Sample records for cell membrane fraction

  1. FURTHER CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICULATE FRACTIONS FROM LYSED CELL ENVELOPES OF HALOBACTERIUM HALOBIUM AND ISOLATION OF GAS VACUOLE MEMBRANES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WALTHER STOECKENIUS; WOLF H. KUNAU

    1968-01-01

    Lysates of cell envelopes from Halobacterium halobium have been separated into four fractions. A soluble, colorless fraction (I) containing protein, hexosamines, and no lipid is apparently derived from the cell wall. A red fraction (II), containing approximately 40 per cent lipid, 60 per cent protein, and a small amount of hexosamines consists of cell membrane disag- gregated into fragments of

  2. Fraction Reduction in Membrane Systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Fraction reduction is a basic computation for rational numbers. P system is a new computing model, while the current methods for fraction reductions are not available in these systems. In this paper, we propose a method of fraction reduction and discuss how to carry it out in cell-like P systems with the membrane structure and the rules with priority designed. During the application of fraction reduction rules, synchronization is guaranteed by arranging some special objects in these rules. Our work contributes to performing the rational computation in P systems since the rational operands can be given in the form of fraction. PMID:24772037

  3. FURTHER CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICULATE FRACTIONS FROM LYSED CELL ENVELOPES OF HALOBACTERIUM HALOBIUM AND ISOLATION OF GAS VACUOLE MEMBRANES

    PubMed Central

    Stoeckenius, Walther; Kunau, Wolf H.

    1968-01-01

    Lysates of cell envelopes from Halobacterium halobium have been separated into four fractions. A soluble, colorless fraction (I) containing protein, hexosamines, and no lipid is apparently derived from the cell wall. A red fraction (II), containing approximately 40 per cent lipid, 60 per cent protein, and a small amount of hexosamines consists of cell membrane disaggregated into fragments of small size. A third fraction (III) of purple color consists of large membrane sheets and has a very similar composition to II, containing the same classes of lipids but no hexosamines; its buoyant density is 1.18 g/ml. The fourth fraction (IV) has a buoyant density of 1.23 g/ml and contains the "intracytoplasmic membranes." These consist mainly of protein, and no lipid can be extracted with chloroform-methanol. Fractions I and II, which result from disaggregation of cell wall and cell membrane during lysis, contain a high proportion of dicarboxyl amino acids; this is in good agreement with the assumption that disruption of the cell envelope upon removal of salt is due to the high charge density. The intracytoplasmic membranes (IV) represent the gas vacuole membranes in the collapsed state. In a number of mutants that have lost the ability to form gas vacuoles, no vacuole membranes or any structure that could be related to them has been found. PMID:5664208

  4. Fractional order models of viscoelasticity as an alternative in the analysis of red blood cell (RBC) membrane mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Craiem, Damian; Magin, Richard L

    2011-01-01

    New lumped-element models of red blood cell mechanics can be constructed using fractional order generalizations of springs and dashpots. Such ‘spring-pots’ exhibit a fractional order viscoelastic behavior that captures a wide spectrum of experimental results through power-law expressions in both the time and frequency domains. The system dynamics is fully described by linear fractional order differential equations derived from first order stress–strain relationships using the tools of fractional calculus. Changes in the composition or structure of the membrane are conveniently expressed in the fractional order of the model system. This approach provides a concise way to describe and quantify the biomechanical behavior of membranes, cells and tissues. PMID:20090192

  5. Plasma membrane heterogeneity in ascites tumor cells. Isolation of a light and a heavy membrane fraction of the glycogen-free Ehrlich-Lettré substrain.

    PubMed

    Haeffner, E W; Kolbe, K; Schroeter, D; Paweletz, N

    1980-12-01

    In this work we report on the isolation of two plasma membrane fractions of a glycogen-free substrain of Ehrlich-Lettré ascites cells, a light fraction sedimenting in a sucrose gradient at 1.10 g/ml, and a heavy fraction sedimenting at nuclei by a combination of short-term swelling and mild Dounce homogenization. A 12 000 X g postnuclear pellet (PII) containing major portions of the plasma membrane marker enymes, 5'-nucleotidase, ouabain-sensitive (Na+ + K+)-ATPase and the alkaline phosphatase, was prepared by differential centrifugation. The two plasma membrane fractions were obtained by centrifugation on a discontinuous sucrose gradient, from which they were further purified on a linear sucrose gradient applying sedimentation velocity conditions only. Enrichment factors for the three marker enzymes were between 5- and 14-fold for the light fraction and between 3- and 7-fold for the heavy fraction with an overall yield of 1--4% and 0.5--1.7%, respectively, of cellular protein. Contamination of both fractions with nuclear material was minor. Mitochondrial contamination was about 8% for the light material and somewhat higher for the heavy material. In the light fraction, co-sedimentation of lysosomal and Golgi marker enzymes was detected. The presence of membrane structures of these organelles could not be confirmed definitely by electron microscopy. Differences in sialic acid content and phospholipid composition within the two fractions, especially in the relative proportion of lecithin to sphingomyelin, suggests differences in membrane fluidity. The light material showed mostly unit membrane vesicles in thin-section and freeze-etch electron microscopy, whereas the heavy fraction mainly consisted of sheet-like membrane fragments. PMID:6255997

  6. Fractionation of subcellular membrane vesicles of epithelial and non-epithelial cells by OptiPrep™ density gradient ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuhang; Donowitz, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGUC) is widely used for physical isolation (enrichment rather than purification) of subcellular membrane vesicles. It has been a valuable tool to study specific subcellular localization and dynamic trafficking of proteins. While sucrose has been the main component of density gradients, several years ago, synthetic OptiPrep™ (iodixanol) began being used for separation of organelles due to its iso-osmotic property. Here, we describe a detailed protocol for density gradient fractionation of various mammalian subcellular vesicles, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, endosomes, and lipid rafts, as well as apical and basolateral membranes of polarized epithelial cells. PMID:24947376

  7. Fractionation of subcellular membrane vesicles of epithelial and nonepithelial cells by OptiPrep density gradient ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuhang; Donowitz, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGUC) is widely used for physical isolation (enrichment rather than purification) of subcellular membrane vesicles. It has been a valuable tool to study specific subcellular localization and dynamic trafficking of proteins. While sucrose has been the main component of density gradients, a few years ago synthetic OptiPrep (iodixanol) began being used for separation of organelles because of its iso-osmotic property. Here, we describe a detailed protocol for density gradient fractionation of various mammalian subcellular vesicles, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, endosomes, and lipid rafts, as well as apical and basolateral membranes of polarized epithelial cells. PMID:18369940

  8. Microscale isoelectric fractionation using photopolymerized membranes.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Greg J; Mai, Junyu; Singh, Anup K; Hatch, Anson V

    2011-04-15

    In this work, we introduce microscale isoelectric fractionation (?IF) for isolation and enrichment of molecular species at any desired location in a microfluidic chip. Narrow pH-specific polyacrylamide membranes are photopatterned in situ for customizable device fabrication; multiple membranes of precise pH are easily incorporated throughout existing channel layouts. Samples are electrophoretically driven across the membranes such that charged species, for example, proteins and peptides, are rapidly discretized into fractions based on their isoelectric points (pI) without the use of carrier ampholytes. This format makes fractions easy to compartmentalize and access for integrated preparative or analytical operations on-chip. We present and discuss the key design considerations and trade-offs associated with proper system operation and optimal run conditions. Efficient and reproducible fractionation of model fluorescent pI markers and proteins is achieved using single membrane fractionators at pH 6.5 and 5.3 from both buffer and Escherichia coli cell lysate sample conditions. Effective fractionation is also shown using a serial 3-membrane fractionator tailored for isolating analytes-of-interest from high abundance components of serum. We further demonstrate that proteins focused in pH specific bins can be rapidly and efficiently transferred to another location in the same chip without unwanted dilution or dispersive effects. ?IF provides a rapid and versatile option for integrated sample prep or multidimensional analysis, and addresses the glaring proteomic need to isolate trace analytes from high-abundance species in minute volumes of complex samples. PMID:21417312

  9. Composite fuel cell membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Plowman, Keith R. (Lake Jackson, TX); Rehg, Timothy J. (Lake Jackson, TX); Davis, Larry W. (West Columbia, TX); Carl, William P. (Marble Falls, TX); Cisar, Alan J. (Cypress, TX); Eastland, Charles S. (West Columbia, TX)

    1997-01-01

    A bilayer or trilayer composite ion exchange membrane suitable for use in a fuel cell. The composite membrane has a high equivalent weight thick layer in order to provide sufficient strength and low equivalent weight surface layers for improved electrical performance in a fuel cell. In use, the composite membrane is provided with electrode surface layers. The composite membrane can be composed of a sulfonic fluoropolymer in both core and surface layers.

  10. Composite fuel cell membranes

    DOEpatents

    Plowman, K.R.; Rehg, T.J.; Davis, L.W.; Carl, W.P.; Cisar, A.J.; Eastland, C.S.

    1997-08-05

    A bilayer or trilayer composite ion exchange membrane is described suitable for use in a fuel cell. The composite membrane has a high equivalent weight thick layer in order to provide sufficient strength and low equivalent weight surface layers for improved electrical performance in a fuel cell. In use, the composite membrane is provided with electrode surface layers. The composite membrane can be composed of a sulfonic fluoropolymer in both core and surface layers.

  11. Membrane in cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Galeotti, T.; Cittadini, A.; Neri, G.; Scarpa, A.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at a conference on membranes in cancer cells. Topics covered include Oncogenies, hormones, and free-radical processes in malignant transformation in vitro and Superoxide onion may trigger DNA strand breaks in human granulorytes by acting as a membrane target.

  12. Cell Plasma Membranes Membranes are Principally Comprised of............, Mainly..............

    E-print Network

    Cutler, Chris

    Cell Plasma Membranes Membranes Membranes are Principally Comprised of............, Mainly to Deliver ........................ to Cells Plasma Membranes Contain ............................ Linked% of the Lipid in Certain Animal Cells, but is Absent from Most Plants and All Bacteria Cholesterol is Comprised

  13. Cell Membranes Tutorial

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    New from The Biology Project of the University of Arizona, this online tutorial introduces the dynamic complexes of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids that comprise cell membranes, and relates how membranes are important for regulating ion and molecular traffic flow between cells. Each section of this Web site takes the form of a multiple choice question. Answer the question correctly, and a brief explanation of each answer choice will be displayed. Answer the question incorrectly, and a short but helpful tutorial with colorful diagrams will help get you on the right track. This would be an valuable Web site for students wishing to test themselves on cell membrane structure and function, but would not be especially useful for those new to the subject.

  14. Fuel cell membrane humidification

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell assembly has an anode side and a cathode side separated by the membrane and generating electrical current by electrochemical reactions between a fuel gas and an oxidant. The anode side comprises a hydrophobic gas diffusion backing contacting one side of the membrane and having hydrophilic areas therein for providing liquid water directly to the one side of the membrane through the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing. In a preferred embodiment, the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing are formed by sewing a hydrophilic thread through the backing. Liquid water is distributed over the gas diffusion backing in distribution channels that are separate from the fuel distribution channels.

  15. Identification of etioplast membranes in fractions from soybean hypocotyls.

    PubMed

    Hurkman, W J; Morré, D J; Bracker, C E; Mollenhauer, H H

    1979-09-01

    Three independent methods, one cytological and two biochemical, were used to estimate contributions of plastids and plastid fragments to various membrane fractions. In thin sections viewed by electron microscopy, KMnO(4) selectively enhanced the images of plastid membranes in situ as well as in isolated fractions. The amounts of plastid fragments in isolated membrane fractions were determined by electron microscopic morphometry of fractions fixed with KMnO(4) in conjunction with analysis of galactolipids and carotenoids. Monogalactosyl and digalactosyl diglyceride contents were directly correlated with the amount of plastid membranes in the fractions identified by electron microscope morphometry. Amounts of carotenoids also correlated with plastid membranes except at very low levels where estimates based on carotenoids exceeded those based on morphometry. PMID:16660974

  16. Gas phase fractionation method using porous ceramic membrane

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Reid A. (Madison, WI); Hill, Jr., Charles G. (Madison, WI); Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

    1996-01-01

    Flaw-free porous ceramic membranes fabricated from metal sols and coated onto a porous support are advantageously used in gas phase fractionation methods. Mean pore diameters of less than 40 .ANG., preferably 5-20 .ANG. and most preferably about 15 .ANG., are permeable at lower pressures than existing membranes. Condensation of gases in small pores and non-Knudsen membrane transport mechanisms are employed to facilitate and increase membrane permeability and permselectivity.

  17. Membrane capacitive memory alters spiking in neurons described by the fractional-order hodgkin-huxley model.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Seth H

    2015-01-01

    Excitable cells and cell membranes are often modeled by the simple yet elegant parallel resistor-capacitor circuit. However, studies have shown that the passive properties of membranes may be more appropriately modeled with a non-ideal capacitor, in which the current-voltage relationship is given by a fractional-order derivative. Fractional-order membrane potential dynamics introduce capacitive memory effects, i.e., dynamics are influenced by a weighted sum of the membrane potential prior history. However, it is not clear to what extent fractional-order dynamics may alter the properties of active excitable cells. In this study, we investigate the spiking properties of the neuronal membrane patch, nerve axon, and neural networks described by the fractional-order Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model. We find that in the membrane patch model, as fractional-order decreases, i.e., a greater influence of membrane potential memory, peak sodium and potassium currents are altered, and spike frequency and amplitude are generally reduced. In the nerve axon, the velocity of spike propagation increases as fractional-order decreases, while in a neural network, electrical activity is more likely to cease for smaller fractional-order. Importantly, we demonstrate that the modulation of the peak ionic currents that occurs for reduced fractional-order alone fails to reproduce many of the key alterations in spiking properties, suggesting that membrane capacitive memory and fractional-order membrane potential dynamics are important and necessary to reproduce neuronal electrical activity. PMID:25970534

  18. Membrane Capacitive Memory Alters Spiking in Neurons Described by the Fractional-Order Hodgkin-Huxley Model

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Seth H.

    2015-01-01

    Excitable cells and cell membranes are often modeled by the simple yet elegant parallel resistor-capacitor circuit. However, studies have shown that the passive properties of membranes may be more appropriately modeled with a non-ideal capacitor, in which the current-voltage relationship is given by a fractional-order derivative. Fractional-order membrane potential dynamics introduce capacitive memory effects, i.e., dynamics are influenced by a weighted sum of the membrane potential prior history. However, it is not clear to what extent fractional-order dynamics may alter the properties of active excitable cells. In this study, we investigate the spiking properties of the neuronal membrane patch, nerve axon, and neural networks described by the fractional-order Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model. We find that in the membrane patch model, as fractional-order decreases, i.e., a greater influence of membrane potential memory, peak sodium and potassium currents are altered, and spike frequency and amplitude are generally reduced. In the nerve axon, the velocity of spike propagation increases as fractional-order decreases, while in a neural network, electrical activity is more likely to cease for smaller fractional-order. Importantly, we demonstrate that the modulation of the peak ionic currents that occurs for reduced fractional-order alone fails to reproduce many of the key alterations in spiking properties, suggesting that membrane capacitive memory and fractional-order membrane potential dynamics are important and necessary to reproduce neuronal electrical activity. PMID:25970534

  19. Cell Membrane Structure and Function

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    VU Bioengineering RET Program,

    Students learn about the different structures that comprise cell membranes, fulfilling part of the Research and Revise stages of the legacy cycle. They view online animations of cell membrane dynamics (links provided). Then they observe three teacher demonstrations that illustrate diffusion and osmosis concepts, as well as the effect of movement through a semi-permeable membrane using Lugol's solution.

  20. Membrane Compartmentation Is Required for Efficient T Cell Activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramnik Xavier; Todd Brennan; Qingqin Li; Christine McCormack; Brian Seed

    1998-01-01

    The plasma membrane of mammalian cells contains detergent-resistant membrane rafts enriched in glycosphingolipids and cholesterol. Although several important signaling molecules have been found in such rafts, evidence documenting a functional role for their localization has been scarce. Using a fractionation scheme that preserves tyrosine phosphorylation, we show that T cell activation leads to a striking compartmentation in the rafts of

  1. Computing with Cells: Membrane Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oscar H. Ibarra

    2008-01-01

    Summary form only given. Membrane computing, first introduced in 1998 by Gheorghe Paun, is a part of the general research effort of describing and investigating computing models, ideas, architectures, and paradigms from the processes taking place in nature. It is a branch of molecular computing that is motivated by cell biology. Membrane computing identifies an unconventional computing model, namely a

  2. Physical principles of membrane remodelling during cell mechanoadaptation

    PubMed Central

    Kosmalska, Anita Joanna; Casares, Laura; Elosegui-Artola, Alberto; Thottacherry, Joseph Jose; Moreno-Vicente, Roberto; González-Tarragó, Víctor; del Pozo, Miguel Ángel; Mayor, Satyajit; Arroyo, Marino; Navajas, Daniel; Trepat, Xavier; Gauthier, Nils C.; Roca-Cusachs, Pere

    2015-01-01

    Biological processes in any physiological environment involve changes in cell shape, which must be accommodated by their physical envelope—the bilayer membrane. However, the fundamental biophysical principles by which the cell membrane allows for and responds to shape changes remain unclear. Here we show that the 3D remodelling of the membrane in response to a broad diversity of physiological perturbations can be explained by a purely mechanical process. This process is passive, local, almost instantaneous, before any active remodelling and generates different types of membrane invaginations that can repeatedly store and release large fractions of the cell membrane. We further demonstrate that the shape of those invaginations is determined by the minimum elastic and adhesive energy required to store both membrane area and liquid volume at the cell–substrate interface. Once formed, cells reabsorb the invaginations through an active process with duration of the order of minutes. PMID:26073653

  3. Cell membranes: Glycans' imprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves, Jay T.

    2013-02-01

    Networks of glycans template multiphase lipid membranes, either by stabilizing large domains at the characteristic length scale of the network if inhomogeneous, or by suppressing macroscopic phase separation if homogeneous.

  4. THE ASSOCIATION OF ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE AND MEMBRANE IN SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS OF THE ELECTRIC TISSUE OF ELECTROPHORUS

    PubMed Central

    Karlin, Arthur

    1965-01-01

    Subcellular fractions of the electric tissue of the main organ of the eel Electrophorus electricus were prepared in sucrose media by differential centrifugation and differential discontinuous gradient centrifugation. The distributions of acetylcholinesterase, cytochrome oxidase, DNA, and protein were determined. The appearance of the fractions was determined by phase contrast microscopy and by electron microscopy. A fraction prepared by differectial centrifugation at 30,000 g for 20 minutes in 0.89 M sucrose contained 63 per cent of the total acetylcholinesterase activity at 4 times the specific activity of that of the tissue homogenate. A subfraction prepared by centrifugation in a discontinuous density gradient showed a peak of total and relative specific acetylcholinesterase activity of 35 per cent and 1.9, respectively. The average over-all purification was 7 times. The acetylcholinesterase peak was below the cytochrome oxidase peak and above the DNA peak in the density gradient. The presence of acetylcholinesterase in the fractions was correlated with the presence of large fragments of the cell membrane; however, the presence of other tissue components was noted. The acetylcholinesterase associated with membrane was found to be activated by incubation with sodium deoxycholate. The possible use of the peak fraction containing membranes rich in acetylcholinesterase for the investigation of other components of the acetylcholine system and of other properties of the membrane is discussed. PMID:19866659

  5. Dielectric breakdown of cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, U; Pilwat, G; Riemann, F

    1974-11-01

    With human and bovine red blood cells and Escherichia coli B, dielectric breakdown of cell membranes could be demonstrated using a Coulter Counter (AEG-Telefunken, Ulm, West Germany) with a hydrodynamic focusing orifice. In making measurements of the size distributions of red blood cells and bacteria versus increasing electric field strength and plotting the pulse heights versus the electric field strength, a sharp bend in the otherwise linear curve is observed due to the dielectric breakdown of the membranes. Solution of Laplace's equation for the electric field generated yields a value of about 1.6 V for the membrane potential at which dielectric breakdown occurs with modal volumes of red blood cells and bacteria. The same value is also calculated for red blood cells by applying the capacitor spring model of Crowley (1973. Biophys. J. 13:711). The corresponding electric field strength generated in the membrane at breakdown is of the order of 4 . 10(6) V/cm and, therefore, comparable with the breakdown voltages for bilayers of most oils. The critical detector voltage for breakdown depends on the volume of the cells. The volume-dependence predicted by Laplace theory with the assumption that the potential generated across the membrane is independent of volume, could be verified experimentally. Due to dielectric breakdown the red blood cells lose hemoglobin completely. This phenomenon was used to study dielectric breakdown of red blood cells in a homogeneous electric field between two flat platinum electrodes. The electric field was applied by discharging a high voltage storage capacitor via a spark gap. The calculated value of the membrane potential generated to produce dielectric breakdown in the homogeneous field is of the same order as found by means of the Coulter Counter. This indicates that mechanical rupture of the red blood cells by the hydrodynamic forces in the orifice of the Coulter Counter could also be excluded as a hemolysing mechanism. The detector voltage (or the electric field strength in the orifice) depends on the membrane composition (or the intrinsic membrane potential) as revealed by measuring the critical voltage in E. coli B harvested from the logarithmic and stationary growth phases. The critical detector voltage increased by about 30% for a given volume on reaching the stationary growth phase. PMID:4611517

  6. The Cell Membrane and Nanotechnology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Liang, Barbara

    This activity is from the Wisconsin Online Resource Center, which is a digital library of web-based learning objects. Barbara Liang created this resource, and it examines nanotechnology applications that are based on cell membrane structure and function. The brief activity contains animated illustrations and interactives that help students grasp nanotechnology concepts.

  7. MEMBRANE ELECTROMECHANICS AT HAIR-CELL SYNAPSES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. BROWNELL; B. FARRELL; R. M. RAPHAEL

    Both outer hair cell electromotility and neurotransmission at the inner hair cell synapse are rapid mechanical events that are synchronized to the hair-cell receptor potential. We analyze whether the forces and potentials resulting from membrane flexoelectricity could affect synaptic vesicle fusion. The results suggest that the coupling of membrane curvature with membrane potential is of sufficient magnitude to influence neurotransmitter

  8. In Vitro Enzymatic Reduction Kinetics of Mineral Oxides by Membrane Fractions from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Ruebush,S.; Icopini, G.; Brantley, S.; Tien, M.

    2006-01-01

    This study documents the first example of in vitro solid-phase mineral oxide reduction by enzyme-containing membrane fractions. Previous in vitro studies have only reported the reduction of aqueous ions. Total membrane (TM) fractions from iron-grown cultures of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 were isolated and shown to catalyze the reduction of goethite, hematite, birnessite, and ramsdellite/pyrolusite using formate. In contrast, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and succinate cannot function as electron donors. The significant implications of observations related to this cell-free system are: (i) both iron and manganese mineral oxides are reduced by the TM fraction, but aqueous U(VI) is not; (ii) TM fractions from anaerobically grown, but not aerobically grown, cells can reduce the mineral oxides; (iii) electron shuttles and iron chelators are not needed for this in vitro reduction, documenting conclusively that reduction can occur by direct contact with the mineral oxide; (iv) electron shuttles and EDTA stimulate the in vitro Fe(III) reduction, documenting that exogenous molecules can enhance rates of enzymatic mineral reduction; and (v) multiple membrane components are involved in solid-phase oxide reduction. The membrane fractions, consisting of liposomes of cytoplasmic and outer membrane segments, contain at least 100 proteins including the enzyme that oxidizes formate, formate dehydrogenase. Mineral oxide reduction was inhibited by the addition of detergent Triton X-100, which solubilizes membranes and their associated proteins, consistent with the involvement of multiple electron carriers that are disrupted by detergent addition. In contrast, formate dehydrogenase activity was not inhibited by Triton X-100. The addition of anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) and menaquinone-4 was unable to restore activity; however, menadione (MD) restored 33% of the activity. The addition of AQDS and MD to reactions without added detergent increased the rate of goethite reduction. The Michaelis-Menten K{sub m} values of 71 {+-} 22 m{sup 2}/L for hematite and 50 {+-} 16 m{sup 2}/L for goethite were calculated as a function of surface area of the two insoluble minerals. V{sub max} was determined to be 123 {+-} 14 and 156 {+-} 13 nmol Fe(II)/min/mg of TM protein for hematite and goethite, respectively. These values are consistent with in vivo rates of reduction reported in the literature. These observations are consistent with our conclusion that the enzymatic reduction of mineral oxides is an effective probe that will allow elucidation of molecular chemistry of the membrane-mineral interface where electron transfer occurs.

  9. Accumulation and drainage of hemin in the red cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Shaklai, N; Shviro, Y; Rabizadeh, E; Kirschner-Zilber, I

    1985-12-01

    The subject of hemin intercalation in red cell membranes and the correlation of the accumulated hemin level with the membrane pathology was studied. Methods which made use of dioxan and octan-2-ol mixtures to quantitate small amounts of hemin in membranes were developed. Applying these methods, hemin levels were measured in the cytoskeleton and the remaining lipid core of various red cell membranes. The amount of hemin, in both membrane fractions, was higher in pathological cells of sickle cell anemia and beta-thalassemia as compared to normal circulating cells. Correlation exists between the amount of the membrane-accumulated hemin and the severity of the disease. The level of hemin in the membrane was found to be age dependent, old cells in circulation accumulating more hemin than young cells. The level of hemin in all cells tested was much lower than the amount found previously to cause immediate hemolysis when applied externally (Kirschner-Zilber, I., Rabizadeh, E. and Shaklai, N. (1982) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 690, 20-30). This was explained by the differences between the process leading to immediate lysis and membrane changes recognized as pathological by the in-vivo sequestration mechanism. In search of a physiological mechanism which may drain the cell membrane from the hazardeous hemin, albumin, the main serum protein, was found capable of serving as an efficient agent for extracting hemin trapped in red cell membranes. It is suggested that under normal conditions albumin extracts enough hemin to leave the erythrocyte with unharmful hemin amounts, however, under pathological conditions greater amounts accumulate leading to a shorter cell life span. PMID:4063370

  10. Fuel-Cell Structure Prevents Membrane Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, J.

    1986-01-01

    Embossed plates direct flows of reactants and coolant. Membrane-type fuel-cell battery has improved reactant flow and heat removal. Compact, lightweight battery produces high current and power without drying of membranes.

  11. Polarized sorting of rhodopsin on post-Golgi membranes in frog retinal photoreceptor cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dusanka Deretic; David S. Papermaster

    1991-01-01

    We have isolated a subcellular fraction of small vesicles (mean diameter, 300 nm) from frog photoreceptors, that accumulate newly synthesized rhodopsin with kinetics paralleling its appearance in post-Golgi membranes in vivo. This fraction is sepa- rated from other subcellular organelles including Golgi and plasma membranes and synaptic vesicles that are sorted to the opposite end of the photoreceptor cell. The

  12. The Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page is an introduction to the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. It uses flash animation to explain in greater detail what the PEM fuel cell consists of and how it works. The website has an introductory animation which is followed by more in depth description of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell.

  13. Fuel cell battery with improved membrane cooling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mc Elroy

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a fuel cell battery comprising at least two adjoining fuel cells of the type including a membrane having anodes and cathodes in intimate electrical contact: (a) means to supply fuel and oxygen gases to the anode and cathode electrode of each cell, (b) means to maintain the anode side of the membrane cooler than the cathode side,

  14. Antioxidant supplementation in vitro improves boar sperm motility and mitochondrial membrane potential after cryopreservation of different fractions of the ejaculate.

    PubMed

    Peña, F J; Johannisson, A; Wallgren, M; Rodriguez Martinez, H

    2003-09-15

    Antioxidant supplementation during cooling was assayed to improve the motility of frozen-thawed (FT) boar spermatozoa from two different fractions of the ejaculate, the first component of the sperm-rich fraction (Fraction I) and the rest of the bulk ejaculate (Fraction II). Using a split-sample design, addition of two different concentrations (100 and 200 microMl(-1)) of the water-soluble Vitamin E analogue Trolox (6-hydroxy -2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman -2-carboxylic acid) was evaluated for an effect on sperm motility (measured both subjectively and by means of a computer assisted motility assessment (CASA)), and on mitochondrial membrane potential using flow cytometry after cell-loading with JC-1. The effect of the Vitamin E analogue was clearly dose-dependent and varied with the fraction of the ejaculate considered. Motility was significantly higher in Trolox-treated spermatozoa (200 microm), from either ejaculate fraction, albeit the effect was more evident in spermatozoa from Fraction II (P<0.05) for any Trolox-concentration. Antioxidant supplementation resulted, also dose-dependent, in a higher number of spermatozoa showing high mitochondrial activity as assessed by the JC-1 staining, in both ejaculate fractions. In the present trial, exogenous Trolox positively affected post-thaw sperm viability (as motility and mitochondrial membrane potential) in both fractions of the ejaculate. The magnitude of the effect appeared, however, to be dependent of the fraction of the ejaculate considered. PMID:12753785

  15. Anion permselective membrane. [For redox fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Alexander; R. B. Hodgdon

    1978-01-01

    Experimental anion permeselective membranes were improved and characterized for use as separators in a chemical redox, power storage cell being developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The goal of minimal Fe\\/sup +3\\/ ion transfer was achieved for each candidate membrane system. Minimal membrane resistivity was demonstrated by reduction of film thickness using synthetic backing materials but usefulness of thin

  16. The Malignant Cell and Its Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Leonard

    1974-01-01

    In this brief review the hypothesis that altered membrane proteins and glycoproteins may be critical mediators of malignant expression is discussed. Examples of alterations of membrane proteins in malignancy are presented. Data is summarized showing changes in the carbohydrate components of glycoproteins of surface and internal membranes of malignant cells in culture as compared to their normal counterparts. PMID:4374888

  17. Resistance of cell membranes to different detergents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian Schuck; Masanori Honsho; Kim Ekroos; Andrej Shevchenko; Kai Simons

    2003-01-01

    Partial resistance of cell membranes to solubilization with mild detergents and the analysis of isolated detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) have been used operationally to define membrane domains. Given the multitude of detergents used for this purpose, we sought to investigate whether extraction with different detergents might reflect the same underlying principle of domain formation. We therefore compared the protein and lipid

  18. Isolation of a hemidesmosome-rich fraction from a human squamous cell carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Hirako, Yoshiaki; Yonemoto, Yuki; Yamauchi, Tomoe; Nishizawa, Yuji; Kawamoto, Yoshiyuki; Owaribe, Katsushi

    2014-06-10

    Hemidesmosomes are cell-to-matrix adhesion complexes anchoring keratinocytes to basement membranes. For the first time, we present a method to prepare a fraction from human cultured cells that are highly enriched in hemidesmosomal proteins. Using DJM-1 cells derived from human squamous cell carcinoma, accumulation of hemidesmosomes was observed when these cells were cultured for more than 10 days in a commercial serum-free medium without supplemental calcium. Electron microscopy demonstrated that numerous electron-dense adhesion structures were present along the basal cell membranes of DJM-1 cells cultured under the aforementioned conditions. After removing cellular materials using an ammonia solution, hemidesmosomal proteins and deposited extracellular matrix were collected and separated by electrophoresis. There were eight major polypeptides, which were determined to be plectin, BP230, BP180, integrin ?6 and ?4 subunits, and laminin-332 by immunoblotting and mass spectrometry. Therefore, we designated this preparation as a hemidesmosome-rich fraction. This fraction contained laminin-332 exclusively in its unprocessed form, which may account for the promotion of laminin deposition, and minimal amounts of Lutheran blood group protein, a nonhemidesmosomal transmembrane protein. This hemidesmosome-rich fraction would be useful not only for biological research on hemidesmosomes but also for developing a serum test for patients with blistering skin diseases. PMID:24726610

  19. Membrane glycoproteins of differentiating skeletal muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, K.R.; Remy, C.N.; Smith, P.B.

    1987-05-01

    The composition of N-linked glycoprotein oligosaccharides was studied in myoblasts and myotubes of the C2 muscle cell line. Oligosaccharides were radioactively labelled for 15 hr with (TH) mannose and plasma membranes isolated. Ten glycopeptides were detected by SDS-PAGE and fluorography. The extent of labelling was 4-6 fold greater in myoblasts vs myotubes. A glycopeptide of Mr > 100,000 was found exclusively in myoblast membranes. Lectin chromatography revealed that the proportion of tri-, tetranntenary, biantennary and high mannose chains was similar throughout differentiation. The high mannose chain fraction was devoid of hybrid chains. The major high mannose chain contained nine mannose residues. The higher level of glycopeptide labelling in myoblasts vs myotubes corresponded to a 5-fold greater rate of protein synthesis. Pulse-chase experiments were used to follow the synthesis of the Dol-oligosaccharides. Myoblasts and myotubes labelled equivalently the glucosylated tetradecasaccharide but myoblasts labelled the smaller intermediates 3-4 greater than myotubes. Myoblasts also exhibited a 2-3 fold higher Dol-P dependent glycosyl transferase activity for chain elongation and Dol-sugar synthesis. Together these results show that the degree of protein synthesis and level of Dol-P are contributing factors in the higher capacity of myoblasts to produce N-glycoproteins compared to myotubes.

  20. Determination of protein mobility in mitochondrial membranes of living cells.

    PubMed

    Sukhorukov, Valerii M; Dikov, Daniel; Busch, Karin; Strecker, Valentina; Wittig, Ilka; Bereiter-Hahn, Jürgen

    2010-11-01

    Molecular mobility in membranes of intracellular organelles is poorly understood, due to the lack of experimental tools applicable for a great diversity of shapes and sizes such organelles can acquire. Determinations of diffusion within the plasma membrane or cytosol are based mostly on the assumption of an infinite flat space, not valid for curved membranes of smaller organelles. Here we extend the application of FRAP to mitochondria of living cells by application of numerical analysis to data collected from a small region inside a single organelle. The spatiotemporal pattern of light pulses generated by the laser scanning microscope during the measurement is reconstructed in silico and consequently the values of diffusion parameters best suited to the particular organelle are found. The mobility of the outer membrane proteins hFis and Tom7, as well as oxidative phosphorylation complexes COX and F(1)F(0) ATPase located in the inner membrane is analyzed in detail. Several alternative models of diffusivity applied to these proteins provide insight into the mechanisms determining the rate of motion in each of the membranes. Tom7 and hFis move along the mitochondrial axis in the outer membrane with similar diffusion coefficients (D=0.7?m(2)/s and 0.6?m(2)/s respectively) and equal immobile fraction (7%). The notably slower motion of the inner membrane proteins is best represented by a dual-component model with approximately equal partitioning of the fractions (F(1)F(0) ATPase: 0.4?m(2)/s and 0.0005?m(2)/s; COX: 0.3?m(2)/s and 0.007?m(2)/s). The mobility patterns specific for the membranes of this organelle are unambiguously distinguishable from those of the plasma membrane or artificial lipid environments: The parameters of mitochondrial proteins indicate a distinct set of factors responsible for their diffusion characteristics. PMID:20655870

  1. Cytosolic phospholipase A2-alpha associates with plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear membrane in glomerular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Takano, T; Papillon, J; Khadir, A; Cybulsky, A V

    2001-01-01

    Eicosanoids mediate complement-dependent glomerular epithelial injury in experimental membranous nephropathy. The release of arachidonic acid from phospholipids by cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) is the rate-limiting step in eicosanoid synthesis. The present study examines the association of cPLA(2) with membranes of organelles. Glomerular epithelial cells were disrupted by homogenization in Ca(2+)-free buffer; organelles were separated by gradient centrifugation. The distribution of cPLA(2) and organelles was analysed by immunoblotting with antibodies against cPLA(2) and organelle markers, or by enzyme assay. In cells incubated with or without the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin plus PMA, cPLA(2) co-localized with plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum and nuclei, but not with mitochondria or Golgi. A greater amount of cPLA(2) was associated with membranes in stimulated cells, but membrane-associated cPLA(2) was readily detectable under resting conditions. The pattern of association of cPLA(2) with membrane in cells treated with antibody and complement was similar to that in cells stimulated with ionomycin plus PMA; however, complement did not enhance the membrane association of cPLA(2) protein. To determine the functional role of membrane association of cPLA(2), phospholipids were labelled with [(3)H]arachidonic acid. Cells were then incubated with or without antibody and complement and were fractionated. Complement induced a loss of radioactivity from the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum and nuclei, but not from the mitochondrial fraction. Thus the release of arachidonic acid by cPLA(2) is due to the hydrolysis of phospholipids at multiple subcellular membrane sites, including the endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane and nucleus. PMID:11115401

  2. Red cell membrane: past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of natural selection driven by severe forms of malaria, 1 in 6 humans in the world, more than 1 billion people, are affected by red cell abnormalities, making them the most common of the inherited disorders. The non-nucleated red cell is unique among human cell type in that the plasma membrane, its only structural component, accounts for all of its diverse antigenic, transport, and mechanical characteristics. Our current concept of the red cell membrane envisions it as a composite structure in which a membrane envelope composed of cholesterol and phospholipids is secured to an elastic network of skeletal proteins via transmembrane proteins. Structural and functional characterization of the many constituents of the red cell membrane, in conjunction with biophysical and physiologic studies, has led to detailed description of the way in which the remarkable mechanical properties and other important characteristics of the red cells arise, and of the manner in which they fail in disease states. Current studies in this very active and exciting field are continuing to produce new and unexpected revelations on the function of the red cell membrane and thus of the cell in health and disease, and shed new light on membrane function in other diverse cell types. PMID:18988878

  3. Engineering supported membranes for cell biology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng-han Yu; Jay T. Groves

    2010-01-01

    Cell membranes exhibit multiple layers of complexity, ranging from their specific molecular content to their emergent mechanical\\u000a properties and dynamic spatial organization. Both compositional and geometrical organizations of membrane components are known\\u000a to play important roles in life processes, including signal transduction. Supported membranes, comprised of a bilayer assembly\\u000a of phospholipids on the solid substrate, have been productively served as

  4. Proton Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven J. Hamrock; Michael A. Yandrasits

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the key requirements for the proton exchange membranes (PEM) used in fuel cell applications, along with a description of the membrane materials currently being used and their ability to meet these requirements. Also discussed are some of the new materials, technologies, and research directions being pursued to try to meet the demanding performance and

  5. SURFACE ACTIVITY OF LIGNIN FRACTIONS OBTAINED BY MEMBRANE-SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES OF INDUSTRIAL BLACK LIQUORS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victoria Padilla; Maria G. Rangel; Johnny Bullon; Antonio Rodríguez-Malaver; Aura M. Gonzalez; Orlando J. Rojas

    In this investigations it is demonstrated the ability of industrial black liquor -obtained after alkaline digestion of tropical woods- and the fractions obtained by membrane separation thereafter, as stabilizer of liquid-liquid and solid-liquid interfaces. Alkali-lignin fractions of different molecular sizes were obtained by ultrafiltration by employing polymer-based membranes having molecular weight cut off (MWCO) 100 000; 10 000; 5 000

  6. Detection of Molecular Charges at Cell Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Toshiya; Miyahara, Yuji

    2008-01-01

    Molecular charges at the cell membrane have been successfully detected using cell-based field-effect devices. Mouse fibroblast cells were adhered to the Si3N4 gate surface of the field-effect devices. The negative charges of sialic acid at the surface of the cell membrane could be detected as a shift of the flatband voltage of the field-effect devices. Quantitative analysis of molecular charges at the cell membrane could be demonstrated in relation to the number of adhered cells on the Si3N4 gate surface. The platform based on the field-effect devices is suitable for a simple, accurate and non-invasive system for cell functional analysis.

  7. Proteomic analysis of the cell-surface membrane in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: identification of two novel proteins, BCNP1 and MIG2B

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R S Boyd; P J Adam; S Patel; J A Loader; J Berry; N T Redpath; H R Poyser; G C Fletcher; N A Burgess; A C Stamps; L Hudson; P Smith; M Griffiths; T G Willis; E L Karran; D G Oscier; D Catovsky; J A Terrett; M J S Dyer

    2003-01-01

    B-cell-specific plasma-membrane proteins are potential targets for either small molecule or antibody-based therapies. We have sought to annotate proteins expressed at the cell surface membrane in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) using plasma-membrane-based proteomic analysis to identify previously uncharacterized and potentially B-cell-specific proteins. Proteins from plasma-membrane fractions were separated on one-dimensional gels and trypsinized fractions subjected to high-throughput MALDI-TOF

  8. Alternate Fuel Cell Membranes for Energy Independence

    SciTech Connect

    Storey, Robson, F.; Mauritz, Kenneth, A.; Patton, Derek, L.; Savin, Daniel, A.

    2012-12-18

    The overall objective of this project was the development and evaluation of novel hydrocarbon fuel cell (FC) membranes that possess high temperature performance and long term chemical/mechanical durability in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells (FC). The major research theme was synthesis of aromatic hydrocarbon polymers of the poly(arylene ether sulfone) (PAES) type containing sulfonic acid groups tethered to the backbone via perfluorinated alkylene linkages and in some cases also directly attached to the phenylene groups along the backbone. Other research themes were the use of nitrogen-based heterocyclics instead of acid groups for proton conduction, which provides high temperature, low relative humidity membranes with high mechanical/thermal/chemical stability and pendant moieties that exhibit high proton conductivities in the absence of water, and synthesis of block copolymers consisting of a proton conducting block coupled to poly(perfluorinated propylene oxide) (PFPO) blocks. Accomplishments of the project were as follows: 1) establishment of a vertically integrated program of synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of FC membranes, 2) establishment of benchmark membrane performance data based on Nafion for comparison to experimental membrane performance, 3) development of a new perfluoroalkyl sulfonate monomer, N,N-diisopropylethylammonium 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl) pentafluoropropanesulfonate (HPPS), 4) synthesis of random and block copolymer membranes from HPPS, 5) synthesis of block copolymer membranes containing high-acid-concentration hydrophilic blocks consisting of HPPS and 3,3'-disulfonate-4,4'-dichlorodiphenylsulfone (sDCDPS), 6) development of synthetic routes to aromatic polymer backbones containing pendent 1H-1,2,3-triazole moieties, 7) development of coupling strategies to create phase-separated block copolymers between hydrophilic sulfonated prepolymers and commodity polymers such as PFPO, 8) establishment of basic performance properties of experimental membranes, 9) fabrication and FC performance testing of membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) from experimental membranes, and 10) measurement of ex situ and in situ membrane durability of experimental membranes. Although none of the experimental hydrocarbon membranes that issued from the project displayed proton conductivities that met DOE requirements, the project contributed to our basic understanding of membrane structure-property relationships in a number of key respects. An important finding of the benchmark studies is that physical degradation associated with humidity and temperature variations in the FC tend to open new fuel crossover pathways and act synergistically with chemical degradation to accelerate overall membrane degradation. Thus, for long term membrane survival and efficient fuel utilization, membranes must withstand internal stresses due to humidity and temperature changes. In this respect, rigid aromatic hydrocarbon fuel cell membranes, e.g. PAES, offer an advantage over un-modified Nafion membranes. The benchmark studies also showed that broadband dielectric spectroscopy is a potentially powerful tool in assessing shifts in the fundamental macromolecular dynamics caused by Nafion chemical degradation, and thus, this technique is of relevance in interrogating proton exchange membrane durability in fuel cells and macromolecular dynamics as coupled to proton migration, which is of fundamental relevance in proton exchange membranes in fuel cells. A key finding from the hydrocarbon membrane synthesis effort was that rigid aromatic polymers containing isolated ion exchange groups tethered tightly to the backbone (short tether), such as HPPS, provide excellent mechanical and durability properties but do not provide sufficient conductivity, in either random or block configuration, when used as the sole ion exchange monomer. However, we continue to hypothesize that longer tethers, and tethered groups spaced more closely within the hydrophilic chain elements of the polymer, will yield highly conductive materials with excellent mech

  9. The Isolation and Partial Characterization of a Membrane Fraction Containing Phytochrome 12

    PubMed Central

    Marmé, Dieter; Mackenzie, John M.; Boisard, Jean; Briggs, Winslow R.

    1974-01-01

    If 4-day-old dark-grown zucchini squash seedlings (Cucurbita pepo L. cv. Black Beauty) are exposed briefly to red light, subsequent cell fractionation yields about 40% of the total extractable phytochrome in the far red-absorbing form bound to a particulate fraction. The amount of far red-absorbing phytochrome in the pellet is strongly dependent on the Mg concentration in the extraction medium. The apparent density of the Pfr-containing particles following sedimentation on sucrose gradients corresponds to 15% (w/w) sucrose with 0.1 mm Mg and 40% sucrose with 10 mm Mg. This particulate fraction could be readily separated from mitochondria and other particulate material by taking advantage of these apparent density changes with changes in Mg concentration. Electron microscopy of negatively stained preparations shows that with 1 mm Mg only minute particles are present. These were too small to reveal structural detail with this technique. With 3 mm Mg, separate membranous vesicles between 400 and 600 Ångstroms in diameter appear. At higher Mg concentrations, the vesicles aggregate, causing obvious turbity. The effect of Mg on vesicle formation and aggregation is completely reversible. Above 10 mm Mg, vesicle aggregation persists, but the percentage of bound Pfr decreases. Images PMID:16658871

  10. Photothermal nanoblade for patterned cell membrane cutting

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ting-Hsiang; Teslaa, Tara; Teitell, Michael A.; Chiou, Pei-Yu

    2010-01-01

    We report a photothermal nanoblade that utilizes a metallic nanostructure to harvest short laser pulse energy and convert it into a highly localized and specifically shaped explosive vapor bubble. Rapid bubble expansion and collapse punctures a lightly-contacting cell membrane via high-speed fluidic flows and induced transient shear stress. The membrane cutting pattern is controlled by the metallic nanostructure configuration, laser pulse polarization, and energy. Highly controllable, sub-micron sized circular hole pairs to half moon-like, or cat-door shaped, membrane cuts were realized in glutaraldehyde treated HeLa cells. PMID:21164656

  11. The outer membrane fraction of Flavobacterium psychrophilum induces protective immunity in rainbow trout and ayu

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Habibur Rahman; Akashi Kuroda; Johannes M. Dijkstra; Ikunari Kiryu; Teruyuki Nakanishi; Mitsuru Ototake

    2002-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the causative agent of coldwater disease, which is responsible for serious losses in fish aquaculture in several parts of the world. No commercial vaccines are currently available for the prevention of coldwater disease. The present study sought to assess the efficacy of a F. psychrophilum vaccine based on the antigenic outer membrane fraction (OMF). This fraction induced

  12. Stretching micropatterned cells on a PDMS membrane.

    PubMed

    Carpi, Nicolas; Piel, Matthieu

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical forces exerted on cells and/or tissues play a major role in numerous processes. We have developed a device to stretch cells plated on a PolyDiMethylSiloxane (PDMS) membrane, compatible with imaging. This technique is reproducible and versatile. The PDMS membrane can be micropatterned in order to confine cells or tissues to a specific geometry. The first step is to print micropatterns onto the PDMS membrane with a deep UV technique. The PDMS membrane is then mounted on a mechanical stretcher. A chamber is bound on top of the membrane with biocompatible grease to allow gliding during the stretch. The cells are seeded and allowed to spread for several hours on the micropatterns. The sample can be stretched and unstretched multiple times with the use of a micrometric screw. It takes less than a minute to apply the stretch to its full extent (around 30%). The technique presented here does not include a motorized device, which is necessary for applying repeated stretch cycles quickly and/or computer controlled stretching, but this can be implemented. Stretching of cells or tissue can be of interest for questions related to cell forces, cell response to mechanical stress or tissue morphogenesis. This video presentation will show how to avoid typical problems that might arise when doing this type of seemingly simple experiment. PMID:24514571

  13. Membrane Glycolipids in Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Robert K.; Suzuki, Yusuke; Yanagisawa, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, neural stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and very small embryonic-like stem cells, are undifferentiated cells that are endowed with a high potential for proliferation and the capacity for self-renewal with retention of pluri/multipotency to differentiate into their progenies. Recently, studies regarding the biological functions of glycolipids and cell surface microdomains (caveolae, lipid rafts, or glycolipid-enriched microdomains) in stem cells are emerging. In this review, we introduce the expression patterns of glycolipids and the functional roles of cell surface microdomains in stem cells. PMID:19716368

  14. Fuel cell subassemblies incorporating subgasketed thrifted membranes

    DOEpatents

    Iverson, Eric J; Pierpont, Daniel M; Yandrasits, Michael A; Hamrock, Steven J; Obradovich, Stephan J; Peterson, Donald G

    2014-01-28

    A fuel cell roll good subassembly is described that includes a plurality of individual electrolyte membranes. One or more first subgaskets are attached to the individual electrolyte membranes. Each of the first subgaskets has at least one aperture and the first subgaskets are arranged so the center regions of the individual electrolyte membranes are exposed through the apertures of the first subgaskets. A second subgasket comprises a web having a plurality of apertures. The second subgasket web is attached to the one or more first subgaskets so the center regions of the individual electrolyte membranes are exposed through the apertures of the second subgasket web. The second subgasket web may have little or no adhesive on the subgasket surface facing the electrolyte membrane.

  15. Biofouling characteristics using flow field-flow fractionation: effect of bacteria and membrane properties.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunkyung; Shon, H K; Cho, Jaeweon

    2010-03-01

    In this study, membrane biofouling caused by bacteria that have different characteristics was evaluated using flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF). Three different bacteria which differed from size and shape (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Flavobacterium lutescens) were investigated with GM ultrafiltration (UF, rough with a low negative surface charge and relatively high hydrophobicity) and NE70 nanofiltration (NF, smooth with a high negative surface charge and relatively low hydrophobicity) membranes. The FlFFF retention time of S. epidermidis, E. coli and F. lutescens was highly influenced by the ionic strength of the solution and the surface polarity of the membranes and bacteria. The NF membrane was found to have a higher potential of biofouling than the UF membrane with the bacteria tested in this study. E. coli was the most significant biofoulant among the bacteria tested on both membrane surfaces based on FlFFF retention times compared to other bacteria. PMID:19735999

  16. Membrane potential dynamics of grid cells.

    PubMed

    Domnisoru, Cristina; Kinkhabwala, Amina A; Tank, David W

    2013-03-14

    During navigation, grid cells increase their spike rates in firing fields arranged on a markedly regular triangular lattice, whereas their spike timing is often modulated by theta oscillations. Oscillatory interference models of grid cells predict theta amplitude modulations of membrane potential during firing field traversals, whereas competing attractor network models predict slow depolarizing ramps. Here, using in vivo whole-cell recordings, we tested these models by directly measuring grid cell intracellular potentials in mice running along linear tracks in virtual reality. Grid cells had large and reproducible ramps of membrane potential depolarization that were the characteristic signature tightly correlated with firing fields. Grid cells also demonstrated intracellular theta oscillations that influenced their spike timing. However, the properties of theta amplitude modulations were not consistent with the view that they determine firing field locations. Our results support cellular and network mechanisms in which grid fields are produced by slow ramps, as in attractor models, whereas theta oscillations control spike timing. PMID:23395984

  17. Membrane potential dynamics of grid cells

    PubMed Central

    Domnisoru, Cristina; Kinkhabwala, Amina A.; Tank, David W.

    2014-01-01

    During navigation, grid cells increase their spike rates in firing fields arranged on a strikingly regular triangular lattice, while their spike timing is often modulated by theta oscillations. Oscillatory interference models of grid cells predict theta amplitude modulations of membrane potential during firing field traversals, while competing attractor network models predict slow depolarizing ramps. Here, using in-vivo whole-cell recordings, we tested these models by directly measuring grid cell intracellular potentials in mice running along linear tracks in virtual reality. Grid cells had large and reproducible ramps of membrane potential depolarization that were the characteristic signature tightly correlated with firing fields. Grid cells also exhibited intracellular theta oscillations that influenced their spike timing. However, the properties of theta amplitude modulations were not consistent with the view that they determine firing field locations. Our results support cellular and network mechanisms in which grid fields are produced by slow ramps, as in attractor models, while theta oscillations control spike timing. PMID:23395984

  18. Hereditary spherocytosis, elliptocytosis, and other red cell membrane disorders.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, Lydie; Galimand, Julie; Fenneteau, Odile; Mohandas, Narla

    2013-07-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis and elliptocytosis are the two most common inherited red cell membrane disorders resulting from mutations in genes encoding various red cell membrane and skeletal proteins. Red cell membrane, a composite structure composed of lipid bilayer linked to spectrin-based membrane skeleton is responsible for the unique features of flexibility and mechanical stability of the cell. Defects in various proteins involved in linking the lipid bilayer to membrane skeleton result in loss in membrane cohesion leading to surface area loss and hereditary spherocytosis while defects in proteins involved in lateral interactions of the spectrin-based skeleton lead to decreased mechanical stability, membrane fragmentation and hereditary elliptocytosis. The disease severity is primarily dependent on the extent of membrane surface area loss. Both these diseases can be readily diagnosed by various laboratory approaches that include red blood cell cytology, flow cytometry, ektacytometry, electrophoresis of the red cell membrane proteins, and mutational analysis of gene encoding red cell membrane proteins. PMID:23664421

  19. Cell or Cell Membrane-Based Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Songwei; Wu, Tingting; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    Natural cells have been explored as drug carriers for a long period. They have received growing interest as a promising drug delivery system (DDS) until recently along with the development of biology and medical science. The synthetic materials, either organic or inorganic, are found to be with more or less immunogenicity and/or toxicity. The cells and extracellular vesicles (EVs), are endogenous and thought to be much safer and friendlier. Furthermore, in view of their host attributes, they may achieve different biological effects and/or targeting specificity, which can meet the needs of personalized medicine as the next generation of DDS. In this review, we summarized the recent progress in cell or cell membrane-based DDS and their fabrication processes, unique properties and applications, including the whole cells, EVs and cell membrane coated nanoparticles. We expect the continuing development of this cell or cell membrane-based DDS will promote their clinic applications. PMID:26000058

  20. Proteomic analysis of the sarcosine-insoluble outer membrane fraction of the bacterial pathogen Bartonella henselae.

    PubMed

    Rhomberg, Thomas A; Karlberg, Olof; Mini, Thierry; Zimny-Arndt, Ursula; Wickenberg, Ulrika; Röttgen, Marlene; Jungblut, Peter R; Jenö, Paul; Andersson, Siv G E; Dehio, Christoph

    2004-10-01

    Bartonella henselae is an emerging zoonotic pathogen causing a wide range of disease manifestations in humans. In this study, we report on the analysis of the sarcosine-insoluble outer membrane fraction of B. henselae ATCC 49882 Houston-1 by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1-D SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional nonequilibrium pH gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D NEPHGE). Protein species were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and subsequent database query against the B. henselae genome sequence. Subcellular fractionation, application of the ionic detergent lauryl sarcosine, assessment of trypsin sensitivity, and heat modifiability of surface-exposed proteins represented valuable tools for the analysis of the outer membrane subproteome of B. henselae. 2-D NEPHGE was applied to display and catalogue a substantial number of proteins associated with the B. henselae sarcosine-insoluble outer membrane fraction, resulting in the establishment of a first 2-D reference map of this compartment. Thus, 53 distinct protein species associated with the outer membrane subproteome fraction were identified. This study provides novel insights into the membrane biology and the associated putative virulence factors of this pathogen of increasing medical importance. PMID:15378747

  1. Modification and evaluation of fuel cell membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalawade, Amol Prataprao

    The primary goals of this study were modification of existing NafionRTM membranes and characterization of newly developed hydrocarbon-based membranes for high temperature fuel cell applications. Various NafionRTM/silicate nanocomposites were formulated via in situ sol-gel reactions for tetraethylorthosilicate. Different silicate composition profiles generated across membrane cross-sections were investigated by EDAX/ESEM. Composite water uptake, proton conductivity and fuel cell performance were comparable to that of unmodified Nafion RTM. Tafel analysis showed better electrode kinetics for composites having more silicate in the middle and less or no silicate at electrolyte-electrode interfaces. All composites showed reduced fuel cross-over and superior mechanical as well as chemical durability than unmodified NafionRTM. Poly(cyclohexadiene) (PCHD) materials were characterized in the interest of developing alternative low-cost proton exchange membranes. All cross-linked sulfonated (xsPCHD) membranes showed significantly higher water uptake at 80 °C and higher proton conductivity at 120 °C at all relative humidities (RH), compared to the current benchmark membrane, NafionRTM. A xsPCHD-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) copolymer and a xsPCHD-PEG blend surpassed the DOE target by exhibiting proton conductivities of 141.44 and 322.40 mS/cm, respectively, at 50 % RH. Although the PCHD-based PEMs exhibited thermal stability up to 150 °C, they showed poor mechanical properties which would cause poor membrane durability during fuel cell operation. Atomic force microscopy studies demonstrated nanophase separated morphology of xsPCHD having a higher degree of connectedness of hydrophilic domains in the copolymer and blends relative to the xsPCHD homopolymer. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) was used to study sub-Tg relaxations in annealed poly(2,5-benzimidazole) (ABPBI) fuel cell precursor materials. A trend in degree of connectivity of charge migration pathways and conductivity with annealing temperature and time was uncovered. Solid state 1H and 13C NMR studies showed hydrogen bonding group mobility while wide angle X-ray diffraction investigations indicated an increase in chain packing efficiency vs. temperature. BDS studies also investigated the effect of acid doping on poly(benzimidazole) (PBI) membrane macromolecular dynamics and sigmadc conductivity, sdc. High epsilon' values observed for acid doped samples in the low frequency regime could be due to membrane-electrode interfacial polarization. Distribution of relaxation time curves broadened while sigmadc increased with increase in acid doping level in the PBI membrane.

  2. Fractionation of thylakoid membranes from Porphyridium purpureum using the detergent N-lauryl-?-iminodipropionate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiirgen Marquardt; August Ried

    1992-01-01

    Two green fractions, thought to represent the chlorophyll-antennae of photosystems I (PSI) and II (PSII), were isolated from the red alga Porphyridium purpureum by solubilisation of the thylakoid membranes using the detergent N-lauryl-ß-iminodipropionate and subsequent sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation. No release of pigments from the pigment-protein complexes was detected during isolation. The fractions were analyzed with respect to their chlorophyll-protein pattern, spectral

  3. Synthesis of cell wall xylans and glucans by golgi membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Gibeaut, D.M.; Carpita, N.C. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (USA))

    1989-04-01

    We investigated the biosynthesis of mixed-linkage {beta}-D-glucan and glucuronoarabinoxylans which make up the hemicellulosic matrix of the primary cell walls of maize and other cereal grasses. The Golgi apparatus was enriched from plasma membrane and other organelles by flotation density gradient centrifugation. Glucan synthase I and II, which are established markers for Golgi and plasma membrane, respectively, displayed considerable overlap in conventional separations with sucrose density gradients. Flotation gradients improved separation of the membranes substantially, but the different synthases themselves also incorporated radioactivity from either 10 {mu}M or 1 mM UDP-({sup 14}C)-glucose into polymer. Relative incorporation of radioactivity into polymers from UDP-({sup 14}C)-xylose by the various membrane fractions was nearly identical to relative IDPase activities, indicating that combined xylosyl transferase-xylan synthase represents a new, unequivocal marker for the Golgi apparatus. We also have developed techniques of gas-liquid chromatography and radiogas proportional counting to achieve capillary quality separation of partially methylated alditol acetates with simultaneous determination of radioactivity in the derivatives. Digestion of polymeric products by specific endo-glycanohydrolases to diagnostic oligosaccharides also reveal specific kinds of polysaccharides synthesized by the Golgi membranes. A combination of these techniques provides unequivocal determination of the linkage structure of specific polymers synthesized by the purified Golgi apparatus.

  4. Ion Transport Through Cell Membrane Channels Jan Gomulkiewicz1

    E-print Network

    Miekisz, Jacek

    and an electric voltage of the membrane (in electrophysiology and biophysics it is called the membrane potential1 Ion Transport Through Cell Membrane Channels Jan Gomulkiewicz1 , Jacek Mikisz2 , and Stanislaw various models of ion transport through cell membrane channels. Recent experimental data shows that sizes

  5. [Interaction of surface-active base with fraction of membrane-bound Williams's protons].

    PubMed

    Iaguzhinski?, L S; Motovilov, K A; Volkov, E M; Eremeev, S A

    2013-01-01

    In the process of mitochondrial respiratory H(+)-pumps functioning, the fraction membrane-bound protons (R-protons), which have an excess of free energy is formed. According to R.J. Williams this fraction is included as energy source in the reaction of ATP synthesis. Previously, in our laboratory was found the formation of this fraction was found in the mitochondria and on the outer surface of mitoplast. On the mitoslast model we strictly shown that non-equilibrium R-proton fraction is localized on the surface of the inner mitochondrial membrane. In this paper a surface-active compound--anion of 2,4,6-trichloro-3-pentadecylphenol (TCP-C15) is described, which selectively interacts with the R-protons fraction in mitochondria. A detailed description of the specific interaction of the TCP-C15 with R-protons fraction in mitochondria is presented. Moreover, in this work it was found that phosphate transport system reacts with the R-protons fraction in mitochondria and plays the role of the endogenous volume regulation system of this fraction. The results of experiments are discussed in the terms of a local coupling model of the phosphorylation mechanism. PMID:23650862

  6. Membrane electrode assembly for a fuel cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prakash, Surya (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Atti, Anthony (Inventor); Olah, George (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A catalyst ink for a fuel cell including a catalytic material and poly(vinylidene fluoride). The ink may be applied to a substrate to form an electrode, or bonded with other electrode layers to form a membrane electrode assembly (MEA).

  7. Chemical compositions and antiproliferation activities of the chloroform fraction from Pyropolyporus fomentarius in K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Wang, P; Xiao, Y; Wang, X; Yang, S; Liu, Q

    2015-07-01

    Pyropolyporus fomentarius, a fungus of the polyporaceae family, has been used in the treatment of various diseases, such as gastroenteric disorder, hepatocirrhosis, oral ulcer, inflammation, and several cancers. This study was conducted to investigate the compositions and cell growth inhibition effects of P. fomentarius chloroform (CHCl3) fraction and to clarify the possible mechanisms. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was performed to investigate the composition of the P. fomentarius CHCl3 fraction. Cell viability was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Cell membrane damage was evaluated with a scanning electron microscope and flow cytometry following propidium iodide and bis-(1,3-dibarbituric acid)-trimethine oxanol staining. Apoptosis was analyzed using annexin V-PE/7-amino-actinomycin D (7-AAD) staining. Generation of intracellular calcium ion (Ca(2+)), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and changes of mitochondrial membrane potential (?? m) were detected by flow cytometry using fluo 3-acetoxymethyl ester, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin-diacetate, and rhodamine 123. Our obtained data indicate that P. fomentarius CHCl3 fraction could inhibit proliferation of K562 cells depending on both the dosage and the incubation time, cause cell membrane damage, influence intracellular [Ca(2+)]i variation, promote the yield of ROS, decrease the level of ?? m, and initiate the apoptotic response in K562 cells. PMID:25403175

  8. Numerical study of a hybrid membrane cell with semi and fully permeable membrane sub-sections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Miranda; J. B. L. M. Campos

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid membrane cells with up to 128 sections, each one comprising a fully and a semi-permeable membrane sub-section and, the limit case of a cell with an infinite number of membrane sections were studied by numerical methods. These hybrid cells separate a feed stream into two parts: a solvent stream which crosses the semi-permeable membranes and a concentrate stream which

  9. Sputter-deposited fuel cell membranes and electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Ruiz, Ron P. (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method for preparing a membrane for use in a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly includes the steps of providing an electrolyte membrane, and sputter-depositing a catalyst onto the electrolyte membrane. The sputter-deposited catalyst may be applied to multiple sides of the electrolyte membrane. A method for forming an electrode for use in a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly includes the steps of obtaining a catalyst, obtaining a backing, and sputter-depositing the catalyst onto the backing. The membranes and electrodes are useful for assembling fuel cells that include an anode electrode, a cathode electrode, a fuel supply, and an electrolyte membrane, wherein the electrolyte membrane includes a sputter-deposited catalyst, and the sputter-deposited catalyst is effective for sustaining a voltage across a membrane electrode assembly in the fuel cell.

  10. Collective charge excitations along cell membranes

    E-print Network

    Efstratios Manousakis

    2004-11-18

    A significant part of the thin layers of counter-ions adjacent to the exterior and interior surfaces of a cell membrane form quasi-two-dimensional (2D) layers of mobile charge. Collective charge density oscillations, known as plasmon modes, in these 2D charged systems of counter-ions are predicted in the present paper. This is based on a calculation of the self-consistent response of this system to a fast electric field fluctuation. The possibility that the membrane channels might be using these excitations to carry out fast communication is suggested and experiments are proposed to reveal the existence of such excitations.

  11. Characterization of the size-fractionated biomacromolecules: tracking their role and fate in a membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fangang; Zhou, Zhongbo; Ni, Bing-Jie; Zheng, Xing; Huang, Guocheng; Jia, Xiaoshan; Li, Shiyu; Xiong, Ya; Kraume, Matthias

    2011-10-01

    This article presents a study aimed at the fractionation and characterization of what is thought to be one of the most complex organic mixtures produced by activated sludge: biomacromolecules (BMM). Photometric quantification combined with excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements were used to characterize BMM in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) from a chemical perspective. Overall, the BMM in sludge supernatant were mainly present in three fractions: colloidal BMM (BMMc, >0.45 ?m), biopolymeric BMM (BMMb, 0.45 ?m-100 kDa) and low molecular weight (MW) fraction (<5 kDa). The analysis of fluorescence regional integration (FRI) showed that the organics in membrane permeate and those in the low-MW fraction of sludge supernatant were of similar chemical composition. The characterization by NMR suggested that the BMMc fraction had similar carbon content of proteins and polysaccharides. In contrast, the BMMb and the low-MW BMM were proved to be carbonaceous and aromatics, respectively. Moreover, because of the high MW and gelling property, polysaccharides were found to have a high potential to accumulate on the membranes. In addition, the lipids present in the BMMb of the sludge supernatant were demonstrated to be another important foulant due to their large size. Our results also indicated that aromatic proteins had a higher fouling propensity than tryptophan proteins though they were of similar size nature. This work could be useful for better understanding of the chemical nature of BMMs in MBRs. PMID:21757216

  12. Isolation of plasma membrane from protoplasts of Lolium multiflorum (ryegrass) endosperm cells.

    PubMed Central

    Schibeci, A; Fincher, G B; Stone, B A; Wardrop, A B

    1982-01-01

    Plasma membranes have been isolated from protoplasts of suspension-cultured ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) endosperm cells. The protoplast membrane is coated before cell disruption with murine myeloma protein J539, a galactose-binding immunoglobulin A. The plasma membrane is labelled with 125I by using chemically or enzymically catalysed iodination techniques, or, more conveniently, by using 125I-labelled myeloma protein J539, which enables the membrane to be simultaneously coated and labelled. Protoplast lysis is effected by gentle mechanical means after swelling in hypo-osmotic medium. The plasma-membrane fraction is recovered at low centrifugal forces by fractionation of cell lysates on a discontinuous sucrose/sorbitol gradient. The plasma-membrane fraction is enriched 96-fold on a protein basis with respect to the specific radioactivity of 125I-labeled myeloma protein J539 in the homogenate. Electron microscopy showed long membrane profiles often associated with one another. Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PLATE 3 PMID:7150229

  13. The native membrane fusion machinery in cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, E H; Webster, P; Khuong, C Q; Abdus Sattar, A K; Satchi, M; Jena, B P

    1998-01-01

    Recombinant SNAREs have been demonstrated as the minimal membrane fusion machinery. The participation of additional proteins in the regulation of membrane fusion has been suggested. In this study we provide nanometer-resolution images of native NSF oligomers and SNARE complexes isolated from neurons and the pancreas. Our study reveals the presence of new coiled rod-like structures in association with the SNARE complex only in neuronal tissue. Neuronal SNAREs were found coiled and super-coiled with these structures. The existence of NSF as pentamers in its native state is also demonstrated. The extent of coiling and super-coiling of SNAREs may regulate the potency and efficacy of membrane fusion in cells. PMID:10452836

  14. Activation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in cancer cells by Cymbopogon citratus polysaccharide fractions.

    PubMed

    Thangam, Ramar; Sathuvan, Malairaj; Poongodi, Arasu; Suresh, Veeraperumal; Pazhanichamy, Kalailingam; Sivasubramanian, Srinivasan; Kanipandian, Nagarajan; Ganesan, Nalini; Rengasamy, Ramasamy; Thirumurugan, Ramasamy; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2014-07-17

    Essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus were already reported to have wide ranging medical and industrial applications. However, information on polysaccharides from the plant and their anticancer activities are limited. In the present study, polysaccharides from C. citratus were extracted and fractionated by anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Two different polysaccharide fractions such as F1 and F2 were obtained, and these fractions were found to have distinct acidic polysaccharides as characterized by their molecular weight and sugar content. NMR spectral analysis revealed the presence of (1?4) linked b-d-Xylofuranose moiety in these polysaccharides. Using these polysaccharide fractions F1 and F2, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities were evaluated against cancer cells in vitro and the mechanism of action of the polysaccharides in inducing apoptosis in cancer cells via intrinsic pathway was also proposed. Two different reproductive cancer cells such as Siha and LNCap were employed for in vitro studies on cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis and apoptotic DNA fragmentation, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, and profiles of gene and protein expression in response to treatment of cells by the polysaccharide fractions. These polysaccharide fractions exhibited potential cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on carcinoma cells, and they induced apoptosis in these cells through the events of up-regulation of caspase 3, down-regulation of bcl-2 family genes followed by cytochrome c release. PMID:24702929

  15. Fractions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    AAA Math

    2007-12-12

    This site has explanatory lessons, interactive practice, and challenges all dealing with fractions. Includes information, practice, and games on basic fractions, adding fractions, subtracting fractions, multiplying fractions, dividing fractions, reducing fractions, comparing fractions, converting fractions, relating fractions to decimals and decimals to fractions, and divisibility rules to help simplify fractions. Problems are randomly selected and students receive immediate feedback with the correct response. The bottom of each lesson page contains timed exercises.

  16. Improved Recovery and Identification of Membrane Proteins from Rat Hepatic Cells using a Centrifugal Proteomic Reactor*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hu; Wang, Fangjun; Wang, Yuwei; Ning, Zhibin; Hou, Weimin; Wright, Theodore G.; Sundaram, Meenakshi; Zhong, Shumei; Yao, Zemin; Figeys, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Despite their importance in many biological processes, membrane proteins are underrepresented in proteomic analysis because of their poor solubility (hydrophobicity) and often low abundance. We describe a novel approach for the identification of plasma membrane proteins and intracellular microsomal proteins that combines membrane fractionation, a centrifugal proteomic reactor for streamlined protein extraction, protein digestion and fractionation by centrifugation, and high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem MS. The performance of this approach was illustrated for the study of the proteome of ER and Golgi microsomal membranes in rat hepatic cells. The centrifugal proteomic reactor identified 945 plasma membrane proteins and 955 microsomal membrane proteins, of which 63 and 47% were predicted as bona fide membrane proteins, respectively. Among these proteins, >800 proteins were undetectable by the conventional in-gel digestion approach. The majority of the membrane proteins only identified by the centrifugal proteomic reactor were proteins with ?2 transmembrane segments or proteins with high molecular mass (e.g. >150 kDa) and hydrophobicity. The improved proteomic reactor allowed the detection of a group of endocytic and/or signaling receptor proteins on the plasma membrane, as well as apolipoproteins and glycerolipid synthesis enzymes that play a role in the assembly and secretion of apolipoprotein B100-containing very low density lipoproteins. Thus, the centrifugal proteomic reactor offers a new analytical tool for structure and function studies of membrane proteins involved in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. PMID:21749988

  17. Role of membrane biophysics in Alzheimer's–related cell pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Donghui; Bungart, Brittani L.; Yang, Xiaoguang; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Lee, James C-M.; Askarova, Sholpan

    2015-01-01

    Cellular membrane alterations are commonly observed in many diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Membrane biophysical properties, such as membrane molecular order, membrane fluidity, organization of lipid rafts, and adhesion between membrane and cytoskeleton, play an important role in various cellular activities and functions. While membrane biophysics impacts a broad range of cellular pathways, this review addresses the role of membrane biophysics in amyloid-? peptide aggregation, A?-induced oxidative pathways, amyloid precursor protein processing, and cerebral endothelial functions in AD. Understanding the mechanism(s) underlying the effects of cell membrane properties on cellular processes should shed light on the development of new preventive and therapeutic strategies for this devastating disease.

  18. Membrane fluidity adjustments in ethanol-stressed Oenococcus oeni cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silveira da M. G; Elena A. Golovina; Folkert A. Hoekstra; Frank M. Rombouts; Tjakko Abee

    2003-01-01

    The effect of ethanol on the cytoplasmic membrane of Oenococcus oeni cells and the role of membrane changes in the acquired tolerance to ethanol were investigated. Membrane tolerance to ethanol was defined as the resistance to ethanol-induced leakage of preloaded carboxyfluorescein (cF) from cells. To probe the fluidity of the cytoplasmic membrane, intact cells were labeled with doxyl-stearic acids and

  19. The polysaccharide structure of potato cell walls: Chemical fractionation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Jarvis; M. A. Hall; D. R. Threlfall; J. Friend

    1981-01-01

    Cell walls of potato tubers were fractionated by successive extraction with various reagents. A slightly degraded pectic fraction with 77% galacturonic acid was extracted in hot, oxalate-citrate buffer at pH 4. A further, major pectic fraction with 38% galacturonic acid was extracted in cold 0.1 M Na2CO3 with little apparent degradation. These two pectic fractions together made up 52% of

  20. Natural organic matter (NOM) fouling of ultrafiltration membranes: fractionation of NOM in surface water and characterisation by LC-OCD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria D. Kennedy; Hyoung K. Chun; Victor A. Quintanilla Yangalia; Bas G. J. Heijman; Jan C. Schippers

    2005-01-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) plays a significant role in fouling of ultrafiltration membranes in drinking water treatment processes. The aim of this study was to obtain a better understanding of the interactions between the fractional components of NOM and a hydrophilic PES\\/PVP hollow fiber ultrafiltration membrane (150–200 kDa). NOM was fractionated into hydrophobic, transphilic and hydrophilic acid fractions according to

  1. Proliferation of Schwann cells induced by axolemmal and myelin membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Dinneen, M..

    1985-01-01

    Purified Schwann Cells were cultured from neonatal rat sciatic nerve using a modification of the method of Brockes. Schwann cells and contaminating fibroblasts were unambiguously identified using fluorescent antibodies of 2'3' cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase and the thy 1.1 antigen respectively. The Schwann cells were quiescent unless challenged with mitogens. They proliferated rapidly in response to the soluble mitogen, cholera toxin, or to membrane fractions from rat CNS or PNS, prepared by the method of DeVries. Mitogenic activity was present in both axolemmal and myelin enriched fractions and promoted a 10-15 fold increase in the rate of /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake. The axolemmal mitogen was sensitive to heat (80/sup 0/C for 10 minutes), trypsin digestion (0.05% x 30 mins) or to treatment with endoglycosidase D, suggesting that it could be a glycoprotein. Fifty percent of the axolemmal mitogenic activity was solubilized in 1% octyl-glucoside. The solubilized material, however, was very unstable and further purification was not possible. The myelin associated mitogenic activity was markedly different. It was resistant to freeze thaw cycles, trypsin digestion of endoglycosidase treatment and the activity was actually enhanced by heating at 100/sup 0/C for two hours. It is proposed that the axolemmal activity is responsible for Schwann cell proliferation during development and that the myelin associated activity promotes Schwann cell proliferation during Wallerian degeneration.

  2. Fuel cell membranes and crossover prevention

    DOEpatents

    Masel, Richard I. (Champaign, IL); York, Cynthia A. (Newington, CT); Waszczuk, Piotr (White Bear Lake, MN); Wieckowski, Andrzej (Champaign, IL)

    2009-08-04

    A membrane electrode assembly for use with a direct organic fuel cell containing a formic acid fuel includes a solid polymer electrolyte having first and second surfaces, an anode on the first surface and a cathode on the second surface and electrically linked to the anode. The solid polymer electrolyte has a thickness t:.gtoreq..times..times..times..times. ##EQU00001## where C.sub.f is the formic acid fuel concentration over the anode, D.sub.f is the effective diffusivity of the fuel in the solid polymer electrolyte, K.sub.f is the equilibrium constant for partition coefficient for the fuel into the solid polymer electrolyte membrane, I is Faraday's constant n.sub.f is the number of electrons released when 1 molecule of the fuel is oxidized, and j.sub.f.sup.c is an empirically determined crossover rate of fuel above which the fuel cell does not operate.

  3. Heat-shock protein expression on the membrane of T cells undergoing apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Poccia, F; Piselli, P; Vendetti, S; Bach, S; Amendola, A; Placido, R; Colizzi, V

    1996-01-01

    Heat-shock proteins (hsp) represent a highly conserved family of proteins, normally localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus, whose expression is induced in situations involving cell stress. This paper reports the unusual translocation of hsp to the cell membrane of T cells undergoing apoptosis. We observed that glucocorticosteroid-induced thymocyte death is associated to the surface expression of hsp 60 and hsp 70 in a discrete fraction of apoptotic cells. hsp surface expression is closely related to a thymic subset of immature CD3low/- T cells. The expression of surface hsp 60 appears early after treatment with dexamethasone (3 hr) whereas the membrane expression of hsp 70 follows different kinetics and peaks later. Morphological analysis of the hsp+ apoptotic cells suggest that this subset represents late-stage apoptotic cells at their minimal volume before fragmentation into apoptotic bodies. Membrane expression of hsp is also associated with apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from AIDS patients cultured in vitro. Altogether, we show that a discrete fraction of cells undergoing apoptosis expresses membrane hsp 60 and hsp 70, supporting the hypothesis that apoptosis causes a radical alteration in the expression of cell surface molecules. Surface hsp expressed during apoptosis may constitute a novel immune-context able to generate packages of self- and exogenous antigens, originating from degradation of altered cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:8707351

  4. Comparison of rotating ceramic membranes and polymeric membranes in fractionation of milk proteins by microfiltration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. S. Espina; M. Y. Jaffrin; L. H. Ding

    2009-01-01

    The separation of ?-lactalbumin (?-La) and ?-lactoglobulin (?-Lg) from casein micelles during microfiltration of skim milk was investigated using a dynamic filtration pilot (MSD) equipped with six rotating ceramic membranes of 0.2 ?m pores. Permeate fluxes at initial concentration and 40°C reached a plateau with transmembrane pressure at 100 kPa, ranging from 62 L h?1 m?2 at a rotation speed

  5. Membrane catalyst layer for fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A gas reaction fuel cell incorporates a thin catalyst layer between a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) membrane and a porous electrode backing. The catalyst layer is preferably less than about 10 .mu.m in thickness with a carbon supported platinum catalyst loading less than about 0.35 mgPt/cm.sup.2. The film is formed as an ink that is spread and cured on a film release blank. The cured film is then transferred to the SPE membrane and hot pressed into the surface to form a catalyst layer having a controlled thickness and catalyst distribution. Alternatively, the catalyst layer is formed by applying a Na.sup.+ form of a perfluorosulfonate ionomer directly to the membrane, drying the film at a high temperature, and then converting the film back to the protonated form of the ionomer. The layer has adequate gas permeability so that cell performance is not affected and has a density and particle distribution effective to optimize proton access to the catalyst and electronic continuity for electron flow from the half-cell reaction occurring at the catalyst.

  6. Fractions!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Lerdahl

    2011-02-01

    Practice all of the activities to help you learn fractions! Go through all five levels of Fractions Review Activities Practice Naming Fractions Do you remember how to do Fraction Sets? Play these games when you have finished the top three activities: Cross the River Pizza Party Fractions Rescue Island Adding Subtracting Fractions SPLAT Mrs. Anderson's Fraction Games Action Fraction Soccer Shootout Fraction Multiplication Soccer Shootout Fraction Division Dirt Bike Fractions Comparisons ...

  7. Membrane Transport Chloride Transport Across Vesicle and Cell

    E-print Network

    Smith, Bradley D.

    Membrane Transport Chloride Transport Across Vesicle and Cell Membranes by Steroid-Based Receptors-established that molecules which transport cations across cell membranes (cationophores) can have potent biological effects of biological activity. Indeed, chloride transporters have direct medical potential as treatments for cystic

  8. Cell membrane potentials induced during exposure to EMP fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Gailey; C. E. Easterly

    1994-01-01

    Internal current densities and electric fields induced in the human body during exposure to EMP fields are reviewed and used to predict resulting cell membrane potentials. Using several different approaches, membrane potentials of about 100 mV are predicted. These values are comparable to the static membrane potentials maintained by cells as a part of normal physiological function, but the EMP-induced

  9. Microscale isoelectric fractionation using immobilized pH-specific membranes for multi-dimensional analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, Junyu; Sommer, Gregory Jon; Hatch, Anson V.

    2010-10-01

    We report on advancements of our microscale isoelectric fractionation ({mu}IEFr) methodology for fast on-chip separation and concentration of proteins based on their isoelectric points (pI). We establish that proteins can be fractionated depending on posttranslational modifications into different pH specific bins, from where they can be efficiently transferred to downstream membranes for additional processing and analysis. This technology can enable on-chip multidimensional glycoproteomics analysis, as a new approach to expedite biomarker identification and verification.

  10. In vitro and in vivo phosphorylation of polypeptides in plasma membrane and tonoplast-enriched fractions from barley roots

    SciTech Connect

    Garbarino, J.E.; Hurkman, W.J.; Tanaka, C.K.; DuPont, F.M. (Dept. of Agriculture, Albany, CA (USA))

    1991-04-01

    Phosphorylation of polypeptides in membrane fractions from barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv CM 72) roots was compared in in vitro and in vivo assays to assess the potential role of protein kinases in modification of membrane transport. Membrane fractions enriched in endoplasmic reticulum, tonoplast, and plasma membrane were isolated using sucrose gradients and the membrane polypeptides separated using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. When the membrane fractions were incubated with {gamma}(p{sup 32}P)ATP, phosphorylation occurred almost exclusively in the plasma membrane fraction. Phosphorylation of a band at 38 kilodaltons increased as the concentration of Mg{sup 2+} was decreased from millimolar to micromolar levels. Phosphorylation of bands at 125, 86, 58, 46 and 28 kilodaltons required millimolar Mg{sup 2+} concentrations and was greatly enhanced by Ca{sup 2+}. When roots of intact plants were labeled with ({sup 32}P)orthophosphate, polypeptides at approximately 135, 166, 90, 46 to 53, 32, 28, and 19 kilodaltons were labeled in the plasma membrane fraction and polypeptides at approximately 73, 66, and 48 kilodaltons were labeled in the tonoplast fraction. Treatment of the roots of intact plants with 150 millimolar NaCl resulted in increased phosphorylation of some polypeptides while treatment with 100 mM NaCl had no effect.

  11. Nanosecond electric pulses cause mitochondrial membrane permeabilization in Jurkat cells.

    PubMed

    Batista Napotnik, Tina; Wu, Yu-Hsuan; Gundersen, Martin A; Miklav?i?, Damijan; Vernier, P Thomas

    2012-04-01

    Nanosecond, high-voltage electric pulses (nsEP) induce permeabilization of the plasma membrane and the membranes of cell organelles, leading to various responses in cells including cytochrome c release from mitochondria and caspase activation associated with apoptosis. We report here evidence for nsEP-induced permeabilization of mitochondrial membranes in living cells. Using three different methods with fluorescence indicators-rhodamine 123 (R123), tetramethyl rhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE), and cobalt-quenched calcein-we have shown that multiple nsEP (five pulses or more, 4?ns duration, 10?MV/m, 1?kHz repetition rate) cause an increase of the inner mitochondrial membrane permeability and an associated loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. These effects could be a consequence of nsEP permeabilization of the inner mitochondrial membrane or the activation of mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pores. Plasma membrane permeabilization (YO-PRO-1 influx) was detected in addition to mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. PMID:21953203

  12. Micropatterning cells on permeable membrane filters.

    PubMed

    Javaherian, Sahar; Paz, Ana C; McGuigan, Alison P

    2014-01-01

    Epithelium is abundantly present in the human body as it lines most major organs. Therefore, ensuring the proper function of epithelium is pivotal for successfully engineering whole organ replacements. An important characteristic of mature epithelium is apical-basal polarization which can be obtained using the air-liquid interface (ALI) culture system. Micropatterning is a widely used bioengineering strategy to spatially control the location and organization of cells on tissue culture substrates. Micropatterning is therefore an interesting method for generating patterned epithelium. Enabling micropatterning of epithelial cells however requires micropatterning methods that are designed to (i) be compatible with permeable membranes substrates and (ii) allow prolonged culture of patterned cells, both of which are required for appropriate epithelial apical-basal polarization. Here, we describe a number of methods we have developed for generating monoculture as well as coculture of epithelial cells that are compatible with ALI culture. PMID:24560510

  13. Microfabrication of High-Resolution Porous Membranes for Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Monica Y.; Li, David Jiang; Pham, Long K.; Wong, Brandon G.

    2014-01-01

    Microporous membranes are widely utilized in cell biology to study cell-cell signaling and cell migration. However, the thickness and low porosity of commercial track-etched membranes limit the quality of cell imaging and the degree of cell-cell contact that can be achieved on such devices. We employ photolithography-based microfabrication to achieve porous membranes with pore diameter as small as 0.9 ?m, up to 40% porosity, and less than 5% variation in pore size. Through the use of a soap release layer, membranes as thin as 1 ?m can be achieved. The thin membranes minimally disrupt contrast enhancement optics, thus allowing good quality imaging of unlabeled cells under white light, unlike commercial membranes. In addition, the polymer membrane materials display low autofluorescence even after patterning, facilitating high quality fluorescence microscopy. Finally, confocal imaging suggests that substantial cell-cell contact is possible through the pores of these thin membranes. This membrane technology can enhance existing uses of porous membranes in cell biology as well as enable new types of experiments. PMID:24567663

  14. Microfabrication of High-Resolution Porous Membranes for Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Monica Y; Li, David Jiang; Pham, Long K; Wong, Brandon G; Hui, Elliot E

    2014-02-15

    Microporous membranes are widely utilized in cell biology to study cell-cell signaling and cell migration. However, the thickness and low porosity of commercial track-etched membranes limit the quality of cell imaging and the degree of cell-cell contact that can be achieved on such devices. We employ photolithography-based microfabrication to achieve porous membranes with pore diameter as small as 0.9 ?m, up to 40% porosity, and less than 5% variation in pore size. Through the use of a soap release layer, membranes as thin as 1 ?m can be achieved. The thin membranes minimally disrupt contrast enhancement optics, thus allowing good quality imaging of unlabeled cells under white light, unlike commercial membranes. In addition, the polymer membrane materials display low autofluorescence even after patterning, facilitating high quality fluorescence microscopy. Finally, confocal imaging suggests that substantial cell-cell contact is possible through the pores of these thin membranes. This membrane technology can enhance existing uses of porous membranes in cell biology as well as enable new types of experiments. PMID:24567663

  15. Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell System Break-Out Session

    E-print Network

    Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop System Break-Out Session Anil Trehan (CommScope) Huyen Dinh on anode + Alkaline membrane on cathode ­ High temperature operation ­ KOH to capture carbonate · System

  16. Measurement of the nonlinear elasticity of red blood cell membranes

    E-print Network

    Park, YongKeun

    The membranes of human red blood cells (RBCs) are a composite of a fluid lipid bilayer and a triangular network of semiflexible filaments (spectrin). We perform cellular microrheology using the dynamic membrane fluctuations ...

  17. Plasma membrane microdomains regulate TACE-dependent TNFR1 shedding in human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    D’Alessio, Alessio; Esposito, Bianca; Giampietri, Claudia; Ziparo, Elio; Pober, Jordan S; Filippini, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Upon stimulation by histamine, human vascular endothelial cells (EC) shed a soluble form of tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNFR1) that binds up free TNF, dampening the inflammatory response. Shedding occurs through proteolytic cleavage of plasma membrane-expressed TNFR1 catalysed by TNF-? converting enzyme (TACE). Surface expressed TNFR1 on EC is largely sequestered into specific plasma membrane microdomains, the lipid rafts/caveolae. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of these domains in TACE-mediated TNFR1 shedding in response to histamine. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells derived EA.hy926 cells respond to histamine via H1 receptors to shed TNFR1. Both depletion of cholesterol by methyl-?-cyclodextrin and small interfering RNA knockdown of the scaffolding protein caveolin-1 (cav-1), treatments that disrupt caveolae, reduce histamine-induced shedding of membrane-bound TNFR1. Moreover, immunoblotting of discontinuous sucrose gradient fractions show that TACE, such as TNFR1, is present within low-density membrane fractions, concentrated within caveolae, in unstimulated EA.hy926 endothelial cells and co-immunoprecipitates with cav-1. Silencing of cav-1 reduces the levels of both TACE and TNFR1 protein and displaces TACE, from low-density membrane fractions where TNFR1 remains. In summary, we show that endothelial lipid rafts/caveolae co-localize TACE to surface expressed TNFR1, promoting efficient shedding of sTNFR1 in response to histamine. PMID:21645239

  18. Specific binding of a fungal glucan phytoalexin elicitor to membrane fractions from soybean Glycine max

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, W.E.; Ebel, J.

    1987-06-01

    Treatment of soybean tissues with elicitors results in the production of phytoalexins, one of a number of inducible plant defense reactions against microbial infections. The present study uses a ..beta..-1,3-(/sup 3/H) glucan elicitor fraction from Phytophthora megasperma f.sp. glycinea, a fungal pathogen of soybean, to identify putative elicitor targets in soybean tissues. Use of the radiolabeled elicitor disclosed saturable high-affinity elicitor binding site(s) in membrane fractions of soybean roots. Highest binding activity is associated with a plasma membrane-enriched fraction. The apparent K/sub d/ value for ..beta..-glucan elicitor binding is approx. = 0.2 x 10/sup -6/ M and the maximum number of binding sites is 0.5 pmol per mg of protein. Competition studies the (/sup 3/H)glucan elicitor and a number of polysaccharides demonstrate that only polysaccharides of a branched ..beta..-glucan type effectively displace the radiolabeled ligand from membrane binding. Differential displacing activity of the glucans on P. megasperma elicitor binding corresponds closely to their respective ability to elicit phytoalexin production in a cotyledon bioassay.

  19. Specific binding of a fungal glucan phytoalexin elicitor to membrane fractions from soybean Glycine max

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Walter E.; Ebel, Jürgen

    1987-01-01

    Treatment of soybean tissues with elicitors results in the production of phytoalexins, one of a number of inducible plant defense reactions against microbial infections. The present study uses a ?-1,3-[3H]glucan elicitor fraction from Phytophthora megasperma f. sp. glycinea, a fungal pathogen of soybean, to identify putative elicitor targets in soybean tissues. Use of the radiolabeled elicitor disclosed saturable high-affinity elicitor binding site(s) in membrane fractions of soybean roots. Highest binding activity is associated with a plasma membrane-enriched fraction. The apparent Kd value for ?-glucan elicitor binding is ?0.2 × 10-6 M and the maximum number of binding sites is 0.5 pmol per mg of protein. Competition studies with the [3H]glucan elicitor and a number of polysaccharides demonstrate that only polysaccharides of a branched ?-glucan type effectively displace the radiolabeled ligand from membrane binding. Differential displacing activity of the glucans on P. megasperma elicitor binding corresponds closely to their respective ability to elicit phytoalexin production in a cotyledon bioassay. PMID:16593852

  20. Externally disposed plasma membrane proteins. I. Enzymatic iodination of mouse L cells

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    The enzymatic iodination technique has been utilized in a study of the externally disposed membrane proteins of the mouse L cell. Iodination of cells in suspension results in lactoperoxidase-specific iodide incorporation with no loss of cell viability under the conditions employed, less than 3% lipid labeling, and more than 90% of the labeled species identifiable as monoiodotyrosine. 90% of the incorporated label is localized to the cell surface by electron microscope autoradiography, with 5-10% in the centrosphere region and postulated to represent pinocytic vesicles. Sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gels of solubilized L-cell proteins reveals five to six labeled peaks ranging from 50,000 to 200,000 daltons. Increased resolution by use of gradient slab gels reveals 15-20 radioactive bands. Over 60% of the label resides in approximately nine polypeptides of 80,000 to 150,000 daltons. Various controls indicate that the labeling pattern reflects endogenous membrane proteins, not serum components. The incorporated 125-I, cholesterol, and one plasma membrane enzyme marker, alkaline phosphodiesterase I, are purified in parallel when plasma membranes are isolated from intact, iodinated L cells. The labeled components present in a plasma membrane-rich fraction from iodinated cells are identical to those of the total cell, with a 10- to 20-fold enrichment in specific activity of each radioactive peak in the membrane. PMID:163833

  1. Serum-free culture of fractionated bovine bronchial epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joe D. Beckmann; Hajime Takizawa; Debra Romberger; Mary Illig; Lorene Claassen; Kathleen Rickard; Stephen I. Rennard

    1992-01-01

    Summary  Procedures for the serum-free culture of a density fractionated population of bovine bronchial epithelial cells have been\\u000a established. Epithelial cells dispersed by protease digestion were fractionated by density equilibrium centrifugation, followed\\u000a by plating of the small basal-like population on type I collagen-coated culture dishes. Two or three passages of 1:4 split\\u000a enriched for a population of actively dividing cells, which

  2. Permeability of a Cell Membrane Junction

    PubMed Central

    Politoff, A. L.; Socolar, S. J.; Loewenstein, W. R.

    1969-01-01

    The ion permeability of the membrane junctions between Chironomus salivary gland cells is strongly depressed by treatments that are generally known to inhibit energy metabolism. These treatments include prolonged cooling at 6°–8°C, and exposure to dinitrophenol, cyanide, oligomycin, and N-ethylmaleimide. Intracellular injection of ATP appears to prevent depression of junctional permeability by dinitrophenol or to reverse it. Ouabain, azide, p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonic acid, reserpine, and acetazolamide fail to depress junctional permeability. Thus the ion permeability of the junctional membranes appears to depend on energy provided by oxidative phosphorylation. Possible energy-linked processes for maintaining junctional permeability are discussed, including processes involving transport of permeability-modifying species such as Ca++. PMID:5778320

  3. Review: Annexin-A5 and cell membrane repair.

    PubMed

    Bouter, A; Carmeille, R; Gounou, C; Bouvet, F; Degrelle, S A; Evain-Brion, D; Brisson, A R

    2015-04-01

    Annexins are soluble proteins that bind to biological membranes containing negatively charged phospholipids, principally phosphatidylserine, in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Annexin-A5 (AnxA5), the smallest member of the annexin family, presents unique properties of membrane binding and self-assembly into ordered two-dimensional (2D) arrays on membrane surfaces. We have previously reported that AnxA5 plays a central role in the machinery of membrane repair by enabling rapid resealing of plasma membrane disruption in murine perivascular cells. AnxA5 promotes membrane repair via the formation of a protective 2D bandage at membrane damaged site. Here, we review current knowledge on cell membrane repair and present recent findings on the role of AnxA5 in membrane resealing of human trophoblasts. PMID:25701430

  4. Telavancin, a multifunctional lipoglycopeptide, disrupts both cell wall synthesis and cell membrane integrity in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Deborah L; Chang, Ray; Debabov, Dmitri V; Leung, Joey; Wu, Terry; Krause, Kevin M; Sandvik, Erik; Hubbard, Jeffrey M; Kaniga, Koné; Schmidt, Donald E; Gao, Qiufeng; Cass, Robert T; Karr, Dane E; Benton, Bret M; Humphrey, Patrick P

    2005-03-01

    The emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant gram-positive bacteria represent a serious clinical problem. Telavancin is a novel lipoglycopeptide antibiotic that possesses rapid in vitro bactericidal activity against a broad spectrum of clinically relevant gram-positive pathogens. Here we demonstrate that telavancin's antibacterial activity derives from at least two mechanisms. As observed with vancomycin, telavancin inhibited late-stage peptidoglycan biosynthesis in a substrate-dependent fashion and bound the cell wall, as it did the lipid II surrogate tripeptide N,N'-diacetyl-L-lysinyl-D-alanyl-D-alanine, with high affinity. Telavancin also perturbed bacterial cell membrane potential and permeability. In methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, telavancin caused rapid, concentration-dependent depolarization of the plasma membrane, increases in permeability, and leakage of cellular ATP and K(+). The timing of these changes correlated with rapid , concentration-dependent loss of bacterial viability, suggesting that the early bactericidal activity of telavancin results from dissipation of cell membrane potential and an increase in membrane permeability. Binding and cell fractionation studies provided direct evidence for an interaction of telavancin with the bacterial cell membrane; stronger binding interactions were observed with the bacterial cell wall and cell membrane relative to vancomycin. We suggest that this multifunctional mechanism of action confers advantageous antibacterial properties. PMID:15728913

  5. Ion transport through cell membrane channels

    E-print Network

    Jan Gomulkiewicz; Jacek Miekisz; Stanislaw Miekisz

    2007-06-05

    We discuss various models of ion transport through cell membrane channels. Recent experimental data shows that sizes of ion channels are compared to those of ions and that only few ions may be simultaneously in any single channel. Theoretical description of ion transport in such channels should therefore take into account interactions between ions and between ions and channel proteins. This is not satisfied by macroscopic continuum models based on Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations. More realistic descriptions of ion transport are offered by microscopic Brownian and molecular dynamics. One should also take into account a dynamical character of the channel structure. This is not yet addressed in the literature

  6. Membrane Cells in Chlor Alkali Application

    E-print Network

    Lesker, K.

    MEMBRANE CELLS IN COLOR ALKALI APPLICATION Dr. K. Lesker, UHDE GmbH ABSTRACT The worldwide chlorine/caustic soda production has reached approximately 40 million tpy. Despite the stagnation of the chlorine demand in thc wcstcrn world, e... lias t:spl:cially proVt:1I ils vt:rsalilily in oruer lo tultill all reqUirements tor the conversion of an existing chlor alkali plant. The worldwide chlorine/causlic soda production has reached approximately 40 milhon tpv. The United States...

  7. Quantitation of virus-induced (mlr) and normal (thy.1.2) Cell surface antigens in isolated plasma membranes and the extracellular ascites fluid of mouse leukemia cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Van Blitterswijk; P. Emmelot; J. Hilgers; D. Kamlag; C. A. Feltkamp

    1975-01-01

    SUMMARY Plasma membranes were isolated by two methods from mouse leukemia cells containing mammary tumor virus-induced (MLr) and normal (Thy.l.2) antigens on their surfaces. A number of chemical components, enzymic activities, and the antigenic contents were determined in subcellular fractions and found to be specifically concen- trated in the plasma membrane fractions. The major part of the cellular MLr, in

  8. Dynamic physical properties of dissociated tumor cells revealed by dielectrophoretic field-flow fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Sangjo; Gascoyne, Peter; Noshari, Jamileh; Stemke Hale, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic disease results from the shedding of cancer cells from a solid primary tumor, their transport through the cardiovascular system as circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and their engraftment and growth at distant sites. Little is known about the properties and fate of tumor cells as they leave their growth site and travel as single cells. We applied analytical dielectrophoretic field-flow fractionation (dFFF) to study the membrane capacitance, density and hydrodynamic properties together with the size and morphology of cultured tumor cells after they were harvested and placed into single cell suspensions. After detachment, the tumor cells exhibited biophysical properties that changed with time through a process of cytoplasmic shedding whereby membrane and cytoplasm were lost. This process appeared to be distinct from the cell death mechanisms of apoptosis, anoikis and necrosis and it may explain why multiple phenotypes are seen among CTCs isolated from patients and among the tumor cells obtained from ascitic fluid of patients. The implications of dynamic biophysical properties and cytoplasmic loss for CTC migration into small blood vessels in the circulatory system, survival and gene expression are discussed. Because the total capacitance of tumor cells remained higher than blood cells even after they had shed cytoplasm, dFFF offers a compelling, antibody-independent technology for isolating viable CTCs from blood even when they are no larger than peripheral blood mononuclear cells. PMID:21691666

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Glycophorin from Carp Red Blood Cell Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Takahiko; Chimura, Kenji; Nakao, Nobuhiro; Mizuno, Yasuko

    2014-01-01

    We isolated a high-purity carp glycophorin from carp erythrocyte membranes following extraction using the lithium diiodosalicylate (LIS)-phenol method and streptomycin treatment. The main carp glycophorin was observed to locate at the position of the carp and human band-3 proteins on an SDS-polyacrylamide gel. Only the N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) form of sialic acid was detected in the carp glycophorin. The oligosaccharide fraction was separated into two components (P-1 and P-2) using a Glyco-Pak DEAE column. We observed bacteriostatic activity against five strains of bacteria, including two known fish pathogens. Fractions from the carp erythrocyte membrane, the glycophorin oligosaccharide and the P-1 also exhibited bacteriostatic activity; whereas the glycolipid fraction and the glycophorin fraction without sialic acid did not show the activity. The carp glycophorin molecules attach to the flagellum of V. anguillarum or the cell surface of M. luteus and inhibited bacterial growth. PMID:25110961

  10. Investigation of red blood cell fractionation by gravitational field-flow fractionation.

    PubMed

    Urbánková, E; Vacek, A; Nováková, N; Matulík, F; Chmelík, J

    1992-11-27

    Gravitational field-flow fractionation is used for the separation of particles according to their sizes in the range 1-100 microns: larger particles elute before smaller ones. This phenomenon can be explained as a result of the steric exclusion of the particles from the vicinity of the channel walls, and/or hydrodynamic effects supposedly associated with the inertia of the liquid. The method was used for the investigation of red blood cells. The dependence of the retention ratio on the flow-rate, sample volume, concentration of blood and relaxation time was studied. Analysis of fifteen individual fractions by Coulter counter and reinjection of three other fractions were studied in order to verify fractionation of red blood cells. PMID:1484089

  11. Xyloglucan biosynthesis by Golgi membranes from suspension-cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells

    SciTech Connect

    White, A.R.; Xin, Yi (North Dakota State Univ., Fargo (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Xyloglucan is a major hemicellulose polysaccharide in plant cell walls. Biosynthesis of such cell wall polysaccharides is closely linked to the process of plant cell growth and development. Xyloglucan polysaccharides consist of a {beta}-1,4 glucan backbone synthesized by xyloglucan synthase and sidechains of xylose, galactose, and fucose added by other transferase enzymes. Most plant Golgi and plasma membranes also contain glucan synthases I II, which make {beta}-1,4 and {beta}-1,3 glucans, respectively. All of these enzymes have very similar activities. Cell walls on suspension-cultured cells from Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore maple) were enzymatically softened prior to cell disruption by passing through a 30 {mu}m nylon screen. Cell membranes from homogenates were separated by ultracentrifugation on top-loaded or flotation sucrose density gradients. Samples were collected by gradient fractionation and assayed for membrane markers and xyloglucan and glucan synthase activities. Standard marker assays (cyt. c reductase for eR, IDPase UDPase for Golgi, and eosin 5{prime}-malelmide binding for plasma membrane) showed partial separation of these three membrane types. Golgi and plasma membrane markers overlapped in most gradients. Incorporation of {sup 14}C-labeled sugars from UDP-glucose and UDP-xylose was used to detect xyloglucan synthase, glucan synthases I II, and xylosyl transferase in Golgi membrane fractions. These activities overlapped, although distinct peaks of xyloglucan synthase and xylosyl transferase were found. Ca{sup ++} had a stimulatory effect on glucan synthases I II, while Mn{sup ++} had an inhibitory effect on glucan synthase I in the presence of Ca{sup ++}. The similarity of these various synthase activities demonstrates the need for careful structural characterization of newly synthesized polysaccharides.

  12. Embryonic stem cells enhance the healing of tympanic membrane perforations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magnus von Unge; Joris J. J Dirckx; N. Petri Olivius

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Tympanic membrane perforations may cause hearing impairment and otorhea. It is a common indication for ear surgery. The aim of the study was to test whether stem cells may enhance the healing of fresh tympanic membrane perforations. Methods: In a first assay, the status of the tympanic membrane at 5 days after myringotomy was tested in five Mongolian gerbils

  13. Bifurcation Analysis of Fractional Order Single Cell with Delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çelik, Vedat

    This paper presents the bifurcation analysis of fractional order model of delayed single cell which is proposed for delayed cellular neural networks with respect to the time delay ?. The bifurcation points, time delay ?c, are determined by modified Mikhailov stability criterion for a range of fractional delayed cell order 0.3 ? q < 1. Numerical results obtained from Adams-Bashforth-Moulton method demonstrate that the supercritical Hopf bifurcation occurs in the system.

  14. Influence of hydrophobic/hydrophilic fractions of extracellular organic matters of Microcystis aeruginosa on ultrafiltration membrane fouling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shiqing; Shao, Yisheng; Gao, Naiyun; Li, Lei; Deng, Jing; Tan, Chaoqun; Zhu, Mingqiu

    2014-02-01

    Fouling is a major obstacle to maintain the efficiency of ultrafiltration-based drinking water treatment process. Algal extracellular organic matters (EOMs) are currently considered as one of the major sources of membrane fouling. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of different hydrophobic/hydrophilic fractions of EOM extracted from Microcystis aeruginosa on ultrafiltration membrane fouling at lab scale. The experimental data indicated that EOM exhibited similar flux decline trends on polyethersulfone (PES) and regenerated cellulose (RC) membranes but caused greater irreversible fouling on PES membrane than RC membrane due to its hydrophobic property. It was also observed that charged hydrophilic (CHPI) and neutral hydrophilic (NHPI) fractions caused greater flux decline over hydrophobic (HPO) and transphilic (TPI) fractions. For PES membrane, the order of the irreversible fouling potentials for the four fractions was HPO>TPI>CHPI>NHPI, while the irreversible fouling potentials of RC membrane were tiny and could be ignored. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra suggested that protein-like, polysaccharide-like and humic-like substances were the major components responsible for membrane fouling. The results also indicated that the irreversible fouling increased as the pH decreased. The addition of calcium to feed solutions led to more severe flux decline and irreversible fouling. PMID:24140690

  15. Solubilization of pig lymphocyte plasma membrane and fractionation of some of the components

    PubMed Central

    Allan, D.; Crumpton, M. J.

    1971-01-01

    The degree of solubilization of pig lymphocyte plasma membrane by sodium deoxycholate was determined at a variety of temperatures and detergent concentrations. Approx. 95% of the membrane protein was soluble in 2% deoxycholate at 23°C. Some of the biological activities of the membrane survived this treatment. The leucine ?-naphthylamidase activity was more readily soluble than the 5?-nucleotidase and these enzymes could be separated by extraction with 0.5% deoxycholate at 0°C. Membrane solubilized in 2% deoxycholate at 23°C was fractionated by sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation in 1% deoxycholate. The phospholipid was separated from the protein, which formed a fairly symmetrical peak that sedimented slightly slower than ovalbumin; the leucine naphthylamidase and 5?-nucleotidase activities were resolved from each other and from the main protein peak. Similar separations were achieved by elution from Sephadex G-200 and Sepharose 6B in 1% deoxycholate. The main proteins, however, appeared to possess much higher molecular weights than those indicated by sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation. This disparity suggests that many of the membrane proteins have a rod-like shape, especially since the results of experiments with [14C]deoxycholate revealed that the proteins did not bind significant amounts of deoxycholate. In contrast, 5?-nucleotidase and leucine naphthylamidase appeared to be globular. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of membrane solubilized in sodium dodecyl sulphate gave a similar distribution of protein to that achieved by sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation. Trace amounts only of polypeptides of molecular weight less than 10000 were detected. ImagesPLATE 1 PMID:4256533

  16. Membrane-bound ribosomes of myeloma cells. III. The role of the messenger RNA and the nascent polypeptide chain in the binding of ribosomes to membranes

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    Mild ribonuclease treatment of the membrane fraction of P3K cells released three types of membrane-bound ribosomal particles: (a) all the newly made native 40S subunits detected after 2 h of [3H]uridine pulse. Since after a 3-min pulse with [35S]methionine these membrane native subunits appear to contain at least sevenfold more Met-tRNA per particle than the free native subunits, they may all be initiation complexes with mRNA molecules which have just become associated with the membranes; (b) about 50% of the ribosomes present in polyribosomes. Evidence is presented that the released ribosomes carry nascent chains about two and a half to three times shorter than those present on the ribosomes remaining bound to the membranes. It is proposed that in the membrane-bound polyribosomes of P3K cells, only the ribosomes closer to the 3' end of the mRNA molecules are directly bound, while the latest ribosomes to enter the polyribosomal structures are indirectly bound through the mRNA molecules; (c) a small number of 40S subunits of polyribosomal origin, presumably initiation complexes attached at the 5' end of mRNA molecules of polyribosomes. When the P3K cells were incubated with inhibitors acting at different steps of protein synthesis, it was found that puromycin and pactamycin decreased by about 40% the proportion of ribosomes in the membrane fraction, while cycloheximide and anisomycin had no such effect. The ribosomes remaining on the membrane fraction of puromycin-treated cells consisted of a few polyribosomes, and of an accumulation of 80S and 60S particles, which were almost entirely released by high salt treatment of the membranes. The membrane-bound ribosomes found after pactamycin treatment consisted of a few polyribosomes, with a striking accumulation of native 60S subunits and an increased number of native 40S subunits. On the basis of the observations made in this and the preceding papers, a model for the binding of ribosomes to membranes and for the ribosomal cycle on the membranes is proposed. It is suggested that ribosomal subunits exchange between free and membrane-bound polyribosomes through the cytoplasmic pool of free native subunits, and that their entry into membrane-bound ribosomes is mediated by mRNA molecules associated with membranes. PMID:1176534

  17. Enzymatic Oxidation of Cholesterol: Properties and Functional Effects of Cholestenone in Cell Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Neuvonen, Maarit; Manna, Moutusi; Mokkila, Sini; Javanainen, Matti; Rog, Tomasz; Liu, Zheng; Bittman, Robert; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Ikonen, Elina

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial cholesterol oxidase is commonly used as an experimental tool to reduce cellular cholesterol content. That the treatment also generates the poorly degradable metabolite 4-cholesten-3-one (cholestenone) has received less attention. Here, we investigated the membrane partitioning of cholestenone using simulations and cell biological experiments and assessed the functional effects of cholestenone in human cells. Atomistic simulations predicted that cholestenone reduces membrane order, undergoes faster flip-flop and desorbs more readily from membranes than cholesterol. In primary human fibroblasts, cholestenone was released from membranes to physiological extracellular acceptors more avidly than cholesterol, but without acceptors it remained in cells over a day. To address the functional effects of cholestenone, we studied fibroblast migration during wound healing. When cells were either cholesterol oxidase treated or part of cellular cholesterol was exchanged for cholestenone with cyclodextrin, cell migration during 22 h was markedly inhibited. Instead, when a similar fraction of cholesterol was removed using cyclodextrin, cells replenished their cholesterol content in 3 h and migrated similarly to control cells. Thus, cholesterol oxidation produces long-term functional effects in cells and these are in part due to the generated membrane active cholestenone. PMID:25157633

  18. Polymer-electrolyte membrane, electrochemical fuel cell, and related method

    DOEpatents

    Krishnan, Lakshmi; Yeager, Gary William; Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2014-12-09

    A polymer-electrolyte membrane is presented. The polymer-electrolyte membrane comprises an acid-functional polymer, and an additive incorporated in at least a portion of the membrane. The additive comprises a fluorinated cycloaliphatic additive, a hydrophobic cycloaliphatic additive, or combinations thereof, wherein the additive has a boiling point greater than about 120.degree. C. An electrochemical fuel cell including the polymer-electrolyte membrane, and a related method, are also presented.

  19. The application of Dow Chemical's perfluorinated membranes in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisman, G. A.

    1989-01-01

    Dow Chemical's research activities in fuel cells revolve around the development of perfluorosulfonic acid membranes useful as the proton transport medium and separator. Some of the performance characteristics which are typical for such membranes are outlined. The results of tests utilizing a new experimental membrane useful in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells are presented. The high voltage at low current densities can lead to higher system efficiencies while, at the same time, not sacrificing other critical properties pertinent to membrane fuel cell operation. A series of tests to determine response times indicated that on-off cycles are on the order of 80 milliseconds to reach 90 percent of full power. The IR free voltage at 100 amps/sq ft was determined and the results indicating a membrane/electrode package resistance to be .15 ohm-sq cm at 100 amps/sq ft.

  20. Moving towards sustainable resources: Recovery and fractionation of nutrients from dairy manure digestate using membranes.

    PubMed

    Gerardo, Michael L; Aljohani, Nasser H M; Oatley-Radcliffe, Darren L; Lovitt, Robert W

    2015-09-01

    The fractionation of nitrogen (as ammonia/ammonium) and phosphorus (as phosphate ions) present in the dairy manure digestate was investigated using a nanofiltration membrane NF270. The filtration and separation efficiencies were correlated to pH across the range 3 < pH < 11. Filtration at pH 11 enabled higher permeate flux of 125-150 LMH at 20 bar, however rejection of ammonia was high at 30-36% and phosphate was 96.4-97.2%. At pH 3 and pH 7, electrostatic charge effects led to higher permeation of ammonium and thus more efficient separation of nitrogen. The rejection of phosphorus was relatively constant at any given pH and determined as 83% at pH 3, 97% at pH 7 and 95% at pH 11. The fractionation of nitrogen and phosphorus from complex aqueous solutions was demonstrated to be highly dependent on the charge of the membrane and ionic speciation. Solutions rich in nitrogen (as ammonia/ammonium) were obtained with almost no phosphorus present (<1ppm) whilst the purification of the PO4-P was achieved by series of diafiltration (DF) operations which further separated the nitrogen. The separation of nutrients benefited from an advantageous membrane process with potential added value for a wide range of industries. The analysis of the process economics for a membrane based plant illustrates that the recovery of nutrients, particularly NH3-N, may be commercially feasible when compared to manufactured anhydrous NH3. PMID:25996755

  1. Rabbit distal colon epithelium: I. Isolation and characterization of basolateral plasma membrane vesicles from surface and crypt cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hubert Wiener; Klaus Turnheim; Carel H. van Os

    1989-01-01

    Summary A method has been developed for the simultaneous isolation of basolateral plasma membrane vesicles from surface and crypt cells of rabbit distal colon epithelium by sequential use of differential sedimentation, isopycnic centrifugation and Ficoll 400 barrier centrifugation. The protein yield was high (total 0.81 mg\\/g mucosa) and surface and crypt cell-derived basolateral membrane fractions have been purified 34- and

  2. Membrane tension and cytoskeleton organization in cell motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sens, Pierre; Plastino, Julie

    2015-07-01

    Cell membrane shape changes are important for many aspects of normal biological function, such as tissue development, wound healing and cell division and motility. Various disease states are associated with deregulation of how cells move and change shape, including notably tumor initiation and cancer cell metastasis. Cell motility is powered, in large part, by the controlled assembly and disassembly of the actin cytoskeleton. Much of this dynamic happens in close proximity to the plasma membrane due to the fact that actin assembly factors are membrane-bound, and thus actin filaments are generally oriented such that their growth occurs against or near the membrane. For a long time, the membrane was viewed as a relatively passive scaffold for signaling. However, results from the last five years show that this is not the whole picture, and that the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton are intimately linked to the mechanics of the cell membrane. In this review, we summarize recent findings concerning the role of plasma membrane mechanics in cell cytoskeleton dynamics and architecture, showing that the cell membrane is not just an envelope or a barrier for actin assembly, but is a master regulator controlling cytoskeleton dynamics and cell polarity.

  3. Membrane tension and cytoskeleton organization in cell motility.

    PubMed

    Sens, Pierre; Plastino, Julie

    2015-07-15

    Cell membrane shape changes are important for many aspects of normal biological function, such as tissue development, wound healing and cell division and motility. Various disease states are associated with deregulation of how cells move and change shape, including notably tumor initiation and cancer cell metastasis. Cell motility is powered, in large part, by the controlled assembly and disassembly of the actin cytoskeleton. Much of this dynamic happens in close proximity to the plasma membrane due to the fact that actin assembly factors are membrane-bound, and thus actin filaments are generally oriented such that their growth occurs against or near the membrane. For a long time, the membrane was viewed as a relatively passive scaffold for signaling. However, results from the last five years show that this is not the whole picture, and that the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton are intimately linked to the mechanics of the cell membrane. In this review, we summarize recent findings concerning the role of plasma membrane mechanics in cell cytoskeleton dynamics and architecture, showing that the cell membrane is not just an envelope or a barrier for actin assembly, but is a master regulator controlling cytoskeleton dynamics and cell polarity. PMID:26061624

  4. Survival and self-renewing capacity of breast cancer initiating cells during fractionated radiation treatment

    E-print Network

    2010-01-01

    cancer initiating cells during fractionated radiation treatment.cancer initiating cells during fractionated radiation treatmentradiation resistant CICs in breast cancer are not only viable after treatment

  5. Membrane fluidity of stressed cells of Oenococcus oeni

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Tourdot-Maréchal; D Gaboriau; L Beney; C Diviès

    2000-01-01

    The determination of membrane fluidity in whole cells of Oenococcus oeni was achieved by membrane probe 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene fluorescence anisotropy measurements. The results demonstrated instantaneous fluidity variations with cells directly stressed during the measure. Heat (42°C) or acid (pH 3.2) shocks decreased the anisotropy values (fluidising effects), whereas an ethanol shock (10% ethanol, v\\/v) increased the membrane rigidity. The velocities of

  6. New ETFE-based membrane for direct methanol fuel cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Saarinen; T. Kallio; M. Paronen; P. Tikkanen; E. Rauhala; K. Kontturi

    2005-01-01

    The investigated membranes are based on 35?? m thick commercial poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films. The films were made proton conductive by means of irradiation treatment followed by sulfonation. These membranes have exceptionally low water uptake and excellent dimensional stability. The new membranes are investigated widely in a laboratory-scale direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The temperature range used in the fuel cell

  7. Electron-beam direct processing on living cell membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, Takayuki [Department of Bio-Applications and Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Morishima, Keisuke [Department of Bio-Applications and Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 Japan (Japan)

    2011-10-24

    We demonstrated a direct processing on a living Hep G2 cell membrane in conventional cultivation conditions using an electron beam. Electron beam-induced deposition from liquid precursor 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene and ablation was performed on the living cells. The 2.5-10 keV electron beam which was irradiated through a 100-nm-thick SiN nanomembrane could induce a deposition pattern and a ablation on a living cell membrane. This electron beam direct processing can provide simple in-situ cell surface modification for an analytical method of living cell membrane dynamic.

  8. Design and optimization of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells

    E-print Network

    Grujicic, Mica

    Design and optimization of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells M. Grujicic* , K October 2003 Abstract The performance of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells is studied using associated with a shoulder of the interdigitated air distributor are increased, and as the cathode thickness

  9. Mitochondria and cell death: outer membrane permeabilization and beyond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen W. G. Tait; Douglas R. Green

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) is often required for activation of the caspase proteases that cause apoptotic cell death. Various intermembrane space (IMS) proteins, such as cytochrome c, promote caspase activation following their mitochondrial release. As a consequence, mitochondrial outer membrane integrity is highly controlled, primarily through interactions between pro- and anti-apoptotic members of the B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2)

  10. Membrane electrode assemblies for unitised regenerative polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Wittstadt; E. Wagner; T. Jungmann

    2005-01-01

    Membrane electrode assemblies for regenerative polymer electrolyte fuel cells were made by hot pressing and sputtering. The different MEAs are examined in fuel cell and water electrolysis mode at different pressure and temperature conditions. Polarisation curves and ac impedance spectra are used to investigate the influence of the changes in coating technique. The hydrogen gas permeation through the membrane is

  11. Synaptic and Golgi membrane recycling in cochlear hair cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Siegel; W. E. Brownell

    1986-01-01

    Summary Membrane recycling in the mechanoreceptive sensory cells of the mammalian cochlea was studied by observing membrane-bound horseradish peroxidase (HRP) reaction product following briefin vivo exposure to the enzyme. In the inner hair cell (IHC), peroxidase was taken up into coated vesicles and became incorporated into synaptic vesicles surrounding presynaptic bodies, but much HRP was also transported to the apical

  12. Ceramic membrane fuel cells based on solid proton electrolytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangyao Meng; Guilin Ma; Qianli Ma; Ranran Peng; Xingqin Liu

    2007-01-01

    The development of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) has reached its new stage characterized with thin electrolytes on porous electrode support, and the most important fabrication techniques developed in which almost all are concerned with inorganic membranes, and so can be named as ceramic membrane fuel cells (CMFCs). CMFCs based on proton electrolytes (CMFC-H) may exhibit more advantages than CMFCs

  13. Effect of EMP fields on cell membrane potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Gailey, P.C.; Easterly, C.E.

    1993-06-01

    A simple model is presented for cell membrane potentials induced during exposure to electromagnetic pulse (EMP). Using calculated values of internal electric field strength induced during EMP exposure, the model predicts that cell membrane potentials of about 100 mV may be induced for time frames on the order of 10 ns. Possible biological effects of these potentials including electroporation area discussed.

  14. THE ENZYMATIC IODINATION OF THE RED CELL MEMBRANE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANN L. HUBBARD; ZANVIL A. COHN

    1972-01-01

    An enzymatic iodination procedure utilizing lactoperoxidase (LPO), radioactive iodide, and hydrogen peroxide generated by a glucose oxidase-glucose system has been described and utilized for a study of the red cell membrane . 97 % of the incorporated isotope is in the erythrocyte ghost and 3 % is associated with hemoglobin . No significant labeling of the red cell membrane occurs

  15. Direct mapping of nanoscale compositional connectivity on intact cell membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. S. van Zanten; J. Gomez; C. Manzo; A. Cambi; J. Buceta; R. Reigada; M. F. Garcia-Parajo

    2010-01-01

    Lateral segregation of cell membranes is accepted as a primary mechanism for cells to regulate a diversity of cellular functions. In this context, lipid rafts have been conceptualized as organizing principle of biological membranes where underlying cholesterol-mediated selective connectivity must exist even at the resting state. However, such a level of nanoscale compositional connectivity has been challenging to prove. Here

  16. Cytolytic peptides induce biphasic permeability changes in mammalian cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Su, M; He, C; West, C A; Mentzer, S J

    2001-06-01

    The cytolytic peptides melittin and gramicidin S are naturally occurring agents that provide a comparative model for studies of complement, immunotoxin and cell-mediated membrane permeability. Most attempts to characterize cytolytic peptides have used model membrane systems including phospholipid vesicles or erythrocytes. Membrane vesicles permit the use of self-quenching concentrations of fluorescent permeability markers, while erythrocytes release measurable hemoglobin. Attempts at measuring early membrane permeability changes in nucleated mammalian cells have been limited. To measure the kinetics of mammalian cell membrane permeability changes induced by cytolytic peptides, we developed a 96-well fluorescence cytolysis assay using the cytoplasmic fluorescent dye calcein as the membrane permeability marker. To facilitate rapid assessment of membrane permeability, trypan blue was added to the assay solution to quench (a) released fluorescence and (b) retained intracellular fluorescence. Trypan blue also provided a complementary visual assessment of cell viability. Using this assay, a detailed kinetic analysis demonstrated permeability of the cell membranes within seconds of exposure to the cytolytic peptides. The rapid permeabilization of the cell membranes was confirmed by flow cytometry using the calcium indicator dye fluo-3. The assay also demonstrated a second slower phase of marker release over the next several hours. The fluorescence cytolysis assay was able to reliably detect the biphasic permeability changes associated with the melittin and gramicidin S peptides suggesting the potential utility of this assay in the assessment of other cytolytic agents. PMID:11334966

  17. Sustainable Energy Systems Lab: Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lab introduces the operation of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Students will become familiar with a Simulink model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell, obtain the nonlinear voltage-current and power-current characteristics for a typical fuel cell, determine the maximum power point and obtain a linear voltage equation for the fuel cell as a function of the current. This document may be downloaded in Microsoft Word file format.

  18. Identification of diphtheria toxin receptor and a nonproteinous diphtheria toxin-binding molecule in Vero cell membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eisuke Mekada; Yoshio Okada; Tsuyoshi Uchida

    1988-01-01

    Two substances possessing the ability to bind to diphtheria toxin (DT) were found to be present in a membrane fraction from DT-sensitive Vero cells. One of these substances was found on the basis of its ability to bind DT and inhibit its cytotoxic effect. This inhibitory substance competitively inhibited the bind- ing of DT to Veto cells. However this inhibitor

  19. Chemical modification of fuel cell catalysts and electrochemistry of proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easton, E. Bradley

    One of the major goals of this research was to investigate ion transport within the catalyst layer of fuel cell electrodes and attempt to improve it. One method used to study ion transport within fuel cell electrodes was to incorporate electroactive metal complexes into the catalyst layer to act as a probe. It was found that a lower fraction of the complexes were electrochemically active in the cathode of an operating fuel cell, compared to similar electrodes in contact with an aqueous sulfuric acid solution. It is anticipated that in many cases, the method of electroactive probes will be more advantageous than (or complimentary to) standard methods. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was also used to study ion transport in fuel cell catalyst layers. It was found that limiting capacitance correlates with active area. Also, results indicate that the non-ideal impedance behavior of fuel cell electrodes is due to variation of their ionic conductivity with distance from the membrane. In order to increase proton conductivity in the catalyst layer, we have explored the attachment of a sulfonated silane directly to the catalyst surface. It was found that the modified catalysts outperformed the unmodified catalyst at low Nafion loadings (<15%). The optimum performance achieved with the modified catalyst was similar to that of the untreated catalyst, despite the fact it contained 66% less Nafion. This result is explained by the fact that both optimized catalyst layers contained approximately the same concentration of sulfonate groups. Another major goal of this work was to study the materials from which direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) are constructed. Here we report the systematic optimization of all membrane-electrode assembly components, using standard fuel cell materials. This has led to significant improvement in performance. To combat the issue of methanol crossover in DMFCs, we have prepared polypyrrole/Nafion composite membranes, which have previously been shown to be significantly less permeable to methanol. DMFC performance achieved with composite membranes was superior to that achieved with Nafion membranes. The improved performance results from increased cathode activity, which is due to less methanol crossover and a lower water flux across the membrane.

  20. Red Blood Cell Membrane Dynamics during Malaria Parasite Egress

    PubMed Central

    Callan-Jones, Andrew; Albarran Arriagada, Octavio Eduardo; Massiera, Gladys; Lorman, Vladimir; Abkarian, Manouk

    2012-01-01

    Precisely how malaria parasites exit from infected red blood cells to further spread the disease remains poorly understood. It has been shown recently, however, that these parasites exploit the elasticity of the cell membrane to enable their egress. Based on this work, showing that parasites modify the membrane’s spontaneous curvature, initiating pore opening and outward membrane curling, we develop a model of the dynamics of the red blood cell membrane leading to complete parasite egress. As a result of the three-dimensional, axisymmetric nature of the problem, we find that the membrane dynamics involve two modes of elastic-energy release: 1), at short times after pore opening, the free edge of the membrane curls into a toroidal rim attached to a membrane cap of roughly fixed radius; and 2), at longer times, the rim radius is fixed, and lipids in the cap flow into the rim. We compare our model with the experimental data of Abkarian and co-workers and obtain an estimate of the induced spontaneous curvature and the membrane viscosity, which control the timescale of parasite release. Finally, eversion of the membrane cap, which liberates the remaining parasites, is driven by the spontaneous curvature and is found to be associated with a breaking of the axisymmetry of the membrane. PMID:23260049

  1. Integrin-like proteins are localized to plasma membrane fractions, not plastids, in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swatzell, L. J.; Edelmann, R. E.; Makaroff, C. A.; Kiss, J. Z.

    1999-01-01

    Integrins are a large family of integral membrane proteins that function in signal transduction in animal systems. These proteins are conserved in vertebrates, invertebrates, and fungi. Evidence from previous research suggests that integrin-like proteins may be present in plants as well, and that these proteins may function in signal transduction during gravitropism. In past studies, researchers have used monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to localize beta 1 integrin-like proteins in plants. However, there is a disparity between data collected from these studies, especially since molecular weights obtained from these investigations range from 55-120 kDa for integrin-like proteins. To date, a complete investigation which employs all three basic immunolabeling procedures, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence microscopy, and immunogold labeling, in addition to extensive fractionation and exhaustive controls, has been lacking. In this paper, we demonstrate that use of a polyclonal antibody against the cytoplasmic domain of avian beta 1-integrin can produce potential artifacts in immunolocalization studies. However, these problems can be eliminated through use of starchless mutants or proper specimen preparation prior to electrophoresis. We also show that this antibody, when applied within the described parameters and with careful controls, identifies a large (100 kDa) integrin-like protein that is localized to plasma membrane fractions in Arabidopsis.

  2. Atherosclerosis alters the composition, structure and function of arterial smooth muscle cell plasma membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meng Chen; R. Preston Mason; Thomas N. Tulenko

    1995-01-01

    The object of this study was to examine changes in plasma membranes of arterial smooth muscle (ASM) during atherogenesis obtained from cholesterol-fed (2%) rabbits. A microsomal fraction highly enriched with plasma membrane markers was prepared by subcellular organelle fractionation from ASM freshly isolated from the thoracic aorta. The membranes were analyzed for unesterified (free) cholesterol (FC) content, membrane bilayer structural

  3. Isolation and characterization of a xanthophyll-rich fraction from the thylakoid membrane of Dunaliella salina(green algae).

    PubMed

    Yokthongwattana, Kittisak; Savchenko, Tatyana; Polle, Juergen E W; Melis, Anastasios

    2005-12-01

    Long-term acclimation to irradiance stress (HL) of the green alga Dunaliella salina Teod. (UTEX 1644) entails substantial accumulation of zeaxanthin along with a lowering in the relative amount of other pigments, including chlorophylls and several carotenoids. This phenomenon was investigated with wild type and the zea1 mutant of D. salina, grown under conditions of low irradiance (LL), or upon acclimation to irradiance stress (HL). In the wild type, the zeaxanthin to chlorophyll (Zea/Chl)(mol : mol) ratio was as low as 0.009 : 1 under LL and as high as 0.8 : 1 under HL conditions. In the zea1 mutant, which constitutively accumulates zeaxanthin and lacks antheraxanthin, violaxanthin and neoxanthin, the Zea/Chl ratio was 0.15 : 1 in LL and 0.57 : 1 in HL. The divergent Zea/Chl ratios were reflected in the coloration of the cells, which were green under LL and yellow under HL. In LL-grown cells, all carotenoids occurred in structural association with the Chl-protein complexes. This was clearly not the case in the HL-acclimated cells. A beta-carotene-rich fraction occurred as loosely bound to the thylakoid membrane and was readily isolated by flotation following mechanical disruption of D. salina. A zeaxanthin-rich fraction was specifically isolated, upon mild surfactant treatment and differential centrifugation, from the thylakoid membrane of either HL wild type or HL-zea1 mutant. Such differential extraction of beta-carotene and Zea, and their separation from the Chl-proteins, could not be obtained from the LL-grown wild type, although small amounts of Zea could still be differentially extracted from the LL-grown zea1 strain. It is concluded that, in LL-grown D. salina, xanthophylls (including most of Zea in the zea1 strain) are structurally associated with and stabilized by the Chl-proteins in the thylakoid membrane. Under HL-growth conditions, however, zeaxanthin appears to be embedded in the lipid bilayer, or in a domain of the chloroplast thylakoids that can easily be separated from the Chl-proteins upon mild surfactant treatment. In conclusion, this work provides biochemical evidence for the domain localization of accumulated zeaxanthin under irradiance-stress conditions in green algae, and establishes protocols for the differential extraction of this high-value pigment from the green alga D. salina. PMID:16307118

  4. Penetration of Host Cell Membranes by Adenovirus 2

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Dennis T.; Burlingham, Byron T.

    1973-01-01

    Highly purified human adenovirus type 2 directly penetrated the plasma membranes of KB cells. The process of membrane penetration resulted in the appearance of large numbers of adenovirions free in the cytoplasm of the infected cells. The virions underwent a morphological change as they penetrated the cell surface. Penetration of the plasma membranes and the accompanying alteration in virion morphology was dependent on a function associated with the intact cells, because neither event occurred when purified virions were added to isolated cell membranes. Inactivation of the adenovirions with heat or antibodies before inoculation of the cells reduced the infectivity of the virus population and prevented the appearance of virions free in the cytoplasm. The inactivation of the virions did not significantly reduce the number of virus particles which were found in cell vacuoles and pinocytotic vesicles. Images PMID:4127052

  5. In-situ membrane hydration measurement of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yeh-Hung; Fly, Gerald W.; Clapham, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Achieving proper membrane hydration control is one of the most critical aspects of PEM fuel cell development. This article describes the development and application of a novel 50 cm2 fuel cell device to study the in-situ membrane hydration by measuring the through-thickness membrane swelling via an array of linear variable differential transducers. Using this setup either as an air/air (dummy) cell or as a hydrogen/air (operating) cell, we performed a series of hydration and dehydration experiments by cycling the RH of the inlet gas streams at 80 °C. From the linear relationship between the under-the-land swelling and the over-the-channel water content, the mechanical constraint within the fuel cell assembly can suppress the membrane water uptake by 11%-18%. The results from the air/air humidity cycling test show that the membrane can equilibrate within 120 s for all RH conditions and that membrane can reach full hydration at a RH higher than 140% in spite of the use of a liquid water impermeable Carbel MP30Z microporous layer. This result confirms that the U.S. DOE's humidity cycling mechanical durability protocol induces sufficient humidity swings to maximize hygrothermal mechanical stresses. This study shows that the novel experimental technique can provide a robust and accurate means to study the in-situ hydration of thin membranes subject to a wide range of fuel cell conditions.

  6. Cell membrane potentials induced during exposure to EMP fields

    SciTech Connect

    Gailey, P.C.; Easterly, C.E.

    1994-09-01

    Internal current densities and electric fields induced in the human body during exposure to EMP fields are reviewed and used to predict resulting cell membrane potentials. Using several different approaches, membrane potentials of about 100 mV are predicted. These values are comparable to the static membrane potentials maintained by cells as a part of normal physiological function, but the EMP-induced potentials persist for only about 10 ns. Possible biological implications of EMP-induced membrane potentials including conformational changes and electroporation are discussed.

  7. Probing the membrane potential of living cells by dielectric spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Corina Bot; Camelia Prodan

    2008-12-17

    In this paper we demonstrate a quantitative way to measure the membrane potential of live cells by dielectric spectroscopy. We also show that the values of the membrane potential obtained using our technique are in good agreement with those obtained using traditional methods-voltage sensitive dyes. The membrane potential is determined by fitting the experimental dielectric dispersion curves with the dispersion curves obtain from a theoretical model. Variations in the membrane potential were induced by modifying the concentration of potassium chloride in the solution of the cell suspension in the presence of valinomycin. For exemplification of the method, E. coli were chosen for our experiments.

  8. A Hybrid Microbial Fuel Cell Membrane Bioreactor with a Conductive Ultrafiltration Membrane Biocathode for Wastewater Treatment

    E-print Network

    Biocathode for Wastewater Treatment Lilian Malaeb,,§ Krishna P. Katuri,,§ Bruce E. Logan, Husnul Maab, S. P-biocathode microbial fuel cell- membrane bioreactor (MFC-MBR) system was developed to achieve simultaneous wastewater and the membrane for wastewater filtration. The MFC-MBR used an air-biocathode, and it was shown to have good

  9. Inorganic–Polymer Composite Membranes for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew M. Herring

    2006-01-01

    Composite membranes consisting primarily of a polymer and an inorganic proton conducting particle or a proton conducting polymer containing inorganic particles for use as proton exchange membranes in low and intermediate temperature fuel cells are reviewed. The chemistry of major inorganic additives that have been used is described in terms of their structure and intrinsic ability to conduct protons. Composites

  10. Cell Membranes Under Hydrostatic Pressure Subjected to Micro-Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassilev, Vassil M.; Kostadinov, Kostadin G.; Mladenov, Ivaïlo M.; Shulev, Assen A.; Stoilov, Georgi I.; Djondjorov, Peter A.

    2011-04-01

    The work is concerned with the determination of the mechanical behaviour of cell membranes under uniform hydrostatic pressure subject to micro-injections. For that purpose, assuming that the shape of the deformed cell membrane is axisymmetric a variational statement of the problem is developed on the ground of the so-called spontaneous curvature model. In this setting, the cell membrane is regarded as an axisymmetric surface in the three-dimensional Euclidean space providing a stationary value of the shape energy functional under the constraint of fixed total area and fixed enclosed volume. The corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations and natural boundary conditions are derived, analyzed and used to express the forces and moments in the membrane. Several examples of such surfaces representing possible shapes of cell membranes under pressure subjected to micro injection are determined numerically.

  11. Single cell wound generates electric current circuit and cell membrane potential variations that requires calcium influx.

    PubMed

    Luxardi, Guillaume; Reid, Brian; Maillard, Pauline; Zhao, Min

    2014-07-24

    Breaching of the cell membrane is one of the earliest and most common causes of cell injury, tissue damage, and disease. If the compromise in cell membrane is not repaired quickly, irreversible cell damage, cell death and defective organ functions will result. It is therefore fundamentally important to efficiently repair damage to the cell membrane. While the molecular aspects of single cell wound healing are starting to be deciphered, its bio-physical counterpart has been poorly investigated. Using Xenopus laevis oocytes as a model for single cell wound healing, we describe the temporal and spatial dynamics of the wound electric current circuitry and the temporal dynamics of cell membrane potential variation. In addition, we show the role of calcium influx in controlling electric current circuitry and cell membrane potential variations. (i) Upon wounding a single cell: an inward electric current appears at the wound center while an outward electric current is observed at its sides, illustrating the wound electric current circuitry; the cell membrane is depolarized; calcium flows into the cell. (ii) During cell membrane re-sealing: the wound center current density is maintained for a few minutes before decreasing; the cell membrane gradually re-polarizes; calcium flow into the cell drops. (iii) In conclusion, calcium influx is required for the formation and maintenance of the wound electric current circuitry, for cell membrane re-polarization and for wound healing. PMID:24801267

  12. Fascin, an Actin-bundling Protein, Induces Membrane Protrusions and Increases Cell Motility of Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigeko Yamashiro; Yoshihiko Yamakita; Shoichiro Ono; Fumio Matsumura

    1998-01-01

    Fascin is an actin-bundling protein that is found in membrane ruffles, microspikes, and stress fibers. The expression of fascin is greatly increased in many transformed cells, as well as in specialized normal cells including neuronal cells and antigen-presenting dendritic cells. A morphological characteristic common to these cells expressing high levels of fascin is the development of many membrane protrusions in

  13. Vaccination of feedlot cattle with extracts and membrane fractions from two Mycoplasma bovis isolates results in strong humoral immune responses but does not protect against an experimental challenge.

    PubMed

    Mulongo, Musa; Prysliak, Tracy; Perez-Casal, Jose

    2013-02-27

    Mycoplasma bovis is one of the most significant contributors to the bovine respiratory syndrome (BRD) that causes major losses in feedlot and dairy farms. Current experimental vaccines against M. bovis are ineffective and in some cases seem to enhance disease. Experimental infection with M. bovis induces a predominantly Th2 response and high levels of IgG1, which is an inferior opsonin and hence lacks protective capacity. In an attempt to induce a balanced (Th1/Th2) immune response, we have used CpG ODN 2007 as an adjuvant in a trial involving vaccination of cattle with M. bovis total extracts and/or membrane fractions and subsequent intranasal inoculation with an infective dose of M. bovis prepared from two different clinical isolates. Significant IgG1 serum responses were observed against both, extracts and fractions while IgG2 responses were significant against the extracts only. Proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after incubation with M. bovis cells was only observed in post-challenge samples of cattle vaccinated with both extracts and fractions but not in samples of cattle immunized with the membrane fractions alone. All groups showed transient weight losses and increased temperatures however, there were no significant differences in clinical parameters and survival rates between the groups. PMID:23340004

  14. Development and characterization of proton conductive membranes and membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ruichun

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), including hydrogen fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), are considered as attractive electrical power sources. However, there are some technical obstacles that impede the commercialization of PEMFCs. For instance, in H 2-PEMFCs, carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning of the anode catalyst causes serious performance loss; in DMFCs, methanol crossover through the membrane reduces the overall fuel cell efficiency. This work focused on: (1) developing high performance membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) and investigating their behavior at higher temperature H2-PEMFC with H2+CO as the fuel; (2) improving DMFCs efficiency by preparing low methanol crossover/good proton conductivity membranes based on NafionRTM matrix; (3) synthesizing and modifying low cost sulfonated hydrocarbon (SPEEK) membranes for both H2-PEMFCs and DMFCs applications. High performance membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) with composite NafionRTM-TeflonRTM-Zr(HPO 4)2 membranes were prepared, optimized and characterized at higher temperature (> 100°C)/lower relative humidity (< 100% RH) condition, using H2 or H2+CO as the fuel. Effects of CO concentration, temperature, relative humidity to the CO poisoning on H 2-PEMFC were studied by applying various electrochemical techniques. The electrochemical oxidation mechanism of H2/CO in higher temperature PEMFC was investigated and simulated. Two type of membranes based on NafionRTM matrix were prepared: silica/NafionRTM membrane and palladium impregnated NafionRTM (Pd-NafionRTM) membrane. The composite silica/NafionRTM membrane was developed by in-situ sol-gel reaction followed by solution casting, while the Pd-NafionRTM was fabricated via a supercritical fluid CO2 (scCO 2) route. Reduced methanol crossover and enhanced efficiency was observed by applying each of the two membranes to DMFCs. In addition, the research demonstrated that scCO2 is a promising technique for modifying membranes or depositing nano-particle electrocatalysts onto electrolyte. Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) was synthesized by a sulfonation reaction using poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK). Multilayer structure SPEEK membranes with methanol barriers were fabricated and showed enhanced membrane stability in DMFCs. Improved MEA performance was obtained due to lower methanol crossover and the presence of a good membrane/electrode interface for facilitating proton transfer.

  15. Mechanisms of gold nanoparticle mediated ultrashort laser cell membrane perforation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomaker, M.; Baumgart, J.; Motekaitis, D.; Heinemann, D.; Krawinkel, J.; Pangalos, M.; Bintig, W.; Boulais, E.; Lachaine, R.; St.-Louis Lalonde, B.; Ngezahayo, A.; Meunier, M.; Heisterkamp, A.

    2011-03-01

    The gold nanoparticle (AuNP) mediated ultrashort laser cell membrane perforation has been proven as an efficient delivery method to bring membrane impermeable molecules into the cytoplasm. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully determined yet. Different effects may occur when irradiating a AuNP with ultrashort laser pulses and finally enable the molecule to transfer. Depending on the parameters (pulse length, laser fluence and wavelength, particle size and shape, etc.) light absorption or an enhanced near field scattering can lead to perforation of the cell membrane when the particle is in close vicinity. Here we present our experimental results to clarify the perforation initiating mechanisms. The generation of cavitation and gas bubbles due to the laser induced effects were observed via time resolved imaging. Additionally, pump-probe experiments for bubble detection was performed. Furthermore, in our patch clamp studies a depolarization of the membrane potential and the current through the membrane of AuNP loaded cell during laser treatment was detected. This indicates an exchange of extra- and intra cellular ions trough the perforated cell membrane for some milliseconds. Additionally investigations by ESEM imaging were applied to study the interaction of cells and AuNP after co incubation. The images show an attachment of AuNP at the cell membrane after several hours of incubation. Moreover, images of irradiated and AuNP loaded cells were taken to visualize the laser induced effects.

  16. Models of dynamic extraction of lipid tethers from cell membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Sarah A.; Chou, Tom

    2010-06-01

    When a ligand that is bound to an integral membrane receptor is pulled, the membrane and the underlying cytoskeleton can deform before either the membrane delaminates from the cytoskeleton or the ligand detaches from the receptor. If the membrane delaminates from the cytoskeleton, it may be further extruded and form a membrane tether. We develop a phenomenological model for this process by assuming that deformations obey Hooke's law up to a critical force at which the cell membrane locally detaches from the cytoskeleton and a membrane tether forms. We compute the probability of tether formation and show that tethers can be extruded only within an intermediate range of force loading rates and pulling velocities. The mean tether length that arises at the moment of ligand detachment is computed as are the force loading rates and pulling velocities that yield the longest tethers.

  17. A detergent-free method for purifying caveolae membrane from tissue culture cells.

    PubMed

    Smart, E J; Ying, Y S; Mineo, C; Anderson, R G

    1995-10-24

    Current methods for purifying caveolae from tissue culture cells take advantage of the Triton X-100 insolubility of this membrane domain. To circumvent the use of detergents, we have developed a method that depends upon the unique buoyant density of caveolae membrane. The caveolae fractions that we obtain are highly enriched in caveolin. As a consequence we are able to identify caveolae-associated proteins that had previously gone undetected. Moreover, resident caveolae proteins that are soluble in Triton X-100 are retained during the isolation. PMID:7479734

  18. Membrane fusion in cells: molecular machinery and mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Leabu, M

    2006-01-01

    Membrane fusion is a sine qua non process for cell physiology. It is critical for membrane biogenesis, intracellular traffic, and cell secretion. Although investigated for over a century, only in the last 15 years, the molecular machinery and mechanism of membrane fusion has been deciphered. The membrane fusion event elicits essentially three actors on stage: anionic phospholipids - phosphatidylinositols, phosphatidyl serines, specific membrane proteins, and the calcium ions, all participating in a well orchestrated symphony. Three soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF)-attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) have been implicated in membrane fusion. Target membrane proteins, SNAP-25 and syntaxin (t-SNARE) and secretory vesicle-associated membrane protein (v-SNARE) or VAMP were discovered in the 1990's and suggested to be the minimal fusion machinery. Subsequently, the molecular mechanism of SNARE-induced membrane fusion was discovered. It was demonstrated that when t-SNARE-associated lipid membrane is exposed to v-SNARE-associated vesicles in the presence of Ca2+, the SNARE proteins interact in a circular array to form conducting channels, thus establishing continuity between the opposing bilayers. Further it was proved that SNAREs bring opposing bilayers close to within a distance of 2-3 Å, allowing Ca2+ to bridge them. The bridging of bilayers by Ca2+ then leads to the expulsion of water between the bilayers at the contact site, allowing lipid mixing and membrane fusion. Calcium bridging of opposing bilayers leads to the release of water, both from the water shell of hydrated Ca2+ ions, as well as the displacement of loosely coordinated water at the phosphate head groups in the lipid membrane. These discoveries provided for the first time, the molecular mechanism of SNARE-induced membrane fusion in cells. Some of the seminal discoveries are briefly discussed in this minireview. PMID:16796809

  19. Process development for functional membrane receptor production in mammalian cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christel Fenge; Irma Jansson; Thomas Fröberg; Marie Jönsson; Elke Lüllau; Linda Sygowski; Craig Moore; Dean Snyder; Michael Wood

    2002-01-01

    Two model G-protein coupled membrane receptors (GPCRs), aserotonin (5HT) and a metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor, stablyexpressed in CHO cells were used to characterize cultureconditions for maximum receptor expression and functionalactivity in membrane preparations. Expression levels of the5HT receptor were affected by the growth phase of the cellculture. Maximum receptor density, as measured by ligandbinding per mg membrane protein, was observed

  20. Improved Membrane Materials for PEM Fuel Cell Application

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth A. Mauritz; Robert B. Moore

    2008-06-30

    The overall goal of this project is to collect and integrate critical structure/property information in order to develop methods that lead to significant improvements in the durability and performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) materials. This project is focused on the fundamental improvement of PEMFC membrane materials with respect to chemical, mechanical and morphological durability as well as the development of new inorganically-modified membranes.

  1. Plasma membrane redox and regulation of cell growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. L. Crane; I. L. Sun; E. E. Sun; R. A. Crowe

    1995-01-01

    Summary Gene expression can be activated by external oxidants which are reduced at the cell surface by plasma membrane electron transport. The signals generated in response to the plasma membrane electron transport include activation of proton release, internal calcium changes, and change in reductant\\/oxidant ratio in the cytosol. H2O2 generated in response to ligands which bind to plasma membrane receptors

  2. Fractions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A. Blundred

    2012-01-01

    In this collection of 13 interactive Flash applets learners can check their understanding of various fraction concepts, including comparison to 1/2, location on the number line, equivalent fractions, and simplest form. Activities for the learners include sorting, labeling, constructing diagrams, and converting improper fractions. Displays are suitable for classroom demonstrations.

  3. Investigating cell membrane structure and dynamics with TCSPC-FLIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Marois, Alix; Owen, Dylan M.; Suhling, Klaus

    2015-03-01

    We report the use of Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) in a polarization-resolved Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging (FLIM) setup for the investigation of cell membrane structural and dynamic properties. This technique allows us to study the orientation and mobility of fluorescent membrane dyes, namely di-4-ANEPPDHQ and DiO, in model bilayers of different lipid compositions. Dipole alignment and extent of rotational motion can be linked to membrane order and fluidity. Comparison of the time-resolved anisotropy decays of the two fluorescent dyes suggests that rotational motion of membrane constituents is restricted in liquid-ordered phases, and appears to be limited to the region of aliphatic tails in liquid-disordered phases. In living cells, understanding the membrane structure provides crucial information on its functional properties, such as exo- and endocytosis, cell mobility and signal transduction.

  4. Diffusion Coefficient of Fluorescent Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in the Plasma Membrane of Cells

    PubMed Central

    Golebiewska, Urszula; Nyako, Marian; Woturski, William; Zaitseva, Irina

    2008-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) controls a surprisingly large number of processes in cells. Thus, many investigators have suggested that there might be different pools of PIP2 on the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. If a significant fraction of PIP2 is bound electrostatically to unstructured clusters of basic residues on membrane proteins, the PIP2 diffusion constant, D, should be reduced. We microinjected micelles of Bodipy TMR-PIP2 into cells, and we measured D on the inner leaflet of fibroblasts and epithelial cells by using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The average ± SD value from all cell types was D = 0.8 ± 0.2 ?m2/s (n = 218; 25°C). This is threefold lower than the D in blebs formed on Rat1 cells, D = 2.5 ± 0.8 ?m2/s (n = 26). It is also significantly lower than the D in the outer leaflet or in giant unilamellar vesicles and the diffusion coefficient for other lipids on the inner leaflet of these cell membranes. The simplest interpretation is that approximately two thirds of the PIP2 on inner leaflet of these plasma membranes is bound reversibly. PMID:18256277

  5. Production of mouse lymphotoxin by phytohemagglutinin-stimulated spleen cells requires two cell fractions.

    PubMed Central

    Aksamit, R R; Leonard, E J

    1982-01-01

    The appearance of lymphotoxin in the culture fluid of phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated mouse spleen cells required two cell fractions that were separated by adherence to plastic. Upon stimulation with PHA, neither cell fraction alone produced significant amounts of lymphotoxin; however, when the cell fractions were combined and then stimulated with PHA, full activity was produced. Cytotoxic activity was not fully restored by combining PHA-stimulated cultured fluids from adherent and nonadherent cell fractions. This indicated that the cytotoxic activity was not the result of two factors, one produced by each cell fraction, that acted on the target cells, but rather, two cells interacted to produce lymphotoxin. Treatment of the unfractionated spleen cells with monoclonal anti-Thy1.2 and complement before PHA stimulation greatly reduced the production of lymphotoxin and indicated that at least one of the cells was a T cell. Lymphotoxin production was partially restored by the addition of nonadherent cells to the anti-Thy1.2-treated cells, suggesting that the T cell was nonadherent. Treatment of unfractionated cells with either silica or carrageenan had no effect on the subsequent production of lymphotoxin by PHA, suggesting that the adherent cell was not actively phagocytic. PMID:6980190

  6. THE NATIVE MEMBRANE FUSION MACHINERY IN CELLS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eun-Hwan Jeong; Paul Webster; Chau Q. Khuong; A. K. M. Abdus Sattar; Mylan Satchi; Bhanu P. Jena

    1998-01-01

    Recombinant SNAREs have been demonstrated as the minimal membrane fusion machinery. The participation of additional proteins in the regulation of membrane fusion has been suggested. In this study we provide nanometer-resolution images of native NSF oligomers and SNARE complexes isolated from neurons and the pancreas. Our study reveals the presence of new coiled rod-like structures in association with the SNARE

  7. Low Crossover Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prakash, G. K. Surya; Smart, Marshall; Atti, Anthony R.; Olah, George A.; Narayanan, S. R.; Valdez, T.; Surampudi, S.

    1996-01-01

    Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC's) using polymer electrolyte membranes are promising power sources for portable and vehicular applications. State of the art technology using Nafion(R) 117 membranes (Dupont) are limited by high methanol permeability and cost, resulting in reduced fuel cell efficiencies and impractical commercialization. Therefore, much research in the fuel cell field is focused on the preparation and testing of low crossover and cost efficient polymer electrolyte membranes. The University of Southern California in cooperation with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is focused on development of such materials. Interpenetrating polymer networks are an effective method used to blend polymer systems without forming chemical links. They provide the ability to modify physical and chemical properties of polymers by optimizing blend compositions. We have developed a novel interpenetrating polymer network based on poly (vinyl - difluoride)/cross-linked polystyrenesulfonic acid polymer composites (PVDF PSSA). Sulfonation of polystyrene accounts for protonic conductivity while the non-polar, PVDF backbone provides structural integrity in addition to methanol rejection. Precursor materials were prepared and analyzed to characterize membrane crystallinity, stability and degree of interpenetration. USC JPL PVDF-PSSA membranes were also characterized to determine methanol permeability, protonic conductivity and sulfur distribution. Membranes were fabricated into membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) and tested for single cell performance. Tests include cell performance over a wide range of temperatures (20 C - 90 C) and cathode conditions (ambient Air/O2). Methanol crossover values are measured in situ using an in-line CO2 analyzer.

  8. Membrane stress increases cation permeability in red cells.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, R M

    1994-01-01

    The human red cell is known to increase its cation permeability when deformed by mechanical forces. Light-scattering measurements were used to quantitate the cell deformation, as ellipticity under shear. Permeability to sodium and potassium was not proportional to the cell deformation. An ellipticity of 0.75 was required to increase the permeability of the membrane to cations, and flux thereafter increased rapidly as the limits of cell extension were reached. Induction of membrane curvature by chemical agents also did not increase cation permeability. These results indicate that membrane deformation per se does not increase permeability, and that membrane tension is the effector for increased cation permeability. This may be relevant to some cation permeabilities observed by patch clamping. Images FIGURE 4 PMID:7858123

  9. Subnanosecond electric pulses cause membrane permeabilization and cell death.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shu; Guo, Siqi; Nesin, Vasyl; Heller, Richard; Schoenbach, Karl H

    2011-05-01

    Subnanosecond electric pulses (200 ps) at electric field intensities on the order of 20 kV/cm cause the death of B16.F10 murine melanoma cells when applied for minutes with a pulse repetition rate of 10 kHz. The lethal effect of the ultrashort pulses is found to be caused by a combination of thermal effects and electrical effects. Studies on the cellular level show increased transport across the membrane at much lower exposure times or number of pulses. Exposed to 2000 pulses, NG108 cells exhibit an increase in membrane conductance, but only allow transmembrane currents to flow, if the medium is positively biased with respect to the cell interior. This means that the cell membrane behaves like a rectifying diode. This increase in membrane conductance is a nonthermal process, since the temperature rise due to the pulsing is negligible. PMID:21303739

  10. Activation conformational change that transfers information across the cell membrane

    E-print Network

    receptor) ­ G-protein coupled receptors (many hormones, peptides, biogenic amines) #12;Ligand-gated ion channels (Ionotropic receptors) · Neuronal receptors for acetylcholine, glycine, serotonin, GABA · VeryReceptors · Activation conformational change that transfers information across the cell membrane

  11. Perceptual Grouping of Membrane Signals in Cell-based Assays

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Hang; Andarawewa, Punya Kumari; Han, Ju; Barcellos-Hoff,Mary Helen; Parvin, Bahram

    2007-02-02

    Membrane proteins organize themselves in a linear fashion where adjacent cells are attached together along the basal-lateral region. Their intensity distributions are often heterogeneous and may lack specificity. Grouping of these linear structures can aid in segmentation and quantitative representation of protein localization. However, quantitative analysis of these signals is often hindered by noise, variation in scale, and perceptual features. This paper introduces an iterative voting method for inferring the membrane signal as it relates to continuity. A unique aspect of this technique is in the topography of the voting kernel, which is refined and reoriented iteratively. The technique can cluster and group membrane signals along the tangential direction. It has an excellent noise immunity and is tolerant to perturbations in scale. Application of this technique to quantitative analysis of cell-cell adhesion mediated by integral cell membrane proteins is demonstrated.

  12. Decreasing Outer Hair Cell Membrane Cholesterol Increases Cochlear Electromechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brownell, William E.; Jacob, Stefan; Hakizimana, Pierre; Ulfendahl, Mats; Fridberger, Anders

    2011-11-01

    The effect of decreasing membrane cholesterol on the mechanical response of the cochlea to acoustic and/or electrical stimulation was monitored using laser interferometry. In contrast to pharmacological interventions that typically decrease cochlear electromechanics, reducing membrane cholesterol increased the response. The electromechanical response in untreated preparations was asymmetric with greater displacements in response to positive currents and cholesterol depletion increased the asymmetry. The results confirm that outer hair cell electromotility is enhanced by low membrane cholesterol. The asymmetry of the response indicates the outer hair cell resting membrane potential is hyperpolarized relative to the voltage of maximum gain for the outer hair cell voltage-displacement function. The magnitude of the response increase suggests a non-uniform distribution of cholesterol along the lateral wall of normal adult outer hair cells.

  13. Interferometric tomography of fuel cells for monitoring membrane water content

    E-print Network

    Waller, Laura

    We have developed a system that uses two 1D interferometric phase projections for reconstruction of 2D water content changes over time in situ in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system. By modifying the filtered ...

  14. Fibronectin coating of oxygenator membranes enhances endothelial cell attachment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can replace the lungs’ gas exchange capacity in refractory lung failure. However, its limited hemocompatibility, the activation of the coagulation and complement system as well as plasma leakage and protein deposition hamper mid- to long-term use and have constrained the development of an implantable lung assist device. In a tissue engineering approach, lining the blood contact surfaces of the ECMO device with endothelial cells might overcome these limitations. As a first step towards this aim, we hypothesized that coating the oxygenator’s gas exchange membrane with proteins might positively influence the attachment and proliferation of arterial endothelial cells. Methods Sheets of polypropylene (PP), polyoxymethylpentene (TPX) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), typical material used for oxygenator gas exchange membranes, were coated with collagen, fibrinogen, gelatin or fibronectin. Tissue culture treated well plates served as controls. Endothelial cell attachment and proliferation were analyzed for a period of 4 days by microscopic examination and computer assisted cell counting. Results Endothelial cell seeding efficiency is within range of tissue culture treated controls for fibronectin treated surfaces only. Uncoated membranes as well as all other coatings lead to lower cell attachment. A confluent endothelial cell layer develops on fibronectin coated PDMS and the control surface only. Conclusions Fibronectin increases endothelial cells’ seeding efficiency on different oxygenator membrane material. PDMS coated with fibronectin shows sustained cell attachment for a period of four days in static culture conditions. PMID:23356939

  15. Dynamic continuity of cytoplasmic and membrane compartments between plant cells

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Fluorescence photobleaching was employed to examine the intercellular movement of fluorescein and carboxyfluorescein between contiguous soybean root cells (SB-1 cell line) growing in tissue culture. Results of these experiments demonstrated movement of these fluorescent probes between cytoplasmic (symplastic) compartments. This symplastic transport was inhibited with Ca2+ in the presence of ionophore A23187, and also with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Both of these agents have previously been demonstrated to inhibit gap junction-mediated cell-cell communication in animal cells. In a companion experiment, a fluorescent phospholipid analogue, N-4- nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole phosphatidylcholine (NBD-PC), was incorporated into soybean cell membranes to examine whether dynamic membrane continuity existed between contacting cells, a transport route not existing between animal cells. Photobleaching single soybean cells growing in a filamentous strand demonstrated that phospholipid did exchange between contiguous cells. PMID:3346323

  16. A novel unitized regenerative proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. J. Murphy; A. J. Cisar; A. Gonzalez-Martin; C. E. Salinas; S. F. Simpson

    1995-01-01

    A difficulty encountered in designing a unitized regenerative proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell lies in the incompatibility of electrode structures and electrocatalyst materials optimized for either of the two functions (fuel cell or electrolyzer) with the needs of the other function. This difficulty is compounded in previous regenerative fuel cell designs by the fact that water, which is needed

  17. A Flow Cell for Use with an Oxygen Membrane Electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Lawrence Gulberg; Gary D. Christian

    1979-01-01

    A flow cell was constructed from plexiglass. The cell was designed to allow insertion and removal of a Clark-type oxygen membrane electrode. It was used in a flow system to amperometrically determine glucose and glucose oxidase via oxygen depletion. Hydrogen peroxide was determined by oxidation at +0.9 V vs. the silver\\/silver chloride electrode by removing the electrode membrane. Alternatively, a

  18. How helminths use excretory secretory fractions to modulate dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    White, Rhiannon R.; Artavanis-Tsakonas, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that helminth parasites have immunomodulatory effects on their hosts. They characteristically cause a skew toward TH2 immunity, stimulate Treg cells while simultaneously inhibiting TH1 and TH17 responses. Additionally, they induce eosinophilia and extensive IgE release. The exact mechanism of how the worms achieve this effect have yet to be fully elucidated; however, parasite-derived secretions and their interaction with antigen presenting cells have been centrally implicated. Herein, we will review the effects of helminth excretory-secretory fractions on dendritic cells and discuss how this interaction is crucial in shaping the host response. PMID:23221477

  19. Membrane Composition Tunes the Outer Hair Cell Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopalan, L.; Sfondouris, J.; Oghalai, J. S.; Pereira, F. A.; Brownell, W. E.

    2009-02-01

    Cholesterol and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an ?-3 fatty acid, affect membrane mechanical properties in different ways and modulate the function of membrane proteins. We have probed the functional consequence of altering cholesterol and DHA levels in the membranes of OHCs and prestin expressing HEK cells. Large, dynamic and reversible changes in prestin-associated charge movement and OHC motor activity result from altering the concentration of membrane cholesterol. Increasing membrane cholesterol shifts the q/V function ~ 50 mV in the hyperpolarizing direction, possibly a response related to increases in membrane stiffness. The voltage shift is linearly related to total membrane cholesterol. Increasing cholesterol also decreases the total charge moved in a linear fashion. Decreasing membrane cholesterol shifts the q/V function ~ 50 mV in the depolarizing direction with little or no effect on the amount of charge moved. In vivo increases in membrane cholesterol transiently increase but ultimately lead to decreases in DPOAE. Docosahexaenoic acid shifts the q/V function in the hyperpolarizing direction < 15 mV and increases total charge moved. Tuning of cochlear function by membrane cholesterol contributes to the exquisite temporal and frequency processing of mammalian hearing by optimizing the cochlear amplifier.

  20. Internally humidified membranes for use in fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cisar, A.; Gonzalez-Martin, A.; Murphy, O.J.; Simpson, S.F.; Salinas, C. [Lynntech, Inc., College Station, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    For optimal operation the membrane in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell must be kept fully hydrated at all times. In most systems this is accomplished by the addition of water as vapor or as a mist to at least the fuel stream, and frequently both of the gas streams being fed to the cell. This requires the inclusion of a humidifier in the system as either a portion of the cell stack or as an external component, increasing the size, weight, and complexity of the system. The authors have developed a membrane equipped with internal passages which allows water to be fed directly to the entire active area of the membrane, putting the water directly where it is needed. This produces a uniform water content throughout the membrane while at the same time reducing the size and weight of the system by eliminating the need for a separate humidification section. These new membranes are useful in most types of fuel cells and electrolyzers, but they have specific advantages for regenerative fuel cells, where the same structure must function as both a fuel cell and as an electrolyzer.

  1. Concomitant Alterations of Sodium Flux and Membrane Phospholipid Metabolism in Red Blood Cells: Studies in Hereditary Spherocytosis*

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Harry S.; Karnovsky, Manfred L.

    1967-01-01

    The role of membrane phosphatides in transport processes has been investigated in red cells from splenectomized patients with hereditary spherocytosis (HS). Incorporation of inorganic 32phosphate into the membrane phosphatides of HS red cells was approximately twice normal, coinciding with the nearly twofold increment in flux of sodium ions in the cells. A consistent, inordinate increase in specific activity of a chromatographic fraction containing phosphatidylserine provided the bulk of the over-all increase in labeling of HS red cell phosphatides. The specific activity of phosphatidic acid was increased but not consistently. Radioactivity of the “acidic phosphatides” (phosphatidylserine and phosphatidic acid fractions) decreased, in general, when the sodium flux was low, i.e., when the cells were suspended in media of low sodium content. When the cation flux was elevated (hypotonic media), there was a marked (ca. 35%) increase in the labeling of phosphatidylserine fractions. Normal red cells whose permeability to cations was increased by exposure to 0.5 N butanol also exhibited increased labeling of acidic phosphatides. Considerations of the stoichiometry of cation transport and phosphatide labeling make it unlikely that phospholipids act directly as carrier molecules for cations in red cell membranes. On the other hand, the involvement of these lipid substances in cation movements is substantiated by correlating several different states of sodium flux with the labeling of the phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylserine fractions. Images PMID:6018757

  2. Controlled permeation of cell membrane by single bubble acoustic cavitation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Y.; Yang, K.; Cui, J.; Ye, J. Y.; Deng, C. X.

    2011-01-01

    Sonoporation is the membrane disruption generated by ultrasound and has been exploited as a non-viral strategy for drug and gene delivery. Acoustic cavitation of microbubbles has been recognized to play an important role in sonoporation. However, due to the lack of adequate techniques for precise control of cavitation activities and real-time assessment of the resulting sub-micron process of sonoporation, limited knowledge has been available regarding the detail processes and correlation of cavitation with membrane disruption at the single cell level. In the current study, we developed a combined approach including optical, acoustic, and electrophysiological techniques to enable synchronized manipulation, imaging, and measurement of cavitation of single bubbles and the resulting cell membrane disruption in real-time. Using a self-focused femtosecond laser and high frequency (7.44 MHz) pulses, a single microbubble was generated and positioned at a desired distance from the membrane of a Xenopus oocyte. Cavitation of the bubble was achieved by applying a low frequency (1.5 MHz) ultrasound pulse (duration 13.3 or 40 µs) to induce bubble collapse. Disruption of the cell membrane was assessed by the increase in the transmembrane current (TMC) of the cell under voltage clamp. Simultaneous high-speed bright field imaging of cavitation and measurements of the TMC were obtained to correlate the ultrasound-generated bubble activities with the cell membrane poration. The change in membrane permeability was directly associated with the formation of a sub-micrometer pore from a local membrane rupture generated by bubble collapse or bubble compression depending on ultrasound amplitude and duration. The impact of the bubble collapse on membrane permeation decreased rapidly with increasing distance (D) between the bubble (diameter d) and the cell membrane. The effective range of cavitation impact on membrane poration was determined to be D/d = 0.75. The maximum mean radius of the pores was estimated from the measured TMC to be 0.106 ± 0.032 µm (n = 70) for acoustic pressure of 1.5 MPa (duration 13.3 µs), and increased to 0.171 ± 0.030 µm (n = 125) for acoustic pressure of 1.7 MPa and to 0.182 ± 0.052 µm (n=112) for a pulse duration of 40 µs (1.5 MPa). These results from controlled cell membrane permeation by cavitation of single bubbles revealed insights and key factors affecting sonoporation at the single cell level. PMID:21945682

  3. Insulin receptor: Interaction with nonreceptor glycoprotein from liver cell membranes

    PubMed Central

    Maturo, Joseph M.; Hollenberg, Morley D.

    1978-01-01

    In crude receptor preparations (either particulate or soluble) of rat liver membranes, the insulin receptor exhibits complicated binding kinetics (two binding plateaus, half-saturated at approximately 60 pM and 700 pM insulin) and an apparent chromatographic heterogeneity, suggested by the presence of two detectable, soluble insulin-binding components with apparent Stokes radii of 72 Å and 38 Å. In contrast, the insulin receptor isolated by affinity chromatography exhibits a simple binding isotherm (half-maximal saturation of binding at 700 pM insulin) without evidence for negative cooperativity and behaves as a single component (apparent Stokes radius of 38 Å) upon chromatography on Sepharose 6B. The apparent discrepancies between the properties of the unpurified insulin receptor and the affinity-purified receptor can be attributed to the presence in crude preparations of a nonreceptor constituent(s) having properties consistent with those of a membrane glycoprotein. A glycoprotein fraction from such crude soluble membrane preparations, freed from insulin receptor and subsequently partially purified using concanavalin-A-agarose, when combined with affinity-purified insulin receptor, causes both a reappearance of the complicated binding kinetics and an increase in the receptor's apparent Stokes radius from 38 Å to 72 Å. Similar results are observed for a glycoprotein fraction obtained from rat adipocyte membranes but are not observed for an identical fraction isolated from human erythrocyte membranes. We conclude that the insulin receptor in rat liver membranes can interact with another nonreceptor membrane glycoprotein that may represent either a nonrecognition moiety of the receptor oligomer or an effector molecule to the biological action of insulin. PMID:277909

  4. Decreased Fluidity of Red Cell Membrane Lipids in Abetalipoproteinemia

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Richard A.; Durocher, John R.; Leslie, Mary H.

    1977-01-01

    Acanthocytic red cells in patients with abetalipoproteinemia are morphologically similar to the red cells in spur cell anemia. Fluidity of membrane lipids is decreased in spur cells due to their excess cholesterol content. Acanthocyte membranes have an increased content of sphingomyelin and a decreased content of lecithin. To assess the effect of this abnormality of acanthocyte membrane lipid composition on membrane fluidity, we studied red cells from five patients with abetalipoproteinemia and four obligate heterozygote family members. Membrane fluidity was measured in terms of microviscosity (¯?) at 37°C, assessed by means of the fluorescence polarization of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene. It was increased from 3.2±0.1 poise in normals to 4.01-4.14 poise in acanthocytes. This was associated with an increase in the sphingomyelin/lecithin ratio from 0.84±0.08 in normals in 1.45-1.61 in acanthocytes. The ¯? of acanthocyte membranes was not influenced by the degree of vitamin E deficiency. Similar changes in ¯? were observed in liposomes prepared from red cell lipids. Heterozygotes had normal sphingomyelin/lecithin ratios and normal values for ¯?. The flow activation energy for viscosity, a measure of the degree of order in the hydrophobic portion of the membrane, was decreased from 8.3 kcal/mole in normal red cells to 7.2 kcal/mole in acanthocytes, indicating that acanthocyte membrane lipids are more ordered. Variations in the sphingomyelin/lecithin mole ratio of liposomes prepared from brain sphingomyelin and egg lecithin with equimolar cholesterol caused similar changes in both ¯? and activation energy. The deformability of acanthocytes, assessed by means of filtration through 3-?m filters, was decreased. These studies indicate that the increased sphingomyelin/lecithin ratio of acanthocytes is responsible for their decreased membrane fluidity. As in spur cells and in red cells enriched with cholesterol in vitro, this decrease in membrane fluidity occurs coincidentally with an abnormality in cell contour and an impairment in cell deformability. PMID:874076

  5. The fractional viscoelastic response of human breast tissue cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmichael, B.; Babahosseini, H.; Mahmoodi, S. N.; Agah, M.

    2015-07-01

    The mechanical response of a living cell is notoriously complicated. The complex, heterogeneous characteristics of cellular structure introduce difficulties that simple linear models of viscoelasticity cannot overcome, particularly at deep indentation depths. Herein, a nano-scale stress-relaxation analysis performed with an atomic force microscope reveals that isolated human breast cells do not exhibit simple exponential relaxation capable of being modeled by the standard linear solid (SLS) model. Therefore, this work proposes the application of the fractional Zener (FZ) model of viscoelasticity to extract mechanical parameters from the entire relaxation response, improving upon existing physical techniques to probe isolated cells. The FZ model introduces a new parameter that describes the fractional time-derivative dependence of the response. The results show an exceptional increase in conformance to the experimental data compared to that predicted by the SLS model, and the order of the fractional derivative (?) is remarkably homogeneous across the populations, with a median value of 0.48 ± 0.06 for the malignant population and 0.51 ± 0.07 for the benign. The cells’ responses exhibit power-law behavior and complexity not associated with simple relaxation (SLS, ? = 1) that supports the application of a fractional model. The distributions of some of the FZ parameters also preserve the distinction between the malignant and benign sample populations seen from the linear model and previous results while including the contribution of fast-relaxation behavior. The resulting viscosity, measured by a composite relaxation time, exhibits considerably less dispersion due to residual error than the distribution generated by the linear model and therefore serves as a more powerful marker for cell differentiation.

  6. Anhydrous Proton-Conducting Membranes for Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Yen, Shiao-Pin S.

    2005-01-01

    Polymeric electrolyte membranes that do not depend on water for conduction of protons are undergoing development for use in fuel cells. Prior polymeric electrolyte fuel-cell membranes (e.g., those that contain perfluorosulfonic acid) depend on water and must be limited to operation below a temperature of 125 C because they retain water poorly at higher temperatures. In contrast, the present developmental anhydrous membranes are expected to function well at temperatures up to 200 C. The developmental membranes exploit a hopping-and-reorganization proton- conduction process that can occur in the solid state in organic amine salts and is similar to a proton-conduction process in a liquid. This process was studied during the 1970s, but until now, there has been no report of exploiting organic amine salts for proton conduction in fuel cells.

  7. Incorporation of Photosynthetic Reaction Centers in the Membrane of Human Cells: Toward a New Tool for Optical Control of Cell Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Pennisi, Cristian P. [Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark; Jensen, Poul Erik [VKR Research Center, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; Zachar, Vladimir [Laboratory for Stem Cell Research, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark; Greenbaum, Elias [ORNL; Yoshida, Ken [Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark

    2009-01-01

    The Photosystem I (PSI) reaction center is a photosynthetic membrane complex in which light-induced charge separation is accompanied by the generation of an electric potential. It has been recently proposed as a means to confer light sensitivity to cells possessing voltage-activated ion channels, but the feasibility of heterologous incorporation has not been demonstrated. In this work, methods of delivery and detection of PSI in the membrane of human cells are presented. Purified fractions of PSI were reconstituted in proteoliposomes that were used as vehicles for the membrane incorporation. A fluorescent impermeable dye was entrapped in the vesicles to qualitatively analyze the nature of the vesicle cell interaction. After incorporation, the localization and orientation of the complexes in the membrane was studied using immuno-fluorescence microscopy. The results showed complexes oriented as in native membranes, which were randomly distributed in clusters over the entire surface of the cell. Additionally, analysis of cell viability showed that the incorporation process does not damage the cell membrane. Taken together, the results of this work suggest that the mammalian cellular membrane is a reasonable environment for the incorporation of PSI complexes, which opens the possibility of using these molecular photovoltaic structures for optical control of cell activity.

  8. Proton conducting membranes for high temperature fuel cells with solid state water free membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Pin S. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A water free, proton conducting membrane for use in a fuel cell is fabricated as a highly conducting sheet of converted solid state organic amine salt, such as converted acid salt of triethylenediamine with two quaternized tertiary nitrogen atoms, combined with a nanoparticulate oxide and a stable binder combined with the converted solid state organic amine salt to form a polymeric electrolyte membrane. In one embodiment the membrane is derived from triethylenediamine sulfate, hydrogen phosphate or trifiate, an oxoanion with at least one ionizable hydrogen, organic tertiary amine bisulfate, polymeric quaternized amine bisulfate or phosphate, or polymeric organic compounds with quaternizable nitrogen combined with Nafion to form an intimate network with ionic interactions.

  9. HOCl exposure of a human airway epithelial cell line decreases its plasma membrane neutral endopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Lang, Z H; Murlas, C G

    1991-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that luminal exposure of airway segments in vitro to HOCl produces airway muscle hyperresponsiveness to substance P and a decrease in neutral endopeptidase (NEP) activity of tissue segment homogenates, suggesting that HOCl may decrease airway epithelial cell NEP activity. To confirm that this effect occurs in humans and to investigate possible subcellular mechanisms for it, we assessed HOCl exposure of the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-1. These cells, grown to confluency in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium with 10% fetal bovine serum and penicillin-streptomycin, were exposed in situ for 5 min to 100 microM HOCl in a phosphate-buffered saline solution (PBS; pH 7.0 at 37 degrees C) or to PBS alone. Thereafter, cells were rinsed and assayed for NEP activity employing reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. This activity was characterized by the generation of phosphoramidon-inhibitable product (ANA) cleaved from the synthetic substrate succinyl-(ala)3-p-nitroaniline during a 30 min incubation at 37 degrees C. Cell viability was assessed by changes in LDH release, trypan blue exclusion, and cell volume. In some experiments, crude plasma membrane and soluble components of exposed cells were isolated and differential NEP activity was assayed. We found that a 5 min exposure to HOCl decreased whole cell NEP activity from 74.1 +/- 4.4 (mean +/- SE) to 54.3 +/- 6.0 pmoles of ANA/min/10(6) cells (p less than 0.05), while no parameter of cell viability was affected. NEP activity in the crude membrane fraction decreased 36.3 +/- 3.1% after exposure (p less than 0.01), whereas NEP activity in the soluble fraction increased 4.0 +/- 0.6%. Isolated membrane NEP exposed by itself was not affected. Subsequent experiments with reducing agents demonstrated that NEP activity of cell cultures pretreated with 100 mM of either beta-mercaptoethanol or dithiothrietol before HOCl exposure was not significantly different from control values. We conclude that whole cell HOCl exposure decreases Calu-1 plasma membrane NEP. This loss appears to occur by internalization of cell membrane NEP. PMID:1661804

  10. Antioxidant supplementation of boar spermatozoa from different fractions of the ejaculate improves cryopreservation: changes in sperm membrane lipid architecture.

    PubMed

    Peña, F J; Johannisson, A; Wallgren, M; Rodriguez Martinez, H

    2004-05-01

    Previous studies have shown sperm quality after cryopreservation differs depending on the fraction of seminal plasma the boar spermatozoa are contained in. Thus, spermatozoa contained in the first 10 ml of the sperm-rich fraction (portion I) withstand handling procedures (extension, handling and freezing/thawing) better than those contained in the latter part of a fractionated ejaculate (second portion of the sperm-rich fraction and the post-spermatic fraction; portion II). The present study evaluated whether an exogenous antioxidant, the water-soluble vitamin E analogue Trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid), could, when added to the freezing extender in a split-sample design trial, improve the post-thaw viability and membrane quality of this particular portion of the ejaculate, with particular attention to the status of the plasma membrane. Using a split-sample design, the initial changes in the fluidity status of the sperm plasmalemma after thawing were measured by flow cytometry (FC) after loading with Merocyanine-540 and YO-PRO-1. The FC-derived data revealed a clear ejaculate portion-dependent effect of the antioxidant supplementation. While no beneficial effect of the antioxidant supplementation was visible in spermatozoa from portion I, more spermatozoa with intact membranes were observed in the supplemented samples of portion II, suggesting the protective effect of vitamin E is dependent of the portion of the boar ejaculate considered. PMID:15460106

  11. Membrane Targeting of P-type ATPases in Plant Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey F. Harper, Ph.D.

    2004-06-30

    How membrane proteins are targeted to specific subcellular locations is a very complex and poorly understood area of research. Our long-term goal is to use P-type ATPases (ion pumps), in a model plant system Arabidopsis, as a paradigm to understand how members of a family of closely related membrane proteins can be targeted to different subcellular locations. The research is divided into two specific aims. The first aim is focused on determining the targeting destination of all 10 ACA-type calcium pumps (Arabidopsis Calcium ATPase) in Arabidopsis. ACAs represent a plant specific-subfamily of plasma membrane-type calcium pumps. In contrast to animals, the plant homologs have been found in multiple membrane systems, including the ER (ACA2), tonoplast (ACA4) and plasma membrane (ACA8). Their high degree of similarity provides a unique opportunity to use a comparative approach to delineate the membrane specific targeting information for each pump. One hypothesis to be tested is that an endomembrane located ACA can be re-directed to the plasma membrane by including targeting information from a plasma membrane isoform, ACA8. Our approach is to engineer domain swaps between pumps and monitor the targeting of chimeric proteins in plant cells using a Green Fluorescence Protein (GFP) as a tag. The second aim is to test the hypothesis that heterologous transporters can be engineered into plants and targeted to the plasma membrane by fusing them to a plasma membrane proton pump. As a test case we are evaluating the targeting properties of fusions made between a yeast sodium/proton exchanger (Sod2) and a proton pump (AHA2). This fusion may potentially lead to a new strategy for engineering salt resistant plants. Together these aims are designed to provide fundamental insights into the biogenesis and function of plant cell membrane systems.

  12. A stromal cell–derived membrane protein that supports hematopoietic stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mao Sakita-Ishikawa; Yoshihiro Morikawa; Toru Nakano; Toshio Kitamura; Masaki Saito; Hiroo Ueno

    2003-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells cannot be maintained in vitro without stromal cells, even if they are provided with growth factors, and it is likely that supportive cells in the bone marrow express membrane or secreted proteins that maintain hematopoiesis. Here we show that mKirre, a mammalian homolog of the gene kirre of Drosophila melanogaster, encodes a type Ia membrane protein that

  13. A statistical mechanical model of cell membrane ion channels in electric fields: The mean-field approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. S.; Thompson, C. J.; Anderson, V.; Wood, A. W.

    A statistical mechanical model of cell membrane ion channels is proposed which incorporates interactions between ion channels and external electric fields. The model provides a physical explanation of trans-membrane ion transport. Under a mean-field approximation, the maximum fractions of open potassium and sodium channels are obtained by solving a self-consistent nonlinear algebraic equation. Using known parameters for the squid giant axon, the model gives excellent agreement with experimental measurements for potassium and sodium trans-membrane conductance. The numerical results imply that the chemical potential of open channels and the interaction energy between channels are well above the thermal noise.

  14. Correlations between the Dielectric Properties and Exterior Morphology of Cells Revealed by Dielectrophoretic Field-Flow Fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Gascoyne, Peter R. C.; Shim, Sangjo; Noshari, Jamileh; Becker, Frederick F.; Stemke-Hale, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Although dielectrophoresis (DEP) has great potential for addressing clinical cell isolation problems based on cell dielectric differences, a biological basis for predicting the DEP behavior of cells has been lacking. Here, the dielectric properties of the NCI-60 panel of tumor cell types have been measured by dielectrophoretic (DEP) field-flow fractionation, correlated with the exterior morphologies of the cells during growth, and compared with the dielectric and morphological characteristics of the subpopulations of peripheral blood. In agreement with earlier findings, cell total capacitance varied with both cell size and plasma membrane folding and the dielectric properties of the NCI-60 cell types in suspension reflected the plasma membrane area and volume of the cells at their growth sites. Therefore, the behavior of cells in DEP-based manipulations is largely determined by their exterior morphological characteristics prior to release into suspension. As a consequence, DEP is able to discriminate between cells of similar size having different morphological origins, offering a significant advantage over size-based filtering for isolating circulating tumor cells, for example. The findings provide a framework for anticipating cell dielectric behavior on the basis of structure-function relationships and suggest that DEP should be widely applicable as a surface marker-independent method for sorting cells. PMID:23172680

  15. Molecular interactions between gold nanoparticles and model cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Peipei; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Zhang, Chi; Chen, Zhan

    2015-04-21

    The interactions between nanoparticles (NPs) and cells are of huge interest because NPs have been extensively researched for biomedical applications. For the cellular entry of NPs, it remains unclear how the cell membrane molecules respond to the exposure of NPs due to a lack of appropriate surface/interface-sensitive techniques to study NP-cell membrane interactions in situ in real time. In this study, sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was employed to examine the interactions between lipid bilayers (serving as model mammalian cell membranes) and Au NPs of four different sizes with the same mass, or the same NP number, or the same NP surface area. It was found that lipid flip-flop was induced by Au NPs of all four sizes. Interestingly, the lipid flip-flop rate was found to increase as the Au NP size increased with respect to the same particle number or the same NP surface area. However, the induced lipid flip-flop rate was the same for Au NPs with different sizes with the same mass, which was interpreted by the same "effective surface contact area" between Au NPs and the model cell membrane. We believe that this study provided the first direct observation of the lipid flip-flop induced by the interactions between Au NPs and the model mammalian cell membrane. PMID:25776800

  16. Direct mapping of nanoscale compositional connectivity on intact cell membranes.

    PubMed

    van Zanten, Thomas S; Gómez, Jordi; Manzo, Carlo; Cambi, Alessandra; Buceta, Javier; Reigada, Ramon; Garcia-Parajo, Maria F

    2010-08-31

    Lateral segregation of cell membranes is accepted as a primary mechanism for cells to regulate a diversity of cellular functions. In this context, lipid rafts have been conceptualized as organizing principle of biological membranes where underlying cholesterol-mediated selective connectivity must exist even at the resting state. However, such a level of nanoscale compositional connectivity has been challenging to prove. Here we used single-molecule near-field scanning optical microscopy to visualize the nanolandscape of raft ganglioside GM1 after tightening by its ligand cholera toxin (CTxB) on intact cell membranes. We show that CTxB tightening of GM1 is sufficient to initiate a minimal raft coalescence unit, resulting in the formation of cholesterol-dependent GM1 nanodomains < 120 nm in size. This particular arrangement appeared independent of cell type and GM1 expression level on the membrane. Simultaneous dual color high-resolution images revealed that GPI anchored and certain transmembrane proteins were recruited to regions proximal (< 150 nm) to CTxB-GM1 nanodomains without physical intermixing. Together with in silico experiments, our high-resolution data conclusively demonstrate the existence of raft-based interconnectivity at the nanoscale. Such a linked state on resting cell membranes constitutes thus an obligatory step toward the hierarchical evolution of large-scale raft coalescence upon cell activation. PMID:20713733

  17. Direct mapping of nanoscale compositional connectivity on intact cell membranes

    PubMed Central

    van Zanten, Thomas S.; Gómez, Jordi; Manzo, Carlo; Cambi, Alessandra; Buceta, Javier; Reigada, Ramon; Garcia-Parajo, Maria F.

    2010-01-01

    Lateral segregation of cell membranes is accepted as a primary mechanism for cells to regulate a diversity of cellular functions. In this context, lipid rafts have been conceptualized as organizing principle of biological membranes where underlying cholesterol-mediated selective connectivity must exist even at the resting state. However, such a level of nanoscale compositional connectivity has been challenging to prove. Here we used single-molecule near-field scanning optical microscopy to visualize the nanolandscape of raft ganglioside GM1 after tightening by its ligand cholera toxin (CTxB) on intact cell membranes. We show that CTxB tightening of GM1 is sufficient to initiate a minimal raft coalescence unit, resulting in the formation of cholesterol-dependent GM1 nanodomains < 120 nm in size. This particular arrangement appeared independent of cell type and GM1 expression level on the membrane. Simultaneous dual color high-resolution images revealed that GPI anchored and certain transmembrane proteins were recruited to regions proximal (< 150 nm) to CTxB-GM1 nanodomains without physical intermixing. Together with in silico experiments, our high-resolution data conclusively demonstrate the existence of raft-based interconnectivity at the nanoscale. Such a linked state on resting cell membranes constitutes thus an obligatory step toward the hierarchical evolution of large-scale raft coalescence upon cell activation. PMID:20713733

  18. Direct Visualization of Membrane Architecture of Myelinating Cells in Transgenic Mice Expressing Membrane-Anchored EGFP

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yaqi; Kim, BongWoo; He, Xuelian; Kim, Sunja; Lu, Changqing; Wang, Haibo; Cho, Ssang-Goo; Hou, Yiping; Li, Jianrong; Zhao, Xianghui; Lu, Q. Richard

    2014-01-01

    Myelinogenesis is a complex process that involves substantial and dynamic changes in plasma membrane architecture and myelin interaction with axons. Highly ramified processes of oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) make axonal contact and then extrapolate to wrap around axons and form multilayer compact myelin sheathes. Currently, the mechanisms governing myelin sheath assembly and axon selection by myelinating cells are not fully understood. Here, we generated a transgenic mouse line expressing the membrane-anchored green fluorescent protein (mEGFP) in myelinating cells, which allow live imaging of details of myelinogenesis and cellular behaviors in the nervous systems. mEGFP expression is driven by the promoter of 2?-3?-cyclic nucleotide 3?-phosphodiesterase (CNP) that is expressed in the myelinating cell lineage. Robust mEGFP signals appear in the membrane processes of oligodendrocytes in the CNS and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), wherein mEGFP expression defines the inner layers of myelin sheaths and Schmidt-Lanterman incisures in adult sciatic nerves. In addition, mEGFP expression can be used to track the extent of remyelination after demyelinating injury in a toxin-induced demyelination animal model. Taken together, the membrane-anchored mEGFP expression in the new transgenic line would facilitate direct visualization of dynamic myelin membrane formation and assembly during development and process remodeling during remyelination after various demyelinating injuries. PMID:24851283

  19. Accumulation of an Antidepressant in Vesiculogenic Membranes of Yeast Cells Triggers Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sean; Perlstein, Ethan O.

    2012-01-01

    Many antidepressants are cationic amphipaths, which spontaneously accumulate in natural or reconstituted membranes in the absence of their specific protein targets. However, the clinical relevance of cellular membrane accumulation by antidepressants in the human brain is unknown and hotly debated. Here we take a novel, evolutionarily informed approach to studying the effects of the selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor sertraline/Zoloft® on cell physiology in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast), which lacks a serotonin transporter entirely. We biochemically and pharmacologically characterized cellular uptake and subcellular distribution of radiolabeled sertraline, and in parallel performed a quantitative ultrastructural analysis of organellar membrane homeostasis in untreated vs. sertraline-treated cells. These experiments have revealed that sertraline enters yeast cells and then reshapes vesiculogenic membranes by a complex process. Internalization of the neutral species proceeds by simple diffusion, is accelerated by proton motive forces generated by the vacuolar H+-ATPase, but is counteracted by energy-dependent xenobiotic efflux pumps. At equilibrium, a small fraction (10–15%) of reprotonated sertraline is soluble while the bulk (90–85%) partitions into organellar membranes by adsorption to interfacial anionic sites or by intercalation into the hydrophobic phase of the bilayer. Asymmetric accumulation of sertraline in vesiculogenic membranes leads to local membrane curvature stresses that trigger an adaptive autophagic response. In mutants with altered clathrin function, this adaptive response is associated with increased lipid droplet formation. Our data not only support the notion of a serotonin transporter-independent component of antidepressant function, but also enable a conceptual framework for characterizing the physiological states associated with chronic but not acute antidepressant administration in a model eukaryote. PMID:22529904

  20. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell conductivity and system analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qian Han

    2003-01-01

    A fuel cell converts chemical energy to electrical energy. It is a device that uses the electrochemical reaction of hydrogen and an oxidant, to produce electrical energy silently, without combustion. The role of the electrolyte in a PEM fuel cell is played by a proton exchange membrane. NafionRTM and its derivatives are the most widely used and studied polymers. Percolation

  1. Effect of Membrane Surface Properties During the Fast Evaluation of Cell Attachment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seoktae Kang; Eric M. V. Hoek; Heechul Choi; Hangsik Shin

    2006-01-01

    The biofouling potential is one of the important factors to design and to select membranes for water and wastewater treatment. In this investigation, the effect of membrane surface properties during the attachment of S. cerevisiae cells was examined using a laboratory?scale membrane filtration cell enabling direct microscopic observation of microbial cell deposition. The experimental results from 6 commercially available membranes

  2. A water and heat management model for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, T.V.; White, R.E. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-08-01

    Proper water and heat management are essential for obtaining high-power-density performance at high energy efficiency for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells. A water and heat management model was developed and used to investigate the effectiveness of various humidification designs. The model accounts for water transport across the membrane by electro-osmosis and diffusion, heat transfer from the solid phase to the gas phase and latent heat associated with water evaporation and condensation in the flow channels. Results from the model showed that at high current (> 1A/cm[sup 2]) ohmic loss in the membrane accounts for a large fraction of the voltage loss in the cell and back diffusion of water from the cathode side of the membrane is insufficient to keep the membrane hydrated (i.e., conductive). Consequently, to minimize this ohmic loss the anode stream must be humidified, and when air is used instead of pure oxygen the cathode stream must also be humidified.

  3. Direct Cytoskeleton Forces Cause Membrane Softening in Red Blood Cells.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-García, Ruddi; López-Montero, Iván; Mell, Michael; Egea, Gustavo; Gov, Nir S; Monroy, Francisco

    2015-06-16

    Erythrocytes are flexible cells specialized in the systemic transport of oxygen in vertebrates. This physiological function is connected to their outstanding ability to deform in passing through narrow capillaries. In recent years, there has been an influx of experimental evidence of enhanced cell-shape fluctuations related to metabolically driven activity of the erythroid membrane skeleton. However, no direct observation of the active cytoskeleton forces has yet been reported to our knowledge. Here, we show experimental evidence of the presence of temporally correlated forces superposed over the thermal fluctuations of the erythrocyte membrane. These forces are ATP-dependent and drive enhanced flickering motions in human erythrocytes. Theoretical analyses provide support for a direct force exerted on the membrane by the cytoskeleton nodes as pulses of well-defined average duration. In addition, such metabolically regulated active forces cause global membrane softening, a mechanical attribute related to the functional erythroid deformability. PMID:26083919

  4. Aluminum chloride and membrane potentials of barley root cells

    SciTech Connect

    Etherton, B.; Shane, M.

    1986-04-01

    Aluminum chloride at pH 4 hyperpolarizes the membrane potentials of barley root epidermal cells. The authors tested to see whether this hyperpolarization could be caused by an aluminum induced alteration of the permeability of the membrane to potassium or sodium ions by measuring the effect of .04 mM aluminum ions (the Ca/sup + +/ conc. was 0.1 mM) on the membrane potential changes induced by changing the potassium or sodium concentrations in the medium bathing the roots. Aluminum ions did not change the magnitude of potassium or sodium induced changes in membrane potentials but significantly altered the rates of potassium and sodium induced changes of the potential. The results indicate that aluminum ions did not change sodium or potassium ion permeabilities of barley root cells.

  5. Towards fuel cell membranes with improved lifetime: Aquivion® Perfluorosulfonic Acid membranes containing immobilized radical scavengers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Urso, C.; Oldani, C.; Baglio, V.; Merlo, L.; Aricò, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    A facile synthesis, based on a wet impregnation technique and a thermal treatment, of a novel silica-supported cerium-oxide-based radical scavenger bearing sulfonic acid functionalities is presented. This material is loaded as a filler in ePTFE reinforced membranes (called R79-02S) prepared starting from Aquivion® Perfluoro-Sulfonic Acid (PFSA) dispersions. The aim is to mitigate the peroxy radicals attack to the polymeric membrane under fuel cell operating conditions. These membranes show much longer (7 times more) life-time in Accelerated Stress Tests (AST) and reduced fluoride release (about one half) in Fenton's tests than the radical scavenger-free membrane without any loss in electrochemical performance. Scavenger-free Aquivion® PFSA-based membrane durability is about 200 h in AST whereas the same membrane containing the newly developed radical scavenger exceeds 1400 h. These results confirm the stability of the modified membranes and the excellent activity of the composite scavenger in mitigating the polymer electrolyte degradation.

  6. A review of the performance and analysis of proton exchange membrane fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao-Yang; Sung, Chia-Chi

    2012-12-01

    This study describes a performance review of several membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). First, different methods for preparing catalyst-coated membranes (CCMs) and gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) are presented to show that the power density of the CCMs method is approximately 18% better than that obtained by using GDEs. Second, different thickness membranes and a self-fabricated membrane are discussed. The self-fabricated membrane used a PTFE microporous membrane as a backing structure and was impregnated with Nafion for reinforcement. Third, we compared the performance differences of four different amounts of platinum loaded in Nafion-bonded CCMs to prove that more platinum loading can produce better performance linearly at a platinum loading from 0.1 to 0.4 mg cm-2. Fourth, a water storage zone was created on the surface of the GDL. The voltage-time curve shows that the voltage is maintained at 0.650 V ± 0.015 V over more than 300 h while supplying with dry hydrogen and oxygen. Fifth, a matched 250 ?m silicon gasket was used to test the performance of a standard MEA with different torques of 5-30 Kgf cm, and the performance differences are within 10%.

  7. Membranes in the miotic apparatus of barley cells

    PubMed Central

    Hepler, PK

    1980-01-01

    Membranes in the mitotic apparatus have been investigated ultrastructually in dividing cells of barley (Hordeum vulgare). After osmium tetroxide- potassium ferricyanide or ferrocyanide postfixation (OsFeCN) of material that had been fixed in glutaraldehyde in the presence of Ca(++), the nuclear envolope (NE)-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) complex is selectively stained, permitting observations on the cellular pattern and structural ramifications of this membrane system that have not been previously recognized. Specifically, it is observed that membrane system that have not been previously recognized. Specifically, it is observed that during mitosis the NE-ER forms a continuous membrane system that ensheathes and isolates the mitotic apparatus (MA). Elements of ER progressively accumulate in the region of the spindle pole, becoming most concentrated by early anaphase. Within the MA itself, there are striking spindle- membrane associations; in particular, tubular elements of predominantly smooth NE-ER invade the spindle interior selectively along kinetochore microtubules. The membrane elements at the pole and surrounding the MA consist of tubular reticulum and fenestrated lamellae. Membranes of the MA thus resemble in considerable detail the tubular network and fenestrated elements of the sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle. It is suggested that the NE-ER of the dividing barley cell may function in one or both of the following ways: (a) to control the concentration of free Ca(++) in the MA and (b) to serve as an anchor to chromosome motion. PMID:7400216

  8. Basic fibroblast growth factor is efficiently released from a cytolsolic storage site through plasma membrane disruptions of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Muthukrishnan, L; Warder, E; McNeil, P L

    1991-07-01

    Cells of gut and skin frequently suffer mechanically-induced plasma membrane disruptions in vivo, and bioactive molecules, including basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), could enter and leave cytoplasm through these disruptions. We here provide three lines of evidence that bFGF is released with surprising efficiency through plasma membrane disruptions, resembling those known to occur in vivo, produced by scraping endothelial cells from their culturing substratum. First, 41% of the total of bFGF extractable in 1 M NaCl by freeze-thaw and sonication was released simply by scraping the endothelial cells. Second, relative to release of lactate dehydrogenase, cells wounded by scraping under conditions promoting greater than 60% cell survival released a significantly larger amount (up to twofold more) of growth promoting activity than did cells uniformly killed and irreversibly permeabilized by scraping in the cold or by freezing and thawing. Last, cells that survived membrane disruptions released, and contained, less bFGF on each subsequent wounding, consistent with release of bFGF through transient (i.e., survivable) membrane disruptions. A polyclonal antibody against bFGF completely neutralized the growth promoting activity released by scraping, confirming that bFGF is released through endothelial cell plasma membrane disruptions. Cell fractionation and immunolocalization, including a novel permeabilization technique for electron microscope immunolocalization, demonstrated a cytosolic location of bFGF. We conclude that many characteristics of bFGF--its broad spectrum of producing and target cell types, cytosolic location, efficient release through biologically and pathologically relevant plasma membrane wounds, and its release from cells that survive membrane wounds--make it a strong candidate as a "wound hormone" for rapidly initiating the cell growth required for routine maintenance of tissue integrity and/or repair after injury. PMID:1860889

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Sophia; Greenbaum, Steve

    2010-12-01

    In this review, the contribution of NMR spectroscopy to the development of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is discussed, with particular emphasis on its use in the characterization of structure and transport in proton exchange membranes (PEMs). Owing to copious amount of information available, results of the past decade will be the main focal point. In addition, its use as a screening tool for the PEM materials will be discussed. PMID:20648522

  10. Orientation of myelin proteolipid protein in the oligodendrocyte cell membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith M. Greer; Charissa A. Dyer; Magdolna Pakaski; Cammie Symonowicz; Marjorie B. Lees

    1996-01-01

    The orientation of proteins within a cell membrane can often be difficult to determine. A number of models have been proposed\\u000a for the orientation of the myelin protein, proteolipid protein (PLP), each of which includes exposed domains on the intracellular\\u000a and extracellular membrane faces. Immunolabeling experiments have localized the C-terminus and the region spanning amino acids\\u000a 103–116 to the cytoplasmic

  11. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with interpolymer cation exchange membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Micha? Grzebyk; Gryzelda Po?niak

    2005-01-01

    Interpolymer cation exchange membranes have been prepared from the system polyethylene\\/poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) [PE\\/poly(St-co-DVB)] by their sulfonation with a solution of chlorosulfonic acid in 1,2-dichloroethane. The membranes have been characterized electrochemically in mediator-less microbial fuel cell (MFC). MFC has worked on Escherichia coli bacteria with ferrocyanide as an oxidizer. Real-time voltage and current measurement gave us reliable results. Consequently, it was found

  12. Topographical Pattern Dynamics in Passive Adhesion of Cell Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Hategan, Alina; Sengupta, Kheya; Kahn, Samuel; Sackmann, Erich; Discher, Dennis E.

    2004-01-01

    Strong adhesion of highly active cells often nucleates focal adhesions, synapses, and related structures. Red cells lack such complex adhesion systems and are also nonmotile, but they are shown here to dynamically evolve complex spatial patterns beyond an electrostatic threshold for strong adhesion. Spreading of the cell onto a dense, homogeneous poly-L-lysine surface appears complete in <1 s with occasional blisters that form and dissipate on a similar timescale; distinct rippled or stippled patterns in fluorescently labeled membrane components emerge later, however, on timescales more typical of long-range lipid diffusion (approximately minutes). Within the contact zone, the anionic fluorescent lipid fluorescein phosphoethanolamine is seen to rearrange, forming worm-like rippled or stippled domains of <500 nm that prove independent of whether the cell is intact and sustaining a tension or ruptured. Lipid patterns are accompanied by visible perturbations in Band 3 distribution and weaker perturbations in membrane skeleton actin. Pressing down on the membrane quenches the lipid patterns, revealing a clear topographical basis for pattern formation. Counterion screening and membrane fluctuations likely contribute, but the results primarily highlight the fact that even in adhesion of a passive red cell, regions of strong contact slowly evolve to become interspersed with regions where the membrane is more distant from the surface. PMID:15339814

  13. Anion selective membrane. [ion exchange resins and ion exchange membrane electrolytes for electrolytic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, S. S.; Geoffroy, R. R.; Hodgdon, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental anion permselective membranes were prepared and tested for their suitability as cell separators in a chemical redox power storage system being developed at NASA-Lewis Research Center. The goals of long-term (1000 hr) oxidative and thermal stability at 80 C in FeCl3 and CrCl3 electrolytes were met by most of the weak base and strong base amino exchange groups considered in the program. Good stability is exhibited by several of the membrane substrate resins. These are 'styrene' divinylbenzene copolymer and PVC film. At least four membrane systems produce strong flexible films with electrochemical properties (resistivity, cation transfer) superior to those of the 103QZL, the most promising commercial membrane. The physical and chemical properties of the resins are listed.

  14. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer

    DOEpatents

    Larson, James M.; Pham, Phat T.; Frey, Matthew H.; Hamrock, Steven J.; Haugen, Gregory M.; Lamanna, William M.

    2012-12-04

    The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

  15. A boron phosphate-phosphoric acid composite membrane for medium temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamlouk, M.; Scott, K.

    2015-07-01

    A composite membrane based on a non-stoichiometric composition of BPO4 with excess of PO4 (BPOx) was synthesised and characterised for medium temperature fuel cell use (120-180 °C). The electrolyte was characterised by FTIR, SS-NMR, TGA and XRD and showed that the B-O is tetrahedral, in agreement with reports in the literature that boron phosphorus oxide compounds at B:P < 1 are exclusively built of borate and phosphate tetrahedra. Platinum micro electrodes were used to study the electrolyte compatibility and stability towards oxygen reduction at 150 °C and to obtain kinetic and mass transport parameters. The conductivities of the pure BPOx membrane electrolyte and a Polybenzimidazole (PBI)-4BPOx composite membrane were 7.9 × 10-2 S cm-1 and 4.5 × 10-2 S cm-1 respectively at 150 °C, 5%RH. Fuel cell tests showed a significant enhancement in performance of BPOx over that of typical 5.6H3PO4-PBI membrane electrolyte. The enhancement is due to the improved ionic conductivity (3×), a higher exchange current density of the oxygen reduction (30×) and a lower membrane gas permeability (10×). Fuel cell current densities at 0.6 V were 706 and 425 mA cm-2 for BPOx and 5.6H3PO4-PBI, respectively, at 150 °C with O2 (atm).

  16. Extraction and fractionation of RNA and DNA from single cells using selective lysing and isotachophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shintaku, Hirofumi; Santiago, Juan G.

    2015-03-01

    Single cell analyses of RNA and DNA are crucial to understanding the heterogeneity of cell populations. The numbers of approaches to single cells analyses are expanding, but sequence specific measurements of nucleic acids have been mostly limited to studies of either DNA or RNA, and not both. This remains a challenge as RNA and DNA have very similar physical and biochemical properties, and cross-contamination with each other can introduce false positive results. We present an electrokinetic technique which creates the opportunity to fractionate and deliver cytoplasmic RNA and genomic DNA to independent downstream analyses. Our technique uses an on-chip system that enables selective lysing of cytoplasmic membrane, extraction of RNA (away from genomic DNA and nucleus), focusing, absolute quantification of cytoplasmic RNA mass. The absolute RNA mass quantification is performed using fluorescence observation without enzymatic amplification in < 5 min. The cell nucleus is left intact and the relative genomic DNA amount in the nucleus can be measured. We demonstrate the technique using single mouse B lymphocyte cells, for which we extracted an average of 14.1 pg total cytoplasmic RNA per cell. We also demonstrate correlation analysis between the absolute amount of cytoplasmic RNA and relative amount of genomic DNA, showing heterogeneity associated with cell cycle.

  17. Fractional killing arises from cell-to-cell variability in overcoming a caspase activity threshold

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Jérémie; Hafner, Marc; Bandara, Samuel; Sims, Joshua J; Hudson, Hannah; Chai, Diana; Sorger, Peter K

    2015-01-01

    When cells are exposed to death ligands such as TRAIL, a fraction undergoes apoptosis and a fraction survives; if surviving cells are re-exposed to TRAIL, fractional killing is once again observed. Therapeutic antibodies directed against TRAIL receptors also cause fractional killing, even at saturating concentrations, limiting their effectiveness. Fractional killing arises from cell-to-cell fluctuations in protein levels (extrinsic noise), but how this results in a clean bifurcation between life and death remains unclear. In this paper, we identify a threshold in the rate and timing of initiator caspase activation that distinguishes cells that live from those that die; by mapping this threshold, we can predict fractional killing of cells exposed to natural and synthetic agonists alone or in combination with sensitizing drugs such as bortezomib. A phenomenological model of the threshold also quantifies the contributions of two resistance genes (c-FLIP and Bcl-2), providing new insight into the control of cell fate by opposing pro-death and pro-survival proteins and suggesting new criteria for evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic TRAIL receptor agonists. PMID:25953765

  18. Nonlinear Behavior of Fuel Cell Membrane Assemblies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Reifsnider; X. Huang; G. Ju

    Fuel cells are composite material systems. A schematic diagram of a polymer-based fuel cell is shown in Fig. 1 Figure 1. Schematic diagram of a PEM cell. There are a variety of degradation and failure modes associated with the operation of fuel cells. Predicting the voltage-current output of the fuel cell typically requires that coupled multi-physics equations be solved to

  19. Determination of apical membrane polarity in mammary epithelial cell cultures: The role of cell-cell, cell-substratum, and membrane-cytoskeleton interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Parry, G.; Beck, J.C.; Moss, L.; Bartley, J. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Ojakian, G.K. (State Univ. of New York, Brooklyn (United States))

    1990-06-01

    The membrane glycoprotein, PAS-O, is a major differentiation antigen on mammary epithelial cells and is located exclusively in the apical domain of the plasma membrane. The authors have used 734B cultured human mammary carcinoma cells as a model system to study the role of tight junctions, cell-substratum contacts, and submembranous cytoskeletal elements in restricting PAS-O to the apical membrane. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectronmicroscopy experiments demonstrated that while tight junctions demarcate PAS-O distribution in confluent cultures, apical polarity could be established at low culture densities when cells could not form tight junctions with neighboring cells. They suggest, then, that interactions between vitronectin and its receptor, are responsible for establishment of membrane domains in the absence of tight junctions. The role of cytoskeletal elements in restricting PAS-O distribution was examined by treating cultures with cytochalasin D, colchicine, or acrylamide. Cytochalasin D led to a redistribution of PAS0O while colchicine and acrylamide did not. They hypothesize that PAS-O is restricted to the apical membrane by interactions with a microfilament network and that the cytoskeletal organization is dependent upon cell-cell and cell-substratum interactions.

  20. Water permeability of acinar cell membranes in the isolated perfused rabbit mandibular salivary gland.

    PubMed Central

    Steward, M C; Seo, Y; Rawlings, J M; Case, R M

    1990-01-01

    1. The diffusive water permeability of epithelial cell membranes in the perfused rabbit mandibular salivary gland was measured at 37 degrees C by a 1H nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation method using an extracellular relaxation reagent, gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd(DTPA)). 2. In glands perfused with a HEPES-buffered solution containing 10 mmol l-1 Gd(DTPA), the spin-lattice (T1) relaxation of the water protons showed two exponential components. The water compartment responsible for the slower component corresponded in magnitude to 71 +/- 5% of the wet weight of the gland, and was attributed to the exchangeable intracellular water of the acinar cells. 3. The rate constant for water efflux from the cells was estimated to be 4.1 +/- 0.1 s-1 which would be consistent with a diffusive membrane permeability (Pd) of approximately 3 x 10(-3) cm s-1. Stimulation with acetylcholine (10(-6) mol l-1) did not cause any detectable change in membrane water permeability. 4. Since the basolateral membrane probably provides the main pathway for water efflux, the osmotic water permeability of this barrier (expressed per gland) was estimated to be less than 6.2 cm3 s-1. This would be insufficient to account for the generation of a near-isosmotic fluid at the flow rates observed during secretion, and suggests that a substantial fraction of the flow of water occurs via a paracellular route. PMID:1966053

  1. Plasma membrane reorganization induced by tumor promoters in an epithelial cell line

    SciTech Connect

    PACKARD, BEVERLY S.; SAXTON, MICHAEL J.; BISSELL, MINA J.; KLEIN, MELVIN P.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of phorbol ester tumor promoters on the lateral diffusion in plasma membrane lipid environments were examined by the technique of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. To this end, the probe collarein, a fluorescent lipid analog that has the property of exclusive localization in the plasma membrane, was synthesized. Measured decreases in three parameters [percentage of fluorescence bleached (30%), percentage of recovery (52%), and half-time for recovery (52%)] connoted the appearance of an immobile fraction upon exposure to tumor promoters. These data are consistent with lipid reorganization in response to a reorganization of the intra- and perimembranous macromolecular scaffolding upon the interaction of cells with tumor promoters. The idea of induced reorganization is supported by experiments in which cell shape change, brought about by either exposure to cytochalasin B or growth on matrices of collagen, fibronectin, or laminin, resulted in values in the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching technique similar to those with active phorbol esters.

  2. Cranin: a laminin-binding protein of cell membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Smalheiser, N R; Schwartz, N B

    1987-01-01

    We report that a 120-kDa glycoprotein is the predominant laminin-binding protein detected within plasma membranes of rodent NG108-15 neural hybrid cells, embryonic chicken brain, and mouse 3T3 fibroblasts. This protein was detected when membrane extracts were separated by PAGE, transferred to nitrocellulose, and incubated with laminin at concentrations as low as 2.8 X 10(-11) M, under conditions of physiological ionic strength and pH and in the presence of calcium ions. It behaves as an integral membrane component, and its laminin-binding moiety is accessible to the external face of the cell surface. Moreover, it appears to bind to a site on laminin that is very sensitive to proteolysis. The properties of this protein, which we have termed "cranin," distinguish it from other known laminin receptors and make it a candidate to mediate some of the effects of laminin upon cells. Images PMID:2957695

  3. Nuclear Membrane Dynamics and Reassembly in Living Cells: Targeting of an Inner Nuclear Membrane Protein in Interphase and Mitosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Ellenberg; Eric D. Siggia; Jorge E. Moreira; Carolyn L. Smith; John F. Presley; Howard J. Worman; Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms of localization and reten- tion of membrane proteins in the inner nuclear mem- brane and the fate of this membrane system during mi- tosis were studied in living cells using the inner nuclear membrane protein, lamin B receptor, fused to green fluorescent protein (LBR-GFP). Photobleaching tech- niques revealed the majority of LBR-GFP to be com- pletely immobilized in

  4. Red Blood Cell Membrane-Cloaked Nanoparticles For Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Cody Westcott

    Herein we describe the development of the Red Blood Cell coated nanoparticle, RBC-NP. Purified natural erythrocyte membrane is used to coat drug-loaded poly(lacticco-glycolic acid) (PLGA). Synthetic PLGA co-polymer is biocompatible and biodegradable and has already received US FDA approval for drug-delivery and diagnostics. This work looks specifically at the retention of immunosuppressive proteins on RBC-NPs, right-sidedness of natural RBC membranes interfacing with synthetic polymer nanoparticles, sustained and retarded drug release of RBC-NPs as well as further surface modification of RBC-NPs for increased targeting of model cancer cell lines.

  5. Purification of human adipose-derived stem cells from fat tissues using PLGA/silk screen hybrid membranes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Da-Chung; Chen, Li-Yu; Ling, Qing-Dong; Wu, Meng-Hsueh; Wang, Ching-Tang; Suresh Kumar, S; Chang, Yung; Munusamy, Murugan A; Alarfajj, Abdullah A; Wang, Han-Chow; Hsu, Shih-Tien; Higuchi, Akon

    2014-05-01

    The purification of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) from human adipose tissue cells (stromal vascular fraction) was investigated using membrane filtration through poly(lactide-co-glycolic acid)/silk screen hybrid membranes. Membrane filtration methods are attractive in regenerative medicine because they reduce the time required to purify hADSCs (i.e., less than 30 min) compared with conventional culture methods, which require 5-12 days. hADSCs expressing the mesenchymal stem cell markers CD44, CD73, and CD90 were concentrated in the permeation solution from the hybrid membranes. Expression of the surface markers CD44, CD73, and CD99 on the cells in the permeation solution from the hybrid membranes, which were obtained using 18 mL of feed solution containing 50 × 10? cells, was statistically significantly higher than that of the primary adipose tissue cells, indicating that the hADSCs can be purified in the permeation solution by the membrane filtration method. Cells expressing the stem cell-associated marker CD34 could be successfully isolated in the permeation solution, whereas CD34? cells could not be purified by the conventional culture method. The hADSCs in the permeation solution demonstrated a superior capacity for osteogenic differentiation based on their alkali phosphatase activity, their osterix gene expression, and the results of mineralization analysis by Alizarin Red S and von Kossa staining compared with the cells from the suspension of human adipose tissue. These results suggest that the hADSCs capable of osteogenic differentiation preferentially permeate through the hybrid membranes. PMID:24565521

  6. Platinum nanoparticle deposition on polymeric membranes for fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, A. J.; Lopera, S.; Ordonez, N.; Mansano, R. D.

    2012-06-01

    This work aimed to show an alternative to produce platinum nanoparticles directly on a polymeric membrane using plasma technique, in order to make these nanoparticles adhere to the membrane, in size, shape and homogeneity controlled by the process without damaging the polymeric material. In this manner the cell's production time is reduced since the catalyst is directly deposited on the polymeric membrane; the time of the process is approximately five minutes for each side of the membrane, and the total time for each membrane is 10 minutes. With this exposure time, and the advantage of controlling the other parameters such as pressure, RF power, gas flow rate and temperature of the electrode, it was possible to obtain platinum nanoparticles with dimensions of about 50 nm scattered homogenously on the membrane, without damaging the structure of the polymeric material and, consequently, affecting its performance. Together with platinum nanoparticles were also deposited carbon nanoparticles, so that these acted as catalyst support, avoiding self poisoning. Electrochemical activity tests were performed to test the efficiency of the cell where it was exposed to different pressures and flow rates of O2 and H2, reaching open-circuit voltage of 750 mVolts.

  7. Inorganic Nanoporous Membranes for Immunoisolated Cell-Based Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mendelsohn, Adam; Desai, Tejal

    2014-01-01

    Materials advances enabled by nanotechnology have brought about promising approaches to improve the encapsulation mechanism for immunoisolated cell-based drug delivery. Cell-based drug delivery is a promising treatment for many diseases but has thus far achieved only limited clinical success. Treatment of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) by transplantation of pancreatic ?-cells represents the most anticipated application of cell-based drug delivery technology. This review outlines the challenges involved with maintaining transplanted cell viability and discusses how inorganic nanoporous membranes may be useful in achieving clinical success. PMID:20384222

  8. Platinum-catalyzed polymer electrolyte membrane for fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, T.J.; Shao, H.; Richards, N.; Schmitt, J.; Hunt, A.; Lin, W.Y.

    2000-07-01

    The objective of this research is to develop the combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) process for low-cost manufacture of catalytic coatings for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) applications. The platinum coatings as well as the fabrication process for membrane-electrode-assemblies (MEAs) were evaluated in a single testing fuel cell using hydrogen/oxygen. It was found that increasing the platinum loading from 0.05 to 0.1 mg/cm{sup 2} did not increase the fuel cell performance. The in-house MEA fabrication process needs to be improved to reduce the cell resistance. Significantly higher performance of Pt coating by the CCVD process has been obtained by MCT's fuel-cell industry collaborators who are more experienced with MEA fabrication. The results can not be revealed due to confidentiality agreements.

  9. Development of membrane electrode assembly for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell by catalyst coating membrane method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Huagen; Su, Huaneng; Pollet, Bruno G.; Pasupathi, Sivakumar

    2015-08-01

    Membrane electrode assembly (MEA), which contains cathode and anode catalytic layer, gas diffusion layers (GDL) and electrolyte membrane, is the key unit of a PEMFC. An attempt to develop MEA for ABPBI membrane based high temperature (HT) PEMFC is conducted in this work by catalyst coating membrane (CCM) method. The structure and performance of the MEA are examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and I-V curve. Effects of the CCM preparation method, Pt loading and binder type are investigated for the optimization of the single cell performance. Under 160 °C and atmospheric pressure, the peak power density of the MEA, with Pt loading of 0.5 mg cm-2 and 0.3 mg cm-2 for the cathode and the anode, can reach 277 mW cm-2, while a current density of 620 A cm-2 is delivered at the working voltage of 0.4 V. The MEA prepared by CCM method shows good stability operating in a short term durability test: the cell voltage maintained at ?0.45 V without obvious drop when operated at a constant current density of 300 mA cm-2 and 160 °C under ambient pressure for 140 h.

  10. Membrane-particle interactions in an asymmetric flow field flow fractionation channel studied with titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bendixen, Nina; Losert, Sabrina; Adlhart, Christian; Lattuada, Marco; Ulrich, Andrea

    2014-03-21

    Asymmetric flow field flow fractionation operated in a multidetector approach (A4F-MDA) is a powerful tool to perform size-classified nanoparticle analysis. Recently several publications mentioned insufficient recovery rates and even retention time shifts attributed to unspecific membrane-particle interactions. One hypothesis to explain this phenomenon is based on the surface charge (zeta-potential) of the membrane material and the particle. In this study, we investigated in how far the ?-potential of A4F membrane and particles would determine the outcome of A4F in terms of feasibility, separation efficiency, retention time, and recovery rate, or whether other factors such as membrane morphology and particle size were equally important. We systematically studied the influence of the ?-potential on the interactions between the most commonly used A4F membrane materials and two representative types of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NP). Furthermore the effect of different carrier media and additional surfactants on the surface charge of membranes and particles was investigated and the influence of the particle size and the particle concentration on the recovery rate was evaluated. We found that the eligibility of an A4F method can be predicted based on the ?-potential of the NPs and the A4F membrane. Furthermore knowing the ?-potential allows to tuning the separation efficiency of an A4F method. On the other hand we observed significant shifts in retention time for different membrane materials that impede the determination of particle size based on the classical A4F theory. These shifts cannot be attributed to the ?-potential. Also the ?-potential does not account for varying recovery rates of different particle types, instead the particle size seems to be the limiting factor. Therefore, the proper characterization of a polydisperse sample remains a challenge. PMID:24556173

  11. Autophagy modulates cell migration and ?1 integrin membrane recycling

    PubMed Central

    Tuloup-Minguez, Véronique; Hamaï, Ahmed; Greffard, Anne; Nicolas, Valérie; Codogno, Patrice; Botti, Joëlle

    2013-01-01

    Cell migration is dependent on a series of integrated cellular events including the membrane recycling of the extracellular matrix receptor integrins. In this paper, we investigate the role of autophagy in regulating cell migration. In a wound-healing assay, we observed that autophagy was reduced in cells at the leading edge than in cells located rearward. These differences in autophagy were correlated with the robustness of MTOR activity. The spatial difference in the accumulation of autophagic structures was not detected in rapamycin-treated cells, which had less migration capacity than untreated cells. In contrast, the knockdown of the autophagic protein ATG7 stimulated cell migration of HeLa cells. Accordingly, atg3?/? and atg5?/? MEFs have greater cell migration properties than their wild-type counterparts. Stimulation of autophagy increased the co-localization of ?1 integrin-containing vesicles with LC3-stained autophagic vacuoles. Moreover, inhibition of autophagy slowed down the lysosomal degradation of internalized ?1 integrins and promoted its membrane recycling. From these findings, we conclude that autophagy regulates cell migration, a central mechanism in cell development, angiogenesis, and tumor progression, by mitigating the cell surface expression of ?1 integrins. PMID:24036548

  12. A graphite-coated carbon fiber epoxy composite bipolar plate for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ha Na Yu; Jun Woo Lim; Jung Do Suh; Dai Gil Lee

    2011-01-01

    A PEMFC (polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell or proton exchange membrane fuel cell) stack is composed of GDLs (gas diffusion layers), MEAs (membrane electrode assemblies), and bipolar plates. One of the important functions of bipolar plates is to collect and conduct the current from cell to cell, which requires low electrical bulk and interfacial resistances. For a carbon fiber epoxy

  13. Simultaneous imaging of cell and mitochondrial membrane potentials.

    PubMed Central

    Farkas, D L; Wei, M D; Febbroriello, P; Carson, J H; Loew, L M

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of charged membrane-permeable molecular probes between intracellular organelles, the cytoplasm, and the outside medium is governed by the relative membrane electrical potentials of these regions through coupled equilibria described by the Nernst equation. A series of highly fluorescent cationic dyes of low membrane binding and toxicity (Ehrenberg, B., V. Montana, M.-D. Wei, J. P. Wuskell, and L. M. Loew, 1988. Biophys. J. 53:785-794) allows the monitoring of these equilibria through digital imaging video microscopy. We employ this combination of technologies to assess, simultaneously, the membrane potentials of cells and of their organelles in situ. We describe the methodology and optimal conditions for such measurements, and apply the technique to concomitantly follow, with good time resolution, the mitochondrial and plasma membrane potentials in several cultured cell lines. The time course of variations induced by chemical agents (ionophores, uncouplers, electron transport, and energy transfer inhibitors) in either or both these potentials is easily quantitated, and in accordance with mechanistic expectations. The methodology should therefore be applicable to the study of more subtle and specific, biologically induced potential changes in cells. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 PMID:2611324

  14. PROTEIN STRUCTURE: Pumping Iron Through Cell Membranes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Volkmar Braun (Universität Tüebingen; Department of Mikrobiologie/Membranphysiologie)

    1998-12-18

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Despite their importance in various cellular functions, the three-dimensional structure at atomic resolution has been determined for only a few membrane proteins. In his Perspective, Braun discusses results reported in the same issue by Ferguson et al. in which the crystal structure of FhuA, an iron transporter protein, has been determined at high resolution. This and related proteins may be the general model for a large class of iron-transporting molecules.

  15. Voltage Clamp Analysis of Two Inward Current Mechanisms in the Egg Cell Membrane of a Starfish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SUSUMU HAGIWARA; SEIJI OZAWA; OLAV SAND

    2009-01-01

    Ionic mechanisms of excitation were studied in the immature egg cell membrane of a starfish, Mediaster aequalis, by analyzing membrane currents during voltage clamp. The cell membrane shows two different inward current mechanisms. One is activated at a membrane potential of --55 ,~ --50 mV and the other at --7 ~-~ --6 mV. They are referred to as channels I

  16. An inorganic\\/organic self-humidifying composite membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cell application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Zhang; Huamin Zhang; Cheng Bi; Xiaobing Zhu

    2008-01-01

    With an aim to operate the proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) with dry reactants, an inorganic\\/organic self-humidifying membrane based on sulfonated polyether ether ketone (SPEEK) hybrid with Cs2.5H0.5PW12O40 supported Pt catalyst (Pt-Cs2.5 catalyst) has been investigated. The Pt-Cs2.5 catalysts incorporated in the SPEEK matrix provide the site for catalytic recombination of permeable H2 and O2 to form water, and

  17. Fractions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    K. Cowley

    2011-05-09

    This is an accessible, easy-to-read book introducing fractions. It can be downloaded in PowerPoint, Impress, and Flash formats. For struggling or non-readers the book can be read aloud in a variety of voices. All of the books on the Tar Heel Reader site can be used with the Intellikeys keyboard with a custom overlay, a touch screen, and/or 1-3 switches. The text and background colors can be modified for students with visual impairments.

  18. New insights in the visualization of membrane permeabilization and DNA/membrane interaction of cells submitted to electric pulses.

    PubMed

    Phez, Emilie; Faurie, Cécile; Golzio, Muriel; Teissié, Justin; Rols, Marie-Pierre

    2005-08-01

    Electropermeabilization designates the use of electric pulses to overcome the barrier of the cell membrane. This physical method is used to transfer anticancer drugs or genes into living cells. Its mechanism remains to be elucidated. A position-dependent modulation of the membrane potential difference is induced, leading to a transient and reversible local membrane alteration. Electropermeabilization allows a fast exchange of small hydrophilic molecules across the membrane. It occurs at the positions of the cell facing the two electrodes on an asymmetrical way. In the case of DNA transfer, a complex process is present, involving a key step of electrophoretically driven association of DNA only with the destabilized membrane facing the cathode. We report here at the membrane level, by using fluorescence microscopy, the visualization of the effect of the polarity and the orientation of electric pulses on membrane permeabilization and gene transfer. Membrane permeabilization depends on electric field orientation. Moreover, at a given electric field orientation, it becomes symmetrical for pulses of reversed polarities. The area of cell membrane where DNA interacts is increased by applying electric pulses with different orientations and polarities, leading to an increase in gene expression. Interestingly, under reversed polarity conditions, part of the DNA associated with the membrane can be removed, showing some evidence for two states of DNA in interaction with the membrane: DNA reversibly associated and DNA irreversibly inserted. PMID:15878640

  19. Extracellular Heme Uptake and the Challenges of Bacterial Cell Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Aaron D.; Wilks, Angela

    2013-01-01

    In bacteria, the fine balance of maintaining adequate iron levels while preventing the deleterious effects of excess iron has led to the evolution of sophisticated cellular mechanisms to obtain, store, and regulate iron. Iron uptake provides a significant challenge given its limited bioavailability and need to be transported across the bacterial cell wall and membranes. Pathogenic bacteria have circumvented the iron-availability issue by utilizing the hosts' heme-containing proteins as a source of iron. Once internalized, iron is liberated from the porphyrin enzymatically for cellular processes within the bacterial cell. Heme, a lipophilic and toxic molecule, poses a significant challenge in terms of transport given its chemical reactivity. As such, pathogenic bacteria have evolved sophisticated membrane transporters to coordinate, sequester, and transport heme. Recent advances in the biochemical and structural characterization of the membrane-bound heme transport proteins are discussed in the context of ligand coordination, protein–protein interaction, and heme transfer. PMID:23046657

  20. Long-Range Nonanomalous Diffusion of Quantum Dot-Labeled Aquaporin-1 Water Channels in the Cell Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Jonathan M.; Verkman, A. S.

    2008-01-01

    Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is an integral membrane protein that facilitates osmotic water transport across cell plasma membranes in epithelia and endothelia. AQP1 has no known specific interactions with cytoplasmic or membrane proteins, but its recovery in a detergent-insoluble membrane fraction has suggested possible raft association. We tracked the membrane diffusion of AQP1 molecules labeled with quantum dots at an engineered external epitope at frame rates up to 91 Hz and over times up to 6 min. In transfected COS-7 cells, >75% of AQP1 molecules diffused freely over ?7 ?m in 5 min, with diffusion coefficient, D1-3 ? 9 × 10?10 cm2/s. In MDCK cells, ?60% of AQP1 diffused freely, with D1-3 ? 3 × 10?10 cm2/s. The determinants of AQP1 diffusion were investigated by measurements of AQP1 diffusion following skeletal disruption (latrunculin B), lipid/raft perturbations (cyclodextrin and sphingomyelinase), and bleb formation. We found that cytoskeletal disruption had no effect on AQP1 diffusion in the plasma membrane, but that diffusion was increased greater than fourfold in protein de-enriched blebs. Cholesterol depletion in MDCK cells greatly restricted AQP1 diffusion, consistent with the formation of a network of solid-like barriers in the membrane. These results establish the nature and determinants of AQP1 diffusion in cell plasma membranes and demonstrate long-range nonanomalous diffusion of AQP1, challenging the prevailing view of universally anomalous diffusion of integral membrane proteins, and providing evidence against the accumulation of AQP1 in lipid rafts. PMID:17890385

  1. An adhesion-based method for plasma membrane isolation: evaluating cholesterol extraction from cells and their membranes.

    PubMed

    Bezrukov, Ludmila; Blank, Paul S; Polozov, Ivan V; Zimmerberg, Joshua

    2009-11-15

    A method to isolate large quantities of directly accessible plasma membrane from attached cells is presented. The method is based on the adhesion of cells to an adsorbed layer of polylysine on glass plates, followed by hypotonic lysis with ice-cold distilled water and subsequent washing steps. Optimal conditions for coating glass plates and time for cell attachment were established. No additional chemical or mechanical treatments were used. Contamination of the isolated plasma membrane by cell organelles was less than 5%. The method uses inexpensive, commercially available polylysine and reusable glass plates. Plasma membrane preparations can be made in 15 min. Using this method, we determined that methyl-beta-cyclodextrin differentially extracts cholesterol from fibroblast cells and their plasma membranes and that these differences are temperature dependent. Determination of the cholesterol/phospholipid ratio from intact cells does not reflect methyl-beta-cyclodextrin plasma membrane extraction properties. PMID:19631189

  2. Single cell electric impedance topography: Mapping membrane capacitance

    PubMed Central

    Dharia, Sameera; Ayliffe, Harold E.

    2010-01-01

    Single-cell electric impedance topography (sceTopo), a technique introduced here, maps the spatial distribution of capacitance (i.e. displacement current) associated with the membranes of isolated, living cells. Cells were positioned in the center of a circular recording chamber surrounded by eight electrodes. Electrodes were evenly distributed on the periphery of the recording chamber. Electric impedance measured between adjacent electrode pairs (10 kHz–5 MHz) was used to construct topographical maps of the spatial distribution of membrane capacitance. Xenopus Oocytes were used as a model cell to develop sceTopo because these cells consist of two visually distinguishable hemispheres, each with distinct membrane composition and structure. Results showed significant differences in the imaginary component of the impedance between the two oocyte hemispheres. In addition, the same circumferential array was used to map the size of the extracellular electrical shunt path around the cell, providing a means to estimate the location and shape of the cell in the recording chamber. PMID:19904403

  3. Single cell electric impedance topography: mapping membrane capacitance.

    PubMed

    Dharia, Sameera; Ayliffe, Harold E; Rabbitt, Richard D

    2009-12-01

    Single-cell electric impedance topography (sceTopo), a technique introduced here, maps the spatial distribution of capacitance (i.e. displacement current) associated with the membranes of isolated, living cells. Cells were positioned in the center of a circular recording chamber surrounded by eight electrodes. Electrodes were evenly distributed on the periphery of the recording chamber. Electric impedance measured between adjacent electrode pairs (10 kHz-5 MHz) was used to construct topographical maps of the spatial distribution of membrane capacitance. Xenopus Oocytes were used as a model cell to develop sceTopo because these cells consist of two visually distinguishable hemispheres, each with distinct membrane composition and structure. Results showed significant differences in the imaginary component of the impedance between the two oocyte hemispheres. In addition, the same circumferential array was used to map the size of the extracellular electrical shunt path around the cell, providing a means to estimate the location and shape of the cell in the recording chamber. PMID:19904403

  4. The nature of the membrane sites controlling anion permeability of human red blood cells as determined by studies with disulfonic stilbene derivatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. I. Cabantchik; A. Rothstein

    1972-01-01

    Summary The disulfonic acid stilbene derivative SITS reported to be covalently bonded to the membrane of the red blood cell, was found to be largely reversibly bound. Reversal of its specific inhibitory effect on anion permeability was attained by washing the cells with buffer containing albumin. The small fraction of covalently bonded SITS could be increased by prolonging the time

  5. Durable, Low-cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Roger; David Mountz; Wensheng He; Tao Zhang

    2011-03-17

    The development of low cost, durable membranes and membranes electrode assemblies (MEAs) that operate under reduced relative humidity (RH) conditions remain a critical challenge for the successful introduction of fuel cells into mass markets. It was the goal of the team lead by Arkema, Inc. to address these shortages. Thus, this project addresses the following technical barriers from the fuel cells section of the Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan: (A) Durability (B) Cost Arkema’s approach consisted of using blends of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) and proprietary sulfonated polyelectrolytes. In the traditional approach to polyelectrolytes for proton exchange membranes (PEM), all the required properties are “packaged” in one macromolecule. The properties of interest include proton conductivity, mechanical properties, durability, and water/gas transport. This is the case, for example, for perfluorosulfonic acid-containing (PFSA) membranes. However, the cost of these materials is high, largely due to the complexity and the number of steps involved in their synthesis. In addition, they suffer other shortcomings such as mediocre mechanical properties and insufficient durability for some applications. The strength and originality of Arkema’s approach lies in the decoupling of ion conductivity from the other requirements. Kynar® PVDF provides an exceptional combination of properties that make it ideally suited for a membrane matrix (Kynar® is a registered trademark of Arkema Inc.). It exhibits outstanding chemical resistance in highly oxidative and acidic environments. In work with a prior grant, a membrane known as M41 was developed by Arkema. M41 had many of the properties needed for a high performance PEM, but had a significant deficiency in conductivity at low RH. In the first phase of this work, the processing parameters of M41 were explored as a means to increase its proton conductivity. Optimizing the processing of M41 was found to increase its proton conductivity by almost an order of magnitude at 50% RH. Characterization of the membrane morphology with Karren More at Oak Ridge National Laboratory showed that the membrane morphology was complex. This technology platform was dubbed M43 and was used as a baseline in the majority of the work on the project. Although its performance was superior to M41, M43 still showed proton conductivity an order of magnitude lower than that of a PFSA membrane at 50% RH. The MEA performance of M43 could be increased by reducing the thickness from 1 to 0.6 mils. However, the performance of the thinner M43 still did not match that of a PFSA membrane.

  6. THE ENZYMATIC IODINATION OF THE RED CELL MEMBRANE

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Ann L.; Cohn, Zanvil A.

    1972-01-01

    An enzymatic iodination procedure utilizing lactoperoxidase (LPO), radioactive iodide, and hydrogen peroxide generated by a glucose oxidase-glucose system has been described and utilized for a study of the red cell membrane. 97% of the incorporated isotope is in the erythrocyte ghost and 3% is associated with hemoglobin. No significant labeling of the red cell membrane occurs in the absence of LPO or by the deletion of any of the other reagents. A 6 million-fold excess of chloride ions inhibits iodination by no more than 50%. Incorporation of up to 1 x 106 iodide atoms into a single erythrocyte membrane results in no significant cell lysis. The incorporated label is exclusively in tyrosine residues as monoiodotyrosine. 10–15% of the trichloroacetic acid-precipitable radioactivity can be extracted with lipid solvents but is present as either labeled protein or 125I. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of solubilized membrane proteins reveals only two labeled protein bands out of the 15 present, and the presence of 50-1 x 106 iodide atoms per ghost does not alter this pattern. Component a has a molecular weight of 110,000, is carbohydrate poor, and represents 40% of the total label. Component b has an apparent molecular weight of 74,000, contains all of the demonstrable sialic acid, and accounts for 60% of the total label. Trypsinization of iodinated, intact red cells results in the disappearance of only component b, the appearance of labeled glycopeptides in the medium, and the absence of smaller, labeled peptides remaining in the membrane. Pronase treatment hydrolyzes component b in a similar fashion, but also cleaves component a to a 72,000 mol wt peptide which is retained in the membrane. A combination of protease treatment and double labeling with 125I and 131I does not reveal the appearance of previously unexposed proteins. PMID:5076780

  7. Distinct Role of Rab27a in Granule Movement at the Plasma Membrane and in the Cytosol of NK Cells

    PubMed Central

    Long, Eric O.

    2010-01-01

    Protocols were developed to automate image analysis and to track the movement of thousands of vesicular compartments in live cells. Algorithms were used to discriminate among different types of movement (e.g. random, caged, and directed). We applied these tools to investigate the steady-state distribution and movement of lytic granules (LG) in live natural killer (NK) cells by high-speed 3-dimensional (3D) spinning disc confocal and 2-dimensional total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Both mouse NK cells and a human NK cell line deficient in the small GTPase Rab27a were examined. The unbiased analysis of large datasets led to the following observations and conclusions. The majority of LG in the cytosol and at the plasma membrane of unstimulated NK cells are mobile. The use of inhibitors indicated that movement in the cytosol required microtubules but not actin, whereas movement at the plasma membrane required both. Rab27a deficiency resulted in fewer LG, and in a reduced fraction of mobile LG, at the plasma membrane. In contrast, loss of Rab27a increased the fraction of mobile LG and the extent of their movement in the cytosol. Therefore, in addition to its documented role in LG delivery to the plasma membrane, Rab27a may restrict LG movement in the cytosol. PMID:20877725

  8. Uniform epidermal cell proliferation in the mouse tympanic membrane.

    PubMed

    Brown, W R; Weinberger, J M; Hawke, M

    1987-12-01

    Autoradiographic studies in mice showed epidermal cell proliferation to be dispersed over the whole tympanic membrane with no specific proliferative center. This strengthens the concept that net migration of the superficial layer of the stratum corneum across the tympanic membrane is the result of random insertion of cells into a pavement-like layer of corneocytes. We also found the cell proliferation rate in tympanic epidermis to be the same as that for dorsal epidermis in both normal mouse skin and the hyperproliferative epidermis of asebia mice. There was no indication of more rapid migration in tympanic epidermis in asebia as a result of the increased proliferation rate but rather increased thickness of the tympanic epidermis. There were also unusual circular mounds of epidermal cells in all asebia tympana, apparently due to localized hyperproliferation. PMID:3694743

  9. ANTI-BRUCELLA CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY IN MICE VACCINATED WITH A CELL-WALL FRACTION

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ANTI-BRUCELLA CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY IN MICE VACCINATED WITH A CELL-WALL FRACTION M PLOMMET Anne. ― Une immunité anti-Brucella peut être induite chez la souris soit par vaccin vivant, soit par Tours-Nouzilly, 37380 Nouzilly, France received 20/03/87/accepted 30/04/87 Résumé IMMUNITÉ ANTI

  10. Sulfonated Nanoplates in Proton Conducting Membranes for Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.F.; Ni’mah, H.; Yu-Cheng Shen, Y.-C.; Kuo, P.-L.

    2011-09-29

    Surface-functionalized nanoplates are synthesized by anchoring sulfonic acid containing siloxanes on zirconium phosphate, and in turn blended with Nafion to fabricate proton conducting membranes. The effects of these sulfonated nanoplates on proton conduction, hydro-characteristics and fuel cell performance are reported.

  11. Basolateral membrane K+ channels in renal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Devor, Daniel C.

    2012-01-01

    The major function of epithelial tissues is to maintain proper ion, solute, and water homeostasis. The tubule of the renal nephron has an amazingly simple structure, lined by epithelial cells, yet the segments (i.e., proximal tubule vs. collecting duct) of the nephron have unique transport functions. The functional differences are because epithelial cells are polarized and thus possess different patterns (distributions) of membrane transport proteins in the apical and basolateral membranes of the cell. K+ channels play critical roles in normal physiology. Over 90 different genes for K+ channels have been identified in the human genome. Epithelial K+ channels can be located within either or both the apical and basolateral membranes of the cell. One of the primary functions of basolateral K+ channels is to recycle K+ across the basolateral membrane for proper function of the Na+-K+-ATPase, among other functions. Mutations of these channels can cause significant disease. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of the basolateral K+ channels of the nephron, providing potential physiological functions and pathophysiology of these channels, where appropriate. We have taken a “K+ channel gene family” approach in presenting the representative basolateral K+ channels of the nephron. The basolateral K+ channels of the renal epithelia are represented by members of the KCNK, KCNJ, KCNQ, KCNE, and SLO gene families. PMID:22338089

  12. Solid oxide fuel cell membranes supported by nickel grid anode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel Rey-Mermet; Paul Muralt

    2008-01-01

    Microfabricated solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) have been integrated onto silicon substrates. The SOFC membrane contained a sputter deposited 8YSZ electrolyte layer with a thickness of 750 nm. It is supported on the anode side by a nickel grid grown by electroplating. The grid has either a hexagonal or a spiderweb pattern with maximal free standing length of 80 ?m and a

  13. Fluorescence interferometry applied to cell membrane model systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prasad Viswanathan Ganesan

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence interference contrast microscopy (FLIC) is an experimentally straightforward means for determining the position of fluorescent objects in one dimension with nanometer accuracy. It is therefore a useful method for studying properties of fluorescent objects in supported phospholipid bilayers, a common cell membrane model system. Unfortunately, in its conventional form there are limits on the kinds of systems and questions

  14. CAPSTONE SENIOR DESIGN - SUPRAMOLECULAR PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANES FOR FUEL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to assume a leading role in the burgeoning hydrogen economy, new infrastructure will be required for fuel cell manufacturing and R&D capabilities. The objective of this proposal is the development of a new generation of advanced proton exchange membrane (PEM) technol...

  15. Polymer-supported membranes as models of the cell surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Motomu Tanaka; Erich Sackmann

    2005-01-01

    Lipid-bilayer membranes supported on solid substrates are widely used as cell-surface models that connect biological and artificial materials. They can be placed either directly on solids or on ultrathin polymer supports that mimic the generic role of the extracellular matrix. The tools of modern genetic engineering and bioorganic chemistry make it possible to couple many types of biomolecule to supported

  16. Applications of proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung-Ho Wee

    2007-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have recently passed the test or demonstration phase and have partially reached the commercialization stage due to the impressive worldwide research effort. Despite the currently promising achievements and the plausible prospects of PEMFCs, there are many challenges remaining that need to be overcome before PEMFCs can successfully and economically substitute for the various traditional

  17. Hereditary red cell membrane disorders and laboratory diagnostic testing.

    PubMed

    King, M-J; Zanella, A

    2013-06-01

    This overview describes two groups of nonimmune hereditary hemolytic anemias caused by defects in membrane proteins located in distinct layers of the red cell membrane. Hereditary spherocytosis (HS), hereditary elliptocytosis (HE), and hereditary pyropoikilocytosis (HPP) represent disorders of the red cell cytoskeleton. Hereditary stomatocytoses represents disorders of cation permeability in the red cell membrane. The current laboratory screening tests for HS are the osmotic fragility test, acid glycerol lysis time test (AGLT), cryohemolysis test, and eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA)-binding test. For atypical HS, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of erythrocyte membrane proteins is carried out to confirm the diagnosis. The diagnosis of HE/HPP is based on abnormal red cell morphology and the detection of protein 4.1R deficiency or spectrin variants using gel electrophoresis. None of screening tests can detect all HS cases. Some testing centers (a survey of 25 laboratories) use a combination of tests (e.g., AGLT and EMA). No specific screening test for hereditary stomatocytoses is available. The preliminary diagnosis is based on presenting a compensated hemolytic anemia, macrocytosis, and a temperature or time dependent pseudohyperkalemia in some patients. Both the EMA-binding test and the osmotic fragility test may help in differential diagnosis of HS and hereditary stomatocytosis. PMID:23480868

  18. Stochastic modeling of protein motions within cell membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon Khan; Andy M. Reynolds; Ian E. G. Morrison; Richard J. Cherry

    2005-01-01

    A simple model in which immobilizing events are imposed onto otherwise free Brownian diffusion [R. Metzler and J. Klafter, Phys. Rep. 339, 1 (2000) and a recent adaptation due to S. Khan and A. M. Reynolds, Physica A 350, 183 (2005)] is shown to encapsulate the peculiar transport characteristics of individual cell receptors within plasma membranes observed in single-particle tracking

  19. Apoptosis method for biomimetic artificial cell membranes employing nanophotonic theranostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilleland, Cody L.; Waters, Brian D.; Jarvis, Brandon; Schaefers, Justin K.; Renfro, Tim; Gutierrez, Jose; Ussery, Geoffrey; Cavanah, Taylor; Glosser, R.; Landon, Preston B.

    2005-08-01

    Colloidal biomimetic disc shaped metallic gold shells with a uniform size distribution were synthesized using red blood cells as sacrificial templates. Red blood cells do not reproduce by dividing; hence they are truly colloidal particles. They are almost completely filled with hemoglobin allowing for an extremely dynamic work cycle with long intercellular vacations separated by self-destructive workloads on the cell surface. This method of exchange is emulated in the presented research. The colloidal disc shaped gold shells were coated with multiple layers of 50nm fluorescent polystyrene spheres followed by chemical removal of the gold core. This process yielded hollow synthetic biomimetic membranes with a strong optical signature that are diffusely permeable to water and impervious to particles larger than a few nanometers. Currently, the most successful synthetic intravascular oxygen carrying materials are perfluorocarbons; however, they break down quickly in roughly 50 hours from overexposure to their in vivo workload. The meso-porous membrane cages will be filled with hundreds of fibrous spheroid conglomerates composed of perfluorocarbon chains that can protrude through the meso-porous membrane as they thermally jostle about the cage. This is to statistically limit the exposure time of individual polymer strands to the self-destructive work at the surface and hopefully will greatly increase the effective functioning lifetime of the perfluorocarbon-based synthetic red blood cell. The artificial membranes are intentionally designed to be weak allowing them to flex under normal pressures and to hopefully burst under more extreme conditions such as blockage.

  20. Carbon monoxide poisoning of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Baschuk; Xianguo Li

    2001-01-01

    SUMMARY Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance degrades when carbon monoxide (CO) is present in the fuel gas; this is referred to as CO poisoning. This paper investigates CO poisoning of PEMFCs by reviewing work on the electrochemistry of CO and hydrogen, the experimental performance of PEMFCs exhibiting CO poisoning, methods to mitigate CO poisoning and theoretical models of

  1. Macrophages engulf endothelial cell membrane particles preceding pupillary membrane capillary regression.

    PubMed

    Poché, Ross A; Hsu, Chih-Wei; McElwee, Melissa L; Burns, Alan R; Dickinson, Mary E

    2015-07-01

    Programmed capillary regression and remodeling are essential developmental processes. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate vessel regression are only the beginning to be understood. Here, using in vivo, dynamic, confocal imaging of mouse transgenic reporters as well as static confocal and electron microscopy, we studied the embryonic development and postnatal regression of the transient mouse pupillary membrane (PM) vasculature. This approach allowed us to directly observe the precise temporal sequence of cellular events preceding and during the elimination of the PM from the mouse eye. Imaging of Tcf/Lef-H2B::GFP Wnt-reporter mice uncovered that, unlike the hyaloid vasculature of the posterior eye, a PM endothelial cell (EC) Wnt/?-catenin response is unlikely to be part of the regression mechanism. Live imaging of EC and macrophage dynamics revealed highly active Csf1r-GFP+ macrophages making direct contact with the Flk1-myr::mCherry+ vessel surface and with membrane protrusions or filopodia extending from the ECs. Flk1-myr::mCherry+ EC membrane particles were observed on and around ECs as well as within macrophages. Electron microscopy studies confirmed that they were in phagosomes within macrophages, indicating that the macrophages engulfed the membrane particles. Interestingly, EC plasma membrane uptake by PM macrophages did not correlate with apoptosis and was found shortly after vessel formation at mid-gestation stages in the embryo; long before vessel regression begins during postnatal development. Additionally, genetic ablation of macrophages showed that EC membrane particles were still shed in the absence of macrophages suggesting that macrophages do not induce the formation or release of EC microparticles. These studies have uncovered a novel event during programmed capillary regression in which resident macrophages scavenge endothelial cell microparticles released from the PM vessels. This finding suggests that there may be an initial disruption in vessel homeostasis embryonically as the PM forms that may underlie its ultimate regression postnatally. PMID:25912686

  2. The stirred tank reactor polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay Benziger; E. Chia; E. Karnas; J. Moxley; C. Teuscher; I. G. Kevrekidis

    2004-01-01

    The design and operation of a differential Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM)\\u000afuel cell is described. The fuel cell design is based on coupled Stirred Tank\\u000aReactors (STR); the gas phase in each reactor compartment was well mixed. The\\u000acharacteristic times for reactant flow, gas phase diffusion and reaction were\\u000achosen so that the gas compositions at both the anode and

  3. Modulation of membrane potential in algal cells by temperature gradients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. Mita; M. Durante; F. S. Gaeta; A. Cotugno; V. Di Maio; C. Taddei-Ferretti; P. Canciglia

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to ascertain whether transmembrane temperature gradients couple with transport of electric\\u000a charge in living cells ofValonia utricularis and eventually measure the thermodynamic coupling coefficient (s). Simple experimental procedures are described that allow\\u000a generation of temperature gradients of predetermined sense and intensity across the cell membrane. Simultaneous measurement\\u000a of the potential difference is ensured

  4. The Membrane Environment Can Promote or Suppress Bistability in Cell Signaling Networks

    E-print Network

    Abel, Steven M.

    Many key biochemical reactions that mediate signal transduction in cells occur at the cell membrane, yet how the two-dimensional membrane environment influences the collective behavior of signaling networks is poorly ...

  5. Involvement of Membrane GRP78 in Trophoblastic Cell Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Fradet, Sarah; Pierredon, Sandra; Ribaux, Pascale; Epiney, Manuella; Shin Ya, Kazuo; Irion, Olivier; Cohen, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Background Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is highly expressed in first trimester cytrophoblastic cells (CTBs), especially in syncytiotrophoblast (STB). However, the role of GRP78 in these cells has never been investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we have examined the role of GRP78 in trophoblast fusion using the Bewo choriocarcinoma cell line as a model of cytotrophoblast fusion. Down regulation of GRP78 by siRNA or chemical inhibitors and use of antibodies against GRP78 in culture medium significantly decreased forskolin-induced fusion capacity of Bewo cells suggesting the involvement of membrane GRP78 in trophoblast fusion. GRP78 expression was also studied in preeclamptic (PE) CTBs which are known to have lower fusion capacity compared to control CTBs. Interestingly, despite the increase of GRP78 mRNA in PE CTBs, membrane GRP78 is significantly decreased in PE CTBs compared to control CTBs, suggesting that relocation of GRP78 from the endoplasmic reticulum to cell surface is probably altered in PE CTBs. Conclusions Our results imply that membrane GRP78 could play an important role in syncytialisation. They also suggest that deregulation of GRP78 expression or relocation at cell surface might be involved in pregnancy complication associated with defective syncytialisation, such as preeclampsia. PMID:22912664

  6. Loss of host cell plasma membrane integrity following cell traversal by Plasmodium sporozoites in the skin.

    PubMed

    Formaglio, Pauline; Tavares, Joana; Ménard, Robert; Amino, Rogerio

    2014-02-01

    Plasmodium sporozoites are able to migrate through host cells by breaching their plasma membrane and gliding inside their cytoplasm. This migratory activity, called cell traversal (CT), was studied in vivo mainly using mutant sporozoites lacking the ability to wound host cells, and thus to perform CT. However, direct evidence of CT activity in host tissues by wild-type sporozoites remains scarce. Here, we describe a double-wounding assay to dynamically image CT activity in vivo and monitor cell membrane integrity over time. Based on the incorporation kinetics of a first live cell-impermeant dye, propidium iodide, we could determine whether traversed cells repair their wounded membranes or not. A second impermeant dye, SYTOX Green, was used to confirm the transient or the permanent loss of membrane integrity of traversed cells. This assay allowed, for the first time, the direct observation of sporozoites wounding and traversing host skin cells and showed that, while some traversed cells resealed their membrane, most became irreversibly permeable to these live cell-impermeant dyes. In combination with the study of CT-deficient sporozoites and the use of specific host cell markers, this intravital assay will provide the means to identify the nature of the cells traversed by sporozoites and will thus contribute to elucidating the role of CT by apicomplexan parasites in the vertebrate host. PMID:23892177

  7. Effect of seminal plasma fractions from entire and vasectomized rams on the motility characteristics, membrane status, and in vitro fertility of ram spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Ghaoui, Racha El-Hajj; Gillan, Lindsay; Thomson, Peter C; Evans, Gareth; Maxwell, W M Chis

    2007-01-01

    Whole seminal plasma from ram semen collected before and after vasectomy was separated into 2 fractions, supernatant and pellet of vesicles, and their protein profiles characterized by one-dimensional (1D) gel electrophoresis. The effects of autologous whole seminal plasma and these fractions on motility characteristics (assessed subjectively and by computer-assisted sperm analysis), membrane status (assessed by chlortetracycline staining patterns), and in vitro fertility (assessed by fertilization success and timing of fertilization events) of washed frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa were studied. Regardless of vasectomy, whole seminal plasma and supernatant displayed similar protein patterns. These fractions, when included in the postthaw buffer, improved the motility characteristics (59.6% +/- 6.21% and 39.6% +/- 6.21% vs 31.7% +/- 6.46% and 15.5% +/- 6.46% total motility) and membrane integrity (36.6% +/- 8.52% and 31.2% +/- 8.19% vs 30.3% +/- 11.49% and 21.6% +/- 10.28% B staining pattern [characteristic of capacitated acrosome-intact cells] for whole seminal plasma and supernatant vs control at 3 and 6 hours of postthaw incubation, respectively) of frozen-thawed spermatozoa and improved their ability to fertilize in vitro-matured oocytes compared with control buffer without seminal plasma fractions (25.3%, 47.4%, and 37.4% vs 12.3%, 20.2%, and 20.5% oocytes fertilized for spermatozoa incubated with supernatant vs control at 2, 6, and 18 hours after insemination, respectively). Vesicles were absent from semen collected after vasectomy. Pellets of vesicles collected before vasectomy had no effect on spermatozoa at their normal protein concentration but marginally improved both motility characteristics and in vitro fertility, possibly due to contamination from supernatant proteins, when their concentration in the postthaw medium was increased by threefold. It was concluded that the vesicle-free supernatant fraction of seminal plasma, but not the seminal plasma membrane vesicles, improved the function and fertility of frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa when added to the postthaw medium. PMID:16928891

  8. Mesoscopic simulation of cell membrane damage, morphology change and rupture by nonionic surfactants.

    PubMed Central

    Groot, R D; Rabone, K L

    2001-01-01

    A new simulation method, dissipative particle dynamics, is applied to model biological membranes. In this method, several atoms are united into a single simulation particle. The solubility and compressibility of the various liquid components are reproduced by the simulation model. When applied to a bilayer of phosphatidylethanolamine, the membrane structure obtained matches quantitatively with full atomistic simulations and with experiments reported in the literature. The method is applied to investigate the cause of cell death when bacteria are exposed to nonionic surfactants. Mixed bilayers of lipid and nonionic surfactant were studied, and the diffusion of water through the bilayer was monitored. Small transient holes are seen to appear at 40% mole-fraction C(9)E(8), which become permanent holes between 60 and 70% surfactant. When C(12)E(6) is applied, permanent holes only arise at 90% mole-fraction surfactant. Some simulations have been carried out to determine the rupture properties of mixed bilayers of phosphatidylethanolamine and C(12)E(6). These simulations indicate that the area of a pure lipid bilayer can be increased by a factor 2. The inclusion of surfactant considerably reduces both the extensibility and the maximum stress that the bilayer can withstand. This may explain why dividing cells are more at risk than static cells. PMID:11463621

  9. Synthesis and characterization of Nafion/TiO2 nanocomposite membrane for proton exchange membrane fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Young; Cho, Sung Yong

    2011-08-01

    In this study, the syntheses and characterizations of Nafion/TiO2 membranes for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) were investigated. Porous TiO2 powders were synthesized using the sol-gel method; with Nafion/TiO2 nanocomposite membranes prepared using the casting method. An X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that the synthesized TiO2 had an anatase structure. The specific surface areas of the TiO2 and Nafion/TiO2 nanocomposite membrane were found to be 115.97 and 33.91 m2/g using a nitrogen adsorption analyzer. The energy dispersive spectra analysis indicated that the TiO2 particles were uniformly distributed in the nanocomposite membrane. The membrane electrode assembly prepared from the Nafion/TiO2 nanocomposite membrane gave the best PEMFC performance compared to the Nafion/P-25 and Nafion membranes. PMID:22103220

  10. Chemical Imaging of the Cell Membrane by NanoSIMS

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P K; Kraft, M L; Frisz, J F; Carpenter, K J; Hutcheon, I D

    2010-02-23

    The existence of lipid microdomains and their role in cell membrane organization are currently topics of great interest and controversy. The cell membrane is composed of a lipid bilayer with embedded proteins that can flow along the two-dimensional surface defined by the membrane. Microdomains, known as lipid rafts, are believed to play a central role in organizing this fluid system, enabling the cell membrane to carry out essential cellular processes, including protein recruitment and signal transduction. Lipid rafts are also implicated in cell invasion by pathogens, as in the case of the HIV. Therefore, understanding the role of lipid rafts in cell membrane organization not only has broad scientific implications, but also has practical implications for medical therapies. One of the major limitations on lipid organization research has been the inability to directly analyze lipid composition without introducing artifacts and at the relevant length-scales of tens to hundreds of nanometers. Fluorescence microscopy is widely used due to its sensitivity and specificity to the labeled species, but only the labeled components can be observed, fluorophores can alter the behavior of the lipids they label, and the length scales relevant to imaging cell membrane domains are between that probed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging (<10 nm) and the diffraction limit of light. Topographical features can be imaged on this length scale by atomic force microscopy (AFM), but the chemical composition of the observed structures cannot be determined. Immuno-labeling can be used to study the distribution of membrane proteins at high resolution, but not lipid composition. We are using imaging mass spectrometry by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in concert with other high resolution imaging methods to overcome these limitations. The experimental approach of this project is to combine molecule-specific stable isotope labeling with high-resolution SIMS using a Cameca NanoSIMS 50 to probe membrane organization and test microdomain hypotheses. The NanoSIMS is an imaging secondary ion mass spectrometer with an unprecedented combination of spatial resolution, sensitivity and mass specificity. It has 50 nm lateral resolution and is capable of detecting 1 in 20 nitrogen atoms while excluding near-neighbor isobaric interferences. The tightly focused cesium ion beam is rastered across the sample to produce simultaneous, quantitative digital images of up to five different masses. By labeling each specific components of a membrane with a unique rare stable isotope or element and mapping the location of the labels with the NanoSIMS, the location of the each labeled component can be determined and quantified. This new approach to membrane composition analysis allows molecular interactions of biological membranes to be probed at length-scales relevant to lipid rafts (10s to 100s of nm) that were not previously possible. Results from our most recent experiments analyzing whole cells will be presented.

  11. A Novel Unitized Regenerative Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, O. J.; Cisar, A. J.; Gonzalez-Martin, A.; Salinas, C. E.; Simpson, S. F.

    1996-01-01

    A difficulty encountered in designing a unitized regenerative proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell lies in the incompatibility of electrode structures and electrocatalyst materials optimized for either of the two functions (fuel cell or electrolyzer) with the needs of the other function. This difficulty is compounded in previous regenerative fuel cell designs by the fact that water, which is needed for proton conduction in the PEM during both modes of operation, is the reactant supplied to the anode in the electrolyzer mode of operation and the product formed at the cathode in the fuel cell mode. Drawbacks associated with existing regenerative fuel cells have been addressed. In a first innovation, electrodes function either as oxidation electrodes (hydrogen ionization or oxygen evolution) or as reduction electrodes (oxygen reduction or hydrogen evolution) in the fuel cell and electrolyzer modes, respectively. Control of liquid water within the regenerative fuel cell has been brought about by a second innovation. A novel PEM has been developed with internal channels that permit the direct access of water along the length of the membrane. Lateral diffusion of water along the polymer chains of the PEM provides the water needed at electrode/PEM interfaces. Fabrication of the novel single cell unitized regenerative fuel cell and results obtained on testing it are presented.

  12. Membrane permeabilization and cell damage by ultrashort electric field shocks.

    PubMed

    Pakhomov, Andrei G; Shevin, Rachael; White, Jody A; Kolb, Juergen F; Pakhomova, Olga N; Joshi, Ravindra P; Schoenbach, Karl H

    2007-09-01

    Mammalian cells exposed to electric field pulses of nanosecond duration (nsPEF; 60-ns, 12 kV/cm) experienced a profound and long-lasting increase in passive electrical conductance (G(m)) of the cell membrane, probably caused by opening of stable conductance pores (CPs). The CPs were permeable to Cl(-) and alkali metal cations, but not to larger molecules such as propidium iodide (PI). CPs gradually resealed; the process took minutes and could be observed even in dialyzed cells and in ATP- and glucose-free solutions. Cells subjected to long nsPEF trains (up to 200 pulses) underwent severe and immediate necrotic transformation (cell swelling, blebbing, cytoplasm granulation), but remained impermeable to PI for at least 30-60 min after the exposure. Both G(m) increase after short nsPEF trains and necrotic changes after long nsPEF trains were cell type-dependent: they were much weaker in HeLa than in GH3 cells. La(3+) and Gd(3+) ions significantly inhibited the nsPEF-induced G(m) increase (probably by blocking the CPs), and effectively protected intensely exposed cells from developing necrosis. We conclude that plasma membrane permeabilization is the principal cause of necrotic transformation in nsPEF-exposed cells and probably contributes to other known nsPEF bioeffects. PMID:17555703

  13. Human T Cell Crosstalk Is Induced by Tumor Membrane Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Uzana, Ronny; Eisenberg, Galit; Merims, Sharon; Frankenburg, Shoshana; Pato, Aviad; Yefenof, Eitan; Engelstein, Roni; Peretz, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    Trogocytosis is a contact-dependent unidirectional transfer of membrane fragments between immune effector cells and their targets, initially detected in T cells following interaction with professional antigen presenting cells (APC). Previously, we have demonstrated that trogocytosis also takes place between melanoma-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and their cognate tumors. In the present study, we took this finding a step further, focusing on the ability of melanoma membrane-imprinted CD8+ T cells to act as APCs (CD8+T-APCs). We demonstrate that, following trogocytosis, CD8+T-APCs directly present a variety of melanoma derived peptides to fraternal T cells with the same TCR specificity or to T cells with different TCRs. The resulting T cell-T cell immune synapse leads to (1) Activation of effector CTLs, as determined by proliferation, cytokine secretion and degranulation; (2) Fratricide (killing) of CD8+T-APCs by the activated CTLs. Thus, trogocytosis enables cross-reactivity among CD8+ T cells with interchanging roles of effectors and APCs. This dual function of tumor-reactive CTLs may hint at their ability to amplify or restrict reactivity against the tumor and participate in modulation of the anti-cancer immune response. PMID:25671577

  14. Human T cell crosstalk is induced by tumor membrane transfer.

    PubMed

    Uzana, Ronny; Eisenberg, Galit; Merims, Sharon; Frankenburg, Shoshana; Pato, Aviad; Yefenof, Eitan; Engelstein, Roni; Peretz, Tamar; Machlenkin, Arthur; Lotem, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Trogocytosis is a contact-dependent unidirectional transfer of membrane fragments between immune effector cells and their targets, initially detected in T cells following interaction with professional antigen presenting cells (APC). Previously, we have demonstrated that trogocytosis also takes place between melanoma-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and their cognate tumors. In the present study, we took this finding a step further, focusing on the ability of melanoma membrane-imprinted CD8+ T cells to act as APCs (CD8+ T-APCs). We demonstrate that, following trogocytosis, CD8+ T-APCs directly present a variety of melanoma derived peptides to fraternal T cells with the same TCR specificity or to T cells with different TCRs. The resulting T cell-T cell immune synapse leads to (1) Activation of effector CTLs, as determined by proliferation, cytokine secretion and degranulation; (2) Fratricide (killing) of CD8+ T-APCs by the activated CTLs. Thus, trogocytosis enables cross-reactivity among CD8+ T cells with interchanging roles of effectors and APCs. This dual function of tumor-reactive CTLs may hint at their ability to amplify or restrict reactivity against the tumor and participate in modulation of the anti-cancer immune response. PMID:25671577

  15. Cell Component Accelerated Stress Test and Polarization Curve Protocols for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    United States Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle Efficiency and Energy Sustainability (USDRIVE)

    This document contains test protocols to determine the performance and durability of fuel cell components such as electrocatalysts and supports, membranes, and membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs). These protocols were established with the intent to be used as a common industry standard when assessing durability of different polymer electrolyte membranes (PEM) in fuel cells for automotive applications and to be compared against DOE and FreedomCar targets. The resulting data may also help to model the performance of the fuel cell under variable load conditions and the effects of ageing on performance.

  16. Movement of thallous ion across the ascites cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Bakker-Grunwald, T

    1979-05-21

    The movement of thallous ion (Tl+) across the ascites cell membrane has been characterized. Analogous to previous findings for 86Rb (used as a tracer for K+), 204Tl+-influx could be resolved into three components: a ouabain-inhibitable "pump" flux, a passive flux, and a furosemide- or NO-3-sensitive "exchange" flux. Although Tl+ moved approximately nine times faster across the membrane than K+, the pump/leak ratio was equal for the two ions. This suggests that the pump- and leak-pathways share a common rate-limiting step. The exchange mechanism was shown to provide close coupling between the Tl+- and K+-gradients. PMID:490621

  17. Schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni use lysophosphatidylcholine to lyse adherent human red blood cells and immobilize red cell membrane components

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Human red blood cells (RBCs) adhere to and are lysed by schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni. We have investigated the mechanism of RBC lysis by comparing the dynamic properties of transmembrane protein and lipid probes in adherent ghost membranes with those in control RBCs and in RBCs treated with various membrane perturbants. Fluorescence photobleaching recovery was used to measure the lateral mobility of two integral membrane proteins, glycophorin and band 3, and two lipid analogues, fluorescein phosphatidylethanolamine (Fl-PE) and carbocyanine dyes, in RBCs and ghosts adherent to schistosomula. Adherent ghosts manifested 95-100% immobilization of both membrane proteins and 45-55% immobilization of both lipid probes. In separate experiments, diamide-induced cross-linking of RBC cytoskeletal proteins slowed transmembrane protein diffusion by 30-40%, without affecting either transmembrane protein fractional mobility or lipid probe lateral mobility. Wheat germ agglutinin- and polylysine-induced cross-linking of glycophorin at the extracellular surface caused 80-95% immobilization of the transmembrane proteins, without affecting the fractional mobility of the lipid probe. Egg lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC) induced both lysis of RBCs and a concentration-dependent decrease in the lateral mobility of glycophorin, band 3, and Fl-PE in ghost membranes. At a concentration of 8.4 micrograms/ml, lysoPC caused a pattern of protein and lipid immobilization in RBC ghosts identical to that in ghosts adherent to schistosomula. Schistosomula incubated with labeled palmitate released lysoPC into the culture medium at a rate of 1.5 fmol/h per 10(3) organisms. These data suggest that lysoPC is transferred from schistosomula to adherent RBCs, causing their lysis. PMID:3745271

  18. Characterization of Ca2+ uptake in a subcellular membrane fraction of Herpetomonas sp. promastigotes.

    PubMed

    Sodré, C L; Moreira, B L M; Meyer-Fernandes, J R; Dutra, P M L; Lopes, A H C S; Scofano, H M; Barrabin, H

    2009-05-01

    ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake was studied in a subcellular fraction from Herpetomonas sp. prepared by mechanical disruption and using 45Ca2+ as a tracer. The uptake was stimulated by Ca2+ with a K0.5 of 0.1 microm and a Hill number (nH)=2.8+/-0.4. The Ca2+-dependent ATP hydrolysis was optimal at pH 7.0 and had a Ca2+ dependence identical to uptake. The uptake was highly stimulated by oxalate whereas calmodulin had no activating effect. ATP stimulated Ca2+ uptake with a biphasic pattern that resembled the curves described for the purified preparations of rabbit sarcoplasmic reticulum. The ATP stimulation is described as the sum of two Michaelis-Menten curves with Km1=0.25+/-0.19 microm and Km2=29.6+/-6.8 microm. GTP or UTP could also promote Ca2+ uptake, but with less efficiency than ATP. Vanadate inhibited the uptake with low apparent affinity. Thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid were almost ineffective. The Ca2+ uptake was insensitive to H+ ionophores and to bafilomycin suggesting no participation of acidocalcisomes. The results are comparable to those obtained using cells permeabilized with digitonin and using arsenaze III as Ca2+ indicator. The Ca2+ uptake activity described here seems to belong to the endoplasmic reticulum of Herpetomonas sp. and is suitable for further studies on the mechanisms of calcium homeostasis in parasites. PMID:19368742

  19. Stem cell differentiation increases membrane-actin adhesion regulating cell blebability, migration and mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Sliogeryte, Kristina; Thorpe, Stephen D.; Lee, David A.; Botto, Lorenzo; Knight, Martin M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells regulates the interaction between the cell membrane and the actin cortex controlling cell behavior. Micropipette aspiration was used to measure the pressure required for membrane-cortex detachment which increased from 0.15?kPa in stem cells to 0.71?kPa following chondrogenic differentiation. This effect was associated with reduced susceptibility to mechanical and osmotic bleb formation, reduced migration and an increase in cell modulus. Theoretical modelling of bleb formation demonstrated that the increased stiffness of differentiated cells was due to the increased membrane-cortex adhesion. Differentiated cells exhibited greater F-actin density and slower actin remodelling. Differentiated cells also expressed greater levels of the membrane-cortex ezrin, radixin, moeisin (ERM) linker proteins which was responsible for the reduced blebability, as confirmed by transfection of stem cells with dominant active ezrin-T567D-GFP. This study demonstrates that stem cells have an inherently weak membrane-cortex adhesion which increases blebability thereby regulating cell migration and stiffness. PMID:25471686

  20. Alkaline membrane fuel cells with in-situ cross-linked ionomers Yongjun Leng a

    E-print Network

    membranes (AEMs) as the solid polymer electrolyte to facilitate high pH cell operation have garnered recentAlkaline membrane fuel cells with in-situ cross-linked ionomers Yongjun Leng a , Lizhu Wang b membrane fuel cell (AMFC) in-situ cross-linking ionomer net water transport coefficient A B S T R A C

  1. High-Resolution Models of Motion of Macromolecules in Cell Membranes

    E-print Network

    Steinberg, Stanly

    High-Resolution Models of Motion of Macromolecules in Cell Membranes Karin Leiderman a Stanly Running head: Motion of Macromolecules Abstract The path of a macromolecule on a cell membrane is modeled of the mo- tion and interactions of macromolecules on the cell membrane. Additionally, the probability

  2. Protein area occupancy at the center of the red blood cell membrane

    E-print Network

    ; the plasma membranes of most animal cells are 50% protein. Nonetheless, with the exception of the purple at the center of the human red blood cell (RBC) plasma membrane is at least 23% protein and less than 77% lipid with direct relevance to other cell types. RBC plasma membranes were ``shaved'' by using a combination of high

  3. Influence of water and membrane microstructure on the transport properties of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siu, Ana Rosa

    Proton transport in proton exchange membranes (PEMs) depends on interaction between water and acid groups covalently bound to the polymer. Although the presence of water is important in maintaining the PEM's functions, a thorough understanding of this topic is still lacking. The objective of this work is to provide a better understanding of how the nature water, confined to ionic domains of the polymer, influences the membrane's ability to transport protons, methanol and water. Understanding this topic will facilitate development of new materials with favorable transport properties for fuel cells use. Five classes of polymer membranes were used in this work: polyacrylonitrile-graft-poly(styrenesulfonic) acid (PAN-g-macPSSA); poly(vinylidene difluoride) irradiation-graft-poly(styrenesulfonic) acid (PVDF-g-PSSA); poly(ethylenetetrafluoroethylene) irradiation-graft-poly(styrenesulfonic) acid (ETFE-gPSSA); PVDF-g-PSSA with hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA); and perfluorosulfonic acid membrane (Nafion). The nature of water within the polymers (freezable versus non-freezable states) was measured by systematically freezing samples, and observing the temperature at which water freezes and the amount of heat released in the process. Freezing water-swollen membranes resulted in a 4-fold decrease in the proton conductivity of the PEM. Activation energies of proton transport before and after freezing were ˜ 0.15 eV and 0.5 eV, consistent with proton transport through liquid water and bound water, respectively. Reducing the content of water in membrane samples decreased the amount of freezable and non-freezable water. Calorimetric measurements of membranes in various degrees of hydration showed that water molecules became non-freezable when lambda, (water molecules per sulfonic acid group) was less than ˜14. Proton conduction through membranes containing only non-freezable water was demonstrated to be feasible. Diffusion experiments showed that the permeability of methanol decreased when the content of free water in the membranes decreased. Variation in permeability trends observed for the different polymer classes of the same content of free water was explained on the basis of tortuosity and interaction of methanol within the ionic network. Finally, a novel set of polymers containing non-ionic hydrophilic segments were examined for enhanced water transport in order to see if such domains might offset the flux of water due to electro-osmosis.

  4. Alterations in the structure and function of the mammalian cell membrane after exposure to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yau, T.M.

    1981-01-01

    Although the nucleus appears to represent the primary target for the killing of cells by ionizing radiation, the cell membrane may be another important site for radiation injury and modification of the radiation response. In this paper, the effects of radiation on various membrane-associated parameters which are expected to affect cellular viability or function are reviewed. These include the effect of radiation on membrane transport, lectin or hormone receptor sites, cell surface electrokinetics, cell membrane fluidity, cell surface topography, etc. Alternative biochemical mechanisms that may account for the effects of radiation on cell membrane in general will also be discussed.

  5. Automating Single Subunit Counting of Membrane Proteins in Mammalian Cells*

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Hugo; Aurousseau, Mark R. P.; Bowie, Derek; Blunck, Rikard

    2012-01-01

    Elucidating subunit stoichiometry of neurotransmitter receptors is preferably carried out in a mammalian expression system where the rules of native protein assembly are strictly obeyed. Although successful in Xenopus oocytes, single subunit counting, manually counting photobleaching steps of GFP-tagged subunits, has been hindered in mammalian cells by high background fluorescence, poor control of expression, and low GFP maturation efficiency. Here, we present a fully automated single-molecule fluorescence counting method that separates tagged proteins on the plasma membrane from background fluorescence and contaminant proteins in the cytosol or the endoplasmic reticulum and determines the protein stoichiometry. Lower GFP maturation rates observed in cells cultured at 37 °C were partly offset using a monomeric version of superfolder GFP. We were able to correctly identify the stoichiometry of GluK2 and ?1 glycine receptors. Our approach permits the elucidation of stoichiometry for a wide variety of plasma membrane proteins in mammalian cells with any commercially available TIRF microscope. PMID:22930752

  6. Plasma membrane polarization during mating in yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Proszynski, Tomasz J; Klemm, Robin; Bagnat, Michel; Gaus, Katharina; Simons, Kai

    2006-06-19

    The yeast mating cell provides a simple paradigm for analyzing mechanisms underlying the generation of surface polarity. Endocytic recycling and slow diffusion on the plasma membrane were shown to facilitate polarized surface distribution of Snc1p (Valdez-Taubas, J., and H.R. Pelham. 2003. Curr. Biol. 13:1636-1640). Here, we found that polarization of Fus1p, a raft-associated type I transmembrane protein involved in cell fusion, does not depend on endocytosis. Instead, Fus1p localization to the tip of the mating projection was determined by its cytosolic domain, which binds to peripheral proteins involved in mating tip polarization. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the lipid bilayer at the mating projection is more condensed than the plasma membrane enclosing the cell body, and that sphingolipids are required for this lipid organization. PMID:16769822

  7. Membrane electrode assemblies for unitised regenerative polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittstadt, U.; Wagner, E.; Jungmann, T.

    Membrane electrode assemblies for regenerative polymer electrolyte fuel cells were made by hot pressing and sputtering. The different MEAs are examined in fuel cell and water electrolysis mode at different pressure and temperature conditions. Polarisation curves and ac impedance spectra are used to investigate the influence of the changes in coating technique. The hydrogen gas permeation through the membrane is determined by analysing the produced oxygen in electrolysis mode. The analysis shows, that better performances in both process directions can be achieved with an additional layer of sputtered platinum on the oxygen electrode. Thus, the electrochemical round-trip efficiency can be improved by more than 4%. Treating the oxygen electrode with PTFE solution shows better performance in fuel cell and less performance in electrolysis mode. The increase of the round-trip efficiency is negligible. A layer sputtered directly on the membrane shows good impermeability, and hence results in high voltages at low current densities. The mass transportation is apparently constricted. The gas diffusion layer on the oxygen electrode, in this case a titanium foam, leads to flooding of the cell in fuel cell mode. Stable operation is achieved after pretreatment of the GDL with a PTFE solution.

  8. Creating transient cell membrane pores using a standard inkjet printer.

    PubMed

    Owczarczak, Alexander B; Shuford, Stephen O; Wood, Scott T; Deitch, Sandra; Dean, Delphine

    2012-01-01

    Bioprinting has a wide range of applications and significance, including tissue engineering, direct cell application therapies, and biosensor microfabrication. Recently, thermal inkjet printing has also been used for gene transfection. The thermal inkjet printing process was shown to temporarily disrupt the cell membranes without affecting cell viability. The transient pores in the membrane can be used to introduce molecules, which would otherwise be too large to pass through the membrane, into the cell cytoplasm. The application being demonstrated here is the use of thermal inkjet printing for the incorporation of fluorescently labeled g-actin monomers into cells. The advantage of using thermal ink-jet printing to inject molecules into cells is that the technique is relatively benign to cells. Cell viability after printing has been shown to be similar to standard cell plating methods. In addition, inkjet printing can process thousands of cells in minutes, which is much faster than manual microinjection. The pores created by printing have been shown to close within about two hours. However, there is a limit to the size of the pore created (~10 nm) with this printing technique, which limits the technique to injecting cells with small proteins and/or particles. A standard HP DeskJet 500 printer was modified to allow for cell printing. The cover of the printer was removed and the paper feed mechanism was bypassed using a mechanical lever. A stage was created to allow for placement of microscope slides and coverslips directly under the print head. Ink cartridges were opened, the ink was removed and they were cleaned prior to use with cells. The printing pattern was created using standard drawing software, which then controlled the printer through a simple print command. 3T3 fibroblasts were grown to confluence, trypsinized, and then resuspended into phosphate buffered saline with soluble fluorescently labeled g-actin monomers. The cell suspension was pipetted into the ink cartridge and lines of cells were printed onto glass microscope cover slips. The live cells were imaged using fluorescence microscopy and actin was found throughout the cytoplasm. Incorporation of fluorescent actin into the cell allows for imaging of short-time cytoskeletal dynamics and is useful for a wide range of applications. PMID:22453577

  9. Sodium channels in membrane vesicles from cultured toad bladder cells

    SciTech Connect

    Asher, C.; Moran, A.; Rossier, B.C.; Garty, H. (Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel) Ben Gurion Univ., Beer-Sheva (Israel) Institut de Pharmacologie de l'Universite de Lausanne (Switzerland))

    1988-04-01

    Electrical potential-driven {sup 22}Na{sup +} fluxes were measured in membrane vesicles prepared from TBM-18(cl23) cells (a clone of the established cell line TB-M). Fifty to seventy percent of the tracer uptake in vesicles derived from cells that were cultivated on a porous support were blocked by the diuretic amiloride. The amiloride inhibition constant was <0.1 {mu}M, indicating that this flux is mediated by the apical Na{sup +}-specific channels. Vesicles prepared from cells that were not grown on a porous support exhibited much smaller amiloride-sensitive fluxes. Two Ca{sup 2+}-dependent processes that down-regulated the channel conductance and were previously identified in native epithelia were found in the cultured cells as well. Vesicles isolated from cells that were preincubated with 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} M aldosterone for 16-20 h exhibited higher amiloride-sensitive conductance than vesicles derived from control, steroid-depleted cells. Thus membrane derived from TBM-18(cl23) cells can be used to characterize the epithelial Na{sup +} channel and its hormonal regulation.

  10. A novel unitized regenerative proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, O. J.; Cisar, A. J.; Gonzalez-Martin, A.; Salinas, C. E.; Simpson, S. F.

    1995-01-01

    A difficulty encountered in designing a unitized regenerative proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell lies in the incompatibility of electrode structures and electrocatalyst materials optimized for either of the two functions (fuel cell or electrolyzer) with the needs of the other function. This difficulty is compounded in previous regenerative fuel cell designs by the fact that water, which is needed for proton conduction in the PEM during both modes of operation, is the reactant supplied to the anode in the electrolyzer mode of operation and the product formed at the cathode in the fuel cell mode. Drawbacks associated with existing regenerative fuel cells have been addressed in work performed at Lynntech. In a first innovation, electrodes function either as oxidation electrodes (hydrogen ionization or oxygen evolution) or as reduction electrodes (oxygen reduction or hydrogen evolution) in the fuel cell and electrolyzer modes, respectively. Control of liquid water within the regenerative fuel cell has been brought about by a second innovation. A novel PEM has been developed with internal channels that permit the direct access of water along the length of the membrane. Lateral diffusion of water along the polymer chains of the PEM provides the water needed at electrode/PEM interfaces. Fabrication of the novel unitized regenerative fuel cell and results obtained on testing it will be presented.

  11. Manipulation of cell volume and membrane pore comparison following single cell permeabilization with 60- and 600-ns electric pulses.

    PubMed

    Nesin, Olena M; Pakhomova, Olga N; Xiao, Shu; Pakhomov, Andrei G

    2011-03-01

    Intense nanosecond-duration electric pulses (nsEP) open stable nanopores in the cell membrane, followed by cell volume changes due to water uptake or expulsion, as regulated by the osmolality balance of pore-impermeable solutes inside and outside the cell. The size of pores opened by either fifty 60-ns EP (~13 kV/cm) or five, 600-ns EP (~6 kV/cm) in GH3 cells was estimated by isoosmotic replacement of bath NaCl with polyethylene glycols and sugars. Such replacement reduced cell swelling or resulted in transient or sustained cell shrinking in response to EP. depending on the availability of pores permeable to the test solute. Unexpectedly, solute substitutions showed that for the same integral area of pores opened by 60- and 600-ns treatments (as estimated by cell volume changes), the pore sizes were similar. However, the 600-ns exposure triggered significantly higher cell uptake of propidium. We concluded that 600-ns EP opened a greater number of larger (propidium-permeable pores), but the fraction of the larger pores in the entire pore population was insufficient to contribute to cell volume changes. For both the 60- and 600-ns exposures, cell volume changes were determined by pores smaller than 0.9 nm in diameter; however, the diameter increased with increasing the nsEP intensity. PMID:21182825

  12. The Toxoplasma gondii rhoptry protein ROP 2 is inserted into the parasitophorous vacuole membrane, surrounding the intracellular parasite, and is exposed to the host cell cytoplasm

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The origin of the vacuole membrane surrounding the intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is not known. Although unique secretory organelles, the rhoptries, discharge during invasion of the host cell and may contribute to the formation of this parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM), no direct evidence for this hypothesis exists. Using a novel approach we have determined that parasite-encoded proteins are present in the PVM, exposed to the host cell cytoplasm. In infected cells incubated with streptolysin-O or low concentrations of digitonin, the host cell plasma membrane was selectively permeabilized without significantly affecting the integrity of the PVM. Antisera prepared against whole parasites or a parasite fraction enriched in rhoptries and dense granules reacted with the PVM in these permeabilized cells, indicating that parasite-encoded antigens were exposed on the cytoplasmic side of the PVM. Parasite antigens responsible for this staining of the PVM were identified by fractionating total parasite proteins by SDS-PAGE and velocity sedimentation, and then affinity purifying "fraction-specific" antibodies from the crude antisera. Proteins responsible for the PVM- staining, identified with fraction-specific antibodies, cofractionated with known rhoptry proteins. The gene encoding one of the rhoptry proteins, ROP 2, was cloned and sequenced, predicting and integral membrane protein. Antibodies specific for ROP 2 reacted with the intact PVM. These results provide the first direct evidence that rhoptry contents participate in the formation of the PVM of T. gondii and suggest a possible role of ROP 2 in parasite-host cell interactions. PMID:7962077

  13. Membrane tether formation from outer hair cells with optical tweezers.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiwei; Anvari, Bahman; Takashima, Masayoshi; Brecht, Peter; Torres, Jorge H; Brownell, William E

    2002-01-01

    Optical tweezers were used to characterize the mechanical properties of the outer hair cell (OHC) plasma membrane by pulling tethers with 4.5-microm polystyrene beads. Tether formation force and tether force were measured in static and dynamic conditions. A greater force was required for tether formations from OHC lateral wall (499 +/- 152 pN) than from OHC basal end (142 +/- 49 pN). The difference in the force required to pull tethers is consistent with an extensive cytoskeletal framework associated with the lateral wall known as the cortical lattice. The apparent plasma membrane stiffness, estimated under the static conditions by measuring tether force at different tether length, was 3.71 pN/microm for OHC lateral wall and 4.57 pN/microm for OHC basal end. The effective membrane viscosity was measured by pulling tethers at different rates while continuously recording the tether force, and estimated in the range of 2.39 to 5.25 pN x s/microm. The viscous force most likely results from the viscous interactions between plasma membrane lipids and the OHC cortical lattice and/or integral membrane proteins. The information these studies provide on the mechanical properties of the OHC lateral wall is important for understanding the mechanism of OHC electromotility. PMID:11867454

  14. CLN3 loss disturbs membrane microdomain properties and protein transport in brain endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tecedor, Luis; Stein, Colleen S; Schultz, Mark L; Farwanah, Hany; Sandhoff, Konrad; Davidson, Beverly L

    2013-11-13

    Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL) is a fatal childhood-onset neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in ceroid lipofuscinosis neuronal-3 (CLN3), a hydrophobic transmembrane protein of unresolved function. Previous studies indicate blood-brain barrier (BBB) defects in JNCL, and our earlier report showed prominent Cln3 expression in mouse brain endothelium. Here we find that CLN3 is necessary for normal trafficking of the microdomain-associated proteins caveolin-1, syntaxin-6, and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) in brain endothelial cells. Correspondingly, CLN3-null cells have reduced caveolae, and impaired caveolae- and MDR1-related functions including endocytosis, drug efflux, and cell volume regulation. We also detected an abnormal blood-brain barrier response to osmotic stress in vivo. Evaluation of the plasma membrane with fluorescent sphingolipid probes suggests microdomain destabilization and enhanced fluidity in CLN3-null cells. In further work we found that application of the glycosphingolipid lactosylceramide to CLN3-deficient cells rescues protein transport and caveolar endocytosis. Last, we show that CLN3 localizes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and partitions with buoyant microdomain fractions. We propose that CLN3 facilitates TGN-to-plasma membrane transport of microdomain-associated proteins. Insult to this pathway may underlie BBB dysfunction and contribute to JNCL pathogenesis. PMID:24227717

  15. LAPTM5: A novel lysosomal-associated multispanning membrane protein preferentially expressed in hematopoietic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Adra, C.N.; Zhu, Shaochun; Ko, Jone-Long [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others] [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); and others

    1996-07-15

    While a large body of knowledge about cell membrane proteins exists, much less is known about the repertoire and function of integral membrane proteins of intracellular organelles. In looking for novel classes of genes that are functionally important to hematopoietic cells, we have cloned the cDNA for a gene preferentially expressed in adult hematopoietic tissues. During embryonic development the gene is expressed in both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic tissues. In cell lines the gene is expressed specifically in hematopoietic lineages, whereas in normal adult tissues the mRNA is preferentially detected at high levels in lymphoid and myeloid tissues. The predicted protein is a pentaspanner with no homology to known genes and conserved across evolution. Immunocytological and cell fractionation studies with a specific antibody revealed a protein localizing in lysosomes. The gene, provisionally named LAPTM5, maps to chromosome 1p34. The expression pattern of the gene together with preliminary evidence that the protein interacts with ubiquitin indicates that the protein may have a special functional role during embryogenesis and in adult hematopoietic cells. 53 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Nafion/silane nanocomposite membranes for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Ghi, Lee Jin; Park, Na Ri; Kim, Moon Sung; Rhee, Hee Woo

    2011-07-01

    The polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has been studied actively for both potable and stationary applications because it can offer high power density and be used only hydrogen and oxygen as environment-friendly fuels. Nafion which is widely used has mechanical and chemical stabilities as well as high conductivity. However, there is a drawback that it can be useless at high temperatures (> or = 90 degrees C) because proton conducting mechanism cannot work above 100 degrees C due to dehydration of membrane. Therefore, PEMFC should be operated for long-term at high temperatures continuously. In this study, we developed nanocomposite membrane using stable properties of Nafion and phosphonic acid groups which made proton conducting mechanism without water. 3-Aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) was used to replace sulfonic acid groups of Nafion and then its aminopropyl group was chemically modified to phosphonic acid groups. The nanocomposite membrane showed very high conductivity (approximately 0.02 S/cm at 110 degrees C, <30% RH). PMID:22121602

  17. A comparative study of water uptake by and transport through ionomeric fuel cell membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Zawodzinski, T.A.Jr.; Springer, T.E.; Davey, J.; Jestel, R.; Lopez, C.; Valerio, J.; Gottesfeld, S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Electronics Materials and Device Research)

    1993-07-01

    Water uptake and transport parameters measured at 30 C for several available perfluorosulfonic acid membranes are compared. The water sorption characteristics, diffusion coefficient of water, electroosmotic drag, and protonic conductivity were determined for Nafion 117, Membrane C, and Dow XUS 13204.10 developmental fuel cell membrane. The diffusion coefficient and conductivity of each of these membranes were determined as functions of membrane water content. Experimental determination of transport parameters, enables one to compare membranes without the skewing effects of extensive features such as membrane thickness which contributes in a nonlinear fashion to performance in polymer electrolyte fuel cells.

  18. Cell Surface and Membrane Engineering: Emerging Technologies and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Saeui, Christopher T.; Mathew, Mohit P.; Liu, Lingshui; Urias, Esteban; Yarema, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Membranes constitute the interface between the basic unit of life—a single cell—and the outside environment and thus in many ways comprise the ultimate “functional biomaterial”. To perform the many and often conflicting functions required in this role, for example to partition intracellular contents from the outside environment while maintaining rapid intake of nutrients and efflux of waste products, biological membranes have evolved tremendous complexity and versatility. This article describes how membranes, mainly in the context of living cells, are increasingly being manipulated for practical purposes with drug discovery, biofuels, and biosensors providing specific, illustrative examples. Attention is also given to biology-inspired, but completely synthetic, membrane-based technologies that are being enabled by emerging methods such as bio-3D printers. The diverse set of applications covered in this article are intended to illustrate how these versatile technologies—as they rapidly mature—hold tremendous promise to benefit human health in numerous ways ranging from the development of new medicines to sensitive and cost-effective environmental monitoring for pathogens and pollutants to replacing hydrocarbon-based fossil fuels. PMID:26096148

  19. Cell Surface and Membrane Engineering: Emerging Technologies and Applications.

    PubMed

    Saeui, Christopher T; Mathew, Mohit P; Liu, Lingshui; Urias, Esteban; Yarema, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Membranes constitute the interface between the basic unit of life-a single cell-and the outside environment and thus in many ways comprise the ultimate "functional biomaterial". To perform the many and often conflicting functions required in this role, for example to partition intracellular contents from the outside environment while maintaining rapid intake of nutrients and efflux of waste products, biological membranes have evolved tremendous complexity and versatility. This article describes how membranes, mainly in the context of living cells, are increasingly being manipulated for practical purposes with drug discovery, biofuels, and biosensors providing specific, illustrative examples. Attention is also given to biology-inspired, but completely synthetic, membrane-based technologies that are being enabled by emerging methods such as bio-3D printers. The diverse set of applications covered in this article are intended to illustrate how these versatile technologies-as they rapidly mature-hold tremendous promise to benefit human health in numerous ways ranging from the development of new medicines to sensitive and cost-effective environmental monitoring for pathogens and pollutants to replacing hydrocarbon-based fossil fuels. PMID:26096148

  20. Insulin Regulation and Selective Segregation with Glucose Transporter4 of the Membrane Aminopeptidase vp165 in Rat Skeletal Muscle Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SATORU SUMITANI; TOOLSIE RAMLAL; ROMEL SOMWAR; SUSANNA R. KELLER

    1997-01-01

    vp165,arecentlydescribedmemberofthefamilyofzinc-dependent membrane aminopeptidases, is a major constituent of glucose trans- porter-4 (GLUT4)-containing vesicles in adipocytes and skeletal mus- cle. Here we show that vp165 is expressed in L6 myoblasts and increases by 4.3-fold during differentiation into myotubes. The local- ization of vp165 in L6 myotubes was assessed by immunoblotting subcellular fractions from basal and insulin-stimulated cells and was compared to

  1. BIOCHEMISTRY: Signaling Across the Cell Membrane

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rama Ranganathan (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center; Green Center for Systems Biology and Department of Pharmacology)

    2007-11-23

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Structural and functional studies shed light on how G protein-coupled receptors sense external stimuli. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)--the largest and most diverse group of tranmembrane receptors--occur in nearly every eukaryotic cell and can sense photons, cations, small molecules, peptides, and proteins (1, 2). Two research articles in this issue (4, 5) and a recent article in Nature (6) report important steps towards understanding how GPCRs operate.

  2. Cell Membrane Alignment along Adhesive Surfaces: Contribution of Active and Passive Cell Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Pierres; Philippe Eymeric; Emmanuelle Baloche; Dominique Touchard; Anne-Marie Benoliel; Pierre Bongrand

    2003-01-01

    Cell adhesion requires nanometer scale membrane alignment to allow contact between adhesion receptors. Little quantitative information is presently available on this important biological process. Here we present an interference reflection microscopic study of the initial interaction between monocytic THP-1 cells and adhesive surfaces, with concomitant determination of cell deformability, using micropipette aspiration, and adhesiveness, using a laminar flow assay. We

  3. Title: Effect of seminal plasma fractions from entire and vasectomised rams on the motility characteristics, membrane status and in vitro fertility of ram spermatozoa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Racha El-Hajj Ghaoui; Lindsay Gillian; Peter C. Thomson; Gareth Evans; W. M. Chis Maxwell

    Whole seminal plasma from ram semen collected before and after vasectomy was separated into 2 fractions, supernatant and pellet of vesicles, and their protein profiles characterized by one-dimensional (1D) gel electrophoresis. The effects of autologous whole seminal plasma and these fractions on motility characteristics (assessed subjectively and by computer- assisted sperm analysis), membrane status (assessed by chlortetra- cycline staining patterns),

  4. Physical and Physiological Evidence for Two Phase Transitions in Cytoplasmic Membranes of Animal Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernadine J. Wisnieski; Joel G. Parkes; Yoshie O. Huang; C. Fred Fox

    1974-01-01

    Electron spin resonance analysis of suspensions of animal cell plasma membranes consistently reveals four characteristic temperatures for lateral phase separations in the membrane lipids. Similar analysis of an aqueous dispersion of lipids extracted from these membranes reveals only two characteristic temperatures, indicating that some aspect of lipid organization in membranes is destroyed by the extraction procedure. The characteristic temperatures for

  5. A comparative study of water uptake by and transport through ionomeric fuel cell membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas A. Zawodzinski; T. E. Springer; J. Davey; R. Jestel; C. Lopez; J. Valerio; S. Gottesfeld

    1993-01-01

    Water uptake and transport parameters measured at 30 C for several available perfluorosulfonic acid membranes are compared. The water sorption characteristics, diffusion coefficient of water, electroosmotic drag, and protonic conductivity were determined for Nafion 117, Membrane C, and Dow XUS 13204.10 developmental fuel cell membrane. The diffusion coefficient and conductivity of each of these membranes were determined as functions of

  6. Ambidextrous Binding of Cell and Membrane Bilayers by Soluble Matrix Metalloproteinase-12

    PubMed Central

    Koppisetti, Rama K.; Fulcher, Yan G.; Jurkevich, Alexander; Prior, Stephen H.; Xu, Jia; Lenoir, Marc; Overduin, Michael; Van Doren, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) regulate tissue remodeling, inflammation, and disease progression. Some soluble MMPs are inexplicably active near cell surfaces. Here, we demonstrate binding of MMP-12 directly to bilayers and cellular membranes using paramagnetic NMR and fluorescence. Opposing sides of the catalytic domain engage spin-labeled membrane mimics. Loops project from the ?-sheet interface to contact the phospholipid bilayer with basic and hydrophobic residues. The distal membrane interface comprises loops on the other side of the catalytic cleft. Both interfaces mediate MMP-12 association with vesicles and cell membranes. MMP-12 binds plasma membranes and is internalized to hydrophobic perinuclear features, the nuclear membrane, and inside the nucleus within minutes. While binding of TIMP-2 to MMP-12 hinders membrane interactions beside the active site, TIMP-2-inhibited MMP-12 binds vesicles and cells, suggesting compensatory rotation of its membrane approaches. MMP-12 association with diverse cell membranes may target its activities to modulate innate immune responses and inflammation. PMID:25412686

  7. Manipulation of cell volume and membrane pore comparison following single cell permeabilization with 60- and 600-ns electric pulses

    PubMed Central

    Nesin, Olena M.; Pakhomova, Olga N.; Xiao, Shu; Pakhomov, Andrei G.

    2010-01-01

    Intense nanosecond-duration electric pulses (nsEP) open stable nanopores in cell plasma membrane, followed by cell volume changesdue to water uptake or expulsion, as regulated by the osmolality balance of pore-impermeable solutes inside and outside the cell. The size of pores opened by 50, 60-ns EP (10 Hz, ~13 kV/cm) and 5, 600-ns EP (1 Hz, ~6 kV/cm) in GH3 cells was estimated by isoosmotic replacement of bath NaCl with (polyethylene glycols and sugars. Such replacement reduced cell swelling and/or turned it into a transient or sustained shrinking, depending on the availability of pores permeable to the test solute. Unexpectedly, solute substitutions showed that for the same integral area of pores opened by 60- and 600-ns treatments (as indicated by cell volume changes), the pore sizes were similar. However, the 600-ns exposure triggered significantly higher cell uptake of propidium. We concluded that 600-ns EP opened a greater number of larger (propidium-permeable pores), but the fraction of the larger pores in the entire pore population was insufficient to contribute to cell volume changes. For both the 60- and 600-ns exposures, cell volume changes were determined by pores smaller than 0.9 nm in diameter; however, the diameter increased with increasing the nsEP intensity. PMID:21182825

  8. Free tubulin modulates mitochondrial membrane potential in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Eduardo N; Patnaik, Jyoti; Mullins, Matthew R; Lemasters, John J

    2010-12-15

    Formation of the mitochondrial membrane potential (??) depends on flux of respiratory substrates, ATP, ADP, and Pi through voltage-dependent anion channels (VDAC). As tubulin promotes single-channel closure of VDAC, we hypothesized that tubulin is a dynamic regulator of ??, which in cultured cancer cells was assessed by confocal microscopy of the potential-indicating fluorophore tetramethylrhodamine methylester (TMRM). Microtubule destabilizers, rotenone, colchicine, and nocodazole, and the microtubule stabilizer paclitaxel increased and decreased cellular free tubulin, respectively, and in parallel decreased and increased ??. Protein kinase A (PKA) activation by cAMP analogues and glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK-3?) inhibition decreased ??, whereas PKA inhibition hyperpolarized, consistent with reports that PKA and GSK-3? decrease and increase VDAC conductance, respectively. Plasma membrane potential assessed by DiBAC(4)(3) was not altered by any of the treatments. We propose that inhibition of VDAC by free tubulin limits mitochondrial metabolism in cancer cells. PMID:21159641

  9. In vitro synthesis of cellulose II from a cytoplasmic membrane fraction of Acetobacter xylinum

    SciTech Connect

    Bureau, T.E.; Brown, R.M. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    The cytoplasmic and outer membranes of Acetobacter xylinum were isolated by discontinuous sucrose density ultracentrifugation. Both lysozyme and trypsin were required for efficient crude membrane separation. Primary dehydrogenases and NADH oxidase were used as cytoplasmic membrane markers, and 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid was used to identify the outer membranes. Cellulose synthetase activity was assayed as the conversion of radioactivity from UDP-(/sup 14/C)glucose into an alkali-insoluble ..beta..-1,4-D-(/sup 14/C)glucan. This activity was predominantly found in the cytoplasmic membrane. The cellulose nature of the product was demonstrated by (i) enzymatic hydrolysis followed by TLC, (ii) methylation analysis followed by TLC, and (iii) GC/MS. Further, the weight-average and number-average degree of polymerization of the in vitro product, determined by high-performance gel permeation chromatography, were 4820 and 5270, respectively. In addition, x-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the in vitro product is cellulose II, which is in contrast to the in vivo product--namely, cellulose I.

  10. Development of structured polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasa, Jeffrey

    The objective of this research was to explore structure-property relationships to develop the understanding needed for introduction of superior PEM materials. Polymer electrolyte membranes based on sulfonated poly(ether ketone ketone) (SPEKK) were fabricated using N-methyl pyrrolidone as casting solvent. The membranes were characterized in terms of properties that were relevant to fuel cell applications, such as proton conductivity, methanol permeability, and swelling properties, among others. It was found in this study that the proton conductivity of neat SPEKK membranes could reach the conductivity of commercial membranes such as NafionRTM. However, when the conductivity of SPEKK was comparable to NafionRTM, the swelling of SPEKK in water was quite excessive. The swelling problem was remedied by modifying the microstructure of SPEKK using different techniques. One of them involved blending of lightly sulfonated PEKK with highly acidic particles (sulfonated crosslinked polystyrene-SXLPS). Low sulfonation level of SPEKK was used to reduce the swelling of the membrane in water and the role of the highly acidic particles was to enhance the proton conductivity of the membrane. Because of the residual crystallinity in SPEKK with low sulfonation levels (IEC < 1 meq/g), the composite membranes exhibited excellent dimensional stability in water at elevated temperatures (30-90 °C). Also, the resistance to swelling of these composite membranes in methanol-water mixtures was far better than NafionRTM, and so was the methanol permeability. Another technique explored was blending with non-conductive polymers (poly(ether imide) and poly(ether sulfone)) to act as mechanical reinforcement. It was found that miscibility behavior of the blends had a significant impact on the transport and swelling properties of these blends, which could be explained by the blend microstructure. The miscibility behavior was found to be strongly dependent on the sulfonation level of SPEKK. The conductivities of the blends were enhanced by as much as two orders of magnitude when the morphology was modified by electric field. The last approach was ionic crosslinking of the sulfonate groups in SPEKK using divalent cations, specifically barium ions. The crosslinking treatment has greatly improved the thermal stability of the membranes in both dry and wet conditions.

  11. Method for measuring the three-dimensional distribution of a fluorescent dye in a cell membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuya; Ishimaru, Ichirou; Fujii, Yoshiki; Yasokawa, Toshiki; Kuriyama, Shigeki; Masaki, Tsutomu; Takegawa, Kaoru; Tanaka, Naotaka

    2007-01-01

    This letter reports on a method for accurately determining the component distribution in a cell membrane over the entire cell surface. This method involves exciting a fluorescent-dyed cell membrane using evanescent light and scanning the entire cell surface by rotating the cell using a noncontact technique, namely, proximal two-beam optical tweezers. To position the cell membrane in the thin evanescent field, the authors designed an optical system capable of precisely positioning the focal position. Using this method, they were able to measure the surface distribution of glycoprotein labeled by lectin in a breast cancer cell membrane.

  12. Latent progenitor cells as potential regulators for tympanic membrane regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Jangho; Seonwoo, Hoon; Jang, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Yeon Ju; Lim, Hye Jin; Lim, Ki-Taek; Tian, Chunjie; Chung, Jong Hoon; Choung, Yun-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Tympanic membrane (TM) perforation, in particular chronic otitis media, is one of the most common clinical problems in the world and can present with sensorineural healing loss. Here, we explored an approach for TM regeneration where the latent progenitor or stem cells within TM epithelial layers may play an important regulatory role. We showed that potential TM stem cells present highly positive staining for epithelial stem cell markers in all areas of normal TM tissue. Additionally, they are present at high levels in perforated TMs, especially in proximity to the holes, regardless of acute or chronic status, suggesting that TM stem cells may be a potential factor for TM regeneration. Our study suggests that latent TM stem cells could be potential regulators of regeneration, which provides a new insight into this clinically important process and a potential target for new therapies for chronic otitis media and other eardrum injuries. PMID:26100219

  13. Latent progenitor cells as potential regulators for tympanic membrane regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Jangho; Seonwoo, Hoon; Jang, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Yeon Ju; Lim, Hye Jin; Lim, Ki-Taek; Tian, Chunjie; Chung, Jong Hoon; Choung, Yun-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Tympanic membrane (TM) perforation, in particular chronic otitis media, is one of the most common clinical problems in the world and can present with sensorineural healing loss. Here, we explored an approach for TM regeneration where the latent progenitor or stem cells within TM epithelial layers may play an important regulatory role. We showed that potential TM stem cells present highly positive staining for epithelial stem cell markers in all areas of normal TM tissue. Additionally, they are present at high levels in perforated TMs, especially in proximity to the holes, regardless of acute or chronic status, suggesting that TM stem cells may be a potential factor for TM regeneration. Our study suggests that latent TM stem cells could be potential regulators of regeneration, which provides a new insight into this clinically important process and a potential target for new therapies for chronic otitis media and other eardrum injuries. PMID:26100219

  14. Development of Nanoparticles Incorporating a Novel Liposomal Membrane Destabilization Peptide for Efficient Release of Cargos into Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ohgita, Takashi; Kogure, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    In anti-cancer therapy mediated by a nanoparticle-based drug delivery system (DDS), overall efficacy depends on the release efficiency of cargos from the nanoparticles in the cancer cells as well as the specificity of delivery to tumor tissue. However, conventional liposome-based DDS have no mechanism for specifically releasing the encapsulated cargos inside the cancer cells. To overcome this barrier, we developed nanoparticles containing a novel liposomal membrane destabilization peptide (LMDP) that can destabilize membranes by cleavage with intramembranous proteases on/in cancer cells. Calcein encapsulated in liposomes modified with LMDP (LMDP-lipo) was effectively released in the presence of a membrane fraction containing an LMDP-cleavable protease. The release was inhibited by a protease inhibitor, suggesting that LMDP-lipo could effectively release its cargo into cells in response to a cancer-specific protease. Moreover, when LMDP-lipo contained fusogenic lipids, the release of cargo was accelerated, suggesting that the fusion of LMDP-lipo with cellular membranes was the initial step in the intracellular delivery. Time-lapse microscopic observations showed that the release of cargo from LMDP-lipo occurred immediately after association of LMDP-lipo with target cells. Consequently, LMDP-lipo could be a useful nanoparticle capable of effective release of cargos specifically into targeted cancer cells. PMID:25343714

  15. MEMBRANE EQUILIBRIA AND THE ELECTRIC CHARGE OF RED BLOOD CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Coulter, Calvin B.

    1924-01-01

    It has been shown, within the probable limit of error of the methods of measurement employed, that the Donnan equilibrium determines the distribution of H and Cl ions between the cell and the surrounding fluid. This equilibrium is a consequence of the impermeability of the cell membrane to the inorganic cations of the cell. The mechanism responsible for this equilibrium is suggested as that concerned in the secretion of HCl by the cells of the gastric mucosa. If the salt concentration of the medium is low there may result from the Donnan equilibrium a thermodynamic P.D. of considerable magnitude. In the presence of low concentrations of electrolytes, this P.D. is to be regarded as positive in sign at reactions of the medium at which the cataphoretic charge of the cell is negative in sign. The explanation of this discrepancy in sign of charge may lie in the existence at an outer phase-boundary of a second Donnan equilibrium the nature of which is determined by the ionization of the protein of the cell membrane. PMID:19872117

  16. Kinetics of ethanol fermentations in membrane cell recycle fermentors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang Woo Lee; Ho Nam Chang

    1987-01-01

    Ethanol fermentation by yeast was carried out in a cell filtration recycle system with a hollow-fiber membrane filter. Maximum biomass concentrations up to 210 g dry wt\\/L were obtained, but in normal operation concentrations they were between 100 and 150 g\\/L. The ethanol productivity using 14% glucose feed was 85 g\\/L h, with an ethanol concentration of 65 g\\/L and

  17. Membrane Tether Formation from Outer Hair Cells with Optical Tweezers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhiwei Li; Bahman Anvari; Masayoshi Takashima; Peter Brecht; Jorge H. Torres; William E. Brownell

    2002-01-01

    Optical tweezers were used to characterize the mechanical properties of the outer hair cell (OHC) plasma membrane by pulling tethers with 4.5-?m polystyrene beads. Tether formation force and tether force were measured in static and dynamic conditions. A greater force was required for tether formations from OHC lateral wall (499±152 pN) than from OHC basal end (142±49 pN). The difference

  18. Do heavy ions cause microlesions in cell membranes?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koniarek, Jan P.; Worgul, Basil V.

    1992-01-01

    The microlesion question is investigated by monitoring the electrical potential difference across the endothelium of rat corneas in vitro before, during, and after irradiation. When the corneas were exposed to 1 Gy of Fe-56 ions (450 and 600 MeV/a.m.u.), no effect was detected on this parameter. These results suggest that direct physical damage to cell membranes, as predicted by the microlesion theory, does not take place.

  19. RNA Replication of Mouse Hepatitis Virus Takes Place at Double-Membrane Vesicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Gosert; Amornrat Kanjanahaluethai; Denise Egger; Kurt Bienz; Susan C. Baker

    2002-01-01

    The replication complexes (RCs) of positive-stranded RNA viruses are intimately associated with cellular membranes. To investigate membrane alterations and to characterize the RC of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), we performed biochemical and ultrastructural studies using MHV-infected cells. Biochemical fractionation showed that all 10 of the MHV gene 1 polyprotein products examined pelleted with the membrane fraction, consistent with membrane association

  20. Quantitative analysis of cell surface membrane proteins using membrane-impermeable chemical probe coupled with 18O labeling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haizhen; Brown, Roslyn N.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Monroe, Matthew E.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Moore, Ronald J.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Shi, Liang; Romine, Margaret F; Fredrickson, James K.; Paša-Toli?, Ljiljana; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.

    2010-01-01

    We report a mass spectrometry-based strategy for quantitative analysis of cell surface membrane proteome changes. The strategy includes enrichment of surface membrane proteins using a membrane-impermeable chemical probe followed by stable isotope 18O labeling and LC-MS analysis. We applied this strategy for enriching membrane proteins expressed by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a gram-negative bacterium with known metal-reduction capability via extracellular electron transfer between outer membrane proteins and extracellular electron receptors. LC/MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of about 400 proteins with 79% of them being predicted to be membrane localized. Quantitative aspects of the membrane enrichment were shown by peptide level 16O and 18O labeling of proteins from wild-type and mutant cells (generated from deletion of a type II secretion protein, GspD) prior to LC-MS analysis. Using a chemical probe labeled pure protein as an internal standard for normalization, the quantitative data revealed reduced abundances in ?gspD mutant cells of many outer membrane proteins including the outer membrane c-cype cytochromes OmcA and MtrC, in agreement with previously investigation demonstrating that these proteins are substrates of the type II secretion system. PMID:20380418

  1. Estrogen-induced membrane alterations and growth associated with proteinase activity in endometrial cells

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    Endometrial cells isolated from uteri of ovariectomized rats were treated in vitro with 1 X 10(-9) M estradiol-17 beta (E2beta) to analyze early changes in membrane properties during hormone-induced growth. After 30-min exposure to E2beta at 22 degrees C, cells exhibited an enhanced capacity to bind erythrocytes (hemadsorption) in the presence of concanavalin A (Con A) to 237% of the level in paired controls. Fluorescence microscopy revealted that approximately 25% of cells exposed to E2beta, but not estradiol-17 alpha (E2alpha), showed a redistribution into polar clusters of Con A-binding sites that were dispersed in random patches at the external surfaces of control cells. These hormore-induced membrane alterations were abolished by prior treatment of cells with inhibitors of thiol proteinase activity of the cathepsin B1 (CB1) type, such as leupeptin and iodoacetate. Leupeptin at 4.5 X 10(-7) M also reduced the affinity of [3H]E2beta binding to intact cells but did not influence specific binding of the hormone to macromolecular components of cytosol. A pronounced increase in the availability of endogenous CB1, But not of alkaline phosphatase, succinate, or lactate dehydrogenase, in the extracellular media was elicited within 30 min after E2beta treatment. In cells cultured in chemically defined medium for up to 48 h, E2beta, but not E2alpha, enhanced cell proliferation and stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation into macromolecular form. These E2beta-induced effects were abolished by prior treatment of cells with liposome-entrapped leupeptin at a final concentration of 7 X 10(-8) M. The net rate of intercellular adhesion among endometrial cells was also enhanced by E2beta. This hormonal response was diminished by prior exposure to leupeptin. Fractionation of cells by selection for adhesiveness due to E2beta exposure for 30 min yielded a subpopulation of rapidly dividing cells which surpassed their less adhesive counterparts in cathepsin secretion and in Con A-mediated hemadsorption. These results indicate that leupeptin-sensitive proteinase activity may contribute to membrane and growth modifications elicited by E2beta treatment in endometrial cells. PMID:457777

  2. Reversibility of Membrane N-Glycome of HeLa Cells upon Treatment with Epigenetic Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Redži?, Irma; Bariši?, Darko; Herak Bosnar, Maja; Lauc, Gordan; Zoldoš, Vlatka

    2013-01-01

    Glycans are essential regulators of protein function and are now in the focus of research in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. There are numerous modes of regulating their biosynthesis, including epigenetic mechanisms implicated in the expression of glyco-genes. Since N-glycans located at the cell membrane define intercellular communication as well as a cellular response to a given environment, we developed a method to preferentially analyze this fraction of glycans. The method is based on incorporation of living cells into polyacrylamide gels, partial denaturation of membrane proteins with 3 M urea and subsequent release of N-glycans with PNGase F followed by HPLC analysis. Using this newly developed method, we revealed multiple effects of epigenetic inhibitors Trichostatin A, sodium butyrate and zebularine on the composition of N-glycans in human cells. The induced changes were found to be reversible after inhibitor removal. Given that many epigenetic inhibitors are currently explored as a therapeutic strategy in treatment of cancer, wherein surface glycans play an important role, the presented work contributes to our understanding of their efficiency in altering the N-glycan profile of cancer cells in culture. PMID:23336012

  3. Reversibility of membrane N-glycome of HeLa cells upon treatment with epigenetic inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Horvat, Tomislav; Deželjin, Martina; Redži?, Irma; Bariši?, Darko; Herak Bosnar, Maja; Lauc, Gordan; Zoldoš, Vlatka

    2013-01-01

    Glycans are essential regulators of protein function and are now in the focus of research in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. There are numerous modes of regulating their biosynthesis, including epigenetic mechanisms implicated in the expression of glyco-genes. Since N-glycans located at the cell membrane define intercellular communication as well as a cellular response to a given environment, we developed a method to preferentially analyze this fraction of glycans. The method is based on incorporation of living cells into polyacrylamide gels, partial denaturation of membrane proteins with 3 M urea and subsequent release of N-glycans with PNGase F followed by HPLC analysis. Using this newly developed method, we revealed multiple effects of epigenetic inhibitors Trichostatin A, sodium butyrate and zebularine on the composition of N-glycans in human cells. The induced changes were found to be reversible after inhibitor removal. Given that many epigenetic inhibitors are currently explored as a therapeutic strategy in treatment of cancer, wherein surface glycans play an important role, the presented work contributes to our understanding of their efficiency in altering the N-glycan profile of cancer cells in culture. PMID:23336012

  4. Relationship Between the Membrane Envelope of Rhizobial Bacteroids and the Plasma Membrane of the Host Cell as Demonstrated by Histochemical Localization of Adenyl Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Tu, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    By using adenyl cyclase as a marker enzyme, the relationship between the membrane envelope of the bacteroids of rhizobia and the plasma membrane of the host cell was demonstrated histochemically. Electron-dense deposits were found on the outer surface of the plasma membrane of the host cell and on the inner surface of the membrane envelopes of the bacteroids, but not in vacuole membranes, endoplasmic reticula, Golgi apparatus, and mitochondrial membranes. The results suggest that the membrane envelopes of the bacteroids are closely related to the host plasma membrane, and that entry of the bacteroids into the cytoplasm is in a manner similar to endocytosis. Images PMID:4854087

  5. Noble metal nanowires incorporated Nafion ® membranes for reduction of methanol crossover in direct methanol fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. X. Liang; J. Y. Shi; S. J. Liao; J. H. Zeng

    2010-01-01

    We electrodeposited noble metal (palladium, platinum) nanowires into the hydrophilic pores of Nafion membrane for mitigating the problem of methanol crossover in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The DMFC performance result shows that the composite membranes yield lower rate of methanol crossover and better cell performance than the pure Nafion® membrane. At low current densities, the Pd nanowire incorporated Nafion

  6. Advanced membranes for alkaline primary and rechargeable alkaline cells with zinc anodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harlan Lewis; Patricia Jackson; Alvin Salkind; Thomas Danko; Roger Bell

    2001-01-01

    Several advanced cellulosic and radiation grafted polypropylene membrane materials are currently under evaluation in the laboratories at Navsea Crane and Rutgers University, for application to alkaline primary and rechargeable cell chemistries which employ zinc as the anode material. A portion of these tests involve model cell evaluations of cellulosic membranes for silver migration rates through the membranes as a function

  7. HIV Fusion Peptide Penetrates, Disorders, and Softens T-Cell Membrane Mimics

    E-print Network

    Weliky, David

    HIV Fusion Peptide Penetrates, Disorders, and Softens T-Cell Membrane Mimics Stephanie Tristram of N-terminal gp41 fusion peptide (FP) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) with model membranes in order to elucidate how FP leads to fusion of HIV and T-cell membranes. FP constructs were (i

  8. Striped projections of the outer membrane of the generative cell in Convallaria majalis pollen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bohdanowicz; F. Ciampolini; M. Cresti

    1995-01-01

    In pollen grains of Convallaria majalis the outer membrane of the generative cell (GC) is the inner membrane of the vegetative cell (VC). Striped projections (SP) at the cytoplasmic face of the outer membrane of the GC were revealed by chemical fixation and also by a rapid freeze-fixation and freeze-substitution. The projections, located in groups on the protruding lobes of

  9. Tea polyphenols inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa through damage to the cell membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu-min Yi; Jun-li Zhu; Ling-lin Fu; Jian-rong Li

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to delineate the inhibition mechanism of tea polyphenols (TP) toward Pseudomonas aeruginosa by cell membrane damage. Morphological changes in bacteria treated with TP were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, with results indicating that the primary inhibitory action of TP is to damage bacterial cell membranes. TP also increased the permeability of the outer and inner membranes of

  10. Biosynthetic incorporation of fluorescent carbazolylundecanoic acid into membrane phospholipids of LM cells and determination of quenching constants and partition coefficients of hydrophobic quenchers.

    PubMed

    Omann, G M; Glaser, M

    1984-10-01

    A fluorescence quenching method was developed for determining partition coefficients and diffusional rates of small molecules in cell membranes. This method involves quenching the fluorescence of carbazole-labeled membranes by hydrophobic molecules that partition into membranes. Cell membrane phospholipids of mouse LM cells in tissue culture were biosynthetically labeled with the carbazole moiety by supplementing the growth media with 11-(9-carbazolyl)undecanoic acid. Plasma membranes, microsomes, and mitochondria were isolated free of nonmembranous neutral lipids, and the incorporation of the fluorescent probe was characterized. Quenching studies of the carbazole moiety by a series of N-substituted picolinium perchlorate salts showed that the carbazole moiety was located in the hydrophobic interior of the membrane bilayer. The carbazole fluorescence also was quenched by the hydrophobic quenchers lindane, methoxychlor, and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(rho-chlorophenyl)ethylene, indicating that these compounds partitioned into the membrane. Stern-Volmer quenching constants determined by fluorescence lifetime and intensity measurements were identical, as expected for dynamic quenching. The effects of different lipid compositions on quenching constants and partition coefficients were determined by comparing different membrane fractions. These parameters also were measured in membranes from cells in which the phospholipid composition was altered by substituting ethanolamine for choline in the growth medium. Changes in the lipid composition produced changes in the bimolecular quenching constants. For example, bimolecular quenching constants for 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(rho-chlorophenyl)ethylene were higher in mitochondrial membranes than in plasma membranes and microsomes. They were also higher in dispersions made from membrane phospholipids as compared with intact membranes or total lipid dispersion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6498170

  11. Living target of Ce(III) action on horseradish cells: proteins on/in cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guangmei; Sun, Zhaoguo; Lv, Xiaofen; Deng, Yunyun; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2012-12-01

    Positive and negative effects of rare earth elements (REEs) in life have been reported in many papers, but the cellular mechanisms have not been answered, especially the action sites of REEs on plasma membrane are unknown. Proteins on/in the plasma membrane perform main functions of the plasma membrane. Cerium (Ce) is the richest REEs in crust. Thus, the interaction between Ce(III) and the proteins on/in the plasma membrane, the morphology of protoplast, and the contents of nutrient elements in protoplast of horseradish were investigated using the optimized combination of the fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. It was found that Ce(III) at the low concentrations (10, 30 ?M) could interact with proteins on/in the plasma membrane of horseradish, leading to the improvement in the structure of membrane proteins and the plasma membrane, which accelerated the intra-/extra-cellular substance exchange and further promoted the development of cells. When horseradish was treated with Ce(III) at the high concentrations (60, 80 ?M), Ce(III) also could interact with the proteins on/in the plasma membrane of horseradish, leading to the destruction in the structure of membrane proteins and the plasma membrane. These effects decelerated the intra-/extra-cellular substance exchange and further inhibited the development of cells. Thus, the interaction between Ce(III) and proteins on/in the plasma membrane in plants was an important reason of the positive and negative effects of Ce(III) on plants. The results would provide some references for understanding the cellular effect mechanisms of REEs on plants. PMID:23054867

  12. Some physico-chemical and serological properties of isolated protein components of red cell membranes

    PubMed Central

    Poulik, M. D.; Lauf, P. K.

    1969-01-01

    Exposure of human red cell ghosts to low pH (pH 2–2·2) for 20–24 hr and extraction with a biphasic system (butanol–water) at acid pH yielded a water-phase material which was separated by gel filtration into two major fractions. Fraction A is of glycoprotein nature having a molecular weight of approximately 200,000 and exhibiting A, M and N antigen activity. Fraction B is primarily protein in nature having a molecular weight of about 50,000 to 60,000, and is practically devoid of A and MN antigens. The materials isolated were found heterogeneous by electrophoresis in urea starch gels. Peak A and peak B differed significantly with respect to number, mobility, and intensity of the separated components. The physico-chemical and serological properties of the water phase and its sub-fractions are discussed with respect to structural make-up of erythrocyte membrane. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3 PMID:5786811

  13. Mathematical and Computational Modeling of Polymer Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulusoy, Sehribani

    In this thesis a comprehensive review of fuel cell modeling has been given and based on the review, a general mathematical fuel cell model has been developed in order to understand the physical phenomena governing the fuel cell behavior and in order to contribute to the efforts investigating the optimum performance at different operating conditions as well as with different physical parameters. The steady state, isothermal model presented here accounts for the combined effects of mass and species transfer, momentum conservation, electrical current distribution through the gas channels, the electrodes and the membrane, and the electrochemical kinetics of the reactions in the anode and cathode catalyst layers. One of the important features of the model is that it proposes a simpler modified pseudo-homogeneous/agglomerate catalyst layer model which takes the advantage of the simplicity of pseudo-homogenous modeling while taking into account the effects of the agglomerates in the catalyst layer by using experimental geometric parameters published. The computation of the general mathematical model can be accomplished in 3D, 2D and 1D with the proper assumptions. Mainly, there are two computational domains considered in this thesis. The first modeling domain is a 2D Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) model including the modified agglomerate/pseudo-homogeneous catalyst layer modeling with consistent treatment of water transport in the MEA while the second domain presents a 3D model with different flow filed designs: straight, stepped and tapered. COMSOL Multiphysics along with Batteries and Fuel Cell Module have been used for 2D & 3D model computations while ANSYS FLUENT PEMFC Module has been used for only 3D two-phase computation. Both models have been validated with experimental data. With 2D MEA model, the effects of temperature and water content of the membrane as well as the equivalent weight of the membrane on the performance have been addressed. 3D COMSOL simulation results showed that the fuel performance can be improved by using flow field designs alleviating the reactant depletion along the channels and supplying more uniform reactant distribution. Stepped flow field was found to show better performance when compared to straight and tapered ones. ANSYS FLUENT model is evaluated in terms of predicting the two phase flow in the fuel cell components. It is proposed that it is not capable of predicting the entire fuel cell polarization due to the lack of agglomerate catalyst layer modeling and well-established two-phase flow modeling. Along with the comprehensive modeling efforts, also an analytical model has been computed by using MathCAD and it is found that this simpler model is able to predict the performance in a general trend according to the experimental data obtained for a new novel membrane. Therefore, it can be used for robust prediction of the cell performance at different operating conditions such as temperature and pressure, and the electrochemical properties such as the catalyst loading, the exchange current density and the diffusion coefficients of the reactants. In addition to the modeling efforts, this thesis also presents a very comprehensive literature review on the models developed in the literature so far, the modeling efforts in fuel cell sandwich including membrane, catalyst layer and gas diffusion layer and fuel cell model properties. Moreover, a summary of possible directions of research in fuel cell analysis and computational modeling has been presented.

  14. Better Proton-Conducting Polymers for Fuel-Cell Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Sri; Reddy, Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Polyoxyphenylene triazole sulfonic acid has been proposed as a basis for development of improved proton-conducting polymeric materials for solid-electrolyte membranes in hydrogen/air fuel cells. Heretofore, the proton-conducting membrane materials of choice have been exemplified by a family of perfluorosulfonic acid-based polymers (Nafion7 or equivalent). These materials are suitable for operation in the temperature of 75 to 85 C, but in order to reduce the sizes and/or increase the energy-conversion efficiencies of fuel-cell systems, it would be desirable to increase temperatures to as high as 120 C for transportation applications, and to as high as 180 C for stationary applications. However, at 120 C and at relative humidity values below 50 percent, the loss of water from perfluorosulfonic acid-based polymer membranes results in fuel-cell power densities too low to be of practical value. Therefore, membrane electrolyte materials that have usefully high proton conductivity in the temperature range of 180 C at low relative humidity and that do not rely on water for proton conduction at 180 C would be desirable. The proposed polyoxyphenylene triazole sulfonic acid-based materials have been conjectured to have these desirable properties. These materials would be free of volatile or mobile acid constituents. The generic molecular structure of these materials is intended to exploit the fact, demonstrated in previous research, that materials that contain ionizable acid and base groups covalently attached to thermally stable polymer backbones exhibit proton conduction even in the anhydrous state.

  15. ACME: automated cell morphology extractor for comprehensive reconstruction of cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Mosaliganti, Kishore R; Noche, Ramil R; Xiong, Fengzhu; Swinburne, Ian A; Megason, Sean G

    2012-01-01

    The quantification of cell shape, cell migration, and cell rearrangements is important for addressing classical questions in developmental biology such as patterning and tissue morphogenesis. Time-lapse microscopic imaging of transgenic embryos expressing fluorescent reporters is the method of choice for tracking morphogenetic changes and establishing cell lineages and fate maps in vivo. However, the manual steps involved in curating thousands of putative cell segmentations have been a major bottleneck in the application of these technologies especially for cell membranes. Segmentation of cell membranes while more difficult than nuclear segmentation is necessary for quantifying the relations between changes in cell morphology and morphogenesis. We present a novel and fully automated method to first reconstruct membrane signals and then segment out cells from 3D membrane images even in dense tissues. The approach has three stages: 1) detection of local membrane planes, 2) voting to fill structural gaps, and 3) region segmentation. We demonstrate the superior performance of the algorithms quantitatively on time-lapse confocal and two-photon images of zebrafish neuroectoderm and paraxial mesoderm by comparing its results with those derived from human inspection. We also compared with synthetic microscopic images generated by simulating the process of imaging with fluorescent reporters under varying conditions of noise. Both the over-segmentation and under-segmentation percentages of our method are around 5%. The volume overlap of individual cells, compared to expert manual segmentation, is consistently over 84%. By using our software (ACME) to study somite formation, we were able to segment touching cells with high accuracy and reliably quantify changes in morphogenetic parameters such as cell shape and size, and the arrangement of epithelial and mesenchymal cells. Our software has been developed and tested on Windows, Mac, and Linux platforms and is available publicly under an open source BSD license (https://github.com/krm15/ACME). PMID:23236265

  16. Viral infection: Moving through complex and dynamic cell-membrane structures.

    PubMed

    Barroso-González, Jonathan; García-Expósito, Laura; Puigdomènech, Isabel; de Armas-Rillo, Laura; Machado, José-David; Blanco, Julià; Valenzuela-Fernández, Agustín

    2011-07-01

    Viruses have developed different survival strategies in host cells by crossing cell-membrane compartments, during different steps of their viral life cycle. In fact, the non-regenerative viral membrane of enveloped viruses needs to encounter the dynamic cell-host membrane, during early steps of the infection process, in which both membranes fuse, either at cell-surface or in an endocytic compartment, to promote viral entry and infection. Once inside the cell, many viruses accomplish their replication process through exploiting or modulating membrane traffic, and generating specialized compartments to assure viral replication, viral budding and spreading, which also serve to evade the immune responses against the pathogen. In this review, we have attempted to present some data that highlight the importance of membrane dynamics during viral entry and replicative processes, in order to understand how viruses use and move through different complex and dynamic cell-membrane structures and how they use them to persist. PMID:21966556

  17. Anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in a two-stage membrane process.

    PubMed

    Trzcinski, A P; Stuckey, D C

    2009-01-01

    A batch of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) was treated in a two-step process with effluent recirculation comprising a novel hydrolytic reactor (HR) followed by a Submerged Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (SAMBR) operating at a stable permeate flux of 5.6 L/m(2) hr (LMH). A soluble COD removal higher than 95% was obtained from the SAMBR. The soluble COD as well as the Total Suspended Solids (TSS) did not build up due to efficient hydrolysis inside the SAMBR, and no VFA accumulation occurred due to the complete retention of methanogens by the membrane as well as the formation of syntrophic associations. Because of the microfiltration membrane in the second reactor a stabilized leachate was obtained from the very first days of the treatment and the highly stable process enabled shorter treatment periods compared to traditional leach bed processes. This experiment showed that the recycle of the stabilised leachate does not lead to a build up of SCOD. Size exclusion chromatography analysis confirmed that high molecular weight compounds were completely degraded and did not appear in the SAMBR permeate, and that low molecular weight fulvic-like and medium MW material were present in the permeate of the SAMBR but their concentration remained stable with time. PMID:19844043

  18. Alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells using an anion exchange membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Koji; Iriyama, Yasutoshi; Abe, Takeshi; Matsuoka, Masao; Ogumi, Zempachi

    Alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells using an OH-form anion exchange membrane and polyhydric alcohols were studied. A high open circuit voltage of ca. 800 mV was obtained for a cell using Pt-Ru/C (anode) and Pt/C (cathode) at 323 K, which was about 100-200 mV higher than that for a DMFC using Nafion ®. The maximum power densities were in the order of ethylene glycol > glycerol > methanol > erythritol > xylitol. Silver catalysts were used as a cathode catalyst to fabricate alkaline fuel cells, since silver catalyst is almost inactive in the oxidation of polyhydric alcohols. Alkaline direct ethylene glycol fuel cells using silver as a cathode catalyst gave excellent performance because higher concentrations of fuel could be supplied to the anode.

  19. Process for recycling components of a PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assembly

    DOEpatents

    Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ)

    2012-02-28

    The membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of a PEM fuel cell can be recycled by contacting the MEA with a lower alkyl alcohol solvent which separates the membrane from the anode and cathode layers of the assembly. The resulting solution containing both the polymer membrane and supported noble metal catalysts can be heated under mild conditions to disperse the polymer membrane as particles and the supported noble metal catalysts and polymer membrane particles separated by known filtration means.

  20. Microtubule configuration and membranous vesicle transport in elongating fiber cells of the rat lens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Woo-Kuen Lo; Xiao-Jun Wen; Cheng-Jing Zhou

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the microtubule configuration and its close association with the Golgi complex and Golgi-derived membranous vesicles in elongating fiber cells of the rat lens. Since fiber cells elongate tremendously during lens differentiation, we hypothesize that a microtubule-based motor system exists in the elongating fiber cells for transporting important membrane proteins and organelles to the target regions for cell

  1. Redox activity and peroxidase activity associated with the plasma membrane of guard-cell protoplasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Pantoja; C. M. Willmer

    1988-01-01

    Redox systems have been reported in the plasma membrane of numerous cell types and in cells from various species of higher plant. A search for a redox system in the plasma membrane of guard cells was therefore made in efforts to explain how blue light stimulates stomatal opening, a process which is coupled to guard cell H+ efflux and K+

  2. Noncontact microsurgery of cell membranes using femtosecond laser pulses for optoinjection of specified substances into cells

    SciTech Connect

    Il'ina, I V; Ovchinnikov, A V; Chefonov, O V; Sitnikov, D S; Agranat, Mikhail B; Mikaelyan, A S

    2013-04-30

    IR femtosecond laser pulses were used for microsurgery of a cell membrane aimed at local and short-duration change in its permeability and injection of specified extracellular substances into the cells. The possibility of noncontact laser delivery of the propidium iodide fluorescent dye and the pEGFP plasmid, encoding the green fluorescent protein, into the cells with preservation of the cell viability was demonstrated. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  3. Cell membrane tethers generate mechanical force in response to electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Brownell, William E; Qian, Feng; Anvari, Bahman

    2010-08-01

    Living cells maintain a huge transmembrane electric field across their membranes. This electric field exerts a force on the membrane because the membrane surfaces are highly charged. We have measured electromechanical force generation by cell membranes using optically trapped beads to detach the plasma membrane from the cytoskeleton and form long thin cylinders (tethers). Hyperpolarizing potentials increased and depolarizing potentials decreased the force required to pull a tether. The membrane tether force in response to sinusoidal voltage signals was a function of holding potential, tether diameter, and tether length. Membrane electromechanical force production can occur at speeds exceeding those of ATP-based protein motors. By harnessing the energy in the transmembrane electric field, cell membranes may contribute to processes as diverse as outer hair cell electromotility, ion channel gating, and transport. PMID:20682262

  4. Identification of diphtheria toxin receptor and a nonproteinous diphtheria toxin-binding molecule in Vero cell membrane

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Two substances possessing the ability to bind to diphtheria toxin (DT) were found to be present in a membrane fraction from DT-sensitive Vero cells. One of these substances was found on the basis of its ability to bind DT and inhibit its cytotoxic effect. This inhibitory substance competitively inhibited the binding of DT to Vero cells. However this inhibitor could not bind to CRM197, the product of a missense mutation in the DT gene, and did not inhibit the binding of CRM197 to Vero cells. Moreover, similar levels of the inhibitory activity were observed in membrane fractions from DT-insensitive mouse cells, suggesting the inhibitor is not the DT receptor which is specifically present in DT-sensitive cells. The second DT-binding substance was found in the same Vero cell membrane preparation by assaying the binding of 125I-labeled CRM197. Such DT-binding activity could not be observed in membrane preparation from mouse L cells. From competition studies using labeled DT and CRM proteins, we conclude that this binding activity is due to the surface receptor for DT. Treatment of these substances with several enzymes revealed that the inhibitor was sensitive to certain RNases but resistant to proteases, whereas the DT receptor was resistant to RNase but sensitive to proteases. The receptor was solubilized and partially purified by chromatography on CM- Sepharose column. Immunoprecipitation and Western blotting analysis of the partially purified receptor revealed that a 14.5-kD protein is the DT receptor, or at least a component of it. PMID:3417759

  5. A hybrid microbial fuel cell membrane bioreactor with a conductive ultrafiltration membrane biocathode for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Malaeb, Lilian; Katuri, Krishna P; Logan, Bruce E; Maab, Husnul; Nunes, S P; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2013-10-15

    A new hybrid, air-biocathode microbial fuel cell-membrane bioreactor (MFC-MBR) system was developed to achieve simultaneous wastewater treatment and ultrafiltration to produce water for direct reclamation. The combined advantages of this system were achieved by using an electrically conductive ultrafiltration membrane as both the cathode and the membrane for wastewater filtration. The MFC-MBR used an air-biocathode, and it was shown to have good performance relative to an otherwise identical cathode containing a platinum catalyst. With 0.1 mm prefiltered domestic wastewater as the feed, the maximum power density was 0.38 W/m(2) (6.8 W/m(3)) with the biocathode, compared to 0.82 W/m(2) (14.5 W/m(3)) using the platinum cathode. The permeate quality from the biocathode reactor was comparable to that of a conventional MBR, with removals of 97% of the soluble chemical oxygen demand, 97% NH3-N, and 91% of total bacteria (based on flow cytometry). The permeate turbidity was <0.1 nephelometric turbidity units. These results show that a biocathode MFC-MBR system can achieve high levels of wastewater treatment with a low energy input due to the lack of a need for wastewater aeration. PMID:24016059

  6. Properties of electrophoretic fractions of human embryonic kidney cells separated on space shuttle flight STS-8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.; Lewis, Marian L.; Barlow, Grant H.; Todd, Paul; Kunze, M. Elaine; Sarnoff, Burton E.; Li, Zhankui

    Suspensions of cultured primary human embryonic kidney cells were subjected to continuous flow electrophoresis on Space Shuttle flight STS-8. The objectives of the experiments were to obtain electrophoretically separated fractions of the original cell populations and to test these fractions for the amount and kind of urokinase (a kidney plasminogen activator that is used medically for digesting blood clots), the morphologies of cells in the individual fractions, and their cellular electrophoretic mobilities after separation and subsequent proliferation. Individual fractions were successfully cultured after return from orbit, and they were found to differ substantially from one another and from the starting sample with respect to all of these properties.

  7. Autologous whole ram seminal plasma and its vesicle-free fraction improve motility characteristics and membrane status but not in vivo fertility of frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    El-Hajj Ghaoui, R; Thomson, P C; Leahy, T; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2007-10-01

    Motility characteristics (assessed subjectively and with computer-assisted semen analysis) and membrane status (after staining with chlortetracycline) of washed and non-washed frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa were evaluated after incubation in buffer and buffer containing autologous whole seminal plasma or one of its two fractions: the pellet of membrane vesicles obtained by ultracentrifugation (and used at three times normal protein concentration) or the vesicle-free supernatant fraction. Whole seminal plasma and supernatant, but not membrane vesicles, improved the motility characteristics of spermatozoa after 3 and 6 h of post-thaw incubation compared with the control buffer. Resuspension and incubation with whole seminal plasma, supernatant or membrane vesicles lowered the proportion of acrosome-reacted frozen-thawed spermatozoa compared with the control buffer. Unwashed frozen-thawed semen from three rams, incubated with autologous whole seminal plasma or its fractions and inseminated using cervical or intrauterine artificial insemination, had no effect on pregnancy rates of ewes in synchronized oestrus. However, fertility was higher after laparoscopic than cervical insemination (44.9 vs 12.3%, p < 0.001). In conclusion, resuspension and incubation of frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa in autologous whole seminal plasma or its vesicle-free supernatant fraction improved their motility characteristics and, with membrane vesicles, membrane status, but these benefits were not reflected in improved fertility after cervical or intrauterine insemination. PMID:17845611

  8. Nanocomposite Membranes based on Polybenzimidazole and ZrO2 for High-Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Nawn, Graeme; Pace, Giuseppe; Lavina, Sandra; Vezzù, Keti; Negro, Enrico; Bertasi, Federico; Polizzi, Stefano; Di Noto, Vito

    2015-04-24

    Owing to the numerous benefits obtained when operating proton exchange membrane fuel cells at elevated temperature (>100?°C), the development of thermally stable proton exchange membranes that demonstrate conductivity under anhydrous conditions remains a significant goal for fuel cell technology. This paper presents composite membranes consisting of poly[2,2'-(m-phenylene)-5,5'-bibenzimidazole] (PBI4N) impregnated with a ZrO2 nanofiller of varying content (ranging from 0 to 22?wt?%). The structure-property relationships of the acid-doped and undoped composite membranes have been studied using thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, wide-angle X-ray scattering, infrared spectroscopy, and broadband electrical spectroscopy. Results indicate that the level of nanofiller has a significant effect on the membrane properties. From 0 to 8?wt?%, the acid uptake as well as the thermal and mechanical properties of the membrane increase. As the nanofiller level is increased from 8 to 22?wt?% the opposite effect is observed. At 185?°C, the ionic conductivity of [PBI4N(ZrO2 )0.231 ](H3 PO4 )13 is found to be 1.04×10(-1) ?S?cm(-1) . This renders membranes of this type promising candidates for use in high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. PMID:25801848

  9. Differential Behaviour of Cell Membranes towards Iron-Induced Oxidative Damage and the Effects of Melatonin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. L. Tang; M. F. Xu; Z. M. Qian

    1997-01-01

    The ability of melatonin to protect iron-induced lipid peroxidation was studied in various rat cell membranes. The concentration of cellular membrane malondialdehyde (MDA) was used as an index of induced oxidative membrane damage. Cell membranes from the brain, heart, kidney and liver of the male Sprague-Dawley rat were incubated with ferric ammonium citrate (20 ?g\\/ml iron) alone for 3 h

  10. The Influence of Environmental Conditions, Lipid Composition, and Phase Behavior on the Origin of Cell Membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacquelyn A. Thomas; F. R. Rana

    2007-01-01

    At some point in life’s development, membranes formed, providing barriers between the environment and the interior of the\\u000a ‘cell.’ This paper evaluates the research to date on the prebiotic origin of cell membranes and highlights possible areas\\u000a of continuing study. A careful review of the literature uncovered unexpected factors that influence membrane evolution. The\\u000a major stages in primitive membrane formation

  11. Identification of Proteins from a Cell Wall Fraction of the Diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luciano G. Frigeri; Timothy R. Radabaugh; Paul A. Haynes; Mark Hildebrand

    Diatoms are unicellular eucaryotic algae with cell walls containing silica, intricately and ornately structured on the nanometer scale. Overall silica structure is formed by expansion and molding of the membrane-bound silica deposition vesicle. Although molecular details of silica polymerization are being clarified, we have limited insight into molecular components of the silica deposition vesi- cle, particularly of membrane-associated proteins that

  12. Carbon monoxide poisoning of proton-exchange membrane fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, A.; Amphlett, J.C.; Mann, R.F.; Peppley, B.A.; Roberge, P.R. [Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    1997-12-31

    The platinum-alloy catalyst used in proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell anodes is highly susceptible to carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. CO reduces the catalyst activity by blocking active catalyst sites normally available for hydrogen chemisorption and dissociation. The reaction kinetics at the anode catalyst surface can be used to estimate the decrease in cell voltage due to various levels of CO contamination in the inlet fuel streams on PEM fuel cell performance have been reviewed and analyzed in an attempt to further understand the electrochemical properties of the CO adsorption process. A fuel cell performance model of bipolar, Nafion 117 PEM fuel cell stack has been developed which predicts equilibrium cell output voltage as a function of current density and partial pressure of CO. The model contains both empirical and mechanistic parameters and evolved from a steady-state electrochemical model for a PEM fuel cell fed with a CO-free anode gas. Reaction kinetics and equilibrium surface coverage have been incorporated into the electrochemical model to predict the decrease in fuel cell performance at equilibrium. The effects of CO were studied at various concentrations of CO in hydrogen as the anode feed gas. Literature data were used to develop the model parameters and the resulting model is used to compare the model-predicted voltages, with and without CO, to data found in the literature.

  13. 160 C PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE (PEM) FUEL CELL SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    L.G. Marianowski

    2001-12-21

    The objectives of this program were: (a) to develop and demonstrate a new polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system that operates up to 160 C temperatures and at ambient pressures for stationary power applications, and (b) to determine if the GTI-molded composite graphite bipolar separator plate could provide long term operational stability at 160 C or higher. There are many reasons that fuel cell research has been receiving much attention. Fuel cells represent environmentally friendly and efficient sources of electrical power generation that could use a variety of fuel sources. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI), formerly Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), is focused on distributed energy stationary power generation systems. Currently the preferred method for hydrogen production for stationary power systems is conversion of natural gas, which has a vast distribution system in place. However, in the conversion of natural gas into a hydrogen-rich fuel, traces of carbon monoxide are produced. Carbon monoxide present in the fuel gas will in time cumulatively poison, or passivate the active platinum catalysts used in the anodes of PEMFC's operating at temperatures of 60 to 80 C. Various fuel processors have incorporated systems to reduce the carbon monoxide to levels below 10 ppm, but these require additional catalytic section(s) with sensors and controls for effective carbon monoxide control. These CO cleanup systems must also function especially well during transient load operation where CO can spike 300% or more. One way to circumvent the carbon monoxide problem is to operate the fuel cell at a higher temperature where carbon monoxide cannot easily adsorb onto the catalyst and poison it. Commercially available polymer membranes such as Nafion{trademark} are not capable of operation at temperatures sufficiently high to prevent this. Hence this project investigated a new polymer membrane alternative to Nafion{trademark} that is capable of operation at temperatures up to 160 C.

  14. Elastic thickness compressibilty of the red cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, V; Ritchie, K; Mohandas, N; Evans, E

    2001-09-01

    We have used an ultrasensitive force probe and optical interferometry to examine the thickness compressibility of the red cell membrane in situ. Pushed into the centers of washed-white red cell ghosts lying on a coverglass, the height of the microsphere-probe tip relative to its closest approach on the adjacent glass surface revealed the apparent material thickness, which began at approximately 90 nm per membrane upon detection of contact (force approximately 1-2 pN). With further impingement, the apparent thickness per membrane diminished over a soft compliant regime that spanned approximately 40 nm and stiffened on approach to approximately 50 nm under forces of approximately 100 pN. The same force-thickness response was obtained on recompression after retraction of the probe, which demonstrated elastic recoverability. Scaled by circumferences of the microspheres, the forces yielded energies of compression per area which exhibited an inverse distance dependence resembling that expected for flexible polymers. Attributed to the spectrin component of the membrane cytoskeleton, the energy density only reached one thermal energy unit (k(B)T) per spectrin tetramer near maximum compression. Hence, we hypothesized that the soft compliant regime probed in the experiments represented the compressibility of the outer region of spectrin loops and that the stiff regime < 50 nm was the response of a compact mesh of spectrin backed by a hardcore structure. To evaluate this hypothesis, we used a random flight theory for the entropic elasticity of polymer loops to model the spectrin network. We also examined the possibility that additional steric repulsion and apparent thickening could arise from membrane thermal-bending excitations. Fixing the energy scale to k(B)T/spectrin tetramer, the combined elastic response of a network of ideal polymer loops plus the membrane steric interaction correlated well with the measured dependence of energy density on distance for a statistical segment length of approximately 5 nm for spectrin (i.e., free chain end-to-end length of approximately 29 nm) and a hardcore limit of approximately 30 nm for underlying structure. PMID:11509359

  15. [Progress with research on the permeability characteristics of reproductive cell membranes].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zheng; Chen, Guangming; Zhang, Shaozhi

    2012-04-01

    The successful cryopreservation of reproductive cells has important practical significance in many fields. In order to improve the recovery rate and viability of cryopreserved cells, it is necessary to study the permeability characteristics of cell membrane to both water and cryoprotectant. In this paper we review the studies on membrane permeability of animal reproductive cell for the recent years. We firstly list the typical permeability data of spermatozoa and oocyte membrane for water and cryoprotectant. We then analyze the effects of these characteristics on the design of cryopreservation protocol. We also introduce the latest experimental methods to measure the cell membrane permeability. PMID:22616195

  16. The actin homologue MreB organizes the bacterial cell membrane

    PubMed Central

    Strahl, Henrik; Bürmann, Frank; Hamoen, Leendert W.

    2014-01-01

    The eukaryotic cortical actin cytoskeleton creates specific lipid domains, including lipid rafts, which determine the distribution of many membrane proteins. Here we show that the bacterial actin homologue MreB displays a comparable activity. MreB forms membrane-associated filaments that coordinate bacterial cell wall synthesis. We noticed that the MreB cytoskeleton influences fluorescent staining of the cytoplasmic membrane. Detailed analyses combining an array of mutants, using specific lipid staining techniques and spectroscopic methods, revealed that MreB filaments create specific membrane regions with increased fluidity (RIFs). Interference with these fluid lipid domains (RIFs) perturbs overall lipid homeostasis and affects membrane protein localization. The influence of MreB on membrane organization and fluidity may explain why the active movement of MreB stimulates membrane protein diffusion. These novel MreB activities add additional complexity to bacterial cell membrane organization and have implications for many membrane-associated processes. PMID:24603761

  17. Fluoride Enhances the Activity of Fungicides that Destabilize Cell Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sanshu; Breaker, Ronald R.

    2014-01-01

    Fluoride has long been known to inhibit bacterial and fungal cell growth most likely by blocking the functions of key metabolic enzymes. In this study, we demonstrate that antifungal compounds that disrupt cell membrane integrity exhibit improved ability to inhibit cell growth when used with millimolar concentrations of fluoride. Specifically, antifungal compounds of the polyene class and an antifungal peptide exhibit synergy with fluoride to inhibit the growth of various fungal species, including Candida albicans. Our results demonstrate that certain compounds can be found that increase the cellular uptake of fluoride, and provide new opportunities for creating antimicrobial compounds whose functions are enhanced when combined with otherwise sub-inhibitory concentrations of small ions. PMID:22460034

  18. Organized Living: From Cell Surfaces to Basement Membranes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nancy J. Boudreau (University of California San Francisco; Department of Surgery REV)

    2003-08-19

    Binding of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins to integrin receptors initiates intracellular signaling events that are essential for the differentiation and survival of epithelial cells. However, the propagation and processing of these signals also depend on the cells acquiring an appropriate three-dimensional morphology and polarity after contact with the ECM. In fact, even if adhesion to the ECM is maintained but subsequent cellular organization and polarity are impaired, epithelial cells fail to fully differentiate and become susceptible to apoptotic stimuli. Studies using three-dimensional tissue culture models with reconstituted basement membranes not only demonstrate the central role of tissue organization for differentiation and survival, but also emphasize how acquiring this organized polarized phenotype can override a number of genetic changes that would otherwise disrupt normal tissue function.

  19. Percolation in a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Catalyst Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Stacy, Stephen; Allen, Jeffrey

    2012-07-01

    Water management in the catalyst layers of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) is confronted by two issues, flooding and dry out, both of which result in improper functioning of the fuel cell and lead to poor performance and degradation. At the present time, the data that has been reported about water percolation and wettability within a fuel cell catalyst layer is limited. A method and apparatus for measuring the percolation pressure in the catalyst layer has been developed based upon an experimental apparatus used to test water percolation in porous transport layers (PTL). The experimental setup uses a pseudo Hele-Shaw type testing where samples are compressed and a fluid is injected into the sample. Testing the samples gives percolation pressure plots which show trends in increasing percolation pressure with an increase in flow rate. A decrease in pressure was seen as percolation occurred in one sample, however the pressure only had a rising effect in the other sample.

  20. Cooperative binding of Annexin A5 to phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cell membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janko, Christina; Jeremic, Ivica; Biermann, Mona; Chaurio, Ricardo; Schorn, Christine; Muñoz, Luis E.; Herrmann, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Healthy cells exhibit an asymmetric plasma membrane with phosphatidylserine (PS) located on the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane bilayer. Annexin A5-FITC, a PS binding protein, is commonly used to evaluate apoptosis in flow cytometry. PS exposed by apoptotic cells serves as a major ‘eat-me’ signal for phagocytes. Although exposition of PS has been observed after alternative stimuli, no clearance of viable, PS exposing cells has been detected. Thus, besides PS exposure, membranes of viable and apoptotic cells might exhibit specific characteristics. Here, we show that Annexin A5 binds in a cooperative manner to different types of dead cells. Shrunken apoptotic cells thereby showed the highest Hill coefficient values. Contrarily, parafomaldehyde fixation of apoptotic cells completely abrogates the cooperativity effect seen with dead and dying cells. We tend to speculate that the cooperative binding of Annexin A5 to the membranes of apoptotic cells reflects higher fluidity of the exposed membranes facilitating PS clustering.

  1. Electrokinetic measurements of membrane capacitance and conductance for pancreatic beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Pethig, R; Jakubek, L M; Sanger, R H; Heart, E; Corson, E D; Smith, P J S

    2005-12-01

    Membrane capacitance and membrane conductance values are reported for insulin secreting cells (primary -cells and INS-1 insulinoma cells), determined using the methods of dielectrophoresis and electrorotation. The membrane capacitance value of 12.57 (+/-1.46) mFm(-2), obtained for -cells, and the values from 9.96 (+/-1.89) mFm(-2) to 10.65 (+/-2.1) mFm(-2), obtained for INS-1 cells, fall within the range expected for mammalian cells. The electrorotation results for the INS-1 cells lead to a value of 36 (+/-22) Sm(-2) for the membrane conductance associated with ion channels, if values in the range 2-3 nS are assumed for the membrane surface conductance. This membrane conductance value falls within the range reported for INS cells obtained using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. However, the total 'effective' membrane conductance value of 601 (+/-182) Sm(-2) obtained for the INS-1 cells by dielectrophoresis is significantly larger (by a factor of around three) than the values obtained by electrorotation. This could result from an increased membrane surface conductance, or increased passive conduction of ions through membrane pores, induced by the larger electric field stresses experienced by cells in the dielectrophoresis experiments. PMID:16441179

  2. Chimerism of buccal membrane cells in a monochorionic dizygotic twin.

    PubMed

    Fumoto, Seiko; Hosoi, Kenichiro; Ohnishi, Hiroaki; Hoshina, Hiroaki; Yan, Kunimasa; Saji, Hiroh; Oka, Akira

    2014-04-01

    No monochorionic dizygotic twins (MCDZTs) with cellular chimerism involving cells other than blood cells have been reported in the literature to date. Here we report a probable first case of MCDZTs with buccal cell chimerism. A 32-year-old woman conceived twins by in vitro fertilization by using 2 cryopreserved blastocysts that were transferred into her uterus. An ultrasound scan at 8 weeks' gestation showed signs indicative of monochorionic twins. A healthy boy and a healthy girl were born, showing no sexual ambiguity. Cytogenetic analyses and microsatellite studies demonstrated chimerism in blood cells of both twins. Notably, repeated fluorescence in situ hybridization and microsatellite studies revealed chimerism in buccal cells obtained from 1 of the twins. Although the mechanism through which buccal cell chimerism was generated remains to be elucidated, ectopic differentiation of chimeric hematopoietic cells that migrated to the buccal membrane or the cellular transfer between the 2 embryos at the early stage of development might be responsible for the phenomenon. This hypothesis raises an interesting issue regarding embryonic development and cellular differentiation into organs during fetal development. Given the possibility of cryptic chimerism in various organs including gonadal tissues in MCDZTs, close observation will be required to determine whether complications develop in the course of the patients' growth. PMID:24685957

  3. Cell Labeling via Membrane-Anchored Lipophilic MR Contrast Agents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cell tracking in vivo with MR imaging requires the development of contrast agents with increased sensitivity that effectively label and are retained by cells. Most clinically approved Gd(III)-based contrast agents require high incubation concentrations and prolonged incubation times for cellular internalization. Strategies to increase contrast agent permeability have included conjugating Gd(III) complexes to cell penetrating peptides, nanoparticles, and small molecules which have greatly improved cell labeling but have not resulted in improved cellular retention. To overcome these challenges, we have synthesized a series of lipophilic Gd(III)-based MR contrast agents that label cell membranes in vitro. Two of the agents were synthesized with a multiplexing strategy to contain three Gd(III) chelates (1 and 2) while the third contains a single Gd(III) chelate (3). These new agents exhibit significantly enhanced labeling and retention in HeLa and MDA-MB-231-mcherry cells compared to agents that are internalized by cells (4 and Prohance). PMID:24787689

  4. Lysosomal membrane permeabilization in cell death: concepts and challenges.

    PubMed

    Repnik, Urška; Hafner ?esen, Maruša; Turk, Boris

    2014-11-01

    Late endocytic compartments include late endosomes, lysosomes and hybrid organelles. In the acidic lumen, cargo material derived from endocytosed and phagocytosed extracellular material and autophagy-derived intracellular material is degraded. In the event of lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), the function of endo/lysosomal compartment is affected and the luminal contents are released into the cytosol to various extents. LMP can be a result of osmotic lysis or direct membranolytic activity of the compounds that accumulate in the lumen of endo/lysosomes. In addition to several synthetic compounds, such as dipeptide methyl esters and lysosomotropic detergents, endogenous agents that can cause LMP include ROS and lipid metabolites such as sphingosine and phosphatidic acid. Depending on the cell type and the dose, LMP can initiate the lysosomal apoptotic pathway, pyroptosis or necrosis. LMP can also amplify cell death signaling that was initiated outside the endocytic compartment, and hamper cell recovery via autophagy. However, mechanisms that connect LMP with cell death signaling are poorly understood, with the exception of the proteolytic activation of Bid by aspartic cathepsin D and cysteine cathepsins. Determination of LMP in a cell model system is methodologically challenging. Even more difficult is to prove that LMP is the primary event leading to cell death. Nevertheless, LMP may prove to be a valuable approach in therapy, either as a trigger of cell death or as a mechanism of therapeutic drug release in the case of delivery systems that target the endocytic pathway. PMID:24984038

  5. Alterations of red cell membrane properties in neuroacanthocytosis.

    PubMed

    Siegl, Claudia; Hamminger, Patricia; Jank, Herbert; Ahting, Uwe; Bader, Benedikt; Danek, Adrian; Gregory, Allison; Hartig, Monika; Hayflick, Susan; Hermann, Andreas; Prokisch, Holger; Sammler, Esther M; Yapici, Zuhal; Prohaska, Rainer; Salzer, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Neuroacanthocytosis (NA) refers to a group of heterogenous, rare genetic disorders, namely chorea acanthocytosis (ChAc), McLeod syndrome (MLS), Huntington's disease-like 2 (HDL2) and pantothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), that mainly affect the basal ganglia and are associated with similar neurological symptoms. PKAN is also assigned to a group of rare neurodegenerative diseases, known as NBIA (neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation), associated with iron accumulation in the basal ganglia and progressive movement disorder. Acanthocytosis, the occurrence of misshaped erythrocytes with thorny protrusions, is frequently observed in ChAc and MLS patients but less prevalent in PKAN (about 10%) and HDL2 patients. The pathological factors that lead to the formation of the acanthocytic red blood cell shape are currently unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether NA/NBIA acanthocytes differ in their functionality from normal erythrocytes. Several flow-cytometry-based assays were applied to test the physiological responses of the plasma membrane, namely drug-induced endocytosis, phosphatidylserine exposure and calcium uptake upon treatment with lysophosphatidic acid. ChAc red cell samples clearly showed a reduced response in drug-induced endovesiculation, lysophosphatidic acid-induced phosphatidylserine exposure, and calcium uptake. Impaired responses were also observed in acanthocyte-positive NBIA (PKAN) red cells but not in patient cells without shape abnormalities. These data suggest an "acanthocytic state" of the red cell where alterations in functional and interdependent membrane properties arise together with an acanthocytic cell shape. Further elucidation of the aberrant molecular mechanisms that cause this acanthocytic state may possibly help to evaluate the pathological pathways leading to neurodegeneration. PMID:24098554

  6. Alterations of Red Cell Membrane Properties in Nneuroacanthocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Siegl, Claudia; Hamminger, Patricia; Jank, Herbert; Ahting, Uwe; Bader, Benedikt; Danek, Adrian; Gregory, Allison; Hartig, Monika; Hayflick, Susan; Hermann, Andreas; Prokisch, Holger; Sammler, Esther M.; Yapici, Zuhal; Prohaska, Rainer; Salzer, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Neuroacanthocytosis (NA) refers to a group of heterogenous, rare genetic disorders, namely chorea acanthocytosis (ChAc), McLeod syndrome (MLS), Huntington’s disease-like 2 (HDL2) and pantothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), that mainly affect the basal ganglia and are associated with similar neurological symptoms. PKAN is also assigned to a group of rare neurodegenerative diseases, known as NBIA (neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation), associated with iron accumulation in the basal ganglia and progressive movement disorder. Acanthocytosis, the occurrence of misshaped erythrocytes with thorny protrusions, is frequently observed in ChAc and MLS patients but less prevalent in PKAN (about 10%) and HDL2 patients. The pathological factors that lead to the formation of the acanthocytic red blood cell shape are currently unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether NA/NBIA acanthocytes differ in their functionality from normal erythrocytes. Several flow-cytometry-based assays were applied to test the physiological responses of the plasma membrane, namely drug-induced endocytosis, phosphatidylserine exposure and calcium uptake upon treatment with lysophosphatidic acid. ChAc red cell samples clearly showed a reduced response in drug-induced endovesiculation, lysophosphatidic acid-induced phosphatidylserine exposure, and calcium uptake. Impaired responses were also observed in acanthocyte-positive NBIA (PKAN) red cells but not in patient cells without shape abnormalities. These data suggest an “acanthocytic state” of the red cell where alterations in functional and interdependent membrane properties arise together with an acanthocytic cell shape. Further elucidation of the aberrant molecular mechanisms that cause this acanthocytic state may possibly help to evaluate the pathological pathways leading to neurodegeneration. PMID:24098554

  7. Improvement of cell membrane permeability using a cell-solution electrode for generating atmospheric-pressure plasma.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Toshiro; Sasaki, Shota; Hokari, Yutaro; Horiuchi, Shinichi; Honda, Ryusuke; Kanzaki, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    The cell membrane permeability, which is strongly related to gene transfection, is improved using a cell-solution electrode for generating atmospheric-pressure plasma (APP) just above the solution. In the case of the floating cells, the cell membrane permeability is significantly improved by the cell-solution electrode APP compared with the conventional diffusion type APP, because the distance between the plasma generation area and the cell solution surface becomes short, which could reduce the radial diffusion loss of the plasma irradiated to the cell suspended solution. In the case of the adherent cells, cell membrane permeability is found to be enhanced by the shorter distance between the solution surface and the adherent cells as well as using the cell-solution electrode, which means that the short-lived reactive oxygen species generated at the solution surface are essential for the improvement of cell membrane permeability. PMID:25997854

  8. The effect of insulin on plasma-membrane and mitochondrial-membrane potentials in isolated fat-cells.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, R J; Brand, M D; Martin, B R

    1981-01-01

    1. A recently developed technique for the measurement of plasma-membrane and mitochondrial-membrane potentials in intact cells by using the distribution of 86Rb+ and [3H]methyltriphenylphosphonium+ has enabled us to characterize a novel insulin effect on fat-cell mitochondria. For control cells the plasma-membrane and mitochondrial-membrane potentials were 75 mV and 152 mV respectively. Insulin (10 mu units/ml) caused a 9 mV hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane and a 19 mV depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane. 2. The insulin-dependent mitochondrial depolarization was observed at physiological insulin concentrations (10 mu units/ml) and was apparent when the cells metabolized a wide variety of substrates. 3. Evidence from the uptake of the weak acid 5,5-dimethyloxazolidine-2,4-dione by fat-cells was interpreted as indicating that the mitochondrial pH gradient was increased by insulin. 4. Insulin alters the balance between the electrical and pH-gradient components that form the mitochondrial protonmotive force. A model is proposed. PMID:7030323

  9. Co-option of Membrane Wounding Enables Virus Penetration into Cells.

    PubMed

    Luisoni, Stefania; Suomalainen, Maarit; Boucke, Karin; Tanner, Lukas B; Wenk, Markus R; Guan, Xue Li; Grzybek, Micha?; Coskun, Ünal; Greber, Urs F

    2015-07-01

    During cell entry, non-enveloped viruses undergo partial uncoating to expose membrane lytic proteins for gaining access to the cytoplasm. We report that adenovirus uses membrane piercing to induce and hijack cellular wound removal processes that facilitate further membrane disruption and infection. Incoming adenovirus stimulates calcium influx and lysosomal exocytosis, a membrane repair mechanism resulting in release of acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) and degradation of sphingomyelin to ceramide lipids in the plasma membrane. Lysosomal exocytosis is triggered by small plasma membrane lesions induced by the viral membrane lytic protein-VI, which is exposed upon mechanical cues from virus receptors, followed by virus endocytosis into leaky endosomes. Chemical inhibition or RNA interference of ASMase slows virus endocytosis, inhibits virus escape to the cytosol, and reduces infection. Ceramide enhances binding of protein-VI to lipid membranes and protein-VI-induced membrane rupture. Thus, adenovirus uses a positive feedback loop between virus uncoating and lipid signaling for efficient membrane penetration. PMID:26159720

  10. Structural transition of actin filament in a cell-sized water droplet with a phospholipid membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hase, M.; Yoshikawa, K.

    2006-03-01

    Actin filament, F-actin, is a semiflexible polymer with a negative charge, and is one of the main constituents of cell membranes. To clarify the effect of cross talk between a phospholipid membrane and actin filaments in cells, we conducted microscopic observations on the structural changes in actin filaments in a cell-sized (several tens of micrometers in diameter) water droplet coated with a phospholipid membrane such as phosphatidylserine (PS; negatively charged head group) or phosphatidylethanolamine (PE; neutral head group) as a simple model of a living cell membrane. With PS, actin filaments are distributed uniformly in the water phase without adsorption onto the membrane surface between 2 and 6mM Mg2+, while between 6 and 12mM Mg2+, actin filaments are adsorbed onto the inner membrane surface. With PE, the actin filaments are uniformly adsorbed onto the inner membrane surface between 2 and 12mM Mg2+. With both PS and PE membranes, at Mg2+ concentrations higher than 12mM, thick bundles are formed in the bulk water droplet accompanied by the dissolution of actin filaments from the membrane surface. The attraction between actin filaments and membrane is attributable to an increase in the translational entropy of counterions accompanied by the adsorption of actin filaments onto the membrane surface. These results suggest that a microscopic water droplet coated with phospholipid can serve as an easy-to-handle model of cell membranes.

  11. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell commercial power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, R.B. [Ballard Power Systems, North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Gunsher, J.A. [Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Dow Chemical Company and Ballard Power Systems, Inc. are actively working together to manufacture and market Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell power plants for stationary power generation. This paper is an update of the PEM commercialization activities during the past year. The commercialization plan consists of three phases: Proof of concept; Market entry power plant prototype development; and 250 kW power plant field trials. 30 and 10 kW plants have been completed and construction of the 250 kW prototype power plant of Phase 2 is nearing completion.

  12. Grafted polyelectrolyte membranes for lithium batteries and fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-06-24

    Polyelectrolyte materials have been developed for lithium battery systems in response to the severe problems due to salt concentration gradients that occur in composite electrodes (aka membrane-electrode assemblies). Comb branch polymer architectures are described which allow for grafting of appropriate anions on to the polymer and also for cross-linking to provide for appropriate mechanical properties. The interactions of the polymers with the electrode surfaces are critical for the performance of the system and some of the structural features that influence this will be described. Parallels with the fuel cell MEA structures exist and will also be discussed.

  13. 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Pivovar, B.

    2012-02-01

    A workshop addressing the current state-of-the-art in alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs) was held May 8-9, 2011, at the Crystal Gateway Marriott in Arlington, Virginia. This workshop was the second of its kind, with the first being held December 11-13, 2006, in Phoenix, Arizona. The 2011 workshop and associated workshop report were created to assess the current state of AMFC technology (taking into account recent advances), investigate the performance potential of AMFC systems across all possible power ranges and applications, and identify the key research needs for commercial competitiveness in a variety of areas.

  14. Irvalec Inserts into the Plasma Membrane Causing Rapid Loss of Integrity and Necrotic Cell Death in Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Guijarro, José M.; Macías, Álvaro; García, Carolina; Muñoz, Eva; García-Fernández, Luis F.; David, Miren; Núñez, Lucía; Martínez-Leal, Juan F.; Moneo, Victoria; Cuevas, Carmen; Lillo, M. Pilar; Villalobos Jorge, Carlos; Valenzuela, Carmen; Galmarini, Carlos M.

    2011-01-01

    Irvalec is a marine-derived antitumor agent currently undergoing phase II clinical trials. In vitro, Irvalec induces a rapid loss of membrane integrity in tumor cells, accompanied of a significant Ca2+ influx, perturbations of membrane conductivity, severe swelling and the formation of giant membranous vesicles. All these effects are not observed in Irvalec-resistant cells, or are significantly delayed by pretreating the cells with Zn2+. Using fluorescent derivatives of Irvalec it was demonstrated that the compound rapidly interacts with the plasma membrane of tumor cells promoting lipid bilayer restructuration. Also, FRET experiments demonstrated that Irvalec molecules localize in the cell membrane close enough to each other as to suggest that the compound could self-organize, forming supramolecular structures that likely trigger cell death by necrosis through the disruption of membrane integrity. PMID:21556352

  15. Engineered cell instructive matrices for fetal membrane healing.

    PubMed

    Kivelio, A; Ochsenbein-Koelble, N; Zimmermann, R; Ehrbar, M

    2015-03-01

    Iatrogenic preterm prelabour rupture of fetal membranes (iPPROM) occurs in 6-45% of the cases after fetoscopic procedures, posing a significant threat to fetal survival and well-being. The number of diagnostic and therapeutic prenatal interventions available is increasing, thus developing treatment options for iPPROM is becoming more important than ever before. Fetal membranes exhibit very restricted regeneration and little is known about factors which might modulate their healing potential, rendering various materials and strategies to seal or heal fetal membranes pursued over the past decades relatively fruitless. Additionally, biocompatible materials with tunable in vivo stability and mechanical and biological properties have not been available. Using poly(ethylene glycol)-based biomimetic matrices, we provide evidence that, upon presentation of appropriate biological cues in three dimensions, mesenchymal progenitor cells from the amnion can be mobilized, induced to proliferate and supported in maintaining their native extracellular matrix production, thus creating a suitable environment for healing to take place. These data suggest that engineering materials with defined mechanical and biochemical properties and the ability to present migration- and proliferation-inducing factors, such as platelet-derived growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor or epidermal growth factor, could be key in resolving the clinical problem of iPPROM and allowing the field of fetal surgery to move forward. PMID:25536031

  16. Mechanistic investigation of interactions between steroidal saponin digitonin and cell membrane models.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Nataliya; Makky, Ali; Sudji, Ikhwan Resmala; Wink, Michael; Tanaka, Motomu

    2014-12-18

    Digitonin is an amphiphilic steroidal saponin, a class of natural products that can bind to cholesterol and lyse cells. Despite the known cell membrane lysis activity, it remains unclear how it interacts with cell membranes. In the present work, the interaction mechanism between digitonin and cell membrane models has quantitatively been investigated using a combination of physical techniques. It has been demonstrated that digitonin molecules bind specifically to cholesterol in the membrane, resulting in the formation of cholesterol-digitonin complexes on the membrane surface by removing cholesterol from the membrane core. Changes in the mass density and the film mechanics caused by the digitonin were determined by using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), and the combination of X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and dual polarization interferometry (DPI) yielded the hydration level of the cholesterol-digitonin complexes. From differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, supporting evidence was obtained that cholesterol was removed from the membrane core. PMID:25412206

  17. Interaction of plasma fibronectin (pFN) with membranous constituents of peritoneal exudate cells and pulmonary macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Rovin, B.; Molnar, J.; Chevalier, D.; Ng, P.

    1984-11-01

    The prominent role of plasma fibronectin (pFN) in the host defense system as an opsonin for gelatin (collagen)-coated colloids has been established. In the present study the authors investigated the interaction of pFN and membrane isolates from cells devoid of collagen, as well as several tissues. In a liver slice assay system it was shown that subcellular membrane fractions from lung macrophages, peritoneal exudate cells, spleen, testis, and liver were able to competitively inhibit the pFN-mediated uptake of /sup 125/I-gelatin coated latex beads (gLtx) at low concentrations. Endocytosis of /sup 125/I-labeled membrane isolates by macrophage monolayers was also promoted by addition of pFN. In an attempt to characterize the membrane component(s) interacting with pFN, it was found that mild extraction procedure with 1 M KBr could release a significant amount of this inhibitory activity. Further studies demonstrated that the agent(s) responsible for inhibition of gLtx uptake was heat sensitive, not altered by trypsin treatment, and did not contain actin, a protein known to interact with pFN. This work indicates that pFN interacts specifically with an as yet unknown membrane component(s) and that such interaction will promote clearance of cellular debris by macrophages. This suggests that pFN may be an important opsonin for the reticuloendothelial system in clearance of collagenous and noncollagenous cellular debris once they are exposed to interact with it.

  18. Front-to-rear membrane tension gradient in rapidly moving cells.

    PubMed

    Lieber, Arnon D; Schweitzer, Yonatan; Kozlov, Michael M; Keren, Kinneret

    2015-04-01

    Membrane tension is becoming recognized as an important mechanical regulator of motile cell behavior. Although membrane-tension measurements have been performed in various cell types, the tension distribution along the plasma membrane of motile cells has been largely unexplored. Here, we present an experimental study of the distribution of tension in the plasma membrane of rapidly moving fish epithelial keratocytes. We find that during steady movement the apparent membrane tension is ?30% higher at the leading edge than at the trailing edge. Similar tension differences between the front and the rear of the cell are found in keratocyte fragments that lack a cell body. This front-to-rear tension variation likely reflects a tension gradient developed in the plasma membrane along the direction of movement due to viscous friction between the membrane and the cytoskeleton-attached protein anchors embedded in the membrane matrix. Theoretical modeling allows us to estimate the area density of these membrane anchors. Overall, our results indicate that even though membrane tension equilibrates rapidly and mechanically couples local boundary dynamics over cellular scales, steady-state variations in tension can exist in the plasma membranes of moving cells. PMID:25863051

  19. ARTICLE doi:10.1038/nature11973 Membrane potential dynamics of grid cells

    E-print Network

    Pillow, Jonathan

    by direct measurement of the membrane potential of grid cells in mice during navigation in virtual reality28ARTICLE doi:10.1038/nature11973 Membrane potential dynamics of grid cells Cristina Domnisoru1,2,3,4 , Amina A. Kinkhabwala1,2,3,4 & David W. Tank1,2,3,4 During navigation, grid cells increase their spike

  20. Quantitative assay by flow cytometry of the mitochondrial membrane potential in intact cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hagai Rottenberg; Shaolong Wu

    1998-01-01

    Mitochondrial membrane potential, in situ, is an important indicator of mitochondrial function and dysfunction. Because of recent interest in the role of mitochondria in signaling, cell injury and cell death, there is a need for a convenient, sensitive and accurate method for the measurement of the mitochondrial membrane potential, ??m, in situ, in a heterogeneous cell population. We have adapted

  1. Research Paper New uorescent probes for the measurement of cell membrane

    E-print Network

    Theodorakis, Emmanuel

    viscosity values between 70 and 120 cP, depending on the temperature [1], while in human epidermal cellsResearch Paper New £uorescent probes for the measurement of cell membrane viscosity Mark A viscosity-dependent fluorescence quantum yield, poten- tially allowing direct measurements of cell membrane

  2. Inhibitory effects of dapsone on enzymatic activities of membrane phospholipids in human blood cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Niwa; Y. Miyachi

    1985-01-01

    Summary In order to elucidate the action mechanism of dapsone on blood cell membranes, we assessed the dose-dependent effect of dapsone on the activities of choline phosphotransferase (which mediates the production of the structural phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine) and methyltransferase (which produces phosphatidylcholine from phosphatidylethanolamine, representing the dynamics of the cells) in the membranes of red cells, lymphocytes, and neutrophils obtained from

  3. Alterations of the apparent area expansivity modulus of red blood cell membrane by electric fields.

    PubMed Central

    Katnik, C; Waugh, R

    1990-01-01

    Red blood cell membrane exhibits a large resistance to changes in surface area. This resistance is characterized by the area expansivity modulus K, which relates the isotropic membrane force resultant, T, to the fractional change in membrane surface area delta A/Ao. The experimental technique commonly used to determine K is micropipette aspiration. Using this method, E. A. Evans and R. Waugh (1977, Biophys. J. 20:307-313) obtained a value of 450 dyn/cm for the modulus. In the present report, it is shown that the value of K, as determined using this method, is affected by electric potential differences applied across the tip of the pipette. Using Ag-AgCl electrodes and current clamping electronics, we obtained values for K ranging from 150 dyn/cm with -1.0 V applied, to 1,500 dyn/cm with 1.0 V applied. At 0.0 V the modulus obtained was approximately 500 dyn/cm. A reversible, voltage- and pressure-dependent change in the cell volume probably accounts for the effect of the voltage on the calculated value of the modulus. The use of lanthanum chloride or increasing the extra- and intracellular solute concentrations reduced the voltage dependence of the measurements. It was also found that when dissimilar metals were used to "ground" the pipette to the chamber to prevent lysis of cells by static charge, values for K ranged from 121 to 608 dyn/cm. Based on measurements made at zero applied volts, in the presence of 0.4 mM lanthanum and at high solute concentration, we conclude that the true value of the modulus is approximately 500 dyn/cm. PMID:2344470

  4. Properties and regulation of gap junctional hemichannels in the plasma membranes of cultured cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haiying Li; Tai-Feng Liu; Ahmed Lazrak; Camillo Peracchia; Gary S. Goldberg; Paul D. Lampe

    1996-01-01

    During the assembly of gap junctions, a hemichannel in the plasma membrane of one cell is thought to align and dock with another in an apposed membrane to form a cell-to-cell channel. We report here on the existence and properties of nonjunctional, plasma membrane connexin43 (Cx43) hemichannels. The opening of the hemichannels was demonstrated by the cellular uptake of 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein

  5. Plasma membrane hyperpolarization by cyanide in chromaffin cells: role of potassium channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. V. Latha; J. L. Borowitz; G. K. W. Yim; A. Kanthasamy; G. E. Isom

    1994-01-01

    Exposure of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells to cyanide produces elevation of cytosolic calcium, impaired Na+?H+ exchange, membrane lipid peroxidation and release of neurotransmitters. Since these observations suggested cyanide alters\\u000a plasma membrane function, the present study examined the effect of NaCN on the membrane potential of undifferentiated PC12\\u000a cells in suspension. In PC12 cells loaded with the voltage sensitive fluorescent dye,

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL ELECTROCATALYST FOR PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2000-01-19

    Proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the strongest contenders as a power source for space & electric vehicle applications. Platinum catalyst is used for both fuel and air electrodes in PEMFCs. CO contamination of H{sub 2} greatly affects electrocatalysts used at the anode of polymer electrolyte fuel cells and decrease the cell performance. Pt-Ru catalyst had been recognized to alleviate this problem by showing better tolerance to CO poisoning than only Pt catalyst. This irreversible poisoning of the anode can be happened even in concentrations as little as a few ppm, and therefore, require expensive scrubbing to reduce the contaminant concentration to acceptable level. In order to commercialize this environmentally sound source of energy/power system, development of suitable impurity tolerant catalyst is needed. This project will develop novel electrocatalysts for the PEMFCs and demonstrate the feasibility of a H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} fuel cell base on these materials. This project, if successful, will reduce the costs due to reduce Pt catalyst loading or use non-precious metals. It will increase the PEM fuel cell performance by increasing catalyst tolerance to methanol oxidation intermediate products (CO) and fuel impurities (H{sub 2}S), which will generate substantial interest for commercialization of the PEM fuel cell technology.

  7. Cytoskeletal-membrane interactions: a stable interaction between cell surface glycoconjugates and doublet microtubules of the photoreceptor connecting cilium

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    The ciliary base is marked by a transition zone in which Y-shaped cross- linkers extend from doublet microtubules to the plasma membrane. Our goal was to investigate the hypothesis that the cross-linkers form a stable interaction between membrane or cell surface components and the underlying microtubule cytoskeleton. We have combined Triton X-100 extraction with lectin cytochemistry in the photoreceptor sensory cilium to investigate the relationship between cell surface glycoconjugates and the underlying cytoskeleton, and to identify the cell surface components involved. Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) binds heavily to the cell surface in the region of the Y-shaped cross-linkers of the neonatal rat photoreceptor cilium. WGA binding is not removed by prior digestion with neuraminidase and succinyl-WGA also binds the proximal cilium, suggesting a predominance of N-acetylglucosamine containing glycoconjugates. Extraction of the photoreceptor plasma membrane with Triton X-100 removes the lipid bilayer, leaving the Y- shaped crosslinkers associated with the axoneme. WGA-binding sites are found at the distal ends of the crosslinkers after Triton X-100 extraction, indicating that the microtubule-membrane cross-linkers retain both a transmembrane and a cell surface component after removal of the lipid bilayer. To identify glycoconjugate components of the cross-linkers we used a subcellular fraction enriched in axonemes from adult bovine retinas. Isolated, detergent-extracted bovine axonemes show WGA binding at the distal ends of the cross-linkers similar to that seen in the neonatal rat. Proteins of the axoneme fraction were separated by SDS-PAGE and electrophoretically transferred to nitrocellulose. WGA labeling of the nitrocellulose transblots reveals three glycoconjugates, all of molecular mass greater than 400 kD. The major WGA-binding glycoconjugate has an apparent molecular mass of approximately 600 kD and is insensitive to prior digestion with neuraminidase. This glycoconjugate may correspond to the dominant WGA- binding component seen in cytochemical experiments. PMID:3693403

  8. Investigation of the bystander effect in MRC5 cells after acute and fractionated irradiation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman; Toossi, Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni; Samani, Roghayeh Kamran; Mohebbi, Shokoufeh

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has been defined as radiation responses observed in nonirradiated cells. It has been the focus of investigators worldwide due to the deleterious effects it induces in nonirradiated cells. The present study was performed to investigate whether acute or fractionated irradiation will evoke a differential bystander response in MRC5 cells. A normal human cell line (MRC5), and a human lung tumor cell line (QU-DB) were exposed to 0, 1, 2, and 4Gy of single acute or fractionated irradiation of equal fractions with a gap of 6 h. The MRC5 cells were supplemented with the media of irradiated cells and their micronucleus frequency was determined. The micronucleus frequency after single and fractionated irradiation did not vary significantly in the MRC5 cells conditioned with autologous or QU-DB cell-irradiated media, except for 4Gy where the frequency of micronucleated cells was lower in those MRC5 cells cultured in the media of QU-DB-exposed with a single dose of 4Gy. Our study demonstrates that the radiation-induced bystander effect was almost similar after single acute and fractionated exposure in MRC5 cells. PMID:24872606

  9. Investigation of the bystander effect in MRC5 cells after acute and fractionated irradiation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman; Toossi, Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni; Samani, Roghayeh Kamran; Mohebbi, Shokoufeh

    2014-04-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has been defined as radiation responses observed in nonirradiated cells. It has been the focus of investigators worldwide due to the deleterious effects it induces in nonirradiated cells. The present study was performed to investigate whether acute or fractionated irradiation will evoke a differential bystander response in MRC5 cells. A normal human cell line (MRC5), and a human lung tumor cell line (QU-DB) were exposed to 0, 1, 2, and 4Gy of single acute or fractionated irradiation of equal fractions with a gap of 6 h. The MRC5 cells were supplemented with the media of irradiated cells and their micronucleus frequency was determined. The micronucleus frequency after single and fractionated irradiation did not vary significantly in the MRC5 cells conditioned with autologous or QU-DB cell-irradiated media, except for 4Gy where the frequency of micronucleated cells was lower in those MRC5 cells cultured in the media of QU-DB-exposed with a single dose of 4Gy. Our study demonstrates that the radiation-induced bystander effect was almost similar after single acute and fractionated exposure in MRC5 cells. PMID:24872606

  10. Deficits in elevating membrane potential of rat fibrosarcoma cells after cell contact.

    PubMed

    Binggeli, R; Weinstein, R C

    1985-01-01

    Most cancer cells are known to have lower resting cellular potentials than do their normal counterparts. This study investigates how these potentials establish themselves during growth and cellular contact in tissue culture. Normal quail embryonic fibroblasts and quail fibrosarcoma (QT-35) and normal rat kidney cells and rat fibrosarcoma (from rat fibroblasts chemically transformed by nitroquinoline oxide) were recorded intracellularly using high-impedance micropipets. In high-density high-contact cultures, both quail and rat cancer cells had lower potentials than did normal cells (-20.7 compared to -40.1 mV for quail and -30.7 compared to -61.9 mV for rat). In low-density mitotically synchronous cultures, the rat cells were recorded every 4 hr for 96 hr. Starting at a low density, normal cell membrane potential is maintained at a low level through subsequent cell divisions. Without any additional change in cell density, the potential suddenly elevates to a high level. The membrane potential of cancer cells is by contrast unrelated either to cell density or to time. Cancer cells maintained an intermediate potential from low to very high densities and never elevated their potential to high values. The failure of cancer cells to reach high potentials may be linked to their uncontrolled cell division. PMID:3965134

  11. A noninteractive two-state model of cell membrane ion channels using the pair approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdem, R?za; Ekiz, Cesur

    2004-10-01

    A noninteractive two-state model for ion channels in cell membranes is proposed using the pair approximation. The cell membrane is visualized as a two-dimensional sheet with a regular array of lattice sites and is described by a simple two-state system in which each channel is opened by a movement of single gating particle which carries a charge. Assuming that the particle is in one of the two positions associated with closed and open states, the free energy is calculated using the pair approximation and minimized with respect to the pair variables to obtain the steady-state activation curves. Using known parameters for sodium channels in giant squid axon as an example, the fractions of open channels are obtained by solving a self-consistent nonlinear algebraic equation for the pair variables and the effect of the lattice coordination number on the channel activation vs. voltage curve is investigated. Our numerical results are compared with the mean-field results as well as the experimental measurements by cut-open axon technique.

  12. The plasma membrane of Malpighian cells from pig epidermis: isolation and lipid and protein composition.

    PubMed

    Gray, G M; King, I A; Yardley, H J

    1980-11-01

    A plasma membrane fraction from Malpighian cells has been isolated by differential and density gradient centrifugation of a pig epidermal homogenate. It was enriched in the marker enzymes 2-naphthylamidase, 5'-nucleotidase, phosphodiesterase I and acid phosphatase and depleted of NADH-ferricyanide reductase and cytochrome c oxidase. It had a protein to lipid ratio of 3:2 by weight. The protein composition was complex with compounds ranging from a molecular weight of 150,000 down to 13,000. Major components with molecular weights 120,000 to 90,000 were glycoproteins. Two other components had molecular weights of 39,000 (actin ?) and 24,000. There were minor components with molecular weights from 63,000 to 46,000. About 76% of the total lipid was present as phospholipid, which was enriched in sphingomyelin. Most of the neutral lipids were accounted for by cholesterol, triacylglycerols and fatty acids: very little glycosphingolipid was present. The preparation was probably derived from non-desmosomal areas of the plasma membrane of Malpighian cells, as desmosomes were not seen in the preparation. PMID:7437317

  13. Basement Membrane Matrix Modifies Cytokine Interactions between Lung Cancer Cells and Fibroblasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takumi Akashi; Junko Minami; Yuki Ishige; Yoshinobu Eishi; Touichiro Takizawa; Morio Koike; Masaki Yanagishita

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Proliferation of fibroblasts (desmoplastic reaction) in the lung adenocarcinomas is an important phenomenon that correlates with metastases and poor prognosis. Because basement membranes are often involved in the desmoplastic areas and many cytokines have binding capacity to basement membrane molecules, we hypothesized that basement membrane modify the paracrine effects between cancer cells and fibroblasts via the fibrogenic cytokines and

  14. High temperature proton exchange membranes based on polybenzimidazoles for fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qingfeng Li; Jens Oluf Jensen; Robert F. Savinell; Niels J. Bjerrum

    2009-01-01

    To achieve high temperature operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), preferably under ambient pressure, acid–base polymer membranes represent an effective approach. The phosphoric acid-doped polybenzimidazole membrane seems so far the most successful system in the field. It has in recent years motivated extensive research activities with great progress. This treatise is devoted to updating the development, covering polymer

  15. Local plasma membrane permeabilization of living cells by nanosecond electric pulses using atomic force microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Thompson; Jason A. Payne; Caleb C. Roth; Gerald J. Wilmink; Bennett L. Ibey

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies provide evidence that nanosecond electric pulses (nsEPs) can trigger the formation of nanopores in the plasma membranes of cells. However, the biophysical mechanism responsible for nanopore formation is not well understood. In this study, we hypothesize that membrane damage induced by nsEPs is primarily dependent on the local molecular composition and mechanical strength of the plasma membrane. To

  16. Lipid-Protein Interactions in Plasma Membranes of Fiber Cells Isolated from the Human Eye Lens

    PubMed Central

    Raguz, Marija; Mainali, Laxman; O’Brien, William J.; Subczynski, Witold K.

    2014-01-01

    The protein content in human lens membranes is extremely high, increases with age, and is higher in the nucleus as compared with the cortex, which should strongly affect the organization and properties of the lipid bilayer portion of intact membranes. To assess these effects, the intact cortical and nuclear fiber cell plasma membranes isolated from human lenses from 41- to 60-year-old donors were studied using electron paramagnetic resonance spin-labeling methods. Results were compared with those obtained for lens lipid membranes prepared from total lipid extracts from human eyes of the same age group [Mainali,L., Raguz, M., O’Brien, W. J., and Subczynski, W. K. (2013) Biochim. Biophys. Acta]. Differences were considered to be mainly due to the effect of membrane proteins. The lipid-bilayer portions of intact membranes were significantly less fluid than lipid bilayers of lens lipid membranes, prepared without proteins. The intact membranes were found to contain three distinct lipid environments termed the bulk lipid domain, boundary lipid domain, and trapped lipid domain. However, the cholesterol bilayer domain, which was detected in cortical and nuclear lens lipid membranes, was not detected in intact membranes. The relative amounts of bulk and trapped lipids were evaluated. The amount of lipids in domains uniquely formed due to the presence of membrane proteins was greater in nuclear membranes than in cortical membranes. Thus, it is evident that the rigidity of nuclear membranes is greater than that of cortical membranes. Also the permeability coefficients for oxygen measured in domains of nuclear membranes were significantly lower than appropriate coefficients measured in cortical membranes. Relationships between the organization of lipids into lipid domains in fiber cells plasma membranes and the organization of membrane proteins are discussed. PMID:24486794

  17. Cell-Culture Reactor Having a Porous Organic Polymer Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A method for making a biocompatible polymer article using a uniform atomic oxygen treatment is disclosed. The substrate may be subsequently optionally grated with a compatibilizing compound. Compatibilizing compounds may include proteins, phosphory1choline groups, platelet adhesion preventing polymers, albumin adhesion promoters, and the like. The compatibilized substrate may also have a living cell layer adhered thereto. The atomic oxygen is preferably produced by a flowing afterglow microwave discharge, wherein the substrate resides in a sidearm out of the plasma. Also, methods for culturing cells for various purposes using the various membranes are disclosed as well. Also disclosed are porous organic polymers having a distributed pore chemistry (DPC) comprising hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions, and a method for making the DPC by exposing the polymer to atomic oxygen wherein the rate of hydrophilization is greater than the rate of mass loss.

  18. Cell poking. Determination of the elastic area compressibility modulus of the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Daily, B; Elson, E L; Zahalak, G I

    1984-01-01

    Cell poking, a new method for measuring mechanical properties of single cells was used to determine the elastic area compressibility modulus of osmotically swollen human erythrocytes. With this method we determined the force required to indent cells attached to a glass coverslip (Petersen, N.O., W. B. McConnaughey , and E. L. Elson , 1982, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 79:5327. Forces on the order of one millidyne and indentations on the order of one micron were detected. An analysis of these data in terms of a simplified mechanical model yielded the elastic area compressibility modulus. This analysis used a variational approach to minimize the isothermal elastic potential energy density function given by E. A. Evans and R. Skalak (Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Biomembranes, 1980, CRC Press, Boca Raton , FL). Measurements on swollen erythrocytes gave a range of values, depending in part on the osmotic conditions, of 17.9 +/- 8.2 to 34.8 +/- 12.0 mdyn /micron for the elastic area compressibility modulus at 25 degrees C. Fractional area expansion greater than 2.6 +/- 0.8% produced rapid cell lysis. These values were not corrected for the reversible movement of water across the cell membrane in response to hydrostatic pressure gradients. Our results agree reasonably with those obtained by Evans et al. (Evans, E.A., R. Waugh , and L. Melnick , 1976, Biophys. J., 16:585-595.) using micropipette aspiration under similar conditions. PMID:6722261

  19. Infectious rotavirus enters cells by direct cell membrane penetration, not by endocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kaljot, K.T.; Shaw, R.D.; Greenberg, H.B. (Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (USA) Palo Alto Veterans Administration Medical Center, CA (USA)); Rubin, D.H. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (USA))

    1988-04-01

    Rotaviruses are icosahedral viruses with a segmented, double-stranded RNA genome. They are the major cause of severe infantile infectious diarrhea. Rotavirus growth in tissue culture is markedly enhanced by pretreatment of virus with trypsin. Trypsin activation is associated with cleavage of the viral hemagglutinin (viral protein 3 (VP3); 88 kilodaltons) into two fragments (60 and 28 kilodaltons). The mechanism by which proteolytic cleavage leads to enhanced growth is unknown. To determine whether trypsin treatment affected rotavirus internalization, the authors studied the kinetics of entry of infectious rhesus rotavirus (RRV) into MA104 cells. Trypsin-activated RRV was internalized with a half-time of 3 to 5 min, while nonactivated virus disappeared from the cell surface with a half-time of 30 to 50 min. In contrast to trypsin-activated RRV, loss of nonactivated RRV from the cell surface did not result in the appearance of infection, as measured by plaque formation. Purified trypsin-activated RRV added to cell monolayers at pH 7.4 mediated {sup 51}Cr, ({sup 14}C)choline, and ({sup 3}H)inositol released from prelabeled MA104 cells. This release could be specifically blocked by neutralizing antibodies to VP3. These results suggest that MA104 cell infection follows the rapid entry of trypsin-activated RRV by direct cell membrane penetration. Cell membrane penetration of infectious RRV is initiated by trypsin cleavage of VP3. Neutralizing antibodies can inhibit this direct membrane penetration.

  20. Characterization of Cytoskeleton-Enriched Protein Fraction of the Trabecular Meshwork and Ciliary Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Toshihiro; Pecen, Paula; Maddala, Rupalatha; Skiba, Nikolai P.; Pattabiraman, Padmanabhan P.; Epstein, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To understand the molecular basis for the known distinct contractile characteristics of trabecular meshwork (TM) and ciliary muscle (CM) cells, the cytoskeleton-enriched protein fractions of the TM and CM cells were isolated and characterized. Methods. The nonionic surfactant insoluble fraction enriched for cytoskeletal proteins was isolated from human and porcine TM tissue and cells and from CM cells and was characterized by SDS-PAGE, mass spectrometry, and immunoblotting techniques. Results. The cytoskeleton-enriched protein fraction derived from both human and porcine TM cells contained Plectin 1, Filamin A, non-muscle myosin IIA, clathrin, ?-actinin, vimentin, actin, caldesmon, myosin IC, and annexin A2 as major proteins and was noted to exhibit compositional similarity with the cytoskeletal protein fraction isolated from TM tissue. Importantly, the cytoskeletal protein composition of the TM cells was also found to be similar to that noted for CM and vascular endothelial cells. Although the activity of myosin II, a crucial regulator of cellular contraction and a major component of the cytoskeletal protein fraction in TM and CM cells, was regulated predominantly by Rho kinase in both cell types, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) also appeared to control myosin II activity in CM cells. Conclusions. These data reveal that the activity of non-muscle myosin II, a critical molecule of cellular contraction, was found to be regulated differentially in TM and CM cells by the Rho kinase and the MLCK pathways despite their compositional similarity in cytoskeletal protein profile. PMID:20631233

  1. Sensory transduction at the frog semicircular canal: how hair cell membrane potential controls junctional transmission

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Marta; Canella, Rita; Rubbini, Gemma; Fesce, Riccardo; Rossi, Maria Lisa

    2015-01-01

    At the frog semicircular canals, the afferent fibers display high spontaneous activity (mEPSPs), due to transmitter release from hair cells. mEPSP and spike frequencies are modulated by stimulation that activates the hair cell receptor conductance. The relation between receptor current and transmitter release cannot be studied at the intact semicircular canal. To circumvent the problem, we combined patch-clamp recordings at the isolated hair cell and electrophysiological recordings at the cytoneural junction in the intact preparation. At isolated hair cells, the K channel blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA) is shown to block a fraction of total voltage-dependent K-conductance (IKD) that depends on TEA concentration but not on membrane potential (Vm). Considering the bioelectric properties of the hair cell, as previously characterized by this lab, a fixed fractional block of IKD is shown to induce a relatively fixed shift in Vm, provided it lies in the range ?30 to ?10 mV. The same concentrations of TEA were applied to the intact labyrinth while recording from single afferent fibers of the posterior canal, at rest and during mechanical stimulation. At the peak of stimulation, TEA produced increases in mEPSP rate that were linearly related to the shifts produced by the same TEA concentrations (0.1–3 mM) in hair cell Vm (0.7–5 mV), with a slope of 29.8 Hz/mV. The membrane potential of the hair cell is not linearly related to receptor conductance, so that the slope of quantal release vs. receptor conductance depends on the prevailing Vm (19.8 Hz/nS at ?20 mV; 11 Hz/nS at ?10 mV). Changes in mEPSP peak size were negligible at rest as well as during stimulation. Since ample spatial summation of mEPSPs occurs at the afferent terminal and threshold-governed spike firing is intrinsically nonlinear, the observed increases in mEPSP frequency, though not very large, may suffice to trigger afferent spike discharge.

  2. Circulating cell membrane microparticles transfer heme to endothelial cells and trigger vasoocclusions in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Camus, Stéphane M; De Moraes, João A; Bonnin, Philippe; Abbyad, Paul; Le Jeune, Sylvain; Lionnet, François; Loufrani, Laurent; Grimaud, Linda; Lambry, Jean-Christophe; Charue, Dominique; Kiger, Laurent; Renard, Jean-Marie; Larroque, Claire; Le Clésiau, Hervé; Tedgui, Alain; Bruneval, Patrick; Barja-Fidalgo, Christina; Alexandrou, Antigoni; Tharaux, Pierre-Louis; Boulanger, Chantal M; Blanc-Brude, Olivier P

    2015-06-11

    Intravascular hemolysis describes the relocalization of heme and hemoglobin (Hb) from erythrocytes to plasma. We investigated the concept that erythrocyte membrane microparticles (MPs) concentrate cell-free heme in human hemolytic diseases, and that heme-laden MPs have a physiopathological impact. Up to one-third of cell-free heme in plasma from 47 patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) was sequestered in circulating MPs. Erythrocyte vesiculation in vitro produced MPs loaded with heme. In silico analysis predicted that externalized phosphatidylserine (PS) in MPs may associate with and help retain heme at the cell surface. Immunohistology identified Hb-laden MPs adherent to capillary endothelium in kidney biopsies from hyperalbuminuric SCD patients. In addition, heme-laden erythrocyte MPs adhered and transferred heme to cultured endothelial cells, inducing oxidative stress and apoptosis. In transgenic SAD mice, infusion of heme-laden MPs triggered rapid vasoocclusions in kidneys and compromised microvascular dilation ex vivo. These vascular effects were largely blocked by heme-scavenging hemopexin and by the PS antagonist annexin-a5, in vitro and in vivo. Adversely remodeled MPs carrying heme may thus be a source of oxidant stress for the endothelium, linking hemolysis to vascular injury. This pathway might provide new targets for the therapeutic preservation of vascular function in SCD. PMID:25827830

  3. In situ hydrogen utilization for high fraction acetate production in mixed culture hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Ding, Jing; Shen, Nan; Zhang, Yan; Ding, Zhaowei; Dai, Kun; Zeng, Raymond J

    2013-12-01

    Syngas fermentation is a promising route for resource recovery. Acetate is an important industrial chemical product and also an attractive precursor for liquid biofuels production. This study demonstrated high fraction acetate production from syngas (H? and CO?) in a hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor, in which the hydrogen utilizing efficiency reached 100% during the operational period. The maximum concentration of acetate in batch mode was 12.5 g/L, while the acetate concentration in continuous mode with a hydraulic retention time of 9 days was 3.6 ± 0.1 g/L. Since butyrate concentration was rather low and below 0.1 g/L, the acetate fraction was higher than 99% in both batch and continuous modes. Microbial community analysis showed that the biofilm was dominated by Clostridium spp., such as Clostridium ljungdahlii and Clostridium drakei, the percentage of which was 70.5%. This study demonstrates a potential technology for the in situ utilization of syngas and valuable chemical production. PMID:24196583

  4. Computational Estimates of Membrane Flow and Tension Gradient in Motile Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fogelson, Ben; Mogilner, Alex

    2014-01-01

    All parts of motile cells, including the plasma membrane, have to translocate in the direction of locomotion. Both directed intracellular membrane transport coupled with polarized endo- and exocytosis and fluid flow in the plane of the plasma membrane can contribute to this overall plasma membrane translocation. It remains unclear how strong a force is required to generate this flow. We numerically solve Stokes equations for the viscous membrane flow across a flat plasma membrane surface in the presence of transmembrane proteins attached to the cytoskeleton and find the membrane tension gradient associated with this flow. This gradient is sensitive to the size and density of the transmembrane proteins attached to the cytoskeleton and can become significant enough to slow down cell movement. We estimate the influence of intracellular membrane transport and actin growth and contraction on the tension gradient, and discuss possible ‘tank tread’ flow at ventral and dorsal surfaces. PMID:24465414

  5. Gadolinium blocks membrane permeabilization induced by nanosecond electric pulses and reduces cell death

    PubMed Central

    André, Franck M.; Rassokhin, Mikhail A.; Bowman, Angela M.; Pakhomov, Andrei G.

    2009-01-01

    It has been widely accepted that nanosecond electric pulses (nsEP) are distinguished from micro-and millisecond duration pulses by their ability to cause intracellular effects and cell death with reduced effects on the cell plasma membrane. However, we found that nsEP-induced cell death is most likely mediated by the plasma membrane disruption. We showed that nsEP can cause long-lasting (minutes) increase in plasma membrane electrical conductance and disrupt electrolyte balance, followed by water uptake, cell swelling and blebbing. These effects of plasma membrane permeabilization could be blocked by Gd3+ in a dose-dependent manner, with a threshold at sub-micromolar concentrations. Consequently, Gd3+ protected cells from nsEP-induced cell death, thereby pointing to plasma membrane permeabilization as a likely primary mechanism of lethal cell damage. PMID:20097138

  6. Gadolinium blocks membrane permeabilization induced by nanosecond electric pulses and reduces cell death.

    PubMed

    André, Franck M; Rassokhin, Mikhail A; Bowman, Angela M; Pakhomov, Andrei G

    2010-08-01

    It has been widely accepted that nanosecond electric pulses (nsEP) are distinguished from micro- and millisecond duration pulses by their ability to cause intracellular effects and cell death with reduced effects on the cell plasma membrane. However, we found that nsEP-induced cell death is most likely mediated by the plasma membrane disruption. We showed that nsEP can cause long-lasting (minutes) increase in plasma membrane electrical conductance and disrupt electrolyte balance, followed by water uptake, cell swelling and blebbing. These effects of plasma membrane permeabilization could be blocked by Gd(3+) in a dose-dependent manner, with a threshold at sub-micromolar concentrations. Consequently, Gd(3+) protected cells from nsEP-induced cell death, thereby pointing to plasma membrane permeabilization as a likely primary mechanism of lethal cell damage. PMID:20097138

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL ELECTROCATALYSTS FOR PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2002-06-11

    The Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is one of the most promising power sources for stand-alone utility and electric vehicle applications. Platinum (Pt) Catalyst is used for both fuel and air electrodes in PEMFCs. However, carbon monoxide (CO) contamination of H{sub 2} greatly affects electro catalysts used at the anode of PEMFCs and decreases cell performance. The irreversible poisoning of the anode can occur even in CO concentrations as low as few parts per million (ppm). In this work, we have synthesized several novel elctrocatalysts (Pt/C, Pt/Ru/C, Pt/Mo/C, Pt/Ir and Pt/Ru/Mo) for PEMFCs. These catalysts have been tested for CO tolerance in the H{sub 2}/air fuel cell, using CO concentrations in the H{sub 2} fuel that varies from 10 to 100 ppm. The performance of the electrodes was evaluated by determining the cell potential against current density. The effects of catalyst composition and electrode film preparation method on the performance of PEM fuel cell were also studied. It was found that at 70 C and 3.5 atm pressure at the cathode, Pt-alloy catalyst (10 wt% Pt/Ru/C, 20 wt% Pt/Mo/C) were more CO tolerant than the 20 wt% Pt/C catalyst alone. It was also observed that spraying method was better than the brushing technique for the preparation of electrode film.

  8. Fhit Delocalizes Annexin A4 from Plasma Membrane to Cytosol and Sensitizes Lung Cancer Cells to Paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Gaudio, Eugenio; Paduano, Francesco; Spizzo, Riccardo; Ngankeu, Apollinaire; Zanesi, Nicola; Gaspari, Marco; Ortuso, Francesco; Lovat, Francesca; Rock, Jonathan; Hill, Grace A.; Kaou, Mohamed; Cuda, Giovanni; Aqeilan, Rami I.; Alcaro, Stefano; Croce, Carlo M.; Trapasso, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Fhit protein is lost or reduced in a large fraction of human tumors, and its restoration triggers apoptosis and suppresses tumor formation or progression in preclinical models. Here, we describe the identification of candidate Fhit-interacting proteins with cytosolic and plasma membrane localization. Among these, Annexin 4 (ANXA4) was validated by co-immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy as a partner of this novel Fhit protein complex. Here we report that overexpression of Fhit prevents Annexin A4 translocation from cytosol to plasma membrane in A549 lung cancer cells treated with paclitaxel. Moreover, paclitaxel administration in combination with AdFHIT acts synergistically to increase the apoptotic rate of tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo experiments. PMID:24223161

  9. KCa channel insensitivity to Ca2+ sparks underlies fractional uncoupling in newborn cerebral artery smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Anlong; Adebiyi, Adebowale; Leffler, Charles W.; Jaggar, Jonathan H.

    2006-01-01

    In smooth muscle cells, localized intracellular Ca2+ transients, termed “Ca2+ sparks,” activate several large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa) channels, resulting in a transient KCa current. In some smooth muscle cell types, a significant proportion of Ca2+ sparks do not activate KCa channels. The goal of this study was to explore mechanisms that underlie fractional Ca2+ spark-KCa channel coupling. We investigated whether membrane depolarization or ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ release (RyR) channel activation modulates coupling in newborn (1- to 3-day-old) porcine cerebral artery myocytes. At steady membrane potentials of ?40, 0, and +40 mV, mean transient KCa current frequency was ?0.18, 0.43, and 0.26 Hz and KCa channel activity [number of KCa channels activated by Ca2+ sparks × open probability of KCa channels at peak of Ca2+ sparks (NPo)] at the transient KCa current peak was ?4, 12, and 24, respectively. Depolarization between ?40 and +40 mV increased KCa channel sensitivity to Ca2+ sparks and elevated the percentage of Ca2+ sparks that activated a transient KCa current from 59 to 86%. In a Ca2+-free bath solution or in diltiazem, a voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel blocker, steady membrane depolarization between ?40 and +40 mV increased transient KCa current frequency up to ?1.6-fold. In contrast, caffeine (10 ?M), an RyR channel activator, increased mean transient KCa current frequency but did not alter Ca2+ spark-KCa channel coupling. These data indicate that coupling is increased by mechanisms that elevate KCa channel sensitivity to Ca2+ sparks, but not by RyR channel activation. Overall, KCa channel insensitivity to Ca2+ sparks is a prominent factor underlying fractional Ca2+ spark uncoupling in newborn cerebral artery myocytes. PMID:16603686

  10. Oligomerization State of Dynamin 2 in Cell Membranes Using TIRF and Number and Brightness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Justin A.; Digman, Michelle A.; Wang, Lei; Gratton, Enrico; Albanesi, Joseph P.; Jameson, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamin 2 is an ubiquitously expressed ?100 kDa GTPase involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis, Golgi budding, and cytoskeletal reorganization. Dynamin molecules assemble around the necks of budding vesicles and constrict membranes in a GTP-dependent process, resulting in vesicle release. The oligomerization state of dynamin 2 in the membrane is still controversial. We investigated dynamin 2 within the plasma membrane of live cells using total internal reflection microscopy coupled with number and brightness analysis. Our results demonstrate that dynamin 2 is primarily tetrameric throughout the entire cell membrane, aside from punctate structures that may correspond to regions of membrane vesiculation. PMID:21281565

  11. Reduction of DOM fractions and their trihalomethane formation potential in surface river water by in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration.

    PubMed

    Rakruam, Pharkphum; Wattanachira, Suraphong

    2014-03-01

    This research was aimed at investigating the reduction of DOM fractions and their trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) by in-line coagulation with 0.1 ?m ceramic membrane filtration. The combination of ceramic membrane filtration with a coagulation process is an alternative technology which can be applied to enhance conventional coagulation processes in the field of water treatment and drinking water production. The Ping River water (high turbidity water) was selected as the raw surface water because it is currently the main raw water source for water supply production in the urban and rural areas of Chiang Mai Province. From the investigation, the results showed that the highest percent reductions of DOC, UV-254, and THMFP (47.6%, 71.0%, and 67.4%, respectively) were achieved from in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration at polyaluminum chloride dosage 40 mg/L. Resin adsorption techniques were employed to characterize the DOM in raw surface water and filtered water. The results showed that the use of a ceramic membrane with in-line coagulation was able to most efficiently reduce the hydrophobic fraction (HPOA) (68.5%), which was then followed by the hydrophilic fraction (HPIA) (49.3%). The greater mass DOC reduction of these two fractions provided the highest THMFP reductions (55.1% and 37.2%, respectively). Furthermore, the in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration was able to reduce the hydrophobic (HPOB) fraction which is characterized by high reactivity toward THM formation. The percent reduction of mass DOC and THMFP of HPOB by in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration was 45.9% and 48.0%, respectively. PMID:25079264

  12. Cross-linked, ETFE-derived and radiation grafted membranes for anion exchange membrane fuel cell applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Fang; Yi-xu Yang; Xiao-huan Lu; Mei-ling Ye; Wei Li; Yan-mei Zhang

    To develop a series of cross-linked anion exchange membranes for application in fuel cells, poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films was radiation grafted with vinyl benzyl chloride (VBC), followed by quaternization and crosslinking with 1,4-Diazabicyclo[2,2,2]octane (DABCO), alkylation with p-Xylylenedichloride (DCX), and quaternization again with trimethylamine (TMA). These anion exchange membranes were characterized in terms of water uptake, ion-exchange capacity, ionic conductivity as well

  13. Preparation and characterization of sulfonated polysulfone\\/titanium dioxide composite membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yilser Devrim; Serdar Erkan; Nurcan Baç; Inci Ero?lu

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, sulfonated polysulfone (sPS)\\/titanium dioxide (TiO2) composite membranes for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) were investigated. Polysulfone (PS) was sulfonated with trimethylsilyl chlorosulfonate in 1,2 dichloroethane at ambient temperatures. It was shown that the degree of sulfonation is increased with the molar ratio of the sulfonating agent to PS repeat unit. The degree of

  14. Palmitoylation of MPP1 (Membrane-palmitoylated Protein 1)/p55 Is Crucial for Lateral Membrane Organization in Erythroid Cells*

    PubMed Central

    ?ach, Agnieszka; Grzybek, Micha?; Heger, El?bieta; Korycka, Justyna; Wolny, Marcin; Kubiak, Jakub; Kolondra, Adam; Bogus?awska, D?amila M.; Augoff, Katarzyna; Majkowski, Micha?; Podkalicka, Joanna; Kaczor, Jakub; Stefanko, Adam; Kuliczkowski, Kazimierz; Sikorski, Aleksander F.

    2012-01-01

    S-Acylation of proteins is a ubiquitous post-translational modification and a common signal for membrane association. The major palmitoylated protein in erythrocytes is MPP1, a member of the MAGUK family and an important component of the ternary complex that attaches the spectrin-based skeleton to the plasma membrane. Here we show that DHHC17 is the only acyltransferase present in red blood cells (RBC). Moreover, we give evidence that protein palmitoylation is essential for membrane organization and is crucial for proper RBC morphology, and that the effect is specific for MPP1. Our observations are based on the clinical cases of two related patients whose RBC had no palmitoylation activity, caused by a lack of DHHC17 in the membrane, which resulted in a strong decrease of the amount of detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) material. We confirmed that this loss of detergent-resistant membrane was due to the lack of palmitoylation by treatment of healthy RBC with 2-bromopalmitic acid (2-BrP, common palmitoylation inhibitor). Concomitantly, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) analyses of an order-sensing dye revealed a reduction of membrane order after chemical inhibition of palmitoylation in erythrocytes. These data point to a pathophysiological relationship between the loss of MPP1-directed palmitoylation activity and perturbed lateral membrane organization. PMID:22496366

  15. Cellular reactions of osteoblast-like cells to a novel nanocomposite membrane for guided bone regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Yao; Liu, Man; Wang, Shao-An; Mo, An-Chun; Huang, Cui; Zuo, Yi; Li, Ji-Dong

    2008-11-01

    This study investigated the bioactivity and biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (n-HA)/Polyamide-66 (PA66) nanocomposite membrane and expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) membrane (as control) to MG63 osteoblast-like cells. The attachment and proliferation of the cells on the porous surface of nHA/PA66 membrane and the surface of e-PTFE membrane were evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation and the MTT assay. The bioactivity of the cells on the surface of the two membranes was evaluated by testing cell viability and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities. The results suggested that the bioresponse of MG63 osteoblast-like cells on the porous surface of nHA/PA66 membrane was better than the bioresponse on the opposite surface of e-PTFE membrane. Because of a better cell attachment manner, there is a potential utilization of the guided bone regeneration (GBR) membrane to substitute nHA/PA66 membrane for e-PTFE membrane.

  16. In situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes: linking basic nanotechniques to cell biology, immunology and medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, Jiang; Jin, Hua; Yang, Fen; Chen, Zheng W.; Cai, Jiye

    2014-10-01

    The cell membrane, which consists of a viscous phospholipid bilayer, different kinds of proteins and various nano/micrometer-sized domains, plays a very important role in ensuring the stability of the intracellular environment and the order of cellular signal transductions. Exploring the precise cell membrane structure and detailed functions of the biomolecules in a cell membrane would be helpful to understand the underlying mechanisms involved in cell membrane signal transductions, which could further benefit research into cell biology, immunology and medicine. The detection of membrane biomolecules at the single molecule level can provide some subtle information about the molecular structure and the functions of the cell membrane. In particular, information obtained about the molecular mechanisms and other information at the single molecule level are significantly different from that detected from a large amount of biomolecules at the large-scale through traditional techniques, and can thus provide a novel perspective for the study of cell membrane structures and functions. However, the precise investigations of membrane biomolecules prompts researchers to explore cell membranes at the single molecule level by the use of in situ imaging methods, as the exact conformation and functions of biomolecules are highly controlled by the native cellular environment. Recently, the in situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes has attracted increasing attention from cell biologists and immunologists. The size of biomolecules and their clusters on the cell surface are set at the nanoscale, which makes it mandatory to use high- and super-resolution imaging techniques to realize the in situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes. In the past few decades, some amazing imaging techniques and instruments with super resolution have been widely developed for molecule imaging, which can also be further employed for the in situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes. In this review, we attempt to summarize the characteristics of these advanced techniques for use in the in situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes. We believe that this work will help to promote the technological and methodological developments of super-resolution techniques for the single molecule imaging of cell membranes and help researchers better understand which technique is most suitable for their future exploring of membrane biomolecules; ultimately promoting further developments in cell biology, immunology and medicine.

  17. Aqueous two-phase partition applied to the isolation of plasma membranes and Golgi apparatus from cultured mammalian cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorothy M. Morré; D. James Morre

    2000-01-01

    Partitioning in dextran–poly(ethylene)glycol (PEG) aqueous–aqueous phase systems represents a mature technology with many applications to separations of cells and to the preparation of membranes from mammalian cells. Most applications to membrane isolation and purification have focused on plasma membranes, plasma membrane domains and separation of right side-out and inside-out plasma membrane vesicles. The method exploits a combination of membrane properties,

  18. Water-Free Proton-Conducting Membranes for Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Yen, Shiao-Pin

    2007-01-01

    Poly-4-vinylpyridinebisulfate (P4VPBS) is a polymeric salt that has shown promise as a water-free proton-conducting material (solid electrolyte) suitable for use in membrane/electrode assemblies in fuel cells. Heretofore, proton-conducting membranes in fuel cells have been made from perfluorinated ionomers that cannot conduct protons in the absence of water and, consequently, cannot function at temperatures >100 C. In addition, the stability of perfluorinated ionomers at temperatures >100 C is questionable. However, the performances of fuel cells of the power systems of which they are parts could be improved if operating temperatures could be raised above 140 C. What is needed to make this possible is a solid-electrolyte material, such as P4VPBS, that can be cast into membranes and that both retains proton conductivity and remains stable in the desired higher operating temperature range. A family of solid-electrolyte materials different from P4VPBS was described in Anhydrous Proton-Conducting Membranes for Fuel Cells (NPO-30493), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 8 (August 2005), page 48. Those materials notably include polymeric quaternized amine salts. If molecules of such a polymeric salt could be endowed with flexible chain structures, it would be possible to overcome the deficiencies of simple organic amine salts that must melt before being able to conduct protons. However, no polymeric quaternized amine salts have yet shown to be useful in this respect. The present solid electrolyte is made by quaternizing the linear polymer poly- 4-vinylpyridine (P4VP) to obtain P4VPBS. It is important to start with P4VP having a molecular weight of 160,000 daltons because P4VPBS made from lower-molecular-weight P4VP yields brittle membranes. In an experimental synthesis, P4VP was dissolved in methanol and then reacted with an excess of sulfuric acid to precipitate P4VPBS. The precipitate was recovered, washed several times with methanol to remove traces of acid, and dried to a white granular solid. In another synthesis, nanoparticles of silica rich with surface hydroxyl groups were added to P4VP in methanol solution, which was then reacted with excess sulfuric acid to precipitate granules of a composite that most probably had the composition (P4VPBS)-SiO2-SiO(HSO4)2. The granular P4VPBS produced in the first-mentioned synthesis was dissolved in water to make a glue-like, turbid solution; the granular P4VPBS/silica composite produced in the second-mentioned synthesis was mixed with water to make a turbid, glue-like suspension. The proportions of polymer salt to water in such preparations can be varied; it was found that approximately equal parts of water and polymer salt yield a solution or suspension amenable to further processing.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL ELECTROCATALYSTS FOR PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2003-04-24

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert the available chemical free energy directly into electrical energy, without going through heat exchange process. Of all different types of fuel cells, the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is one of the most promising power sources for stand-alone utility and electric vehicle applications. Platinum (Pt) Catalyst is used for both fuel and air electrodes in PEMFCs. However, carbon monoxide (CO) contamination of H{sub 2} greatly affects electro catalysts used at the anode of PEMFCs and decreases cell performance. The irreversible poisoning of the anode can occur even in CO concentrations as low as few parts per million (ppm). In this work, we have synthesized several novel elctrocatalysts (Pt/C, Pt/Ru/C, Pt/Mo/C, Pt/Ir and Pt/Ru/Mo) for PEMFCs. These catalysts have been tested for CO tolerance in the H{sub 2}/air fuel cell, using CO concentrations in the H{sub 2} fuel that varies from 10 to 100 ppm. The performance of the electrodes was evaluated by determining the cell potential against current density. The effects of catalyst composition and electrode film preparation method on the performance of PEM fuel cell were also studied. It was found that at 70 C and 3.5 atm pressure at the cathode, Pt-alloy catalyst (10 wt% Pt/Ru/C, 20 wt% Pt/Mo/C) were more CO tolerant than the 20 wt% Pt/C catalyst alone. It was also observed that spraying method was better than the brushing technique for the preparation of electrode film.

  20. Association of Shiga toxin glycosphingolipid receptors with membrane microdomains of toxin-sensitive lymphoid and myeloid cells[S

    PubMed Central

    Kouzel, Ivan U.; Pohlentz, Gottfried; Storck, Wiebke; Radamm, Lena; Hoffmann, Petra; Bielaszewska, Martina; Bauwens, Andreas; Cichon, Christoph; Schmidt, M. Alexander; Mormann, Michael; Karch, Helge; Müthing, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) of the globo-series constitute specific receptors for Shiga toxins (Stxs) released by certain types of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains. Stx-loaded leukocytes may act as transporter cells in the blood and transfer the toxin to endothelial target cells. Therefore, we performed a thorough investigation on the expression of globo-series GSLs in serum-free cultivated Raji and Jurkat cells, representing B- and T-lymphocyte descendants, respectively, as well as THP-1 and HL-60 cells of the monocyte and granulocyte lineage, respectively. The presence of Stx-receptors in GSL preparations of Raji and THP-1 cells and the absence in Jurkat and HL-60 cells revealed high compliance of solid-phase immunodetection assays with the expression profiles of receptor-related glycosyltransferases, performed by qRT-PCR analysis, and Stx2-caused cellular damage. Canonical microdomain association of Stx GSL receptors, sphingomyelin, and cholesterol in membranes of Raji and THP-1 cells was assessed by comparative analysis of detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) and nonDRM fractions obtained by density gradient centrifugation and showed high correlation based on nonparametric statistical analysis. Our comprehensive study on the expression of Stx-receptors and their subcellular distribution provides the basis for exploring the functional role of lipid raft-associated Stx-receptors in cells of leukocyte origin. PMID:23248329

  1. Proteomic analysis of a lymphoma-derived cell line (DG75) following treatment with a demethylating drug: modification of membrane-associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Florence; Joubert-Caron, Raymonde; Labas, Valérie; Caron, Michel

    2003-06-01

    5'-azacytidine (AZC) is a potent DNA demethylating agent used clinically for treatment of patients with malignant hemopathies. We have previously shown that AZC induces a halt in cell growth and a decrease of cell activity, without affecting cell viability. We have also shown using proteomics, that 35 polypeptides were differentially expressed in a cytoplasmic fraction. The aim of this study was to provide a more complete picture of modifications in AZC-treated cells using cell membrane preparations. Therefore the protein pattern changes following AZC treatment of the cell line DG75 were studied on a detergent-solubilized fraction obtained from these membranes. Results showed that 49 proteins were differentially expressed in the membrane fraction. Seven polypeptides were down-regulated, while 42 were up-regulated. The identity of most of these differentially expressed proteins was determined by mass spectrometry (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry or matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight), and the identified proteins were grouped based on cellular function and participation in biochemical and signaling pathways. PMID:12833527

  2. Effect of stress on the membrane capacitance of the auditory outer hair cell.

    PubMed Central

    Iwasa, K H

    1993-01-01

    The membrane capacitance of the outer hair cell, which has unique membrane potential-dependent motility, was monitored during application of membrane tension. It was found that the membrane capacitance of the cell decreased when stress was applied to the membrane. This result is the opposite of stretching the lipid bilayer in the plasma membrane. It thus indicates the importance of some other capacitance component that decreases on stretching. It has been known that charge movement across the membrane can appear to be a nonlinear capacitance. If membrane stress at the resting potential restricts the movement of the charge associated with force generation, the nonlinear capacitance will decrease. Furthermore, less capacitance reduction by membrane stretching is expected when the membrane is already extended by the (hyperpolarizing) membrane potential. Indeed, it was found that at hyperpolarized potentials, the reduction of the membrane capacitance due to stretching is less. The capacitance change can be described by a two state model of a force-producing unit in which the free energy difference between the contracted and stretched states has both electrical and mechanical components. From the measured change in capacitance, the estimated difference in the membrane area of the unit between the two states is about 2 nm2. PMID:8369452

  3. Annexin-A5 assembled into two-dimensional arrays promotes cell membrane repair

    PubMed Central

    Bouter, Anthony; Gounou, Céline; Bérat, Rémi; Tan, Sisareuth; Gallois, Bernard; Granier, Thierry; d'Estaintot, Béatrice Langlois; Pöschl, Ernst; Brachvogel, Bent; Brisson, Alain R.

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells possess a universal repair machinery that ensures rapid resealing of plasma membrane disruptions. Before resealing, the torn membrane is submitted to considerable tension, which functions to expand the disruption. Here we show that annexin-A5 (AnxA5), a protein that self-assembles into two-dimensional (2D) arrays on membranes upon Ca2+ activation, promotes membrane repair. Compared with wild-type mouse perivascular cells, AnxA5-null cells exhibit a severe membrane repair defect. Membrane repair in AnxA5-null cells is rescued by addition of AnxA5, which binds exclusively to disrupted membrane areas. In contrast, an AnxA5 mutant that lacks the ability of forming 2D arrays is unable to promote membrane repair. We propose that AnxA5 participates in a previously unrecognized step of the membrane repair process: triggered by the local influx of Ca2+, AnxA5 proteins bind to torn membrane edges and form a 2D array, which prevents wound expansion and promotes membrane resealing. PMID:21468022

  4. WISP-1 contributes to fractionated irradiation-induced radioresistance in esophageal carcinoma cell lines and mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Feng; Zhang, Li; Li, Hai-Ying; Zheng, Si-Si; Zhao, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells that survive fractionated irradiation can be radioresistant and cause tumor recurrence. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of radioresistance in cancer cells remain elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of WISP-1 in the development of radioresistance in esophageal carcinoma during fractionated irradiation. Radioresistant esophageal cancer cells were generated from normal esophageal cancer cells via fractionated irradiation, and expression levels of related proteins were determined by Western blot. Radiosensitivity of cells was established by clonogenic cell survival assays, and cell cycle distribution was evaluated by flow cytometry. Protein distributions were determined by immunofluorescence, and cell toxicity was evaluated by cell counting kit-8 assays. In vivo validations were performed in a xenograft transplantation mouse model. Our data indicate that WISP-1 plays an important role in the development of radioresistance in esophageal cancer cells during fractionated irradiation. The overexression of WISP-1 in esophageal cancer cells was associated with radioresistance. Depletion of extracellular WISP-1 by antibody neutralizing reversed radioresistance and directly induced mitotic catastrophe resulting in cell death. WISP-1 may be a candidate therapeutic target in the treatment of recurrent esophageal carcinoma after radiotherapy. PMID:24728101

  5. WISP-1 Contributes to Fractionated Irradiation-Induced Radioresistance in Esophageal Carcinoma Cell Lines and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Si-Si; Zhao, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells that survive fractionated irradiation can be radioresistant and cause tumor recurrence. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of radioresistance in cancer cells remain elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of WISP-1 in the development of radioresistance in esophageal carcinoma during fractionated irradiation. Radioresistant esophageal cancer cells were generated from normal esophageal cancer cells via fractionated irradiation, and expression levels of related proteins were determined by Western blot. Radiosensitivity of cells was established by clonogenic cell survival assays, and cell cycle distribution was evaluated by flow cytometry. Protein distributions were determined by immunofluorescence, and cell toxicity was evaluated by cell counting kit-8 assays. In vivo validations were performed in a xenograft transplantation mouse model. Our data indicate that WISP-1 plays an important role in the development of radioresistance in esophageal cancer cells during fractionated irradiation. The overexression of WISP-1 in esophageal cancer cells was associated with radioresistance. Depletion of extracellular WISP-1 by antibody neutralizing reversed radioresistance and directly induced mitotic catastrophe resulting in cell death. WISP-1 may be a candidate therapeutic target in the treatment of recurrent esophageal carcinoma after radiotherapy. PMID:24728101

  6. Regulation of cell cytoskeleton and membrane mechanics by electric field: role of linker proteins.

    PubMed

    Titushkin, Igor; Cho, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Cellular mechanics is known to play an important role in the cell homeostasis including proliferation, motility, and differentiation. Significant variation in the mechanical properties between different cell types suggests that control of the cell metabolism is feasible through manipulation of the cell mechanical parameters using external physical stimuli. We investigated the electrocoupling mechanisms of cellular biomechanics modulation by an electrical stimulation in two mechanically distinct cell types--human mesenchymal stem cells and osteoblasts. Application of a 2 V/cm direct current electric field resulted in approximately a twofold decrease in the cell elasticity and depleted intracellular ATP. Reduction in the ATP level led to inhibition of the linker proteins that are known to physically couple the cell membrane and cytoskeleton. The membrane separation from the cytoskeleton was confirmed by up to a twofold increase in the membrane tether length that was extracted from the cell membrane after an electrical stimulation. In comparison to human mesenchymal stem cells, the membrane-cytoskeleton attachment in osteoblasts was much stronger but, in response to the same electrical stimulation, the membrane detachment from the cytoskeleton was found to be more pronounced. The observed effects mediated by an electric field are cell type- and serum-dependent and can potentially be used for electrically assisted cell manipulation. An in-depth understanding and control of the mechanisms to regulate cell mechanics by external physical stimulus (e.g., electric field) may have great implications for stem cell-based tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:19167316

  7. Regulation of Cell Cytoskeleton and Membrane Mechanics by Electric Field: Role of Linker Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Titushkin, Igor; Cho, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Cellular mechanics is known to play an important role in the cell homeostasis including proliferation, motility, and differentiation. Significant variation in the mechanical properties between different cell types suggests that control of the cell metabolism is feasible through manipulation of the cell mechanical parameters using external physical stimuli. We investigated the electrocoupling mechanisms of cellular biomechanics modulation by an electrical stimulation in two mechanically distinct cell types—human mesenchymal stem cells and osteoblasts. Application of a 2 V/cm direct current electric field resulted in approximately a twofold decrease in the cell elasticity and depleted intracellular ATP. Reduction in the ATP level led to inhibition of the linker proteins that are known to physically couple the cell membrane and cytoskeleton. The membrane separation from the cytoskeleton was confirmed by up to a twofold increase in the membrane tether length that was extracted from the cell membrane after an electrical stimulation. In comparison to human mesenchymal stem cells, the membrane-cytoskeleton attachment in osteoblasts was much stronger but, in response to the same electrical stimulation, the membrane detachment from the cytoskeleton was found to be more pronounced. The observed effects mediated by an electric field are cell type- and serum-dependent and can potentially be used for electrically assisted cell manipulation. An in-depth understanding and control of the mechanisms to regulate cell mechanics by external physical stimulus (e.g., electric field) may have great implications for stem cell-based tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:19167316

  8. Cell membrane is a major locus for ultraviolet B-induced alterations in accessory cells.

    PubMed Central

    Krutmann, J; Khan, I U; Wallis, R S; Zhang, F; Rich, E A; Ellner, J J; Elmets, C A

    1990-01-01

    In vitro ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation of human blood monocytes inhibits their accessory cell function for antigen- and mitogen-induced T cell responses. These studies were designed to characterize the nature of the UVB-induced defect in human monocyte accessory cell function. Irradiated monocytes were deficient in their ability to serve as accessory cells for OKT3-induced T cell activation. In vitro exposure of monocytes to 100 J/m2 UVB completely inhibited the T cell proliferative response (51502 cpm, non-UVB-irradiated; 302 cpm, UVB-irradiated). Analysis of the accessory signals altered by UVB indicated that irradiated monocytes were incapable of binding to OKT3 molecules attached to the CD3 antigen on T cells. Provision of an alternative mechanism for binding of OKT3 molecules by attaching anti-mouse IgG to the bottom of microtiter wells completely restored accessory cell function. Further characterization of the defect demonstrated that UVB radiation did not deplete p72 Fc receptors from the surface of irradiated monocytes. However, UVB exposure did produce a dose-dependent decrease in monocyte membrane expression of ICAM-1. It is proposed that UVB radiation leads to changes within the cell membrane that inhibit the ability of monocytes to express selected molecules necessary for binding of T cells. Images PMID:1970582

  9. Immunological Analysis of Mycoplasma Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Itzhak; Razin, Shmuel

    1969-01-01

    The antigens responsible for the production of antibodies to Mycoplasma laidlawii and M. gallisepticum causing growth and metabolic inhibition of these organisms were localized in the cell membrane. Various membrane fractions were tested for serological activity. Membrane lipids were completely or almost completely inactive, whereas several preparations of defatted membrane proteins retained some serological activity, shown by their ability to stimulate metabolic inhibition antibody in rabbits and to adsorb metabolic inhibition antibody and form precipitation lines with an antiserum to the membrane. When the membranes were heated to 65 C for 1 hr, they virtually lost their ability to adsorb metabolic inhibition antibody, which suggests that the antigenic determinants are proteins. Serological activity was retained in reaggregated membranes obtained by dialysis against Mg2+ of membranes solubilized in sodium dodecyl sulfate. The amount of solubilized membrane protein and lipid incorporated into the reaggregated membranes could be regulated by varying the Mg2+ concentration. As the serological tests indicated that the various membrane antigens were selectively incorporated into the different reaggregated membranes, the use of controlled reaggregation of solubilized membranes is suggested as a new tool for the fractionation and antigenic analysis of membrane proteins. Images PMID:4981055

  10. One of the origins of plasma membrane phosphatidylserine in plant cells is a local synthesis by a serine exchange activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Vincent; Lilly Maneta-Peyret; Bénédicte Sturbois-Balcerzak; Michel Duvert; Claude Cassagne; Patrick Moreau

    1999-01-01

    In plant cells, as in animal cells, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is considered to be the major site of phospholipid synthesis, and it has been shown that phosphatidylserine (PS) reaches the plasma membrane via the vesicular ER-Golgi-plasma membrane pathway in leek cells. However, it has never been determined whether the plasma membrane of leek cells is able to synthesize PS.

  11. Pfaffosidic Fraction from Hebanthe paniculata Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Caspase-3-Induced Apoptosis in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Tereza Cristina; Cogliati, Bruno; Latorre, Andréia Oliveira; Akisue, Gokithi; Nagamine, Márcia Kazumi; Haraguchi, Mitsue; Hansen, Daiane; Sanches, Daniel Soares; Dagli, Maria Lúcia Zaidan

    2015-01-01

    Hebanthe paniculata roots (formerly Pfaffia paniculata and popularly known as Brazilian ginseng) show antineoplastic, chemopreventive, and antiproliferative properties. Functional properties of these roots and their extracts are usually attributed to the pfaffosidic fraction, which is composed mainly by pfaffosides A–F. However, the therapeutic potential of this fraction in cancer cells is not yet entirely understood. This study aimed to analyze the antitumoral effects of the purified pfaffosidic fraction or saponinic fraction on the human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line. Cellular viability, proliferation, and apoptosis were evaluated, respectively, by MTT assay, BrdU incorporation, activated caspase-3 immunocytochemistry, and DNA fragmentation assay. Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry and the cell cycle-related proteins were analyzed by quantitative PCR and Western blot. The cells exposed to pfaffosidic fraction had reduced viability and cellular growth, induced G2/M at 48?h or S at 72?h arrest, and increased sub-G1 cell population via cyclin E downregulation, p27KIP1 overexpression, and caspase-3-induced apoptosis, without affecting the DNA integrity. Antitumoral effects of pfaffosidic fraction from H. paniculata in HepG2 cells originated by multimechanisms of action might be associated with cell cycle arrest in the S phase, by CDK2 and cyclin E downregulation and p27KIP1 overexpression, besides induction of apoptosis through caspase-3 activation.

  12. Protein and Lipid-Reactive Agents Alter Outer Hair Cell Lateral Membrane Motor Charge Movement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Santos-Sacchi; M. Wu

    2004-01-01

    Outer hair cells from the mamma*lian cochlea are mechanically active cells that rely on charged voltage sensors within their lateral plasma membrane to gate the integral membrane motor protein, prestin, into one of two area states. Here we use protein and lipid reactive reagents to probe the influence of these bilayer components on motor-induced nonlinear membrane capacitance. Of the protein-reactive

  13. Poliovirus 2C Protein Determinants of Membrane Binding and Rearrangements in Mammalian Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NATALYA L. TETERINA; ALEXANDER E. GORBALENYA; DENISE EGGER; KURT BIENZ

    1997-01-01

    Poliovirus protein 2C is a 329-amino acid-protein that is essential for viral RNA synthesis and may perform multiple functions. In infected cells, it is associated with virus-specific membrane vesicles. Recombinant 2C protein expressed in transfected cells has been shown to associate with and induce rearrangement of the intracellular membrane network. This study was designed to map the determinants of membrane

  14. Investigation of grafted ETFE-based polymer membranes as alternative electrolyte for direct methanol fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Aricò; V. Baglio; A. Di Blasi; V. Antonucci; J. Brunea; A. Chapotot; A. Bozzi; J. Schoemans

    2003-01-01

    Low cost ethylene–tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE)-based grafted membranes have been prepared by a process based on electron beam irradiation, subsequent grafting, cross-linking and sulfonation procedure. Two different grafted membranes varying by their grafting and cross-linking levels have been investigated for applications in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) operating between 90 and 130°C. DMFC assemblies based on these membranes showed cell resistance and

  15. FM1-43 Reveals Membrane Recycling in Adult Inner Hair Cells of the Mammalian Cochlea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudius B. Griesinger; Chistopher D. Richards; Jonathan F. Ashmore

    2002-01-01

    Neural transmission of complex sounds demands fast and sustained rates of synaptic release from the primary cochlear receptors, the inner hair cells (IHCs). The cells therefore require efficient membrane recycling. Using two-photon imaging of the membrane marker FM1-43 in the intact sensory epithelium within the cochlear bone of the adult guinea pig, we show that IHCs possess fast calcium-dependent membrane

  16. Membrane Electrode Assemblies Based on HYFLON Ion for an Evolving Fuel Cell Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Merlo; A. Ghielmi; L. Cirillo; M. Gebert; V. Arcella

    2007-01-01

    The work presents an overview of the main properties of Hyflon Ion perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) membranes for fuel cells in comparison with Nafion PSFA membrane. The fuel cell performance of Hyflon Ion?based membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) is reported at medium (75°C) and high (120°C) temperature, demonstrating extremely good power output. Remarkable durability (5000 h) of the Hyflon Ion product is also

  17. Tuning nano electric field to affect restrictive membrane area on localized single cell nano-electroporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santra, Tuhin Subhra; Wang, Pen-Cheng; Chang, Hwan-You; Tseng, Fan-Gang

    2013-12-01

    Interaction of electric field with biological cells is an important phenomenon for field induced drug delivery system. We demonstrate a selective and localized single cell nano-electroporation (LSCNEP) by applying an intense electric field on a submicron region of the single cell membrane, which can effectively allow high efficient molecular delivery but low cell damage. The delivery rate is controlled by adjusting transmembrane potential and manipulating membrane status. Thermal and ionic influences are deteriorated from the cell membrane by dielectric passivation. Either reversible or irreversible by LSCNEP can fully controlled with potential applications in medical diagnostics and biological studies.

  18. Novel Polyoxometalate Containing Membranes for PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mason K. Harrup; Frederick F. Stewart; Thomas A Luther; Tammy Trowbridge

    2009-03-01

    Current proton exchange membrane (PEM) technologies are inadequate to address the projected needs for fuel cell performance above 80 ºC. Continuing research into traditional ion carriers in novel membrane materials offers the promise of marginal improvement, representing only an evolutionary increase in performance. This conclusion is supported by the role of water in conduction. Thus, the key to better PEMs is not to eliminate water, but to change the role of water by developing ion carriers that will bind water more tightly than traditional sulfur or phosphorus based carriers resulting in materials that will conduct at higher temperatures. This change entails having a carrier structure that interacts more intimately with water and by increasing the ion carrier anionic charge to result in more tightly held inner shell protonated waters of hydration. Both of these factors synergistically act to maintain a critical water concentration at the carrier necessary for conduction. In this work, polyoxometalate (POM) clusters were selected to serve as these different proton carriers.

  19. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    UM,SUKKEE; WANG,C.Y.; CHEN,KEN S.

    2000-02-11

    A transient, multi-dimensional model has been developed to simulate proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The model accounts simultaneously for electrochemical kinetics, current distribution, hydrodynamics and multi-component transport. A single set of conservation equations valid for flow channels, gas-diffusion electrodes, catalyst layers and the membrane region are developed and numerically solved using a finite-volume-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. The numerical model is validated against published experimental data with good agreement. Subsequently, the model is applied to explore hydrogen dilution effects in the anode feed. The predicted polarization cubes under hydrogen dilution conditions are found to be in qualitative agreement with recent experiments reported in the literature. The detailed two-dimensional electrochemical and flow/transport simulations further reveal that in the presence of hydrogen dilution in the fuel stream, hydrogen is depleted at the reaction surface resulting in substantial kinetic polarization and hence a lower current density that is limited by hydrogen transport from the fuel stream to the reaction site.

  20. Red fluorescent luminogen from pyrrole derivatives with aggregation-enhanced emission for cell membrane imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guogang; Chen, Didi; Kong, Lingwei; Shi, Jianbing; Tong, Bin; Zhi, Junge; Feng, Xiao; Dong, Yuping

    2015-05-01

    A dye emitted red fluorescence with aggregation-enhanced emission properties was reported here. It can be utilized to specifically recognize the cell membrane of MCF-7 and 293T cell lines during bio-imaging. PMID:25896404

  1. Cordyceps sinensis and Its Fractions Stimulate MA10 Mouse Leydig Tumor Cell Steroidogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BU-MIIN HUANG; SY-YEUAN JU; CHING-SHYI WU; WOEI-JER CHUANG; CHIA-CHIN SHEU; SEW-FEN LEU

    2001-01-01

    The effects of Cordyceps sinensis (CS) and its ex- tracted fractions on steroidogenesis in MA-10 cells were determined. Different concentrations of CS and 3 fractions of CS (F1, a water- soluble polysaccharide; F2, a water-soluble protein; and F3, a poorly water-soluble polysaccharide and protein) were added to MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells with or without human chorionic gonado- tropin (hCG),

  2. Control of the transient behaviour of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell systems

    E-print Network

    Grujicic, Mica

    1239 Control of the transient behaviour of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell systems M, Michigan, USA Abstract: The transient behaviour of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system-oriented computer model. Such changes in the stack current are associated with the abrupt changes in power demanded

  3. Effects of membrane cation transport on pH and microbial fuel cell performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    René A. Rozendal; Hubertus V. M. Hamelers; Cees J. N. Buisman

    2006-01-01

    Due to the excellent proton conductivity of Nation membranes in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), Nation has been applied also in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In literature, however, application of Nafion in MFCs has been associated with operational problems. Nafion transports cation species other than protons as well, and in MFCs concentrations of other cation species (Na+, K+, NH4+,

  4. The anomalous rectification and cation selectivity of the membrane of a starfish egg cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susumu Hagiwara; Kunitaro Takahashi

    1974-01-01

    Summary The cation selectivity and its relation to the inward-going rectification of the immature egg cell membrane of a starfish,Nordora punctiformis, were studied and the following results were obtained. (1) When the external saline contains usual ion species the cell membrane at rest is predominantly permeable to K ions. The K chord conductancegk depends on the electrochemical potential of K

  5. Rapid cell corpse clearance by stabilin-2, a membrane phosphatidylserine receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S-Y Park; M-Y Jung; H-J Kim; S-J Lee; S-Y Kim; B-H Lee; T-H Kwon; R-W Park; I-S Kim

    2008-01-01

    Rapid phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells is crucial for the prevention of both inflammation and autoimmune responses. Phosphatidylserine (PS) at the external surface of the plasma membrane has been proposed to function as a general ‘eat me’ signal for apoptotic cells. Although several soluble bridging molecules have been suggested for the recognition of PS, the PS-specific membrane receptor that binds

  6. Increased plasma membrane traffic in daunorubicin resistant P388 leukaemic cells. Effect of daunorubicin and verapamil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Sehested; T Skovsgaard; B van Deurs; H Winther-Nielsen

    1987-01-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that the plasma membrane plays an important role in the development of resistance to anthracycline and vinca alkaloid drugs (pleiotropic resistance). We have previously shown that pleiotropically resistant Ehrlich ascites tumour cells, which are of epithelial origin, have a significantly increased plasma membrane traffic (endo\\/exocytosis) to the endosomal compartment compared to sensitive cells. The present study,

  7. Effects of pulsed electric fields on cell membranes in real food systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Angersbach; Volker Heinz; Dietrich Knorr

    2000-01-01

    High frequency current and voltage measurements were used to determine passive electrical properties, such as the polarization effect at intact membrane interfaces and field-induced electropermeability changes in the cellular materials during direct current pulses. The time sequence of the electropermeabilization at the level of the cell membrane showed a similarity to the breakdown phenomena observed in cell systems (potato, apple

  8. Comparative Roles of the Cell Wall and Cell Membrane in Limiting Uptake of Xenobiotic Molecules by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Aouida, Mustapha; Tounekti, Omar; Belhadj, Omrane; Mir, Lluis M.

    2003-01-01

    Using reversible electropermeabilization of cells and spheroplasts, we show that the cell wall and plasma membrane partly account for bleomycin resistance by acting as two independent barriers. We also report on the presence of a membrane protein that may be responsible for bleomycin internalization and toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:12760888

  9. "NEW MEMBRANE" FORMATION IN AMOEBA PROTEUS UPON INJURY OF INDIVIDUAL CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Szubinska, Barbara

    1971-01-01

    Changes in the plasma membrane complex following the injury of single cells of Amoeba proteus were examined with the electron microscope. Two types of injury were employed in this study; cells were either pinched ("cut") in half or speared with a glass microneedle, and quickly fixed. Speared cells, when fixed in the presence of the ruthenium violet (a derivative of ruthenium red), revealed the presence of an extra trilaminar structure outside of each cell. This structure, called the "new membrane," was separated from the plasma membrane complex by a distance of less than a micron. The trilaminar structure of the new membrane strikingly resembled the image of the plasma membrane in all cells examined, except for its increased width (30%). This new membrane appeared nearly to surround the injured amebae. Attempts were made to demonstrate the possible origin of the new membrane, its reality, and its sensitivity to calcium. Also, some evidence is shown concerning the role of the small dense droplets (100–1200 A in diameter) normally present in the cytoplasm of amebae. Their frequent contact with the plasma membrane of the cell as the result of injury is interpreted as indicating their involvement in the formation and expansion of the plasma membrane. PMID:4103955

  10. Plasma membrane microorganization of LR73 multidrug-resistant cells revealed by FCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winckler, Pascale; Jaffiol, Rodolphe; Cailler, Aurélie; Morjani, Hamid; Jeannesson, Pierre; Deturche, Régis

    2011-03-01

    Tumoral cells could present a multidrug resistance (MDR) to chemotherapeutic treatments. This drug resistance would be associated to biomechanisms occurring at the plasma membrane level, involving modification of membrane fluidity, drug permeability, presence of microdomains (rafts, caveolae...), and membrane proteins overexpression such as Pglycoprotein. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is the relevant method to investigate locally the fluidity of biological membranes through the lateral diffusion of a fluorescent membrane probe. Thus, we use FCS to monitor the plasma membrane local organization of LR73 carcinoma cells and three derived multidrug-resistant cancer cells lines. Measurements were conducted at the single cell level, which enabled us to get a detailed overview of the plasma membrane microviscosity distribution of each cell line studied. Moreover, we propose 2D diffusion simulation based on a Monte Carlo model to investigate the membrane organisation in terms of microdomains. This simulation allows us to relate the differences in the fluidity distributions with microorganization changes in plasma membrane of MDR cells.

  11. SecA is required for membrane targeting of the cell division protein DivIVA in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Halbedel, Sven; Kawai, Maki; Breitling, Reinhard; Hamoen, Leendert W.

    2014-01-01

    The conserved protein DivIVA is involved in different morphogenetic processes in Gram-positive bacteria. In Bacillus subtilis, the protein localizes to the cell division site and cell poles, and functions as a scaffold for proteins that regulate division site selection, and for proteins that are required for sporulation. To identify other proteins that bind to DivIVA, we performed an in vivo cross-linking experiment. A possible candidate that emerged was the secretion motor ATPase SecA. SecA mutants have been described that inhibit sporulation, and since DivIVA is necessary for sporulation, we examined the localization of DivIVA in these mutants. Surprisingly, DivIVA was delocalized, suggesting that SecA is required for DivIVA targeting. To further corroborate this, we performed SecA depletion and inhibition experiments, which provided further indications that DivIVA localization depends on SecA. Cell fractionation experiments showed that SecA is important for binding of DivIVA to the cell membrane. This was unexpected since DivIVA does not contain a signal sequence, and is able to bind to artificial lipid membranes in vitro without support of other proteins. SecA is required for protein secretion and membrane insertion, and therefore its role in DivIVA localization is likely indirect. Possible alternative roles of SecA in DivIVA folding and/or targeting are discussed. PMID:24592260

  12. BIOCHEMICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL COMPARISON OF PLASMA MEMBRANE AND MILK FAT GLOBULE MEMBRANE FROM BOVINE MAMMARY GLAND

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, T. W.; Morré, D. James; Olson, Diane E.; Yunghans, W. N.; Patton, Stuart

    1970-01-01

    Purified plasma membrane fractions from lactating bovine mammary glands and membranes of milk fat globules from the same source were similar in distribution and fatty acid composition of phospholipids. The sphingomyelin content of the phospholipid fraction of both membranes was higher than in these fractions from other cell components, ?-carotene, a constituent characteristic of milk fat, was present in the lipid fraction of the plasma membrane. Cholesterol esters of plasma membrane were similar in fatty acid composition to those of milk fat globule membranes. Disc electrophoresis of either membrane preparation on polyacrylamide gels revealed a single major protein component characteristic of plasma membrane from other sources. Distinct morphological differences between plasma membrane and milk fat globule membranes were observed in both thin sections and in negatively stained material. Plasma membrane was vesicular in appearance while milk fat globule membranes had a platelike aspect. These observations are consistent with derivation of fat globule membrane from plasma membrane accompanied by structural rearrangement of membrane constituents. PMID:5409465

  13. Relationship between fractional pancreatic beta cell area and fasting plasma glucose concentration in monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Saisho, Y.; Butler, A. E.; Manesso, E.; Galasso, R.; Zhang, L.; Gurlo, T.; Toffolo, G. M.; Cobelli, C.; Kavanagh, K.; Wagner, J. D.

    2009-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis We sought to establish the relationship between fasting plasma glucose concentrations and pancreatic fractional beta cell area in adult cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Methods Fasting plasma glucose and pancreatic fractional beta cell area were measured in 18 control and 17 streptozotocin-treated adult primates (17.0?±?1.2 vs 15.4?±?1.2 years old). Results Fasting plasma glucose was increased (12.0?±?2.0 vs 3.4?±?0.1 mmol/l, p?fractional beta cell area was decreased (0.62?±?0.13% vs 2.49?±?0.35%, p?fractional beta cell area was described by a wide range of beta cell areas in controls. In streptozotocin-treated monkeys there was an inflection of fasting blood glucose at ?50% of the mean beta cell area in controls with a steep increase in blood glucose for each further decrement in beta cell area. Conclusions/interpretation In adult non-human primates a decrement in fractional beta cell area of ?50% or more leads to loss of glycaemic control. PMID:19847395

  14. C8-glycosphingolipids preferentially insert into tumor cell membranes and promote chemotherapeutic drug uptake.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro Pedrosa, Lília R; van Cappellen, Wiggert A; Steurer, Barbara; Ciceri, Dalila; Ten Hagen, Timo L M; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Verheij, Marcel; Goñi, Felix María; Koning, Gerben A; Contreras, F-Xabier

    2015-08-01

    Insufficient drug delivery into tumor cells limits the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapy. Co-delivery of liposome-encapsulated drug and synthetic short-chain glycosphingolipids (SC-GSLs) significantly improved drug bioavailability by enhancing intracellular drug uptake. Investigating the mechanisms underlying this SC-GSL-mediated drug uptake enhancement is the aim of this study. Fluorescence microscopy was used to visualize the cell membrane lipid transfer intracellular fate of fluorescently labeled C6-NBD-GalCer incorporated in liposomes in tumor and non-tumor cells. Additionally click chemistry was applied to image and quantify native SC-GSLs in tumor and non-tumor cell membranes. SC-GSL-mediated flip-flop was investigated in model membranes to confirm membrane-incorporation of SC-GSL and its effect on membrane remodeling. SC-GSL enriched liposomes containing doxorubicin (Dox) were incubated at 4°C and 37°C and intracellular drug uptake was studied in comparison to standard liposomes and free Dox. SC-GSL transfer to the cell membrane was independent of liposomal uptake and the majority of the transferred lipid remained in the plasma membrane. The transfer of SC-GSL was tumor cell-specific and induced membrane rearrangement as evidenced by a transbilayer flip-flop of pyrene-SM. However, pore formation was measured, as leakage of hydrophilic fluorescent probes was not observed. Moreover, drug uptake appeared to be mediated by SC-GSLs. SC-GSLs enhanced the interaction of doxorubicin (Dox) with the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane of tumor cells at 4°C. Our results demonstrate that SC-GSLs preferentially insert into tumor cell plasma membranes enhancing cell intrinsic capacity to translocate amphiphilic drugs such as Dox across the membrane via a biophysical process. PMID:25917957

  15. Dynamic maintenance of stochastic molecular clusters on cell membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugler, Andrew; Wehrens, Martijn; Ten Wolde, Pieter Rein

    2015-03-01

    Clustering of molecules on cell membranes is a widely observed phenomenon. A key example is the oncoprotein Ras. Maintenance of Ras clusters has been linked to proper Ras signaling. Yet, the mechanism by which Ras clusters are maintained remains unclear. Recently it was discovered that activated Ras promotes further Ras activation. We show using particle-based simulation that this positive feedback link is sufficient to produce persistent clusters of active Ras molecules via a dynamic nucleation mechanism. The cluster statistics are consistent with experimental observations. Interestingly, our model does not support a Turing regime of macroscopic reaction-diffusion patterning. This means that the clustering we observe is a purely stochastic effect, arising from the coupling of the positive feedback network with the discrete nature of individual molecules. These findings underscore the importance of stochastic and dynamic properties of reaction diffusion systems for biological behavior.

  16. Simplified proton exchange membrane fuel cells for space and terrestrial applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hari P. Dhar; Krzysztof A. Lewinski; Vijay K. Tripathi

    1998-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells have been operated simplified without any humidification of the reactant gases, H2, O2, and air. Both thin and thick membranes have been used in testing single cells and one 6-cell stack. Fuel cells used electrodes of areas 25-100 cm2. Electrodes were prepared in-house following a patented procedure. The platinum catalyst loading varied in the

  17. Simplified proton exchange membrane fuel cells for space and terrestrial applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hari P. Dhar; Krzysztof A. Lewinski; Vijay K. Tripathi

    1998-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells have been operated simplified without any humidification of the reactant gases, H2,O2, and air. Both thin and thick membranes have been used in testing single cells and one 6-cell stack. Fuel cells used electrodes of areas 25–100 cm2. Electrodes were prepared in-house following a patented procedure. The platinum catalyst loading varied in the range

  18. Analysis of PCP-data to determine the fraction of cells in the various phases of cell cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heinz Baisch; Wolfgang Göhde; Walfried A. Linden

    1975-01-01

    Summary  Mathematical models for the analysis of pulse-cytophotometric (PCP) data are described. With computer programs based on these\\u000a models the fractions of cells in G1-, S- and(G2 + M)-phases are obtained. The methods are applied to PCP measurements of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, human bone marrow cells\\u000a and L-929-cells in culture. The results of the L-cell experiment are compared with autoradiographic

  19. Daptomycin-mediated reorganization of membrane architecture causes mislocalization of essential cell division proteins.

    PubMed

    Pogliano, Joe; Pogliano, Nicolas; Silverman, Jared A

    2012-09-01

    Daptomycin is a lipopeptide antibiotic used clinically for the treatment of certain types of Gram-positive infections, including those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Details of the mechanism of action of daptomycin continue to be elucidated, particularly the question of whether daptomycin acts on the cell membrane, the cell wall, or both. Here, we use fluorescence microscopy to directly visualize the interaction of daptomycin with the model Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. We show that the first observable cellular effects are the formation of membrane distortions (patches of membrane) that precede cell death by more than 30 min. Membrane patches are able to recruit the essential cell division protein DivIVA. Recruitment of DivIVA correlates with membrane defects and changes in cell morphology, suggesting a localized alteration in the activity of enzymes involved in cell wall synthesis that could account for previously described effects of daptomycin on cell wall morphology and septation. Membrane defects colocalize with fluorescently labeled daptomycin, DivIVA, and fluorescent reporters of peptidoglycan biogenesis (Bocillin FL and BODIPY FL-vancomycin), suggesting that daptomycin plays a direct role in these events. Our results support a mechanism for daptomycin with a primary effect on cell membranes that in turn redirects the localization of proteins involved in cell division and cell wall synthesis, causing dramatic cell wall and membrane defects, which may ultimately lead to a breach in the cell membrane and cell death. These results help resolve the longstanding questions regarding the mechanism of action of this important class of antibiotics. PMID:22661688

  20. Uroplakins, specific membrane proteins of urothelial umbrella cells, as histological markers of metastatic transitional cell carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Moll, R.; Wu, X. R.; Lin, J. H.; Sun, T. T.

    1995-01-01

    Uroplakins (UPs) Ia, Ib, II, and III, transmembrane proteins constituting the asymmetrical unit membrane of urothelial umbrella cells, are the first specific urothelial differentiation markers described. We investigated the presence and localization patterns of UPs in various human carcinomas by applying immunohistochemistry (avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method), using rabbit antibodies against UPs II and III, to paraffin sections. Positive reactions for UP III (sometimes very focal) were noted in 14 of the 16 papillary noninvasive transitional cell carcinomas (TCCs) (88%), 29 of the 55 invasive TCCs (53%), and 23 of the 35 TCC metastases (66%). Different localization patterns of UPs could be distinguished, including superficial membrane staining like that found in normal umbrella cells (in papillary carcinoma), luminal (microluminal) membrane staining (in papillary and invasive carcinoma), and, against expectations, peripheral membrane staining (in invasive carcinoma). Non-TCC carcinomas of various origins (n = 177) were consistently negative for UPs. The presence of UPs in metastatic TCCs represents a prime example of even advanced tumor progression being compatible with the (focal) expression of highly specialized differentiation repertoires. Although of only medium-grade sensitivity, UPs do seem to be highly specific urothelial lineage markers, thus operating up interesting histodiagnostic possibilities in cases of carcinoma metastases of uncertain origin. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7485401

  1. Physical effects underlying the transition from primitive to modern cell membranes

    PubMed Central

    Budin, Itay; Szostak, Jack W.

    2011-01-01

    To understand the emergence of Darwinian evolution, it is necessary to identify physical mechanisms that enabled primitive cells to compete with one another. Whereas all modern cell membranes are composed primarily of diacyl or dialkyl glycerol phospholipids, the first cell membranes are thought to have self-assembled from simple, single-chain lipids synthesized in the environment. We asked what selective advantage could have driven the transition from primitive to modern membranes, especially during early stages characterized by low levels of membrane phospholipid. Here we demonstrate that surprisingly low levels of phospholipids can drive protocell membrane growth during competition for single-chain lipids. Growth results from the decreasing fatty acid efflux from membranes with increasing phospholipid content. The ability to synthesize phospholipids from single-chain substrates would have therefore been highly advantageous for early cells competing for a limited supply of lipids. We show that the resulting increase in membrane phospholipid content would have led to a cascade of new selective pressures for the evolution of metabolic and transport machinery to overcome the reduced membrane permeability of diacyl lipid membranes. The evolution of phospholipid membranes could thus have been a deterministic outcome of intrinsic physical processes and a key driving force for early cellular evolution. PMID:21402937

  2. Novel pore-filled polyelectrolyte composite membranes for cathodic microbial fuel cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohil, J. M.; Karamanev, D. G.

    2013-12-01

    Novel pore-filled polyelectrolyte membrane (PEM) was produced using track etched polycarbonate (PC) as porous substrate and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as pore filling material. PVA in PC pores was stabilized through cross-linking of PVA matrix with glutaraldehyde (GA). Cross-link time was varied from 24 h to 96 h while keeping the membranes in GA solution. Pore sizes of substrate PC membrane tested were 0.01, 0.1 and 0.2 ?m. The membranes were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Ionic conductivity, water uptake, contact angle and gel content have been measured to determine membranes performance. The ionic crossover (iron ions and protons) through membranes was studied in a complete fuel cell. The single-cell performance of membrane was tested in a cathodic microbial fuel cell (MFC, Biogenerator). The physiochemical properties and membranes fuel cell performance were highly depended on the cross-link density of PVA matrices. Membranes cross-liked with GA for 72 h showed maximum gel content and their peak power density has reached 110 mW cm-2 at current density of 378 mA cm-2. Among all, membrane cross-linked for 72 h was studied for continuous long-term stability, which showed consistency for application in MFC.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL ELECTROCATALYSTS FOR PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2001-07-06

    Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is one of the most promising power sources for space and electric vehicle applications. Platinum (Pt) catalyst is used for both fuel and air electrodes in PEMFCs. The carbon monoxide (CO) contamination of H{sub 2} greatly affects electrocatalysts used at the anode of PEMFCs and decrease the cell performance. This irreversible poisoning of the anode can happen even in CO concentrations as low as few ppm, and therefore, require expensive scrubbing of the H{sub 2}-fuel to reduce the contaminant concentration to acceptable level. In order to commercialize this environmentally sound source of energy/power system, development of suitable CO-tolerant catalyst is needed. In this work, we have synthesized several novel electrocatalysts (Pt/C, Pt/Ru/C Pt/Mo/C, Pt/Ir and Pt/Ru/Mo) for PEMFCs. These catalysts have been tested for CO tolerance in the H{sub 2}/air fuel cell. The concentration of CO in the H{sub 2} fuel varied from 10 ppm to 100 ppm. The performance of the electrodes was evaluated by determining the cell potential against current density. The effect of temperature, catalyst compositions, and electrode film preparation methods on the performance of PEM fuel cell has also been studied. It was found that at 70 C and 3.5 atm pressure at the cathode, Pt-alloy catalysts (10 wt % Pt/Ru/C, 20 wt % Pt/Mo/C) were more CO-tolerant than 20 wt % Pt catalyst alone. It was also observed that spraying method is better for the preparation of electrode film than the brushing technique. Some of these results are summarized in this report.

  4. Inhibition of adhesion of Neisseria meningitidis to human epithelial cells by berry juice polyphenolic fractions.

    PubMed

    Toivanen, Marko; Huttunen, Sanna; Lapinjoki, Seppo; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2011-06-01

    The adhesion of pathogens to host tissues is the requirement for the initiation of the majority of infectious diseases. It was shown recently that the binding of Neisseria meningitidis pili to immobilized human epithelial cells is inhibited by molecular size fractions (10-100 kDa) of berry juices. Additionally, the isolated meningococcal pili bound to polyphenolic fractions of berry juices. The present study investigated the antiadhesive effects of berry juice polyphenolics against living meningococcal bacteria in a human epithelial cell culture model. The ability of bilberry, cranberry, crowberry and lingonberry juice polyphenolic fractions to inhibit the attachment of N. meningitidis bacteria to HEC-1B human epithelial cells in a cell culture model was examined. The antibacterial effect of the fractions was tested using a microtiter broth microdilution assay. The most effective adhesion inhibition of 75% was achieved with cranberry juice polyphenolic fraction followed by crowberry (63%), bilberry (63%) and lingonberry (57%) juice polyphenolic fractions. Bacterial survival rates after incubation with the fractions varied between 75-100%. The present results suggest berry juice polyphenols as inhibitors of adherence of N. meningitidis. Thus the binding of meningococci to berry juice polyphenols might be protective for the host against the infection. PMID:21086548

  5. Nanoporous gold membranes: From morphological control to fuel cell catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yi

    Porous noble metals are particularly attractive for scientific research and industrial applications such as catalysis, sensing, and filtration. In this thesis, I will discuss the fabrication, characterization, and application of a new class of porous metals, called nanoporous metals (NPM). NPM is made during selective dissolution (also called dealloying) of reactive components (e.g., silver) from multi-component alloys (e.g., Ag/Au alloy). Commercially available white gold leaf (Ag65Au35) can, for example, be etched into nanoporous gold (NPG) membrane by simply floating the leaf on concentrated nitric acid for periods of a few minutes. NPG leaf adopts a single crystal porous structure within individual grains. The microstructure of NPG, such as the pore size, is tunable between a few nanometers to sub-micron length scale by either thermal annealing or post-treatment in nitric acid for extended period of time. A new gas-liquid-solid interface electroless plating technique is developed to uniformly cover the NPG surface with other metals, such as silver and platinum. This technique allows new opportunities of making functionalized nanostructures. We show that a combination of silver plating and dealloying can be used to make multimodal porous metals, which are expected to have application in sensing field. Electroless platinum plating onto NPG shows very usual growth mode. TEM observation indicates that the platinum layer on NPG surface takes a novel form of layer-islanding growth (Stranski-Krastanov growth). Annealing the Pt/NPG composite smoothens the Pt islands and forms a 1 nm coherent Pt layer on the NPG backbone, possibly with dislocation formation at the Pt/Au interface. Furthermore, it was found that we could dissolve the gold away in aqueous gold etchant, leaving behind the 1 nm-thick Pt shell, a structure we call nanotubular mesoporous platinum (NMP). Pt plated NPG has a series of unique structural properties, such as high active surface area, thermally stable, low Pt usage, and better tolerance to CO poisoning. We incorporated it as a membrane electrode into a working proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Preliminary results show that Pt/NPG has very good fuel cell performance at a very low platinum loading.

  6. Influence of the membrane ion exchange capacity on the catalyst layer of proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navessin, Titichai

    2005-07-01

    This work investigated the effect of ion exchange capacity (IEC) of polymer electrolyte membranes (PEM) on the PEM fuel cell cathode catalyst layer. A series of radiation grafted ethylene tetrafluoroethylene-g-polystyrene sulfonic acid (ETFE-g-PSSA) membranes was used to provide a systematic variation of IEC. A method to fabricate gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) was adapted and custom-made GDEs with known compositions were prepared. Oxygen electrochemistry, mass transport properties, water absorption behaviour and proton conductivity were studied in relation to the IEC. Electrochemical characterization including cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and linear sweep voltammetry were employed. The agglomerate model for cathodes was adapted and used to extract mass transport parameters from experimental results. Prior to investigation in fuel cell systems, studies were performed in a half-fuel cell, which simplified complicating parameters associated with fuel cell operation. It was found that membranes with higher IEC resulted in a higher active surface area of electrode. In contrast, they exhibited lower oxygen reduction performance. The extracted effective diffusion coefficient of oxygen and O2 solubility in the catalyst layer was used to estimate the extent of flooding, which revealed that ˜67--70% of void space was filled with water. The membrane's IEC regulates the extent of flooding of the cathode, which in turn affects its electrochemical characteristics. The investigation under operating fuel cell conditions revealed an increase in fuel cell performance with increasing IEC---a contradicting trend to that found for the half-fuel cell. This is explained by the interplay of electroosmotic flux and hydraulic counterflux in the membrane which affects water management in the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The influence was most significant in the cathode catalyst layer, where it affects mass transport and electrochemical characteristics. It was found that the higher IEC facilitated better water management in MEAs. Comparing results obtained with half fuel cell and fuel cell systems revealed insights into the state of hydration and effective use of Pt in the catalyst layer. The two types of measurements provide a convenient approach to study the interplay of different mechanisms of water flux in the membrane.

  7. High heterogeneity of plasma membrane microfluidity in multidrug-resistant cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutin, Céline; Roche, Yann; Millot, Christine; Deturche, Régis; Royer, Pascal; Manfait, Michel; Plain, Jérôme; Jeannesson, Pierre; Millot, Jean-Marc; Jaffiol, Rodolphe

    2009-05-01

    Diffusion-time distribution analysis (DDA) has been used to explore the plasma membrane fluidity of multidrug-resistant cancer cells (LR73 carcinoma cells) and also to characterize the influence of various membrane agents present in the extracellular medium. DDA is a recent single-molecule technique, based on fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), well suited to retrieve local organization of cell membrane. The method was conducted on a large number of living cells, which enabled us to get a detailed overview of plasma membrane microviscosity, and plasma membrane micro-organization, between the cells of the same line. Thus, we clearly reveal the higher heterogeneity of plasma membrane in multidrug-resistant cancer cells in comparison with the nonresistant ones (denoted sensitive cells). We also display distinct modifications related to a membrane fluidity modulator, benzyl alcohol, and two revertants of multidrug resistance, verapamil and cyclosporin-A. A relation between the distribution of the diffusion-time values and the modification of membrane lateral heterogeneities is proposed.

  8. Purinergically induced membrane fluidization in ciliary cells: characterization and control by calcium and membrane potential.

    PubMed Central

    Alfahel, E; Korngreen, A; Parola, A H; Priel, Z

    1996-01-01

    To examine the role of membrane dynamics in transmembrane signal transduction, we studied changes in membrane fluidity in mucociliary tissues from frog palate and esophagus epithelia stimulated by extracellular ATP. Micromolar concentrations of ATP induced strong changes in fluorescence polarization, possibly indicating membrane fluidization. This effect was dosage dependent, reaching a maximum at 10-microM ATP. It was dependent on the presence of extracellular Ca2+ (or Mg2+), though it was insensitive to inhibitors of voltage-gated calcium channels. It was inhibited by thapsigargin and by ionomycin (at low extracellular Ca2+ concentration), both of which deplete Ca2+ stores. It was inhibited by the calcium-activated potassium channel inhibitors quinidine, charybdotoxin, and apamine and was reduced considerably by replacement of extracellular Na+ with K+. Hyperpolarization, or depolarization, of the mucociliary membrane induced membrane fluidization. The degree of membrane fluidization depended on the degree of hyperpolarization or depolarization of the ciliary membrane potential and was considerably lower than the effect induced by extracellular ATP. These results indicate that appreciable membrane fluidization induced by extracellular ATP depends both on an increase in intracellular Ca2+, mainly from its internal stores, and on hyperpolarization of the membrane. Calcium-dependent potassium channels couple the two effects. In light of recent results on the enhancement of ciliary beat frequency, it would appear that extracellular ATP-induced changes both in ciliary beat frequency and in membrane fluidity are triggered by similar signal transduction pathways. PMID:8789123

  9. Analysis of Nuclear RNA Interference (RNAi) in Human Cells by Subcellular Fractionation and Argonaute Loading

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Keith T.; Li, Liande; Janowski, Bethany A.; Corey, David R.

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is well known for its ability to regulate gene expression in the cytoplasm of mammalian cells. In mammalian cell nuclei, however, the impact of RNAi has remained more controversial. A key technical hurdle has been a lack of optimized protocols for the isolation and analysis of cell nuclei. Here we describe a simplified protocol for nuclei isolation from cultured cells that incorporates a method for obtaining nucleoplasmic and chromatin fractions and removing cytoplasmic contamination. Cell fractions can then be used to detect the presence and activity of RNAi factors in the nucleus. We present a protocol for investigating an early step in RNAi, Argonaute protein loading with small RNAs, which is enabled by our improved extract preparations. These protocols facilitate characterization of nuclear RNAi and can be applied to the analysis of other nuclear proteins and pathways. From cellular fractionation to analysis of Argonaute loading results, this protocol takes 4–6 d to complete. PMID:25079428

  10. Detergent Induction of HEK 293A Cell Membrane Permeability Measured under Quiescent and Superfusion Conditions Using Whole Cell Patch Clamp

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Detergents have several biological applications but present cytotoxicity concerns, since they can solubilize cell membranes. Using the IonFlux 16, an ensemble whole cell planar patch clamp, we observed that anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and cationic, fluorescent octadecyl rhodamine B (ORB) increased the membrane permeability of cells substantially within a second of exposure, under superfusion conditions. Increased permeability was irreversible for 15 min. At subsolubilizing detergent concentrations, patched cells showed increased membrane currents that reached a steady state and were intact when imaged using fluorescence microscopy. SDS solubilized cells at concentrations of 2 mM (2× CMC), while CTAB did not solubilize cells even at concentrations of 10 mM (1000× CMC). The relative activity for plasma membrane current induction was 1:20:14 for SDS, CTAB, and ORB, respectively. Under quiescent conditions, the relative ratio of lipid to detergent in cell membranes at the onset of membrane permeability was 1:7:5 for SDS, CTAB, and ORB, respectively. The partition constants (K) for SDS, CTAB, and ORB were 23000, 55000, and 39000 M–1, respectively. Combining the whole cell patch clamp data and XTT viability data, SDS ? 0.2 mM and CTAB and ORB ? 1 mM induced cell membrane permeability without causing acute toxicity. PMID:24548291

  11. Electrical Recording and Long-term Stability on Cell-sized Bilayer Lipid Membrane Microchambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Osaki, Toshihisa; Takeuchi, Shoji

    In this paper, we developed a microfluidic device for formation of artificial cell membranes (lipid bilayer membranes) and for electrical recordings of transmembrane currents. We succeeded in observing electrical current together with formation of transmembrane ?-hemolysin nanopores at the bilayer membrane. In addition, we applied glass for the device material to target long-term stability of the formed bilayer membranes. With further development, we believe that the device will contribute to lower the cost and enhance the data throughput of the functional analyses of membrane proteins related to the drug discovery.

  12. Cell membrane and cell junctions in differentiation of preimplanted mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, L; Fernández, S; López, T

    1976-12-01

    Cell membrane and cell junctions in differentiation of preimplanted mouse embryos, (membrana celular y uniones celulares en la diferenciación del embrión de ratón antes de la implantación). Arch. Biol. Med. Exper. 10: 130-134, 1976. The development of cell junctions that seal the peripheral blastomeres could be a decisive step in the differentiation of morulae into blastocysts. The appearance of these junctions is studied by electron microscopy of late morulae and initial blastocysts. Zonulae occludentes as well as impermeability to lanthanum emulsion precedes the appearance of the blastocel and hence might be considered as one of its necessary causes. PMID:1026200

  13. Effects of microwaves on cell membrane permeability. Report No. 3 (final) July 1981-June 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Liburdy, R.P.

    1984-07-02

    The objective of this research project was to identify and characterize cell membrane responses to microwave radiation and, importantly, to determine specific conditions or modulators required for these responses. This study has revealed that membrane permeability changes in the erythrocyte and in liposome vesicles, as well as protein shedding in the erythrocyte, are induced by microwaves at the membrane phase transition, and that these responses are strongly dependent on plasma, oxygen tension, and antioxidant free radical scavengers. These findings provide new insight into both the physical and chemical nature of microwave radiation interaction with the cell membrane.

  14. Performance enhancement of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells by dual-layered membrane electrode assembly structures with carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dong-Won; Kim, Jun-Ho; Kim, Se-Hoon; Kim, Jun-Bom; Oh, Eun-Suok

    2013-05-01

    The effect of dual-layered membrane electrode assemblies (d-MEAs) on the performance of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was investigated using the following characterization techniques: single cell performance test, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). It has been shown that the PEMFC with d-MEAs has better cell performance than that with typical mono-layered MEAs (m-MEAs). In particular, the d-MEA whose inner layer is composed of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) showed the best fuel cell performance. This is due to the fact that the d-MEAs with MWCNTs have the highest electrochemical surface area and the lowest activation polarization, as observed from the CV and EIS test. PMID:23858921

  15. Affinity Flow Fractionation for label-free cell sorting

    E-print Network

    Bose, Suman

    2014-01-01

    Capture and isolation of flowing cells from body fluids such as peripheral blood, bone marrow or pleural effusion has enormous implications in diagnosis, disease monitoring, and drug testing. However, in many situations ...

  16. Identification and characterization of plasma membrane proteins that bind to microtubules in pollen tubes and generative cells of tobacco.

    PubMed

    Cai, Giampiero; Ovidi, Elisa; Romagnoli, Silvia; Vantard, Marylin; Cresti, Mauro; Tiezzi, Antonio

    2005-04-01

    The organization and function of microtubules in plant cells are important in many developmental stages. Connections between microtubules and the endomembrane system of plant cells have been discovered by microscopy, but the molecular characteristics of these relationships are mostly unknown except for a few cases. Using two antibodies raised against microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) from maize, we have identified two polypeptides that share properties of the MAP family in the pollen tube of Nicotiana tabacum. The two polypeptides (with an apparent Mr of 161 and 90 kDa) bind efficiently to animal and plant microtubules and are found in association with the cellular membranes of the pollen tube, from which they can be solubilized with a zwitterionic detergent. One of these proteins has been purified and shown to promote the assembly of tubulin and, to a lesser extent, the bundling of microtubules. Subcellular fractionation indicated that the two proteins are associated with the plasma membrane compartment. The two proteins are found to co-localize in situ with cortical microtubules in the vegetative cytoplasm of tobacco pollen tubes; co-localization is also evident in the generative cell. According to these data, both the 161 and 90 kDa polypeptides are likely to mediate the interactions between the plasma membrane and microtubules in pollen tubes. In addition, functional data indicate that these MAP-like proteins take part in the process of microtubule assembly and reorganization occurring during cell growth. The evidence that both proteins associate with different cellular compartments also suggests a broad-spectrum role in mediating the dynamic relationships between microtubules and plant cell membranes. PMID:15695442

  17. Localization and dynamics of glucocorticoid receptor at the plasma membrane of activated mast cells.

    PubMed

    Oppong, Emmanuel; Hedde, Per Niklas; Sekula-Neuner, Sylwia; Yang, Linxiao; Brinkmann, Falko; Dörlich, René M; Hirtz, Michael; Fuchs, Harald; Nienhaus, Gerd Ulrich; Cato, Andrew C B

    2014-05-28

    In addition to their actions in the cell nucleus, glucocorticoids exhibit rapid non-nuclear responses that are mechanistically not well understood. To explain these effects, the localization of a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expressed in mast cells as a GFP fusion was analyzed after activation of the cells on allergenic lipid arrays. These arrays were produced on glass slides by dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) and total internal reflection (TIRF) microscopy was used to visualize the GR. A rapid glucocorticoid-independent and -dependent recruitment of the GR-GFP to the plasma cell membrane was observed following contact of the cells with the allergenic array. In addition, the mobility of the GR at the membrane was monitored by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and shown to follow binding kinetics demonstrating interactions of the receptor with membrane-bound factors. Furthermore the recruitment of the GR to the cell membrane was shown to result in a glucocorticoid-mediated increase in Erk phosphorylation. This is evidenced by findings that destruction of the membrane composition of the mast cells by cholesterol depletion impairs the membrane localization of the GR and subsequent glucocorticoid-mediated enhancement of Erk phosphorylation. These results demonstrate a membrane localization and function of the GR in mast cell signaling. PMID:24616258

  18. Analytical isolation of plasma membranes of intestinal epithelial cells: Identification of Na, K-ATPase rich membranes and the distribution of enzyme activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Austin K. Mircheff; Ernest M. Wright

    1976-01-01

    Summary A procedure was developed for the analytical isolation of brush border and basal lateral plasma membranes of intestinal epithelial cells. Brush border fragments were collected by low speed centrifugation, disrupted in hypertonic sorbitol, and subjected to density gradient centrifugation for separation of plasma membranes from nuclei and cole material. Sucrase specific activity in the purified brush border plasma membrane

  19. Proteomic analysis of post-nuclear supernatant fraction and percoll-purified membranes prepared from brain cortex of rats exposed to increasing doses of morphine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Proteomic analysis was performed in post-nuclear supernatant (PNS) and Percoll-purified membranes (PM) prepared from fore brain cortex of rats exposed to increasing doses of morphine (10–50 mg/kg) for 10 days. Results In PNS, the 10 up (?)- or down (?)-regulated proteins exhibiting the largest morphine-induced change were selected, excised manually from the gel and identified by MALDI-TOF MS/MS: 1-(gi|148747414, Guanine deaminase), ?2.5×; 2-(gi|17105370, Vacuolar-type proton ATP subunit B, brain isoform), ?2.6×; 3-(gi|1352384, Protein disulfide-isomerase A3), ?3.4×; 4-(gi|40254595, Dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2), ?3.6×; 5-(gi|149054470, N-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion protein, isoform CRAa), ?2.0×; 6-(gi|42476181, Malate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial precursor), ?1.4×; 7-(gi|62653546, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), ?1.6×; 8-(gi|202837, Aldolase A), ?1.3×; 9-(gi|31542401, Creatine kinase B-type), ?0.86×; 10-(gi|40538860, Aconitate hydratase, mitochondrial precursor), ?1.3×. The identified proteins were of cytoplasmic (1, 4, 5, 7, 9), cell membrane (2), endoplasmic reticulum (3) and mitochondrial (6, 8, 10) origin and 9 of them were significantly increased, 1.3-3.6×. The 4 out of 9 up-regulated proteins (4, 6, 7, 10) were described as functionally related to oxidative stress; the 2 proteins participate in genesis of apoptotic cell death. In PM, the 18 up (?)- or down (?)-regulated proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS and were of plasma membrane [Brain acid soluble protein, ?2.1×; trimeric G? subunit, ?2.0x], myelin membrane [MBP, ?2.5×], cytoplasmic [Internexin, ?5.2×; DPYL2, ?4.9×; Ubiquitin hydrolase, ?2.0×; 60S ribosomal protein, ?2.7×; KCRB, ?2.6×; Sirtuin-2, ?2.5×; Peroxiredoxin-2, ?2.2×; Septin-11, ?2.2×; TERA, ?2.1×; SYUA, ?2.0×; Coronin-1A, ?5.4×] and mitochondrial [Glutamate dehydrogenase 1, ?2.7×; SCOT1, ?2.2×; Prohibitin, ?2.2×; Aspartate aminotransferase, ?2.2×] origin. Surprisingly, the immunoblot analysis of the same PM resolved by 2D-ELFO indicated that the “active”, morphine-induced pool of G? subunits represented just a minor fraction of the total signal of G? which was decreased 1.2x only. The dominant signal of G? was unchanged. Conclusion Brain cortex of rats exposed to increasing doses of morphine is far from being adapted. Significant up-regulation of proteins functionally related to oxidative stress and apoptosis suggests a major change of energy metabolism resulting in the state of severe brain cell “discomfort” or even death. PMID:24528483

  20. Podoplanin, novel 43-kd membrane protein of glomerular epithelial cells, is down-regulated in puromycin nephrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Breiteneder-Geleff, S.; Matsui, K.; Soleiman, A.; Meraner, P.; Poczewski, H.; Kalt, R.; Schaffner, G.; Kerjaschki, D.

    1997-01-01

    Puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis (PAN), a rat model of human minimal change nephropathy, is characterized by extensive flattening of glomerular epithelial cell (podocyte) foot processes and by severe proteinuria. For comparison of expression of glomerular membrane proteins of normal and PAN rats, a membrane protein fraction of isolated rat glomeruli was prepared and monoclonal antibodies were raised against it. An IgG-secreting clone designated LF3 was selected that specifically immunolabeled podocytes of normal but not of PAN rats. The antigen of LF3 IgG was identified as a 43-kd glycoprotein. Molecular cloning of its cDNA was performed in a delta gt11 expression library prepared from mRNA of isolated rat glomeruli. The predicted amino acid sequence indicated a 166-amino-acid integral membrane protein with a single membrane-spanning domain, two potential phosphorylation sites in its short cytoplasmic tail, and six potential O-glycosylation sites in the large ectodomain. High amino acid sequence identities were found to membrane glycoproteins of rat lung and bone and mouse thymus epithelial cells as well as to a phorbol-ester-induced protein in a mouse osteoblast cell line and to a canine influenza C virus receptor. In PAN, expression of this 43-kd protein was selectively reduced to < 30%, as determined by quantitative immunogold electron microscopy, immunoblotting, and Northern blotting. These data provide evidence that transcription of the 43-kd transmembrane podocyte glycoprotein is specifically down-regulated in PAN. To indicate that this protein could be associated with transformation of arborized foot processes to flat feet (Latin, pes planus) we have called it podoplanin. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:9327748

  1. Podoplanin, novel 43-kd membrane protein of glomerular epithelial cells, is down-regulated in puromycin nephrosis.

    PubMed

    Breiteneder-Geleff, S; Matsui, K; Soleiman, A; Meraner, P; Poczewski, H; Kalt, R; Schaffner, G; Kerjaschki, D

    1997-10-01

    Puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis (PAN), a rat model of human minimal change nephropathy, is characterized by extensive flattening of glomerular epithelial cell (podocyte) foot processes and by severe proteinuria. For comparison of expression of glomerular membrane proteins of normal and PAN rats, a membrane protein fraction of isolated rat glomeruli was prepared and monoclonal antibodies were raised against it. An IgG-secreting clone designated LF3 was selected that specifically immunolabeled podocytes of normal but not of PAN rats. The antigen of LF3 IgG was identified as a 43-kd glycoprotein. Molecular cloning of its cDNA was performed in a delta gt11 expression library prepared from mRNA of isolated rat glomeruli. The predicted amino acid sequence indicated a 166-amino-acid integral membrane protein with a single membrane-spanning domain, two potential phosphorylation sites in its short cytoplasmic tail, and six potential O-glycosylation sites in the large ectodomain. High amino acid sequence identities were found to membrane glycoproteins of rat lung and bone and mouse thymus epithelial cells as well as to a phorbol-ester-induced protein in a mouse osteoblast cell line and to a canine influenza C virus receptor. In PAN, expression of this 43-kd protein was selectively reduced to < 30%, as determined by quantitative immunogold electron microscopy, immunoblotting, and Northern blotting. These data provide evidence that transcription of the 43-kd transmembrane podocyte glycoprotein is specifically down-regulated in PAN. To indicate that this protein could be associated with transformation of arborized foot processes to flat feet (Latin, pes planus) we have called it podoplanin. PMID:9327748

  2. Imaging lipid domains in cell membranes: the advent of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Dylan M.; Gaus, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    The lipid bilayer of model membranes, liposomes reconstituted from cell lipids, and plasma membrane vesicles and spheres can separate into two distinct liquid phases to yield lipid domains with liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered properties. These observations are the basis of the lipid raft hypothesis that postulates the existence of cholesterol-enriched ordered-phase lipid domains in cell membranes that could regulate protein mobility, localization and interaction. Here we review the evidence that nano-scaled lipid complexes and meso-scaled lipid domains exist in cell membranes and how new fluorescence microscopy techniques that overcome the diffraction limit provide new insights into lipid organization in cell membranes. PMID:24376453

  3. Cell-based capacitance sensor for analysis of EGFR expression on cell membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dong-Myeong; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Ha, Ji Hye; Lee, Jong-Ho; Han, Dong-Wook; Kim, Jong-Man; Kim, Hyung Kook; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae

    2013-02-01

    Cancer cells have many kinds of cancer biomarkers. Among them, the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors can show a possibility for a cancer marker because the over-expression of EGF receptor is related with fibrous, colorectal, cervical and gastric tumorigenesis. We fabricated the capacitance sensor with a gap area of 50 ?m × 200 ?m by using photolithography and lift-off method. Using the capacitance sensor, we investigated the time dependent capacitance changes of different kinds of fibrous cells, such as HT1080 fibrosarcoma, L-929 fibroblast cell line and nHDF dermal fibroblast primary cell. We found that when we put the EGF, the capacitance decreased due to the immobilization of EGF to EGF receptor on the cell membrane. The quantitative determination of EGF receptor level for various fibrous cells was carried out and the results showed good correlation with conventional method. Based on our results, we suggest that the capacitance sensor can measure the expression level of the EGF receptor on cell membrane and be a good candidate as a cancer diagnosis.

  4. High power density proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Oliver J.; Hitchens, G. Duncan; Manko, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells use a perfluorosulfonic acid solid polymer film as an electrolyte which simplifies water and electrolyte management. Their thin electrolyte layers give efficient systems of low weight, and their materials of construction show extremely long laboratory lifetimes. Their high reliability and their suitability for use in a microgravity environment makes them particularly attractive as a substitute for batteries in satellites utilizing high-power, high energy-density electrochemical energy storage systems. In this investigation, the Dow experimental PEM (XUS-13204.10) and unsupported high platinum loading electrodes yielded very high power densities, of the order of 2.5 W cm(exp -2). A platinum black loading of 5 mg per cm(exp 2) was found to be optimum. On extending the three-dimensional reaction zone of fuel cell electrodes by impregnating solid polymer electrolyte into the electrode structures, Nafion was found to give better performance than the Dow experimental PEM. The depth of penetration of the solid polymer electrolyte into electrode structures was 50-70 percent of the thickness of the platinum-catalyzed active layer. However, the degree of platinum utilization was only 16.6 percent and the roughness factor of a typical electrode was 274.

  5. Dysferlin regulates cell membrane repair by facilitating injury-triggered acid sphingomyelinase secretion

    PubMed Central

    Defour, A; Van der Meulen, J H; Bhat, R; Bigot, A; Bashir, R; Nagaraju, K; Jaiswal, J K

    2014-01-01

    Dysferlin deficiency compromises the repair of injured muscle, but the underlying cellular mechanism remains elusive. To study this phenomenon, we have developed mouse and human myoblast models for dysferlinopathy. These dysferlinopathic myoblasts undergo normal differentiation but have a deficit in their ability to repair focal injury to their cell membrane. Imaging cells undergoing repair showed that dysferlin-deficit decreased the number of lysosomes present at the cell membrane, resulting in a delay and reduction in injury-triggered lysosomal exocytosis. We find repair of injured cells does not involve formation of intracellular membrane patch through lysosome–lysosome fusion; instead, individual lysosomes fuse with the injured cell membrane, releasing acid sphingomyelinase (ASM). ASM secretion was reduced in injured dysferlinopathic cells, and acute treatment with sphingomyelinase restored the repair ability of dysferlinopathic myoblasts and myofibers. Our results provide the mechanism for dysferlin-mediated repair of skeletal muscle sarcolemma and identify ASM as a potential therapy for dysferlinopathy. PMID:24967968

  6. Ion exchange membrane cathodes for scalable microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yi; Cheng, Shaoan; Logan, Bruce E

    2008-09-15

    One of the main challenges for using microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is developing materials and architectures that are economical and generate high power densities. The performance of two cathodes constructed from two low-cost anion (AEM) and cation (CEM) exchange membranes was compared to that achieved using an ultrafiltration (UF) cathode, when the membranes were made electrically conductive using graphite paint and a nonprecious metal catalyst (CoTMPP). The best performance in single-chamber MFCs using graphite fiber brush anodes was achieved using an AEM cathode with the conductive coating facing the solution, at a catalyst loading of 0.5 mg/cm2 CoTMPP. The maximum power densitywas 449 mW/ m2 (normalized to the projected cathode surface area) or 13.1 W/m3 (total reactor volume), with a Coulombic efficiency up to 70% in a 50 mM phosphate buffer solution (PBS) using acetate. Decreasing the CoTMPP loading by 40-80% reduced power by 28-56%, with only 16% of the power (72 mW/m2) generated using an AEM cathode lacking a catalyst. Using a current collector (a stainless steel mesh) pressed against the inside surface of the AEM cathode and 200 mM PBS, the maximum power produced was further increased to 728 mW/m2 (21.2 W/m3). The use of AEM cathodes and brush anodes provides comparable performance to similar systems that use materials costing nearly an order of magnitude more (carbon paper electrodes) and thus represent more useful materials for reducing the costs of MFCs for wastewater treatment applications. PMID:18853817

  7. Human adipose tissue stromal vascular fraction cells differentiate depending on distinct types of media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Balwierz; U. Czech; A. Polus; R. K. Filipkowski; B. Mioduszewska; T. Proszynski; P. Kolodziejczyk; J. Skrzeczynska-Moncznik; W. Dudek; L. Kaczmarek; J. Kulig; J. Pryjma; A. Dembinska-Kiec

    2008-01-01

    Objectives : Angiogenesis, the process of formation of blood vessels, is essential for many physiological as well as pathological processes. It has been shown that human adipose tissue contains a population of non-characterized cells, called stromal-vascular fraction (SVF) cells, which are able to differentiate into several lineages. The aim of this study was to determine conditions for promoting differentiation of

  8. Induction of apoptosis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells by isolated fractions from strawberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strawberries contain phytochemicals that have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. We investigated the ability of isolated fractions from strawberry extracts to induce apoptotic cell death in three pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) lines, including SEM and RS4;11 cell lines derived fr...

  9. Plasma Membrane Surface Increases with Tonic Stretch of Alveolar Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacob L. Fisher; Irena Levitan; Susan S. Margulies

    2004-01-01

    Cyclic stretch stimulates numerous responses in alveolar epithelial cells—some beneficial, some injurious—often through mechano- sensitive membrane-associated proteins such as stretch-activated ion channels. Tonic stretch, in contrast, stimulates only some of these responses. In this study, we hypothesized that the plasma membranes of alveolar epithelial cells expand during tonic stretch, not only through cell surface unfolding, but also through recruit- ment

  10. Bistability of Membrane Conductance in Cell Adhesion Observed in a Neuron Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkner, Martin; Fromherz, Peter

    1997-12-01

    We attached individual nerve cells from leech ganglia to oxidized silicon using polylysine. We studied the electrical current through the cell membrane in the region of adhesion taking advantage of field-effect transistors integrated in the substrate. We found that a minute mechanical deformation of the cell triggered a bistable reversible switching of the attached membrane between states of high and low conductance. Feasible mechanisms of the nonlinear effect are discussed.

  11. Plasma membrane potential of Lettré cells does not depend on cation gradients but on pumps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Bashford; C. A. Pasternak

    1984-01-01

    Summary The plasma membrane potential of Lettré cells has been determined with the optical indicator oxonol-V and found to be ?57 mV at 37°C (range ?20 to ?80 mV depending on the physiological condition of the cells). Increasing extracellular K+ does not depolarize cells: even in the presence of 155mM K+ the potential is ?41 mV; membrane potential is also

  12. Acute Inhibition of Selected Membrane-Proximal Mouse T Cell Receptor Signaling by Mitochondrial Antagonists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwangmi Kim; Lin Wang; Inkyu Hwang; Derya Unutmaz

    2009-01-01

    T cells absorb nanometric membrane vesicles, prepared from plasma membrane of antigen presenting cells, via dual receptor\\/ligand interactions of T cell receptor (TCR) with cognate peptide\\/major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plus lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) with intercellular adhesion molecule 1. TCR-mediated signaling for LFA-1 activation is also required for the vesicle absorption. Exploiting those findings, we had established a high

  13. Cell membrane stretch activates intermediate-conductance Ca 2+ -activated K + channels in arterial smooth muscle cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasunobu Hayabuchi; Yutaka Nakaya; Kazuaki Mawatari; Miki Inoue; Miho Sakata; Shoji Kagami

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the signal transduction of membrane stretch on intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (IKca) channels in rat aorta smooth muscle cells using the patch-clamp technique. To stretch the cell membrane, both suction\\u000a to the rear end of patch pipette and hypotonic shock were used. In cell-attached and inside-out patch configurations, the\\u000a open probability of IKca

  14. Phloretin-induced changes of lipophilic ion transport across the plasma membrane of mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Sukhorukov, V L; Kürschner, M; Dilsky, S; Lisec, T; Wagner, B; Schenk, W A; Benz, R; Zimmermann, U

    2001-08-01

    The adsorption of the hydrophobic anion [W(CO)(5)CN](-) to human lymphoid Jurkat cells gave rise to an additional anti-field peak in the rotational spectra of single cells, indicating that the cell membrane displayed a strong dielectric dispersion in the kilohertz to megahertz frequency range. The surface concentration of the adsorbed anion and its translocation rate constant between the two membrane boundaries could be evaluated from the rotation spectra of cells by applying the previously proposed mobile charge model. Similar single-cell electrorotation experiments were performed to examine the effect of phloretin, a dipolar molecule known to influence the dipole potential of membranes, on the transport of [W(CO)(5)CN](-) across the plasma membrane of mammalian cells. The adsorption of [W(CO)(5)CN](-) was significantly reduced by phloretin, which is in reasonable agreement with the known phloretin-induced effects on artificial and biological membranes. The IC(50) for the effect of phloretin on the transport parameters of the lipophilic ion was approximately 10 microM. The results of this study are consistent with the assumption that the binding of phloretin reduces the intrinsic dipole potential of the plasma membrane. The experimental approach developed here allows the quantification of intrinsic dipole potential changes within the plasma membrane of living cells. PMID:11463642

  15. Reversible Membrane Pearling in Live Cells upon Destruction of the Actin Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Doris; Ecke, Mary; Jasnin, Marion; Engel, Ulrike; Gerisch, Günther

    2014-01-01

    Membrane pearling in live cells is observed when the plasma membrane is depleted of its support, the cortical actin network. Upon efficient depolymerization of actin, pearls of variable size are formed, which are connected by nanotubes of ?40 nm diameter. We show that formation of the membrane tubes and their transition into chains of pearls do not require external tension, and that they neither depend on microtubule-based molecular motors nor pressure generated by myosin-II. Pearling thus differs from blebbing. The pearling state is stable as long as actin is prevented from polymerizing. When polymerization is restored, the pearls are retracted into the cell, indicating continuity of the membrane. Our data suggest that the alternation of pearls and strings is an energetically favored state of the unsupported plasma membrane, and that one of the functions of the actin cortex is to prevent the membrane from spontaneously assuming this configuration. PMID:24606932

  16. Fabrication and Testing of a Bi-Conductive Polymer Membrane Fuel Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, S.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tanaka, T.; Fréchette, L. G.

    2014-11-01

    This paper reports the fabrication process and testing of a bi-conductive polymer membrane (BCPM) fuel cell that integrates lateral current collectors on both sides with an ionic conductive path through the membrane. The new membrane shows major advantages over standard Nafion® membranes used in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (PEMFCs). In addition to being mechanically stable when wet, the flexible BCPM integrates efficient thin film current collectors (ICCs) on an ionic conductive membrane with a high active area ratio. Also, ICCs leave all the surface of the electrode free to eventually integrate a more efficient water and gas management system than traditional gas diffusion layers. Moreover, the fabricated membrane has shown superior volumetric power density than standard PEMFC (0.76 vs 0.47 mW/cm2?m).

  17. Current noise spectrum and capacitance due to the membrane motor of the outer hair cell: theory.

    PubMed Central

    Iwasa, K H

    1997-01-01

    The voltage-dependent motility of the outer hair cell is based on a membrane motor densely distributed in the lateral membrane. The gating charge of the membrane motor is manifested as a bell-shaped membrane potential dependence of the membrane capacitance. In this paper it is shown that movements of the gating charge should produce a high-pass current noise described by an inverse Lorentzian similar to the one shown by Kolb and Läuger for ion carriers. The frequency dependence of the voltage-dependent capacitance is also derived. These derivations are based on membrane motor models with two or three states. These two models lead to similar predictions on the capacitance and current noise. It is expected that the examination of the spectral properties of these quantities would be a useful means of determining the relaxation time for conformational transitions of the membrane motor. PMID:9414211

  18. Nanosecond pulsed electric field induced cytoskeleton, nuclear membrane and telomere damage adversely impact cell survival.

    PubMed

    Stacey, M; Fox, P; Buescher, S; Kolb, J

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the effects of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) on three human cell lines and demonstrated cell shrinkage, breakdown of the cytoskeleton, nuclear membrane and chromosomal telomere damage. There was a differential response between cell types coinciding with cell survival. Jurkat cells showed cytoskeleton, nuclear membrane and telomere damage that severely impacted cell survival compared to two adherent cell lines. Interestingly, disruption of the actin cytoskeleton in adherent cells prior to nsPEF exposure significantly reduced cell survival. We conclude that nsPEF applications are able to induce damage to the cytoskeleton and nuclear membrane. Telomere sequences, regions that tether and stabilize DNA to the nuclear membrane, are severely compromised as measured by a pan-telomere probe. Internal pore formation following nsPEF applications has been described as a factor in induced cell death. Here we suggest that nsPEF induced physical changes to the cell in addition to pore formation need to be considered as an alternative method of cell death. We suggest nsPEF electrochemical induced depolymerization of actin filaments may account for cytoskeleton and nuclear membrane anomalies leading to sensitization. PMID:21719360

  19. Detection of anti-liver cell membrane antibody using a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Lobo-Yeo, A.; McSorley, C.; McFarlane, B.M.; Mieli-Vergani, G.; Mowat, A.P.; Vergani, D.

    1989-02-01

    A radioimmunometric technique for the detection of autoantibodies to liver membrane antigens has been developed using Alexander cells, a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. After incubation of Alexander cells with serum, antimembrane antibodies were detected by addition of /sup 125/I-labeled Protein A. Binding ratios in 15 children with uncontrolled autoimmune chronic active hepatitis and in seven children with primary sclerosing cholangitis were significantly higher than in 18 age-matched normal controls. Nine patients with inactive autoimmune chronic active hepatitis, 13 with alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency and five with fulminant hepatic failure had ratios similar to controls. In nine patients with Wilson's disease, there was a modest but significant increase in binding ratio. In four children with autoimmune chronic active hepatitis, binding ratios fell during effective immunosuppressive therapy. Sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis gave normal results, excluding that binding derives from Fc-mediated immune complex capture. A positive correlation was found between Alexander cell binding values and anti-liver-specific protein antibody titers, suggesting that the two assays detect antibodies against shared antigenic determinants. The Alexander cell assay is a simple, rapid and sensitive technique to detect antibody to liver cell membrane antigens.

  20. Basolateral membrane chloride permeability of A6 cells: implication in cell volume regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Brochiero; U. Banderali; S. Lindenthal; C. Raschi; J. Ehrenfeld

    1995-01-01

    The permeability to Cl- of the basolateral membrane (blm) was investigated in renal (A6) epithelial cells, assessing their role in transepithelial ion transport under steady-state conditions (isoosmotic) and following a hypoosmotic shock (i.e. in a regulatory volume decrease, RVD). Three different complementary studies were made by measuring: (1) the Cl- transport rates (?F\\/Fo · s-1 (× 10-3)), where F is