Sample records for cell rbc membrane

  1. Red blood cell (RBC) membrane proteomics--Part I: Proteomics and RBC physiology.

    PubMed

    Pasini, Erica M; Lutz, Hans U; Mann, Matthias; Thomas, Alan W

    2010-01-01

    Membrane proteomics is concerned with accurately and sensitively identifying molecules involved in cell compartmentalisation, including those controlling the interface between the cell and the outside world. The high lipid content of the environment in which these proteins are found often causes a particular set of problems that must be overcome when isolating the required material before effective HPLC-MS approaches can be performed. The membrane is an unusually dynamic cellular structure since it interacts with an ever changing environment. A full understanding of this critical cell component will ultimately require, in addition to proteomics, lipidomics, glycomics, interactomics and study of post-translational modifications. Devoid of nucleus and organelles in mammalian species other than camelids, and constantly in motion in the blood stream, red blood cells (RBCs) are the sole mammalian oxygen transporter. The fact that mature mammalian RBCs have no internal membrane-bound organelles, somewhat simplifies proteomics analysis of the plasma membrane and the fact that it has no nucleus disqualifies microarray based methods. Proteomics has the potential to provide a better understanding of this critical interface, and thereby assist in identifying new approaches to diseases. PMID:19540949

  2. Interfacial interactions between natural RBC membranes and synthetic polymeric nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luk, Brian T.; Jack Hu, Che-Ming; Fang, Ronnie H.; Dehaini, Diana; Carpenter, Cody; Gao, Weiwei; Zhang, Liangfang

    2014-02-01

    The unique structural features and stealth properties of a recently developed red blood cell membrane-cloaked nanoparticle (RBC-NP) platform raise curiosity over the interfacial interactions between natural cellular membranes and polymeric nanoparticle substrates. Herein, several interfacial aspects of the RBC-NPs are examined, including completeness of membrane coverage, membrane sidedness upon coating, and the effects of polymeric particles' surface charge and surface curvature on the membrane cloaking process. The study shows that RBC membranes completely cover negatively charged polymeric nanoparticles in a right-side-out manner and enhance the particles' colloidal stability. The membrane cloaking process is applicable to particle substrates with a diameter ranging from 65 to 340 nm. Additionally, the study reveals that both surface glycans on RBC membranes and the substrate properties play a significant role in driving and directing the membrane-particle assembly. These findings further the understanding of the dynamics between cellular membranes and nanoscale substrates and provide valuable information toward future development and characterization of cellular membrane-cloaked nanodevices.The unique structural features and stealth properties of a recently developed red blood cell membrane-cloaked nanoparticle (RBC-NP) platform raise curiosity over the interfacial interactions between natural cellular membranes and polymeric nanoparticle substrates. Herein, several interfacial aspects of the RBC-NPs are examined, including completeness of membrane coverage, membrane sidedness upon coating, and the effects of polymeric particles' surface charge and surface curvature on the membrane cloaking process. The study shows that RBC membranes completely cover negatively charged polymeric nanoparticles in a right-side-out manner and enhance the particles' colloidal stability. The membrane cloaking process is applicable to particle substrates with a diameter ranging from 65 to 340 nm. Additionally, the study reveals that both surface glycans on RBC membranes and the substrate properties play a significant role in driving and directing the membrane-particle assembly. These findings further the understanding of the dynamics between cellular membranes and nanoscale substrates and provide valuable information toward future development and characterization of cellular membrane-cloaked nanodevices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Theoretical calculations and supporting figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr06371b

  3. Fractional order models of viscoelasticity as an alternative in the analysis of red blood cell (RBC) membrane mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Craiem, Damian; Magin, Richard L

    2011-01-01

    New lumped-element models of red blood cell mechanics can be constructed using fractional order generalizations of springs and dashpots. Such ‘spring-pots’ exhibit a fractional order viscoelastic behavior that captures a wide spectrum of experimental results through power-law expressions in both the time and frequency domains. The system dynamics is fully described by linear fractional order differential equations derived from first order stress–strain relationships using the tools of fractional calculus. Changes in the composition or structure of the membrane are conveniently expressed in the fractional order of the model system. This approach provides a concise way to describe and quantify the biomechanical behavior of membranes, cells and tissues. PMID:20090192

  4. Studies of Plasmodium falciparum rhoptry-associated membrane antigen (RAMA) protein peptides specifically binding to human RBC.

    PubMed

    Pinzón, Carlos Giovanni; Curtidor, Hernando; Bermúdez, Adriana; Forero, Martha; Vanegas, Magnolia; Rodríguez, Jorge; Patarroyo, Manuel E

    2008-02-01

    Plasmodium falciparum rhoptry-associated membrane antigen (RAMA) peptides used in normal red blood cell (RBC) binding assays revealed that peptides 33426 (79NINILSSVHRKGRILYDSF97) and 33460 (777HKKREKSISPHSYQKVSTKVQ797) bound with high activity, presenting nanomolar affinity constants. Such high binding activity peptides (HABPs) displayed helicoid and random coil structures as determined by circular dichroism. HABPs inhibited P. falciparumin vitro invasion of normal RBC by up to 61% (depending on concentration), suggesting that some RAMA protein regions could be involved in P. falciparum invasion of RBC. The nature and localisation of receptors on RBC surface responsible for HABP binding were studied using enzyme-treated erythrocytes and structural analysis. PMID:18191882

  5. Spectrin Folding versus Unfolding Reactions and RBC Membrane Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qiang; Asaro, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Spectrin (Sp), a key component of the erythrocyte membrane, is routinely stretched to near its fully folded contour length during cell deformations. Such dynamic loading may induce domain unfolding as suggested by recent experiments. Herein we develop a model to describe the folding/unfolding of spectrin during equilibrium or nonequilibrium extensions. In both cases, our model indicates that there exists a critical extension beyond which unfolding occurs. We further deploy this model, together with a three-dimensional model of the junctional complex in the erythrocyte membrane, to explore the effect of Sp unfolding on the membrane's mechanical properties, and on the thermal fluctuation of membrane-attached beads. At large deformations our results show a distinctive strain-induced unstiffening behavior, manifested in the slow decrease of the shear modulus, and accompanied by an increase in bead fluctuation. Bead fluctuation is also found to be influenced by mode switching, a phenomenon predicted by our three-dimensional model. The amount of stiffness reduction, however, is modest compared with that reported in experiments. A possible explanation for the discrepancy is the occurrence of spectrin head-to-head disassociation which is also included within our modeling framework and used to analyze bead motion as observed via experiment. PMID:18065469

  6. Optical rheology for live cell membranes

    E-print Network

    Park, YongKeun, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel optical methodology including both instrumentation and theory aimed at retrieving the full viscoelastic information of cell membrane material properties. Red blood cells (RBC) are chosen for this study ...

  7. RBC nuclear scan

    MedlinePLUS

    An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to mark (tag) red blood cells (RBCs). Your body is then ... radiation -- it does not give off radiation. Most nuclear scans (including an RBC scan) are not recommended ...

  8. Desferrioxamine (DFO) conjugated with starch decreases NAD redox potential of intact red blood cells (RBC): evidence for DFO as an extracellular inducer of oxidant stress in RBC.

    PubMed

    Niihara, Y; Shalev, O; Hebbel, R P; Wu, H; Tu, A; Akiyama, D S; Tanaka, K R

    2000-12-01

    Desferrioxamine (DFO) is an important iron-chelating agent. It has also been thought of as an agent with anti-oxidant potential as it chelates ferric iron in various parts of the body. However, there is evidence suggesting that it may paradoxically affect red blood cells (RBCs) by inducing intracellular oxidant stress. Recently we observed that incubation of RBCs with DFO decreases NAD redox potential in normal RBC. To further understand the mechanism of DFO's interaction with RBC, we conducted a study to determine the effect of extracellular DFO upon RBC's redox status. We examined NAD redox potential in intact RBC (N = 7) incubated with DFO conjugated to starch. RBCs were incubated with 4 mM DFO for 3(1/2) hr and with 6 mM DFO for 2 and 3(1/2) hr. Significant decreases in NAD redox potential were observed after the incubations. With 4 mM DFO at the 3 (1/2) hr time point the mean decrease was 12.37% +/- 9.96% (P < 0.0085). With 6 mM DFO, the mean decreases were 18.54% +/- 9.79% (P < 0.0013) and 19.16% +/- 8.78% (P < 0.0006) for the 2 and 3 (1/2) hr incubations, respectively. DFO by itself is very poorly permeable to RBC. Conjugation with starch further ensured impermeability of DFO. The data presented here confirm the oxidant effect of DFO on RBC. The data also demonstrate that the effect of DFO on RBC's NAD redox potential originates extracellularly. PMID:11074553

  9. Decrease of calcium binding by the red blood cell membrane in spontaneously hypertensive rats and in essential hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. V. Postnov; S. N. Orlov; N. I. Pokudin

    1979-01-01

    Ca binding in the red blood cell (RBC) membrane of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and of patients with essential hypertension was studied. Under conditions of physiological concentration of free Ca in the incubation medium of RBC the outer part of the membrane binds 393±32 and 435±30 nmole of Ca per ml of RBC in rats and humans, respectively, without essential

  10. 1. Introduction 2. Red blood cell (RBC)-based

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Liangfang

    goals in the field of cancer drug delivery. Long-circulating nanoparticles can more effectively localize effect in nanoparticle drug delivery, particularly toward cancer treat- ment. Many studies have shown (EPR) effect. Moreover, stealthy nanoparticles can selectively target cancer cells through

  11. Detection and characterization of red blood cell (RBC) aggregation with photoacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hysi, Eno; Saha, Ratan K.; Rui, Min; Kolios, Michael C.

    2012-02-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) aggregate in the presence of increased plasma fibrinogen and low shear forces during blood flow. RBC aggregation has been observed in deep vein thrombosis, sepsis and diabetes. We propose using photoacoustics (PA) as a non-invasive imaging modality to detect RBC aggregation. The theoretical and experimental feasibility of PA for detecting and characterizing aggregation was assessed. A simulation study was performed to generate PA signals from non-aggregated and aggregated RBCs using a frequency domain approach and to study the PA signals' dependence on hematocrit and aggregate size. The effect of the finite bandwidth nature of transducers on the PA power spectra was also investigated. Experimental confirmation of theoretical results was conducted using porcine RBC samples exposed to 1064 nm optical wavelength using the Imagio Small Animal PA imaging system (Seno Medical Instruments, Inc., San Antonio, TX). Aggregation was induced with Dextran-70 (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and the effect of hematocrit and aggregation level was investigated. The theoretical and experimental PA signal amplitude increased linearly with increasing hematocrit. The theoretical dominant frequency content of PA signals shifted towards lower frequencies (<30 MHz) and 9 dB enhancements in spectral power were observed as the size of aggregates increased compared to non-aggregating RBCs. Calibration of the PA spectra with the transducer response obtained from a 200 nm gold film was performed to remove system dependencies. Analysis of the spectral parameters from the calibrated spectra suggested that PA can assess the degree of aggregation at multiple hematocrit and aggregation levels.

  12. Pf155/RESA protein influences the dynamic microcirculatory behavior of ring-stage Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cells

    E-print Network

    Diez-Silva, Monica

    Proteins exported by Plasmodium falciparum to the red blood cell (RBC) membrane modify the structural properties of the parasitized RBC (Pf-RBC). Although quasi-static single cell assays show reduced ring-stage Pf-RBCs ...

  13. RBC urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    Red blood cells in urine; Hematuria test; Urine - red blood cells ... A normal result is 4 RBC/HPF (red blood cells per high power field) or less when the sample is examined under a microscope. The example above is a common measurement ...

  14. Changes in Band 3 oligomeric state precede cell membrane phospholipid loss during blood bank storage of red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Karon, Brad S.; Hoyer, James D.; Stubbs, James R.; Thomas, David D.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lipid loss in the form of vesicles contributes to the red blood cell (RBC) storage lesion, and this loss of lipid is correlated with changes in membrane protein function. Sensitive spectroscopic techniques were used to measure changes in Band 3 oligomeric state during storage of RBCs, compared to metabolic changes and phospholipid loss. The aim of the study was to determine whether changes in the macromolecular organization of membrane proteins occur before, coincident with, or after lipid loss during RBC storage. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Five RBC units were collected from normal volunteers and stored under standard blood bank conditions, and both metabolic changes and lipid loss were measured by multiple assays. Band 3 oligomeric state was assessed by time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer of eosin-5-maleimide–labeled RBC ghosts. RESULTS Extracellular pH decreased and extracellular potassium increased rapidly during cold storage of blood. Band 3 on the RBC membrane exhibited a shift from small to large oligomers early in the storage period and before detectable loss of phospholipid from the RBC membrane. The immobilized fraction of Band 3, that which is tethered to the cytoskeletal network via spectrin and ankyrin, did not change during cold storage. CONCLUSION Our results demonstrate that changes in the macromolecular organization of membrane proteins on the RBC occur early in storage, and these changes may induce phospholipid loss, irreversible morphologic changes, and loss of function during RBC storage. PMID:19389033

  15. Interaction of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with human red blood cell membranes: size and surface effects.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yannan; Sun, Xiaoxing; Zhang, Guannan; Trewyn, Brian G; Slowing, Igor I; Lin, Victor S-Y

    2011-02-22

    The interactions of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) of different particle sizes and surface properties with human red blood cell (RBC) membranes were investigated by membrane filtration, flow cytometry, and various microscopic techniques. Small MCM-41-type MSNs (?100 nm) were found to adsorb to the surface of RBCs without disturbing the membrane or morphology. In contrast, adsorption of large SBA-15-type MSNs (?600 nm) to RBCs induced a strong local membrane deformation leading to spiculation of RBCs, internalization of the particles, and eventual hemolysis. In addition, the relationship between the degree of MSN surface functionalization and the degree of its interaction with RBC, as well as the effect of RBC-MSN interaction on cellular deformability, were investigated. The results presented here provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of RBC-MSN interaction and the hemolytic activity of MSNs and will assist in the rational design of hemocompatible MSNs for intravenous drug delivery and in vivo imaging. PMID:21294526

  16. Transformation of membrane nanosurface of red blood cells under hemin action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, Elena; Chernysh, Alexander; Moroz, Victor; Gudkova, Olga; Sergunova, Victoria; Kuzovlev, Artem

    2014-08-01

    Hemin is the product of hemoglobin oxidation. Some diseases may lead to a formation of hemin. The accumulation of hemin causes destruction of red blood cells (RBC) membranes. In this study the process of development of topological defects of RBC membranes within the size range from nanoscale to microscale levels is shown. The formation of the grain-like structures in the membrane (``grains'') with typical sizes of 120-200 nm was experimentally shown. The process of formation of ``grains'' was dependent on the hemin concentration and incubation time. The possible mechanism of membrane nanostructure alterations is proposed. The kinetic equations of formation and transformation of small and medium topological defects were analyzed. This research can be used to study the cell intoxication and analyze the action of various agents on RBC membranes.

  17. RBC indices

    MedlinePLUS

    ... corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC); Mean corpuscular volume (MCV); Red blood cell indices ... and hemoglobin. The MCV reflects the size of red blood cells. The MCH and MCHC reflect the ...

  18. Composite fuel cell membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Plowman, K.R.; Rehg, T.J.; Davis, L.W.; Carl, W.P.; Cisar, A.J.; Eastland, C.S.

    1997-08-05

    A bilayer or trilayer composite ion exchange membrane is described suitable for use in a fuel cell. The composite membrane has a high equivalent weight thick layer in order to provide sufficient strength and low equivalent weight surface layers for improved electrical performance in a fuel cell. In use, the composite membrane is provided with electrode surface layers. The composite membrane can be composed of a sulfonic fluoropolymer in both core and surface layers.

  19. Composite fuel cell membranes

    DOEpatents

    Plowman, Keith R. (Lake Jackson, TX); Rehg, Timothy J. (Lake Jackson, TX); Davis, Larry W. (West Columbia, TX); Carl, William P. (Marble Falls, TX); Cisar, Alan J. (Cypress, TX); Eastland, Charles S. (West Columbia, TX)

    1997-01-01

    A bilayer or trilayer composite ion exchange membrane suitable for use in a fuel cell. The composite membrane has a high equivalent weight thick layer in order to provide sufficient strength and low equivalent weight surface layers for improved electrical performance in a fuel cell. In use, the composite membrane is provided with electrode surface layers. The composite membrane can be composed of a sulfonic fluoropolymer in both core and surface layers.

  20. Investigation of membrane mechanics using spring networks: application to red-blood-cell modelling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingzhu; Boyle, Fergal J

    2014-10-01

    In recent years a number of red-blood-cell (RBC) models have been proposed using spring networks to represent the RBC membrane. Some results predicted by these models agree well with experimental measurements. However, the suitability of these membrane models has been questioned. The RBC membrane, like a continuum membrane, is mechanically isotropic throughout its surface, but the mechanical properties of a spring network vary on the network surface and change with deformation. In this work spring-network mechanics are investigated in large deformation for the first time via an assessment of the effect of network parameters, i.e. network mesh, spring type and surface constraint. It is found that a spring network is conditionally equivalent to a continuum membrane. In addition, spring networks are employed for RBC modelling to replicate the optical tweezers test. It is found that a spring network is sufficient for modelling the RBC membrane but strain-hardening springs are required. Moreover, the deformation profile of a spring network is presented for the first time via the degree of shear. It is found that spring-network deformation approaches continuous as the mesh density increases. PMID:25175243

  1. Tension of red blood cell membrane in simple shear flow.

    PubMed

    Omori, T; Ishikawa, T; Barthès-Biesel, D; Salsac, A-V; Imai, Y; Yamaguchi, T

    2012-11-01

    When a red blood cell (RBC) is subjected to an external flow, it is deformed by the hydrodynamic forces acting on its membrane. The resulting elastic tensions in the membrane play a key role in mechanotransduction and govern its rupture in the case of hemolysis. In this study, we analyze the motion and deformation of an RBC in a simple shear flow and the resulting elastic tensions on the membrane. The large deformation of the red blood cell is modelled by coupling a finite element method to solve the membrane mechanics and a boundary element method to solve the flows of the internal and external liquids. Depending on the capillary number Ca, ratio of the viscous to elastic forces, we observe three kinds of RBC motion: tumbling at low Ca, swinging at larger Ca, and breathing at the transitions. In the swinging regime, the region of the high principal tensions periodically oscillates, whereas that of the high isotropic tensions is almost unchanged. Due to the strain-hardening property of the membrane, the deformation is limited but the membrane tension increases monotonically with the capillary number. We have quantitatively compared our numerical results with former experimental results. It indicates that a membrane isotropic tension O(10{-6} N/m) is high enough for molecular release from RBCs and that the typical maximum membrane principal tension for haemolysis would be O(10{-4} N/m). These findings are useful to clarify not only the membrane rupture but also the mechanotransduction of RBCs. PMID:23214889

  2. RBC-NOS-Dependent S-Nitrosylation of Cytoskeletal Proteins Improves RBC Deformability

    PubMed Central

    Grau, Marijke; Pauly, Sebastian; Ali, Jamal; Walpurgis, Katja; Thevis, Mario; Bloch, Wilhelm; Suhr, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Background Red blood cells (RBC) possess a nitric oxide synthase (RBC-NOS) whose activation depends on the PI3-kinase/Akt kinase pathway. RBC-NOS-produced NO exhibits important biological functions like maintaining RBC deformability. Until now, the cellular target structure for NO, to exert its influence on RBC deformability, remains unknown. In the present study we analyzed the modification of RBC-NOS activity by pharmacological treatments, the resulting influence on RBC deformability and provide first evidence for possible target proteins of RBC-NOS-produced NO in the RBC cytoskeletal scaffold. Methods/Findings Blood from fifteen male subjects was incubated with the NOS substrate L-arginine to directly stimulate enzyme activity. Direct inhibition of enzyme activity was induced by L-N5-(1-Iminoethyl)-ornithin (L-NIO). Indirect stimulation and inhibition of RBC-NOS were achieved by applying insulin and wortmannin, respectively, substances known to affect PI3-kinase/Akt kinase pathway. The NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO) were additionally applied as NO positive and negative controls, respectively. Immunohistochemical staining was used to determine phosphorylation and thus activation of RBC-NOS. As a marker for NO synthesis nitrite was measured in plasma and RBCs using chemiluminescence detection. S-nitrosylation of erythrocyte proteins was determined by biotin switch assay and modified proteins were identified using LC-MS. RBC deformability was determined by ektacytometry. The data reveal that activated RBC-NOS leads to increased NO production, S-nitrosylation of RBC proteins and RBC deformability, whereas RBC-NOS inhibition resulted in contrary effects. Conclusion/Significance This study first-time provides strong evidence that RBC-NOS-produced NO modifies RBC deformability through direct S-nitrosylation of cytoskeleton proteins, most likely ?- and ?-spectrins. Our data, therefore, gain novel insights into biological functions of RBC-NOS by connecting impaired RBC deformability abilities to specific posttranslational modifications of RBC proteins. By identifying likely NO-target proteins in RBC, our results will stimulate new therapeutic approaches for patients with microvascular disorders. PMID:23424675

  3. Measurement of the nonlinear elasticity of red blood cell membranes

    PubMed Central

    Park, YongKeun; Best, Catherine A.; Kuriabova, Tatiana; Henle, Mark L.; Feld, Michael S.; Levine, Alex J.; Popescu, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    The membranes of human red blood cells (RBCs) are a composite of a fluid lipid bilayer and a triangular network of semiflexible filaments (spectrin). We perform cellular microrheology using the dynamic membrane fluctuations of the RBCs to extract the elastic moduli of this composite membrane. By applying known osmotic stresses we measure the changes in the elastic constants under imposed strain and thereby determine the nonlinear elastic properties of the membrane. We find that the elastic nonlinearities of the shear modulus in tensed RBC membranes can be well-understood in terms of a simple worm-like chain model. Our results show that the elasticity of the spectrin network can mostly account for the area compression modulus at physiological osmolality, suggesting that the lipid bilayer has significant excess area. As the cell swells, the elastic contribution from the now tensed lipid membrane becomes dominant. PMID:21728589

  4. Mechanosensitivity of cell membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander G. Petrov; Peter N. R. Usherwood

    1994-01-01

    Physical and biophysical mechanisms of mechano-sensitivity of cell membranes are reviewed. The possible roles of the lipid matrix and of the cytoskeleton in membrane mechanoreception are discussed. Techniques for generation of static strains and dynamic curvatures of membrane patches are considered. A unified model for stress-activated and stress-inactivated ion channels under static strains is described. A review of work on

  5. Membrane in cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Galeotti, T.; Cittadini, A.; Neri, G.; Scarpa, A.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at a conference on membranes in cancer cells. Topics covered include Oncogenies, hormones, and free-radical processes in malignant transformation in vitro and Superoxide onion may trigger DNA strand breaks in human granulorytes by acting as a membrane target.

  6. Membrane elastic shear modulus of red blood cells with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and pyruvatekinase enzymopathies.

    PubMed

    Meier, W; Lerche, D; Jacobasch, G; Paulitschke, M

    1987-01-01

    The membrane elastic shear modulus mu determined by a micropipette technique was found to be elevated by 25% to 200% for red blood cells (RBC) from 7 patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) and 9 patients with pyruvate-kinase (PK) enzymopathies above the mean value for normal controls. All patients exhibit chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemias. A negative linear correlation (r = -0.72) between mu and the number of reticulocytes was obtained in G-6-PD deficiencies. In contrast, a positive correlation (r = 0.88) was found for red blood cells of patients with PK deficiency. A mechanically induced swelling of RBC was observed for some deficient cells. The results are discussed in the framework of structural alterations of the RBC membrane due to the disturbed pentose-phosphate pathway and the diminished ATP supply through glycolysis, respectively. PMID:3557817

  7. Membrane Cells for Brine Electrolysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tingle, M.

    1982-01-01

    Membrane cells were developed as alternatives to mercury and diaphragm cells for the electrolysis of brine. Compares the three types of cells, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of membrane cells. (JN)

  8. IgG red blood cell autoantibodies in autoimmune hemolytic anemia bind to epitopes on red blood cell membrane band 3 glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Victoria, E.J.; Pierce, S.W.; Branks, M.J.; Masouredis, S.P. (Univ. of California, San Diego (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) autoantibodies from patients with IgG warm-type autoimmune hemolytic anemia were labeled with iodine 125 and their RBC binding behavior characterized. Epitope-bearing RBC membrane polypeptides were identified after autoantibody immunoprecipitation of labeled membranes and immunoblotting. Immunoaffinity isolation of labeled membrane proteins with 12 different IgG hemolytic autoantibodies with protein A-agarose revealed a major polypeptide at Mr 95 to 110 kd, which coelectrophoresed on sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with a membrane component isolated with sheep IgG anti-band 3. Immunoprecipitation studies with chymotrypsinized RBCs resulted in the recovery of two labeled membrane polypeptides with molecular weights characteristically resulting from the chymotryptic fragmentation of band 3. Immunoblotting with sheep IgG anti-band 3 of the immunoprecipitated polypeptides confirmed that hemolytic autoantibody binding led to recovery of band 3 or its fragments. Two 125I-labeled IgG hemolytic autoantibodies showed binding behavior consistent with epitope localization on band 3. The labeled RBC autoantibodies bound immunospecifically to all types of human RBC tested, including those of rare Rh type (Rh-null, D--) at a site density of approximately 10(6) per RBC. The 125I-IgG in two labeled autoantibodies was 84% and 92% adsorbable by human and higher nonhuman primate RBCs. Antigen-negative animal RBC bound less than 10%, consistent with immunospecific RBC binding. IgG-1 was the major subclass in five autoantibodies tested; one of six fixed complement; and autoantibody IgG appeared polyclonal by isoelectric focusing. We conclude that IgG eluted from RBCs of patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia consists predominantly of a single totally RBC-adsorbable antibody population that binds to antigenic determinants on band 3.

  9. Cell Membranes Tutorial

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    New from The Biology Project of the University of Arizona, this online tutorial "introduces the dynamic complexes of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids that comprise cell membranes," and relates how membranes "are important for regulating ion and molecular traffic flow between cells." Each section of this Web site takes the form of a multiple choice question. Answer the question correctly, and a brief explanation of each answer choice will be displayed. Answer the question incorrectly, and a short but helpful tutorial with colorful diagrams will help get you on the right track. This would be an valuable Web site for students wishing to test themselves on cell membrane structure and function, but would not be especially useful for those new to the subject.

  10. Cell Membranes Tutorial

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    New from The Biology Project of the University of Arizona, this online tutorial introduces the dynamic complexes of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids that comprise cell membranes, and relates how membranes are important for regulating ion and molecular traffic flow between cells. Each section of this Web site takes the form of a multiple choice question. Answer the question correctly, and a brief explanation of each answer choice will be displayed. Answer the question incorrectly, and a short but helpful tutorial with colorful diagrams will help get you on the right track. This would be an valuable Web site for students wishing to test themselves on cell membrane structure and function, but would not be especially useful for those new to the subject.

  11. Rheological properties of RBC in the microcirculation of mammalian skeletal muscle. [red blood cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehrenberg, M. H.

    1974-01-01

    In the investigation the established technique of direct microscopic viewing was combined with the use of a closed circuit television system and cinematography. The red cell flow patterns in all capillaries were found to be oscillatory with characteristic cycle frequencies and amplitudes for all concentrations of inspired oxygen greater than 8%. Generally, there was a transient decrease in mean flow rate with increasing severity of hypoxia, with a gradual return toward control values. Red cell flow patterns are discussed along with questions of red cell configuration.

  12. Fuel cell membrane humidification

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell assembly has an anode side and a cathode side separated by the membrane and generating electrical current by electrochemical reactions between a fuel gas and an oxidant. The anode side comprises a hydrophobic gas diffusion backing contacting one side of the membrane and having hydrophilic areas therein for providing liquid water directly to the one side of the membrane through the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing. In a preferred embodiment, the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing are formed by sewing a hydrophilic thread through the backing. Liquid water is distributed over the gas diffusion backing in distribution channels that are separate from the fuel distribution channels.

  13. RBC deformability and amino acid concentrations after hypo-osmotic challenge may reflect chronic cell hydration status in healthy young men

    PubMed Central

    Stookey, Jodi D; Klein, Alexis; Hamer, Janice; Chi, Christine; Higa, Annie; Ng, Vivian; Arieff, Allen; Kuypers, Frans A; Larkin, Sandra; Perrier, Erica; Lang, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Biomarkers of chronic cell hydration status are needed to determine whether chronic hyperosmotic stress increases chronic disease risk in population-representative samples. In vitro, cells adapt to chronic hyperosmotic stress by upregulating protein breakdown to counter the osmotic gradient with higher intracellular amino acid concentrations. If cells are subsequently exposed to hypo-osmotic conditions, the adaptation results in excess cell swelling and/or efflux of free amino acids. This study explored whether increased red blood cell (RBC) swelling and/or plasma or urine amino acid concentrations after hypo-osmotic challenge might be informative about relative chronic hyperosmotic stress in free-living men. Five healthy men (20–25 years) with baseline total water intake below 2 L/day participated in an 8-week clinical study: four 2-week periods in a U-shaped A-B-C-A design. Intake of drinking water was increased by +0.8 ± 0.3 L/day in period 2, and +1.5 ± 0.3 L/day in period 3, and returned to baseline intake (0.4 ± 0.2 L/day) in period 4. Each week, fasting blood and urine were collected after a 750 mL bolus of drinking water, following overnight water restriction. The periods of higher water intake were associated with significant decreases in RBC deformability (index of cell swelling), plasma histidine, urine arginine, and urine glutamic acid. After 4 weeks of higher water intake, four out of five participants had ½ maximal RBC deformability below 400 mmol/kg; plasma histidine below 100 ?mol/L; and/or undetectable urine arginine and urine glutamic acid concentrations. Work is warranted to pursue RBC deformability and amino acid concentrations after hypo-osmotic challenge as possible biomarkers of chronic cell hydration. PMID:24303184

  14. Red blood cell membrane concentration of cis-palmitoleic and cis-vaccenic acids and risk of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Djoussé, Luc; Matthan, Nirupa R; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Gaziano, John M

    2012-08-15

    Although previous studies have suggested associations between plasma palmitoleic acid and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors, including blood pressure, inflammation, and insulin resistance, little is known about the relation of palmitoleic acid and CHD. This ancillary study of the Physicians' Health Study was designed to examine whether red blood cell (RBC) membrane cis-palmitoleic acid and cis-vaccenic acid-2 fatty acids that can be synthesized endogenously-are associated with CHD risk. We used a risk set sampling method to prospectively select 1,000 incident CHD events and 1,000 matched controls. RBC membrane fatty acids were measured using gas chromatography. The CHD cases were ascertained using an annual follow-up questionnaire and validated by an End Point Committee through a review of the medical records. In a conditional logistic regression analysis adjusting for demographics, anthropometric, lifestyle factors, and co-morbidity, the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CHD were 1.0 (referent), 1.29 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.75), 1.08 (95% CI 0.78 to 1.51), 1.25 (95% CI 0.90 to 1.75), and 1.48 (95% CI 1.03 to 2.14) across consecutive quintiles of RBC membrane cis-palmitoleic acid (p for trend = 0.041). The odds ratio associated with each SD higher RBC membrane cis-palmitoleic acid level was 1.19 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.35) in a multivariate-adjusted model. Finally, RBC membrane cis-vaccenic acid was inversely associated with CHD risk (odds ratio 0.79, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.91, per SD increase). In conclusion, our data showed a positive association between RBC membrane cis-palmitoleic acid and CHD risk in male physicians. Furthermore, RBC membrane cis-vaccenic acid was inversely related to CHD. PMID:22579341

  15. RBC Antibody Screen

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this website will be limited. Search Help? RBC Antibody Screen Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... treatable. ^ Back to top 3. Can I get antibodies from donating blood? No, you will not be ...

  16. Mechanical membrane properties of human red blood cells and their change due to metabolic disturbance.

    PubMed

    Lerche, D; Jacobasch, G; Meier, W; Megow, D

    1983-01-01

    Blood of patients suffering from non-spherocytic chronic haemolytic anemia due to individual mutations of glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) and pyruvate kinase (PK) was investigated by biochemical and rheological methods. Both enzymopathies are characterized by a strong increase (by the factor 2 to 4) in the overall RBC-rigidity and the elastic membrane shear modulus of the RBC. There was a positive correlation between the changed elastic shear modulus and the clinical picture in the case of PK deficiency and, in contrast, a negative correlation for patients with G-6-PD enzymopathies. The ability of RBC to change their shape or the static deformability is determined by the excess surface regarding to the enclosed volume, by the rheological properties of the hemoglobin content and by the membrane extension and bending moduli. The dynamic deformability is characterized by the time constant for rapid elastic and plastic deformations and becomes important for entrance and discharge processes in the microcirculation. These rheological relevant properties are subjected to metabolic control. Although for both enzymopathies the mechanism of hemolysis is not understood in detail, it has to be assumed that PK deficient RBC are mostly phagocytized and on the other hand G-6-PD deficient cells are destroyed to a higher extent by intravasal hemolysis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not expected changes in the RBC membrane structure due to the decreased ATP production by PK enzymopathies and diminished NADPH production by G-6-PD deficiencies result in abnormal mechanical membrane properties. The answer should give a better understanding of the premature RBC destruction. PMID:6675680

  17. Removal of erythrocyte membrane iron in vivo ameliorates the pathobiology of murine thalassemia.

    PubMed Central

    Browne, P V; Shalev, O; Kuypers, F A; Brugnara, C; Solovey, A; Mohandas, N; Schrier, S L; Hebbel, R P

    1997-01-01

    Abnormal deposits of free iron are found on the cytoplasmic surface of red blood cell (RBC) membranes in beta-thalassemia. To test the hypothesis that this is of importance to RBC pathobiology, we administered the iron chelator deferiprone (L1) intraperitoneally to beta-thalassemic mice for 4 wk and then studied RBC survival and membrane characteristics. L1 therapy decreased membrane free iron by 50% (P = 0.04) and concomitantly improved oxidation of membrane proteins (P = 0.007), the proportion of RBC gilded with immunoglobulin (P = 0.001), RBC potassium content (P < 0.001), and mean corpuscular volume (P < 0.001). Osmotic gradient ektacytometry confirmed a trend toward improvement of RBC hydration status. As determined by clearance of RBC biotinylated in vivo, RBC survival also was significantly improved in L1-treated mice compared with controls (P = 0.007). Thus, in vivo therapy with L1 removes pathologic free iron deposits from RBC membranes in murine thalassemia, and causes improvement in membrane function and RBC survival. This result provides in vivo confirmation that abnormal membrane free iron deposits contribute to the pathobiology of thalassemic RBC. PMID:9294111

  18. Membrane Compartmentalization in Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mirchev, Rossen; Lam, Alexander; Golan, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Red blood cells (RBCs) from individuals with Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (SAO) contain a mutant band 3 protein that causes the formation of unique linear oligomers in the RBC membrane. We used single-particle tracking to measure the lateral diffusion of individual glycophorin C (GPC), band 3, and CD58 proteins in membranes of intact SAO RBCs and normal RBCs (nRBCs). GPC, an integral protein that binds with high affinity to the RBC membrane skeleton, showed oscillatory motion within confinement areas that were smaller in SAO RBCs than in nRBCs. The additional confinement in SAO RBCs could be due to membrane stiffening associated with the SAO phenotype. Band 3 in both SAO RBCs and nRBCs also showed confined motion over short times (ms) and distances (nm), and the area of confinement was smaller in SAO RBCs than in nRBCs. These data presumably reflect the constraints imposed by band 3 oligomerization. Similarly, the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked protein CD58 showed loosely confined diffusion in nRBCs and a substantially higher degree of confinement in SAO RBCs. Restricted protein mobility could contribute to the altered adherence of parasite-infected RBCs to vascular endothelium that is thought to protect individuals with SAO from severe manifestations of malaria. PMID:21793815

  19. Two-dimensional strain-hardening membrane model for large deformation behavior of multiple red blood cells in high shear conditions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Computational modeling of Red Blood Cell (RBC) flow contributes to the fundamental understanding of microhemodynamics and microcirculation. In order to construct theoretical RBC models, experimental studies on single RBC mechanics have presented a material description for RBC membranes based on their membrane shear, bending and area moduli. These properties have been directly employed in 3D continuum models of RBCs but practical flow analysis with 3D models have been limited by their computationally expensive nature. As such, various researchers have employed 2D models to efficiently and qualitatively study microvessel flows. Currently, the representation of RBC dynamics using 2D models is a limited methodology that breaks down at high shear rates due to excessive and unrealistic stretching. Methods We propose a localized scaling of the 2D elastic moduli such that it increases with RBC local membrane strain, thereby accounting for effects such as the Poisson effect and membrane local area incompressibility lost in the 2D simplification. Validation of our 2D Large Deformation (2D-LD) RBC model was achieved by comparing the predicted RBC deformation against the 3D model from literature for the case of a single RBC in simple shear flow under various shear rates (dimensionless shear rate G?=?0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5). The multi-cell flow of RBCs (38% Hematocrit) in a 20 ?m width microchannel under varying shear rates (50, 150, 150 s-1) was then simulated with our proposed model and the popularly-employed 2D neo-Hookean model in order to evaluate the efficacy of our proposed 2D-LD model. Results The validation set indicated similar RBC deformation for both the 2D-LD and the 3D models across the studied shear rates, highlighting the robustness of our model. The multi-cell simulation indicated that the 2D neo-Hookean model predicts noodle-like RBC shapes at high shear rates (G?=?0.5) whereas our 2D-LD model maintains sensible RBC deformations. Conclusion The ability of the 2D-LD model to limit RBC strain even at high shear rates enables this proposed model to be employed in practical simulations of high shear rate microfluidic flows such as blood separation channels. PMID:24885482

  20. Cell Membrane Color Sheet and Build a Cell Membrane

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    VU Bioengineering RET Program,

    Students color-code a schematic of a cell and its cell membrane structures. Then they complete the "Build-a-Membrane" activity found at http://learn.genetics.utah.edu. This reinforces their understanding of the structure and function of animal cells, and shows them the importance of being able to construct a tangible model of something that is otherwise difficult to see.

  1. Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion rates among US chronic dialysis patients during changes to Medicare end-stage renal disease (ESRD) reimbursement systems and erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA) labels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Several major ESRD-related regulatory and reimbursement changes were introduced in the United States in 2011. In several large, national datasets, these changes have been associated with decreases in erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA) utilization and hemoglobin concentrations in the ESRD population, as well as an increase in the use of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in this population. Our objective was to examine the use of RBC transfusion before and after the regulatory and reimbursement changes implemented in 2011 in a prevalent population of chronic dialysis patients in a large national claims database. Methods Patients in the Truven Health MarketScan Commercial and Medicare Databases with evidence of chronic dialysis were selected for the study. The proportion of chronic dialysis patients who received any RBC transfusion and RBC transfusion event rates per 100 patient-months were calculated in each month from January 1, 2007 to March 31, 2012. The results were analyzed overall and stratified by primary health insurance payer (commercial payer or Medicare). Results Overall, the percent of chronic dialysis patients with RBC transfusion and RBC transfusion event rates per 100 patient-months increased between January 2007 and March 2012. When stratified by primary health insurance payer, it appears that the increase was driven by the primary Medicare insurance population. While the percent of patients with RBC transfusion and RBC transfusion event rates did not increase in the commercially insured population between 2007 and 2012 they did increase in the primary Medicare insurance population; the majority of the increase occurred in 2011 during the same time frame as the ESRD-related regulatory and reimbursement changes. Conclusions The regulatory and reimbursement changes implemented in 2011 may have contributed to an increase in the use of RBC transfusions in chronic dialysis patients in the MarketScan dataset who were covered by Medicare plus Medicare supplemental insurance. PMID:25015348

  2. Evaluation of Red Cell Membrane Cytoskeletal Disorders Using a Flow Cytometric Method in South Iran

    PubMed Central

    Golafshan, Habib Alah; Ranjbaran, Reza; Kalantari, Tahereh; Moezzi, Leili; Karimi, Mehran; Behzad- Behbahani, Abbas; Aboualizadeh, Farzaneh; Sharifzadeh, Sedigheh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The diagnosis of hereditary red blood cell (RBC) membrane disorders, and in particular hereditary spherocytosis (HS) and Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (SAO), is based on clinical history, RBC morphology, and other conventional tests such as osmotic fragility. However, there are some milder cases of these disorders that are difficult to diagnose. The application of eosin-5’-maleimide (EMA) was evaluated for screening of RBC membrane defects along with some other anemias. We used EMA dye, which binds mostly to band 3 protein and to a lesser extent some other membrane proteins, for screening of some membrane defects such as HS. Materials and Methods: Fresh RBCs from hematologically normal controls and patients with HS, SAO, hereditary elliptocytosis, hereditary spherocytosis with pincered cells, severe iron deficiency, thalassemia minor, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia were stained with EMA dye and analyzed for mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) using a flow cytometer. Results: RBCs from patients with HS and iron deficiency showed a significant reduction in MFI compared to those from normal controls (p<0.0001 and p<0.001, respectively), while macrocytic RBCs showed a significant increase in MFI (p<0.01). A significant correlation was shown between mean corpuscular volume and MFI, with the exceptions of HS and thalassemia minor. Conclusion: Our results showed that the flow cytometric method could be a reliable diagnostic method for screening and confirmation, with higher sensitivity and specificity (95% and 93%, respectively) than conventional routine tests for HS patients prior to further specific membrane protein molecular tests. PMID:24764726

  3. Microfluidics analysis of red blood cell membrane viscoelasticity.

    PubMed

    Tomaiuolo, Giovanna; Barra, Mario; Preziosi, Valentina; Cassinese, Antonio; Rotoli, Bruno; Guido, Stefano

    2011-02-01

    In this work, a microfluidic system to investigate the flow behavior of red blood cells in a microcirculation-mimicking network of PDMS microchannels with thickness comparable to cell size is presented. We provide the first quantitative description of cell velocity and shape as a function of the applied pressure drop in such devices. Based on these results, a novel methodology to measure cell membrane viscoelastic properties in converging/diverging flow is developed, and the results are in good agreement with data from the literature. In particular, in the diverging channel the effect of RBC surface viscosity is dominant with respect to shear elasticity. Possible applications include measurements of cell deformability in pathological samples, where reliable methods are still lacking. PMID:21076756

  4. Targeting glutathione by dimethylfumarate protects against experimental malaria by enhancing erythrocyte cell membrane scrambling.

    PubMed

    Ghashghaeinia, Mehrdad; Bobbala, Diwakar; Wieder, Thomas; Koka, Saisudha; Brück, Jürgen; Fehrenbacher, Birgit; Röcken, Martin; Schaller, Martin; Lang, Florian; Ghoreschi, Kamran

    2010-10-01

    The balance between GSH-levels and oxidative stress is critical for cell survival. The GSH-levels of erythrocytes are dramatically decreased during infection with Plasmodium spp. We therefore investigated the consequences of targeting GSH for erythrocyte and Plasmodium survival in vitro and in vivo using dimethylfumarate (DMF) at therapeutically established dosage. We first show that noninfected red blood cells (RBC) exposed to DMF undergo changes typical of apoptosis or eryptosis, such as cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with subsequent phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure. DMF did not induce appreciable hemolysis. DMF-triggered PS exposure was mediated by intracellular GSH depletion and reversed by the antioxidative N-acetyl-l-cysteine. DMF treatment controlled intraerythrocyte DNA amplification and in vitro parasitemia of Plasmodium falciparum-infected RBC. In vivo, DMF treatment had no effect on RBC count or GSH levels in noninfected mice. Consistent with its effects on infected RBC, DMF treatment abrogated parasitemia and enhanced the survival of mice infected with Plasmodium berghei from 0% to 60%. In conclusion, DMF sensitizes the erythrocytes to the effect of Plasmodium infection on PS exposure, thus accelerating the clearance of infected erythrocytes. Accordingly, DMF treatment favorably influences the clinical course of malaria. As DMF targets mechanisms within the host cell, it is not likely to generate resistance of the pathogen. PMID:20631250

  5. Proteomic analysis of ERK1/2-mediated human sickle red blood cell membrane protein phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In sickle cell disease (SCD), the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) ERK1/2 is constitutively active and can be inducible by agonist-stimulation only in sickle but not in normal human red blood cells (RBCs). ERK1/2 is involved in activation of ICAM-4-mediated sickle RBC adhesion to the endothelium. However, other effects of the ERK1/2 activation in sickle RBCs leading to the complex SCD pathophysiology, such as alteration of RBC hemorheology are unknown. Results To further characterize global ERK1/2-induced changes in membrane protein phosphorylation within human RBCs, a label-free quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis was applied to sickle and normal RBC membrane ghosts pre-treated with U0126, a specific inhibitor of MEK1/2, the upstream kinase of ERK1/2, in the presence or absence of recombinant active ERK2. Across eight unique treatment groups, 375 phosphopeptides from 155 phosphoproteins were quantified with an average technical coefficient of variation in peak intensity of 19.8%. Sickle RBC treatment with U0126 decreased thirty-six phosphopeptides from twenty-one phosphoproteins involved in regulation of not only RBC shape, flexibility, cell morphology maintenance and adhesion, but also glucose and glutamate transport, cAMP production, degradation of misfolded proteins and receptor ubiquitination. Glycophorin A was the most affected protein in sickle RBCs by this ERK1/2 pathway, which contained 12 unique phosphorylated peptides, suggesting that in addition to its effect on sickle RBC adhesion, increased glycophorin A phosphorylation via the ERK1/2 pathway may also affect glycophorin A interactions with band 3, which could result in decreases in both anion transport by band 3 and band 3 trafficking. The abundance of twelve of the thirty-six phosphopeptides were subsequently increased in normal RBCs co-incubated with recombinant ERK2 and therefore represent specific MEK1/2 phospho-inhibitory targets mediated via ERK2. Conclusions These findings expand upon the current model for the involvement of ERK1/2 signaling in RBCs. These findings also identify additional protein targets of this pathway other than the RBC adhesion molecule ICAM-4 and enhance the understanding of the mechanism of small molecule inhibitors of MEK/1/2/ERK1/2, which could be effective in ameliorating RBC hemorheology and adhesion, the hallmarks of SCD. PMID:23286773

  6. Studying red blood cell agglutination by measuring membrane viscosity with optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Heloise P.; Fontes, Adriana; de Thomaz, André A.; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Barjas-Castro, Maria L.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2007-09-01

    The red blood cell (RBC) viscoelastic membrane contains proteins and glycoproteins embedded in a fluid lipid bilayer that are responsible for cell agglutination. Manipulating RBCs rouleaux with a double optical tweezers, we observed that the cells slide easily one over the others but are strongly connected by their edges. An explanation for this behavior could be the fact that when the cells slide one over the others, proteins are dragged through the membrane. It confers to the movement a viscous characteristic that is dependent of the velocity between the RBCs and justifies why is so easy to slide them apart. Therefore, in a first step of this work, by measuring the force as a function of the relative velocity between two cells, we confirmed this assumption and used this viscous characteristic of the RBC rouleaux to determine the apparent membrane viscosity of the cell. As this behavior is related to the proteins interactions, we can use the apparent membrane viscosity to obtain a better understanding about cell agglutination. Methods related to cell agglutination induced by antigen-antibody interactions are the basis of most of tests used in transfusion centers. Then, in a second step of this work, we measured the apparent membrane viscosity using antibodies. We observed that this methodology is sensitive to different kinds of bindings between RBCs. Better comprehension of the forces and bindings between RBCs could improve the sensibility and specificity of the hemagglutination reactions and also guides the development of new potentiator substances.

  7. Factors Influencing RBC Alloimmunization: Lessons Learned from Murine Models

    PubMed Central

    Ryder, Alex B.; Zimring, James C.; Hendrickson, Jeanne E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization may occur following transfusion or pregnancy/delivery. Although observational human studies have described the immunogenicity of RBC antigens and the clinical significance of RBC alloantibodies, studies of factors influencing RBC alloimmunization in humans are inherently limited by the large number of independent variables involved. This manuscript reviews data generated in murine models that utilize transgenic donor mice, which express RBC-specific model or authentic human blood group antigens. Transfusion of RBCs from such donors into nontransgenic but otherwise genetically identical recipient mice allows for the investigation of individual donor or recipient-specific variables that may impact RBC alloimmunization. Potential donor-related variables include methods of blood product collection, processing and storage, donor-specific characteristics, RBC antigen-specific factors, and others. Potential recipient-related variables include genetic factors (MHC/HLA type and polymorphisms of immunoregulatory genes), immune activation status, phenotype of regulatory immune cell subsets, immune cell functional characteristics, prior antigen exposures, and others. Although murine models are not perfect surrogates for human biology, these models generate phenomenological and mechanistic hypotheses of RBC alloimmunization and lay the groundwork for follow-up human studies. Long-term goals include improving transfusion safety and minimizing the morbidity/mortality associated with RBC alloimmunization. PMID:25670928

  8. Pharmaco-Proteomic Study of Hydroxyurea-Induced Modifications in the Sickle Red Blood Cell Membrane Proteome

    PubMed Central

    GHATPANDE, SWATI S.; CHOUDHARY, PANKAJ K.; QUINN, CHARLES T.; GOODMAN, STEVEN R.

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyurea (HU) is an effective oral drug for the management of homozygous sickle cell anemia (SS) in part because it increases fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels within sickle red blood cells (RBCs) and thus reduces sickling. However, results from the Multicenter Study of HU suggested that clinical symptoms often improved before a significant increase in HbF levels occurred. This indicated that HU may be acting through the modification of additional cellular mechanisms that are yet to be identified. Hence, in this study, we focused on the analysis of the sickle RBC membrane proteome +/? HU treatment. 2D-DIGE (Two Dimensional Difference In-Gel Electrophoresis) technology and tandem mass spectrometry has been used to determine quantitative differences between sickle cell membrane proteins in the presence and absence of a clinically relevant concentration of HU. In vitro protein profiling of 13 sickle RBC membrane samples +/? 50 ?M HU identified 10 statistically significant protein spots. Of these, the most remarkable class of proteins to show a statistically significant increase was the antioxidant enzymes—catalase, thioredoxin peroxidase and biliverdin reductase and the chaperonin containing TCP1 complex assisting in the folding of RBC cytoskeletal proteins. Interestingly, catalase immunoblots showed an increase in the acidic forms of the enzyme within sickle RBC membranes on incubation with 50 ?M HU. We further identified this modification in catalase to be phosphorylation and demonstrated that HU exposed SS RBC membranes showed a 2-fold increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of catalase as compared to counterparts not exposed to HU. These results present an attractive model for HU-induced post-translational modification and potential activation of catalase in mature sickle RBCs. These findings also identify protein targets of HU other than fetal hemoglobin and enhance the understanding of the drug mechanism. PMID:18849548

  9. Preliminary Evidence for Cell Membrane Amelioration in Children with Cystic Fibrosis by 5-MTHF and Vitamin B12 Supplementation: A Single Arm Trial

    PubMed Central

    Scambi, Cinzia; De Franceschi, Lucia; Guarini, Patrizia; Poli, Fabio; Siciliano, Angela; Pattini, Patrizia; Biondani, Andrea; La Verde, Valentina; Bortolami, Oscar; Turrini, Francesco; Carta, Franco; D'Orazio, Ciro; Assael, Baroukh M.; Faccini, Giovanni; Bambara, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common fatal autosomal recessive disorders in the Caucasian population caused by mutations of gene for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). New experimental therapeutic strategies for CF propose a diet supplementation to affect the plasma membrane fluidity and to modulate amplified inflammatory response. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) and vitamin B12 supplementation for ameliorating cell plasma membrane features in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis. Methodology and Principal Findings A single arm trial was conducted from April 2004 to March 2006 in an Italian CF care centre. 31 children with CF aged from 3 to 8 years old were enrolled. Exclusion criteria were diabetes, chronic infections of the airways and regular antibiotics intake. Children with CF were supplemented for 24 weeks with 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF, 7.5 mg /day) and vitamin B12 (0.5 mg/day). Red blood cells (RBCs) were used to investigate plasma membrane, since RBCs share lipid, protein composition and organization with other cell types. We evaluated RBCs membrane lipid composition, membrane protein oxidative damage, cation content, cation transport pathways, plasma and RBCs folate levels and plasma homocysteine levels at baseline and after 24 weeks of 5-MTHF and vitamin B12 supplementation. In CF children, 5-MTHF and vitamin B12 supplementation (i) increased plasma and RBC folate levels; (ii) decreased plasma homocysteine levels; (iii) modified RBC membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition; (iv) increased RBC K+ content; (v) reduced RBC membrane oxidative damage and HSP70 membrane association. Conclusion and Significance 5-MTHF and vitamin B12 supplementation might ameliorate RBC membrane features of children with CF. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00730509 PMID:19277125

  10. The First Cell Membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Deamer; Jason P. Dworkin; Scott A. Sandford; Max P. Bernstein; Louis J. Allamandola

    2002-01-01

    Organic compounds are synthesized in the interstellar medium and can be delivered to planetary surfaces such as the early Earth, where they mix with endogenous species. Some of these compounds are amphiphilic, having polar and nonpolar groups on the same molecule. Amphiphilic compounds spontaneously self-assemble into more complex structures such as bimolecular layers, which in turn form closed membranous vesicles.

  11. Electropermeabilization of the cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Teissie, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Membrane electropermeabilization is the observation that the permeability of a cell membrane can be transiently increased when a micro-millisecond external electric field pulse is applied on a cell suspension or on a tissue. Applicative aspects for the transfer of foreign molecules (macromolecules) into the cytoplasm are routinely used. But only a limited knowledge about what is really occurring in the cell and its membranes at the molecular levels is available. This chapter is a critical attempt to report the present state of the art and to point out some of the still open problems. The experimental facts associated to membrane electropermeabilization are firstly reported. They are valid on biological and model systems. Secondly, soft matter approaches give access to the bioelectrochemical description of the thermodynamical constraints supporting the destabilization of simplified models of the biological membrane. It is indeed described as a thin dielectric leaflet, where a molecular transport takes place by electrophoresis and then diffusion. This naïve approach is due to the lack of details on the structural aspects affecting the living systems as shown in a third part. Membranes are part of the cell machinery. The critical property of cells as being an open system from the thermodynamical point of view is almost never present. Computer simulations are now contributing to our knowledge on electropermeabilization. The last part of this chapter is a (very) critical report of all the efforts that have been performed. The final conclusion remains that we still do not know all the details on the reversible structural and dynamical alterations of the cell membrane (and cytoplasm) supporting its electropermeabilization. We have a long way in basic and translational researches to reach a pertinent description. PMID:24510809

  12. Pervaporation membranes in direct methanol fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan S. Pivovar; Yuxin Wang; E. L. Cussler

    1999-01-01

    The membranes in direct methanol fuel cells must both conduct protons and serve as a barrier for methanol. Nafion, the most common fuel cell membrane, is an excellent conductor but a poor barrier. Polyvinyl alcohol pervaporation membranes are good methanol barriers but poor conductors. These and most other pervaporation membranes offer no significant advantages over Nafion in methanol fuel cell

  13. Corrugated Membrane Fuel Cell Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Grot, Stephen [President, Ion Power Inc.] President, Ion Power Inc.

    2013-09-30

    One of the most challenging aspects of traditional PEM fuel cell stacks is the difficulty achieving the platinum catalyst utilization target of 0.2 gPt/kWe set forth by the DOE. Good catalyst utilization can be achieved with state-of-the-art catalyst coated membranes (CCM) when low catalyst loadings (<0.3 mg/cm2) are used at a low current. However, when low platinum loadings are used, the peak power density is lower than conventional loadings, requiring a larger total active area and a larger bipolar plate. This results in a lower overall stack power density not meeting the DOE target. By corrugating the fuel cell membrane electrode structure, Ion Power?s goal is to realize both the Pt utilization targets as well as the power density targets of the DOE. This will be achieved by demonstrating a fuel cell single cell (50 cm2) with a twofold increase in the membrane active area over the geometric area of the cell by corrugating the MEA structure. The corrugating structure must be able to demonstrate the target properties of < 10 mOhm-cm2 electrical resistance at > 20 psi compressive strength over the active area, in combination with offering at least 80% of power density that can be achieved by using the same MEA in a flat plate structure. Corrugated membrane fuel cell structures also have the potential to meet DOE power density targets by essentially packaging more membrane area into the same fuel cell volume as compared to conventional stack constructions.

  14. Red cell membrane disorders.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patrick G

    2005-01-01

    Disorders of the erythrocyte membrane, including hereditary spherocytosis, hereditary elliptocytosis, hereditary pyropoikilocytosis, and hereditary stomatocytosis, comprise an important group of inherited hemolytic anemias. These syndromes are characterized by marked clinical and laboratory heterogeneity. Recent molecular studies have revealed that there is also significant genetic heterogeneity in these disorders. This is particularly true for the spherocytosis syndromes where each kindred has a private mutation in one of the spherocytosis genes. Treatment with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Splenectomy via a laparoscopic approach has become the surgical method of choice. Growing recognition and understanding of the long-term risks and complications of splenectomy, including cardiovascular disease, thrombotic disorders, and pulmonary hypertension, and the emergence of penicillin-resistant pneumococci, a concern for infection in overwhelming postsplenectomy infection, have led to reevaluation of the role of splenectomy. Recent management guidelines acknowledge these important considerations when entertaining splenectomy and recommend detailed discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. PMID:16304353

  15. The Cell Membrane and Nanotechnology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Liang, Barbara

    This activity is from the Wisconsin Online Resource Center, which is a digital library of web-based learning objects. Barbara Liang created this resource, and it examines nanotechnology applications that are based on cell membrane structure and function. The brief activity contains animated illustrations and interactives that help students grasp nanotechnology concepts.

  16. Marathon Running Fails to Influence RBC Survival Rates in Iron-Replete Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steenkamp, Irene; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This study used radiolabeling to measure red blood cell (RBC) survival rates in six iron-replete female marathon runners, and urinary tests were conducted to search for secondary evidence of RBC damage. The hypothesized RBC fragmentation was not disclosed. (Author/MT)

  17. Dietary supplementation with docosahexanoic acid (DHA) increases red blood cell membrane flexibility in mice with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Wandersee, Nancy J; Maciaszek, Jamie L; Giger, Katie M; Hanson, Madelyn S; Zheng, Suilan; Guo, YiHe; Mickelson, Barbara; Hillery, Cheryl A; Lykotrafitis, George; Low, Philip S; Hogg, Neil

    2015-02-01

    Humans and mice with sickle cell disease (SCD) have rigid red blood cells (RBCs). Omega-3 fatty acids, such as docosahexanoic acid (DHA), may influence RBC deformability via incorporation into the RBC membrane. In this study, sickle cell (SS) mice were fed natural ingredient rodent diets supplemented with 3% DHA (DHA diet) or a control diet matched in total fat (CTRL diet). After 8weeks of feeding, we examined the RBCs for: 1) stiffness, as measured by atomic force microscopy; 2) deformability, as measured by ektacytometry; and 3) percent irreversibly sickled RBCs on peripheral blood smears. Using atomic force microscopy, it is found that stiffness is increased and deformability decreased in RBCs from SS mice fed CTRL diet compared to wild-type mice. In contrast, RBCs from SS mice fed DHA diet had markedly decreased stiffness and increased deformability compared to RBCs from SS mice fed CTRL diet. Furthermore, examination of peripheral blood smears revealed less irreversibly sickled RBCs in SS mice fed DHA diet as compared to CTRL diet. In summary, our findings indicate that DHA supplementation improves RBC flexibility and reduces irreversibly sickled cells by 40% in SS mice. These results point to potential therapeutic benefits of dietary omega-3 fatty acids in SCD. PMID:25488613

  18. Effect of yoga training on plasma lipid profile, R.B.C. membrane lipid peroxidation and Na + K + ATPase activity in patients of essential hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Talukdar; S. Verma; S. C. Jain; M. Majumdar

    1996-01-01

    We conducted a controlled study on effect of selected yoga practive in the control and management of 50 cases of essential\\u000a hypertension and equal number of healthy (nonhypertensive) controls. Free radical cellular damage is considered to be the\\u000a underlying common biological factor in essential hypertension. We, therefore, investigated lipid profile lipid peroxidation\\u000a and Na+K+ ATPase activities of plasma membrane of

  19. Defected red blood cell membranes and direct correlation with the uraemic milieu: the connection with the decreased red blood cell lifespan observed in haemodialysis patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamopoulos, D.; Grapsa, E.; Manios, E.; Gogola, V.; Bakirtzi, N.

    2012-12-01

    Together with impaired production of erythropoietin and iron deficiency, the decreased lifespan of red blood cells (RBCs) is a main factor contributing to the chronic anaemia observed in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Atomic force microscopy is employed in this work to thoroughly survey the membrane of intact RBCs (iRBCs) of HD patients in comparison to those of healthy donors, aiming to obtain direct information on the structural status of RBCs that can be related to their decreased lifespan. We observed that the iRBC membrane of the HD patients is overpopulated with extended circular defects, termed ‘orifices’, that have typical dimension ranging between 0.2 and 1.0 ?m. The ‘orifice’ index—that is, the mean population of ‘orifices’ per top membrane surface—exhibits a pronounced relative increase of order 54 ± 12% for the HD patients as compared to healthy donors. Interestingly, for the HD patients, the ‘orifice’ index, which relates to the structural status of the RBC membrane, correlates strongly with urea concentration, which is a basic index of the uraemic milieu. Thus, these results indicate that the uraemic milieu downgrades the structural status of the RBC membrane, possibly triggering biochemical processes that result in their premature elimination from the circulation. This process could decrease the lifespan of RBCs, as observed in HD patients.

  20. Membrane degradation mechanisms in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Vishal Onkarmal

    Membrane degradation and failure is one of the most important factors limiting the lifetime of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Increasing the membrane life by developing degradation mitigation strategies in the cell or developing a new membrane with improved life requires a detailed understanding of the membrane degradation mechanism during operation in a PEMFC. An in-situ and nondestructive technique, which relies on the measurement of the membrane degradation rate in a fuel cell, was used to study the chemical/electrochemical mode of membrane degradation. NafionRTM membrane was used for the degradation study and fluoride emission rate (FER) as measured from the fuel cell effluent water analysis was used as a quantitative indicator of the membrane degradation rate. The degradation mechanism was studied by a detailed investigation of the effect of reactants, catalyst properties (location, potential, catalyst type, interaction with O2 and H2O), cell current, membrane thickness, NafionRTM counterion, and direction of water movement on the membrane degradation rate. Based on the experimental findings it is shown that commonly known membrane degradation mechanisms involving formation of active oxygen species from H 2O2 decomposition or the direct formation of active oxygen species in the oxygen reduction reaction are not the dominating membrane degradation mechanisms in PEMFCs. It is proposed that molecular H2 and O 2 react on the surface of Pt catalyst to form the membrane degrading species. Depending upon the catalyst location the source of H2 or O2 or both is from the reactant crossover through the membrane. The reaction mechanism is chemical in nature and depends upon the catalyst surface properties and the relative concentrations of H2 and O 2 at the catalyst. The membrane degradation rate also depends on the residence time of the species in the membrane and the reaction volume i.e. the membrane thickness. Thus, the membrane degradation may not be limited only to the polymer surface in contact with Pt catalyst. The sulfonic acid groups in the NafionRTM side chain are key to the mechanism by which the radical species attack the polymer.

  1. Comparative study of red blood cell method in rat and calves blood as alternatives of Draize eye irritation test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Lagarto; R. Vega; Y. Vega; I. Guerra; R. González

    2006-01-01

    IntroductionRed blood cell assay (RBC) is used to estimate potential irritation of tensioactive agents and detergents. Cell membrane lysis and cell protein denaturation are measured photometrically. This study was aimed to determine if rat blood cells can be used to predict eye potential irritation in the same way of calves blood cells in RBC assay.

  2. Following-up changes in red blood cell deformability and membrane stability in the presence of PTFE graft implanted into the femoral artery in a canine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Csaba; Kiss, Ferenc; Klarik, Zoltan; Gergely, Eszter; Toth, Eniko; Peto, Katalin; Vanyolos, Erzsebet; Miko, Iren; Nemeth, Norbert

    2014-05-01

    It is known that a moderate mechanical stress can even improve the red blood cells' (RBC) micro-rheological characteristics, however, a more significant stress causes deterioration in the deformability. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of the presence of artificial graft on the RBC deformability and membrane stability in beagles. In the Control group only anesthesia was induced and in the postoperative (p.o.) period blood samplings were carried out. In the Grafted group under general anesthesia, the left femoral artery was isolated, from which a 3.5 cm segment was resected and a PTFE graft (O.D.: 3 mm) of equal in length was implanted into the gap. On the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th and 14th p.o. days blood was collected the cephalic veins and RBC deformability was determined ektacytometry (LoRRca MaxSis Osmoscan). Membrane stability test consisted of two deformability measurements before and after the cells were being exposed to mechanical stress (60 or 100 Pa for 300 seconds). Compared to the Control group and the baseline values the red blood cell deformability showed significant deterioration on the 3rd, 5th and mainly on the 7th postoperative day after the graft implantation. The membrane stability of erythrocyte revealed marked inter-group difference on the 3rd, 5th and 7th day: in the Grafted group the deformability decreased and during the membrane stability test smaller difference was observed between the states before and after shearing. We concluded that the presence of a PTFE graft in the femoral artery may cause changes in RBC deformability in the first p.o. week. RBC membrane stability investigation shows a lower elongation index profile for the grafted group and a narrowed alteration in the deformability curves due to mechanical stress.

  3. Membrane Cells in Chlor Alkali Application

    E-print Network

    Lesker, K.

    MEMBRANE CELLS IN COLOR ALKALI APPLICATION Dr. K. Lesker, UHDE GmbH ABSTRACT The worldwide chlorine/caustic soda production has reached approximately 40 million tpy. Despite the stagnation of the chlorine demand in thc wcstcrn world, e... of the per fluorinated ion exchange membrane 1968-72 Development of the membrane process 1Membranes for > 30% of NaOH IY81 first conversion of a diaphragm plant In a membrane chloralkali...

  4. Membrane heterogeneity in murine stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, C.P.; Kerk, D.K.; Norman, A.

    1980-01-01

    The cell membrane's role in hemopoietic differentiation and regulation is increasingly evident. Certain fluorescent molecules interact with membrane components at the molecular level. The organic dye merocyanine 540(MCN) is such a tool for studying hemopoietic stem cell membranes at the molecular level. This paper present work involving biologic interactions of MCN with CLL (chronic lymphocytic leukemia) and hemopoietic cell membranes. The authors work indicates that MNC staining reveals membrane differences that accompany cellular transformation and differentiation. Changes in MNC fluorescene indicate that hemopoietic cells are heterogeneous with respect to membrane properties, and sensitivity to MNC photoinactivation reveals that membrane properties may change as a function of differentiative state between pluripotent and committed granulocytic precursor cells.

  5. Actinide transport across cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Bulman, R A; Griffin, R J

    1980-01-01

    Protactinium uptake into the normal liver does not exceed 3%, but when the phospholipid levels in the liver are elevated by administration of thioacetamide this uptake increases to 31%. Phosphatidic acid, which is absent from the normal liver, has been shown to extract protactinium into organic solvents. However, phosphatidylserine, a component of normal liver cell membranes, does not extract protactinium. It might be conjectured that this is why so little protactinium is taken up by the normal liver. The hypothesis is advanced that phosphatidylserine, which is known to complex plutonium, americium and curium, may regulate the uptake of these elements by liver. PMID:7373293

  6. Competition between Na + and Li + for Unsealed and Cytoskeleton-Depleted Human Red Blood Cell Membrane: A 23Na Multiple Quantum Filtered and 7Li NMR Relaxation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Chandra; Minadeo, Nicole; Toon, Jason; Graham, Daniel; Mota de Freitas, Duarte; Geraldes, Carlos F. G. C.

    1999-09-01

    Evidence for competition between Li+ and Na+ for binding sites of human unsealed and cytoskeleton-depleted human red blood cell (csdRBC) membranes was obtained from the effect of added Li+ upon the 23Na double quantum filtered (DQF) and triple quantum filtered (TQF) NMR signals of Na+-containing red blood cell (RBC) membrane suspensions. We found that, at low ionic strength, the observed quenching effect of Li+ on the 23Na TQF and DQF signal intensity probed Li+/Na+ competition for isotropic binding sites only. Membrane cytoskeleton depletion significantly decreased the isotropic signal intensity, strongly affecting the binding of Na+ to isotropic membrane sites, but had no effect on Li+/Na+ competition for those sites. Through the observed 23Na DQF NMR spectra, which allow probing of both isotropic and anisotropic Na+ motion, we found anisotropic membrane binding sites for Na+ when the total ionic strength was higher than 40 mM. This is a consequence of ionic strength effects on the conformation of the cytoskeleton, in particular on the dimer-tetramer equilibrium of spectrin. The determinant involvement of the cytoskeleton in the anisotropy of Na+ motion at the membrane surface was demonstrated by the isotropy of the DQF spectra of csdRBC membranes even at high ionic strength. Li+ addition initially quenched the isotropic signal the most, indicating preferential Li+/Na+ competition for the isotropic membrane sites. High ionic strength also increased the intensity of the anisotropic signal, due to its effect on the restructuring of the membrane cytoskeleton. Further Li+ addition competed with Na+ for those sites, quenching the anisotropic signal. 7Li T1 relaxation data for Li+-containing suspensions of unsealed and csdRBC membranes, in the absence and presence of Na+ at low ionic strength, showed that cytoskeleton depletion does not affect the affinity of Na+ for the RBC membrane, but increases the affinity of Li+ by 50%. This clearly indicates that cytoskeleton depletion favors Li+ relative to Na+ binding, and thus Li+/Na+ competition for its isotropic sites. Thus, this relaxation technique proves to be very sensitive to alkali metal binding to the membrane, detecting a more pronounced steric hindrance effect of the cytoskeleton network to binding of the larger hydrated Li+ ion to the membrane phosphate groups.

  7. Elastic behavior of a red blood cell with the membrane's nonuniform natural state: equilibrium shape, motion transition under shear flow, and elongation during tank-treading motion.

    PubMed

    Tsubota, Ken-Ichi; Wada, Shigeo; Liu, Hao

    2014-08-01

    Direct numerical simulations of the mechanics of a single red blood cell (RBC) were performed by considering the nonuniform natural state of the elastic membrane. A RBC was modeled as an incompressible viscous fluid encapsulated by an elastic membrane. The in-plane shear and area dilatation deformations of the membrane were modeled by Skalak constitutive equation, while out-of-plane bending deformation was formulated by the spring model. The natural state of the membrane with respect to in-plane shear deformation was modeled as a sphere ([Formula: see text]), biconcave disk shape ([Formula: see text]) and their intermediate shapes ([Formula: see text]) with the nonuniformity parameter [Formula: see text], while the natural state with respect to out-of-plane bending deformation was modeled as a flat plane. According to the numerical simulations, at an experimentally measured in-plane shear modulus of [Formula: see text] and an out-of-plane bending rigidity of [Formula: see text] of the cell membrane, the following results were obtained. (i) The RBC shape at equilibrium was biconcave discoid for [Formula: see text] and cupped otherwise; (ii) the experimentally measured fluid shear stress at the transition between tumbling and tank-treading motions under shear flow was reproduced for [Formula: see text]; (iii) the elongation deformation of the RBC during tank-treading motion from the simulation was consistent with that from in vitro experiments, irrespective of the [Formula: see text] value. Based on our RBC modeling, the three phenomena (i), (ii), and (iii) were mechanically consistent for [Formula: see text]. The condition [Formula: see text] precludes a biconcave discoid shape at equilibrium (i); however, it gives appropriate fluid shear stress at the motion transition under shear flow (ii), suggesting that a combined effect of [Formula: see text] and the natural state with respect to out-of-plane bending deformation is necessary for understanding details of the RBC mechanics at equilibrium. Our numerical results demonstrate that moderate nonuniformity in a membrane's natural state with respect to in-plane shear deformation plays a key role in RBC mechanics. PMID:24104211

  8. The Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page is an introduction to the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. It uses flash animation to explain in greater detail what the PEM fuel cell consists of and how it works. The website has an introductory animation which is followed by more in depth description of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell.

  9. Resistance of cell membranes to different detergents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian Schuck; Masanori Honsho; Kim Ekroos; Andrej Shevchenko; Kai Simons

    2003-01-01

    Partial resistance of cell membranes to solubilization with mild detergents and the analysis of isolated detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) have been used operationally to define membrane domains. Given the multitude of detergents used for this purpose, we sought to investigate whether extraction with different detergents might reflect the same underlying principle of domain formation. We therefore compared the protein and lipid

  10. Polymer electrolyte membrane assembly for fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Yavrouian, Andre (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An electrolyte membrane for use in a fuel cell can contain sulfonated polyphenylether sulfones. The membrane can contain a first sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone and a second sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone, wherein the first sulfonated polyphenylether and the second sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone have equivalent weights greater than about 560, and the first sulfonated polyphenylether and the second sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone also have different equivalent weights. Also, a membrane for use in a fuel cell can contain a sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone and an unsulfonated polyphenylether sulfone. Methods for manufacturing a membrane electrode assemblies for use in fuel cells can include roughening a membrane surface. Electrodes and methods for fabricating such electrodes for use in a chemical fuel cell can include sintering an electrode. Such membranes and electrodes can be assembled into chemical fuel cells.

  11. Polymer electrolyte membrane assembly for fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Yavrouian, Andre (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An electrolyte membrane for use in a fuel cell can contain sulfonated polyphenylether sulfones. The membrane can contain a first sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone and a second sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone, wherein the first sulfonated polyphenylether and the second sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone have equivalent weights greater than about 560, and the first sulfonated polyphenylether and the second sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone also have different equivalent weights. Also, a membrane for use in a fuel cell can contain a sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone and an unsulfonated polyphenylether sulfone. Methods for manufacturing a membrane electrode assemblies for use in fuel cells can include roughening a membrane surface. Electrodes and methods for fabricating such electrodes for use in a chemical fuel cell can include sintering an electrode. Such membranes and electrodes can be assembled into chemical fuel cells.

  12. Influence of network topology on the elasticity of the red blood cell membrane skeleton.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, J C; Skalak, R; Chien, S; Hoger, A

    1997-01-01

    A finite-element network model is used to investigate the influence of the topology of the red blood cell membrane skeleton on its macroscopic mechanical properties. Network topology is characterized by the number of spectrin oligomers per actin junction (phi a) and the number of spectrin dimers per self-association junction (phi s). If it is assumed that all associated spectrin is in tetrameric form, with six tetramers per actin junction (i.e., phi a = 6.0 and phi s = 2.0), then the topology of the skeleton may be modeled by a random Delaunay triangular network. Recent images of the RBC membrane skeleton suggest that the values for these topological parameters are in the range of 4.2 < phi a < 5.5 and 2.1 < phi s < 2.3. Model networks that simulate these realistic topologies exhibit values of the shear modulus that vary by more than an order of magnitude relative to triangular networks. This indicates that networks with relatively sparse nontriangular topologies may be needed to model the RBC membrane skeleton accurately. The model is also used to simulate skeletal alterations associated with hereditary spherocytosis and Southeast Asian ovalocytosis. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 PMID:9129841

  13. Advanced composite polymer electrolyte fuel cell membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, T.A.; Gottesfeld, S.; Kolde, J.A.; Bahar, B.

    1995-09-01

    A new type of reinforced composite perfluorinated polymer electrolyte membrane, GORE-SELECT{trademark} (W.L. Gore & Assoc.), is characterized and tested for fuel cell applications. Very thin membranes (5-20 {mu}m thick) are available. The combination of reinforcement and thinness provides high membrane, conductances (80 S/cm{sup 2} for a 12 {mu}m thick membrane at 25{degrees}C) and improved water distribution in the operating fuel cell without sacrificing longevity or durability. In contrast to nonreinforced perfluorinated membranes, the x-y dimensions of the GORE-SELECT membranes are relatively unaffected by the hydration state. This feature may be important from the viewpoints of membrane/electrode interface stability and fuel cell manufacturability.

  14. Development of ionomer membranes for fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen A. Kerres

    2001-01-01

    In this contribution an overview is given about the state-of-the-art at the membrane development for proton-conductive polymer (composite) membranes for the application membrane fuel cells, focusing on the membrane developments in this field performed at ICVT.For preparation of the polymers, processes have been developed for sulfonated arylene main-chain polymers as well as for arylene main-chain polymers containing basic N-containing groups,

  15. Fuel cell ion-exchange membrane investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toy, M. S.

    1972-01-01

    The present deficiencies in the fluorocarbon sulfonic acid membrane used as the solid polymer electrolyte in the H2/O2 fuel cell are studied. Considered are: Adhesives selection, elastomeric formulations, scavenger exploration, and membrane characterization. The significant data are interpreted and recommendations are given for both short and long range further investigations in two of the four major areas: membrane adhesives and membrane stabilization.

  16. Membrane Organization and Dynamics in Cell Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Orlando, Kelly; Guo, Wei

    2009-01-01

    The establishment and maintenance of cell polarity is important to a wide range of biological processes ranging from chemotaxis to embryogenesis. An essential feature of cell polarity is the asymmetric organization of proteins and lipids in the plasma membrane. In this article, we discuss how polarity regulators such as small GTP-binding proteins and phospholipids spatially and kinetically control vesicular trafficking and membrane organization. Conversely, we discuss how membrane trafficking contributes to cell polarization through delivery of polarity determinants and regulators to the plasma membrane. PMID:20066116

  17. Live cell imaging of membrane / cytoskeleton interactions and membrane topology

    PubMed Central

    Chierico, Luca; Joseph, Adrian S.; Lewis, Andrew L.; Battaglia, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    We elucidate the interaction between actin and specific membrane components, using real time live cell imaging, by delivering probes that enable access to components, that cannot be accessed genetically. We initially investigated the close interplay between Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and the F-actin network. We show that, during the early stage of cell adhesion, PIP2 forms domains within the filopodia membrane. We studied these domains alongside cell spreading and observed that these very closely follow the actin tread-milling. We show that this mechanism is associated with an active transport of PIP2 rich organelles from the cell perinuclear area to the edge, along actin fibers. Finally, mapping other phospholipids and membrane components we observed that the PIP2 domains formation is correlated with sphingosine and cholesterol rafts. PMID:25205456

  18. Proton Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Devanathan, Ramaswami

    2010-11-01

    Proton exchange membrane, also known as polymer electrolyte membrane, fuel cells (PEMFCs) offer the promise of efficient conversion of chemical energy of fuel, such as hydrogen or methanol, into electricity with minimal pollution. Their widespread use to power zero-emission automobiles as part of a hydrogen economy can contribute to enhanced energy security and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. However, the commercial viability of PEMFC technology is hindered by high cost associated with the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) and poor membrane durability under prolonged operation at elevated temperature. Membranes for automotive fuel cell applications need to perform well over a period comparable to the life of an automotive engine and under heavy load cycling including start-stop cycling under sub-freezing conditions. The combination of elevated temperature, changes in humidity levels, physical stresses and harsh chemical environment contribute to membrane degradation. Perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA)-based membranes, such as Nafion®, have been the mainstay of PEMFC technology. Their limitations, in terms of cost and poor conductivity at low hydration, have led to continuing research into membranes that have good proton conductivity at elevated temperatures above 120 °C and under low humidity conditions. Such membranes have the potential to avoid catalyst poisoning, simplify fuel cell design and reduce the cost of fuel cells. Hydrocarbon-based membranes are being developed as alternatives to PFSA membranes, but concerns about chemical and mechanical stability and durability remain. Novel anhydrous membranes based on polymer gels infused with protic ionic liquids have also been recently proposed, but considerable fundamental research is needed to understand proton transport in novel membranes and evaluate durability under fuel cell operating conditions. In order to advance this promising technology, it is essential to rationally design the next generation of PEMs based on an understanding of chemistry, membrane morphology and proton transport obtained from experiment, theory and computer simulation.

  19. Dicarboxylic acids with limited numbers of hydrocarbons stabilize cell membrane and increase osmotic resistance in rat erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Mineo, Hitoshi; Amita, Nozomi; Kawawake, Megumi; Higuchi, Ayaka

    2013-11-01

    We examined the effect of dicarboxylic acids having 0 to 6 hydrocarbons and their corresponding monocarboxylic or tricarboxylic acids in changing the osmotic fragility (OF) in rat red blood cells (RBCs). Malonic, succinic, glutaric and adipic acids, which are dicarboxylic acids with 1, 2, 3 and 4 straight hydrocarbons located between two carboxylic groups, decreased the OF in a concentration-dependent manner. Other long-chain dicarboxylic acids did not change the OF in rat RBCs. The benzoic acid derivatives, isophthalic and terephthalic acids, but not phthalic acid, decreased the OF in a concentration-dependent manner. Benzene-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, but not benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid, also decreased the OF in rat RBCs. On the other hand, monocarboxylic acids possessing 2 to 7 straight hydrocarbons and benzoic acid increased the OF in rat RBCs. In short-chain dicarboxylic acids, a limited number of hydrocarbons between the two carboxylic groups are thought to form a V- or U-shaped structure and interact with phospholipids in the RBC membrane. In benzene dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids, a part of benzene nucleus between the two carboxylic groups is thought to enter the plasma membrane and act on acyl-chain in phospholipids in the RBC membrane. For dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids, limited numbers of hydrocarbons in molecules are speculated to enter the RBC membrane with the hydrophilic carboxylic groups remaining outside, stabilizing the structure of the cell membrane and resulting in an increase in osmotic resistance in rat RBCs. PMID:23770357

  20. Membrane proteomic analysis of pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive human tumors due to its high potential of local invasion and metastasis. The aim of this study was to characterize the membrane proteomes of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells of primary and metastatic origins, and to identify potential target proteins related to metastasis of pancreatic cancer. Methods Membrane/membrane-associated proteins were isolated from AsPC-1 and BxPC-3 cells and identified with a proteomic approach based on SDS-PAGE, in-gel tryptic digestion and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). X! Tandem was used for database searching against the SwissProt human protein database. Results We identified 221 & 208 proteins from AsPC-1 and BxPC-3 cells, respectively, most of which are membrane or membrane-associated proteins. A hundred and nine proteins were found in both cell lines while the others were present in either AsPC-1 or BxPC-3 cells. Differentially expressed proteins between two cell lines include modulators of cell adhesion, cell motility or tumor invasion as well as metabolic enzymes involved in glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, or nucleotide/lipid metabolism. Conclusion Membrane proteomes of AsPC-1 (metastatic) and BxPC-3 (primary) cells are remarkably different. The differentially expressed membrane proteins may serve as potential targets for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. PMID:20831833

  1. Red blood cell in simple shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Wei; Hew, Yayu; Chen, Yeng-Long

    2013-03-01

    The dynamics of red blood cells (RBC) in blood flow is critical for oxygen transport, and it also influences inflammation (white blood cells), thrombosis (platelets), and circulatory tumor migration. The physical properties of a RBC can be captured by modeling RBC as lipid membrane linked to a cytoskeletal spectrin network that encapsulates cytoplasm rich in hemoglobin, with bi-concave equilibrium shape. Depending on the shear force, RBC elasticity, membrane viscosity, and cytoplasm viscosity, RBC can undergo tumbling, tank-treading, or oscillatory motion. We investigate the dynamic state diagram of RBC in shear and pressure-driven flow using a combined immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method with a multi-scale RBC model that accurately captures the experimentally established RBC force-deformation relation. It is found that the tumbling (TU) to tank-treading (TT) transition occurs as shear rate increases for cytoplasm/outer fluid viscosity ratio smaller than 0.67. The TU frequency is found to be half of the TT frequency, in agreement with experiment observations. Larger viscosity ratios lead to the disappearance of stable TT phase and unstable complex dynamics, including the oscillation of the symmetry axis of the bi-concave shape perpendicular to the flow direction. The dependence on RBC bending rigidity, shear modulus, the order of membrane spectrin network and fluid field in the unstable region will also be discussed.

  2. Metabolomics of AS-5 RBC supernatants following routine storage

    PubMed Central

    D’Alessandro, A.; Hansen, K. C.; Silliman, C. C.; Moore, E. E.; Kelher, M.; Banerjee, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives The safety and efficacy of stored red blood cells (RBCs) transfusion has been long debated due to retrospective clinical evidence and laboratory results, indicating a potential correlation between increased morbidity and mortality following transfusion of RBC units stored longer than 14 days. We hypothesize that storage in Optisol additive solution-5 leads to a unique metabolomics profile in the supernatant of stored RBCs. Materials and Methods Whole blood was drawn from five healthy donors, RBC units were manufactured, and prestorage leucoreduced by filtration. Samples were taken on days 1 and 42, the cells removed, and mass spectrometry-based metabolomics was performed. Results The results confirmed the progressive impairment of RBC energy metabolism by day 42 with indirect markers of a parallel alteration of glutathione and NADPH homeostasis. Moreover, oxidized pro-inflammatory lipids accumulated by the end of storage. Conclusion The supernatants from stored RBCs may represent a burden to the transfused recipients from a metabolomics standpoint. PMID:25200932

  3. Membrane processes relevant for the polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    E-print Network

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    Membrane processes relevant for the polymer electrolyte fuel cell Aleksander Kolstad Chemical. The important aspects concerning the Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell, more commonly known as Proton

  4. Membrane Stability during Biopreservation of Blood Cells.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Christoph; Wolkers, Willem F

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY: Storage methods, which can be taken into consideration for red blood cells and platelets, include liquid storage, cryopreservation and freeze-drying. Red blood cells can be hypothermically stored at refrigerated temperatures, whereas platelets are chilling sensitive and therefore cannot be stored at temperatures below 20 °C. Here we give an overview of available cryopreservation and freeze-drying procedures for blood cells and discuss the effects of these procedures on cells, particularly on cellular membranes. Cryopreservation and freeze-drying may result in chemical and structural modifications of cellular membranes. Membranes undergo phase and permeability changes during freezing and drying. Cryo- and lyoprotective agents prevent membrane damage by different mechanisms. Cryoprotective agents are preferentially excluded from membrane surfaces. They decrease the activation energy for water transport during freezing and control the rate of cellular dehydration. Lyoprotectants are thought to stabilize membranes during drying by forming direct hydrogen bonding interactions with phospholipid head groups. In addition, lyoprotectants can form a glassy state at room temperature. Recently liposomes have been investigated to stabilize blood cells during freezing and freeze-drying. Liposomes modify the composition of cellular membranes by lipid and cholesterol transfer, which can stabilize or destabilize the low temperature response of cells. PMID:21566710

  5. Proton Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven J. Hamrock; Michael A. Yandrasits

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the key requirements for the proton exchange membranes (PEM) used in fuel cell applications, along with a description of the membrane materials currently being used and their ability to meet these requirements. Also discussed are some of the new materials, technologies, and research directions being pursued to try to meet the demanding performance and

  6. Proton conducting membrane for fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Colombo, Daniel G.; Krumpelt, Michael; Myers, Deborah J.; Kopasz, John P.

    2007-03-27

    An ion conducting membrane comprising dendrimeric polymers covalently linked into a network structure. The dendrimeric polymers have acid functional terminal groups and may be covalently linked via linking compounds, cross-coupling reactions, or copolymerization reactions. The ion conducting membranes may be produced by various methods and used in fuel cells.

  7. Proton conducting membrane for fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Colombo, Daniel G.; Krumpelt, Michael; Myers, Deborah J.; Kopasz, John P.

    2005-12-20

    An ion conducting membrane comprising dendrimeric polymers covalently linked into a network structure. The dendrimeric polymers have acid functional terminal groups and may be covalently linked via linking compounds, cross-coupling reactions, or copolymerization reactions. The ion conducting membranes may be produced by various methods and used in fuel cells.

  8. Functional fluoropolymers for fuel cell membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Souzy; B. Ameduri; B. Boutevin; G. Gebel; P. Capron

    2005-01-01

    Various routes to synthesise functional fluoropolymers used in membranes for fuel cell applications are presented. They can be separated into three main families of alternatives. The first concerns the direct radical copolymerisation of fluoroalkenes with fluorinated functional monomers. The latter are either fluorinated vinyl ethers, ?,?,?-trifluorostyrenes or trifluorovinyl oxy-aromatic monomers bearing sulfonic or phosphonic acids. The resulting membranes are the

  9. Functional fluoropolymers for fuel cell membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renaud Souzy; Bruno Ameduri

    2005-01-01

    Various routes to synthesize functional fluoropolymers used in membranes for fuel cell applications are presented. They can be separated into three main families of alternatives. The first concerns the direct radical copolymerization of fluoroalkenes with fluorinated functional monomers. The latter are either fluorinated vinyl ethers, ?,?,?-trifluorostyrenes or trifluorovinyl oxy aromatic monomers bearing sulfonic or phosphonic acids. The resulting membranes are

  10. Membrane Elastic Properties and Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, Bruno; Ayala, Yareni; Fonseca, Anna Carolina C.; Romão, Luciana F.; Amaral, Rac?ele F.; Salgado, Leonardo T.; Lima, Flavia R.; Farina, Marcos; Viana, Nathan B.; Moura-Neto, Vivaldo; Nussenzveig, H. Moysés

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the cell membrane, interacting with its attached cytoskeleton, is an important regulator of cell function, exerting and responding to forces. We investigate this relationship by looking for connections between cell membrane elastic properties, especially surface tension and bending modulus, and cell function. Those properties are measured by pulling tethers from the cell membrane with optical tweezers. Their values are determined for all major cell types of the central nervous system, as well as for macrophage. Astrocytes and glioblastoma cells, which are considerably more dynamic than neurons, have substantially larger surface tensions. Resting microglia, which continually scan their environment through motility and protrusions, have the highest elastic constants, with values similar to those for resting macrophage. For both microglia and macrophage, we find a sharp softening of bending modulus between their resting and activated forms, which is very advantageous for their acquisition of phagocytic functions upon activation. We also determine the elastic constants of pure cell membrane, with no attached cytoskeleton. For all cell types, the presence of F-actin within tethers, contrary to conventional wisdom, is confirmed. Our findings suggest the existence of a close connection between membrane elastic constants and cell function. PMID:23844071

  11. Detection of Molecular Charges at Cell Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Toshiya; Miyahara, Yuji

    2008-01-01

    Molecular charges at the cell membrane have been successfully detected using cell-based field-effect devices. Mouse fibroblast cells were adhered to the Si3N4 gate surface of the field-effect devices. The negative charges of sialic acid at the surface of the cell membrane could be detected as a shift of the flatband voltage of the field-effect devices. Quantitative analysis of molecular charges at the cell membrane could be demonstrated in relation to the number of adhered cells on the Si3N4 gate surface. The platform based on the field-effect devices is suitable for a simple, accurate and non-invasive system for cell functional analysis.

  12. Dielectrophoretic discrimination of bovine red blood cell starvation age by buffer selection and membrane

    E-print Network

    Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    and discrimination of bovine red blood cell bRBC star- vation age. The buffer composition is selected such that twoDielectrophoretic discrimination of bovine red blood cell starvation age by buffer selection

  13. Alternate Fuel Cell Membranes for Energy Independence

    SciTech Connect

    Storey, Robson, F.; Mauritz, Kenneth, A.; Patton, Derek, L.; Savin, Daniel, A.

    2012-12-18

    The overall objective of this project was the development and evaluation of novel hydrocarbon fuel cell (FC) membranes that possess high temperature performance and long term chemical/mechanical durability in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells (FC). The major research theme was synthesis of aromatic hydrocarbon polymers of the poly(arylene ether sulfone) (PAES) type containing sulfonic acid groups tethered to the backbone via perfluorinated alkylene linkages and in some cases also directly attached to the phenylene groups along the backbone. Other research themes were the use of nitrogen-based heterocyclics instead of acid groups for proton conduction, which provides high temperature, low relative humidity membranes with high mechanical/thermal/chemical stability and pendant moieties that exhibit high proton conductivities in the absence of water, and synthesis of block copolymers consisting of a proton conducting block coupled to poly(perfluorinated propylene oxide) (PFPO) blocks. Accomplishments of the project were as follows: 1) establishment of a vertically integrated program of synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of FC membranes, 2) establishment of benchmark membrane performance data based on Nafion for comparison to experimental membrane performance, 3) development of a new perfluoroalkyl sulfonate monomer, N,N-diisopropylethylammonium 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl) pentafluoropropanesulfonate (HPPS), 4) synthesis of random and block copolymer membranes from HPPS, 5) synthesis of block copolymer membranes containing high-acid-concentration hydrophilic blocks consisting of HPPS and 3,3'-disulfonate-4,4'-dichlorodiphenylsulfone (sDCDPS), 6) development of synthetic routes to aromatic polymer backbones containing pendent 1H-1,2,3-triazole moieties, 7) development of coupling strategies to create phase-separated block copolymers between hydrophilic sulfonated prepolymers and commodity polymers such as PFPO, 8) establishment of basic performance properties of experimental membranes, 9) fabrication and FC performance testing of membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) from experimental membranes, and 10) measurement of ex situ and in situ membrane durability of experimental membranes. Although none of the experimental hydrocarbon membranes that issued from the project displayed proton conductivities that met DOE requirements, the project contributed to our basic understanding of membrane structure-property relationships in a number of key respects. An important finding of the benchmark studies is that physical degradation associated with humidity and temperature variations in the FC tend to open new fuel crossover pathways and act synergistically with chemical degradation to accelerate overall membrane degradation. Thus, for long term membrane survival and efficient fuel utilization, membranes must withstand internal stresses due to humidity and temperature changes. In this respect, rigid aromatic hydrocarbon fuel cell membranes, e.g. PAES, offer an advantage over un-modified Nafion membranes. The benchmark studies also showed that broadband dielectric spectroscopy is a potentially powerful tool in assessing shifts in the fundamental macromolecular dynamics caused by Nafion chemical degradation, and thus, this technique is of relevance in interrogating proton exchange membrane durability in fuel cells and macromolecular dynamics as coupled to proton migration, which is of fundamental relevance in proton exchange membranes in fuel cells. A key finding from the hydrocarbon membrane synthesis effort was that rigid aromatic polymers containing isolated ion exchange groups tethered tightly to the backbone (short tether), such as HPPS, provide excellent mechanical and durability properties but do not provide sufficient conductivity, in either random or block configuration, when used as the sole ion exchange monomer. However, we continue to hypothesize that longer tethers, and tethered groups spaced more closely within the hydrophilic chain elements of the polymer, will yield highly conductive materials with excellent mech

  14. Advanced membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Yu Seung; Pivovar, Bryan S.

    2012-07-24

    A method of preparing advanced membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for use in fuel cells. A base polymer is selected for a base membrane. An electrode composition is selected to optimize properties exhibited by the membrane electrode assembly based on the selection of the base polymer. A property-tuning coating layer composition is selected based on compatibility with the base polymer and the electrode composition. A solvent is selected based on the interaction of the solvent with the base polymer and the property-tuning coating layer composition. The MEA is assembled by preparing the base membrane and then applying the property-tuning coating layer to form a composite membrane. Finally, a catalyst is applied to the composite membrane.

  15. Advanced membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Yu Seung; Pivovar, Bryan S

    2014-02-25

    A method of preparing advanced membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for use in fuel cells. A base polymer is selected for a base membrane. An electrode composition is selected to optimize properties exhibited by the membrane electrode assembly based on the selection of the base polymer. A property-tuning coating layer composition is selected based on compatibility with the base polymer and the electrode composition. A solvent is selected based on the interaction of the solvent with the base polymer and the property-tuning coating layer composition. The MEA is assembled by preparing the base membrane and then applying the property-tuning coating layer to form a composite membrane. Finally, a catalyst is applied to the composite membrane.

  16. Cell Surface Membrane Antigen Phenotype of Human Gastrointestinal Mast Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria-Theresa Krauth; Yasamin Majlesi; Stefan Florian; Alexandra Böhm; Alexander W. Hauswirth; Minoo Ghannadan; Friedrich Wimazal; Markus Raderer; Friedrich Wrba; Peter Valent

    2005-01-01

    Background: Mast cells (MC) are important effector cells of allergic and inflammatory reactions in diverse organs. These cells interact with a number of other immune cells and structural cells in the tissues as well as with proinflammatory mediators and cytokines. The various interactions are considered to be mediated through distinct cell surface membrane receptors on MC. Methods:In the present study,

  17. Durability of PEM Fuel Cell Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xinyu; Reifsnider, Ken

    Durability is still a critical limiting factor for the commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells, a leading energy conversion technology for powering future hydrogen fueled automobiles, backup power systems (e.g., for base transceiver station of cellular networks), portable electronic devices, etc. Ionic conducting polymer (ionomer) electrolyte membranes are the critical enabling materials for the PEM fuel cells. They are also widely used as the central functional elements in hydrogen generation (e.g., electrolyzers), membrane cell for chlor-alkali production, etc. A perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer with the trade name Nafion® developed by DuPont™ is the most widely used PEM in chlor-alkali cells and PEM fuel cells. Similar PFSA membranes have been developed by Dow Chemical, Asahi Glass, and lately Solvay Solexis. Frequently, such membranes serve the dual function of reactant separation and selective ionic conduction between two otherwise separate compartments. For some applications, the compromise of the "separation" function via the degradation and mechanical failure of the electrolyte membrane can be the life-limiting factor; this is particularly the case for PEM in hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells.

  18. Temporal sequence of major biochemical events during Blood Bank storage of packed red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Karon, Brad S.; van Buskirk, Camille M.; Jaben, Elizabeth A.; Hoyer, James D.; Thomas, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Background. We used sensitive spectroscopic techniques to measure changes in Band 3 oligomeric state during storage of packed red blood cells (RBC); these changes were compared to metabolic changes, RBC morphology, cholesterol and membrane protein loss, phospholipid reorganisation of the RBC membrane, and peroxidation of membrane lipid. The aim of the study was to temporally sequence major biochemical events occurring during cold storage, in order to determine which changes may underlie the structural defects in stored RBC. Materials and methods. Fifteen RBC units were collected from normal volunteers and stored under standard blood bank conditions; both metabolic changes and lipid parameters were measured by multiple novel assays including a new mass spectrometric measurement of isoprostane (lipid peroxidation) and flow cytometric assessment of CD47 expression. Band 3 oligomeric state was assessed by time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy, and RBC morphology by microscopy of glutaraldehyde-fixed RBC. Results. Extracellular pH decreased and extracellular potassium increased rapidly during cold storage. Band 3 on the RBC membrane aggregated into large oligomers early in the storage period and coincident with changes in RBC morphology. Membrane lipid changes, including loss of unesterified cholesterol, lipid peroxidation and expression of CD47, also changed early during the storage period. In contrast loss of acetylcholinesterase activity and haemolysis of RBC occurred late during storage. Discussion. Our results demonstrate that changes in the macromolecular organisation of membrane proteins on the RBC occur early in storage and suggest that lipid peroxidation and/or oxidative damage to the membrane are responsible for irreversible morphological changes and loss of function during red cell storage. PMID:22507860

  19. Mechanical tension drives cell membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Hoon; Ren, Yixin; Ng, Win Pin; Li, Shuo; Son, Sungmin; Kee, Yee-Seir; Zhang, Shiliang; Zhang, Guofeng; Fletcher, Daniel A; Robinson, Douglas N; Chen, Elizabeth H

    2015-03-01

    Membrane fusion is an energy-consuming process that requires tight juxtaposition of two lipid bilayers. Little is known about how cells overcome energy barriers to bring their membranes together for fusion. Previously, we have shown that cell-cell fusion is an asymmetric process in which an "attacking" cell drills finger-like protrusions into the "receiving" cell to promote cell fusion. Here, we show that the receiving cell mounts a Myosin II (MyoII)-mediated mechanosensory response to its invasive fusion partner. MyoII acts as a mechanosensor, which directs its force-induced recruitment to the fusion site, and the mechanosensory response of MyoII is amplified by chemical signaling initiated by cell adhesion molecules. The accumulated MyoII, in turn, increases cortical tension and promotes fusion pore formation. We propose that the protrusive and resisting forces from fusion partners put the fusogenic synapse under high mechanical tension, which helps to overcome energy barriers for membrane apposition and drives cell membrane fusion. PMID:25684354

  20. Fuel cell subassemblies incorporating subgasketed thrifted membranes

    DOEpatents

    Iverson, Eric J; Pierpont, Daniel M; Yandrasits, Michael A; Hamrock, Steven J; Obradovich, Stephan J; Peterson, Donald G

    2014-01-28

    A fuel cell roll good subassembly is described that includes a plurality of individual electrolyte membranes. One or more first subgaskets are attached to the individual electrolyte membranes. Each of the first subgaskets has at least one aperture and the first subgaskets are arranged so the center regions of the individual electrolyte membranes are exposed through the apertures of the first subgaskets. A second subgasket comprises a web having a plurality of apertures. The second subgasket web is attached to the one or more first subgaskets so the center regions of the individual electrolyte membranes are exposed through the apertures of the second subgasket web. The second subgasket web may have little or no adhesive on the subgasket surface facing the electrolyte membrane.

  1. Basement Membranes: Cell Scaffoldings and Signaling Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Yurchenco, Peter D.

    2011-01-01

    Basement membranes are widely distributed extracellular matrices that coat the basal aspect of epithelial and endothelial cells and surround muscle, fat, and Schwann cells. These extracellular matrices, first expressed in early embryogenesis, are self-assembled on competent cell surfaces through binding interactions among laminins, type IV collagens, nidogens, and proteoglycans. They form stabilizing extensions of the plasma membrane that provide cell adhesion and that act as solid-phase agonists. Basement membranes play a role in tissue and organ morphogenesis and help maintain function in the adult. Mutations adversely affecting expression of the different structural components are associated with developmental arrest at different stages as well as postnatal diseases of muscle, nerve, brain, eye, skin, vasculature, and kidney. PMID:21421915

  2. Erythrocyte membrane is an alternative coating to polyethylene glycol for prolonging the circulation lifetime of gold nanocages for photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Piao, Ji-Gang; Wang, Limin; Gao, Feng; You, Ye-Zi; Xiong, Yujie; Yang, Lihua

    2014-10-28

    Gold nanocages (AuNCs), which have tunable near-infrared (NIR) absorption and intrinsically high photothermal conversion efficiency, have been actively investigated as photothermal conversion agents for photothermal therapy (PTT). The short blood circulation lifetime of AuNCs, however, limits their tumor uptake and thus in vivo applications. Here we show that such a limitation can be overcome by cloaking AuNCs with red blood cell (RBC) membranes, a natural stealth coating. The fusion of RBC membranes over AuNC surface does not alter the unique porous and hollow structures of AuNCs, and the resulting RBC-membrane-coated AuNCs (RBC-AuNCs) exhibit good colloidal stability. Upon NIR laser irradiation, the RBC-AuNCs demonstrate in vitro photothermal effects and selectively ablate cancerous cells within the irradiation zone as do the pristine biopolymer-stealth-coated AuNCs. Moreover, the RBC-AuNCs exhibit significantly enhanced in vivo blood retention and circulation lifetime compared to the biopolymer-stealth-coated counterparts, as demonstrated using a mouse model. With integrated advantages of photothermal effects from AuNCs and long blood circulation lifetime from RBCs, the RBC-AuNCs demonstrate drastically enhanced tumor uptake when administered systematically, and mice that received PPT cancer treatment modulated by RBC-AuNCs achieve 100% survival over a span of 45 days. Taken together, our results indicate that the long circulating RBC-AuNCs may facilitate the in vivo applications of AuNCs, and the RBC-membrane stealth coating technique may pave the way to improved efficacy of PPT modulated by noble metal nanoparticles. PMID:25286086

  3. Membrane depolarization in LAN1 cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Sorrentino; Maria R. Monsurrõ; Indrapal N. Singh; Julian N. Kanfer

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the influence of ion compositions on the membrane potential in LA-N-1 human neuroblastoma cells using bisoxonol\\u000a as a potential-sensitive fluorescent dye. The ability of K+, ouabain, veratridine, and maitotoxin to induce membrane depolarization was evaluated. Increasing concentrations of K+ ions from 10 to 50 mM caused a dose-dependent increase of bisoxonol fluorescence, which was completely independent on Na+

  4. Interaction of human CBG with cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Strel'chyonok, O A; Avvakumov, G V

    1991-01-01

    Specific binding sites for corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) and its pregnancy-associated variant (pCBG), having a modified carbohydrate moiety, were found in the plasma membranes of human liver, decidual endometrium and placental syncytiotrophoblast. The membrane binding was influenced by the conformation of the glycoprotein molecules and structure of their carbohydrate chains. CBG receptor was solubilized from the endometrium membrane and partially characterized. It was found to have a subunit structure, with a homooligomeric sialoglycoprotein consisting of four 20 kDa protomeric species being involved in the recognition of the CBG molecules complexed with progesterone or cortisol. A kinetic study using membrane microvesicles derived from the syncytiotrophoblast brush border revealed that neither CBG nor pCBG restricted cortisol accumulation in the intravesicular space, whereas only normal CBG could penetrate the syncytiotrophoblast membrane. Action of the CBG-cortisol complex on trophoblast cells resulted in the activation of membrane adenylate cyclase and growth of the cAMP accumulation within these cells. Collectively, these findings suggest that both normal CBG and pCBG are involved in the guided transport of steroid hormones to the target cells and transmembrane transfer of hormones and/or hormonal signals. PMID:1659892

  5. Membrane potential dynamics of grid cells.

    PubMed

    Domnisoru, Cristina; Kinkhabwala, Amina A; Tank, David W

    2013-03-14

    During navigation, grid cells increase their spike rates in firing fields arranged on a markedly regular triangular lattice, whereas their spike timing is often modulated by theta oscillations. Oscillatory interference models of grid cells predict theta amplitude modulations of membrane potential during firing field traversals, whereas competing attractor network models predict slow depolarizing ramps. Here, using in vivo whole-cell recordings, we tested these models by directly measuring grid cell intracellular potentials in mice running along linear tracks in virtual reality. Grid cells had large and reproducible ramps of membrane potential depolarization that were the characteristic signature tightly correlated with firing fields. Grid cells also demonstrated intracellular theta oscillations that influenced their spike timing. However, the properties of theta amplitude modulations were not consistent with the view that they determine firing field locations. Our results support cellular and network mechanisms in which grid fields are produced by slow ramps, as in attractor models, whereas theta oscillations control spike timing. PMID:23395984

  6. Blend Concepts for Fuel Cell Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerres, Jochen

    Differently cross-linked blend membranes were prepared from commercial arylene main-chain polymers from the classes of poly(ether-ketones) and poly(ethersulfones) modified with sulfonate groups, sulfinate cross-linking groups and basic N-groups. The following membrane types have been prepared: (a) van-der Waals/dipole-dipole blends by mixing a polysulfonate with unmodified PSU. This membrane type showed a heterogeneous morphology, leading to extreme swelling and even dissolution of the sulfonated component at elevated temperatures. (b) Hydrogen bridge blends by mixing a polysulfonate with a polyamide or polyetherimide. This membrane type showed a partially heterogeneous morphology, also leading to extreme swelling/dissolution of the sulfonated blend component at elevated temperatures. (c) Acid-base blends by mixing a polysulfonate with a polymeric N-base (self-developed/commercial). With this membrane type, we could reach a wide variability of properties by variation of different parameters. Membranes showing excellent stability and good fuel cell performance up to 100°C (PEFC) and 130°C (DMFC) were obtained. (d) Covalently cross-linked (blend) membranes by either mixing of a polysulfonate with a polysulfinate or by preparation of a polysulfinatesulfonate, followed by reaction of the sulfinate groups in solution with a dihalogeno compound under S-alkylation. Membranes were prepared that showed effective suppression of swelling without H+-conductivity loss. The membranes showed good PEFC (up to 100°C) and DMFC (up to 130°C) performance. (e) Covalent-ionically cross-linked blend membranes by mixing polysulfonates with polysulfinates and polybases or by mixing a polysulfonate with a polymer carrying both sulfinate and basic N-groups. The covalent-ionically cross-linked membranes were tested in DMFC up to 110°C and showed a good performance. (f) Differently cross-linked organic-inorganic blend composite membranes via different procedures. The best results were obtained with blend membranes having a layered zirconium phosphate “ZrP” phase: They were transparent, and showed good H+;-conductivity and stability. Application of one of these composite membranes to a PEFC yielded good performance up to T=115°C.

  7. High density cell culture by membrane-based cell recycle.

    PubMed

    Chang, H N; Yoo, I K; Kim, B S

    1994-01-01

    Enhancement of productivity of a bioprocess necessitates continuous operation of bioreactors with high biomass concentrations than are possible in conventional batch, fedbatch or continuous modes of culture. Membrane-based cell recycle has been effectively used to maintain high cell concentrations in bioreactors. This review compares membranebased cell recycle operation with other such high density cell culture systems as immobilized cell reactors and reactors with cell recycle by centrifugation or gravity sedimentation. A theoretical of production of primary and secondary metabolites in membrane-based recycle systems is presented. Operation of this type of system is discussed with examples from aerobic and anaerobic fermentations. PMID:14548467

  8. Molecular basis of erythrocyte adhesion to endothelial cells in diseases.

    PubMed

    Wautier, Jean-Luc; Wautier, Marie-Paule

    2013-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) adhesion to endothelium can be studied in static and flow conditions. Increased RBC adhesion was first described in sickle cell disease. Several molecules were shown to be involved in this phenomenon: VCAM-1, ?4?1, Lu/BCAM, ICAM-4. In malaria, Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein1 binds to ICAM-1, PECAM-1 and facilitates the parasite dissemination. In diabetes mellitus augmented RBC adhesion is correlated to the severity of vascular complications. Glycated RBC band3 reacts with the endothelial Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products (RAGE). RAGE engagement induced endothelial cell dysfunction. In patients with Polycythemia Vera (PV), the most frequent myeloproliferative disorder, constitutive phosphorylation of RBC Lu/BCAM is responsible for an increased adhesion to endothelial cell laminin. Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a common cause of permanent visual loss. Spontaneous growth of erythroid precursors was observed in more than 25% of patients. RBC adhesion was enhanced and correlated to phosphatidyl serine (PS) expression on RBC. Anti-PS receptor blocked RVO RBC adhesion indicating that the counterpart of RBC PS is PS endothelial cell receptor. Erythrocyte adhesion is mediated by different molecule abnormalities in different diseases but is associated to a higher risk of thrombosis and vascular complications. PMID:22941965

  9. The binding of A?1-42 to lipid rafts of RBC is enhanced by dietary docosahexaenoic acid in rats: Implicates to Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Michio; Hossain, Shahdat; Katakura, Masanori; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Shido, Osamu

    2015-06-01

    Once amyloid ? peptides (A?s) of the Alzheimer's disease build up in blood circulation, they are capable of binding to red blood cell (RBC) and inducing hemolysis of RBC. The mechanisms of the interactions between RBC and A? are largely unknown; however, it is very important for the therapeutic target of A?-induced hemolysis. In the present study, we investigated whether A?1-42 interacts with caveolin-1-containing detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) of RBC and whether the interaction could be modulated by dietary pre-administration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). DHA pre-administration to rats inhibited hemolysis by A?1-42. This activity was accompanied by increased DHA levels and membrane fluidity and decreased cholesterol level, lipid peroxidation, and reactive oxygen species in the RBCs of the DHA-pretreated rats, suggesting that the antioxidative property of DHA may rescue RBCs from oxidative damage by A?1-42. The level of caveolin-1 was augmented in the DRMs of DHA-pretreated rats. Binding between A?1-42 and DRMs of RBC significantly increased in DHA-rats. When fluorescently labeled A?1-42 (TAMRA-A?1-42) was directly infused into the bloodstream, it again occupied the caveolin-1-containing DRMs of the RBCs from the DHA-rats to a greater extent, indicating that circulating A?s interact with the caveolin-1-rich lipid rafts of DRMs and the interaction is stronger in the DHA-enriched RBCs. The levels of TAMRA-A?1-42 also increased in liver DRMs, whereas it decreased in plasma of DHA-pretreated rats. DHA might help clearance of circulating A?s by increased lipid raft-dependent degradation pathways and implicate to therapies in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25782726

  10. Studies in erythropoiesis: the influence of the glycocalyx of the red cell membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    The possible existence of a correlation between the removal from the circulation of aged cells and the production of new RBCs was investigated. An erythropoietic influence was found to be associated with the glycocalyx of the erythrocyte membrane. The influencing factor, presumably a desialated glycopeptide, asialoglycophorin, appeared to be masked on the young RBC by an amino ketosugar, sialic acid. Ostensibly during the aging process, an increasing amount of sialic acid becomes removed from the membrane to expose the underlying erythropoietic message. Sialic acid was removed enzymatically in vitro from the membranes of erythrocytes by incubation with neuraminidase from Clostridium Perfringens. Erythropoietic activity was assayed by measuring iron-59 uptake after injection or transfusion of test material into exhypoxic mice. The amount of erythropoietic activity was found to be directly related to the number of desialated erythrocytes transfused and to the degree of desialation of the transfused erythrocytes. Asialoglycophorin was shown to be an erythrocyte stimulating factor following its isolation from the membrane and subsequent injection into test mice. Both mouse and human asialoglycophorin were found to be stimulatory.

  11. A Hybrid Microbial Fuel Cell Membrane Bioreactor with a Conductive Ultrafiltration Membrane Biocathode for Wastewater Treatment

    E-print Network

    A Hybrid Microbial Fuel Cell Membrane Bioreactor with a Conductive Ultrafiltration Membrane-biocathode microbial fuel cell- membrane bioreactor (MFC-MBR) system was developed to achieve simultaneous wastewater these goals. A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a technology that uses exoelectrogenic biofilms on the anode

  12. Release of extracellular membrane vesicles from microvilli of epithelial cells is enhanced by depleting membrane cholesterol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Marie Marzesco; Michaela Wilsch-Bräuninger; Véronique Dubreuil; Peggy Janich; Katja Langenfeld; Christoph Thiele; Wieland B. Huttner; Denis Corbeil

    2009-01-01

    We previously reported on the occurrence of prominin-1-carrying membrane vesicles that are released into body fluids from microvilli of epithelial cells. This release has been implicated in cell differentiation. Here we have characterized these vesicles released from the differentiated Caco-2 cells. We find that in these vesicles, prominin-1 directly interacts with membrane cholesterol and is associated with a membrane microdomain.

  13. Compartmental Hollow Fiber Capillary Membrane–Based Bioreactor Technology for In Vitro Studies on Red Blood Cell Lineage Direction of Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Housler, Greggory J.; Miki, Toshio; Schmelzer, Eva; Pekor, Christopher; Zhang, Xiaokui; Kang, Lin; Voskinarian-Berse, Vanessa; Abbot, Stewart; Zeilinger, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Continuous production of red blood cells (RBCs) in an automated closed culture system using hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) progenitor cell populations is of interest for clinical application because of the high demand for blood transfusions. Previously, we introduced a four-compartment bioreactor that consisted of two bundles of hollow fiber microfiltration membranes for transport of culture medium (forming two medium compartments), interwoven with one bundle of hollow fiber membranes for transport of oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2), and other gases (forming one gas compartment). Small-scale prototypes were developed of the three-dimensional (3D) perfusion cell culture systems, which enable convection-based mass transfer and integral oxygenation in the cell compartment. CD34+ HSC were isolated from human cord blood units using a magnetic separation procedure. Cells were inoculated into 2- or 8-mL scaled-down versions of the previously designed 800-mL cell compartment devices and perfused with erythrocyte proliferation and differentiation medium. First, using the small-scale 2-mL analytical scale bioreactor, with an initial seeding density of 800,000 cells/mL, we demonstrated approximately 100-fold cell expansion and differentiation after 7 days of culture. An 8-mL laboratory-scale bioreactor was then used to show pseudocontinuous production by intermediately harvesting cells. Subsequently, we were able to use a model to demonstrate semicontinuous production with up to 14,288-fold expansion using seeding densities of 800,000 cells/mL. The down-scaled culture technology allows for expansion of CD34+ cells and stimulating these progenitors towards RBC lineage, expressing approximately 40% CD235+ and enucleation. The 3D perfusion technology provides an innovative tool for studies on RBC production, which is scalable. PMID:21933020

  14. Integration of Cell Membranes and Nanotube Transistors

    E-print Network

    Gruner, George

    Integration of Cell Membranes and Nanotube Transistors Keith Bradley, Alona Davis, Jean. As the nanoelectronic device, we use a nanotube network transistor, which incorporates many individual nanotubes as transistors, and that the two systems interact. Further, we use the interaction to study the charge

  15. Membrane electrode assembly for a fuel cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prakash, Surya (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Atti, Anthony (Inventor); Olah, George (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A catalyst ink for a fuel cell including a catalytic material and poly(vinylidene fluoride). The ink may be applied to a substrate to form an electrode, or bonded with other electrode layers to form a membrane electrode assembly (MEA).

  16. Corrugated Membrane Fuel Cell 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Fuel Cell

    E-print Network

    Corrugated Membrane Fuel Cell Structures Structures 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Fuel Cell 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Fuel Cell Project Kick-Off Principle Investigator: Dr. Stephen Grot Presenter: Dr structure Compared to MEA in a flat plate structure 9 #12;Technical Accomplishments Titanium Screen as Gas

  17. Relations between the plastid gene dosage and the levels of 16S rRNA and rbcL gene transcripts during amyloplast to chloroplast change in mixotrophic spinach cell suspensions.

    PubMed

    Aguettaz, P; Seyer, P; Pesey, H; Lescure, A M

    1987-03-01

    Spinach cell suspension cultures maintained in photomixotrophic conditions exhibit plastids which undergo cyclic morphological transformations along a growth cycle. Ultrastructural studies show that the green chloroplasts present at the initial stage differentiate into amyloplasts during the subsequent log phase and then return to chloroplasts in stationary phase. The changes of the levels of plastid DNA (pt DNA) per cell have been determined along the growth cycle, as a percentage of total DNA by hybridization of definite amounts of total DNA to a radioactive probe of cloned pt DNA. The number of pt DNA copies have been estimated to 1125 per cell at the maximum of amyloplast development and to 5940 copies per cell at the maximum of chloroplast differentiation. Hybridizations of defined amounts of total cellular RNA to labelled probes of the 16S rDNA and of the rbcL gene allowed estimations of the variations of the corresponding cellular RNA pools. These variations are well correlated with the changes of the ptDNA cellular levels. These results show that the ptDNA gene dosage plays a central role in the regulation of the plastid transcript levels in this system. PMID:24301052

  18. Sodium selectivity of Reissner's membrane epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sodium absorption by Reissner's membrane is thought to contribute to the homeostasis of the volume of cochlear endolymph. It was previously shown that the absorptive transepithelial current was blocked by amiloride and benzamil. The most commonly-observed target of these drugs is the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), which is composed of the three subunits ?-,?- and ?-ENaC. However, other less-selective cation channels have also been observed to be sensitive to benzamil and amiloride. The aim of this study was to determine whether Reissner's membrane epithelial cells could support parasensory K+ absorption via amiloride- and benzamil-sensitive electrogenic pathways. Results We determined the molecular and functional expression of candidate cation channels with gene array (GEO GSE6196), RT-PCR, and whole-cell patch clamp. Transcript expression analysis of Reissner's membrane detected no amiloride-sensitive acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC1a, ASIC2a, ASIC2b) nor amiloride-sensitive cyclic-nucleotide gated channels (CNGA1, CNGA2, CNGA4, CNGB3). By contrast, ?-,?- and ?-ENaC were all previously reported as present in Reissner's membrane. The selectivity of the benzamil-sensitive cation currents was observed in whole-cell patch clamp recordings under Cl--free conditions where cations were the only permeant species. The currents were carried by Na+ but not K+, and the permeability of Li+ was greater than that of Na+ in Reissner's membrane. Complete replacement of bath Na+ with the inpermeable cation NMDG+ led to the same inward current as with benzamil in a Na+ bath. Conclusions These results are consistent with the amiloride/benzamil-sensitive absorptive flux of Reissner's membrane mediated by a highly Na+-selective channel that has several key characteristics in common with ???-ENaC. The amiloride-sensitive pathway therefore absorbs only Na+ in this epithelium and does not provide a parasensory K+ efflux route from scala media. PMID:21284860

  19. Change dynamics of RBC morphology after injection glucose for diabetes by diffraction phase microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talaykova, N. A.; Kalyanov, A. L.; Lychagov, V. V.; Ryabukho, V. P.; Malinova, L. I.

    2013-11-01

    Experimental setup of diffraction phase microscope (DPM) with double low-coherence lighting system is presented in the paper. Algorithm of interference picture processing and optical thickness, height, volume and mean cells volume (MCV) of RBC calculating is shown. We demonstrate results of experiments with blood smears and ability of the method to calculate 3D model of the biological cells shape. Investigation change dynamics of RBC morphology after injection glucose for diabetes by DPM is shown in the paper.

  20. Sputter-deposited fuel cell membranes and electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Ruiz, Ron P. (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method for preparing a membrane for use in a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly includes the steps of providing an electrolyte membrane, and sputter-depositing a catalyst onto the electrolyte membrane. The sputter-deposited catalyst may be applied to multiple sides of the electrolyte membrane. A method for forming an electrode for use in a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly includes the steps of obtaining a catalyst, obtaining a backing, and sputter-depositing the catalyst onto the backing. The membranes and electrodes are useful for assembling fuel cells that include an anode electrode, a cathode electrode, a fuel supply, and an electrolyte membrane, wherein the electrolyte membrane includes a sputter-deposited catalyst, and the sputter-deposited catalyst is effective for sustaining a voltage across a membrane electrode assembly in the fuel cell.

  1. Membrane proteome analysis of glioblastoma cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Mallawaaratchy, Duthika M; Buckland, Michael E; McDonald, Kerrie L; Li, Cheryl C Y; Ly, Linda; Sykes, Erin K; Christopherson, Richard I; Kaufman, Kimberley L

    2015-05-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumor invasion is facilitated by cell migration and degradation of the extracellular matrix. Invadopodia are actin-rich structures that protrude from the plasma membrane in direct contact with the extracellular matrix and are proposed to participate in epithelial-mesenchymal transition. We characterized the invasiveness of 9 established GBM cell lines using an invadopodia assay and performed quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses on enriched membrane fractions. All GBM cells produced invadopodia, with a 65% difference between the most invasive cell line (U87MG) and the least invasive cell line (LN229) (p = 0.0001). Overall, 1,141 proteins were identified in the GBM membrane proteome; the levels of 49 proteins correlated with cell invasiveness. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis predicted activation "cell movement" (z-score = 2.608, p = 3.94E) in more invasive cells and generated a network of invasion-associated proteins with direct links to key regulators of invadopodia formation. Gene expression data relating to the invasion-associated proteins ITGA5 (integrin ?5), CD97, and ANXA1 (annexin A1) showed prognostic significance in independent GBM cohorts. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated ITGA5, CD97, and ANXA1 localization in invadopodia assays, and small interfering RNA knockdown of ITGA5 reduced invadopodia formation in U87MG cells. Thus, invasion-associated proteins, including ITGA5, may prove to be useful anti-invasive targets; volociximab, a therapeutic antibody against integrin ?5?1, may be useful for treatment of patients with GBM. PMID:25853691

  2. Investigation of Transient Phenomena of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    E-print Network

    Victoria, University of

    Investigation of Transient Phenomena of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells by Roongrojana of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells by Roongrojana Songprakorp BSc, Prince of Songkhla University to the modeling and under- standing of the dynamic behavior of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs

  3. Catalytic membranes for fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL); Yang, Junbing (Bolingbrook, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Naperville, IL)

    2011-04-19

    A fuel cell of the present invention comprises a cathode and an anode, one or both of the anode and the cathode including a catalyst comprising a bundle of longitudinally aligned graphitic carbon nanotubes including a catalytically active transition metal incorporated longitudinally and atomically distributed throughout the graphitic carbon walls of said nanotubes. The nanotubes also include nitrogen atoms and/or ions chemically bonded to the graphitic carbon and to the transition metal. Preferably, the transition metal comprises at least one metal selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, and Cr.

  4. Multiple-capillary measurement of RBC speed, flux, and density with optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jonghwan; Wu, Weicheng; Lesage, Frederic; Boas, David A

    2013-01-01

    As capillaries exhibit heterogeneous and fluctuating dynamics even during baseline, a technique measuring red blood cell (RBC) speed and flux over many capillaries at the same time is needed. Here, we report that optical coherence tomography can capture individual RBC passage simultaneously over many capillaries located at different depths. Further, we demonstrate the ability to quantify RBC speed, flux, and linear density. This technique will provide a means to monitor microvascular flow dynamics over many capillaries at different depths at the same time. PMID:24022621

  5. Use of mouse models to study the mechanisms and consequences of RBC clearance

    PubMed Central

    Hod, E. A.; Arinsburg, S. A.; Francis, R. O.; Hendrickson, J. E.; Zimring, J. C.; Spitalnik, S. L.

    2013-01-01

    Mice provide tractable animal models for studying the pathophysiology of various human disorders. This review discusses the use of mouse models for understanding red-blood-cell (RBC) clearance. These models provide important insights into the pathophysiology of various clinically relevant entities, such as autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, haemolytic transfusion reactions, other complications of RBC transfusions and immunomodulation by Rh immune globulin therapy. Mouse models of both antibody- and non-antibody-mediated RBC clearance are reviewed. Approaches for exploring unanswered questions in transfusion medicine using these models are also discussed. PMID:20345515

  6. Free Energy Difference in Indolicidin Attraction to Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Model Cell Membranes

    E-print Network

    Free Energy Difference in Indolicidin Attraction to Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Model Cell Membranes and structural determinants of indolicidin interactions with eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell membranes using and prokaryotic cell membranes. Indolicidin was preferentially attracted to the model prokaryotic cell membrane

  7. Dynamics of photoinduced cell plasma membrane injury.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, W P; Toner, M; Ezzell, R M; Tompkins, R G; Yarmush, M L

    1995-05-01

    We have developed a video microscopy system designed for real-time measurement of single cell damage during photolysis under well defined physicochemical and photophysical conditions. Melanoma cells cultured in vitro were treated with the photosensitizer (PS), tin chlorin e6 (SnCe6) or immunoconjugate (SnCe6 conjugated to a anti-ICAM monoclonal antibody), and illuminated with a 10 mW He/Ne laser at a 630 nm wavelength. Cell membrane integrity was assessed using the vital dye calcein-AM. In experiments in which the laser power density and PS concentration were varied, it was determined that the time lag before cell rupture was inversely proportional to the estimated singlet oxygen flux to the cell surface. Microscopic examination of the lytic event indicated that photo-induced lysis was caused by a point rupture of the plasma membrane. The on-line nature of this microscopy system offers an opportunity to monitor the dynamics of the cell damage process and to gain insights into the mechanism governing photolytic cell injury processes. PMID:7612864

  8. Beauvericin induced erythrocyte cell membrane scrambling.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Syed M; Kucherenko, Yuliya; Lang, Florian

    2011-04-28

    Beauvericin is a mycotoxin with antiviral, antibacterial, nematicidal, insecticidal, cytotoxic, and apoptotic activity. Similar to nucleated cells erythrocytes may undergo suicidal death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and phosphatidylserine exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Eryptosis may be triggered by energy depletion leading to increase of cytosolic Ca²+ activity. The present study thus explored whether beauvericin is able to trigger eryptosis and influence eryptosis following energy depletion. Cell membrane scrambling was estimated from binding of annexin V to phosphatidylserine at the erythrocyte surface, cell volume from forward scatter in FACS analysis, cytosolic Ca²+ concentration from Fluo3 fluorescence, cytosolic ATP concentration from a luciferase-assay and ion channel activity with whole cell patch clamp. Exposure to beauvericin (? 5 ?M) significantly decreased erythrocyte ATP concentration and increased cytosolic Ca²+ concentration as well as annexin V-binding. The effect of beauvericin on annexin V binding was significantly blunted by removal of extracellular Ca²+. Glucose depletion (48 h) was followed by, increase of Fluo3 fluorescence, decrease of forward scatter and increase of annexin V-binding. Beauvericin (? 1 ?M) augmented the effect of glucose withdrawal on Fluo3 fluorescence and annexin V-binding, but significantly blunted the effect of glucose withdrawal on forward scatter, an effect paralleled by inhibition of Ca²+ activated K+ channels. The present observations disclose novel effects of beauvericin, i.e. stimulation of Ca²+ entry with subsequent cell membrane scrambling and inhibition of Ca²+ activated K+ channels with blunting of cell shrinkage. PMID:21296643

  9. Correlation of cell membrane dynamics and cell motility

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Essential events of cell development and homeostasis are revealed by the associated changes of cell morphology and therefore have been widely used as a key indicator of physiological states and molecular pathways affecting various cellular functions via cytoskeleton. Cell motility is a complex phenomenon primarily driven by the actin network, which plays an important role in shaping the morphology of the cells. Most of the morphology based features are approximated from cell periphery but its dynamics have received none to scant attention. We aim to bridge the gap between membrane dynamics and cell states from the perspective of whole cell movement by identifying cell edge patterns and its correlation with cell dynamics. Results We present a systematic study to extract, classify, and compare cell dynamics in terms of cell motility and edge activity. Cell motility features extracted by fitting a persistent random walk were used to identify the initial set of cell subpopulations. We propose algorithms to extract edge features along the entire cell periphery such as protrusion and retraction velocity. These constitute a unique set of multivariate time-lapse edge features that are then used to profile subclasses of cell dynamics by unsupervised clustering. Conclusions By comparing membrane dynamic patterns exhibited by each subclass of cells, correlated trends of edge and cell movements were identified. Our findings are consistent with published literature and we also identified that motility patterns are influenced by edge features from initial time points compared to later sampling intervals. PMID:22372978

  10. Cell-to-cell transfer of bacterial outer membrane lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Nudleman, Eric; Wall, Daniel; Kaiser, Dale

    2005-07-01

    Myxococcus xanthus cells can glide forward by retracting type IV pili. Tgl, an outer membrane lipoprotein, is necessary to assemble pili. Tgl mutants can be transiently "stimulated" if brought into end-to-end contact with tgl+ donor cells. By separating the stimulated recipient cells from donor cells, we found that Tgl protein was transferred from the donors to the rescued recipient cells. Mutants lacking CglB lipoprotein, which is part of a second gliding engine, could also be stimulated, and CglB protein was transferred from donor to recipient cells. The high transfer efficiency of Tgl and CglB proteins suggests that donor and recipient cells briefly fuse their outer membranes. PMID:15994555

  11. Fuel cell membranes and crossover prevention

    DOEpatents

    Masel, Richard I. (Champaign, IL); York, Cynthia A. (Newington, CT); Waszczuk, Piotr (White Bear Lake, MN); Wieckowski, Andrzej (Champaign, IL)

    2009-08-04

    A membrane electrode assembly for use with a direct organic fuel cell containing a formic acid fuel includes a solid polymer electrolyte having first and second surfaces, an anode on the first surface and a cathode on the second surface and electrically linked to the anode. The solid polymer electrolyte has a thickness t:.gtoreq..times..times..times..times. ##EQU00001## where C.sub.f is the formic acid fuel concentration over the anode, D.sub.f is the effective diffusivity of the fuel in the solid polymer electrolyte, K.sub.f is the equilibrium constant for partition coefficient for the fuel into the solid polymer electrolyte membrane, I is Faraday's constant n.sub.f is the number of electrons released when 1 molecule of the fuel is oxidized, and j.sub.f.sup.c is an empirically determined crossover rate of fuel above which the fuel cell does not operate.

  12. Different activities of the reovirus FAST proteins and influenza hemagglutinin in cell-cell fusion assays and in response to membrane curvature agents

    SciTech Connect

    Clancy, Eileen K.; Barry, Chris; Ciechonska, Marta [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 1X5 (Canada); Duncan, Roy, E-mail: roy.duncan@dal.c [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 1X5 (Canada); Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 1X5 (Canada)

    2010-02-05

    The reovirus fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) proteins evolved to induce cell-cell, rather than virus-cell, membrane fusion. It is unclear whether the FAST protein fusion reaction proceeds in the same manner as the enveloped virus fusion proteins. We now show that fluorescence-based cell-cell and cell-RBC hemifusion assays are unsuited for detecting lipid mixing in the absence of content mixing during FAST protein-mediated membrane fusion. Furthermore, membrane curvature agents that inhibit hemifusion or promote pore formation mediated by influenza hemagglutinin had no effect on p14-induced cell-cell fusion, even under conditions of limiting p14 concentrations. Standard assays used to detect fusion intermediates induced by enveloped virus fusion proteins are therefore not applicable to the FAST proteins. These results suggest the possibility that the nature of the fusion intermediates or the mechanisms used to transit through the various stages of the fusion reaction may differ between these distinct classes of viral fusogens.

  13. New membranes for direct methanol fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Jörissen; V. Gogel; J. Kerres; J. Garche

    2002-01-01

    The performance of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) is limited by the cross-over of methanol through the electrolyte. Electrolyte membranes prepared by blending of sulfonated arylene main-chain polymers like sulfonated PEEK Victrex (sPEEK) or sulfonated PSU Udel (sPSU) with basic polymers like poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) or polybenzimidazole (PBI) show excellent chemical and thermal stability, good proton-conductivity, and good performance in H2

  14. Oscillations of membrane potential in L cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasunobu Okada; Wakoh Tsuchiya; Akira Inouye

    1979-01-01

    Summary Effects of divalent cations on oscillations of membrane potentials (i.e., spontaneous repetitive hyperpolarizing responses) and on hyperpolarizing responses induced by electrical stimuli as well as on resting potentials were studied in large nondividing L cells. Deprivation of Ca2+ from the external medium inhibited these hyperpolarizing responses accompanying slight depolarization of the resting potential. Sr2+ or Mn2+ applied to the

  15. Membrane catalyst layer for fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A gas reaction fuel cell incorporates a thin catalyst layer between a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) membrane and a porous electrode backing. The catalyst layer is preferably less than about 10 .mu.m in thickness with a carbon supported platinum catalyst loading less than about 0.35 mgPt/cm.sup.2. The film is formed as an ink that is spread and cured on a film release blank. The cured film is then transferred to the SPE membrane and hot pressed into the surface to form a catalyst layer having a controlled thickness and catalyst distribution. Alternatively, the catalyst layer is formed by applying a Na.sup.+ form of a perfluorosulfonate ionomer directly to the membrane, drying the film at a high temperature, and then converting the film back to the protonated form of the ionomer. The layer has adequate gas permeability so that cell performance is not affected and has a density and particle distribution effective to optimize proton access to the catalyst and electronic continuity for electron flow from the half-cell reaction occurring at the catalyst.

  16. A Case Study: the RBC/RBC Handover Process Humboldt University of Berlin

    E-print Network

    Schlingloff, Holger

    of the RBC/RBC Handover Process European Train Control System (ETCS) is a signaling, control and train protec of the on-board subsystem (composed of ERTMS/ETCS on-board equipment, the on-board part of the GSM-R radio system and spe- cic transmission modules for existing national train control systems), and the track

  17. Electroosmotic flow through polymer electrolyte membranes in PEM fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Karimi; X. Li

    2005-01-01

    Water management is critically important for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), and is complicated by the electroosmotic flow of water from anode to cathode through the polymer electrolyte membrane. In this study, electroosmotic flow in polymer electrolyte membranes is modeled incorporating the electrokinetic effect, and key parameters affecting the PEM fuel cell performance are identified. The governing Poisson–Boltzmann and

  18. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NY); Walsh, Michael M. (Fairfield, CT)

    2003-01-01

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

  19. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NY); Walsh, Michael M. (Fairfield, CT)

    1999-01-01

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel in order to mix its respective portion of liquid water with the corresponding portion of the stream. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

  20. Rapid Rather than Gradual Weight Reduction Impairs Hemorheological Parameters of Taekwondo Athletes through Reduction in RBC-NOS Activation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Woo Hwi; Heine, Oliver; Pauly, Sebastian; Kim, Pilsang; Bloch, Wilhelm; Mester, Joachim; Grau, Marijke

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Rapid weight reduction is part of the pre-competition routine and has been shown to negatively affect psychological and physiological performance of Taekwondo (TKD) athletes. This is caused by a reduction of the body water and an electrolyte imbalance. So far, it is unknown whether weight reduction also affects hemorheological properties and hemorheology-influencing nitric oxide (NO) signaling, important for oxygen supply to the muscles and organs. Methods For this purpose, ten male TKD athletes reduced their body weight by 5% within four days (rapid weight reduction, RWR). After a recovery phase, athletes reduced body weight by 5% within four weeks (gradual weight reduction, GWR). Each intervention was preceded by two baseline measurements and followed by a simulated competition. Basal blood parameters (red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean cellular hemoglobin and mean cellular hemoglobin concentration), RBC-NO synthase activation, RBC nitrite as marker for NO synthesis, RBC deformability and aggregation parameters were determined on a total of eight investigation days. Results Basal blood parameters were not affected by the two interventions. In contrast to GWR, RWR decreased activation of RBC-NO synthase, RBC nitrite, respective NO concentration and RBC deformability. Additionally, RWR increased RBC aggregation and disaggregation threshold. Conclusion The results point out that a rapid weight reduction negatively affects hemorheological parameters and NO signaling in RBC which might limit performance capacity. Thus, GWR should be preferred to achieve the desired weight prior to a competition to avoid these negative effects. PMID:25875585

  1. Microfabrication of High-Resolution Porous Membranes for Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Monica Y.; Li, David Jiang; Pham, Long K.; Wong, Brandon G.

    2014-01-01

    Microporous membranes are widely utilized in cell biology to study cell-cell signaling and cell migration. However, the thickness and low porosity of commercial track-etched membranes limit the quality of cell imaging and the degree of cell-cell contact that can be achieved on such devices. We employ photolithography-based microfabrication to achieve porous membranes with pore diameter as small as 0.9 ?m, up to 40% porosity, and less than 5% variation in pore size. Through the use of a soap release layer, membranes as thin as 1 ?m can be achieved. The thin membranes minimally disrupt contrast enhancement optics, thus allowing good quality imaging of unlabeled cells under white light, unlike commercial membranes. In addition, the polymer membrane materials display low autofluorescence even after patterning, facilitating high quality fluorescence microscopy. Finally, confocal imaging suggests that substantial cell-cell contact is possible through the pores of these thin membranes. This membrane technology can enhance existing uses of porous membranes in cell biology as well as enable new types of experiments. PMID:24567663

  2. Computational Modeling and Optimization of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    E-print Network

    Victoria, University of

    Computational Modeling and Optimization of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells by Marc Secanell and Optimization of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells by Marc Secanell Gallart Bachelor in Engineering cells. In this thesis, a computational framework for fuel cell analysis and optimization is presented

  3. Double-layer ionomer membrane for improving fuel cell performance.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Takashi; Uchida, Makoto; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masahiro; Miyatake, Kenji

    2014-08-27

    A double-layer ionomer membrane, thin-layer Nafion (perfluorinated sulfonic acid polymer) on a sulfonated aromatic block copolymer (SPK-bl-1), was prepared for improving fuel cell performance. Each component of the double-layer membrane showed similar phase-separated morphologies to those of the original membranes. A fuel cell with the double-layer membrane exhibited lower ohmic resistance and higher cathode performance than those with the original SPK-bl-1 membrane despite their comparable water uptake and proton conductivity. Detailed electrochemical analyses of fuel cell data suggested that the thin Nafion interlayer contributed to improving the interfacial contact between the SPK-bl-1 membrane and the cathode catalyst layer and to mitigating excessive drying of the membrane. The results provide new insight on designing high-performance fuel cells with nonfluorinated ionomer membranes such as sulfonated aromatic polymers. PMID:24988282

  4. Membrane flux through the pore formed by a fusogenic viral envelope protein during cell fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. W. Tse; A. Iwata; W. Almers

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the mechanism of cell fusion mediated by HA, the fusogenic hemagglutinin of the Influenza viral envelope. Single erythrocytes (RBCs) were attached to fibroblasts expressing the HA on their cell surface, and fusion of the paired cells was triggered by rapid acidification. The RBC mem- brane was stained with fluorescent lipid, and the fusion-induced escape of lipid into

  5. Interaction between Cell Penetrating pVEC and cell membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Abhijit; Hwee Lai, Ghee; Schmidt, Nathan; Wong, Gerard

    2011-03-01

    Vascular Endothelial Cadherin (VEC) is a transmembrane-spanning glycoprotein that belongs to the family of cell adhesion molecules and plays an active role in control of vascular permeability and angiogenesis. PVEC, an 18 amino acid domain, has been shown to be able to traverse cell membranes with attached macromolecules. pVEC is an amphiphilic molecule with a high content of basic amino acids resulting in a net positive charge. Electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions can perturb membrane self-assembly and stability and are likely to be responsible for peptide uptake. We use synchrotron x-ray scattering and confocal microscopy to examine the phase behavior of the pVEC lipid system, and its relation to membrane permeation mechanisms.

  6. Membrane disorder and phospholipid scrambling in electropermeabilized and viable cells.

    PubMed

    Escoffre, Jean-Michel; Bellard, Elisabeth; Faurie, Cécile; Sébaï, Sarra C; Golzio, Muriel; Teissié, Justin; Rols, Marie-Pierre

    2014-07-01

    Membrane electropermeabilization relies on the transient permeabilization of the plasma membrane of cells submitted to electric pulses. This method is widely used in cell biology and medicine due to its efficiency to transfer molecules while limiting loss of cell viability. However, very little is known about the consequences of membrane electropermeabilization at the molecular and cellular levels. Progress in the knowledge of the involved mechanisms is a biophysical challenge. As a transient loss of membrane cohesion is associated with membrane permeabilization, our main objective was to detect and visualize at the single-cell level the incidence of phospholipid scrambling and changes in membrane order. We performed studies using fluorescence microscopy with C6-NBD-PC and FM1-43 to monitor phospholipid scrambling and membrane order of mammalian cells. Millisecond permeabilizing pulses induced membrane disorganization by increasing the translocation of phosphatidylcholines according to an ATP-independent process. The pulses induced the formation of long-lived permeant structures that were present during membrane resealing, but were not associated with phosphatidylcholine internalization. These pulses resulted in a rapid phospholipid flip/flop within less than 1s and were exclusively restricted to the regions of the permeabilized membrane. Under such electrical conditions, phosphatidylserine externalization was not detected. Moreover, this electrically-mediated membrane disorganization was not correlated with loss of cell viability. Our results could support the existence of direct interactions between the movement of membrane zwitterionic phospholipids and the electric field. PMID:24583083

  7. Cell membrane structure of human giant-celled glioblastoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiichi Tani; Masaru Nakano; Tetsuya Itagaki; Toyokazu Fukumori

    1978-01-01

    A giant-cell glioblastoma was examined by electron microscopy and by the freeze-fracture technique. The cell membranes bordering the extensive extracellular space often showed complicated undulations and peripheral vacuoles as well as occasional microvilli or filopodia. The undulations were mainly composed of plasmalemmal vesicles as well as of large (400–800 nm in diameter) and small (30–50 nm in diameter) localized protrusions

  8. Ion transport through cell membrane channels

    E-print Network

    Jan Gomulkiewicz; Jacek Miekisz; Stanislaw Miekisz

    2007-06-05

    We discuss various models of ion transport through cell membrane channels. Recent experimental data shows that sizes of ion channels are compared to those of ions and that only few ions may be simultaneously in any single channel. Theoretical description of ion transport in such channels should therefore take into account interactions between ions and between ions and channel proteins. This is not satisfied by macroscopic continuum models based on Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations. More realistic descriptions of ion transport are offered by microscopic Brownian and molecular dynamics. One should also take into account a dynamical character of the channel structure. This is not yet addressed in the literature

  9. Water and methanol uptakes in Nafion membranes and membrane effects on direct methanol cell performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Ren; T. E. Springer; S. Gottesfeld

    2000-01-01

    This paper compares direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) employing two types of Nafion{reg{underscore}sign} (E.I.DuPont de Nemours and Company) membranes of different equivalent weight (EW). Methanol and water uptakes in 1,100 and 1,200 EW Nafion membranes were determined by weighing PâOâ-dried and methanol solution-equilibrated membranes. Both methanol and water uptakes in the 1,200 EW membrane were about 70--74% of those in

  10. Membrane Purification Cell for Aluminum Recycling

    SciTech Connect

    David DeYoung; James Wiswall; Cong Wang

    2011-11-29

    Recycling mixed aluminum scrap usually requires adding primary aluminum to the scrap stream as a diluent to reduce the concentration of non-aluminum constituents used in aluminum alloys. Since primary aluminum production requires approximately 10 times more energy than melting scrap, the bulk of the energy and carbon dioxide emissions for recycling are associated with using primary aluminum as a diluent. Eliminating the need for using primary aluminum as a diluent would dramatically reduce energy requirements, decrease carbon dioxide emissions, and increase scrap utilization in recycling. Electrorefining can be used to extract pure aluminum from mixed scrap. Some example applications include producing primary grade aluminum from specific scrap streams such as consumer packaging and mixed alloy saw chips, and recycling multi-alloy products such as brazing sheet. Electrorefining can also be used to extract valuable alloying elements such as Li from Al-Li mixed scrap. This project was aimed at developing an electrorefining process for purifying aluminum to reduce energy consumption and emissions by 75% compared to conventional technology. An electrolytic molten aluminum purification process, utilizing a horizontal membrane cell anode, was designed, constructed, operated and validated. The electrorefining technology could also be used to produce ultra-high purity aluminum for advanced materials applications. The technical objectives for this project were to: - Validate the membrane cell concept with a lab-scale electrorefining cell; - Determine if previously identified voltage increase issue for chloride electrolytes holds for a fluoride-based electrolyte system; - Assess the probability that voltage change issues can be solved; and - Conduct a market and economic analysis to assess commercial feasibility. The process was tested using three different binary alloy compositions (Al-2.0 wt.% Cu, Al-4.7 wt.% Si, Al-0.6 wt.% Fe) and a brazing sheet scrap composition (Al-2.8 wt.% Si-0.7 wt.% Fe-0.8 wt.% Mn),. Purification factors (defined as the initial impurity concentration divided by the final impurity concentration) of greater than 20 were achieved for silicon, iron, copper, and manganese. Cell performance was measured using its current and voltage characteristics and composition analysis of the anode, cathode, and electrolytes. The various cells were autopsied as part of the study. Three electrolyte systems tested were: LiCl-10 wt. % AlCl3, LiCl-10 wt. % AlCl3-5 wt.% AlF3 and LiF-10 wt.% AlF3. An extended four-day run with the LiCl-10 wt.% AlCl3-5 wt.% AlF3 electrolyte system was stable for the entire duration of the experiment, running at energy requirements about one third of the Hoopes and the conventional Hall-Heroult process. Three different anode membranes were investigated with respect to their purification performance and survivability: a woven graphite cloth with 0.05 cm nominal thickness & > 90 % porosity, a drilled rigid membrane with nominal porosity of 33%, and another drilled rigid graphite membrane with increased thickness. The latter rigid drilled graphite was selected as the most promising membrane design. The economic viability of the membrane cell to purify scrap is sensitive to primary & scrap aluminum prices, and the cost of electricity. In particular, it is sensitive to the differential between scrap and primary aluminum price which is highly variable and dependent on the scrap source. In order to be economically viable, any scrap post-processing technology in the U.S. market must have a total operating cost well below the scrap price differential of $0.20-$0.40 per lb to the London Metal Exchange (LME), a margin of 65%-85% of the LME price. The cost to operate the membrane cell is estimated to be < $0.24/lb of purified aluminum. The energy cost is estimated to be $0.05/lb of purified aluminum with the remaining costs being repair and maintenance, electrolyte, labor, taxes and depreciation. The bench-scale work on membrane purification cell process has demonstrated technological advantages and subs

  11. Altered sodium permeability, calcium binding and Na?K-ATPase activity in the red blood cell membrane in essential hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuvenaly V. Postnov; Sergey N. Orlov; Anatoly Shevchenko; Alexander M. Adler

    1977-01-01

    Summary  Red blood cells (RBC) of patients with essential hypertension differ from those of normotensive individuals by their higher\\u000a passive permeability for sodium ions (the rate constant of steady-state Na\\/Na exchange in RBC is 1.520.12 vs 0.700.12 \\u000a 10?5 mole\\/min l of cells).\\u000a \\u000a Calcium depletion of the RBC by EDTA results in the removal of more calcium ions from the outer part

  12. Aptamer Directly Evolved from Live Cells Recognizes Membrane Bound Immunoglobin

    E-print Network

    Tan, Weihong

    into diseased cells (1). The origin of these protein transformations can be due to genetic alternations and, and Weihong Tan The identification of tumor related cell membrane protein targets is important of membrane proteins that play an essential role in dis- ease progression and in transforming healthy cells

  13. Kinetics and mechanism of cell membrane electrofusion.

    PubMed Central

    Abidor, I G; Sowers, A E

    1992-01-01

    A new quantitative approach to study cell membrane electrofusion has been developed. Erythrocyte ghosts were brought into close contact using dielectrophoresis and then treated with one square or even exponentially decaying fusogenic pulse. Individual fusion events were followed by lateral diffusion of the fluorescent lipid analogue 1,1'-dihexadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (Dil) from originally labeled to unlabeled adjacent ghosts. It was found that ghost fusion can be described as a first-order rate process with corresponding rate constants; a true fusion rate constant, k(f), for the square waveform pulse and an effective fusion rate constant, k(ef), for the exponential pulse. Compared with the fusion yield, the fusion rate constants are more fundamental characteristics of the fusion process and have implications for its mechanisms. Values of k(f) for rabbit and human erythrocyte ghosts were obtained at different electric field strength and temperatures. Arrhenius k(f) plots revealed that the activation energy of ghost electrofusion is in the range of 6-10 kT. Measurements were also made with the rabbit erythrocyte ghosts exposed to 42 degrees C for 10 min (to disrupt the spectrin network) or 0.1-1.0 mM uranyl acetate (to stabilize the bilayer lipid matrix of membranes). A correlation between the dependence of the fusion and previously published pore-formation rate constants for all experimental conditions suggests that the cell membrane electrofusion process involve pores formed during reversible electrical breakdown. A statistical analysis of fusion products (a) further supports the idea that electrofusion is a stochastic process and (b) shows that the probability of ghost electrofusion is independent of the presence of Dil as a label as well as the number of fused ghosts. PMID:1617138

  14. Erythrocyte plasma membrane–bound ERK1/2 activation promotes ICAM-4–mediated sickle red cell adhesion to endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, Erin J.; Soderblom, Erik J.; Alexander, Susan C.; Thompson, J. Will; Dubois, Laura G.; Moseley, M. Arthur; Telen, Marilyn J.

    2012-01-01

    The core pathology of sickle cell disease (SCD) starts with the erythrocyte (RBC). Aberration in MAPK/ERK1/2 signaling, which can regulate cell adhesion, occurs in diverse pathologies. Because RBCs contain abundant ERK1/2, we predicted that ERK1/2 is functional in sickle (SS) RBCs and promotes adherence, a hallmark of SCD. ERK1/2 remained active in SS but not normal RBCs. ?2-adrenergic receptor stimulation by epinephrine can enhance ERK1/2 activity only in SS RBCs via PKA- and tyrosine kinase p72syk-dependent pathways. ERK signaling is implicated in RBC ICAM-4 phosphorylation, promoting SS RBC adhesion to the endothelium. SS RBC adhesion and phosphorylation of both ERK and ICAM-4 all decreased with continued cell exposure to epinephrine, implying that activation of ICAM-4–mediated SS RBC adhesion is temporally associated with ERK1/2 activation. Furthermore, recombinant ERK2 phosphorylated ?- and ?-adducins and dematin at the ERK consensus motif. Cytoskeletal protein 4.1 also showed dynamic phosphorylation but not at the ERK consensus motif. These results demonstrate that ERK activation induces phosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins and the adhesion molecule ICAM-4, promoting SS RBC adhesion to the endothelium. Thus, blocking RBC ERK1/2 activation, such as that promoted by catecholamine stress hormones, could ameliorate SCD pathophysiology. PMID:22147898

  15. Well-defined regions of the Plasmodium falciparum reticulocyte binding protein homologue 4 mediate interaction with red blood cell membrane.

    PubMed

    García, Jeison; Curtidor, Hernando; Pinzón, Carlos G; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Vanegas, Magnolia; Forero, Martha; Patarroyo, Manuel E

    2010-01-28

    Two widely studied parasite protein families are considered attractive targets for developing a fully effective antimalarial vaccine: the erythrocyte binding antigen (EBA) family defining a sialic acid-dependent invasion pathway, and reticulocyte-binding homologue (RH) proteins associated with sialic acid-independent red blood cell (RBC) invasion. In this study, the micronemal invasive PfRH4 protein was finely mapped using 20-mer-long synthetic peptides spanning the entire protein length to identify protein regions that establish high affinity interactions with human RBCs. Twenty conserved, mainly alpha-helical high-activity binding peptides (HABPs) with nanomolar dissociation constants and recognizing 32, 25, 22, and 20 kDa RBC membrane molecules in a chymotrypsin and/or trypsin-sensitive manner were identified in this protein. Anti-PfRH4 rabbit sera and PfRH4 HABPs inhibited merozoite invasion in vitro, therefore suggesting the implication of these HABPs in Plasmodium falciparum invasion and supporting their inclusion in further structural and immunological studies to design potential components of a minimal subunit-based, multiantigenic, chemically synthesized antimalarial vaccine. PMID:20000683

  16. Membrane electrolyte issues in direct methanol fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zawodzinski, T.A. Jr.; Wilson, M.S.; Bett, J.A.; Gottesfeld, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Electronic and Electrochemical Materials and Device Group

    1994-12-31

    The authors discuss here the effect of methanol, water, and proton transport through membrane electrolytes on the performance of direct methanol polymer electrolyte fuel cells (DMPEFCs). After a discussion of the issues involved in defining such transport parameters, the authors present some data on methanol and water uptake and transport through Nafion 117 membranes. Finally, strategies for improving membrane performance in DMPEFCs are discussed.

  17. Humidification studies on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Sridhar; Ramkumar Perumal; N Rajalakshmi; M Raja; K. S Dhathathreyan

    2001-01-01

    Two methods of humidifying the anode gas, namely, external and membrane humidification, for a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel (PEMFC) cell are explained. It is found that the water of solvation of protons decreases with increase in the current density and the electrode area. This is due to insufficient external humidification. In a membrane-based humidification, an optimum set of parameters, such

  18. Nonhumidified High-Temperature Membranes Developed for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinder, James D.

    2005-01-01

    Fuel cells are being considered for a wide variety of aerospace applications. One of the most versatile types of fuel cells is the proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell. PEM fuel cells can be easily scaled to meet the power and space requirements of a specific application. For example, small 100-W PEM fuel cells are being considered for personal power for extravehicular activity suit applications, whereas larger PEM fuel cells are being designed for primary power in airplanes and in uninhabited air vehicles. Typically, PEM fuel cells operate at temperatures up to 80 C. To increase the efficiency and power density of the fuel cell system, researchers are pursuing methods to extend the operating temperature of the PEM fuel cell to 180 C. The most widely used membranes in PEM fuel cells are Nafion 112 and Nafion 117--sulfonated perfluorinated polyethers that were developed by DuPont. In addition to their relatively high cost, the properties of these membranes limit their use in a PEM fuel cell to around 80 C. The proton conductivity of Nafion membranes significantly decreases above 80 C because the membrane dehydrates. The useful operating range of Nafion-based PEM fuel cells can be extended to over 100 C if ancillary equipment, such as compressors and humidifiers, is added to maintain moisture levels within the membrane. However, the addition of these components reduces the power density and increases the complexity of the fuel cell system.

  19. ALTERNATIVE RBC (ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR) DESIGN - SECOND ORDER KINETICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an alternative method for designing rotating biological contactors (RBC) for use as a secondary treatment operation. The method uses a combination of chemical kinetics, good engineering practice, operational simplicity, and cost effectiveness to design a RBC s...

  20. Polymer-electrolyte membrane, electrochemical fuel cell, and related method

    DOEpatents

    Krishnan, Lakshmi; Yeager, Gary William; Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2014-12-09

    A polymer-electrolyte membrane is presented. The polymer-electrolyte membrane comprises an acid-functional polymer, and an additive incorporated in at least a portion of the membrane. The additive comprises a fluorinated cycloaliphatic additive, a hydrophobic cycloaliphatic additive, or combinations thereof, wherein the additive has a boiling point greater than about 120.degree. C. An electrochemical fuel cell including the polymer-electrolyte membrane, and a related method, are also presented.

  1. The application of Dow Chemical's perfluorinated membranes in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisman, G. A.

    1989-01-01

    Dow Chemical's research activities in fuel cells revolve around the development of perfluorosulfonic acid membranes useful as the proton transport medium and separator. Some of the performance characteristics which are typical for such membranes are outlined. The results of tests utilizing a new experimental membrane useful in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells are presented. The high voltage at low current densities can lead to higher system efficiencies while, at the same time, not sacrificing other critical properties pertinent to membrane fuel cell operation. A series of tests to determine response times indicated that on-off cycles are on the order of 80 milliseconds to reach 90 percent of full power. The IR free voltage at 100 amps/sq ft was determined and the results indicating a membrane/electrode package resistance to be .15 ohm-sq cm at 100 amps/sq ft.

  2. Exo70 Generates Membrane Curvature for Morphogenesis and Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuting; Liu, Jianglan; Yang, Changsong; Capraro, Benjamin R.; Baumgart, Tobias; Bradley, Ryan P.; Ramakrishnan, N.; Xu, Xiaowei; Radhakrishnan, Ravi; Svitkina, Tatyana; Guo, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic shape changes of the plasma membrane are fundamental to many processes ranging from morphogenesis and cell migration to phagocytosis and viral propagation. Here we demonstrate that Exo70, a component of the exocyst complex, induces tubular membrane invaginations towards the lumen of synthetic vesicles in vitro and generates protrusions on the surface of cells. Biochemical analyses using Exo70 mutants and independent molecular dynamics simulations based on Exo70 structure demonstrate that Exo70 generates negative membrane curvature through an oligomerization-based mechanism. In cells, the membrane-deformation function of Exo70 is required for protrusion formation and directional cell migration. Exo70 thus represents a membrane-bending protein that may couple actin dynamics and plasma membrane remodeling for morphogenesis. PMID:23948253

  3. Conductivity Measurements of Synthesized Heteropoly Acid Membranes for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Record, K.A.; Haley, B.T.; Turner, J.

    2006-01-01

    Fuel cell technology is receiving attention due to its potential to be a pollution free method of electricity production when using renewably produced hydrogen as fuel. In a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell H2 and O2 react at separate electrodes, producing electricity, thermal energy, and water. A key component of the PEM fuel cell is the membrane that separates the electrodes. DuPont’s Nafion® is the most commonly used membrane in PEM fuel cells; however, fuel cell dehydration at temperatures near 100°C, resulting in poor conductivity, is a major hindrance to fuel cell performance. Recent studies incorporating heteropoly acids (HPAs) into membranes have shown an increase in conductivity and thus improvement in performance. HPAs are inorganic materials with known high proton conductivities. The primary objective of this work is to measure the conductivity of Nafion, X-Ionomer membranes, and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Developed Membranes that are doped with different HPAs at different concentrations. Four-point conductivity measurements using a third generation BekkTech? conductivity test cell are used to determine membrane conductivity. The effect of multiple temperature and humidification levels is also examined. While the classic commercial membrane, Nafion, has a conductivity of approximately 0.10 S/cm, measurements for membranes in this study range from 0.0030 – 0.58 S/cm, depending on membrane type, structure of the HPA, and the relative humidity. In general, the X-ionomer with H6P2W21O71 HPA gave the highest conductivity and the Nafion with the 12-phosphotungstic (PW12) HPA gave the lowest. The NREL composite membranes had conductivities on the order of 0.0013 – 0.025 S/cm.

  4. Effects of membrane fluidity on hormone action in cultured cells

    E-print Network

    Williams, Gary Wayne

    1982-01-01

    fibroblasts (8, 9) and has been shown to increase small molecule transport into the cell and increase rates of DNA and RNA synthesis (R, 10, 11). Increased rates of protein synthesis (12), phosphorylation of membrane proteins (13), The citations... on the outside of the plasma membrane of target cells. The recep- tor-ligand complexes migrate laterally in the plane of the membrane and become associated into clusters, which then move into regions of coated pits where they undergo endocytosis...

  5. Hemoglobin s polymerization and red cell membrane changes.

    PubMed

    Kuypers, Frans A

    2014-04-01

    Different pathways lead from the simple point mutation in hemoglobin to the membrane changes that characterize the altered interaction of the sickle red blood cell with its environment, including endothelial cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Polymerization and oxidation-induced damage to both lipid and protein components of the red cell membrane, as well as the generation of bioreactive membrane material (microparticles), has a profound effect on all tissues and organs, and defines the vasculopathy of the patient with sickle cell disease. PMID:24589260

  6. Electron-beam direct processing on living cell membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, Takayuki [Department of Bio-Applications and Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Morishima, Keisuke [Department of Bio-Applications and Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 Japan (Japan)

    2011-10-24

    We demonstrated a direct processing on a living Hep G2 cell membrane in conventional cultivation conditions using an electron beam. Electron beam-induced deposition from liquid precursor 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene and ablation was performed on the living cells. The 2.5-10 keV electron beam which was irradiated through a 100-nm-thick SiN nanomembrane could induce a deposition pattern and a ablation on a living cell membrane. This electron beam direct processing can provide simple in-situ cell surface modification for an analytical method of living cell membrane dynamic.

  7. Salt splitting in a three-compartment membrane electrolysis cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Tzanetakis; WM Taama; K Scott

    2002-01-01

    A three-compartment membrane cell was used to investigate the electrohydrolysis of sodium sulphate for the regeneration of acid and base. The membranes used were Pall R1010 cation exchange and Pall R1030 anion exchange. The effect of flow rate, current density and initial salt concentration on the performance of the cell (current efficiencies, transport properties and product concentrations) are reported. The

  8. Ion Transport Through Cell Membrane Channels Jan Gomulkiewicz1

    E-print Network

    Miekisz, Jacek

    1 Ion Transport Through Cell Membrane Channels Jan Gomulkiewicz1 , Jacek Mikisz2 , and Stanislaw various models of ion transport through cell membrane channels. Recent experimental data shows that sizes of ion channels are compared to those of ions and that only few ions may be simultaneously in any single

  9. Basement Membrane Collagen: Degradation by Migrating Endothelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tea Kalebic; S. Garbisa; B. Glaser; L. A. Liotta

    1983-01-01

    One of the first steps in neovascularizaton is dissolution of the basement membrane at the point of endothelial outgrowth. An assay was developed to determine whether basement membrane collagens (types IV and V) are degraded by endothelial cells migrating toward a chemotactic stimulus. Fetal bovine endothelial cells were placed on one side of a filter containing the collagen substrate, and

  10. Mathematical modeling of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Rowe; Xianguo Li

    2001-01-01

    A one-dimensional non-isothermal model of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has been developed to investigate the effect of various design and operating conditions on the cell performance, thermal response and water management, and to understand the underlying mechanism. The model includes variable membrane hydration, ternary gas mixtures for both reactant streams, phase change of water in the electrodes

  11. THE ENZYMATIC IODINATION OF THE RED CELL MEMBRANE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANN L. HUBBARD; ZANVIL A. COHN

    1972-01-01

    An enzymatic iodination procedure utilizing lactoperoxidase (LPO), radioactive iodide, and hydrogen peroxide generated by a glucose oxidase-glucose system has been described and utilized for a study of the red cell membrane . 97 % of the incorporated isotope is in the erythrocyte ghost and 3 % is associated with hemoglobin . No significant labeling of the red cell membrane occurs

  12. Functional fluoropolymers for fuel cell membranes and B. Amduri1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Functional fluoropolymers for fuel cell membranes R. Souzy1 and B. Améduri1 * 1) Laboratory@cit.enscm.fr. Abstract Various routes to synthesise functional fluoropolymers used in membranes for fuel cells-g-poly(M) graft copolymers (where FP and M stand for fluoropolymer and monomer, respectively) obtained

  13. Self-humidifying polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiro Watanabe; Hiroyuki Uchida; Yasuhiro Seki; Masaomi Emori; P. Stonehart

    1996-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte fuel cells have attracted enormous interest as a primary power source for electric vehicles. Water management in the electrolyte is one of the complicated problems to be overcome. A new self-humidifying electrolyte membrane is proposed to solve this problem. Self-humidification allows the use of very thin membranes, simultaneously allowing high performance of the cell. Use of the new,

  14. Resealing dynamics of a cell membrane after electroporation Martin Bier

    E-print Network

    Bier, Martin

    V resting potential, a relaxation back to an almost zero current takes place. Figure 3 shows the currents obResealing dynamics of a cell membrane after electroporation Martin Bier Department of Physics, East The membrane of a living cell consists of a bilayer of amphipolar lipid molecules as well as much larger

  15. Membrane Nanowaves in Single and Collective Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Zouani, Omar F.; Gocheva, Veronika; Durrieu, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    We report the characterization of three-dimensional membrane waves for migrating single and collective cells and describe their propagation using wide-field optical profiling technique with nanometer resolution. We reveal the existence of small and large membrane waves the amplitudes of which are in the range of ?3–7 nm to ?16–25 nm respectively, through the cell. For migrating single-cells, the amplitude of these waves is about 30 nm near the cell edge. Two or more different directions of propagation of the membrane nanowaves inside the same cell can be observed. After increasing the migration velocity by BMP-2 treatment, only one wave direction of propagation exists with an increase in the average amplitude (more than 80 nm near the cell edge). Furthermore for collective-cell migration, these membrane nanowaves are attenuated on the leader cells and poor transmission of these nanowaves to follower cells was observed. After BMP-2 treatment, the membrane nanowaves are transmitted from the leader cell to several rows of follower cells. Surprisingly, the vast majority of the observed membrane nanowaves is shared between the adjacent cells. These results give a new view on how single and collective-cells modulate their motility. This work has significant implications for the therapeutic use of BMPs for the regeneration of skin tissue. PMID:24846182

  16. Synthetic peptides from conserved regions of the Plasmodium falciparum early transcribed membrane and ring exported proteins bind specifically to red blood cell proteins.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jeison; Curtidor, Hernando; Obando-Martinez, Ana Z; Vizcaíno, Carolina; Pinto, Martha; Martinez, Nora L; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Patarroyo, Manuel E

    2009-11-16

    Severe malaria pathology is directly associated with cytoadherence of infected red blood cells (iRBCs) to healthy RBCs and/or endothelial cells occurring during the intraerythrocytic development of Plasmodium falciparum. We synthesized, as 20-mer long peptides, the members of the ring exported (REX) protein family encoded in chromosome 9, as well as the early transcribed membrane proteins (E-TRAMP) 10.2 and 4, to identify specific RBC binding regions in these proteins. Twelve binding peptides were identified (designated as HABPs): three were identified in REX1, two in REX2, one in REX3, two in REX4 and four in E-TRAMP 10.2. The majority of these HABPs was conserved among different P. falciparum strains, according to sequence analysis. No HABPs were found in E-TRAMP 4. Bindings of HABPs were saturable and sensitive to the enzymatic treatment of RBCs and HABPs had different structural features, according to circular dichroism studies. Our results suggest that the REX and E-TRAMP families participate in relevant interactions with RBC membrane proteins, which highlight these proteins as potential targets for the development of fully effective immunoprophylactic methods. PMID:19755146

  17. Large Deformation Mechanics of Plasma Membrane Chained Vesicles in Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosawada, Tadashi; Sanada, Kouichi; Takano, Tetsuo

    The clathrin-coated pits, vesicles and chained vesicles on the inner surface of the plasma membrane facilitate the cell to transport specific extracellular macromolecules. This cellular process is strongly involved with large mechanical deformations of the plasma membrane accompanied by changes in membrane curvature. The assembly of the clathrin coat is thought to provide curvature into the membrane. Hence, effects of in-plane shear elasticity due to these coat structure may be significant on the vesicular mechanics. In this study, large deformation mechanics of plasma membrane chained vesicles in cells have been formulated based on minimization of bending and in-plane shear strain energy of the membrane. Effects of outer surrounding cytoplasmic flat membrane upon mechanically stable shapes of the vesicles were revealed, while effects of in-plane shear elasticity were partly discussed.

  18. Live-cell imaging of receptors around postsynaptic membranes.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiromitsu; Fujii, Shumpei; Hirano, Tomoo

    2014-01-01

    This protocol describes how to image the trafficking of glutamate receptors around excitatory postsynaptic membrane formed on an adhesion protein-coated glass surface. The protocol was developed to clarify how receptors move during the induction of synaptic plasticity. Dissociated neurons are cultured on a coverslip coated with neurexin, which induces the formation of postsynaptic membrane-like structures on the glass surface. A glutamate receptor tagged with a fluorescent protein is then transfected into neurons, and it is observed with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. The whole process takes about 3 weeks. Changes in the amount of cell-surface receptors caused by neuronal activities can be quantified, and individual exocytosis events of receptors can be clearly observed around the pseudo-postsynaptic membrane. This protocol has potential applications for studies of movements of membrane proteins around other specialized regions of the cell membrane, such as the inhibitory postsynaptic membrane, the presynaptic membrane or the immunological synapses. PMID:24336472

  19. Sustainable Energy Systems Lab: Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lab introduces the operation of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Students will become familiar with a Simulink model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell, obtain the nonlinear voltage-current and power-current characteristics for a typical fuel cell, determine the maximum power point and obtain a linear voltage equation for the fuel cell as a function of the current. This document may be downloaded in Microsoft Word file format.

  20. Toxic effects of Litsea elliptica Blume essential oil on red blood cells of Sprague-Dawley rats*

    PubMed Central

    Taib, Izatus Shima; Budin, Siti Balkis; Siti Nor Ain, Seri Maseran; Mohamed, Jamaludin; Louis, Santhana Raj; Das, Srijit; Sallehudin, Sulaiman; Rajab, Nor Fadilah; Hidayatulfathi, Othman

    2009-01-01

    Litsea elliptica Blume leaves have been traditionally used as medicinal herbs because of its antimutagenicity, chemopreventative and insecticidal properties. In this study, the toxic effects of L. elliptica essential oil against Sprague-Dawley rat’s red blood cells (RBCs) were evaluated. L. elliptica essential oil was given by oral gavage 5 times per week for 3 treated groups in the doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/(kg body weight), respectively, and the control group received distilled water. Full blood count, RBC osmotic fragility, RBC morphological changes, and RBC membrane lipid were analyzed 28 d after the treatment. Although L. elliptica essential oil administration had significantly different effects on hemoglobin (Hb), mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean cell volume (MCV), and mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) in the experimental groups as compared to the control group (P<0.05), the values were still within the normal range. L. elliptica induced morphological changes of RBC into the form of echinocyte. The percentage of echinocyte increased significantly among the treated groups in a dose-response manner (P<0.001). The concentrations of RBC membrane phospholipids and cholesterol of all treated groups were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.001). However, the RBC membrane osmotic fragility and total proteins of RBC membrane findings did not differ significantly between control and treated groups (P>0.05). It is concluded that structural changes in the RBC membrane due to L. elliptica essential oil administration did not cause severe membrane damage. PMID:19882755

  1. The Stirred Tank Reactor Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell

    E-print Network

    Benziger, J; Karnas, E; Moxley, J; Teuscher, C; Kevrekidis, Yu G; Benziger, Jay

    2003-01-01

    The design and operation of a differential Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell is described. The fuel cell design is based on coupled Stirred Tank Reactors (STR); the gas phase in each reactor compartment was well mixed. The characteristic times for reactant flow, gas phase diffusion and reaction were chosen so that the gas compositions at both the anode and cathode are uniform. The STR PEM fuel cell is one-dimensional; the only spatial gradients are transverse to the membrane. The STR PEM fuel cell was employed to examine fuel cell start- up, and its dynamic responses to changes in load, temperature and reactant flow rates. Multiple time scales in systems response are found to correspond to water absorption by the membrane, water transport through the membrane and stress-related mechanical changes of the membrane.

  2. Cell membrane thermal gradients induced by electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garner, Allen L.; Deminsky, Maxim; Bogdan Neculaes, V.; Chashihin, V.; Knizhnik, Andrey; Potapkin, Boris

    2013-06-01

    While electromagnetic fields induce structural changes in cell membranes, particularly electroporation, much remains to be understood about membrane level temperature gradients. For instance, microwaves induce cell membrane temperature gradients (?T) and bioeffects with little bulk temperature change. Recent calculations suggest that nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) may also induce such gradients that may additionally impact the electroporation threshold. Here, we analytically and numerically calculate the induced ?T as a function of pulse duration and pulse repetition rate. We relate ?T to the thermally induced cell membrane electric field (Em) by assuming the membrane behaves as a thermoelectric such that Em ˜ ?T. Focusing initially on applying nsPEFs to a uniform membrane, we show that reducing pulse duration and increasing pulse repetition rate (or using higher frequency for alternating current (AC) fields) maximizes the magnitude and duration of ?T and, concomitantly, Em. The maximum ?T initially occurs at the interface between the cell membrane and extracellular fluid before becoming uniform across the membrane, potentially enabling initial molecular penetration and subsequent transport across the membrane. These results, which are equally applicable to AC fields, motivate further studies to elucidate thermoelectric behavior in a model membrane system and the coupling of the Em induced by ?T with that created directly by the applied field.

  3. Characterization of a graphene oxide membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, T.; Bishop, S. R.; Nishihara, M.; Sasaki, K.; Lyth, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    The electrical, mechanical, and compositional characterization of a graphene oxide membrane is presented, and its application as an electrolyte material in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell is explored. Self-supporting graphene oxide membranes were prepared by a simple vacuum filtration process and, for the first time, characterized as the electrolyte in a fuel cell operating in an elevated temperature range (30-80 °C), with a maximum power density of ?34 mW cm-2, approaching that of a Nafion electrolyte based cell prepared and tested under similar conditions. Evidence for partial membrane reduction was found at higher temperatures and is believed to originate from more easily released, higher energy oxide groups, such as epoxides. We also discuss the morphology, the mechanical properties, chemical composition, and electrical conductivity of the graphene oxide membranes, with comparisons made to conventional Nafion membranes.

  4. Nafion\\/mordenite hybrid membrane for high-temperature operation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang-Hee Kwak; Tae-Hyun Yang; Chang-Soo Kim; Ki Hyun Yoon

    2003-01-01

    Nafion\\/mordenite hybrid membranes for the operation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) above 100 °C were prepared by mixing of H+-form mordenite powder and perfluorosulfonylfluoride copolymer resin. PEMFC operation above 100 °C reduces CO poisoning as well as passivation of the Pt anode electrocatalyst by other condensable species. The physico-chemical properties of hybrid membranes were investigated by tensile strength

  5. Nafion\\/Analcime and Nafion\\/Faujasite composite membranes for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paisan Kongkachuichay; Siraprapa Pimprom

    2010-01-01

    The Nafion\\/zeolite composite membranes were synthesized for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFCs) by adding zeolite in the matrix of Nafion polymer. Two kinds of zeolites, Analcime and Faujasite, having different Si\\/Al ratio were used. The physico-chemical properties of the composite membranes such as water uptake, ion-exchange capacity, hydrogen permeability, and proton conductivity were determined. The fabricated composite membranes showed the

  6. Preparation and performance of nano silica\\/Nafion composite membrane for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keping Wang; Scott McDermid; Jing Li; Natalia Kremliakova; Paul Kozak; Chaojie Song; Yanghua Tang; Jianlu Zhang; Jiujun Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Composite membranes made from Nafion ionomer with nano phosphonic acid-functionalised silica and colloidal silica were prepared and evaluated for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) operating at elevated temperature and low relative humidity (RH). The phosphonic acid-functionalised silica additive obtained from a sol–gel process was well incorporated into Nafion membrane. The particle size determined using transmission electron microscope (TEM) had

  7. Nafion\\/PTFE\\/silicate membranes for high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guo-Bin Jung; Fang-Bor Weng; Ay Su; Jiun-Sheng Wang; T. Leon Yu; Hsiu-Li Lin; Tein-Fu Yang; Shih-Hung Chan

    2008-01-01

    Fuel cell performance of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) prepared from poly(tetrafluoroethylene)\\/Nafion\\/silicate (PNS) membrane and Nafion-112 membrane were investigated. Due to the low conductivity of PTFE and silicate, PNS had a higher proton resistance than Nafion-112. However, in this work we show that PNS performs better than Nafion-112 for a high current density i>500mA\\/cm2 operation with a low inlet gas humidity.

  8. Studying the Nucleated Mammalian Cell Membrane by Single Molecule Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Wu, Jiazhen; Gao, Jing; Liu, Shuheng; Jiang, Junguang; Jiang, Shibo; Wang, Hongda

    2014-01-01

    The cell membrane plays a key role in compartmentalization, nutrient transportation and signal transduction, while the pattern of protein distribution at both cytoplasmic and ectoplasmic sides of the cell membrane remains elusive. Using a combination of single-molecule techniques, including atomic force microscopy (AFM), single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), to study the structure of nucleated cell membranes, we found that (1) proteins at the ectoplasmic side of the cell membrane form a dense protein layer (4 nm) on top of a lipid bilayer; (2) proteins aggregate to form islands evenly dispersed at the cytoplasmic side of the cell membrane with a height of about 10–12 nm; (3) cholesterol-enriched domains exist within the cell membrane; (4) carbohydrates stay in microdomains at the ectoplasmic side; and (5) exposed amino groups are asymmetrically distributed on both sides. Based on these observations, we proposed a Protein Layer-Lipid-Protein Island (PLLPI) model, to provide a better understanding of cell membrane structure, membrane trafficking and viral fusion mechanisms. PMID:24806512

  9. Erythrocyte NADPH oxidase activity modulated by Rac GTPases, PKC, and plasma cytokines contributes to oxidative stress in sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Pushkaran, Suvarnamala; Konstantinidis, Diamantis G.; Koochaki, Sebastian; Malik, Punam; Mohandas, Narla; Zheng, Yi; Joiner, Clinton H.; Kalfa, Theodosia A.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic inflammation has emerged as an important pathogenic mechanism in sickle cell disease (SCD). One component of this inflammatory response is oxidant stress mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by leukocytes, endothelial cells, plasma enzymes, and sickle red blood cells (RBC). Sickle RBC ROS generation has been attributed to sickle hemoglobin auto-oxidation and Fenton chemistry reactions catalyzed by denatured heme moieties bound to the RBC membrane. In this study, we demonstrate that a significant part of ROS production in sickle cells is mediated enzymatically by NADPH oxidase, which is regulated by protein kinase C, Rac GTPase, and intracellular Ca2+ signaling within the sickle RBC. Moreover, plasma from patients with SCD and isolated cytokines, such as transforming growth factor ?1 and endothelin-1, enhance RBC NADPH oxidase activity and increase ROS generation. ROS-mediated damage to RBC membrane components is known to contribute to erythrocyte rigidity and fragility in SCD. Erythrocyte ROS generation, hemolysis, vaso-occlusion, and the inflammatory response to tissue damage may therefore act in a positive-feedback loop to drive the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease. These findings suggest a novel pathogenic mechanism in SCD and may offer new therapeutic targets to counteract inflammation and RBC rigidity and fragility in SCD. PMID:23349388

  10. Apparent 2-D diffusivity in a ruffled cell membrane.

    PubMed

    King, Michael R

    2004-04-01

    Most biological cell membranes have a microtopology that increases their surface area, including a highly ruffled surface in the case of leukocytes. Thus, molecular membrane diffusivities as measured by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching or other methods are decreased when projected onto a plane. We use a two-dimensional crested cycloid as a parameterized surface to simulate the random-walk diffusion of a molecule within a ruffled membrane. The apparent 2-D diffusivity was then calculated when the ruffled membrane is projected onto a plane. It is shown that the apparent diffusivity decreases as a function of the membrane area, to the -1.4 power. PMID:15019499

  11. In-situ membrane hydration measurement of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yeh-Hung; Fly, Gerald W.; Clapham, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Achieving proper membrane hydration control is one of the most critical aspects of PEM fuel cell development. This article describes the development and application of a novel 50 cm2 fuel cell device to study the in-situ membrane hydration by measuring the through-thickness membrane swelling via an array of linear variable differential transducers. Using this setup either as an air/air (dummy) cell or as a hydrogen/air (operating) cell, we performed a series of hydration and dehydration experiments by cycling the RH of the inlet gas streams at 80 °C. From the linear relationship between the under-the-land swelling and the over-the-channel water content, the mechanical constraint within the fuel cell assembly can suppress the membrane water uptake by 11%-18%. The results from the air/air humidity cycling test show that the membrane can equilibrate within 120 s for all RH conditions and that membrane can reach full hydration at a RH higher than 140% in spite of the use of a liquid water impermeable Carbel MP30Z microporous layer. This result confirms that the U.S. DOE's humidity cycling mechanical durability protocol induces sufficient humidity swings to maximize hygrothermal mechanical stresses. This study shows that the novel experimental technique can provide a robust and accurate means to study the in-situ hydration of thin membranes subject to a wide range of fuel cell conditions.

  12. Predicting dynamics and rheology of blood flow: A comparative study of multiscale and low-dimensional models of red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wenxiao; Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Caswell, Bruce; Karniadakis, George E.

    2011-05-27

    In this work we compare the predictive capability of two mathematical models for red blood cells (RBCs) focusing on blood flow in capillaries and arterioles. Both RBC models as well as their corresponding blood flows are based on the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method, a coarse-grained molecular dynamics approach. The first model employs a multiscale description of the RBC (MS-RBC), with its membrane represented by hundreds or even thousands of DPD-particles connected by springs into a triangular network in combination with out-of-plane elastic bending resistance. Extra dissipation within the network accounts for membrane viscosity, while the characteristic biconcave RBC shape is achieved by imposition of constraints for constant membrane area and constant cell volume. The second model is based on a low-dimensional description (LD-RBC) constructed as a closed torus-like ring of only 10 large DPD colloidal particles. They are connected into a ring by worm-like chain (WLC) springs combined with bending resistance. The LD-RBC model can be fitted to represent the entire range of nonlinear elastic deformations as measured by optical-tweezers for healthy and for infected RBCs in malaria. MS-RBCs suspensions model the dynamics and rheology of blood flow accurately for any size vessel but this approach is computationally expensive above 100 microns. Surprisingly, the much more economical suspensions of LD-RBCs also capture the blood flow dynamics and rheology accurately except for vessels with sizes comparable to RBC diameter. In particular, the LD-RBC suspensions are shown to properly capture the experimental data for the apparent viscosity of blood and its cell-free layer (CFL) in tube flow. Taken together, these findings suggest a hierarchical approach in modeling blood flow in the arterial tree, whereby the MS-RBC model should be employed for capillaries and arterioles below 100 microns, the LD-RBC model for arterioles, and the continuum description for arteries.

  13. Cell membrane potentials induced during exposure to EMP fields

    SciTech Connect

    Gailey, P.C.; Easterly, C.E.

    1994-09-01

    Internal current densities and electric fields induced in the human body during exposure to EMP fields are reviewed and used to predict resulting cell membrane potentials. Using several different approaches, membrane potentials of about 100 mV are predicted. These values are comparable to the static membrane potentials maintained by cells as a part of normal physiological function, but the EMP-induced potentials persist for only about 10 ns. Possible biological implications of EMP-induced membrane potentials including conformational changes and electroporation are discussed.

  14. Inorganic–Polymer Composite Membranes for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew M. Herring

    2006-01-01

    Composite membranes consisting primarily of a polymer and an inorganic proton conducting particle or a proton conducting polymer containing inorganic particles for use as proton exchange membranes in low and intermediate temperature fuel cells are reviewed. The chemistry of major inorganic additives that have been used is described in terms of their structure and intrinsic ability to conduct protons. Composites

  15. Catalyst layers for proton exchange membrane fuel cells prepared by electrospray deposition on Nafion membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Chaparro; P. Ferreira-Aparicio; M. A. Folgado; A. J. Martín; L. Daza

    2011-01-01

    The electrospray deposition method has been used for preparation of catalyst layers for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) on Nafion membrane. Deposition of Pt\\/C+ionomer suspensions on Nafion 212 gives rise to layers with a globular morphology, in contrast with the dendritic growth observed for the same layers when deposited on the gas diffusion layer, GDL (microporous carbon black layer

  16. Humidification studies on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, P.; Perumal, Ramkumar; Rajalakshmi, N.; Raja, M.; Dhathathreyan, K. S.

    Two methods of humidifying the anode gas, namely, external and membrane humidification, for a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel (PEMFC) cell are explained. It is found that the water of solvation of protons decreases with increase in the current density and the electrode area. This is due to insufficient external humidification. In a membrane-based humidification, an optimum set of parameters, such as gas flow rate, area and type of the membrane, must be chosen to achieve effective humidification. The present study examines the dependence of water pick-up by hydrogen on the temperature, area and thickness of the membrane in membrane humidification. Since the performance of the fuel cell is dependent more on hydrogen humidification than on oxygen humidification, the scope of the work is restricted to the humidification of hydrogen using Nafion ® membrane. An examination is made on the dependence of water pick-up by hydrogen in membrane humidification on the temperature, area and thickness of the membrane. The dependence of fuel cell performance on membrane humidification and external humidification in the anode gas is also considered.

  17. Cell Membranes Under Hydrostatic Pressure Subjected to Micro-Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassilev, Vassil M.; Kostadinov, Kostadin G.; Mladenov, Ivaïlo M.; Shulev, Assen A.; Stoilov, Georgi I.; Djondjorov, Peter A.

    2011-04-01

    The work is concerned with the determination of the mechanical behaviour of cell membranes under uniform hydrostatic pressure subject to micro-injections. For that purpose, assuming that the shape of the deformed cell membrane is axisymmetric a variational statement of the problem is developed on the ground of the so-called spontaneous curvature model. In this setting, the cell membrane is regarded as an axisymmetric surface in the three-dimensional Euclidean space providing a stationary value of the shape energy functional under the constraint of fixed total area and fixed enclosed volume. The corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations and natural boundary conditions are derived, analyzed and used to express the forces and moments in the membrane. Several examples of such surfaces representing possible shapes of cell membranes under pressure subjected to micro injection are determined numerically.

  18. Alternative Sources of Adult Stem Cells: Human Amniotic Membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanne Wolbank; Martijn van Griensven; Regina Grillari-Voglauer; Anja Peterbauer-Scherb

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Human amniotic membrane is a highly promising cell source for tissue engineering. The cells thereof, human amniotic epithelial\\u000a cells (hAEC) and human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSC), may be immunoprivileged, they represent an early developmental\\u000a status, and their application is ethically uncontroversial. Cell banking strategies may use freshly isolated cells or involve\\u000a in vitro expansion to increase cell numbers. Therefore,

  19. Computational Modeling of Electrolyte/Cathode Interfaces in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    E-print Network

    Bjørnstad, Ottar Nordal

    Computational Modeling of Electrolyte/Cathode Interfaces in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Dr Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are alternative energy conversion devices that efficiently

  20. Cell-Cell Communication Via Extracellular Membrane Vesicles and Its Role in the Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Inkyu

    2013-01-01

    The host immune response involves a variety of cell types, including specialized immune and non-immune cells. The delicate coordination among these cells via close communication is central for the proper operation of immune system. Cell-cell communication is mediated by a complex network that includes soluble factors such as cytokines, chemokines, and metabolites exported from cells, as well as membrane-bound receptors and their ligands. Cell-cell communication is also mediated by membrane vesicles (e.g., exosomes, ectosomes), which are either shed by distant cells or exchanged by cells that are making direct contact. Intercellular communication via extracellular membrane vesicles has drawn much attention recently, as they have been shown to carry various biomolecules that modulate the activities of recipient cells. In this review, I will discuss current views on cell-cell communication via extra-cellular membrane vesicles, especially shedded membrane vesicles, and their effects on the control of the immune system. PMID:23807045

  1. Membrane hydraulic permeability changes during cooling of mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Akhoondi, Maryam; Oldenhof, Harriëtte; Stoll, Christoph; Sieme, Harald; Wolkers, Willem F

    2011-03-01

    In order to predict optimal cooling rates for cryopreservation of cells, the cell-specific membrane hydraulic permeability and corresponding activation energy for water transport need to be experimentally determined. These parameters should preferably be determined at subzero temperatures in the presence of ice. There is, however, a lack of methods to study membrane properties of cells in the presence of ice. We have used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to study freezing-induced membrane dehydration of mouse embryonic fibroblast (3T3) cells and derived the subzero membrane hydraulic permeability and the activation energy for water transport from these data. Coulter counter measurements were used to determine the suprazero membrane hydraulic permeability parameters from cellular volume changes of cells exposed to osmotic stress. The activation energy for water transport in the ice phase is about three fold greater compared to that at suprazero temperatures. The membrane hydraulic permeability at 0 °C that was extrapolated from suprazero measurements is about five fold greater compared to that extrapolated from subzero measurements. This difference is likely due to a freezing-induced dehydration of the bound water around the phospholipid head groups. Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, two distinct water transport processes, that of free and membrane bound water, can be identified during freezing with distinct activation energies. Dimethylsulfoxide, a widely used cryoprotective agent, did not prevent freezing-induced membrane dehydration but decreased the activation energy for water transport. PMID:21126509

  2. How the antimicrobial peptides destroy bacteria cell membrane: Translocations vs. membrane buckling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubovic, Leonardo; Gao, Lianghui; Chen, Licui; Fang, Weihai

    2012-02-01

    In this study, coarse grained Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulation with implementation of electrostatic interactions is developed in constant pressure and surface tension ensemble to elucidate how the antimicrobial peptide molecules affect bilayer cell membrane structure and kill bacteria. We find that peptides with different chemical-physical properties exhibit different membrane obstructing mechanisms. Peptide molecules can destroy vital functions of the affected bacteria by translocating across their membranes via worm-holes, or by associating with membrane lipids to form hydrophilic cores trapped inside the hydrophobic domain of the membranes. In the latter scenario, the affected membranes are strongly corrugated (buckled) in accord with very recent experimental observations [G. E. Fantner et al., Nat. Nanotech., 5 (2010), pp. 280-285].

  3. Red cell membrane remodeling in sickle cell anemia. Sequestration of membrane lipids and proteins in Heinz bodies.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, S C; Yi, S J; Mehta, J R; Nichols, P E; Ballas, S K; Yacono, P W; Golan, D E; Palek, J

    1996-01-01

    In red cells from patients with sickle cell anemia, hemoglobin S denatures and forms Heinz bodies. Binding of Heinz bodies to the inner surface of the sickle cell membrane promotes clustering and colocalization of the membrane protein band 3, outer surface-bound autologous IgG and, to some extent, the membrane proteins glycophorin and ankyrin. Loss of transbilayer lipid asymmetry is also found in certain populations of sickle red cells. The lateral distribution of sickle cell membrane lipids has not been examined, however. In this report, we examine by fluorescence microscopy the incorporation and distribution of the fluorescent phospholipid analogues 7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl (NBD)-phosphatidylserine and NBD-phosphatidylcholine in sickle red cells. Both phospholipid analogues are observed to accumulate prominently at sites of Heinz bodies. Accumulation at sites of Heinz bodies is also shown by 1,'1-dihexadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate, a fluorescent lipid analogue that readily crosses membranes, but not by fluorescein-phosphatidylethanolamine, an analogue that is localized to the outer leaflet of the membrane. Double labeling and confocal microscopy techniques show that NBD-lipids, band 3 protein, protein 4.1, ankyrin, and spectrin are all sequestered within sickle red cells and colocalized at sites of Heinz bodies. We propose that Heinz bodies provide a hydrophobic surface on which sickle red cell membrane lipids and proteins are sequestered. PMID:8550846

  4. Effect of Processing and Storage on RBC function in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Doctor, Allan; Spinella, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Red Blood Cell (RBC) transfusion is indicated to improve oxygen delivery to tissue, and for no other purpose. We have come to appreciate that donor RBCs are fundamentally altered during processing and storage, in a fashion that both impairs oxygen transport efficacy and introduces additional risk by perturbing both immune and coagulation systems. The protean biophysical and physiologic changes in RBC function arising from storage are termed the ‘storage lesion’; many have been understood for some time; for example, we know that the oxygen affinity of stored blood rises during the storage period1 and that intracellular allosteric regulators, notably 2,3-bisphosphoglyceric acid (DPG) and ATP, are depleted during storage. Our appreciation of other storage lesion features has emerged with improved understanding of coagulation, immune and vascular signaling systems. Herein we review key features of the ‘storage lesion’. Additionally, we call particular attention to the newly appreciated role of RBCs in regulating linkage between regional blood flow and regional O2 consumption by regulating the bioavailability of key vasoactive mediators in plasma, as well as discuss how processing and storage disturbs this key signaling function and impairs transfusion efficacy. PMID:22818545

  5. Composite polymer membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells operating at elevated temperatures and reduced humidities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) are the leading candidate in the fuel cell technology due to the high power density, solid electrolyte, and low operational temperature. However, PEMFCs operating in the normal temperature range (60-80°C) face problems including poor carbon monoxide tolerance and heat rejection. The poisoning effect can be significantly relieved by operating the fuel cell at elevated

  6. Altered membrane-cytoskeleton linkage and membrane blebbing in energy-depleted renal proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Wagner, M C

    2001-04-01

    The effects of energy depletion on two membrane-cytoskeletal linker proteins (ezrin and myosin-1 beta) and membrane bleb formation were studied in isolated rabbit proximal tubule cells. Measurements of cytoskeletal-membrane interactions by using the laser optic trap method revealed a stronger association of control tubule membrane with the apical cytoskeleton compared with the basal cytoskeleton. Energy depletion weakened the apical membrane-cytoskeleton interactions to a greater degree. Biochemical studies demonstrated that energy depletion altered both ezrin and myosin-1 beta. The salt-insensitive ezrin fraction dissociated from the cytoskeleton; myosin-1beta redistributed from the peripheral cytoskeleton to a perinuclear/nuclear complex. These changes in ezrin and myosin-1 beta and the weakening of the membrane-cytoskeleton interactions correlated with the release of brush-border membrane blebs observed by differential interference contrast microscopy. Permeability of membrane blebs was also evaluated during energy depletion and indicated an increased permeabilization of basal blebs to 3-kDa dextrans. These results support the hypothesis that alterations in membrane-cytoskeleton linkers facilitate the formation and detachment of blebs by weakening membrane-cytoskeleton interactions. PMID:11249853

  7. Improved Membrane Materials for PEM Fuel Cell Application

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth A. Mauritz; Robert B. Moore

    2008-06-30

    The overall goal of this project is to collect and integrate critical structure/property information in order to develop methods that lead to significant improvements in the durability and performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) materials. This project is focused on the fundamental improvement of PEMFC membrane materials with respect to chemical, mechanical and morphological durability as well as the development of new inorganically-modified membranes.

  8. The Flocculating Cationic Polypetide from Moringa oleifera Seeds Damages Bacterial Cell Membranes by Causing Membrane Fusion.

    PubMed

    Shebek, Kevin; Schantz, Allen B; Sines, Ian; Lauser, Kathleen; Velegol, Stephanie; Kumar, Manish

    2015-04-21

    A cationic protein isolated from the seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree has been extensively studied for use in water treatment in developing countries and has been proposed for use in antimicrobial and therapeutic applications. However, the molecular basis for the antimicrobial action of this peptide, Moringa oleifera cationic protein (MOCP), has not been previously elucidated. We demonstrate here that a dominant mechanism of MOCP antimicrobial activity is membrane fusion. We used a combination of cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and fluorescence assays to observe and study the kinetics of fusion of membranes in liposomes representing model microbial cells. We also conducted cryo-EM experiments on E. coli cells where MOCP was seen to fuse the inner and outer membranes. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of membrane vesicles with MOCP molecules were used to elucidate steps in peptide adsorption, stalk formation, and fusion between membranes. PMID:25845029

  9. Wisconsin Online Resource Center: Construction of the Cell Membrane

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Blohowiak, Chad

    Hosted by the Wisconsin Online Resource Center, this fun and informative web-based tutorial on the Construction of the Cell Membrane was created by Barbara Liang and Chad Blohowiak. Although the site content is geared for an older audience, the tutorial is so clear and easy to navigate that younger students curious about cells will enjoy it as well. Through the process of building the molecular structure of an animated cell membrane, site visitors will learn "the makeup and the basis for cell membrane function." The 23-page tutorial is fairly brief and interactive with questions and assignments such as placing the fibrous receptor or glycoprotein into the cell membrane. This site also has link for downloading the required software plug-in.

  10. Homotypic fusion of endoplasmic reticulum membranes in plant cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Miao; Hu, Junjie

    2013-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a membrane-bounded organelle whose membrane comprises a network of tubules and sheets. The formation of these characteristic shapes and maintenance of their continuity through homotypic membrane fusion appears to be critical for the proper functioning of the ER. The atlastins (ATLs), a family of ER-localized dynamin-like GTPases, have been identified as fusogens of the ER membranes in metazoans. Mutations of the ATL proteins in mammalian cells cause morphological defects in the ER, and purified Drosophila ATL mediates membrane fusion in vitro. Plant cells do not possess ATL, but a family of similar GTPases, named root hair defective 3 (RHD3), are likely the functional orthologs of ATLs. In this review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of how RHD3 proteins play a role in homotypic ER fusion. We also discuss the possible physiological significance of forming a tubular ER network in plant cells. PMID:24385977

  11. Studies on RBC lipid and protein phosphorylation during blood bank storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. J. Dumaswala; D. J. Bryan; T. J. Greenwalt

    1986-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that phosphoinositides play a significant role in maintaining membrane structure and function. Their importance during blood bank storage is not understood. They have performed preliminary studies of the phosphoinositide synthetic pathway enzymes of RBC during blood bank storage. At 0 and 35 days of storage leaky ghosts were prepared and incubated with (..gamma..-³²P)ATP for 5 minutes

  12. Catalytic membranes for CO oxidation in fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Sandi-Tapia, Giselle; Carrado Gregar, Kathleen; Kizilel, Riza

    2010-06-08

    A hydrogen permeable membrane, which includes a polymer stable at temperatures of about 200 C having clay impregnated with Pt or Au or Ru or Pd particles or mixtures thereof with average diameters of less than about 10 nanometers (nms) is disclosed. The membranes are useful in fuel cells or any device which requires hydrogen to be separated from carbon monoxide.

  13. Gangliosides asymmetrically alter the membrane order in cultured PC12 cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Ravichandra; Preeti G. Joshi

    1999-01-01

    Exogenous gangliosides readily associate with the cell membranes and produce marked effects on cell growth and differentiation. We have studied the effect of bovine brain gangliosides (BBG) on the membrane dynamics of intact cells. The structural and dynamic changes in the cell membrane were monitored by the fluorescence probes DPH, TMA-DPH and laurdan. Incorporation of BBG into the cell membrane

  14. Thermodynamic and fluid properties of cells, tissues and membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyaya, Arpita

    2000-10-01

    This dissertation studies cellular rearrangements in tissues and attempts to establish the role of physical properties of cells, tissues and membranes in several biological phenomena. Using experiments and statistical mechanical modeling, we study cell sorting, tissue engulfment, single cell motion and membrane fluctuations. When cells of two different types are mixed together, they sort out, with the less cohesive tissue surrounding the more cohesive one. This sorting out resembles the phase separation of a mixture of immiscible liquids. We have measured the rate of sorting in tissues and compared it with a cellular automaton based model of cell aggregates. We have also established that cell sorting agrees well with the theory for phase separating fluids. Engulfment is the spreading of one type of tissue over the surface of another tissue placed adjacent to it. Differences in adhesion cause an imbalance of surface tension forces which drives tissue spreading. We have quantitatively studied engulfment between different tissue types and compared the experimental rate with results from computer simulations and a liquid model. Our results suggest that simple physical principles can model tissue motion. Studying the motion of single cells in aggregates is important to understanding the overall pattern formation in tissues. We characterized cell motion in different types of adhesive aggregates to elucidate the role of adhesion in cell motion. We also observed that the cells exhibited a novel type of statistics including correlations and collective motion. Membrane deformations of cells played a negligible role in large scale cell motion. Our results indicate the importance of correlated motion for cells to move long distances in tissues. At the single cell level, tension of the cell membrane and intracellular membrane can play an important role in cell shape changes, regulation of cell motility and membrane dynamics. We used optical tweezers to measure the membrane tension of tubulo-vesicular networks obtained from Golgi and Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) membranes within cells. As expected on the basis of some previous experiments, the ER has a higher membrane tension than the Golgi.

  15. Layer-by-layer cell membrane assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matosevic, Sandro; Paegel, Brian M.

    2013-11-01

    Eukaryotic subcellular membrane systems, such as the nuclear envelope or endoplasmic reticulum, present a rich array of architecturally and compositionally complex supramolecular targets that are as yet inaccessible. Here we describe layer-by-layer phospholipid membrane assembly on microfluidic droplets, a route to structures with defined compositional asymmetry and lamellarity. Starting with phospholipid-stabilized water-in-oil droplets trapped in a static droplet array, lipid monolayer deposition proceeds as oil/water-phase boundaries pass over the droplets. Unilamellar vesicles assembled layer-by-layer support functional insertion both of purified and of in situ expressed membrane proteins. Synthesis and chemical probing of asymmetric unilamellar and double-bilayer vesicles demonstrate the programmability of both membrane lamellarity and lipid-leaflet composition during assembly. The immobilized vesicle arrays are a pragmatic experimental platform for biophysical studies of membranes and their associated proteins, particularly complexes that assemble and function in multilamellar contexts in vivo.

  16. Membrane organization and cell fusion during mating in fission yeast requires multipass membrane protein Prm1.

    PubMed

    Curto, M-Ángeles; Sharifmoghadam, Mohammad Reza; Calpena, Eduardo; De León, Nagore; Hoya, Marta; Doncel, Cristina; Leatherwood, Janet; Valdivieso, M-Henar

    2014-04-01

    The involvement of Schizosaccharomyces pombe prm1(+) in cell fusion during mating and its relationship with other genes required for this process have been addressed. S. pombe prm1? mutant exhibits an almost complete blockade in cell fusion and an abnormal distribution of the plasma membrane and cell wall in the area of cell-cell interaction. The distribution of cellular envelopes is similar to that described for mutants devoid of the Fig1-related claudin-like Dni proteins; however, prm1(+) and the dni(+) genes act in different subpathways. Time-lapse analyses show that in the wild-type S. pombe strain, the distribution of phosphatidylserine in the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane undergoes some modification before an opening is observed in the cross wall at the cell-cell contact region. In the prm1? mutant, this membrane modification does not take place, and the cross wall between the mating partners is not extensively degraded; plasma membrane forms invaginations and fingers that sometimes collapse/retract and that are sometimes strengthened by the synthesis of cell-wall material. Neither prm1? nor prm1? dni? zygotes lyse after cell-cell contact in medium containing and lacking calcium. Response to drugs that inhibit lipid synthesis or interfere with lipids is different in wild-type, prm1?, and dni1? strains, suggesting that membrane structure/organization/dynamics is different in all these strains and that Prm1p and the Dni proteins exert some functions required to guarantee correct membrane organization that are critical for cell fusion. PMID:24514900

  17. Research Resource: Monitoring Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Integrity in ?-Cells at the Single-Cell Level

    PubMed Central

    Kanekura, Kohsuke; Ou, Jianhong; Hara, Takashi; Zhu, Lihua J.

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane integrity is an emerging target for human chronic diseases associated with ER stress. Despite the underlying importance of compromised ER membrane integrity in disease states, the entire process leading to ER membrane permeabilization and cell death is still not clear due to technical limitations. Here we describe a novel method for monitoring ER membrane integrity at the single-cell level in real time. Using a ?-cell line expressing ER-targeted redox sensitive green fluorescent protein, we could identify a ?-cell population undergoing ER membrane permeabilization induced by palmitate and could monitor cell fate and ER stress of these cells at the single-cell level. Our method could be used to develop a novel therapeutic modality targeting the ER membrane for ER-associated disorders, including ?-cell death in diabetes, neurodegeneration, and Wolfram syndrome. PMID:25584413

  18. Low Crossover Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prakash, G. K. Surya; Smart, Marshall; Atti, Anthony R.; Olah, George A.; Narayanan, S. R.; Valdez, T.; Surampudi, S.

    1996-01-01

    Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC's) using polymer electrolyte membranes are promising power sources for portable and vehicular applications. State of the art technology using Nafion(R) 117 membranes (Dupont) are limited by high methanol permeability and cost, resulting in reduced fuel cell efficiencies and impractical commercialization. Therefore, much research in the fuel cell field is focused on the preparation and testing of low crossover and cost efficient polymer electrolyte membranes. The University of Southern California in cooperation with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is focused on development of such materials. Interpenetrating polymer networks are an effective method used to blend polymer systems without forming chemical links. They provide the ability to modify physical and chemical properties of polymers by optimizing blend compositions. We have developed a novel interpenetrating polymer network based on poly (vinyl - difluoride)/cross-linked polystyrenesulfonic acid polymer composites (PVDF PSSA). Sulfonation of polystyrene accounts for protonic conductivity while the non-polar, PVDF backbone provides structural integrity in addition to methanol rejection. Precursor materials were prepared and analyzed to characterize membrane crystallinity, stability and degree of interpenetration. USC JPL PVDF-PSSA membranes were also characterized to determine methanol permeability, protonic conductivity and sulfur distribution. Membranes were fabricated into membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) and tested for single cell performance. Tests include cell performance over a wide range of temperatures (20 C - 90 C) and cathode conditions (ambient Air/O2). Methanol crossover values are measured in situ using an in-line CO2 analyzer.

  19. In vivo crossmatching with Tc-99m-RBC's and In-111-oxine-RBC's

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, C.S.; Myhre, B.A.; Angulo, M.C.; Salk, R.D.; Essex, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    In vitro crossmatching techniques are often inadequate for patients who have received multiple prior transfusions. These patients usually have multiple antibodies to minor blood groups, not all of which are necessarily important to vivo. It becomes increasingly difficult to obtain appropriate units for transfusion, and often units are used with hopes that a minor group antibody will not be significantly active in vivo. If a transfusion reaction occurs, the unit is stopped. The authors have developed and successfully tested a method whereby 1.5 to 3c of potential donor RBC's are labeled with 25-50 ..mu..Ci of Tc-99m using the BNL kits. After injection, samples are drawn at 10, 20, 60, and 120 minutes and the RBC survival is measured. If it is desirable to test 2 units simultaneously, the authors use 400 ..mu..Ci Tc-99m to label an RBC aliquot of one unit and 25 ..mu..Ci In-111-oxine to label the other; both labeled aliquots are injected together. The method is simple and reliable. In addition to assessing compatibility, the authors may also estimate the % viability of transfused, compatible RBC's by starting with 400 ..mu..Ci of Tc-99m and multiplying % survival at 24 hours by 1.2. For 24 hr. survival measurements of IN-111-oxine-RBC's, 25 ..mu..Ci is adequate and no multiplication factor is necessary. The authors have performed 13 in vivo crossmatches, 4 of which were double, in 6 patients. One documented mild transfusion reaction occurred. There were no false positive or false negative results.

  20. Hydrodynamic extrusion of membrane nanotubes: the role of the cytoskeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevorkian, Karine; Borghi, Nicolas; Kremer, Séastien; Buguin, Axel; Brochard, Françise

    2007-03-01

    We have investigated membrane-cytoskeleton adhesion properties by extrusion of tubes from tethered vesicles and cells using hydrodynamic flows. Our experimental results show that impermeable membranes (giant vesicles) act as entropic springs, i.e. the extruded tubes reach a stationary length, whereas porous membranes (vesicles decorated with pores) lead to tubes, which extrude at constant velocity without reaching a stationary length. On the other hand, experiments on red blood cells (RBC) suggest that the dynamics of extruded tubes is dominated by the detachment of the membrane from the cytoskeleton and the flow of lipids through the binding membrane proteins. We have estimated the membrane-cytoskeleton binding energy and the viscosity of the membrane for RBC-s. Tube extrusion from other cell types (S180, MDCK, BON) show phenomena such as healing time for the membrane-cytoskeleton rebinding, and cell aging (breakage of the tube after a few consecutive extrusions). We will discuss how these phenomena depend on the properties of the cytoskeleton and on the presence of cell adhesion molecules.

  1. Actin-propelled Invasive Membrane Protrusions Promote Fusogenic Protein Engagement During Cell-Cell Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Shilagardi, Khurts; Li, Shuo; Luo, Fengbao; Marikar, Faiz; Duan, Rui; Jin, Peng; Kim, Ji Hoon; Murnen, Katherine; Chen, Elizabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    Cell-cell fusion is critical for the conception, development and physiology of multicellular organisms. Although cellular fusogenic proteins and the actin cytoskeleton are implicated in cell-cell fusion, whether and how they coordinate to promote plasma membrane fusion remain unclear. Here, we reconstituted a high-efficiency, inducible cell-fusion culture system in the normally non-fusing Drosophila S2R+ cells. Both fusogenic proteins and actin cytoskeletal rearrangements were necessary for cell fusion, and, in combination, were sufficient to impart fusion competence. Localized actin polymerization triggered by specific cell-cell or cell-matrix adhesion molecules propelled invasive cell membrane protrusions, which, in turn, promoted fusogenic protein engagement and plasma membrane fusion. This de novo cell-fusion culture system reveals a general role for actin-propelled invasive membrane protrusions in driving fusogenic protein engagement during cell-cell fusion. PMID:23470732

  2. Decreasing Outer Hair Cell Membrane Cholesterol Increases Cochlear Electromechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brownell, William E.; Jacob, Stefan; Hakizimana, Pierre; Ulfendahl, Mats; Fridberger, Anders

    2011-11-01

    The effect of decreasing membrane cholesterol on the mechanical response of the cochlea to acoustic and/or electrical stimulation was monitored using laser interferometry. In contrast to pharmacological interventions that typically decrease cochlear electromechanics, reducing membrane cholesterol increased the response. The electromechanical response in untreated preparations was asymmetric with greater displacements in response to positive currents and cholesterol depletion increased the asymmetry. The results confirm that outer hair cell electromotility is enhanced by low membrane cholesterol. The asymmetry of the response indicates the outer hair cell resting membrane potential is hyperpolarized relative to the voltage of maximum gain for the outer hair cell voltage-displacement function. The magnitude of the response increase suggests a non-uniform distribution of cholesterol along the lateral wall of normal adult outer hair cells.

  3. Interferometric tomography of fuel cells for monitoring membrane water content

    E-print Network

    Waller, Laura

    We have developed a system that uses two 1D interferometric phase projections for reconstruction of 2D water content changes over time in situ in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system. By modifying the filtered ...

  4. RBC acetyl cholinesterase: A poor man's early diagnostic biomarker for familial alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease dementia

    PubMed Central

    Bawaskar, Himmatrao Saluba; Bawaskar, Parag Himmatrao; Bawaskar, Pramodini Himmatrao

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Analysis of red blood cell acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) in a familial Alzheimer's diseases (AD) Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and their first generation. Setting: General hospital, Mahad district, Raigad. Patients and Methods: Clinically diagnosed patients of AD and PDD and their asymptomatic relatives. Their blood was collected in EDTA tube and transferred to laboratory at Mumbai. Result: Median red blood cell (RBC) cholinesterase levels amongst PDD, their first generation asymptomatic relatives, familial AD, asymptomatic relatives of AD, healthy controls, farmers exposed to pesticides (positive control) and other neurological condition without dementia (hypertension with TIA 1, sub-dural hematoma 2, hypothyroid 1, non-familial unilateral parkinsonism without dementia 3, writers cramps 2, hyponitremia 1 and cerebral palsy with non-fluent aphasia 1). Median values of RBC AChE were 19086.78 U/L, 15666.05 U/L, 9013.11 U/L, 7806.19 U/L, 14334.57 U/L, 9785.05 U/L and 13162.60 U/L, respectively. As compared to controls, RBC AChE levels were statistically significant among PDD (P = 0.004) and significantly lowered among familial AD patients (P = 0.010), relatives of patients (P = 0.010). Interpretations: Below the normal RBC AChE level is a potential biomarker in asymptomatic relatives of familial AD patients. RBC AChE is raised than normal level in patients suffering from PDD, where AChE inhibitors are helpful. However, RBC AChE level below the normal where AChE inhibitor may not be effective. PMID:25552849

  5. A composite electrolyte membrane containing high-content sulfonated carbon spheres for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Younggeun choi; Youngkwon Kim; Kyung Yeon Kang; Jae Sung Lee

    2011-01-01

    Sulfonated carbon spheres (SCS) were employed with perfluorinated ionomers as a binder to make proton-conducting electrolyte membranes for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Hot-pressing produced a symmetric, thin membrane with SCS particles concentrated in the center of the membrane. Relative to Nafion, the SCS materials showed higher density of sulfonic acid groups and increased water retention capacity of the

  6. Membrane-electrode assemblies for electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Swathirajan, Sundararajan (Troy, MI); Mikhail, Youssef M. (Sterling Heights, MI)

    1993-01-01

    A combination, unitary, membrane and electrode assembly with a solid polymer electrolyte membrane, and first and second electrodes at least partially embedded in opposed surfaces of the membrane. The electrodes each comprise a respective group of finely divided carbon particles, very finely divided catalytic particles supported on internal and external surfaces of the carbon particles and a proton conductive material intermingled with the catalytic and carbon particles. A first group of finely divided carbon particles forming the first electrode has greater water attraction and retention properties, and is more hydrophilic than a second group of carbon particles forming the second electrode. In a preferred method, the membrane electrode assembly of the invention is prepared by forming a slurry of proton conductive material and at least one group of the carbon and catalyst particles. The slurry is applied to the opposed surfaces of the membrane and heated while being pressed to the membrane for a time and at a temperature and compressive load sufficient to embed at least a portion of the particles into the membrane.

  7. Stretching of red blood cells by optical tweezers quantified by digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas, Nelson; Yu, Lingfeng; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

    2011-03-01

    Red blood cells (RBC) possess unique viscoelastic characteristics which allow them to pass through capillaries narrower than their size. Measurement of viscoelastic property of cells (e.g. RBC) in low-force regime is of high significance as it represents conditions of membrane fluctuation in response to physiological conditions. Estimation of visco-elastic properties of RBC requires measurement of extent of deformation in RBC subjected to known force. Optical tweezers, being gentle and absolutely sterile, are emerging as the tool of choice for application of localized force on cells. However, stretching of RBC in very low force regime has not been quantified. Further, though deformations in transverse directions have been measured, vertical deformations due to stretching of cells cannot be quantified by classical microscopic images. Here, we report realization of offaxis digital holographic microscopy (DHM) for highly sensitive axial changes in RBC shape due to stretching by optical tweezers without attaching microscopic beads. The RBC was stretched in axial direction with nanometer precision by change of divergence of the trapping beam. The obtained deformation patterns were compared with the axial position of the tweezers focus. Since the pathophysiology of progression of diseases like malaria and cancer is reflected in the biophysical (both mechanical and material) properties of the cells, it is possible to identify the changes by simultaneous measurement of refractive index and elasticity using this approach.

  8. Adaptation of yeast cell membranes to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, J.; Benitez, T.

    1987-05-01

    A highly ethanol-tolerant Saccharomyces wine strain is able, after growth in the presence of ethanol, to efficiently improve the ethanol tolerance of its membrane. A less-tolerant Saccharomyces laboratory strain, however, is unable to adapt its membrane to ethanol. Furthermore, after growth in the presence of ethanol, the membrane of the latter strain becomes increasingly sensitive, although this is a reversible process. Reversion to a higher tolerance occurs only after the addition of an energy source and does not take place in the presence of cycloheximide.

  9. Blend Concepts for Fuel Cell Membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen Kerres

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a Differently cross-linked blend membranes were prepared from commercial arylene main-chain polymers from the classes of poly(ether-ketones)\\u000a and poly(ethersulfones) modified with sulfonate groups, sulfinate cross-linking groups and basic N-groups. The following membrane\\u000a types have been prepared: (a) van-der Waals\\/dipole-dipole blends by mixing a polysulfonate with unmodified PSU. This membrane\\u000a type showed a heterogeneous morphology, leading to extreme swelling and even dissolution

  10. Membrane–wall attachments in plasmolysed plant cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Lang; D. A. Barton; R. L. Overall

    2004-01-01

    Summary. Field emission scanning electron microscopy of plasmolysed Tradescantia virginiana leaf epidermal cells gave novel insights into the three-dimensional architecture of Hechtian strands, Hechtian reticulum, and the inner surface of the cell wall without the need for extraction. At high magnification, we observed fibres that pin the plasma membrane to the cell wall after plasmolysis. Treatment with cellulase caused these

  11. Cell-free system for synthesizing membrane proteins cell free method for synthesizing membrane proteins

    DOEpatents

    Laible, Philip D; Hanson, Deborah K

    2013-06-04

    The invention provides an in vitro method for producing proteins, membrane proteins, membrane-associated proteins, and soluble proteins that interact with membrane-associated proteins for assembly into an oligomeric complex or that require association with a membrane for proper folding. The method comprises, supplying intracytoplasmic membranes from organisms; modifying protein composition of intracytoplasmic membranes from organism by modifying DNA to delete genes encoding functions of the organism not associated with the formation of the intracytoplasmic membranes; generating appropriate DNA or RNA templates that encode the target protein; and mixing the intracytoplasmic membranes with the template and a transcription/translation-competent cellular extract to cause simultaneous production of the membrane proteins and encapsulation of the membrane proteins within the intracytoplasmic membranes.

  12. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of the Endothelial Cell Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Fogarty, Simon W.; Patel, Imran I.; Martin, Francis L.; Fullwood, Nigel J.

    2014-01-01

    We applied surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to cationic gold-labeled endothelial cells to derive SERS-enhanced spectra of the bimolecular makeup of the plasma membrane. A two-step protocol with cationic charged gold nanoparticles followed by silver-intensification to generate silver nanoparticles on the cell surface was employed. This protocol of post-labelling silver-intensification facilitates the collection of SERS-enhanced spectra from the cell membrane without contribution from conjugated antibodies or other molecules. This approach generated a 100-fold SERS-enhancement of the spectral signal. The SERS spectra exhibited many vibrational peaks that can be assigned to components of the cell membrane. We were able to carry out spectral mapping using some of the enhanced wavenumbers. Significantly, the spectral maps suggest the distribution of some membrane components are was not evenly distributed over the cells plasma membrane. These results provide some possible evidence for the existence of lipid rafts in the plasma membrane and show that SERS has great potential for the study and characterization of cell surfaces. PMID:25188340

  13. Protein diffusion in plant cell plasma membranes: the cell-wall corral

    PubMed Central

    Martinière, Alexandre; Runions, John

    2013-01-01

    Studying protein diffusion informs us about how proteins interact with their environment. Work on protein diffusion over the last several decades has illustrated the complex nature of biological lipid bilayers. The plasma membrane contains an array of membrane-spanning proteins or proteins with peripheral membrane associations. Maintenance of plasma membrane microstructure can be via physical features that provide intrinsic ordering such as lipid microdomains, or from membrane-associated structures such as the cytoskeleton. Recent evidence indicates, that in the case of plant cells, the cell wall seems to be a major player in maintaining plasma membrane microstructure. This interconnection / interaction between cell-wall and plasma membrane proteins most likely plays an important role in signal transduction, cell growth, and cell physiological responses to the environment. PMID:24381579

  14. Numerical analysis of a red blood cell flowing through a thin micropore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omori, Toshihiro; Hosaka, Haruki; Imai, Yohsuke; Yamaguchi, Takami; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2014-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) deformability plays a key role in microcirculation, especially in vessels that have diameters even smaller than the nominal cell size. In this study, we numerically investigate the dynamics of an RBC in a thin micropore. The RBC is modeled as a capsule with a thin hyperelastic membrane. In a numerical simulation, we employ a boundary element method for fluid mechanics and a finite element method for membrane mechanics. The resulting RBC deformation towards the flow direction is suppressed considerably by increased cytoplasm viscosity, whereas the gap between the cell membrane and solid wall becomes smaller with higher cytoplasm viscosity. We also measure the transit time of the RBC and find that nondimensional transit time increases nonlinearly with respect to the viscosity ratio, whereas it is invariant to the capillary number. In conclusion, cytoplasmic viscosity plays a key role in the dynamics of an RBC in a thin pore. The results of this study will be useful for designing a microfluidic device to measure cytoplasmic viscosity.

  15. A life-like virtual cell membrane using discrete automata.

    PubMed

    Broderick, Gordon; Ru'aini, Melania; Chan, Eugene; Ellison, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    A framework is presented that captures the discrete and probabilistic nature of molecular transport and reaction kinetics found in a living cell as well as formally representing the spatial distribution of these phenomena. This particle or agent-based approach is computationally robust and complements established methods. Namely it provides a higher level of spatial resolution than formulations based on ordinary differential equations (ODE) while offering significant advantages in computational efficiency over molecular dynamics (MD). Using this framework, a model cell membrane has been constructed with discrete particle agents that respond to local component interactions that resemble flocking or herding behavioural cues in animals. Results from simulation experiments are presented where this model cell exhibits many of the characteristic behaviours associated with its biological counterpart such as lateral diffusion, response to osmotic pressure gradients, membrane growth and cell division. Lateral diffusion rates and estimates for the membrane modulus of elasticity derived from these simple experiments fall well within a biologically relevant range of values. More importantly, these estimates were obtained by applying a simple qualitative tuning of the model membrane. Membrane growth was simulated by injecting precursor molecules into the proto-cell at different rates and produced a variety of morphologies ranging from a single large cell to a cluster of cells. The computational scalability of this methodology has been tested and results from benchmarking experiments indicate that real-time simulation of a complete bacterial cell will be possible within 10 years. PMID:15972012

  16. Regular structures in membranes. I. Membranes in the endocytic complex of ileal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Knutton, S; Limbrick, A R; Robertson, J D

    1974-09-01

    An "apical endocytic complex" in the ileal lining cells of suckling rats is described. The complex consists of a continuous network of membrane-limited tubules which originate as invaginations of the apical plasma membrane at the base of the microvilli, some associated vesicles, and a giant vacuole. The lumenal surface of this tubular network of membranes and associated vesicles is covered with a regular repeating particulate structure. The repeating unit is an approximately 7.5-nm diameter particle which has a distinct subunit structure composed of possibly nine smaller particles each approximately 3 nm in diameter. The approximately 7.5-nm diameter particles are joined together with a center-to-center separation of approximately 15 nm to form long rows. These linear aggregates, when arranged laterally, give rise to several square and oblique two-dimensional lattice arrangements of the particles which cover the surface of the membrane. Whether a square or oblique lattice is generated depends on the center-to-center separation of the rows and on the relative displacement of the particles in adjacent rows. Four membrane faces are revealed by fracturing frozen membranes of the apical tubules and vesicles: two complementary inner membrane faces exposed by the fracturing process and the lumenal and cytoplasmic membrane surfaces revealed by etching. The outer membrane face reveals a distinct array of membrane particles. This array also sometimes can be seen on the outer (B) fracture face and is sometimes faintly visible on the inner (A) fracture face. Combined data from sectioned, negatively stained, and freeze-etched preparations indicate that this regular particulate structure is a specialization that is primarily localized in the outer half of the membrane mainly in the outer leaflet. PMID:4854072

  17. Phosphatidylserine Membrane Translocation in Human Spermatozoa: Topography in Membrane Domains and Relation to Cell Vitality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malgorzata Kotwicka; Magdalena Jendraszak; Piotr Jedrzejczak

    2011-01-01

    The complex structure of the human spermatozoa membrane comprises five topographic domains. Transmembrane asymmetry of the\\u000a distribution of phospholipids including phosphatidylserine (PS) is considered a marker of cell activity. The objective of\\u000a the study was to determine which cytomembrane domains of human spermatozoa are involved in PS membrane translocation and to\\u000a identify the possible relationship of PS translocation with spermatozoa

  18. Anhydrous Proton-Conducting Membranes for Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Yen, Shiao-Pin S.

    2005-01-01

    Polymeric electrolyte membranes that do not depend on water for conduction of protons are undergoing development for use in fuel cells. Prior polymeric electrolyte fuel-cell membranes (e.g., those that contain perfluorosulfonic acid) depend on water and must be limited to operation below a temperature of 125 C because they retain water poorly at higher temperatures. In contrast, the present developmental anhydrous membranes are expected to function well at temperatures up to 200 C. The developmental membranes exploit a hopping-and-reorganization proton- conduction process that can occur in the solid state in organic amine salts and is similar to a proton-conduction process in a liquid. This process was studied during the 1970s, but until now, there has been no report of exploiting organic amine salts for proton conduction in fuel cells.

  19. Spring-network-based model of a red blood cell for simulating mesoscopic blood flow.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masanori; Bessho, Sadao; Wada, Shigeo

    2013-01-01

    We developed a mechanical model of a red blood cell (RBC) that is capable of expressing its characteristic behaviors in shear flows. The RBC was modeled as a closed shell membrane consisting of spring networks in the framework of the energy minimum concept. The fluid forces acting on RBCs were modeled from Newton's viscosity law and the conservation of momentum. In a steady shear flow, the RBC model exhibited various behaviors, depending on the shear rate; it tumbled, tank-treaded, or both. The transition from tumbling to tank-treading occurred at a shear rate of 20 s(?-?1). The simulation of an RBC in steady and unsteady parallel shear flows (Couette flows) showed that the deformation parameters of the RBC were consistent with experimental results. The RBC in Poiseuille flow migrated radially towards the central axis of the flow channel. Axial migration became faster with an increase in the viscosity of the media, qualitatively consistent with experimental results. These results demonstrate that the proposed model satisfies the essential conditions for simulating RBC behavior in blood flow. Finally, a large-scale RBC flow simulation was implemented to show the capability of the proposed model for analyzing the mesoscopic nature of blood flow. PMID:23293072

  20. Controlled bacterial lysis for electron tomography of native cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaofeng; Himes, Benjamin A; Ke, Danxia; Rice, William J; Ning, Jiying; Zhang, Peijun

    2014-12-01

    Cryo-electron tomography (cryoET) has become a powerful tool for direct visualization of 3D structures of native biological specimens at molecular resolution, but its application is limited to thin specimens (<300 nm). Recently, vitreous sectioning and cryoFIB milling technologies were developed to physically reduce the specimen thickness; however, cryoET analysis of membrane protein complexes within native cell membranes remains a great challenge. Here, we use phage ?X174 lysis gene E to rapidly produce native, intact, bacterial cell membranes for high resolution cryoET. We characterized E gene-induced cell lysis using FIB/SEM and cryoEM and showed that the bacteria cytoplasm was largely depleted through spot lesion, producing ghosts with the cell membranes intact. We further demonstrated the utility of E-gene-induced lysis for cryoET using the bacterial chemotaxis receptor signaling complex array. The described method should have a broad application for structural and functional studies of native, intact cell membranes and membrane protein complexes. PMID:25456413

  1. Membrane Targeting of P-type ATPases in Plant Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey F. Harper, Ph.D.

    2004-06-30

    How membrane proteins are targeted to specific subcellular locations is a very complex and poorly understood area of research. Our long-term goal is to use P-type ATPases (ion pumps), in a model plant system Arabidopsis, as a paradigm to understand how members of a family of closely related membrane proteins can be targeted to different subcellular locations. The research is divided into two specific aims. The first aim is focused on determining the targeting destination of all 10 ACA-type calcium pumps (Arabidopsis Calcium ATPase) in Arabidopsis. ACAs represent a plant specific-subfamily of plasma membrane-type calcium pumps. In contrast to animals, the plant homologs have been found in multiple membrane systems, including the ER (ACA2), tonoplast (ACA4) and plasma membrane (ACA8). Their high degree of similarity provides a unique opportunity to use a comparative approach to delineate the membrane specific targeting information for each pump. One hypothesis to be tested is that an endomembrane located ACA can be re-directed to the plasma membrane by including targeting information from a plasma membrane isoform, ACA8. Our approach is to engineer domain swaps between pumps and monitor the targeting of chimeric proteins in plant cells using a Green Fluorescence Protein (GFP) as a tag. The second aim is to test the hypothesis that heterologous transporters can be engineered into plants and targeted to the plasma membrane by fusing them to a plasma membrane proton pump. As a test case we are evaluating the targeting properties of fusions made between a yeast sodium/proton exchanger (Sod2) and a proton pump (AHA2). This fusion may potentially lead to a new strategy for engineering salt resistant plants. Together these aims are designed to provide fundamental insights into the biogenesis and function of plant cell membrane systems.

  2. MG53 nucleates assembly of cell membrane repair machinery

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Chuanxi; Masumiya, Haruko; Weisleder, Noah; Matsuda, Noriyuki; Nishi, Miyuki; Hwang, Moonsun; Ko, Jae-Kyun; Lin, Peihui; Thornton, Angela; Zhao, Xiaoli; Pan, Zui; Komazaki, Shinji; Brotto, Marco; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Ma, Jianjie

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic membrane repair and remodelling is an elemental process that maintains cell integrity and mediates efficient cellular function. Here we report that MG53, a muscle-specific tripartite motif family protein (TRIM72), is a component of the sarcolemmal membrane-repair machinery. MG53 interacts with phosphatidylserine to associate with intracellular vesicles that traffic to and fuse with sarcolemmal membranes. Mice null for MG53 show progressive myopathy and reduced exercise capability, associated with defective membrane-repair capacity. Injury of the sarcolemmal membrane leads to entry of the extracellular oxidative environment and MG53 oligomerization, resulting in recruitment of MG53-containing vesicles to the injury site. After vesicle translocation, entry of extracellular Ca2+ facilitates vesicle fusion to reseal the membrane. Our data indicate that intracellular vesicle translocation and Ca2+-dependent membrane fusion are distinct steps involved in the repair of membrane damage and that MG53 may initiate the assembly of the membrane repair machinery in an oxidation-dependent manner. PMID:19043407

  3. A new class of partially fluorinated fuel cell membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Buechi, F.N.; Gupta, B.; Halim, J.; Haas, O.; Scherer, G.G. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen-PSI (Switzerland)

    1994-12-31

    A series of differently crosslinked FEP-g-polystyrene proton exchange membranes has been synthesized by the pre-irradiation grafting method. Divinylbenzene (DVB) and/or triallyl cyanurate (TAC) were used as crosslinkers in the membranes. It was found, that the physical properties of the membranes, such as water-uptake and specific resistance are strongly influenced by the nature of the crosslinker. Generally it can be stated, that DVB decreases water-uptake and increases specific resistance, on the other hand TAC increases swelling and decreases specific resistance to values as low as 5.0 {Omega}cm at 60 C. The membranes were tested in H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} fuel cells for stability and performance. It was found, that thick (170 {mu}m) DBV crosslinked membranes showed stable operation for 1,400 hours at temperatures up to 80 C. The highest power density in the fuel cell was found for the DVB and TAC double crosslinked membrane, it exceeded the value of a cell with a Nafion{reg_sign} 117 membrane by more than 60%.

  4. Electroosmotic flow through polymer electrolyte membranes in PEM fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, G.; Li, X.

    Water management is critically important for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), and is complicated by the electroosmotic flow of water from anode to cathode through the polymer electrolyte membrane. In this study, electroosmotic flow in polymer electrolyte membranes is modeled incorporating the electrokinetic effect, and key parameters affecting the PEM fuel cell performance are identified. The governing Poisson-Boltzmann and the Navier-Stokes equations were solved numerically for a single membrane pore to determine the electroosmotic flow through the membrane over a wide range of geometrical and operating conditions. It was found that the electroosmotic drag coefficient, K, increases with the pore diameter. The membrane thickness has a significant effect on the electroosmotic flow. At constant cell voltage, the electroosmotic flow through thicker membranes (e.g. Nafion 117) is reduced because of the reduced electric field strength. The pressure difference required to stop electroosmotic flow is very large due to the extremely small pore diameters. In the presence of sulphuric acid, numerical results have revealed that the electroosmotic flow increases with the acid concentration.

  5. A review of polymer electrolyte membranes for direct methanol fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir Neburchilov; Jonathan Martin; Haijiang Wang; Jiujun Zhang

    2007-01-01

    This review describes the polymer electrolyte membranes (PEM) that are both under development and commercialized for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). Unlike the membranes for hydrogen fuelled PEM fuel cells, among which perfluorosulfonic acid based membranes show complete domination, the membranes for DMFC have numerous variations, each has its advantages and disadvantages. No single membrane is emerging as absolutely superior

  6. Hydroxycarbamide-induced changes in E/beta thalassemia red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Singer, Sylvia T; Vichinsky, Elliott P; Larkin, Sandra; Olivieri, Nancy; Sweeters, Nancy; Kuypers, Frans A

    2008-11-01

    In thalassemia, fetal hemoglobin (HbF) augmentation with hydroxycarbamide (also known as hydroxyurea) is not always successful. The expected parallel effects on red cell (RBC) membrane deformability, cell hydration, and membrane phospholipid organization, all important for extending RBC life span and increasing Hb, have been infrequently examined. We analyzed these characteristics in 15 nontransfused E/beta(0) thalassemia patients treated with HU (mean 10.2 months). Membrane deformability and cell hydration mildly improved in association with increased HbF levels approaching statistical significance (r = 0.51, P = 0.06). All measures improved considerably in splenctomized patients. These findings underscore the disappointing results of hydroxyurea treatment in clinical trials and the importance of examining the effect on RBC characteristics for the development and understanding of HbF-enhancing agents. PMID:18821710

  7. Effects of Extracellular Calcium on Cell Membrane Resealing during Sonoporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yun; Cui, Jianmin; Deng, Cheri X.

    2006-05-01

    Sonoporation has been exploited as a novel strategy for intracellular drug and gene delivery. In sonoporation, ultrasound application generates transient pores or openings in the cell membrane that allow entry of extracellular agents normally not permeable to the cell membrane. In order to improve the sonoporation outcome, we seek to obtain improved understanding of the sonoporation mechanism and investigate the factors affecting sonoporation process. We established a voltage clamp technique for real time measurement of sonoporation at single cell level using Xenopus oocytes as a model system. As both cell survival and intracellular delivery efficiency of drug or genes depend on the sonoporation dynamic process, and Calcium plays important roles in cellular processes, we focus on studying of the effect of extracellular Calcium concentration on the formation, extension, and resealing of membrane pores in sonoporation. We obtained experimental results demonstrating that the cell membrane reseals in the order of seconds in the presence of physiological level of extracellular [Ca]. We measured the resealing as function of extracellular [Ca] (0-1.8mM) and observed that the resealing rate decreases as extracellular [Ca] decreases from normal physiological level. No resealing was demonstrated when 1mM EGTA was added in the extracellular medium to chelate the [Ca] extracellularly. Our experimental findings suggest that extracellular Calcium plays an important role in controlling membrane resealing in sonoporation and thus the sonoporation outcome such as cell survival and delivery efficiency.

  8. Phospholipidomics reveals differences in glycerophosphoserine profiles of hypothermically stored red blood cells and microvesicles.

    PubMed

    Bicalho, Beatriz; Holovati, Jelena L; Acker, Jason P

    2013-02-01

    During their normal in vivo life cycle erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBCs) undergo biochemical changes leading to membrane microvesiculation and shedding. RBC microvesiculation also occurs in vitro under conditions of blood bank storage, so microvesicles (MVs) accumulate in the storage (preservation) medium over storage time. Considerable effort has been put into gaining a mechanistic understanding of the RBC microvesiculation process, as this is crucial to better understand RBC biology in disease and in health. Additionally, MVs accumulated in stored RBCs have been implicated in transfusion adverse inflammatory reactions, with chloroform extractable compounds, thus lipophilic, known to trigger the effect. However, because thin layer chromatography resolution of RBC and MV lipids has always enabled one to conclude high compositional similarities, in depth analysis of MV lipids has not been extensively pursued. Here we present an orbitrap mass spectrometry (MS) approach to compare the phospholipid composition of RBCs and MVs from leukoreduced, hypothermically (2-6°C) stored RBC units. We used shotgun MS analysis and electrospray ionization (ESI) intra-source separation, and demonstrated high similarity of compositional profiles, except for glycerophosphoserines (PS). Contrasting abundances of PS 38:4 and PS 38:1 characterized MV and RBC profiles and suggested that storage-associated microvesiculation possibly involves shedding of specific membrane rafts. This finding indicates that phospholipidomics could likely contribute to a better understanding of the RBC microvesiculation process. PMID:23123566

  9. Rotating Biological Contractors (RBC's). Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zickefoose, Charles S.

    This two-lesson unit on rotating biological contactors (RBC's) is designed to be used with students who have had some experience in wastewater treatment and a basic understanding of biological treatment. The first lesson provides information on the concepts and components of RBC treatment systems. The second lesson focuses on design operation and…

  10. Isolated primary squamous cell carcinoma of the tympanic membrane

    PubMed Central

    Wijaya, Clifton; Leonard, David S.; Kinsella, John B.; McShane, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tympanic membrane is exceptionally rare. We describe the history, investigation and management of this disease. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 68-year-old woman presented with a three month history of intermittent otorrhoea and external ear canal (EAC) pruritus. Otoscopy revealed a polypoidal granular nodule, confined to the posterior aspect of the tympanic membrane. Examination under anaesthesia (EUA) confirmed that the lesion was confined to the tympanic membrane, with a surrounding rim of normal drum. Biopsies were consistent with well differentiated SCC. DISCUSSION Following discussion at multi-disciplinary team meeting for treatment planning, the patient underwent lateral temporal bone resection with ipsilateral superficial parotidectomy and selective neck dissection. Post-operative histology confirmed an SCC confined to the tympanic membrane. CONCLUSION SCC of the tympanic membrane is an extremely rare condition. As with early temporal bone SCC, surgical resection with adjacent structure clearance remains the primary treatment modality. PMID:23123413

  11. Prevalence and Specificity of RBC Alloantibodies in Indian Patients Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Shamsuz; Chaurasia, Rahul; Chatterjee, Kabita; Thapliyal, Rakesh Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Background. Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization results from genetic disparity of RBC antigens between donor and recipients. Data about alloimmunization rate in general patient population is scarce especially from resource limited countries. We undertook this study to determine prevalence and specificity of RBC alloantibodies in patients admitted in various clinical specialties at a tertiary care hospital in North India. Methods. Antibody screening was carried out in 11,235 patients on automated QWALYS 3 platform (Diagast, Loos, France). Antibody identification was carried out with an 11-cell identification panel (ID-Diapanel, Diamed GmbH, Switzerland). Results. The overall incidence of RBC alloimmunization in transfused patients was 1.4% (157/11235), with anti-E being the most common specificity (36.3%), followed by anti-D (16%), anti-c (6.4%), anti-c + E (6.4%), anti-C + D (5.1%), and anti-K (4.5%). The highest incidence of alloimmunization was observed in hematology/oncology patients (1.9%), whereas in other specialties the range was 0.7–1%. Conclusion. As alloimmunization complicates the transfusion outcomes, authors recommend pretransfusion antibody screening and issue of Rh and Kell matched blood to patients who warrant high transfusion requirements in future. PMID:25386192

  12. Nonlinear electro-mechanobiological behavior of cell membrane during electroporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Peigang; Lee, Yi-Kuen; Lin, Ran; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2012-07-01

    A nonlinear electroporation (EP) model is proposed to study the electro-mechanobiological behavior of cell membrane during EP, by taking the nonlinear large deformation of the membrane into account. The proposed model predicts the critical transmembrane potential and the activation energy for EP, the equilibrium pore size, and the resealing process of the pore. Single-cell EP experiments using a micro EP chip were conducted on chicken red blood cells at different temperatures to determine the activation energy and the critical transmembrane potential for EP. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  13. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer

    DOEpatents

    Larson, James M. (Saint Paul, MN); Pham, Phat T. (Little Canada, MN); Frey, Matthew H. (Cottage Grove, MN); Hamrock, Steven J. (Stillwater, MN); Haugen, Gregory M. (Edina, MN); Lamanna, William M. (Stillwater, MN)

    2010-11-23

    The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

  14. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer

    DOEpatents

    Larson, James M.; Pham, Phat T.; Frey, Matthew H.; Hamrock, Steven J.; Haugen, Gregory M.; Lamanna, William M.

    2012-12-04

    The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

  15. Molecular Cell Misfolded Membrane Proteins Are Specifically

    E-print Network

    Hampton, Randy

    Domain of the Hrd1p Ubiquitin Ligase Brian K. Sato,1 Daniel Schulz,1 Phong H. Do,1 and Randolph Y in trans with the active C-terminal region (Gardner et al., 2000). The multispanning Hrd1p membrane domain

  16. A review of the performance and analysis of proton exchange membrane fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao-Yang; Sung, Chia-Chi

    2012-12-01

    This study describes a performance review of several membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). First, different methods for preparing catalyst-coated membranes (CCMs) and gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) are presented to show that the power density of the CCMs method is approximately 18% better than that obtained by using GDEs. Second, different thickness membranes and a self-fabricated membrane are discussed. The self-fabricated membrane used a PTFE microporous membrane as a backing structure and was impregnated with Nafion for reinforcement. Third, we compared the performance differences of four different amounts of platinum loaded in Nafion-bonded CCMs to prove that more platinum loading can produce better performance linearly at a platinum loading from 0.1 to 0.4 mg cm-2. Fourth, a water storage zone was created on the surface of the GDL. The voltage-time curve shows that the voltage is maintained at 0.650 V ± 0.015 V over more than 300 h while supplying with dry hydrogen and oxygen. Fifth, a matched 250 ?m silicon gasket was used to test the performance of a standard MEA with different torques of 5-30 Kgf cm, and the performance differences are within 10%.

  17. Towards fuel cell membranes with improved lifetime: Aquivion® Perfluorosulfonic Acid membranes containing immobilized radical scavengers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Urso, C.; Oldani, C.; Baglio, V.; Merlo, L.; Aricò, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    A facile synthesis, based on a wet impregnation technique and a thermal treatment, of a novel silica-supported cerium-oxide-based radical scavenger bearing sulfonic acid functionalities is presented. This material is loaded as a filler in ePTFE reinforced membranes (called R79-02S) prepared starting from Aquivion® Perfluoro-Sulfonic Acid (PFSA) dispersions. The aim is to mitigate the peroxy radicals attack to the polymeric membrane under fuel cell operating conditions. These membranes show much longer (7 times more) life-time in Accelerated Stress Tests (AST) and reduced fluoride release (about one half) in Fenton's tests than the radical scavenger-free membrane without any loss in electrochemical performance. Scavenger-free Aquivion® PFSA-based membrane durability is about 200 h in AST whereas the same membrane containing the newly developed radical scavenger exceeds 1400 h. These results confirm the stability of the modified membranes and the excellent activity of the composite scavenger in mitigating the polymer electrolyte degradation.

  18. Membrane Transport and Ca 2+ Oscillations in Guard Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael R. Blatt; Carlos Garcia-Mata; Sergei Sokolovski

    Since the 1980s, work on ion transport and the control of guard cell ion channels has provided a wealth of information that is still unparalleled in plant biology, driven primarily by electrophysiological studies and, more recently, by molecular genetics and cell biology. We know now sufficient detail of all of the major transport pathways at the plasma membrane to encapsulate

  19. Stimulation of Erythrocyte Cell Membrane Scrambling by Methyldopa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hasan Mahmud; Michael Föller; Florian Lang

    2008-01-01

    Methyldopa is used for treatment of hypertension in pregnancy. Side effects of methyldopa include anemia, which could result from decreased formation or accelerated death of circulating erythrocytes. Several drugs cause anemia by triggering of suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling, the latter leading to phosphatidylserine exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Stimulators

  20. Investigation of oxygen gain in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Prasanna; H. Y. Ha; E. A. Cho; S.-A. Hong; I.-H. Oh

    2004-01-01

    The polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) faces an efficiency loss, so called “oxygen gain”, when the cathode gas is changed from oxygen to air due to the reduced oxygen partial pressure. To reduce the oxygen gain of a PEMFC, performance and oxygen gain of the single cells were evaluated as a function of carbon support, Pt content in the

  1. Studies on RBC lipid and protein phosphorylation during blood bank storage

    SciTech Connect

    Dumaswala, U.J.; Bryan, D.J.; Greenwalt, T.J.

    1986-05-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that phosphoinositides play a significant role in maintaining membrane structure and function. Their importance during blood bank storage is not understood. They have performed preliminary studies of the phosphoinositide synthetic pathway enzymes of RBC during blood bank storage. At 0 and 35 days of storage leaky ghosts were prepared and incubated with (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP for 5 minutes at 30 C. One aliquot was subjected to acidified solvent extraction and thin layer chromatography. The labeled phosphoinositide -4,5 biphosphate (PIP/sub 2/), phosphoinositide-4 phosphate (PIP) and phosphatidic acid (PA) spots were scraped and counted by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Another aliquot was used for SDS-PAGE and the radioactivity associated with the ..beta..-spectrin was measured. These experiments suggest a decrease in RBC phosphoinositol and PIP-Kinases and ..beta..-spectrin kinase activities during blood bank storage. Further studies are being done to evaluate significance of these observations.

  2. Anion selective membrane. [ion exchange resins and ion exchange membrane electrolytes for electrolytic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, S. S.; Geoffroy, R. R.; Hodgdon, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental anion permselective membranes were prepared and tested for their suitability as cell separators in a chemical redox power storage system being developed at NASA-Lewis Research Center. The goals of long-term (1000 hr) oxidative and thermal stability at 80 C in FeCl3 and CrCl3 electrolytes were met by most of the weak base and strong base amino exchange groups considered in the program. Good stability is exhibited by several of the membrane substrate resins. These are 'styrene' divinylbenzene copolymer and PVC film. At least four membrane systems produce strong flexible films with electrochemical properties (resistivity, cation transfer) superior to those of the 103QZL, the most promising commercial membrane. The physical and chemical properties of the resins are listed.

  3. Composite polymer membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells operating at elevated temperatures and reduced humidities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao

    Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) are the leading candidate in the fuel cell technology due to the high power density, solid electrolyte, and low operational temperature. However, PEMFCs operating in the normal temperature range (60-80°C) face problems including poor carbon monoxide tolerance and heat rejection. The poisoning effect can be significantly relieved by operating the fuel cell at elevated temperature, which also improves the heat rejection and electrochemical kinetics. Low relative humidity (RH) operation is also desirable to simplify the reactant humidification system. However, at elevated temperatures, reduced RH PEMFC performance is seriously impaired due to irreversible water loss from presently employed state-of-the-art polymer membrane, Nafion. This thesis focuses on developing polymer electrolyte membranes with high water retention ability for operation in elevated temperature (110-150°C), reduced humidity (˜50%RH) PEMFCs. One approach is to alter Nafion by adding inorganic particles such as TiO2, SiO2, Zr(HPO 4)2, etc. While the presence of these materials in Nafion has proven beneficial, a reduction or no improvement in the PEMFC performance of Nafion/TiO2 and Nafion/Zr(HPO4)2 membranes is observed with reduced particle sizes or increased particle loadings in Nafion. It is concluded that the PEMFC performance enhancement associated with addition of these inorganic particles was not due to the particle hydrophilicity. Rather, the particle, partially located in the hydrophobic region of the membrane, benefits the cell performance by altering the membrane structure. Water transport properties of some Nafion composite membranes were investigated by NMR methods including pulsed field gradient spin echo diffusion, spin-lattice relaxation, and spectral measurements. Compared to unmodified Nafion, composite membranes materials exhibit longer longitudinal relaxation time constant T1. In addition to the Nafion material, sulfonated styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene triblock copolymer (sSEBS) was investigated as an alternate membrane candidate. sSEBS was modified through introduction of polymer crosslinks using benzephenone as a photoinitiator and addition of a titania co-phase. A photocrosslinked membrane initially containing 15% benzophenone and 3% titania laminated with a 10 mum Nafion layer was found to produce the best PEMFC performance (120°C, 50%RH).

  4. Water-soluble proteins of the human red cell membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Th. Hoogeveen; R. Juliano; J. Coleman; A. Rothstein

    1970-01-01

    Summary Procedures were developed for preparation of red cell membranes almost free of hemoglobin but with minimal loss of membrane proteins. Two water-soluble protein fractions are described, each constituting about 25% of the ghost protein. The first is ionically bonded and can be solubilized in water rapidly at pH 7.0 and more slowly at higher ionic strength solutions, with a

  5. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SUKKEE UM; C.-Y. Wang; KEN S. CHEN

    2000-01-01

    A transient, multi-dimensional model has been developed to simulate proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The model accounts simultaneously for electrochemical kinetics, current distribution, hydrodynamics and multi-component transport. A single set of conservation equations valid for flow channels, gas-diffusion electrodes, catalyst layers and the membrane region are developed and numerically solved using a finite-volume-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. The

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Sophia; Greenbaum, Steve

    2010-12-01

    In this review, the contribution of NMR spectroscopy to the development of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is discussed, with particular emphasis on its use in the characterization of structure and transport in proton exchange membranes (PEMs). Owing to copious amount of information available, results of the past decade will be the main focal point. In addition, its use as a screening tool for the PEM materials will be discussed. PMID:20648522

  7. The protective effect of aqueous extracts of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. UKMR-2) against red blood cell membrane oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Jamaludin; Shing, Saw Wuan; Md Idris, Muhd Hanis; Budin, Siti Balkis; Zainalabidin, Satirah

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of aqueous extracts of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. UKMR-2) against red blood cell (RBC) membrane oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. METHODS: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 230-250 g were randomly divided into four groups (n?=?10 rats each): control group (N), roselle-treated control group, diabetic group, and roselle-treated diabetic group. Roselle was administered by force-feeding with aqueous extracts of roselle (100 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that the malondialdehyde levels of the red blood cell membranes in the diabetic group were significantly higher than the levels in the roselle-treated control and roselle-treated diabetic groups. The protein carbonyl level was significantly higher in the roselle-treated diabetic group than in the roselle-treated control group but lower than that in the diabetic group. A significant increase in the red blood cell membrane superoxide dismutase enzyme was found in roselle-treated diabetic rats compared with roselle-treated control rats and diabetic rats. The total protein level of the red blood cell membrane, osmotic fragility, and red blood cell morphology were maintained. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that aqueous extracts of roselle possess a protective effect against red blood cell membrane oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. These data suggest that roselle can be used as a natural antioxidative supplement in the prevention of oxidative damage in diabetic patients. PMID:24212844

  8. Application of Dissipative Particle Dynamics to the Study of a Red Blood Cell in Simple Shear Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Ting; Phan-Thien, Nhan; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2014-11-01

    The present work reports an attempt to apply the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method to study the dynamic behaviors of a red blood cell (RBC) in simple shear flow. The simulation system is discretized into four types of particles, namely wall particles, fluid particles, membrane particles and internal particles. The particle interaction is modeled by the DPD method, and the membrane particles are connected into a viscoelastic triangular network to represent the RBC membrane. As benchmarking tests, we simulate the deformation of a spherical capsule in shear flow and compare it with the past study, and also examine the effect of computational domain size. After that, we investigate the dynamics of a RBC in shear flow at different membrane shear and bending moduli. Our simulations reproduce the tank-treading, trembling and tumbling motions of the RBC at the shear modulus Es = 6, 60 and 600 ?N/m, respectively. Moreover, we find that the RBC undergoes a trembling motion when its bending modulus is large enough, where the obvious stretching and smoothing of the RBC occur alternately in shape.

  9. Theory of proton exchange membranes fuel cells and the testing of performance characteristics of polymer electrolyte membranes

    E-print Network

    Cruz-Gonzalez, Tizoc, 1982-

    2004-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells hold great promise as source of power. A hydrogen and oxygen PEM fuel is a simple fuel cell that can be theoretically characterized. The performance of a PEM fuel cell can be ...

  10. Reversal of anemia with allogenic RBC transfusion prevents post-cardiopulmonary bypass acute kidney injury in swine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nishith N.; Lin, Hua; Toth, Tibor; Welsh, Gavin I.; Jones, Ceri; Ray, Paramita; Satchell, Simon C.; Sleeman, Philippa; Angelini, Gianni D.

    2011-01-01

    Anemia during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is strongly associated with acute kidney injury in clinical studies; however, reversal of anemia with red blood cell (RBC) transfusions is associated with further renal injury. To understand this paradox, we evaluated the effects of reversal of anemia during CPB with allogenic RBC transfusion in a novel large-animal model of post-cardiac surgery acute kidney injury with significant homology to that observed in cardiac surgery patients. Adult pigs undergoing general anesthesia were allocated to a Sham procedure, CPB alone, Sham+RBC transfusion, or CPB+RBC transfusion, with recovery and reassessment at 24 h. CPB was associated with dilutional anemia and caused acute kidney injury in swine characterized by renal endothelial dysfunction, loss of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, vasoconstriction, medullary hypoxia, cortical ATP depletion, glomerular sequestration of activated platelets and inflammatory cells, and proximal tubule epithelial cell stress. RBC transfusion in the absence of CPB also resulted in renal injury. This was characterized by endothelial injury, microvascular endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation, and equivalent cortical tubular epithelial phenotypic changes to those observed in CPB pigs, but occurred in the absence of severe intrarenal vasoconstriction, ATP depletion, or reductions in creatinine clearance. In contrast, reversal of anemia during CPB with RBC transfusion prevented the reductions in creatinine clearance, loss of NO bioavailability, platelet activation, inflammation, and epithelial cell injury attributable to CPB although it did not prevent the development of significant intrarenal vasoconstriction and endothelial dysfunction. In conclusion, contrary to the findings of observational studies in cardiac surgery, RBC transfusion during CPB protects pigs against acute kidney injury. Our study underlines the need for translational research into indications for transfusion and prevention strategies for acute kidney injury. PMID:21653630

  11. Understanding the transport processes in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheah, May Jean

    Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are energy conversion devices suitable for automotive, stationary and portable applications. An engineering challenge that is hindering the widespread use of PEM fuel cells is the water management issue, where either a lack of water (resulting in membrane dehydration) or an excess accumulation of liquid water (resulting in fuel cell flooding) critically reduces the PEM fuel cell performance. The water management issue is addressed by this dissertation through the study of three transport processes occurring in PEM fuel cells. Water transport within the membrane is a combination of water diffusion down the water activity gradient and the dragging of water molecules by protons when there is a proton current, in a phenomenon termed electro-osmotic drag, EOD. The impact of water diffusion and EOD on the water flux across the membrane is reduced due to water transport resistance at the vapor/membrane interface. The redistribution of water inside the membrane by EOD causes an overall increase in the membrane resistance that regulates the current and thus EOD, thereby preventing membrane dehydration. Liquid water transport in the PEM fuel cell flow channel was examined at different gas flow regimes. At low gas Reynolds numbers, drops transitioned into slugs that are subsequently pushed out of the flow channel by the gas flow. The slug volume is dependent on the geometric shape, the surface wettability and the orientation (with respect to gravity) of the flow channel. The differential pressure required for slug motion primarily depends on the interfacial forces acting along the contact lines at the front and the back of the slug. At high gas Reynolds number, water is removed as a film or as drops depending on the flow channel surface wettability. The shape of growing drops at low and high Reynolds number can be described by a simple interfacial energy minimization model. Under flooding conditions, the fuel cell local current can be significantly reduced due to diffusional limitation of the transport of gaseous reactants through inerts such as water vapor and nitrogen gas. A non-uniform current distribution across the membrane electrode assembly can cause pinhole formation and ultimately, fuel cell failure.

  12. Genetic variation in erythrocyte membrane ion transport and possible relationship to essential hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Serial experiments were performed in order to understand and explore the Na/sup +/ transport system. In order to test possible covariation of cation and anion permeabilities, we applied inhibitors of cation or anion transport. Sulfonamide loop diuretics, furosemide and bumetanide, suppress 22/sub Na/sup +// influx into high permeability (HP) red cells but less into low permeability (LP) erythrocytes. These drugs also inhibit SO/sub 4/ = transport about 70% in both types of RBC. RBC pretreated with impermeant polyanions also show significantly decreased Na/sup +/ influx into HP but not LP RBC. However,a potent inhibitor of RBC anion transport, diisothiocyanostilbene disulfonate (DIDS), has no influence on Na/sup +/ transport. Since the glucose channel is another transmembrane protein in erythrocyte membranes, the effects of the potent glucose transport inhibitors, phlorizin and phloretinyl-3'-benzylazide (PBAz), were measured. Both chemicals effect reduction of Na/sup +/ flux. Because radioactive PBAz is not available, we employed another potent Na/sup +/ channel blocker, /sup 32/P-8-azido-ATP, in an attempt to label HP and LP RBC membranes. Autoradiograms showed that /sup 32/P labels only band 4.2 and external iodination with /sup 125/I yields similar results.

  13. Mast Cell Synapses and Exosomes: Membrane Contacts for Information Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Carroll-Portillo, Amanda; Surviladze, Zurab; Cambi, Alessandra; Lidke, Diane S.; Wilson, Bridget S.

    2012-01-01

    In addition to their central role in allergy, mast cells are involved in a wide variety of cellular interactions during homeostasis and disease. In this review, we discuss the ability of mast cells to extend their mechanisms for intercellular communication beyond the release of soluble mediators. These include formation of mast cell synapses on antigen presenting surfaces, as well as cell–cell contacts with dendritic cells and T cells. Release of membrane bound exosomes also provide for the transfer of antigen, mast cell proteins, and RNA to other leukocytes. With the recognition of the extended role mast cells have during immune modulation, further investigation of the processes in which mast cells are involved is necessary. This reopens mast cell research to exciting possibilities, demonstrating it to be an immunological frontier. PMID:22566928

  14. Basement membranes and artificial substrates in cell transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl Sheridan; Rachel Williams; Ian Grierson

    2004-01-01

    This article will concentrate largely on the current developments in the area of cell transplantations presented at the 1st Workshop for Cell Transplantation in Age-related Macular Degeneration. In particular, this brief review will address our current understanding of the role of cell–matrix interactions by covering the pathobiology of normal ageing Bruch’s membrane; some of the problems faced at the time

  15. Of microbes and membranes: pathogenic subversion of host cell processes.

    PubMed

    Celli, Jean; Knodler, Leigh A

    2008-12-11

    A recent gathering of researchers at the EMBO conference "At the joint edge of Cellular Microbiology and Cell Biology" was aimed at melding ideas from both scientific fields to advance our understanding of infectious diseases at the cellular level. Work presented at this meeting highlighted how pathogens exploit host cell membrane processes to their advantage and also revealed fundamental signaling and trafficking mechanisms of eukaryotic cells. PMID:19064252

  16. Polymer-zeolite nanocomposite membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmberg, Brett Anderson

    2005-07-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have recently received a great deal of attention for their potential as compact, high efficiency power sources for portable, distributed generation, and transportation applications. Unfortunately, current proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology hinders fuel cell performance by limiting fuel cell operation temperature and methanol feed concentration in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Nafion-zeolite nanocomposite membranes that take advantage of the hydrophilicity, selectivity, and proton conductivity of zeolite nanocrystals have been developed to address these problems. All known zeolite topologies were evaluated as potential additives to Nafion proton exchange membranes. Zeolites Y and beta were determined to have great potential as additives due to their low framework density, three dimensional pore structure, and high hydrophilicity. Zeolite Y nanocrystal syntheses were optimized to enhance yield and produce smaller crystal size. Significant improvement of the acid stability of the zeolite Y nanocrystals was not achieved with both ammonium hexafluorosilicate treatments and direct high silica nanocrystal synthesis. However, control of zeolite Y nanocrystal framework Si/Al ratio was demonstrated in the range of SiO2/Al2O3 = 4.38 to 5.84 by manipulating the tetramethylammonium structure directing agent hydroxide content. Zeolite beta nanocrystals were investigated due to their inherent high silica content and high acid stability. Zeolite beta nanocrystals were hydrothermally synthesized with and without phenethyl (called PE-BEA and BEA respectively) organic functional groups. Sulfonic acid functionalized zeolite beta (SAPE-BEA) was generated by treating the PE-BEA nanocrystals with a concentrated sulfuric acid post synthesis treatment. SAPE-BEA samples demonstrated proton conductivities up to 0.01 S/cm at room temperature under water-saturated conditions using a newly developed characterization technique. With optimization, acid functionalized zeolite materials could possibly perform as competent stand-alone proton conducting materials with the proper engineering. BEA and SAPE-BEA zeolite nanocrystals mixed with suspensions of Nafion were cast into nanocomposite membranes. DMFC membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) prepared with a 2.5wt% SAPE-BEA nanocomposite membrane delivered twice the peak power of a MEA with a commercial Nafion 117 membrane. Membrane performance improvements of this magnitude could ultimately lead to DMFC cost and size reductions that make the technology commercially viable for a variety of applications.

  17. Effects of chronic kidney disease on blood cells membrane properties.

    PubMed

    Kaderjakova, Z; Lajdova, I; Horvathova, M; Morvova, M; Sikurova, L

    2012-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is progressive loss of renal function associated among others with increased intracellular calcium concentration. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of CKD on cell membrane properties such as human red blood cell Ca(2+) ATPase activity, lymphocyte plasma membrane P2X(7) receptor expression and function. This could help us in elucidating the origin of increased calcium concentration in blood cells. We found out Ca(2+) ATPase activity is decreased in early stage CKD patients resulting in altered calcium removal from cytoplasm. By means of flow cytometry we assessed that P2X(7) receptor expression on lymphocyte membrane is 1.5 fold increased for CKD patients. Moreover, we detected an increased uptake of ethidium bromide through this receptor in CKD at basal conditions. It means CKD lymphocyte membranes contain more receptors which are more permeable thus allowing increased calcium influx from extracellular milieu. Finally, we can state alterations in blood cell membranes are closely linked to CKD and may be responsible for intracellular calcium accumulation. PMID:22425286

  18. Dilation of the influenza hemagglutinin fusion pore revealed by the kinetics of individual cell-cell fusion events

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    We have monitored kinetics of fusion between cell pairs consisting of a single influenza hemaglutinin (HA)-expressing cell and a single erythrocyte (RBC) that had been labeled with both a fluorescent lipid (Dil) in the membrane and a fluorescent solute (calcein) in the aqueous space. Initial fusion pore opening between the RBC and HA-expressing cell produced a change in RBC membrane potential (delta psi) that was monitored by a decrease in Dil fluorescence. This event was followed by two distinct stages of fusion pore dilation: the flux of fluorescent lipid (phi L) and the flux of a large aqueous fluorescent dye (phi s). We have analyzed the kinetics of events that occur as a result of transitions between a fusion pore (FP) and a solute permissive fusion pore (FPs). Our data are consistent with a fusion pore comprising six HA trimers. PMID:8858163

  19. Red blood cell lifespan, erythropoiesis and hemoglobin control.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Anja; Uehlinger, Dominik E; Gotch, Frank; Kotanko, Peter; Levin, Nathan W

    2008-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) and iron deficiency as causes of anemia in patients with limited renal function or end-stage renal disease are well addressed. The concomitant impairment of red blood cell (RBC) survival has been largely neglected. Properties of the uremic environment like inflammation, increased oxidative stress and uremic toxins seem to be responsible for the premature changes in RBC membrane and cytoskeleton. The exposure of antigenic sites and breakdown of the phosphatidylserine asymmetry promote RBC phagocytosis. While the individual response to treatment with EPO-stimulating agents (ESA) depends on both the RBC's lifespan and the production rate, uniform dosing algorithms do not meet that demand. The clinical use of mathematical models predicting ESA-induced changes in hematocrit might be greatly improved once independent estimates of RBC production rate and/or lifespan become available, thus making the concomitant estimation of both parameters unnecessary. Since heme breakdown by the hemoxygenase pathway results in carbon monoxide (CO) which is exhaled, a simple CO breath test has been used to calculate hemoglobin turnover and therefore RBC survival and lifespan. Future research will have to be done to validate and implement this method in patients with kidney failure. This will result in new insights into RBC kinetics in renal patients. Eventually, these findings are expected to improve our understanding of the hemoglobin variability in response to ESA. PMID:18451684

  20. Dipole relaxation in erythrocyte membrane: involvement of spectrin skeleton.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, I T; Paarvanova, B; Slavov, T

    2012-12-01

    Polarization of spectrin-actin undermembrane skeleton of red blood cell (RBC) plasma membranes was studied by impedance spectroscopy. Relatedly, dielectric spectra of suspensions that contained RBCs of humans, mammals (bovine, horse, dog, cat) and birds (turkey, pigeon, duck), and human RBC ghost membranes were continuously obtained during heating from 20 to 70°C. Data for the complex admittance and capacitance were used to derive the suspension resistance, R, and capacitance, C, as well as the energy loss as a function of temperature. As in previous studies, two irreversible temperature-induced transitions in the human RBC plasma membrane were detected at 49.5°C and at 60.7°C (at low heating rate). The transition at 49.5°C was evident from the abrupt changes in R, and C and the fall in the energy loss, due to dipole relaxation. For the erythrocytes of indicated species the changes in R and C displayed remarkable and similar frequency profiles within the 0.05-13MHz domain. These changes were subdued after cross-linking of membranes by diamide (0.3-1.3mM) and glutaraldehyde (0.1-0.4%) and at the presence of glycerol (10%). Based on the above results and previous reports, the dielectric changes at 49.5°C were related to dipole relaxation and segmental mobility of spectrin cytoskeleton. The results open the possibility for selective dielectric thermolysis of cell cytoskeleton. PMID:22513264

  1. Nuclear Membrane Dynamics and Reassembly in Living Cells: Targeting of an Inner Nuclear Membrane Protein in Interphase and Mitosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Ellenberg; Eric D. Siggia; Jorge E. Moreira; Carolyn L. Smith; John F. Presley; Howard J. Worman; Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms of localization and reten- tion of membrane proteins in the inner nuclear mem- brane and the fate of this membrane system during mi- tosis were studied in living cells using the inner nuclear membrane protein, lamin B receptor, fused to green fluorescent protein (LBR-GFP). Photobleaching tech- niques revealed the majority of LBR-GFP to be com- pletely immobilized in

  2. The role of cell membranes in the regulation of lignification in pine cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrix, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    The identity of pine cell membranes bearing PAL enzyme activity, the isolation of a plasma membrane preparation from pine cells for testing as a regulatory barrier in lignification, and the measurement of the geopotential effect in pine stems are presented. A model to describe and predict the interaction of gravity and lignification of higher plants was developed.

  3. Immunologically Induced Alterations of Airway Smooth Muscle Cell Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souhrada, M.; Souhrada, J. F.

    1984-08-01

    Active and passive sensitization, both in vivo and in vitro, caused significant hyperpolarization of airway smooth muscle cell preparations isolated from guinea pigs. An increase in the contribution of the electrogenic Na+ pump to the resting membrane potential was responsible for this change. Hyperpolarization, as induced by passive sensitization, was not prevented by agents that inhibit specific mediators of anaphylaxis but was abolished when serum from sensitized animals was heated. The heat-sensitive serum factor, presumably reaginic antibodies, appears to be responsible for the membrane hyperpolarization of airway smooth muscle cells after sensitization.

  4. Lactic acid fermentation in cell-recycle membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, B; Swaminathan, T

    2006-02-01

    Traditional lactic acid fermentation suffers from low productivity and low product purity. Cell-recycle fermentation has become one of the methods to obtain high cell density, which results in higher productivity. Lactic acid fermentation was investigated in a cell-recycle membrane bioreactor at higher substrate concentrations of 100 and 120 g/dm3. A maximum cell density of 145 g/dm3 and a maximum productivity of 34 g/(dm3.h) were achieved in cell-recycle fermentation. In spite of complete consumption of substrate, there was a continuous increase in cell density in cell-recycle fermentation. Control of cell density in cell-recycle fermentation was attempted by cell bleeding and reduction in yeast extract concentration. PMID:16484726

  5. Membrane with internal passages to permit fluid flow and an electrochemical cell containing the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cisar, Alan J. (Inventor); Gonzalez-Martin, Anuncia (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The invention provides an improved proton exchange membrane for use in electrochemical cells having internal passages parallel to the membrane surface, an apparatus and process for making the membrane, membrane and electrode assemblies fabricated using the membrane, and the application of the membrane and electrode assemblies to a variety of devices, both electrochemical and otherwise. The passages in the membrane extend from one edge of the membrane to another and allow fluid flow through the membrane and give access directly to the membrane for purposes of hydration.

  6. PROTEIN STRUCTURE: Pumping Iron Through Cell Membranes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Volkmar Braun (Universität Tüebingen; Department of Mikrobiologie/Membranphysiologie)

    1998-12-18

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Despite their importance in various cellular functions, the three-dimensional structure at atomic resolution has been determined for only a few membrane proteins. In his Perspective, Braun discusses results reported in the same issue by Ferguson et al. in which the crystal structure of FhuA, an iron transporter protein, has been determined at high resolution. This and related proteins may be the general model for a large class of iron-transporting molecules.

  7. Excess membrane synthesis drives a primitive mode of cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Romain; Kawai, Yoshikazu; Errington, Jeff

    2013-02-28

    The peptidoglycan cell wall is a hallmark of the bacterial subkingdom. Surprisingly, many modern bacteria retain the ability to switch into a wall-free state called the L-form. L-form proliferation is remarkable in being independent of the normally essential FtsZ-based division machinery and in occurring by membrane blebbing and tubulation. We show that mutations leading to excess membrane synthesis are sufficient to drive L-form division in Bacillus subtilis. Artificially increasing the cell surface area to volume ratio in wild-type protoplasts generates similar shape changes and cell division. Our findings show that simple biophysical processes could have supported efficient cell proliferation during the evolution of early cells and provide an extant biological model for studying this problem. PMID:23452849

  8. Binding of white spot syndrome virus to Artemia sp. cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shuying; Li, Guangda; Feng, Wenpo; Huang, Jie

    2013-10-01

    Using differential velocity centrifugation, cell membranes of Artemia sp. were prepared, and their binding to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was analyzed in vitro. The results indicated that WSSV can specifically bind to Artemia cell membranes, and that WSSV receptor very likely existed in this membrane, which suggested that Artemia sp. may be a reservoir of WSSV. This study investigated the specific WSSV binding site by performing competitive inhibition experiments using shrimp gill cell membranes to bind WSSV to Artemia cell membranes. The results showed that shrimp gill cell membranes had a distinct inhibition effect on the specific binding of Artemia cell membranes to WSSV. Thus, potentially similar WSSV receptors or binding sites existed on Artemia sp. cell membranes and shrimp gill cell membranes. Taken together, these findings may provide experimental basis for the development of an effective approach to controlling WSSV, and theoretical basis for the study of WSSV receptors. PMID:23711885

  9. Evidence for Bidirectional Endocannabinoid Transport across Cell Membranes*

    PubMed Central

    Chicca, Andrea; Marazzi, Janine; Nicolussi, Simon; Gertsch, Jürg

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive research on the trafficking of anandamide (AEA) across cell membranes, little is known about the membrane transport of other endocannabinoids, such as 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Previous studies have provided data both in favor and against a cell membrane carrier-mediated transport of endocannabinoids, using different methodological approaches. Because AEA and 2-AG undergo rapid and almost complete intracellular hydrolysis, we employed a combination of radioligand assays and absolute quantification of cellular and extracellular endocannabinoid levels. In human U937 leukemia cells, 100 nm AEA and 1 ?m 2-AG were taken up through a fast and saturable process, reaching a plateau after 5 min. Employing differential pharmacological blockage of endocannabinoid uptake, breakdown, and interaction with intracellular binding proteins, we show that eicosanoid endocannabinoids harboring an arachidonoyl chain compete for a common membrane target that regulates their transport, whereas other N-acylethanolamines did not interfere with AEA and 2-AG uptake. By combining fatty acid amide hydrolase or monoacyl glycerol lipase inhibitors with hydrolase-inactive concentrations of the AEA transport inhibitors UCM707 (1 ?m) and OMDM-2 (5 ?m), a functional synergism on cellular AEA and 2-AG uptake was observed. Intriguingly, structurally unrelated AEA uptake inhibitors also blocked the cellular release of AEA and 2-AG. We show, for the first time, that UCM707 and OMDM-2 inhibit the bidirectional movement of AEA and 2-AG across cell membranes. Our findings suggest that a putative endocannabinoid cell membrane transporter controls the cellular AEA and 2-AG trafficking and metabolism. PMID:22879589

  10. New High-Temperature Membranes Developed for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinder, James D.

    2004-01-01

    Fuel cells are receiving a considerable amount of attention for potential use in a variety of areas, including the automotive industry, commercial power generation, and personal electronics. Research at the NASA Glenn Research Center has focused on the development of fuel cells for use in aerospace power systems for aircraft, unmanned air vehicles, and space transportation systems. These applications require fuel cells with higher power densities and better durability than what is required for nonaerospace uses. In addition, membrane cost is a concern for any fuel cell application. The most widely used membrane materials for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are based on sulfonated perfluorinated polyethers, typically Nafion 117, Flemion, or Aciplex. However, these polymers are costly and do not function well at temperatures above 80 C. At higher temperatures, conventional membrane materials dry out and lose their ability to conduct protons, essential for the operation of the fuel cell. Increasing the operating temperature of PEM fuel cells from 80 to 120 C would significantly increase their power densities and enhance their durability by reducing the susceptibility of the electrode catalysts to carbon monoxide poisoning. Glenn's Polymers Branch has focused on developing new, low-cost membranes that can operate at these higher temperatures. A new series of organically modified siloxane (ORMOSIL) polymers were synthesized for use as membrane materials in a high-temperature PEM fuel cell. These polymers have an organic portion that can allow protons to transport through the polymer film and a cross-linked silica network that gives the polymers dimensional stability. These flexible xerogel polymer films are thermally stable, with decomposition onset as high as 380 C. Two types of proton-conducting ORMOSIL films have been produced: (1) NASA-A, which can coordinate many highly acid inorganic salts that facilitate proton conduction and (2) NASA-B, which has been produced and which incorporates strongly acidic (proton donating) functional groups into the polymer backbone. Both of these polymer films have demonstrated significantly higher proton conductivity than Nafion at elevated temperatures and low relative humidities. An added advantage is that these polymers are very inexpensive to produce because their starting materials are commodity chemicals that are commercially available in large volumes.

  11. Crucial role for membrane fluidity in proliferation of primitive cells.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Romain; Domínguez-Cuevas, Patricia; Errington, Jeff

    2012-05-31

    The cell wall is a defining structural feature of the bacterial subkingdom. However, most bacteria are capable of mutating into a cell-wall-deficient "L-form" state, requiring remarkable physiological and structural adaptations. L-forms proliferate by an unusual membrane deformation and scission process that is independent of the conserved and normally essential FtsZ based division machinery, and which may provide a model for the replication of primitive cells. Candidate gene screening revealed no requirement for the cytoskeletal systems that might actively drive membrane deformation or scission. Instead, we uncovered a crucial role for branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA) synthesis. BCFA-deficient mutants grow and undergo pulsating shape changes, but membrane scission fails, abolishing the separation of progeny cells. The failure in scission is associated with a reduction in membrane fluidity. The results identify a step in L-form proliferation and demonstrate that purely biophysical processes may have been sufficient for proliferation of primitive cells. PMID:22832271

  12. Multimodal method for cell membrane extraction in hepatic histological images.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Nobumitsu; Takahashi, Masanobu; Nakano, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    A multimodal method, which uses different kinds of imaging methods, was applied to extract cell membranes in microscopic images of hematoxylin and eosin-stained hepatic histological sections. Cell membrane extraction in hepatic histological images is difficult because the color difference between the cell membrane and the cytoplasm is small in bright-field images. Three kinds of imaging methods, bright-field, dark-field, and phase-contrast imaging, were used because they are readily available for general pathologists. These imaging methods can be switched easily by revolving a combined condenser with the same phase-contrast objective lens. Therefore, little additional time and cost are needed for this approach. Experimental results show the effectiveness of this approach. The correct rate was improved by using additional color information obtained by dark-field and phase-contrast images compared to conventional bright-field images. The best correct rate was obtained when color information of all three images was used. A graphical user interface to calculate the N/C ratio was developed by combining cell membrane extraction with conventional cell nucleus extraction. PMID:21097099

  13. The development of PTFE\\/Nafion\\/TEOS membranes for application in moderate and high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guo-Bin Jung; Feng-Bor Weng; Chao-Chun Peng; Ting-Chu Jao

    2011-01-01

    PTFE\\/Nafion (PN) and PTFE\\/Nafion\\/TEOS (PNS) membranes were fabricated for the application of moderate and high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), respectively. Membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were fabricated by PTFE\\/Nafion (and PTFE\\/Nafion\\/TEOS) membranes with commercially available low and high temperature gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs). The effects of relative humidity, operation temperature, and back pressure on the performance and durability

  14. Autophagy modulates cell migration and ?1 integrin membrane recycling

    PubMed Central

    Tuloup-Minguez, Véronique; Hamaï, Ahmed; Greffard, Anne; Nicolas, Valérie; Codogno, Patrice; Botti, Joëlle

    2013-01-01

    Cell migration is dependent on a series of integrated cellular events including the membrane recycling of the extracellular matrix receptor integrins. In this paper, we investigate the role of autophagy in regulating cell migration. In a wound-healing assay, we observed that autophagy was reduced in cells at the leading edge than in cells located rearward. These differences in autophagy were correlated with the robustness of MTOR activity. The spatial difference in the accumulation of autophagic structures was not detected in rapamycin-treated cells, which had less migration capacity than untreated cells. In contrast, the knockdown of the autophagic protein ATG7 stimulated cell migration of HeLa cells. Accordingly, atg3?/? and atg5?/? MEFs have greater cell migration properties than their wild-type counterparts. Stimulation of autophagy increased the co-localization of ?1 integrin-containing vesicles with LC3-stained autophagic vacuoles. Moreover, inhibition of autophagy slowed down the lysosomal degradation of internalized ?1 integrins and promoted its membrane recycling. From these findings, we conclude that autophagy regulates cell migration, a central mechanism in cell development, angiogenesis, and tumor progression, by mitigating the cell surface expression of ?1 integrins. PMID:24036548

  15. Membrane and MEA Development in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trogadas, Panagiotis; Ramani, Vijay

    The polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) is based on Nafion polymer membranes operating at a temperature of 80°C. The main characteristics (structure and properties) and problems of Nafion-based PEFC technology are discussed. The primary drawbacks of Nafion membranes are poor conductivity at low relative humidities (and consequently at temperatures >100°C and ambient pressure) and large crossover of methanol in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) applications. These drawbacks have prompted an extensive effort to improve the properties of Nafion and identify alternate materials to replace Nafion. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) are classified in modified Nafion, membranes based on functionalized non-fluorinated backbones and acid-base polymer systems. Perhaps the most widely employed approach is the addition of inorganic additives to Nafion membranes to yield organic/inorganic composite membranes. Four major types of inorganic additives that have been studied (zirconium phosphates, heteropolyacids, metal hydrogen sulfates, and metal oxides) are reviewed in the following. DMFC and H2/O2 (air) cells based on modified Nafion membranes have been successfully operated at temperatures up to 120°C under ambient pressure and up to 150°C under 3-5 atm. Membranes based on functionalized non-fluorinated backbones are potentially promising for high-temperature operation. High conductivities have been obtained at temperatures up to 180°C. The final category of polymeric PEMs comprises non-functionalized polymers with basic character doped with proton-conducting acids such as phosphoric acid. The advanced features include high CO tolerance and thermal management. The advances made in the fabrication of electrodes for PEM fuel cells from the PTFE-bound catalyst layers of almost 20 years ago to the present technology are briefly discussed. There are two widely employed electrode designs: (1) PTFE-bound, and (2) thin-film electrodes. Emerging methods include those featuring catalyst layers formed with electrodeposition and vacuum deposition (sputtering). The thin-film electrodes have significantly increased performance and reduced the level of platinum loading required. Thin sputtered layers have shown promise for low catalyst loading with adequate performance. Electrodeposition methods are briefly discussed. Finally, the relationship between MEA processing and the durability of the membrane/electrode interface and hence the fuel cell as a whole is presented.

  16. The formin FMNL3 assembles plasma membrane protrusions that participate in cell–cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Gauvin, Timothy J.; Young, Lorna E.; Higgs, Henry N.

    2015-01-01

    FMNL3 is a vertebrate-specific formin protein previously shown to play a role in angiogenesis and cell migration. Here we define the cellular localization of endogenous FMNL3, the dynamics of GFP-tagged FMNL3 during cell migration, and the effects of FMNL3 suppression in mammalian culture cells. The majority of FMNL3 localizes in a punctate pattern, with >95% of these puncta being indistinguishable from the plasma membrane by fluorescence microscopy. A small number of dynamic cytoplasmic FMNL3 patches also exist, which enrich near cell–cell contact sites and fuse with the plasma membrane at these sites. These cytoplasmic puncta appear to be part of larger membranes of endocytic origin. On the plasma membrane, FMNL3 enriches particularly in filopodia and membrane ruffles and at nascent cell–cell adhesions. FMNL3-containing filopodia occur both at the cell–substratum interface and at cell–cell contacts, with the latter being 10-fold more stable. FMNL3 suppression by siRNA has two major effects: decrease in filopodia and compromised cell–cell adhesion in cells migrating as a sheet. Overall our results suggest that FMNL3 functions in assembly of actin-based protrusions that are specialized for cell–cell adhesion. PMID:25428984

  17. Hostile Takeover by Plasmodium: Reorganization of Parasite and Host Cell Membranes during Liver Stage

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    Hostile Takeover by Plasmodium: Reorganization of Parasite and Host Cell Membranes during Liver of Cell Biology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland Abstract The protozoan parasite Plasmodium the membrane of these merosomes was derived from the parasite membrane, the parasitophorous vacuole membrane

  18. THE FLUIDITY OF CHINESE HAMSTER OVARY CELL AND BULL SPERM MEMBRANES AFTER CHOLESTEROL ADDITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cell plasma membrane fluidity is affected by membrane lipid and protein composition as well as temperature. Altering the cholesterol content of a membrane can change membrane fluidity at different temperatures and this may affect cell survival during cryopreservation. In these experiments, we exami...

  19. Efficient and Specific Analysis of Red Blood Cell Glycerophospholipid Fatty Acid Composition

    PubMed Central

    Klem, Sabrina; Klingler, Mario; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold

    2012-01-01

    Background Red blood cell (RBC) n-3 fatty acid status is related to various health outcomes. Accepted biological markers for the fatty acid status determination are RBC phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidyletholamine. The analysis of these lipid fractions is demanding and time consuming and total phospholipid n-3 fatty acid levels might be affected by changes of sphingomyelin contents in the RBC membrane during n-3 supplementation. Aim We developed a method for the specific analysis of RBC glycerophospholipids. The application of the new method in a DHA supplementation trial and the comparison to established markers will determine the relevance of RBC GPL as a valid fatty acid status marker in humans. Methods Methyl esters of glycerophospholipid fatty acids are selectively generated by a two step procedure involving methanolic protein precipitation and base-catalysed methyl ester synthesis. RBC GPL solubilisation is facilitated by ultrasound treatment. Fatty acid status in RBC glycerophospholipids and other established markers were evaluated in thirteen subjects participating in a 30 days supplementation trial (510 mg DHA/d). Outcome The intra-assay CV for GPL fatty acids ranged from 1.0 to 10.5% and the inter-assay CV from 1.3 to 10.9%. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation significantly increased the docosahexaenoic acid contents in all analysed lipid fractions. High correlations were observed for most of the mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and for the omega-3 index (r?=?0.924) between RBC phospholipids and glycerophospholipids. The analysis of RBC glycerophospholipid fatty acids yields faster, easier and less costly results equivalent to the conventional analysis of RBC total phospholipids. PMID:22479463

  20. Durable, Low-cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Roger; David Mountz; Wensheng He; Tao Zhang

    2011-03-17

    The development of low cost, durable membranes and membranes electrode assemblies (MEAs) that operate under reduced relative humidity (RH) conditions remain a critical challenge for the successful introduction of fuel cells into mass markets. It was the goal of the team lead by Arkema, Inc. to address these shortages. Thus, this project addresses the following technical barriers from the fuel cells section of the Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan: (A) Durability (B) Cost Arkema’s approach consisted of using blends of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) and proprietary sulfonated polyelectrolytes. In the traditional approach to polyelectrolytes for proton exchange membranes (PEM), all the required properties are “packaged” in one macromolecule. The properties of interest include proton conductivity, mechanical properties, durability, and water/gas transport. This is the case, for example, for perfluorosulfonic acid-containing (PFSA) membranes. However, the cost of these materials is high, largely due to the complexity and the number of steps involved in their synthesis. In addition, they suffer other shortcomings such as mediocre mechanical properties and insufficient durability for some applications. The strength and originality of Arkema’s approach lies in the decoupling of ion conductivity from the other requirements. Kynar® PVDF provides an exceptional combination of properties that make it ideally suited for a membrane matrix (Kynar® is a registered trademark of Arkema Inc.). It exhibits outstanding chemical resistance in highly oxidative and acidic environments. In work with a prior grant, a membrane known as M41 was developed by Arkema. M41 had many of the properties needed for a high performance PEM, but had a significant deficiency in conductivity at low RH. In the first phase of this work, the processing parameters of M41 were explored as a means to increase its proton conductivity. Optimizing the processing of M41 was found to increase its proton conductivity by almost an order of magnitude at 50% RH. Characterization of the membrane morphology with Karren More at Oak Ridge National Laboratory showed that the membrane morphology was complex. This technology platform was dubbed M43 and was used as a baseline in the majority of the work on the project. Although its performance was superior to M41, M43 still showed proton conductivity an order of magnitude lower than that of a PFSA membrane at 50% RH. The MEA performance of M43 could be increased by reducing the thickness from 1 to 0.6 mils. However, the performance of the thinner M43 still did not match that of a PFSA membrane.

  1. Electrospun fiber membranes enable proliferation of genetically modified cells

    PubMed Central

    Borjigin, Mandula; Eskridge, Chris; Niamat, Rohina; Strouse, Bryan; Bialk, Pawel; Kmiec, Eric B

    2013-01-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) and its blended composites (chitosan, gelatin, and lecithin) are well-established biomaterials that can enrich cell growth and enable tissue engineering. However, their application in the recovery and proliferation of genetically modified cells has not been studied. In the study reported here, we fabricated PCL-biomaterial blended fiber membranes, characterized them using physicochemical techniques, and used them as templates for the growth of genetically modified HCT116-19 colon cancer cells. Our data show that the blended polymers are highly miscible and form homogenous electrospun fiber membranes of uniform texture. The aligned PCL nanofibers support robust cell growth, yielding a 2.5-fold higher proliferation rate than cells plated on standard plastic plate surfaces. PCL-lecithin fiber membranes yielded a 2.7-fold higher rate of proliferation, while PCL-chitosan supported a more modest growth rate (1.5-fold higher). Surprisingly, PCL-gelatin did not enhance cell proliferation when compared to the rate of cell growth on plastic surfaces. PMID:23467983

  2. Electrospun fiber membranes enable proliferation of genetically modified cells.

    PubMed

    Borjigin, Mandula; Eskridge, Chris; Niamat, Rohina; Strouse, Bryan; Bialk, Pawel; Kmiec, Eric B

    2013-01-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) and its blended composites (chitosan, gelatin, and lecithin) are well-established biomaterials that can enrich cell growth and enable tissue engineering. However, their application in the recovery and proliferation of genetically modified cells has not been studied. In the study reported here, we fabricated PCL-biomaterial blended fiber membranes, characterized them using physicochemical techniques, and used them as templates for the growth of genetically modified HCT116-19 colon cancer cells. Our data show that the blended polymers are highly miscible and form homogenous electrospun fiber membranes of uniform texture. The aligned PCL nanofibers support robust cell growth, yielding a 2.5-fold higher proliferation rate than cells plated on standard plastic plate surfaces. PCL-lecithin fiber membranes yielded a 2.7-fold higher rate of proliferation, while PCL-chitosan supported a more modest growth rate (1.5-fold higher). Surprisingly, PCL-gelatin did not enhance cell proliferation when compared to the rate of cell growth on plastic surfaces. PMID:23467983

  3. Characteristics of high-water-uptake activated carbon/Nafion hybrid membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Hung-Chung; Tsai, Li-Duan; Lai, Chien-Ming; Lin, Jiunn-Nan; Zhu, Chao-Yuan; Chang, Feng-Chih

    2013-03-01

    A cost-effective and high-throughput method for producing high-water-uptake membranes is developed by combining high-porosity and superior-surface-area activated carbon with Nafion. The resultant activated carbon/Nafion hybrid composite exhibits high water uptake and an improved proton conductivity, which can be exploited in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). This hybrid membrane displays a superior performance to that of the commercial Nafion 211 when used in fuel-cell measurements. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is used to simulate the changes in resistance during the operation of the fuel cells and conclusively explains the improved performance of the composite membranes.

  4. Multiscale Modeling of Red Blood Cell Mechanics and Blood Flow in Malaria

    E-print Network

    Suresh, Subra

    Multiscale Modeling of Red Blood Cell Mechanics and Blood Flow in Malaria Dmitry A. Fedosov1 Abstract Red blood cells (RBCs) infected by a Plasmodium parasite in malaria may lose their membrane. In the present work, we simulate infected RBCs in malaria using a multiscale RBC model based on the dissipative

  5. Interaction of Dendritic Polymers with Synthetic Lipid and Cell Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecke, Almut; Hong, Seungpyo; Bielinska, Anna U.; Banaszak Holl, Mark M.; Orr, Bradford G.; Baker, James R., Jr.

    2004-03-01

    Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers are promising candidates for the development of nanoscale therapeutic transport agents. Here we present studies on dendrimer-membrane interactions leading to a better understanding of possible uptake mechanisms into cells. Using synthetic lipid and natural cell membranes as model systems it is shown that the effect of PAMAM dendrimers on a membrane strongly depends on the dendrimer generation, architecture and chemical properties of the branch end groups. Atomic force microscopy data indicates that generation 7 dendrimers have the ability to form small ( 10-100 nm) holes in a lipid bilayer. When dendrimers with otherwise identical chemical properties are arranged in a covalently linked cluster, no hole formation occurs. Dendrimer-lipid micelle formation is proposed and investigated as a possible mechanism for this behavior. Smaller dendrimers (generation 5) have a greatly reduced ability to remove lipid molecules from a bilayer. In addition to the size of the dendrimer, the charge of the branch end groups plays a significant role for dendrimer-membrane interactions. These results agree well with biological studies using cultured cells and point to a new mechanism of specific targeting and uptake into cells.

  6. Membrane electrolytic cell for minimizing hypochlorite and chlorate formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Fair; D. D. Justice; K. E. Woodard Jr

    1985-01-01

    An electrolytic cell for the electrolysis of an alkali metal chloride brine is comprised of an anode compartment and a cathode compartment separated by a cation exchange membrane. The anode is comprised of an unflattened expanded structure of a valve metal selected from the group consisting of titanium, tantalum, niobium, and alloys thereof. At least one side of the anode

  7. Nonminimum-Phase Phenomenon of PEM Fuel Cell Membrane

    E-print Network

    Peng, Huei

    . In this paper, stack cooling water replaces the exhaust gas as the source to warm and humidify the dry inlet gas 48109-2125 A membrane-based humidifier that uses cooling water of a fuel cell system to humidify and thus are not as practical as those using cooling water. In this paper, the model developed in Ref. 2

  8. Applications of proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung-Ho Wee

    2007-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have recently passed the test or demonstration phase and have partially reached the commercialization stage due to the impressive worldwide research effort. Despite the currently promising achievements and the plausible prospects of PEMFCs, there are many challenges remaining that need to be overcome before PEMFCs can successfully and economically substitute for the various traditional

  9. Basolateral membrane K+ channels in renal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Devor, Daniel C.

    2012-01-01

    The major function of epithelial tissues is to maintain proper ion, solute, and water homeostasis. The tubule of the renal nephron has an amazingly simple structure, lined by epithelial cells, yet the segments (i.e., proximal tubule vs. collecting duct) of the nephron have unique transport functions. The functional differences are because epithelial cells are polarized and thus possess different patterns (distributions) of membrane transport proteins in the apical and basolateral membranes of the cell. K+ channels play critical roles in normal physiology. Over 90 different genes for K+ channels have been identified in the human genome. Epithelial K+ channels can be located within either or both the apical and basolateral membranes of the cell. One of the primary functions of basolateral K+ channels is to recycle K+ across the basolateral membrane for proper function of the Na+-K+-ATPase, among other functions. Mutations of these channels can cause significant disease. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of the basolateral K+ channels of the nephron, providing potential physiological functions and pathophysiology of these channels, where appropriate. We have taken a “K+ channel gene family” approach in presenting the representative basolateral K+ channels of the nephron. The basolateral K+ channels of the renal epithelia are represented by members of the KCNK, KCNJ, KCNQ, KCNE, and SLO gene families. PMID:22338089

  10. CAPSTONE SENIOR DESIGN - SUPRAMOLECULAR PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANES FOR FUEL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to assume a leading role in the burgeoning hydrogen economy, new infrastructure will be required for fuel cell manufacturing and R&D capabilities. The objective of this proposal is the development of a new generation of advanced proton exchange membrane (PEM) technol...

  11. Sulfonated Nanoplates in Proton Conducting Membranes for Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.F.; Ni’mah, H.; Yu-Cheng Shen, Y.-C.; Kuo, P.-L.

    2011-09-29

    Surface-functionalized nanoplates are synthesized by anchoring sulfonic acid containing siloxanes on zirconium phosphate, and in turn blended with Nafion to fabricate proton conducting membranes. The effects of these sulfonated nanoplates on proton conduction, hydro-characteristics and fuel cell performance are reported.

  12. Duration of ultrasound bubbles enhanced cell membrane permeability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annemieke van Wamel; Ayache Bouakaz; Nico de Jong

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Ultrasound (US) has shown the ability to modulate the cell membrane permeability in a process known as sonoporation. In addition, the sonoporation process has been proven to be amplified when US is associated with contrast microbubbles. The purpose of this study is to quantify the duration of the sonoporation process for external molecules with different sizes. Method: monolayers of

  13. Lipid Signalling Dynamics at the ?-cell Plasma Membrane.

    PubMed

    Wuttke, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Pancreatic ?-cells are clustered in islets of Langerhans and secrete insulin in response to increased concentrations of circulating glucose. Insulin in turn acts on liver, muscle and fat tissue to store energy and normalize the blood glucose level. Inappropriate insulin release may lead to impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes. In addition to glucose, other nutrients, neural stimuli and hormonal stimuli control insulin secretion. Many of these signals are perceived at the plasma membrane, which is also the site where insulin granules undergo exocytosis. Therefore, it is not surprising that membrane lipids play an important role in the regulation of insulin secretion. ?-cells release insulin in a pulsatile fashion. Signalling lipids integrate the nutrient and neurohormonal inputs to fine-tune, shape and co-ordinate the pulsatility. An important group of signalling lipids are phosphoinositides and their downstream messengers. This MiniReview will discuss new insights into lipid signalling dynamics in ?-cells obtained from live-cell imaging experiments with fluorescent translocation biosensors. The plasma membrane concentration of several phosphoinositides and of their downstream messengers changes rapidly upon nutrient or neurohormonal stimulation. Glucose induces the most complex spatio-temporal patterns, typically involving oscillations of messenger concentrations, which sometimes are locally restricted. The tightly controlled levels of lipid messengers can mediate specific binding of downstream effectors to the plasma membrane, contributing to the appropriate regulation of insulin secretion. PMID:25529872

  14. Alternative Sources of Adult Stem Cells: Human Amniotic Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolbank, Susanne; van Griensven, Martijn; Grillari-Voglauer, Regina; Peterbauer-Scherb, Anja

    Human amniotic membrane is a highly promising cell source for tissue engineering. The cells thereof, human amniotic epithelial cells (hAEC) and human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSC), may be immunoprivileged, they represent an early developmental status, and their application is ethically uncontroversial. Cell banking strategies may use freshly isolated cells or involve in vitro expansion to increase cell numbers. Therefore, we have thoroughly characterized the effect of in vitro cultivation on both phenotype and differentiation potential of hAEC. Moreover, we present different strategies to improve expansion including replacement of animal-derived supplements by human platelet products or the introduction of the catalytic subunit of human telomerase to extend the in vitro lifespan of amniotic cells. Characterization of the resulting cultures includes phenotype, growth characteristics, and differentiation potential, as well as immunogenic and immunomodulatory properties.

  15. Development of new membrane materials for direct methanol fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mustafa Hakan Yildirim

    2009-01-01

    Development of new membrane materials for direct methanol fuel cells\\u000aDirect methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) can convert the chemical energy of a fuel directly into electrical energy with high efficiency and low emission of pollutants. DMFCs can be used as the power sources to portable electronic devices like laptop computers, cellular phones and, to a less degree, vehicular applications. \\u000aIn

  16. Performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells at elevated temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Cherng Shyu; Kan-Lin Hsueh; Fanghei Tsau

    2011-01-01

    The polarization curves of a single PEMFC having a Nafion membrane fed with H2\\/O2 with relative humidity (RH) of 35%, 70% and 100% were measured at cell temperatures ranging from 65°C to 120°C at back pressures of 0atm and 1atm, respectively. Measured results showed that the best cell performance at 0.6V operated within 65–120°C at zero back pressure was 1000mAcm?2

  17. VIEW OF RBC (REFINED BICARBONATE) BUILDING LOOKING NORTHEAST. DEMOLITION IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF RBC (REFINED BICARBONATE) BUILDING LOOKING NORTHEAST. DEMOLITION IN PROGRESS. "ARM & HAMMER BAKING SODA WAS MADE HERE FOR OVER 50 YEARS AND THEN SHIPPED ACROSS THE STREET TO THE CHURCH & DWIGHT PLANT ON WILLIS AVE. (ON THE RIGHT IN THIS PHOTO). LAYING ON THE GROUND IN FRONT OF C&D BUILDING IS PART OF AN RBC DRYING TOWER. - Solvay Process Company, Refined Bicarbonate Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  18. Cholesterol-mediated membrane surface area dynamics in neuroendocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Rituper, Bostjan; Chowdhury, Helena Haque; Jorgacevski, Jernej; Coorssen, Jens R; Kreft, Marko; Zorec, Robert

    2013-07-01

    How cholesterol, a key membrane constituent, affects membrane surface area dynamics in secretory cells is unclear. Using methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MbetaCD) to deplete cholesterol, we imaged melanotrophs from male Wistar rats in real-time and monitored membrane capacitance (C(m)), fluctuations of which reflect exocytosis and endocytosis. Treatment with MbetaCD reduced cellular cholesterol and caused a dose-dependent attenuation of the Ca(2+)-evoked increase in C(m) (IC50 = 5.3 mM) vs. untreated cells. Cytosol dialysis of MbetaCD enhanced the attenuation of C(m) increase (IC50 = 3.3 mM), suggesting cholesterol depletion at intracellular membrane sites was involved in attenuating exocytosis. Acute extracellular application of MbetaCD resulted in an immediate C(m) decline, which correlated well with the cellular surface area decrease, indicating the involvement of cholesterol in the regulation of membrane surface area dynamics. This decline in C(m) was three-fold slower than MbetaCD-mediated fluorescent cholesterol decay, implying that exocytosis is the likely physiological means for plasma membrane cholesterol replenishment. MbetaCD had no effect on the specific C(m) and the blockade of endocytosis by Dyngo 4a, confirmed by inhibition of dextran uptake, also had no effect on the time-course of MbetaCD-induced C(m) decline. Thus acute exposure to MbetaCD evokes a C(m) decline linked to the removal of membrane cholesterol, which cannot be compensated for by exocytosis. We propose that the primary contribution of cholesterol to surface area dynamics is via its role in regulated exocytosis. PMID:24046863

  19. [The N-stearoylethanolamine effect on the NO-synthase way of nitrogen oxide formation and phospholipid composition of erythrocyte membranes in rats with streptozotocine diabetes].

    PubMed

    Kosiakova, H V; Hula, N M

    2007-01-01

    The influence of N-stearoylethanolamine (NSE) on the NO-synthase way of NO generation and phospholipids composition of erythrocyte membranes of rats with streptozotocine-induced diabetes has been studied. It has been shown that the activation of iNOS activity, cNOS activity inhibition and increase of the stable NO metabolites content takes place in the red blood cells (RBC) of diabetic rats. The alterations were also found in the RBC membrane phospholipid content: a decrease of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, sphingomieline content and increase of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine lysoforms level. The NSE suspension administration (50 mg/kg of body weight) to diabetic rats (3 months after the diabetes induction) resulted in iNOS activity inhibition, recovering of cNOS activity and normalization of NO stable metabolites level in RBC. The decrease of phospholipids lysoform levels, normalization of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine content and increase of phosphatidylinositol level were found after NSE action. PMID:18712112

  20. Probing cell membrane dynamics using plasmon coupling microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Guoxin

    The plasma membrane of mammalian cells is depicted as a two-dimensional hybrid material which is compartmentalized into submicron-sized domains. These membrane domains play a pivotal role in cellular signaling processes due to selective recruitment of specific cell surface receptors. The structural dynamics of the membrane domains and their exact biological functions are, however, still unclear, partially due to the wave nature of light, which limits the optical resolution in the visible light to approximately 400 nm in conventional optical microscopy. Here, we provide a non-fluorescence based approach for monitoring distance changes on subdiffraction limit length scales in a conventional far-field optical microscope. This approach, which is referred to as plasmon coupling microscopy (PCM), utilizes the distance dependent near-field coupling between noble metal nanoparticle (NP) labels to resolve close contacts on the length scale of approximately one NP diameter. We firstly utilize this PCM strategy to resolve interparticle separations during individual encounters of gold NP labeled fibronectin-integrin complexes in living HeLa cells. We then further refine this ratiometric detection methodology by augmenting it with a polarization-sensitive detection, which enables simultaneous monitoring of the distance and conformation changes in NP dimers and clusters. We apply this polarization resolved PCM approach to characterize the structural lateral heterogeneity of cell membranes on sub-micron length scales. Finally, we demonstrate that PCM can provide quantitative information about the structural dynamics of individual epidermal growth factor receptor (ErbB1)-enriched membrane domains in living cells.

  1. The Membrane Environment Can Promote or Suppress Bistability in Cell Signaling Networks

    E-print Network

    Abel, Steven M.

    Many key biochemical reactions that mediate signal transduction in cells occur at the cell membrane, yet how the two-dimensional membrane environment influences the collective behavior of signaling networks is poorly ...

  2. Development of Thin Film Membrane Assemblies with Novel Nanostructured Electrocatalyst for Next Generation Fuel Cells

    E-print Network

    Popov, Branko N.

    . Background Recent advances have made proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) a leading alternative-air fuel cell based on Nafion- related membranes is a potential technology but sourcing the hydrogen

  3. Chemical Imaging of the Cell Membrane by NanoSIMS

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P K; Kraft, M L; Frisz, J F; Carpenter, K J; Hutcheon, I D

    2010-02-23

    The existence of lipid microdomains and their role in cell membrane organization are currently topics of great interest and controversy. The cell membrane is composed of a lipid bilayer with embedded proteins that can flow along the two-dimensional surface defined by the membrane. Microdomains, known as lipid rafts, are believed to play a central role in organizing this fluid system, enabling the cell membrane to carry out essential cellular processes, including protein recruitment and signal transduction. Lipid rafts are also implicated in cell invasion by pathogens, as in the case of the HIV. Therefore, understanding the role of lipid rafts in cell membrane organization not only has broad scientific implications, but also has practical implications for medical therapies. One of the major limitations on lipid organization research has been the inability to directly analyze lipid composition without introducing artifacts and at the relevant length-scales of tens to hundreds of nanometers. Fluorescence microscopy is widely used due to its sensitivity and specificity to the labeled species, but only the labeled components can be observed, fluorophores can alter the behavior of the lipids they label, and the length scales relevant to imaging cell membrane domains are between that probed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging (<10 nm) and the diffraction limit of light. Topographical features can be imaged on this length scale by atomic force microscopy (AFM), but the chemical composition of the observed structures cannot be determined. Immuno-labeling can be used to study the distribution of membrane proteins at high resolution, but not lipid composition. We are using imaging mass spectrometry by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in concert with other high resolution imaging methods to overcome these limitations. The experimental approach of this project is to combine molecule-specific stable isotope labeling with high-resolution SIMS using a Cameca NanoSIMS 50 to probe membrane organization and test microdomain hypotheses. The NanoSIMS is an imaging secondary ion mass spectrometer with an unprecedented combination of spatial resolution, sensitivity and mass specificity. It has 50 nm lateral resolution and is capable of detecting 1 in 20 nitrogen atoms while excluding near-neighbor isobaric interferences. The tightly focused cesium ion beam is rastered across the sample to produce simultaneous, quantitative digital images of up to five different masses. By labeling each specific components of a membrane with a unique rare stable isotope or element and mapping the location of the labels with the NanoSIMS, the location of the each labeled component can be determined and quantified. This new approach to membrane composition analysis allows molecular interactions of biological membranes to be probed at length-scales relevant to lipid rafts (10s to 100s of nm) that were not previously possible. Results from our most recent experiments analyzing whole cells will be presented.

  4. Durability aspects of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethuraman, Vijay Anand

    In order for the successful adoption of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell technology, it is imperative that durability is understood, quantified and improved. A number of mechanisms are known to contribute to PEMFC membrane electrode assembly (MEA) performance degradation. In this dissertation, we show, via experiments, some of the various processes that degrade the proton exchange membrane in a PEM fuel cell; and catalyst poisoning due to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and siloxane. The effect of humidity on the chemical stability of two types of membranes, [i.e., perfluorosulfonic acid type (PFSA, NafionRTM 112) and biphenyl sulfone hydrocarbon type, (BPSH-35)] was studied by subjecting the MEAs to open-circuit voltage (OCV) decay and potential cycling tests at elevated temperatures and low inlet gas relative humidities. The BPSH-35 membranes showed poor chemical stability in ex situ Fenton tests compared to that of NafionRTM membranes. However, under fuel cell conditions, BPSH-35 MEAs outperformed NafionRTM 112 MEAs in both the OCV decay and potential cycling tests. For both membranes, (i) at a given temperature, membrane degradation was more pronounced at lower humidities and (ii) at a given relative humidity operation, increasing the cell temperature accelerated membrane degradation. Mechanical stability of these two types of membranes was also studied using relative humidity (RH) cycling. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) formation rates in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell were estimated by studying the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on a rotating ring disc electrode (RRDE). Fuel cell conditions were replicated by depositing a film of Pt/Vulcan XC-72 catalyst onto the disk and by varying the temperature, dissolved O2 concentration and the acidity levels in HClO4. The HClO4 acidity was correlated to ionomer water activity and hence fuel cell humidity. H 2O2 formation rates showed a linear dependence on oxygen concentration and square dependence on water activity. The H2O 2 selectivity in ORR was independent of oxygen concentration but increased with decrease in water activity (i.e., decreased humidity). Presences of trace impurities (such as CO, H2S, NH3, etc.) in the fuel also affect PEMFC durability. Among these impurities, H 2S causes significantly higher performance loss and irreversible catalytic poisoning. A concise mechanism for the poisoning kinetics of H2S on composite solid polymer electrolyte Pt (SPE-Pt) electrode was validated experimentally by charge balances and theoretically by a model, which predicted the oxidation current as a function of the applied potential. H2S dissociatively adsorbed onto SPE-Pt electrode as linear and bridge bonded sulfur (S) species and, under favorable potentials, underwent electro-oxidation to sulfur and then to sulfur dioxide (SO2). Fraction of the adsorbed S species remained as 'hard-to-oxidize' adsorbents and caused irreversible loss of catalytic activity. Deactivation of bridge sites occurred first followed by the loss of linear sites. A method to estimate the catalytic sites irreversibly lost due to sulfur poisoning was developed.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of Nafion/TiO2 nanocomposite membrane for proton exchange membrane fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Young; Cho, Sung Yong

    2011-08-01

    In this study, the syntheses and characterizations of Nafion/TiO2 membranes for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) were investigated. Porous TiO2 powders were synthesized using the sol-gel method; with Nafion/TiO2 nanocomposite membranes prepared using the casting method. An X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that the synthesized TiO2 had an anatase structure. The specific surface areas of the TiO2 and Nafion/TiO2 nanocomposite membrane were found to be 115.97 and 33.91 m2/g using a nitrogen adsorption analyzer. The energy dispersive spectra analysis indicated that the TiO2 particles were uniformly distributed in the nanocomposite membrane. The membrane electrode assembly prepared from the Nafion/TiO2 nanocomposite membrane gave the best PEMFC performance compared to the Nafion/P-25 and Nafion membranes. PMID:22103220

  6. Novel phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole membranes for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haifeng

    Acid doped polybenzimidazole (PBIRTM, called mPBI in this thesis) membranes are applied as electrolytes in high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Several series of homopolymers and copolymers with high I.V. were synthesized in PPA solution. A novel membrane fabrication and acid doping process, called the PPA process, was developed by casting the polymer-polyphosphoric acid (PPA) solution directly after polymerization without isolation or redissolution of the polymers. The PPA absorbed moisture from the atmosphere and hydrolyzed to phosphoric acid, which induced a sol-gel transition and produced a high acid doped PBI membrane. A water spray method was developed to make an acid doped ABPBI membrane by spraying water or dilute phosphoric acid onto the cast solution directly. This process induced film formation for ABPBI, but washed out most of the phosphoric acid dopant. A more rigid pPBI homopolymer was synthesized in PPA solution with high inherent viscosity (2˜3 dL/g). Acid doped pPBI membranes showed high acid doping level (pPBI·69H3PO4) and high conductivity (0.24 S/cm at 160°C). Fuel cells based on pPBI/PA showed good performance at various conditions. For example, a fuel cell based on pPBI/PA showed a maximum power density of 0.92 W/cm2 at 160°C and ambient pressure (H2/O2). The degradation rate of the cell potential was -21 mV/1,000 hours and -35 mV/1,000 hours at 160°C and 180°C, respectively in continuous testing. Fuel cells also showed good performance and tolerance to carbon monoxide poisoning when operated at temperatures higher than 120°C. The voltage drop was only 31 mV (from 0.657 V to 0.626 V at 0.3 A/cm2) when reformate gas (40.0% H2, 0.2% CO, 19.0% CO2, 40.8% N2) was used instead of pure hydrogen at one atmosphere pressure and 160°C. The structure-property relationships were investigated on the homopolymers and copolymers with different rigidities in the main chain. It is found that para-oriented structures greatly improved the mechanical properties, retained more acid in the membrane and showed higher fuel cell performance.

  7. Human T cell crosstalk is induced by tumor membrane transfer.

    PubMed

    Uzana, Ronny; Eisenberg, Galit; Merims, Sharon; Frankenburg, Shoshana; Pato, Aviad; Yefenof, Eitan; Engelstein, Roni; Peretz, Tamar; Machlenkin, Arthur; Lotem, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Trogocytosis is a contact-dependent unidirectional transfer of membrane fragments between immune effector cells and their targets, initially detected in T cells following interaction with professional antigen presenting cells (APC). Previously, we have demonstrated that trogocytosis also takes place between melanoma-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and their cognate tumors. In the present study, we took this finding a step further, focusing on the ability of melanoma membrane-imprinted CD8+ T cells to act as APCs (CD8+T-APCs). We demonstrate that, following trogocytosis, CD8+T-APCs directly present a variety of melanoma derived peptides to fraternal T cells with the same TCR specificity or to T cells with different TCRs. The resulting T cell-T cell immune synapse leads to (1) Activation of effector CTLs, as determined by proliferation, cytokine secretion and degranulation; (2) Fratricide (killing) of CD8+T-APCs by the activated CTLs. Thus, trogocytosis enables cross-reactivity among CD8+ T cells with interchanging roles of effectors and APCs. This dual function of tumor-reactive CTLs may hint at their ability to amplify or restrict reactivity against the tumor and participate in modulation of the anti-cancer immune response. PMID:25671577

  8. Block copolymers for alkaline fuel cell membrane materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yifan

    Alkaline fuel cells (AFCs) using anion exchange membranes (AEMs) as electrolyte have recently received considerable attention. AFCs offer some advantages over proton exchange membrane fuel cells, including the potential of non-noble metal (e.g. nickel, silver) catalyst on the cathode, which can dramatically lower the fuel cell cost. The main drawback of traditional AFCs is the use of liquid electrolyte (e.g. aqueous potassium hydroxide), which can result in the formation of carbonate precipitates by reaction with carbon dioxide. AEMs with tethered cations can overcome the precipitates formed in traditional AFCs. Our current research focuses on developing different polymer systems (blend, block, grafted, and crosslinked polymers) in order to understand alkaline fuel cell membrane in many aspects and design optimized anion exchange membranes with better alkaline stability, mechanical integrity and ionic conductivity. A number of distinct materials have been produced and characterized. A polymer blend system comprised of poly(vinylbenzyl chloride)-b-polystyrene (PVBC-b-PS) diblock copolymer, prepared by nitroxide mediated polymerization (NMP), with poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) or brominated PPO was studied for conversion into a blend membrane for AEM. The formation of a miscible blend matrix improved mechanical properties while maintaining high ionic conductivity through formation of phase separated ionic domains. Using anionic polymerization, a polyethylene based block copolymer was designed where the polyethylene-based block copolymer formed bicontinuous morphological structures to enhance the hydroxide conductivity (up to 94 mS/cm at 80 °C) while excellent mechanical properties (strain up to 205%) of the polyethylene block copolymer membrane was observed. A polymer system was designed and characterized with monomethoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) as a hydrophilic polymer grafted through substitution of pendent benzyl chloride groups of a PVBC-b-PS. The incorporation of the hydrophilic polymer allows for an investigation of the effect of hydration on ionic conductivity, resulting in the increase in membrane water affinity, enhancement of conductivity and reduced dependence of conductivity on relative humidity. A study of crosslinking of block copolymers was done wherein the crosslinking occurs in the non-matrix phase in order to maintain mechanical properties. The formation of a cationic crosslinked structure improves the mechanical integrity of the membrane in water while showing little deleterious effect on ionic conductivity and mechanical properties.

  9. Influence of water and membrane microstructure on the transport properties of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siu, Ana Rosa

    Proton transport in proton exchange membranes (PEMs) depends on interaction between water and acid groups covalently bound to the polymer. Although the presence of water is important in maintaining the PEM's functions, a thorough understanding of this topic is still lacking. The objective of this work is to provide a better understanding of how the nature water, confined to ionic domains of the polymer, influences the membrane's ability to transport protons, methanol and water. Understanding this topic will facilitate development of new materials with favorable transport properties for fuel cells use. Five classes of polymer membranes were used in this work: polyacrylonitrile-graft-poly(styrenesulfonic) acid (PAN-g-macPSSA); poly(vinylidene difluoride) irradiation-graft-poly(styrenesulfonic) acid (PVDF-g-PSSA); poly(ethylenetetrafluoroethylene) irradiation-graft-poly(styrenesulfonic) acid (ETFE-gPSSA); PVDF-g-PSSA with hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA); and perfluorosulfonic acid membrane (Nafion). The nature of water within the polymers (freezable versus non-freezable states) was measured by systematically freezing samples, and observing the temperature at which water freezes and the amount of heat released in the process. Freezing water-swollen membranes resulted in a 4-fold decrease in the proton conductivity of the PEM. Activation energies of proton transport before and after freezing were ˜ 0.15 eV and 0.5 eV, consistent with proton transport through liquid water and bound water, respectively. Reducing the content of water in membrane samples decreased the amount of freezable and non-freezable water. Calorimetric measurements of membranes in various degrees of hydration showed that water molecules became non-freezable when lambda, (water molecules per sulfonic acid group) was less than ˜14. Proton conduction through membranes containing only non-freezable water was demonstrated to be feasible. Diffusion experiments showed that the permeability of methanol decreased when the content of free water in the membranes decreased. Variation in permeability trends observed for the different polymer classes of the same content of free water was explained on the basis of tortuosity and interaction of methanol within the ionic network. Finally, a novel set of polymers containing non-ionic hydrophilic segments were examined for enhanced water transport in order to see if such domains might offset the flux of water due to electro-osmosis.

  10. Mechanical properties of stored red blood cells using optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontes, Adriana; Alexandre de Thomaz, Andre; de Ysasa Pozzo, Liliana; de Lourdes Barjas-Castro, Maria; Brandao, Marcelo M.; Saad, Sara T. O.; Barbosa, Luiz Carlos; Cesar, Carlos Lenz

    2005-08-01

    We have developed a method for measuring the red blood cell (RBC) membrane overall elasticity ? by measuring the deformation of the cells when dragged at a constant velocity through a plasma fluid by an optical tweezers. The deformability of erythrocytes is a critical determinant of blood flow in the microcirculation. We tested our method and hydrodynamic models, which included the presence of two walls, by measuring the RBC deformation as a function of drag velocity and of the distance to the walls. The capability and sensitivity of this method can be evaluated by its application to a variety of studies, such as, the measurement of RBC elasticity of sickle cell anemia patients comparing homozygous (HbSS), including patients taking hydroxyrea (HU) and heterozygous (HbAS) with normal donors and the RBC elasticity measurement of gamma irradiated stored blood for transfusion to immunosupressed patients as a function of time and dose. These studies show that the technique has the sensitivity to discriminate heterozygous and homozygous sickle cell anemia patients from normal donors and even follow the course of HU treatment of Homozygous patients. The gamma irradiation studies show that there is no significant change in RBC elasticity over time for up to 14 days of storage, regardless of whether the unit was irradiated or not, but there was a huge change in the measured elasticity for the RBC units stored for more than 21 days after irradiation. These finds are important for the assessment of stored irradiated RBC viability for transfusion purposes because the present protocol consider 28 storage days after irradiation as the limit for the RBC usage.

  11. Amniotic membrane-derived cells inhibit proliferation of cancer cell lines by inducing cell cycle arrest

    PubMed Central

    Magatti, Marta; Munari, Silvia; Vertua, Elsa; Parolini, Ornella

    2012-01-01

    Cells derived from the amniotic foetal membrane of human term placenta have drawn particular attention mainly for their plasticity and immunological properties, which render them interesting for stem-cell research and cell-based therapeutic applications. In particular, we have previously demonstrated that amniotic mesenchymal tissue cells (AMTC) inhibit lymphocyte proliferation in vitro and suppress the generation and maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Here, we show that AMTC also significantly reduce the proliferation of cancer cell lines of haematopoietic and non-haematopoietic origin, in both cell–cell contact and transwell co-cultures, therefore suggesting the involvement of yet-unknown inhibitory soluble factor(s) in this ‘cell growth restraint’. Importantly, we provide evidence that the anti-proliferative effect of AMTC is associated with induction of cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. Gene expression analyses demonstrate that AMTC can down-regulate cancer cells' mRNA expression of genes associated with cell cycle progression, such as cyclins (cyclin D2, cyclin E1, cyclin H) and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK4, CDK6 and CDK2), whilst they up-regulate cell cycle negative regulator such as p15 and p21, consistent with a block in G0/G1 phase with no progression to S phase. Taken together, these findings warrant further studies to investigate the applicability of these cells for controlling cancer cell proliferation in vivo. PMID:22260183

  12. A polybenzimidazole/ionic-liquid-graphite-oxide composite membrane for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chenxi; Liu, Xiaoteng; Cheng, Jigui; Scott, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Graphite oxide is successfully functionalised by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane ionic liquid and used as a filler material in a polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The ionic-liquid-graphite-oxide/polybenzimidazole (ILGO/PBI) composite membrane exhibits an appropriate level of proton conductivity when imbibed with phosphoric acid at low phosphoric acid loading, which promotes its use in fuel cells by avoiding acid leakage and materials corrosion. The ionic conductivities of the ILGO/PBI membranes at 175 °C are 0.035 S cm-1 and 0.025 S cm-1 at per repeat units of 3.5 and 2.0, respectively. The fuel cell performance of ILGO/PBI membranes exhibits a maximum power density of 320 mW cm-2 at 175 °C, which is higher than that of a pristine PBI membrane.

  13. Use the force: Membrane tension as an organizer of cell shape and motility

    PubMed Central

    Diz-Muñoz, Alba; Fletcher, Daniel A.; Weiner, Orion D.

    2012-01-01

    Many cell phenomena that involve shape changes are affected by the intrinsic deformability of the plasma membrane. Far from being a passive participant, the plasma membrane is now known to physically, as well as biochemically, influence cell processes ranging from vesicle trafficking to actin assembly. Here we review current understanding of how changes in plasma membrane tension regulate cell shape and movement as well as how cells sense plasma membrane tension. PMID:23122885

  14. From artificial red blood cells, oxygen carriers, and oxygen therapeutics to artificial cells, nanomedicine, and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Thomas M. S.

    2013-01-01

    The first experimental artificial red blood cells have all three major functions of red blood cells (rbc). However, the first practical one is a simple polyhemoglobin (PolyHb) that only has an oxygen-carrying function. This is now in routine clinical use in South Africa and Russia. An oxygen carrier with antioxidant functions, PolyHb-catalase-superoxide dismutase, can fulfill two of the three functions of rbc. Even more complete is one with all three functions of rbc in the form of PolyHb-catalase-superoxide dismutase-carbonic anhydrase. The most advanced ones are nanodimension artificial rbc with either PEG-lipid membrane or PEG-PLA polymermembrane. Extensions in to oxygen therapeutics include a PolyHb-tyrosinase that suppresses the growth of melanoma in a mice model. Another is a PolyHb-fibrinogen that is an oxygen carrier with platelet-like function. Research has now extended well beyond the original research on artificial rbc into many areas of artificial cells. These include nanoparticles, nanotubules, lipid vesicles, liposomes, polymer-tethered lipid vesicles, polymersomes, microcapsules, bioencapsulation, nanocapules, macroencapsulation, synthetic cells, and others. These are being used in nanotechnology, nanomedicine, regenerative medicine, enzyme/gene therapy, cell/stem cell therapy, biotechnology, drug delivery, hemoperfusion, nanosensers, and even by some groups in agriculture, industry, aquatic culture, nanocomputers, and nanorobotics. PMID:22409281

  15. Cell Component Accelerated Stress Test and Polarization Curve Protocols for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-10-28

    This document contains test protocols to determine the performance and durability of fuel cell components such as electrocatalysts and supports, membranes, and membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs). These protocols were established with the intent to be used as a common industry standard when assessing durability of different polymer electrolyte membranes (PEM) in fuel cells for automotive applications and to be compared against DOE and FreedomCar targets. The resulting data may also help to model the performance of the fuel cell under variable load conditions and the effects of ageing on performance.

  16. Translocation of an Aib-containing peptide through cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Wada, Shun-ichi; Hitora, Yasunari; Tanaka, Reiko; Urata, Hidehito

    2008-07-15

    The biophysical characteristics and channel-forming activity of peptaibols inserted into artificial membranes have been studied over the last 30 years. However, to our knowledge, no studies have addressed directly their behavior in living cells. In this work, a novel strategy has been employed to precisely assess the living cell membrane-penetrating activity of a fluorescein-labeled Aib (alpha-aminoisobutyric acid)-containing peptide derived from a peptaibol, trichorovin-XIIa (TV-XIIa). We have demonstrated for the first time that the peptide containing an unusual amino acid residue, Aib, is taken up by cells via a non endocytic pathway. The replacement of Aib in the TV-XIIa sequence with Ala inhibits the cellular uptake. PMID:18565748

  17. Stimulation of erythrocyte cell membrane scrambling by nystatin.

    PubMed

    Malik, Abaid; Bissinger, Rosi; Jilani, Kashif; Lang, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The antifungal ionophore nystatin dissipates the Na(+) and K(+) gradients across the cell membrane, leading to cellular gain of Na(+) and cellular loss of K(+) . The increase of cellular Na(+) concentration may result in Ca(2+) accumulation in exchange for Na(+) . Increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) activity ([Ca(2+) ]i ) and loss of cellular K(+) foster apoptosis-like suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, which is characterised by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling leading to phosphatidylserine exposure at the erythrocyte surface. The present study explored whether nystatin stimulates eryptosis. Cell volume was estimated from forward scatter (FSC), phosphatidylserine exposure from annexin V binding and [Ca(2+) ]i from Fluo3-fluorescence in flow cytometry. A 48-hr exposure to nystatin (15 ?g/ml) was followed by a significant increase of [Ca(2+) ]i , a significant increase of annexin V binding and a significant decrease of FSC. The annexin V binding after nystatin treatment was significantly blunted in the nominal absence of extracellular Ca(2+) . Partial replacement of extracellular Na(+) with extracellular K(+) blunted the nystatin-induced erythrocyte shrinkage but increased [Ca(2+) ]i and annexin V binding. Nystatin triggers cell membrane scrambling, an effect at least partially due to entry of extracellular Ca(2+) . PMID:24894380

  18. Stem cell differentiation increases membrane-actin adhesion regulating cell blebability, migration and mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Sliogeryte, Kristina; Thorpe, Stephen D.; Lee, David A.; Botto, Lorenzo; Knight, Martin M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells regulates the interaction between the cell membrane and the actin cortex controlling cell behavior. Micropipette aspiration was used to measure the pressure required for membrane-cortex detachment which increased from 0.15?kPa in stem cells to 0.71?kPa following chondrogenic differentiation. This effect was associated with reduced susceptibility to mechanical and osmotic bleb formation, reduced migration and an increase in cell modulus. Theoretical modelling of bleb formation demonstrated that the increased stiffness of differentiated cells was due to the increased membrane-cortex adhesion. Differentiated cells exhibited greater F-actin density and slower actin remodelling. Differentiated cells also expressed greater levels of the membrane-cortex ezrin, radixin, moeisin (ERM) linker proteins which was responsible for the reduced blebability, as confirmed by transfection of stem cells with dominant active ezrin-T567D-GFP. This study demonstrates that stem cells have an inherently weak membrane-cortex adhesion which increases blebability thereby regulating cell migration and stiffness. PMID:25471686

  19. Red blood cell hemolysis during processing.

    PubMed

    Sowemimo-Coker, Samuel O

    2002-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) hemolysis has been reported in units of RBC for transfusion. This has significant clinical implications for transfused patients because the free hemoglobin dissociates into dimers that have to be bound to haptoglobin to be removed by the reticuloendothelial system. Once the binding capacity of haptoglobin has been exceeded, hemoglobinemia occurs. Hemolysis is caused by the breakdown of the RBC, causing release of hemoglobin and resulting in the discoloration of the plasma. Abnormal hemolysis in an individual RBC unit may be caused by several factors including inappropriate handling during processing of blood, inappropriate storage conditions, bacterial hemolysins, antibodies that cause complement lysis, defects in the RBC membrane, or an abnormality in the blood donor. The degree of hemolysis is described as the percent of free hemoglobin in relation to the total hemoglobin with appropriate correction for the hematocrit. The acceptable level of hemolysis has not been established in North America, but the value of 1% currently is used to assess biocompatibility of blood storage materials, whereas the Council of Europe has set the standard at 0.8%. This report emphasizes the need for the adequate control of the various processes that are involved in the preparation of RBCs from whole blood to minimize the occurrence of hemolysis. Careful evaluation of manufacturing processes will minimize RBC wastage caused by hemolysis. PMID:11788929

  20. Creating Transient Cell Membrane Pores Using a Standard Inkjet Printer

    PubMed Central

    Owczarczak, Alexander B.; Shuford, Stephen O.; Wood, Scott T.; Deitch, Sandra; Dean, Delphine

    2012-01-01

    Bioprinting has a wide range of applications and significance, including tissue engineering, direct cell application therapies, and biosensor microfabrication.1-10 Recently, thermal inkjet printing has also been used for gene transfection.8,9 The thermal inkjet printing process was shown to temporarily disrupt the cell membranes without affecting cell viability. The transient pores in the membrane can be used to introduce molecules, which would otherwise be too large to pass through the membrane, into the cell cytoplasm.8,9,11 The application being demonstrated here is the use of thermal inkjet printing for the incorporation of fluorescently labeled g-actin monomers into cells. The advantage of using thermal ink-jet printing to inject molecules into cells is that the technique is relatively benign to cells.8, 12 Cell viability after printing has been shown to be similar to standard cell plating methods1,8. In addition, inkjet printing can process thousands of cells in minutes, which is much faster than manual microinjection. The pores created by printing have been shown to close within about two hours. However, there is a limit to the size of the pore created (~10 nm) with this printing technique, which limits the technique to injecting cells with small proteins and/or particles. 8,9,11 A standard HP DeskJet 500 printer was modified to allow for cell printing.3, 5, 8 The cover of the printer was removed and the paper feed mechanism was bypassed using a mechanical lever. A stage was created to allow for placement of microscope slides and coverslips directly under the print head. Ink cartridges were opened, the ink was removed and they were cleaned prior to use with cells. The printing pattern was created using standard drawing software, which then controlled the printer through a simple print command. 3T3 fibroblasts were grown to confluence, trypsinized, and then resuspended into phosphate buffered saline with soluble fluorescently labeled g-actin monomers. The cell suspension was pipetted into the ink cartridge and lines of cells were printed onto glass microscope cover slips. The live cells were imaged using fluorescence microscopy and actin was found throughout the cytoplasm. Incorporation of fluorescent actin into the cell allows for imaging of short-time cytoskeletal dynamics and is useful for a wide range of applications.13-15 PMID:22453577

  1. RBC elastic properties studied by means of active rheology approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhlova, Maria D.; Lyubin, Evgeny V.; Skryabina, Maria N.; Fedyanin, Andrey A.

    2012-10-01

    Double optical tweezers combined with active rheology approach are suggested for dynamic monitoring of the red blood cell elastic properties. Frequency dependence of the phase difference in the forced movement of the erythrocyte opposite edges appeared to be highly dependent on the rigidity of the cellular membrane. Cell relaxation time value is suggested as an effective parameter determining the state of the cell. Photo-induced effects caused by optical trapping are analyzed.

  2. Research Paper New uorescent probes for the measurement of cell membrane

    E-print Network

    Theodorakis, Emmanuel

    Research Paper New £uorescent probes for the measurement of cell membrane viscosity Mark A: The modification of molecular rotors towards increased cell membrane association provides a new research tool cells in patients with Alzheimer's disease [11,12]. Increased membrane vis- cosity is also associated

  3. Three steps in the anode reaction of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Effect of CO

    E-print Network

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    Three steps in the anode reaction of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Effect of CO Anne in the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS mechanism 1. Introduction In the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), the largest overpotential

  4. Vaccinia Virus Interactions with the Cell Membrane Studied by New Chromatic Vesicle and Cell Sensor Assays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Orynbayeva; S. Kolusheva; N. Groysman; N. Gavrielov; L. Lobel; R. Jelinek

    2007-01-01

    The potential danger of cross-species viral infection points to the significance of understanding the contri- butions of nonspecific membrane interactions with the viral envelope compared to receptor-mediated uptake as a factor in virus internalization and infection. We present a detailed investigation of the interactions of vaccinia virus particles with lipid bilayers and with epithelial cell membranes using newly developed chromatic

  5. Rapid determination of membrane transport parameters in adherent cells.

    PubMed

    Sharif, K A; Goldman, I D

    2000-05-01

    Reported here is a new method that permits rapid (approximately 5 s) determinations of membrane transport phenomena in cells grown in monolayers at the base of 17-mm glass scintillation vials. The method is convenient, cost effective and requires no special apparatus. Initial uptake rates, steady-state and free substrate levels are demonstrated in ZR-75-1 breast cancer and Chinese hamster ovary cell lines using methotrexate, a model agent transported by the reduced folate carrier. The technique should be applicable to the study of the transport properties in a broad range of substrates and cells in monolayer culture. PMID:10818699

  6. Membrane tether formation from outer hair cells with optical tweezers.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiwei; Anvari, Bahman; Takashima, Masayoshi; Brecht, Peter; Torres, Jorge H; Brownell, William E

    2002-01-01

    Optical tweezers were used to characterize the mechanical properties of the outer hair cell (OHC) plasma membrane by pulling tethers with 4.5-microm polystyrene beads. Tether formation force and tether force were measured in static and dynamic conditions. A greater force was required for tether formations from OHC lateral wall (499 +/- 152 pN) than from OHC basal end (142 +/- 49 pN). The difference in the force required to pull tethers is consistent with an extensive cytoskeletal framework associated with the lateral wall known as the cortical lattice. The apparent plasma membrane stiffness, estimated under the static conditions by measuring tether force at different tether length, was 3.71 pN/microm for OHC lateral wall and 4.57 pN/microm for OHC basal end. The effective membrane viscosity was measured by pulling tethers at different rates while continuously recording the tether force, and estimated in the range of 2.39 to 5.25 pN x s/microm. The viscous force most likely results from the viscous interactions between plasma membrane lipids and the OHC cortical lattice and/or integral membrane proteins. The information these studies provide on the mechanical properties of the OHC lateral wall is important for understanding the mechanism of OHC electromotility. PMID:11867454

  7. BIOCHEMISTRY: Signaling Across the Cell Membrane

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rama Ranganathan (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center; Green Center for Systems Biology and Department of Pharmacology)

    2007-11-23

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Structural and functional studies shed light on how G protein-coupled receptors sense external stimuli. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)--the largest and most diverse group of tranmembrane receptors--occur in nearly every eukaryotic cell and can sense photons, cations, small molecules, peptides, and proteins (1, 2). Two research articles in this issue (4, 5) and a recent article in Nature (6) report important steps towards understanding how GPCRs operate.

  8. Comparison of cell membrane water permeability in monolayers and suspensions.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Adam Z; Karlsson, Jens O M

    2012-01-01

    We previously measured the membrane water permeability of monolayers and suspensions of MIN6 mouse insulinoma cells at room temperature, and found that water transport was faster in monolayers. Here, we compare water transport kinetics in monolayers and suspensions over a range of temperatures for two different cell types, MIN6 cells and bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (BPAEC). At room temperature the results for BPAEC and MIN6 cells were similar, with approximately 2-fold faster water transport in monolayers than suspensions. The activation energy for water transport (Ea) was estimated from Arrhenius plots of the water permeability data. The values of Ea for monolayers and suspensions of MIN6 cells were not significantly different. However, the activation energy was significantly lower for BPAEC monolayers (Ea = 49 +/- 2 kJ per mol) than suspensions (Ea = 70 +/- 4 kJ per mol). Predictions of water transport during cryopreservation revealed substantial differences in supercooling between monolayers and suspensions. PMID:22576122

  9. Nafion/silane nanocomposite membranes for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Ghi, Lee Jin; Park, Na Ri; Kim, Moon Sung; Rhee, Hee Woo

    2011-07-01

    The polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has been studied actively for both potable and stationary applications because it can offer high power density and be used only hydrogen and oxygen as environment-friendly fuels. Nafion which is widely used has mechanical and chemical stabilities as well as high conductivity. However, there is a drawback that it can be useless at high temperatures (> or = 90 degrees C) because proton conducting mechanism cannot work above 100 degrees C due to dehydration of membrane. Therefore, PEMFC should be operated for long-term at high temperatures continuously. In this study, we developed nanocomposite membrane using stable properties of Nafion and phosphonic acid groups which made proton conducting mechanism without water. 3-Aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) was used to replace sulfonic acid groups of Nafion and then its aminopropyl group was chemically modified to phosphonic acid groups. The nanocomposite membrane showed very high conductivity (approximately 0.02 S/cm at 110 degrees C, <30% RH). PMID:22121602

  10. Membrane associated qualitative differences in cell ultrastructure of chemically and high pressure cryofixed plant cells.

    PubMed

    Zechmann, Bernd; Müller, Maria; Zellnig, Günther

    2007-06-01

    Membrane contrast can sometimes be poor in biological samples after high pressure freezing (HPF) and freeze substitution (FS). The addition of water to the FS-medium has been shown to improve membrane contrast in animal tissue and yeast. In the present study we tested the effects of 1% and 5% water added to the FS-medium (2% osmium with 0.2% uranyl acetate in anhydrous acetone) on the quality and visibility of membranes in high pressure frozen leaf samples of Cucurbita pepo L. plants and compared them to chemically fixed cells (3% glutaraldehyde post-fixed with 1% osmium tetroxide). The addition of water to the FS-medium drastically decreased the amounts of well preserved cells and did not significantly improve the quality nor visibility of membranes. In samples that were freeze substituted in FS-media containing 1% and 5% water the width of thylakoid membranes was found to be significantly increased of about 20% and the perinuclear space was up to 76% wider in comparison to what was found in samples which were freeze substituted without water. No differences were found in the thickness of membranes between chemically and cryofixed cells that were freeze substituted in the FS-medium without water. Nevertheless, in chemically fixed cells the intrathylakoidal space was about 120% wider than in cryofixed cells that were freeze substituted with or without water. The present results demonstrate that the addition of water to the FS-medium does not improve membrane contrast but changes the width of thylakoid membranes and the perinuclear space in the present plant material. The addition of water to the FS-medium is therefore not as essential for improved membrane contrast in the investigated plant samples as it was observed in cells of animal tissues and yeast cells. PMID:17270463

  11. Fluconazole treatment hyperpolarizes the plasma membrane of Candida cells.

    PubMed

    Elicharova, Hana; Sychrova, Hana

    2013-11-01

    Five pathogenic Candida species were compared in terms of their osmotolerance, tolerance to toxic sodium and lithium cations, and resistance to fluconazole. The species not only differed, in general, in their tolerance to high osmotic pressure (C. albicans and C. parapsilosis being the most osmotolerant) but exhibited distinct sensitivities to toxic sodium and lithium cations, with C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis being very tolerant but C. krusei and C. dubliniensis sensitive to LiCl. The treatment of both fluconazole-susceptible (C. albicans and C. parapsilosis) and fluconazole-resistant (C. dubliniensis, C. krusei and C. tropicalis) growing cells with subinhibitory concentrations of fluconazole resulted in substantially elevated intracellular Na(+) levels. Using a diS-C3(3) assay, for the first time, to monitor the relative membrane potential (??) of Candida cells, we show that the fluconazole treatment of growing cells of all five species results in a substantial hyperpolarization of their plasma membranes, which is responsible for an increased non-specific transport of toxic alkali metal cations and other cationic drugs (e.g., hygromycin B). Thus, the combination of relatively low doses of fluconazole and drugs, whose import into the tested Candida strains is driven by the cell membrane potential, might be especially potent in terms of its ability to inhibit the growth of or even kill various Candida species. PMID:23547882

  12. Thrombelastographic evaluation of the influence of 2-RBC apheresis on donor's coagulation system.

    PubMed

    Akay, Olga Meltem; Karagulle, Mustafa; Kus, Gokhan; Mutlu, Fezan Sah?n; Gunduz, Eren

    2013-06-01

    Rotation thrombelastogram (ROTEM®/TEG®) assays allow rapid global assessment of hemostatic function using whole blood. Since published data about the effects of automated red cell collection on coagulation system are scarce, we aimed to investigate the effects of 2-RBC apheresis on donor's coagulation system using ROTEM® assays. In INTEM assay, CFT was significantly shortened 24h after apheresis compared with baseline value (p<0.05) and MCF was significantly prolonged immediately after apheresis and 24h after apheresis compared with baseline value (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). In EXTEM assay, CFT was significantly prolonged immediately after apheresis and 24h after apheresis compared with baseline value (p=0.001 and p<0.001, respectively) and MCF was significantly prolonged 24h after apheresis compared with baseline value (p<0,001). Our results demonstrate thromboelastographic signs of hypercoagulability in donors undergoing 2-RBC apheresis. PMID:23660469

  13. Tetraspanins regulate the protrusive activities of cell membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, Rafijul [Cancer Center and Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN (United States)] [Cancer Center and Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN (United States); Guo, Qiusha [Cancer Center and Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN (United States) [Cancer Center and Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN (United States); Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Xia, Bing [Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China)] [Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Zhang, Yanhui H. [Cancer Center and Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN (United States)] [Cancer Center and Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN (United States); Giesert, Eldon E. [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN (United States)] [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN (United States); Levy, Shoshana [Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States)] [Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Zheng, Jie J. [Department of Structural Biology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)] [Department of Structural Biology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Zhang, Xin A., E-mail: xzhang@uthsc.edu [Cancer Center and Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2011-12-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tetraspanins regulate microvillus formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tetraspanin CD81 promotes microvillus formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tetraspanin CD82 inhibits microvillus formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Based on this study, we extrapolated a general cellular mechanism for tetraspanins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tetraspanins engage various functions by regulating membrane protrusion morphogenesis. -- Abstract: Tetraspanins have gained increased attention due to their functional versatility. But the universal cellular mechanism that governs such versatility remains unknown. Herein we present the evidence that tetraspanins CD81 and CD82 regulate the formation and/or development of cell membrane protrusions. We analyzed the ultrastructure of the cells in which a tetraspanin is either overexpressed or ablated using transmission electron microscopy. The numbers of microvilli on the cell surface were counted, and the radii of microvillar tips and the lengths of microvilli were measured. We found that tetraspanin CD81 promotes the microvillus formation and/or extension while tetraspanin CD82 inhibits these events. In addition, CD81 enhances the outward bending of the plasma membrane while CD82 inhibits it. We also found that CD81 and CD82 proteins are localized at microvilli using immunofluorescence. CD82 regulates microvillus morphogenesis likely by altering the plasma membrane curvature and/or the cortical actin cytoskeletal organization. We predict that membrane protrusions embody a common morphological phenotype and cellular mechanism for, at least some if not all, tetraspanins. The differential effects of tetraspanins on microvilli likely lead to the functional diversification of tetraspanins and appear to correlate with their functional propensity.

  14. The hydroxyflavone, fisetin, suppresses mast cell activation induced by interaction with activated T cell membranes

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, K; Takahashi, Y; Mikami, I; Fukusima, T; Oike, H; Kobori, M

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Cell-to-cell interactions between mast cells and activated T cells are increasingly recognized as a possible mechanism in the aetiology of allergic or non-allergic inflammatory disorders. To determine the anti-allergic effect of fisetin, we examined the ability of fisetin to suppress activation of the human mast cell line, HMC-1, induced by activated Jurkat T cell membranes. Experimental approach: HMC-1 cells were incubated with or without fisetin for 15 min and then co-cultured with Jurkat T cell membranes activated by phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate for 16 h. We determined gene expression in activated HMC-1 cells by DNA microarray and quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analysis. We also examined activation of the transcription factor NF-?B and MAP kinases (MAPKs) in activated HMC-1 cells. Key results: Fisetin suppresses cell spreading and gene expression in HMC-1 cells stimulated by activated T cell membranes. Additionally, we show that these stimulated HMC-1 cells expressed granzyme B. The stimulatory interaction also induced activation of NF-?B and MAPKs; these activations were suppressed by fisetin. Fisetin also reduced the amount of cell surface antigen CD40 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on activated HMC-1 cells. Conclusions and implications: Fisetin suppressed activation of HMC-1 cells by activated T cell membranes by interfering with cell-to-cell interaction and inhibiting the activity of NF-?B and MAPKs and thereby suppressing gene expression. Fisetin may protect against the progression of inflammatory diseases by limiting interactions between mast cells and activated T cells. PMID:19702784

  15. Novel Lipophilic Probe for Detecting Near-Membrane Reactive Oxygen Species Responses and Its Application for Studies of Pancreatic Acinar Cells: Effects of Pyocyanin and L-Ornithine

    PubMed Central

    Chvanov, Michael; Huang, Wei; Jin, Tao; Wen, Li; Armstrong, Jane; Elliot, Vicky; Alston, Ben; Burdyga, Alex; Criddle, David N.; Sutton, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The aim of this study was to develop a fluorescent reactive oxygen species (ROS) probe, which is preferentially localized in cellular membranes and displays a strong change in fluorescence upon oxidation. We also aimed to test the performance of this probe for detecting pathophysiologically relevant ROS responses in isolated cells. Results: We introduced a novel lipophilic ROS probe dihydrorhodamine B octadecyl ester (H2RB-C18). We then applied the new probe to characterize the ROS changes triggered by inducers of acute pancreatitis in pancreatic acinar cells. We resolved ROS changes produced by L-ornithine, L-arginine, cholecystokinin-8, acetylcholine, taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate, palmitoleic acid ethyl ester, and the bacterial toxin pyocyanin. Particularly prominent ROS responses were induced by pyocyanin and L-ornithine. These ROS responses were accompanied by changes in cytosolic Ca2+concentration ([Ca2+]i), mitochondrial membrane potential (??), and NAD(P)H concentration. Innovation: The study describes a novel sensitive lipophilic ROS probe. The probe is particularly suitable for detecting ROS in near-membrane regions and therefore for reporting the ROS environment of plasma membrane channels and pumps. Conclusions: In our experimental conditions, the novel probe was more sensitive than 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2?,7?-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (CM-H2DCF) and dihydrorhodamine123 (H2R123) and allowed us to resolve ROS responses to secretagogues, pyocyanin, and L-ornithine. Changes in the fluorescence of the new probe were particularly prominent in the peripheral plasma membrane-associated regions. Our findings suggest that the new probe will be a useful tool in studies of the contribution of ROS to the pathophysiology of exocrine pancreas and other organs/tissues. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 451–464. PMID:24635199

  16. Thyroid hormone cell membrane transport defect.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Helton Estrela

    2014-01-01

    In the last few years, many studies have pinpointed the crucial role of thyroid hormone (TH) transporters for TH action in human target cells. The importance was better documented by the phenotype observed in patients harboring mutations of the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) gene immediately linked to Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome, in which severe neurological findings are associated with abnormal TH levels. The hereditary pattern of MCT8 mutations is X chromosome linked, with males presenting a homogeneous neurological psychomotor phenotype and mental retardation associated with low serum thyroxine and elevated triiodothyronine levels. The mechanism of disease is still obscure, and the physiopathology as well as the existent therapeutic options need to be discussed in order to improve the clinical management. PMID:25231447

  17. Nafion\\/PTFE composite membranes for fuel cell applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fuqiang Liu; Baolian Yi; Danmin Xing; Jingrong Yu; Huamin Zhang

    2003-01-01

    Porous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes were used as support material for Nafion®\\/PTFE composite membranes. The composite membranes were synthesized by impregnating porous PTFE membranes with a self-made Nafion solution. The resulting composite membranes were mechanically durable and quite thin relative to traditional perfluorosulfonated ionomer membranes (PFSI); we expect the composite membranes to be of low resistance and cost. In this study,

  18. Translocation of cell-penetrating peptides across the plasma membrane is controlled by cholesterol and microenvironment created by membranous proteins.

    PubMed

    Pae, Janely; Säälik, Pille; Liivamägi, Laura; Lubenets, Dmitri; Arukuusk, Piret; Langel, Ülo; Pooga, Margus

    2014-10-28

    Despite the extensive research in the field of CPPs' cell entry the exact mechanisms underlying their cellular uptake and the role of involved cell surface molecules in the internalization process have remained controversial. The present study focused on the interactions between CPPs and plasma membrane compounds using giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs). GPMVs have shown to be a suitable model to study the translocation of CPPs across the plasma membrane in conditions lacking endocytosis. Our results show that higher cholesterol content and tighter packing of membrane predominantly reduce the accumulation of transportan, TP10 and model amphipathic peptide (MAP) in vesicles, indicating that the internalization of CPPs takes place preferentially via the more dynamic membrane regions. The partial digestion of membrane proteins from GPMVs' surface, on the other hand, drastically reduced the accumulation of nona-arginine and Tat peptide into vesicles, suggesting that proteins play a crucial role in the uptake of arginine-rich CPPs. PMID:25016968

  19. A comparative study of water uptake by and transport through ionomeric fuel cell membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Zawodzinski, T.A.Jr.; Springer, T.E.; Davey, J.; Jestel, R.; Lopez, C.; Valerio, J.; Gottesfeld, S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Electronics Materials and Device Research)

    1993-07-01

    Water uptake and transport parameters measured at 30 C for several available perfluorosulfonic acid membranes are compared. The water sorption characteristics, diffusion coefficient of water, electroosmotic drag, and protonic conductivity were determined for Nafion 117, Membrane C, and Dow XUS 13204.10 developmental fuel cell membrane. The diffusion coefficient and conductivity of each of these membranes were determined as functions of membrane water content. Experimental determination of transport parameters, enables one to compare membranes without the skewing effects of extensive features such as membrane thickness which contributes in a nonlinear fashion to performance in polymer electrolyte fuel cells.

  20. Design and optimization of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujicic, M.; Chittajallu, K. M.

    2004-04-01

    The performance of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells is studied using a single-phase two-dimensional electrochemical model. The model is coupled with a nonlinear constrained optimization algorithm to determine an optimum design of the fuel cell with respect to the operation and the geometrical parameters of cathode such as the air inlet pressure, the cathode thickness and length and the width of shoulders in the interdigitated air distributor. In addition, the robustness of the optimum design of the fuel cell with respect to uncertainties in several electrochemical reaction and species transport parameters (e.g., gas diffusivity, agglomerate particle size, etc.) is tested using a statistical sensitivity analysis. The results of the optimization analysis show that higher current densities at a constant cell voltage are obtained as the inlet air pressure and the fraction of the cathode length associated with a shoulder of the interdigitated air distributor are increased, and as the cathode thickness and the length of the cathode per one interdigitated gas distributor shoulder are decreased. The statistical sensitivity analysis results, on the other hand, show that the equilibrium cathode/membrane potential difference has the largest effect on the predicted polarization curve of the fuel cell. However, the optimal design of the cathode side of the fuel cell is found not to be affected by the uncertainties in the model parameters such as the equilibrium cathode/membrane potential difference. The results obtained are rationalized in terms of the effect of the fuel-cell design on the air flow fields and the competition between the rates of species transport to and from the cathode active layer and the kinetics of the oxygen reduction half-reaction.

  1. Lysosomotropic agents: impact on lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cell death.

    PubMed

    Villamil Giraldo, Ana M; Appelqvist, Hanna; Ederth, Thomas; Öllinger, Karin

    2014-10-01

    Lysosomes are acidic organelles essential for degradation, signalling and cell homoeostasis. In addition, they play a key role in cell death. Permeabilization of the lysosomal membrane and release of hydrolytic enzymes to the cytosol accompanies apoptosis signalling in several systems. The regulatory mechanism of lysosomal stability is, however, poorly understood. Lipophilic or amphiphilic compounds with a basic moiety will become protonated and trapped within lysosomes, and such lysosomotropic behaviour is also found in many pharmacological drugs. The natural sphingolipid sphingosine exhibits lysosomotropic detergent ability and is an endogenous candidate for controlling lysosomal membrane permeabilization. The lysosomotropic properties of certain detergents might be of use in lysosome-targeting anticancer drugs and drug delivery system in the future. The present review summarizes the current knowledge on the targeting and permeabilizing properties of lysosomotropic detergents from a cellular and physicochemical perspective. PMID:25233432

  2. Airborne elements, cell membranes, and chlorophyll in transplanted lichens

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, J.; Cohen, Y.; Kloog, N. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel)

    1998-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to test the concentration of airborne mineral elements in the lichen Ramalina lacera (with.) J.R. Laund. in comparison with its physiological status. Thalli of Ramalina lacera were collected in a remote unpolluted site and transplanted in a polluted region for 10 mo. An analysis of 20 elements in addition to an analysis of the status of cell membranes and the integrity of chlorophyll was performed after this period of transplantation. The lichen manifested a great potential for the accumulation of Pb, V, Ni, Zn, and Cu. Potassium and P were found to leach out. High concentrations of Ni, Mg, and B coincided with damage caused to cell membranes. The integrity of chlorophyll correlated with the concentration of K and correlated inversely with the concentration of Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and B.

  3. Novel proton exchange membrane for high temperature fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bhamidipati, M.; Lazaro, E.; Lyons, F.; Morris, R.S.

    1998-07-01

    This research effort sought to demonstrate that combining select phosphonic acid additives with Nafion could improve Nafion's high temperature electrochemical performance. A 1:1 mixture of the additive with Nafion, resulted in a film that demonstrated 30% higher conductivity than a phosphoric acid equilibrated Nafion control at 175 C. This improvement to the high temperature conductivity of the proton exchange membrane Nafion is without precedent. In addition, thermal analysis data of the test films suggested that the additives did not compromise the thermal stability of Nafion. The results suggest that the improved Nafion proton exchange membranes could offer superior electrochemical performance, but would retain the same degree of thermal stability as Nafion. This research could eventually lead to portable fuel cells that could oxidize unrefined hydrocarbon fuels, resulting in wider proliferation of fuel cells for portable power.

  4. A comparative study of water uptake by and transport through ionomeric fuel cell membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas A. Zawodzinski; T. E. Springer; J. Davey; R. Jestel; C. Lopez; J. Valerio; S. Gottesfeld

    1993-01-01

    Water uptake and transport parameters measured at 30 C for several available perfluorosulfonic acid membranes are compared. The water sorption characteristics, diffusion coefficient of water, electroosmotic drag, and protonic conductivity were determined for Nafion 117, Membrane C, and Dow XUS 13204.10 developmental fuel cell membrane. The diffusion coefficient and conductivity of each of these membranes were determined as functions of

  5. Role of Amphipathic Helix of a Herpesviral Protein in Membrane Deformation and T Cell Receptor Downregulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chan-Ki Min; Sun-Young Bang; Bon-A Cho; Yun-Hui Choi; Jae-Seong Yang; Sun-Hwa Lee; Seung-Yong Seong; Ki Woo Kim; Sanguk Kim; Jae Ung Jung; Myung-Sik Choi; Ik-Sang Kim; Nam-Hyuk Cho

    2008-01-01

    Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains that function as platforms for signal transduction and membrane trafficking. Tyrosine kinase interacting protein (Tip) of T lymphotropic Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) is targeted to lipid rafts in T cells and downregulates TCR and CD4 surface expression. Here, we report that the membrane-proximal amphipathic helix preceding Tip's transmembrane (TM) domain mediates lipid raft localization and membrane

  6. Separation of Adenosine Triphosphatase of HK and LK Sheep Red Cell Membranes by Density Gradient Centrifugation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Tosteson; P. COOK; R. BLOUNT

    1965-01-01

    Membrane fragments from high potassium (HK) and low potas- sium (LK) sheep red cells were separated by density gradient centrifugation. Three preparations were studied: (1) HK membranes sonicated for 20 min- utes, (2) HK membranes sonicated for 3 minutes, and (3) LK membranes sonicated for 3 minutes. The adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity in the maximally disrupted preparation (1) was not

  7. Simulation for water management in membranes for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsuhiro Okada; Gang Xie; Morten Meeg

    1998-01-01

    Water management in membranes for polymer electrolyte fuel cells during their operational conditions is considered theoretically. Using a linear transport equation based on the diffusion of water and the electroosmotic drag, analytical solutions for water concentration profiles in the membrane are obtained from which membrane resistance overvoltage and other characteristic values are calculated. Specific parameters of the membranes such as

  8. Adaptive evolution of rbcL in Conocephalum (Hepaticae, bryophytes).

    PubMed

    Miwa, Hidetsugu; Odrzykoski, Ireneusz J; Matsui, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Masami; Akiyama, Hiroyuki; Jia, Yu; Sabirov, Renat; Takahashi, Hideki; Boufford, David E; Murakami, Noriaki

    2009-07-15

    An excess of nonsynonymous substitutions over synonymous ones has been regarded as an important indicator of adaptive evolution or positive selection at the molecular level. We now report such a case for rbcL sequences among cryptic species in Conocephalum (Hepaticae, Bryophytes). This finding can be regarded as evidence of adaptive evolution in several cryptic species (especially in F and JN types) within the genus. Bryophytes are small land plants with simple morphology. We can therefore expect the existence of several biologically distinct units or cryptic species within each morphological species. In our previous study, we found three rbcL types in Asian Conocephalum japonicum (Thunb.) Grolle and also found evidence strongly suggesting that the three types are reproductively isolated cryptic species. Additionally, we examined rbcL sequence variation in six cryptic species of C. conicum (L.) Dumort. previously recognized by allozyme analyses. As a result, we were able to discriminate the six cryptic species based only on their rbcL sequences. We were able to show that rbcL sequence variation is also useful in finding cryptic species of C. conicum. PMID:19100313

  9. Membrane potential measurements across a human fat cell using ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hilli, S.; Willander, M.

    2009-04-01

    A ZnO nanorod probe was employed to determine the resting membrane potential of a human fat cell. The distribution of protons associated with the cell versus the extracellular distribution is proportional to changes in membrane potential. The membrane potential determines the concentration gradient of the protons with dominant permeability according to the Nernst equation. A ZnO nanorod probe was successfully used to find the resting membrane potential for a human fat cell: 34 ± 2.6 mV.

  10. Do heavy ions cause microlesions in cell membranes?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koniarek, Jan P.; Worgul, Basil V.

    1992-01-01

    The microlesion question is investigated by monitoring the electrical potential difference across the endothelium of rat corneas in vitro before, during, and after irradiation. When the corneas were exposed to 1 Gy of Fe-56 ions (450 and 600 MeV/a.m.u.), no effect was detected on this parameter. These results suggest that direct physical damage to cell membranes, as predicted by the microlesion theory, does not take place.

  11. Amniotic membrane transplantation for partial limbal stem cell deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, D.; Ellies, P.; Pires, R.; Tseng, S.

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To examine the efficacy, safety, and long term outcomes of amniotic membrane transplantation for corneal surface reconstruction in cases of partial limbal stem cell deficiency.?METHODS—17 eyes of 15 patients with partial limbal stem cell deficiency underwent superficial keratectomy of the conjunctivalised corneal surface followed by amniotic membrane transplantation. Cases were followed up for at least a year.?RESULTS—All eyes exhibited a stable, intact corneal epithelial surface after a mean follow up period of 25.8 months with no eyes developing recurrent erosion or persistent epithelial defect. The mean time to re-epithelialisation was 22.8 days. Overall improvement in visual acuity was observed in 92.9% of 14 eyes with visual potential. Of those, five eyes gained six or more lines, two eyes gained between four and five lines, six eyes gained between one and three lines, and one eye lost three lines of Snellen acuity. Pain and photophobia were abolished in 86% of cases and substantially reduced in 14%, with all eyes exhibiting decreased vascularisation and inflammation at final follow up.?CONCLUSIONS—Amniotic membrane transplantation appears to be a safe and effective method of restoring a stable corneal epithelium for cases of partial limbal stem cell deficiency and can be considered as an alternative to limbal autograft or allograft.?? PMID:11316719

  12. [Plasma membrane focal defects in structurally normal cells].

    PubMed

    Nevorotin, A I; Khokhlov, S E; Borisova, E A; Sipovski?, V G; Chefu, S G

    2009-01-01

    The technique of perfusion fixation through the rat kidney vasculature was modified to ensure the highest possible level of cell preservation close to that under in vivo conditions. Electron microscopic analysis of the tissue specimens treated in such a way revealed local defects of the plasma membrane in a number of cells than that otherwise looked normal. These findings together with the evidence for reparability of such defects and some data on the purely artificial nature of certain alterations should be taken into consideration in order to avoid misinterpretations while diagnosing the biopsy specimens. PMID:20131509

  13. Stringfellow leachate treatment with RBC (rotating biological contactor)

    SciTech Connect

    Opatken, E.J.; Howard, H.K.; Bond, J.J.

    1988-02-01

    A study was conducted with a rotating biological contactor (RBC) for treatment of leachate from the Stringfellow hazardous-waste site in Riverside County, California. The leachate was transported from California to Cincinnati, where a pilot-sized RBC was installed at the U.S. EPA's Testing and Evaluation (TandE) Facility. A series of kinetic runs were made with primary effluent from the City of Cincinnati's Mill Creek Sewage Treatment Plant to develop a biomass on the disks and to obtain a standard kinetic removal rate. These runs were then followed with Stringfellow leachate experiments that included operations at various ratios of leachate to primary effluent, operations at 100% leachate, and operations to increase the percentage removal of dissolved organics. The paper reports on the results from these experiments and the effectiveness of an RBC to adequately treat leachate from the Stringfellow hazardous-waste site.

  14. Correlation of cell membrane dynamics and cell motility

    E-print Network

    Veronika, Merlin

    Abstract Background Essential events of cell development and homeostasis are revealed by the associated changes of cell morphology and therefore have been widely used as a key indicator of physiological states and molecular ...

  15. Relationship Between the Membrane Envelope of Rhizobial Bacteroids and the Plasma Membrane of the Host Cell as Demonstrated by Histochemical Localization of Adenyl Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Tu, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    By using adenyl cyclase as a marker enzyme, the relationship between the membrane envelope of the bacteroids of rhizobia and the plasma membrane of the host cell was demonstrated histochemically. Electron-dense deposits were found on the outer surface of the plasma membrane of the host cell and on the inner surface of the membrane envelopes of the bacteroids, but not in vacuole membranes, endoplasmic reticula, Golgi apparatus, and mitochondrial membranes. The results suggest that the membrane envelopes of the bacteroids are closely related to the host plasma membrane, and that entry of the bacteroids into the cytoplasm is in a manner similar to endocytosis. Images PMID:4854087

  16. Better Proton-Conducting Polymers for Fuel-Cell Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Sri; Reddy, Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Polyoxyphenylene triazole sulfonic acid has been proposed as a basis for development of improved proton-conducting polymeric materials for solid-electrolyte membranes in hydrogen/air fuel cells. Heretofore, the proton-conducting membrane materials of choice have been exemplified by a family of perfluorosulfonic acid-based polymers (Nafion7 or equivalent). These materials are suitable for operation in the temperature of 75 to 85 C, but in order to reduce the sizes and/or increase the energy-conversion efficiencies of fuel-cell systems, it would be desirable to increase temperatures to as high as 120 C for transportation applications, and to as high as 180 C for stationary applications. However, at 120 C and at relative humidity values below 50 percent, the loss of water from perfluorosulfonic acid-based polymer membranes results in fuel-cell power densities too low to be of practical value. Therefore, membrane electrolyte materials that have usefully high proton conductivity in the temperature range of 180 C at low relative humidity and that do not rely on water for proton conduction at 180 C would be desirable. The proposed polyoxyphenylene triazole sulfonic acid-based materials have been conjectured to have these desirable properties. These materials would be free of volatile or mobile acid constituents. The generic molecular structure of these materials is intended to exploit the fact, demonstrated in previous research, that materials that contain ionizable acid and base groups covalently attached to thermally stable polymer backbones exhibit proton conduction even in the anhydrous state.

  17. A novel RNA binding protein affects rbcL gene expression and is specific to bundle sheath chloroplasts in C4 plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plants that utilize the highly efficient C4 pathway of photosynthesis typically possess kranz-type leaf anatomy that consists of two morphologically and functionally distinct photosynthetic cell types, the bundle sheath (BS) and mesophyll (M) cells. These two cell types differentially express many genes that are required for C4 capability and function. In mature C4 leaves, the plastidic rbcL gene, encoding the large subunit of the primary CO2 fixation enzyme Rubisco, is expressed specifically within BS cells. Numerous studies have demonstrated that BS-specific rbcL gene expression is regulated predominantly at post-transcriptional levels, through the control of translation and mRNA stability. The identification of regulatory factors associated with C4 patterns of rbcL gene expression has been an elusive goal for many years. Results RLSB, encoded by the nuclear RLSB gene, is an S1-domain RNA binding protein purified from C4 chloroplasts based on its specific binding to plastid-encoded rbcL mRNA in vitro. Co-localized with LSU to chloroplasts, RLSB is highly conserved across many plant species. Most significantly, RLSB localizes specifically to leaf bundle sheath (BS) cells in C4 plants. Comparative analysis using maize (C4) and Arabidopsis (C3) reveals its tight association with rbcL gene expression in both plants. Reduced RLSB expression (through insertion mutation or RNA silencing, respectively) led to reductions in rbcL mRNA accumulation and LSU production. Additional developmental effects, such as virescent/yellow leaves, were likely associated with decreased photosynthetic function and disruption of associated signaling networks. Conclusions Reductions in RLSB expression, due to insertion mutation or gene silencing, are strictly correlated with reductions in rbcL gene expression in both maize and Arabidopsis. In both plants, accumulation of rbcL mRNA as well as synthesis of LSU protein were affected. These findings suggest that specific accumulation and binding of the RLSB binding protein to rbcL mRNA within BS chloroplasts may be one determinant leading to the characteristic cell type-specific localization of Rubisco in C4 plants. Evolutionary modification of RLSB expression, from a C3 “default” state to BS cell-specificity, could represent one mechanism by which rbcL expression has become restricted to only one cell type in C4 plants. PMID:24053212

  18. Non-Fluorinated Polymer Materials for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacques Roziere; Deborah J. Jones

    2003-01-01

    The past 10 years have witnessed a tremendous acceleration in research devoted to non-fluorinated polymer membranes, both as competitive alternatives to commercial perfluorosulfonic acid membranes operating in the same temperature range and with the objective of extending the range of operation of polymer fuel cells toward those more generally occupied by phosphoric acid fuel cells. Important requirements are adequate membrane

  19. Water free proton conducting membranes based on poly-4-vinylpyridinebisulfate for fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Pin S. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Disclosed are methods for forming a water-free electrolyte membrane useful in fuel cells. Also provided is a water-free electrolyte membrane comprising a quaternized amine salt including poly-4-vinylpyridinebisulfate, a poly-4-vinylpyridinebisulfate silica composite, and a combination thereof and a fuel cell comprising the membrane.

  20. HIV Fusion Peptide Penetrates, Disorders, and Softens T-Cell Membrane Mimics

    E-print Network

    Weliky, David

    HIV Fusion Peptide Penetrates, Disorders, and Softens T-Cell Membrane Mimics Stephanie Tristram of N-terminal gp41 fusion peptide (FP) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) with model membranes in order to elucidate how FP leads to fusion of HIV and T-cell membranes. FP constructs were (i

  1. Higher RBC EPA + DHA corresponds with larger total brain and hippocampal volumes

    PubMed Central

    Yaffe, Kristine; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Espeland, Mark A.; Wallace, Robert; Harris, William S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To test whether red blood cell (RBC) levels of marine omega-3 fatty acids measured in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study were related to MRI brain volumes measured 8 years later. Methods: RBC eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and MRI brain volumes were assessed in 1,111 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. The endpoints were total brain volume and anatomical regions. Linear mixed models included multiple imputations of fatty acids and were adjusted for hormone therapy, time since randomization, demographics, intracranial volume, and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Results: In fully adjusted models, a 1 SD greater RBC EPA + DHA (omega-3 index) level was correlated with 2.1 cm3 larger brain volume (p = 0.048). DHA was marginally correlated (p = 0.063) with total brain volume while EPA was less so (p = 0.11). There were no correlations between ischemic lesion volumes and EPA, DHA, or EPA + DHA. A 1 SD greater omega-3 index was correlated with greater hippocampal volume (50 mm3, p = 0.036) in fully adjusted models. Comparing the fourth quartile vs the first quartile of the omega-3 index confirmed greater hippocampal volume (159 mm3, p = 0.034). Conclusion: A higher omega-3 index was correlated with larger total normal brain volume and hippocampal volume in postmenopausal women measured 8 years later. While normal aging results in overall brain atrophy, lower omega-3 index may signal increased risk of hippocampal atrophy. Future studies should examine whether maintaining higher RBC EPA + DHA levels slows the rate of hippocampal or overall brain atrophy. PMID:24453077

  2. Lipid-insertion enables targeting functionalization of erythrocyte membrane-cloaked nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Ronnie H.; Hu, Che-Ming J.; Chen, Kevin N. H.; Luk, Brian T.; Carpenter, Cody W.; Gao, Weiwei; Li, Shulin; Zhang, Dong-Er; Lu, Weiyue; Zhang, Liangfang

    2013-09-01

    RBC membrane-cloaked polymeric nanoparticles represent an emerging nanocarrier platform with extended circulation in vivo. A lipid-insertion method is employed to functionalize these nanoparticles without the need for direct chemical conjugation. Insertion of both folate and the nucleolin-targeting aptamer AS1411 shows receptor-specific targeting against model cancer cell lines.RBC membrane-cloaked polymeric nanoparticles represent an emerging nanocarrier platform with extended circulation in vivo. A lipid-insertion method is employed to functionalize these nanoparticles without the need for direct chemical conjugation. Insertion of both folate and the nucleolin-targeting aptamer AS1411 shows receptor-specific targeting against model cancer cell lines. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03064d

  3. NREL Develops Technique to Measure Membrane Thickness and Defects in Polymer Electrode Membrane Fuel Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in fuel cell membrane electrode assembly research and development. Work was performed by the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center and the National Center for Photovoltaics.

  4. Process for recycling components of a PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assembly

    DOEpatents

    Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ)

    2012-02-28

    The membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of a PEM fuel cell can be recycled by contacting the MEA with a lower alkyl alcohol solvent which separates the membrane from the anode and cathode layers of the assembly. The resulting solution containing both the polymer membrane and supported noble metal catalysts can be heated under mild conditions to disperse the polymer membrane as particles and the supported noble metal catalysts and polymer membrane particles separated by known filtration means.

  5. Noncontact microsurgery of cell membranes using femtosecond laser pulses for optoinjection of specified substances into cells

    SciTech Connect

    Il'ina, I V; Ovchinnikov, A V; Chefonov, O V; Sitnikov, D S; Agranat, Mikhail B; Mikaelyan, A S

    2013-04-30

    IR femtosecond laser pulses were used for microsurgery of a cell membrane aimed at local and short-duration change in its permeability and injection of specified extracellular substances into the cells. The possibility of noncontact laser delivery of the propidium iodide fluorescent dye and the pEGFP plasmid, encoding the green fluorescent protein, into the cells with preservation of the cell viability was demonstrated. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  6. Aluminum and temperature alteration of cell membrane permeability of Quercus rubra

    SciTech Connect

    Junping Chen; Sucoff, E.I.; Stadelmann, E.J. (Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul (United States))

    1991-06-01

    Al toxicity is the major factor limiting plant growth in acid soils. This report extends research on Al-induced changes in membrane behavior of intact root cortex cells of Northern red oak (Quercus rubra). Membrane permeability was determined by the plasmometric method for individual intact cells at temperatures from 2 or 4 to 35 C. Al (0.37 millimolar) significantly increased membrane permeability to urea and monoethyl urea and decreased permeability to water. Al significantly altered the activation energy required to transport water (+ 32%), urea (+ 9%), and monoethyl urea ({minus}7%) across cell membranes. Above 9 C, Al increased the lipid partiality of the cell membranes; below 7 C, Al decreased it. Al narrowed by 6 C the temperature range over which plasmolysis occurred without membrane damage. These changes in membrane behavior are explainable if Al reduced membrane lipid fluidity and kink frequency and increases packing density and the occurrence of straight lipid chains.

  7. Direct liquid-feed fuel cell with membrane electrolyte and manufacturing thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An improved direct liquid-feed fuel cell having a solid membrane electrolyte for electrochemical reactions of an organic fuel. Improvements in interfacing of the catalyst layer and the membrane and activating catalyst materials are disclosed.

  8. Nafion\\/Silicon oxide composite membrane for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Yu; Mu Pan; Runzhang Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Nafion\\/Silicon oxide composite membranes were produced via in situ sol-gel reaction of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) in Nafion membranes. The physicochemical properties of the membranes were\\u000a studied by FT-IR,TG-DSC and tensile strength. The results show that the silicon oxide is compatible with the Nafion membrane\\u000a and the thermo stability of Nafion\\/Silicon oxide composite membrane is higher than that of Nafion membrane. Furthermore,

  9. Surface-enhanced Raman imaging of red blood cell membrane with highly uniform active substrates obtained using block copolymers self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zito, Gianluigi; Malafronte, Anna; Dochshanov, Alden; Rusciano, Giulia; Auriemma, Finizia; Pesce, Giuseppe; De Rosa, Claudio; Sasso, Antonio

    2013-05-01

    In this communication, we discuss the application of ordered, ultrahigh-density templates of nano-textured Ag-particles obtained by self-assembling of inorganic-containing polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) copolymer (PS-b-P4VP) micelles, for the spectroscopic surface-enhanced Raman imaging in-vitro of red blood cells (RBCs) and its capability to identify the vibrational fingerprint of the plasma membrane of the cell physisorbed to the SERS substrate. Hexagonal arrays of PS-b-P4VP micelles, with selective inclusion of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) in the polar core, prepared by in situ reduction of a suitable precursor, are obtained by polymer self-assembly upon fast solvent evaporation during spin coating on the supporting substrate. UV irradiation and/or plasma oxygen treatment remove the polymer matrix leaving immobilized nano-islands of Ag-NPs. Such a kind of SERS-active substrate consists of a reproducible and uniform twodimensional hexagonal array of silver clusters with a diameter ranging from 25 to 30 nm (single particles having typically diameters of 5 nm) and nano-island gap distances of the order of 5-8 nm on silicon and 15 nm on glass , while giving rise to high enhancement factors and addressing the issue of SERS reproducibility. The basic substrate supporting the plasmonic coating used in this work is either of silicon or glass. This last allows working in back scattering configuration permitting real time monitoring, via microscopy, of the RBCs on which Raman measurements are being carried out. The template is thus applied for surface-enhanced Raman analysis of the red blood cell (RBC) membrane in confocal micro-Raman configuration demonstrating to have SERS imaging potential thanks to the uniformity of the nano-textured substrate. The first experimental evidence of SERS imaging of a red blood cell membrane in-vitro is demonstrated.

  10. Saccadic Burst Cell Membrane Dysfunction Is Responsible for Saccadic Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Aasef G.; Ramat, Stefano; Optican, Lance M.; Miura, Kenichiro; Leigh, R. John; Zee, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Saccadic oscillations threaten clear vision by causing image motion on the retina. They are either purely horizontal (ocular flutter) or multidimensional (opsoclonus). We propose that ion channel dysfunction in the burst cell membrane is the underlying abnormality. We have tested this hypothesis by simulating a neuromimetic computational model of the burst neurons. This biologically realistic model mimics the physiologic properties and anatomic connections in the brainstem saccade generator. A rebound firing after sustained inhibition, called post-inhibitory rebound (PIR), and reciprocal inhibition between premotor saccadic burst neurons are the key features of this conceptual scheme. PIR and reciprocal inhibition make the circuits that generate the saccadic burst inherently unstable and can lead to oscillations unless stabilized by external inhibition. Our simulations suggest that alterations in membrane properties that lead to an increase in PIR, a reduction in external glycinergic inhibition, or both can cause saccadic oscillations. PMID:19145136

  11. From cells to computers: computing with membranes (P systems).

    PubMed

    P?un, G

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce to the reader the main ideas of computing with membranes, a recent branch of (theoretical) molecular computing. In short, in a cell-like system, multisets of objects evolve according to given rules in the compartments defined by a membrane structure and compute natural numbers as the result of halting sequences of transitions. The model is parallel, nondeterministic. Many variants have already been considered and many problems about them were investigated. We present here some of these variants, focusing on two central classes of results: (1) characterizations of the recursively enumerable sets of numbers and (2) possibilities to solve NP-complete problems in polynomial--even linear--time (of course, by making use of an exponential space). The results are given without proofs. An almost complete bibliography of the domain, at the middle of October 2000, is also provided. PMID:11311465

  12. Biofilm productivity and concomitant cell autolysis in a membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Govender, S

    2011-02-01

    Phanerochaete chrysoporium morphology and manganese peroxidase (MnP) productivity was characterised in a scalable, modularised 1145 cm(3) membrane gradostat reactor in response to switching between an enhanced production medium and a nutrient limited feed (50% C and N reduction). Irrespective of the feed composition used nutrients permeating from the lumen of the ultrafiltration membrane matrix established nutrient gradients across the immobilised biofilm with distinct primary, stationary and decline growth phases observed. Severe nutrient C and N limitation did not change the cyclic nature of enzyme production (MnP(max) = 189.5 U l(-1)) but did reduce the overall bioreactor efficiency from 32 to 22 U l(-1) day(-1). Stress induced secondary metabolism resulted in concomitant cell autolysis causing biomass loss and increased operational flux after 20 days in the 33 day bioreactor operation cycle. PMID:20972820

  13. A Simple Alkaline Method for Decellularizing Human Amniotic Membrane for Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Saghizadeh, Mehrnoosh; Winkler, Michael A.; Kramerov, Andrei A.; Hemmati, David M.; Ghiam, Chantelle A.; Dimitrijevich, Slobodan D.; Sareen, Dhruv; Ornelas, Loren; Ghiasi, Homayon; Brunken, William J.; Maguen, Ezra; Rabinowitz, Yaron S.; Svendsen, Clive N.; Jirsova, Katerina; Ljubimov, Alexander V.

    2013-01-01

    Human amniotic membrane is a standard substratum used to culture limbal epithelial stem cells for transplantation to patients with limbal stem cell deficiency. Various methods were developed to decellularize amniotic membrane, because denuded membrane is poorly immunogenic and better supports repopulation by dissociated limbal epithelial cells. Amniotic membrane denuding usually involves treatment with EDTA and/or proteolytic enzymes; in many cases additional mechanical scraping is required. Although ensuring limbal cell proliferation, these methods are not standardized, require relatively long treatment times and can result in membrane damage. We propose to use 0.5 M NaOH to reliably remove amniotic cells from the membrane. This method was used before to lyse cells for DNA isolation and radioactivity counting. Gently rubbing a cotton swab soaked in NaOH over the epithelial side of amniotic membrane leads to nearly complete and easy removal of adherent cells in less than a minute. The denuded membrane is subsequently washed in a neutral buffer. Cell removal was more thorough and uniform than with EDTA, or EDTA plus mechanical scraping with an electric toothbrush, or n-heptanol plus EDTA treatment. NaOH-denuded amniotic membrane did not show any perforations compared with mechanical or thermolysin denuding, and showed excellent preservation of immunoreactivity for major basement membrane components including laminin ?2, ?1-?3 chains, ?1/?2 and ?6 type IV collagen chains, fibronectin, nidogen-2, and perlecan. Sodium hydroxide treatment was efficient with fresh or cryopreserved (10% dimethyl sulfoxide or 50% glycerol) amniotic membrane. The latter method is a common way of membrane storage for subsequent grafting in the European Union. NaOH-denuded amniotic membrane supported growth of human limbal epithelial cells, immortalized corneal epithelial cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. This simple, fast and reliable method can be used to standardize decellularized amniotic membrane preparations for expansion of limbal stem cells in vitro before transplantation to patients. PMID:24236148

  14. 160 C PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE (PEM) FUEL CELL SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    L.G. Marianowski

    2001-12-21

    The objectives of this program were: (a) to develop and demonstrate a new polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system that operates up to 160 C temperatures and at ambient pressures for stationary power applications, and (b) to determine if the GTI-molded composite graphite bipolar separator plate could provide long term operational stability at 160 C or higher. There are many reasons that fuel cell research has been receiving much attention. Fuel cells represent environmentally friendly and efficient sources of electrical power generation that could use a variety of fuel sources. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI), formerly Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), is focused on distributed energy stationary power generation systems. Currently the preferred method for hydrogen production for stationary power systems is conversion of natural gas, which has a vast distribution system in place. However, in the conversion of natural gas into a hydrogen-rich fuel, traces of carbon monoxide are produced. Carbon monoxide present in the fuel gas will in time cumulatively poison, or passivate the active platinum catalysts used in the anodes of PEMFC's operating at temperatures of 60 to 80 C. Various fuel processors have incorporated systems to reduce the carbon monoxide to levels below 10 ppm, but these require additional catalytic section(s) with sensors and controls for effective carbon monoxide control. These CO cleanup systems must also function especially well during transient load operation where CO can spike 300% or more. One way to circumvent the carbon monoxide problem is to operate the fuel cell at a higher temperature where carbon monoxide cannot easily adsorb onto the catalyst and poison it. Commercially available polymer membranes such as Nafion{trademark} are not capable of operation at temperatures sufficiently high to prevent this. Hence this project investigated a new polymer membrane alternative to Nafion{trademark} that is capable of operation at temperatures up to 160 C.

  15. Elastic thickness compressibilty of the red cell membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, V; Ritchie, K; Mohandas, N; Evans, E

    2001-01-01

    We have used an ultrasensitive force probe and optical interferometry to examine the thickness compressibility of the red cell membrane in situ. Pushed into the centers of washed-white red cell ghosts lying on a coverglass, the height of the microsphere-probe tip relative to its closest approach on the adjacent glass surface revealed the apparent material thickness, which began at approximately 90 nm per membrane upon detection of contact (force approximately 1-2 pN). With further impingement, the apparent thickness per membrane diminished over a soft compliant regime that spanned approximately 40 nm and stiffened on approach to approximately 50 nm under forces of approximately 100 pN. The same force-thickness response was obtained on recompression after retraction of the probe, which demonstrated elastic recoverability. Scaled by circumferences of the microspheres, the forces yielded energies of compression per area which exhibited an inverse distance dependence resembling that expected for flexible polymers. Attributed to the spectrin component of the membrane cytoskeleton, the energy density only reached one thermal energy unit (k(B)T) per spectrin tetramer near maximum compression. Hence, we hypothesized that the soft compliant regime probed in the experiments represented the compressibility of the outer region of spectrin loops and that the stiff regime < 50 nm was the response of a compact mesh of spectrin backed by a hardcore structure. To evaluate this hypothesis, we used a random flight theory for the entropic elasticity of polymer loops to model the spectrin network. We also examined the possibility that additional steric repulsion and apparent thickening could arise from membrane thermal-bending excitations. Fixing the energy scale to k(B)T/spectrin tetramer, the combined elastic response of a network of ideal polymer loops plus the membrane steric interaction correlated well with the measured dependence of energy density on distance for a statistical segment length of approximately 5 nm for spectrin (i.e., free chain end-to-end length of approximately 29 nm) and a hardcore limit of approximately 30 nm for underlying structure. PMID:11509359

  16. High temperature polymers for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einsla, Brian Russel

    Novel proton exchange membranes (PEMs) were investigated that show potential for operating at higher temperatures in both direct methanol (DMFC) and H 2/air PEM fuel cells. The need for thermally stable polymers immediately suggests the possibility of heterocyclic polymers bearing appropriate ion conducting sites. Accordingly, monomers and random disulfonated poly(arylene ether) copolymers containing either naphthalimide, benzoxazole or benzimidazole moieties were synthesized via direct copolymerization. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) was varied by simply changing the ratio of disulfonated monomer to nonsulfonated monomer in the copolymerization step. Water uptake and proton conductivity of cast membranes increased with IEC. The water uptake of these heterocyclic copolymers was lower than that of comparable disulfonated poly(arylene ether) systems, which is a desirable improvement for PEMs. Membrane electrode assemblies were prepared and the initial fuel cell performance of the disulfonated polyimide and polybenzoxazole (PBO) copolymers was very promising at 80°C compared to the state-of-the-art PEM (NafionRTM); nevertheless these membranes became brittle under operating conditions. Several series of poly(arylene ether)s based on disodium-3,3'-disulfonate-4,4 '-dichlorodiphenylsulfone (S-DCDPS) and a benzimidazole-containing bisphenol were synthesized and afforded copolymers with enhanced stability. Selected properties of these membranes were compared to separately prepared miscible blends of disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers and polybenzimidazole (PBI). Complexation of the sulfonic acid groups with the PBI structure reduced water swelling and proton conductivity. The enhanced proton conductivity of NafionRTM membranes has been proposed to be due to the aggregation of the highly acidic side-chain sulfonic acid sites to form ion channels. A series of side-chain sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers based on methoxyhydroquinone was synthesized in order to investigate this possible advantage and to couple this with the excellent hydrolytic stability of poly(arylene ether)s. The methoxy groups were deprotected to afford reactive phenolic sites and nucleophilic substitution reactions with functional aryl sulfonates were used to prepare simple aryl or highly acidic fluorinated sulfonated copolymers. The proton conductivity and water sorption of the resulting copolymers increased with the ion exchange capacity, but changing the acidity of the sulfonic acid had no apparent effect.

  17. Triggering of erythrocyte cell membrane scrambling by salinomycin.

    PubMed

    Bissinger, Rosi; Malik, Abaid; Jilani, Kashif; Lang, Florian

    2014-11-01

    Salinomycin, a polyether ionophore antibiotic effective against a variety of pathogens, has been shown to trigger apoptosis of cancer cells and cancer stem cells. The substance is thus considered for the treatment of malignancy. Salinomycin compromises tumour cell survival at least in part by interference with mitochondrial function. Erythrocytes lack mitochondria but may undergo apoptosis-like suicidal cell death or eryptosis, which is characterized by scrambling of the cell membrane with phosphatidylserine exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Signalling involved in the triggering of eryptosis includes activation of oxidant-sensitive Ca(2+) permeable cation channels with subsequent increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) activity ([Ca(2+)]i). This study explored whether salinomycin stimulates eryptosis. Phosphatidylserine-exposing erythrocytes were identified by measurement of annexin-V binding, cell volume was estimated from forward scatter, haemolysis determined from haemoglobin release, [Ca(2+)]i quantified utilizing Fluo3-fluorescence and oxidative stress from 2',7' dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence in flow cytometry. A 48-hr exposure to salinomycin (5-100 nM) was followed by a significant increase in Fluo3-fluorescence, DCFDA fluorescence and annexin-V binding, as well as a significant decrease in forward scatter (at 5-10 nM, but not at 50 and 100 nM). The annexin-V binding after salinomycin treatment was significantly blunted but not abrogated in the nominal absence of extracellular Ca(2+) or in the presence of antioxidant n-acetyl cysteine (1 mM). Salinomycin triggers cell membrane scrambling, an effect at least partially due to oxidative stress and entry of extracellular Ca(2+). PMID:24717091

  18. Deformation of a single red blood cell in bounded Poiseuille flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Lingling; Pan, Tsorng-Whay; Glowinski, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Deformation of a red blood cell (RBC) in bounded two-dimensional Poiseuille flows is studied by using an immersed boundary method (IBM). An elastic spring model is applied to simulate the skeleton structure of a RBC membrane. As a benchmarking test, the dynamical behavior of a single RBC under a simple shear flow has been validated. Then we focus on investigating the motion and the deformation of a single RBC in Poiseuille flows by varying the swelling ratio (s*), the initial angle of the long axis of the cell at the centerline (?), the maximum velocity at the centerline of fluid flow (umax), the membrane bending stiffness of a RBC (kb), and the height of the microchannel (H). Two motions of oscillation and vacillating breathing (swing) of a RBC are observed in both narrow and wide channels. The strength of the vacillating-breathing motion depends on the degree of confinement and the value of umax. A RBC exhibits a strong vacillating-breathing motion as the degree of confinement is larger or the value of umax is higher. For the same degree of confinement, the vacillating-breathing motion appears to be relatively weaker but persists longer as the value of umax is lower. The continuation of shape change from the slippery to the parachute by varying the value of umax is obtained for the biconcave shape cell in a narrower channel. In particular, parachute shape and bulletlike shape, depending on the angle ?, coexist for the elliptic shape cell given initially with lower umax in a narrower channel.

  19. Novel proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrodes to improve performance of reversible fuel cell systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim Matthew Brown

    2008-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells react fuel and oxidant to directly and efficiently produce electrical power, without the need for combustion, heat engines, or motor-generators. Additionally, PEM fuel cell systems emit zero to virtually zero criteria pollutants and have the ability to reduce CO2 emissions due to their efficient operation, including the production or processing of fuel. A reversible

  20. MYADM regulates Rac1 targeting to ordered membranes required for cell spreading and migration.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Juan F; Reglero-Real, Natalia; Kremer, Leonor; Marcos-Ramiro, Beatriz; Ruiz-Sáenz, Ana; Calvo, María; Enrich, Carlos; Correas, Isabel; Millán, Jaime; Alonso, Miguel A

    2011-04-15

    Membrane organization into condensed domains or rafts provides molecular platforms for selective recruitment of proteins. Cell migration is a general process that requires spatiotemporal targeting of Rac1 to membrane rafts. The protein machinery responsible for making rafts competent to recruit Rac1 remains elusive. Some members of the MAL family of proteins are involved in specialized processes dependent on this type of membrane. Because condensed membrane domains are a general feature of the plasma membrane of all mammalian cells, we hypothesized that MAL family members with ubiquitous expression and plasma membrane distribution could be involved in the organization of membranes for cell migration. We show that myeloid-associated differentiation marker (MYADM), a protein with unique features within the MAL family, colocalizes with Rac1 in membrane protrusions at the cell surface and distributes in condensed membranes. MYADM knockdown (KD) cells had altered membrane condensation and showed deficient incorporation of Rac1 to membrane raft fractions and, similar to Rac1 KD cells, exhibited reduced cell spreading and migration. Results of rescue-of-function experiments by expression of MYADM or active Rac1L61 in cells knocked down for Rac1 or MYADM, respectively, are consistent with the idea that MYADM and Rac1 act on parallel pathways that lead to similar functional outcomes. PMID:21325632

  1. Ionic Liquids and New Proton Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belieres, Jean-Philippe

    2004-01-01

    There is currently a great surge of activity in fuel cell research as laboratories across the world seek to take advantage of the high energy capacity provided by &el cells relative to those of other portable electrochemical power systems. Much of this activity is aimed at high temperature fie1 cells, and a vital component of such &el cells must be the availability of a high temperature stable proton-permeable membrane. NASA Glenn Research Center is greatly involved in developing this technology. Other approaches to the high temperature fuel cell involve the use of single- component or almost-single-component electrolytes that provide a path for protons through the cell. A heavily researched case is the phosphoric acid fuel cell, in which the electrolyte is almost pure phosphoric acid and the cathode reaction produces water directly. The phosphoric acid fie1 cell delivers an open circuit voltage of 0.9 V falling to about 0.7 V under operating conditions at 170 C. The proton transport mechanism is mainly vehicular in character according to the viscosity/conductance relation. Here we describe some Proton Transfer Ionic Liquids (PTILs) with low vapor pressure and high temperature stability that have conductivities of unprecedented magnitude for non-aqueous systems. The first requirement of an ionic liquid is that, contrary to experience with most liquids consisting of ions, it must have a melting point that is not much above room temperature. The limit commonly suggested is 100 C. PTILs constitute an interesting class of non-corrosive proton-exchange electrolyte, which can serve well in high temperature (T = 100 - 250 C) fuel cell applications. We will present cell performance data showing that the open circuit voltage output, and the performance of a simple H2(g)Pt/PTIL/Pt/O2(g) fuel cell may be superior to those of the equivalent phosphoric acid electrolyte fuel cell both at ambient temperature and temperatures up to and above 200 C. My work at NASA Glenn Research Center during this summer is to develop and characterize proton exchange membranes doped with ionic liquids. The main techniques used to characterize these materials are: Impedance Spectroscopy, NMR, DSC, TGA, DMA, IR, and SEM ...

  2. Organized Living: From Cell Surfaces to Basement Membranes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nancy J. Boudreau (University of California San Francisco; Department of Surgery REV)

    2003-08-19

    Binding of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins to integrin receptors initiates intracellular signaling events that are essential for the differentiation and survival of epithelial cells. However, the propagation and processing of these signals also depend on the cells acquiring an appropriate three-dimensional morphology and polarity after contact with the ECM. In fact, even if adhesion to the ECM is maintained but subsequent cellular organization and polarity are impaired, epithelial cells fail to fully differentiate and become susceptible to apoptotic stimuli. Studies using three-dimensional tissue culture models with reconstituted basement membranes not only demonstrate the central role of tissue organization for differentiation and survival, but also emphasize how acquiring this organized polarized phenotype can override a number of genetic changes that would otherwise disrupt normal tissue function.

  3. Percolation in a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Catalyst Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Stacy, Stephen; Allen, Jeffrey

    2012-07-01

    Water management in the catalyst layers of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) is confronted by two issues, flooding and dry out, both of which result in improper functioning of the fuel cell and lead to poor performance and degradation. At the present time, the data that has been reported about water percolation and wettability within a fuel cell catalyst layer is limited. A method and apparatus for measuring the percolation pressure in the catalyst layer has been developed based upon an experimental apparatus used to test water percolation in porous transport layers (PTL). The experimental setup uses a pseudo Hele-Shaw type testing where samples are compressed and a fluid is injected into the sample. Testing the samples gives percolation pressure plots which show trends in increasing percolation pressure with an increase in flow rate. A decrease in pressure was seen as percolation occurred in one sample, however the pressure only had a rising effect in the other sample.

  4. Reusable, reversibly sealable parylene membranes for cell and protein patterning

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Dylan; Rajalingam, Bimalraj; Karp, Jeffrey M.; Selvarasah, Selvapraba; Ling, Yibo; Yeh, Judy; Langer, Robert; Dokmeci, Mehmet R.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The patterned deposition of cells and biomolecules on surfaces is a potentially useful tool for in vitro diagnostics, high-throughput screening, and tissue engineering. Here, we describe an inexpensive and potentially widely applicable micropatterning technique that uses reversible sealing of microfabricated parylene-C stencils on surfaces to enable surface patterning. Using these stencils it is possible to generate micropatterns and copatterns of proteins and cells, including NIH-3T3 fibroblasts, hepatocytes and embryonic stem cells. After patterning, the stencils can be removed from the surface, plasma treated to remove adsorbed proteins, and reused. A variety of hydrophobic surfaces including PDMS, polystyrene and acrylated glass were patterned using this approach. Furthermore, we demonstrated the reusability and mechanical integrity of the parylene membrane for at least 10 consecutive patterning processes. These parylene-C stencils are potentially scalable commercially and easily accessible for many biological and biomedical applications. PMID:17729252

  5. Adaptive evolution of rbcL in Conocephalum (Hepaticae, bryophytes)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hidetsugu Miwa; Ireneusz J. Odrzykoski; Atsushi Matsui; Masami Hasegawa; Hiroyuki Akiyama; Yu Jia; Renat Sabirov; Hideki Takahashi; David E. Boufford; Noriaki Murakami

    2009-01-01

    An excess of nonsynonymous substitutions over synonymous ones has been regarded as an important indicator of adaptive evolution or positive selection at the molecular level. We now report such a case for rbcL sequences among cryptic species in Conocephalum (Hepaticae, Bryophytes). This finding can be regarded as evidence of adaptive evolution in several cryptic species (especially in F and JN

  6. Molecular phylogeny of cycads inferred from rbc L sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Treutlein; Michael Wink

    2002-01-01

    The chloroplast gene rbcL was sequenced to elucidate the evolution of the gymnosperm plant order Cycadales. In accordance with traditional systematics, the order Cycadales and the corresponding genera cluster as monophyletic clades. Among them, the genus Cycas forms a basal group. The genetic distances within the genus Encephalartos and between the sister groups Encephalartos, Lepidozamia and Macrozamia, are unexpectedly small,

  7. Evidence for Transfer of Membranes from Mesenchymal Stem Cells to HL-1 Cardiac Cells

    PubMed Central

    Boomsma, Robert A.; Geenen, David L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the interaction of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) with cardiac HL-1 cells during coculture by fluorescent dye labeling and then flow cytometry. MSC were layered onto confluent HL-1 cell cultures in a 1?:?4 ratio. MSC gained gap junction permeant calcein from HL-1 cells after 4 hours which was partially reduced by oleamide. After 20 hours, 99% MSC gained calcein, unaffected by oleamide. Double-labeling HL-1 cells with calcein and the membrane dye DiO resulted in transfer of both calcein and DiO to MSC. When HL-1 cells were labeled with calcein and MSC with DiO, MSC gained calcein while HL-1 cells gained DiO. Very little fusion was observed since more than 90% Sca-1 positive MSC gained DiO from HL-1 cells while less than 9% gained gap junction impermeant CMFDA after 20 hours with no Sca-1 transfer to HL-1 cells. Time dependent transfer of membrane DiD was observed from HL-1 cells to MSC (100%) and vice versa (50%) after 20 hours with more limited transfer of CMFDA. These results demonstrate that MSC and HL-1 cells exchange membrane components which may account for some of the beneficial effect of MSC in the heart after myocardial infarction. PMID:25295065

  8. Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Antibody ID, RBC; RBC Ab ID Formal name: Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification Related tests: Direct Antiglobulin ... None The Test Sample What is being tested? Red blood cell antibodies are proteins produced by the ...

  9. Lysosomal membrane permeabilization in cell death: concepts and challenges.

    PubMed

    Repnik, Urška; Hafner ?esen, Maruša; Turk, Boris

    2014-11-01

    Late endocytic compartments include late endosomes, lysosomes and hybrid organelles. In the acidic lumen, cargo material derived from endocytosed and phagocytosed extracellular material and autophagy-derived intracellular material is degraded. In the event of lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), the function of endo/lysosomal compartment is affected and the luminal contents are released into the cytosol to various extents. LMP can be a result of osmotic lysis or direct membranolytic activity of the compounds that accumulate in the lumen of endo/lysosomes. In addition to several synthetic compounds, such as dipeptide methyl esters and lysosomotropic detergents, endogenous agents that can cause LMP include ROS and lipid metabolites such as sphingosine and phosphatidic acid. Depending on the cell type and the dose, LMP can initiate the lysosomal apoptotic pathway, pyroptosis or necrosis. LMP can also amplify cell death signaling that was initiated outside the endocytic compartment, and hamper cell recovery via autophagy. However, mechanisms that connect LMP with cell death signaling are poorly understood, with the exception of the proteolytic activation of Bid by aspartic cathepsin D and cysteine cathepsins. Determination of LMP in a cell model system is methodologically challenging. Even more difficult is to prove that LMP is the primary event leading to cell death. Nevertheless, LMP may prove to be a valuable approach in therapy, either as a trigger of cell death or as a mechanism of therapeutic drug release in the case of delivery systems that target the endocytic pathway. PMID:24984038

  10. Alterations of Red Cell Membrane Properties in Nneuroacanthocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Siegl, Claudia; Hamminger, Patricia; Jank, Herbert; Ahting, Uwe; Bader, Benedikt; Danek, Adrian; Gregory, Allison; Hartig, Monika; Hayflick, Susan; Hermann, Andreas; Prokisch, Holger; Sammler, Esther M.; Yapici, Zuhal; Prohaska, Rainer; Salzer, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Neuroacanthocytosis (NA) refers to a group of heterogenous, rare genetic disorders, namely chorea acanthocytosis (ChAc), McLeod syndrome (MLS), Huntington’s disease-like 2 (HDL2) and pantothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), that mainly affect the basal ganglia and are associated with similar neurological symptoms. PKAN is also assigned to a group of rare neurodegenerative diseases, known as NBIA (neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation), associated with iron accumulation in the basal ganglia and progressive movement disorder. Acanthocytosis, the occurrence of misshaped erythrocytes with thorny protrusions, is frequently observed in ChAc and MLS patients but less prevalent in PKAN (about 10%) and HDL2 patients. The pathological factors that lead to the formation of the acanthocytic red blood cell shape are currently unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether NA/NBIA acanthocytes differ in their functionality from normal erythrocytes. Several flow-cytometry-based assays were applied to test the physiological responses of the plasma membrane, namely drug-induced endocytosis, phosphatidylserine exposure and calcium uptake upon treatment with lysophosphatidic acid. ChAc red cell samples clearly showed a reduced response in drug-induced endovesiculation, lysophosphatidic acid-induced phosphatidylserine exposure, and calcium uptake. Impaired responses were also observed in acanthocyte-positive NBIA (PKAN) red cells but not in patient cells without shape abnormalities. These data suggest an “acanthocytic state” of the red cell where alterations in functional and interdependent membrane properties arise together with an acanthocytic cell shape. Further elucidation of the aberrant molecular mechanisms that cause this acanthocytic state may possibly help to evaluate the pathological pathways leading to neurodegeneration. PMID:24098554

  11. Electromechanical models of the outer hair cell composite membrane.

    PubMed

    Spector, A A; Deo, N; Grosh, K; Ratnanather, J T; Raphael, R M

    2006-01-01

    The outer hair cell (OHC) is an extremely specialized cell and its proper functioning is essential for normal mammalian hearing. This article reviews recent developments in theoretical modeling that have increased our knowledge of the operation of this fascinating cell. The earliest models aimed at capturing experimental observations on voltage-induced cellular length changes and capacitance were based on isotropic elasticity and a two-state Boltzmann function. Recent advances in modeling based on the thermodynamics of orthotropic electroelastic materials better capture the cell's voltage-dependent stiffness, capacitance, interaction with its environment and ability to generate force at high frequencies. While complete models are crucial, simpler continuum models can be derived that retain fidelity over small changes in transmembrane voltage and strains occurring in vivo. By its function in the cochlea, the OHC behaves like a piezoelectric-like actuator, and the main cellular features can be described by piezoelectric models. However, a finer characterization of the cell's composite wall requires understanding the local mechanical and electrical fields. One of the key questions is the relative contribution of the in-plane and bending modes of electromechanical strains and forces (moments). The latter mode is associated with the flexoelectric effect in curved membranes. New data, including a novel experiment with tethers pulled from the cell membrane, can help in estimating the role of different modes of electromechanical coupling. Despite considerable progress, many problems still confound modelers. Thus, this article will conclude with a discussion of unanswered questions and highlight directions for future research. PMID:16773498

  12. The actin homologue MreB organizes the bacterial cell membrane

    PubMed Central

    Strahl, Henrik; Bürmann, Frank; Hamoen, Leendert W.

    2014-01-01

    The eukaryotic cortical actin cytoskeleton creates specific lipid domains, including lipid rafts, which determine the distribution of many membrane proteins. Here we show that the bacterial actin homologue MreB displays a comparable activity. MreB forms membrane-associated filaments that coordinate bacterial cell wall synthesis. We noticed that the MreB cytoskeleton influences fluorescent staining of the cytoplasmic membrane. Detailed analyses combining an array of mutants, using specific lipid staining techniques and spectroscopic methods, revealed that MreB filaments create specific membrane regions with increased fluidity (RIFs). Interference with these fluid lipid domains (RIFs) perturbs overall lipid homeostasis and affects membrane protein localization. The influence of MreB on membrane organization and fluidity may explain why the active movement of MreB stimulates membrane protein diffusion. These novel MreB activities add additional complexity to bacterial cell membrane organization and have implications for many membrane-associated processes. PMID:24603761

  13. Cooperative binding of Annexin A5 to phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Janko, Christina; Jeremic, Ivica; Biermann, Mona; Chaurio, Ricardo; Schorn, Christine; Muñoz, Luis E; Herrmann, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Healthy cells exhibit an asymmetric plasma membrane with phosphatidylserine (PS) located on the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane bilayer. Annexin A5-FITC, a PS binding protein, is commonly used to evaluate apoptosis in flow cytometry. PS exposed by apoptotic cells serves as a major 'eat-me' signal for phagocytes. Although exposition of PS has been observed after alternative stimuli, no clearance of viable, PS exposing cells has been detected. Thus, besides PS exposure, membranes of viable and apoptotic cells might exhibit specific characteristics. Here, we show that Annexin A5 binds in a cooperative manner to different types of dead cells. Shrunken apoptotic cells thereby showed the highest Hill coefficient values. Contrarily, parafomaldehyde fixation of apoptotic cells completely abrogates the cooperativity effect seen with dead and dying cells. We tend to speculate that the cooperative binding of Annexin A5 to the membranes of apoptotic cells reflects higher fluidity of the exposed membranes facilitating PS clustering. PMID:24304966

  14. Cooperative binding of Annexin A5 to phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cell membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janko, Christina; Jeremic, Ivica; Biermann, Mona; Chaurio, Ricardo; Schorn, Christine; Muñoz, Luis E.; Herrmann, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Healthy cells exhibit an asymmetric plasma membrane with phosphatidylserine (PS) located on the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane bilayer. Annexin A5-FITC, a PS binding protein, is commonly used to evaluate apoptosis in flow cytometry. PS exposed by apoptotic cells serves as a major ‘eat-me’ signal for phagocytes. Although exposition of PS has been observed after alternative stimuli, no clearance of viable, PS exposing cells has been detected. Thus, besides PS exposure, membranes of viable and apoptotic cells might exhibit specific characteristics. Here, we show that Annexin A5 binds in a cooperative manner to different types of dead cells. Shrunken apoptotic cells thereby showed the highest Hill coefficient values. Contrarily, parafomaldehyde fixation of apoptotic cells completely abrogates the cooperativity effect seen with dead and dying cells. We tend to speculate that the cooperative binding of Annexin A5 to the membranes of apoptotic cells reflects higher fluidity of the exposed membranes facilitating PS clustering.

  15. Infectious rotavirus enters cells by direct cell membrane penetration, not by endocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Kaljot, K T; Shaw, R D; Rubin, D H; Greenberg, H B

    1988-01-01

    Rotaviruses are icosahedral viruses with a segmented, double-stranded RNA genome. They are the major cause of severe infantile infectious diarrhea. Rotavirus growth in tissue culture is markedly enhanced by pretreatment of virus with trypsin. Trypsin activation is associated with cleavage of the viral hemagglutinin (viral protein 3 [VP3]; 88 kilodaltons) into two fragments (60 and 28 kilodaltons). The mechanism by which proteolytic cleavage leads to enhanced growth is unknown. Cleavage of VP3 does not alter viral binding to cell monolayers. In previous electron microscopic studies of infected cell cultures, it has been demonstrated that rotavirus particles enter cells by both endocytosis and direct cell membrane penetration. To determine whether trypsin treatment affected rotavirus internalization, we studied the kinetics of entry of infectious rhesus rotavirus (RRV) into MA104 cells. Trypsin-activated RRV was internalized with a half-time of 3 to 5 min, while nonactivated virus disappeared from the cell surface with a half-time of 30 to 50 min. In contrast to trypsin-activated RRV, loss of nonactivated RRV from the cell surface did not result in the appearance of infection, as measured by plaque formation. Endocytosis inhibitors (sodium azide, dinitrophenol) and lysosomotropic agents (ammonium chloride, chloroquine) had a limited effect on the entry of infectious virus into cells. Purified trypsin-activated RRV added to cell monolayers at pH 7.4 medicated 51Cr, [14C]choline, and [3H]inositol released from prelabeled MA104 cells. This release could be specifically blocked by neutralizing antibodies to VP3. These results suggest that MA104 cell infection follows the rapid entry of trypsin-activated RRV by direct cell membrane penetration. Cell membrane penetration of infectious RRV is initiated by trypsin cleavage of VP3. Neutralizing antibodies can inhibit this direct membrane penetration. PMID:2831376

  16. Propane fuel cells using phosphoric-acid-doped polybenzimidazole membranes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chin Kui; Luo, Jing Li; Chuang, Karl T; Sanger, Alan R

    2005-07-01

    Propane fuel cells using H(3)PO(4)-doped polybenzimidazole polymer membranes produce low and unsustainable current densities at temperatures up to 250 degrees C under anhydrous conditions. Stable intermediate species blocked the surface of noble metal anode catalysts, and the intermediate species could not react further into desorbable final products. In contrast, when water was introduced by light humidification (S(r) 0.08%) of the propane stream, sustainable and higher current densities were achieved. Water participated in the reaction sequence to form surface-bound hydrocarbon and then oxygen-containing intermediates and thereby generated CO and CO(2) as the only carbon-containing products. PMID:16852618

  17. 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Pivovar, B.

    2012-02-01

    A workshop addressing the current state-of-the-art in alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs) was held May 8-9, 2011, at the Crystal Gateway Marriott in Arlington, Virginia. This workshop was the second of its kind, with the first being held December 11-13, 2006, in Phoenix, Arizona. The 2011 workshop and associated workshop report were created to assess the current state of AMFC technology (taking into account recent advances), investigate the performance potential of AMFC systems across all possible power ranges and applications, and identify the key research needs for commercial competitiveness in a variety of areas.

  18. Fusion of Legionella pneumophila outer membrane vesicles with eukaryotic membrane systems is a mechanism to deliver pathogen factors to host cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Jens; Keese, Susanne; Roessle, Manfred; Steinert, Michael; Schromm, Andra B

    2015-05-01

    The formation and release of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) is a phenomenon observed in many bacteria, including Legionella pneumophila. During infection, this human pathogen primarily invades alveolar macrophages and replicates within a unique membrane-bound compartment termed Legionella-containing vacuole. In the current study, we analysed the membrane architecture of L.?pneumophila?OMVs by small-angle X-ray scattering and biophysically characterized OMV membranes. We investigated the interaction of L.?pneumophila?OMVs with model membranes by Förster resonance energy transfer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These experiments demonstrated the incorporation of OMV membrane material into liposomes composed of different eukaryotic phospholipids, revealing an endogenous property of OMVs to fuse with eukaryotic membranes. Cellular co-incubation experiments showed a dose- and time-dependent binding of fluorophore-labelled OMVs to macrophages. Trypan blue quenching experiments disclosed a rapid internalization of OMVs into macrophages at 37 and 4°C. Purified OMVs induced tumour necrosis factor-? production in human macrophages at concentrations starting at 300?ng?ml(-1) . Experiments on HEK293-TLR2 and TLR4/MD-2 cell lines demonstrated a dominance of TLR2-dependent signalling pathways. In summary, we demonstrate binding, internalization and biological activity of L.?pneumophila?OMVs on human macrophages. Our data support OMV membrane fusion as a mechanism for the remote delivery of virulence factors to host cells. PMID:25363599

  19. Engineered cell instructive matrices for fetal membrane healing.

    PubMed

    Kivelio, A; Ochsenbein-Koelble, N; Zimmermann, R; Ehrbar, M

    2015-03-01

    Iatrogenic preterm prelabour rupture of fetal membranes (iPPROM) occurs in 6-45% of the cases after fetoscopic procedures, posing a significant threat to fetal survival and well-being. The number of diagnostic and therapeutic prenatal interventions available is increasing, thus developing treatment options for iPPROM is becoming more important than ever before. Fetal membranes exhibit very restricted regeneration and little is known about factors which might modulate their healing potential, rendering various materials and strategies to seal or heal fetal membranes pursued over the past decades relatively fruitless. Additionally, biocompatible materials with tunable in vivo stability and mechanical and biological properties have not been available. Using poly(ethylene glycol)-based biomimetic matrices, we provide evidence that, upon presentation of appropriate biological cues in three dimensions, mesenchymal progenitor cells from the amnion can be mobilized, induced to proliferate and supported in maintaining their native extracellular matrix production, thus creating a suitable environment for healing to take place. These data suggest that engineering materials with defined mechanical and biochemical properties and the ability to present migration- and proliferation-inducing factors, such as platelet-derived growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor or epidermal growth factor, could be key in resolving the clinical problem of iPPROM and allowing the field of fetal surgery to move forward. PMID:25536031

  20. High-temperature proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells using an ether-containing polybenzimidazole membrane as electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Li, Xiaojin; Zhao, Yun; Lu, Wangting; Shao, Zhigang; Yi, Baolian

    2012-05-01

    Herein, poly[2,2'-(p-oxydiphenylene)-5,5'-benzimidazole] (PBI) is synthesized from 3,3'-diaminobenzidine and 4,4'-oxybisbenzoic acid, and the membrane is prepared by solvent casting. The main characteristics of PBI are studied. In the preparation of the PBI/H(3) PO(4) composite membrane, the absorbing temperature of H(3) PO(4) is 120?°C, which leads to a membrane with a high content of H(3) PO(4) . Membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) are fabricated from PBI/H(3) PO(4) membranes with the catalyst layer made of Pt/C, PBI, and polyvinylidene fluoride (230:12:7 w/w). The fabricated MEA is tested at 150?°C with dry hydrogen and oxygen gas at 0.2 MPa for both anode and cathode feeds. No degradation of voltage is seen during stability testing of the PBI/H(3) PO(4) membrane at a constant current for 100 h. The maximum power density is 1.17 W cm(-2) , and the maximum current density is 6.0 A cm(-2) with a Pt loading of 0.5 mg cm(-2) . The high performance of these membrane materials demonstrates that PBI can be regarded as an alternative membrane material for high-temperature proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells. PMID:22529063

  1. Formation of functional cell membrane domains: the interplay of lipid- and protein-mediated interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Harder, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Numerous cell membrane associated processes, including signal transduction, membrane sorting, protein processing and virus trafficking take place in membrane subdomains. Protein-protein interactions provide the frameworks necessary to generate biologically functional membrane domains. For example, coat proteins define membrane areas destined for sorting processes, viral proteins self-assemble to generate a budding virus, and adapter molecules organize multimolecular signalling assemblies, which catalyse downstream reactions. The concept of raft lipid-based membrane domains provides a different principle for compartmentalization and segregation of membrane constituents. Accordingly, rafts are defined by the physical properties of the lipid bilayer and function by selective partitioning of membrane lipids and proteins into membrane domains of specific phase behaviour and lipid packing. Here, I will discuss the interplay of these independent principles of protein scaffolds and raft lipid microdomains leading to the generation of biologically functional membrane domains. PMID:12803918

  2. Comparative studies of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack and single cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Deryn; Jiang, Rongzhong

    The polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was investigated comparatively as a single cell and a 30-cell stack. Various types of Nafion membranes, such as Nafion 117, 115, 112 and 105, were tested as electrolyte within the single cell and at different temperatures, among which Nafion 112 gave the optimal result. The 30-cell stack was evaluated at different humidities and temperatures. The potential-current and power-current curves, both for single cell and the stack, were analyzed by computer simulation, whereby the kinetic and mass-transfer parameters were calculated. The long-term performance of the stack and the water production during long-term operation were also measured.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL ELECTROCATALYST FOR PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2000-01-19

    Proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the strongest contenders as a power source for space & electric vehicle applications. Platinum catalyst is used for both fuel and air electrodes in PEMFCs. CO contamination of H{sub 2} greatly affects electrocatalysts used at the anode of polymer electrolyte fuel cells and decrease the cell performance. Pt-Ru catalyst had been recognized to alleviate this problem by showing better tolerance to CO poisoning than only Pt catalyst. This irreversible poisoning of the anode can be happened even in concentrations as little as a few ppm, and therefore, require expensive scrubbing to reduce the contaminant concentration to acceptable level. In order to commercialize this environmentally sound source of energy/power system, development of suitable impurity tolerant catalyst is needed. This project will develop novel electrocatalysts for the PEMFCs and demonstrate the feasibility of a H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} fuel cell base on these materials. This project, if successful, will reduce the costs due to reduce Pt catalyst loading or use non-precious metals. It will increase the PEM fuel cell performance by increasing catalyst tolerance to methanol oxidation intermediate products (CO) and fuel impurities (H{sub 2}S), which will generate substantial interest for commercialization of the PEM fuel cell technology.

  4. Small GTP-binding proteins in parietal cells: candidate modulators of parietal cell membrane dynamics.

    PubMed Central

    Goldenring, J. R.; Tang, L. H.; Modlin, I. M.

    1992-01-01

    The stimulated fusion of intracellular H/K-ATPase-containing tubulovesicles with a target canalicular membrane surface is central to the process of acid secretion. A super-family of small GTP-binding proteins (smGTPBPs) has been implicated in many aspects of intracellular dynamics and vesicle membrane trafficking. We have investigated the presence of smGTPBPs in isolated rabbit parietal cells. Parietal cells possess a number of smGTPBP species with molecular masses of 18-28 kDa. One 23 kDa smGTPBP has been localized to tubulovesicles and identified immunochemically as rab2. Rab2 redistributes during stimulation in concert with the movement of the H/K-ATPase. The results demonstrate that specific smGTPBPs are associated with the parietal cell secretory apparatus. Small GTP-binding proteins are important candidate regulators of parietal secretory membrane dynamics. Images FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:1341066

  5. Alloantibodies to a paternally derived RBC KEL antigen lead to hemolytic disease of the fetus/newborn in a murine model

    PubMed Central

    Stowell, Sean R.; Henry, Kate L.; Smith, Nicole H.; Hudson, Krystalyn E.; Halverson, Greg R.; Park, Jaekeun C.; Bennett, Ashley M.; Girard-Pierce, Kathryn R.; Arthur, C. Maridith; Bunting, Silvia T.; Zimring, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to nonself red blood cell (RBC) antigens, either from transfusion or pregnancy, may result in alloimmunization and incompatible RBC clearance. First described as a pregnancy complication 80 years ago, hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is caused by alloimmunization to paternally derived RBC antigens. Despite the morbidity/mortality of HDFN, women at risk for RBC alloimmunization have few therapeutic options. Given that alloantibodies to antigens in the KEL family are among the most clinically significant, we developed a murine model with RBC-specific expression of the human KEL antigen to evaluate the impact of maternal/fetal KEL incompatibility. After exposure to fetal KEL RBCs during successive pregnancies with KEL-positive males, 21 of 21 wild-type female mice developed anti-KEL alloantibodies; intrauterine fetal anemia and/or demise occurred in a subset of KEL-positive pups born to wild type, but not agammaglobulinemic mothers. Similar to previous observations in humans, pregnancy-associated alloantibodies were detrimental in a transfusion setting, and transfusion-associated alloantibodies were detrimental in a pregnancy setting. This is the first pregnancy-associated HDFN model described to date, which will serve as a platform to develop targeted therapies to prevent and/or mitigate the dangers of RBC alloantibodies to fetuses and newborns. PMID:23801629

  6. Front-to-Rear Membrane Tension Gradient in Rapidly Moving Cells.

    PubMed

    Lieber, Arnon D; Schweitzer, Yonatan; Kozlov, Michael M; Keren, Kinneret

    2015-04-01

    Membrane tension is becoming recognized as an important mechanical regulator of motile cell behavior. Although membrane-tension measurements have been performed in various cell types, the tension distribution along the plasma membrane of motile cells has been largely unexplored. Here, we present an experimental study of the distribution of tension in the plasma membrane of rapidly moving fish epithelial keratocytes. We find that during steady movement the apparent membrane tension is ?30% higher at the leading edge than at the trailing edge. Similar tension differences between the front and the rear of the cell are found in keratocyte fragments that lack a cell body. This front-to-rear tension variation likely reflects a tension gradient developed in the plasma membrane along the direction of movement due to viscous friction between the membrane and the cytoskeleton-attached protein anchors embedded in the membrane matrix. Theoretical modeling allows us to estimate the area density of these membrane anchors. Overall, our results indicate that even though membrane tension equilibrates rapidly and mechanically couples local boundary dynamics over cellular scales, steady-state variations in tension can exist in the plasma membranes of moving cells. PMID:25863051

  7. Hydrogen production using single-chamber membrane-free microbial electrolysis cells

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    Hydrogen production using single-chamber membrane-free microbial electrolysis cells Hongqiang Hu electrolysis cells (MECs) Membrane-free Methanogens Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 a b s t r a c t Microbial the reported microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) to separate the anode and cathode chambers. To reduce

  8. Control of the mass and energy dynamics of polybenzimidazole-membrane fuel cells

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Control of the mass and energy dynamics of polybenzimidazole-membrane fuel cells Federico Zenith-temperature proton- exchange-membrane fuel cell are investigated. For a particular configuration, three lumped the necessary conditions for the fuel-cell stack to operate. It is possible to control temperature by using only

  9. Growth of Pt nanoparticle for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells by

    E-print Network

    PEMFC Growth of Pt nanoparticle for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells at anode side of a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell. With a Pt loading of 25 g-Pt/cm2 , current of the electrochemical test result and fuel cell performance agree with each other. Key word : Pulsed laser deposition

  10. CCMR: Inorganic Modification of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patterson, Kristin M.

    2004-08-17

    This project is to further develop new polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cell applications. Of the five different types of fuel cells, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC’s) use a thin polymer film. In this project, we look into using different nanocomposites for the polymer electrolyte rather than just a simple polymer.

  11. Membrane hydration correlates to cellular biophysics during freezing in mammalian cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saravana K. Balasubramanian; Willem F. Wolkers; John C. Bischof

    2009-01-01

    Cell survival during freezing applications in biomedicine is highly correlated to the temperature history and its dependent cellular biophysical events of dehydration and intracellular ice formation (IIF). Although cell membranes are known to play a significant role in cell injury, a clear correlation between the membrane state and the surrounding intracellular and extracellular water is still lacking. We previously showed

  12. On the use of gamma irradiation crosslinked PVA membranes in hydrogen fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir M. Nikolic; Aleksandra Krkljes; Zorica Kacarevic Popovic; Zoran V. Lausevic; Scepan S. Miljanic

    2007-01-01

    There is growing interest in the use of fuel cells (FC) with hydrogen as the main fuel for stationary, mobile, and transportation applications. In the FC concept membranes play increasingly important roles. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are considered as the most promising fuel cell technology for a wide range of applications due to the stable operation, the high

  13. Recent progress in direct ethanol proton exchange membrane fuel cells (DE-PEMFCs)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuqin Song; Panagiotis Tsiakaras

    2006-01-01

    Direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) belong to the family of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), in which ethanol is directly used as the fuel. In the present work, the main aspects related to DEFCs such as electrocatalysts, membrane electrode assembly (MEA) preparation and their corresponding effects on the total cell performance are summarized and discussed. Furthermore, the issues about

  14. Solid polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cell applications—a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Smitha; S. Sridhar; A. A. Khan

    2005-01-01

    Fuel cells represent a clean alternative to current technologies for utilizing hydrocarbon fuel resources. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have acquired due importance as they are best suited for applications where a quick start up is required such as in automobiles. The prime requirements of fuel cell membranes are high proton conductivity, low methanol\\/water permeability, good mechanical and thermal

  15. Electricity generation using membrane and salt bridge microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Min, Booki; Cheng, Shaoan; Logan, Bruce E

    2005-05-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can be used to directly generate electricity from the oxidation of dissolved organic matter, but optimization of MFCs will require that we know more about the factors that can increase power output such as the type of proton exchange system which can affect the system internal resistance. Power output in a MFC containing a proton exchange membrane was compared using a pure culture (Geobacter metallireducens) or a mixed culture (wastewater inoculum). Power output with either inoculum was essentially the same, with 40+/-1mW/m2 for G. metallireducens and 38+/-1mW/m2 for the wastewater inoculum. We also examined power output in a MFC with a salt bridge instead of a membrane system. Power output by the salt bridge MFC (inoculated with G. metallireducens) was 2.2mW/m2. The low power output was directly attributed to the higher internal resistance of the salt bridge system (19920+/-50 Ohms) compared to that of the membrane system (1286+/-1Ohms) based on measurements using impedance spectroscopy. In both systems, it was observed that oxygen diffusion from the cathode chamber into the anode chamber was a factor in power generation. Nitrogen gas sparging, L-cysteine (a chemical oxygen scavenger), or suspended cells (biological oxygen scavenger) were used to limit the effects of gas diffusion into the anode chamber. Nitrogen gas sparging, for example, increased overall Coulombic efficiency (47% or 55%) compared to that obtained without gas sparging (19%). These results show that increasing power densities in MFCs will require reducing the internal resistance of the system, and that methods are needed to control the dissolved oxygen flux into the anode chamber in order to increase overall Coulombic efficiency. PMID:15899266

  16. HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER AND TWO PHASE FLOW IN HYDROGEN PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS AND DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELLS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chong Fang; Mao Hai; Hang GUO

    Fuel cells are related to a number of scientific and engineering disciplines, which include electrochemistry, catalysis, membrane science and engineering, heat and mass transfer, thermodynamics and so on. Several thermophysical phenomena such as heat transfer, multicomponent transport and two phase flow play significant roles in hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells based on solid polymer

  17. Cell Division and Targeted Cell Cycle Arrest Opens and Stabilizes Basement Membrane Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Matus, David Q.; Chang, Emily; Makohon-Moore, Sasha C.; Hagedorn, Mary A.; Chi, Qiuyi; Sherwood, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Large gaps in basement membrane (BM) occur during organ remodeling and cancer cell invasion. Whether dividing cells, which temporarily reduce their attachment to BM, influence these breaches is unknown. Here we analyse uterine-vulval attachment during development across 21 species of rhabditid nematodes and find that the BM gap that forms between these organs is always bounded by a non-dividing vulval cell. Through cell cycle manipulation and live cell imaging in Caenorhabditis elegans, we show that actively dividing vulval cells facilitate enlargement of this breach by promoting BM movement. In contrast, targeted cell-cycle arrest halts BM movement and limits gap opening. Further, we demonstrate that the BM component laminin accumulates at the BM gap edge and promotes increased integrin levels in non-dividing vulval cells, stabilizing gap position. Together, these studies reveal that cell division can be used as a mechanism to regulate BM breaches, thus controlling the exchange of cells between tissues. PMID:24924309

  18. Cell-Culture Reactor Having a Porous Organic Polymer Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A method for making a biocompatible polymer article using a uniform atomic oxygen treatment is disclosed. The substrate may be subsequently optionally grated with a compatibilizing compound. Compatibilizing compounds may include proteins, phosphory1choline groups, platelet adhesion preventing polymers, albumin adhesion promoters, and the like. The compatibilized substrate may also have a living cell layer adhered thereto. The atomic oxygen is preferably produced by a flowing afterglow microwave discharge, wherein the substrate resides in a sidearm out of the plasma. Also, methods for culturing cells for various purposes using the various membranes are disclosed as well. Also disclosed are porous organic polymers having a distributed pore chemistry (DPC) comprising hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions, and a method for making the DPC by exposing the polymer to atomic oxygen wherein the rate of hydrophilization is greater than the rate of mass loss.

  19. Bending elasticities of model membranes: influences of temperature and sterol content.

    PubMed Central

    Méléard, P; Gerbeaud, C; Pott, T; Fernandez-Puente, L; Bivas, I; Mitov, M D; Dufourcq, J; Bothorel, P

    1997-01-01

    Giant liposomes obtained by electroformation and observed by phase-contrast video microscopy show spontaneous deformations originating from Brownian motion that are characterized, in the case of quasispherical vesicles, by two parameters only, the membrane tension sigma and the bending elasticity k(c). For liposomes containing dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) or a 10 mol% cholesterol/DMPC mixture, the mechanical property of the membrane, k(c), is shown to be temperature dependent on approaching the main (thermotropic) phase transition temperature T(m). In the case of DMPC/cholesterol bilayers, we also obtained evidence for a relation between the bending elasticity and the corresponding temperature/cholesterol molecular ratio phase diagram. Comparison of DMPC/cholesterol with DMPC/cholesterol sulfate bilayers at 30 degrees C containing 30% sterol ratio shows that k(c) is independent of the surface charge density of the bilayer. Finally, bending elasticities of red blood cell (RBC) total lipid extracts lead to a very low k(c) at 37 degrees C if we refer to DMPC/cholesterol bilayers. At 25 degrees C, the very low bending elasticity of a cholesterol-free RBC lipid extract seems to be related to a phase coexistence, as it can be observed by solid-state (31)P-NMR. At the same temperature, the cholesterol-containing RBC lipid extract membrane shows an increase in the bending constant comparable to the one observed for a high cholesterol ratio in DMPC membranes. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 7 PMID:9168037

  20. ATP and ADP hydrolysis in cell membranes from rat myometrium.

    PubMed

    Miloševi?, Maja; Petrovi?, Snježana; Veli?kovi?, Nataša; Grkovi?, Ivana; Ignjatovi?, Marija; Horvat, Anica

    2012-12-01

    Extracellular nucleotides affect female reproductive functions, fertilization, and pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate biochemical characteristics of ATP and ADP hydrolysis and identify E-NTPDases in myometrial cell membranes from Wistar albino rats. The apparent K (m) values were 506.4 ± 62.1 and 638.8 ± 31.3 ?M, with a calculated V (max) (app) of 3,973.0 ± 279.5 and 2,853.9 ± 79.8 nmol/min/mg for ATP and ADP, respectively. The enzyme activity described here has common properties characteristic for NTPDases: divalent cation dependence; alkaline pH optimum for both substrates, insensitivity to some of classical ATPase inhibitors (ouabain, oligomycine, theophylline, levamisole) and significant inhibition by suramine and high concentration of sodium azides (5 mM). According to similar apparent K(m) values for both substrates, the ATP/ADP hydrolysis ratio, and Chevillard competition plot, NTPDase1 is dominant ATP/ADP hydrolyzing enzyme in myometrial cell membranes. RT-PCR analysis revealed expression of three members of ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase family (NTPDase 1, 2, and 8) in rat uterus. These findings may further elucidate the role of NTPDases and ATP in reproductive physiology. PMID:22956447

  1. Interaction between weak low frequency magnetic fields and cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Bauréus Koch, C L M; Sommarin, M; Persson, B R R; Salford, L G; Eberhardt, J L

    2003-09-01

    The question of whether very weak low frequency magnetic fields can affect biological systems, has attracted attention by many research groups for quite some time. Still, today, the theoretical possibility of such an interaction is often questioned and the site of interaction in the cell is unknown. In the present study, the influence of extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields on the transport of Ca(2+) was studied in a biological system consisting of highly purified plasma membrane vesicles. We tested two quantum mechanical theoretical models that assume that biologically active ions can be bound to a channel protein and influence the opening state of the channel. Vesicles were exposed for 30 min at 32 degrees C and the calcium efflux was studied using radioactive (45)Ca as a tracer. Static magnetic fields ranging from 27 to 37 micro T and time varying magnetic fields with frequencies between 7 and 72 Hz and amplitudes between 13 and 114 micro T (peak) were used. We show that suitable combinations of static and time varying magnetic fields directly interact with the Ca(2+) channel protein in the cell membrane, and we could quantitatively confirm the model proposed by Blanchard. PMID:12929158

  2. Single-cell force spectroscopy as a technique to quantify human red blood cell adhesion to subendothelial laminin.

    PubMed

    Maciaszek, Jamie L; Partola, Kostyantyn; Zhang, Jing; Andemariam, Biree; Lykotrafitis, George

    2014-12-18

    Single-cell force spectroscopy (SCFS), an atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based assay, enables quantitative study of cell adhesion while maintaining the native state of surface receptors in physiological conditions. Human healthy and pathological red blood cells (RBCs) express a large number of surface proteins which mediate cell-cell interactions, or cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix. In particular, RBCs adhere with high affinity to subendothelial matrix laminin via the basal cell adhesion molecule and Lutheran protein (BCAM/Lu). Here, we established SCFS as an in vitro technique to study human RBC adhesion at baseline and following biochemical treatment. Using blood obtained from healthy human subjects, we recorded adhesion forces from single RBCs attached to AFM cantilevers as the cell was pulled-off of substrates coated with laminin protein. We found that an increase in the overall cell adhesion measured via SCFS is correlated with an increase in the resultant total force measured on 1 µm(2) areas of the RBC membrane. Further, we showed that SCFS can detect significant changes in the adhesive response of RBCs to modulation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. Lastly, we identified variability in the RBC adhesion force to laminin amongst the human subjects, suggesting that RBCs maintain diverse levels of active BCAM/Lu adhesion receptors. By using single-cell measurements, we established a powerful new method for the quantitative measurement of single RBC adhesion with specific receptor-mediated binding. PMID:25458578

  3. Gallbladder visualization during technetium-99m RBC blood pool imaging. Case report and literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Kotlyarov, E.V.; Mattay, V.S.; Reba, R.C.

    1988-07-01

    Gallbladder visualization occurred after a Tc-99m red blood cell (RBC) cardiac gated blood pool scan. To date, seven cases of gallbladder visualization after the intravenous injection of Tc-99m RBCs have been reported. In the previous six patients the gallbladder was visualized incidentally during a search for gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. All of the patients were anemic, six of seven had chronic renal failure, and five of seven had received multiple blood transfusions. When interpreting GI bleeding scans in patients with anemia and renal failure, awareness of the possibility of gallbladder visualization in the delayed images is important to avoid false-positive results. 3 references.

  4. A quantitative immunoelectronmicroscopic study on soluble, membrane-associated and membrane-bound lysosomal enzymes in human intestinal epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Willemsen; R. Brünken; C. W. J. Sorber; A. T. Hoogeveen; H. A. Wisselaar; J. M. van Dongen; A. J. J. Reuser

    1991-01-01

    Summary  We have used quantitative immunoelectronmicroscopy to compare thein situ localization of acid -glucosidase, lysosomal acid phosphatase, -hexosaminidase and glucocerebrosidase in intestinal epithelial cells of the human duodenum. Differences between these four lysosomal enzymes were observed with respect to their presence at the apical cell surface. Transport to the apical membrane seems to be a more important intracellular route for lysosomal

  5. Relative humidity control in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells without extra humidification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis A. M. Riascos

    2008-01-01

    The performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells is highly influenced by the water content in the membrane. To prevent the membrane from drying, several researchers have proposed extra humidification on the input reactants. But in some applications, the extra size and weight of the humidifier should be avoided. In this research a control technique, which maintains the relative humidity

  6. Effects of Chlorpromazine on Mechanical Properties of the Outer Hair Cell Plasma Membrane

    E-print Network

    Popel, Aleksander S.

    Effects of Chlorpromazine on Mechanical Properties of the Outer Hair Cell Plasma Membrane David R (OHC) through the formation of plasma membrane tethers. Such tethers exhibited force relaxation when in overall tether forces implies a common basis for the drug's effects, the plasma membrane

  7. Hydrogen production using single-chamber membrane-free microbial electrolysis cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongqiang Hu; Yanzhen Fan; Hong Liu

    2008-01-01

    Microbial electrohydrogenesis provides a new approach for hydrogen generation from renewable biomass. Membranes were used in all the reported microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) to separate the anode and cathode chambers. To reduce the potential losses associated with membrane and increase the energy recovery of this process, single-chamber membrane-free MECs were designed and used to investigate hydrogen production by one mixed

  8. A sandwich structured membrane for direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat methanol

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Tianshou

    A sandwich structured membrane for direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat methanol Q.X. Wu i g h t s " A sandwich structured membrane for DMFCs operating with neat methanol is proposed. " The membrane offers better water management for DMFCs operating with neat methanol. " The sandwich structured

  9. Direct deposit of catalyst on the membrane of direct feed fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chun, William (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor); Linke, Juergen (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An improved direct liquid-feed fuel cell having a solid membrane electrolyte for electrochemical reactions of an organic fuel. Catalyst utilization and catalyst/membrane interface improvements are disclosed. Specifically, the catalyst layer is applied directly onto the membrane electrolyte.

  10. Basement Membrane Matrix Modifies Cytokine Interactions between Lung Cancer Cells and Fibroblasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takumi Akashi; Junko Minami; Yuki Ishige; Yoshinobu Eishi; Touichiro Takizawa; Morio Koike; Masaki Yanagishita

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Proliferation of fibroblasts (desmoplastic reaction) in the lung adenocarcinomas is an important phenomenon that correlates with metastases and poor prognosis. Because basement membranes are often involved in the desmoplastic areas and many cytokines have binding capacity to basement membrane molecules, we hypothesized that basement membrane modify the paracrine effects between cancer cells and fibroblasts via the fibrogenic cytokines and

  11. High temperature proton exchange membranes based on polybenzimidazoles for fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qingfeng Li; Jens Oluf Jensen; Robert F. Savinell; Niels J. Bjerrum

    2009-01-01

    To achieve high temperature operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), preferably under ambient pressure, acid–base polymer membranes represent an effective approach. The phosphoric acid-doped polybenzimidazole membrane seems so far the most successful system in the field. It has in recent years motivated extensive research activities with great progress. This treatise is devoted to updating the development, covering polymer

  12. Effects of Some Transmitters on Resting Membrane Potential of Somatic Cell in Lumbricus terrestris Muscle Wall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Volkov; L. F. Nurullin; S. N. Grishin; A. L. Zefirov

    2003-01-01

    Serotonin, glutamate, glycine, ATP, and muscarine had no effect on resting membrane potential of muscle cell in earthworm Lumbricus terrestris. Nicotine depolarizes and GABA hyperpolarizes the muscle membrane. Removal of K+, Cl- and addition of ouabaine and strychnine to the solution abolished the effect of GABA. The authors conclude that the Lumbricus terrestris myocyte membrane contains nicotine receptors and GABAergic

  13. DRAM Triggers Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization and Cell Death in CD4+ T Cells Infected with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Laforge, Mireille; Limou, Sophie; Harper, Francis; Casartelli, Nicoletta; Rodrigues, Vasco; Silvestre, Ricardo; Haloui, Houda; Zagury, Jean-Francois; Senik, Anna; Estaquier, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    Productive HIV infection of CD4+ T cells leads to a caspase-independent cell death pathway associated with lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and cathepsin release, resulting in mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). Herein, we demonstrate that HIV infection induces damage-regulated autophagy modulator (DRAM) expression in a p53-dependent manner. Knocking down the expression of DRAM and p53 genes with specific siRNAs inhibited autophagy and LMP. However, inhibition of Atg5 and Beclin genes that prevents autophagy had a minor effect on LMP and cell death. The knock down of DRAM gene inhibited cytochrome C release, MOMP and cell death. However, knocking down DRAM, we increased viral infection and production. Our study shows for the first time the involvement of DRAM in host-pathogen interactions, which may represent a mechanism of defense via the elimination of infected cells. PMID:23658518

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL ELECTROCATALYSTS FOR PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2002-06-11

    The Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is one of the most promising power sources for stand-alone utility and electric vehicle applications. Platinum (Pt) Catalyst is used for both fuel and air electrodes in PEMFCs. However, carbon monoxide (CO) contamination of H{sub 2} greatly affects electro catalysts used at the anode of PEMFCs and decreases cell performance. The irreversible poisoning of the anode can occur even in CO concentrations as low as few parts per million (ppm). In this work, we have synthesized several novel elctrocatalysts (Pt/C, Pt/Ru/C, Pt/Mo/C, Pt/Ir and Pt/Ru/Mo) for PEMFCs. These catalysts have been tested for CO tolerance in the H{sub 2}/air fuel cell, using CO concentrations in the H{sub 2} fuel that varies from 10 to 100 ppm. The performance of the electrodes was evaluated by determining the cell potential against current density. The effects of catalyst composition and electrode film preparation method on the performance of PEM fuel cell were also studied. It was found that at 70 C and 3.5 atm pressure at the cathode, Pt-alloy catalyst (10 wt% Pt/Ru/C, 20 wt% Pt/Mo/C) were more CO tolerant than the 20 wt% Pt/C catalyst alone. It was also observed that spraying method was better than the brushing technique for the preparation of electrode film.

  15. Establishment of endogenous human tympanic membrane-derived somatic stem cells for stem cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi Young; Park, Kyoung Ho

    2014-09-01

    We examined whether somatic stem cells (SSCs) exist in human tympanis membrane (hTM) and whether they could be differentiated into neural lineage cells. The hTM-SSCs could generate neurospheres, which could differentiate into specific neural linage cells under specific differentiation conditions. Also, we conducted another experiment that led to differentiation into neurospheres and neuronal lineage cells, which occurred independent of each other. Independent of each other condition, hTM-SSCs could differentiate into neurospheres, and subsequently, into neuronal lineage cells. However, NS-NR neural differentiation rates are higher than independent of each other culture system. PMID:24771506

  16. Enhancement of the fuel cell performance of a high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell running with titanium composite polybenzimidazole-based membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobato, Justo; Cañizares, Pablo; Rodrigo, Manuel A.; Úbeda, Diego; Pinar, F. Javier

    2011-10-01

    The fuel cell performance of a composite PBI-based membrane with TiO2 has been studied. The behaviour of the membrane has been evaluated by comparison with the fuel cell performance of other PBI-based membranes, all of which were cast from the same polymer with the same molecular weight. The PBI composite membrane incorporating TiO2 showed the best performance and reached 1000 mW cm-2 at 175 °C. Moreover, this new titanium composite PBI-based membrane also showed the best stability during the preliminary long-term test under our operation conditions. Thus, the slope of the increase in the ohmic resistance of the composite membrane was 0.041 m? cm2 h-1 and this is five times lower than that of the standard PBI membrane. The increased stability was due to the high phosphoric acid retention capacity - as confirmed during leaching tests, in which the Ti-based composite PBI membrane retained 5 mol of H3PO4/PBI r.u. whereas the PBI standard membrane only retained 1 mol H3PO4/PBI r.u. Taking into account the results obtained in this study, the TiO2-PBI based membranes are good candidates as electrolytes for high temperature PEMFCs.

  17. Lipid-protein interactions in plasma membranes of fiber cells isolated from the human eye lens.

    PubMed

    Raguz, Marija; Mainali, Laxman; O'Brien, William J; Subczynski, Witold K

    2014-03-01

    The protein content in human lens membranes is extremely high, increases with age, and is higher in the nucleus as compared with the cortex, which should strongly affect the organization and properties of the lipid bilayer portion of intact membranes. To assess these effects, the intact cortical and nuclear fiber cell plasma membranes isolated from human lenses from 41- to 60-year-old donors were studied using electron paramagnetic resonance spin-labeling methods. Results were compared with those obtained for lens lipid membranes prepared from total lipid extracts from human eyes of the same age group [Mainali, L., Raguz, M., O'Brien, W. J., and Subczynski, W. K. (2013) Biochim. Biophys. Acta]. Differences were considered to be mainly due to the effect of membrane proteins. The lipid-bilayer portions of intact membranes were significantly less fluid than lipid bilayers of lens lipid membranes, prepared without proteins. The intact membranes were found to contain three distinct lipid environments termed the bulk lipid domain, boundary lipid domain, and trapped lipid domain. However, the cholesterol bilayer domain, which was detected in cortical and nuclear lens lipid membranes, was not detected in intact membranes. The relative amounts of bulk and trapped lipids were evaluated. The amount of lipids in domains uniquely formed due to the presence of membrane proteins was greater in nuclear membranes than in cortical membranes. Thus, it is evident that the rigidity of nuclear membranes is greater than that of cortical membranes. Also the permeability coefficients for oxygen measured in domains of nuclear membranes were significantly lower than appropriate coefficients measured in cortical membranes. Relationships between the organization of lipids into lipid domains in fiber cells plasma membranes and the organization of membrane proteins are discussed. PMID:24486794

  18. Transport of Small Molecules Across Cell Membranes: Water Channels and Urea Transporters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Barbara E. Goodman (University of South Dakota School of Medicine Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences)

    2002-09-01

    How do small hydrophilic nonelectrolytes cross cell membranes? Which pathways are most important for small lipid insoluble molecules to cross cell membranes? These are questions that have been basic to membrane transport physiology for decades. More importantly, these are questions whose answers have changed significantly within the last 10 years. This review discusses the evidence that pathways other than the lipid bilayer itself exist for the transport across cell membranes of specific small hydrophilic nonelectrolytes. The description begins with briefly analyzing the relevance of well accepted basic mathematical models for transport for understanding the permeability of representative physiologically important molecules across actual cell membranes. Particular emphasis is placed on describing recently discovered proteins that facilitate the transport of some of the smallest physiologically important lipid-insoluble molecules, water, and urea. Evidence also exists for transport proteins that selectively enhance the transmembrane transport of other small lipid-insoluble molecules. Do nonselective pores for small molecules exist in cell membranes?

  19. Operation of a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell under non-humidified conditions using thin cast Nafion membranes with different gas-diffusion media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Vengatesan; H.-J. Kim; E. A. Cho; S. U. Jeong; H. Y. Ha; I.-H. Oh; S.-A. Hong; T.-H. Lim

    2006-01-01

    Thin membranes in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) enhance the back diffusion of water from cathode to anode and allow operation of the PEMFC under dry conditions. In this work, thin cast Nafion membranes are prepared to operate the PEMFC under non-humidified conditions at various temperatures. Also, the effect of gas-diffusion media (GDM) on cell performance is examined using

  20. Development of a living membrane comprising a functional human renal proximal tubule cell monolayer on polyethersulfone polymeric membrane.

    PubMed

    Schophuizen, Carolien M S; De Napoli, Ilaria E; Jansen, Jitske; Teixeira, Sandra; Wilmer, Martijn J; Hoenderop, Joost G J; Van den Heuvel, Lambert P W; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Stamatialis, Dimitrios

    2015-03-01

    The need for improved renal replacement therapies has stimulated innovative research for the development of a cell-based renal assist device. A key requirement for such a device is the formation of a "living membrane", consisting of a tight kidney cell monolayer with preserved functional organic ion transporters on a suitable artificial membrane surface. In this work, we applied a unique conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell (ciPTEC) line with an optimized coating strategy on polyethersulfone (PES) membranes to develop a living membrane with a functional proximal tubule epithelial cell layer. PES membranes were coated with combinations of 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine and human collagen IV (Coll IV). The optimal coating time and concentrations were determined to achieve retention of vital blood components while preserving high water transport and optimal ciPTEC adhesion. The ciPTEC monolayers obtained were examined through immunocytochemistry to detect zona occludens 1 tight junction proteins. Reproducible monolayers were formed when using a combination of 2 mg ml(-1) 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (4 min coating, 1h dissolution) and 25 ?g ml(-1) Coll IV (4 min coating). The successful transport of (14)C-creatinine through the developed living membrane system was used as an indication for organic cation transporter functionality. The addition of metformin or cimetidine significantly reduced the creatinine transepithelial flux, indicating active creatinine uptake in ciPTECs, most likely mediated by the organic cation transporter, OCT2 (SLC22A2). In conclusion, this study shows the successful development of a living membrane consisting of a reproducible ciPTEC monolayer on PES membranes, an important step towards the development of a bioartificial kidney. PMID:25527093

  1. Hybrid Nafion–inorganic oxides membrane doped with heteropolyacids for high temperature operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi-Gang Shao; Hongfeng Xu; Mingqiang Li; I-Ming Hsing

    2006-01-01

    Performance of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) with composite Nafion–inorganic additives such as silicon oxide (SiO2), titanium dioxide (TiO2), tungsten oxide (WO3), and SiO2\\/phosphotungstic acid (PWA) has been studied for the operation of temperature of above 100 °C. These composite membranes are prepared by the way of blending of the inorganic oxides with Nafion solution by the recasting

  2. Restoration of "normal" membrane function in CLL cells by patients' serum.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, C M; Pegrum, G D

    1977-01-01

    Direct labelling of cell surface protein with 125I has enabled measurements to be made of lymphocyte membrane turnover. In CLL cells this is evidently much retarded in comparison with normal lymphocytes and it was thought that slow replacement of cell surface proteins might be responsible both for lack of membrane mobility and poor immunological responses. Serum from CLL patients has been found to enhance viability of the leukaemic cells in culture and the interaction of these serum factors with the CLL cell membrane gives rise to rapid replacement of surface proteins. Thus the rate of membrane turnover in vivo would be comparable with that of normal lymphocytes. Lack of cell-surface mobility and poor membrane biosynthesis can not be held responsible for poor immunological activity in vivo and it is suggested that autoimmune antibodies binding to the surface of CLL cells may spatially inhibit activation by ligands. PMID:849658

  3. Effects of pretreatments on transport properties of fuel cell membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Zawodzinski, T.A. Jr.; Han, A.; Minnema, M.; Valerio, J.; Gottesfeld, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Various perfluorosulfonic acid membranes have been treated by immersion in glycerol at elevated temperatures. When exposed to temperatures above a certain threshold, the water uptake by these membranes increases substantially. Water diffusion rates also increase. However, membrane protonic conductivity appears to decrease at high degrees of membrane swelling.

  4. Stem cells from fetal membranes and amniotic fluid: markers for cell isolation and therapy.

    PubMed

    Pozzobon, Michela; Piccoli, Martina; De Coppi, Paolo

    2014-06-01

    Stem cell therapy is in constant need of new cell sources to conceive regenerative medicine approaches for diseases that are still without therapy. Scientists drew the attention toward amniotic membrane and amniotic fluid stem cells, since these sources possess many advantages: first of all as cells can be extracted from discarded foetal material it is inexpensive, secondly abundant stem cells can be obtained and finally, these stem cell sources are free from ethical considerations. Many studies have demonstrated the differentiation potential in vitro and in vivo toward mesenchymal and non-mesenchymal cell types; in addition the immune-modulatory properties make these cells a good candidate for allo- and xenotransplantation. This review offers an overview on markers characterisation and on the latest findings in pre-clinical or clinical setting of the stem cell populations isolated from these sources. PMID:24554400

  5. Characterization of the Small Exported Plasmodium falciparum Membrane Protein SEMP1

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Olivier; Rusch, Sebastian; Brand, Françoise; Mundwiler-Pachlatko, Esther; Gaida, Annette; Voss, Till; Beck, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Survival and virulence of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum during the blood stage of infection critically depend on extensive host cell refurbishments mediated through export of numerous parasite proteins into the host cell. The parasite-derived membranous structures called Maurer's clefts (MC) play an important role in protein trafficking from the parasite to the red blood cell membrane. However, their specific function has yet to be determined. We identified and characterized a new MC membrane protein, termed small exported membrane protein 1 (SEMP1). Upon invasion it is exported into the RBC cytosol where it inserts into the MCs before it is partly translocated to the RBC membrane. Using conventional and conditional loss-of-function approaches we showed that SEMP1 is not essential for parasite survival, gametocytogenesis, or PfEMP1 export under culture conditions. Co-IP experiments identified several potential interaction partners, including REX1 and other membrane-associated proteins that were confirmed to co-localize with SEMP1 at MCs. Transcriptome analysis further showed that expression of a number of exported parasite proteins was up-regulated in SEMP1-depleted parasites. By using Co-IP and transcriptome analysis for functional characterization of an exported parasite protein we provide a new starting point for further detailed dissection and characterisation of MC-associated protein complexes. PMID:25062022

  6. The tripartite type III secreton of Shigella flexneri inserts IpaB and IpaC into host membranes.

    PubMed

    Blocker, A; Gounon, P; Larquet, E; Niebuhr, K; Cabiaux, V; Parsot, C; Sansonetti, P

    1999-11-01

    Bacterial type III secretion systems serve to translocate proteins into eukaryotic cells, requiring a secreton and a translocator for proteins to pass the bacterial and host membranes. We used the contact hemolytic activity of Shigella flexneri to investigate its putative translocator. Hemolysis was caused by formation of a 25-A pore within the red blood cell (RBC) membrane. Of the five proteins secreted by Shigella upon activation of its type III secretion system, only the hydrophobic IpaB and IpaC were tightly associated with RBC membranes isolated after hemolysis. Ipa protein secretion and hemolysis were kinetically coupled processes. However, Ipa protein secretion in the immediate vicinity of RBCs was not sufficient to cause hemolysis in the absence of centrifugation. Centrifugation reduced the distance between bacterial and RBC membranes beyond a critical threshold. Electron microscopy analysis indicated that secretons were constitutively assembled at 37 degrees C before any host contact. They were composed of three parts: (a) an external needle, (b) a neck domain, and (c) a large proximal bulb. Secreton morphology did not change upon activation of secretion. In mutants of some genes encoding the secretion machinery the organelle was absent, whereas ipaB and ipaC mutants displayed normal secretons. PMID:10545510

  7. Water-Free Proton-Conducting Membranes for Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Yen, Shiao-Pin

    2007-01-01

    Poly-4-vinylpyridinebisulfate (P4VPBS) is a polymeric salt that has shown promise as a water-free proton-conducting material (solid electrolyte) suitable for use in membrane/electrode assemblies in fuel cells. Heretofore, proton-conducting membranes in fuel cells have been made from perfluorinated ionomers that cannot conduct protons in the absence of water and, consequently, cannot function at temperatures >100 C. In addition, the stability of perfluorinated ionomers at temperatures >100 C is questionable. However, the performances of fuel cells of the power systems of which they are parts could be improved if operating temperatures could be raised above 140 C. What is needed to make this possible is a solid-electrolyte material, such as P4VPBS, that can be cast into membranes and that both retains proton conductivity and remains stable in the desired higher operating temperature range. A family of solid-electrolyte materials different from P4VPBS was described in Anhydrous Proton-Conducting Membranes for Fuel Cells (NPO-30493), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 8 (August 2005), page 48. Those materials notably include polymeric quaternized amine salts. If molecules of such a polymeric salt could be endowed with flexible chain structures, it would be possible to overcome the deficiencies of simple organic amine salts that must melt before being able to conduct protons. However, no polymeric quaternized amine salts have yet shown to be useful in this respect. The present solid electrolyte is made by quaternizing the linear polymer poly- 4-vinylpyridine (P4VP) to obtain P4VPBS. It is important to start with P4VP having a molecular weight of 160,000 daltons because P4VPBS made from lower-molecular-weight P4VP yields brittle membranes. In an experimental synthesis, P4VP was dissolved in methanol and then reacted with an excess of sulfuric acid to precipitate P4VPBS. The precipitate was recovered, washed several times with methanol to remove traces of acid, and dried to a white granular solid. In another synthesis, nanoparticles of silica rich with surface hydroxyl groups were added to P4VP in methanol solution, which was then reacted with excess sulfuric acid to precipitate granules of a composite that most probably had the composition (P4VPBS)-SiO2-SiO(HSO4)2. The granular P4VPBS produced in the first-mentioned synthesis was dissolved in water to make a glue-like, turbid solution; the granular P4VPBS/silica composite produced in the second-mentioned synthesis was mixed with water to make a turbid, glue-like suspension. The proportions of polymer salt to water in such preparations can be varied; it was found that approximately equal parts of water and polymer salt yield a solution or suspension amenable to further processing.

  8. Manipulation of cell membrane using carbon nanotube scaffold as a photoresponsive stimuli generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sada, Takao; Fujigaya, Tsuyohiko; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2014-08-01

    We describe, for the first time, the perforation of the cell membrane in the targeted single cell based on the nanosecond pulsed near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation of a thin film of carbon nanotubes that act as an effective photon absorber as well as stimuli generator. When the power of NIR laser is over 17.5 ?J/pulse, the cell membrane after irradiation is irreversibly disrupted and results in cell death. In sharp contrast, the perforation of the cell membrane occurs at suitable laser power (˜15 ?J/pulse) without involving cell termination.

  9. Super-resolution fluorescence imaging of organelles in live cells with photoswitchable membrane probes

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Sang-Hee; Xia, Chenglong; Zhong, Guisheng; Babcock, Hazen P.; Vaughan, Joshua C.; Huang, Bo; Wang, Xun; Xu, Cheng; Bi, Guo-Qiang; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2012-01-01

    Imaging membranes in live cells with nanometer-scale resolution promises to reveal ultrastructural dynamics of organelles that are essential for cellular functions. In this work, we identified photoswitchable membrane probes and obtained super-resolution fluorescence images of cellular membranes. We demonstrated the photoswitching capabilities of eight commonly used membrane probes, each specific to the plasma membrane, mitochondria, the endoplasmic recticulum (ER) or lysosomes. These small-molecule probes readily label live cells with high probe densities. Using these probes, we achieved dynamic imaging of specific membrane structures in living cells with 30–60 nm spatial resolution at temporal resolutions down to 1–2 s. Moreover, by using spectrally distinguishable probes, we obtained two-color super-resolution images of mitochondria and the ER. We observed previously obscured details of morphological dynamics of mitochondrial fusion/fission and ER remodeling, as well as heterogeneous membrane diffusivity on neuronal processes. PMID:22891300

  10. Changes in the Cell Membranes of the Bullfrog Gastric Mucosa with Acid Secretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, Chris; Machen, Terry E.; Diamond, Jared M.

    1982-07-01

    The effective area, resistance, and configuration of the apical and basolateral cell membranes of the bullfrog gastric mucosa were studied as a function of acid secretion rate, by alternating-current impedance methods. The drop in transepithelial resistance with acid secretion is attributed to the great increase in apical membrane area (hence conductance) associated with tubulovesicles. There is no evidence of a change in basolateral membrane resistance or of apical membrane permeability per unit area.

  11. Hybrid Nafion–silica membranes doped with heteropolyacids for application in direct methanol fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Staiti; A. S Aricò; V Baglio; F Lufrano; E Passalacqua; V Antonucci

    2001-01-01

    Nafion–silica composite membranes doped with phosphotungstic and silicotungstic acids have been investigated for application in direct methanol fuel cells at high temperature (145°C). The phosphotungstic acid-based membrane showed better electrochemical characteristics at high current densities with respect to both silicotungstic acid-modified membrane and silica–Nafion membrane. A maximum power density of 400 mW cm?2 was obtained at 145°C in the presence

  12. Basement membrane components are potent promoters of rat intestinal epithelial cell differentiation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hahn, U; Stallmach, A; Hahn, E G; Riecken, E O

    1990-02-01

    Basement membranes have been implicated in morphogenesis and cell differentiation. In this study, the effect of basement membrane components on intestinal epithelial cell maturation in a mesenchyme-free environment was investigated. Fetal rat small intestinal epithelial cells (from the 14th-17th day of gestation) were exposed to basement membrane-derived proteins (laminin, collagen type IV, and a complex basement membrane-enriched extract from the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm sarcoma) and other extracellular matrix proteins (collagen type I and fibronectin) coated onto Petri dishes. The cells attached readily only to fibronectin and basement membrane proteins. For 5 days the developing epithelial colonies were monitored in vitro, assessing morphological and functional parameters of cell maturation. Colonies grown on laminin and the basement membrane extract were larger and of greater cell density. An increase in alkaline phosphatase and lactase activity was observed after 3-4 days in these colonies which could be enhanced to yield 90%-100% positive cells by the addition of dexamethasone to the medium while no sucrase-isomaltase activity was elicited. Electron microscopy confirmed a high degree of cellular polarization illustrated by tight junctions and apical microvilli in epithelial cells grown on a basement membrane-like support. In contrast, none of the other proteins stimulated the cells to mature in vitro. The authors conclude that certain basement membrane components actively promote fetal intestinal epithelial cell differentiation. PMID:2295387

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL ELECTROCATALYSTS FOR PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2003-04-24

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert the available chemical free energy directly into electrical energy, without going through heat exchange process. Of all different types of fuel cells, the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is one of the most promising power sources for stand-alone utility and electric vehicle applications. Platinum (Pt) Catalyst is used for both fuel and air electrodes in PEMFCs. However, carbon monoxide (CO) contamination of H{sub 2} greatly affects electro catalysts used at the anode of PEMFCs and decreases cell performance. The irreversible poisoning of the anode can occur even in CO concentrations as low as few parts per million (ppm). In this work, we have synthesized several novel elctrocatalysts (Pt/C, Pt/Ru/C, Pt/Mo/C, Pt/Ir and Pt/Ru/Mo) for PEMFCs. These catalysts have been tested for CO tolerance in the H{sub 2}/air fuel cell, using CO concentrations in the H{sub 2} fuel that varies from 10 to 100 ppm. The performance of the electrodes was evaluated by determining the cell potential against current density. The effects of catalyst composition and electrode film preparation method on the performance of PEM fuel cell were also studied. It was found that at 70 C and 3.5 atm pressure at the cathode, Pt-alloy catalyst (10 wt% Pt/Ru/C, 20 wt% Pt/Mo/C) were more CO tolerant than the 20 wt% Pt/C catalyst alone. It was also observed that spraying method was better than the brushing technique for the preparation of electrode film.

  14. Evolution of rbcL among Lathyrus and Kupicha's classification.

    PubMed

    Marghali, S; Zitouna, N; Gharbi, M; Fadhlaoui, I; Trifi-Farah, N

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships in the Lathyrus genus were examined using cpDNA data, particularly data attributed to the "barcode" rbcL gene to construct a possible evolutionary scenario. Plant barcoding can be used to differentiate between species within a genus and to conserve DNA within the same species. We assessed the phylogeny of 29 species of Lathyrus using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and unweighted pair-group method and arithmetic mean. The classifications did not agree with current morphological and basic Lathyrus classification. Lathyrus belinensis is a new species that was not described by Kupicha; according to rbcL analysis, the species belongs in the Lathyrus genus. Additionally, the genus Lathyrus has undergone a rapid population expansion as indicated by neutral selection indices. PMID:25366764

  15. Molecular phylogeny of cycads inferred from rbcL sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treutlein, Jens; Wink, Michael

    2002-03-01

    The chloroplast gene rbcL was sequenced to elucidate the evolution of the gymnosperm plant order Cycadales. In accordance with traditional systematics, the order Cycadales and the corresponding genera cluster as monophyletic clades. Among them, the genus Cycas forms a basal group. The genetic distances within the genus Encephalartos and between the sister groups Encephalartos, Lepidozamia and Macrozamia, are unexpectedly small, suggesting that the extant species are the result of Miocene and Pliocene speciation. Their distribution in Africa or Australia, respectively, may therefore rather be due to long-distance dispersal than to Cretaceous continental drift, as had previously been assumed. The rbcL sequences also indicate that the colonisation of Madagascar by Cycas thouarsii occurred only recently as the sequences of C. thouarsii and Cycas rumphii from Indonesia are identical. In contrast, the divergence of the Cycadaceae and Zamiaceae apparently occurred in the Mesozoic.

  16. In situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes: linking basic nanotechniques to cell biology, immunology and medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, Jiang; Jin, Hua; Yang, Fen; Chen, Zheng W.; Cai, Jiye

    2014-10-01

    The cell membrane, which consists of a viscous phospholipid bilayer, different kinds of proteins and various nano/micrometer-sized domains, plays a very important role in ensuring the stability of the intracellular environment and the order of cellular signal transductions. Exploring the precise cell membrane structure and detailed functions of the biomolecules in a cell membrane would be helpful to understand the underlying mechanisms involved in cell membrane signal transductions, which could further benefit research into cell biology, immunology and medicine. The detection of membrane biomolecules at the single molecule level can provide some subtle information about the molecular structure and the functions of the cell membrane. In particular, information obtained about the molecular mechanisms and other information at the single molecule level are significantly different from that detected from a large amount of biomolecules at the large-scale through traditional techniques, and can thus provide a novel perspective for the study of cell membrane structures and functions. However, the precise investigations of membrane biomolecules prompts researchers to explore cell membranes at the single molecule level by the use of in situ imaging methods, as the exact conformation and functions of biomolecules are highly controlled by the native cellular environment. Recently, the in situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes has attracted increasing attention from cell biologists and immunologists. The size of biomolecules and their clusters on the cell surface are set at the nanoscale, which makes it mandatory to use high- and super-resolution imaging techniques to realize the in situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes. In the past few decades, some amazing imaging techniques and instruments with super resolution have been widely developed for molecule imaging, which can also be further employed for the in situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes. In this review, we attempt to summarize the characteristics of these advanced techniques for use in the in situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes. We believe that this work will help to promote the technological and methodological developments of super-resolution techniques for the single molecule imaging of cell membranes and help researchers better understand which technique is most suitable for their future exploring of membrane biomolecules; ultimately promoting further developments in cell biology, immunology and medicine.

  17. Identification of Rubisco rbcL and rbcS in Camellia oleifera and their potential as molecular markers for selection of high tea oil cultivars.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongzhong; Wang, Baoming; Chen, Jianjun; Wang, Xiangnan; Wang, Rui; Peng, Shaofeng; Chen, Longsheng; Ma, Li; Luo, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Tea oil derived from seeds of Camellia oleifera Abel. is high-quality edible oil in China. This study isolated full-length cDNAs of Rubisco subunits rbcL and rbcS from C. oleifera. The rbcL has 1,522 bp with a 1,425 bp coding region, encoding 475 amino acids; and the rbcS has 615 bp containing a 528 bp coding region, encoding 176 amino acids. The expression level of the two genes, designated as Co-rbcL and Co-rbcS, was determined in three C. oleifera cultivars: Hengchong 89, Xianglin 1, and Xianglin 14 whose annual oil yields were 546.9, 591.4, and 657.7 kg ha(-1), respectively. The Co-rbcL expression in 'Xianglin 14' was significantly higher than 'Xianglin 1', and 'Xianglin 1' was greater than 'Hengchong 89'. The expression levels of Co-rbcS in 'Xianglin 1' and 'Xianglin 14' were similar but were significantly greater than in 'Hengchong 89'. The net photosynthetic rate of 'Xianglin 14' was significantly higher than 'Xianglin 1', and 'Xianglin 1' was higher than 'Hengchong 89'. Pearson's correlation analysis showed that seed yields and oil yields were highly correlated with the expression level of Co-rbcL at P < 0.001 level; and the expression of Co-rbcS was correlated with oil yield at P < 0.01 level. Net photosynthetic rate was also correlated with oil yields and seed yields at P < 0.001 and P < 0.01 levels, respectively. Our results suggest that Co-rbcS and Co-rbcL in particular could potentially be molecular markers for early selection of high oil yield cultivars. In combination with the measurement of net photosynthetic rates, the early identification of potential high oil production cultivars would significantly shorten plant breeding time and increase breeding efficiency. PMID:25873921

  18. Identification of Rubisco rbcL and rbcS in Camellia oleifera and their potential as molecular markers for selection of high tea oil cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yongzhong; Wang, Baoming; Chen, Jianjun; Wang, Xiangnan; Wang, Rui; Peng, Shaofeng; Chen, Longsheng; Ma, Li; Luo, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Tea oil derived from seeds of Camellia oleifera Abel. is high-quality edible oil in China. This study isolated full-length cDNAs of Rubisco subunits rbcL and rbcS from C. oleifera. The rbcL has 1,522 bp with a 1,425 bp coding region, encoding 475 amino acids; and the rbcS has 615 bp containing a 528 bp coding region, encoding 176 amino acids. The expression level of the two genes, designated as Co-rbcL and Co-rbcS, was determined in three C. oleifera cultivars: Hengchong 89, Xianglin 1, and Xianglin 14 whose annual oil yields were 546.9, 591.4, and 657.7 kg ha-1, respectively. The Co-rbcL expression in ‘Xianglin 14’ was significantly higher than ‘Xianglin 1’, and ‘Xianglin 1’ was greater than ‘Hengchong 89’. The expression levels of Co-rbcS in ‘Xianglin 1’ and ‘Xianglin 14’ were similar but were significantly greater than in ‘Hengchong 89’. The net photosynthetic rate of ‘Xianglin 14’ was significantly higher than ‘Xianglin 1’, and ‘Xianglin 1’ was higher than ‘Hengchong 89’. Pearson’s correlation analysis showed that seed yields and oil yields were highly correlated with the expression level of Co-rbcL at P < 0.001 level; and the expression of Co-rbcS was correlated with oil yield at P < 0.01 level. Net photosynthetic rate was also correlated with oil yields and seed yields at P < 0.001 and P < 0.01 levels, respectively. Our results suggest that Co-rbcS and Co-rbcL in particular could potentially be molecular markers for early selection of high oil yield cultivars. In combination with the measurement of net photosynthetic rates, the early identification of potential high oil production cultivars would significantly shorten plant breeding time and increase breeding efficiency. PMID:25873921

  19. Novel polyphosphazenes for proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambler, Catherine Michelle

    The work in this thesis deals primarily with proton conductive polymeric materials aimed at fuel cell applications. Chapter 4 contains a description of the synthesis of phenyl phosphoric acid functionalized poly(aryloxyphosphazenes). The base polymer poly[(p-methyl phenoxy)-co-(p-bromophenoxy)phosphazene] was treated with LiBu and diphenyl chlorophosphate, followed by deprotection with NaOH. The resultant polymer was acidified, purified, and characterized for chemical structure. Chapter 5 continues the evaluation of these materials, specifically in relation to fuel cell relevant properties such as ion exchange capacity, proton conductivity, water uptake, methanol diffusion, and thermal transitions. In chapter 6, the development and characterization of a novel sulfonimide-based sidegroup is presented. Synthetic procedures for both the production of the sidegroup as well as the subsequent substitution onto the polymer are detailed. The resultant materials are characterized with respect to ion exchange capacity, water uptake, and proton conductivity. Initial experimentation with blend techniques is also presented. Chapter 7 continues this work, with an expanded look at the properties of these materials and the effects of modification of sidegroup incorporation, blend incorporation, and degree of cross-linking on the properties of proton conductivity, water uptake, ion exchange capacity, and thermal stability. Chapter 8 culminates the work with an evaluation of the sulfonimide based materials in a fuel cell system. This section includes a performance comparison with Nafion, the benchmark standard in the proton exchange membrane fuel cell industry. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  20. Use of red blood cell membranes to evaluate the antioxidant potential of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Cavallini, Gabriella; Dachà, Marina; Potenza, Lucia; Ranieri, Annamaria; Scattino, Claudia; Castagna, Antonella; Bergamini, Ettore

    2014-06-01

    Antioxidant phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables of a vegetarian diet may account for the reduced risk of aging and stress oxidative associated diseases. In this study, a simple, rapid and accurate new bioassay for the determination of the antioxidant activity of purified or crude plant extracts and thier interactions is described, based on the fluorimetric determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) released by UV-B radiated red blood cell (RBC) ghosts. Pure resveratrol, white and red wine and pomegranate juice (PJ) were used as antioxidant source to test the biological method. TBARS production is a function of radiation time, the number of RBC ghosts in the radiated sample and the loaded antioxidant. The antioxidant activity of resveratrol was detected at a submicromolar concentration range [0.02 ?g/mL-0.1 ?mol/L]. The activity of red wine was almost 10 times higher than that of white wine, and PJ juice had the highest activity. Submaximal protective effects of PJ and red wine were additive. PMID:24682659

  1. Heat-Damaged RBC Scan: A Case of Intrahepatic Splenosis.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Alexander; Decker, Martha; Hoskinson, Michael; Abele, Jonathan; Patel, Vimal

    2015-05-01

    Intrahepatic splenosis results from autotransplantation of splenic tissue within the liver, usually after splenic trauma or splenectomy. We present a case of a 43-year-old male patient with an incidental liver lesion discovered on abdominal ultrasound. The diagnosis of intrahepatic splenosis was considered after CT and MRI before being definitively made with Tc-labeled heat-damaged RBC scintigraphy. The case report illustrates the imaging characteristics of this rare location of abdominal splenosis. PMID:25608165

  2. Characterisation of cell-wall polysaccharides from mandarin segment membranes.

    PubMed

    Coll-Almela, Luis; Saura-López, Domingo; Laencina-Sánchez, José; Schols, Henk A; Voragen, Alfons G J; Ros-García, José María

    2015-05-15

    In an attempt to develop a process of enzymatic peeling of mandarin segments suitable for use on an industrial scale, the cell wall fraction of the segment membrane of Satsuma mandarin fruits was extracted to obtain a chelating agent-soluble pectin fraction (ChSS), a dilute sodium hydroxide-soluble pectin fraction (DASS), a 1M sodium hydroxide-soluble hemicellulose fraction (1MASS), a 4M sodium hydroxide-soluble hemicellulose fraction (4MASS) and a cellulose-rich residue (3.1, 0.9, 0.4, 0.7 and 1.6%w/w of fresh membrane, respectively). The ChSS pectin consisted mainly of galacturonic acid followed by arabinose and galactose. The DASS fraction contained less galacturonic acid and more neutral sugars than ChSS. Eighty-nine percent of the galacturonic acid present in the segment membranes was recovered in the above two pectin fractions. The two hemicellulosic fractions consisted of two different molecular weight populations, which also differed in their sugar composition. Arabinose, xylose, mannose, galactose and glucose were the main sugar constituents of these hemicellulose fractions. In addition to an (arabino)xylan and a xyloglucan, the presence of an arabinogalactan is suggested by the sugar composition of both hemicelluloses. The pectin fractions were also characterised by their degradability by the pectic enzymes polygalacturonase, pectinmethylesterase and rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase. However the degree of degradation of the pectin fractions by enzymes differed, and the amount of the polymeric materials resistant to further degradation and the oligomeric products also differed. Using pectic enzymes it is possible to obtain peeled mandarin segments ready to eat or for canning. PMID:25577048

  3. A novel Bruch's membrane-mimetic electrospun substrate scaffold for human retinal pigment epithelium cells.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Ping; Wu, Kun-Chao; Zhu, Ying; Xiang, Lue; Li, Chong; Chen, Deng-Long; Chen, Feng; Xu, Guotong; Wang, Aijun; Li, Min; Jin, Zi-Bing

    2014-12-01

    Various artificial membranes have been used as scaffolds for retinal pigment epithelium cells (RPE) for monolayer reconstruction, however, long-term cell viability and functionality are still largely unknown. This study aimed to construct an ultrathin porous nanofibrous film to mimic Bruch's membrane, and in particular to investigate human RPE cell responses to the resultant substrates. An ultrathin porous nanofibrous membrane was fabricated by using regenerated wild Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin (RWSF), polycaprolactone (PCL) and gelatin (Gt) and displayed a thickness of 3-5 ?m, with a high porosity and an average fiber diameter of 166 ± 85 nm. Human RPE cells seeded on the RWSF/PCL/Gt membranes showed a higher cell growth rate (p < 0.05), and a typical expression pattern of RPE signature genes, with reduced expression of inflammatory mediators. With long-term cultivation on the substrates, RPE cells exhibited characteristic polygonal morphology and development of apical microvilli. Immunocytochemisty demonstrated RPE-specific expression profiles in cells after 12-weeks of co-culture on RWSF/PCL/Gt membranes. Interestingly, the cells on the RWSF/PCL/Gt membranes functionally secreted polarized PEDF and phagocytosed labeled porcine POS. Furthermore, RWSF/PCL/Gt membranes transplanted subsclerally exhibited excellent biocompatibility without any evidence of inflammation or rejection. In conclusion, we established a novel RWSF-based substrate for growth of RPE cells with excellent cytocompatibility in vitro and biocompatibility in vivo for potential use as a prosthetic Bruch's membrane for RPE transplantation. PMID:25220295

  4. Membrane lipid rafts and estrogenic signalling: a functional role in the modulation of cell homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Maselli, Angela; Pierdominici, Marina; Vitale, Cristiana; Ortona, Elena

    2015-05-01

    It has become widely accepted that along with their ability to directly regulate gene expression, estrogens also influence cell signalling and cell function via rapid membrane-initiated events. Many of these signalling processes are dependent on estrogen receptors (ER) localized to the plasma membrane. However, the mechanisms by which ER are able to trigger cell signalling when targeted to the membrane surface have to be determined yet. Lipid rafts seem to be essential for the plasma membrane localization of ER and play a critical role in their membrane-initiated effects. In this review, we briefly recapitulate the localization and function of ER in different cell types and mostly discuss the possible role of lipid rafts in this context. Further studies in this field may disclose new promising therapeutic avenues by the disruption of lipid rafts in those diseases in which membrane ER activation has been demonstrated to play a pathogenetic role. PMID:25637184

  5. Six cell 'single cell' stack diagnostics and membrane electrode assembly evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Pivovar, B. S. (Bryan Scott); Le Scornet, F. (Francois); Eickes, C. (Christian); Zawodzinski, C. (Christine); Purdy, G. M. (Geraldine M.); Wilson, M. S. (Mahlon S.); Zelenay, P. (Piotr)

    2002-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte fuel cells are promising candidates as energy conversion devices in applications from portable power to stationary applications or electric vehicles. In order to achieve practical voltage, power and energy density, stacks are employed for almost all applications. Here, we present a six-cell 'single cell' stack in which individual cells can be isolated from the stack by current carrying leads found within each of the bipolar plates. The current carrying leads allow individual cells to be isolated from the rest of the stack, so that cells can either be tested together or independently. The design of the stack, utility for specific applications, including stack diagnostics and membrane electrode assembly (MEA) testing, and some experimental results, obtained using the stack, are presented. Special focus is given in this paper to the area of direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) stacks, however the equipment and many of the experimental results presented are appropriate for other fuel cell systems.

  6. Multiple lectin detection by cell membrane affinity binding.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana; Catarino, Sofia; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida

    2012-05-01

    Assuming that lectins evolved to recognise relatively complex and branched oligosaccharides or parts of them, rather than simple sugars, a procedure based on lectin affinity binding to isolated erythrocyte (or any other cell type) membranes is proposed. This methodology was validated using six pure commercial lectins, as well as lectins from total protein extracts of Arbutus unedo leaves. All commercial lectins, as well as five polypeptides from A. unedo leaves bound to the glycosylated membrane receptors and were eluted by the corresponding sugars. When compared to the standard affinity chromatography procedure involving an individual sugar bound to a solid matrix, the new method provides a single-step, effective detection method for lectins and allows the rapid screening of their profile present in any unknown protein solution, indicates their biological carbohydrate affinities as well as their sugar specificities (if any), enables the simultaneous analysis of a large number of samples, does not require any pre-purification steps, permits detection of additional lectins and provides data which are more relevant from the physiological point of view. PMID:22381939

  7. S-layer and cytoplasmic membrane – exceptions from the typical archaeal cell wall with a focus on double membranes

    PubMed Central

    Klingl, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The common idea of typical cell wall architecture in archaea consists of a pseudo-crystalline proteinaceous surface layer (S-layer), situated upon the cytoplasmic membrane. This is true for the majority of described archaea, hitherto. Within the crenarchaea, the S-layer often represents the only cell wall component, but there are various exceptions from this wall architecture. Beside (glycosylated) S-layers in (hyper)thermophilic cren- and euryarchaea as well as halophilic archaea, one can find a great variety of other cell wall structures like proteoglycan-like S-layers (Halobacteria), glutaminylglycan (Natronococci), methanochondroitin (Methanosarcina) or double layered cell walls with pseudomurein (Methanothermus and Methanopyrus). The presence of an outermost cellular membrane in the crenarchaeal species Ignicoccus hospitalis already gave indications for an outer membrane similar to Gram-negative bacteria. Although there is just limited data concerning their biochemistry and ultrastructure, recent studies on the euryarchaeal methanogen Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis, cells of the ARMAN group, and the SM1 euryarchaeon delivered further examples for this exceptional cell envelope type consisting of two membranes. PMID:25505452

  8. Modification of biomaterials surface by mimetic cell membrane to improve biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lei; Tan, Guo-Xin; Ning, Cheng-Yun

    2014-12-01

    Modification of biomaterials surface by mimetic cell membrane for improving biocompatibility, to imitate the excellent biological and physiological properties of the natural cell membrane, is an important research area in materials science. Numerous studies have been attempted to construct a mimetic cell membrane biointerface composed of phosphorylcholine (PC)-containing polymers or other phospholipid analogues on biomaterials surface. PC-containing biointerfaces show outstanding characteristics, especially in biological aspects such as blood compatibility and antifouling property. In this mini-review, the strategies of membrane mimetic modification of biomaterials and their antifouling applications are summarized.

  9. Cell membrane mediated (-)-epicatechin effects on upstream endothelial cell signaling: evidence for a surface receptor.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Ulloa, Aldo; Romero-Perez, Diego; Villarreal, Francisco; Ceballos, Guillermo; Ramirez-Sanchez, Israel

    2014-06-15

    The consumption of cacao-derived products, particularly in the form of dark chocolate is known to provide beneficial cardiovascular effects in normal individuals and in those with vascular dysfunction (reduced nitric oxide [NO] bioavailability and/or synthesis). Upstream mechanisms by which flavonoids exert these effects are poorly understood and may involve the participation of cell membrane receptors. We previously demonstrated that the flavanol (-)-epicatechin (EPI) stimulates NO production via Ca(+2)-independent eNOS activation/phosphorylation. We wished to investigate the plausible participation of a cell surface receptor using a novel cell-membrane impermeable EPI-Dextran conjugate (EPI-Dx). Under Ca(2+)-free conditions, human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) were treated for 10min with EPI or EPI-Dx at equimolar concentrations (100nM). Results demonstrate that both EPI and EPI-Dx induced the phosphorylation/activation of PI3K, PDK-1, AKT and eNOS. Interestingly, EPI-Dx effects were significantly higher in magnitude than those of EPI alone. The capacity of EPI-Dx to stimulate cell responses supports the existence of an EPI cell membrane receptor mediating eNOS activation. PMID:24794111

  10. Stability enhancement of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells based on a sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)/poly(vinylidene fluoride) composite membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Kyung A.; Kim, Wan-Keun; Oh, Keun-Hwan; Choo, Min-Ju; Nam, Kwan-Woo; Park, Jung-Ki

    2011-03-01

    Most proton-conducting membranes based on sulfonated aromatic polymers exhibit significant dimensional change by hydration, and this leads to degradation of fuel cell performance on prolonged operation. In this study, as a means of improving the stability of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, composite membranes employing a porous poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) substrate and sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) electrolyte are prepared and their hydration behaviours, including water uptake and dimensional change, are examined. The electrochemical characteristics of membrane/electrode assemblies using the sPEEK/PVdF composite membrane are also analyzed. The initial cell performance is comparable with that of a cell based on a pure sPEEK membrane. Furthermore, the stability of the cell using the sPEEK/PVdF composite membrane is considerably improved during a humidity cycle test wherein hydration and dehydration are periodically repeated.

  11. Modelling diffusivity in porous polymeric membranes with an intermediate layer containing microbial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Mota; Alexander Yelshin; Marcello Fidaleo; Michael C. Flickinger

    2007-01-01

    Three-layer systems (membrane – composite layer (cells+polymer) – membrane) are important in different biochemical applications. Models of latex layered-membranes were evaluated and compared with experimental data in order to predict the diffusivity of substrates in the composite layer containing living E.coli microbial cells. Diffusivity predictions are dependent on the presence or the absence of a ‘skin’ layer, on the degree

  12. Poliovirus 2C Protein Determinants of Membrane Binding and Rearrangements in Mammalian Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NATALYA L. TETERINA; ALEXANDER E. GORBALENYA; DENISE EGGER; KURT BIENZ

    1997-01-01

    Poliovirus protein 2C is a 329-amino acid-protein that is essential for viral RNA synthesis and may perform multiple functions. In infected cells, it is associated with virus-specific membrane vesicles. Recombinant 2C protein expressed in transfected cells has been shown to associate with and induce rearrangement of the intracellular membrane network. This study was designed to map the determinants of membrane

  13. Hydrogen\\/oxygen polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) based on acid-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Savadogo; B. Xing

    The potential-current characteristics of a H2\\/O2 polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell using H2SO4 or H3PO4 doped PBI were studied for the first time. The conditions involved in the doping of PBI with sulphuric acid or phosphoric acid and the preparation of a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) using these membranes were determined. The potential-current fuel-cell characteristics of MEAs using H2SO4-doped PBI

  14. Nafion–TiO 2 hybrid membranes for medium temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Saccà; A. Carbone; E. Passalacqua; A. D’Epifanio; S. Licoccia; E. Traversa; E. Sala; F. Traini; R. Ornelas

    2005-01-01

    A nanocomposite re-cast Nafion hybrid membrane containing titanium oxide calcined at T=400°C as an inorganic filler was developed in order to work at medium temperature in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) maintaining a suitable membrane hydration under fuel cell operative critical conditions. Nanometre TiO2 powder was synthesized via a sol–gel procedure by a rapid hydrolysis of Ti(OiPr)4. The membrane was

  15. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell stacks for industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Maggiore, A.; Tettamanti, M. [De Nora S.p.A., Milan (Italy). Sales Dept.

    1997-07-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) stacks of industrial interest are under development for mass-production applications. Design criteria and obtained results are presented, together with a technical description of the commercially available products. Although reliability of 5 and 10 kW units based on a proprietary technology are successfully proved, further efforts are presently in progress for: increasing stack size up to 50 kW; improving reliability against failures; and lowering manufacturing costs. PEFC technology is discussed for the following applications: passenger cars; buses and trucks for downtown traffic; stationary applications up to 200 kW with hydrogen obtained by fuel processor; and stationary applications in the MW range by using hydrogen containing streams available in refineries and chemical plants.

  16. Interactions between the HIV TAT domain and cell membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Abhijit; Wong, Gerard

    2005-03-01

    Biologically active molecules such as proteins and oligonucleotides can be transduced into cells with high efficiency when covalently linked to a Protein Transduction Domain (PTD), such as the TAT domain in the HIV virus. All PTDs have a high content of basic amino acids resulting in a net positive charge. Electrostatic interactions between cationic PTDs and the negatively charged phospholipids that constitute the plasma membrane seem to be responsible for peptide uptake, but no detailed structural studies exist. We present recent results on the structures of self-assembled complexes of the cationic TAT domain and anionic lipid bilayers using synchrotron x-ray scattering and electron microscopy, and examine possible mechanisms of the anomalous transduction.

  17. Irvalec Inserts into the Plasma Membrane Causing Rapid Loss of Integrity and Necrotic Cell Death in Tumor Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José M. Molina-Guijarro; Álvaro Macías; Carolina García; Eva Muñoz; Luis F. García-Fernández; Miren David; Lucía Núñez; Juan F. Martínez-Leal; Victoria Moneo; Carmen Cuevas; M. Pilar Lillo; Carlos Villalobos Jorge; Carmen Valenzuela; Carlos M. Galmarini; Matthew Bogyo

    2011-01-01

    Irvalec is a marine-derived antitumor agent currently undergoing phase II clinical trials. In vitro, Irvalec induces a rapid loss of membrane integrity in tumor cells, accompanied of a significant Ca2+ influx, perturbations of membrane conductivity, severe swelling and the formation of giant membranous vesicles. All these effects are not observed in Irvalec-resistant cells, or are significantly delayed by pretreating the

  18. Simulation of malaria-infected red blood cells in microfluidic channels: Passage and blockage

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tenghu; Feng, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Malaria-infected red blood cells (iRBCs) become less deformable with the progression of infection and tend to occlude microcapillaries. This process has been investigated in vitro using microfluidic channels. The objective of this paper is to provide a quantitative basis for interpreting the experimental observations of iRBC occlusion of microfluidic channels. Using a particle-based model for the iRBC, we simulate the traverse of iRBCs through a converging microfluidic channel and explore the progressive loss of cell deformability due to three factors: the stiffening of the membrane, the reduction of the cell's surface-volume ratio, and the growing solid parasites inside the cell. When examined individually, each factor tends to hinder the passage of the iRBC and lengthen the transit time. Moreover, at sufficient magnitude, each may lead to obstruction of narrow microfluidic channels. We then integrate the three factors into a series of simulations that mimic the development of malaria infection through the ring, trophozoite, and schizont stages. These simulations successfully reproduce the experimental observation that with progression of infection, the iRBC transitions from passage to blockage in larger and larger channels. The numerical results suggest a scheme for quantifying iRBC rigidification through microfluidic measurements of the critical pressure required for passage. PMID:24404048

  19. Increased phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) receptor function associated with sickle red cell membrane ghosts

    SciTech Connect

    Ramachandran, M.; Nair, C.N.; Abraham, E.C.

    1987-05-01

    The biological receptor for tumor-promoting phorbol esters has been identified as the CaS /phospholipid dependent enzyme, protein kinase C. In the red cell, this enzyme is mainly cytosolic but becomes translocated to the membrane if the cellular CaS is allowed to rise. Since cellular CaS in sickle red cells is high, it was reasoned that this enzyme may become more membrane-bound. In fact, the authors noticed a four-fold increase in the binding of TH-PDBu by membrane ghosts isolated from sickle red cells compared to normal red cells (pmoles PDBu bound/mg protein; normal = 0.3 vs sickle cell = 1.4). Attempts to assay the enzyme directly as phospholipid-activated TSP incorporation into the acid-precipitable membrane proteins also indicated a two-fold increase in the radiolabelling of sickle cell membrane ghosts. Autophosphorylation of membrane proteins and analysis of the phosphorylation profile by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography revealed phosphorylation predominantly of bands 3, 4.1 and 4.9 which are known protein kinase C substrates for the red cell enzyme. The increased membrane-associated protein kinase C in sickle red cells may have a bearing on the altered membrane properties reported in this condition.

  20. The plasma membrane Ca2+ -ATPase protein from red blood cells is not

    E-print Network

    Oviedo, Néstor J.

    The plasma membrane Ca2+ -ATPase protein from red blood cells is not modified in preeclampsia December 2005 Abstract Plasma membrane Ca2+ -ATPase activity diminishes by about 50% in red blood cells, suggesting that the protein structure remains intact in preeclampsia. Calmodulin, ethanol, or both calmodulin