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1

A new membrane fractionation process based on the combination of hybrid membrane cells and differential diffusion of two solutes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new membrane fractionation process based on the combination of hybrid membrane cells and differential diffusion of two solutes was studied by numerical methods. The hybrid membrane cell comprises semipermeable and fully-permeable membrane sub-sections. While the semi-permeable membranes are permeable to the solvent and impermeable to both solutes, the fully-permeable membranes are permeable to all components of the solution, including

S. I. S. Pinto; T. M. G. T. Rocha; J. M. Miranda; J. B. L. M. Campos

2009-01-01

2

AN IMPROVED CELL FRACTIONATION PROCEDURE FOR THE PREPARATION OF RAT LIVER MEMBRANE-BOUND RIBOSOMES  

PubMed Central

A cell fractionation procedure is described which allows the preparation from rat liver of a rough microsome population containing almost 50% of the membrane-bound ribosomes of the tissue. The fraction is not contaminated with free ribosomes or smooth microsomes, and, by various other criteria, is suitable for studies of ribosome-membrane interaction. PMID:4345164

Adelman, M. R.; Blobel, Gunter; Sabatini, David D.

1973-01-01

3

Comparative studies of two membrane fractions isolated from chemotrophically and phototrophically grown cells of Rhodopseudomonas capsulata.  

PubMed Central

Light and heavy membrane fractions have been isolated by equilibrium sucrose density centrifugation from Rhodopseudomonas capsulata 938 GCM grown aerobically in the dark (chemotrophically) and anaerobically in the light (phototrophically). The densities of the light and heavy fractions from phototrophic cells were 1.1004 to 1.1006 and 1.1478, respectively, and the densities of the light and heavy fractions from chemotrophic cells were 1.0957 to 1.0958 and 1.1315, respectively. Both fractions were active in photochemical and respiratory functions and in electron transport-coupled phosphorylation. The light membrane fraction isolated from chemotrophic cells contained the reaction center and the light-harvesting pigment-protein complex B 870, but not the variable light-harvesting complex B 800-850. A small amount of the complex B 800-850 was present in the light fraction isolated from phototrophically grown cells, but it was not energetically coupled to the photosynthetic apparatus. From inhibitor studies, difference spectroscopy, and measurement of enzyme activities it was tentatively concluded that the light membrane fraction contains only the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-oxidizing electron transport chain having a KCN-insensitive, low-potential cytochrome c oxidase, whereas the heavy fraction contains additionally the succinate dehydrogenase and a high-potential cytochrome b terminal oxidase sensitive to KCN. The light membrane fraction was more labile than the heavy fraction in terms of phosphorylating activity. PMID:7204341

Garcia, A F; Drews, G; Reidl, H H

1981-01-01

4

Fraction Reduction in Membrane Systems  

PubMed Central

Fraction reduction is a basic computation for rational numbers. P system is a new computing model, while the current methods for fraction reductions are not available in these systems. In this paper, we propose a method of fraction reduction and discuss how to carry it out in cell-like P systems with the membrane structure and the rules with priority designed. During the application of fraction reduction rules, synchronization is guaranteed by arranging some special objects in these rules. Our work contributes to performing the rational computation in P systems since the rational operands can be given in the form of fraction. PMID:24772037

Zhang, Hong

2014-01-01

5

Separation and characterization of red blood cells with different membrane deformability using steric field-flow fractionation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human red blood cells were treated in different ways to alter their membrane deformability, and the hydrodynamic behavior of these altered cells was studied using the steric field-flow fractionation (FFF) technique. The relationships between cell retention in the FFF channel, flow-rate of the carrier fluid and the applied field strength were studied for normal and glutaraldehyde-fixed human red cells, and

Xiaomi Tong; Karin D. Caldwell

1995-01-01

6

Detergent resistant membrane fractions are involved in calcium signaling in Müller glial cells of retina.  

PubMed

Compartmentalization of the plasma membrane into lipid microdomains promotes efficient cellular processes by increasing local molecular concentrations. Calcium signaling, either as transients or propagating waves require integration of complex macromolecular machinery. Calcium waves represent a form of intercellular signaling in the central nervous system and the retina. We hypothesized that the mechanism for calcium waves would require effector proteins to aggregate at the plasma membrane in lipid microdomains. The current study shows that in Müller glia of the retina, proteins involved in calcium signaling aggregate in detergent resistant membranes identifying rafts and respond by redistributing on stimulation. We have investigated Purinoreceptor-1 (P2Y1), Ryanodine receptor (RyR), and Phospholipase C (PLC-?1). P2Y1, RyR and PLC-?1, redistribute from caveolin-1 and flotillin-1 positive fractions on stimulation with the agonists, ATP, 2MeS-ATP and Thapsigargin, an inhibitor of sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase (SERCA). Redistribution is absent on treatment with cyclopiazonic acid, another SERCA inhibitor. Disruption of rafts by removing cholesterol cause proteins involved in this machinery to redistribute and change agonist-induced calcium signaling. Cholesterol depletion from raft lead to increase in time to peak of calcium levels in agonist-evoked calcium signals in all instances, as seen by live imaging. This study emphasizes the necessity of a sub-population of proteins to cluster in specialized lipid domains. The requirement for such an organization at the raft-like microdomains may have implications on intercellular communication in the retina. Such concerted interaction at the rafts can regulate calcium dynamics and could add another layer of complexity to calcium signaling in cells. PMID:23732110

Krishnan, Gopinath; Chatterjee, Nivedita

2013-08-01

7

Syndecans Reside in Sphingomyelin-Enriched Low-Density Fractions of the Plasma Membrane Isolated from a Parathyroid Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Background Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are one of the basic constituents of plasma membranes. Specific molecular interactions between HSPGs and a number of extracellular ligands have been reported. Mechanisms involved in controlling the localization and abundance of HSPG on specific domains on the cell surface, such as membrane rafts, could play important regulatory roles in signal transduction. Methodology/Principal Findings Using metabolic radiolabeling and sucrose-density gradient ultracentrifugation techniques, we identified [35S]sulfate-labeled macromolecules associated with detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) isolated from a rat parathyroid cell line. DRM fractions showed high specific radioactivity ([35S]sulfate/mg protein), implying the specific recruitment of HSPGs to the membrane rafts. Identity of DRM-associated [35S]sulfate-labeled molecules as HSPGs was confirmed by Western blotting with antibodies that recognize heparan sulfate (HS)-derived epitope. Analyses of core proteins by SDS-PAGE revealed bands with an apparent MW of syndecan-4 (30–33 kDa) and syndecan-1 (70 kDa) suggesting the presence of rafts with various HSPG species. DRM fractions enriched with HSPGs were characterized by high sphingomyelin content and found to only partially overlap with the fractions enriched in ganglioside GM1. HSPGs could be also detected in DRMs even after prior treatment of cells with heparitinase. Conclusions/Significance Both syndecan-1 and syndecan-4 have been found to specifically associate with membrane rafts and their association seemed independent of intact HS chains. Membrane rafts in which HSPGs reside were also enriched with sphingomyelin, suggesting their possible involvement in FGF signaling. Further studies, involving proteomic characterization of membrane domains containing HSPGs might improve our knowledge on the nature of HSPG-ligand interactions and their role in different signaling platforms. PMID:22396758

Podyma-Inoue, Katarzyna A.; Hara-Yokoyama, Miki; Shinomura, Tamayuki; Kimura, Tomoko; Yanagishita, Masaki

2012-01-01

8

Fractionation of subcellular membrane vesicles of epithelial and non-epithelial cells by OptiPrep™ density gradient ultracentrifugation.  

PubMed

Density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGUC) is widely used for physical isolation (enrichment rather than purification) of subcellular membrane vesicles. It has been a valuable tool to study specific subcellular localization and dynamic trafficking of proteins. While sucrose has been the main component of density gradients, several years ago, synthetic OptiPrep™ (iodixanol) began being used for separation of organelles due to its iso-osmotic property. Here, we describe a detailed protocol for density gradient fractionation of various mammalian subcellular vesicles, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, endosomes, and lipid rafts, as well as apical and basolateral membranes of polarized epithelial cells. PMID:24947376

Li, Xuhang; Donowitz, Mark

2014-01-01

9

Cytochromes of Acetobacter pasteurianus NCIB 6428: Reaction with oxygen of cytochrome o in cells, membranes, and nonsedimentable subcellular fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytochromeo ofAcetobacter pasteurianus NCIB 6428, grown with either vigorous or limiting aeration, was located in both membranes and a fraction nonsedimentable by centrifugation (13.5×106g min) of a French press extract. In oxygen-limited cells, the reaction with oxygen of the oxidase at low temperatures resembled that inEscherichia coli with respect to the spectrum and formation kinetics of an oxygenated intermediate. Both

Huw D. Williams; Robert K. Poole

1988-01-01

10

Calcium translocation across the hen oviduct shell gland: subcellular fractionation of the epithelial cells and calcium transport studies with isolated membrane populations  

SciTech Connect

An attempt was made to develop methods for studying calcium transport in vitro using isolated membrane populations from the epithelium of the hen shell gland. First, subcellular components of the epithelial cells were fractionated by isopycnic centrifugation on sucrose density gradients and subsequent countercurrent distribution in aqueous polymer two-phase systems. Four membrane populations were identified based on the assignment of traditional enzyme markers; three contained primarily either endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi or basolateral cell membranes. Apical cell membranes could not be unequivocally assigned to the fourth membrane population. Microautoradiography of radioiodinated shell gland sections indicated a preferential, but not absolute, specificity of /sup 125/I for the epithelial cell apical membrane. Next, calcium transport by these isolated membrane fractions was investigated, calcium accumulation was dependent on time, temperature, ATP and the absence of the calcium ionophore A23187, strongly suggesting uptake into intact membrane vesicles.

Brown, T.A.

1987-01-01

11

Subcellular fractionation of midgut cells of the sunn pest Eurygaster integriceps (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae): enzyme markers of microvillar and perimicrovillar membranes.  

PubMed

The subcellular distributions of six digestive and non-digestive enzymes (alpha-glucosidase, beta-glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, aminopeptidase and lactate dehydrogenase) of Eurygaster integriceps have been studied. The subcellular distributions of acid phosphatase and alpha-glucosidase are similar and the gradient ultracentrifugation profiles of these two enzymes overlap. Two partially membrane-bound enzymes, alkaline phosphatase and beta-glucosidase have similar distributions in differential centrifugation fractions, which are different from that of alpha-glucosidase. Sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation of membranes from luminal contents showed that beta-glucosidase carrying membranes are heavier. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed that the profile of proteins extracted from beta-glucosidase carrying membranes is different from that of alpha-glucosidase carrying membranes. We conclude that beta-glucosidase and aminopeptidase are markers of microvillar membrane (MM) and perimicrovillar space, respectively, while alpha-glucosidase and acid phosphatase are perimicrovillar markers. In E. integriceps V1 luminal content is a rich source of PMM and MM and that is used to resolve these membranes. PMID:20035764

Allahyari, M; Bandani, A R; Habibi-Rezaei, M

2010-07-01

12

A novel regulatory mechanism for trimeric GTP-binding proteins in the membrane and secretory granule fractions of human and rodent beta cells.  

PubMed Central

Recently we described roles for heterotrimeric and low-molecular-mass GTP-binding proteins in insulin release from normal rat islets. During these studies, we observed that a protein with an apparent molecular mass (37 kDa) similar to that of the beta subunit of trimeric GTP-binding proteins underwent phosphorylation in each of five classes of insulin-secreting cells. Incubation of the beta cell total membrane fraction or the isolated secretory granule fraction (but not the cytosolic fraction) with [gamma-32P]ATP or [gamma-32P]GTP resulted in the phosphorylation of this protein, which was selectively immunoprecipitated by an anti-serum directed against the common beta subunit of trimeric G-proteins. Disruption of the alpha beta gamma trimer (by pretreatment with either fluoroaluminate or guanosine 5'(-)[gamma-thio]triphosphate) prevented beta subunit phosphorylation. Based on differential sensitivities to pH, heat and the histidine-selective reagent diethyl pyrocarbonate (and reversal of the latter by hydroxylamine), the phosphorylated amino acid was presumptively identified as histidine. Incubation of pure beta subunit alone or in combination with the exogenous purified alpha subunit of transducin did not result in the phosphorylation of the beta subunit, but addition of the islet cell membrane fraction did support this event, suggesting that membrane localization (or a membrane-associated factor) is required for beta subunit phosphorylation. Incubation of phosphorylated beta subunit with G alpha.GDP accelerated the dephosphorylation of the beta subunit, accompanied by the formation of G alpha-GTP. Immunoblotting detected multiple alpha subunits (of Gi, G(o) and Gq) and at least one beta subunit in the secretory granule fraction of normal rat islets and insulinoma cells. These data describe a potential alternative mechanism for the activation of GTP-binding proteins in beta cells which contrasts with the classical receptor-agonist mechanism: G beta undergoes transient phosphorylation at a histidine residue by a GTP-specific protein kinase; this phosphate, in turn, may be transferred via a classical Ping-Pong mechanism to G alpha.GDP (inactive), yielding the active configuration G alpha.GTP in secretory granules (a strategic location to modulate exocytosis). PMID:8546716

Kowluru, A; Seavey, S E; Rhodes, C J; Metz, S A

1996-01-01

13

Composite fuel cell membranes  

DOEpatents

A bilayer or trilayer composite ion exchange membrane is described suitable for use in a fuel cell. The composite membrane has a high equivalent weight thick layer in order to provide sufficient strength and low equivalent weight surface layers for improved electrical performance in a fuel cell. In use, the composite membrane is provided with electrode surface layers. The composite membrane can be composed of a sulfonic fluoropolymer in both core and surface layers.

Plowman, K.R.; Rehg, T.J.; Davis, L.W.; Carl, W.P.; Cisar, A.J.; Eastland, C.S.

1997-08-05

14

Composite fuel cell membranes  

DOEpatents

A bilayer or trilayer composite ion exchange membrane suitable for use in a fuel cell. The composite membrane has a high equivalent weight thick layer in order to provide sufficient strength and low equivalent weight surface layers for improved electrical performance in a fuel cell. In use, the composite membrane is provided with electrode surface layers. The composite membrane can be composed of a sulfonic fluoropolymer in both core and surface layers.

Plowman, Keith R. (Lake Jackson, TX); Rehg, Timothy J. (Lake Jackson, TX); Davis, Larry W. (West Columbia, TX); Carl, William P. (Marble Falls, TX); Cisar, Alan J. (Cypress, TX); Eastland, Charles S. (West Columbia, TX)

1997-01-01

15

Plant cell membranes  

SciTech Connect

The contents of this book are: Cells, Protoplasts, Vacuoles and Liposomes; Tonoplasts; Nuclei, Endolplasmic Reticulum, and Plasma Membrane; Peroxisomes; Plastids; Teneral Physical and Biochemical Methods; and Mitochondira.

Packer, L.; Douce, R.

1987-01-01

16

Interaction between the electric and concentration fields in the fractionation of two macromolecules using a Hybrid Membrane Cell – CFD study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The numerical study of membrane separation processes with electric interactions requires the simultaneous solution of Poisson-Boltzmann, Navier-Stokes and Nernst-Planck equations. A numerical method was developed, and implemented, to deal with the coupling between the electric field, the flow field and the concentration fields of the ionic species in solution. The numerical method was validated supposing limit conditions: a-for a binary

Sónia Isabel Silva Pinto; João Mário Miranda; João Bernardo Lares Moreira de Campos

2011-01-01

17

Electroporation of cell membranes.  

PubMed Central

Electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of duration in microseconds to milliseconds cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of cell membranes, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA. A generally accepted term describing this phenomenon is "electroporation." Other effects of a high-intensity electric field on cell membranes include membrane fusions, bleb formation, cell lysis... etc. Electroporation and its related phenomena reflect the basic bioelectrochemistry of cell membranes and are thus important for the study of membrane structure and function. These phenomena also occur in such events as electric injury, electrocution, and cardiac procedures involving electric shocks. Electroporation has found applications in: (a) introduction of plasmids or foreign DNA into living cells for gene transfections, (b) fusion of cells to prepare heterokaryons, hybridoma, hybrid embryos... etc., (c) insertion of proteins into cell membranes, (d) improving drug delivery and hence effectiveness in chemotherapy of cancerous cells, (e) constructing animal model by fusing human cells with animal tissues, (f) activation of membrane transporters and enzymes, and (g) alteration of genetic expression in living cells. A brief review of mechanistic studies of electroporation is given. PMID:1912274

Tsong, T Y

1991-01-01

18

Detecting Microdomains in Intact Cell Membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current models for cellular plasma membranes focus on spatial heterogeneity and how this heterogeneity relates to cell function. In particular, putative lipid raft membrane domains have been postulated to exist based in large part on the results that a significant fraction of the membrane is detergent insoluble and that molecules facilitating key membrane processes like signal transduction are often found in the detergent-resistant membrane fraction. Yet, the in vivo existence of lipid rafts remains extremely controversial because, despite being sought for more than a decade, evidence for their presence in intact cell membranes is inconclusive. In this review, a variety of experimental techniques that have been or might be used to look for lipid microdomains in intact cell membranes are described. Experimental results are highlighted and the strengths and limitations of different techniques for microdomain identification and characterization are assessed.

Lagerholm, B. Christoffer; Weinreb, Gabriel E.; Jacobson, Ken; Thompson, Nancy L.

2005-05-01

19

Hepatic Golgi fractions resolved into membrane and content subfractions  

PubMed Central

Golgi fractions isolated from rat liver homogenates have been resolved into membrane and content subfractions by treatment with 100 mM Na2CO3 pH 11.3. This procedure permitted extensive extraction of content proteins and lipoproteins, presumably because it caused an alteration of Golgi membranes that minimized the reformation of closed vesicles. The type and degree of contamination of the fractions was assessed by electron microscopy and biochemical assays. The membrane subfraction retained 15% of content proteins and lipids, and these could not be removed by various washing procedures. The content subfraction was contaminated by both membrane fragments and vesicles and accounted for 5 to 10% of the membrane enzyme activities of the original Golgi fraction. The lipid compositions of the subfractions was determined, and the phospholipids of both membrane and content were found to be uniformly labeled with [33P]phosphate administered in vivo. PMID:6282895

1982-01-01

20

Cell Membranes Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

New from The Biology Project of the University of Arizona, this online tutorial "introduces the dynamic complexes of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids that comprise cell membranes," and relates how membranes "are important for regulating ion and molecular traffic flow between cells." Each section of this Web site takes the form of a multiple choice question. Answer the question correctly, and a brief explanation of each answer choice will be displayed. Answer the question incorrectly, and a short but helpful tutorial with colorful diagrams will help get you on the right track. This would be an valuable Web site for students wishing to test themselves on cell membrane structure and function, but would not be especially useful for those new to the subject.

2002-01-01

21

Cell Membranes Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

New from The Biology Project of the University of Arizona, this online tutorial introduces the dynamic complexes of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids that comprise cell membranes, and relates how membranes are important for regulating ion and molecular traffic flow between cells. Each section of this Web site takes the form of a multiple choice question. Answer the question correctly, and a brief explanation of each answer choice will be displayed. Answer the question incorrectly, and a short but helpful tutorial with colorful diagrams will help get you on the right track. This would be an valuable Web site for students wishing to test themselves on cell membrane structure and function, but would not be especially useful for those new to the subject.

2002-01-01

22

Inhibition of Adenosine Triphosphatase Activity from a Plasma Membrane Fraction of Acer pseudoplatanus Cells by 2,2,2-Trichloroethyl 3,4-Dichlorocarbanilate 12  

PubMed Central

2,2,2-Trichloroethyl 3,4-dichlorocarbanilate (SW26) is toxic for Acer pseudoplatanus cell cultures. It inhibited the cellular proton extrusion and depolarized the plasmalemma. In vitro, it inhibited the plasma membrane ATPase. SW 26 was also inhibitory to membrane ATPases of other origins—plant (maize shoot), fungus (Schizosaccharomyces pombe), and animal (dog kidney)—with about the same efficiency (7.5 micromolar < I50 < 22 micromolar). It did not inhibit the oligomycin-sensitive ATPase from purified plant mitochondria, nor molybdate-sensitive soluble phosphatases. SW26 was more specific for plasma membrane ATPases than diethylstilbestrol or vanadate. A Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis showed that inhibition kinetics were purely noncompetitive (Ki = 14.7 micromolar) below 20 micromolar. Above this concentration, the inhibition pattern was not consistent with Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and a Hill plot representation revealed a positive cooperativity. PMID:16664702

Blein, Jean-Pierre; de Cherade, Xavier; Bergon, Michel; Calmon, Jean-Pierre; Scalla, René

1986-01-01

23

Dielectrophoretic fluidic cell fractionation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development and experimental verification of a DEP fluidic system capable of fractionation of intact biological cells in suspension into purer subpopulations. This was accomplished by employing a specially shaped nonuniform electric field, synthesized by microfabricated planar microelectrode arrays, housed on an insulating glass substrate. To improve the efficiency of cell sorting, the microelectrodes are individually biased

Youlan Li; Karan V. I. S. Kaler

2004-01-01

24

Stress proteins in the cytoplasmic membrane fraction of Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed

Stress proteomes of the cytoplasmic membrane fraction of Bacillus subtilis trp (C2)-exposed to acid pH and ethanol were characterized. Although these stress factors impair the cell function in a specific manner, they share the ability to denature proteins. Therefore, specific and general stress proteins in the membranes were investigated. Both ethanol (3 %) and pH 5.0 increase the doubling time from 17 to 25 min. Isolated cytoplasmic membranes were subjected to an optimized 2D PAGE analysis which permitted the separation and analysis of ?450 distinct protein spots. Two alternative methods of protein detection were compared, i.e. silver staining and (35)S-L-methionine pulse labeling; the stress induced proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. After ethanol stress, five proteins were increased, viz. YdaP, Ctc, YfhM, YjcH and YwaC. Acid stress proteins were AcoB, YkwC, SodA, YjcH and YwaC. Proteins YjcH and YwaC were increased after ethanol as well as acid pH treatment. PMID:20941576

Petrá?ková, D; Semberová, L; Halada, P; Svoboda, P; Svobodová, J

2010-09-01

25

Cell Membrane Color Sheet and Build a Cell Membrane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students color-code a schematic of a cell and its cell membrane structures. Then they complete the "Build-a-Membrane" activity found at http://learn.genetics.utah.edu. This reinforces their understanding of the structure and function of animal cells, and shows them the importance of being able to construct a tangible model of something that is otherwise difficult to see.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program

26

Modulation of membrane composition of swine vascular smooth muscle cells by homologous lipoproteins in culture.  

PubMed

Swine vascular smooth muscle cells were exposed to homologous low-density or high-density lipoprotein fractions for 24 h. Total cell membranes were isolated from the post-nuclear supernatant of the cell homogenates, fractionated by sucrose denisty gradient centrifugation and characterized by enzyme assays. The membrane fraction with the lowest density was enriched in plasma membrane marker enzymes. Cholesterol analysis showed that cells exposed to low-density lipoprotein had higher cholesterol-to-protein ratios in total cells, total cell membranes and individual membrane fractions than had the cells exposed to high-density lipoproteins. Cholesterol-to-phospholipid ratios of the plasma membrane-enriched fraction from cells exposed to low-density lipoprotein were higher than the same membrane fraction of cells exposed to high-density lipoprotein. Studies with iodinated lipoproteins showed that these compositional changes could not be due to lipoprotein contamination. Membrane microviscosity was determined by fluorescence depolarization with diphenylhextriene and the microviscosity of the plasma membrane-enriched fraction was different in the cells exposed to the two different lipoprotein fractions. This difference in membrane microviscosity was significant only when the medium cholesterol content was 40 micrograms per ml or greater; cells exposed to low-density lipoprotein gave membranes with higher microviscosity. These results demonstrate that the properties of vascular smooth muscle cell membranes are influcenced by exposure of the cells to homologous lipoprotein fractions. PMID:7407139

Kuehl, K S; Yeroushalmy, S; Holloway, P W

1980-08-14

27

Origin of subdiffusion of water molecules on cell membrane surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water molecules play an important role in providing unique environments for biological reactions on cell membranes. It is widely believed that water molecules form bridges that connect lipid molecules and stabilize cell membranes. Using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we show that translational and rotational diffusion of water molecules on lipid membrane surfaces exhibit subdiffusion and aging. Moreover, we provide evidence that both divergent mean trapping time (continuous-time random walk) and long-correlated noise (fractional Brownian motion) contribute to this subdiffusion. These results suggest that subdiffusion on cell membranes causes the water retardation, an enhancement of cell membrane stability, and a higher reaction efficiency.

Yamamoto, Eiji; Akimoto, Takuma; Yasui, Masato; Yasuoka, Kenji

2014-04-01

28

Origin of subdiffusion of water molecules on cell membrane surfaces  

E-print Network

Water molecules play an important role in providing unique environments for biological reactions on cell membranes. It is widely believed that water molecules form bridges that connect lipid molecules and stabilize cell membranes. Using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we show that translational and rotational diffusion of water molecules on lipid membrane surfaces exhibit subdiffusion. Moreover, we provide evidence that both divergent mean trapping time (continuous-time random walk) and long-correlated noise (fractional Brownian motion) contribute to this subdiffusion. These results suggest that subdiffusion on cell membranes causes the water retardation, an enhancement of cell membrane stability, and a higher reaction efficiency.

Yamamoto, Eiji; Yasui, Masato; Yasuoka, Kenji

2014-01-01

29

A vacuolar-type proton pump in a vesicle fraction enriched with potassium transporting plasma membranes from tobacco hornworm midgut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mg-ATP dependent electrogenic proton transport, monitored with fluorescent acridine orange, 9-aminoacridine, and oxonol V, was investigated in a fraction enriched with potassium transporting goblet cell apical membranes of Manduca sexta larval midgut. Proton transport and the ATPase activity from the goblet cell apical membrane exhibited similar substrate specificity and inhibitor sensitivity. ATP and GTP were far better substrates than UTP,

H. Wieczorek; S. Weerth; M. Schindlbeck; U. Klein

1989-01-01

30

Membrane Compartmentation Is Required for Efficient T Cell Activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma membrane of mammalian cells contains detergent-resistant membrane rafts enriched in glycosphingolipids and cholesterol. Although several important signaling molecules have been found in such rafts, evidence documenting a functional role for their localization has been scarce. Using a fractionation scheme that preserves tyrosine phosphorylation, we show that T cell activation leads to a striking compartmentation in the rafts of

Ramnik Xavier; Todd Brennan; Qingqin Li; Christine McCormack; Brian Seed

1998-01-01

31

Radiation effects on cell membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The recent developments in the field of membrane biology of eukaryotic cells result in revival of relevant radiobiological studies. The spatial relations and chemical nature of membrane components provide rather sensitive targets. Experimental data are presented concerning the effects of relatively low doses of X-irradiation and low concentration of tritiated water (HTO) on variou receptor function - concanavalin A,

G. J. Köteles

1982-01-01

32

Identifying polyvinylidene fluoride ultrafiltration membrane fouling behavior of different effluent organic matter fractions using colloidal probes.  

PubMed

The interaction forces between effluent organic matter (EfOM) fractions and membrane were measured by atomic force microscopy in conjunction with self-made membrane material colloidal probes. The inter-EfOM-fraction and intra-EfOM-fraction interactions were investigated using corresponding EfOM-fraction-coated colloidal probe. We combined this analysis with corresponding fouling experiments to identify the EfOM fractions responsible for polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) ultrafiltration membrane fouling. Results show that hydrophilic and hydrophobic fractions were the dominant fractions responsible for membrane fouling and flux decline in the initial and later filtration stages, respectively, which was mainly attributed to the stronger PVDF-hydrophilic fraction and intra-hydrophobic-fraction interaction forces. This phenomenon, in conjunction with the fact that each interaction force of PVDF-EfOM fraction was stronger than corresponding intra-EfOM-fraction force, suggests that the elimination of the PVDF-hydrophilic fraction interaction force is the best strategy for controlling EfOM fouling. Moreover, the inter-EfOM-fraction interaction force was mainly controlled by the corresponding intra-EfOM-fraction interaction forces. And, while the membrane-EfOM fraction and intra-EfOM-fraction interactions for each type of EfOM fraction are equivalent, the EfOM fractions with the molecular weight smaller than the molecular weight cutoff of the membranes used were mainly responsible for membrane fouling rather than the relatively high-molecular-weight fractions. PMID:24631880

Miao, Rui; Wang, Lei; Lv, Yongtao; Wang, Xudong; Feng, Ling; Liu, Ziwen; Huang, Danxi; Yang, Yongzhe

2014-05-15

33

Apical Membrane Potassium Conductance in Guinea Pig Gallbladder Epithelial Cells,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fractional resistance of the apical membrane (fRa) of guinea pig gallbladder epithelial cells was observed to vary with changes in apical membrane potential (Va). Depolarizing Va from a base-line potential of -60 to -30 mV decreased fRa from 0.79 + or...

P. J. Gunter-Smith

1988-01-01

34

Dielectric breakdown of cell membranes.  

PubMed

With human and bovine red blood cells and Escherichia coli B, dielectric breakdown of cell membranes could be demonstrated using a Coulter Counter (AEG-Telefunken, Ulm, West Germany) with a hydrodynamic focusing orifice. In making measurements of the size distributions of red blood cells and bacteria versus increasing electric field strength and plotting the pulse heights versus the electric field strength, a sharp bend in the otherwise linear curve is observed due to the dielectric breakdown of the membranes. Solution of Laplace's equation for the electric field generated yields a value of about 1.6 V for the membrane potential at which dielectric breakdown occurs with modal volumes of red blood cells and bacteria. The same value is also calculated for red blood cells by applying the capacitor spring model of Crowley (1973. Biophys. J. 13:711). The corresponding electric field strength generated in the membrane at breakdown is of the order of 4 . 10(6) V/cm and, therefore, comparable with the breakdown voltages for bilayers of most oils. The critical detector voltage for breakdown depends on the volume of the cells. The volume-dependence predicted by Laplace theory with the assumption that the potential generated across the membrane is independent of volume, could be verified experimentally. Due to dielectric breakdown the red blood cells lose hemoglobin completely. This phenomenon was used to study dielectric breakdown of red blood cells in a homogeneous electric field between two flat platinum electrodes. The electric field was applied by discharging a high voltage storage capacitor via a spark gap. The calculated value of the membrane potential generated to produce dielectric breakdown in the homogeneous field is of the same order as found by means of the Coulter Counter. This indicates that mechanical rupture of the red blood cells by the hydrodynamic forces in the orifice of the Coulter Counter could also be excluded as a hemolysing mechanism. The detector voltage (or the electric field strength in the orifice) depends on the membrane composition (or the intrinsic membrane potential) as revealed by measuring the critical voltage in E. coli B harvested from the logarithmic and stationary growth phases. The critical detector voltage increased by about 30% for a given volume on reaching the stationary growth phase. PMID:4611517

Zimmermann, U; Pilwat, G; Riemann, F

1974-11-01

35

Dielectric Breakdown of Cell Membranes  

PubMed Central

With human and bovine red blood cells and Escherichia coli B, dielectric breakdown of cell membranes could be demonstrated using a Coulter Counter (AEG-Telefunken, Ulm, West Germany) with a hydrodynamic focusing orifice. In making measurements of the size distributions of red blood cells and bacteria versus increasing electric field strength and plotting the pulse heights versus the electric field strength, a sharp bend in the otherwise linear curve is observed due to the dielectric breakdown of the membranes. Solution of Laplace's equation for the electric field generated yields a value of about 1.6 V for the membrane potential at which dielectric breakdown occurs with modal volumes of red blood cells and bacteria. The same value is also calculated for red blood cells by applying the capacitor spring model of Crowley (1973. Biophys. J. 13:711). The corresponding electric field strength generated in the membrane at breakdown is of the order of 4 · 106 V/cm and, therefore, comparable with the breakdown voltages for bilayers of most oils. The critical detector voltage for breakdown depends on the volume of the cells. The volume-dependence predicted by Laplace theory with the assumption that the potential generated across the membrane is independent of volume, could be verified experimentally. Due to dielectric breakdown the red blood cells lose hemoglobin completely. This phenomenon was used to study dielectric breakdown of red blood cells in a homogeneous electric field between two flat platinum electrodes. The electric field was applied by discharging a high voltage storage capacitor via a spark gap. The calculated value of the membrane potential generated to produce dielectric breakdown in the homogeneous field is of the same order as found by means of the Coulter Counter. This indicates that mechanical rupture of the red blood cells by the hydrodynamic forces in the orifice of the Coulter Counter could also be excluded as a hemolysing mechanism. The detector voltage (or the electric field strength in the orifice) depends on the membrane composition (or the intrinsic membrane potential) as revealed by measuring the critical voltage in E. coli B harvested from the logarithmic and stationary growth phases. The critical detector voltage increased by about 30% for a given volume on reaching the stationary growth phase. PMID:4611517

Zimmermann, U.; Pilwat, G.; Riemann, F.

1974-01-01

36

In Vitro Enzymatic Reduction Kinetics of Mineral Oxides by Membrane Fractions from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1  

SciTech Connect

This study documents the first example of in vitro solid-phase mineral oxide reduction by enzyme-containing membrane fractions. Previous in vitro studies have only reported the reduction of aqueous ions. Total membrane (TM) fractions from iron-grown cultures of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 were isolated and shown to catalyze the reduction of goethite, hematite, birnessite, and ramsdellite/pyrolusite using formate. In contrast, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and succinate cannot function as electron donors. The significant implications of observations related to this cell-free system are: (i) both iron and manganese mineral oxides are reduced by the TM fraction, but aqueous U(VI) is not; (ii) TM fractions from anaerobically grown, but not aerobically grown, cells can reduce the mineral oxides; (iii) electron shuttles and iron chelators are not needed for this in vitro reduction, documenting conclusively that reduction can occur by direct contact with the mineral oxide; (iv) electron shuttles and EDTA stimulate the in vitro Fe(III) reduction, documenting that exogenous molecules can enhance rates of enzymatic mineral reduction; and (v) multiple membrane components are involved in solid-phase oxide reduction. The membrane fractions, consisting of liposomes of cytoplasmic and outer membrane segments, contain at least 100 proteins including the enzyme that oxidizes formate, formate dehydrogenase. Mineral oxide reduction was inhibited by the addition of detergent Triton X-100, which solubilizes membranes and their associated proteins, consistent with the involvement of multiple electron carriers that are disrupted by detergent addition. In contrast, formate dehydrogenase activity was not inhibited by Triton X-100. The addition of anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) and menaquinone-4 was unable to restore activity; however, menadione (MD) restored 33% of the activity. The addition of AQDS and MD to reactions without added detergent increased the rate of goethite reduction. The Michaelis-Menten K{sub m} values of 71 {+-} 22 m{sup 2}/L for hematite and 50 {+-} 16 m{sup 2}/L for goethite were calculated as a function of surface area of the two insoluble minerals. V{sub max} was determined to be 123 {+-} 14 and 156 {+-} 13 nmol Fe(II)/min/mg of TM protein for hematite and goethite, respectively. These values are consistent with in vivo rates of reduction reported in the literature. These observations are consistent with our conclusion that the enzymatic reduction of mineral oxides is an effective probe that will allow elucidation of molecular chemistry of the membrane-mineral interface where electron transfer occurs.

Ruebush,S.; Icopini, G.; Brantley, S.; Tien, M.

2006-01-01

37

Proteomics and Phosphoproteomics Analysis of Human Lens Fiber Cell Membranes  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The human lens fiber cell insoluble membrane fraction contains important membrane proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, and cytosolic proteins that are strongly associated with the membrane. The purpose of this study was to characterize the lens fiber cell membrane proteome and phosphoproteome from human lenses. Methods. HPLC-mass spectrometry–based multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT), without or with phosphopeptide enrichment, was applied to study the proteome and phosphoproteome of lens fiber cell membranes, respectively. Results. In total, 951 proteins were identified, including 379 integral membrane and membrane-associated proteins. Enriched gene categories and pathways based on the proteomic analysis include carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate pathway, pyruvate metabolism), proteasome, cell-cell signaling and communication (GTP binding, gap junction, focal adhesion), glutathione metabolism, and actin regulation. The combination of TiO2 phosphopeptide enrichment and MudPIT analysis revealed 855 phosphorylation sites on 271 proteins, including 455 phosphorylation sites that have not been previously identified. PKA, PKC, CKII, p38MAPK, and RSK are predicted as the major kinases for phosphorylation on the sites identified in the human lens membrane fraction. Conclusions. The results presented herein significantly expand the characterized proteome and phosphoproteome of the human lens fiber cell and provide a valuable reference for future research in studies of lens development and disease. PMID:23349431

Wang, Zhen; Han, Jun; David, Larry L.; Schey, Kevin L.

2013-01-01

38

The Cell Membrane and Nanotechnology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is from the Wisconsin Online Resource Center, which is a digital library of web-based learning objects. Barbara Liang created this resource, and it examines nanotechnology applications that are based on cell membrane structure and function. The brief activity contains animated illustrations and interactives that help students grasp nanotechnology concepts.

Liang, Barbara

2010-11-16

39

Cell handling using microstructured membranes  

PubMed Central

Gentle and precise handling of cell suspensions is essential for scientific research and clinical diagnostic applications. Although different techniques for cell analysis at the micro-scale have been proposed, many still require that preliminary sample preparation steps be performed off the chip. Here we present a microstructured membrane as a new microfluidic design concept, enabling the implementation of common sample preparation procedures for suspensions of eukaryotic cells in lab-on-a-chip devices. We demonstrate the novel capabilities for sample preparation procedures by the implementation of metered sampling of nanoliter volumes of whole blood, concentration increase up to three orders of magnitude of sparse cell suspension, and circumferentially uniform, sequential exposure of cells to reagents. We implemented these functions by using microstructured membranes that are pneumatically actuated and allowed to reversibly decouple the flow of fluids and the displacement of eukaryotic cells in suspensions. Furthermore, by integrating multiple structures on the same membrane, complex sequential procedures are possible using a limited number of control steps. PMID:16511616

Irimia, Daniel

2013-01-01

40

The effect of passive mixing on pressure drop and oxygen mass fraction using opposing channel flow field design in a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates a flow field with opposing channel design. Previous studies on flow field designs have been focused on improving fuel utilization which often leads to increased pressure drop. This increased pressure drop is typical because standard designs employ either a single flow channel to clear blockages or dead end condition to force the flow through the gas diffusion layer. The disadvantage with these designs is the increased resistance to the flow which requires higher pressure, which becomes a parasitic loss that lowers the system efficiency. For this study the focus was to reduce the pressure drop by providing a less resistive path to the flow. To achieve a less resistive path, the inlet channel was split into two opposing channels. These channels are then recombined only to be split again for the next leg. Therefore, the split channel design should reduce the pressure drop which reduces the parasitic load and ultimately contributes to higher system efficiency. In addition the recombining of the streams at each leg should induce mixing. Having opposing channels should also increase cross flow under the lands to reduce mass transfer loses. The cathode side of the fuel cell is especially sensitive to the mass transport losses since air (oxygen mixed with nitrogen) is used for supplying oxygen unlike the anode side which uses pure hydrogen. To test the hypothesis of having benefits from an opposing channel design, both an experimental and analytical approach was taken. For the experiment, a serpentine flow field and opposing channel flow field plates were compared over several flow rates with compressed air. To test the hypothesis of increased mass transfer, the two flow fields were modeled using a CFD software package, COMSOL. It was found that the opposing channel configuration for high flow rate with multiple entry and exit conditions exhibited significant improvement over the single serpentine channel. Pressure drop was ? less than the serpentine channel with similar conditions. Simulations for mass transfer show that recombining of the flow streams generate more uniform current density unlike the serpentine configuration where the current density was concentrated at the entrance of the flow stream. The background section provides a brief overview of the governing equations, the theory of flow field operation and previous bodies of work on flow field design. Recommendations are made for further verification of the design using a real working cell based on the results.

Singh, Anant Bir

41

Membrane proteins of dense lysosomes from Chinese hamster ovary cells  

SciTech Connect

In this work membrane proteins from lysosomes were studied in order to gain more information on the biogenesis and intracellular sorting of this class of membrane proteins. Membrane proteins were isolated from a purified population of lysosomes. These proteins were then examined for various co- and post-translational modifications which could serve as potential intracellular sorting signals. Biochemical analysis using marker enzymatic activities detected no plasma membrane, Golgi, endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, mitochondria, or cytosol. Analysis after incorporation of ({sup 3}H)thymidine or ({sup 3}H)uridine detected no nuclei or ribosomes. A fraction containing integral membrane proteins was obtained from the dense lysosomes by extraction with Triton X-114. Twenty-three polypeptides which incorporated both ({sup 35}S)methionine and ({sup 3}H)leucine were detected by SDS PAGE in this membrane fraction, and ranged in molecular weight from 30-130 kDa. After incorporation by cells of various radioactive metabolic precursors, the membrane fraction from dense lysosomes was examined and was found to be enriched in mannose, galactose, fucose, palmitate, myristate, and sulfate, but was depleted in phosphate. The membrane fraction from dense lysosomes was then analyzed by SDS PAGE to determine the apparent molecular weights of modified polypepties.

Chance, S.C.

1987-01-01

42

Physical membrane displacement: Reconstitution in a cell-free system and relationship to cell growth +  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Physical membrane displacement is a process common to all forms of vesicle budding as well as cell enlargement and pleomorphic shape changes. Cell-free reconstitution of membrane budding has been achieved with transitional endoplasmic reticulum fractions from both plants and animals where 50 to 70 nm transition vesicles have been observed to bud from the part-rough, part-smooth membrane elements that

D. J. Morré

1994-01-01

43

Electron Transport Systems of Nitrosomonas: Isolation of a Membrane-Envelope Fraction  

PubMed Central

Freezing and thawing of Nitrosomonas, followed by centrifugation of the homogenate at 3,000 × g, resulted in a fraction which appeared to consist of an intact membrane-envelope complex and contained approximately 50% of the cell protein and more than 90% of the ubiquinone and cytochrome A-type mammalian cytochrome c oxidase activity. The supernatant fraction, resulting from subsequent centrifugation of the extract at 100,000 × g, contained approximately 50% of the cell protein and more than 80% of the B- and C-type cytochrome and P-463 and the enzymes glutamate dehydrogenase; hydroxylamine dehydrogenase; nitrite synthetase; nitrite reductase; and 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol-, p-phenylenediamine-, pyrogallol-, and hydroquinone-oxidase. Data on the concentration of electron transport components in Nitrosomonas are presented. Images PMID:4336111

Hooper, A. B.; Erickson, R. H.; Terry, K. R.

1972-01-01

44

Synthesis of basement membrane collagen by cultured human endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

Studies were performed to determine if cultured human endothelial cells synthesized basement membrane collagen. In culture, endothelial cells were attached to grossly visible membranous structures which on light microscopy were composed of ribbons of dense, amorphous material. On transmission electron microscopy, these membranous structures consisted of amorphous basement membrane, and material morphologically similar to microfibrils and elastic fibers. By immunofluorescence microscopy, these membranous structures stained brightly with antisera to human glomerular basement membrane. Cultured endothelial cells incorporated [3H]proline into protein; 18% of the incorporated [3H]proline was solubilized by purified collagenase. When endothelial cells were cultured with [14C]proline, 7.1% of the incorporated counts were present as [14C]hydroxyproline. Cultured endothelial cells were labeled with [3H]glycine and [3H]proline and digested with pepsin. The resulting fractions on analysis by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis contained two radioactive protein peaks of mol wt 94,200 and 120,500. Both these peaks disappeared after digestion with purified collagenase. The peak of mol wt 120,500 corresponds to that of alpha1 (IV) collagen; the peak of the mol wt 94,200 probably corresponds to that of alpha1 (III) collagen. Thus, cultured human endothelial cells synthesize material which is morphologically and immunologically like amorphous basement membrane and biochemically like basement membrane collagen. Cultured endothelial cells probably also synthesize material which is morphologically similar to microfibrils and elastic fibers. PMID:58957

1976-01-01

45

Hydrophilic fraction of natural organic matter causing irreversible fouling of microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes.  

PubMed

Although membrane filtration is a promising technology in the field of drinking water treatment, persistent membrane fouling remains a major disadvantage. For more efficient operation, causative agents of membrane fouling need to be identified. Membrane fouling can be classified into physically reversible and irreversible fouling on basis of the removability of the foulants by physical cleaning. Four types of natural organic matter (NOM) in river water used as a source of drinking water were fractionated into hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions, and their potential to develop irreversible membrane fouling was evaluated by a bench-scale filtration experiment together with spectroscopic and chromatographic analyses. In this study, only dissolved NOM was investigated without consideration of interactions of NOM fractions with particulate matter. Results demonstrated that despite identical total organic carbon (TOC), fouling development trends were significantly different between hydrophilic and hydrophobic fractions. The hydrophobic fractions did not increase membrane resistance, while the hydrophilic fractions caused severe loss of membrane permeability. These results were identical with the case when the calcium was added to hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions. The largest difference in NOM characteristics between hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions was the presence or absence of macromolecules; the primary constituent causing irreversible fouling was inferred to be "biopolymers", including carbohydrates and proteins. In addition, the results demonstrated that the extent of irreversible fouling was considerably different depending on the combination of membrane materials and NOM characteristics. Despite identical nominal pore size (0.1 ?m), a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane was found to be more rapidly fouled than a PE membrane. This is probably explained by the generation of strong hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl groups of biopolymers and fluorine of the PVDF membrane. On the basis of these findings, it was suggested that the higher fouling potential of the hydrophilic fraction of the dissolved NOMs from various natural water sources are mainly attributed to macromolecules, or biopolymers. PMID:24565803

Yamamura, Hiroshi; Okimoto, Kenji; Kimura, Katsuki; Watanabe, Yoshimasa

2014-05-01

46

Sulfonated polysulfone ionomer membranes for fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfonated polysulfone (SPSU) membranes with different sulfonation levels have been prepared and evaluated as proton exchange membranes in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC). The membranes have been characterized by ion-exchange capacity (IEC), thermal analysis, proton conductivity and single cell performance. The introduction of sulfonic groups in the base polymer produces an increase in glass transition temperature (Tg) from 190 to

F. Lufrano; I. Gatto; P. Staiti; V. Antonucci; E. Passalacqua

2001-01-01

47

Lateral organization of membranes and cell shapes.  

PubMed Central

The relations among membrane structure, mechanical properties, and cell shape have been investigated. The fluid mosaic membrane models used contains several components that move freely in the membrane plane. These components interact with each other and determine properties of the membrane such as curvature and elasticity. A free energy equation is postulated for such a multicomponent membrane and the condition of free energy minimum is used to obtain differential equations relating the distribution of membrane components and the local membrane curvature. The force that moves membrane components along the membrane in a variable curvature field is calculated. A change in the intramembrane interactions can bring about phase separation or particle clustering. This, in turn, may strongly affect the local curvature. The numerical solution of the set of equations for the two dimensional case allows determination of the cell shape and the component distribution along the membrane. The model has been applied to describe certain erythrocytes shape transformations. PMID:7284547

Markin, V S

1981-01-01

48

Characterization and Quantitation of Concanavalin A Binding by Plasma Membrane Enriched Fractions from Soybean Root  

PubMed Central

The binding of concanavalin A (Con A) to soybean root membranes in plasma membrane enriched fractions (recovered from the 34/45% interface of simplified discontinuous sucrose density gradients) was studied using a radiochemical assay employing tritiated (3H)-Con A. The effect of lectin concentration, time, and membrane protein concentration on the specific binding of 3H-Con A by the membranes was evaluated. Kinetic analyses showed that Con A will react with membranes in that fraction in a characteristic and predictable manner. The parameters for an optimal and standard binding assay were established. Maximal binding occurred with Con A concentrations in the range of 8 to 16% of the total membrane protein with incubation times greater than 40 min at 22 C. Approximately 1015 molecules of 3H-Con A were bound per microgram of membrane protein at saturation. Binding was reversible. Greater than 92% of the total Con A bound at saturation was released by addition of ?-methyl mannoside. A major peak of 3H-Con A binding was also observed in fractions recovered from the 25/30% interface of a complex discontinuous sucrose density gradient when membranes were isolated in the absence of Mg2+. When high Mg2+ was present in the isolation and gradient media, the peak was shifted to a fraction recovered from the 34/38% sucrose interface. These results suggest that Con A binding sites are also present on membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum. The amount of Con A bound by endoplasmic reticulum membranes was at least twice the amount bound by membranes in plasma membrane enriched fractions when binding was compared on a per unit membrane protein basis. In contrast, mitochondrial inner membranes, which equilibrate at the same density as plasma membranes, had little ability to bind the lectin. Images PMID:16662042

Berkowitz, Robert L.; Travis, Robert L.

1981-01-01

49

Characterization and quantitation of concanavalin A binding by plasma membrane enriched fractions from soybean root  

SciTech Connect

The binding of concanavalin A (Con A) to soybean root membranes in plasma membrane enriched fractions (recovered from the 34/45% interface of simplified discontinuous sucrose density gradients) was studied using a radiochemical assay employing tritated (/sup 3/H)-Con A. The effect of lectin concentration, time, and membrane protein concentration on the specific binding of /sup 3/H-Con A by the membranes was evaluated. Kinetic analyses showed that Con A will react with membranes in that fraction in a characteristic and predictable manner. The parameters for an optimal and standard binding assay were established. Maximal binding occurred with Con A concentrations in the range of 8 to 16% of the total membrane protein with incubation times greater than 40 min at 22 C. Approximately 10/sup 15/ molecules of /sup 3/H-Con A were bound per microgram of membrane protein at saturation. Binding was reversible. Greater than 92% of the total Con A bound at saturation was released by addition of ..cap alpha..-methyl mannoside. A major peak of /sup 3/H-Con A binding was also observed in fractions recovered from the 25/30% interface of a complex discontinuous sucrose density gradient when membranes were isolated in the absence of Mg/sup 2 +/. When high Mg/sup 2 +/ was present in the isolation and gradient media, the peak was shifted to a fraction recovered from the 34/38% sucrose interface. These results suggest that Con A binding sites are also present on membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum. The amount of Con A bound by endoplasmic reticulum membranes was at least twice the amount bound by membranes in plasma membrane enriched fractions when binding was compared on a per unit membrane protein basis. In contrast, mitochondrial inner membranes, which equilibrate at the same density as plasma membranes, had little ability to bind the lectin.

Berkowitz, R.L.; Travis, R.L.

1981-11-01

50

Macrophage Inhibition of Lymphocyte and Tumor Cell Growth Is Mediated by 25–Hydroxycholesterol in the Cell Membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously reported that a lipid molecule in the membrane fraction of cloned macrophage hybridomas inhibited the growth of lymphocytes and several tumor cell lines. In this study, the inhibitory lipid molecule in the membrane fraction of macrophages was analyzed by thin–layer chromatography and identified as 25–hydroxycholesterol, a family of oxysterols. This conclusion was confirmed by analysis using gas

Hiroshi Kato; Atsuko Horino; Maiko Taneichi; Naoyuki Fukuchi; Yuzuru Eto; Hiroshi Ushijima; Katsutoshi Komuro; Tetsuya Uchida

1998-01-01

51

Tracking microdomain dynamics in cell membranes  

PubMed Central

Studies of the diffusion of proteins and lipids in the plasma membrane of cells have long pointed to the presence of membrane domains. A major challenge in the field of membrane biology has been to characterize the various cellular structures and mechanisms that impede free diffusion in cell membranes and determine the consequences that membrane compartmentalization has on cellular biology. In this review, we will provide a brief summary of the classes of domains that have been characterized to date, focusing on recent efforts to identify the properties of lipid rafts in cells through measurements of protein and lipid diffusion. PMID:19041847

Day, Charles A.; Kenworthy, Anne K.

2009-01-01

52

Cell Sorting Experiments Link Persistent Mitochondrial DNA Damage with Loss of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential and  

E-print Network

in the fraction of cells with low mitochondrial membrane potential ( m). Further analysis also showed increased Membrane Potential and Apoptotic Cell Death* Received for publication, August 27, 2002, and in revised formCell Sorting Experiments Link Persistent Mitochondrial DNA Damage with Loss of Mitochondrial

Santos, Janine H.

53

The Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is an introduction to the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. It uses flash animation to explain in greater detail what the PEM fuel cell consists of and how it works. The website has an introductory animation which is followed by more in depth description of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell.

2012-09-13

54

Membrane distribution of sodium-hydrogen and chloride-bicarbonate exchangers in crypt and villus cell membranes from rabbit ileum.  

PubMed Central

Present evidence suggests that in the small intestine, villus cells are primarily absorptive and crypt cells are primarily secretory. In order to further confirm that there are differences in transport properties between villus and crypt cells, we have separated villus from crypt cells, using calcium chelations techniques, and determined the distribution of Na:H and Cl:HCO3 exchange activity on brush border membrane and basolateral membrane preparations from these two cell populations. Separation of cells was determined utilizing alkaline phosphatase and maltase activity as a marker of villus cells and thymidine kinase activity as a marker of crypt cells. Utilizing these techniques, we were able to sequentially collect cells along the villus-crypt axis. Na-stimulated glucose and alanine uptake in brush border membrane vesicles diminished from the villus to the crypt region in the sequentially collected cells fractions, further suggesting separation of these cells. Brush border and basolateral membranes were then prepared from cells from the villus and crypt areas, utilizing a continuous sucrose gradient. In the villus cells, Na:H exchange activity was found associated with both the brush border and basolateral membrane, whereas, in crypt cells, Na:H exchange activity was only found on the basolateral membrane. Cl:HCO3 exchange activity was found only on the brush border membrane, in both villus and crypt cells. These studies suggest functional heterogeneity in ion transport between villus and crypt cells. PMID:2848868

Knickelbein, R G; Aronson, P S; Dobbins, J W

1988-01-01

55

Localization of ras antigenicity in rat hepatocyte plasma membrane and rough endoplasmic reticulum fractions  

SciTech Connect

We have examined the antigenicity of plasma membrane (PM) and rough microsomal (RM) fractions from rat liver using anti-ras monoclonal antibodies 142-24EO5 and Y13-259 and immunochemistry as well as electron microscope immunocytochemistry. Proteins immunoprecipitated with monoclonal antibody 142-24E05 were separated using single-dimensional gradient-gel electrophoresis. The separated proteins were then blotted onto nitrocellulose sheets and incubated with (alpha-32P)GTP. Radioautograms of blots indicated the presence of specific 21.5- and 22-kDa labeled proteins in the PM fraction. A 23.5-kDa (alpha-{sup 32}P) GTP-binding protein was detected in immunoprecipitates of both PM and RM fractions. Monoclonal antibody Y13-259 reacted only with the 21.5-kDa (alpha-{sup 32}P) GTP-binding protein in the plasma membrane fraction. When anti-ras monoclonal antibody 142-24E05 and the immunogold technique were applied to membrane fractions using a preembedding immunocytochemical method, specific labeling was observed in association with both vesicular structures and membrane sheets in the PM fraction but only with electron-dense vesicular structures in the RM fraction. Thus ras antigenicity is associated with hepatocyte plasma membranes and ras-like antigenicity is probably associated with vesicular (secretory/endocytic) elements in both plasma membrane and rough microsomal preparations.

Dominguez, J.M.; Lanoix, J.; Paiement, J. (Universite de Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

1991-01-01

56

Polymer electrolyte membrane assembly for fuel cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electrolyte membrane for use in a fuel cell can contain sulfonated polyphenylether sulfones. The membrane can contain a first sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone and a second sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone, wherein the first sulfonated polyphenylether and the second sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone have equivalent weights greater than about 560, and the first sulfonated polyphenylether and the second sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone also have different equivalent weights. Also, a membrane for use in a fuel cell can contain a sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone and an unsulfonated polyphenylether sulfone. Methods for manufacturing a membrane electrode assemblies for use in fuel cells can include roughening a membrane surface. Electrodes and methods for fabricating such electrodes for use in a chemical fuel cell can include sintering an electrode. Such membranes and electrodes can be assembled into chemical fuel cells.

Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Yavrouian, Andre (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

2000-01-01

57

Polymer electrolyte membrane assembly for fuel cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electrolyte membrane for use in a fuel cell can contain sulfonated polyphenylether sulfones. The membrane can contain a first sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone and a second sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone, wherein the first sulfonated polyphenylether and the second sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone have equivalent weights greater than about 560, and the first sulfonated polyphenylether and the second sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone also have different equivalent weights. Also, a membrane for use in a fuel cell can contain a sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone and an unsulfonated polyphenylether sulfone. Methods for manufacturing a membrane electrode assemblies for use in fuel cells can include roughening a membrane surface. Electrodes and methods for fabricating such electrodes for use in a chemical fuel cell can include sintering an electrode. Such membranes and electrodes can be assembled into chemical fuel cells.

Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Yavrouian, Andre (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

2002-01-01

58

Proteomic investigation of natural killer cell microsomes using gas-phase fractionation by mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have explored the utility of gas-phase fractionation by mass spectrometry (MS) in the mass-to-charge (m\\/z) dimension (GPFm\\/z) for increasing the effective number of protein identifications in cases where sample quantity limits the use of multi-dimensional chromatographic fractionation. A peptide digestate from proteins isolated from the membrane fraction of natural killer (NK) cells was analyzed by microcapillary reversed-phase liquid chromatography

Josip Blonder; Maria Cecilia Rodriguez-Galan; David A. Lucas; Howard A. Young; Haleem J. Issaq; Timothy D. Veenstra; Thomas P. Conrads

2004-01-01

59

Advanced composite polymer electrolyte fuel cell membranes  

SciTech Connect

A new type of reinforced composite perfluorinated polymer electrolyte membrane, GORE-SELECT{trademark} (W.L. Gore & Assoc.), is characterized and tested for fuel cell applications. Very thin membranes (5-20 {mu}m thick) are available. The combination of reinforcement and thinness provides high membrane, conductances (80 S/cm{sup 2} for a 12 {mu}m thick membrane at 25{degrees}C) and improved water distribution in the operating fuel cell without sacrificing longevity or durability. In contrast to nonreinforced perfluorinated membranes, the x-y dimensions of the GORE-SELECT membranes are relatively unaffected by the hydration state. This feature may be important from the viewpoints of membrane/electrode interface stability and fuel cell manufacturability.

Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, T.A.; Gottesfeld, S.; Kolde, J.A.; Bahar, B.

1995-09-01

60

Fuel cell ion-exchange membrane investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present deficiencies in the fluorocarbon sulfonic acid membrane used as the solid polymer electrolyte in the H2/O2 fuel cell are studied. Considered are: Adhesives selection, elastomeric formulations, scavenger exploration, and membrane characterization. The significant data are interpreted and recommendations are given for both short and long range further investigations in two of the four major areas: membrane adhesives and membrane stabilization.

Toy, M. S.

1972-01-01

61

Filter-exchange PGSE NMR determination of cell membrane permeability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new PGSE NMR sequence is introduced for measuring diffusive transport across the plasma membrane of living cells. A "diffusion filter" and a variable mixing time precedes a standard PGSE block for diffusion encoding of the NMR signal. The filter is a PGSE block optimized for selectively removing the magnetization of the extracellular water. With increasing mixing time the intra- and extracellular components approach their equilibrium fractional populations. The rate of exchange can be measured using only a few minutes of instrument time. Water exchange over the plasma membrane of starved yeast cells is studied in the temperature range +5 to +32 °C.

Åslund, Ingrid; Nowacka, Agnieszka; Nilsson, Markus; Topgaard, Daniel

2009-10-01

62

Live cell imaging of membrane / cytoskeleton interactions and membrane topology  

PubMed Central

We elucidate the interaction between actin and specific membrane components, using real time live cell imaging, by delivering probes that enable access to components, that cannot be accessed genetically. We initially investigated the close interplay between Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and the F-actin network. We show that, during the early stage of cell adhesion, PIP2 forms domains within the filopodia membrane. We studied these domains alongside cell spreading and observed that these very closely follow the actin tread-milling. We show that this mechanism is associated with an active transport of PIP2 rich organelles from the cell perinuclear area to the edge, along actin fibers. Finally, mapping other phospholipids and membrane components we observed that the PIP2 domains formation is correlated with sphingosine and cholesterol rafts. PMID:25205456

Chierico, Luca; Joseph, Adrian S.; Lewis, Andrew L.; Battaglia, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

63

Live cell imaging of membrane / cytoskeleton interactions and membrane topology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We elucidate the interaction between actin and specific membrane components, using real time live cell imaging, by delivering probes that enable access to components, that cannot be accessed genetically. We initially investigated the close interplay between Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and the F-actin network. We show that, during the early stage of cell adhesion, PIP2 forms domains within the filopodia membrane. We studied these domains alongside cell spreading and observed that these very closely follow the actin tread-milling. We show that this mechanism is associated with an active transport of PIP2 rich organelles from the cell perinuclear area to the edge, along actin fibers. Finally, mapping other phospholipids and membrane components we observed that the PIP2 domains formation is correlated with sphingosine and cholesterol rafts.

Chierico, Luca; Joseph, Adrian S.; Lewis, Andrew L.; Battaglia, Giuseppe

2014-09-01

64

Characteristics of different fractions of microbial flocs and their role in membrane fouling.  

PubMed

Characteristics of different fractions (small flocs vs. large flocs) of sludge flocs from a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating thermomechanical pulping (TMP) whitewater were determined using various analytic techniques, including extraction and chemical analysis of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), particle size analyzer, and polymer chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results showed that the fraction of smaller flocs contained a higher level of bound EPS and had a higher fractal dimension as compared to the fraction of larger flocs. PCR-DGGE analysis indicated that there were significant differences in microbial community between the fraction of smaller flocs and large flocs. The microbial community of the smaller flocs was similar to that of the sludge cake layers, indicating the pioneering role of the microbial community in smaller flocs in membrane fouling. These findings provide a new insight in the difference of membrane fouling potential between smaller flocs and larger flocs fraction. PMID:21252429

Lin, H J; Gao, W J; Leung, K T; Liao, B Q

2011-01-01

65

Functional dynamics of cell surface membrane proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cell surface receptors are integral membrane proteins that receive external stimuli, and transmit signals across plasma membranes. In the conventional view of receptor activation, ligand binding to the extracellular side of the receptor induces conformational changes, which convert the structure of the receptor into an active conformation. However, recent NMR studies of cell surface membrane proteins have revealed that their structures are more dynamic than previously envisioned, and they fluctuate between multiple conformations in an equilibrium on various timescales. In addition, NMR analyses, along with biochemical and cell biological experiments indicated that such dynamical properties are critical for the proper functions of the receptors. In this review, we will describe several NMR studies that revealed direct linkage between the structural dynamics and the functions of the cell surface membrane proteins, such as G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), ion channels, membrane transporters, and cell adhesion molecules.

Nishida, Noritaka; Osawa, Masanori; Takeuchi, Koh; Imai, Shunsuke; Stampoulis, Pavlos; Kofuku, Yutaka; Ueda, Takumi; Shimada, Ichio

2014-04-01

66

Membrane proteomic analysis of pancreatic cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive human tumors due to its high potential of local invasion and metastasis. The aim of this study was to characterize the membrane proteomes of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells of primary and metastatic origins, and to identify potential target proteins related to metastasis of pancreatic cancer. Methods Membrane/membrane-associated proteins were isolated from AsPC-1 and BxPC-3 cells and identified with a proteomic approach based on SDS-PAGE, in-gel tryptic digestion and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). X! Tandem was used for database searching against the SwissProt human protein database. Results We identified 221 & 208 proteins from AsPC-1 and BxPC-3 cells, respectively, most of which are membrane or membrane-associated proteins. A hundred and nine proteins were found in both cell lines while the others were present in either AsPC-1 or BxPC-3 cells. Differentially expressed proteins between two cell lines include modulators of cell adhesion, cell motility or tumor invasion as well as metabolic enzymes involved in glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, or nucleotide/lipid metabolism. Conclusion Membrane proteomes of AsPC-1 (metastatic) and BxPC-3 (primary) cells are remarkably different. The differentially expressed membrane proteins may serve as potential targets for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. PMID:20831833

2010-01-01

67

Desmosome Assembly and Cell-Cell Adhesion Are Membrane Raft-dependent Processes  

PubMed Central

The aim of our study was to investigate the association of desmosomal proteins with cholesterol-enriched membrane domains, commonly called membrane rafts, and the influence of cholesterol on desmosome assembly in epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (clone MDc-2). Biochemical analysis proved an association of desmosomal cadherin desmocollin 2 (Dsc2) in cholesterol-enriched fractions that contain membrane raft markers caveolin-1 and flotillin-1 and the novel raft marker ostreolysin. Cold detergent extraction of biotinylated plasma membranes revealed that ?60% of Dsc2 associates with membrane rafts while the remainder is present in nonraft and cholesterol-poor membranes. The results of immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed colocalization of Dsc2 and ostreolysin. Partial depletion of cholesterol with methyl-?-cyclodextrin disturbs desmosome assembly, as revealed by sequential recordings of live cells. Moreover, cholesterol depletion significantly reduces the strength of cell-cell junctions and partially releases Dsc2 from membrane rafts. Our data indicate that a pool of Dsc2 is associated with membrane rafts, particularly with the ostreolysin type of membrane raft, and that intact membrane rafts are necessary for desmosome assembly. Taken together, these data suggest cholesterol as a potential regulator that promotes desmosome assembly. PMID:21071449

Resnik, Natasa; Sepcic, Kristina; Plemenitas, Ana; Windoffer, Reinhard; Leube, Rudolf; Veranic, Peter

2011-01-01

68

Development of a novel adsorptive membrane chromatographic method for the fractionation of polyphenols from bilberry.  

PubMed

A novel membrane chromatographic method with a membrane adsorber (Sartobind S) has been developed on the laboratory scale that allows a fractionation of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) constituents into the following three groups of polyphenols: anthocyanins, copigments, and polymers. By using this methodology, a pure anthocyanin fraction free of other copigments and polymeric phenols can be obtained. Using this approach, it provides fractions allowing a more thorough testing of the biological effects of the individual groups of bilberry polyphenols as well as the study of possible synergistic effects between these different groups of bioactive constituents from bilberry. PMID:22309451

Juadjur, Andreas; Winterhalter, Peter

2012-03-14

69

NOM fractionation and fouling of low-pressure membranes in microgranular adsorptive filtration.  

PubMed

Membrane fouling by natural organic matter (NOM) was investigated in microgranular adsorptive filtration (?GAF) systems, in which a thin layer of adsorbent is predeposited on low-pressure membranes. The adsorbents tested included heated aluminum oxide particles (HAOPs), ion exchange (IX) resin, and powdered activated carbon (PAC). Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) separated the NOM into four apparent MW fractions with significant UV???. HAOPs and the IX resin performed almost identically with respect to removal of these fractions, and differently from PAC. However, while HAOPs and PAC reduced fouling substantially, IX resin did not, indicating that fouling could not be attributed to the NOM fractions detected by SEC. Rather, the key foulants appear to comprise a very small fraction of the NOM with almost no UV??? absorbance. Alginate, a strongly fouling surrogate for natural polysaccharides, is adsorbed effectively by HAOPs, but not by IX resin or PAC, suggesting that polysaccharides sometimes play a key role in membrane fouling by NOM. PMID:21905711

Cai, Zhenxiao; Benjamin, Mark M

2011-10-15

70

Isolation of plasma membranes from cultured glioma cells and application to evaluation of membrane sphingomyelin turnover  

SciTech Connect

A rapid and reliable method for the isolation of plasma membranes and microsomes of high purity and yield from cultured glioma cells is described. The procedure involves disruption by N2 cavitation, preliminary separation by centrifugation in Tricine buffer, and final separation on a gradient formed from 40% Percoll at pH 9.3. Enzyme and chemical markers indicated greater than 60% yield with six- to eightfold enrichment for plasma membranes and greater than 25% yield with three- to fourfold enrichment for a microsomal fraction consisting mainly of endoplasmic reticulum. The final fractions were obtained with high reproducibility in less than 1 h from the time of cell harvesting. Application of this procedure to human fibroblasts in culture is assessed. The isolation procedure was applied to investigations of synthesis and turnover of sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine in plasma membranes of glioma cells following incubation for 4-24 h with (methyl-/sup 3/H)choline. These studies indicated that radioactivity from phosphatidylcholine synthesized in microsomes from exogenous choline may serve as a precursor of the head-group of sphingomyelin accumulating in the plasma membrane.

Cook, H.W.; Palmer, F.B.; Byers, D.M.; Spence, M.W.

1988-11-01

71

Red cell membrane: past, present, and future  

PubMed Central

As a result of natural selection driven by severe forms of malaria, 1 in 6 humans in the world, more than 1 billion people, are affected by red cell abnormalities, making them the most common of the inherited disorders. The non-nucleated red cell is unique among human cell type in that the plasma membrane, its only structural component, accounts for all of its diverse antigenic, transport, and mechanical characteristics. Our current concept of the red cell membrane envisions it as a composite structure in which a membrane envelope composed of cholesterol and phospholipids is secured to an elastic network of skeletal proteins via transmembrane proteins. Structural and functional characterization of the many constituents of the red cell membrane, in conjunction with biophysical and physiologic studies, has led to detailed description of the way in which the remarkable mechanical properties and other important characteristics of the red cells arise, and of the manner in which they fail in disease states. Current studies in this very active and exciting field are continuing to produce new and unexpected revelations on the function of the red cell membrane and thus of the cell in health and disease, and shed new light on membrane function in other diverse cell types. PMID:18988878

Gallagher, Patrick G.

2008-01-01

72

A vacuolar-type proton pump in a vesicle fraction enriched with potassium transporting plasma membranes from tobacco hornworm midgut  

SciTech Connect

Mg-ATP dependent electrogenic proton transport, monitored with fluorescent acridine orange, 9-aminoacridine, and oxonol V, was investigated in a fraction enriched with potassium transporting goblet cell apical membranes of Manduca sexta larval midgut. Proton transport and the ATPase activity from the goblet cell apical membrane exhibited similar substrate specificity and inhibitor sensitivity. ATP and GTP were far better substrates than UTP, CTP, ADP, and AMP. Azide and vanadate did not inhibit proton transport, whereas 100 microM N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and 30 microM N-ethylmaleimide were inhibitors. The pH gradient generated by ATP and limiting its hydrolysis was 2-3 pH units. Unlike the ATPase activity, proton transport was not stimulated by KCl. In the presence of 20 mM KCl, a proton gradient could not be developed or was dissipated. Monovalent cations counteracted the proton gradient in an order of efficacy like that for stimulation of the membrane-bound ATPase activity: K+ = Rb+ much greater than Li+ greater than Na+ greater than choline (chloride salts). Like proton transport, the generation of an ATP dependent and azide- and vanadate-insensitive membrane potential (vesicle interior positive) was prevented largely by 100 microM N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and 30 microM N-ethylmaleimide. Unlike proton transport, the membrane potential was not affected by 20 mM KCl. In the presence of 150 mM choline chloride, the generation of a membrane potential was suppressed, whereas the pH gradient increased 40%, indicating an anion conductance in the vesicle membrane. Altogether, the results led to the following new hypothesis of electrogenic potassium transport in the lepidopteran midgut. A vacuolar-type electrogenic ATPase pumps protons across the apical membrane of the goblet cell, thus energizing electroneutral proton/potassium antiport. The result is a net active and electrogenic potassium flux.

Wieczorek, H.; Weerth, S.; Schindlbeck, M.; Klein, U.

1989-07-05

73

Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in Aging Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (??M) has been found in a variety of aging cell types from several mammalian species. The physiological significance and mechanisms of the decreased ??M in aging are not well understood. This review considers the generation of ??M and its role in ATP generation together with factors that modify ??M with emphasis on mitochondrial membrane permeability, particularly

Mary M. Sugrue; William G. Tatton

2001-01-01

74

Diffuse charge effects in fuel cell membranes  

E-print Network

It is commonly assumed that electrolyte membranes in fuel cells are electrically neutral, except in unsteady situations, when the double-layer capacitance is heuristically included in equivalent circuit calculations. Indeed, ...

Biesheuvel, P. M.

75

Alternate Fuel Cell Membranes for Energy Independence  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project was the development and evaluation of novel hydrocarbon fuel cell (FC) membranes that possess high temperature performance and long term chemical/mechanical durability in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells (FC). The major research theme was synthesis of aromatic hydrocarbon polymers of the poly(arylene ether sulfone) (PAES) type containing sulfonic acid groups tethered to the backbone via perfluorinated alkylene linkages and in some cases also directly attached to the phenylene groups along the backbone. Other research themes were the use of nitrogen-based heterocyclics instead of acid groups for proton conduction, which provides high temperature, low relative humidity membranes with high mechanical/thermal/chemical stability and pendant moieties that exhibit high proton conductivities in the absence of water, and synthesis of block copolymers consisting of a proton conducting block coupled to poly(perfluorinated propylene oxide) (PFPO) blocks. Accomplishments of the project were as follows: 1) establishment of a vertically integrated program of synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of FC membranes, 2) establishment of benchmark membrane performance data based on Nafion for comparison to experimental membrane performance, 3) development of a new perfluoroalkyl sulfonate monomer, N,N-diisopropylethylammonium 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl) pentafluoropropanesulfonate (HPPS), 4) synthesis of random and block copolymer membranes from HPPS, 5) synthesis of block copolymer membranes containing high-acid-concentration hydrophilic blocks consisting of HPPS and 3,3'-disulfonate-4,4'-dichlorodiphenylsulfone (sDCDPS), 6) development of synthetic routes to aromatic polymer backbones containing pendent 1H-1,2,3-triazole moieties, 7) development of coupling strategies to create phase-separated block copolymers between hydrophilic sulfonated prepolymers and commodity polymers such as PFPO, 8) establishment of basic performance properties of experimental membranes, 9) fabrication and FC performance testing of membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) from experimental membranes, and 10) measurement of ex situ and in situ membrane durability of experimental membranes. Although none of the experimental hydrocarbon membranes that issued from the project displayed proton conductivities that met DOE requirements, the project contributed to our basic understanding of membrane structure-property relationships in a number of key respects. An important finding of the benchmark studies is that physical degradation associated with humidity and temperature variations in the FC tend to open new fuel crossover pathways and act synergistically with chemical degradation to accelerate overall membrane degradation. Thus, for long term membrane survival and efficient fuel utilization, membranes must withstand internal stresses due to humidity and temperature changes. In this respect, rigid aromatic hydrocarbon fuel cell membranes, e.g. PAES, offer an advantage over un-modified Nafion membranes. The benchmark studies also showed that broadband dielectric spectroscopy is a potentially powerful tool in assessing shifts in the fundamental macromolecular dynamics caused by Nafion chemical degradation, and thus, this technique is of relevance in interrogating proton exchange membrane durability in fuel cells and macromolecular dynamics as coupled to proton migration, which is of fundamental relevance in proton exchange membranes in fuel cells. A key finding from the hydrocarbon membrane synthesis effort was that rigid aromatic polymers containing isolated ion exchange groups tethered tightly to the backbone (short tether), such as HPPS, provide excellent mechanical and durability properties but do not provide sufficient conductivity, in either random or block configuration, when used as the sole ion exchange monomer. However, we continue to hypothesize that longer tethers, and tethered groups spaced more closely within the hydrophilic chain elements of the polymer, will yield highly conductive materials with excellent mech

Storey, Robson, F.; Mauritz, Kenneth, A.; Patton, Derek, L.; Savin, Daniel, A.

2012-12-18

76

Conjugated polymer nanoparticles for cell membrane imaging.  

PubMed

The outstanding optical properties and biocompatibility of fluorescent conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs) make them favorable for bioimaging application. However, few CPNs could achieve stable cell membrane labeling due to cell endocytosis. In this work, conjugated polymer nanoparticles (PFPNP-PLE) encapsulated with PFP and PLGA-PEG-N3 in the matrix and functionalized with the small-molecule drug plerixafor (PLE) on the surface were prepared by a mini-emulsion method. PFPNP-PLE exhibits excellent photophysical properties, low cytotoxicity, and specific cytomembrane location, which makes it a potential cell membrane labeling reagent with blue fluorescence emission, an important component for multilabel/multicolor bioimaging. PMID:25200372

Li, Meng; Nie, Chenyao; Feng, Liheng; Yuan, Huanxiang; Liu, Libing; Lv, Fengting; Wang, Shu

2014-11-01

77

Basement Membranes: Cell Scaffoldings and Signaling Platforms  

PubMed Central

Basement membranes are widely distributed extracellular matrices that coat the basal aspect of epithelial and endothelial cells and surround muscle, fat, and Schwann cells. These extracellular matrices, first expressed in early embryogenesis, are self-assembled on competent cell surfaces through binding interactions among laminins, type IV collagens, nidogens, and proteoglycans. They form stabilizing extensions of the plasma membrane that provide cell adhesion and that act as solid-phase agonists. Basement membranes play a role in tissue and organ morphogenesis and help maintain function in the adult. Mutations adversely affecting expression of the different structural components are associated with developmental arrest at different stages as well as postnatal diseases of muscle, nerve, brain, eye, skin, vasculature, and kidney. PMID:21421915

Yurchenco, Peter D.

2011-01-01

78

Evaluation of Cell Membrane Electro-  

E-print Network

. Bleomycin at a 5-nM concentration causes no statisti- cally significant effect on cell survival blue (14) and lucifer yellow (6). The latter two methods, however, have considerable weaknesses. Namely a quantitative evaluation. Lucifer yellow fluoresces both inside and outside the cell, and thus the cell

Ljubljana, University of

79

An optimized procedure for solubilization, reduction, and transfer of human breast cancer membrane-enriched fraction by 2-DE.  

PubMed

The separation of integral and peripheral membrane proteins is still a challenge, although many achievements have been made in the 2-DE-based membrane proteomics. Using a human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, we investigated the influences of Tris, reducing reagents, cup loading, and SDS on membrane protein solubilization and separation by 2-DE. The addition of Tris to the sample solution improved the solubilization of the membrane-enriched fraction, and the best-quality gel patterns were obtained at 20 mM Tris. Tributylphosphine (TBP), a reducing agent, was not optimum in the 2-DE process because it not only decreased the solubilization of hydrophobic proteins but also caused some proteins, such as hsp60, prohibitin, and actin, to be resolved to a string of spots. However, when combined with DTT, TBP could improve the resolution of 2-DE patterns. Cup loading significantly facilitated the entrance of membrane proteins into IPG strips and over 1000 protein spots with high resolution were visualized. Adopting this strategy, an ATP synthase alpha chain was resolved into two adjacent spots for the first time in 2-DE gel patterns through the adding DTT in the middle of the IEF. A high SDS concentration in the equilibration buffer enhanced the transfer and increased the staining intensity of 50% of the protein spots in the gels, but also resulted in losses of some spots. PMID:17722185

Ruan, Yusong; Wan, Mingxi

2007-09-01

80

Distribution of Lipids in the Wall and Cytoplasmic Membrane Subfractions of the Cell Envelope of Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Cell wall and membrane subfractions of the cell envelope of Escherichia coli have been isolated by a procedure involving particle electrophoresis and sucrose gradient density centrifugation. The lipid content of each fraction has been investigated. The individual phospholipids of both fractions are quantitatively similar except that the proportion of lysophosphatidylethanolamine is greater in the wall than in the membrane. Fatty acid analysis of the phospholipids of each fraction revealed that the wall phospholipids contain a greater proportion of palmitic acid. Coenzyme Q is almost exclusively localized in the cell membrane. PMID:4550815

White, David A.; Lennarz, W. J.; Schnaitman, Carl A.

1972-01-01

81

Morphology matters in immune cell chemotaxis: membrane asymmetry affects amplification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A key mediator of eukaryotic chemotaxis is the asymmetric accumulation of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3) on the cell membrane. Recent work has focused on understanding how a shallow external gradient of chemoattractant leads to an amplified internal gradient of PIP3. In this paper we dissect what fraction of this amplification is derived biochemically by the signal transduction network and how much arises entirely from the effects of cell morphology. Here we identify and formalize the role of morphology in signal detection and demonstrate its effects through simulation and experiments. Our key result is that an asymmetric distribution of membrane accounts for approximately one-half of the measured amplification from ligand concentration to PIP3 production. We also show that the underlying biochemical network behaves as a linear amplifier in the micropipette assay.

Onsum, Matthew David; Wong, Kit; Herzmark, Paul; Bourne, Henry R.; Arkin, Adam Paul

2006-09-01

82

Subcellular fractionation of stored red blood cells reveals a compartment-based protein carbonylation evolution.  

PubMed

During blood banking, erythrocytes undergo storage lesions, altering or degrading their metabolism, rheological properties, and protein content. Carbonylation is a hallmark of protein oxidative lesions, thus of red blood cell oxidative stress. In order to improve global erythrocyte protein carbonylation assessment, subcellular fractionation has been established, allowing us to work on four different protein populations, namely soluble hemoglobin, hemoglobin-depleted soluble fraction, integral membrane and cytoskeleton membrane protein fractions. Carbonylation in erythrocyte-derived microparticles has also been investigated. Carbonylated proteins were derivatized with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH) and quantified by western blot analyses. In particular, carbonylation in the cytoskeletal membrane fraction increased remarkably between day 29 and day 43 (P<0.01). Moreover, protein carbonylation within microparticles released during storage showed a two-fold increase along the storage period (P<0.01). As a result, carbonylation of cytoplasmic and membrane protein fractions differs along storage, and the present study allows explaining two distinct steps in global erythrocyte protein carbonylation evolution during blood banking. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Integrated omics. PMID:22580360

Delobel, Julien; Prudent, Michel; Rubin, Olivier; Crettaz, David; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Lion, Niels

2012-12-01

83

The polysaccharide structure of potato cell walls: Chemical fractionation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell walls of potato tubers were fractionated by successive extraction with various reagents. A slightly degraded pectic fraction with 77% galacturonic acid was extracted in hot, oxalate-citrate buffer at pH 4. A further, major pectic fraction with 38% galacturonic acid was extracted in cold 0.1 M Na2CO3 with little apparent degradation. These two pectic fractions together made up 52% of

M. C. Jarvis; M. A. Hall; D. R. Threlfall; J. Friend

1981-01-01

84

Ehrlich cell plasma membrane redox system is modulated through signal transduction pathways involving c GMP and Ca 2+ as second messengers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ehrlich cell plasma membrane ferricyanide reductase activity increased in the presence of mastoparan, a generic activator of G proteins, using either whole cells or isolated plasma membrane fractions. Agents that increase intracellularcAMP also increased the rate of ferricyanide reduction by Ehrlich cells. For the first time, evidence is shown on a modulation of plasma membrane redox system bycGMP. In fact,

Antonio del Castillo-Olivares; Alicia Esteban del Valle; Javier Márquez; Ignacio NÚñez de Castro; Miguel ángel Medina

1995-01-01

85

Elution and uncoating of Coxsackievirus B3 by isolated HeLa cell plasma membranes.  

PubMed Central

Plasma membranes isolated from HeLa cells on discontinuous sucrose gradients were assayed for their capacity to elute and uncoat coxsackievirus B3 at 37 C. Because the viral receptors are limited to the surface of HeLa cells, the addition of radioactively labeled virus to the cells prior to cell homogenization provided a useful marker for locating the plasma membranes during the fractionation procedure. Four bands were formed on the discontinuous sucrose gradients with approximately 70% or more of the membrane-associated viral label being recovered in the most dense bands, designated as bands 3 and 4. Bands 3 and 4 also possessed the plasma membrane marker enzymes, Na+, K+ adenosine triphosphatase and 5'-nucleotidase and revealed typical structures characteristic of plasma membranes as revealed by electron microscopy. Pelleted and washed membranes from band 3 both eluted and uncoated B3 32P-labeled virus, whereas membranes from band 4 eluted virus but failed to uncoat it. The membranes from band 4 were shown to inhibit the viral uncoating activity when mixed with membranes of band 3. Characteristically, unfractionated homogenates of cell membranes eluted but did not uncoat virus. The finding of a naturally occurring inhibitor of virus uncoating provides for the first time a way to distinguish between the membrane activities of virus elution and virus uncoating. The inhibitor remains to be characterized. Images PMID:123011

Roesing, T G; Toselli, P A; Crowell, R L

1975-01-01

86

Acetylation in vitro of constituent polypeptides by smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) and Golgi membrane fractions  

SciTech Connect

Many polypeptides of the membranes of the ER are phosphorylated. To determine if any such polypeptides are acetylated, microsomal and other classical subcellular fractions were incubated with (/sup 3/H) acetyl-CoA; the specific activity of the microsomal fraction (MF) was the greatest. SDS-PAGE revealed that some 20 polypeptides of the MF were acetylated; 2-D electrophoretograms extended this number to approximately 60. Separation of the MF into smooth (S) and rough (R) fractions showed that the great majority of the labelled polypeptides belonged to the former. Isolation of a Golgi fraction revealed that its acetylation activity was approximately 3-fold greater than the SER fraction. Extensive proteolytic digestion of the MF followed by radiochromatography disclosed some 9 components whose precise nature (acetylated amino acids and/or sialic acids, etc.) is under study. Assuming that the majority of the radioactivity is in the former components and that a similar process occurs in vivo, the authors suggest that the Golgi apparatus may be a major site of acetylation of membrane and possibly other proteins.

Sambasivam, H.; Murray, R.K.

1986-05-01

87

Microscale isoelectric fractionation using immobilized pH-specific membranes for multi-dimensional analysis.  

SciTech Connect

We report on advancements of our microscale isoelectric fractionation ({mu}IEFr) methodology for fast on-chip separation and concentration of proteins based on their isoelectric points (pI). We establish that proteins can be fractionated depending on posttranslational modifications into different pH specific bins, from where they can be efficiently transferred to downstream membranes for additional processing and analysis. This technology can enable on-chip multidimensional glycoproteomics analysis, as a new approach to expedite biomarker identification and verification.

Mai, Junyu; Sommer, Gregory Jon; Hatch, Anson V.

2010-10-01

88

Integration of Cell Membranes and Nanotube Transistors  

E-print Network

Integration of Cell Membranes and Nanotube Transistors Keith Bradley, Alona Davis, Jean. As the nanoelectronic device, we use a nanotube network transistor, which incorporates many individual nanotubes as transistors, and that the two systems interact. Further, we use the interaction to study the charge

Gruner, George

89

Membrane electrode assembly for a fuel cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A catalyst ink for a fuel cell including a catalytic material and poly(vinylidene fluoride). The ink may be applied to a substrate to form an electrode, or bonded with other electrode layers to form a membrane electrode assembly (MEA).

Prakash, Surya (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Atti, Anthony (Inventor); Olah, George (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

90

[Effect of trehalose-loading on red blood cell membrane].  

PubMed

This study was purposed to evaluate the effect of trehalose-loading on physiological and biochemistry properties of red blood cell (RBC) membrane. The samples were divided into the control group (RBC without trehalose loading) and the test group (RBC with trehalose loading). Osmotic fragility reaction was used to determine the osmotic fragility change of loaded RBC membrane in NaCl solution of different osmotic concentration. Flow cytometry and deformeter were used to assay the integrality and deformability of the RBC, respectively. The results showed that the NaCl solution osmotic concentrations were 160 mOsm and 121.4 mOsm, respectively when the haemolysis rate was 50% of the control group and the test group. Flow cytometry data demonstrated that incubation of RBC in a hypertonic trehalose solution resulted in a fraction of cells with different complexity that attached to little Annexin V-FITC, and that it could be removed by washing and resuspending the RBC in an iso-osmotic (300 mOsm PBS) medium. The deformability of the loaded RBC descend, the statistical difference was significant between control and test groups (P < 0.01). It is concluded that the membrane physiological and biochemistry stability and membrane integrality of RBC in a hyper osmotic pressure can be retained after trehalose loading. PMID:23257456

Chen, Lin-Feng; Liu, Jing-Han; Zhuang, Yuan; Che, Ji; Wang, De-Qing; Li, Hui; Wang, Shan

2012-12-01

91

Specific binding of a fungal glucan phytoalexin elicitor to membrane fractions from soybean Glycine max  

PubMed Central

Treatment of soybean tissues with elicitors results in the production of phytoalexins, one of a number of inducible plant defense reactions against microbial infections. The present study uses a ?-1,3-[3H]glucan elicitor fraction from Phytophthora megasperma f. sp. glycinea, a fungal pathogen of soybean, to identify putative elicitor targets in soybean tissues. Use of the radiolabeled elicitor disclosed saturable high-affinity elicitor binding site(s) in membrane fractions of soybean roots. Highest binding activity is associated with a plasma membrane-enriched fraction. The apparent Kd value for ?-glucan elicitor binding is ?0.2 × 10-6 M and the maximum number of binding sites is 0.5 pmol per mg of protein. Competition studies with the [3H]glucan elicitor and a number of polysaccharides demonstrate that only polysaccharides of a branched ?-glucan type effectively displace the radiolabeled ligand from membrane binding. Differential displacing activity of the glucans on P. megasperma elicitor binding corresponds closely to their respective ability to elicit phytoalexin production in a cotyledon bioassay. PMID:16593852

Schmidt, Walter E.; Ebel, Jurgen

1987-01-01

92

Aging of cell membranes: facts and theories.  

PubMed

This chapter is intended to outline the main results of a research trend realized by the author during the last 45 years, focused on the main role played by the cell membrane in the aging process. It is a very wide field; therefore, the reader cannot expect in this limited space a detailed description, but will be given a wide, interdisciplinary insight into the main facts and theories regarding cellular aging. The central idea described here is the concept called the membrane hypothesis of aging (MHA). The history, the chemical roots, physicochemical facts, biophysical processes, as well as the obligatory biochemical consequences are all touched in by indicating the most important sources of detailed knowledge for those who are more interested in the basic biology of the aging process. This chapter covers also the available anti-aging interventions on the cell membrane by means of the centrophenoxine treatment based on the MHA. It also briefly interprets the possibilities of a just developing anti-aging method by using the recombinant human growth hormone, essential basis of which is the species specificity, and the general presence of receptors of this hormone in the plasma membrane of all types of cells. PMID:24862015

Zs-Nagy, Imre

2014-01-01

93

Catalytic membranes for fuel cells  

DOEpatents

A fuel cell of the present invention comprises a cathode and an anode, one or both of the anode and the cathode including a catalyst comprising a bundle of longitudinally aligned graphitic carbon nanotubes including a catalytically active transition metal incorporated longitudinally and atomically distributed throughout the graphitic carbon walls of said nanotubes. The nanotubes also include nitrogen atoms and/or ions chemically bonded to the graphitic carbon and to the transition metal. Preferably, the transition metal comprises at least one metal selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, and Cr.

Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL); Yang, Junbing (Bolingbrook, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Naperville, IL)

2011-04-19

94

Sputter-deposited fuel cell membranes and electrodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for preparing a membrane for use in a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly includes the steps of providing an electrolyte membrane, and sputter-depositing a catalyst onto the electrolyte membrane. The sputter-deposited catalyst may be applied to multiple sides of the electrolyte membrane. A method for forming an electrode for use in a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly includes the steps of obtaining a catalyst, obtaining a backing, and sputter-depositing the catalyst onto the backing. The membranes and electrodes are useful for assembling fuel cells that include an anode electrode, a cathode electrode, a fuel supply, and an electrolyte membrane, wherein the electrolyte membrane includes a sputter-deposited catalyst, and the sputter-deposited catalyst is effective for sustaining a voltage across a membrane electrode assembly in the fuel cell.

Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Ruiz, Ron P. (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

95

Dynamics of photoinduced cell plasma membrane injury.  

PubMed Central

We have developed a video microscopy system designed for real-time measurement of single cell damage during photolysis under well defined physicochemical and photophysical conditions. Melanoma cells cultured in vitro were treated with the photosensitizer (PS), tin chlorin e6 (SnCe6) or immunoconjugate (SnCe6 conjugated to a anti-ICAM monoclonal antibody), and illuminated with a 10 mW He/Ne laser at a 630 nm wavelength. Cell membrane integrity was assessed using the vital dye calcein-AM. In experiments in which the laser power density and PS concentration were varied, it was determined that the time lag before cell rupture was inversely proportional to the estimated singlet oxygen flux to the cell surface. Microscopic examination of the lytic event indicated that photo-induced lysis was caused by a point rupture of the plasma membrane. The on-line nature of this microscopy system offers an opportunity to monitor the dynamics of the cell damage process and to gain insights into the mechanism governing photolytic cell injury processes. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 PMID:7612864

Thorpe, W P; Toner, M; Ezzell, R M; Tompkins, R G; Yarmush, M L

1995-01-01

96

Analyzing the effects of surface distribution of pores in cell electroporation for a cell membrane containing cholesterol  

E-print Network

This paper presents a model and numerical analysis of transmembrane potential induced in biological cell membrane under the influence of externally applied electric field (i.e., electroporation). This model differs from the established models in two distinct ways. Firstly, it incorporates the presence of cholesterol (~20% mole-fraction) in the membrane. Secondly, it considers the dependence of pore distribution on the variation of transmembrane potential from one region of the cell to the other. Formulation is based on the role of membrane tension and electrical forces in the formation of pores in a cell membrane, which is considered as an infinitesimally thin insulator. The model has been used to explore the creation and evolution of pores and to determine the number and size of pores as function of applied electric field (magnitude & duration). Results show that the presence of cholesterol enhances poration by changing the membrane tension. Analysis indicate that the number of pores, average pore radii ...

Shil, Pratip; Vidyasagar, Pandit B

2007-01-01

97

Preparation and characterization of the lateral and basal plasma membranes of the rat intestinal epithelial cell  

PubMed Central

A technique is described for the isolation of a plasma-membrane fraction from the rat intestinal epithelial cell which is distinct from the microvillus membrane of that cell. The isolated fraction contains only about 0.2% of the sucrase activity in the original homogenate and negligible quantities of nuclear and mitochondrial membrane markers. It contains 12% of the total Na+,K+-dependent adenosine triphosphatase and 7% of the alkaline phosphatase, with significant increments in specific activity of these enzymes. Multiple membrane preparations were highly reproducible with respect to the specific activities of the markers studied. The small intestine of one rat yields material containing about 1.3mg of protein. In addition an assay is described suitable for determining 5?-nucleotidase in the small intestine. ImagesPLATE 1PLATE 2PLATE 3PLATE 4 PMID:4566193

Douglas, A. P.; Kerley, R.; Isselbacher, K. J.

1972-01-01

98

Focus on the physics of the cell membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This focus issue on membrane biophysics presents a collection of papers illustrating new developments in modern biophysical research on cell membranes. The work described here addresses questions from a broad range of areas, including cell adhesion, membrane trafficking and activation of cells of the immune system. It also presents recent views on membrane mechanics, the effect of electric fields, as well as on the interplay of mechanics and chemistry and organization at many different scales.

Bassereau, Patricia; Phillips, Rob; Schwille, Petra

2012-05-01

99

In vivo effects of copper on the calcium homeostasis mechanisms of mussel gill cell plasma membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vivo effects of Cu2+ on the Ca2+ homeostasis mechanisms of gill cell plasma membranes were assessed in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) exposed for 1, 4, and 7 days to sublethal concentrations of Cu2+ (0.6 ?M), by quantifying the activity of Ca2+ ATPase and Na+K+ ATPase on a plasma membrane-enriched subcellular fraction. Enzyme activities showed an initial decrease reaching a minimum

A. Viarengo; M. Pertica; G. Mancinelli; B. Burlando; L. Canesi; M. Orunesu

1996-01-01

100

Influence of hydrophobic/hydrophilic fractions of extracellular organic matters of Microcystis aeruginosa on ultrafiltration membrane fouling.  

PubMed

Fouling is a major obstacle to maintain the efficiency of ultrafiltration-based drinking water treatment process. Algal extracellular organic matters (EOMs) are currently considered as one of the major sources of membrane fouling. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of different hydrophobic/hydrophilic fractions of EOM extracted from Microcystis aeruginosa on ultrafiltration membrane fouling at lab scale. The experimental data indicated that EOM exhibited similar flux decline trends on polyethersulfone (PES) and regenerated cellulose (RC) membranes but caused greater irreversible fouling on PES membrane than RC membrane due to its hydrophobic property. It was also observed that charged hydrophilic (CHPI) and neutral hydrophilic (NHPI) fractions caused greater flux decline over hydrophobic (HPO) and transphilic (TPI) fractions. For PES membrane, the order of the irreversible fouling potentials for the four fractions was HPO>TPI>CHPI>NHPI, while the irreversible fouling potentials of RC membrane were tiny and could be ignored. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra suggested that protein-like, polysaccharide-like and humic-like substances were the major components responsible for membrane fouling. The results also indicated that the irreversible fouling increased as the pH decreased. The addition of calcium to feed solutions led to more severe flux decline and irreversible fouling. PMID:24140690

Zhou, Shiqing; Shao, Yisheng; Gao, Naiyun; Li, Lei; Deng, Jing; Tan, Chaoqun; Zhu, Mingqiu

2014-02-01

101

Lipid A binding sites in membranes of macrophage tumor cells  

SciTech Connect

Lipopolysaccharide affects a variety of eukaryotic cells and mammalian organisms. These actions are involved in the pathogenesis of Gram-negative septicemia. Many of the actions of lipopolysaccharide are believed to be caused by its active moiety, lipid A. Our laboratory has previously identified a bioactive lipid A precursor, termed lipid IVA, which can be labeled with 32P of high specific activity and purified. In this work we have used the labeled probe, 4'-32P-lipid IVA, to develop a novel assay for the specific binding of lipid IVA to whole cells. We have also demonstrated its use in a ligand blotting assay of immobilized cellular proteins. Using the whole cell assay, we show that 4'-32P-lipid IVA specifically binds to RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cultured cells. The binding is saturable, is inhibited with excess unlabeled lipid IVA, and is proteinase K-sensitive. It displays cellular and pharmacological specificity. Using the ligand blotting assay, we show that several RAW 264.7 cell proteins can bind 4'-32P-lipid IVA. The two principal binding proteins have Mr values of 31 and 95 kDa, as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Fractionation studies indicate that the 31-kDa protein is enriched in the nuclear fraction and may be a histone, whereas the 95-kDa protein is enriched in the membrane fraction. The binding assays that we have developed should lead to a clearer understanding of lipid A/animal cell interactions.

Hampton, R.Y.; Golenbock, D.T.; Raetz, C.R.

1988-10-15

102

Micropatterning cells on permeable membrane filters.  

PubMed

Epithelium is abundantly present in the human body as it lines most major organs. Therefore, ensuring the proper function of epithelium is pivotal for successfully engineering whole organ replacements. An important characteristic of mature epithelium is apical-basal polarization which can be obtained using the air-liquid interface (ALI) culture system. Micropatterning is a widely used bioengineering strategy to spatially control the location and organization of cells on tissue culture substrates. Micropatterning is therefore an interesting method for generating patterned epithelium. Enabling micropatterning of epithelial cells however requires micropatterning methods that are designed to (i) be compatible with permeable membranes substrates and (ii) allow prolonged culture of patterned cells, both of which are required for appropriate epithelial apical-basal polarization. Here, we describe a number of methods we have developed for generating monoculture as well as coculture of epithelial cells that are compatible with ALI culture. PMID:24560510

Javaherian, Sahar; Paz, Ana C; McGuigan, Alison P

2014-01-01

103

Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this collection of 13 interactive Flash applets learners can check their understanding of various fraction concepts, including comparison to 1/2, location on the number line, equivalent fractions, and simplest form. Activities for the learners include sorting, labeling, constructing diagrams, and converting improper fractions. Displays are suitable for classroom demonstrations.

Blundred, A.

2012-01-01

104

Fluorescence imaging of membrane dynamics in living cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods of wide-field fluorescence microscopy for measuring membrane dynamics of living cells are described, including spectral imaging as well as anisotropy imaging of the membrane marker 6-dodecanoyl-2-dimethylamino naphthalene (laurdan). Plasma membranes are selected by illumination with an evanescent electromagnetic field and distinguished from intracellular membranes assessed by whole-cell illumination. While fluorescence spectra of laurdan appeared red-shifted with decreasing membrane stiffness, fluorescence anisotropy and rotational correlation times were reduced with increasing membrane fluidity. Membrane stiffness was found to increase with decreasing temperature and increasing amounts of cholesterol and was always higher for the plasma membrane than for intracellular membranes. These effects may have some clinical relevance in the research of drug resistance or cell aging.

Weber, Petra; Wagner, Michael; Schneckenburger, Herbert

2010-07-01

105

Nanosecond electric pulses cause mitochondrial membrane permeabilization in Jurkat cells.  

PubMed

Nanosecond, high-voltage electric pulses (nsEP) induce permeabilization of the plasma membrane and the membranes of cell organelles, leading to various responses in cells including cytochrome c release from mitochondria and caspase activation associated with apoptosis. We report here evidence for nsEP-induced permeabilization of mitochondrial membranes in living cells. Using three different methods with fluorescence indicators-rhodamine 123 (R123), tetramethyl rhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE), and cobalt-quenched calcein-we have shown that multiple nsEP (five pulses or more, 4?ns duration, 10?MV/m, 1?kHz repetition rate) cause an increase of the inner mitochondrial membrane permeability and an associated loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. These effects could be a consequence of nsEP permeabilization of the inner mitochondrial membrane or the activation of mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pores. Plasma membrane permeabilization (YO-PRO-1 influx) was detected in addition to mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. PMID:21953203

Batista Napotnik, Tina; Wu, Yu-Hsuan; Gundersen, Martin A; Miklav?i?, Damijan; Vernier, P Thomas

2012-04-01

106

Polymer synthesis toward fuel cell membrane materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fuel cells are a promising technology that will be part of the future energy landscape. New membranes for alkaline and proton exchange membrane fuel cells are needed to improve the performance, simplify the system, and reduce cost. Polymer chemistry can be applied to develop new polymers and to assemble polymers into improved membranes that need less water, have increased performance and are less expensive, thereby removing the deficiencies of current membranes. Nucleophilic aromatic substitution polymerization typically produces thermally stable engineering polymers that can be easily functionalized. New functional monomers were developed to explore new routes to novel functional polymers. Sulfonamides were discovered as new activating groups for polymerization of high molecular weight thermooxidatively stable materials with sulfonic acid latent functionality. While the sulfonamide functional polymers could be produced, the sulfonamide group proved to be too stable to convert into a sulfonic acid after reaction. The reactivity of 2-aminophenol was investigated to search for a new class of ion conducting polymer materials. Both the amine and the phenol groups are found to be reactive in a nucleophilic aromatic substitution, however not to the extent to allow the formation of high molecular weight polymer materials. Layer-by-layer films were assembled from aqueous solutions of poly(styrene sulfonate) and trimethylammonium functionalized poly(phenylene oxide). The deposition conditions were adjusted to increase the free charge carrier content, and chloride conductivites reached almost 30 mS/cm for the best films. Block and random poly(phenylene oxide) copolymers were produced from 2,6-dimethylphenol and 2,6-diphenylphenol and the methyl substituted repeat units were functionalized with trimethylammonium bromide. The block copolymers displayed bromide conductivities up to 26 mS/cm and outperformed the random copolymers, indicating that morphology has an effect on ion transport.

Rebeck, Nathaniel T.

107

Leishmania donovani: Immunostimulatory Cellular Responses of Membrane and Soluble Protein Fractions of Splenic Amastigotes in Cured Patient and Hamsters  

PubMed Central

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by the intracellular parasite Leishmania donovani, L. chagasi and L. infantum is characterized by defective cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and is usually fatal if not treated properly. An estimated 350 million people worldwide are at risk of acquiring infection with Leishmania parasites with approximately 500,000 cases of VL being reported each year. In the absence of an efficient and cost-effective antileishmanial drug, development of an appropriate long-lasting vaccine against VL is the need of the day. In VL, the development of a CMI, capable of mounting Th1-type of immune responses, play an important role as it correlate with recovery from and resistance to disease. Resolution of infection results in lifelong immunity against the disease which indicates towards the feasibility of a vaccine against the disease. Most of the vaccination studies in Leishmaniasis have been focused on promastigote- an infective stage of parasite with less exploration of pathogenic amastigote form, due to the cumbersome process of its purified isolation. In the present study, we have isolated and purified splenic amastigotes of L. donovani, following the traditional protocol with slight modification. These were fractionated into five membranous and soluble subfractions each i.e MAF1-5 and SAF1-5 and were subjected for evaluation of their ability to induce cellular responses. Out of five sub-fractions from each of membrane and soluble, only four viz. MAF2, MAF3, SAF2 and SAF3 were observed to stimulate remarkable lymphoproliferative, IFN-?, IL-12 responses and Nitric Oxide production, in Leishmania-infected cured/exposed patients and hamsters. Results suggest the presence of Th-1 type immunostimulatory molecules in these sub-fractions which may further be exploited for developing a successful subunit vaccine from the less explored pathogenic stage against VL. PMID:22292030

Tandon, Rati; Samant, Mukesh; Sundar, Shyam; Dube, Anuradha

2012-01-01

108

Measurement of the nonlinear elasticity of red blood cell membranes  

E-print Network

The membranes of human red blood cells (RBCs) are a composite of a fluid lipid bilayer and a triangular network of semiflexible filaments (spectrin). We perform cellular microrheology using the dynamic membrane fluctuations ...

Park, YongKeun

109

Computational Modeling and Optimization of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells  

E-print Network

Computational Modeling and Optimization of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells by Marc Secanell and Optimization of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells by Marc Secanell Gallart Bachelor in Engineering cells. In this thesis, a computational framework for fuel cell analysis and optimization is presented

Victoria, University of

110

Characterization of glycine uptake in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from cultured glioblastoma cells.  

PubMed

C6 glioblastoma cells in culture were employed to isolate plasma membrane vesicles. After disruption of the glioblastoma cells by homogenization, membrane fractions were obtained by centrifugation on a discontinuous Ficoll density gradient. Fragmented membranes were found mainly in vesicular form. Transport of glycine has been demonstrated in membrane vesicles, using artificially imposed ion gradients as the sole energy source. The uptake of glycine is strictly dependent on the presence of Na+ and Cl- in the medium, and the process can be driven either by an Na+ gradient (out greater than in) or by a Cl- gradient (out greater than in) when the other essential ion is present. The process is stimulated by a membrane potential (negative inside) as demonstrated by the effect of ionophore valinomycin and anions with different permeabilities. The kinetic analysis shows that glycine is accumulated by two systems with different affinities. PMID:3026556

Zafra, F; Gimenez, C

1986-11-01

111

Interaction between Cell Penetrating pVEC and cell membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vascular Endothelial Cadherin (VEC) is a transmembrane-spanning glycoprotein that belongs to the family of cell adhesion molecules and plays an active role in control of vascular permeability and angiogenesis. PVEC, an 18 amino acid domain, has been shown to be able to traverse cell membranes with attached macromolecules. pVEC is an amphiphilic molecule with a high content of basic amino acids resulting in a net positive charge. Electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions can perturb membrane self-assembly and stability and are likely to be responsible for peptide uptake. We use synchrotron x-ray scattering and confocal microscopy to examine the phase behavior of the pVEC lipid system, and its relation to membrane permeation mechanisms.

Mishra, Abhijit; Hwee Lai, Ghee; Schmidt, Nathan; Wong, Gerard

2011-03-01

112

Dynamic visualization of membrane-inserted fraction of pHluorin-tagged channels using repetitive acidification technique  

PubMed Central

Background Changes in neuronal excitability, synaptic efficacy and generally in cell signaling often result from insertion of key molecules into plasma membrane (PM). Many of the techniques used for monitoring PM insertion lack either spatial or temporal resolution. Results We improved the imaging method based on time-lapse total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy and pHluorin tagging by supplementing it with a repetitive extracellular acidification protocol. We illustrate the applicability of this method by showing that brief activation of NMDA receptors ("chemical LTP") in cultured hippocampal neurons induced a persistent PM insertion of glutamate receptors containing the pHluorin-tagged GluR-A(flip) subunits. Conclusion The repetitive acidification technique provides a more accurate way of monitoring the PM-inserted fraction of fluorescently tagged molecules and offers a good temporal and spatial resolution. PMID:19948025

2009-01-01

113

Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash applet can be used to compare and explore equivalence among fractions, decimals and percentages. It allows a child or teacher to represent fractions on one or more fraction strips, and to color individual parts. Each displayed strip can be labelled as a fraction, a decimal (to three decimal places) or a percentage; the ratio of yellow to green parts of each strip can also be displayed. It lends itself well to use with an interactive white board. A pdf guide to this collection of teaching applets is cataloged separately.

2006-01-01

114

Membrane thickness is an important variable in membrane scaffolds: Influence of chitosan membrane structure on the behavior of cells  

PubMed Central

Cell and tissue responses to polymeric materials are orchestrated in part by the conformations of adsorbed plasma proteins. Thus, the chemical properties of a polymer membrane that govern protein adsorption behaviour can play an important role in determining the biological properties of tissue engineered scaffolds derived from that polymer. In this study, we explored the role of membrane thickness as a factor influencing cell adhesion and proliferation on chitosan membranes with and without covalently-attached glycosaminoglycans. Rat mesenchymal stem cells cultured on chitosan membranes of various thicknesses demonstrated significantly improved cell adhesion, spreading and proliferation as membrane thickness was increased. Hepatocytes displayed increased spreading on the substrate with increasing membrane thickness similar to MSCs. Increased thickness reduced the overall crystallinity of the membrane, and the data indicate that the improved cellular responses were likely due to enhanced adsorption of serum vitronectin, presumably due to reduced membrane crystallinity. These results demonstrate that membrane thickness is an important design variable that can be manipulated in chitosan-based scaffolds to achieve enhanced cell spreading, proliferation and function. PMID:19925888

Uygun, Basak E.; Bou-Akl, Therese; Albanna, Mohammad

2009-01-01

115

The membrane proteome of the mouse lens fiber cell  

PubMed Central

Purpose Fiber cells of the ocular lens are bounded by a highly specialized plasma membrane. Despite the pivotal role that membrane proteins play in the physiology and pathophysiology of the lens, our knowledge of the structure and composition of the fiber cell plasma membrane remains fragmentary. In the current study, we utilized mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics to provide a comprehensive survey of the mouse lens fiber cell membrane proteome. Methods Membranes were purified from young mouse lenses and subjected to MudPIT (Multidimensional protein identification technology) analysis. The resulting proteomic data were analyzed further by reference to publically available microarray databases. Results More than 200 membrane proteins were identified by MudPIT, including Type I, Type II, Type III (multi-pass), lipid-anchored, and GPI-anchored membrane proteins, in addition to membrane-associated cytoskeletal elements and extracellular matrix components. The membrane proteins of highest apparent abundance included Mip, Lim2, and the lens-specific connexin proteins Gja3, Gja8, and Gje1. Significantly, many proteins previously unsuspected in the lens were also detected, including proteins with roles in cell adhesion, solute transport, and cell signaling. Conclusions The MudPIT technique constitutes a powerful technique for the analysis of the lens membrane proteome and provides valuable insights into the composition of the lens fiber cell unit membrane. PMID:19956408

Wilmarth, Phillip A.; David, Larry L.

2009-01-01

116

Isolation and Characterization of Glycophorin from Carp Red Blood Cell Membranes  

PubMed Central

We isolated a high-purity carp glycophorin from carp erythrocyte membranes following extraction using the lithium diiodosalicylate (LIS)-phenol method and streptomycin treatment. The main carp glycophorin was observed to locate at the position of the carp and human band-3 proteins on an SDS-polyacrylamide gel. Only the N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) form of sialic acid was detected in the carp glycophorin. The oligosaccharide fraction was separated into two components (P-1 and P-2) using a Glyco-Pak DEAE column. We observed bacteriostatic activity against five strains of bacteria, including two known fish pathogens. Fractions from the carp erythrocyte membrane, the glycophorin oligosaccharide and the P-1 also exhibited bacteriostatic activity; whereas the glycolipid fraction and the glycophorin fraction without sialic acid did not show the activity. The carp glycophorin molecules attach to the flagellum of V. anguillarum or the cell surface of M. luteus and inhibited bacterial growth. PMID:25110961

Aoki, Takahiko; Chimura, Kenji; Nakao, Nobuhiro; Mizuno, Yasuko

2014-01-01

117

Isolation and characterization of glycophorin from carp red blood cell membranes.  

PubMed

We isolated a high-purity carp glycophorin from carp erythrocyte membranes following extraction using the lithium diiodosalicylate (LIS)-phenol method and streptomycin treatment. The main carp glycophorin was observed to locate at the position of the carp and human band-3 proteins on an SDS-polyacrylamide gel. Only the N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) form of sialic acid was detected in the carp glycophorin. The oligosaccharide fraction was separated into two components (P-1 and P-2) using a Glyco-Pak DEAE column. We observed bacteriostatic activity against five strains of bacteria, including two known fish pathogens. Fractions from the carp erythrocyte membrane, the glycophorin oligosaccharide and the P-1 also exhibited bacteriostatic activity; whereas the glycolipid fraction and the glycophorin fraction without sialic acid did not show the activity. The carp glycophorin molecules attach to the flagellum of V. anguillarum or the cell surface of M. luteus and inhibited bacterial growth. PMID:25110961

Aoki, Takahiko; Chimura, Kenji; Nakao, Nobuhiro; Mizuno, Yasuko

2014-01-01

118

Functional Identification of H + ATPase and Na + \\/H + Antiporter in the Plasma Membrane Isolated from the Root Cells of Salt-Accumulating Halophyte Suaeda altissima  

Microsoft Academic Search

A membrane fraction enriched in plasma membrane (PM) vesicles was isolated from the root cells of a salt-accumulating halophyte Suaeda altissima (L.) Pall. by means of centrifugation in discontinuous sucrose density gradient. The PM vesicles were capable of generating ?pH at their membrane and the transmembrane electric potential difference (??). These quantities were measured with optical probes, acridine orange and

R. V. Lun'kov; I. M. Andreev; N. A. Myasoedov; G. F. Khailova; E. B. Kurkova; Yu. V. Balnokin

2005-01-01

119

CO2-SELECTIVE MEMBRANE FOR FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS.  

E-print Network

??We have developed CO2-selective membranes to purified hydrogen and nitrogenfor fuel cell processes. Hydrogen purification impacts other industries such as ammoniaproduction and flue gas purification… (more)

El-Azzami, Louei Abdel Raouf

2006-01-01

120

Poliovirus 2C protein determinants of membrane binding and rearrangements in mammalian cells.  

PubMed Central

Poliovirus protein 2C is a 329-amino acid-protein that is essential for viral RNA synthesis and may perform multiple functions. In infected cells, it is associated with virus-specific membrane vesicles. Recombinant 2C protein expressed in transfected cells has been shown to associate with and induce rearrangement of the intracellular membrane network. This study was designed to map the determinants of membrane binding and rearrangement in the 2C protein. Computer-assisted analysis of the protein sequence led to a prediction that the protein folds into a structure composed of three domains. Expression plasmids that encode each or combinations of these predicted domains were used to examine the abilities of the partial protein sequences to associate with intracellular membranes and to induce rearrangement of these membranes in HeLa cells. Biochemical fractionation procedures suggested that the N-terminal region of the protein was required for membrane association. Electron microscopic and immunoelectron microscopic observation showed that both the N- and C-terminal regions, but not the central portion, of 2C protein interact with intracellular membranes and induce major changes in their morphology. The central portion, when fused to the N-terminal region, altered the specific membrane architecture induced by the N-terminal region, giving rise to vesicles resembling those observed during poliovirus infection. PMID:9371552

Teterina, N L; Gorbalenya, A E; Egger, D; Bienz, K; Ehrenfeld, E

1997-01-01

121

Stabilization/destabilization of cell membranes by multivalent ions: Implications for membrane fusion and division  

E-print Network

We propose a mechanism for the stabilization/destabilization of cell membranes by multivalent ions with an emphasis on its implications for the division and fusion of cells. We find that multivalent cations preferentially adsorbed onto a membrane dramatically changes the membrane stability. They not only reduce the surface charge density of the membrane but also induce a repulsive barrier to pore growth. While both of these effects lead to enhanced membrane stability against vesiculation and pore growth, the repulsive barrier arises from correlated fluctuations of the adsorbed cations and favors closure of a pore. Finally, the addition of a small amount of multivalent anions can reverse the membrane stabilization, providing an effective way to regulate membrane stability.

Bae-Yeun Ha

2000-05-31

122

Freeze-fracture analysis of thylakoid membranes and photosystem I and II enriched fractions from Phormidium laminosum.  

PubMed

Thylakoid membranes of the thermophilic cyanobacterium Phormidium laminosum have been fractionated into photosystem II and photosystem I particles. These fractions have been characterized by their partial electron transport activities, and biochemical and spectral properties. Exoplasmic fracture face and protoplasmic fracture face particles in the unfractionated thylakoid membranes were shown to correspond in size to particles in freeze-fractured photosystem II and photosystem I fractions, respectively. Differences between the histograms of the thylakoid membrane protoplasmic fracture face particles and the isolated photosystem I particles suggest that in addition to photosystem I complexes some of the particles on the thylakoid protoplasmic fracture face may be related to cytochrome b/f complexes, the hydrophobic component of the coupling factor, or respiratory complexes. PMID:3088002

Glick, R E; Triemer, R E; Zilinskas, B A

1986-02-01

123

Viola tricolor Induces Apoptosis in Cancer Cells and Exhibits Antiangiogenic Activity on Chicken Chorioallantoic Membrane.  

PubMed

In the present study, the cytotoxic and apoptogenic properties of hydroalcoholic extract and ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol, and water fractions (0-800??g/mL) of Viola tricolor were investigated in Neuro2a mouse neuroblastoma and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. In addition, antiangiogenic effect of EtOAc fraction was evaluated on chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). The quality of EtOAc fraction was also characterized using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint. Cytotoxicity assay revealed that EtOAc fraction was the most potent among all fractions with maximal effect on MCF-7 and minimal toxicity against normal murine fibroblast L929 cells. Apoptosis induction by EtOAc fraction was confirmed by increased sub-G1 peak of propidium iodide (PI) stained cells. This fraction triggered the apoptotic pathway by increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleaved caspase-3 level. Moreover, treatment with EtOAc fraction significantly decreased the diameter of vessels on CAM, while the number of newly formed blood vessels was not suppressed significantly. Analysis of quality of EtOAc fraction using HPLC fingerprint showed six major peaks with different retention times. The results of the present study suggest that V. tricolor has potential anticancer property by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis. PMID:25243166

Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Ghorbani Hesari, Taghi; Mortazavian, Seyed Mohsen; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra; Ghorbani, Ahmad

2014-01-01

124

Biodegradation characteristics and size fractionation of landfill leachate for integrated membrane treatment.  

PubMed

The fate of organics and nitrogen during the biological treatment with MBR and subsequent membrane filtration processes (nano filtration, NF; reverse osmosis, RO) were investigated for a landfill leachate. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal performances of membrane bioreactor (MBR) were obtained to be around 89% and 85%, respectively. The effluent COD of MBR was measured to be 1935 mg/L (30 kDa) which is much lower than experimentally determined soluble inert COD of 3200 mg/L using 0.45 ?m filter. The readily and slowly biodegradable COD fractions were estimated to be 17% and 52% of raw influent COD, respectively. The respirometry based modeling test performed on raw leachate exhibited much slower degradation kinetics compared to municipal wastewater. A unique subset of model parameters was extracted from batch respirometry by using acclimated MBR sludge. The sequential ultrafiltration (UF) experiments (particle size distribution, PSD) revealed that most of the organics was below 2 nm filter mesh size. In addition, NF/RO post treatment after MBR system was required to increase COD and total nitrogen (TN) removal performances up to 99%. Relatively lower salt rejection rates around 94% was obtained for RO system as a post treatment of MBR system. PMID:23856313

Insel, Güçlü; Dagdar, Mina; Dogruel, Serdar; Dizge, Nadir; Ubay Cokgor, Emine; Keskinler, Bülent

2013-09-15

125

Evaluation of membranes for use in on-line cell separation during mammalian cell perfusion processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study two microporous hollow fibre membranes were evaluated for their use as cell retention device in continuous perfusion systems. A chemically modified permanent hydrophillic PTFE membrane and a hydrophilized PP membrane were tested. To investigate the filtration characteristics under process conditions each membrane was tested during a long term perfusion cultivation of a hybridoma cell line. In both

Heino Btintemeyer; Christoph Btihme; Jtirgen Lehmann

1994-01-01

126

Exo70 Generates Membrane Curvature for Morphogenesis and Cell Migration  

PubMed Central

Dynamic shape changes of the plasma membrane are fundamental to many processes ranging from morphogenesis and cell migration to phagocytosis and viral propagation. Here we demonstrate that Exo70, a component of the exocyst complex, induces tubular membrane invaginations towards the lumen of synthetic vesicles in vitro and generates protrusions on the surface of cells. Biochemical analyses using Exo70 mutants and independent molecular dynamics simulations based on Exo70 structure demonstrate that Exo70 generates negative membrane curvature through an oligomerization-based mechanism. In cells, the membrane-deformation function of Exo70 is required for protrusion formation and directional cell migration. Exo70 thus represents a membrane-bending protein that may couple actin dynamics and plasma membrane remodeling for morphogenesis. PMID:23948253

Zhao, Yuting; Liu, Jianglan; Yang, Changsong; Capraro, Benjamin R.; Baumgart, Tobias; Bradley, Ryan P.; Ramakrishnan, N.; Xu, Xiaowei; Radhakrishnan, Ravi; Svitkina, Tatyana; Guo, Wei

2013-01-01

127

New ETFE-based membrane for direct methanol fuel cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigated membranes are based on 35?? m thick commercial poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films. The films were made proton conductive by means of irradiation treatment followed by sulfonation. These membranes have exceptionally low water uptake and excellent dimensional stability. The new membranes are investigated widely in a laboratory-scale direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The temperature range used in the fuel cell

V. Saarinen; T. Kallio; M. Paronen; P. Tikkanen; E. Rauhala; K. Kontturi

2005-01-01

128

Direct ethanol fuel cells using an anion exchange membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) with a PtRu anode and a Pt cathode were prepared using an anion exchange membrane (AEM) as an electrolyte instead of a cation exchange membrane (CEM), as in conventional polymer electrolyte fuel cells. The maximum power density of DEFCs significantly increased from 6mWcm?2 to 58mWcm?2 at room temperature and atmospheric pressure when the electrolyte membrane

Naoko Fujiwara; Zyun Siroma; Shin-ichi Yamazaki; Tsutomu Ioroi; Hiroshi Senoh; Kazuaki Yasuda

2008-01-01

129

Cell evolution and the problem of membrane topology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cells somehow evolved from primordial chemistry and their emergence depended on the co-evolution of the cytoplasm, a genetic system and the cell membrane. It is widely believed that the cytoplasm evolved inside a primordial lipid vesicle, but here I argue that the earliest cytoplasm could have co-evolved to high complexity outside a vesicle on the membrane surface. An invagination of

Gareth Griffiths

2007-01-01

130

Membrane Nanowaves in Single and Collective Cell Migration  

PubMed Central

We report the characterization of three-dimensional membrane waves for migrating single and collective cells and describe their propagation using wide-field optical profiling technique with nanometer resolution. We reveal the existence of small and large membrane waves the amplitudes of which are in the range of ?3–7 nm to ?16–25 nm respectively, through the cell. For migrating single-cells, the amplitude of these waves is about 30 nm near the cell edge. Two or more different directions of propagation of the membrane nanowaves inside the same cell can be observed. After increasing the migration velocity by BMP-2 treatment, only one wave direction of propagation exists with an increase in the average amplitude (more than 80 nm near the cell edge). Furthermore for collective-cell migration, these membrane nanowaves are attenuated on the leader cells and poor transmission of these nanowaves to follower cells was observed. After BMP-2 treatment, the membrane nanowaves are transmitted from the leader cell to several rows of follower cells. Surprisingly, the vast majority of the observed membrane nanowaves is shared between the adjacent cells. These results give a new view on how single and collective-cells modulate their motility. This work has significant implications for the therapeutic use of BMPs for the regeneration of skin tissue. PMID:24846182

Zouani, Omar F.; Gocheva, Veronika; Durrieu, Marie-Christine

2014-01-01

131

Live-cell imaging of receptors around postsynaptic membranes.  

PubMed

This protocol describes how to image the trafficking of glutamate receptors around excitatory postsynaptic membrane formed on an adhesion protein-coated glass surface. The protocol was developed to clarify how receptors move during the induction of synaptic plasticity. Dissociated neurons are cultured on a coverslip coated with neurexin, which induces the formation of postsynaptic membrane-like structures on the glass surface. A glutamate receptor tagged with a fluorescent protein is then transfected into neurons, and it is observed with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. The whole process takes about 3 weeks. Changes in the amount of cell-surface receptors caused by neuronal activities can be quantified, and individual exocytosis events of receptors can be clearly observed around the pseudo-postsynaptic membrane. This protocol has potential applications for studies of movements of membrane proteins around other specialized regions of the cell membrane, such as the inhibitory postsynaptic membrane, the presynaptic membrane or the immunological synapses. PMID:24336472

Tanaka, Hiromitsu; Fujii, Shumpei; Hirano, Tomoo

2014-01-01

132

How helminths use excretory secretory fractions to modulate dendritic cells  

PubMed Central

It is well known that helminth parasites have immunomodulatory effects on their hosts. They characteristically cause a skew toward TH2 immunity, stimulate Treg cells while simultaneously inhibiting TH1 and TH17 responses. Additionally, they induce eosinophilia and extensive IgE release. The exact mechanism of how the worms achieve this effect have yet to be fully elucidated; however, parasite-derived secretions and their interaction with antigen presenting cells have been centrally implicated. Herein, we will review the effects of helminth excretory-secretory fractions on dendritic cells and discuss how this interaction is crucial in shaping the host response. PMID:23221477

White, Rhiannon R.; Artavanis-Tsakonas, Katerina

2012-01-01

133

Red Blood Cell Membrane Dynamics during Malaria Parasite Egress  

PubMed Central

Precisely how malaria parasites exit from infected red blood cells to further spread the disease remains poorly understood. It has been shown recently, however, that these parasites exploit the elasticity of the cell membrane to enable their egress. Based on this work, showing that parasites modify the membrane’s spontaneous curvature, initiating pore opening and outward membrane curling, we develop a model of the dynamics of the red blood cell membrane leading to complete parasite egress. As a result of the three-dimensional, axisymmetric nature of the problem, we find that the membrane dynamics involve two modes of elastic-energy release: 1), at short times after pore opening, the free edge of the membrane curls into a toroidal rim attached to a membrane cap of roughly fixed radius; and 2), at longer times, the rim radius is fixed, and lipids in the cap flow into the rim. We compare our model with the experimental data of Abkarian and co-workers and obtain an estimate of the induced spontaneous curvature and the membrane viscosity, which control the timescale of parasite release. Finally, eversion of the membrane cap, which liberates the remaining parasites, is driven by the spontaneous curvature and is found to be associated with a breaking of the axisymmetry of the membrane. PMID:23260049

Callan-Jones, Andrew; Albarran Arriagada, Octavio Eduardo; Massiera, Gladys; Lorman, Vladimir; Abkarian, Manouk

2012-01-01

134

Sustainable Energy Systems Lab: Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab introduces the operation of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Students will become familiar with a Simulink model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell, obtain the nonlinear voltage-current and power-current characteristics for a typical fuel cell, determine the maximum power point and obtain a linear voltage equation for the fuel cell as a function of the current. This document may be downloaded in Microsoft Word file format.

2012-10-08

135

The isolation and characterization of right-side-out plasma membrane vesicles from barley aleurone cells.  

PubMed

Examination of organelle- and membrane-specific processes such as signal transduction necessitates the use of plasma membrane vesicles with cytoplasmic side-in orientation. We are interested in the structural identity and subcellular localization of in vivo [32P]phosphoric acid ([32Pi])-labeled phosphoinositides, including the recently discovered phosphatidyl-scyllo-inositol, for signal transduction studies. In the first part of this investigation, plasma membrane vesicles from barley aleurone cells were isolated employing the aqueous polymer (Dextran and polyethylene glycol) two-phase partition method. The membrane vesicles that partitioned into the upper and lower phases of the aqueous polymer two-phase system were characterized and the purity of the vesicles ascertained by assaying for two marker enzymes, K+-stimulated, Mg2+-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (EC 3.6.1.3, ATPase), localized in the plasma membranes, and cytochrome c oxidase, localized in the mitochondria. Inhibitors for ATPases such as azide, molybdate, and vanadate were used to distinguish between plasma membrane-associated and intracellular membrane-associated ATPases. These inhibitor studies suggest that the plasma membrane preparation contained about 7% of intracellular membrane vesicles and the intracellular membrane fraction contained about 6% of plasma membrane vesicles. Orientation of the plasma membrane vesicles was ascertained by measuring the latent ATPase activity. These latency studies suggest that about 95% of the plasma membrane vesicles were of cytoplasmic side-in orientation. In the second part of this investigation, intracellular distribution and in vivo [32Pi] labeling of phosphoinositides in the plasma membranes and intracellular membranes were investigated. Preferential accumulation of [32Pi]-labeled phosphatidyl-myo-inositol monophosphate (myo-PIP) and phosphatidyl-myo-inositol bisphosphate (myo-PIP2) was observed in the plasma membrane. However, scyllo-phosphatidylinositol (scyllo-PI) was detected in both the plasma membrane and the intracellular membranes. The cellular concentration of myo-phosphoinositides was determined, and, after 24 h of labeling with [32Pi], the ratio of radiolabel in myo-PI, PIP, and PIP2 paralleled the relative concentrations in aleurone cells. PMID:10188600

Robbins, K M; Bhuvarahamurthy, N; Pliska-Matyshak, G; Murthy, P P

1999-01-01

136

Characterization of a graphene oxide membrane fuel cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical, mechanical, and compositional characterization of a graphene oxide membrane is presented, and its application as an electrolyte material in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell is explored. Self-supporting graphene oxide membranes were prepared by a simple vacuum filtration process and, for the first time, characterized as the electrolyte in a fuel cell operating in an elevated temperature range (30-80 °C), with a maximum power density of ?34 mW cm-2, approaching that of a Nafion electrolyte based cell prepared and tested under similar conditions. Evidence for partial membrane reduction was found at higher temperatures and is believed to originate from more easily released, higher energy oxide groups, such as epoxides. We also discuss the morphology, the mechanical properties, chemical composition, and electrical conductivity of the graphene oxide membranes, with comparisons made to conventional Nafion membranes.

Bayer, T.; Bishop, S. R.; Nishihara, M.; Sasaki, K.; Lyth, S. M.

2014-12-01

137

Membranous basal cell adenoma arising in the eyelid  

PubMed Central

Basal cell adenoma (BCA) is a specific entity that lacks the myxochondroid stromal component of pleomorphic adenoma. Membranous basal cell adenoma is a rare variant of BCA, which is characteristic by abundant eosinophilicextracellular hyaline material deposited either inside or at the periphery of the epithelial islands. Herin we describe the first case of membranous BCA arising in the upper eyelid in a 38-year-old woman. A well-demarcated nodule arising in the eyelid was composed of isomorphic basaloid cells organized with a prominent basal cell layer and distinct basement membrane-like material. Immunohistochemically, S100 protein and p63 highlighted the basal aspect of the peripheral epithelial cells, while CK7 expressed on the luminal cells. A diagnosis of membranous basal cell adenoma of the eyelid was made. At follow-up for 2 years and 3 months later, there was no evidence of recurrence. Further pathological characteristics of this disease are discussed. PMID:25120843

Huang, Yong; Yang, Min; Ding, Jianhui

2014-01-01

138

The effects of natural organic matter (NOM) fractions on fouling characteristics and flux recovery of ultrafiltration membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural organic matter (NOM) which is a complex mix of particulate and soluble materials in surface water has been identified and reported by previous studies as responsible for membrane fouling. However the component of NOM which primarily causes the fouling problem is still not well understood, especially relating to the specific fraction that is mainly responsible for flux decline. Therefore,

A. W. Zularisam; A. F. Ismail; M. R. Salim; Mimi Sakinah; H. Ozaki

2007-01-01

139

Identification of effluent organic matter fractions responsible for low-pressure membrane fouling.  

PubMed

Anion exchange resin (AER), powder activated carbon (PAC) adsorption and ozonation treatments were applied on biologically treated wastewater effluent with the objective to modify the effluent organic matter (EfOM) matrix. Both AER and PAC led to significant total organic carbon (TOC) removal, while the TOC remained nearly constant after ozonation. Liquid Chromatography-Organic Carbon Detection (LC-OCD) analysis showed that the AER treatment preferentially removed high and intermediate molecular weight (MW) humic-like structures while PAC removed low MW compounds. Only a small reduction of the high MW colloids (i.e. biopolymers) was observed for AER and PAC treatments. Ozonation induced a large reduction of the biopolymers and an important increase of the low MW humic substances (i.e. building blocks). Single-cycle microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) tests were conducted using commercially available hollow fibres at a constant flux. After reconcentration to their original organic carbon content, the EfOM matrix modified by AER and PAC treatments exhibited higher UF membrane fouling compared to untreated effluent; result that correlated with the higher concentration of biopolymers. On the contrary, ozonation which induced a significant degradation of the biopolymers led to a minor flux reduction for both UF and MF filtration tests. Based on a single filtration, results indicate that biopolymers play a major role in low pressure membrane fouling and that intermediate and low MW compounds have minor impact. Thus, this approach has shown to be a valid methodology to identify the foulant fractions of EfOM. PMID:22884373

Filloux, Emmanuelle; Gallard, Hervé; Croue, Jean-Philippe

2012-11-01

140

Efficient adhesion-based plasma membrane isolation for cell surface N-glycan analysis.  

PubMed

Glycans, which decorate cell surfaces, play crucial roles in various physiological events involving cell surface recognition. Despite the importance of surface glycans, most analyses have been performed using total cells or whole membranes rather than plasma membranes due to difficulties related to isolation. In the present study, we employed an adhesion-based method for plasma membrane isolation to analyze N-glycans on cell surfaces. Cells were attached to polylysine-coated glass plates and then ruptured by hypotonic pressure. After washing to remove intracellular organelles, only a plasma membrane fraction remained attached to the plates, as confirmed by fluorescence imaging using organelle-specific probes. The plate was directly treated with trypsin to digest and detach the glycoproteins from the plasma membrane. From the resulting glycopeptides, N-glycans were released and analyzed using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and HPLC. When N-glycan profiles obtained by this method were compared to those by other methods, the amount of high-mannose type glycans mainly contaminated from the endoplasmic reticulum was dramatically reduced, which enabled the efficient detection of complex type glycans present on the cell surface. Moreover, this method was successfully used to analyze the increase of high-mannose glycans on the surface as induced by a mannosidase inhibitor treatment. PMID:23834277

Mun, Ji-Young; Lee, Kyung Jin; Seo, Hoon; Sung, Min-Sun; Cho, Yee Sook; Lee, Seung-Goo; Kwon, Ohsuk; Oh, Doo-Byoung

2013-08-01

141

A Hybrid Microbial Fuel Cell Membrane Bioreactor with a Conductive Ultrafiltration Membrane Biocathode for Wastewater Treatment  

E-print Network

Biocathode for Wastewater Treatment Lilian Malaeb,,§ Krishna P. Katuri,,§ Bruce E. Logan, Husnul Maab, S. P-biocathode microbial fuel cell- membrane bioreactor (MFC-MBR) system was developed to achieve simultaneous wastewater and the membrane for wastewater filtration. The MFC-MBR used an air-biocathode, and it was shown to have good

142

Inorganic–Polymer Composite Membranes for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite membranes consisting primarily of a polymer and an inorganic proton conducting particle or a proton conducting polymer containing inorganic particles for use as proton exchange membranes in low and intermediate temperature fuel cells are reviewed. The chemistry of major inorganic additives that have been used is described in terms of their structure and intrinsic ability to conduct protons. Composites

Andrew M. Herring

2006-01-01

143

Chromatin fractionation analysis of licensing factors in mammalian cells.  

PubMed

ORC, Cdc6, Cdt1, and MCM2-7 are replication-licensing factors, which play a central role in the once-per-cell cycle control of DNA replication. ORC, Cdc6, and Cdt1 collaborate to load MCM2-7 onto replication origins in order to license them for replication. MCM2-7 is a DNA helicase directly involved in DNA replication and dissociates from DNA as S phase progresses and each replicon is replicated. In the cell cycle, the loading of MCM2-7 is restricted during the end of mitosis and the G1 phase. Thus, the levels of chromatin-bound MCM2-7 and its loaders oscillate during the cell cycle. Chromatin association of these factors can be analyzed by separating a cell lysate into soluble and chromatin-enriched insoluble fractions in mammalian cells. PMID:24906333

Nishitani, Hideo; Morino, Masayuki; Murakami, Yusuke; Maeda, Takeshi; Shiomi, Yasushi

2014-01-01

144

Cell membrane potentials induced during exposure to EMP fields  

SciTech Connect

Internal current densities and electric fields induced in the human body during exposure to EMP fields are reviewed and used to predict resulting cell membrane potentials. Using several different approaches, membrane potentials of about 100 mV are predicted. These values are comparable to the static membrane potentials maintained by cells as a part of normal physiological function, but the EMP-induced potentials persist for only about 10 ns. Possible biological implications of EMP-induced membrane potentials including conformational changes and electroporation are discussed.

Gailey, P.C.; Easterly, C.E.

1994-09-01

145

Functional Implications of Plasma Membrane Condensation for T Cell Activation  

PubMed Central

The T lymphocyte plasma membrane condenses at the site of activation but the functional significance of this receptor-mediated membrane reorganization is not yet known. Here we demonstrate that membrane condensation at the T cell activation sites can be inhibited by incorporation of the oxysterol 7-ketocholesterol (7KC), which is known to prevent the formation of raft-like liquid-ordered domains in model membranes. We enriched T cells with 7KC, or cholesterol as control, to assess the importance of membrane condensation for T cell activation. Upon 7KC treatment, T cell antigen receptor (TCR) triggered calcium fluxes and early tyrosine phosphorylation events appear unaltered. However, signaling complexes form less efficiently on the cell surface, fewer phosphorylated signaling proteins are retained in the plasma membrane and actin restructuring at activation sites is impaired in 7KC-enriched cells resulting in compromised downstream activation responses. Our data emphasizes lipids as an important medium for the organization at T cell activation sites and strongly indicates that membrane condensation is an important element of the T cell activation process. PMID:18509459

Quinn, Carmel M.; Engelhardt, Karin; Williamson, David; Grewal, Thomas; Jessup, Wendy; Harder, Thomas; Gaus, Katharina

2008-01-01

146

Detecting Nanodomains in Living Cell Membrane by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cell membranes actively participate in numerous cellular functions. Inasmuch as bioactivities of cell membranes are known to depend crucially on their lateral organization, much effort has been focused on deciphering this organization on different length scales. Within this context, the concept of lipid rafts has been intensively discussed over recent years. In line with its ability to measure diffusion parameters with great precision, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) measurements have been made in association with innovative experimental strategies to monitor modes of molecular lateral diffusion within the plasma membrane of living cells. These investigations have allowed significant progress in the characterization of the cell membrane lateral organization at the suboptical level and have provided compelling evidence for the in vivo existence of raft nanodomains. We review these FCS-based studies and the characteristic structural features of raft nanodomains. We also discuss the findings in regards to the current view of lipid rafts as a general membrane-organizing principle.

He, Hai-Tao; Marguet, Didier

2011-05-01

147

Distribution of Intact and Core Membrane Lipids of Archaeal Glycerol Dialkyl Glycerol Tetraethers among Size-Fractionated Particulate Organic Matter in Hood Canal, Puget Sound  

PubMed Central

There is great interest in the membrane lipids of archaea (glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers [GDGTs]) as tracers of archaeal biomass because of their utility as paleoproxies and because of the biogeochemical importance of archaea. While core GDGTs (formed by hydrolysis of polar head groups of intact GDGTs after cell death) are appropriate for paleostudies, they have also been used to trace archaeal populations. Also, despite the small size (0.2 by 0.7 ?m) of cultivated marine archaea, 0.7-?m glass-fiber filters (GFFs) are typically used to collect GDGTs from natural waters. We quantified both core and intact GDGTs in free-living (0.2- to 0.7-?m), suspended (0.7- to 60-?m), and aggregate (>60-?m) particle size fractions in Puget Sound (Washington State). On average, the free-living fraction contained 36% of total GDGTs, 90% of which were intact. The intermediate-size fraction contained 62% of GDGTs, and 29% of these were intact. The aggregate fraction contained 2% of the total GDGT pool, and 29% of these were intact. Our results demonstrate that intact GDGTs are largely in the free-living fraction. Because only intact GDGTs are present in living cells, protocols that target this size fraction and analyze the intact GDGT pool are necessary to track living populations in marine waters. Core GDGT enrichment in larger-size fractions indicates that archaeal biomass may quickly become attached or entrained in particles once the archaea are dead or dying. While the concentrations of the two pools were generally not correlated, the similar sizes of the core and intact GDGT pools suggest that core GDGTs are removed from the water column on timescales similar to those of cell replication, on timescales of days to weeks. PMID:22226949

Huguet, Carme; Truxal, Laura T.

2012-01-01

148

Alternative Sources of Adult Stem Cells: Human Amniotic Membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Human amniotic membrane is a highly promising cell source for tissue engineering. The cells thereof, human amniotic epithelial\\u000a cells (hAEC) and human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSC), may be immunoprivileged, they represent an early developmental\\u000a status, and their application is ethically uncontroversial. Cell banking strategies may use freshly isolated cells or involve\\u000a in vitro expansion to increase cell numbers. Therefore,

Susanne Wolbank; Martijn van Griensven; Regina Grillari-Voglauer; Anja Peterbauer-Scherb

2010-01-01

149

Evidence for water channels in renal proximal tubule cell membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Water transport mechanisms in rabbit proximal convoluted cell membranes were examined by measurement of: (1) osmotic (Pf) and diffusional (Pd) water permeabilities, (2) inhibition ofPf by mercurials, and (3) activation energies (Ea) forPf.Pf was measured in PCT brush border (BBMV) and basolateral membrane (BLMV) vesicles, and in viable PCT cells by stopped-flow light scattering;Pd was measured in PCT cells

Mary M. Meyer; A. S. Verkman

1987-01-01

150

Models of dynamic extraction of lipid tethers from cell membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a ligand that is bound to an integral membrane receptor is pulled, the membrane and the underlying cytoskeleton can deform before either the membrane delaminates from the cytoskeleton or the ligand detaches from the receptor. If the membrane delaminates from the cytoskeleton, it may be further extruded and form a membrane tether. We develop a phenomenological model for this process by assuming that deformations obey Hooke's law up to a critical force at which the cell membrane locally detaches from the cytoskeleton and a membrane tether forms. We compute the probability of tether formation and show that tethers can be extruded only within an intermediate range of force loading rates and pulling velocities. The mean tether length that arises at the moment of ligand detachment is computed as are the force loading rates and pulling velocities that yield the longest tethers.

Nowak, Sarah A.; Chou, Tom

2010-06-01

151

Models of dynamic extraction of lipid tethers from cell membranes.  

PubMed

When a ligand that is bound to an integral membrane receptor is pulled, the membrane and the underlying cytoskeleton can deform before either the membrane delaminates from the cytoskeleton or the ligand detaches from the receptor. If the membrane delaminates from the cytoskeleton, it may be further extruded and form a membrane tether. We develop a phenomenological model for this process by assuming that deformations obey Hooke's law up to a critical force at which the cell membrane locally detaches from the cytoskeleton and a membrane tether forms. We compute the probability of tether formation and show that tethers can be extruded only within an intermediate range of force loading rates and pulling velocities. The mean tether length that arises at the moment of ligand detachment is computed as are the force loading rates and pulling velocities that yield the longest tethers. PMID:20453295

Nowak, Sarah A; Chou, Tom

2010-01-01

152

Fractionation of the Hypericum perforatum L. extract: PMF, and PDT effects of the fractions against HL-60 leukemic cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last three years we have prepared and studied the polar methanolic extract PMF, of the herb Hypericum perforatum L, and studied as a new, alternative photosensitizing substance for PDT. Hypericum perforatum L., as well as PMF, contains a number of naphthodianthrone derivatives (hypericins), such as hypericin and pseudohypericin, as its main photosensitizing constituents. PMF has been tested as a PDT agent in vitro in bladder cancer cells, leukemia cells, and in vivo in rat tumor bearing urinary bladder. In order to evaluate the contribution of the hypericins in the overall PDT action, and prepare a better photosensitizing extract than PMF, we have separated the extract in four main fractions (1,2,3,4), and tested their PDT effects against the HL-60 leukemic cells. The concentration of hypericins in the extracts was found 0.08% for fraction 1, 0.09% for fraction 2, 0.8% for fraction 3, and 2,8% for fraction 4. The PDT activity observed among the fractions was proportional to their hypericins concentration, thus increasing in the order of increasing number: fraction 4 > fraction 3 > fraction 2 > fraction 1. Fraction 4 proved to be the most powerful fraction. However, despite its relatively high hypericins concentration (2.8%), compared with the total extract PMF (1.37%), fraction 4 proved to be less active in the cell line tested. This result indicates that there are other photosensitizing constituents within the PMF extract which contribute significantly in the overall PDT action, and therefore the extract should be used as it is for further PDT studies, without any further purification.

Tsontou, M.; Dimitriou, H.; Filippidis, G.; Tsimaris, I.; Kalmanti, M.; Skalkos, D.

2007-02-01

153

Mechanisms of gold nanoparticle mediated ultrashort laser cell membrane perforation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gold nanoparticle (AuNP) mediated ultrashort laser cell membrane perforation has been proven as an efficient delivery method to bring membrane impermeable molecules into the cytoplasm. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully determined yet. Different effects may occur when irradiating a AuNP with ultrashort laser pulses and finally enable the molecule to transfer. Depending on the parameters (pulse length, laser fluence and wavelength, particle size and shape, etc.) light absorption or an enhanced near field scattering can lead to perforation of the cell membrane when the particle is in close vicinity. Here we present our experimental results to clarify the perforation initiating mechanisms. The generation of cavitation and gas bubbles due to the laser induced effects were observed via time resolved imaging. Additionally, pump-probe experiments for bubble detection was performed. Furthermore, in our patch clamp studies a depolarization of the membrane potential and the current through the membrane of AuNP loaded cell during laser treatment was detected. This indicates an exchange of extra- and intra cellular ions trough the perforated cell membrane for some milliseconds. Additionally investigations by ESEM imaging were applied to study the interaction of cells and AuNP after co incubation. The images show an attachment of AuNP at the cell membrane after several hours of incubation. Moreover, images of irradiated and AuNP loaded cells were taken to visualize the laser induced effects.

Schomaker, M.; Baumgart, J.; Motekaitis, D.; Heinemann, D.; Krawinkel, J.; Pangalos, M.; Bintig, W.; Boulais, E.; Lachaine, R.; St.-Louis Lalonde, B.; Ngezahayo, A.; Meunier, M.; Heisterkamp, A.

2011-03-01

154

Human hepatocytes and endothelial cells in organotypic membrane systems.  

PubMed

The realization of organotypic liver model that exhibits stable phenotype is a major challenge in the field of liver tissue engineering. In this study we developed liver organotypic co-culture systems by using synthetic and biodegradable membranes with primary human hepatocytes and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Synthetic membranes prepared by a polymeric blend constituted of modified polyetheretherketone (PEEK-WC) and polyurethane (PU) and biodegradable chitosan membranes were developed by phase inversion technique and used in homotypic and organotypic culture systems. The morphological and functional characteristics of cells in the organotypic co-culture membrane systems were evaluated in comparison with homotypic cultures and traditional systems. Hepatocytes in the organotypic co-culture systems exhibit compact polyhedral cells with round nuclei and well demarcated cell-cell borders like in vivo, as a result of heterotypic interaction with HUVECs. In addition HUVECs formed tube-like structures directly through the interactions with the membranes and hepatocytes and indirectly through the secretion of ECM proteins which secretion improved in the organotypic co-culture membrane systems. The heterotypic cell-cell contacts have beneficial effect on the hepatocyte albumin production, urea synthesis and drug biotransformation. The developed organotypic co-culture membrane systems elicit liver specific functions in vitro and could be applied for the realization of engineered liver tissues to be used in tissue engineering, drug metabolism studies and bioartificial liver devices. PMID:21871658

Salerno, Simona; Campana, Carla; Morelli, Sabrina; Drioli, Enrico; De Bartolo, Loredana

2011-12-01

155

Radiation Interaction with Therapeutic Drugs and Cell Membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This transient permeabilized state of the cell membrane, named the ``cell electroporation'' (CE) can be used to increase cells uptake of drugs that do not readily pass cell membrane, thus enabling their cytotoxicity. The anticancer drugs, such as bleomycin (BL) and cisplatin, are the most candidates for the combined use with ionizing and non-ionizing radiation fields. The methods and installations for the cell electroporation by electron beam (EB) and microwave (MW) irradiation are presented. The viability tests of the human leukocytes under EB and MW exposure with/without the BL in the cell cultures are discussed.

Martin, Diana I.; Manaila, Elena N.; Moisescu, Mihaela I.; Savopol, Tudor D.; Kovacs, Eugenia A.; Cinca, Sabin A.; Matei, Constantin I.; Margaritescu, Irina D.; Iacob, Nicusor I.; Ighigeanu, Daniel I.; Craciun, Gabriela D.

2007-04-01

156

D2-Dopamine Receptors Target Regulator of G Protein Signaling 9-2 (RGS9-2) to Detergent-Resistant Membrane Fractions  

PubMed Central

Detergent-resistant membranes (DRM) are thought to contain structures such as lipid rafts that are involved in compartmentalizing cell membranes. We report that the majority of D2-dopamine receptors (D2R) expressed endogenously in mouse striatum or expressed in immortalized cell-lines is found in DRM. In addition, exogenous co-expression of D2R in a cell line shifted the expression of regulator of G protein signaling 9-2 (RGS9-2) into DRM. RGS9-2 is a protein that is highly enriched in the striatum and specifically regulates striatal D2R. In the striatum, RGS9-2 is mostly associated with DRMs but when expressed in cell lines, RGS9-2 is present in the soluble cytoplasmic fraction. In contrast, the majority of mu opioid receptors (MOR) and delta opioid receptors (DOR) are found in detergent-soluble membrane and there was no shift of RGS9-2 into DRM after co-expression of MOR. These data suggest that the targeting of RGS9-2 to DRM in the striatum is mediated by D2R and that DRM is involved in the formation of a D2R signaling complex. D2R-mediated targeting of RGS9-2 to DRM was blocked by the deletion of the RGS9-2 DEP domain or by a point mutation that abolishes the GTPase accelerating protein function of RGS9-2. PMID:22035199

Celver, Jeremy; Sharma, Meenakshi; Kovoor, Abraham

2011-01-01

157

Wisconsin Online Resource Center: Construction of the Cell Membrane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the Wisconsin Online Resource Center, this fun and informative web-based tutorial on the Construction of the Cell Membrane was created by Barbara Liang and Chad Blohowiak. Although the site content is geared for an older audience, the tutorial is so clear and easy to navigate that younger students curious about cells will enjoy it as well. Through the process of building the molecular structure of an animated cell membrane, site visitors will learn "the makeup and the basis for cell membrane function." The 23-page tutorial is fairly brief and interactive with questions and assignments such as placing the fibrous receptor or glycoprotein into the cell membrane. This site also has link for downloading the required software plug-in.

Blohowiak, Chad; Liang, Barbara

158

Layer-by-layer cell membrane assembly.  

PubMed

Eukaryotic subcellular membrane systems, such as the nuclear envelope or endoplasmic reticulum, present a rich array of architecturally and compositionally complex supramolecular targets that are as yet inaccessible. Here we describe layer-by-layer phospholipid membrane assembly on microfluidic droplets, a route to structures with defined compositional asymmetry and lamellarity. Starting with phospholipid-stabilized water-in-oil droplets trapped in a static droplet array, lipid monolayer deposition proceeds as oil/water-phase boundaries pass over the droplets. Unilamellar vesicles assembled layer-by-layer support functional insertion both of purified and of in situ expressed membrane proteins. Synthesis and chemical probing of asymmetric unilamellar and double-bilayer vesicles demonstrate the programmability of both membrane lamellarity and lipid-leaflet composition during assembly. The immobilized vesicle arrays are a pragmatic experimental platform for biophysical studies of membranes and their associated proteins, particularly complexes that assemble and function in multilamellar contexts in vivo. PMID:24153375

Matosevic, Sandro; Paegel, Brian M

2013-11-01

159

Layer-by-layer cell membrane assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eukaryotic subcellular membrane systems, such as the nuclear envelope or endoplasmic reticulum, present a rich array of architecturally and compositionally complex supramolecular targets that are as yet inaccessible. Here we describe layer-by-layer phospholipid membrane assembly on microfluidic droplets, a route to structures with defined compositional asymmetry and lamellarity. Starting with phospholipid-stabilized water-in-oil droplets trapped in a static droplet array, lipid monolayer deposition proceeds as oil/water-phase boundaries pass over the droplets. Unilamellar vesicles assembled layer-by-layer support functional insertion both of purified and of in situ expressed membrane proteins. Synthesis and chemical probing of asymmetric unilamellar and double-bilayer vesicles demonstrate the programmability of both membrane lamellarity and lipid-leaflet composition during assembly. The immobilized vesicle arrays are a pragmatic experimental platform for biophysical studies of membranes and their associated proteins, particularly complexes that assemble and function in multilamellar contexts in vivo.

Matosevic, Sandro; Paegel, Brian M.

2013-11-01

160

Membrane protein dynamics and functional implications in mammalian cells.  

PubMed

The organization of the plasma membrane is both highly complex and highly dynamic. One manifestation of this dynamic complexity is the lateral mobility of proteins within the plane of the membrane, which is often an important determinant of intermolecular protein-binding interactions, downstream signal transduction, and local membrane mechanics. The mode of membrane protein mobility can range from random Brownian motion to immobility and from confined or restricted motion to actively directed motion. Several methods can be used to distinguish among the various modes of protein mobility, including fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, single-particle tracking, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, and variations of these techniques. Here, we present both a brief overview of these methods and examples of their use to elucidate the dynamics of membrane proteins in mammalian cells-first in erythrocytes, then in erythroblasts and other cells in the hematopoietic lineage, and finally in non-hematopoietic cells. This multisystem analysis shows that the cytoskeleton frequently governs modes of membrane protein motion by stably anchoring the proteins through direct-binding interactions, by restricting protein diffusion through steric interactions, or by facilitating directed protein motion. Together, these studies have begun to delineate mechanisms by which membrane protein dynamics influence signaling sequelae and membrane mechanical properties, which, in turn, govern cell function. PMID:24210428

Alenghat, Francis J; Golan, David E

2013-01-01

161

Membrane Protein Dynamics and Functional Implications in Mammalian Cells  

PubMed Central

The organization of the plasma membrane is both highly complex and highly dynamic. One manifestation of this dynamic complexity is the lateral mobility of proteins within the plane of the membrane, which is often an important determinant of intermolecular protein-binding interactions, downstream signal transduction, and local membrane mechanics. The mode of membrane protein mobility can range from random Brownian motion to immobility and from confined or restricted motion to actively directed motion. Several methods can be used to distinguish among the various modes of protein mobility, including fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, single-particle tracking, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, and variations of these techniques. Here, we present both a brief overview of these methods and examples of their use to elucidate the dynamics of membrane proteins in mammalian cells—first in erythrocytes, then in erythroblasts and other cells in the hematopoietic lineage, and finally in non-hematopoietic cells. This multisystem analysis shows that the cytoskeleton frequently governs modes of membrane protein motion by stably anchoring the proteins through direct-binding interactions, by restricting protein diffusion through steric interactions, or by facilitating directed protein motion. Together, these studies have begun to delineate mechanisms by which membrane protein dynamics influence signaling sequelae and membrane mechanical properties, which, in turn, govern cell function. PMID:24210428

Alenghat, Francis J.; Golan, David E.

2014-01-01

162

Modified SPEEK membranes for direct ethanol fuel cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membranes with low ethanol crossover were prepared aiming their application for direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC). They were based on (1) sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) coated with carbon molecular sieves (CMS) and (2) on SPEEK\\/PI homogeneous blends. The membranes were characterized concerning their water and ethanol solution uptake, water and ethanol permeability in pervaporation experiments and their performance in

Husnul Maab; Suzana Pereira Nunes

2010-01-01

163

MRI Application for Clarifying Fuel Cell Performance with Variation of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes: Comparison of Water Content of a Hydrocarbon Membrane and a Perfluorinated Membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is applied to clarify a dominating factor on variation of fuel cell performance with two\\u000a types of polymer electrolyte membranes, a hydrocarbon membrane and a perfluorinated membrane. MRI results revealed that the\\u000a hydrocarbon membrane showed a water content higher than that of the perfluorinated membrane, responsible for a better fuel\\u000a cell performance due to decrease of

S. Tsushima; S. Hirai; K. Kitamura; M. Yamashita; S. Takase

2007-01-01

164

Thermodynamic and fluid properties of cells, tissues and membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation studies cellular rearrangements in tissues and attempts to establish the role of physical properties of cells, tissues and membranes in several biological phenomena. Using experiments and statistical mechanical modeling, we study cell sorting, tissue engulfment, single cell motion and membrane fluctuations. When cells of two different types are mixed together, they sort out, with the less cohesive tissue surrounding the more cohesive one. This sorting out resembles the phase separation of a mixture of immiscible liquids. We have measured the rate of sorting in tissues and compared it with a cellular automaton based model of cell aggregates. We have also established that cell sorting agrees well with the theory for phase separating fluids. Engulfment is the spreading of one type of tissue over the surface of another tissue placed adjacent to it. Differences in adhesion cause an imbalance of surface tension forces which drives tissue spreading. We have quantitatively studied engulfment between different tissue types and compared the experimental rate with results from computer simulations and a liquid model. Our results suggest that simple physical principles can model tissue motion. Studying the motion of single cells in aggregates is important to understanding the overall pattern formation in tissues. We characterized cell motion in different types of adhesive aggregates to elucidate the role of adhesion in cell motion. We also observed that the cells exhibited a novel type of statistics including correlations and collective motion. Membrane deformations of cells played a negligible role in large scale cell motion. Our results indicate the importance of correlated motion for cells to move long distances in tissues. At the single cell level, tension of the cell membrane and intracellular membrane can play an important role in cell shape changes, regulation of cell motility and membrane dynamics. We used optical tweezers to measure the membrane tension of tubulo-vesicular networks obtained from Golgi and Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) membranes within cells. As expected on the basis of some previous experiments, the ER has a higher membrane tension than the Golgi.

Upadhyaya, Arpita

2000-10-01

165

Membrane stress increases cation permeability in red cells.  

PubMed

The human red cell is known to increase its cation permeability when deformed by mechanical forces. Light-scattering measurements were used to quantitate the cell deformation, as ellipticity under shear. Permeability to sodium and potassium was not proportional to the cell deformation. An ellipticity of 0.75 was required to increase the permeability of the membrane to cations, and flux thereafter increased rapidly as the limits of cell extension were reached. Induction of membrane curvature by chemical agents also did not increase cation permeability. These results indicate that membrane deformation per se does not increase permeability, and that membrane tension is the effector for increased cation permeability. This may be relevant to some cation permeabilities observed by patch clamping. PMID:7858123

Johnson, R M

1994-11-01

166

Perceptual Grouping of Membrane Signals in Cell-based Assays  

SciTech Connect

Membrane proteins organize themselves in a linear fashion where adjacent cells are attached together along the basal-lateral region. Their intensity distributions are often heterogeneous and may lack specificity. Grouping of these linear structures can aid in segmentation and quantitative representation of protein localization. However, quantitative analysis of these signals is often hindered by noise, variation in scale, and perceptual features. This paper introduces an iterative voting method for inferring the membrane signal as it relates to continuity. A unique aspect of this technique is in the topography of the voting kernel, which is refined and reoriented iteratively. The technique can cluster and group membrane signals along the tangential direction. It has an excellent noise immunity and is tolerant to perturbations in scale. Application of this technique to quantitative analysis of cell-cell adhesion mediated by integral cell membrane proteins is demonstrated.

Chang, Hang; Andarawewa, Punya Kumari; Han, Ju; Barcellos-Hoff,Mary Helen; Parvin, Bahram

2007-02-02

167

Vaccination against Marek's disease: Immunizing effect of purified turkey herpes virus and cellular membranes from infected cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-day-old chickens susceptible to Marek's disease were vaccinated with experimental vaccines prepared from purified turkey herpes virus (HVT), inactivated HVT preparations or a membrane fraction isolated from HTV-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts, respectively. Purified HVT was found to be as effective in immunization against Marek's disease as cell-associated virus. The specific mortality of chickens twice vaccinated with cellular membranes from HVT-infected

O.-R. Kaaden; B. Dietzschold; S. UeberschÄr

1974-01-01

168

Cell-free system for synthesizing membrane proteins cell free method for synthesizing membrane proteins  

DOEpatents

The invention provides an in vitro method for producing proteins, membrane proteins, membrane-associated proteins, and soluble proteins that interact with membrane-associated proteins for assembly into an oligomeric complex or that require association with a membrane for proper folding. The method comprises, supplying intracytoplasmic membranes from organisms; modifying protein composition of intracytoplasmic membranes from organism by modifying DNA to delete genes encoding functions of the organism not associated with the formation of the intracytoplasmic membranes; generating appropriate DNA or RNA templates that encode the target protein; and mixing the intracytoplasmic membranes with the template and a transcription/translation-competent cellular extract to cause simultaneous production of the membrane proteins and encapsulation of the membrane proteins within the intracytoplasmic membranes.

Laible, Philip D; Hanson, Deborah K

2013-06-04

169

Amniotic membrane transplantation for partial limbal stem cell deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo examine the efficacy, safety, and long term outcomes of amniotic membrane transplantation for corneal surface reconstruction in cases of partial limbal stem cell deficiency.METHODS17 eyes of 15 patients with partial limbal stem cell deficiency underwent superficial keratectomy of the conjunctivalised corneal surface followed by amniotic membrane transplantation. Cases were followed up for at least a year.RESULTSAll eyes exhibited a

David F Anderson; Pierre Ellies; Renato T F Pires; Scheffer C G Tseng

2001-01-01

170

Basement Membrane Matrix (BME) has Multiple Uses with Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of basement membrane matrix has helped to overcome many of the obstacles associated with stem cell research.\\u000a Initially, there were several problems with investigating stem cells, including difficult extraction from tissues, the need\\u000a for feeder layers, poor survival, minimal proliferation, limited differentiation in vitro, and inadequate survival when injected\\u000a or transplanted in vivo. Given that the basement membrane

Irina Arnaoutova; Jay George; Hynda K. Kleinman; Gabriel Benton

171

Actin-propelled Invasive Membrane Protrusions Promote Fusogenic Protein Engagement During Cell-Cell Fusion  

PubMed Central

Cell-cell fusion is critical for the conception, development and physiology of multicellular organisms. Although cellular fusogenic proteins and the actin cytoskeleton are implicated in cell-cell fusion, whether and how they coordinate to promote plasma membrane fusion remain unclear. Here, we reconstituted a high-efficiency, inducible cell-fusion culture system in the normally non-fusing Drosophila S2R+ cells. Both fusogenic proteins and actin cytoskeletal rearrangements were necessary for cell fusion, and, in combination, were sufficient to impart fusion competence. Localized actin polymerization triggered by specific cell-cell or cell-matrix adhesion molecules propelled invasive cell membrane protrusions, which, in turn, promoted fusogenic protein engagement and plasma membrane fusion. This de novo cell-fusion culture system reveals a general role for actin-propelled invasive membrane protrusions in driving fusogenic protein engagement during cell-cell fusion. PMID:23470732

Shilagardi, Khurts; Li, Shuo; Luo, Fengbao; Marikar, Faiz; Duan, Rui; Jin, Peng; Kim, Ji Hoon; Murnen, Katherine; Chen, Elizabeth H.

2013-01-01

172

The principle of membrane fusion in the cell (nobel lecture).  

PubMed

Cells contain small membrane-enclosed vesicles which transport many kinds of cargo between the compartments of the cell. The result is a choreographed program of secretory, biosynthetic, and endocytic protein traffic that serves the cell's internal physiologic needs. PMID:25087728

Rothman, James Edward

2014-11-17

173

Controlled permeation of cell membrane by single bubble acoustic cavitation  

PubMed Central

Sonoporation is the membrane disruption generated by ultrasound and has been exploited as a non-viral strategy for drug and gene delivery. Acoustic cavitation of microbubbles has been recognized to play an important role in sonoporation. However, due to the lack of adequate techniques for precise control of cavitation activities and real-time assessment of the resulting sub-micron process of sonoporation, limited knowledge has been available regarding the detail processes and correlation of cavitation with membrane disruption at the single cell level. In the current study, we developed a combined approach including optical, acoustic, and electrophysiological techniques to enable synchronized manipulation, imaging, and measurement of cavitation of single bubbles and the resulting cell membrane disruption in real-time. Using a self-focused femtosecond laser and high frequency (7.44 MHz) pulses, a single microbubble was generated and positioned at a desired distance from the membrane of a Xenopus oocyte. Cavitation of the bubble was achieved by applying a low frequency (1.5 MHz) ultrasound pulse (duration 13.3 or 40 µs) to induce bubble collapse. Disruption of the cell membrane was assessed by the increase in the transmembrane current (TMC) of the cell under voltage clamp. Simultaneous high-speed bright field imaging of cavitation and measurements of the TMC were obtained to correlate the ultrasound-generated bubble activities with the cell membrane poration. The change in membrane permeability was directly associated with the formation of a sub-micrometer pore from a local membrane rupture generated by bubble collapse or bubble compression depending on ultrasound amplitude and duration. The impact of the bubble collapse on membrane permeation decreased rapidly with increasing distance (D) between the bubble (diameter d) and the cell membrane. The effective range of cavitation impact on membrane poration was determined to be D/d = 0.75. The maximum mean radius of the pores was estimated from the measured TMC to be 0.106 ± 0.032 µm (n = 70) for acoustic pressure of 1.5 MPa (duration 13.3 µs), and increased to 0.171 ± 0.030 µm (n = 125) for acoustic pressure of 1.7 MPa and to 0.182 ± 0.052 µm (n=112) for a pulse duration of 40 µs (1.5 MPa). These results from controlled cell membrane permeation by cavitation of single bubbles revealed insights and key factors affecting sonoporation at the single cell level. PMID:21945682

Zhou, Y.; Yang, K.; Cui, J.; Ye, J. Y.; Deng, C. X.

2011-01-01

174

Subcellular fractionation and morphology of calf aortic smooth muscle cells: studies on whole aorta, aortic explants, and subcultures grown under  

PubMed Central

A comparative biochemical and morphological study was made of calf aortic smooth muscle cells found in situ and grown in vitro under various conditions. Striking alterations in enzyme contents, physical properties, and morphological appearances of lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membranes and, to a lesser extent, mitochondria were observed upon culturing of calf aortic smooth muscle cells. These changes first appeared in cells growing out of tissue explants. They developed further upon subculturing of the cells and depended greatly on the culture conditions used. The alterations included increases in specific activities of some 5- to 25-fold of four acid hydrolases, an average ninefold increase in 5' -nucleotidase, sevenfold increase in cytochrome oxidase, and fourfold increase in neutral ?-glucosidase in subcultured smooth muscle cells compared to aortic cells in situ. Cell fractionation studies showed significant shifts in the equilibrium densities of plasma membranes, microsomes, and lysosomes, but not of mitochondria, in smooth muscle cells growing out from explants and in subcultured cells, compared to cells isolated from intact aortas. Although the cells grown in vitro exhibited typical phenotypic features of smooth muscle cells such as abundant myofilaments and surface vesicles, alterations in the morphological appearance of the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and, especially, lysosomes were observed. These results demonstrate significant differences in specific cellular characteristics and functions of aortic smooth muscle cells grown in vitro compared to aortic cells in situ. PMID:199607

Fowler, S; Shio, H; Wolinsky, H

1977-01-01

175

Correlations between the Dielectric Properties and Exterior Morphology of Cells Revealed by Dielectrophoretic Field-Flow Fractionation  

PubMed Central

Although dielectrophoresis (DEP) has great potential for addressing clinical cell isolation problems based on cell dielectric differences, a biological basis for predicting the DEP behavior of cells has been lacking. Here, the dielectric properties of the NCI-60 panel of tumor cell types have been measured by dielectrophoretic (DEP) field-flow fractionation, correlated with the exterior morphologies of the cells during growth, and compared with the dielectric and morphological characteristics of the subpopulations of peripheral blood. In agreement with earlier findings, cell total capacitance varied with both cell size and plasma membrane folding and the dielectric properties of the NCI-60 cell types in suspension reflected the plasma membrane area and volume of the cells at their growth sites. Therefore, the behavior of cells in DEP-based manipulations is largely determined by their exterior morphological characteristics prior to release into suspension. As a consequence, DEP is able to discriminate between cells of similar size having different morphological origins, offering a significant advantage over size-based filtering for isolating circulating tumor cells, for example. The findings provide a framework for anticipating cell dielectric behavior on the basis of structure-function relationships and suggest that DEP should be widely applicable as a surface marker-independent method for sorting cells. PMID:23172680

Gascoyne, Peter R. C.; Shim, Sangjo; Noshari, Jamileh; Becker, Frederick F.; Stemke-Hale, Katherine

2013-01-01

176

Proton conducting membranes for high temperature fuel cells with solid state water free membranes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A water free, proton conducting membrane for use in a fuel cell is fabricated as a highly conducting sheet of converted solid state organic amine salt, such as converted acid salt of triethylenediamine with two quaternized tertiary nitrogen atoms, combined with a nanoparticulate oxide and a stable binder combined with the converted solid state organic amine salt to form a polymeric electrolyte membrane. In one embodiment the membrane is derived from triethylenediamine sulfate, hydrogen phosphate or trifiate, an oxoanion with at least one ionizable hydrogen, organic tertiary amine bisulfate, polymeric quaternized amine bisulfate or phosphate, or polymeric organic compounds with quaternizable nitrogen combined with Nafion to form an intimate network with ionic interactions.

Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Pin S. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

177

PVDF/PVIm polymer blend films for fuel cell membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the preparation and characterization of binary blend films of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and poly(1-ethyl-3-vinylimidazolium trifluoromethylsulfonimide) (PVIm+TFSI-). The potential utility of such materials in proton exchange membrane fuel cells is of particular interest. Thin PVDF/ PVIm+TFSI- films were fabricated from solutions of dimethly formamide by doctor blading. The nature of the PVDF crystalline polymorph and degree of crystallinity was evaluated as a function of the volume fraction of imidazolium polymer and thermal treatment. The morphology, thermal and mechanical characteristics of the blend films was studied by wide angle X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In these materials, conditions such as choice of solvent, drying conditions, and thermal treatment affect the crystal phase, crystallite size, and degree of crystallinity of PVDF as well as the distribution of PVIm+TFSI-. The beta phase of PVDF crystals dominates in as-cast films, while the alpha phase is observed after cooling from the melt. PVDF imparts mechanical strength and chemical stability to the composite films, and because of its high crystal melting point (Tm > 160 C), serves to improve the high temperature stability of resulting films.

Huang, Wenwen; Zhao, Meng; Yang, Fan; Farovitch, Lorne; Haghighi, Parisa; Macisco, Leonard; Swob, Tyler; Smith, Thomas; Cebe, Peggy

2012-02-01

178

Turgor Pressure Sensing in Plant Cell Membranes 1  

PubMed Central

Experimental evidence is reviewed which shows that the cell membrane is compressible by both mechanical and electrical forces. Calculations are given which show that significant changes in the thickness of cell membranes can occur as a result of (a) direct compression due to the turgor pressure; (b) indirect effects due to the stretching of the cell wall; and (c) the stresses induced by the electric field in the membrane. Such changes in the membrane thickness may provide the pressure-transducing mechanism required for osmoregulation and growth. An important feature of the model is that this pressure transduction can occur not only in the plasmalemma (where there is a pressure gradient), but also in the tonoplast. PMID:16659734

Coster, Hans G. L.; Steudle, Ernst; Zimmermann, Ulrich

1976-01-01

179

Elastic Membrane Heterogeneity of Living Cells Revealed by Stiff Nanoscale Membrane Domains  

PubMed Central

Many approaches have been developed to characterize the heterogeneity of membranes in living cells. In this study, the elastic properties of specific membrane domains in living cells are characterized by atomic force microscopy. Our data reveal the existence of heterogeneous nanometric scale domains with specific biophysical properties. We focused on glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins, which play an important role in membrane trafficking and cell signaling under both physiological and pathological conditions and which are known to partition preferentially into cholesterol-rich microdomains. We demonstrate that these GPI-anchored proteins reside within domains that are stiffer than the surrounding membrane. In contrast, membrane domains containing the transferrin receptor, which does not associate with cholesterol-rich regions, manifest no such feature. The heightened stiffness of GPI domains is consistent with existing data relating to the specific condensation of lipids and the slow diffusion rates of lipids and proteins therein. Our quantitative data may forge the way to unveiling the links that exist between membrane stiffness, molecular diffusion, and signaling activation. PMID:17981897

Roduit, Charles; van der Goot, F. Gisou; De Los Rios, Paolo; Yersin, Alexandre; Steiner, Pascal; Dietler, Giovanni; Catsicas, Stefan; Lafont, Frank; Kasas, Sandor

2008-01-01

180

Membrane-particle interactions in an asymmetric flow field flow fractionation channel studied with titanium dioxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Asymmetric flow field flow fractionation operated in a multidetector approach (A4F-MDA) is a powerful tool to perform size-classified nanoparticle analysis. Recently several publications mentioned insufficient recovery rates and even retention time shifts attributed to unspecific membrane-particle interactions. One hypothesis to explain this phenomenon is based on the surface charge (zeta-potential) of the membrane material and the particle. In this study, we investigated in how far the ?-potential of A4F membrane and particles would determine the outcome of A4F in terms of feasibility, separation efficiency, retention time, and recovery rate, or whether other factors such as membrane morphology and particle size were equally important. We systematically studied the influence of the ?-potential on the interactions between the most commonly used A4F membrane materials and two representative types of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NP). Furthermore the effect of different carrier media and additional surfactants on the surface charge of membranes and particles was investigated and the influence of the particle size and the particle concentration on the recovery rate was evaluated. We found that the eligibility of an A4F method can be predicted based on the ?-potential of the NPs and the A4F membrane. Furthermore knowing the ?-potential allows to tuning the separation efficiency of an A4F method. On the other hand we observed significant shifts in retention time for different membrane materials that impede the determination of particle size based on the classical A4F theory. These shifts cannot be attributed to the ?-potential. Also the ?-potential does not account for varying recovery rates of different particle types, instead the particle size seems to be the limiting factor. Therefore, the proper characterization of a polydisperse sample remains a challenge. PMID:24556173

Bendixen, Nina; Losert, Sabrina; Adlhart, Christian; Lattuada, Marco; Ulrich, Andrea

2014-03-21

181

Membrane Targeting of P-type ATPases in Plant Cells  

SciTech Connect

How membrane proteins are targeted to specific subcellular locations is a very complex and poorly understood area of research. Our long-term goal is to use P-type ATPases (ion pumps), in a model plant system Arabidopsis, as a paradigm to understand how members of a family of closely related membrane proteins can be targeted to different subcellular locations. The research is divided into two specific aims. The first aim is focused on determining the targeting destination of all 10 ACA-type calcium pumps (Arabidopsis Calcium ATPase) in Arabidopsis. ACAs represent a plant specific-subfamily of plasma membrane-type calcium pumps. In contrast to animals, the plant homologs have been found in multiple membrane systems, including the ER (ACA2), tonoplast (ACA4) and plasma membrane (ACA8). Their high degree of similarity provides a unique opportunity to use a comparative approach to delineate the membrane specific targeting information for each pump. One hypothesis to be tested is that an endomembrane located ACA can be re-directed to the plasma membrane by including targeting information from a plasma membrane isoform, ACA8. Our approach is to engineer domain swaps between pumps and monitor the targeting of chimeric proteins in plant cells using a Green Fluorescence Protein (GFP) as a tag. The second aim is to test the hypothesis that heterologous transporters can be engineered into plants and targeted to the plasma membrane by fusing them to a plasma membrane proton pump. As a test case we are evaluating the targeting properties of fusions made between a yeast sodium/proton exchanger (Sod2) and a proton pump (AHA2). This fusion may potentially lead to a new strategy for engineering salt resistant plants. Together these aims are designed to provide fundamental insights into the biogenesis and function of plant cell membrane systems.

Jeffrey F. Harper, Ph.D.

2004-06-30

182

Phorbol ester-mediated association of protein kinase C to the nuclear fraction in NIH 3T3 cells.  

PubMed

Treatment of intact NIH 3T3 cells with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) causes a rapid redistribution (stabilization) of protein kinase C to the particulate fraction. Part of the enzyme activity stabilized to the membrane fraction in response to TPA can be recovered associated with nuclear-cytoskeletal components. An apparently pure nuclear fraction prepared from NIH 3T3 cells was found to contain 25-30% of the total membrane-associated protein kinase C activity when isolated in the presence of Ca2+. In untreated control cells, most of this activity found with the nuclear fraction can be extracted by chelators. Phorbol ester (TPA) treatment of NIH 3T3 cells induces the tight association of protein kinase C to the nucleus; this tightly bound activity is not dissociable by chelators and can be recovered only by solubilization with detergent. Nuclei purified from untreated human promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells contain higher amounts of chelator-stable, detergent-extractable protein kinase C activity compared with control NIH 3T3 cells. However, TPA treatment of HL-60 cells does not enhance the amount of protein kinase C found tightly associated with the nuclear fraction. Immunohistochemical studies with polyclonal antibodies directed against protein kinase C further indicate that TPA treatment of NIH 3T3 cells does significantly enhance the amount of protein kinase C found tightly associated with the nucleus and cytoskeleton, whereas exposure of HL-60 cells to TPA does not appreciably alter the amount of protein kinase C observed to be associated with the nuclear fraction. The TPA-mediated association (activation) of protein kinase C to the nuclear and cytoskeletal fractions with NIH 3T3 cells is further supported by the enhanced phosphorylation of specific endogenous proteins noted when purified nuclei and cytoskeletal preparations are incubated with [gamma-32P]ATP. These results suggest that tumor promoters may induce association (activation) of protein kinase C with different subcellular components to alter the availability of endogenous substrates. This may result in differential responses by different cell types during exposure to tumor promoters. PMID:3127041

Thomas, T P; Talwar, H S; Anderson, W B

1988-04-01

183

Effect of gas diffusion layer and membrane properties in an annular proton exchange membrane fuel cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complete three-dimensional and single phase computational dynamics model for annular proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is used to investigate the effect of changing gas diffusion layer and membrane properties on the performances, current density and gas concentration. The proposed model is a full cell model, which includes all the parts of the PEM fuel cell, flow channels, gas diffusion electrodes, catalyst layers and the membrane. Coupled transport and electrochemical kinetics equations are solved in a single domain; therefore no interfacial boundary condition is required at the internal boundaries between cell components. This computational fluid dynamics code is used as the direct problem solver, which is used to simulate the two-dimensional mass, momentum and species transport phenomena as well as the electron- and proton-transfer process taking place in a PEMFC that cannot be investigated experimentally. The results show that by increasing the thickness and decreasing the porosity of GDL the performance of the cell enhances that it is different with planner PEM fuel cell. Also the results show that by decreasing the thickness of the membrane the performance of the cell increases.

Khazaee, I.; Ghazikhani, M.; Esfahani, M. Nasr

2012-01-01

184

A new class of partially fluorinated fuel cell membranes  

SciTech Connect

A series of differently crosslinked FEP-g-polystyrene proton exchange membranes has been synthesized by the pre-irradiation grafting method. Divinylbenzene (DVB) and/or triallyl cyanurate (TAC) were used as crosslinkers in the membranes. It was found, that the physical properties of the membranes, such as water-uptake and specific resistance are strongly influenced by the nature of the crosslinker. Generally it can be stated, that DVB decreases water-uptake and increases specific resistance, on the other hand TAC increases swelling and decreases specific resistance to values as low as 5.0 {Omega}cm at 60 C. The membranes were tested in H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} fuel cells for stability and performance. It was found, that thick (170 {mu}m) DBV crosslinked membranes showed stable operation for 1,400 hours at temperatures up to 80 C. The highest power density in the fuel cell was found for the DVB and TAC double crosslinked membrane, it exceeded the value of a cell with a Nafion{reg_sign} 117 membrane by more than 60%.

Buechi, F.N.; Gupta, B.; Halim, J.; Haas, O.; Scherer, G.G. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen-PSI (Switzerland)

1994-12-31

185

Gaseous oxide toxicity evaluated with cell monolayers on collagen-coated, gas-permeable teflon membranes  

SciTech Connect

A system was developed to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of gaseous oxides in vitro. Target cells were MRC-5 human lung fibroblasts cultivated as monolayers on gas-permeable, FEP-Teflon membranes. Membranes were secured in Chamber/Dishes with a 25 mm diameter well. To promote attachment of fibroblasts to the membranes, the latter were incubated in collagen (Vitrogen) solutions for 10 min prior to plating the cells. The collagen pretreatment was significantly more effective than poly-L-lysine, fetal calf serum, polybrene and bovine serum albumin. Several types (mouse and calf) of acid-soluble and alcohol-soluble collagen fractions were evaluated, and all of them promoted cell attachment with equivalent efficiency. Cells on membranes were exposed to gases in a Plexiglass chamber with a gas flow of 2L/min. Sulfur dioxide caused a marked loss in cell viability (as indicated by ATP content of the monolayer) after 30 min exposure to 0.01% and 0.005%. A level of 0.001% did not affect viability, and none of the levels tested caused a sloughing of the monolayer after 90 min. Nitrogen dioxide induced a more modest drop in cell viability after 30 min exposure to 0.1%, while 0.005% and 0.05% were nontoxic. No cell sloughing occurred with NO/sub 2/ exposures, and exposures to CO/sub 2/ at levels of 20% for 90 min were nontoxic. This system, with cell culture monolayers on gas-permeable Teflon membranes, is simple and convenient. As such, it has potential application to cytotoxicity evaluations with numerous gases. 18 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

Gabridge, M.G.; Gladd, M.F.

1984-03-01

186

Ultrafiltration by a compacted clay membrane. I - Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic fractionation. II - Sodium ion exclusion at various ionic strengths.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laboratory experiments were carried out to determine the magnitude of the isotopic fractionation of distilled water and of 0.01N NaCl forced to flow at ambient temperature under a hydraulic pressure drop of 100 bars across a montmorillonite disk compacted to a porosity of 35% by a pressure of 330 bars. The ultrafiltrates in both experiments were depleted in D by 2.5% and in O-18 by 0.8% relative to the residual solution. No additional isotopic fractionation due to a salt-filtering mechanism was observed at NaCl concentrations up to 0.01N. Adsorption is most likely the principal mechanism which produces isotopic fractionation, but molecular diffusion may play a minor role. The results suggest that oxygen and hydrogen isotopic fractionation of ground water during passage through compacted clayey sediments should be a common occurrence, in accord with published interpretations of isotopic data from the Illinois and Alberta basins. It is shown how it is possible to proceed from the ion exchange capacity of clay minerals and, by means of the Donnan membrane equilibrium concept and the Teorell-Meyer-Siever theory, develop a theory to explain why and to what extent ultrafiltration occurs when solutions of known concentration are forced to flow through a clay membrane.

Coplen, T. B.; Hanshaw, B. B.

1973-01-01

187

Imaging cell membrane injury and subcellular processes involved in repair.  

PubMed

The ability of injured cells to heal is a fundamental cellular process, but cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in healing injured cells are poorly understood. Here assays are described to monitor the ability and kinetics of healing of cultured cells following localized injury. The first protocol describes an end point based approach to simultaneously assess cell membrane repair ability of hundreds of cells. The second protocol describes a real time imaging approach to monitor the kinetics of cell membrane repair in individual cells following localized injury with a pulsed laser. As healing injured cells involves trafficking of specific proteins and subcellular compartments to the site of injury, the third protocol describes the use of above end point based approach to assess one such trafficking event (lysosomal exocytosis) in hundreds of cells injured simultaneously and the last protocol describes the use of pulsed laser injury together with TIRF microscopy to monitor the dynamics of individual subcellular compartments in injured cells at high spatial and temporal resolution. While the protocols here describe the use of these approaches to study the link between cell membrane repair and lysosomal exocytosis in cultured muscle cells, they can be applied as such for any other adherent cultured cell and subcellular compartment of choice. PMID:24686523

Defour, Aurelia; Sreetama, S C; Jaiswal, Jyoti K

2014-01-01

188

Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer  

DOEpatents

The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

Larson, James M. (Saint Paul, MN); Pham, Phat T. (Little Canada, MN); Frey, Matthew H. (Cottage Grove, MN); Hamrock, Steven J. (Stillwater, MN); Haugen, Gregory M. (Edina, MN); Lamanna, William M. (Stillwater, MN)

2010-11-23

189

Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer  

DOEpatents

The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

Larson, James M.; Pham, Phat T.; Frey, Matthew H.; Hamrock, Steven J.; Haugen, Gregory M.; Lamanna, William M.

2012-12-04

190

Role of Rab GTPases in Membrane Traffic and Cell Physiology  

PubMed Central

Intracellular membrane traffic defines a complex network of pathways that connects many of the membrane-bound organelles of eukaryotic cells. Although each pathway is governed by its own set of factors, they all contain Rab GTPases that serve as master regulators. In this review, we discuss how Rabs can regulate virtually all steps of membrane traffic from the formation of the transport vesicle at the donor membrane to its fusion at the target membrane. Some of the many regulatory functions performed by Rabs include interacting with diverse effector proteins that select cargo, promoting vesicle movement, and verifying the correct site of fusion. We describe cascade mechanisms that may define directionality in traffic and ensure that different Rabs do not overlap in the pathways that they regulate. Throughout this review we highlight how Rab dysfunction leads to a variety of disease states ranging from infectious diseases to cancer. PMID:21248164

HUTAGALUNG, ALEX H.; NOVICK, PETER J.

2013-01-01

191

Towards fuel cell membranes with improved lifetime: Aquivion® Perfluorosulfonic Acid membranes containing immobilized radical scavengers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A facile synthesis, based on a wet impregnation technique and a thermal treatment, of a novel silica-supported cerium-oxide-based radical scavenger bearing sulfonic acid functionalities is presented. This material is loaded as a filler in ePTFE reinforced membranes (called R79-02S) prepared starting from Aquivion® Perfluoro-Sulfonic Acid (PFSA) dispersions. The aim is to mitigate the peroxy radicals attack to the polymeric membrane under fuel cell operating conditions. These membranes show much longer (7 times more) life-time in Accelerated Stress Tests (AST) and reduced fluoride release (about one half) in Fenton's tests than the radical scavenger-free membrane without any loss in electrochemical performance. Scavenger-free Aquivion® PFSA-based membrane durability is about 200 h in AST whereas the same membrane containing the newly developed radical scavenger exceeds 1400 h. These results confirm the stability of the modified membranes and the excellent activity of the composite scavenger in mitigating the polymer electrolyte degradation.

D'Urso, C.; Oldani, C.; Baglio, V.; Merlo, L.; Aricò, A. S.

2014-12-01

192

Attachment of killed Mycoplasma gallisepticum cells and membranes to erythrocytes  

SciTech Connect

To correlate viability with attachment capacity, Mycoplasma gallisepticum cells harvested at different growth phases and treated by various agents were tested for their capacity to attach to human erythrocytes. The results show that viability per se is not essential for M. gallisepticum attachment to erythrocytes, as cells killed by ultraviolet irradiation and membranes isolated by lysing M. gallisepticum cells by various means retained attachment capacity. However, treatment of the mycoplasmas by protein-denaturing agents, such as heart, glutaraldehyde, or prolonged exposure to low pH, drastically affected or even abolished attachment, supporting the protein nature of the mycoplasma membrane components responsible for specific binding to the sialoglycoprotein receptors on the erythrocytes.

Banai, M.; Kahane, I.; Feldner, J.; Razin, S.

1981-11-01

193

Leea indica Ethyl Acetate Fraction Induces Growth-Inhibitory Effect in Various Cancer Cell Lines and Apoptosis in Ca Ski Human Cervical Epidermoid Carcinoma Cells  

PubMed Central

The anticancer potential of Leea indica, a Chinese medicinal plant was investigated for the first time. The crude ethanol extract and fractions (ethyl acetate, hexane, and water) of Leea indica were evaluated their cytotoxicity on various cell lines (Ca Ski, MCF 7, MDA-MB-435, KB, HEP G2, WRL 68, and Vero) by MTT assay. Leea indica ethyl acetate fraction (LIEAF) was found showing the greatest cytotoxic effect against Ca Ski cervical cancer cells. Typical apoptotic morphological changes such as DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation were observed in LIEAF-treated cells. Early signs of apoptosis such as externalization of phosphatidylserine and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential indicated apoptosis induction. This was further substantiated by dose- and time-dependent accumulation of sub-G1 cells, depletion of intracellular glutathione, and activation of caspase-3. In conclusion, these results suggested that LIEAF inhibited cervical cancer cells growth by inducing apoptosis and could be developed as potential anticancer drugs. PMID:21423690

Yau Hsiung, Wong; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

2011-01-01

194

Interaction of injectable neurotropic drugs with the red cell membrane.  

PubMed

The normal red blood cell (RBC) shape is a biconcave discocyte. An intercalation of a drug in the outer half of the membrane lipid bilayer leads to echinocytosis, an intercalation in the inner half to stomatocytosis. We have used the shape transforming capacity of RBCs as a model to analyse the membrane interaction potential of various neurotropic drugs. Chlorpromazine, clomipramine, citalopram, clonazepam, and diazepam induced a reversible stomatocytosis, phenytoin induced echinocytosis, while the anticonvulsants levetiracetam, valproic acid and phenobarbital had no effect. This diversity of RBC shape transformations suggests that the pharmacological action is not linked to the membrane interaction. We conclude that this simple RBC shape transformation assay could be a useful tool to screen for potential drug interactions with cell membranes. PMID:24997296

Reinhart, Walter H; Lubszky, Szabina; Thöny, Sandra; Schulzki, Thomas

2014-10-01

195

Water Visualization and Flooding in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells  

E-print Network

Water Visualization and Flooding in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells Brian Holsclaw West and conditions Used in commercial designs Channels can be easily clogged by water ­ flooding Need water or larger design No channels for flooding Vertical inlet/outlet allows cell to auto-drain water Water can

Petta, Jason

196

Tetraspanins regulate the protrusive activities of cell membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetraspanins have gained increased attention due to their functional versatility. But the universal cellular mechanism that governs such versatility remains unknown. Herein we present the evidence that tetraspanins CD81 and CD82 regulate the formation and\\/or development of cell membrane protrusions. We analyzed the ultrastructure of the cells in which a tetraspanin is either overexpressed or ablated using transmission electron microscopy.

Rafijul Bari; Qiusha Guo; Bing Xia; Yanhui H. Zhang; Eldon E. Giesert; Shoshana Levy; Jie J. Zheng; Xin A. Zhang

197

Carbon monoxide poisoning of proton-exchange membrane fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The platinum-alloy catalyst used in proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell anodes is highly susceptible to carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. CO reduces the catalyst activity by blocking active catalyst sites normally available for hydrogen chemisorption and dissociation. The reaction kinetics at the anode catalyst surface can be used to estimate the decrease in cell voltage due to various levels of CO

Aida Rodrigues; John C. Amphlett; Ronald F. Mann; Brant A. Peppley; Pierre R. Roberge

1997-01-01

198

Probing T cell membrane organization using dimeric MHCIg complexes  

E-print Network

organization; Binding assay; Lipid rafts; Fusion constructs; Crosslinks; Clusters; Sensitivity 1. IntroductionReview Probing T cell membrane organization using dimeric MHC­Ig complexes Tarek M. Fahmy, Joan G of T cells using dimeric major histocompatibility complexes (MHC), MHC­Ig. MHC­Ig complexes are useful

Fahmy, Tarek

199

Anion selective membrane. [ion exchange resins and ion exchange membrane electrolytes for electrolytic cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental anion permselective membranes were prepared and tested for their suitability as cell separators in a chemical redox power storage system being developed at NASA-Lewis Research Center. The goals of long-term (1000 hr) oxidative and thermal stability at 80 C in FeCl3 and CrCl3 electrolytes were met by most of the weak base and strong base amino exchange groups considered in the program. Good stability is exhibited by several of the membrane substrate resins. These are 'styrene' divinylbenzene copolymer and PVC film. At least four membrane systems produce strong flexible films with electrochemical properties (resistivity, cation transfer) superior to those of the 103QZL, the most promising commercial membrane. The physical and chemical properties of the resins are listed.

Alexander, S. S.; Geoffroy, R. R.; Hodgdon, R. B.

1975-01-01

200

Composite polymer membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells operating at elevated temperatures and reduced humidities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) are the leading candidate in the fuel cell technology due to the high power density, solid electrolyte, and low operational temperature. However, PEMFCs operating in the normal temperature range (60-80°C) face problems including poor carbon monoxide tolerance and heat rejection. The poisoning effect can be significantly relieved by operating the fuel cell at elevated temperature, which also improves the heat rejection and electrochemical kinetics. Low relative humidity (RH) operation is also desirable to simplify the reactant humidification system. However, at elevated temperatures, reduced RH PEMFC performance is seriously impaired due to irreversible water loss from presently employed state-of-the-art polymer membrane, Nafion. This thesis focuses on developing polymer electrolyte membranes with high water retention ability for operation in elevated temperature (110-150°C), reduced humidity (˜50%RH) PEMFCs. One approach is to alter Nafion by adding inorganic particles such as TiO2, SiO2, Zr(HPO 4)2, etc. While the presence of these materials in Nafion has proven beneficial, a reduction or no improvement in the PEMFC performance of Nafion/TiO2 and Nafion/Zr(HPO4)2 membranes is observed with reduced particle sizes or increased particle loadings in Nafion. It is concluded that the PEMFC performance enhancement associated with addition of these inorganic particles was not due to the particle hydrophilicity. Rather, the particle, partially located in the hydrophobic region of the membrane, benefits the cell performance by altering the membrane structure. Water transport properties of some Nafion composite membranes were investigated by NMR methods including pulsed field gradient spin echo diffusion, spin-lattice relaxation, and spectral measurements. Compared to unmodified Nafion, composite membranes materials exhibit longer longitudinal relaxation time constant T1. In addition to the Nafion material, sulfonated styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene triblock copolymer (sSEBS) was investigated as an alternate membrane candidate. sSEBS was modified through introduction of polymer crosslinks using benzephenone as a photoinitiator and addition of a titania co-phase. A photocrosslinked membrane initially containing 15% benzophenone and 3% titania laminated with a 10 mum Nafion layer was found to produce the best PEMFC performance (120°C, 50%RH).

Zhang, Tao

201

Bipolar membranes in forward bias region for fuel cell reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three bipolar membranes, two home-made composed of commercial cation (DuPont) and anion (FuMA-Tech) exchange membranes (called Nafion\\/FT-FAA and Nafion\\/FT-FAS) and a commercial one, BP-1 from FuMA-Tech, were investigated in order to characterize their suitability to use in a H2\\/O2 fuel cell intended to produce hydrogen peroxide on the cathode instead of water. The Nafion\\/FT-FAA and Nafion\\/FT-FAS membranes were prepared using

Elena Lobyntseva; Tanja Kallio; Kyösti Kontturi

2006-01-01

202

Accumulation of an Antidepressant in Vesiculogenic Membranes of Yeast Cells Triggers Autophagy  

PubMed Central

Many antidepressants are cationic amphipaths, which spontaneously accumulate in natural or reconstituted membranes in the absence of their specific protein targets. However, the clinical relevance of cellular membrane accumulation by antidepressants in the human brain is unknown and hotly debated. Here we take a novel, evolutionarily informed approach to studying the effects of the selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor sertraline/Zoloft® on cell physiology in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast), which lacks a serotonin transporter entirely. We biochemically and pharmacologically characterized cellular uptake and subcellular distribution of radiolabeled sertraline, and in parallel performed a quantitative ultrastructural analysis of organellar membrane homeostasis in untreated vs. sertraline-treated cells. These experiments have revealed that sertraline enters yeast cells and then reshapes vesiculogenic membranes by a complex process. Internalization of the neutral species proceeds by simple diffusion, is accelerated by proton motive forces generated by the vacuolar H+-ATPase, but is counteracted by energy-dependent xenobiotic efflux pumps. At equilibrium, a small fraction (10–15%) of reprotonated sertraline is soluble while the bulk (90–85%) partitions into organellar membranes by adsorption to interfacial anionic sites or by intercalation into the hydrophobic phase of the bilayer. Asymmetric accumulation of sertraline in vesiculogenic membranes leads to local membrane curvature stresses that trigger an adaptive autophagic response. In mutants with altered clathrin function, this adaptive response is associated with increased lipid droplet formation. Our data not only support the notion of a serotonin transporter-independent component of antidepressant function, but also enable a conceptual framework for characterizing the physiological states associated with chronic but not acute antidepressant administration in a model eukaryote. PMID:22529904

Lee, Sean; Perlstein, Ethan O.

2012-01-01

203

Membrane and MEA Development in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) is based on Nafion polymer membranes operating at a temperature of 80°C. The main\\u000a characteristics (structure and properties) and problems of Nafion-based PEFC technology are discussed. The primary drawbacks\\u000a of Nafion membranes are poor conductivity at low relative humidities (and consequently at temperatures >100°C and ambient\\u000a pressure) and large crossover of methanol in direct

Panagiotis Trogadas; Vijay Ramani

2009-01-01

204

Computational fluid dynamics modeling of proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transient, multi-dimensional model has been developed to simulate proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The model accounts simultaneously for electrochemical kinetics, current distribution, hydrodynamics and multi-component transport. A single set of conservation equations valid for flow channels, gas-diffusion electrodes, catalyst layers and the membrane region are developed and numerically solved using a finite-volume-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. The

SUKKEE UM; C.-Y. Wang; KEN S. CHEN

2000-01-01

205

Nanodomain stabilization dynamics in plasma membranes of biological cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discover that a synergistically amplifying role of stabilizing membrane proteins and continuous lipid recycling can explain the physics governing the stability, polydispersity, and dynamics of lipid raft domains in plasma membranes of biological cells. We establish the conjecture using a generalized order parameter based on theoretical formalism, endorsed by detailed scaling arguments and domain mapping. Quantitative agreements with morphological distributions of raft complexes, as obtained from Förster resonance energy transfer based visualization, support the present theoretical conjecture.

Das, Tamal; Maiti, Tapas K.; Chakraborty, Suman

2011-02-01

206

Development of structured polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cell applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to explore structure-property relationships to develop the understanding needed for introduction of superior PEM materials. Polymer electrolyte membranes based on sulfonated poly(ether ketone ketone) (SPEKK) were fabricated using N-methyl pyrrolidone as casting solvent. The membranes were characterized in terms of properties that were relevant to fuel cell applications, such as proton conductivity, methanol permeability,

Jeffrey Gasa

2006-01-01

207

Cell volume and membrane stretch independently control K+ channel activity  

PubMed Central

A number of potassium channels including members of the KCNQ family and the Ca2+ activated IK and SK, but not BK, are strongly and reversibly regulated by small changes in cell volume. It has been argued that this general regulation is mediated through sensitivity to changes in membrane stretch. To test this hypothesis we have studied the regulation of KCNQ1 and BK channels after expression in Xenopus oocytes. Results from cell-attached patch clamp studies (?50 ?m2 macropatches) in oocytes expressing BK channels demonstrate that the macroscopic volume-insensitive BK current increases with increasing negative hydrostatic pressure (suction) applied to the pipette. Thus, at a pipette pressure of ?5.0 ± 0.1 mmHg the increase amounted to 381 ± 146% (mean ±s.e.m., n= 6, P < 0.025). In contrast, in oocytes expressing the strongly volume-sensitive KCNQ1 channel, the current was not affected by membrane stretch. The results indicate that (1) activation of BK channels by local membrane stretch is not mimicked by membrane stress induced by cell swelling, and (2) activation of KCNQ1 channels by cell volume increase is not mediated by local tension in the cell membrane. We conclude that stretch and volume sensitivity can be considered two independent regulatory mechanisms. PMID:19289549

Hammami, Sofia; Willumsen, Niels J; Olsen, Hervør L; Morera, Francisco J; Latorre, Ramón; Klaerke, Dan A

2009-01-01

208

Fractional contribution of major ions to the membrane potential of Drosophila melanogaster oocytes.  

PubMed

In ovarian follicles of Drosophila melanogaster, ion substitution experiments revealed that K(+) is the greatest contributor (68%) in setting oocyte steady-state potential (E(m)), while Mg(2+) and a metabolic component account for the rest. Because of the intense use made of Drosophila ovarian follicles in many lines of research, it is important to know how changes in the surrounding medium, particularly in major diffusible ions, may affect the physiology of the cells. The contributions made to the Drosophila oocyte membrane potential (E(m)) by [Na(+)](o), [K(+)](o), [Mg(2+)](o), [Ca(2+)](o), [Cl(-)](o), and pH (protons) were determined by substitutions made to the composition of the incubation medium. Only K(+) and Mg(2+) were found to participate in setting the level of E(m). In follicles subjected to changes in external pH from the normal 7.3 to either pH 6 or pH 8, E(m) changed rapidly by about 6 mV, but within 8 min had returned to the original E(m). Approximately half of all follicles exposed to reduced [Cl(-)](o) showed no change in E(m), and these all had input resistances of 330 kOmega or greater. The remaining follicles had smaller input resistances, and these first depolarized by about 5 mV. Over several minutes, their input resistances increased and they repolarized to a value more electronegative than their value prior to reduction in [Cl(-)](o). Together, K(+) and Mg(2+) accounted for up to 87% of measured steady-state potential. Treatment with sodium azide, ammonium vanadate, or chilling revealed a metabolically driven component that could account for the remaining 13%. PMID:19241411

Munley, Susan M; Kinzeler, Sandra; Lizzano, Rebecca; Woodruff, Richard I

2009-04-01

209

Biochemical characterization of chromatin fractions isolated from induced and uninduced friend erythroleukemia cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromatin fractions from Friend erythroleukemia cells after induction of differentiation by dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) were compared in their biochemical characteristics to fractions from uninduced cells. Fractions were prepared by extracting chromatin from nuclei after mild micrococcal nuclease treatment with increasing concentrations of NaCl according to Sanders [1]. This procedure has been found to release chromatin containing hyperacetylated histones preferentially [2]. The

Olga Knosp; Bernhard Redl; Bernd Puschendorf

1989-01-01

210

Evaluation of membranes for use in on-line cell separation during mammalian cell perfusion processes.  

PubMed

In this study two microporous hollow fibre membranes were evaluated for their use as cell retention device in continuous perfusion systems. A chemically modified permanent hydrophillic PTFE membrane and a hydrophilized PP membrane were tested. To investigate the filtration characteristic under process conditions each membrane was tested during a long term perfusion cultivation of a hybridoma cell line. In both cultivations the conditions influencing membrane filtration (e.g. transmembrane flux) were kept constant. Filtration behaviour was investigated by monitoring transmembrane pressure and protein permeability. Transmembrane pressure was measured on-line with an autoclavable piezo-resistive pressure sensor. Protein permeability was determined by quantitative evaluation of unreduced, Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE. The membrane fouling process influences the filtration characteristic of both membranes in a different way. After fermentation the PP membrane was blocked by a thick gel layer located in the big outer pores of the asymmetric membrane structure. The hydraulic resistance was higher but the protein permeability was slightly better than of the PTFE membrane. For this reason the PP membrane should be preferred. On the other hand, transmembrane pressure decreases slower when the PTFE membrane is used, which favours this membrane for long term cultivations, especially when low molecular weight proteins (< 30 KD) are produced. PMID:7765937

Büntemeyer, H; Böhme, C; Lehmann, J

1994-01-01

211

Tension of red blood cell membrane in simple shear flow.  

PubMed

When a red blood cell (RBC) is subjected to an external flow, it is deformed by the hydrodynamic forces acting on its membrane. The resulting elastic tensions in the membrane play a key role in mechanotransduction and govern its rupture in the case of hemolysis. In this study, we analyze the motion and deformation of an RBC in a simple shear flow and the resulting elastic tensions on the membrane. The large deformation of the red blood cell is modelled by coupling a finite element method to solve the membrane mechanics and a boundary element method to solve the flows of the internal and external liquids. Depending on the capillary number Ca, ratio of the viscous to elastic forces, we observe three kinds of RBC motion: tumbling at low Ca, swinging at larger Ca, and breathing at the transitions. In the swinging regime, the region of the high principal tensions periodically oscillates, whereas that of the high isotropic tensions is almost unchanged. Due to the strain-hardening property of the membrane, the deformation is limited but the membrane tension increases monotonically with the capillary number. We have quantitatively compared our numerical results with former experimental results. It indicates that a membrane isotropic tension O(10{-6} N/m) is high enough for molecular release from RBCs and that the typical maximum membrane principal tension for haemolysis would be O(10{-4} N/m). These findings are useful to clarify not only the membrane rupture but also the mechanotransduction of RBCs. PMID:23214889

Omori, T; Ishikawa, T; Barthès-Biesel, D; Salsac, A-V; Imai, Y; Yamaguchi, T

2012-11-01

212

Indole prevents Escherichia coli cell division by modulating membrane potential  

PubMed Central

Indole is a bacterial signalling molecule that blocks E. coli cell division at concentrations of 3–5 mM. We have shown that indole is a proton ionophore and that this activity is key to the inhibition of division. By reducing the electrochemical potential across the cytoplasmic membrane of E. coli, indole deactivates MinCD oscillation and prevents formation of the FtsZ ring that is a prerequisite for division. This is the first example of a natural ionophore regulating a key biological process. Our findings have implications for our understanding of membrane biology, bacterial cell cycle control and potentially for the design of antibiotics that target the cell membrane. PMID:22387460

Chimerel, Catalin; Field, Christopher M.; Pinero-Fernandez, Silvia; Keyser, Ulrich F.; Summers, David K.

2012-01-01

213

Basement membranes and artificial substrates in cell transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article will concentrate largely on the current developments in the area of cell transplantations presented at the 1st Workshop for Cell Transplantation in Age-related Macular Degeneration. In particular, this brief review will address our current understanding of the role of cell–matrix interactions by covering the pathobiology of normal ageing Bruch’s membrane; some of the problems faced at the time

Carl Sheridan; Rachel Williams; Ian Grierson

2004-01-01

214

Cell surface energy and membrane associated actin in lymphocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have shown previously that membrane associated actin correlates with the migratory abilities of lymphocytes during recirculation,\\u000a and that cell surface energy correlates with the adhesiveness of lymphocytes to other cells. In this study, measurements of\\u000a actin content and cell surface energy have been made for various lymphocyte subpopulations to examine the possibility that\\u000a recirculation ability may be related to

Bernard Mely-Goubert; Donald Bellgrau; Donald F. Gerson

1988-01-01

215

PROTEIN STRUCTURE: Pumping Iron Through Cell Membranes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Despite their importance in various cellular functions, the three-dimensional structure at atomic resolution has been determined for only a few membrane proteins. In his Perspective, Braun discusses results reported in the same issue by Ferguson et al. in which the crystal structure of FhuA, an iron transporter protein, has been determined at high resolution. This and related proteins may be the general model for a large class of iron-transporting molecules.

Volkmar Braun (Universität Tüebingen;Department of Mikrobiologie/Membranphysiologie)

1998-12-18

216

Plasma membrane reorganization induced by tumor promoters in an epithelial cell line  

SciTech Connect

The effects of phorbol ester tumor promoters on the lateral diffusion in plasma membrane lipid environments were examined by the technique of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. To this end, the probe collarein, a fluorescent lipid analog that has the property of exclusive localization in the plasma membrane, was synthesized. Measured decreases in three parameters [percentage of fluorescence bleached (30%), percentage of recovery (52%), and half-time for recovery (52%)] connoted the appearance of an immobile fraction upon exposure to tumor promoters. These data are consistent with lipid reorganization in response to a reorganization of the intra- and perimembranous macromolecular scaffolding upon the interaction of cells with tumor promoters. The idea of induced reorganization is supported by experiments in which cell shape change, brought about by either exposure to cytochalasin B or growth on matrices of collagen, fibronectin, or laminin, resulted in values in the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching technique similar to those with active phorbol esters.

PACKARD, BEVERLY S.; SAXTON, MICHAEL J.; BISSELL, MINA J.; KLEIN, MELVIN P.

1984-01-01

217

Application of graphene membrane in micro-Golay cell array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the design, simulation, and fabrication of a miniaturized Golay cell array, implemented with monolayer graphene suspended over a TEM grid as the deflecting membrane. Currently, ultra-thin membranes for Golay cell applications suffer diminishing responsivity as the lateral dimensions are reduced to the microscopic scale. We propose graphene as the ideal membrane material for micro-Golay cell arrays, whereby the minimal elastic stiffness of atomically thin graphene allows membranes to be scaled to microscopic dimensions. We examine how graphene's unique material parameters, such as high mobility, negligible gas permeability, and supreme strength, offer ease of fabrication and improved performance over existing technology. Simulations of graphene membrane deflection versus temperature are presented, with an analysis of the optimal geometry for maximum sensitivity. Cavities with all spatial dimensions under 100 ?m are predicted to provide sensitivities of hundreds of nanometres per Kelvin, in good competition with existing research on devices many times larger. Up to a four-fold increase in responsivity of 400 nm/K is predicted for a graphene cell of the same dimensions as current technology, and a three-fold increase for a cell one quarter the diameter. These predictions permit an increased detector density in a focal plane array application while still providing improved responsivity. Furthermore, our fabrication method permits the construction of arrays consisting of thousands of devices, avoiding individual cell assembly and including built-in electrical contacts due to the conductive nature of graphene. We also present a theoretical analysis of interferometric optical read-out of membrane deflection.

Ledwosinska, Elizabeth; Szkopek, Thomas; Guermoune, Abdeladim; Siaj, Mohamed

2012-02-01

218

Optimization of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell membrane electrode assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computational framework for fuel cell analysis and optimization is presented as an innovative alternative to the time consuming\\u000a trial-and-error process currently used for fuel cell design. The framework is based on a two-dimensional through-the-channel\\u000a isothermal, isobaric and single phase membrane electrode assembly (MEA) model. The model input parameters are the manufacturing\\u000a parameters used to build the MEA: platinum loading,

Marc Secanell; Ron Songprakorp; Ned Djilali; Afzal Suleman

2010-01-01

219

Water permeability of acinar cell membranes in the isolated perfused rabbit mandibular salivary gland.  

PubMed Central

1. The diffusive water permeability of epithelial cell membranes in the perfused rabbit mandibular salivary gland was measured at 37 degrees C by a 1H nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation method using an extracellular relaxation reagent, gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd(DTPA)). 2. In glands perfused with a HEPES-buffered solution containing 10 mmol l-1 Gd(DTPA), the spin-lattice (T1) relaxation of the water protons showed two exponential components. The water compartment responsible for the slower component corresponded in magnitude to 71 +/- 5% of the wet weight of the gland, and was attributed to the exchangeable intracellular water of the acinar cells. 3. The rate constant for water efflux from the cells was estimated to be 4.1 +/- 0.1 s-1 which would be consistent with a diffusive membrane permeability (Pd) of approximately 3 x 10(-3) cm s-1. Stimulation with acetylcholine (10(-6) mol l-1) did not cause any detectable change in membrane water permeability. 4. Since the basolateral membrane probably provides the main pathway for water efflux, the osmotic water permeability of this barrier (expressed per gland) was estimated to be less than 6.2 cm3 s-1. This would be insufficient to account for the generation of a near-isosmotic fluid at the flow rates observed during secretion, and suggests that a substantial fraction of the flow of water occurs via a paracellular route. PMID:1966053

Steward, M C; Seo, Y; Rawlings, J M; Case, R M

1990-01-01

220

Oncostatin M regulates membrane traffic and stimulates bile canalicular membrane biogenesis in HepG2 cells  

PubMed Central

Hepatocytes are the major epithelial cells of the liver and they display membrane polarity: the sinusoidal membrane representing the basolateral surface, while the bile canalicular membrane is typical of the apical membrane. In polarized HepG2 cells an endosomal organelle, SAC, fulfills a prominent role in the biogenesis of the canalicular membrane, reflected by its ability to sort and redistribute apical and basolateral sphingolipids. Here we show that SAC appears to be a crucial target for a cytokine-induced signal transduction pathway, which stimulates membrane transport exiting from this compartment promoting apical membrane biogenesis. Thus, oncostatin M, an IL-6-type cytokine, stimulates membrane polarity development in HepG2 cells via the gp130 receptor unit, which activates a protein kinase A-dependent and sphingomyelin-marked membrane transport pathway from SAC to the apical membrane. To exert its signal transducing function, gp130 is recruited into detergent-resistant membrane microdomains at the basolateral membrane. These data provide a clue for a molecular mechanism that couples the biogenesis of an apical plasma membrane domain to the regulation of intracellular transport in response to an extracellular, basolaterally localized stimulus. PMID:12456648

van der Wouden, Johanna M.; van IJzendoorn, Sven C.D.; Hoekstra, Dick

2002-01-01

221

Manganese accumulation in membrane fractions of primary astrocytes is associated with decreased ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) uptake, and is exacerbated by oleic acid and palmitate.  

PubMed

Manganese (Mn) exposure interferes with GABA uptake; however, the effects of Mn on GABA transport proteins (GATs) have not been identified. We sought to characterize how Mn impairs GAT function in primary rat astrocytes. Astrocytes exposed to Mn (500 ?M) had significantly reduced (3)H-GABA uptake despite no change in membrane or cytosolic GAT3 protein levels. Co-treatment with 100 ?M oleic or palmitic acids (both known to be elevated in Mn neurotoxicity), exacerbated the Mn-induced decline in (3)H-GABA uptake. Mn accumulation in the membrane fraction of astrocytes was enhanced with fatty acid administration, and was negatively correlated with (3)H-GABA uptake. Furthermore, control cells exposed to Mn only during the experimental uptake had significantly reduced (3)H-GABA uptake, and the addition of GABA (50 ?M) blunted cytosolic Mn accumulation. These data indicate that reduced GAT function in astrocytes is influenced by Mn and fatty acids accumulating at or interacting with the plasma membrane. PMID:24814258

Fordahl, Steve C; Erikson, Keith M

2014-05-01

222

Amniotic Fluid and Amniotic Membrane Stem Cells: Marker Discovery  

PubMed Central

Amniotic fluid (AF) and amniotic membrane (AM) have been recently characterized as promising sources of stem or progenitor cells. Both not only contain subpopulations with stem cell characteristics resembling to adult stem cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells, but also exhibit some embryonic stem cell properties like (i) expression of pluripotency markers, (ii) high expansion in vitro, or (iii) multilineage differentiation capacity. Recent efforts have been focused on the isolation and the detailed characterization of these stem cell types. However, variations in their phenotype, their heterogeneity described by different groups, and the absence of a single marker expressed only in these cells may prevent the isolation of a pure homogeneous stem cell population from these sources and their potential use of these cells in therapeutic applications. In this paper, we aim to summarize the recent progress in marker discovery for stem cells derived from fetal sources such as AF and AM, using novel methodologies based on transcriptomics, proteomics, or secretome analyses. PMID:22701492

Roubelakis, Maria G.; Trohatou, Ourania; Anagnou, Nicholas P.

2012-01-01

223

The role of cell membranes in the regulation of lignification in pine cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The identity of pine cell membranes bearing PAL enzyme activity, the isolation of a plasma membrane preparation from pine cells for testing as a regulatory barrier in lignification, and the measurement of the geopotential effect in pine stems are presented. A model to describe and predict the interaction of gravity and lignification of higher plants was developed.

Hendrix, D. L.

1978-01-01

224

Analytical study of microsomes and isolated subcellular membranes from rat liver. IX. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide glycohydrolase: a plasma membrane enzyme prominently found in Kupffer cells  

PubMed Central

The distribution of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) glycohydrolase in rat liver was investigated by subcellular fractionation and by isolation of hepatocytes and sinusoidal cells. The behavior of NAD glycohydrolase in subcellular fractionation was peculiar because, although the enzyme was mainly microsomal, plasma membrane preparations contained distinctly more NAD glycohydrolase than could be accounted for by their content in elements derived from the endoplasmic reticulum or the Golgi complex identified by glucose-6- phosphatase and galactosyltransferase, respectively. When microsomal and plasmalemmal preparations were brought to equilibrium in a linear- density gradient, NAD glycohydrolase differed from these enzymes and behaved like 5'-nucleotidase and alkaline phosphodiesterase I. NAD glycohydrolase was markedly displaced towards higher densities after treatment with digitonin. This behavior in density-gradient centrifugation strongly suggests that NAD glycohydrolase is an exclusive enzyme of the plasma membrane. NAD glycohydrolase differed clearly from other plasmalemmal enzymes when the liver was fractionated into hepatocytes and sinusoidal cells; its specific activity was considerably greater in sinusoidal cell than in hepatocyte preparations. Further subfractionation of sinusoidal cell preparations into endothelial and Kupffer cells by counterflow elutriation showed that NAD glycohydrolase is more active in Kupffer cells. We estimate that the specific activity of NAD glycohydrolase activity is at least 65-fold higher at the periphery of Kupffer cells than at the periphery of hepatocytes. As the enzyme shows not structure-linked latency and is an exclusive constituent of the plasma membranes, we conclude that it is an ectoenzyme that cannot lead to a rapid turnover of the cytosolic pyridine nucleotides. PMID:2981231

1985-01-01

225

Mechanistic Diversity of Cytokine Receptor Signaling Across Cell Membranes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This STKE Review addresses the issue of how signals get across biological membranes to initiate signal transduction pathways inside the cell. Extracellular ligands bind to their specific membrane receptors and mediate signal transduction by two general mechanisms. In the first, "Vertical Signaling," changes in a preassembled transmembrane receptor structure are relayed to bring about changes on the other side of the membrane, and this often occurs extremely quickly. Such changes may lead to opening of ion channels, or may be detected by other proteins that are specific to a particular activated receptor structure. In the second, "Horizontal Signaling," ligand binding induces a change in the association of receptors in the plane of the membrane. This mechanism predominates in cytokine signaling, in which signaling is slower, and often leads to regulation of transcription of specific genes. We focus here on the surprising diversity in the ways horizontal signaling controls the activation state of receptor proteins.

Robert M. Stroud (University of California; REV); James A. Wells (Sunesis Pharmaceuticals; REV)

2004-05-04

226

Optical Trapping Techniques Applied to the Study of Cell Membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical tweezers allow for manipulating micron-sized objects using pN level optical forces. In this work, we use an optical trapping setup to aid in three separate experiments, all related to the physics of the cellular membrane. In the first experiment, in conjunction with Brian Henslee, we use optical tweezers to allow for precise positioning and control of cells in suspension to evaluate the cell size dependence of electroporation. Theory predicts that all cells porate at a transmembrane potential VTMof roughly 1 V. The Schwann equation predicts that the transmembrane potential depends linearly on the cell radius r, thus predicting that cells should porate at threshold electric fields that go as 1/r. The threshold field required to induce poration is determined by applying a low voltage pulse to the cell and then applying additional pulses of greater and greater magnitude, checking for poration at each step using propidium iodide dye. We find that, contrary to expectations, cells do not porate at a constant value of the transmembrane potential but at a constant value of the electric field which we find to be 692 V/cm for K562 cells. Delivering precise dosages of nanoparticles into cells is of importance for assessing toxicity of nanoparticles or for genetic research. In the second experiment, we conduct nano-electroporation—a novel method of applying precise doses of transfection agents to cells—by using optical tweezers in conjunction with a confocal microscope to manipulate cells into contact with 100 nm wide nanochannels. This work was done in collaboration with Pouyan Boukany of Dr. Lee's group. The small cross sectional area of these nano channels means that the electric field within them is extremely large, 60 MV/m, which allows them to electrophoretically drive transfection agents into the cell. We find that nano electroporation results in excellent dose control (to within 10% in our experiments) compared to bulk electroporation. We also find that, unlike bulk electroporation, nano-electroporation directly injects nanoparticles, such as quantum dots, to the cell interior, bypassing the cell membrane without the need for endocytosis. The aging of RBC's can render them rigid, an issue for the survivability of transfusion patients. This rigidity can be assessed by examining the fluctuations in the cell membrane. In the third experiment, we use back focal plane detection—an interferometric detection scheme using an optical tweezers setup—to measure the membrane fluctuations of RBC's and K562 cells. Membrane fluctuations have long been observed in RBC's and a well developed theory exists linking them to the cells internal viscosity ?, the membrane bending modulus k and the surface tension of the membrane ?. We use back focal plane detection to measure the effect of ascorbic acid treatment on RBC aging and find no improvement in cell flexibility. K562 cells differ from RBC's in that they possess an actin cortex which the membrane attaches to. We demonstrate that K562 cells exhibit as much as an order of magnitude more variation in their fluctuations than RBC's do.

Morss, Andrew J.

227

Radiation effects on membranes - 1. Cellular permeability and cell survival  

SciTech Connect

The effect of various doses of ..gamma.. radiation (5-60 krad) on the membrane permeability and cell survival of Candida albicans, a pathogenic yeast, was investigated. A reduction in the cell survival and in the accumulation of amino acids (proline, glycine, lysine, and glutamic acid) was observed following irradiation. The rate of oxygen uptake, which is often associated with transport, was also reduced. There was no damage to available sulfhydryl groups following the exposure of cells to various doses of ..gamma.. radiation. The membrane lipid composition of C. albicans cells can be altered by growing them in alkanes of varying chain lengths. The effects of such altered lipid composition on radiosensitivity was examined. It was observed that C. albicans cells with altered lipid content acquire resistance to ..gamma.. radiation.

Khare, S.; Jayakumar, A.; Trivedi, A.; Kesavan, P.C.; Prasad, R.

1982-05-01

228

Inorganic Nanoporous Membranes for Immunoisolated Cell-Based Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Materials advances enabled by nanotechnology have brought about promising approaches to improve the encapsulation mechanism for immunoisolated cell-based drug delivery. Cell-based drug delivery is a promising treatment for many diseases but has thus far achieved only limited clinical success. Treatment of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) by transplantation of pancreatic ?-cells represents the most anticipated application of cell-based drug delivery technology. This review outlines the challenges involved with maintaining transplanted cell viability and discusses how inorganic nanoporous membranes may be useful in achieving clinical success. PMID:20384222

Mendelsohn, Adam; Desai, Tejal

2014-01-01

229

Evidence for Bidirectional Endocannabinoid Transport across Cell Membranes*  

PubMed Central

Despite extensive research on the trafficking of anandamide (AEA) across cell membranes, little is known about the membrane transport of other endocannabinoids, such as 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Previous studies have provided data both in favor and against a cell membrane carrier-mediated transport of endocannabinoids, using different methodological approaches. Because AEA and 2-AG undergo rapid and almost complete intracellular hydrolysis, we employed a combination of radioligand assays and absolute quantification of cellular and extracellular endocannabinoid levels. In human U937 leukemia cells, 100 nm AEA and 1 ?m 2-AG were taken up through a fast and saturable process, reaching a plateau after 5 min. Employing differential pharmacological blockage of endocannabinoid uptake, breakdown, and interaction with intracellular binding proteins, we show that eicosanoid endocannabinoids harboring an arachidonoyl chain compete for a common membrane target that regulates their transport, whereas other N-acylethanolamines did not interfere with AEA and 2-AG uptake. By combining fatty acid amide hydrolase or monoacyl glycerol lipase inhibitors with hydrolase-inactive concentrations of the AEA transport inhibitors UCM707 (1 ?m) and OMDM-2 (5 ?m), a functional synergism on cellular AEA and 2-AG uptake was observed. Intriguingly, structurally unrelated AEA uptake inhibitors also blocked the cellular release of AEA and 2-AG. We show, for the first time, that UCM707 and OMDM-2 inhibit the bidirectional movement of AEA and 2-AG across cell membranes. Our findings suggest that a putative endocannabinoid cell membrane transporter controls the cellular AEA and 2-AG trafficking and metabolism. PMID:22879589

Chicca, Andrea; Marazzi, Janine; Nicolussi, Simon; Gertsch, Jurg

2012-01-01

230

Membrane with internal passages to permit fluid flow and an electrochemical cell containing the same  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention provides an improved proton exchange membrane for use in electrochemical cells having internal passages parallel to the membrane surface, an apparatus and process for making the membrane, membrane and electrode assemblies fabricated using the membrane, and the application of the membrane and electrode assemblies to a variety of devices, both electrochemical and otherwise. The passages in the membrane extend from one edge of the membrane to another and allow fluid flow through the membrane and give access directly to the membrane for purposes of hydration.

Cisar, Alan J. (Inventor); Gonzalez-Martin, Anuncia (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

231

CD2 Promotes Human Natural Killer Cell Membrane Nanotube Formation  

PubMed Central

Membrane nanotubes are thin membranous projections that physically connect two cells. While nanotubes have been studied in human natural killer (NK) cells and are implicated in aiding NK cell cytotoxic function, requirements for their formation to susceptible target cells remain incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that the CD2-CD58/48 receptor-ligand interaction promotes and is required for nanotube formation in human NK cells. In the CD2? NK cell line YTS, a stable CD2 expression variant enabled effective nanotube formation, and was associated with better cytotoxic function. Importantly, only interactions between an NK cell and a susceptible target cell were associated with multiple nanotubes and the number of nanotubes was inversely correlated with their length. Quantitative live cell fluorescence microscopy of CD2 nanotubes revealed time-dependent enrichment and localization of CD2 to the nanotube tip, and blocking CD2 receptor-ligand interactions prevented nanotube formation. Increased nanotube formation was not simply a feature of receptor-ligand pairing, as a KIR-MHC interaction in the same cell line system failed to promote nanotube formation. Additionally, blocking LFA-1-ICAM and 2B4-CD48 receptor-ligand interactions failed to inhibit nanotube formation. Thus only specific receptor-ligand pairs promote nanotubes. CD2 also promoted nanotube formation in ex vivo NK cells suggesting that CD2 plays a crucial role in the generation of nanotubes between an NK cell and its target. PMID:23112830

Comerci, Colin J.; Mace, Emily M.; Banerjee, Pinaki P.; Orange, Jordan S.

2012-01-01

232

Autophagy modulates cell migration and ?1 integrin membrane recycling  

PubMed Central

Cell migration is dependent on a series of integrated cellular events including the membrane recycling of the extracellular matrix receptor integrins. In this paper, we investigate the role of autophagy in regulating cell migration. In a wound-healing assay, we observed that autophagy was reduced in cells at the leading edge than in cells located rearward. These differences in autophagy were correlated with the robustness of MTOR activity. The spatial difference in the accumulation of autophagic structures was not detected in rapamycin-treated cells, which had less migration capacity than untreated cells. In contrast, the knockdown of the autophagic protein ATG7 stimulated cell migration of HeLa cells. Accordingly, atg3?/? and atg5?/? MEFs have greater cell migration properties than their wild-type counterparts. Stimulation of autophagy increased the co-localization of ?1 integrin-containing vesicles with LC3-stained autophagic vacuoles. Moreover, inhibition of autophagy slowed down the lysosomal degradation of internalized ?1 integrins and promoted its membrane recycling. From these findings, we conclude that autophagy regulates cell migration, a central mechanism in cell development, angiogenesis, and tumor progression, by mitigating the cell surface expression of ?1 integrins. PMID:24036548

Tuloup-Minguez, Veronique; Hamai, Ahmed; Greffard, Anne; Nicolas, Valerie; Codogno, Patrice; Botti, Joelle

2013-01-01

233

Extracellular Heme Uptake and the Challenges of Bacterial Cell Membranes  

PubMed Central

In bacteria, the fine balance of maintaining adequate iron levels while preventing the deleterious effects of excess iron has led to the evolution of sophisticated cellular mechanisms to obtain, store, and regulate iron. Iron uptake provides a significant challenge given its limited bioavailability and need to be transported across the bacterial cell wall and membranes. Pathogenic bacteria have circumvented the iron-availability issue by utilizing the hosts' heme-containing proteins as a source of iron. Once internalized, iron is liberated from the porphyrin enzymatically for cellular processes within the bacterial cell. Heme, a lipophilic and toxic molecule, poses a significant challenge in terms of transport given its chemical reactivity. As such, pathogenic bacteria have evolved sophisticated membrane transporters to coordinate, sequester, and transport heme. Recent advances in the biochemical and structural characterization of the membrane-bound heme transport proteins are discussed in the context of ligand coordination, protein–protein interaction, and heme transfer. PMID:23046657

Smith, Aaron D.; Wilks, Angela

2013-01-01

234

Purification of human adipose-derived stem cells from fat tissues using PLGA/silk screen hybrid membranes.  

PubMed

The purification of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) from human adipose tissue cells (stromal vascular fraction) was investigated using membrane filtration through poly(lactide-co-glycolic acid)/silk screen hybrid membranes. Membrane filtration methods are attractive in regenerative medicine because they reduce the time required to purify hADSCs (i.e., less than 30 min) compared with conventional culture methods, which require 5-12 days. hADSCs expressing the mesenchymal stem cell markers CD44, CD73, and CD90 were concentrated in the permeation solution from the hybrid membranes. Expression of the surface markers CD44, CD73, and CD99 on the cells in the permeation solution from the hybrid membranes, which were obtained using 18 mL of feed solution containing 50 × 10? cells, was statistically significantly higher than that of the primary adipose tissue cells, indicating that the hADSCs can be purified in the permeation solution by the membrane filtration method. Cells expressing the stem cell-associated marker CD34 could be successfully isolated in the permeation solution, whereas CD34? cells could not be purified by the conventional culture method. The hADSCs in the permeation solution demonstrated a superior capacity for osteogenic differentiation based on their alkali phosphatase activity, their osterix gene expression, and the results of mineralization analysis by Alizarin Red S and von Kossa staining compared with the cells from the suspension of human adipose tissue. These results suggest that the hADSCs capable of osteogenic differentiation preferentially permeate through the hybrid membranes. PMID:24565521

Chen, Da-Chung; Chen, Li-Yu; Ling, Qing-Dong; Wu, Meng-Hsueh; Wang, Ching-Tang; Suresh Kumar, S; Chang, Yung; Munusamy, Murugan A; Alarfajj, Abdullah A; Wang, Han-Chow; Hsu, Shih-Tien; Higuchi, Akon

2014-05-01

235

Electrospun fiber membranes enable proliferation of genetically modified cells  

PubMed Central

Polycaprolactone (PCL) and its blended composites (chitosan, gelatin, and lecithin) are well-established biomaterials that can enrich cell growth and enable tissue engineering. However, their application in the recovery and proliferation of genetically modified cells has not been studied. In the study reported here, we fabricated PCL-biomaterial blended fiber membranes, characterized them using physicochemical techniques, and used them as templates for the growth of genetically modified HCT116-19 colon cancer cells. Our data show that the blended polymers are highly miscible and form homogenous electrospun fiber membranes of uniform texture. The aligned PCL nanofibers support robust cell growth, yielding a 2.5-fold higher proliferation rate than cells plated on standard plastic plate surfaces. PCL-lecithin fiber membranes yielded a 2.7-fold higher rate of proliferation, while PCL-chitosan supported a more modest growth rate (1.5-fold higher). Surprisingly, PCL-gelatin did not enhance cell proliferation when compared to the rate of cell growth on plastic surfaces. PMID:23467983

Borjigin, Mandula; Eskridge, Chris; Niamat, Rohina; Strouse, Bryan; Bialk, Pawel; Kmiec, Eric B

2013-01-01

236

Electrospun fiber membranes enable proliferation of genetically modified cells.  

PubMed

Polycaprolactone (PCL) and its blended composites (chitosan, gelatin, and lecithin) are well-established biomaterials that can enrich cell growth and enable tissue engineering. However, their application in the recovery and proliferation of genetically modified cells has not been studied. In the study reported here, we fabricated PCL-biomaterial blended fiber membranes, characterized them using physicochemical techniques, and used them as templates for the growth of genetically modified HCT116-19 colon cancer cells. Our data show that the blended polymers are highly miscible and form homogenous electrospun fiber membranes of uniform texture. The aligned PCL nanofibers support robust cell growth, yielding a 2.5-fold higher proliferation rate than cells plated on standard plastic plate surfaces. PCL-lecithin fiber membranes yielded a 2.7-fold higher rate of proliferation, while PCL-chitosan supported a more modest growth rate (1.5-fold higher). Surprisingly, PCL-gelatin did not enhance cell proliferation when compared to the rate of cell growth on plastic surfaces. PMID:23467983

Borjigin, Mandula; Eskridge, Chris; Niamat, Rohina; Strouse, Bryan; Bialk, Pawel; Kmiec, Eric B

2013-01-01

237

Effect of in utero hypoxia on the ouabain\\/strophanthidin binding site of the fetal guinea pig brain cell membrane Na +,K +ATPase  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the effect of hypoxia on the high affinity strophanthidin\\/ouabain binding site of brain cell membrane Na+,K+-ATPase in 30, 45 and 60 day (term) fetal guinea pigs. Studies were performed on 30 fetuses randomized to either normoxic or hypoxic conditions. The hypoxic fetuses were exposed to maternal hypoxia (FiO2 = 7%) for 60 min. Brain cell membrane fractions

Ernie Graham; Om Prakash Mishra; Maria Delivoria-Papadopoulos

1995-01-01

238

Brefeldin A-dependent Membrane Tubule Formation Reconstituted In Vitro Is Driven by a Cell Cycle-regulated Microtubule Motor  

PubMed Central

Treatment of cultured cells with brefeldin A (BFA) induces the formation of extensive membrane tubules from the Golgi apparatus, trans-Golgi network, and early endosomes in a microtubule-dependent manner. We have reconstituted this transport process in vitro using Xenopus egg cytosol and a rat liver Golgi-enriched membrane fraction. The presence of BFA results in the formation of an intricate, interconnected tubular membrane network, a process that, as in vivo, is inhibited by nocodazole, the H1 anti-kinesin monoclonal antibody, and by membrane pretreatment with guanosine 5?-O-(3-thiotriphosphate). Surprisingly, membrane tubule formation is not due to the action of conventional kinesin or any of the other motors implicated in Golgi membrane dynamics. Two candidate motors of ?100 and ?130 kDa have been identified using the H1 antibody, both of which exhibit motor properties in a biochemical assay. Finally, BFA-induced membrane tubule formation does not occur in metaphase cytosol, and because membrane binding of both candidate motors is not altered after incubation in metaphase compared with interphase cytosol, these results suggest that either the ATPase or microtubule-binding activity of the relevant motor is cell cycle regulated. PMID:10712511

Robertson, Alasdair M.; Allan, Victoria J.

2000-01-01

239

In vitro effects of certain membrane-acting agents on superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production, protein synthesis and membrane ATPase activity in buffalo PMN cells.  

PubMed

Polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells play a key role in innate immunity, due to their ability to produce reactive oxidants such as superoxide (O(2-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), and to release antimicrobial proteins and peptides stored in their lysosomal granules. In the present study, the effects of the activation of buffalo PMN cells with various membrane-acting agents were evaluated in terms of O(2-) and H(2)O(2) production, the activities of membrane ATPases, and protein synthesis. Studies involving the incorporation of (35)S-methionine revealed significant protein-synthesising ability in resting PMN cells and in cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as well as with opsonised zymosan (OZ). Protein synthesis, as judged by fluorography of the cytosolic fraction, showed more than 12 bands, whilst the cytoskeletal fraction showed 2-3 bands. PMN activation with concanavalin A (ConA), digitonin and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) resulted in increased O(2-) and H(2)O(2) production. However, in the presence of anti-inflammatory agents such as indomethacin and cortisol, the production of O(2-) and H(2)O(2) by these cells was found to decline. Studies pertaining to membrane ATPases revealed that verapamil hydrochloride (VpHCl) significantly increased total ATPase and Na(+)K(+)ATPase activity. ConA treatment yielded only a moderate level of activity. Similarly, digitonin up to 24microM also caused a significant increase in ATPase activity. Our observations indicate that these membrane-acting agents influenced oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent microbicidal mechanisms in buffalo PMN cells. PMID:17850185

Das, Hemen; Reddy, Golla Ramalinga; More, Tukaram; Singh, Vineet Kumar

2007-08-01

240

Regulation of nitrite transport in red blood cells by hemoglobin oxygen fractional saturation.  

PubMed

Allosteric regulation of nitrite reduction by deoxyhemoglobin has been proposed to mediate nitric oxide (NO) formation during hypoxia. Nitrite is predominantly an anion at physiological pH, raising questions about the mechanism by which it enters the red blood cell (RBC) and whether this is regulated and coupled to deoxyhemoglobin-mediated reduction. We tested the hypothesis that nitrite transport by RBCs is regulated by fractional saturation. Using human RBCs, nitrite consumption was faster at lower fractional saturations, consistent with faster reactions with deoxyheme. A membrane-based regulation was suggested by slower nitrite consumption with intact versus lysed RBCs. Interestingly, upon nitrite addition, intracellular nitrite concentrations attained a steady state that, despite increased rates of consumption, did not change with decreasing oxygen tensions, suggesting a deoxygenation-sensitive step that either increases nitrite import or decreases the rate of nitrite export. A role for anion exchanger (AE)-1 in the control of nitrite export was suggested by increased intracellular nitrite concentrations in RBCs treated with DIDS. Moreover, deoxygenation decreased steady-state levels of intracellular nitrite in AE-1-inhibited RBCs. Based on these data, we propose a model in which deoxyhemoglobin binding to AE-1 inhibits nitrite export under low oxygen tensions allowing for the coupling between deoxygenation and nitrite reduction to NO along the arterial-to-venous gradient. PMID:19286940

Vitturi, Dario A; Teng, Xinjun; Toledo, José C; Matalon, Sadis; Lancaster, Jack R; Patel, Rakesh P

2009-05-01

241

Creatine kinase, cell membrane and Duchenne muscular dystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1958 Professor Setsuro Ebashi found that serum creatine kinase activity is increased in patients suffering from various muscular dystrophies, especially Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). He and others proposed that creatine kinase passes through the cell membrane as it is released from DMD muscle fibers.

Eijiro Ozawa; Yasuko Hagiwara; Mikiharu Yoshida

1999-01-01

242

Applications of proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have recently passed the test or demonstration phase and have partially reached the commercialization stage due to the impressive worldwide research effort. Despite the currently promising achievements and the plausible prospects of PEMFCs, there are many challenges remaining that need to be overcome before PEMFCs can successfully and economically substitute for the various traditional

Jung-Ho Wee

2007-01-01

243

Tetrazole-based, anhydrous proton exchange membranes for fuel cells.  

PubMed

A tetrazole-based polymer electrolyte membrane showed high conductivity at 20-120°C under dry conditions, offering the potential to dramatically simplify fuel cells for many applications over a wide temperature range without the need for cumbersome humidification and pressurization. PMID:24591010

Song, Min-Kyu; Li, Huiping; Li, Jinhuan; Zhao, Dan; Wang, Jenghan; Liu, Meilin

2014-02-26

244

Reconstitution of synaptic vesicle biogenesis from PC12 cell membranes.  

PubMed

Neuroendocrine PC12 cells contain small microvesicles that closely resemble synaptic vesicles in their physical and chemical properties. Two defining characteristics of synaptic vesicles are their homogeneous size and their unique protein composition. Since synaptic vesicles arise by endocytosis from the plasma membrane, nerve terminals and PC12 cells must contain the molecular machinery to sort synaptic vesicles from other membrane proteins and pinch off vesicles of the correct diameter from a precursor compartment. A cell-free reconstitution system was developed that generates vesicles from PC12 membrane precursors in the presence of ATP and brain cytosol and is temperature dependent. At 15 degrees C, surface-labeled synaptic vesicle proteins accumulate in a donor compartment, while labeled synaptic vesicles cannot be detected. The block of synaptic vesicle formation at 15 degrees C enables the use of the monoclonal antibody, KT3, a specific marker for the epitope-tagged synaptic vesicle protein, VAMP-TAg, to label precursors in the synaptic vesicle biogenesis pathway. From membranes labeled in vivo at 15 degrees C, vesicles generated in vitro at 37 degreesC had the sedimentation characteristics of neuroendocrine synaptic vesicles on glycerol velocity gradients, and excluded the transferrin receptor. Therefore, vesiculation and sorting can be studied in this cell-free system. PMID:9790861

Clift-O'Grady, L; Desnos, C; Lichtenstein, Y; Faúndez, V; Horng, J T; Kelly, R B

1998-10-01

245

Apoptosis method for biomimetic artificial cell membranes employing nanophotonic theranostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colloidal biomimetic disc shaped metallic gold shells with a uniform size distribution were synthesized using red blood cells as sacrificial templates. Red blood cells do not reproduce by dividing; hence they are truly colloidal particles. They are almost completely filled with hemoglobin allowing for an extremely dynamic work cycle with long intercellular vacations separated by self-destructive workloads on the cell surface. This method of exchange is emulated in the presented research. The colloidal disc shaped gold shells were coated with multiple layers of 50nm fluorescent polystyrene spheres followed by chemical removal of the gold core. This process yielded hollow synthetic biomimetic membranes with a strong optical signature that are diffusely permeable to water and impervious to particles larger than a few nanometers. Currently, the most successful synthetic intravascular oxygen carrying materials are perfluorocarbons; however, they break down quickly in roughly 50 hours from overexposure to their in vivo workload. The meso-porous membrane cages will be filled with hundreds of fibrous spheroid conglomerates composed of perfluorocarbon chains that can protrude through the meso-porous membrane as they thermally jostle about the cage. This is to statistically limit the exposure time of individual polymer strands to the self-destructive work at the surface and hopefully will greatly increase the effective functioning lifetime of the perfluorocarbon-based synthetic red blood cell. The artificial membranes are intentionally designed to be weak allowing them to flex under normal pressures and to hopefully burst under more extreme conditions such as blockage.

Gilleland, Cody L.; Waters, Brian D.; Jarvis, Brandon; Schaefers, Justin K.; Renfro, Tim; Gutierrez, Jose; Ussery, Geoffrey; Cavanah, Taylor; Glosser, R.; Landon, Preston B.

2005-08-01

246

Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells for communication applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

An advanced portable power source using a 50Watt (PPS-50) polymer electrolyte membrane cell EMFC) system was developed by Ball Aerospace under the US Army, Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) and the Office Special Technology (OST) joint program. The PEMFC system was designed as required for commercial and military applications. The system as evaluated extensively under different environmental temperatures and

Deryn Chu; R. Jiang; K. Gardner; R. Jacobs; J. Schmidt; T. Quakenbush; J. Stephens

2001-01-01

247

Membrane Transport Chloride Transport Across Vesicle and Cell  

E-print Network

unilamellar vesicles using a chloride-selective electrode. More specifically, 30 mm unilamellar vesicles (200 the formation of an ion pair.[4a­g] Anion transport by purely electroneutral systems is still quite rare.[4j ions across liposomal membranes and also across live cells grown as polarized epithelia. Receptors 2

Smith, Bradley D.

248

Hereditary red cell membrane disorders and laboratory diagnostic testing.  

PubMed

This overview describes two groups of nonimmune hereditary hemolytic anemias caused by defects in membrane proteins located in distinct layers of the red cell membrane. Hereditary spherocytosis (HS), hereditary elliptocytosis (HE), and hereditary pyropoikilocytosis (HPP) represent disorders of the red cell cytoskeleton. Hereditary stomatocytoses represents disorders of cation permeability in the red cell membrane. The current laboratory screening tests for HS are the osmotic fragility test, acid glycerol lysis time test (AGLT), cryohemolysis test, and eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA)-binding test. For atypical HS, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of erythrocyte membrane proteins is carried out to confirm the diagnosis. The diagnosis of HE/HPP is based on abnormal red cell morphology and the detection of protein 4.1R deficiency or spectrin variants using gel electrophoresis. None of screening tests can detect all HS cases. Some testing centers (a survey of 25 laboratories) use a combination of tests (e.g., AGLT and EMA). No specific screening test for hereditary stomatocytoses is available. The preliminary diagnosis is based on presenting a compensated hemolytic anemia, macrocytosis, and a temperature or time dependent pseudohyperkalemia in some patients. Both the EMA-binding test and the osmotic fragility test may help in differential diagnosis of HS and hereditary stomatocytosis. PMID:23480868

King, M-J; Zanella, A

2013-06-01

249

Carbon monoxide poisoning of proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance degrades when carbon monoxide (CO) is present in the fuel gas; this is referred to as CO poisoning. This paper investigates CO poisoning of PEMFCs by reviewing work on the electrochemistry of CO and hydrogen, the experimental performance of PEMFCs exhibiting CO poisoning, methods to mitigate CO poisoning and theoretical models of

J. J. Baschuk; Xianguo Li

2001-01-01

250

CAPSTONE SENIOR DESIGN - SUPRAMOLECULAR PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANES FOR FUEL CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to assume a leading role in the burgeoning hydrogen economy, new infrastructure will be required for fuel cell manufacturing and R&D capabilities. The objective of this proposal is the development of a new generation of advanced proton exchange membrane (PEM) technol...

251

Alterations in cell membrane properties caused by perfluorinated compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent detection of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in wildlife from even remote locations has spurred interest in the environmental occurrence and effects of these chemicals. While the global distribution of PFCs is increasingly understood, there is still little information available on their effects on wildlife. The amphiphillic nature of PFCs suggests that their effects could be primarily on cell membranes.

Wen yue Hu; Paul D Jones; Wim DeCoen; Louis King; Pamela Fraker; John Newsted; John P Giesy

2003-01-01

252

Low micromolar concentrations of cadmium and mercury ions activate peritubular membrane K+ conductance in proximal tubular cells of frog kidney.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to investigate the acute effects of extracellular low micromolar concentrations of cadmium and mercury ions on the peritubular cell membrane potential and its potassium selectivity in proximal tubular cells of the frog kidney. Peritubular exposure to 3 micromol/L Cd(2+) or 1 micromol/L Hg(2+) led to a rapid, sustained and reversible hyperpolarization of the peritubular cell membrane, paralleled by an increase in fractional K(+) conductance. Peritubular barium abolished hyperpolarization of the peritubular cell membrane to peritubular 3 micromol/L Cd(2+) or 1 micromol/L Hg(2+). Perfusing the lumen with 10 mmol/L l-alanine plus/minus 3 micromol/L Cd(2+) or Hg(2+) did not modify rapid depolarization and rate of slow repolarization of the peritubular cell membrane potential. In conclusion, low micromolar concentrations of Cd(2+) and Hg(2+) increase K(+) conductive pathway in the peritubular cell membrane and in this way can enhance ability of proximal renal tubular cells to maintain the driving force for electrogenic Na(+) and substrate reabsorption. PMID:18255327

Nesovic-Ostojic, Jelena; Cemerikic, Dusan; Dragovic, Simon; Milovanovic, Aleksandar; Milovanovic, Jovica

2008-03-01

253

Tannic acid effect on membrane of cell surface origin in guinea pig megakaryocytes and platelets.  

PubMed

Plasma membranes in isolated guinea pig megakaryocytes and washed platelets are poorly stained with the usual methods used to outline cell membranes. The addition of tannic acid and calcium to the initial fixative is useful to enhance electron density of all surface-derived membrane systems in these cells. The method described here shows that the increased electron denisty of membrane after fixation in the presence of tannic acid occurs both at the cell surface and along the invaginated membrane systems. PMID:58024

Fedorko, M E; Levine, R F

1976-04-01

254

Voltage Clamp Analysis of Two Inward Current Mechanisms in the Egg Cell Membrane of a Starfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionic mechanisms of excitation were studied in the immature egg cell membrane of a starfish, Mediaster aequalis, by analyzing membrane currents during voltage clamp. The cell membrane shows two different inward current mechanisms. One is activated at a membrane potential of --55 ,~ --50 mV and the other at --7 ~-~ --6 mV. They are referred to as channels I

SUSUMU HAGIWARA; SEIJI OZAWA; OLAV SAND

2009-01-01

255

Amniotic membrane transplantation for partial limbal stem cell deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim—To examine the eYcacy, safety, and long term outcomes of amniotic mem- brane transplantation for corneal surface reconstruction in cases of partial limbal stem cell deficiency. Methods—17 eyes of 15 patients with par- tial limbal stem cell deficiency underwent superficial keratectomy of the conjuncti- valised corneal surface followed by amni- otic membrane transplantation. Cases were followed up for at least

David F Anderson; Pierre Ellies; Renato T F Pires; ScheVer C G Tseng

256

Continuous monitoring of mitochondrial membrane potential in hepatocyte cell suspensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a simple fluorometric method for the continuous monitoring of mitochondrial membrane potential and cell viability in suspensions of hepatocytes exposed in vitro to cytotoxic agents. Suspensions of freshly isolated hepatocytes (106 cells\\/mL) preloaded with rhodamine 123 (Rh 123, 100 ?mol\\/L) are transferred to a thermostatically controlled mixed cuvette to which the desired cytotoxic agent is added. Rh 123

Carlos M. Palmeira; Antonio J. M. Moreno; Vitor M. C. Madeira; Kendall B. Wallace

1996-01-01

257

Effect of BCD Plasma on a Bacteria Cell Membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract Cell membrane rupture is considered to be one of the probable mechanisms for bacterial inactivation using barrier corona discharge (BCD) plasma. In this paper, the effect of the BCD plasma on the Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria cell wall was investigated through two analytical methods; Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) assay and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The ATP assay results indicate an increase in the ATP content of samples which were exposed to the BCD plasma. This implies the bacteria cell rupture. Moreover, AFM images confirm a serious damage of the bacteria cell wall under the influence of the bactericidal agents of the plasma.

Nasrin, Navabsafa; Hamid, Ghomi; Maryam, Nikkhah; Soheila, Mohades; Hossein, Dabiri; Saeed, Ghasemi

2013-07-01

258

Fractional Proliferation: A method to deconvolve cell population dynamics from single-cell data  

PubMed Central

We present an integrated method that exploits extended time-lapse automated imaging to quantify dynamics of cell proliferation. Cell counts are fit with a Quiescence-Growth model that estimates rates of cell division, entry into quiescence and death. The model is constrained with rates extracted experimentally from the behavior of tracked single cells over time. We visualize the output of the analysis in Fractional Proliferation graphs, which deconvolve dynamic proliferative responses to perturbations into the relative contributions of dividing, quiescent (non-dividing) and dead cells. The method reveals that the response of “oncogene-addicted” human cancer cells to tyrosine kinase inhibitors is a composite of altered rates of division, death and entry into quiescence, challenging the notion that such cells simply ‘die’ in response to oncogene-targeted therapy. PMID:22886092

Tyson, Darren R.; Garbett, Shawn P.; Frick, Peter L.; Quaranta, Vito

2012-01-01

259

Cell Membrane and Nuclear Estrogen Receptors (ERs) Originate from a Single Transcript: Studies of ER ? and ER ? Expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells  

E-print Network

The existence of a putative membrane estrogen receptor (ER) has been supported by studies accomplished over the past 20 yr. However, the origin and functions of this receptor are not well defined. To study the membrane receptor, we transiently transfected cDNAs for ER ? or ER ? into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Transfection of ER? resulted in a single transcript by Northern blot, specific binding of labeled 17?-estradiol (E 2), and expression of ER in both nuclear and membrane cell fractions. Competitive binding studies in both compartments revealed near identical dissociation constants (K ds) of 0.283 and 0.287 nM, respectively, but the membrane receptor number was only 3% as great as the nuclear receptor density. Transfection

Mahnaz Raz; Ali Pedram; Geoffrey L. Greene; Ellis R. Levin

260

Distinct Role of Rab27a in Granule Movement at the Plasma Membrane and in the Cytosol of NK Cells  

PubMed Central

Protocols were developed to automate image analysis and to track the movement of thousands of vesicular compartments in live cells. Algorithms were used to discriminate among different types of movement (e.g. random, caged, and directed). We applied these tools to investigate the steady-state distribution and movement of lytic granules (LG) in live natural killer (NK) cells by high-speed 3-dimensional (3D) spinning disc confocal and 2-dimensional total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Both mouse NK cells and a human NK cell line deficient in the small GTPase Rab27a were examined. The unbiased analysis of large datasets led to the following observations and conclusions. The majority of LG in the cytosol and at the plasma membrane of unstimulated NK cells are mobile. The use of inhibitors indicated that movement in the cytosol required microtubules but not actin, whereas movement at the plasma membrane required both. Rab27a deficiency resulted in fewer LG, and in a reduced fraction of mobile LG, at the plasma membrane. In contrast, loss of Rab27a increased the fraction of mobile LG and the extent of their movement in the cytosol. Therefore, in addition to its documented role in LG delivery to the plasma membrane, Rab27a may restrict LG movement in the cytosol. PMID:20877725

Long, Eric O.

2010-01-01

261

Shedding of phosphatidylserine from developing erythroid cells involves microtubule depolymerization and affects membrane lipid composition.  

PubMed

Phosphatidylserine (PS), which is normally localized in the cytoplasmic leaflet of the membrane, flip-flops to the external leaflet during aging of, or trauma to, cells. A fraction of this PS undergoes shedding into the extracellular milieu. PS externalization and shedding change during maturation of erythroid cells and affect the functioning, senescence and elimination of mature RBCs. Several lines of evidence suggest dependence of PS shedding on intracellular Ca concentration as well as on interaction between plasma membrane phospholipids and microtubules (MTs), the key components of the cytoskeleton. We investigated the effect of Ca flux and MT assembly on the distribution of PS across, and shedding from, the membranes of erythroid precursors. Cultured human and murine erythroid precursors were treated with the Ca ionophore A23187, the MT assembly enhancer paclitaxel (Taxol) or the inhibitor colchicine. PS externalization and shedding were measured by flow cytometry and the cholesterol/phospholipids in RBC membranes and supernatants, by ¹H-NMR. We found that treatment with Taxol or colchicine resulted in a marked increase in PS externalization, while shedding was increased by colchicine but inhibited by Taxol. These results indicate that PS externalization is mediated by Ca flux, and PS shedding by both Ca flux and MT assembly. The cholesterol/phospholipid ratio in the membrane is modified by PS shedding; we now show that it was increased by colchicine and A23187, while taxol had no effect. In summary, the results indicate that the Ca flux and MT depolymerization of erythroid precursors mediate their PS externalization and shedding, which in turn changes their membrane composition. PMID:22825717

Freikman, Inna; Ringel, Israel; Fibach, Eitan

2012-12-01

262

Membrane protein synthesis in cell-free systems: from bio-mimetic systems to bio-membranes.  

PubMed

When taking up the gauntlet of studying membrane protein functionality, scientists are provided with a plethora of advantages, which can be exploited for the synthesis of these difficult-to-express proteins by utilizing cell-free protein synthesis systems. Due to their hydrophobicity, membrane proteins have exceptional demands regarding their environment to ensure correct functionality. Thus, the challenge is to find the appropriate hydrophobic support that facilitates proper membrane protein folding. So far, various modes of membrane protein synthesis have been presented. Here, we summarize current state-of-the-art methodologies of membrane protein synthesis in biomimetic-supported systems. The correct folding and functionality of membrane proteins depend in many cases on their integration into a lipid bilayer and subsequent posttranslational modification. We highlight cell-free systems utilizing the advantages of biological membranes. PMID:24931371

Sachse, Rita; Dondapati, Srujan K; Fenz, Susanne F; Schmidt, Thomas; Kubick, Stefan

2014-08-25

263

Anionexchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells: Status and perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) are a promising carbon-neutral and sustainable power source for portable, mobile, and stationary\\u000a applications. However, conventional DEFCs that use acid proton-exchange membranes (typically Nafion type) and platinum-based\\u000a catalysts exhibit low performance (i.e., the state-of-the-art peak power density is 79.5 mW\\/cm2 at 90°C). Anionexchange membrane (AEM) DEFCs that use low-cost AEM and non-platinum catalysts have recently

T. S. Zhao; Y. S. Li; S. Y. Shen

2010-01-01

264

Block copolymers for alkaline fuel cell membrane materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alkaline fuel cells (AFCs) using anion exchange membranes (AEMs) as electrolyte have recently received considerable attention. AFCs offer some advantages over proton exchange membrane fuel cells, including the potential of non-noble metal (e.g. nickel, silver) catalyst on the cathode, which can dramatically lower the fuel cell cost. The main drawback of traditional AFCs is the use of liquid electrolyte (e.g. aqueous potassium hydroxide), which can result in the formation of carbonate precipitates by reaction with carbon dioxide. AEMs with tethered cations can overcome the precipitates formed in traditional AFCs. Our current research focuses on developing different polymer systems (blend, block, grafted, and crosslinked polymers) in order to understand alkaline fuel cell membrane in many aspects and design optimized anion exchange membranes with better alkaline stability, mechanical integrity and ionic conductivity. A number of distinct materials have been produced and characterized. A polymer blend system comprised of poly(vinylbenzyl chloride)-b-polystyrene (PVBC-b-PS) diblock copolymer, prepared by nitroxide mediated polymerization (NMP), with poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) or brominated PPO was studied for conversion into a blend membrane for AEM. The formation of a miscible blend matrix improved mechanical properties while maintaining high ionic conductivity through formation of phase separated ionic domains. Using anionic polymerization, a polyethylene based block copolymer was designed where the polyethylene-based block copolymer formed bicontinuous morphological structures to enhance the hydroxide conductivity (up to 94 mS/cm at 80 °C) while excellent mechanical properties (strain up to 205%) of the polyethylene block copolymer membrane was observed. A polymer system was designed and characterized with monomethoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) as a hydrophilic polymer grafted through substitution of pendent benzyl chloride groups of a PVBC-b-PS. The incorporation of the hydrophilic polymer allows for an investigation of the effect of hydration on ionic conductivity, resulting in the increase in membrane water affinity, enhancement of conductivity and reduced dependence of conductivity on relative humidity. A study of crosslinking of block copolymers was done wherein the crosslinking occurs in the non-matrix phase in order to maintain mechanical properties. The formation of a cationic crosslinked structure improves the mechanical integrity of the membrane in water while showing little deleterious effect on ionic conductivity and mechanical properties.

Li, Yifan

265

A Novel Unitized Regenerative Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A difficulty encountered in designing a unitized regenerative proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell lies in the incompatibility of electrode structures and electrocatalyst materials optimized for either of the two functions (fuel cell or electrolyzer) with the needs of the other function. This difficulty is compounded in previous regenerative fuel cell designs by the fact that water, which is needed for proton conduction in the PEM during both modes of operation, is the reactant supplied to the anode in the electrolyzer mode of operation and the product formed at the cathode in the fuel cell mode. Drawbacks associated with existing regenerative fuel cells have been addressed. In a first innovation, electrodes function either as oxidation electrodes (hydrogen ionization or oxygen evolution) or as reduction electrodes (oxygen reduction or hydrogen evolution) in the fuel cell and electrolyzer modes, respectively. Control of liquid water within the regenerative fuel cell has been brought about by a second innovation. A novel PEM has been developed with internal channels that permit the direct access of water along the length of the membrane. Lateral diffusion of water along the polymer chains of the PEM provides the water needed at electrode/PEM interfaces. Fabrication of the novel single cell unitized regenerative fuel cell and results obtained on testing it are presented.

Murphy, O. J.; Cisar, A. J.; Gonzalez-Martin, A.; Salinas, C. E.; Simpson, S. F.

1996-01-01

266

Mesoscopic simulation of cell membrane damage, morphology change and rupture by nonionic surfactants.  

PubMed Central

A new simulation method, dissipative particle dynamics, is applied to model biological membranes. In this method, several atoms are united into a single simulation particle. The solubility and compressibility of the various liquid components are reproduced by the simulation model. When applied to a bilayer of phosphatidylethanolamine, the membrane structure obtained matches quantitatively with full atomistic simulations and with experiments reported in the literature. The method is applied to investigate the cause of cell death when bacteria are exposed to nonionic surfactants. Mixed bilayers of lipid and nonionic surfactant were studied, and the diffusion of water through the bilayer was monitored. Small transient holes are seen to appear at 40% mole-fraction C(9)E(8), which become permanent holes between 60 and 70% surfactant. When C(12)E(6) is applied, permanent holes only arise at 90% mole-fraction surfactant. Some simulations have been carried out to determine the rupture properties of mixed bilayers of phosphatidylethanolamine and C(12)E(6). These simulations indicate that the area of a pure lipid bilayer can be increased by a factor 2. The inclusion of surfactant considerably reduces both the extensibility and the maximum stress that the bilayer can withstand. This may explain why dividing cells are more at risk than static cells. PMID:11463621

Groot, R D; Rabone, K L

2001-01-01

267

Capacitance-Voltage Measurement of Transporting Function at Cell Membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report the detection of transporting function at cell membrane using capacitance-voltage (CV) measurement. The detection principle of our devices is based on the field-effect of electrostatic interaction between charged species at cell membrane in solution and surface electrons in silicon crystal through the gate insulator of Si3N4/SiO2 thin double-layer. We designed an oocyte-based field-effect capacitor, on which a Xenopus laevis oocyte was fixed. The transporter of human organic anion transporting peptide C (hOATP-C) was expressed at oocyte membrane by induction of cRNA. The electrical phenomena such as ion or molecular charge flux at the interface between cell membrane and gate surface could be detected as the change of flat band voltage in CV characteristics. The flat band voltage shift decreased with incubation time after introduction of substrate into the oocyte-based field-effect capacitor. The electrical signal is due to the change of charge flux from the oocyte at the gate surface inspired by transporter-substrate binding. The platform based on the oocyte-based field-effect capacitor is suitable for a simple and non-invasive detection system in order to analyze function of transporters related to drug efficacy.

Sakata, Toshiya; Miyahara, Yuji

268

``Lock and key mechanism'' for ligand binding with adrenergic receptors and the arising mechanical effects on the cell membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemicals hitting the surface of cell aggregates are known to give arise to cyclic Adenosine Mono Phosphate (cAMP), a second messenger that transduces inside the cell the effects of species that cannot get through the cell membrane. Ligands bind to a specific receptor following the so called ``lock and key mechanism''; (beta)-adrenergic receptors are proteins embedded in the lipid bilayer characterized by seven transmembrane helices. Thinning and thickening in cell membranes may be initiated by conformational changes of some of three of the seven domains above. The cell response is linked to the coupling of chemical, conformational and mechanical effects. Part of the cAMP remains intracellular, whereas the remaining fractions migrates outside the cell due to membrane transporters. A new Helmholtz free energy, accounting for receptor and transporter densities, receptor conformation field and membrane elasticity is investigated. It is shown how the density of active receptors is directly related to the conformation field and it enters the resulting balance equation for the membrane stress. Balance laws for fluxes of transporters and receptors, coupled with the former because of the outgoing cAMP flux caused by the transporters, as well as for the diffusive powers must be supplied.

Lunghi, Laura; Deseri, Luca

2013-03-01

269

Nitrogen Isotope Fractionation Increases with the Cell-Specific Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction Rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of the nitrogen (N) isotopes to estimate the impacts and rates of different N transformations depends on knowledge of their extent of isotope fractionation under environmentally relevant physico-chemical conditions. Though the extent of N isotope fractionation during denitrification by pure cultures of bacteria has been determined in the past, relatively large variation in the isotope effect during apparently replicate experiments has been perplexing and the values that should be most relevant for environmental applications have not been clear. We measured the extent of N and O isotope fractionation during nitrate reduction by two bacterial denitrifiers, Pseudomonas chlororaphis ATCC 43928 and Paracoccus denitrificans ATCC 19367 that were grown in 1L batch reactors in the presence of differing carbon sources that included complex organic (e.g, bactopeptone and casein) or defined (e.g., glucose and acetate) carbon compounds and varying concentrations of dissolved oxygen (0 - 4 mM) and nitrate (25 - 800 mM) in the assay medium. For P. denitrificans and P. Chlororaphis , the total range of the N isotope effect (15?) varied from 22.3 to 9.3 ‰ and 34.3 to 15.6 ‰, respectively. Despite this large variation, the O-to-N isotope effect ratio centered around 1, consistent with our previous work. A systematic pattern that has emerged from these studies is that the N and O isotope effect during denitrification increases with increasing cell specific nitrate reduction (CSNR) rate. This sense of variation runs counter to expectations from studies of carbon and sulfur isotope effects during methanogenesis and sulfate reduction, respectively, in which higher substrate consumption rates are associated with lower isotope effects. As with many multi-step microbial processes, variability in the dissimilatory nitrate reduction isotope effect may arise from variation in the “relative” rate and reversibility of (1) nitrate uptake into the denitrifying cell, and/or (2) nitrate binding by dissimilatory nitrate reductase. As an example of a plausible explanation for the isotope effect/CSNR rate relationship that involves cellular uptake, an increase in the CSNR rate may be matched by an even greater increase in nitrate uptake across the cell membrane, leading to more nitrate efflux from the cell and thus more complete expression of the nitrate reductase isotope effect in the media. In addition to discussing such mechanistic possibilities and their physiological implications, we will consider the significance of our findings for the interpretation of oceanic nitrate isotope data.

Kritee, K.; Sigman, D. M.; Granger, J.

2009-12-01

270

Cell Component Accelerated Stress Test and Polarization Curve Protocols for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document contains test protocols to determine the performance and durability of fuel cell components such as electrocatalysts and supports, membranes, and membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs). These protocols were established with the intent to be used as a common industry standard when assessing durability of different polymer electrolyte membranes (PEM) in fuel cells for automotive applications and to be compared against DOE and FreedomCar targets. The resulting data may also help to model the performance of the fuel cell under variable load conditions and the effects of ageing on performance.

United States Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle Efficiency and Energy Sustainability (USDRIVE)

271

Creating Transient Cell Membrane Pores Using a Standard Inkjet Printer  

PubMed Central

Bioprinting has a wide range of applications and significance, including tissue engineering, direct cell application therapies, and biosensor microfabrication.1-10 Recently, thermal inkjet printing has also been used for gene transfection.8,9 The thermal inkjet printing process was shown to temporarily disrupt the cell membranes without affecting cell viability. The transient pores in the membrane can be used to introduce molecules, which would otherwise be too large to pass through the membrane, into the cell cytoplasm.8,9,11 The application being demonstrated here is the use of thermal inkjet printing for the incorporation of fluorescently labeled g-actin monomers into cells. The advantage of using thermal ink-jet printing to inject molecules into cells is that the technique is relatively benign to cells.8, 12 Cell viability after printing has been shown to be similar to standard cell plating methods1,8. In addition, inkjet printing can process thousands of cells in minutes, which is much faster than manual microinjection. The pores created by printing have been shown to close within about two hours. However, there is a limit to the size of the pore created (~10 nm) with this printing technique, which limits the technique to injecting cells with small proteins and/or particles. 8,9,11 A standard HP DeskJet 500 printer was modified to allow for cell printing.3, 5, 8 The cover of the printer was removed and the paper feed mechanism was bypassed using a mechanical lever. A stage was created to allow for placement of microscope slides and coverslips directly under the print head. Ink cartridges were opened, the ink was removed and they were cleaned prior to use with cells. The printing pattern was created using standard drawing software, which then controlled the printer through a simple print command. 3T3 fibroblasts were grown to confluence, trypsinized, and then resuspended into phosphate buffered saline with soluble fluorescently labeled g-actin monomers. The cell suspension was pipetted into the ink cartridge and lines of cells were printed onto glass microscope cover slips. The live cells were imaged using fluorescence microscopy and actin was found throughout the cytoplasm. Incorporation of fluorescent actin into the cell allows for imaging of short-time cytoskeletal dynamics and is useful for a wide range of applications.13-15 PMID:22453577

Owczarczak, Alexander B.; Shuford, Stephen O.; Wood, Scott T.; Deitch, Sandra; Dean, Delphine

2012-01-01

272

A novel unitized regenerative proton exchange membrane fuel cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A difficulty encountered in designing a unitized regenerative proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell lies in the incompatibility of electrode structures and electrocatalyst materials optimized for either of the two functions (fuel cell or electrolyzer) with the needs of the other function. This difficulty is compounded in previous regenerative fuel cell designs by the fact that water, which is needed for proton conduction in the PEM during both modes of operation, is the reactant supplied to the anode in the electrolyzer mode of operation and the product formed at the cathode in the fuel cell mode. Drawbacks associated with existing regenerative fuel cells have been addressed in work performed at Lynntech. In a first innovation, electrodes function either as oxidation electrodes (hydrogen ionization or oxygen evolution) or as reduction electrodes (oxygen reduction or hydrogen evolution) in the fuel cell and electrolyzer modes, respectively. Control of liquid water within the regenerative fuel cell has been brought about by a second innovation. A novel PEM has been developed with internal channels that permit the direct access of water along the length of the membrane. Lateral diffusion of water along the polymer chains of the PEM provides the water needed at electrode/PEM interfaces. Fabrication of the novel unitized regenerative fuel cell and results obtained on testing it will be presented.

Murphy, O. J.; Cisar, A. J.; Gonzalez-Martin, A.; Salinas, C. E.; Simpson, S. F.

1995-01-01

273

Myosin-X facilitates Shigella-induced membrane protrusions and cell-to-cell spread  

PubMed Central

Summary The intracellular pathogen Shigella flexneri forms membrane protrusions to spread from cell to cell. As protrusions form, myosin-X (Myo10) localizes to Shigella. Electron micrographs of immunogold-labelled Shigella-infected HeLa cells reveal that Myo10 concentrates at the bases and along the sides of bacteria within membrane protrusions. Time-lapse video microscopy shows that a full-length Myo10 GFP-construct cycles along the sides of Shigella within the membrane protrusions as these structures progressively lengthen. RNAi knock-down of Myo10 is associated with shorter protrusions with thicker stalks, and causes a >80% decrease in confluent cell plaque formation. Myo10 also concentrates in membrane protrusions formed by another intracellular bacteria, Listeria, and knock-down of Myo10 also impairs Listeria plaque formation. In Cos7 cells (contain low concentrations of Myo10), the expression of full-length Myo10 nearly doubles Shigella-induced protrusion length, and lengthening requires the head domain, as well as the tail-PH domain, but not the FERM domain. The GFP-Myo10-HMM domain localizes to the sides of Shigella within membrane protrusions and the GFP-Myo10-PH domain localizes to host cell membranes. We conclude that Myo10 generates the force to enhance bacterial-induced protrusions by binding its head region to actin filaments and its PH tail domain to the peripheral membrane. PMID:23083060

Li, Wei; Dhillon, Jess; Bohil, Aparna B.; Cheney, Richard E.; Hartwig, John H.; Southwick, Frederick S.

2014-01-01

274

Near-Critical Fluctuations and Cytoskeleton-Assisted Phase Separation Lead to Subdiffusion in Cell Membranes  

PubMed Central

We address the relationship between membrane microheterogeneity and anomalous subdiffusion in cell membranes by carrying out Monte Carlo simulations of two-component lipid membranes. We find that near-critical fluctuations in the membrane lead to transient subdiffusion, while membrane-cytoskeleton interaction strongly affects phase separation, enhances subdiffusion, and eventually leads to hop diffusion of lipids. Thus, we present a minimum realistic model for membrane rafts showing the features of both microscopic phase separation and subdiffusion. PMID:21190659

Ehrig, Jens; Petrov, Eugene P.; Schwille, Petra

2011-01-01

275

Tetraspanins regulate the protrusive activities of cell membrane  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tetraspanins regulate microvillus formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tetraspanin CD81 promotes microvillus formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tetraspanin CD82 inhibits microvillus formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Based on this study, we extrapolated a general cellular mechanism for tetraspanins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tetraspanins engage various functions by regulating membrane protrusion morphogenesis. -- Abstract: Tetraspanins have gained increased attention due to their functional versatility. But the universal cellular mechanism that governs such versatility remains unknown. Herein we present the evidence that tetraspanins CD81 and CD82 regulate the formation and/or development of cell membrane protrusions. We analyzed the ultrastructure of the cells in which a tetraspanin is either overexpressed or ablated using transmission electron microscopy. The numbers of microvilli on the cell surface were counted, and the radii of microvillar tips and the lengths of microvilli were measured. We found that tetraspanin CD81 promotes the microvillus formation and/or extension while tetraspanin CD82 inhibits these events. In addition, CD81 enhances the outward bending of the plasma membrane while CD82 inhibits it. We also found that CD81 and CD82 proteins are localized at microvilli using immunofluorescence. CD82 regulates microvillus morphogenesis likely by altering the plasma membrane curvature and/or the cortical actin cytoskeletal organization. We predict that membrane protrusions embody a common morphological phenotype and cellular mechanism for, at least some if not all, tetraspanins. The differential effects of tetraspanins on microvilli likely lead to the functional diversification of tetraspanins and appear to correlate with their functional propensity.

Bari, Rafijul [Cancer Center and Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN (United States)] [Cancer Center and Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN (United States); Guo, Qiusha [Cancer Center and Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN (United States) [Cancer Center and Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN (United States); Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Xia, Bing [Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China)] [Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Zhang, Yanhui H. [Cancer Center and Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN (United States)] [Cancer Center and Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN (United States); Giesert, Eldon E. [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN (United States)] [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN (United States); Levy, Shoshana [Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States)] [Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Zheng, Jie J. [Department of Structural Biology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)] [Department of Structural Biology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Zhang, Xin A., E-mail: xzhang@uthsc.edu [Cancer Center and Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN (United States)

2011-12-02

276

Muscarinic receptor size on smooth muscle cells and membranes  

SciTech Connect

The loss of (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate ((/sup 3/H)QNB) binding following high-energy radiation was used to compare the muscarinic receptor size on single smooth muscle cells isolated by collagenase digestion from the canine stomach and on plasma membranes derived from intact gastric smooth muscle without exposure to exogenous proteolysis. Radiation inactivation of galactose oxidase (68 kdaltons), yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (160 kdaltons), and pyruvate kinase (224 kdaltons) activities were used as molecular-weight standards. Radiation inactivation of (/sup 3/H)QNB binding to rat brain membranes, which gave a target size of 86 kdaltons, served as an additional control. In isolated smooth muscle cells, the calculated size of the muscarinic receptor was 80 +/- 8 kdaltons. In contrast, in a smooth muscle enriched plasma membrane preparation, muscarinic receptor size was significantly smaller at 45 +/- 3 kdaltons. Larger molecular sizes were obtained either in the presence of protease inhibitors (62 +/- 4 kdaltons) or by using a crude membrane preparation of gastric smooth muscle 86 +/- 7 kdaltons).

Collins, S.M.; Jung, C.Y.; Grover, A.K.

1986-08-01

277

Membrane Domains Based on Ankyrin and Spectrin Associated with Cell–Cell Interactions  

PubMed Central

Nodes of Ranvier and axon initial segments of myelinated nerves, sites of cell–cell contact in early embryos and epithelial cells, and neuromuscular junctions of skeletal muscle all perform physiological functions that depend on clustering of functionally related but structurally diverse ion transporters and cell adhesion molecules within microdomains of the plasma membrane. These specialized cell surface domains appeared at different times in metazoan evolution, involve a variety of cell types, and are populated by distinct membrane-spanning proteins. Nevertheless, recent work has shown that these domains all share on their cytoplasmic surfaces a membrane skeleton comprised of members of the ankyrin and spectrin families. This review will summarize basic features of ankyrins and spectrins, and will discuss emerging evidence that these proteins are key players in a conserved mechanism responsible for assembly and maintenance of physiologically important domains on the surfaces of diverse cells. PMID:20457566

Bennett, Vann; Healy, Jane

2009-01-01

278

Evaluation of stem cell components in retrocorneal membranes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to elucidate the origin and cellular composition of retrocorneal membranes (RCMs) associated with chemical burns using immunohistochemical staining for primitive cell markers. Six cases of RCMs were collected during penetrating keratoplasty. We examined RCMs with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibodies against hematopoietic stem cells (CD34, CD133, c-kit), mesenchymal stem cells (beta-1-integrin, TGF-?, vimentin, hSTRO-1), fibroblasts (FGF-?, ?-smooth muscle actin), and corneal endothelial cells (type IV collagen, CD133, VEGF, VEGFR1). Histologic analysis of RCMs revealed an organized assembly of spindle-shaped cells, pigment-laden cells, and thin collagenous matrix structures. RCMs were positive for markers of mesenchymal stem cells including beta-1-integrin, TGF-?, vimentin, and hSTRO-1. Fibroblast markers were also positive, including FGF-? and ?-smooth muscle actin (SMA). In contrast, immunohistochemical staining was negative for hematopoietic stem cell markers including CD34, CD133 and c-kit as well as corneal endothelial cell markers such as type IV collagen, CD133 except VEGF and VEGFR1. Pigment-laden cells did not stain with any antibodies. The results of this study suggest that RCMs consist of a thin collagen matrix and fibroblast-like cells and may be a possible neogenetic structure produced from a lineage of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:24932088

Lee, Seok Hyun; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Kim, Mi Kyung; Chun, Yeoun Sook; Kim, Jae Chan

2014-06-01

279

hERG ion channel pharmacology: cell membrane liposomes in porous-supported lipid bilayers compared with whole-cell patch-clamping.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to obtain functional hERG ion channel protein for use in a non-cell-based ion channel assay. hERG was expressed in Sf9 insect cells. Attempts to solubilise the hERG protein from Sf9 insect cell membranes using non-ionic detergents (NP40 and DDM) were not successful. We therefore generated liposomes from the unpurified membrane fraction and incorporated these into porous Teflon-supported bilayer lipid membranes. Macroscopic potassium currents (1 nA) were recorded that approximated those in whole-cell patch-clamping, but the channels were bidirectional in the bilayer lipid membrane (BLM). Currents were partially inhibited by the hERG blockers E4031, verapamil, and clofilium, indicating that the protein of interest is present at high levels in the BLM relative to endogenous channels. Cell liposomes produced from Sf9 insect cell membranes expressing voltage-gated sodium channels also gave current responses that were activated by veratridine and inhibited by saxitoxin. These results demonstrate that purification of the ion channel of interest is not always necessary for liposomes used in macro-current BLM systems. PMID:22936309

Zhang, Yanli; Phung, Thai; Dunlop, James; Dalziel, Julie

2012-11-01

280

Proteomic Approach for Characterization of Immunodominant Membrane-Associated 30- to 36-Kilodalton Fraction Antigens of Leishmania infantum Promastigotes, Reacting with Sera from Mediterranean Visceral Leishmaniasis Patients  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to identify and characterize proteins of a 30- to 36-kDa fraction of Leishmania infantum promastigote membranes previously shown to be an immunodominant antigen(s) in Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis (MVL) and a consistent and reliable serological marker of this disease. By the first approach, Coomassie-stained protein bands (32- and 33-kDa fractions) that specifically reacted by immunoblotting with sera from MVL patients were excised from the gel and submitted to enzymatic digestion to generate peptides. Four peptides were sequenced, three of which were shown to be definitely associated with MVL-reactive antigens and ascribed to a mitochondrial integral ADP-ATP carrier protein from L. major, a putative NADH cytochrome b5 reductase, and a putative mitochondrial carrier protein, respectively. The second approach combined two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of membrane antigens and mass spectrometry (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry) by using a quadrupole time-of-flight analysis. Six immunoreactive spots that resolved within a molecular mass range of 30 to 36 kDa and a pH range of 6.7 to 7.4 corresponded to four Leishmania products. The sequences derived from two spots were ascribed to a beta subunit-like guanine nucleotide binding protein, known as the activated protein kinase C receptor homolog antigen LACK, and to a probable member of the aldehyde reductase family. One spot was identified as a probable ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase (EC 1.10.2.2) Rieske iron-sulfur protein precursor. The remaining three spots were identified as truncated forms of elongation factor 1?. These antigens correspond to conserved proteins ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotic cells and represent potential candidates for the design of a reliable tool for the diagnosis of this disease. PMID:15699427

Kamoun-Essghaier, Sayda; Guizani, Ikram; Strub, Jean Marc; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Mabrouk, Kamel; Ouelhazi, Lazhar; Dellagi, Koussay

2005-01-01

281

Development of structured polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cell applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research was to explore structure-property relationships to develop the understanding needed for introduction of superior PEM materials. Polymer electrolyte membranes based on sulfonated poly(ether ketone ketone) (SPEKK) were fabricated using N-methyl pyrrolidone as casting solvent. The membranes were characterized in terms of properties that were relevant to fuel cell applications, such as proton conductivity, methanol permeability, and swelling properties, among others. It was found in this study that the proton conductivity of neat SPEKK membranes could reach the conductivity of commercial membranes such as NafionRTM. However, when the conductivity of SPEKK was comparable to NafionRTM, the swelling of SPEKK in water was quite excessive. The swelling problem was remedied by modifying the microstructure of SPEKK using different techniques. One of them involved blending of lightly sulfonated PEKK with highly acidic particles (sulfonated crosslinked polystyrene-SXLPS). Low sulfonation level of SPEKK was used to reduce the swelling of the membrane in water and the role of the highly acidic particles was to enhance the proton conductivity of the membrane. Because of the residual crystallinity in SPEKK with low sulfonation levels (IEC < 1 meq/g), the composite membranes exhibited excellent dimensional stability in water at elevated temperatures (30-90 °C). Also, the resistance to swelling of these composite membranes in methanol-water mixtures was far better than NafionRTM, and so was the methanol permeability. Another technique explored was blending with non-conductive polymers (poly(ether imide) and poly(ether sulfone)) to act as mechanical reinforcement. It was found that miscibility behavior of the blends had a significant impact on the transport and swelling properties of these blends, which could be explained by the blend microstructure. The miscibility behavior was found to be strongly dependent on the sulfonation level of SPEKK. The conductivities of the blends were enhanced by as much as two orders of magnitude when the morphology was modified by electric field. The last approach was ionic crosslinking of the sulfonate groups in SPEKK using divalent cations, specifically barium ions. The crosslinking treatment has greatly improved the thermal stability of the membranes in both dry and wet conditions.

Gasa, Jeffrey

282

Lysosomotropic agents: impact on lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cell death.  

PubMed

Lysosomes are acidic organelles essential for degradation, signalling and cell homoeostasis. In addition, they play a key role in cell death. Permeabilization of the lysosomal membrane and release of hydrolytic enzymes to the cytosol accompanies apoptosis signalling in several systems. The regulatory mechanism of lysosomal stability is, however, poorly understood. Lipophilic or amphiphilic compounds with a basic moiety will become protonated and trapped within lysosomes, and such lysosomotropic behaviour is also found in many pharmacological drugs. The natural sphingolipid sphingosine exhibits lysosomotropic detergent ability and is an endogenous candidate for controlling lysosomal membrane permeabilization. The lysosomotropic properties of certain detergents might be of use in lysosome-targeting anticancer drugs and drug delivery system in the future. The present review summarizes the current knowledge on the targeting and permeabilizing properties of lysosomotropic detergents from a cellular and physicochemical perspective. PMID:25233432

Villamil Giraldo, Ana M; Appelqvist, Hanna; Ederth, Thomas; Ollinger, Karin

2014-10-01

283

CFD-based modelling of proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive non-isothermal, 3D computational model for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells has been developed, and implemented into a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code. The model allows parallel computing, thus making it practical to perform well-resolved simulations for large computational domains. The model accounts for convective and diffusive transport and allows prediction of the concentration of species. Distributed heat

B. R. Sivertsen; N. Djilali

2005-01-01

284

Sulfonated polynaphthylimides as proton-conducting membranes for fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main achievements in the field of synthesis of sulfonated polynaphthylimides and their precursors, namely, sulfonated aromatic diamines, are analysed. The relationship between the structure of sulfonated polynaphthylimides and their physicochemical characteristics such as chemical and thermal stability, moisture uptake, ion-exchange capacity and proton conductivity is studied. The prospects of using polynaphthylimides containing pendant sulfo groups for the development of proton-conducting polymeric electrolyte membranes for fuel cells are demonstrated.

Rusanov, Aleksandr L.; Bulycheva, E. G.; Bugaenko, M. G.; Voytekunas, V. Yu; Abadie, M. J.

2009-01-01

285

Characterization of Plasma Membrane Proteins from Ovarian Cancer Cells Using Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

To determine how the repertoire of plasma membrane proteins change with disease state, specifically related to cancer, several methods for preparation of plasma membrane proteins were evaluated. Cultured cells derived from stage IV ovarian tumors were grown to 90% confluence and harvested in buffer containing CHAPS detergent. This preparation was centrifuged at low speed to remove insoluble cellular debris resulting in a crude homogenate. Glycosylated proteins in the crude homogenate were selectively enriched using lectin affinity chromatography. The crude homogenate and the lectin purified sample were prepared for mass spectrometric evaluation. The general procedure for protein identification began with trypsin digestion of protein fractions followed by separation by reversed phase liquid chromatography that was coupled directly to a conventional tandem mass spectrometer (i.e. LCQ ion trap). Mass and fragmentation data for the peptides were searched against a human proteome data base using the informatics program SEQUEST. Using this procedure 398 proteins were identified with high confidence, including receptors, membrane-associated ligands, proteases, phosphatases, as well as structural and adhesion proteins. Results indicate that lectin chromatography provides a select subset of proteins and that the number and quality of the identifications improve as does the confidence of the protein identifications for this subset. These results represent the first step in development of methods to separate and successfully identify plasma membrane proteins from advanced ovarian cancer cells. Further characterization of plasma membrane proteins will contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying progression of this deadly disease and may lead to new targeted interventions as well as new biomarkers for diagnosis.

Springer, David L.; Auberry, Deanna L.; Ahram, Mamoun; Adkins, Joshua N.; Feldhaus, Jane M.; Wahl, Jon H.; Wunsch, David M.; Rodland, Karin D.

2003-01-01

286

Stimulation of Erythrocyte Cell Membrane Scrambling by Mushroom Tyrosinase  

PubMed Central

Background: Mushroom tyrosinase, a copper containing enzyme, modifies growth and survival of tumor cells. Mushroom tyrosinase may foster apoptosis, an effect in part due to interference with mitochondrial function. Erythrocytes lack mitochondria but are able to undergo apoptosis-like suicidal cell death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling leading to phosphatidylserine-exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Signaling involved in the triggering of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i) and activation of sphingomyelinase with subsequent formation of ceramide. The present study explored, whether tyrosinase stimulates eryptosis. Methods: Cell volume has been estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine-exposure from annexin V binding, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, and ceramide abundance from binding of fluorescent antibodies in flow cytometry. Results: A 24 h exposure to mushroom tyrosinase (7 U/mL) was followed by a significant increase of [Ca2+]i, a significant increase of ceramide abundance, and a significant increase of annexin-V-binding. The annexin-V-binding following tyrosinase treatment was significantly blunted but not abrogated in the nominal absence of extracellular Ca2+. Tyrosinase did not significantly modify forward scatter. Conclusions: Tyrosinase triggers cell membrane scrambling, an effect, at least partially, due to entry of extracellular Ca2+ and ceramide formation. PMID:24647148

Frauenfeld, Leonie; Alzoubi, Kousi; Abed, Majed; Lang, Florian

2014-01-01

287

Microfluidics analysis of red blood cell membrane viscoelasticity.  

PubMed

In this work, a microfluidic system to investigate the flow behavior of red blood cells in a microcirculation-mimicking network of PDMS microchannels with thickness comparable to cell size is presented. We provide the first quantitative description of cell velocity and shape as a function of the applied pressure drop in such devices. Based on these results, a novel methodology to measure cell membrane viscoelastic properties in converging/diverging flow is developed, and the results are in good agreement with data from the literature. In particular, in the diverging channel the effect of RBC surface viscosity is dominant with respect to shear elasticity. Possible applications include measurements of cell deformability in pathological samples, where reliable methods are still lacking. PMID:21076756

Tomaiuolo, Giovanna; Barra, Mario; Preziosi, Valentina; Cassinese, Antonio; Rotoli, Bruno; Guido, Stefano

2011-02-01

288

Amniotic membrane transplantation for partial limbal stem cell deficiency  

PubMed Central

AIM—To examine the efficacy, safety, and long term outcomes of amniotic membrane transplantation for corneal surface reconstruction in cases of partial limbal stem cell deficiency.?METHODS—17 eyes of 15 patients with partial limbal stem cell deficiency underwent superficial keratectomy of the conjunctivalised corneal surface followed by amniotic membrane transplantation. Cases were followed up for at least a year.?RESULTS—All eyes exhibited a stable, intact corneal epithelial surface after a mean follow up period of 25.8 months with no eyes developing recurrent erosion or persistent epithelial defect. The mean time to re-epithelialisation was 22.8 days. Overall improvement in visual acuity was observed in 92.9% of 14 eyes with visual potential. Of those, five eyes gained six or more lines, two eyes gained between four and five lines, six eyes gained between one and three lines, and one eye lost three lines of Snellen acuity. Pain and photophobia were abolished in 86% of cases and substantially reduced in 14%, with all eyes exhibiting decreased vascularisation and inflammation at final follow up.?CONCLUSIONS—Amniotic membrane transplantation appears to be a safe and effective method of restoring a stable corneal epithelium for cases of partial limbal stem cell deficiency and can be considered as an alternative to limbal autograft or allograft.?? PMID:11316719

Anderson, D.; Ellies, P.; Pires, R.; Tseng, S.

2001-01-01

289

Size-based chromatography of signaling clusters in a living cell membrane.  

PubMed

Here we introduce a form of chromatography that can be imposed on the membrane of a living cell. A cell-cell signaling interaction is reconstituted in a hybrid live cell-supported membrane junction. The chromatographic material consists of a hexagonally ordered array of gold nanoparticles (nanodot array), which is fabricated onto the underlying substrate. While individual membrane components move freely throughout the array, the movement of larger assemblies is impeded if they exceed the physical dimensions of the array. This tactile approach to probing membrane structures in living cells reveals organizational aspects of the membrane environment unobservable by other techniques. PMID:24655064

Caculitan, Niña G; Kai, Hiroyuki; Liu, Eulanca Y; Fay, Nicole; Yu, Yan; Lohmüller, Theobald; O'Donoghue, Geoff P; Groves, Jay T

2014-05-14

290

Membrane and capillary components of lung diffusion and pro-angiogenic cells in infants.  

PubMed

Angiogenesis is a critical determinant of alveolarisation, which increases alveolar surface area and pulmonary capillary blood volume in infants; however, our understanding of this process is very limited. The purpose of our study was to measure the pulmonary membrane diffusion capacity (DM) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (VC) components of the diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) in healthy infants and toddlers, and evaluate whether these components were associated with pro-angiogenic circulating haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (pCHSPCs) early in life. 21 healthy subjects (11 males), 3-25 months of age, were evaluated. DLCO was measured under normoxic and hyperoxic conditions, and DM and VC were calculated. From 1 mL venous blood, pCHSPCs were quantified by multiparametric flow cytometry. DM and VC increased with increasing body length; however, membrane resistance as a fraction of total resistance to pulmonary diffusion remained constant with somatic size. In addition, DLCO and VC, but not DM, increased with an increasing percentage of pCHSPCs. The parallel increase in the membrane and vascular components of pulmonary diffusion is consistent with alveolarisation during this period of rapid lung growth. In addition, the relationship between pCHSPCs and VC suggest that pro-angiogenic cells may contribute to this vascular process. PMID:23682112

Chang, Daniel V; Tiller, Christina J; Kisling, Jeffrey A; Case, Jamie; Mund, Julie A; Haneline, Laura S; Ingram, David A; Tepper, Robert S

2014-02-01

291

Ambidextrous binding of cell and membrane bilayers by soluble matrix metalloproteinase-12.  

PubMed

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) regulate tissue remodelling, inflammation and disease progression. Some soluble MMPs are inexplicably active near cell surfaces. Here we demonstrate the binding of MMP-12 directly to bilayers and cellular membranes using paramagnetic NMR and fluorescence. Opposing sides of the catalytic domain engage spin-labelled membrane mimics. Loops project from the ?-sheet interface to contact the phospholipid bilayer with basic and hydrophobic residues. The distal membrane interface comprises loops on the other side of the catalytic cleft. Both interfaces mediate MMP-12 association with vesicles and cell membranes. MMP-12 binds plasma membranes and is internalized to hydrophobic perinuclear features, the nuclear membrane and inside the nucleus within minutes. While binding of TIMP-2 to MMP-12 hinders membrane interactions beside the active site, TIMP-2-inhibited MMP-12 binds vesicles and cells, suggesting compensatory rotation of its membrane approaches. MMP-12 association with diverse cell membranes may target its activities to modulate innate immune responses and inflammation. PMID:25412686

Koppisetti, Rama K; Fulcher, Yan G; Jurkevich, Alexander; Prior, Stephen H; Xu, Jia; Lenoir, Marc; Overduin, Michael; Van Doren, Steven R

2014-01-01

292

Quantitative analysis of cell surface membrane proteins using membrane-impermeable chemical probe coupled with 18O labeling  

PubMed Central

We report a mass spectrometry-based strategy for quantitative analysis of cell surface membrane proteome changes. The strategy includes enrichment of surface membrane proteins using a membrane-impermeable chemical probe followed by stable isotope 18O labeling and LC-MS analysis. We applied this strategy for enriching membrane proteins expressed by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a gram-negative bacterium with known metal-reduction capability via extracellular electron transfer between outer membrane proteins and extracellular electron receptors. LC/MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of about 400 proteins with 79% of them being predicted to be membrane localized. Quantitative aspects of the membrane enrichment were shown by peptide level 16O and 18O labeling of proteins from wild-type and mutant cells (generated from deletion of a type II secretion protein, GspD) prior to LC-MS analysis. Using a chemical probe labeled pure protein as an internal standard for normalization, the quantitative data revealed reduced abundances in ?gspD mutant cells of many outer membrane proteins including the outer membrane c-cype cytochromes OmcA and MtrC, in agreement with previously investigation demonstrating that these proteins are substrates of the type II secretion system. PMID:20380418

Zhang, Haizhen; Brown, Roslyn N.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Monroe, Matthew E.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Moore, Ronald J.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Shi, Liang; Romine, Margaret F; Fredrickson, James K.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.

2010-01-01

293

Thermoase-Derived Flaxseed Protein Hydrolysates and Membrane Ultrafiltration Peptide Fractions Have Systolic Blood Pressure-Lowering Effects in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats  

PubMed Central

Thermoase-digested flaxseed protein hydrolysate (FPH) samples and ultrafiltration membrane-separated peptide fractions were initially evaluated for in vitro inhibition of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) and renin activities. The two most active FPH samples and their corresponding peptide fractions were subsequently tested for in vivo antihypertensive activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The FPH produced with 3% thermoase digestion showed the highest ACE- and renin-inhibitory activities. Whereas membrane ultrafiltration resulted in significant (p < 0.05) increases in ACE inhibition by the <1 and 1–3 kDa peptides, only a marginal improvement in renin-inhibitory activity was observed for virtually all the samples after membrane ultrafiltration. The FPH samples and membrane fractions were also effective in lowering systolic blood pressure (SBP) in SHR with the largest effect occurring after oral administration (200 mg/kg body weight) of the 1–3 kDa peptide fraction of the 2.5% FPH and the 3–5 kDa fraction of the 3% FPH. Such potent SBP-lowering capacity indicates the potential of flaxseed protein-derived bioactive peptides as ingredients for the formulation of antihypertensive functional foods and nutraceuticals. PMID:25302619

Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi D.; Girgih, Abraham T.; Malomo, Sunday A.; Onuh, John O.; Aluko, Rotimi E.

2014-01-01

294

Investigation of the bystander effect in MRC5 cells after acute and fractionated irradiation in vitro.  

PubMed

Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has been defined as radiation responses observed in nonirradiated cells. It has been the focus of investigators worldwide due to the deleterious effects it induces in nonirradiated cells. The present study was performed to investigate whether acute or fractionated irradiation will evoke a differential bystander response in MRC5 cells. A normal human cell line (MRC5), and a human lung tumor cell line (QU-DB) were exposed to 0, 1, 2, and 4Gy of single acute or fractionated irradiation of equal fractions with a gap of 6 h. The MRC5 cells were supplemented with the media of irradiated cells and their micronucleus frequency was determined. The micronucleus frequency after single and fractionated irradiation did not vary significantly in the MRC5 cells conditioned with autologous or QU-DB cell-irradiated media, except for 4Gy where the frequency of micronucleated cells was lower in those MRC5 cells cultured in the media of QU-DB-exposed with a single dose of 4Gy. Our study demonstrates that the radiation-induced bystander effect was almost similar after single acute and fractionated exposure in MRC5 cells. PMID:24872606

Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman; Toossi, Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni; Samani, Roghayeh Kamran; Mohebbi, Shokoufeh

2014-04-01

295

Investigation of the bystander effect in MRC5 cells after acute and fractionated irradiation in vitro  

PubMed Central

Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has been defined as radiation responses observed in nonirradiated cells. It has been the focus of investigators worldwide due to the deleterious effects it induces in nonirradiated cells. The present study was performed to investigate whether acute or fractionated irradiation will evoke a differential bystander response in MRC5 cells. A normal human cell line (MRC5), and a human lung tumor cell line (QU-DB) were exposed to 0, 1, 2, and 4Gy of single acute or fractionated irradiation of equal fractions with a gap of 6 h. The MRC5 cells were supplemented with the media of irradiated cells and their micronucleus frequency was determined. The micronucleus frequency after single and fractionated irradiation did not vary significantly in the MRC5 cells conditioned with autologous or QU-DB cell-irradiated media, except for 4Gy where the frequency of micronucleated cells was lower in those MRC5 cells cultured in the media of QU-DB-exposed with a single dose of 4Gy. Our study demonstrates that the radiation-induced bystander effect was almost similar after single acute and fractionated exposure in MRC5 cells. PMID:24872606

Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman; Toossi, Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni; Samani, Roghayeh Kamran; Mohebbi, Shokoufeh

2014-01-01

296

Stimulation of erythrocyte cell membrane scrambling by methyldopa.  

PubMed

Methyldopa is used for treatment of hypertension in pregnancy. Side effects of methyldopa include anemia, which could result from decreased formation or accelerated death of circulating erythrocytes. Several drugs cause anemia by triggering of suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling, the latter leading to phosphatidylserine exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Stimulators of erythrocyte membrane scrambling include increased cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and ceramide. Phosphatidylserine-exposing cells are rapidly cleared from circulating blood. The present study explored whether eryptosis could be triggered by methyldopa. Erythrocytes from healthy volunteers were exposed to methyldopa, and phosphatidylserine exposure (annexin A5 binding), cell volume (forward scatter), [Ca(2+)](i) (Fluo3-dependent fluorescence), and ceramide formation (anti-ceramide-fluorescein isothiocyanate antibody) were determined by flow cytometry. Methyldopa (6 microg/ml) did not increase [Ca(2+)](i) but led to stimulation of ceramide formation resulting in significant phosphatidylserine exposure and, at higher concentrations, to cell shrinkage. Methyldopa further decreased the GSH/GSSG ratio, pointing to oxidative stress. The scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine significantly blunted methyldopa-induced eryptosis. Clearance of erythrocytes from circulating blood was significantly accelerated by treatment with methyldopa. The present observations disclose a novel action of methyldopa, which may well contribute to drug-induced anemia. PMID:18772603

Mahmud, Hasan; Föller, Michael; Lang, Florian

2008-01-01

297

Better Proton-Conducting Polymers for Fuel-Cell Membranes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polyoxyphenylene triazole sulfonic acid has been proposed as a basis for development of improved proton-conducting polymeric materials for solid-electrolyte membranes in hydrogen/air fuel cells. Heretofore, the proton-conducting membrane materials of choice have been exemplified by a family of perfluorosulfonic acid-based polymers (Nafion7 or equivalent). These materials are suitable for operation in the temperature of 75 to 85 C, but in order to reduce the sizes and/or increase the energy-conversion efficiencies of fuel-cell systems, it would be desirable to increase temperatures to as high as 120 C for transportation applications, and to as high as 180 C for stationary applications. However, at 120 C and at relative humidity values below 50 percent, the loss of water from perfluorosulfonic acid-based polymer membranes results in fuel-cell power densities too low to be of practical value. Therefore, membrane electrolyte materials that have usefully high proton conductivity in the temperature range of 180 C at low relative humidity and that do not rely on water for proton conduction at 180 C would be desirable. The proposed polyoxyphenylene triazole sulfonic acid-based materials have been conjectured to have these desirable properties. These materials would be free of volatile or mobile acid constituents. The generic molecular structure of these materials is intended to exploit the fact, demonstrated in previous research, that materials that contain ionizable acid and base groups covalently attached to thermally stable polymer backbones exhibit proton conduction even in the anhydrous state.

Narayan, Sri; Reddy, Prakash

2012-01-01

298

Mathematical and Computational Modeling of Polymer Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis a comprehensive review of fuel cell modeling has been given and based on the review, a general mathematical fuel cell model has been developed in order to understand the physical phenomena governing the fuel cell behavior and in order to contribute to the efforts investigating the optimum performance at different operating conditions as well as with different physical parameters. The steady state, isothermal model presented here accounts for the combined effects of mass and species transfer, momentum conservation, electrical current distribution through the gas channels, the electrodes and the membrane, and the electrochemical kinetics of the reactions in the anode and cathode catalyst layers. One of the important features of the model is that it proposes a simpler modified pseudo-homogeneous/agglomerate catalyst layer model which takes the advantage of the simplicity of pseudo-homogenous modeling while taking into account the effects of the agglomerates in the catalyst layer by using experimental geometric parameters published. The computation of the general mathematical model can be accomplished in 3D, 2D and 1D with the proper assumptions. Mainly, there are two computational domains considered in this thesis. The first modeling domain is a 2D Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) model including the modified agglomerate/pseudo-homogeneous catalyst layer modeling with consistent treatment of water transport in the MEA while the second domain presents a 3D model with different flow filed designs: straight, stepped and tapered. COMSOL Multiphysics along with Batteries and Fuel Cell Module have been used for 2D & 3D model computations while ANSYS FLUENT PEMFC Module has been used for only 3D two-phase computation. Both models have been validated with experimental data. With 2D MEA model, the effects of temperature and water content of the membrane as well as the equivalent weight of the membrane on the performance have been addressed. 3D COMSOL simulation results showed that the fuel performance can be improved by using flow field designs alleviating the reactant depletion along the channels and supplying more uniform reactant distribution. Stepped flow field was found to show better performance when compared to straight and tapered ones. ANSYS FLUENT model is evaluated in terms of predicting the two phase flow in the fuel cell components. It is proposed that it is not capable of predicting the entire fuel cell polarization due to the lack of agglomerate catalyst layer modeling and well-established two-phase flow modeling. Along with the comprehensive modeling efforts, also an analytical model has been computed by using MathCAD and it is found that this simpler model is able to predict the performance in a general trend according to the experimental data obtained for a new novel membrane. Therefore, it can be used for robust prediction of the cell performance at different operating conditions such as temperature and pressure, and the electrochemical properties such as the catalyst loading, the exchange current density and the diffusion coefficients of the reactants. In addition to the modeling efforts, this thesis also presents a very comprehensive literature review on the models developed in the literature so far, the modeling efforts in fuel cell sandwich including membrane, catalyst layer and gas diffusion layer and fuel cell model properties. Moreover, a summary of possible directions of research in fuel cell analysis and computational modeling has been presented.

Ulusoy, Sehribani

299

Development of Nanoparticles Incorporating a Novel Liposomal Membrane Destabilization Peptide for Efficient Release of Cargos into Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

In anti-cancer therapy mediated by a nanoparticle-based drug delivery system (DDS), overall efficacy depends on the release efficiency of cargos from the nanoparticles in the cancer cells as well as the specificity of delivery to tumor tissue. However, conventional liposome-based DDS have no mechanism for specifically releasing the encapsulated cargos inside the cancer cells. To overcome this barrier, we developed nanoparticles containing a novel liposomal membrane destabilization peptide (LMDP) that can destabilize membranes by cleavage with intramembranous proteases on/in cancer cells. Calcein encapsulated in liposomes modified with LMDP (LMDP-lipo) was effectively released in the presence of a membrane fraction containing an LMDP-cleavable protease. The release was inhibited by a protease inhibitor, suggesting that LMDP-lipo could effectively release its cargo into cells in response to a cancer-specific protease. Moreover, when LMDP-lipo contained fusogenic lipids, the release of cargo was accelerated, suggesting that the fusion of LMDP-lipo with cellular membranes was the initial step in the intracellular delivery. Time-lapse microscopic observations showed that the release of cargo from LMDP-lipo occurred immediately after association of LMDP-lipo with target cells. Consequently, LMDP-lipo could be a useful nanoparticle capable of effective release of cargos specifically into targeted cancer cells. PMID:25343714

Ohgita, Takashi; Kogure, Kentaro

2014-01-01

300

Enrichment of putative stem cells from adipose tissue using dielectrophoretic field-flow fractionation.  

PubMed

We have applied the microfluidic cell separation method of dielectrophoretic field-flow fractionation (DEP-FFF) to the enrichment of a putative stem cell population from an enzyme-digested adipose tissue derived cell suspension. A DEP-FFF separator device was constructed using a novel microfluidic-microelectronic hybrid flex-circuit fabrication approach that is scaleable and anticipates future low-cost volume manufacturing. We report the separation of a nucleated cell fraction from cell debris and the bulk of the erythrocyte population, with the relatively rare (<2% starting concentration) NG2-positive cell population (pericytes and/or putative progenitor cells) being enriched up to 14-fold. This work demonstrates a potential clinical application for DEP-FFF and further establishes the utility of the method for achieving label-free fractionation of cell subpopulations. PMID:18651083

Vykoukal, Jody; Vykoukal, Daynene M; Freyberg, Susanne; Alt, Eckhard U; Gascoyne, Peter R C

2008-08-01

301

Proteomic analysis of the carbonate insoluble outer membrane fraction of the soft-rot pathogen Dickeya dadantii (syn. Erwinia chrysanthemi) strain 3937.  

PubMed

We present results of the first comprehensive proteomic analysis of the outer membrane of the bacterial phytopathogen Dickeya dadantii strain 3937 and its response to virulence-contributing factors such as host plant extract, acidic stress, and iron starvation. We analyzed the carbonate-insoluble membrane fractions, which are highly enriched for outer membrane proteins, using two-dimensional electrophoresis and identified the proteins by MALDI-TOF MS. Forty unique proteins were identified, some of which were differentially expressed under the above conditions. PMID:17203949

Babujee, Lavanya; Venkatesh, Balakrishnan; Yamazaki, Akihiro; Tsuyumu, Shinji

2007-01-01

302

Relationship Between the Membrane Envelope of Rhizobial Bacteroids and the Plasma Membrane of the Host Cell as Demonstrated by Histochemical Localization of Adenyl Cyclase  

PubMed Central

By using adenyl cyclase as a marker enzyme, the relationship between the membrane envelope of the bacteroids of rhizobia and the plasma membrane of the host cell was demonstrated histochemically. Electron-dense deposits were found on the outer surface of the plasma membrane of the host cell and on the inner surface of the membrane envelopes of the bacteroids, but not in vacuole membranes, endoplasmic reticula, Golgi apparatus, and mitochondrial membranes. The results suggest that the membrane envelopes of the bacteroids are closely related to the host plasma membrane, and that entry of the bacteroids into the cytoplasm is in a manner similar to endocytosis. Images PMID:4854087

Tu, J. C.

1974-01-01

303

Cell Spreading and Lamellipodial Extension Rate Is Regulated by Membrane Tension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell spreading and motility require the ex- tension of the plasma membrane in association with the assembly of actin. In vitro, extension must overcome re- sistance from tension within the plasma membrane. We report here that the addition of either amphiphilic com- pounds or fluorescent lipids that expanded the plasma membrane increased the rate of cell spreading and lamellipodial extension,

Drazen Raucher; Michael P. Sheetz

2000-01-01

304

Dipolar interactions could be important for the formation of lipid rafts on cell membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipid rafts are cholesterol rich regions on cell membranes, and have been hypothesized to be important for signaling. We use field theory to examine the formation of lipid rafts in an idealized cell membrane. We find that it is difficult to reconcile the measured size of lipid raft domains with a mechanism that relies only on coupling between membrane shape

Jian Liu; Shuyan Qi; Arup K. Chakraborty

2004-01-01

305

Water free proton conducting membranes based on poly-4-vinylpyridinebisulfate for fuel cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disclosed are methods for forming a water-free electrolyte membrane useful in fuel cells. Also provided is a water-free electrolyte membrane comprising a quaternized amine salt including poly-4-vinylpyridinebisulfate, a poly-4-vinylpyridinebisulfate silica composite, and a combination thereof and a fuel cell comprising the membrane.

Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Pin S. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

306

HIV Fusion Peptide Penetrates, Disorders, and Softens T-Cell Membrane Mimics  

E-print Network

HIV Fusion Peptide Penetrates, Disorders, and Softens T-Cell Membrane Mimics Stephanie Tristram of N-terminal gp41 fusion peptide (FP) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) with model membranes in order to elucidate how FP leads to fusion of HIV and T-cell membranes. FP constructs were (i

Weliky, David

307

Reduction of DOM fractions and their trihalomethane formation potential in surface river water by in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration.  

PubMed

This research was aimed at investigating the reduction of DOM fractions and their trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) by in-line coagulation with 0.1 ?m ceramic membrane filtration. The combination of ceramic membrane filtration with a coagulation process is an alternative technology which can be applied to enhance conventional coagulation processes in the field of water treatment and drinking water production. The Ping River water (high turbidity water) was selected as the raw surface water because it is currently the main raw water source for water supply production in the urban and rural areas of Chiang Mai Province. From the investigation, the results showed that the highest percent reductions of DOC, UV-254, and THMFP (47.6%, 71.0%, and 67.4%, respectively) were achieved from in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration at polyaluminum chloride dosage 40 mg/L. Resin adsorption techniques were employed to characterize the DOM in raw surface water and filtered water. The results showed that the use of a ceramic membrane with in-line coagulation was able to most efficiently reduce the hydrophobic fraction (HPOA) (68.5%), which was then followed by the hydrophilic fraction (HPIA) (49.3%). The greater mass DOC reduction of these two fractions provided the highest THMFP reductions (55.1% and 37.2%, respectively). Furthermore, the in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration was able to reduce the hydrophobic (HPOB) fraction which is characterized by high reactivity toward THM formation. The percent reduction of mass DOC and THMFP of HPOB by in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration was 45.9% and 48.0%, respectively. PMID:25079264

Rakruam, Pharkphum; Wattanachira, Suraphong

2014-03-01

308

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells: water permeation through Nafion(R) membranes.  

E-print Network

??Water permeation through Nafion® membranes and catalyst-coated membranes are measured. Three types of water permeability measurements are conducted in order to systematically study the effect… (more)

Adachi, Makoto

2010-01-01

309

Influence of estrogenic pesticides on membrane integrity and membrane transfer of monosaccharide into the human red cell  

SciTech Connect

Some natural and synthetic estrogens inhibit carrier-mediated transport of glucose into human red blood cells and membrane vesicles from the placenta. The inhibitory action of these estrogens on transport appears to be a direct effect at the membrane and does not involve receptor binding and protein synthesis. It is not clear, however, whether such inhibition is a common feature among estrogenic agents. Several chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides have been shown to possess estrogenic activity. These pesticides could have inhibitory effects on the human sodium-independent glucose transporter. Owing to the apparent importance of this membrane transporter in human tissues, direct interaction of hormones and xenobiotics with the glucose transporter is of fundamental significance. Some pesticides have been shown to alter membrane structure directly and alter the passive permeability of membranes. Whether the estrogenic pesticides influence passive diffusion of sugars across membranes has not been established. Finally, preliminary observations have suggested that some estrogens and pesticides have lytic effects on intact cells. Consequently, this study focuses on the ability of several estrogens and estrogenic pesticides to disrupt the cell membrane, influence the monosaccharide transporter, and alter the rate of monosaccharide permeation through the membrane by simple diffusion.

Ingermann, R.L. (Univ. of Idaho, Moscow (USA))

1989-09-01

310

Effects of open-circuit operation on membrane and catalyst layer degradation in proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Durability issues have been attracting a great deal of attention in hydrogen\\/air proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell research. In the present work, membrane electrode assembly (MEA) degradation under open circuit (OC) conditions was carried out for more than 250h. By means of several on-line electrochemical measurements, the performance of the fuel cell was analysed at different times during the

Shengsheng Zhang; Xiao-Zi Yuan; Jason Ng Cheng Hin; Haijiang Wang; Jinfeng Wu; K. Andreas Friedrich; Mathias Schulze

2010-01-01

311

RNA Replication of Mouse Hepatitis Virus Takes Place at Double-Membrane Vesicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The replication complexes (RCs) of positive-stranded RNA viruses are intimately associated with cellular membranes. To investigate membrane alterations and to characterize the RC of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), we performed biochemical and ultrastructural studies using MHV-infected cells. Biochemical fractionation showed that all 10 of the MHV gene 1 polyprotein products examined pelleted with the membrane fraction, consistent with membrane association

Rainer Gosert; Amornrat Kanjanahaluethai; Denise Egger; Kurt Bienz; Susan C. Baker

2002-01-01

312

Noncontact microsurgery of cell membranes using femtosecond laser pulses for optoinjection of specified substances into cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IR femtosecond laser pulses were used for microsurgery of a cell membrane aimed at local and short-duration change in its permeability and injection of specified extracellular substances into the cells. The possibility of noncontact laser delivery of the propidium iodide fluorescent dye and the pEGFP plasmid, encoding the green fluorescent protein, into the cells with preservation of the cell viability was demonstrated.

Il'ina, I. V.; Ovchinnikov, A. V.; Chefonov, O. V.; Sitnikov, D. S.; Agranat, Mikhail B.; Mikaelyan, A. S.

2013-04-01

313

Noncontact microsurgery of cell membranes using femtosecond laser pulses for optoinjection of specified substances into cells  

SciTech Connect

IR femtosecond laser pulses were used for microsurgery of a cell membrane aimed at local and short-duration change in its permeability and injection of specified extracellular substances into the cells. The possibility of noncontact laser delivery of the propidium iodide fluorescent dye and the pEGFP plasmid, encoding the green fluorescent protein, into the cells with preservation of the cell viability was demonstrated. (extreme light fields and their applications)

Il'ina, I V; Ovchinnikov, A V; Chefonov, O V; Sitnikov, D S; Agranat, Mikhail B; Mikaelyan, A S

2013-04-30

314

Process for recycling components of a PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assembly  

DOEpatents

The membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of a PEM fuel cell can be recycled by contacting the MEA with a lower alkyl alcohol solvent which separates the membrane from the anode and cathode layers of the assembly. The resulting solution containing both the polymer membrane and supported noble metal catalysts can be heated under mild conditions to disperse the polymer membrane as particles and the supported noble metal catalysts and polymer membrane particles separated by known filtration means.

Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ)

2012-02-28

315

Carbon monoxide poisoning of proton-exchange membrane fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

The platinum-alloy catalyst used in proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell anodes is highly susceptible to carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. CO reduces the catalyst activity by blocking active catalyst sites normally available for hydrogen chemisorption and dissociation. The reaction kinetics at the anode catalyst surface can be used to estimate the decrease in cell voltage due to various levels of CO contamination in the inlet fuel streams on PEM fuel cell performance have been reviewed and analyzed in an attempt to further understand the electrochemical properties of the CO adsorption process. A fuel cell performance model of bipolar, Nafion 117 PEM fuel cell stack has been developed which predicts equilibrium cell output voltage as a function of current density and partial pressure of CO. The model contains both empirical and mechanistic parameters and evolved from a steady-state electrochemical model for a PEM fuel cell fed with a CO-free anode gas. Reaction kinetics and equilibrium surface coverage have been incorporated into the electrochemical model to predict the decrease in fuel cell performance at equilibrium. The effects of CO were studied at various concentrations of CO in hydrogen as the anode feed gas. Literature data were used to develop the model parameters and the resulting model is used to compare the model-predicted voltages, with and without CO, to data found in the literature.

Rodrigues, A.; Amphlett, J.C.; Mann, R.F.; Peppley, B.A.; Roberge, P.R. [Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

1997-12-31

316

The influence of fractionation on cell survival and premature differentiation after carbon ion irradiation.  

PubMed

To investigate the influence of fractionation on cell survival and radiation induced premature differentiation as markers for early and late effects after X-rays and carbon irradiation. Normal human fibroblasts NHDF, AG1522B and WI-38 were irradiated with 250 kV X-rays, or 266 MeV/u, 195 MeV/u and 11 MeV/u carbon ions. Cytotoxicity was measured by a clonogenic survival assay or by determination of the differentiation pattern. Experiments with high-energy carbon ions show that fractionation induced repair effects are similar to photon irradiation. The RBE(10) values for clonogenic survival are 1.3 and 1.6 for irradiation in one or two fractions for NHDF cells and around 1.2 for AG1522B cells regardless of the fractionation scheme. The RBE for a doubling of post mitotic fibroblasts (PMF) in the population is 1 for both single and two fractionated irradiation of NHDF cells. Using 11 MeV/u carbon ions, no repair effect can be seen in WI-38 cells. The RBE(10) for clonogenic survival is 3.2 for single irradiation and 4.9 for two fractionated irradiations. The RBE for a doubling of PMF is 3.1 and 5.0 for single and two fractionated irradiations, respectively. For both cell lines the effects of high-energy carbon ions representing the irradiation of the skin and the normal tissue in the entrance channel are similar to the effects of X-rays. The fractionation effects are maintained. For the lower energy, which is representative for the irradiation of the tumor region, RBE is enhanced for clonogenic survival as well as for premature terminal differentiation. Fractionation effects are not detectable. Consequently, the therapeutic ratio is significantly enhanced by fractionated irradiation with carbon ions. PMID:18451608

Wang, Jufang; Li, Renming; Guo, Chuanling; Fournier, Claudia; K-Weyrather, Wilma

2008-07-01

317

Characteristics of Subfreezing Operation of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells are capable of high efficiency operation, and are free of NOx, SOx, and CO2 emissions when using hydrogen fuel, and ideally suited for use in transportation applications due to their high power density and low operating temperatures. However, under subfreezing conditions which may be encountered during winter seasons in some areas, product water will freeze within the membrane, cathode side catalyst layer and gas diffusion media, leading to voltage loss and operation failure. Experiments were undertaken in order to characterize the amount and location of water during fuel cell operation. First, in-situ neutron radiography was undertaken on the fuel cells at a normal operating temperature for various operating current densities, inlet relative humidities, and diffusion media hydrophobicities. It was found that more hydrophobic cathode microporous layer (MPL) or hydrophilic anode MPL may result in a larger amount of water transporting back to the anode. The water profiles along the channels were measured and the point of liquid water emergence, where two phase flow begins, was compared to previous models. Secondly, under subfreezing temperatures, neutron imaging showed that water ice product accumulates because of lack of a water removal mechanism. Water was observed under both the lands and channels, and increased almost linearly with time. It is found that most ice exists in the cathode side. With evidence from experimental observation, a cold start model was developed and explained, following existing approaches in the literature. Three stages of cold start are explained: membrane saturation, ice storage in catalyst layer pores, and then ice melting. The voltage losses due to temperature change, increased transport resistance, and reduced electrochemical surface area. The ionic conductivity of the membrane at subfreezing temperatures was modeled. Voltage evolution over time for isothermal cold starts was predicted and validated against experimental data. The ice coverage coefficient was shown to be a key variable in matching with experimental data. From model analysis, it appears that the coulombs of charge passed before operation failure is an important parameter characterizing PEM fuel cell cold start. To investigate the coulombs of charge and its determining factors, PEM fuel cells were constructed to measure the effects of membrane configuration (thickness and initial state), catalyst layer configuration (thickness and ionomer-carbon ratio), current density, and temperature on the quantity. It was found that subfreezing temperature, ionomer-catalyst ratio, and catalyst-layer thickness significantly affect the amount of charge transferred before operational failure, whereas the membrane thickness and initial hydration level have limited effect for the considered cases. In addition, degradation of the catalyst layer was observed and quantified. These results improve the fundamental understanding of characteristics of subfreezing operation and thus are valuable for automobile applications of PEM fuel cells. The model directly relates the material properties to voltage loss, and predicts voltage evolution, thus providing a way for material optimization and diagnostics. Additionally, insights into component design and operating conditions can be used to better optimize the fuel cell for cold start-up of the vehicle.

Mishler, Jeffrey Harris

318

Direct liquid-feed fuel cell with membrane electrolyte and manufacturing thereof  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved direct liquid-feed fuel cell having a solid membrane electrolyte for electrochemical reactions of an organic fuel. Improvements in interfacing of the catalyst layer and the membrane and activating catalyst materials are disclosed.

Narayanan, Sekharipuram (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

1999-01-01

319

Redox activity and peroxidase activity associated with the plasma membrane of guard-cell protoplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Redox systems have been reported in the plasma membrane of numerous cell types and in cells from various species of higher plant. A search for a redox system in the plasma membrane of guard cells was therefore made in efforts to explain how blue light stimulates stomatal opening, a process which is coupled to guard cell H+ efflux and K+

O. Pantoja; C. M. Willmer

1988-01-01

320

Laminin and Bullous Pemphigoid Antigen Are Distinct Basement Membrane Proteins Synthesized by Epidermal Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sought to determine if laminin, a high molecular weight glycoprotein of basement membrane, is synthesized by epidermal cells and whether it is distinct from bullous pemphigoid (BP) antigen, another high molecular weight-protein of basement membrane. By indirect immunofluorescence we detected laminin in cultures of Pam cells (a mouse keratinocyte cell line) and normal human epidermal cells. To directly demonstrate

John R. Stanley; Pamela Hawley-Nelson; Mina Yaar; George H. Martin; Stephen I. Katz

1982-01-01

321

Efficient method for generating nuclear fractions from marrow stromal cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cells have received significant attention for their envisioned potential to treat currently unapproachable diseases.\\u000a No less important is the utility of stem cells to serve as model systems of differentiation. Analyses at the transcriptome,\\u000a miRNA and proteome levels have yielded valuable insights into events underlying stem cell differentiation. Proteomic analysis\\u000a is often cumbersome, detecting changes in hundreds of proteins

Dale Woodbury; Guo-wei Len; Kathleen Reynolds; W. Geoffrey McAuliffe; Thomas Coyne; Kuo Wu

2008-01-01

322

Proton-induced endocytosis is dependent on cell membrane fluidity, lipid-phase order and the membrane resting potential.  

PubMed

Recently it has been shown that decreasing the extracellular pH of cells stimulates the formation of inward membrane invaginations and vesicles, accompanied by an enhanced uptake of macromolecules. This type of endocytosis was coined as proton-induced uptake (PIU). Though the initial induction of inward membrane curvature was rationalized in terms of proton-based increase of charge asymmetry across the membrane, the dependence of the phenomenon on plasma membrane characteristics is still unknown. The present study shows that depolarization of the membrane resting potential elevates PIU by 25%, while hyperpolarization attenuates it by 25%. Comparison of uptake in suspended and adherent cells implicates that the resting-potential affects PIU through remodeling the actin-cytoskeleton. The pH at the external interface of the cell membrane rather than the pH gradient across it determines the extent of PIU. PIU increases linearly upon temperature increase in the range of 4-36°C, in correlation with the membrane fluidity. The plasma membrane fluidity and the lipid phase order are modulated by enriching the cell's membrane with cholesterol, tergitol, dimethylsulfoxide, 6-ketocholestanol and phloretin and by cholesterol depletion. These treatments are shown to alter the extent of PIU and are better correlated with membrane fluidity than with the lipid phase order. We suggest that the lipid phase order and fluidity influence PIU by regulating the lipid order gradient across the perimeter of the lipid-condensed microdomains (rafts) and alter the characteristic tension line that separates the higher ordered lipid-domains from the lesser ordered ones. PMID:23911577

Ben-Dov, Nadav; Korenstein, Rafi

2013-11-01

323

A Simple Alkaline Method for Decellularizing Human Amniotic Membrane for Cell Culture  

PubMed Central

Human amniotic membrane is a standard substratum used to culture limbal epithelial stem cells for transplantation to patients with limbal stem cell deficiency. Various methods were developed to decellularize amniotic membrane, because denuded membrane is poorly immunogenic and better supports repopulation by dissociated limbal epithelial cells. Amniotic membrane denuding usually involves treatment with EDTA and/or proteolytic enzymes; in many cases additional mechanical scraping is required. Although ensuring limbal cell proliferation, these methods are not standardized, require relatively long treatment times and can result in membrane damage. We propose to use 0.5 M NaOH to reliably remove amniotic cells from the membrane. This method was used before to lyse cells for DNA isolation and radioactivity counting. Gently rubbing a cotton swab soaked in NaOH over the epithelial side of amniotic membrane leads to nearly complete and easy removal of adherent cells in less than a minute. The denuded membrane is subsequently washed in a neutral buffer. Cell removal was more thorough and uniform than with EDTA, or EDTA plus mechanical scraping with an electric toothbrush, or n-heptanol plus EDTA treatment. NaOH-denuded amniotic membrane did not show any perforations compared with mechanical or thermolysin denuding, and showed excellent preservation of immunoreactivity for major basement membrane components including laminin ?2, ?1-?3 chains, ?1/?2 and ?6 type IV collagen chains, fibronectin, nidogen-2, and perlecan. Sodium hydroxide treatment was efficient with fresh or cryopreserved (10% dimethyl sulfoxide or 50% glycerol) amniotic membrane. The latter method is a common way of membrane storage for subsequent grafting in the European Union. NaOH-denuded amniotic membrane supported growth of human limbal epithelial cells, immortalized corneal epithelial cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. This simple, fast and reliable method can be used to standardize decellularized amniotic membrane preparations for expansion of limbal stem cells in vitro before transplantation to patients. PMID:24236148

Saghizadeh, Mehrnoosh; Winkler, Michael A.; Kramerov, Andrei A.; Hemmati, David M.; Ghiam, Chantelle A.; Dimitrijevich, Slobodan D.; Sareen, Dhruv; Ornelas, Loren; Ghiasi, Homayon; Brunken, William J.; Maguen, Ezra; Rabinowitz, Yaron S.; Svendsen, Clive N.; Jirsova, Katerina; Ljubimov, Alexander V.

2013-01-01

324

Monitoring penetratin interactions with lipid membranes and cell internalization using a new hydration-sensitive fluorescent probe.  

PubMed

A new fluorescent label N-[4?-(dimethylamino)-3-hydroxyflavone-7-yl]-N-methyl-?-alanine (7AF) was synthesized. Due to two electron donor groups at the opposite ends of the chromophore, an excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) resulting in a dual emission was observed even in highly polar media and its fluorescence quantum yield was found to be remarkably high in a broad range of solvents including water. As a consequence, this label exhibits a remarkable sensitivity to the hydration of its environment, which is observed as a color switch between the emission of the ESIPT product (T* form) and that of the normal N* form. The 7AF label was coupled to the N-terminus of penetratin, a cell penetrating peptide, in order to study its interactions with lipid membranes and internalization inside the cells. As expected, the binding of penetratin to lipid membranes resulted in a dramatic switch in the relative intensity of its two emission bands as compared to its emission in buffer. Our studies with different lipid compositions confirmed the preference of penetratin to lipid membranes of the liquid disordered phase. After incubation of low concentrations of labeled penetratin with living cells, ratiometric imaging revealed, in addition to membrane-bound species, a significant fraction of free peptide in cytosol showing the characteristic emission from aqueous medium. At higher concentrations of penetratin, mainly peptides bound to cell membrane structures were observed. These observations confirmed the ability of penetratin to enter the cytosol by direct translocation through the cell plasma membrane, in addition to the classical entry by endocytosis. The present probe constitutes thus a powerful tool to study the interaction of peptides with living cells and their internalization mechanisms. PMID:25072870

Zamotaiev, Oleksandr M; Postupalenko, Viktoriia Y; Shvadchak, Volodymyr V; Pivovarenko, Vasyl G; Klymchenko, Andrey S; Mély, Yves

2014-09-28

325

Percolation in a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Catalyst Layer  

SciTech Connect

Water management in the catalyst layers of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) is confronted by two issues, flooding and dry out, both of which result in improper functioning of the fuel cell and lead to poor performance and degradation. At the present time, the data that has been reported about water percolation and wettability within a fuel cell catalyst layer is limited. A method and apparatus for measuring the percolation pressure in the catalyst layer has been developed based upon an experimental apparatus used to test water percolation in porous transport layers (PTL). The experimental setup uses a pseudo Hele-Shaw type testing where samples are compressed and a fluid is injected into the sample. Testing the samples gives percolation pressure plots which show trends in increasing percolation pressure with an increase in flow rate. A decrease in pressure was seen as percolation occurred in one sample, however the pressure only had a rising effect in the other sample.

Stacy, Stephen; Allen, Jeffrey

2012-07-01

326

Cell-Specific Aptamer Probes for Membrane Protein Elucidation in Cancer Cells  

E-print Network

approaches to cancer, and markedly improve our understanding of cancer biology. Keywords: Biomarker · AptamerCell-Specific Aptamer Probes for Membrane Protein Elucidation in Cancer Cells Dihua Shangguan* Department of Chemistry, Department of Physiology and Functional Genomics, Department of Pathology

Tan, Weihong

327

The possible role of lipid intermediates in the synthesis of ?-glucans by a membrane fraction from pollen tubes of Petunia hybrida.  

PubMed

A membrane fraction, isolated from pollen tubes of Petunia hybrida, catalyses the incorporation of glucose from UDP-glucose into sucrose, cellodextrins, ?-glucans, sterol glucosides and polyprenol monophosphate glucose. Incorporation studies with isolated lipids and kinetic and double-labelling studies indicated that glucolipids are not intermediates in the synthesis of ?-glucans in this system. PMID:24407388

Helsper, J P

1979-01-01

328

Lymphocyte fractionation using immunomagnetic colloid and a dipole magnet flow cell sorter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between cell function and surface marker expression is a subject of active investigation in biology and medicine. These investigations require separating cells of a homogeneous subset into multiple fractions of varying marker expression. We have developed a novel cell sorter, the dipole magnet flow sorter (DMFS), which separates selected T lymphocyte subpopulations, targeted by immunomagnetic colloid, into multiple

Lee R. Moore; Maciej Zborowski; Liping Sun; Jeffrey J. Chalmers

1998-01-01

329

Non-expanded adipose stromal vascular fraction cell therapy for multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue is known to contain mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), T regulatory cells, endothelial precursor cells, preadipocytes, as well as anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. Safety of autologous adipose tissue implantation is supported by extensive use of this procedure in cosmetic surgery, as well as by ongoing studies using in vitro expanded adipose derived MSC. Equine

Neil H Riordan; Thomas E Ichim; Wei-Ping Min; Hao Wang; Fabio Solano; Fabian Lara; Miguel Alfaro; Jorge Paz Rodriguez; Robert J Harman; Amit N Patel; Michael P Murphy; Roland R Lee; Boris Minev

2009-01-01

330

FRACTIONATION OF MAMMALIAN LIVER CELLS BY DIFFERENTIAL CENTRIFUGATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

major problems of cytology, and one that has benefited the least from the microscopical technique, with the successful application of staining to the study of cell morphology, the hope was entertained that specific color tests could be used under the microscope to determine the distribution of enzyme systems within the cell. Unfortunately, most of the color tests involve chemical reactions

ALBERT CLAUDE

331

Cell-free synthesis of membrane subunits of ATP synthase in phospholipid bicelles: NMR shows subunit a fold similar to the protein in the cell membrane  

PubMed Central

NMR structure determination of large membrane proteins is hampered by broad spectral lines, overlap, and ambiguity of signal assignment. Chemical shift and NOE assignment can be facilitated by amino acid selective isotope labeling in cell-free protein synthesis system. However, many biological detergents are incompatible with the cell-free synthesis, and membrane proteins often have to be synthesized in an insoluble form. We report cell-free synthesis of subunits a and c of the proton channel of Escherichia coli ATP synthase in a soluble form in a mixture of phosphatidylcholine derivatives. In comparison, subunit a was purified from the cell-free system and from the bacterial cell membranes. NMR spectra of both preparations were similar, indicating that our procedure for cell-free synthesis produces protein structurally similar to that prepared from the cell membranes. PMID:22162071

Uhlemann, Eva-Maria E; Pierson, Hannah E; Fillingame, Robert H; Dmitriev, Oleg Y

2012-01-01

332

Evidence for Transfer of Membranes from Mesenchymal Stem Cells to HL-1 Cardiac Cells  

PubMed Central

This study examined the interaction of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) with cardiac HL-1 cells during coculture by fluorescent dye labeling and then flow cytometry. MSC were layered onto confluent HL-1 cell cultures in a 1?:?4 ratio. MSC gained gap junction permeant calcein from HL-1 cells after 4 hours which was partially reduced by oleamide. After 20 hours, 99% MSC gained calcein, unaffected by oleamide. Double-labeling HL-1 cells with calcein and the membrane dye DiO resulted in transfer of both calcein and DiO to MSC. When HL-1 cells were labeled with calcein and MSC with DiO, MSC gained calcein while HL-1 cells gained DiO. Very little fusion was observed since more than 90% Sca-1 positive MSC gained DiO from HL-1 cells while less than 9% gained gap junction impermeant CMFDA after 20 hours with no Sca-1 transfer to HL-1 cells. Time dependent transfer of membrane DiD was observed from HL-1 cells to MSC (100%) and vice versa (50%) after 20 hours with more limited transfer of CMFDA. These results demonstrate that MSC and HL-1 cells exchange membrane components which may account for some of the beneficial effect of MSC in the heart after myocardial infarction. PMID:25295065

Boomsma, Robert A.; Geenen, David L.

2014-01-01

333

Evidence for Transfer of Membranes from Mesenchymal Stem Cells to HL-1 Cardiac Cells.  

PubMed

This study examined the interaction of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) with cardiac HL-1 cells during coculture by fluorescent dye labeling and then flow cytometry. MSC were layered onto confluent HL-1 cell cultures in a 1?:?4 ratio. MSC gained gap junction permeant calcein from HL-1 cells after 4 hours which was partially reduced by oleamide. After 20 hours, 99% MSC gained calcein, unaffected by oleamide. Double-labeling HL-1 cells with calcein and the membrane dye DiO resulted in transfer of both calcein and DiO to MSC. When HL-1 cells were labeled with calcein and MSC with DiO, MSC gained calcein while HL-1 cells gained DiO. Very little fusion was observed since more than 90% Sca-1 positive MSC gained DiO from HL-1 cells while less than 9% gained gap junction impermeant CMFDA after 20 hours with no Sca-1 transfer to HL-1 cells. Time dependent transfer of membrane DiD was observed from HL-1 cells to MSC (100%) and vice versa (50%) after 20 hours with more limited transfer of CMFDA. These results demonstrate that MSC and HL-1 cells exchange membrane components which may account for some of the beneficial effect of MSC in the heart after myocardial infarction. PMID:25295065

Boomsma, Robert A; Geenen, David L

2014-01-01

334

Cytoskeleton confinement and tension of red blood cell membranes.  

PubMed

We analyze theoretically both the static and dynamic fluctuation spectra of the red blood cell in a unified manner, using a simple model of the composite membrane. In this model, the two-dimensional spectrin network that forms the cytoskeleton is treated as a rigid shell, located at a fixed, average distance from the lipid bilayer. The cytoskeleton thereby confines both the static and dynamic fluctuations of the lipid bilayer. The sparse connections of the cytoskeleton and bilayer induce a surface tension, for wavelengths larger than the bilayer persistence length. The predictions of the model give a consistent account for both the wave vector and frequency dependence of the experimental data. PMID:12857343

Gov, N; Zilman, A G; Safran, S

2003-06-01

335

2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report  

SciTech Connect

A workshop addressing the current state-of-the-art in alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs) was held May 8-9, 2011, at the Crystal Gateway Marriott in Arlington, Virginia. This workshop was the second of its kind, with the first being held December 11-13, 2006, in Phoenix, Arizona. The 2011 workshop and associated workshop report were created to assess the current state of AMFC technology (taking into account recent advances), investigate the performance potential of AMFC systems across all possible power ranges and applications, and identify the key research needs for commercial competitiveness in a variety of areas.

Pivovar, B.

2012-02-01

336

Grafted polyelectrolyte membranes for lithium batteries and fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

Polyelectrolyte materials have been developed for lithium battery systems in response to the severe problems due to salt concentration gradients that occur in composite electrodes (aka membrane-electrode assemblies). Comb branch polymer architectures are described which allow for grafting of appropriate anions on to the polymer and also for cross-linking to provide for appropriate mechanical properties. The interactions of the polymers with the electrode surfaces are critical for the performance of the system and some of the structural features that influence this will be described. Parallels with the fuel cell MEA structures exist and will also be discussed.

Kerr, John B.

2003-06-24

337

Effective Temperature of Red Blood Cell Membrane Fluctuations  

E-print Network

Biologically driven non-equilibrium fluctuations are often characterized by their non-Gaussianity or by an "effective temperature", which is frequency dependent and higher than the ambient temperature. We address these two measures theoretically by examining a randomly kicked "particle", with a variable number of kicking "motors", and show how these two indicators of non-equilibrium behavior can contradict. Our results are compared with new experiments on shape fluctuations of red-blood cell membranes, and demonstrate how the physical nature of the motors in this system can be revealed using these global measures of non-equilibrium.

Eyal Ben-Isaac; YongKeun Park; Gabriel Popescu; Frank L. H. Brown; Nir S. Gov; Yair Shokef

2011-02-22

338

Stimulatory Effects of Polysaccharide Fraction from Solanum nigrum on RAW 264.7 Murine Macrophage Cells  

PubMed Central

The polysaccharide fraction from Solanum nigrum Linne has been shown to have antitumor activity by enhancing the CD4+/CD8+ ratio of the T-lymphocyte subpopulation. In this study, we analyzed a polysaccharide extract of S. nigrum to determine its modulating effects on RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells since macrophages play a key role in inducing both innate and adaptive immune responses. Crude polysaccharide was extracted from the stem of S. nigrum and subjected to ion-exchange chromatography to partially purify the extract. Five polysaccharide fractions were then subjected to a cytotoxicity assay and a nitric oxide production assay. To further analyze the ability of the fractionated polysaccharide extract to activate macrophages, the phagocytosis activity and cytokine production were also measured. The polysaccharide fractions were not cytotoxic, but all of the fractions induced nitric oxide in RAW 264.7 cells. Of the five fractions tested, SN-ppF3 was the least toxic and also induced the greatest amount of nitric oxide, which was comparable to the inducible nitric oxide synthase expression detected in the cell lysate. This fraction also significantly induced phagocytosis activity and stimulated the production of tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6. Our study showed that fraction SN-ppF3 could classically activate macrophages. Macrophage induction may be the manner in which polysaccharides from S. nigrum are able to prevent tumor growth. PMID:25299340

Razali, Faizan Naeem; Ismail, Amirah; Abidin, Nurhayati Zainal; Shuib, Adawiyah Suriza

2014-01-01

339

Stimulatory Effects of Polysaccharide Fraction from Solanum nigrum on RAW 264.7 Murine Macrophage Cells.  

PubMed

The polysaccharide fraction from Solanum nigrum Linne has been shown to have antitumor activity by enhancing the CD4+/CD8+ ratio of the T-lymphocyte subpopulation. In this study, we analyzed a polysaccharide extract of S. nigrum to determine its modulating effects on RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells since macrophages play a key role in inducing both innate and adaptive immune responses. Crude polysaccharide was extracted from the stem of S. nigrum and subjected to ion-exchange chromatography to partially purify the extract. Five polysaccharide fractions were then subjected to a cytotoxicity assay and a nitric oxide production assay. To further analyze the ability of the fractionated polysaccharide extract to activate macrophages, the phagocytosis activity and cytokine production were also measured. The polysaccharide fractions were not cytotoxic, but all of the fractions induced nitric oxide in RAW 264.7 cells. Of the five fractions tested, SN-ppF3 was the least toxic and also induced the greatest amount of nitric oxide, which was comparable to the inducible nitric oxide synthase expression detected in the cell lysate. This fraction also significantly induced phagocytosis activity and stimulated the production of tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6. Our study showed that fraction SN-ppF3 could classically activate macrophages. Macrophage induction may be the manner in which polysaccharides from S. nigrum are able to prevent tumor growth. PMID:25299340

Razali, Faizan Naeem; Ismail, Amirah; Abidin, Nurhayati Zainal; Shuib, Adawiyah Suriza

2014-01-01

340

The actin homologue MreB organizes the bacterial cell membrane  

PubMed Central

The eukaryotic cortical actin cytoskeleton creates specific lipid domains, including lipid rafts, which determine the distribution of many membrane proteins. Here we show that the bacterial actin homologue MreB displays a comparable activity. MreB forms membrane-associated filaments that coordinate bacterial cell wall synthesis. We noticed that the MreB cytoskeleton influences fluorescent staining of the cytoplasmic membrane. Detailed analyses combining an array of mutants, using specific lipid staining techniques and spectroscopic methods, revealed that MreB filaments create specific membrane regions with increased fluidity (RIFs). Interference with these fluid lipid domains (RIFs) perturbs overall lipid homeostasis and affects membrane protein localization. The influence of MreB on membrane organization and fluidity may explain why the active movement of MreB stimulates membrane protein diffusion. These novel MreB activities add additional complexity to bacterial cell membrane organization and have implications for many membrane-associated processes. PMID:24603761

Strahl, Henrik; Burmann, Frank; Hamoen, Leendert W.

2014-01-01

341

Translocation of tyrosine-phosphorylated TCRzeta chain to glycolipid-enriched membrane domains upon T cell activation.  

PubMed

Recent studies point to glycolipid-enriched membrane (GEM) microdomains as the critical sites for TCR-mediated signal transduction. However, whether the TCR complex is localized in the GEM domain is not well-defined. In the present study, we analyzed localization of the TCR-CD3 complex in the GEM domain by isolating the GEM fraction with sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Although 10% of TCRzeta chains was localized in the GEM fraction, most of the TCR complexes were excluded from the GEM before and after T cell activation, and the amount of TCRzeta in the GEM was not increased after activation. However, the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of TCRzeta was strongly concentrated in the GEM fraction upon TCR engagement. A kinetic study revealed that tyrosine phosphorylation of TCRzeta occurred initially in the Triton X-100-soluble membrane fraction followed by the accumulation of phosphorylated TCRzeta in the GEM. Thus, these results indicate that phosphorylated TCRzeta migrates into the GEM domains on T cell activation. We speculate that the GEM microdomains may function as a reservoir of activation signals from triggered TCR. PMID:10464160

Kosugi, A; Saitoh, S; Noda, S; Yasuda, K; Hayashi, F; Ogata, M; Hamaoka, T

1999-09-01

342

Affinity Flow Fractionation for label-free cell sorting  

E-print Network

Capture and isolation of flowing cells from body fluids such as peripheral blood, bone marrow or pleural effusion has enormous implications in diagnosis, disease monitoring, and drug testing. However, in many situations ...

Bose, Suman

2014-01-01

343

[Progress with research on the permeability characteristics of reproductive cell membranes].  

PubMed

The successful cryopreservation of reproductive cells has important practical significance in many fields. In order to improve the recovery rate and viability of cryopreserved cells, it is necessary to study the permeability characteristics of cell membrane to both water and cryoprotectant. In this paper we review the studies on membrane permeability of animal reproductive cell for the recent years. We firstly list the typical permeability data of spermatozoa and oocyte membrane for water and cryoprotectant. We then analyze the effects of these characteristics on the design of cryopreservation protocol. We also introduce the latest experimental methods to measure the cell membrane permeability. PMID:22616195

Zhou, Zheng; Chen, Guangming; Zhang, Shaozhi

2012-04-01

344

Intracellular processing of cytidylyltransferase in Krebs II cells during stimulation of phosphatidylcholine synthesis. Evidence that a plasma membrane modification promotes enzyme translocation specifically to the endoplasmic reticulum.  

PubMed

After a 3-h incubation of Krebs II ascitic cells in the presence of phospholipase C from Clostridium welchii under nonlytic conditions, the incorporation of [3H] choline into phosphatidylcholine was increased 1.7-fold as compared to untreated cells. The total amounts of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and sphingomyelin were unchanged up to 3 h of incubation. The limiting step in phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis was the formation of CDP-choline catalyzed by CTP:choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase (EC 2.7.7.15) as monitored by the decrease in phosphocholine labeling following phospholipase C treatment of cells prelabeled with [3H]choline. The specific activity of homogenate cytidylyltransferase was increased about 1.6-fold in phospholipase C-treated cells. Specific activity of the membrane fraction was increased 2-fold, whereas cytosolic specific activity decreased in phospholipase C-treated cells. The activation of cytidylyltransferase was concomitant with translocation of the enzyme from the cytosol to the membrane fraction. The latter was further fractionated using a Percoll gradient that allowed an efficient separation between endoplasmic reticulum and other subcellular membranes. In control cells, particulate cytidylyltransferase activity co-migrated with the endoplasmic reticulum and ribosome markers and not with the plasma membrane. Also, in treated cells, the stimulation of cytidylyltransferase activity occurred at the endoplasmic reticulum level and did not involve either the external cell membrane or other cellular organelles including the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, or mitochondria. Thus, our results demonstrate that a stimulus acting on the plasma membrane promotes the translocation of the soluble form of cytidylyltransferase specifically to the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:2893798

Tercé, F; Record, M; Ribbes, G; Chap, H; Douste-Blazy, L

1988-03-01

345

Polymeric nanoparticles of different sizes overcome the cell membrane barrier.  

PubMed

Polymeric nanoparticles have tremendous potential either as carriers or markers in treatment for diseases or as diagnostics in biomedical applications. Finding the optimal conditions for effective intracellular delivery of the payload to the location of interest is still a big challenge. The particles have to overcome the barrier of the cell membrane. Here, we investigated the uptake in HeLa cells of fluorescent polystyrene particles with different size and surface charge. Particles stabilized with the nonionic surfactant Lutensol AT50® (132 nm, 180 nm, 242 nm, 816 nm, 846 nm diameter) were synthesized via dispersion polymerization. Cationic particles (120 nm, 208 nm, 267 nm, 603 nm diameter) were obtained by a combination of miniemulsion and seed dispersion polymerization using cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTMA-Cl). The particle uptake into HeLa cells was studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry. Nonionic particles were - independent of their size - taken up by cells only at a barely detectable level, thus aggravating a quantitative comparison. The uptake of positively charged particles was substantially higher and therefore enabling further investigation keeping constant one of these parameters: either material amount or particles number or total interaction surface area. It was found that the uptake rather depends on the total amount of polymeric material present in the media than on the number of particles. The total particle's surface area does not correlate linearly with the uptake, thus indicating that there is no direct dependency between the total surface area and the cellular endocytotic process to overcome the biobarrier "cell membrane." A potentially novel uptake mechanism is found which can be described as an excavator shovel like mechanism. It is a kind of macropinocytosis dependent on actin filaments as well as dynamin, but is clathrin-independent. PMID:23422734

Lerch, Simone; Dass, Martin; Musyanovych, Anna; Landfester, Katharina; Mailänder, Volker

2013-06-01

346

DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL ELECTROCATALYST FOR PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect

Proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the strongest contenders as a power source for space & electric vehicle applications. Platinum catalyst is used for both fuel and air electrodes in PEMFCs. CO contamination of H{sub 2} greatly affects electrocatalysts used at the anode of polymer electrolyte fuel cells and decrease the cell performance. Pt-Ru catalyst had been recognized to alleviate this problem by showing better tolerance to CO poisoning than only Pt catalyst. This irreversible poisoning of the anode can be happened even in concentrations as little as a few ppm, and therefore, require expensive scrubbing to reduce the contaminant concentration to acceptable level. In order to commercialize this environmentally sound source of energy/power system, development of suitable impurity tolerant catalyst is needed. This project will develop novel electrocatalysts for the PEMFCs and demonstrate the feasibility of a H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} fuel cell base on these materials. This project, if successful, will reduce the costs due to reduce Pt catalyst loading or use non-precious metals. It will increase the PEM fuel cell performance by increasing catalyst tolerance to methanol oxidation intermediate products (CO) and fuel impurities (H{sub 2}S), which will generate substantial interest for commercialization of the PEM fuel cell technology.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2000-01-19

347

Cooperative binding of Annexin A5 to phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cell membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Healthy cells exhibit an asymmetric plasma membrane with phosphatidylserine (PS) located on the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane bilayer. Annexin A5-FITC, a PS binding protein, is commonly used to evaluate apoptosis in flow cytometry. PS exposed by apoptotic cells serves as a major ‘eat-me’ signal for phagocytes. Although exposition of PS has been observed after alternative stimuli, no clearance of viable, PS exposing cells has been detected. Thus, besides PS exposure, membranes of viable and apoptotic cells might exhibit specific characteristics. Here, we show that Annexin A5 binds in a cooperative manner to different types of dead cells. Shrunken apoptotic cells thereby showed the highest Hill coefficient values. Contrarily, parafomaldehyde fixation of apoptotic cells completely abrogates the cooperativity effect seen with dead and dying cells. We tend to speculate that the cooperative binding of Annexin A5 to the membranes of apoptotic cells reflects higher fluidity of the exposed membranes facilitating PS clustering.

Janko, Christina; Jeremic, Ivica; Biermann, Mona; Chaurio, Ricardo; Schorn, Christine; Muñoz, Luis E.; Herrmann, Martin

2013-12-01

348

Effects of cholesterol on nano-mechanical properties of the living cell plasma membrane  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigated the effects of membrane cholesterol content on the mechanical properties of cell membranes by using optical tweezers. We pulled membrane tethers from human embryonic kidney cells using single and multi-speed protocols, and obtained time-resolved tether forces. We quantified various mechanical characteristics including the tether equilibrium force, bending modulus, effective membrane viscosity, and plasma membrane-cytoskeleton adhesion energy, and correlated them to the membrane cholesterol level. Decreases in cholesterol concentration were associated with increases in the tether equilibrium force, tether stiffness, and adhesion energy. Tether diameter and effective viscosity increased with increasing cholesterol levels. Disruption of cytoskeletal F-actin significantly changed the tether diameters in both non-cholesterol and cholesterol-manipulated cells, while the effective membrane viscosity was unaffected by F-actin disruption. The findings are relevant to inner ear function where cochlear amplification is altered by changes in membrane cholesterol content. PMID:23227105

Khatibzadeh, Nima; Gupta, Sharad; Farrell, Brenda; Brownell, William E.; Anvari, Bahman

2012-01-01

349

RELATION BETWEEN EPSTEIN-BARR VIRAL AND CELL MEMBRANE IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE OF BURKITT TUMOR CELLS  

PubMed Central

A comparison was made of the immunofluorescence tests for detection of cell membrane and Epstein-Barr virus antigens in cells from Burkitt tumor biopsies or continuous cultures derived therefrom. On the whole, cell membrane fluorescence in established lines appeared to depend not only upon the presence of EBV but to a considerable degree also upon the extent of the persistent viral infection. There was no constant relationship, however, between the results of the two tests and exceptions to the rule were noted. These observations indicate that different antigens are involved in the two tests. Biopsy cells in general and young cultures may reveal strong MIF activity but few, if any, EBV-positive cells. The reverse, the presence of relatively large numbers of EBV antigen-containing cells in the absence of significant MIF reactions, was also noted on occasion in a few established cultures. The possible interpretations of these findings have been discussed. PMID:4878906

Klein, G.; Pearson, G.; Nadkarni, J. S.; Nadkarni, J. J.; Klein, E.; Henle, G.; Henle, W.; Clifford, P.

1968-01-01

350

Ethambutol-induced toxicity is mediated by zinc and lysosomal membrane permeabilization in cultured retinal cells  

SciTech Connect

Ethambutol, an efficacious antituberculosis agent, can cause irreversible visual loss in a small but significant fraction of patients. However, the mechanism of ocular toxicity remains to be established. We previously reported that ethambutol caused severe vacuole formation in cultured retinal cells, and that the addition of zinc along with ethambutol aggravated vacuole formation whereas addition of the cell-permeable zinc chelator, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN), reduced vacuole formation. To investigate the origin of vacuoles and to obtain an understanding of drug toxicity, we used cultured primary retinal cells from newborn Sprague-Dawley rats and imaged ethambutol-treated cells stained with FluoZin-3, zinc-specific fluorescent dye, under a confocal microscope. Almost all ethambutol-induced vacuoles contained high levels of labile zinc. Double staining with LysoTracker or MitoTracker revealed that almost all zinc-containing vacuoles were lysosomes and not mitochondria. Intracellular zinc chelation with TPEN markedly blocked both vacuole formation and zinc accumulation in the vacuole. Immunocytochemistry with antibodies to lysosomal-associated membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2) and cathepsin D, an acid lysosomal hydrolase, disclosed lysosomal activation after exposure to ethambutol. Immunoblotting after 12 h exposure to ethambutol showed that cathepsin D was released into the cytosol. In addition, cathepsin inhibitors attenuated retinal cell toxicity induced by ethambutol. This is consistent with characteristics of lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). TPEN also inhibited both lysosomal activation and LMP. Thus, accumulation of zinc in lysosomes, and eventual LMP, may be a key mechanism of ethambutol-induced retinal cell death.

Chung, Hyewon; Yoon, Young Hee [Department of Ophthalmology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnab-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jung Jin [Institute for Innovative Cancer Research, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung Sook [Department of Ophthalmology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnab-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Jae Young [NRL Neural Injury Research Center and the Department of Neurology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, June-Gone [Department of Ophthalmology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnab-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: junekim@amc.seoul.kr

2009-03-01

351

Selective anchoring in the specific plasma membrane domain: a role in epithelial cell polarity  

PubMed Central

We have studied the role of restrictions to lateral mobility in the segregation of proteins to apical and basolateral domains of MDCK epithelial cells. Radioimmunoassay and semiquantitative video analysis of immunofluorescence on frozen sections showed that one apical and three basolateral glycoproteins, defined by monoclonal antibodies and binding of beta-2-microglobulin, were incompletely extracted with 0.5% Triton X-100 in a buffer that preserves the cortical cytoskeleton (Fey, E. G., K. M. Wan, and S. Penman. 1984. J. Cell Biol. 98:1973-1984; Nelson, W. T. and P. J. Veshnock. 1986. J. Cell Biol. 103:1751-1766). The marker proteins were preferentially extracted from the "incorrect" domain (i.e., the apical domain for a basolateral marker), indicating that the cytoskeletal anchoring was most effective on the "correct" domain. The two basolateral markers were unpolarized and almost completely extractable in cells prevented from establishing cell-cell contacts by incubation in low Ca++ medium, while an apical marker was only extracted from the basal surface under the same conditions. Procedures were developed to apply fluorescent probes to either the apical or the basolateral surface of live cells grown on native collagen gels. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching of predominantly basolateral antigens showed a large percent of cells (28- 52%) with no recoverable fluorescence on the basal domain but normal fluorescence recovery on the apical surface of most cells (92-100%). Diffusion coefficients in cells with normal fluorescence recovery were in the order of 1.1 x 10(-9) cm2/s in the apical domain and 0.6-0.9 x 10(-9) cm2/s in the basal surface, but the difference was not significant. The data from both techniques indicate (a) the existence of mobile and immobile protein fractions in both plasma membrane domains, and (b) that linkage to a domain specific submembrane cytoskeleton plays an important role in the maintenance of epithelial cell surface polarity. PMID:3198691

1988-01-01

352

Preparation of rat islet B-cell-enriched fractions by light-scatter flow cytometry  

SciTech Connect

Flow cytometry has been examined as a method to separate islet cells into homogeneous subpopulations. Collagenase-isolated rat islets were dissociated into single cells and these were analyzed and sorted according to their low forward angle light scattering properties by using automated flow cytometry. Light scatter histograms showed two peaks of viable cells. Radioimmunoassay of hormone content in cell fractions collected across the the two peaks showed that glucagon-containing cells were concentrated towards the left side of the left peak and somatostatin-containing cells were concentrated towards the right side of the left peak, whereas insulin-containing cells were clearly enriched in the right peak. The B-cell-enriched fraction (90% B cells, 3% A cells, 2% D cells) exhibited significant insulin secretory responses to glucose (16.7 mM), and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (0.1 mM), during a 24-h culture period, and these responses were slightly greater than those observed in the original mixed islet cell preparation (66% B cells, 14% A cells, and 4% D cells). These results indicate that flow cytometry can be applied to sort pancreatic islet cells into populations enriched in specific endocrine cell types for further study of the functions of individual cell types.

Rabinovitch, A.; Russell, T.; Shienvold, F.; Noel, J.; Files, N.; Patel, Y.; Ingram, M.

1982-11-01

353

Cell-Culture Reactor Having a Porous Organic Polymer Membrane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for making a biocompatible polymer article using a uniform atomic oxygen treatment is disclosed. The substrate may be subsequently optionally grated with a compatibilizing compound. Compatibilizing compounds may include proteins, phosphory1choline groups, platelet adhesion preventing polymers, albumin adhesion promoters, and the like. The compatibilized substrate may also have a living cell layer adhered thereto. The atomic oxygen is preferably produced by a flowing afterglow microwave discharge, wherein the substrate resides in a sidearm out of the plasma. Also, methods for culturing cells for various purposes using the various membranes are disclosed as well. Also disclosed are porous organic polymers having a distributed pore chemistry (DPC) comprising hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions, and a method for making the DPC by exposing the polymer to atomic oxygen wherein the rate of hydrophilization is greater than the rate of mass loss.

Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

354

ATP and ADP hydrolysis in cell membranes from rat myometrium.  

PubMed

Extracellular nucleotides affect female reproductive functions, fertilization, and pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate biochemical characteristics of ATP and ADP hydrolysis and identify E-NTPDases in myometrial cell membranes from Wistar albino rats. The apparent K (m) values were 506.4 ± 62.1 and 638.8 ± 31.3 ?M, with a calculated V (max) (app) of 3,973.0 ± 279.5 and 2,853.9 ± 79.8 nmol/min/mg for ATP and ADP, respectively. The enzyme activity described here has common properties characteristic for NTPDases: divalent cation dependence; alkaline pH optimum for both substrates, insensitivity to some of classical ATPase inhibitors (ouabain, oligomycine, theophylline, levamisole) and significant inhibition by suramine and high concentration of sodium azides (5 mM). According to similar apparent K(m) values for both substrates, the ATP/ADP hydrolysis ratio, and Chevillard competition plot, NTPDase1 is dominant ATP/ADP hydrolyzing enzyme in myometrial cell membranes. RT-PCR analysis revealed expression of three members of ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase family (NTPDase 1, 2, and 8) in rat uterus. These findings may further elucidate the role of NTPDases and ATP in reproductive physiology. PMID:22956447

Miloševi?, Maja; Petrovi?, Snježana; Veli?kovi?, Nataša; Grkovi?, Ivana; Ignjatovi?, Marija; Horvat, Anica

2012-12-01

355

DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL ELECTROCATALYSTS FOR PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect

The Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is one of the most promising power sources for stand-alone utility and electric vehicle applications. Platinum (Pt) Catalyst is used for both fuel and air electrodes in PEMFCs. However, carbon monoxide (CO) contamination of H{sub 2} greatly affects electro catalysts used at the anode of PEMFCs and decreases cell performance. The irreversible poisoning of the anode can occur even in CO concentrations as low as few parts per million (ppm). In this work, we have synthesized several novel elctrocatalysts (Pt/C, Pt/Ru/C, Pt/Mo/C, Pt/Ir and Pt/Ru/Mo) for PEMFCs. These catalysts have been tested for CO tolerance in the H{sub 2}/air fuel cell, using CO concentrations in the H{sub 2} fuel that varies from 10 to 100 ppm. The performance of the electrodes was evaluated by determining the cell potential against current density. The effects of catalyst composition and electrode film preparation method on the performance of PEM fuel cell were also studied. It was found that at 70 C and 3.5 atm pressure at the cathode, Pt-alloy catalyst (10 wt% Pt/Ru/C, 20 wt% Pt/Mo/C) were more CO tolerant than the 20 wt% Pt/C catalyst alone. It was also observed that spraying method was better than the brushing technique for the preparation of electrode film.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2002-06-11

356

Single cell membrane poration by bubble-induced microjets in a microfluidic chip.  

PubMed

This paper demonstrates membrane poration of a single suspension cell due to a fast liquid microjet. The jet is formed during the collapse of a laser induced bubble created at a variable stand-off distance from the target cell. The cell is trapped by a converging structure within a microfluidic chip. The asymmetrical growth and collapse of the cavitation bubble next to the cell lead to the microjetting, which deforms and porates the cell membrane. In the experiments, the membrane porations of myeloma cells are probed with the uptake of trypan blue. Time-resolved studies of the diffusion of trypan blue show a marked dependency on the bubble dynamics, i.e. the stand-off distance. The penetration length of the dye increases with shorter distances. Numerical simulations of the diffusion process agree with larger pores formed on the cell membrane. This method allows for a fast, repeatable, and localized rupture of membranes of individual cells in suspension. PMID:23364762

Li, Z G; Liu, A Q; Klaseboer, E; Zhang, J B; Ohl, C D

2013-03-21

357

Secondary Structure of Cell-Penetrating Peptides Controls Membrane Interaction and Insertion  

E-print Network

Secondary Structure of Cell-Penetrating Peptides Controls Membrane Interaction and Insertion Emelía permeability of the biological membranes. In order to enhance their cell delivery, short amphipathic peptides called cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been intensively developed for the last two decades. CPPs

Boyer, Edmond

358

Quantitative assay by flow cytometry of the mitochondrial membrane potential in intact cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial membrane potential, in situ, is an important indicator of mitochondrial function and dysfunction. Because of recent interest in the role of mitochondria in signaling, cell injury and cell death, there is a need for a convenient, sensitive and accurate method for the measurement of the mitochondrial membrane potential, ??m, in situ, in a heterogeneous cell population. We have adapted

Hagai Rottenberg; Shaolong Wu

1998-01-01

359

Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized  

E-print Network

Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium to the host red blood cells (RBCs). To study these modifications, we investigate two intrinsic indicators for identifying, through cell membrane dynamics, pathological states that cause or accompany human diseases

Suresh, Subra

360

Surface-dependent Coagulation Enzymes FLOW KINETICS OF FACTOR Xa GENERATION ON LIVE CELL MEMBRANES*  

E-print Network

Surface-dependent Coagulation Enzymes FLOW KINETICS OF FACTOR Xa GENERATION ON LIVE CELL MEMBRANES of the extrinsic coagula- tion pathway on live cell membranes were examined under flow conditions. Generation of activated coagula- tion factor X (fXa) was measured on spherical monolay- ers of epithelial cells

Chou, Tom

361

Continuous monitoring of membrane protein micro-domain association during cell signaling  

E-print Network

Central to understanding membrane bound cell signaling is to quantify how the membrane ultra-structure consisting of transient spatial domains modulates signaling and how the signaling influences this ultra-structure. Yet, measuring the association of membrane proteins with domains in living, intact cells poses considerable challenges. Here, we describe a non-destructive method to quantify protein-lipid domain and protein cytoskeleton interactions in single, intact cells enabling continuous monitoring of the protein domains interaction over time during signaling.

Heng Huang; Arnd Pralle

2011-01-26

362

Designing Therapies against Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis by Modulating the Membrane Fluidity of Antigen-Presenting Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 16 January 2009\\/Returned for modification 2 March 2009\\/Accepted 6 March 2009 The membrane fluidity of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) has a significant bearing on T-cell-stimulating ability and is dependent on the cholesterol content of the membrane. The relationship, if any, between membrane fluidity and defective cell-mediated immunity in visceral leishmaniasis has been investigated. Systemic administration of cholesterol by liposome delivery

Subha Banerjee; June Ghosh; Subha Sen; Rajan Guha; Ranjan Dhar; Moumita Ghosh; Sanchita Datta; Bikramjit Raychaudhury; Kshudiram Naskar; Arun Kumar Haldar; C. S. Lal; K. Pandey; V. N. R. Das; P. Das; S. Roy

2009-01-01

363

Water permeability of Necturus gallbladder epithelial cell membranes measured by nuclear magnetic resonance.  

PubMed

In order to assess the contribution of transcellular water flow to isosmotic fluid transport across Necturus gallbladder epithelium, we have measured the water permeability of the epithelial cell membranes using a nuclear magnetic resonance method. Spin-lattice (T1) relaxation of water protons in samples of gallbladder tissue where the extracellular fluid contained 10 to 20 mM Mn2+ showed two exponential components. The fraction of the total water population responsible for the slower of the two was 24 +/- 2%. Both the size of the slow component, and the fact that it disappeared when the epithelial layer was removed from the tissue, suggest that it was due to water efflux from the epithelial cells. The rate constant of efflux was estimated to be 15.6 +/- 1.0 sec-1 which would be consistent with a diffusive membrane water permeability Pd of 1.6 X 10(-3) cm sec-1 and an osmotic permeability Pos of between 0.3 X 10(-4) and 1.4 X 10(-4) cm sec-1 osmolar-1. Using these data and a modified version of the standing-gradient model, we have reassessed the adequacy of a fluid transport theory based purely on transcellular osmotic water flow. We find that the model accounts satisfactorily for near-isosmotic fluid transport by the unilateral gallbladder preparation, but a substantial serosal diffusion barrier has to be included in order to account for the transport of fluid against opposing osmotic gradients. PMID:4046009

Steward, M C; Garson, M J

1985-01-01

364

Subpopulations of mouse spleen lymphocytes. II. Immunological reactivity of spleen cells fractionated on BSA density gradients.  

PubMed

We found in previous experiments that fractionation of non-immune mouse spleen cells on bovine serum albumin density gradients yields two subpopulations of T cells, one of high, the other of low density. Both subopopulations could be stimulated in corporate thymidine by the T cell-specific mitogen concanavalin A (con A). In the present investigation, spleen cells of mice immunized to sheep red cells (SRC) were similarly fractionated and the fractions recovered were assayed for: (a) reactivity to con A; (B) REACTIVITY TO SRC and (c) capacity to function as helper cells when stimulated with the homologous (SRC) or with a heterologous (donkey red cells) (DRC) antigen. Two subpopulations of cells reacting to con A were found in the spleens of the primed mice, corresponding to the subpopulations found in the non-immune mice. Both subpopulations contained cells responding to SRC (as measured by thymidine incorporation) and cells endowed with helper activity. The two subpopulations appeared to differ, however, in their specificity: while the denser cells could only exert their helper effect when stimulated by the specific antigen, the light cells could be effectively stimulated by both the specific (SRC) and the nonspecific (DRC) antigen. PMID:1079200

Mugraby, L; Gery, I; Sulitzeanu, D

1975-03-01

365

Gastric mucosal cell homeostatic physiome. Critical role of ER-initiated membranes restitution in the fidelity of cell function renewal.  

PubMed

Homeostatic cell physiology is preserved through the fidelity of the cell membranes restitution. The task is accomplished through the assembly of the precisely duplicated segments of the cell membranes, and transport to the site of their function. Here we examined the mechanism that initiates and directs the restitution of the intra- and extracellular membranes of gastric mucosal cell. The homeostatic restitution of gastrointestinal epithelial cell membrane components was investigated by studying the lipidomic processes in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi. The biomembrane lipid synthesis during the formation of transport vesicles in the systems containing isolated organelle and the cell-specific cytosol (Cyt) from rat gastric mucosal epithelial cells was assessed. The results revealed that lipids of ER transport vesicle and the transmembrane and intravesicular cargo are delivered en bloc to the point of destination. En bloc delivery of proteins, incorporated into predetermined in ER lipid environment, ensures fidelity of the membrane modification in Golgi and the restitution of the lipid and protein elements that are consistent with the organelle and the cell function. The mechanism that maintains apical membrane restitution is mediated through the synthesis of membrane segments containing ceramide (Cer). The Cer-containing membranes and protein cargo are further specialized in Golgi. The portion of the vesicles destined for apical membrane renewal contains glycosphingolipids and phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. The vesicles containing phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate are directed to endosomes. Our findings revealed that the preservation of the physiological equilibrium in cell structure and function is attributed to (1) a complete membrane segment synthesis in ER, (2) its transport in the form of ER-transport vesicle to Golgi, (3) the membrane components-defined maturation of lipids and proteins in Golgi, and (4) en bloc transfer of the new segment of the membrane to the cell apical membrane or intracellular organelle. PMID:15613747

Slomiany, A; Sano, S; Grabska, M; Yamaki, K; Slomiany, B L

2004-12-01

366

Proteins in the cell wall and membrane of Cryptococcus neoformans stimulate lymphocytes from both adults and fetal cord blood to proliferate.  

PubMed Central

Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast that infects patients who have defective cell-mediated immunity, including AIDS, but rarely infects individuals who have intact cell-mediated immunity. Studies of the immune response to C. neoformans have been hampered by a paucity of defined T-lymphocyte antigens, and hence, the understanding of the T-cell response is incomplete. The goal of this study was to separate C. neoformans into its component parts, determine whether those components stimulate lymphocyte proliferation, perform preliminary characterization of the proteins, and establish the potential mechanism of lymphocyte proliferation. The lymphocyte response to fungal culture medium, whole organisms, disrupted organisms, and the yeast intracellular fraction or cell wall and membrane was studied by determining thymidine incorporation and by determining the number of lymphocytes at various times after stimulation. The cell wall and membrane of C. neoformans stimulated lymphocyte proliferation, while the intracellular fraction and culture filtrate did not. The optimal response occurred on day 7 of incubation, with 4 x 10(5) peripheral blood mononuclear cells per well and with 13 microg of cryptococcal protein per ml. The number of lymphocytes increased with time in culture, indicating that thymidine incorporation was accompanied by proliferation. Proteinase K treatment of the cell wall and membrane abrogated lymphocyte proliferation, indicating that the molecule was a protein. [35S]methionine labeling, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and fluorography were performed to analyze the proteins contained in the cell wall and membrane, intracellular fraction, and culture filtrate. At least 18 discrete bands were resolved from the cell wall and membrane. Since a large percentage of healthy adults responded to the cryptococcal cell wall and membrane, a mitogenic effect was investigated by testing proliferation of fetal cord blood lymphocytes. The percentage of fetal samples that proliferated in response to the cell wall and membrane was similar to the percentage of fetal samples that proliferated in response to Staphylococcus enterotoxin B, a microbial mitogen. Thus, a protein in the cell wall and membrane of C. neoformans is a potent stimulant of lymphocyte proliferation and has mitogenic properties, which may have important implications for cell-mediated immunity to C. neoformans. PMID:8890243

Mody, C H; Sims, K L; Wood, C J; Syme, R M; Spurrell, J C; Sexton, M M

1996-01-01

367

Cross-linked, ETFE-derived and radiation grafted membranes for anion exchange membrane fuel cell applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop a series of cross-linked anion exchange membranes for application in fuel cells, poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films was radiation grafted with vinyl benzyl chloride (VBC), followed by quaternization and crosslinking with 1,4-Diazabicyclo[2,2,2]octane (DABCO), alkylation with p-Xylylenedichloride (DCX), and quaternization again with trimethylamine (TMA). These anion exchange membranes were characterized in terms of water uptake, ion-exchange capacity, ionic conductivity as well

Jun Fang; Yi-xu Yang; Xiao-huan Lu; Mei-ling Ye; Wei Li; Yan-mei Zhang

368

Isolation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Neurogenic Potential from the Mesoderm of the Amniotic Membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amniotic membrane has been clinically applied as a therapeutic material in wound covering and corneal surface reconstruction. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been isolated from the placenta, specifically from the amniotic membrane. However, the localization of MSCs in the amniotic membrane has not been determined. In this study, term placenta was collected, and we performed immunohistochemical staining techniques

Yu-Jen Chang; Shiaw-Min Hwang; Ching-Ping Tseng; Fu-Chou Cheng; Shih-Hung Huang; Lee-Feng Hsu; Li-Wen Hsu; Ming-Song Tsai

2010-01-01

369

Influence of electrolytes and membranes on cell operation for syn-gas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of membrane type and electrolyte composition for the electrochemical generation of synthesis gas (CO + H2) using a Ag gas diffusion electrode are presented. Changing from a cation exchange membrane to an anion exchange membrane (AEM) extended the cell operational time at low Ecell values (up to 4x) without impacting product composition. The use of KOH as the

Eric J. Dufek; Tedd E. Lister; Michael E. McIlwain

2012-01-01

370

Membrane-based electrolyte sheets for facile fabrication of flexible dye-sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

New electrolyte sheets based on porous polyethylene membranes for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells have been developed. Ionic liquid electrolytes are accommodated in commercial polyethylene membranes to form the electrolyte sheets. The morphology of membranes and iodine concentrations in ionic liquid are varied. The electrochemical measurement results show that the morphology, pore structure, and iodine concentration affect mass transport in electrolyte

Jiake Chen; Hong Lin; Xin Li; Xiaochong Zhao; Feng Hao; Siming Dong

2011-01-01

371

Alkali doped polybenzimidazole membrane for high performance alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anion exchange membrane for alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (ADEFC) was prepared by doping KOH in polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane. The distributions of nitrogen, oxygen and potassium in the membrane were analyzed by means of XRD and SEM-EDX, respectively. It was found that free or combined KOH molecules may exist in the PBI matrix, which was helpful for the ionic

Hongying Hou; Gongquan Sun; Ronghuan He; Zhimou Wu; Baoying Sun

2008-01-01

372

Direct deposit of catalyst on the membrane of direct feed fuel cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved direct liquid-feed fuel cell having a solid membrane electrolyte for electrochemical reactions of an organic fuel. Catalyst utilization and catalyst/membrane interface improvements are disclosed. Specifically, the catalyst layer is applied directly onto the membrane electrolyte.

Chun, William (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor); Linke, Juergen (Inventor)

2001-01-01

373

Water-Free Proton-Conducting Membranes for Fuel Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Poly-4-vinylpyridinebisulfate (P4VPBS) is a polymeric salt that has shown promise as a water-free proton-conducting material (solid electrolyte) suitable for use in membrane/electrode assemblies in fuel cells. Heretofore, proton-conducting membranes in fuel cells have been made from perfluorinated ionomers that cannot conduct protons in the absence of water and, consequently, cannot function at temperatures >100 C. In addition, the stability of perfluorinated ionomers at temperatures >100 C is questionable. However, the performances of fuel cells of the power systems of which they are parts could be improved if operating temperatures could be raised above 140 C. What is needed to make this possible is a solid-electrolyte material, such as P4VPBS, that can be cast into membranes and that both retains proton conductivity and remains stable in the desired higher operating temperature range. A family of solid-electrolyte materials different from P4VPBS was described in Anhydrous Proton-Conducting Membranes for Fuel Cells (NPO-30493), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 8 (August 2005), page 48. Those materials notably include polymeric quaternized amine salts. If molecules of such a polymeric salt could be endowed with flexible chain structures, it would be possible to overcome the deficiencies of simple organic amine salts that must melt before being able to conduct protons. However, no polymeric quaternized amine salts have yet shown to be useful in this respect. The present solid electrolyte is made by quaternizing the linear polymer poly- 4-vinylpyridine (P4VP) to obtain P4VPBS. It is important to start with P4VP having a molecular weight of 160,000 daltons because P4VPBS made from lower-molecular-weight P4VP yields brittle membranes. In an experimental synthesis, P4VP was dissolved in methanol and then reacted with an excess of sulfuric acid to precipitate P4VPBS. The precipitate was recovered, washed several times with methanol to remove traces of acid, and dried to a white granular solid. In another synthesis, nanoparticles of silica rich with surface hydroxyl groups were added to P4VP in methanol solution, which was then reacted with excess sulfuric acid to precipitate granules of a composite that most probably had the composition (P4VPBS)-SiO2-SiO(HSO4)2. The granular P4VPBS produced in the first-mentioned synthesis was dissolved in water to make a glue-like, turbid solution; the granular P4VPBS/silica composite produced in the second-mentioned synthesis was mixed with water to make a turbid, glue-like suspension. The proportions of polymer salt to water in such preparations can be varied; it was found that approximately equal parts of water and polymer salt yield a solution or suspension amenable to further processing.

Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Yen, Shiao-Pin

2007-01-01

374

Rapid micropatterning of cell lines and human pluripotent stem cells on elastomeric membranes.  

PubMed

Tissue function during development and in regenerative medicine completely relies on correct cell organization and patterning at micro and macro scales. We describe a rapid method for patterning mammalian cells including human embryonic stem cells (HESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) on elastomeric membranes such that micron-scale control of cell position can be achieved over centimeter-length scales. Our method employs surface engineering of hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes by plasma polymerization of allylamine. Deposition of plasma polymerized allylamine (ppAAm) using our methods may be spatially restricted using a micro-stencil leaving faithful hydrophilic ppAAm patterns. We employed airbrushing to create aerosols which deposit extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (such as fibronectin and Matrigel™) onto the same patterned ppAAm rich regions. Cell patterns were created with a variety of well characterized cell lines (e.g., NIH-3T3, C2C12, HL1, BJ6, HESC line HUES7, and HiPSC line IPS2). Individual and multiple cell line patterning were also achieved. Patterning remains faithful for several days and cells are viable and proliferate. To demonstrate the utility of our technique we have patterned cells in a variety of configurations. The ability to rapidly pattern cells at high resolution over macro scales should aid future tissue engineering efforts for regenerative medicine applications and in creating in vitro stem cell niches. PMID:22511037

Paik, Isha; Scurr, David J; Morris, Bryan; Hall, Graham; Denning, Chris; Alexander, Morgan R; Shakesheff, Kevin M; Dixon, James E

2012-10-01

375

DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL ELECTROCATALYSTS FOR PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect

Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert the available chemical free energy directly into electrical energy, without going through heat exchange process. Of all different types of fuel cells, the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is one of the most promising power sources for stand-alone utility and electric vehicle applications. Platinum (Pt) Catalyst is used for both fuel and air electrodes in PEMFCs. However, carbon monoxide (CO) contamination of H{sub 2} greatly affects electro catalysts used at the anode of PEMFCs and decreases cell performance. The irreversible poisoning of the anode can occur even in CO concentrations as low as few parts per million (ppm). In this work, we have synthesized several novel elctrocatalysts (Pt/C, Pt/Ru/C, Pt/Mo/C, Pt/Ir and Pt/Ru/Mo) for PEMFCs. These catalysts have been tested for CO tolerance in the H{sub 2}/air fuel cell, using CO concentrations in the H{sub 2} fuel that varies from 10 to 100 ppm. The performance of the electrodes was evaluated by determining the cell potential against current density. The effects of catalyst composition and electrode film preparation method on the performance of PEM fuel cell were also studied. It was found that at 70 C and 3.5 atm pressure at the cathode, Pt-alloy catalyst (10 wt% Pt/Ru/C, 20 wt% Pt/Mo/C) were more CO tolerant than the 20 wt% Pt/C catalyst alone. It was also observed that spraying method was better than the brushing technique for the preparation of electrode film.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2003-04-24

376

Human adipose tissue stromal vascular fraction cells differentiate depending on distinct types of media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives : Angiogenesis, the process of formation of blood vessels, is essential for many physiological as well as pathological processes. It has been shown that human adipose tissue contains a population of non-characterized cells, called stromal-vascular fraction (SVF) cells, which are able to differentiate into several lineages. The aim of this study was to determine conditions for promoting differentiation of

A. Balwierz; U. Czech; A. Polus; R. K. Filipkowski; B. Mioduszewska; T. Proszynski; P. Kolodziejczyk; J. Skrzeczynska-Moncznik; W. Dudek; L. Kaczmarek; J. Kulig; J. Pryjma; A. Dembinska-Kiec

2008-01-01

377

Isolating HeLa Cell Fractions Enriched for Clathrin-Coated Vesicles.  

PubMed

HeLa cell lines can be experimentally manipulated using drugs or gene-silencing techniques such as RNA interference. Fractions enriched for clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) can be isolated from these cell lines and used to study the effects of these manipulations on the composition of CCVs. This protocol, originally developed in the laboratory of Margaret Robinson (Cambridge, United Kingdom), describes the preparation of a HeLa cell fraction that is enriched for a mixed population of CCVs and is suitable for analysis by mass spectroscopy, western blotting, or electron microscopy. PMID:25368312

Borner, Georg H H; Fielding, Andrew B

2014-01-01

378

Computational Estimates of Membrane Flow and Tension Gradient in Motile Cells  

PubMed Central

All parts of motile cells, including the plasma membrane, have to translocate in the direction of locomotion. Both directed intracellular membrane transport coupled with polarized endo- and exocytosis and fluid flow in the plane of the plasma membrane can contribute to this overall plasma membrane translocation. It remains unclear how strong a force is required to generate this flow. We numerically solve Stokes equations for the viscous membrane flow across a flat plasma membrane surface in the presence of transmembrane proteins attached to the cytoskeleton and find the membrane tension gradient associated with this flow. This gradient is sensitive to the size and density of the transmembrane proteins attached to the cytoskeleton and can become significant enough to slow down cell movement. We estimate the influence of intracellular membrane transport and actin growth and contraction on the tension gradient, and discuss possible ‘tank tread’ flow at ventral and dorsal surfaces. PMID:24465414

Fogelson, Ben; Mogilner, Alex

2014-01-01

379

Proteomic analysis of post-nuclear supernatant fraction and percoll-purified membranes prepared from brain cortex of rats exposed to increasing doses of morphine  

PubMed Central

Background Proteomic analysis was performed in post-nuclear supernatant (PNS) and Percoll-purified membranes (PM) prepared from fore brain cortex of rats exposed to increasing doses of morphine (10–50 mg/kg) for 10 days. Results In PNS, the 10 up (?)- or down (?)-regulated proteins exhibiting the largest morphine-induced change were selected, excised manually from the gel and identified by MALDI-TOF MS/MS: 1-(gi|148747414, Guanine deaminase), ?2.5×; 2-(gi|17105370, Vacuolar-type proton ATP subunit B, brain isoform), ?2.6×; 3-(gi|1352384, Protein disulfide-isomerase A3), ?3.4×; 4-(gi|40254595, Dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2), ?3.6×; 5-(gi|149054470, N-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion protein, isoform CRAa), ?2.0×; 6-(gi|42476181, Malate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial precursor), ?1.4×; 7-(gi|62653546, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), ?1.6×; 8-(gi|202837, Aldolase A), ?1.3×; 9-(gi|31542401, Creatine kinase B-type), ?0.86×; 10-(gi|40538860, Aconitate hydratase, mitochondrial precursor), ?1.3×. The identified proteins were of cytoplasmic (1, 4, 5, 7, 9), cell membrane (2), endoplasmic reticulum (3) and mitochondrial (6, 8, 10) origin and 9 of them were significantly increased, 1.3-3.6×. The 4 out of 9 up-regulated proteins (4, 6, 7, 10) were described as functionally related to oxidative stress; the 2 proteins participate in genesis of apoptotic cell death. In PM, the 18 up (?)- or down (?)-regulated proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS and were of plasma membrane [Brain acid soluble protein, ?2.1×; trimeric G? subunit, ?2.0x], myelin membrane [MBP, ?2.5×], cytoplasmic [Internexin, ?5.2×; DPYL2, ?4.9×; Ubiquitin hydrolase, ?2.0×; 60S ribosomal protein, ?2.7×; KCRB, ?2.6×; Sirtuin-2, ?2.5×; Peroxiredoxin-2, ?2.2×; Septin-11, ?2.2×; TERA, ?2.1×; SYUA, ?2.0×; Coronin-1A, ?5.4×] and mitochondrial [Glutamate dehydrogenase 1, ?2.7×; SCOT1, ?2.2×; Prohibitin, ?2.2×; Aspartate aminotransferase, ?2.2×] origin. Surprisingly, the immunoblot analysis of the same PM resolved by 2D-ELFO indicated that the “active”, morphine-induced pool of G? subunits represented just a minor fraction of the total signal of G? which was decreased 1.2x only. The dominant signal of G? was unchanged. Conclusion Brain cortex of rats exposed to increasing doses of morphine is far from being adapted. Significant up-regulation of proteins functionally related to oxidative stress and apoptosis suggests a major change of energy metabolism resulting in the state of severe brain cell “discomfort” or even death. PMID:24528483

2014-01-01

380

Cell-autonomous defense, re-organization and trafficking of membranes in plant-microbe interactions.  

PubMed

Plant cells dynamically change their architecture and molecular composition following encounters with beneficial or parasitic microbes, a process referred to as host cell reprogramming. Cell-autonomous defense reactions are typically polarized to the plant cell periphery underneath microbial contact sites, including de novo cell wall biosynthesis. Alternatively, host cell reprogramming converges in the biogenesis of membrane-enveloped compartments for accommodation of beneficial bacteria or invasive infection structures of filamentous microbes. Recent advances have revealed that, in response to microbial encounters, plasma membrane symmetry is broken, membrane tethering and SNARE complexes are recruited, lipid composition changes and plasma membrane-to-cytoskeleton signaling is activated, either for pre-invasive defense or for microbial entry. We provide a critical appraisal on recent studies with a focus on how plant cells re-structure membranes and the associated cytoskeleton in interactions with microbial pathogens, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and mycorrhiza fungi. PMID:25168837

Dörmann, Peter; Kim, Hyeran; Ott, Thomas; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Trujillo, Marco; Wewer, Vera; Hückelhoven, Ralph

2014-12-01

381

Gadolinium blocks membrane permeabilization induced by nanosecond electric pulses and reduces cell death  

PubMed Central

It has been widely accepted that nanosecond electric pulses (nsEP) are distinguished from micro-and millisecond duration pulses by their ability to cause intracellular effects and cell death with reduced effects on the cell plasma membrane. However, we found that nsEP-induced cell death is most likely mediated by the plasma membrane disruption. We showed that nsEP can cause long-lasting (minutes) increase in plasma membrane electrical conductance and disrupt electrolyte balance, followed by water uptake, cell swelling and blebbing. These effects of plasma membrane permeabilization could be blocked by Gd3+ in a dose-dependent manner, with a threshold at sub-micromolar concentrations. Consequently, Gd3+ protected cells from nsEP-induced cell death, thereby pointing to plasma membrane permeabilization as a likely primary mechanism of lethal cell damage. PMID:20097138

André, Franck M.; Rassokhin, Mikhail A.; Bowman, Angela M.; Pakhomov, Andrei G.

2009-01-01

382

Hybrid Nafion–silica membranes doped with heteropolyacids for application in direct methanol fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nafion–silica composite membranes doped with phosphotungstic and silicotungstic acids have been investigated for application in direct methanol fuel cells at high temperature (145°C). The phosphotungstic acid-based membrane showed better electrochemical characteristics at high current densities with respect to both silicotungstic acid-modified membrane and silica–Nafion membrane. A maximum power density of 400 mW cm?2 was obtained at 145°C in the presence

P Staiti; A. S Aricò; V Baglio; F Lufrano; E Passalacqua; V Antonucci

2001-01-01

383

Photoaffinity labeling of regulatory subunits of protein kinase A in cardiac cell fractions of rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photoaffinity labeling in heart tissue of rats flown on Cosmos 2044 was used to measure the regulatory (R) subunits of adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. A significant decrease of RII subunits in the particulate cell fraction extract (S2; P less than 0.05 in all cases) was observed when extracts of tissue samples from vivarium controls were compared with those from flight animals. Photoaffinity labeling of the soluble fraction (S1) was observed to be unaffected by spaceflight or any of the simulation conditions. Proteins of the S2 fraction constitute a minor (less than 10 percent) component of the total, whereas the S1 fraction contained most of the cell proteins. Changes in a relatively minor aspect of adenosine monophosphate-mediated reactions are considered to be representative of a metabolic effect.

Mednieks, M. I.; Popova, I.; Grindeland, R. E.

1992-01-01

384

In situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes: linking basic nanotechniques to cell biology, immunology and medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cell membrane, which consists of a viscous phospholipid bilayer, different kinds of proteins and various nano/micrometer-sized domains, plays a very important role in ensuring the stability of the intracellular environment and the order of cellular signal transductions. Exploring the precise cell membrane structure and detailed functions of the biomolecules in a cell membrane would be helpful to understand the underlying mechanisms involved in cell membrane signal transductions, which could further benefit research into cell biology, immunology and medicine. The detection of membrane biomolecules at the single molecule level can provide some subtle information about the molecular structure and the functions of the cell membrane. In particular, information obtained about the molecular mechanisms and other information at the single molecule level are significantly different from that detected from a large amount of biomolecules at the large-scale through traditional techniques, and can thus provide a novel perspective for the study of cell membrane structures and functions. However, the precise investigations of membrane biomolecules prompts researchers to explore cell membranes at the single molecule level by the use of in situ imaging methods, as the exact conformation and functions of biomolecules are highly controlled by the native cellular environment. Recently, the in situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes has attracted increasing attention from cell biologists and immunologists. The size of biomolecules and their clusters on the cell surface are set at the nanoscale, which makes it mandatory to use high- and super-resolution imaging techniques to realize the in situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes. In the past few decades, some amazing imaging techniques and instruments with super resolution have been widely developed for molecule imaging, which can also be further employed for the in situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes. In this review, we attempt to summarize the characteristics of these advanced techniques for use in the in situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes. We believe that this work will help to promote the technological and methodological developments of super-resolution techniques for the single molecule imaging of cell membranes and help researchers better understand which technique is most suitable for their future exploring of membrane biomolecules; ultimately promoting further developments in cell biology, immunology and medicine.

Pi, Jiang; Jin, Hua; Yang, Fen; Chen, Zheng W.; Cai, Jiye

2014-10-01

385

Biological characterization of Fusobacterium necrophorum. Cell fractions in preparation for toxin and immunization studies.  

PubMed Central

Fusobacterium necrophorum isolated from bovine liver abscesses was grown in bulk at 37 C for 24 h under a strict anaerobic atmosphere. Harvested washed cells were disrupted ultrasonically and fractionated by differential centrifugation into the intracellular (cytoplasm) and cell wall fractions. Both intact cells and cell fractions induced generalized cytopathic effect on primary pig kidney cultures and caused a variety of signs of illness and/or death of intraperitoneally injected mice. The intact cells, disrupted cells, and cell walls produced necrotic lesions and erythema on intradermally injected guinea pigs and rabbits, whereas the cytoplasm mainly erythema. By contrast, the used culture medium (culture filtrate) of F. necrophorum did not show any detectable toxicity. The toxic component of the cytoplasm appears to be associated with nondialyzable, hemolytic, high-molecular-weight proteins and its toxicity is reduced by trypsin and pronase. Heating at 60 C for 10 min decreased markedly its erythemal and cytotoxic ability, wheras the toxicity of the cell walls appeared to be only slightly affected even when heated at 100 C for 1 h. These results suggest that at leasttwo distinct cell-bound toxic factors are present in F. necrophorum cells. Images PMID:1120608

Garcia, M M; Alexander, D C; McKay, K A

1975-01-01

386

Separation of inner and outer membranes of Rhodopseudomonas spheroides.  

PubMed

The separation of inner and outer membrane of Rhodopseudomonas spheroides has been achieved by means of sucrose density gradient (20%, 40%, 60%, w/w) centrifugation. The upper fraction of the gradient, with a specific density 1.181 (g/cm3), is high in cytochrome and succinate dehydrogenase activities, low in lipopolysaccharides and it is designated the inner membrane fraction. The bottom fraction of the gradient, with a specific density 1.240, is high in lipopolysaccharide and contains neither cytochrome nor succinate dehydrogenase activities. This fraction is the cell wall or outer membrane fraction. The intermediate band on the gradient is an unseparated fraction of inner and outer membrane fragments. This fraction has a specific denisty of 1.211 and represents less than 3% of total crude envelope. Thin sections of the vesicles of the inner membrane fraction and those of outer membrane provide morphological evidence for the identity of the individual membrane fractions. At least 22 protein bands are resolved by employing sodium dodecyl sulfate slab gel electrophoresis. Six bands are present only in the inner membrane and two bands are found exclusively in the outer membrane. Most of the remaining polypeptides are present in greater amounts in the inner membrane relative to the outer membrane fractions. PMID:1083979

Ding, D H; Kaplan, S

1976-01-01

387

Impact of Prolonged Fraction Delivery Times Simulating IMRT on Cultured Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cell Killing  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the impact of prolonged fraction delivery times (FDTs) simulating intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) on cultured nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell killing. Methods and Material: Cultured NPC cell lines CNE1 and CNE2 were used in this study. The biological effectiveness of fractionated irradiation protocols simulating conventional external beam radiotherapy and IMRT (FDT of 15, 36, and 50 minutes) was estimated with standard colony assay, and the differences in cell surviving fractions after irradiation with different protocols were tested by use of the paired t test. The impact degree of prolonged FDTs (from 8 to 50 minutes) on cell killing was also assessed by the dose-modifying factors, which were estimated by comparing the effectiveness of intermittently delivered 2 Gy with that of continuously delivered 1.5 to 2 Gy. Results: The cell surviving fractions of both CNE1 and CNE2 after fractionated irradiation simulating IMRT were higher than those simulating conventional external beam radiotherapy (p < 0.05). The dose-modifying factors for a fraction dose of 2 Gy increased from 1.05 to 1.18 for CNE1 and from 1.05 to 1.11 for CNE2 with the FDT being prolonged from 15 to 50 minutes. Conclusions: This study showed that the prolonged FDTs simulating IMRT significantly decreased the cell killing in both CNE1 and CNE2 cell lines, and these negative effects increased with the FDT being prolonged from 15 to 50 minutes. These effects, if confirmed by in vivo and clinical studies, need to be considered in designing IMRT treatments for NPC.

Zheng Xiaokang, E-mail: zkn1268@fimmu.co [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Chen Longhua; Wang Wenjun; Ye Feng; Liu Jiabing; Li Qisheng; Sun Henwen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China)

2010-12-01

388

Effect of plasma membrane cholesterol depletion on glucose transport regulation in leukemia cells.  

PubMed

GLUT1 is the predominant glucose transporter in leukemia cells, and the modulation of glucose transport activity by cytokines, oncogenes or metabolic stresses is essential for their survival and proliferation. However, the molecular mechanisms allowing to control GLUT1 trafficking and degradation are still under debate. In this study we investigated whether plasma membrane cholesterol depletion plays a role in glucose transport activity in M07e cells, a human megakaryocytic leukemia line. To this purpose, the effect of cholesterol depletion by methyl-?-cyclodextrin (MBCD) on both GLUT1 activity and trafficking was compared to that of the cytokine Stem Cell Factor (SCF). Results show that, like SCF, MBCD led to an increased glucose transport rate and caused a subcellular redistribution of GLUT1, recruiting intracellular transporter molecules to the plasma membrane. Due to the role of caveolae/lipid rafts in GLUT1 stimulation in response to many stimuli, we have also investigated the GLUT1 distribution along the fractions obtained after non ionic detergent treatment and density gradient centrifugation, which was only slightly changed upon MBCD treatment. The data suggest that MBCD exerts its action via a cholesterol-dependent mechanism that ultimately results in augmented GLUT1 translocation. Moreover, cholesterol depletion triggers GLUT1 translocation without the involvement of c-kit signalling pathway, in fact MBCD effect does not involve Akt and PLC? phosphorylation. These data, together with the observation that the combined MBCD/SCF cell treatment caused an additive effect on glucose uptake, suggest that the action of SCF and MBCD may proceed through two distinct mechanisms, the former following a signalling pathway, and the latter possibly involving a novel cholesterol dependent mechanism. PMID:22859971

Caliceti, Cristiana; Zambonin, Laura; Prata, Cecilia; Vieceli Dalla Sega, Francesco; Hakim, Gabriele; Hrelia, Silvana; Fiorentini, Diana

2012-01-01

389

Six cell 'single cell' stack diagnostics and membrane electrode assembly evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Polymer electrolyte fuel cells are promising candidates as energy conversion devices in applications from portable power to stationary applications or electric vehicles. In order to achieve practical voltage, power and energy density, stacks are employed for almost all applications. Here, we present a six-cell 'single cell' stack in which individual cells can be isolated from the stack by current carrying leads found within each of the bipolar plates. The current carrying leads allow individual cells to be isolated from the rest of the stack, so that cells can either be tested together or independently. The design of the stack, utility for specific applications, including stack diagnostics and membrane electrode assembly (MEA) testing, and some experimental results, obtained using the stack, are presented. Special focus is given in this paper to the area of direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) stacks, however the equipment and many of the experimental results presented are appropriate for other fuel cell systems.

Pivovar, B. S. (Bryan Scott); Le Scornet, F. (Francois); Eickes, C. (Christian); Zawodzinski, C. (Christine); Purdy, G. M. (Geraldine M.); Wilson, M. S. (Mahlon S.); Zelenay, P. (Piotr)

2002-01-01

390

Interactions between the HIV TAT domain and cell membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biologically active molecules such as proteins and oligonucleotides can be transduced into cells with high efficiency when covalently linked to a Protein Transduction Domain (PTD), such as the TAT domain in the HIV virus. All PTDs have a high content of basic amino acids resulting in a net positive charge. Electrostatic interactions between cationic PTDs and the negatively charged phospholipids that constitute the plasma membrane seem to be responsible for peptide uptake, but no detailed structural studies exist. We present recent results on the structures of self-assembled complexes of the cationic TAT domain and anionic lipid bilayers using synchrotron x-ray scattering and electron microscopy, and examine possible mechanisms of the anomalous transduction.

Mishra, Abhijit; Wong, Gerard

2005-03-01

391

Association of Shiga toxin glycosphingolipid receptors with membrane microdomains of toxin-sensitive lymphoid and myeloid cells[S  

PubMed Central

Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) of the globo-series constitute specific receptors for Shiga toxins (Stxs) released by certain types of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains. Stx-loaded leukocytes may act as transporter cells in the blood and transfer the toxin to endothelial target cells. Therefore, we performed a thorough investigation on the expression of globo-series GSLs in serum-free cultivated Raji and Jurkat cells, representing B- and T-lymphocyte descendants, respectively, as well as THP-1 and HL-60 cells of the monocyte and granulocyte lineage, respectively. The presence of Stx-receptors in GSL preparations of Raji and THP-1 cells and the absence in Jurkat and HL-60 cells revealed high compliance of solid-phase immunodetection assays with the expression profiles of receptor-related glycosyltransferases, performed by qRT-PCR analysis, and Stx2-caused cellular damage. Canonical microdomain association of Stx GSL receptors, sphingomyelin, and cholesterol in membranes of Raji and THP-1 cells was assessed by comparative analysis of detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) and nonDRM fractions obtained by density gradient centrifugation and showed high correlation based on nonparametric statistical analysis. Our comprehensive study on the expression of Stx-receptors and their subcellular distribution provides the basis for exploring the functional role of lipid raft-associated Stx-receptors in cells of leukocyte origin. PMID:23248329

Kouzel, Ivan U.; Pohlentz, Gottfried; Storck, Wiebke; Radamm, Lena; Hoffmann, Petra; Bielaszewska, Martina; Bauwens, Andreas; Cichon, Christoph; Schmidt, M. Alexander; Mormann, Michael; Karch, Helge; Muthing, Johannes

2013-01-01

392

Plasma Membrane Lesions In Anthracycline-Resistant Tumor Cells Probed Using A Fluorescent Dye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human cancer cells selected for resistance to several structurally unrelated cytotoxic drugs are known to display