the arginine analog of plant origin canavanine, but not by the classic ER stress inducer tunicamycin. Our data suggest that canavanine treatment applied under the lack of arginine may enhance the efficacy of arginine deprivation-based anticancer therapy. PMID:26546743

  11. ATAD2 Overexpression Identifies Colorectal Cancer Patients with Poor Prognosis and Drives Proliferation of Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yang; Ye, Guang-Yao; Qin, Shao-Lan; Yu, Min-Hao; Mu, Yi-Fei; Zhong, Ming

    2015-01-01

    ATPase family AAA domain-containing 2 (ATAD2) has been identified as a critical modulator involved in cell proliferation and invasion. The purpose of this study was to explore the expression of ATAD2 in CRC tissues as well as its relationship with degree of malignancy. Data containing three independent investigations from Oncomine database demonstrated that ATAD2 is overexpressed in CRC compared with normal tissue, and similar result was also found in 32 pairs of CRC tissues by qPCR. The protein expression of ATAD2 was examined in six CRC cell lines and 300 CRC specimens. The results showed that high expression of ATAD2 was significantly correlated with tumor size (P < 0.001), serum CEA (P = 0.012), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.018), liver metastasis (P = 0.025), and clinical stage (P = 0.004). Kaplan-Meier method suggested that higher ATAD2 protein expression significantly associated with the overall survival (OS) of CRC patients (P < 0.001) and was an independent predictor of poor OS. Functional studies showed that suppression of ATAD2 expression with siRNA could significantly inhibit the growth in SW480 and HCT116 cells. These results indicated that ATAD2 could serve as a prognostic marker and a therapeutic target for CRC. PMID:26697062

  12. ATAD2 Overexpression Identifies Colorectal Cancer Patients with Poor Prognosis and Drives Proliferation of Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yang; Ye, Guang-Yao; Qin, Shao-Lan; Yu, Min-Hao; Mu, Yi-Fei; Zhong, Ming

    2015-01-01

    ATPase family AAA domain-containing 2 (ATAD2) has been identified as a critical modulator involved in cell proliferation and invasion. The purpose of this study was to explore the expression of ATAD2 in CRC tissues as well as its relationship with degree of malignancy. Data containing three independent investigations from Oncomine database demonstrated that ATAD2 is overexpressed in CRC compared with normal tissue, and similar result was also found in 32 pairs of CRC tissues by qPCR. The protein expression of ATAD2 was examined in six CRC cell lines and 300 CRC specimens. The results showed that high expression of ATAD2 was significantly correlated with tumor size (P < 0.001), serum CEA (P = 0.012), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.018), liver metastasis (P = 0.025), and clinical stage (P = 0.004). Kaplan-Meier method suggested that higher ATAD2 protein expression significantly associated with the overall survival (OS) of CRC patients (P < 0.001) and was an independent predictor of poor OS. Functional studies showed that suppression of ATAD2 expression with siRNA could significantly inhibit the growth in SW480 and HCT116 cells. These results indicated that ATAD2 could serve as a prognostic marker and a therapeutic target for CRC. PMID:26697062

  13. Half-sandwich ruthenium(II) biotin conjugates as biological vectors to cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Babak, Maria V; Pla?uk, Damian; Meier, Samuel M; Arabshahi, Homayon John; Reynisson, Jhannes; Rychlik, B?a?ej; B?au?, Andrzej; Szulc, Katarzyna; Hanif, Muhammad; Strobl, Sebastian; Roller, Alexander; Keppler, Bernhard K; Hartinger, Christian G

    2015-03-23

    Ruthenium(II)-arene complexes with biotin-containing ligands were prepared so that a novel drug delivery system based on tumor-specific vitamin-receptor mediated endocytosis could be developed. The complexes were characterized by spectroscopic methods and their in vitro anticancer activity in cancer cell lines with various levels of major biotin receptor (COLO205, HCT116 and SW620 cells) was tested in comparison with the ligands. In all cases, coordination of ruthenium resulted in significantly enhanced cytotoxicity. The affinity of Ru(II) -biotin complexes to avidin was investigated and was lower than that of unmodified biotin. Hill coefficients in the range 2.012-2.851 suggest strong positive cooperation between the complexes and avidin. To estimate the likelihood of binding to the biotin receptor/transporter, docking studies with avidin and streptavidin were conducted. These explain, to some extent, the in vitro anticancer activity results and support the conclusion that these novel half-sandwich ruthenium(II)-biotin conjugates may act as biological vectors to cancer cells, although no clear relationship between the cellular Ru content, the cytotoxicity, and the presence of the biotin moiety was observed. PMID:25676245

  14. BI-69A11 enhances susceptibility of colon cancer cells to mda-7/IL-24-induced growth inhibition by targeting Akt

    PubMed Central

    Pal, I; Sarkar, S; Rajput, S; Dey, K K; Chakraborty, S; Dash, R; Das, S K; Sarkar, D; Barile, E; De, S K; Pellecchia, M; Fisher, P B; Mandal, M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Akt and its downstream signalling pathways contribute to the aetiology and progression of colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Targeting the Akt pathway is an attractive strategy but few chemotherapeutic drugs have been used to treat CRC with only limited success. BI-69A11, a small molecule inhibitor of Akt, efficiently inhibits growth in melanoma cells. Melanoma differentiation associated gene-7 (mda-7)/interleukin-24 promotes cancer-selective apoptosis when delivered by a tropism-modified replication incompetent adenovirus (Ad.5/3-mda-7). However, Ad.5/3-mda-7 displays diminished antitumour efficacy in several CRC cell lines, which correlates with the expression of K-RAS. Methods: The individual and combinatorial effect of BI-69A11 and Ad.5/3-mda-7 in vitro was studied by cell viability, cell cycle, apoptosis and invasion assays in HT29 and HCT116 cells containing wild type or mutant K-ras, respectively. In vivo HT29 tumour xenografts were used to test the efficacy of the combination treatment. Results: BI-69A11 inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in CRC. However, combinatorial treatment was more effective compared with single treatment. This combination showed profound antitumour and anti angiogenic effects in vitro and in vivo by downregulating Akt activity. Conclusions: BI-69A11 enhances the antitumour efficacy of Ad.5/3-mda-7 on CRC overexpressing K-RAS by inducing apoptosis and regulating Akt activity thereby warranting further evaluation in treating CRC. PMID:24892445

  15. Cell line: 2004-2014.

    PubMed

    2014-11-20

    2014 marks Cell's 40th anniversary, and over the year we have looked back at how discoveries of the last four decades have molded our understanding of biology. The final decade of the Cell Line features a selection of the exceptional scientific work-both landmark papers and essential reviews. Select entries can be read as an "Annotated Classic," which includes the original paper and accompanying reflections of a leading scientist, considering the work from our current vantage point. Our last installment includes a harbinger of the interplay between microbiota and mammalian hosts in 2004, revolutionary papers in 2006 and 2007 unlocking cellular reprogramming, the discovery of beige adipocytes in 2012, and the first example of CRISPR-based genome editing in a nonhuman primate in 2014. In addition to landmark publications, there were innovative developments at the journal in this decade, with the complete redesign of the print journal and the creation of Leading Edge in late 2005 and the restructuring of the online display of the article in 2010. Keeping pace with the changing nature of biological research, over the decade Cell added new article types, introduced guidelines for the organization of supplementary material, and expanded the journal's web-based content to bring editors' and authors' excitement and perspective on individual papers to the readership. An interactive version of the timeline, with links to the papers, full author lists, and Annotated Classics, is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2014.11.004. PMID:25416957

  16. INCREASED LEVELS OF SUPEROXIDE AND HYDROGEN PEROXIDE MEDIATE THE DIFFERENTIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CANCER CELLS VS. NORMAL CELLS TO GLUCOSE DEPRIVATION

    PubMed Central

    Aykin-Burns, Nkhet; Ahmad, Iman M.; Zhu, Yueming; Oberley, Larry W.; Spitz, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    Cancer cells, relative to normal cells, demonstrate increased sensitivity to glucose deprivation-induced cytotoxicity. To determine if oxidative stress mediated by O2? and hydroperoxides contributed to the differential susceptibility of human epithelial cancer cells to glucose deprivation, oxidation of dihydroethidine (DHE; for O2?) and 5-(and-6)-carboxy-2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (CDCFH2; for hydroperoxides) were measured in human colon and breast cancer cells (HT29, HCT116, SW480, MB231) and compared to normal human cells (FHC, 33Co, HMEC). Cancer cells showed significant increases in DHE (220 fold) and CDCFH2 (1.810 fold) oxidation, relative to normal cells that were more pronounced in the presence of the mitochondrial electron transport chain blocker, antimycin A. Furthermore, HCT116 and MB231 cells were more susceptible to glucose deprivation-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress, relative to 33Co and HMEC. HT-29 cells were also more susceptible to 2-deoxyglucose-(2DG)-induced cytotoxicity, relative to FHC. Over expression of manganese superoxide dismutase and mitochondrially targeted catalase significantly protected HCT116 and MB231 cells from glucose deprivation-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress, as well as protecting HT-29 cells from 2DG-induced cytotoxicity. These results show cancer cells (relative to normal cells) demonstrate increased steady-state levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, i.e. O2? and H2O2) that contribute to differential susceptibility to glucose deprivation-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. These studies support the hypotheses that cancer cells increase glucose metabolism to compensate for excess metabolic production of ROS as well as that inhibition of glucose and hydroperoxide metabolism may provide a biochemical target for selectively enhancing cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in human cancer cells. PMID:18937644

  17. Molecular size fractions of bay leaf (Laurus nobilis) exhibit differentiated regulation of colorectal cancer cell growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Louise; Abeywardena, Mahinda; Burnard, Sharon; Forsyth, Santina; Head, Richard; King, Kerryn; Patten, Glen; Watkins, Peter; Williams, Roderick; Zabaras, Dimitrios; Lockett, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Numerous in vitro studies using solvent or aqueous extracts of raw dietary plant material have demonstrated modulation of colon cancer cell growth and apoptosis and effects on immune and nonimmune pathways of inflammation. We have developed a generic, 3-staged food-compatible process involving heating for conversion of dietary plants into food ingredients and report results on potential colon cancer-regulating properties of processed forms of Bay leaf (Laurus nobilis). In vitro studies demonstrated inhibition of cancer cell growth by processed Bay leaf products in HT-29, HCT-116, Caco-2, and SW-480 human cancer cell lines, which were accompanied by variable levels of elevated apoptosis. Bay leaf also exerted moderate inhibition of cycloxygenase 2 and 5 lipoxygenase enzymatic activity. In addition, these extracts significantly downregulated interferon-? production in T helper Type 1-stimulated whole blood from healthy donors. Furthermore, size fractionation of the extracts revealed that antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities were associated with low mass (primarily polyphenolics and essential oils) and high mass (primarily proteins including polyphenol oxidase) chemical classes, respectively. Bay leaf exerted in vitro bioactivity that might be relevant to protecting against early events in sporadic colorectal cancer, with potential for further optimization of bioactivity by size-based fractionation. PMID:23859043

  18. Synthesis of a DNA-targeting nickel (II) complex with testosterone thiosemicarbazone which exhibits selective cytotoxicity towards human prostate cancer cells (LNCaP).

    PubMed

    Heng, Mok Piew; Sinniah, Saravana Kumar; Teoh, Wuen Yew; Sim, Kae Shin; Ng, Seik Weng; Cheah, Yoke Kqueen; Tan, Kong Wai

    2015-11-01

    Testosterone thiosemicarbazone, L and its nickel (II) complex 1 were synthesized and characterized by using FTIR, CHN, (1)H NMR, and X-ray crystallography. X-ray diffraction study confirmed the formation of L from condensation of testosterone and thiosemicarbazide. Mononuclear complex 1 is coordinated to two Schiff base ligands via two imine nitrogens and two tautomeric thiol sulfurs. The cytotoxicity of both compounds was investigated via MTT assay with cisplatin as positive reference standard. L is more potent towards androgen-dependent LNCaP (prostate) and HCT 116 (colon). On the other hand, complex 1, which is in a distorted square planar environment with L acting as a bidentate NS-donor ligand, is capable of inhibiting the growth of all the cancer cell lines tested, including PC-3 (prostate). It is noteworthy that both compounds are less toxic towards human colon cell CCD-18Co. The intrinsic DNA binding constant (Kb) of both compounds were evaluated via UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Both compounds showed Kb values which are comparable to the reported Kb value of typical classical intercalator such as ethidium bromide. The binding constant of the complex is almost double compared with ligand L. Both compounds were unable to inhibit the action topoisomerase I, which is the common target in cancer treatment (especially colon cancer). This suggest a topoisomerase I independent-cell death mechanism. PMID:26057090

  19. New ex-ovo colorectal-cancer models from different SdFFF-sorted tumor-initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Mélin, Carole; Perraud, Aurélie; Christou, Niki; Bibes, Romain; Cardot, Philippe; Jauberteau, Marie-Odile; Battu, Serge; Mathonnet, Muriel

    2015-11-01

    Despite effective treatments, relapse of colorectal cancer (CRC) is frequent, in part caused by the existence of tumor-initiating cells (TICs). Different subtypes of TICs, quiescent and activated, coexist in tumors, defining the tumor aggressiveness and therapeutic response. These subtypes have been sorted by hyperlayer sedimentation field-flow fractionation (SdFFF) from WiDr and HCT116 cell lines. On the basis of a new strategy, including TIC SdFFF sorting, 3D Matrigel amplification, and grafting of corresponding TIC colonies on the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), specific tumor matrices could be obtained. If tumors had similar architectural structure with vascularization by the host system, they had different proliferative indices in agreement with their initial quiescent or activated state. Protein analysis also revealed that tumors obtained from a population enriched for "activated" TICs lost "stemness" properties and became invasive. In contrast, tumors obtained from a population enriched for "quiescent" TICs kept their stemness properties and seemed to be less proliferative and invasive. Then, it was possible to produce different kinds of tumor which could be used as selective supports to study carcinogenesis and therapy sensitivity. PMID:26427501

  20. A new cell-selective three-dimensional microincubator based on silicon photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Carpignano, Francesca; Silva, Gloria; Surdo, Salvatore; Leva, Valentina; Montecucco, Alessandra; Aredia, Francesca; Scovassi, Anna Ivana; Merlo, Sabina; Barillaro, Giuseppe; Mazzini, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we show that vertical, high aspect-ratio (HAR) photonic crystals (PhCs), consisting of periodic arrays of 5 m wide gaps with depth of 50 m separated by 3 m thick silicon walls, fabricated by electrochemical micromachining, can be used as three-dimensional microincubators, allowing cell lines to be selectively grown into the gaps. Silicon micromachined dice incorporating regions with different surface profiles, namely flat silicon and deeply etched PhC, were used as microincubators for culturing adherent cell lines with different morphology and adhesion properties. We extensively investigated and compared the proliferative behavior on HAR PhCs of eight human cell models, with different origins, such as the epithelial (SW613-B3; HeLa; SW480; HCT116; HT29) and the mesenchymal (MRC-5V1; CF; HT1080). We also verified the contribution of cell sedimentation into the silicon gaps. Fluorescence microscopy analysis highlights that only cell lines that exhibit, in the tested culture condition, the behavior typical of the mesenchymal phenotype are able to penetrate into the gaps of the PhC, extending their body deeply in the narrow gaps between adjacent silicon walls, and to grow adherent to the vertical surfaces of silicon. Results reported in this work, confirmed in various experiments, strongly support our statement that such three-dimensional microstructures have selection capabilities with regard to the cell lines that can actively populate the narrow gaps. Cells with a mesenchymal phenotype could be exploited in the next future as bioreceptors, in combination with HAR PhC optical transducers, e.g., for label-free optical detection of cellular activities involving changes in cell adhesion and/or morphology (e.g., apoptosis) in a three-dimensional microenvironment. PMID:23139792

  1. Refractory lining for electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect

    Blander, M.; Cook, G.M.

    1987-08-18

    This patent describes an apparatus for processing a melt of molten iron in contact with a molten slag containing iron oxide, the apparatus consists of melt containing means including an electrically conductive refractory lining disposed for contact with an iron oxide containing melt, an anode in the melt containing means electrically separated from the refractory lining, and means for establishing a voltage between the refractory lining as cathode and the anode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory lining in contact with the iron oxide containing melt, the refractory lining including a metal oxide selected from the group consisting of Mg chromites and MgO.

  2. Immortalization of Mouse Germ Line Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Marie-Claude; Braydich-Stolle, Laura; Dettin, Luis; Johnson, Eric; Dym, Martin

    2011-01-01

    In the mammalian testis, the germ line stem cells are a small subpopulation of type A spermatogonia that proliferate and ultimately differentiate into sperm under the control of both endocrine and paracrine factors. To study the early phases of spermatogenesis at the molecular level, an in vitro system must be devised whereby germ line stem cells can be either cultured for a prolonged period of time or expanded as cell lines. In the study reported here, we chose to immortalize type A spermatogonia using the Simian virus large T-antigen gene (LTAg) under the control of an ecdysone-inducible promoter. While the cells escaped the hormonal control after a finite number of generations and expressed the LTAg constitutively, their growth remained slow and the cells exhibited morphological features typical of spermatogonia at the light microscopic level. Moreover, the cells expressed detectable levels of protein markers specific for germ cells such as Dazl, and specific for germ line stem cells such as Oct-4, a transcription factor, and GFR?-1, the receptor for glial cell linederived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Further analysis confirmed the spermatogonial phenotype and also revealed the expression of markers expressed in stem cells such as Piwi12 and Prame11. Since the cells respond to GDNF by a marked increase in their rate of proliferation, this cell line represents a good in vitro model for studying aspects of mouse germ line stem cell biology. PMID:15671143

  3. Carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons induce CYP1A1 in human cells via a p53-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wohak, Laura E; Krais, Annette M; Kucab, Jill E; Stertmann, Julia; Øvrebø, Steinar; Seidel, Albrecht; Phillips, David H; Arlt, Volker M

    2016-02-01

    The tumour suppressor gene TP53 is mutated in more than 50 % of human tumours, making it one of the most important cancer genes. We have investigated the role of TP53 in cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated metabolic activation of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a panel of isogenic colorectal HCT116 cells with differing TP53 status. Cells that were TP53(+/+), TP53(+/-), TP53(-/-), TP53(R248W/+) or TP53(R248W/-) were treated with benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenz[a,h]anthracene and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, and the formation of DNA adducts was measured by (32)P-postlabelling analysis. Each PAH formed significantly higher DNA adduct levels in TP53(+/+) cells than in the other cell lines. There were also significantly lower levels of PAH metabolites in the culture media of these other cell lines. Bypass of the need for metabolic activation by treating cells with the corresponding reactive PAH-diol-epoxide metabolites resulted in similar adduct levels in all cell lines, which confirms that the influence of p53 is on the metabolism of the parent PAHs. Western blotting showed that CYP1A1 protein expression was induced to much greater extent in TP53(+/+) cells than in the other cell lines. CYP1A1 is inducible via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), but we did not find that expression of AHR was dependent on p53; rather, we found that BaP-induced CYP1A1 expression was regulated through p53 binding to a p53 response element in the CYP1A1 promoter region, thereby enhancing its transcription. This study demonstrates a new pathway for CYP1A1 induction by environmental PAHs and reveals an emerging role for p53 in xenobiotic metabolism. PMID:25398514

  4. A Matrigel-Based Tube Formation Assay to Assess the Vasculogenic Activity of Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Francescone III, Ralph A.; Faibish, Michael; Shao, Rong

    2011-01-01

    Over the past several decades, a tube formation assay using growth factor-reduced Matrigel has been typically employed to demonstrate the angiogenic activity of vascular endothelial cells in vitro1-5. However, recently growing evidence has shown that this assay is not limited to test vascular behavior for endothelial cells. Instead, it also has been used to test the ability of a number of tumor cells to develop a vascular phenotype6-8. This capability was consistent with their vasculogenic behavior identified in xenotransplanted animals, a process known as vasculogenic mimicry (VM)9. There is a multitude of evidence demonstrating that tumor cell-mediated VM plays a vital role in the tumor development, independent of endothelial cell angiogenesis6, 10-13. For example, tumor cells were found to participate in the blood perfused, vascular channel formation in tissue samples from melanoma and glioblastoma patients8, 10, 11. Here, we described this tubular network assay as a useful tool in evaluation of vasculogenic activity of tumor cells. We found that some tumor cell lines such as melanoma B16F1 cells, glioblastoma U87 cells, and breast cancer MDA-MB-435 cells are able to form vascular tubules; but some do not such as colon cancer HCT116 cells. Furthermore, this vascular phenotype is dependent on cell numbers plated on the Matrigel. Therefore, this assay may serve as powerful utility to screen the vascular potential of a variety of cell types including vascular cells, tumor cells as well as other cells. PMID:21931289

  5. HLA expression in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Wadee, A A; Paterson, A; Coplan, K A; Reddy, S G

    1994-01-01

    The present study undertook to investigate the biological significance of human leucocyte antigen expression in hepatocellular carcinoma and to elucidate the role of potential modulating agents on human leucocyte antigen expression. These studies used several hepatic tumour-derived cell lines as in vitro model systems. The cell lines included PLC/PRF/5 (Alexander cell line), Hep3B, HepG2, TONG PHC, HA22T/VGH, HA59T/VGH and Mahlavu. The cell lines K562 and Raji were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. K562, a B lymphoid-derived cell line, was shown to express negligible amounts of human leucocyte antigens, while Raji, an erythromyeloid-derived cell line, expressed both class I and class II human leucocyte antigens as well as their respective invariant chains, beta 2-microglobulin and Ii. Using an ELISA, experiments performed on these cell lines confirmed the natural expression of class I and class II antigens by the HA22T/VGH and HA59T/VGH cell lines, whereas PLC/PRF/5 displayed class II surface antigens only. The effects of modulating agents such as interferon-gamma sodium butyrate and clofazimine on human leucocyte antigen expression were investigated using the HA22T/VGH, HA59T/VGH and TONG PHC cell lines. These agents increased class II and class II human leucocyte antigen expression on HA22T/VGH and TONG PHC cells, but had no effect on the HA59T/VGH cell line. The results suggest a potential use for these agents as modulators of human leucocyte antigen expression by human heptocellular cell lines. PMID:8050184

  6. Human phosphatase CDC14A is recruited to the cell leading edge to regulate cell migration and adhesion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nan-Peng; Uddin, Borhan; Voit, Renate; Schiebel, Elmar

    2016-01-26

    Cell adhesion and migration are highly dynamic biological processes that play important roles in organ development and cancer metastasis. Their tight regulation by small GTPases and protein phosphorylation make interrogation of these key processes of great importance. We now show that the conserved dual-specificity phosphatase human cell-division cycle 14A (hCDC14A) associates with the actin cytoskeleton of human cells. To understand hCDC14A function at this location, we manipulated native loci to ablate hCDC14A phosphatase activity (hCDC14A(PD)) in untransformed hTERT-RPE1 and colorectal cancer (HCT116) cell lines and expressed the phosphatase in HeLa FRT T-Rex cells. Ectopic expression of hCDC14A induced stress fiber formation, whereas stress fibers were diminished in hCDC14A(PD) cells. hCDC14A(PD) cells displayed faster cell migration and less adhesion than wild-type controls. hCDC14A colocalized with the hCDC14A substrate kidney- and brain-expressed protein (KIBRA) at the cell leading edge and overexpression of KIBRA was able to reverse the phenotypes of hCDC14A(PD) cells. Finally, we show that ablation of hCDC14A activity increased the aggressive nature of cells in an in vitro tumor formation assay. Consistently, hCDC14A is down-regulated in many tumor tissues and reduced hCDC14A expression is correlated with poorer survival of patients with cancer, to suggest that hCDC14A may directly contribute to the metastatic potential of tumors. Thus, we have uncovered an unanticipated role for hCDC14A in cell migration and adhesion that is clearly distinct from the mitotic and cytokinesis functions of Cdc14/Flp1 in budding and fission yeast. PMID:26747605

  7. Polyploidy Formation in Doxorubicin-Treated Cancer Cells Can Favor Escape from Senescence1

    PubMed Central

    Mosieniak, Grazyna; Sliwinska, Malgorzata A.; Alster, Olga; Strzeszewska, Anna; Sunderland, Piotr; Piechota, Malgorzata; Was, Halina; Sikora, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells can undergo stress-induced premature senescence, which is considered to be a desirable outcome of anticancer treatment. However, the escape from senescence and cancer cell repopulation give rise to some doubts concerning the effectiveness of the senescence-induced anticancer therapy. Similarly, it is postulated that polyploidization of cancer cells is connected with disease relapse. We postulate that cancer cell polyploidization associated with senescence is the culprit of atypical cell divisions leading to cancer cell regrowth. Accordingly, we aimed to dissociate between these two phenomena. We induced senescence in HCT 116 cells by pulse treatment with doxorubicin and observed transiently increased ploidy, abnormal nuclear morphology, and various distributions of some proteins (e.g., p21, Ki-67, SA-β-galactosidase) in the subnuclei. Doxorubicin-treated HCT 116 cells displayed an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) possibly caused by an increased amount of mitochondria, which are characterized by low membrane potential. A decrease in the level of ROS by Trolox partially protected the cells from polyploidization but not from senescence. Interestingly, a decreased level of ROS prevented the cells from escaping senescence. We also show that MCF7 cells senesce, but this is not accompanied by the increase of ploidy upon doxorubicin treatment. Moreover, they were stably growth arrested, thus proving that polyploidy but not senescence per se enables to regain the ability to proliferate. Our preliminary results indicate that the different propensity of the HCT 116 and MCF7 cells to increase ploidy upon cell senescence could be caused by a different level of the mTOR and/or Pim-1 kinases. PMID:26696370

  8. Polyploidy Formation in Doxorubicin-Treated Cancer Cells Can Favor Escape from Senescence.

    PubMed

    Mosieniak, Grazyna; Sliwinska, Malgorzata A; Alster, Olga; Strzeszewska, Anna; Sunderland, Piotr; Piechota, Malgorzata; Was, Halina; Sikora, Ewa

    2015-12-01

    Cancer cells can undergo stress-induced premature senescence, which is considered to be a desirable outcome of anticancer treatment. However, the escape from senescence and cancer cell repopulation give rise to some doubts concerning the effectiveness of the senescence-induced anticancer therapy. Similarly, it is postulated that polyploidization of cancer cells is connected with disease relapse. We postulate that cancer cell polyploidization associated with senescence is the culprit of atypical cell divisions leading to cancer cell regrowth. Accordingly, we aimed to dissociate between these two phenomena. We induced senescence in HCT 116 cells by pulse treatment with doxorubicin and observed transiently increased ploidy, abnormal nuclear morphology, and various distributions of some proteins (e.g., p21, Ki-67, SA-?-galactosidase) in the subnuclei. Doxorubicin-treated HCT 116 cells displayed an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) possibly caused by an increased amount of mitochondria, which are characterized by low membrane potential. A decrease in the level of ROS by Trolox partially protected the cells from polyploidization but not from senescence. Interestingly, a decreased level of ROS prevented the cells from escaping senescence. We also show that MCF7 cells senesce, but this is not accompanied by the increase of ploidy upon doxorubicin treatment. Moreover, they were stably growth arrested, thus proving that polyploidy but not senescence per se enables to regain the ability to proliferate. Our preliminary results indicate that the different propensity of the HCT 116 and MCF7 cells to increase ploidy upon cell senescence could be caused by a different level of the mTOR and/or Pim-1 kinases. PMID:26696370

  9. Tumor cell alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity and its involvement in GcMAF-related macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Saharuddin B; Nagasawa, Hideko; Uto, Yoshihiro; Hori, Hitoshi

    2002-05-01

    Alpha-N-acetyl galactosaminidase (alpha-NaGalase) has been reported to accumulate in serum of cancer patients and be responsible for deglycosylation of Gc protein, which is a precursor of GcMAF-mediated macrophage activation cascade, finally leading to immunosuppression in advanced cancer patients. We studied the biochemical characterization of alpha-NaGalase from several human tumor cell lines. We also examined its effect on the potency of GcMAF to activate mouse peritoneal macrophage to produce superoxide in GcMAF-mediated macrophage activation cascade. The specific activity of alpha-NaGalases from human colon tumor cell line HCT116, human hepatoma cell line HepG2, and normal human liver cells (Chang liver cell line) were evaluated using two types of substrates; GalNAc-alpha-PNP (exo-type substrate) and Gal-beta-GalNAc-alpha-PNP (endo-type substrate). Tumor-derived alpha-NaGalase having higher activity than normal alpha-NaGalase, had higher substrate specificity to the exo-type substrate than to the endo-type substrate, and still maintained its activity at pH 7. GcMAF enhance superoxide production in mouse macrophage, and pre-treatment of GcMAF with tumor cell lysate reduce the activity. We conclude that tumor-derived alpha-NaGalase is different in biochemical characterization compared to normal alpha-NaGalase from normal Chang liver cells. In addition, tumor cell-derived alpha-NaGalase decreases the potency of GcMAF on macrophage activation. PMID:12062184

  10. Genistein induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via ATM/p53-dependent pathway in human colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, ZHIYU; WANG, CHONG-ZHI; DU, GUANG-JIAN; QI, LIAN-WEN; CALWAY, TYLER; HE, TONG-CHUAN; DU, WEI; YUAN, CHUN-SU

    2013-01-01

    Soybean isoflavones have been used as a potential preventive agent in anticancer research for many years. Genistein is one of the most active flavonoids in soybeans. Accumulating evidence suggests that genistein alters a variety of biological processes in estrogen-related malignancies, such as breast and prostate cancers. However, the molecular mechanism of genistein in the prevention of human colon cancer remains unclear. Here we attempted to elucidate the anticarcinogenic mechanism of genistein in human colon cancer cells. First we evaluated the growth inhibitory effect of genistein and two other isoflavones, daidzein and biochanin A, on HCT-116 and SW-480 human colon cancer cells. In addition, flow cytometry was performed to observe the morphological changes in HCT-116/SW-480 cells undergoing apoptosis or cell cycle arrest, which had been visualized using Annexin V-FITC and/or propidium iodide staining. Real-time PCR and western blot analyses were also employed to study the changes in expression of several important genes associated with cell cycle regulation. Our data showed that genistein, daidzein and biochanin A exhibited growth inhibitory effects on HCT-116/SW-480 colon cancer cells and promoted apoptosis. Genistein showed a significantly greater effect than the other two compounds, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, genistein caused cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, which was accompanied by activation of ATM/p53, p21waf1/cip1 and GADD45α as well as downregulation of cdc2 and cdc25A demonstrated by q-PCR and immunoblotting assay. Interestingly, genistein induced G2/M cell cycle arrest in a p53-dependent manner. These findings exemplify that isoflavones, especially genistein, could promote colon cancer cell growth inhibition and facilitate apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. The ATM/p53-p21 cross-regulatory network may play a crucial role in mediating the anticarcinogenic activities of genistein in colon cancer. PMID:23686257

  11. LYTAK1, a novel TAK1 inhibitor, suppresses KRAS mutant colorectal cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jundong; Zheng, Bing; Ji, Jiansong; Shen, Fei; Min, Han; Liu, Biao; Wu, Jinchang; Zhang, Shuyu

    2015-05-01

    KRAS mutation in colorectal cancer (CRC) activates transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) to promote tumor progression. In the current study, we explored the potential effect of LYTAK1, a novel TAK1 inhibitor, against KRAS mutant CRC cells in vitro and in vivo. We found that LYTAK1 dose-dependently inhibited KRAS mutant CRC cell (HT-29 and SW-620 lines) growth, and induced cell cycle G1-S arrest. Further, LYTAK1 activated apoptosis in HT-29 cells and SW-620 cells, and apoptosis inhibitors almost reversed LYTAK1-mediated growth inhibition. While in KRAS wild-type (WT) CRC cell lines (DLD-1 and HCT-116), LYTAK1 had almost no effect on cell growth, cell cycle progression, or cell apoptosis. In KRAS mutant HT-29 cells and SW-260 cells, LYTAK1 blocked TAK1 activation or phosphorylation at Thr-184/187. Activation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) in these cells, detected by phosphorylations of p65 and I?B kinase ? (IKK?) as well as expression of NF-?B-regulated gene cyclin D1, was significantly inhibited by LYTAK1. Further, LYTAK1 treatment resulted in downregulation of ?-catenin and Wnt response gene Axin 2, indicating Wnt inactivation. In vivo, oral LYTAK1 significantly inhibited HT-29 xenograft growth in nude mice. Together, these results show that LYTAK1 inhibits KRAS mutant CRC cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. LYTAK1 might be investigated as a novel agent against CRC with KRAS mutation. PMID:25524577

  12. The pro-apoptotic and anti-invasive effects of hypericin-mediated photodynamic therapy are enhanced by hyperforin or aristoforin in HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Šemeláková, Martina; Mikeš, Jaromír; Jendželovský, Rastislav; Fedoročko, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a rapidly-developing anti-cancer approach for the treatment of various types of malignant as well as non-malignant diseases. In this study, hypericin-mediated photodynamic therapy (HY-PDT) in sub-optimal dose was combined with hyperforin (HP) or its stable derivative aristoforin (AR) in an effort to improve efficacy on the cellular level. The logic of this combination is based on the fact that both bioactive compounds naturally occur in plants of Hypericum sp. At relatively low concentrations up to 5 μM, hyperforin and aristoforin were able to stimulate onset of apoptosis in HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells exposed to HY-PDT, inhibit cell cycle progression, suppress expression of matrixmetalloproteinases-2/-9 together with cell adhesivity, thereby affecting the clonogenic potential of the cells. As the action of aristoforin was more pronounced, in line with our assumption, these changes were also linked in this case with hypericin accumulation and increased ROS generation leading to dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential in a significant portion of the cells, as well as activation of caspase-3. Comparison of HT-29 cells to another colon adenocarcinoma-derived cell line HCT-116 demonstrated significant differences in sensitivity of different cell lines to PDT, however, accumulated effect of HY-PDT with HP/AR proved similar in both tested cell lines. The presented data may help to elucidate the mechanisms of action for different bioactive constituents of St. John's wort, which are increasingly recognized as being able to regulate a variety of pathobiological processes, thus possessing potential therapeutic properties. PMID:23099482

  13. Infectious mononucleosis: immunoglobulin synthesis by cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Glade, Philip R.; Chessin, Lawrence N.

    1968-01-01

    Immunoglobulin synthesis by 16 long-term suspension cultures of mononuclear cells derived from peripheral blood of nine patients with heterophile-positive infectious mononucleosis (IM) has been demonstrated by radioimmunoelectrophoretic techniques. All cell lines synthesized molecules with IgG (?) heavy chain specificity. 14 cell lines produced molecules with IgM (?) heavy chain specificity and 11 cell lines produced molecules with IgA (?) heavy chain specificity. No detectable synthesis of molecules with IgD (?) heavy chain specificity was observed by these cell lines derived from peripheral blood of patients with IM. 13 cell lines produced molecules with type K (?) light chain specificity and 6 cell lines produced molecules with type L (?) light chain specificity. Of interest, 9 of 16 lines produced IgG (?), IgA (?), and IgM (?) heavy chain molecules and 5 of these cell lines produced molecules with type K (?) and type L (?) light chain specificity as well. Further characterization by combined polyacrylamide gel filtration, immunodiffusion, and radioautography indicated the presence of newly synthesized immunoglobulin molecules with both heavy and light polypeptide chains in close association as well as free light polypeptide chain synthesis. Investigation of the localization of immunoglobulin in single cells by immunofluorescent techniques revealed that 5-22% of cells in these lines were strongly reactive with a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated rabbit antisera directed against the antigenic determinants of human IgG and cross-reactive with the determinants common to IgA and IgM. No heterophile antibody, heteroagglutinin, or hemolytic antibody could be demonstrated in these cell lines derived from peripheral blood of patients with heterophile-positive infectious mononucleosis. Images PMID:4175543

  14. Metabolites of Ginger Component [6]-Shogaol Remain Bioactive in Cancer Cells and Have Low Toxicity in Normal Cells: Chemical Synthesis and Biological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yingdong; Chen, Huadong; Sang, Shengmin

    2013-01-01

    Our previous study found that [6]-shogaol, a major bioactive component in ginger, is extensively metabolized in cancer cells and in mice. It is unclear whether these metabolites retain bioactivity. The aim of the current study is to synthesize the major metabolites of [6]-shogaol and evaluate their inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis in human cancer cells. Twelve metabolites of [6]-shogaol (M1, M2, and M4M13) were successfully synthesized using simple and easily accessible chemical methods. Growth inhibition assays showed that most metabolites of [6]-shogaol had measurable activities against human cancer cells HCT-116 and H-1299. In particular, metabolite M2 greatly retained the biological activities of [6]-shogaol, with an IC50 of 24.43 M in HCT-116 human colon cancer cells and an IC50 of 25.82 M in H-1299 human lung cancer cells. Also exhibiting a relatively high potency was thiol-conjugate M13, with IC50 values of 45.47 and 47.77 M toward HCT-116 and H-1299 cells, respectively. The toxicity evaluation of the synthetic metabolites (M1, M2, and M4M13) against human normal fibroblast colon cells CCD-18Co and human normal lung cells IMR-90 demonstrated a detoxifying metabolic biotransformation of [6]-shogaol. The most active metabolite M2 had almost no toxicity to CCD-18Co and IMR-90 normal cells with IC50s of 99.18 and 98.30 M, respectively. TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling) assay indicated that apoptosis was triggered by metabolites M2, M13, and its two diastereomers M13-1 and M13-2. There was no significant difference between the apoptotic effect of [6]-shogaol and the effect of M2 and M13 after 6 hour treatment. PMID:23382939

  15. PPAR? deficiency disrupts hypoxia-mediated tumorigenic potential of colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Eunshil; Koo, Jung Eun; Yeon, Sang Hyeon; Kwak, Mi-Kyoung; Hwang, Daniel H; Lee, Joo Young

    2014-11-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? is highly expressed in colon epithelial cells and closely linked to colon carcinogenesis. However, the role of PPAR? in colon cancer cells in a hypoxic tumor microenvironment is not fully understood. We found that expression of the tumor-promoting cytokines, IL-8 and VEGF, induced by hypoxia (<1% O2) and deferoxamine (a hypoxia mimetic) was significantly attenuated in PPAR?-deficient HCT116 colon cancer cells. Consequently, PPAR?-knockout colon cancer cells exposed to hypoxia and deferoxamine failed to stimulate endothelial cell vascularization and macrophage migration/proliferation, whereas wild-type cells were able to induce angiogenesis and macrophage activation in response to hypoxic stress. Hypoxic stress induced transcriptional activation of PPAR?, but not its protein expression, in HCT116 cells. Exogenous expression of p300 potentiated deferoxamine-induced PPAR? transactivation, while siRNA knockdown of p300 abolished hypoxia- and deferoxamine-induced PPAR? transactivation. PPAR? associated with p300 upon hypoxic stress as demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation studies. PI3K inhibitors or siRNA knockdown of Akt suppressed the PPAR? transactivation induced by hypoxia and deferoxamine in HCT116 cells, leading to decreased expression of IL-8 and VEGF. Collectively, these results reveal that PPAR? is required for hypoxic stress-mediated cytokine expression in colon cancer cells, resulting in promotion of angiogenesis, macrophage recruitment, and macrophage proliferation in the tumor microenvironment. p300 and the PI3K/Akt pathway play a role in the regulation of PPAR? transactivation induced by hypoxic stress. Our results demonstrate the positive crosstalk between PPAR? in tumor cells and the hypoxic tumor microenvironment and provide potential therapeutic targets for colon cancer. PMID:24610641

  16. Nitrogen permease regulator-like 2 enhances sensitivity to oxaliplatin in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Na; Liu, Ai-Yun; Du, Ya-Ju; Pei, Feng-Hua; Wang, Xin-Hong; Chen, Jing; Liu, Dan; Liu, Bing-Rong

    2015-07-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide. Chemotherapeutic compounds used for the treatment of CRC include oxaliplatin (L-OHP). While L-OHP improves CRC survival, certain patients are resistant. The nitrogen permease regulator like-2 (NPRL2) gene is a candidate tumor suppressor gene that resides in a 120-kb homozygous deletion region on chromosome 3p21.3. In the present study, it was demonstrated that NPRL2 overexpression increases the sensitivity of HCT116 cells to L-OHP. The IC50 of L-OHP was decreased in cells transduced with NPRL2 compared with negative control (NC) cells and the effect of NPRL2 on L-OHP sensitivity was time dependent. Following NPRL2 transduction in HCT116 cells, the cell cycle was arrested in the G1 phase and a partial decrease in the S phase population was observed. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that NPRL2 transduction and L-OHP treatment increased apoptosis compared with NC cells. The mechanism through which NPRL2 overexpression enhances L-OHP sensitivity involves downregulation of the functions of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin network. Furthermore, L-OHP upregulated caspase-3 and caspase-9 to promote apoptosis in NPRL2-overexpressing cells compared with cells that were transduced with NPRL2 or treated with L-OHP and NC cells (P<0.01). NPRL2 overexpression led to the downregulation of CD24, which could significantly reduce tumor invasiveness and decrease the metastatic capacity of HCT116 cells. These mechanisms are likely active in other types of cancer and may be exploited for the development of novel cancer therapies. PMID:25777765

  17. Biomimetic macroporous hydrogel scaffolds in a high-throughput screening format for cell-based assays.

    PubMed

    Dainiak, Maria B; Savina, Irina N; Musolino, Isabella; Kumar, Ashok; Mattiasson, Bo; Galaev, Igor Yu

    2008-01-01

    Macroporous hydrogels (MHs) hold great promise as scaffolds in tissue engineering and cell-based assays. In this study, the possibility of combination of three-dimensional (3D) cell culture with a miniaturized screening format was demonstrated on human colon cancer HCT116, human acute myeloid leukemia KG-1 cells, and embryonic fibroblasts cultured on MHs (12.5 mm x 7.1 mm I.D.) in a 96-minicolumn plate format. MHs were prepared by cryogelation technique and functionalized by coating with type I collagen and by copolymerization with agmatine-based mimetic of cell adhesive peptide RGD (abRGDm). Cancer cells formed multicellular aggregates while fibroblasts formed adhesions on abRGDm-containing and collagen-MHs but not on plain MHs, as was demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy. HCT116 and KG-1 cells grown as aggregates were more resistant to the treatment with cis-diaminedichloroplatinum (II) (cisplatin) and cytosine 1-beta-D-arabinofuranoside (Ara-C), respectively, during the first 18-24 h of incubation, than single cells grown on unmodified MH. HCT116 cells grown as 2D cultures in conventional 96-well tissue culture plates were 1.5- to 3.5-fold more sensitive to the treatment with 70 microM cisplatin than cells in 3D cultures in functionalized MHs. Further development of the described experimental system including matching of a specific cell type with appropriate extracellular matrix (ECM) components and 3D cocultures on ECM-modified MHs may provide a realistic in vitro experimental model for high-throughput toxicity tests. PMID:19194952

  18. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase promotes tumor cell resistance to chemotherapeutic agents via a mechanism involving delay in cell cycle progression

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Gail T.; Sullivan, Richard; Pare, Genevieve C.; Graham, Charles H.

    2010-11-15

    Approaches to overcome chemoresistance in cancer cells have involved targeting specific signaling pathways such as the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, a stress response pathway known to be involved in the regulation of cell survival, apoptosis and growth. The present study determined the effect of PI3K inhibition on the clonogenic survival of human cancer cells following exposure to various chemotherapeutic agents. Treatment with the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 or Compound 15e resulted in increased survival of MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells after exposure to doxorubicin, etoposide, 5-fluorouracil, and vincristine. Increased survival following PI3K inhibition was also observed in DU-145 prostate, HCT-116 colon and A-549 lung carcinoma cell lines exposed to doxorubicin. Increased cell survival mediated by LY294002 was correlated with a decrease in cell proliferation, which was linked to an increase in the proportion of cells in the G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle. Inhibition of PI3K signaling also resulted in higher levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21{sup Waf1/Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1}; and knockdown of p27{sup kip1} with siRNA attenuated resistance to doxorubicin in cells treated with LY294002. Incubation in the presence of LY294002 after exposure to doxorubicin resulted in decreased cell survival. These findings provide evidence that PI3K inhibition leads to chemoresistance in human cancer cells by causing a delay in cell cycle; however, the timing of PI3K inhibition (either before or after exposure to anti-cancer agents) may be a critical determinant of chemosensitivity.

  19. A new phenanthrene derivative and two diarylheptanoids from the roots of Brassica rapa ssp. campestris inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines and LDL-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qian; Cho, Jin-Gyeong; Yoo, Ki-Hyun; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Park, Ji-Hae; Kim, Su-Yeon; Kang, Ji-Hyun; Chung, In-Sik; Choi, Myung-Sook; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Chung, Hae-Gon; Bang, Myun-Ho; Baek, Nam-In

    2013-04-01

    Brassica rapa ssp. campestris (Brassicaceae) is a conical, deep purple, edible root vegetable commonly known as a turnip. We initiated phytochemical and pharmacological studies to search for biological active compounds from the roots of B. rapa ssp. campestris. We isolated a novel phenanthrene derivative, 6-methoxy-1-[10-methoxy-7-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)phenanthren-3-yl]undecane-2,4-dione, named brassicaphenanthrene A (3) along with two known diarylheptanoid compounds, 6-paradol (1) and trans-6-shogaol (2), through the repeated silica gel (SiO2), octadecyl silica gel, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The chemical structures of the compounds were determined by spectroscopic data analyses including nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, ultraviolet spectroscopy, and infra-red spectroscopy. All compounds exhibited high inhibitory activity against the growth of human cancer lines, HCT-116, MCF-7, and HeLa, with IC50 values ranging from 15.0 to 35.0 ?M and against LDL-oxidation with IC50 values ranging from 2.9 to 7.1 ?M. PMID:23435947

  20. Biophysical Profiling of Tumor Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Coffman, Frederick; Hamid, Rachid; Cohen, Marion C.; Garippa, Ralph; Cohen, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    Despite significant differences in genetic profiles, cancer cells share common phenotypic properties, including membrane-associated changes that facilitate invasion and metastasis. The Corning Epic optical biosensor was used to monitor dynamic mass rearrangements within and proximal to the cell membrane in tumor cell lines derived from cancers of the colon, bone, cervix, lung and breast. Data was collected in real time and required no exogenously added signaling moiety (signal-free technology). Cell lines displayed unique profiles over the time-courses: the time-courses all displayed initial signal increases to maximal values, but the rate of increase to those maxima and the value of those maxima were distinct for each cell line. The rate of decline following the maxima also differed among cell lines. There were correlations between the signal maxima and the observed metastatic behavior of the cells in xenograft experiments; for most cell types the cells that were more highly metastatic in mice had lower time-course maxima values, however the reverse was seen in breast cancer cells. The unique profiles of these cell lines and the correlation of at least one profile characteristic with metastatic behavior demonstrate the potential utility of biophysical tumor cell profiling in the study of cancer biology. PMID:21988886

  1. Dual drug delivery of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and methotrexate (MTX) through random copolymeric nanomicelles of PLGA and polyethylenimine demonstrating enhanced cell uptake and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ashwanikumar, N; Kumar, Nisha Asok; Nair, S Asha; Kumar, G S Vinod

    2014-10-01

    We now report the synthesis of a random copolymer of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) grafted branched polyethylenimine (BPEI) and the use of it as a multi drug delivery system (DDS). The methotrexate (MTX) was conjugated to BPEI through DCC/NHS chemistry. The copolymer-drug conjugate (PBP-MTX) was characterised by FT-IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The PBP-MTX was converted into nanomicelles with entrapped 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) through nanoprecipitation technique. The size, shape, morphology and surface charge of the nanomicelles were confirmed using different techniques. The thermal behaviour and distribution of both conjugated and entrapped drug through the polymeric matrix were assessed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction analysis (PXRD). In vitro drug release pattern of the nanomicelles was examined to ascertain the release pattern of two drugs namely 5-FU and MTX. The cellular uptake studies demonstrated higher uptake of the nanomicelles in colon cancer cell line HCT 116. Further the cytotoxicity evaluation of nanomicelles illustrated promising action which confirms the use of the system as a potential DDS to colon cancer. PMID:25108479

  2. Cys-141 glutathionylation of human p53: Studies using specific polyclonal antibodies in cancer samples and cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, Mohd. A.; Chuang, Trinette; Bhat, G. Jayarama; Srivenugopal, Kalkunte S.

    2010-01-01

    Previously, we reported that human p53 is functionally inactivated by S-glutathionylation at Cys-141 during oxidative and DNA-damaging treatments. Here, we describe the presence of thiolated p53 and dynamic nature of this modification in human tissues using unique and specific polyclonal antibodies raised against a 12-residue p53 peptide bearing a mixed disulfide at Cys-141. The affinity- purified antibodies (glut-p53) were sequence-specific in that they recognized the antigenic peptide but not the unthiolated peptide or a scrambled glutathionylated peptide in ELISAs. On immunoblots, the purified antibodies did not react with native p53 or recombinant p53 (rp53), but readily detected the glutathionylated or cysteinylated or ethanethiol-treated rp53 only under non-reducing conditions. Untreated HCT116 cells showed low levels of glut-p53 which increased markedly after H2O2, diamide, cisplatin, and doxorubicin treatments. Glut-p53 levels decreased sharply after passing cells to oxidant-free media, suggesting efficient dethiolation. The mutant p53 present in HT29 and T47D human cancer cells was also recognized. In vitro, the glut-p53 was rapidly degraded by rabbit reticulocyte lysates. Human prostate and prostate cancer tissues showed abundant presence of glut-p53 in luminal epithelium, a site well-known to generate ROS. Melanoma and colon cancer samples were also positive for glut-p53. Availability of the thiolation-specific antibodies should enhance our knowledge of p53 regulation in redox-perturbed states found in various diseases including cancer. PMID:20600834

  3. miRNA-144 suppresses proliferation and migration of colorectal cancer cells through GSPT1.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ruilin; Li, Cui; Chai, Baofeng

    2015-08-01

    MicroRNAs play a key role in carcinogenesis or tumor progression, which negatively and posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression and function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors, as well as regulators of cell cycle, proliferation, apoptosis, migration and other processes. A number of miRNAs are reported be related to the occurrence and development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, these studies were not involved in the effect of miRNA 144 of CRC, whose function remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that the expression level of miRNA 144 was markedly down-regulated in colorectal cancer HCT116 cells compared with normal control FHC cells. Meanwhile, we found that GSPT1 was over-expressed in human colorectal cancer HCT116 cells. Subsequently, GSPT1 was identified as a target of miRNA 144 through bioinformatics and luciferase reporter assays. Besides, we also confirmed that miRNA 144 can inhibit the proliferation and migration of colorectal cancer HCT116 cells . Next, we observed RNA-mediated knockdown of GSPT1 can also inhibit the proliferation and migration of colorectal cancer cells. Thus, we concluded that miRNA 144 inhibits cell proliferation and migration through GSPT1 in CRC. In addition, further mechanic investigations revealed that miRNA-144 suppressed the expression of GSPT1 to regulate the expression of c-myc, survivin and Bcl2L15 which are involved in cell proliferation, and that metastasis related factor MMP28 was also down-regulated by miRNA144. Our findings suggested that microRNA 144 might be an important element to control the status of colorectal cancer, which has provided a new insight into the mechanism of proliferation and migration and a new target in therapy against colorectal cancer. PMID:26349975

  4. Acquired resistance to 5-fluorouracil via HSP90/Src-mediated increase in thymidylate synthase expression in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Min, Hye-Young; Lee, Ho-Young

    2015-01-01

    5-fluorouracil (5-FU), one of the first-line chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies, has shown limited efficacy. The expression of thymidylate synthase (TYMS) has been reported to be associated with the resistance to 5-FU. Here, we demonstrate that the enhanced HSP90 function and subsequent activation of Src induce expression of TYMS and acquired resistance to 5-FU in colon cancer. We show that the persistent 5-FU treatment granted 5-FU-sensitive HCT116 colon cancer cells morphologic, molecular, and behavioral characteristic of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), contributing to emergence of acquired resistance to 5-FU. HCT116/R, a HCT116 colon cancer cell subline carrying acquired resistance to 5-FU, showed increased expression and activation of HSP90's client proteins and transcriptional up-regulation of TYMS. Forced overexpression of HSP90 or constitutive active Src in HCT116 cells increased TYMS expression. Conversely, pharmacological blockade of HSP90 or Src in HCT116/R cells effectively suppressed the changes involved in 5-FU resistance in vitro and xenograft tumor growth, hematogenous spread, and metastatic tumor development in vivo. This study suggests a novel function of HSP90-Src pathway in regulation of TYMS expression and acquisition of 5-FU resistance. Thus, therapeutics targeting this pathway may be an effective clinical strategy to overcome 5-FU resistance in colon cancer. PMID:26416450

  5. Tumor suppression by resistant maltodextrin, Fibersol-2

    PubMed Central

    So, Eui Young; Ouchi, Mutsuko; Cuesta-Sancho, Sara; Olson, Susan Losee; Reif, Dirk; Shimomura, Kazuhiro; Ouchi, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Resistant maltodextrin Fibersol-2 is a soluble and fermentable dietary fiber that is Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) in the United States. We tested whether Fibersol-2 contains anti-tumor activity. Human colorectal cancer cell line, HCT116, and its isogenic cells were treated with FIbersol-2. Tumor growth and tumorigenesis were studied in vitro and in vivo. Apoptotic pathway and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were investigated. We discovered that Fibersol-2 significantly inhibits tumor growth of HCT116 cells by inducing apoptosis. Fibersol-2 strongly induces mitochondrial ROS and Bax-dependent cleavage of caspase 3 and 9, which is shown by isogenic HCT116 variants. Fibersol-2 induces phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR in parental HCT116 cells, but not in HCT116 deficient for Bax or p53. It prevents growth of tumor xenograft without any apparent signs of toxicity in vivo. These results identify Fibersol-2 as a mechanism-based dietary supplement agent that could prevent colorectal cancer development. PMID:25692338

  6. MicroRNA-145 suppresses cell invasion and metastasis by directly targeting mucin 1.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Mohit; Mo, Yin-Yuan

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs are important gene regulators that could play a profound role in tumorigenesis. Our previous studies indicate that miR-145 is a tumor suppressor capable of inhibiting tumor cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we show that miR-145 exerts its function in a cell-specific manner. Although miR-145 inhibits cell growth in MCF-7 and HCT-116 cells, it has no significant effect on cell growth in metastatic breast cancer cell lines. However, miR-145 significantly suppresses cell invasion in these cells; in contrast, the antisense oligo against miR-145 increases cell invasion. miR-145 is also able to suppress lung metastasis in an experimental metastasis animal model. This miR-145-mediated suppression of cell invasion is in part due to the silencing of the metastasis gene mucin 1 (MUC1). Using luciferase reporters carrying the 3'-untranslated region of MUC1 combined with Western blot and immunofluorescence staining, we identify MUC1 as a direct target of miR-145. Moreover, ectopic expression of MUC1 enhances cell invasion, which can be blocked by miR-145. Of interest, suppression of MUC1 by miR-145 causes a reduction of beta-catenin as well as the oncogenic cadherin 11. Finally, suppression of MUC1 by RNAi mimics the miR-145 action in suppression of invasion, which is associated with downregulation of beta-catenin and cadherin 11. Taken together, these results suggest that as a tumor suppressor, miR-145 inhibits not only tumor growth but also cell invasion and metastasis. PMID:19996288

  7. Elisidepsin Interacts Directly with Glycosylceramides in the Plasma Membrane of Tumor Cells to Induce Necrotic Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Molina-Guijarro, Jos Manuel; Garca, Carolina; Macas, lvaro; Garca-Fernndez, Luis Francisco; Moreno, Cristina; Reyes, Fernando; Martnez-Leal, Juan Fernando; Fernndez, Rogelio; Martnez, Valentn; Valenzuela, Carmen; Lillo, M Pilar; Galmarini, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    Plasma membrane integrity is essential for cell life. Any major break on it immediately induces the death of the affected cell. Different molecules were described as disrupting this cell structure and thus showing antitumor activity. We have previously defined that elisidepsin (Irvalec, PM02734) inserts and self-organizes in the plasma membrane of tumor cells, inducing a rapid loss of membrane integrity, cell permeabilization and necrotic death. Here we show that, in sensitive HCT-116 colorectal cells, all these effects are consequence of the interaction of elisidepsin with glycosylceramides in the cell membrane. Of note, an elisidepsin-resistant subline (HCT-116-Irv) presented reduced levels of glycosylceramides and no accumulation of elisidepsin in the plasma membrane. Consequently, drug treatment did not induce the characteristic necrotic cell death. Furthermore, GM95, a mutant derivative from B16 mouse melanoma cells lacking ceramide glucosyltransferase (UGCG) activity and thus the synthesis of glycosylceramides, was also resistant to elisidepsin. Over-expression of UGCG gene in these deficient cells restored glycosylceramides synthesis, rendering them sensitive to elisidepsin, at a similar level than parental B16 cells. These results indicate that glycosylceramides act as membrane targets of elisidepsin, facilitating its insertion in the plasma membrane and the subsequent membrane permeabilization that leads to drug-induced cell death. They also indicate that cell membrane lipids are a plausible target for antineoplastic therapy. PMID:26474061

  8. Elisidepsin Interacts Directly with Glycosylceramides in the Plasma Membrane of Tumor Cells to Induce Necrotic Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Guijarro, José Manuel; García, Carolina; Macías, Álvaro; García-Fernández, Luis Francisco; Moreno, Cristina; Reyes, Fernando; Martínez-Leal, Juan Fernando; Fernández, Rogelio; Martínez, Valentín; Valenzuela, Carmen; Lillo, M. Pilar; Galmarini, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Plasma membrane integrity is essential for cell life. Any major break on it immediately induces the death of the affected cell. Different molecules were described as disrupting this cell structure and thus showing antitumor activity. We have previously defined that elisidepsin (Irvalec®, PM02734) inserts and self-organizes in the plasma membrane of tumor cells, inducing a rapid loss of membrane integrity, cell permeabilization and necrotic death. Here we show that, in sensitive HCT-116 colorectal cells, all these effects are consequence of the interaction of elisidepsin with glycosylceramides in the cell membrane. Of note, an elisidepsin-resistant subline (HCT-116-Irv) presented reduced levels of glycosylceramides and no accumulation of elisidepsin in the plasma membrane. Consequently, drug treatment did not induce the characteristic necrotic cell death. Furthermore, GM95, a mutant derivative from B16 mouse melanoma cells lacking ceramide glucosyltransferase (UGCG) activity and thus the synthesis of glycosylceramides, was also resistant to elisidepsin. Over-expression of UGCG gene in these deficient cells restored glycosylceramides synthesis, rendering them sensitive to elisidepsin, at a similar level than parental B16 cells. These results indicate that glycosylceramides act as membrane targets of elisidepsin, facilitating its insertion in the plasma membrane and the subsequent membrane permeabilization that leads to drug-induced cell death. They also indicate that cell membrane lipids are a plausible target for antineoplastic therapy. PMID:26474061

  9. Silencing VDAC1 Expression by siRNA Inhibits Cancer Cell Proliferation and Tumor Growth In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Arif, Tasleem; Vasilkovsky, Lilia; Refaely, Yael; Konson, Alexander; Shoshan-Barmatz, Varda

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in cellular metabolism and bioenergetics are vital for cancer cell growth and motility. Here, the role of the mitochondrial protein voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC1), a master gatekeeper regulating the flux of metabolites and ions between mitochondria and the cytoplasm, in regulating the growth of several cancer cell lines was investigated by silencing VDAC1 expression using small interfering RNA (siRNA). A single siRNA specific to the human VDAC1 sequence at nanomolar concentrations led to some 90% decrease in VDAC1 levels in the lung A549 and H358, prostate PC-3, colon HCT116, glioblastoma U87, liver HepG2, and pancreas Panc-1 cancer cell lines. VDAC1 silencing persisted 144 hours post-transfection and resulted in profound inhibition of cell growth in cancer but not in noncancerous cells, with up to 90% inhibition being observed over 5 days that was prolonged by a second transfection. Cells expressing low VDAC1 levels showed decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and adenoside triphosphate (ATP) levels, suggesting limited metabolite exchange between mitochondria and cytosol. Moreover, cells silenced for VDAC1 expression showed decreased migration, even in the presence of the wound healing accelerator basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). VDAC1-siRNA inhibited cancer cell growth in a Matrigel-based assay in host nude mice. Finally, in a xenograft lung cancer mouse model, chemically modified VDAC1-siRNA not only inhibited tumor growth but also resulted in tumor regression. This study thus shows that VDAC1 silencing by means of RNA interference (RNAi) dramatically inhibits cancer cell growth and tumor development by disabling the abnormal metabolic behavior of cancer cells, potentially paving the way for a more effective pipeline of anticancer drugs. PMID:24781191

  10. Down-regulation of malignant potential by alpha linolenic acid in human and mouse colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chamberland, John P; Moon, Hyun-Seuk

    2015-03-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (also called ?-3 fatty acis or n-3 fatty acid) are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with a double bond (C=C) at the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain. Numerous test tube and animal studies have shown that omega-3 fatty acids may prevent or inhibit the growth of cancers, suggesting that omega-3 fatty acids are important in cancer physiology. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is one of an essential omega-3 fatty acid and organic compound found in seeds (chia and flaxseed), nuts (notably walnuts), and many common vegetable oils. ALA has also been shown to down-regulate cell proliferation of prostate, breast, and bladder cancer cells. However, direct evidence that ALA suppresses to the development of colon cancer has not been studied. Also, no previous studies have evaluated whether ALA may regulate malignant potential (adhesion, invasion and colony formation) in colon cancer cells. In order to address the questions above, we conducted in vitro studies and evaluated whether ALA may down-regulate malignant potential in human (HT29 and HCT116) and mouse (MCA38) colon cancer cell lines. We observed that treatment with 1-5mM of ALA inhibits cell proliferation, adhesion and invasion in both human and mouse colon cancer cell lines. Interestingly, we observed that ALA did not decrease total colony numbers when compared to control. By contrast, we found that size of colony was significantly changed by ALA treatment when compared to control in all colon cancer cell lines. We suggest that our data enhance our current knowledge of ALA's mechanism and provide crucial information to further the development of new therapies for the management or chemoprevention of colon cancer. PMID:25336096

  11. De Novo Proteome Analysis of Genetically Modified Tumor Cells By a Metabolic Labeling/Azide-alkyne Cycloaddition Approach*

    PubMed Central

    Ballikaya, Seda; Lee, Jennifer; Warnken, Uwe; Schnölzer, Martina; Gebert, Johannes; Kopitz, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Activin receptor type II (ACVR2) is a member of the transforming growth factor type II receptor family and controls cell growth and differentiation, thereby acting as a tumor suppressor. ACVR2 inactivation is known to drive colorectal tumorigenesis. We used an ACVR2-deficient microsatellite unstable colon cancer cell line (HCT116) to set up a novel experimental design for comprehensive analysis of proteomic changes associated with such functional loss of a tumor suppressor. To this end we combined two existing technologies. First, the ACVR2 gene was reconstituted in an ACVR2-deficient colorectal cancer (CRC) cell line by means of recombinase-mediated cassette exchange, resulting in the generation of an inducible expression system that allowed the regulation of ACVR2 gene expression in a doxycycline-dependent manner. Functional expression in the induced cells was explicitly proven. Second, we used the methionine analog azidohomoalanine for metabolic labeling of newly synthesized proteins in our cell line model. Labeled proteins were tagged with biotin via a Click-iT chemistry approach enabling specific extraction of labeled proteins by streptavidin-coated beads. Tryptic on-bead digestion of captured proteins and subsequent ultra-high-performance LC coupled to LTQ Orbitrap XL mass spectrometry identified 513 proteins, with 25 of them differentially expressed between ACVR2-deficient and -proficient cells. Among these, several candidates that had already been linked to colorectal cancer or were known to play a key role in cell growth or apoptosis control were identified, proving the utility of the presented experimental approach. In principle, this strategy can be adapted to analyze any gene of interest and its effect on the cellular de novo proteome. PMID:25225355

  12. Isolation and characterization of calcium sensing receptor null cells: a highly malignant and drug resistant phenotype of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Singh, Navneet; Liu, Guangming; Chakrabarty, Subhas

    2013-05-01

    The expression of calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in the human colonic crypt epithelium is linked to cellular differentiation while its lack of expression is associated with undifferentiated and invasive colon carcinoma. Human colon carcinoma cell lines contain small subpopulations (10-20%) that do not express CaSR (termed CaSR null cells). Here, we report on the isolation, propagation, maintenance and characterization of CaSR null cells from the CBS and HCT116 human colon carcinoma cell lines. CaSR null cells grew as three-dimensional non-adherent spherical clusters with increased propensity for anchorage independent growth, cellular proliferation and invasion of matrigels. CaSR null cells were highly resistant to fluorouracil and expressed abundant amount of thymidylate synthase and survivin. Molecular profiling by real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blots showed a high level of expression of the previously reported cancer stem cell markers CD133, CD44 and Nanog in CaSR null cells. A significant increase in the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transitional molecules and transcription factors was also observed. These include N-cadherin, ?-catenin, vimentin, fibronectin, Snail1, Snail2, Twist and FOXC2. The expression of the tumor suppressive E-cadherin and miR145, on the other hand, was greatly reduced while expression of the oncogenic microRNAs: miR21, miR135a and miR135b was significantly up-regulated. CaSR null cells possess a myriad of cellular and molecular features that drive and sustain the malignant phenotype. We conclude that CaSR null constitutes a highly malignant and drug resistant phenotype of colon cancer. PMID:23055106

  13. Separation of tumor cells with dielectrophoresis-based microfluidic chip

    PubMed Central

    Alshareef, Mohammed; Metrakos, Nicholas; Juarez Perez, Eva; Azer, Fadi; Yang, Fang; Yang, Xiaoming; Wang, Guiren

    2013-01-01

    The present work demonstrates the use of a dielectrophoretic lab-on-a-chip device in effectively separating different cancer cells of epithelial origin for application in circulating tumor cell (CTC) identification. This study uses dielectrophoresis (DEP) to distinguish and separate MCF-7 human breast cancer cells from HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells. The DEP responses for each cell type were measured against AC electrical frequency changes in solutions of varying conductivities. Increasing the conductivity of the suspension directly correlated with an increasing frequency value for the first cross-over (no DEP force) point in the DEP spectra. Differences in the cross-over frequency for each cell type were leveraged to determine a frequency at which the two types of cell could be separated through DEP forces. Under a particular medium conductivity, different types of cells could have different DEP behaviors in a very narrow AC frequency band, demonstrating a high specificity of DEP. Using a microfluidic DEP sorter with optically transparent electrodes, MCF-7 and HCT-116 cells were successfully separated from each other under a 3.2?MHz frequency in a 0.1X PBS solution. Further experiments were conducted to characterize the separation efficiency (enrichment factor) by changing experimental parameters (AC frequency, voltage, and flow rate). This work has shown the high specificity of the described DEP cell sorter for distinguishing cells with similar characteristics for potential diagnostic applications through CTC enrichment. PMID:24403985

  14. Innate Response to Human Cancer Cells with or without IL-2 Receptor Common ?-Chain Function in NOD Background Mice Lacking Adaptive Immunity.

    PubMed

    Nishime, Chiyoko; Kawai, Kenji; Yamamoto, Takehiro; Katano, Ikumi; Monnai, Makoto; Goda, Nobuhito; Mizushima, Tomoko; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Masato; Murata, Mitsuru; Suematsu, Makoto; Wakui, Masatoshi

    2015-08-15

    Immunodeficient hosts exhibit high acceptance of xenogeneic or neoplastic cells mainly due to lack of adaptive immunity, although it still remains to be elucidated how innate response affects the engraftment. IL-2R common ?-chain (IL-2R?c) signaling is required for development of NK cells and a subset of dendritic cells producing IFN-?. To better understand innate response in the absence of adaptive immunity, we examined amounts of metastatic foci in the livers after intrasplenic transfer of human colon cancer HCT116 cells into NOD/SCID versus NOD/SCID/IL-2R?c (null) (NOG) hosts. The intravital microscopic imaging of livers in the hosts depleted of NK cells and/or macrophages revealed that IL-2R?c function critically contributes to elimination of cancer cells without the need for NK cells and macrophages. In the absence of IL-2R?c, macrophages play a role in the defense against tumors despite the NOD Sirpa allele, which allows human CD47 to bind to the encoded signal regulatory protein ? to inhibit macrophage phagocytosis of human cells. Analogous experiments using human pancreas cancer MIA PaCa-2 cells provided findings roughly similar to those from the experiments using HCT116 cells except for lack of suppression of metastases by macrophages in NOG hosts. Administration of mouse IFN-? to NOG hosts appeared to partially compensate lack of IL-2R?c-dependent elimination of transferred HCT116 cells. These results provide insights into the nature of innate response in the absence of adaptive immunity, aiding in developing tumor xenograft models in experimental oncology. PMID:26170385

  15. SKLB316, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of cell-cycle progression, induces G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in vitro and inhibits tumor growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yong; Lei, Qian; Zhu, Yongxia; Ye, Tinghong; Wang, Ningyu; Li, Guobo; Shi, Xuanhong; Liu, Yantong; Shao, Bin; Yin, Tao; Zhao, Lifeng; Wu, Wenshuang; Song, Xuejiao; Xiong, Ying; Wei, Yuquan; Yu, Luoting

    2014-12-28

    Benzothiazole derivatives have received considerable attentions for their potencies in cancer therapy. In the present study, we reported that SKLB316, a novel synthesized benzothiazole derivative, exhibits activities to inhibit colorectal and pancreatic cancer in vitro and in vivo by inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In vitro, it exhibited significant anti-proliferative activities against human cancer cells derived from different histotypes including the colorectal cancer cell line HCT116 and pancreatic cancer cell line CFPAC-1. We chose these cell lines to study the possible anti-tumor mechanism because they are sensitive to SKLB316 treatment. Flow cytometry assays showed that SKLB316 could induce G2/M cell cycle arrest. Mechanistically, SKLB316 could decrease the activities of cdc2/cyclin B1 complex, including decreasing the synthesis of cyclin B1, cdc2 and cdc25c, while accumulating the levels of phosphorylated cdc2 (Tyr15) and checkpoint kinase 2. SKLB316 could also decrease the level of cyclin E and A2. Moreover, SKLB316 could induce cancer cell apoptosis, which was associated with activation of caspase 9, downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax. SKLB316 could also decrease the mitochondrial membrane potential and induce the generation of reactive oxygen species in cells. The results implied that SKLB316 may induce apoptosis via the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. Moreover, SKLB316 could suppress the growth of established colorectal and pancreatic cancer tumors in nude mice without causing obvious side effects. TUNEL assays confirmed that SKLB316 could also induce tumor cell apoptosis in vivo. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the potential value of SKLB316 as a novel anti-tumor drug candidate. PMID:25301449

  16. Gene expression profiles modulated by the human carcinogen aristolochic acid I in human cancer cells and their dependence on TP53

    SciTech Connect

    Simoes, Maria L.; Hockley, Sarah L.; Schwerdtle, Tanja; Schmeiser, Heinz H.; Phillips, David H.; Arlt, Volker M.

    2008-10-01

    Aristolochic acid (AA) is the causative agent of urothelial tumours associated with aristolochic acid nephropathy. These tumours contain TP53 mutations and over-express TP53. We compared transcriptional and translational responses of two isogenic HCT116 cell lines, one expressing TP53 (p53-WT) and the other with this gene knocked out (p53-null), to treatment with aristolochic acid I (AAI) (50-100 {mu}M) for 6-48 h. Modulation of 118 genes was observed in p53-WT cells and 123 genes in p53-null cells. Some genes, including INSIG1, EGR1, CAV1, LCN2 and CCNG1, were differentially expressed in the two cell lines. CDKN1A was selectively up-regulated in p53-WT cells, leading to accumulation of TP53 and CDKN1A. Apoptotic signalling, measured by caspase-3 and -7 activity, was TP53-dependent. Both cell types accumulated in S phase, suggesting that AAI-DNA adducts interfere with DNA replication, independently of TP53 status. The oncogene MYC, frequently over-expressed in urothelial tumours, was up-regulated by AAI, whereas FOS was down-regulated. Observed modulation of genes involved in endocytosis, e.g. RAB5A, may be relevant to the known inhibition of receptor-mediated endocytosis, an early sign of AA-mediated proximal tubule injury. AAI-DNA adduct formation was significantly greater in p53-WT cells than in p53-null cells. Collectively, phenotypic anchoring of the AAI-induced expression profiles to DNA adduct formation, cell-cycle parameters, TP53 expression and apoptosis identified several genes linked to these biological outcomes, some of which are TP53-dependent. These results strengthen the importance of TP53 in AA-induced cancer, and indicate that other alterations, e.g. to MYC oncogenic pathways, may also contribute.

  17. Mitochondrial p53 phosphorylation induces Bak-mediated and caspase-independent cell death

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Na; Nie, Chunlai; Zhao, Xinyu; Yuan, Zhu; Liu, Xinyu; Wei, Yuquan

    2015-01-01

    Chemoresistance in cancer has previously been attributed to gene mutations or deficiency. Caspase mutations or Bax deficiency can lead to resistance to cancer drugs. We recently demonstrated that Bak initiates a caspase/Bax-independent cell death pathway. We show that Plumbagin (PL) (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-napthoquinone), a medicinal plant-derived naphthoquinone that is known to have anti-tumor activity in a variety of models, induces caspase-independent cell death in HCT116 Bax knockout (KO) or MCF-7 Bax knockdown (KD) cells that express wild-type (WT) Bak. The re-expression of Bax in HCT116 Bax KO cells fails to enhance the PL-induced cell death. Additionally, Bak knockdown by shRNA efficiently attenuates PL-induced cell death. These results suggest that PL-induced cell death depends primarily on Bak, not Bax, in these cells. Further experimentation demonstrated that p53 Ser15 phosphorylation and mitochondrial translocation mediated Bak activation and subsequent cell death. Knockdown of p53 or a p53 Ser15 mutant significantly inhibited p53 mitochondrial translocation and cell death. Furthermore, we found that Akt mediated p53 phosphorylation and the subsequent mitochondrial accumulation. Taken together, our data elaborate the role of Bak in caspase/Bax-independent cell death and suggest that PL may be an effective agent for overcoming chemoresistance in cancer cells with dysfunctional caspases. PMID:25980443

  18. MSH3 Mismatch Repair Protein Regulates Sensitivity to Cytotoxic Drugs and a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor in Human Colon Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Myung; Huang, Shengbing; Tougeron, David; Sinicrope, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    Background MSH3 is a DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene that undergoes frequent somatic mutation in colorectal cancers (CRCs) with MMR deficiency. MSH3, together with MSH2, forms the MutS? heteroduplex that interacts with interstrand cross-links induced by drugs such as cisplatin. To date, the impact of MSH3 on chemosensitivity is unknown. Methods We utilized isogenic HCT116 (MLH1?/MSH3?) cells where MLH1 is restored by transfer of chromosome 3 (HCT116+ch3) and also MSH3 by chromosome 5 (HCT116+3+5). We generated HCT116+3+5, SW480 (MLH1+/MSH3+) and SW48 (MLH1?/MSH3+) cells with shRNA knockdown of MSH3. Cells were treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), SN-38, oxaliplatin, or the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor PCI-24781 and cell viability, clonogenic survival, DNA damage and apoptosis were analyzed. Results MSH3-deficient vs proficient CRC cells showed increased sensitivity to the irinotecan metabolite SN-38 and to oxaliplatin, but not 5-FU, as shown in assays for apoptosis and clonogenic survival. In contrast, suppression of MLH1 attenuated the cytotoxic effect of 5-FU, but did not alter sensitivity to SN-38 or oxaliplatin. The impact of MSH3 knockdown on chemosensitivity to SN-38 and oxaliplatin was maintained independent of MLH1 status. In MSH3-deficient vs proficient cells, SN-38 and oxaliplatin induced higher levels of phosphorylated histone H2AX and Chk2, and similar results were found in MLH1-proficient SW480 cells. MSH3-deficient vs proficient cells showed increased 53BP1 nuclear foci after irradiation, suggesting that MSH3 can regulate DNA double strand break (DSB) repair. We then utilized PCI-24781 that interferes with homologous recombination (HR) indicated by a reduction in Rad51 expression. The addition of PCI-24781 to oxaliplatin enhanced cytotoxicity to a greater extent compared to either drug alone. Conclusion MSH3 status can regulate the DNA damage response and extent of apoptosis induced by chemotherapy. The ability of MSH3 to regulate chemosensitivity was independent of MLH1 status. PCI-24781-mediated impairment of HR enhanced oxaliplatin sensitivity, suggesting that reduced DSB repair capacity may be contributory. PMID:23724141

  19. Refractory lining for electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect

    Blander, Milton; Cook, Glenn M.

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contcat with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

  20. Pristimerin demonstrates anticancer potential in colorectal cancer cells by inducing G1 phase arrest and apoptosis and suppressing various pro-survival signaling proteins.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Bashir A; Guerram, Mounia; Hassan, Hozeifa M; Hamdi, Aida M; Zhang, Lu-Yong; Jiang, Zhen-Zhou

    2016-02-01

    Pristimerin is a naturally occurring triterpenoid that has a cytotoxic effect on several cancer cell lines. However, the cytotoxic effects of pristimerin as well as its molecular mechanisms of action against colorectal cancer have never been explored. In the present study, we investigated the anticancer potential of pristimerin, and examined the different signaling pathways affected by its action in three colon cancer cell lines namely HCT-116, COLO-205 and SW-620. Pristimerin was found to possess potent cytotoxic and proliferation inhibitory effects against these cell lines. Cell cycle analysis revealed G1phase arrest, which was strongly associated with decreased expression of cyclinD1 and cyclin-dependent kinases (cdk4 and cdk6) with concomitant induction of p21. Pristimerin also induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Cell plasma membrane alterations studied by AnnexinV/PI double staining, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), measurements of caspase activities and the inhibitory effect of Z-VAD-FMK (a caspase inhibitor) confirmed the apoptotic effect of pristimerin. Moreover, western blot data showed that apoptotic induction was associated with activated caspase-3 and-8, PARP-1 cleavage and modulation of the expression levels of Bcl-2 family proteins. Additionally, pristimerin treatment downregulated the phosphorylated forms of EGFR and HER2 proteins, and subsequently caused a decrease in the phosphorylated forms of Erk1/2, Akt, mTOR and NF-?B proteins. Taken together, these results suggest that pristimerin may have potential as a new targeting therapeutic strategy for the treatment of colon cancer. PMID:26718323

  1. The pivotal role of intracellular calcium in oxaliplatin-induced inhibition of neurite outgrowth but not cell death in differentiated PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Miki; Banno, Yoshiko; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Otsuka, Mayuko; Teramachi, Hitomi; Tsuchiya, Teruo; Itoh, Yoshinori

    2011-11-21

    The antineoplastic efficacy of oxaliplatin, a widely used anticancer drug, is restricted by its adverse effects such as peripheral neuropathy. Infusing a combination of calcium gluconate and magnesium sulfate (Ca/Mg) suppresses the acute neurotoxic side effects of oxaliplatin, although the mechanism is unclear. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity and the effects of Ca/Mg against this toxicity, we examined the effect of Ca/Mg on oxaliplatin-induced inhibition of neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells, a commonly used neuronal cell model. Oxaliplatin and oxalate suppressed nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth and reduced the NGF-mediated increase in the intracellular calcium concentration [Ca(2+)](i). A calcium-chelating agent, BAPTA/AM, also exhibited similar inhibitory effects on neurite outgrowth and [Ca(2+)](i). The addition of Ca/Mg attenuated these inhibitions induced by oxaliplatin and oxalate. The NGF-induced upregulation of growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) was suppressed by oxaliplatin and oxalate. Oxaliplatin, but not oxalate, suppressed NGF-stimulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation, and this inhibition was not affected by Ca/Mg. Ca/Mg did not modify the oxaliplatin-induced loss of cell viability or apoptosis in PC12 or HCT-116 cells, a human colorectal cancer cell line. These results suggest that the inhibition of neurite outgrowth but not tumor cell death induced by oxaliplatin is partly associated with reductions in [Ca(2+)](i) and GAP-43 expression, and this inhibition was suppressed by the addition of Ca/Mg. Therefore, it may be assumed that Ca/Mg is useful for protecting against oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity without reducing the antitumor activity of oxaliplatin. PMID:21981408

  2. ApoG2 inhibits the antiapoptotic protein, Mcl?1, and induces mitochondria?dependent apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianxiao; Yuan, Gang; Zhang, Lin; Ye, Lijun; Li, Shuxia; Fan, Yuhua; Sun, Jian

    2015-11-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a worldwide malignancy of high incidence and mortality. At present, there is a lack of effective drugs against CRC. The B?cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl?2) protein family members are considered to be closely associated with tumorigenesis and the chemoresistance of CRC. As a novel gossypol derivative targeting antiapoptotic proteins of the Bcl?2 family, apogossypolone (ApoG2) exhibits antitumor properties in various cancer types, although its effects against CRC remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of ApoG2 in vitro on CRC cells was investigated, with the aim of elucidating the underlying mechanism. Using an MTT assay, ApoG2 was revealed to inhibit the growth of the HT29, SW480 and HCT116 CRC cell lines in a dose? and a time?dependent manner. Hoechst staining revealed that ApoG2 induced CRC cell apoptosis, marked by morphological changes, including cell shrinkage and nuclear fragmentation. Flow cytometric analysis also detected a higher apoptotic ratio following treatment with ApoG2. The ratio was dependent upon the concentration of ApoG2, which the cells were exposed to, and the duration of the exposure. Western blot analysis and immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that ApoG2 treatment led to the downregulation of the protein expression of Mcl?1, and the interruption of the binding of Mcl?1 to the protein Bax. Furthermore, treatment with ApoG2 led to the release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm and the activation of caspases 3 and 7. The present study revealed that ApoG2 inhibited the proliferation of the CRC cell lines through mitochondrial signaling pathway?dependent apoptosis, which may be associated with the disruption of the function of the Mcl?1 protein by ApoG2. PMID:26352605

  3. p14(ARF) Prevents Proliferation of Aneuploid Cells by Inducing p53-Dependent Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Veneziano, Lorena; Barra, Viviana; Lentini, Laura; Spatafora, Sergio; Di Leonardo, Aldo

    2016-02-01

    Weakening the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint by reduced expression of its components induces chromosome instability and aneuploidy that are hallmarks of cancer cells. The tumor suppressor p14(ARF) is overexpressed in response to oncogenic stimuli to stabilize p53 halting cell progression. Previously, we found that lack or reduced expression of p14(ARF) is involved in the maintenance of aneuploid cells in primary human cells, suggesting that it could be part of a pathway controlling their proliferation. To investigate this aspect further, p14(ARF) was ectopically expressed in HCT116 cells after depletion of the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint MAD2 protein that was used as a trigger for aneuploidy. p14(ARF) Re-expression reduced the number of aneuploid cells in MAD2 post-transcriptionally silenced cells. Also aberrant mitoses, frequently displayed in MAD2-depleted cells, were decreased when p14(ARF) was expressed at the same time. In addition, p14(ARF) ectopic expression in MAD2-depleted cells induced apoptosis associated with increased p53 protein levels. Conversely, p14(ARF) ectopic expression did not induce apoptosis in HCT116 p53KO cells. Collectively, our results suggest that the tumor suppressor p14(ARF) may have an important role in counteracting proliferation of aneuploid cells by activating p53-dependent apoptosis. PMID:25752701

  4. Disruption of p53 function in immortalized human cells does not affect survival or apoptosis after taxol or vincristine treatment.

    PubMed

    Fan, S; Cherney, B; Reinhold, W; Rucker, K; O'Connor, P M

    1998-04-01

    In the present study, we report our findings on the impact of p53 disruption on the sensitivity of human cell lines to the antimitotic agents Taxol and vincristine. Comparisons of cell survival and apoptosis were made with y-irradiation and, in some cases, several other DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents. Studies in eight Burkitt's lymphoma and lymphoblastoid cell lines (four wild-type p53 and four mutant p53 cell lines) revealed that the DNA-damaging agents assayed tended to exhibit less growth inhibition in the mutant p53 cell lines compared to the wild-type p53 cell lines. In contrast, no significant correlation was apparent between p53 gene status and the growth-inhibitory potency of Taxol or vincristine in these eight cell lines. We also found that contrary to gamma-irradiation, Taxol and vincristine could induce apoptosis in lymphoma cell lines harboring p53 mutations. These observations were explored further in lymphoblastoid VDSO cells (wild-type p53) from a normal individual and stably transfected VDSO derivatives lacking p53 function due to expression of the human papillomavirus type-16 E6 gene. We found that p53 disruption in VDSO/E6 cells blocked y-ray-induced apoptosis and afforded a survival advantage to VDSO/E6 cells compared to control-transfected cells. In contrast, p53 disruption did not affect Taxol- or vincristine-induced apoptosis or survival in VDSO cells. The effect of p53 disruption on Taxol sensitivity was explored further in the breast carcinoma MCF-7 and colon carcinoma HCT-116 cell lines that had been stably transfected with either the human papillomavirus type-16 E6 gene or a dominant-negative mutant p53 gene. Again, in these cell model systems, we found that p53 disruption did not affect the growth-inhibitory potency of Taxol. Taken together, our results suggest that p53 status is not a dominant factor in the mechanism by which antimitotic agents induce apoptosis and reduce survival in immortalized human cell lines. PMID:9563901

  5. Cell Line Data Base: structure and recent improvements towards molecular authentication of human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Romano, Paolo; Manniello, Assunta; Aresu, Ottavia; Armento, Massimiliano; Cesaro, Michela; Parodi, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The Cell Line Data Base (CLDB) is a well-known reference information source on human and animal cell lines including information on more than 6000 cell lines. Main biological features are coded according to controlled vocabularies derived from international lists and taxonomies. HyperCLDB (http://bioinformatics.istge.it/hypercldb/) is a hypertext version of CLDB that improves data accessibility by also allowing information retrieval through web spiders. Access to HyperCLDB is provided through indexes of biological characteristics and navigation in the hypertext is granted by many internal links. HyperCLDB also includes links to external resources. Recently, an interest was raised for a reference nomenclature for cell lines and CLDB was seen as an authoritative system. Furthermore, to overcome the cell line misidentification problem, molecular authentication methods, such as fingerprinting, single-locus short tandem repeat (STR) profile and single nucleotide polymorphisms validation, were proposed. Since this data is distributed, a reference portal on authentication of human cell lines is needed. We present here the architecture and contents of CLDB, its recent enhancements and perspectives. We also present a new related database, the Cell Line Integrated Molecular Authentication (CLIMA) database (http://bioinformatics.istge.it/clima/), that allows to link authentication data to actual cell lines. PMID:18927105

  6. Mast cell and basophil cell lines: a compendium.

    PubMed

    Passante, Egle

    2014-01-01

    Mast cells and basophils play a crucial role during type I hypersensitivity reactions. However, despite efforts to elucidate their role in the pathogenesis of allergy and inflammation, our understanding of mast cell and basophil biology is still relatively scarce. The practical difficulty in obtaining a sufficient number of purified primary cells from biological samples has slowed down the process of reaching a full understanding of the physiological role of these functionally similar cell types. The establishment of several immortalized cell lines has been a useful tool to establish and perform sophisticated laboratory protocols that are impractical using primary cells. Continuous cell lines have been extensively used to investigate the allergen/IgE-mediated cell activation, to elucidate the degranulation dynamics, to investigate structural and functional properties of the high-affinity receptor (Fc?RI), and to test cell-stabilizing compounds. In this chapter we review the most widely used and better characterized mast cell and basophil cell lines, highlighting their advantages and drawbacks. It must be pointed out, however, that while cell lines represent a useful in vitro tool due to their easy manipulability and reduced culture costs, they often show aberrant characteristics which are not fully representative of primary cell physiology; results obtained with such cells therefore must be interpreted with due care. PMID:25149487

  7. Disruption of thioredoxin metabolism enhances the toxicity of transforming growth factor ?-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) inhibition in KRAS-mutated colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hrabe, Jennifer E; O'Leary, Brianne R; Fath, Melissa A; Rodman, Samuel N; Button, Anna M; Domann, Frederick E; Spitz, Douglas R; Mezhir, James J

    2015-08-01

    Transforming growth factor ?-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is critical for survival of many KRAS mutated colorectal cancer cells, and TAK1 inhibition with 5Z-7-oxozeaenol has been associated with oxidative stress leading to tumor cell killing. When SW 620 and HCT 116 human colon cancer cells were treated with 5M 5Z-7-oxozeaenol, cell viability, growth, and clonogenic survival were significantly decreased. Consistent with TAK1 inhibition being causally related to thiol-mediated oxidative stress, 10mM N-acetylcysteine (NAC) partially reversed the growth inhibitory effects of 5Z-7-oxozeaenol. In addition, 5Z-7-oxozeaenol also increased steady-state levels of H2DCFDA oxidation as well as increased levels of total glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Interestingly, depletion of GSH using buthionine sulfoximine did not significantly potentiate 5Z-7-oxozeaenol toxicity in either cell line. In contrast, pre-treatment of cells with auranofin (Au) to inhibit thioredoxin reductase activity significantly increased levels of oxidized thioredoxin as well as sensitized cells to 5Z-7-oxozeaenol-induced growth inhibition and clonogenic cell killing. These results were confirmed in SW 620 murine xenografts, where treatment with 5Z-7-oxozeaenol or with Au plus 5Z-7-oxozeaenol significantly inhibited growth, with Au plus 5Z-7-oxozeaenol trending toward greater growth inhibition compared to 5Z-7-oxozeaenol alone. These results support the hypothesis that thiol-mediated oxidative stress is causally related to TAK1-induced colon cancer cell killing. In addition, these results support the hypothesis that thioredoxin metabolism is a critical target for enhancing colon cancer cell killing via TAK1 inhibition and could represent an effective therapeutic strategy in patients with these highly resistant tumors. PMID:26114584

  8. Disruption of thioredoxin metabolism enhances the toxicity of transforming growth factor ?-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) inhibition in KRAS-mutated colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hrabe, Jennifer E.; OLeary, Brianne R.; Fath, Melissa A.; Rodman, Samuel N.; Button, Anna M.; Domann, Frederick E.; Spitz, Douglas R.; Mezhir, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor ?-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is critical for survival of many KRAS mutated colorectal cancer cells, and TAK1 inhibition with 5Z-7-oxozeaenol has been associated with oxidative stress leading to tumor cell killing. When SW 620 and HCT 116 human colon cancer cells were treated with 5M 5Z-7-oxozeaenol, cell viability, growth, and clonogenic survival were significantly decreased. Consistent with TAK1 inhibition being causally related to thiol-mediated oxidative stress, 10mM N-acetylcysteine (NAC) partially reversed the growth inhibitory effects of 5Z-7-oxozeaenol. In addition, 5Z-7-oxozeaenol also increased steady-state levels of H2DCFDA oxidation as well as increased levels of total glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Interestingly, depletion of GSH using buthionine sulfoximine did not significantly potentiate 5Z-7-oxozeaenol toxicity in either cell line. In contrast, pre-treatment of cells with auranofin (Au) to inhibit thioredoxin reductase activity significantly increased levels of oxidized thioredoxin as well as sensitized cells to 5Z-7-oxozeaenol-induced growth inhibition and clonogenic cell killing. These results were confirmed in SW 620 murine xenografts, where treatment with 5Z-7-oxozeaenol or with Au plus 5Z-7-oxozeaenol significantly inhibited growth, with Au plus 5Z-7-oxozeaenol trending toward greater growth inhibition compared to 5Z-7-oxozeaenol alone. These results support the hypothesis that thiol-mediated oxidative stress is causally related to TAK1-induced colon cancer cell killing. In addition, these results support the hypothesis that thioredoxin metabolism is a critical target for enhancing colon cancer cell killing via TAK1 inhibition and could represent an effective therapeutic strategy in patients with these highly resistant tumors. PMID:26114584

  9. Copper chelation selectively kills colon cancer cells through redox cycling and generation of reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Metals including iron, copper and zinc are essential for physiological processes yet can be toxic at high concentrations. However the role of these metals in the progression of cancer is not well defined. Here we study the anti-tumor activity of the metal chelator, TPEN, and define its mechanism of action. Methods Multiple approaches were employed, including cell viability, cell cycle analysis, multiple measurements of apoptosis, and mitochondrial function. In addition we measured cellular metal contents and employed EPR to record redox cycling of TPENmetal complexes. Mouse xenografts were also performed to test the efficacy of TPEN in vivo. Results We show that metal chelation using TPEN (5?M) selectively induces cell death in HCT116 colon cancer cells without affecting the viability of non-cancerous colon or intestinal cells. Cell death was associated with increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and was inhibited by antioxidants and by prior chelation of copper. Interestingly, HCT116 cells accumulate copper to 7-folds higher levels than normal colon cells, and the TPEN-copper complex engages in redox cycling to generate hydroxyl radicals. Consistently, TPEN exhibits robust anti-tumor activity in vivo in colon cancer mouse xenografts. Conclusion Our data show that TPEN induces cell death by chelating copper to produce TPEN-copper complexes that engage in redox cycling to selectively eliminate colon cancer cells. PMID:25047035

  10. Circulating and tumor-infiltrating mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells in colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ling, Limian; Lin, Yuyang; Zheng, Wenwen; Hong, Sen; Tang, Xiuqi; Zhao, Pingwei; Li, Ming; Ni, Jingsong; Li, Chenguang; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Yanfang

    2016-01-01

    Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are important for immune defense against infectious pathogens and regulate the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases. However, their roles in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) are still unclear. This study examined the phenotype, distribution, clinical relevance and potential function of MAIT cells in CRC patients. We found that the percentages of circulating memory CD8(+) MAIT cells were significantly reduced while tumor infiltrating MAIT cells were increased, especially in patients with advanced CRC. The serum CEA levels were positively correlated with the percentages of tumor infiltrating MAIT cells in CRC patients, but negatively correlated with the percentages of circulating MAIT in advanced CRC patients. Activated circulating MAIT cells from CRC patients produced lower IFN-?, but higher IL-17. Furthermore, higher levels of V?7.2-J?33, IFN-? and IL-17A were expressed in the CRC tissues. Co-culture of activated MAIT cells with HCT116 cells enhanced IL-17 expression and induced HCT116 cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in a contact- and dose-dependent manner, which was abrogated by treatment with anti-MR1. Therefore, MAIT cells preferably infiltrate into the solid tumor in CRC patients and may participate in the immune surveillance of CRC. PMID:26837580

  11. Circulating and tumor-infiltrating mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells in colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Limian; Lin, Yuyang; Zheng, Wenwen; Hong, Sen; Tang, Xiuqi; Zhao, Pingwei; Li, Ming; Ni, Jingsong; Li, Chenguang; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Yanfang

    2016-01-01

    Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are important for immune defense against infectious pathogens and regulate the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases. However, their roles in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) are still unclear. This study examined the phenotype, distribution, clinical relevance and potential function of MAIT cells in CRC patients. We found that the percentages of circulating memory CD8+ MAIT cells were significantly reduced while tumor infiltrating MAIT cells were increased, especially in patients with advanced CRC. The serum CEA levels were positively correlated with the percentages of tumor infiltrating MAIT cells in CRC patients, but negatively correlated with the percentages of circulating MAIT in advanced CRC patients. Activated circulating MAIT cells from CRC patients produced lower IFN-γ, but higher IL-17. Furthermore, higher levels of Vα7.2-Jα33, IFN-γ and IL-17A were expressed in the CRC tissues. Co-culture of activated MAIT cells with HCT116 cells enhanced IL-17 expression and induced HCT116 cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in a contact- and dose-dependent manner, which was abrogated by treatment with anti-MR1. Therefore, MAIT cells preferably infiltrate into the solid tumor in CRC patients and may participate in the immune surveillance of CRC. PMID:26837580

  12. Comprehensive analysis for histone acetylation of human colon cancer cells treated with a novel HDAC inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunlong; Fang, Xiuli; Wang, Ye; Zhang, Junmei; Jiang, Sheng; Liu, Zhe; Ma, Zhenyi; Xu, Liyan; Li, Enmin; Zhang, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Extensive evidence suggests that dysregulation of histone lysine acetylation is intimately linked with the development of cancer in epigenetic level. Histone acetylation on lysine is regulated mainly by the "pencil"--Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and the "eraser"--Histone deacetylases HDACs. Dramatic elevation of global histone deacetylation is considered as a biomarker for cancer. Therefore, current antitumor drug design often targets HDACs, inhibiting overexpressed HDAC in tumor cells with natural or synthesized small molecules like largazole. Recently, a novel largazole derivative (largazole-7) was designed and prepared by replacement of Val 1 with tyrosine, and this modification increases selectivity toward human cancer cells over normal cells more than 100-fold. However, it is unclear about the dynamic level of histone acetylation under the treatment of this drug. It is also unclear whether the other modifications are also affected by largazole-7 treatment. Therefore, a global mapping of modifications on the histone proteins of cancer cell line treated by this drug may be of great benefit to elucidating its molecular mechanisms and exploring its potent as an antitumor drug. To realize the goal, we combined stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and high resolution MS for comprehensive identification and quantitative analysis of histone lysine acetylation and other modifications of Human Colon Cancer Cells (HCT-116) with and without treatment of largazole-7. In this analysis, we identified 68 histone PTMs in 38 sites on core histones, including lysine acetylation, methylation and butyrylation, a novel lysine modification. Further quantitative analysis not only discovered the global increased acetylated lysines, but also observed the changes of abundance of lysine methylation and butyrylation under stimulation of the drug. To our knowledge, it is the first report that regulation of largazole-7 against lysine butyrylation. Our study expands the catalog of histone marks in cancer, and provides an approach for understanding the known and new epigenetic marks under treatment of drugs. PMID:23888955

  13. Ferrocene and (arene)ruthenium(II) complexes of the natural anticancer naphthoquinone plumbagin with enhanced efficacy against resistant cancer cells and a genuine mode of action.

    PubMed

    Spoerlein-Guettler, Cornelia; Mahal, Katharina; Schobert, Rainer; Biersack, Bernhard

    2014-09-01

    A series of ferrocene and (arene)ruthenium(II) complexes attached to the naturally occurring anticancer naphthoquinones plumbagin and juglone was tested for efficacy against various cancer cell lines and for alterations in the mode of action. The plumbagin ferrocene and (p-cymene)Ru(II) conjugates 1c and 2a overcame the multi-drug drug resistance of KB-V1/Vbl cervix carcinoma cells and showed IC50 (72 h) values around 1 ?M in growth inhibition assays using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). They were further investigated for their influence on the cell cycle of KB-V1/Vbl and HCT-116 colon carcinoma cells, on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the latter cell line, for their substrate character for the P-glycoprotein drug eflux pump via the calcein-AM efflux assays, and for DNA affinity by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The derivatives 1c and 2a increased the number of dead cancer cells (sub-G0/G1 fraction) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. ROS levels were significantly increased upon treatment with 1c and 2a. These compounds also showed a greater affinity to linear DNA than plumbagin. While plumbagin did not affect calcein-AM transport by P-glycoprotein the derivatives 1c and 2a exhibited a 50% or 80% inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-mediated calcein-AM efflux relative to the clinically established sensitizer verapamil. PMID:24907976

  14. Hepatocytes Determine the Hypoxic Microenvironment and Radiosensitivity of Colorectal Cancer Cells Through Production of Nitric Oxide That Targets Mitochondrial Respiration

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Heng; Verovski, Valeri N.; Leonard, Wim; Law, Ka Lun; Vermeersch, Marieke; Storme, Guy; Van den Berge, Dirk; Gevaert, Thierry; Sermeus, Alexandra; De Ridder, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To determine whether host hepatocytes may reverse hypoxic radioresistance through nitric oxide (NO)-induced oxygen sparing, in a model relevant to colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases. Methods and Materials: Hepatocytes and a panel of CRC cells were incubated in a tissue-mimetic coculture system with diffusion-limited oxygenation, and oxygen levels were monitored by an oxygen-sensing fluorescence probe. To activate endogenous NO production, cocultures were exposed to a cytokine mixture, and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase was analyzed by reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and NO/nitrite production. The mitochondrial targets of NO were examined by enzymatic activity. To assess hypoxic radioresponse, cocultures were irradiated and reseeded for colonies. Results: Resting hepatocytes consumed 10-40 times more oxygen than mouse CT26 and human DLD-1, HT29, HCT116, and SW480 CRC cells, and thus seemed to be the major effectors of hypoxic conditioning. As a result, hepatocytes caused uniform radioprotection of tumor cells at a 1:1 ratio. Conversely, NO-producing hepatocytes radiosensitized all CRC cell lines more than 1.5-fold, similar to the effect of selective mitochondrial inhibitors. The radiosensitizing effect was associated with a respiratory self-arrest of hepatocytes at the level of aconitase and complex II, which resulted in profound reoxygenation of tumor cells through oxygen sparing. Nitric oxideproducing hepatocytes were at least 10 times more active than NO-producing macrophages to reverse hypoxia-induced radioresistance. Conclusions: Hepatocytes were the major determinants of the hypoxic microenvironment and radioresponse of CRC cells in our model of metabolic hypoxia. We provide evidence that reoxygenation and radiosensitization of hypoxic CRC cells can be achieved through oxygen sparing induced by endogenous NO production in host hepatocytes.

  15. Interaction of the Clostridium difficile Binary Toxin CDT and Its Host Cell Receptor, Lipolysis-stimulated Lipoprotein Receptor (LSR).

    PubMed

    Hemmasi, Sarah; Czulkies, Bernd A; Schorch, Bjrn; Veit, Antonia; Aktories, Klaus; Papatheodorou, Panagiotis

    2015-05-29

    CDT (Clostridium difficile transferase) is a binary, actin ADP-ribosylating toxin frequently associated with hypervirulent strains of the human enteric pathogen C. difficile, the most serious cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. CDT leads to the collapse of the actin cytoskeleton and, eventually, to cell death. Low doses of CDT result in the formation of microtubule-based protrusions on the cell surface that increase the adherence and colonization of C. difficile. The lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) is the host cell receptor for CDT, and our aim was to gain a deeper insight into the interplay between both proteins. We show that CDT interacts with the extracellular, Ig-like domain of LSR with an affinity in the nanomolar range. We identified LSR splice variants in the colon carcinoma cell line HCT116 and disrupted the LSR gene in these cells by applying the CRISPR-Cas9 technology. LSR truncations ectopically expressed in LSR knock-out cells indicated that intracellular parts of LSR are not essential for plasma membrane targeting of the receptor and cellular uptake of CDT. By generating a series of N- and C-terminal truncations of the binding component of CDT (CDTb), we found that amino acids 757-866 of CDTb are sufficient for binding to LSR. With a transposon-based, random mutagenesis approach, we identified potential LSR-interacting epitopes in CDTb. This study increases our understanding about the interaction between CDT and its receptor LSR, which is key to the development of anti-toxin strategies for preventing cell entry of the toxin. PMID:25882847

  16. TRANSFECTION OF INSECT CELL LINES USING POLYETHYLENIMINE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect cell lines have been widely used in recombinant baculovirus expression systems and transient gene expression studies. Critical to these applications have been the transfection of foreign DNA. This has been widely done using labor intensive and cytotoxic liposome-based transfection reagents....

  17. Effect of dapagliflozin on colon cancer cell [Rapid Communication].

    PubMed

    Saito, Tsugumichi; Okada, Shuichi; Yamada, Eijiro; Shimoda, Yoko; Osaki, Aya; Tagaya, Yuko; Shibusawa, Ryo; Okada, Junichi; Yamada, Masanobu

    2015-12-27

    Dapagliflozin is a SGLT2 (Sodium/Glucose cotransporter 2) inhibitor that reduces circulating glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients by blocking the SGLT2-dependent reabsorption of glucose in the kidney. Dapagliflozin is metabolized by UGT1A9 (UDP Glucuronosyltransferase 1 family, Polypeptidase A9), suppressing its SGLT2 inhibitor activity. However little information is available on whether dapagliflozin acts in the absence of dapagliflozin metabolism. Treatment with 0.5?M dapagliflozin significantly reduced the number of HCT116 cells, which express SGLT2 but not UGT1A9. This was independent of SGLT2 inhibition, as the SGLT2 inhibitor phlorizin had no effect. Dapagliflozin also enhanced Erk phosphorylation but without changing levels of uncleaved and cleaved PPAR and uncleaved caspase-3, suggesting that the cause of the decrease in HCT116 cell number was apoptosis independent cell death. Taken together, these data indicate a new potential role for dapagliflozin as an anticancer reagent in tumor cell populations that do not express UGT1A9. PMID:26522271

  18. Cancer stem cell-like cells from a single cell of oral squamous carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Felthaus, O.; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg ; Ettl, T.; Gosau, M.; Driemel, O.; Brockhoff, G.; Reck, A.; Zeitler, K.; Hautmann, M.; Reichert, T.E.; Schmalz, G.; Morsczeck, C.

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Four oral squamous cancer cell lines (OSCCL) were analyzed for cancer stem cells (CSCs). {yields} Single cell derived colonies of OSCCL express CSC-marker CD133 differentially. {yields} Monoclonal cell lines showed reduced sensitivity for Paclitaxel. {yields} In situ CD133{sup +} cells are slow cycling (Ki67-) indicating a reduced drug sensitivity. {yields} CD133{sup +} and CSC-like cells can be obtained from single colony forming cells of OSCCL. -- Abstract: Resistance of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) to conventional chemotherapy or radiation therapy might be due to cancer stem cells (CSCs). The development of novel anticancer drugs requires a simple method for the enrichment of CSCs. CSCs can be enriched from OSCC cell lines, for example, after cultivation in serum-free cell culture medium (SFM). In our study, we analyzed four OSCC cell lines for the presence of CSCs. CSC-like cells could not be enriched with SFM. However, cell lines obtained from holoclone colonies showed CSC-like properties such as a reduced rate of cell proliferation and a reduced sensitivity to Paclitaxel in comparison to cells from the parental lineage. Moreover, these cell lines differentially expressed the CSC-marker CD133, which is also upregulated in OSCC tissues. Interestingly, CD133{sup +} cells in OSCC tissues expressed little to no Ki67, the cell proliferation marker that also indicates reduced drug sensitivity. Our study shows a method for the isolation of CSC-like cell lines from OSCC cell lines. These CSC-like cell lines could be new targets for the development of anticancer drugs under in vitro conditions.

  19. MicroRNA-148b suppresses cell growth by targeting cholecystokinin-2 receptor in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Song, Yongxi; Xu, Yingying; Wang, Zhenning; Chen, Yue; Yue, Zhenyu; Gao, Peng; Xing, Chengzhong; Xu, Huimian

    2012-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the regulation of a variety of cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which miR-148b acts as a tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer. The expression of miR-148b was significantly downregulated in 96 pairs of human colorectal cancer tissues (p<0.0001) and three cell lines (p<0.01) compared with non-tumor adjacent tissues by quantitative real-time PCR. The results of in situ hybridization highlighted that miR-148b was important in the cancer transformation process. Using statistical analysis, we found that the expression level of miR-148b was associated with tumor size (p=0.033) in colorectal cancer patients. Moreover, overexpression of miR-148b in HCT-116 and HT-29 cells could inhibit cell proliferation in vitro and suppress tumorigenicity in vivo. Importantly, the result of luciferase activity assay and western blot showed that the cholecystokinin-2 receptor gene (CCK2R) was a target of miR-148b and was downregulated by miR-148b at the translational level. Then, we used siRNA, radioimmunoassay and ELISA to demonstrate that miR-148b might have an effect on cell proliferation by regulating the expression of CCK2R which functioned depending on the gastrin in colorectal cancer. Taken together, our data provides the first evidences that miR-148b acts as a tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer and should be further evaluated as a biomarker and therapeutic tool against colorectal cancer. PMID:22020560

  20. Antiproliferative efficacy of Tabernaemontana divaricata against HEP2 cell line and Vero cell line

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arvind; Selvakumar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Laryngeal cancer may also be called cancer of the larynx or laryngeal carcinoma. Conventional plants are a precious source of novel anticancer agents and are still in performance better role in health concern. The study was intended to estimation of the anticancer activity of the chloroformic extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata on the human epidermoid larynx carcinoma cell line (Hep 2). Materials and Method: The aerial parts (leaves, stem, and flowers) of T. divaricata were tested for its inhibitory effect in 96 microplate formats against Hep 2 cell line. The anticancer activity of samples on Hep 2 and Vero was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and various enzymatic parameters like catalase, reduced glutathione (GSH), GSH peroxidase, and superoxide anion scavenging activity. Viable cells were determined by the absorbance at 540 nm. Measurements were performed, and the concentration required for a 50% inhibition of viability (IC50) was determined graphically. The effect of the samples on the proliferation of Hep 2 and Vero cells was expressed as the % cell viability. Results: The extract on Hep 2 cell line up to 7.8 μg/ml and that IC50 value on Hep 2 cell line was 112 μg whereas 94 μg for Vero cell line. Hence, T. divaricata has lesser significant action on Vero cell line. Conclusion: Medicinal plant drug discovery continues to provide new and important leads against various pharmacological targets including cancer. Our results clearly indicate the anticancer property of the medicinal plant T. divaricata against the human laryngeal carcinoma cell lines (Hep 2 cell line). PMID:26109773

  1. Tumor Cells Switch to Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation under Radiation via mTOR-Mediated Hexokinase II Inhibition - A Warburg-Reversing Effect

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chung-Ling; Qin, Lili; Liu, Hsin-Chen; Candas, Demet; Fan, Ming; Li, Jian Jian

    2015-01-01

    A unique feature of cancer cells is to convert glucose into lactate to produce cellular energy, even under the presence of oxygen. Called aerobic glycolysis [The Warburg Effect] it has been extensively studied and the concept of aerobic glycolysis in tumor cells is generally accepted. However, it is not clear if aerobic glycolysis in tumor cells is fixed, or can be reversed, especially under therapeutic stress conditions. Here, we report that mTOR, a critical regulator in cell proliferation, can be relocated to mitochondria, and as a result, enhances oxidative phosphorylation and reduces glycolysis. Three tumor cell lines (breast cancer MCF-7, colon cancer HCT116 and glioblastoma U87) showed a quick relocation of mTOR to mitochondria after irradiation with a single dose 5 Gy, which was companied with decreased lactate production, increased mitochondrial ATP generation and oxygen consumption. Inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin blocked radiation-induced mTOR mitochondrial relocation and the shift of glycolysis to mitochondrial respiration, and reduced the clonogenic survival. In irradiated cells, mTOR formed a complex with Hexokinase II [HK II], a key mitochondrial protein in regulation of glycolysis, causing reduced HK II enzymatic activity. These results support a novel mechanism by which tumor cells can quickly adapt to genotoxic conditions via mTOR-mediated reprogramming of bioenergetics from predominantly aerobic glycolysis to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Such a waking-up pathway for mitochondrial bioenergetics demonstrates a flexible feature in the energy metabolism of cancer cells, and may be required for additional cellular energy consumption for damage repair and survival. Thus, the reversible cellular energy metabolisms should be considered in blocking tumor metabolism and may be targeted to sensitize them in anti-cancer therapy. PMID:25807077

  2. Profilin potentiates chemotherapeutic agents mediated cell death via suppression of NF-κB and upregulation of p53.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Adeel H; Raviprakash, Nune; Mokhamatam, Raveendra B; Gupta, Pankaj; Manna, Sunil K

    2016-04-01

    The molecular mechanism by which Profilin acts as a tumor suppressor is still unclear. Several chemotherapeutic agents, used till date either have unfavorable side effects or acquired resistance in tumor cells. Our findings show that Profilin enhances cell death mediated by several chemotherapeutic-agents. The activation of NF-κB and its dependent genes, mediated by paclitaxel and vinblastine, was completely inhibited in Profilin overexpressing cells. This inhibition was due to the Profilin mediated attenuation of IκBα degradation, thereby preventing p65 nuclear translocation and low NF-κB DNA binding activity.Moreover, Profilin increases level of p53 in the presence of known inducers, such as doxorubicin, vinblastine, and benzofuran. This increased p53 level leads to enhanced cell death as indicated by activation of caspases 3, 8, 9, which results in cleavage of PARP.Furthermore, knocking down of p53 in Profilin overexpressing cells leads to decreased cell death. Ectopic expression of Profilin in HCT116 p53 knock out cells showed lesser cell death as compared to the HCT116 p53 wild type cells. For the first time, we provide evidences, which suggest that Profilin synergizes with chemotherapeutic drugs to induce tumor cell death by regulating NF-κB and p53. Thus, modulation of Profilin may be a useful strategy for effective combination therapy. PMID:26842845

  3. Modulation of intracellular calcium levels by calcium lactate affects colon cancer cell motility through calcium-dependent calpain.

    PubMed

    Sundaramoorthy, Pasupathi; Sim, Jae Jun; Jang, Yeong-Su; Mishra, Siddhartha Kumar; Jeong, Keun-Yeong; Mander, Poonam; Chul, Oh Byung; Shim, Won-Sik; Oh, Seung Hyun; Nam, Ky-Youb; Kim, Hwan Mook

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cell motility is a key phenomenon regulating invasion and metastasis. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a major role in cellular adhesion and metastasis of various cancers. The relationship between dietary supplementation of calcium and colon cancer has been extensively investigated. However, the effect of calcium (Ca2+) supplementation on calpain-FAK-motility is not clearly understood. We sought to identify the mechanism of FAK cleavage through Ca2+ bound lactate (CaLa), its downstream signaling and role in the motility of human colon cancer cells. We found that treating HCT116 and HT-29 cells with CaLa immediately increased the intracellular Ca2+ (iCa2+) levels for a prolonged period of time. Ca2+ influx induced cleavage of FAK into an N-terminal FAK (FERM domain) in a dose-dependent manner. Phosphorylated FAK (p-FAK) was also cleaved in to its p-N-terminal FAK. CaLa increased colon cancer cells motility. Calpeptin, a calpain inhibitor, reversed the effects of CaLa on FAK and pFAK cleavage in both cancer cell lines. The cleaved FAK translocates into the nucleus and modulates p53 stability through MDM2-associated ubiquitination. CaLa-induced Ca2+ influx increased the motility of colon cancer cells was mediated by calpain activity through FAK and pFAK protein destabilization. In conclusion, these results suggest that careful consideration may be given in deciding dietary Ca2+ supplementation to patient undergoing treatment for metastatic cancer. PMID:25629974

  4. Modulation of Intracellular Calcium Levels by Calcium Lactate Affects Colon Cancer Cell Motility through Calcium-Dependent Calpain

    PubMed Central

    Sundaramoorthy, Pasupathi; Sim, Jae Jun; Jang, Yeong-Su; Mishra, Siddhartha Kumar; Jeong, Keun-Yeong; Mander, Poonam; Chul, Oh Byung; Shim, Won-Sik; Oh, Seung Hyun; Nam, Ky-Youb; Kim, Hwan Mook

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cell motility is a key phenomenon regulating invasion and metastasis. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a major role in cellular adhesion and metastasis of various cancers. The relationship between dietary supplementation of calcium and colon cancer has been extensively investigated. However, the effect of calcium (Ca2+) supplementation on calpain-FAK-motility is not clearly understood. We sought to identify the mechanism of FAK cleavage through Ca2+ bound lactate (CaLa), its downstream signaling and role in the motility of human colon cancer cells. We found that treating HCT116 and HT-29 cells with CaLa immediately increased the intracellular Ca2+ (iCa2+) levels for a prolonged period of time. Ca2+ influx induced cleavage of FAK into an N-terminal FAK (FERM domain) in a dose-dependent manner. Phosphorylated FAK (p-FAK) was also cleaved in to its p-N-terminal FAK. CaLa increased colon cancer cells motility. Calpeptin, a calpain inhibitor, reversed the effects of CaLa on FAK and pFAK cleavage in both cancer cell lines. The cleaved FAK translocates into the nucleus and modulates p53 stability through MDM2-associated ubiquitination. CaLa-induced Ca2+ influx increased the motility of colon cancer cells was mediated by calpain activity through FAK and pFAK protein destabilization. In conclusion, these results suggest that careful consideration may be given in deciding dietary Ca2+ supplementation to patient undergoing treatment for metastatic cancer. PMID:25629974

  5. Dihydroartemisinin induces apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells through the mitochondria-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Lu, Min; Sun, Luhaoran; Zhou, Jin; Yang, Jing

    2014-06-01

    Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a semisynthetic derivative of artemisinin isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Artemisia annua, has been shown to exhibit antitumor activity in various cancer cells, including colorectal cancer. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying its antitumor activity in colorectal cancer remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated DHA-induced apoptosis in human colorectal cancer HCT-116 cells in vitro. The results showed that DHA treatment significantly reduced cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, DHA induced G1 cell cycle arrest, apoptotic cell death, and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also found that DHA decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential; activated the caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9; and increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Meanwhile, the translocation of apoptotic inducing factor (AIF) and the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria were observed. Strikingly, the free radical scavenger N-acetylcysteine or the caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO significantly prevented DHA-induced apoptotic cell death. Taken together, we concluded that DHA-triggered apoptosis in HCT-116 cells occurs through the ROS-mediated mitochondria-dependent pathway. Our data suggest that DHA has great potential to be developed as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of human colorectal cancer. PMID:24519064

  6. Use of the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) for comparing apoptotic effect of conventional antibodies versus nanobodies.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Ghada H; Melake, Nahla A

    2012-07-01

    The large molecular size of antibodies is considered one major factor preventing them from becoming more efficient therapeutically. It is well established that all camelids have unique antibodies circulating in their blood called heavy-chain antibodies (HcAbs). Unlike antibodies from other species, these HcAbs contain a single variable domain and two constant domains (CH2 and CH3). HcAbs are a novel type of immunoglobulin-like, antigen binding protein with beneficial pharmacokinetic properties that are ideally suited to targeting cellular antigens for molecular imaging or therapeutic purposes. Since the antigen-binding site of dromedary HcAb is comprised in one single domain, it was referred to as nanobody. In the present work, the different IgG subclasses from immunized camel (Camelus dromedairus) were purified employing their different affinity for protein A column (PA) and protein G column (PG). Characterization of IgG subclasses was done by using 12% SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions. Protein bands were visualized after staining with Coomassie Brilliant Blue, showing two bands at 50 kDa and 30 kDa in case of IgG1 while IgG2 and IgG3 produce only one band at 46 kDa and 43 kDa respectively. The induction of apoptosis by either conventional or nanobodies was evaluated on two different cell lines, Colon and Hepatic cancer cell (HCT116 and HepG2), using the comet assay. Induced apoptosis were confirmed by visualizing DNA fragmentation bands on 2% agarose gel, and the gel was photographed under UV light. This study demonstrates the successful targeting of human cancer colon cell lines by nanobodies in vitro. It may open perspectives for their future use as tumor target vehicle, due to their small size, soluble behavior and they interact with epitopes that are less antigenic for conventional antibodies. PMID:23960797

  7. Perfluorocarbon-Encapsulated PLGA-PEG Emulsions as Enhancement Agents for Highly Efficient Reoxygenation to Cell and Organism.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yanjie; Zhang, Minmin; Liu, Tian; Zhou, Juan; Gao, Yuan; Wen, Zhengfeng; Guan, Jun; Zhu, Jun; Lin, Zhaofen; He, Dannong

    2015-08-26

    Perfluorocarbon (PFC), a kind of oxygen carrier, is encapsulated in PLGA-PEG to prepare a PLGA-PEG/PFC emulsion for highly efficient reoxygenation to cell and organism. HCT 116 cells are used as a model cell, whose viability has a significant enhancement after reoxygenation with PLGA-PEG/PFC emulsion because of the sufficient and timely oxygen supply. Meanwhile, hypoxia-reoxygenation injury will happen along with cell hypoxia-reoxygenation treatment, which is reflected by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells. However, the integration of intracellular ROS and cell viability implies that the degree of hypoxia-reoxygenation injury is sublethal to HCT116 cells when the concentration of PLGA-PEG/PFC emulsion is lower than 0.2 mg/mL. Furthermore, the change of the expression level of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) is similar to that of cell viability during reoxygenation, which suggests that HIF-1? or its downstream proteins may make a significant contribution to cell viability. In vivo oxygen supply is assessed in rats through pulmonary delivery, which shows that PLGA-PEG/PFC emulsion can supply oxygen to rats and improve rats' lung ventilation. PMID:26222132

  8. Chromosomal variation in lymphoblastoid cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Shirley, Matthew D.; Baugher, Joseph D.; Stevens, Eric L.; Tang, Zhenya; Gerry, Norman; Beiswanger, Christine M.; Berlin, Dorit S.; Pevsner, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Tens of thousands of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) have been established by the research community, providing nearly unlimited source material from samples of interest. LCLs are used to address questions in population genomics, mechanisms of disease, and pharmacogenomics. Thus, it is of fundamental importance to define the extent of chromosomal variation in LCLs. We measured variation in genotype and copy number in multiple LCLs derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of single individuals as well as two comparison groups: (1) three types of differentiated cell lines (DCLs) and (2) triplicate HapMap samples. We then validated and extended our findings using data from a large study consisting of samples from blood or LCLs. We observed high concordances between genotypes and copy number estimates within all sample groups. While the genotypes of LCLs tended to faithfully reflect the genotypes of PBMCs, 13.7% (4 of 29) of immortalized cell lines harbored mosaic regions greater than 20 megabases which were not present in PBMCs, DCLs, or HapMap replicate samples. We created a list of putative LCL-specific changes (affecting regions such as immunoglobulin loci) that is available as a community resource. PMID:22374857

  9. Non-thermal Plasma Causes p53-Dependent Apoptosis in Human Colon Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tuhvatulin, A.I.; Sysolyatina, E.V.; Scheblyakov, D.V.; Logunov, D.Yu.; Vasiliev, M.M.; Yurova, M.A.; Danilova, M.A.; Petrov, O.F.; Naroditsky, B.S.; Morfill, G.E.; Grigoriev, A.I.; Fortov, V.E.; Gintsburg, A.L.; Ermolaeva, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) consists of a huge amount of biologically active particles, whereas its temperature is close to ambient. This combination allows one to use NTP as a perspective tool for solving different biomedical tasks, including antitumor therapy. The treatment of tumor cells with NTP caused dose-dependent effects, such as growth arrest and apoptosis. However, while the outcome of NTP treatment has been established, the molecular mechanisms of the interaction between NTP and eukaryotic cells have not been thoroughly studied thus far. In this work, the mechanisms and the type of death of human colon carcinoma HCT 116 cells upon application of non-thermal argon plasma were studied. The effect of NTP on the major stress-activated protein p53 was investigated. The results demonstrate that the viability of HCT116 cells upon plasma treatment is dependent on the functional p53 protein. NTP treatment caused an increase in the intracellular concentration of p53 and the induction of the p53-controlled regulon. The p53-dependent accumulation of active proapoptotic caspase-3 was shown in NTP-treated cells. The study was the first to demonstrate that treatment of human colon carcinoma cells with NTP results in p53-dependent apoptosis. The results obtained contribute to our understanding of the applicability of NTP in antitumor therapy. PMID:23150806

  10. Inhibition of heat shock protein 27 phosphorylation promotes sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil in colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    MATSUNAGA, ATSUSHI; ISHII, YOSHIYUKI; TSURUTA, MASASHI; OKABAYASHI, KOJI; HASEGAWA, HIROTOSHI; KITAGAWA, YUKO

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the inhibition of HSP27 phosphorylation, which affects certain cellular functions, modulates sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in colorectal cancer cells. Exposure to 5-FU in HCT116 and HCT15 cells expressing high levels of HSP27 with a low 5-FU sensitivity caused a minimal change in HSP27 expression, but induced the upregulation of HSP27 phosphorylation, particularly at Ser78. By contrast, exposure to 5-FU in HT29 cells expressing a low level of HSP27 with a high 5-FU sensitivity marginally increased HSP27 expression, with minimal phosphorylation. Treatment with a selective inhibitor, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK; SB203580), caused the dose-dependent suppression of HSP27 phosphorylation, which was upregulated by 5-FU, reducing the half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 5-FU in the HCT116 and HCT15 cells. However, treatment with SB203580 exhibited no significant effect on cell growth or survival. In conclusion, this study indicated that the inhibition of HSP27 phosphorylation by a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK promotes 5-FU sensitivity without causing cytotoxicity in colorectal cancer cells. PMID:25364415

  11. Elevated NIBP/TRAPPC9 mediates tumorigenesis of cancer cells through NF?B signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Yang, Wensheng; Li, Fang; Yang, Fan; Yu, Daohai; Ramsey, Frederick V.; Tuszyski, George P.; Hu, Wenhui

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory mechanisms underlying constitutive and inducible NF?B activation in cancer remain largely unknown. Here we investigated whether a novel NIK- and IKK2-binding protein (NIBP) is required for maintaining malignancy of cancer cells in an NF?B-dependent manner. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of a human cancer survey tissue-scan cDNA array, immunostaining of a human frozen tumor tissue array and immunoblotting of a high-density reverse-phase cancer protein lysate array showed that NIBP is extensively expressed in most tumor tissues, particularly in breast and colon cancer. Lentivirus-mediated NIBP shRNA knockdown significantly inhibited the growth/proliferation, invasion/migration, colony formation and xenograft tumorigenesis of breast (MDA-MB-231) or colon (HCT116) cancer cells. NIBP overexpression in HCT116 cells promoted cell proliferation, migration and colony formation. Mechanistically, NIBP knockdown in cancer cells inhibited cytokine-induced activation of NF?B luciferase reporter, thus sensitizing the cells to TNF?-induced apoptosis. Endogenous NIBP bound specifically to the phosphorylated IKK2 in a TNF?-dependent manner. NIBP knockdown transiently attenuated TNF?-stimulated phosphorylation of IKK2/p65 and degradation of I?B?. In contrast, NIBP overexpression enhanced TNF?-induced NF?B activation, thus inhibiting constitutive and TNF?-induced apoptosis. Collectively, our data identified important roles of NIBP in promoting tumorigenesis via NF?? signaling, spotlighting NIBP as a promising target in cancer therapeutic intervention. PMID:25704885

  12. A human gallbladder adenocarcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Johzaki, H; Iwasaki, H; Nishida, T; Isayama, T; Kikuchi, M

    1989-12-01

    A cell strain (FU-GBC-1) was established from cancerous ascites of a 68-year-old male patient with well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder. By light and electron microscopy, the cultured cells showed the morphologic features of adenocarcinoma characterized by gland-like structures, intracellular microcystic spaces, and mucous production. Immunoperoxidase stains showed that FU-GBC-1 cells expressed several epithelial tumor antigens including CA 19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). The cell strain has been in continuous culture up to passage 44 for 1 1/2 years, with the population doubling time of 120 hours. The cytogenetic analysis by a G-band technique showed a constant loss of chromosome Y in FU-GBC-1 cells. The modal chromosome number at passage 12 was 82 with a range of 77 to 85. Flow cytometry with an ethidium bromide technique additionally confirmed aneuploid DNA content (4C) in the cultured cells at passage 12 and 35. Inoculation of FU-GBC-1 cells into the dermis of BALB/c nude mice produced transplantable adenocarcinoma identical to the original tumor. Because no continuous cell lines of the well-differentiated type of gallbladder adenocarcinoma have been reported in the literature currently, the newly established cell strain we report may yield a useful system for studying the morphologic and biologic characteristics of gallbladder adenocarcinoma. PMID:2680052

  13. Induction of apoptosis in colon cancer cells by a novel topoisomerase I inhibitor TopIn.

    PubMed

    Bae, Soo Kyung; Gwak, Jungsug; Song, Im-Sook; Park, Hyung-Soon; Oh, Sangtaek

    2011-05-27

    The tumor suppressor p53 plays an important role in cellular emergency mechanisms through regulating the genes involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. To identify small molecules that can activate p53-responsive transcription, we performed chemical screening using genetically engineered HCT116 reporter cells. We found that TopIn (7-phenyl-6H-[1,2,5]oxadiazolo[3,4-e]indole 3-oxide) efficiently activated p53-mediated transcriptional activity and induced phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15, thereby stabilizing the p53 protein. Furthermore, TopIn upregulated the expression of p21(WAF1/CIP1), a downstream target of p53, and suppressed cellular proliferation in various colon cancer cells. Additionally, TopIn induced DNA fragmentation, caspase-3/7 activation and poly ADP ribose polymerase cleavage, typical biochemical markers of apoptosis, in p53 wild-type and mutated colon cancer cells. Finally, we found that TopIn inhibited topoisomerase I activity, but not topoisomerase II, in vitro and induced the formation of the topoisomerase I-DNA complex in HCT116 colon cancer cells. Unlike camptothecin (CPT) and its derivative SN38, TopIn did not affect the activity of the ATP-binding cassette transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) or multidrug-resistant protein-1 (MDR-1). These results suggest that TopIn may present a promising new topoisomerase I-targeting anti-tumor therapeutics. PMID:21549095

  14. Cinnamaldehyde affects the biological behavior of human colorectal cancer cells and induces apoptosis via inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiepin; Teng, Yuhao; Liu, Shenlin; Wang, Zifan; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Yingying; Xi, Songyang; Xu, Song; Wang, Ruiping; Zou, Xi

    2016-03-01

    Cinnamaldehyde (CA) is a bioactive compound isolated from the stem bark of Cinnamomum cassia, that has been identified as an antiproliferative substance with pro-apoptotic effects on various cancer cell lines in vitro. In the present study, the effects of CA on human colon cancer cells were investigated at both the molecular and cellular levels. Three types of colorectal cancer cells at various stages of differentiation and invasive ability (SW480, HCT116 and LoVo) were treated with CA at final concentrations of 20, 40 and 80 µg/ml for 24 h. Compared with the control group, the proliferation inhibition rate of the human colorectal cancer cells following treatment with CA increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The invasion and adhesion abilities of the cells were significantly inhibited as indicated by Transwell and cell-matrix adhesion assays. Meanwhile, CA also upregulated the expression of E-cadherin and downregulated the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9. CA also elevated the apoptotic rate. The levels of pro-apoptotic genes were upregulated while the levels of apoptosis inhibitory genes were decreased which further confirmed the pro-apoptotic effect of CA. In order to explore the mechanism of CA-induced apoptosis, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) were used to regulate the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. The transcription activity of PI3K/AKT was markedly inhibited by CA, as well as IGF-1 which functions as an anti-apoptotic factor. In conclusion, CA has the potential to be developed as a new antitumor drug. The mechanisms of action involve the regulation of expression of genes involved in apoptosis, invasion and adhesion via inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. PMID:26677144

  15. Effect of Heat-Inactivated Clostridium sporogenes and Its Conditioned Media on 3-Dimensional Colorectal Cancer Cell Models.

    PubMed

    Bhave, Madhura Satish; Hassanbhai, Ammar Mansoor; Anand, Padmaja; Luo, Kathy Qian; Teoh, Swee Hin

    2015-01-01

    Traditional cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy continue to have limited efficacy due to tumor hypoxia. While bacterial cancer therapy has the potential to overcome this problem, it comes with the risk of toxicity and infection. To circumvent these issues, this paper investigates the anti-tumor effects of non-viable bacterial derivatives of Clostridium sporogenes. These non-viable derivatives are heat-inactivated C. sporogenes bacteria (IB) and the secreted bacterial proteins in culture media, known as conditioned media (CM). In this project, the effects of IB and CM on CT26 and HCT116 colorectal cancer cells were examined on a 2-Dimensional (2D) and 3-Dimensional (3D) platform. IB significantly inhibited cell proliferation of CT26 to 6.3% of the control in 72 hours for the 2D monolayer culture. In the 3D spheroid culture, cell proliferation of HCT116 spheroids notably dropped to 26.2%. Similarly the CM also remarkably reduced the cell-proliferation of the CT26 cells to 2.4% and 20% in the 2D and 3D models, respectively. Interestingly the effect of boiled conditioned media (BCM) on the cells in the 3D model was less inhibitory than that of CM. Thus, the inhibitive effect of inactivated C. sporogenes and its conditioned media on colorectal cancer cells is established. PMID:26507312

  16. Effect of Heat-Inactivated Clostridium sporogenes and Its Conditioned Media on 3-Dimensional Colorectal Cancer Cell Models

    PubMed Central

    Bhave, Madhura Satish; Hassanbhai, Ammar Mansoor; Anand, Padmaja; Luo, Kathy Qian; Teoh, Swee Hin

    2015-01-01

    Traditional cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy continue to have limited efficacy due to tumor hypoxia. While bacterial cancer therapy has the potential to overcome this problem, it comes with the risk of toxicity and infection. To circumvent these issues, this paper investigates the anti-tumor effects of non-viable bacterial derivatives of Clostridium sporogenes. These non-viable derivatives are heat-inactivated C. sporogenes bacteria (IB) and the secreted bacterial proteins in culture media, known as conditioned media (CM). In this project, the effects of IB and CM on CT26 and HCT116 colorectal cancer cells were examined on a 2-Dimensional (2D) and 3-Dimensional (3D) platform. IB significantly inhibited cell proliferation of CT26 to 6.3% of the control in 72 hours for the 2D monolayer culture. In the 3D spheroid culture, cell proliferation of HCT116 spheroids notably dropped to 26.2%. Similarly the CM also remarkably reduced the cell-proliferation of the CT26 cells to 2.4% and 20% in the 2D and 3D models, respectively. Interestingly the effect of boiled conditioned media (BCM) on the cells in the 3D model was less inhibitory than that of CM. Thus, the inhibitive effect of inactivated C. sporogenes and its conditioned media on colorectal cancer cells is established. PMID:26507312

  17. Depletion of histone N-terminal-acetyltransferase Naa40 induces p53-independent apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells via the mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Pavlou, Demetria; Kirmizis, Antonis

    2016-03-01

    Protein N-terminal acetylation is an abundant post-translational modification in eukaryotes implicated in various fundamental cellular and biochemical processes. This modification is catalysed by evolutionarily conserved N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs) whose deregulation has been linked to cancer development and thus, are emerging as useful diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Naa40 is a highly selective NAT that acetylates the amino-termini of histones H4 and H2A and acts as a sensor of cell growth in yeast. In the present study, we examine the role of Naa40 in cancer cell survival. We demonstrate that depletion of Naa40 in HCT116 and HT-29 colorectal cancer cells decreases cell survival by enhancing apoptosis, whereas Naa40 reduction in non-cancerous mouse embryonic fibroblasts has no effect on cell viability. Specifically, Naa40 knockdown in colon cancer cells activates the mitochondrial caspase-9-mediated apoptotic cascade. Consistent with this, we show that caspase-9 activation is required for the induced apoptosis because treatment of cells with an irreversible caspase-9 inhibitor impedes apoptosis when Naa40 is depleted. Furthermore, the effect of Naa40-depletion on cell-death is mediated through a p53-independent mechanism since p53-null HCT116 cells still undergo apoptosis upon reduction of the acetyltransferase. Altogether, these findings reveal an anti-apoptotic role for Naa40 and exhibit its potential as a therapeutic target in colorectal cancers. PMID:26666750

  18. Covalent coupling of gum arabic onto superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for MRI cell labeling: physicochemical and in vitro characterization.

    PubMed

    Palma, Susana I C J; Carvalho, Alexandra; Silva, Joana; Martins, Pedro; Marciello, Marzia; Fernandes, Alexandra R; del Puerto Morales, Maria; Roque, Ana C A

    2015-01-01

    Gum arabic (GA) is a hydrophilic composite polysaccharide derived from exudates of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal trees. It is biocompatible, possesses emulsifying and stabilizing properties and has been explored as coating agent of nanomaterials for biomedical applications, namely magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Previous studies focused on the adsorption of GA onto MNPs produced by co-precipitation methods. In this work, MNPs produced by a thermal decomposition method, known to produce uniform particles with better crystalline properties, were used for the covalent coupling of GA through its free amine groups, which increases the stability of the coating layer. The MNPs were produced by thermal decomposition of Fe(acac)3 in organic solvent and, after ligand-exchange with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), GA coating was achieved by the establishment of a covalent bond between DMSA and GA moieties. Clusters of several magnetic cores entrapped in a shell of GA were obtained, with good colloidal stability and promising magnetic relaxation properties (r2 /r1 ratio of 350). HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cell line was used for in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation and cell-labeling efficiency studies. We show that, upon administration at the respective IC50 , GA coating enhances MNP cellular uptake by 19 times compared to particles bearing only DMSA moieties. Accordingly, in vitro MR images of cells incubated with increasing concentrations of GA-coated MNP present dose-dependent contrast enhancement. The obtained results suggest that the GA magnetic nanosystem could be used as a MRI contrast agent for cell-labeling applications. PMID:25766788

  19. SCD1 Inhibition Causes Cancer Cell Death by Depleting Mono-Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Paul; Liang, Beirong; Li, Lingyun; Fremgen, Trisha; Murphy, Erin; Quinn, Angela; Madden, Stephen L.; Biemann, Hans-Peter; Wang, Bing; Cohen, Aharon; Komarnitsky, Svetlana; Jancsics, Kate; Hirth, Brad; Cooper, Christopher G. F.; Lee, Edward; Wilson, Sean; Krumbholz, Roy; Schmid, Steven; Xiang, Yibin; Booker, Michael; Lillie, James; Carter, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Increased metabolism is a requirement for tumor cell proliferation. To understand the dependence of tumor cells on fatty acid metabolism, we evaluated various nodes of the fatty acid synthesis pathway. Using RNAi we have demonstrated that depletion of fatty-acid synthesis pathway enzymes SCD1, FASN, or ACC1 in HCT116 colon cancer cells results in cytotoxicity that is reversible by addition of exogenous fatty acids. This conditional phenotype is most pronounced when SCD1 is depleted. We used this fatty-acid rescue strategy to characterize several small-molecule inhibitors of fatty acid synthesis, including identification of TOFA as a potent SCD1 inhibitor, representing a previously undescribed activity for this compound. Reference FASN and ACC inhibitors show cytotoxicity that is less pronounced than that of TOFA, and fatty-acid rescue profiles consistent with their proposed enzyme targets. Two reference SCD1 inhibitors show low-nanomolar cytotoxicity that is offset by at least two orders of magnitude by exogenous oleate. One of these inhibitors slows growth of HCT116 xenograft tumors. Our data outline an effective strategy for interrogation of on-mechanism potency and pathway-node-specificity of fatty acid synthesis inhibitors, establish an unambiguous link between fatty acid synthesis and cancer cell survival, and point toward SCD1 as a key target in this pathway. PMID:22457791

  20. Impacts of CD44 knockdown in cancer cells on tumor and host metabolic systems revealed by quantitative imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ohmura, Mitsuyo; Hishiki, Takako; Yamamoto, Takehiro; Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi; Kubo, Akiko; Tsuchihashi, Kenji; Tamada, Mayumi; Toue, Sakino; Kabe, Yasuaki; Saya, Hideyuki; Suematsu, Makoto

    2015-04-30

    CD44 expressed in cancer cells was shown to stabilize cystine transporter (xCT) that uptakes cystine and excretes glutamate to supply cysteine as a substrate for reduced glutathione (GSH) for survival. While targeting CD44 serves as a potentially therapeutic stratagem to attack cancer growth and chemoresistance, the impact of CD44 targeting in cancer cells on metabolic systems of tumors and host tissues in vivo remains to be fully determined. This study aimed to reveal effects of CD44 silencing on alterations in energy metabolism and sulfur-containing metabolites in vitro and in vivo using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry and quantitative imaging mass spectrometry (Q-IMS), respectively. In an experimental model of xenograft transplantation of human colon cancer HCT116 cells in superimmunodeficient NOG mice, snap-frozen liver tissues containing metastatic tumors were examined by Q-IMS. As reported previously, short hairpin CD44 RNA interference (shCD44) in cancer cells caused significant regression of tumor growth in the host liver. Under these circumstances, the CD44 knockdown suppressed polyamines, GSH and energy charges not only in metastatic tumors but also in the host liver. In culture, HCT116 cells treated with shCD44 decreased total amounts of methionine-pool metabolites including spermidine and spermine, and reactive cysteine persulfides, suggesting roles of these metabolites for cancer growth. Collectively, these results suggest that CD44 expressed in cancer accounts for a key regulator of metabolic interplay between tumor and the host tissue. PMID:25461272

  1. Hollow fibre cell fishing with high performance liquid chromatography for screening bioactive anthraquinones from traditional Chinese medicines.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yunyan; Hao, Yaomei; Hu, Shuang; Chen, Xuan; Bai, Xiaohong

    2013-12-27

    Hollow fibre cell fishing with high performance liquid chromatography (HFCF-HPLC) is a newly developed method used to screen and fish bioactive compounds in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). In the study, colorectal cancer cell HCT116 was first seeded in a hollow fibre and used for screening and fishing active compounds from TCMs. The surface properties of the hollow fibre seeded with HCT116 cells, the non-specific binding between active centres in the fibre and the target compounds, the cell survival rate under different conditions before and after screening, the repeatability and recovery of HFCF-HPLC were investigated in detail. The cell fishing factor of active compound was defined in HFCF-HPLC. We employed HFCF-HPLC to screen and fish anthraquinones active compounds group from extracts of Polygonum cuspidatum, Cecropia obtusifolia L. and Polygoni multiflori radix praeparata. Some of the anthraquinones structures screened from TCMs were identified by comparing to the retention time of the reference substances confirmed by mass spectrometry. The ability of permeable membrane of anthraquinones screened by HFCF-HPLC was further described. Indomethacin was used as the positive control substance. Results demonstrated that HFCF-HPLC is an effective, stable and reliable method to screen and analyse bioactive compounds. Other bioactive compounds from TCMs could also be screened. PMID:24275485

  2. Antiproliferative activity of New Zealand propolis and phenolic compounds vs human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Catchpole, Owen; Mitchell, Kevin; Bloor, Stephen; Davis, Paul; Suddes, Amanda

    2015-10-01

    New Zealand propolis is a "European" type propolis obtained by honey bees mainly from exudates of poplar. European type propolis is known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties and this activity has been attributed to some of the main constituents such as chrysin and CAPE (caffeic acid phenethyl ester). As part of our studies on how New Zealand propolis might benefit gastro-intestinal health, we carried out in vitro bioactivity-guided fractionation of "Bio30" propolis using both anti-inflammatory (TNF-?, COX-1, COX-2) and anti-colon cancer (DLD-1 colon cancer cell viability) assays; and determined the phenolic compounds responsible for the activity. The New Zealand wax-free Bio30 propolis tincture solids had very high levels of the dihydroflavonoids pinocembrin and pinobanksin-3-O-acetate, and high levels of the dimethylallyl, benzyl and 3-methyl-3-butenyl caffeates relative to CAPE. The DLD-1 assays identified strong anti-proliferative activity associated with these components as well as chrysin, galangin and CAPE and a number of lesser known or lower concentration compounds including benzyl ferulate, benzyl isoferulate, pinostrobin, 5-phenylpenta-2,4-dienoic acid and tectochrysin. The phenolic compounds pinocembrin, pinobanksin-3-O-acetate, tectochrysin, dimethylallyl caffeate, 3-methyl-3-butenyl caffeate, benzyl ferulate and benzyl isoferulate also showed good broad spectrum activity in anti-proliferative assays against three other gastro-intestinal cancer cell lines; HCT-116 colon carcinoma, KYSE-30 oesophageal squamous cancer, and NCI-N87 gastric carcinoma. Activity is also observed in anti-inflammatory assays although it appears to be limited to one of the first cytokines in the inflammatory cascade, TNF-?. PMID:26347954

  3. Metabolomics Analysis of Metabolic Effects of Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) Inhibition on Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tolstikov, Vladimir; Nikolayev, Alexander; Dong, Sucai; Zhao, Genshi; Kuo, Ming-Shang

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) plays an important role in cellular bioenergetics. It is responsible for converting nicotinamide to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, an essential molecule in cellular metabolism. NAMPT has been extensively studied over the past decade due to its role as a key regulator of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotideconsuming enzymes. NAMPT is also known as a potential target for therapeutic intervention due to its involvement in disease. In the current study, we used a global mass spectrometrybased metabolomic approach to investigate the effects of FK866, a small molecule inhibitor of NAMPT currently in clinical trials, on metabolic perturbations in human cancer cells. We treated A2780 (ovarian cancer) and HCT-116 (colorectal cancer) cell lines with FK866 in the presence and absence of nicotinic acid. Significant changes were observed in the amino acids metabolism and the purine and pyrimidine metabolism. We also observed metabolic alterations in glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (TCA), and the pentose phosphate pathway. To expand the range of the detected polar metabolites and improve data confidence, we applied a global metabolomics profiling platform by using both non-targeted and targeted hydrophilic (HILIC)-LC-MS and GC-MS analysis. We used Ingenuity Knowledge Base to facilitate the projection of metabolomics data onto metabolic pathways. Several metabolic pathways showed differential responses to FK866 based on several matches to the list of annotated metabolites. This study suggests that global metabolomics can be a useful tool in pharmacological studies of the mechanism of action of drugs at a cellular level. PMID:25486521

  4. Mitochondria-acting hexokinase II peptides carried by short-length carbon nanotubes with increased cellular uptake, endosomal evasion, and enhanced bioactivity against cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yoong, Sia Lee; Lau, Wei Liang; Liu, Ang Yu; Prendergast, D'Arcy; Ho, Han Kiat; Yu, Victor Chun Kong; Lee, Chengkuo; Ang, Wee Han; Pastorin, Giorgia

    2015-09-01

    Type II hexokinase (HKII) has emerged as a viable therapeutic target due to its involvement in metabolic reprogramming and also apoptosis prevention. The peptide derived from the fifteen amino acid sequence in the HKII N-terminal region [HKII(pep)] can compete with endogenous proteins for binding on mitochondria and trigger apoptosis. However, this peptide is not cell-permeable. In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used to effectively deliver HKII(pep) across cellular barriers without compromising their bioactivity. The peptide was conjugated on either oxidized MWCNTs or 2,2'-(ethylenedioxy)bis(ethylamine)-functionalized MWCNTs, yielding MWCNT-HKII(pep) and MWCNT-TEG-HKII(pep), respectively. Both conjugates were shown to be internalized by breast cancer MCF-7 cells using confocal microscopy. Moreover, these nanoconjugates seemed to have escaped from endosomes and be in the vicinity of mitochondria. The WST-1 cytotoxicity assay conducted on MCF-7 and colon carcinoma HCT116 cells revealed that MWCNT-peptide conjugates were significantly more effective in curbing cancer cell growth compared to a commercially available cell permeable HKII fusion peptide. In addition, both nanoconjugates displayed an enhanced ability in eliciting apoptosis and depleting the ATP level in HCT116 cells compared to the mere HKII peptide. Importantly, hexokinase II release from mitochondria was demonstrated in MWCNT-HKII(pep) and MWCNT-TEG-HKII(pep) treated cells, highlighting that the structure and bioactivity of HKII(pep) were not compromised after covalent conjugation to MWCNTs. PMID:26219542

  5. Caudal homeobox protein Cdx-2 cooperates with Wnt pathway to regulate claudin-1 expression in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ajaz A; Sharma, Ashok; Pope, Jillian; Krishnan, Moorthy; Washington, Mary K; Singh, Amar B; Dhawan, Punita

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulation of tight junctions (TJs) is often associated with human diseases including carcinogenesis and recent studies support role of TJ integral proteins in the regulation of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). In this regard, expression of claudin-1, a key constituent of TJs, is highly increased in colon cancer and is causally associated with the tumor growth and progression. However, mechanism/s underlying regulation of claudin-1 expression in intestinal epithelial cells remains poorly understood. In our studies, we have identified putative binding sites for intestinal transcription factors Cdx1, -2 and GATA4 in the 5'-flanking region of the claudin-1 gene. Our further studies using full length and/or deletion mutant constructs in two different human colon cancer cell lines, SW480 and HCT116, showed key role of Cdx1, Cdx2 and GATA4 in the regulation of claudin-1 mRNA expression. However, overexpression of Cdx2 had the most potent effect upon claudin-1 mRNA expression and promoter activity. Also, in colon cancer patient samples, we observed a significant and parallel correlation between claudin-1 and Cdx2 expressions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay confirmed the Cdx2 binding with claudin-1 promoter in vivo. Using Cdx2 deletion mutant constructs, we further