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Sample records for cell secretory granules

  1. Polyamines Are Present in Mast Cell Secretory Granules and Are Important for Granule Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    García-Faroldi, Gianni; Rodríguez, Carlos E.; Urdiales, José L.; Pérez-Pomares, José M.; Dávila, José C.; Pejler, Gunnar; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Fajardo, Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    Background Mast cell secretory granules accommodate a large number of components, many of which interact with highly sulfated serglycin proteoglycan (PG) present within the granules. Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) are absolutely required for the survival of the vast majority of living cells. Given the reported ability of polyamines to interact with PGs, we investigated the possibility that polyamines may be components of mast cell secretory granules. Methodology/Principal Findings Spermidine was released by mouse bone marrow derived mast cells (BMMCs) after degranulation induced by IgE/anti-IgE or calcium ionophore A23187. Additionally, both spermidine and spermine were detected in isolated mouse mast cell granules. Further, depletion of polyamines by culturing BMMCs with ?-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) caused aberrant secretory granule ultrastructure, impaired histamine storage, reduced serotonin levels and increased ?-hexosaminidase content. A proteomic approach revealed that DFMO-induced polyamine depletion caused an alteration in the levels of a number of proteins, many of which are connected either with the regulated exocytosis or with the endocytic system. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, our results show evidence that polyamines are present in mast cell secretory granules and, furthermore, indicate an essential role of these polycations during the biogenesis and homeostasis of these organelles. PMID:21151498

  2. Menin Immunoreactivity in Secretory Granules of Human Pancreatic Islet Cells

    PubMed Central

    Debelenko, Larisa V.; Agarwal, Sunita; Du, Qiang; Yan, Wusheng; Erickson, Heidi S.; Abu-Asab, Mones; Raffeld, Mark A.; Libutti, Steven K.; Marx, Stephen J.; Emmert-Buck, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    The protein product of the Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type I (MEN1) gene is thought to be involved in predominantly nuclear functions; however, immunohistochemistry (IHC) data on cellular localization are conflicting. To further investigate menin expression, we analyzed human pancreas (an MEN1 target organ) using IHC and six antibodies raised against full-length menin or its peptides. In 10 normal pancreas specimens, two independently raised antibodies showed unexpected cytoplasmic immunoreactivity in peripheral cells in each islet examined (over 100 total across all 10 patients). The staining exhibited a distinct punctate pattern and subsequent immunoelectron microscopy indicated the target antigen was in secretory granules. Exocrine pancreas and pancreatic stroma were not immunoreactive. In MEN1 patients, unaffected islets stained similar to those in normal samples but with a more peripheral location of positive cells, whereas hyperplastic islets and tumorlets showed increased and diffuse cytoplasmic staining, respectively. Endocrine tumors from MEN1 patients were negative for menin, consistent with a two-hit loss of a tumor suppressor gene. Secretory granule localization of menin in a subset of islet cells suggests a function of the protein unique to a target organ of familial endocrine neoplasia, although the IHC data must be interpreted with some caution due to the possibility of antibody cross reaction. The identity, cellular trafficking, and role of this putative secretory granule-form of menin warrant additional investigation. PMID:25153502

  3. Abnormal ion content, hydration and granule expansion of the secretory granules from cystic fibrosis airway glandular cells

    SciTech Connect

    Baconnais, S.; Delavoie, F. |; Zahm, J.M.; Milliot, M.; Castillon, N.; Terryn, C.; Banchet, V.; Michel, J.; Danos, O.; Merten, M.; Chinet, T.; Zierold, K.; Bonnet, N.; Puchelle, E. , E-Mail: edith.puchelle@univ-reims.fr; Balossier, G.

    2005-10-01

    The absence or decreased expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) induces increased Na{sup +} absorption and hyperabsorption of the airway surface liquid (ASL) resulting in a dehydrated and hyperviscous ASL. Although the implication of abnormal airway submucosal gland function has been suggested, the ion and water content in the Cystic Fibrosis (CF) glandular secretory granules, before exocytosis, is unknown. We analyzed, in non-CF and CF human airway glandular cell lines (MM-39 and KM4, respectively), the ion content in the secretory granules by electron probe X-ray microanalysis and the water content by quantitative dark field imaging on freeze-dried cryosections. We demonstrated that the ion content (Na{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, P, S and Cl{sup -}) is significantly higher and the water content significantly lower in secretory granules from the CF cell line compared to the non-CF cell line. Using videomicroscopy, we observed that the secretory granule expansion was deficient in CF glandular cells. Transfection of CF cells with CFTR cDNA or inhibition of non-CF cells with CFTR{sub inh}-172, respectively restored or decreased the water content and granule expansion, in parallel with changes in ion content. We hypothesize that the decreased water and increased ion content in glandular secretory granules may contribute to the dehydration and increased viscosity of the ASL in CF.

  4. Rab3D Is Critical for Secretory Granule Maturation in PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kögel, Tanja; Rudolf, Rüdiger; Hodneland, Erlend; Copier, John; Regazzi, Romano; Tooze, Sharon A.; Gerdes, Hans-Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Neuropeptide- and hormone-containing secretory granules (SGs) are synthesized at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) as immature secretory granules (ISGs) and complete their maturation in the F-actin-rich cell cortex. This maturation process is characterized by acidification-dependent processing of cargo proteins, condensation of the SG matrix and removal of membrane and proteins not destined to mature secretory granules (MSGs). Here we addressed a potential role of Rab3 isoforms in these maturation steps by expressing their nucleotide-binding deficient mutants in PC12 cells. Our data show that the presence of Rab3D(N135I) decreases the restriction of maturing SGs to the F-actin-rich cell cortex, blocks the removal of the endoprotease furin from SGs and impedes the processing of the luminal SG protein secretogranin II. This strongly suggests that Rab3D is implicated in the subcellular localization and maturation of ISGs. PMID:23526941

  5. The glycosylation pattern of secretory granules in binucleate trophoblast cells is highly conserved in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Klisch, K; Wooding, F B P; Jones, C J P

    2010-01-01

    The binucleate trophoblast cells (BNCs) in the ruminant placenta are a unique feature of this taxon. These cells produce several secretory proteins and transfer these across the fetomaternal barrier into the dam. We used lectin histochemistry with a panel of 24 lectins to characterise the glycosylation pattern of BNC secretory granules in a variety of ruminants. Seven species out of three ruminant families were thus investigated: greater malayan chevrotain (Tragulidae); fallow deer, red deer, chinese water deer (Cervidae); and domestic goat, springbok, impala (Bovidae). BNC granules in all species studied strongly expressed tri-/tetraantennary complex N-glycans and bisecting N-acetylglucosamine [GlcNAc] as shown by binding of leuco- and erythroagglutins of Phaseolus vulgaris respectively. The presence of terminal N-acetylgalactosamine [GalNAc]) in BNC granules is shown by intense staining with lectins from Dolichos biflorus, Vicia villosa and Wisteria floribunda. Terminal galactose or GalNAc was also present, bound by Glycine max agglutinin. Treatment of slides with neuraminidase strongly intensified staining of Erythrina cristagalli lectin (ECA) to terminal lactosamine in all species studied; this was otherwise absent except in goat. Sambucus nigra-1 lectin bound to BNC granules in all species except in Impala, indicating the presence of abundant alpha2,6 linked sialic acid. These results indicate that these unusual highly branched glycans, with bisecting GlcNAc and terminal GalNAc are a general feature of BNC granules in Ruminants, including the most basal Tragulid branch. It therefore appears that the specific glycosylation pattern of BNC granules evolved early in ruminant phylogenesis, together with the appearance of BNC. The conserved glycan structure in BNC secretory granules indicates that this pattern of glycosylation is likely to be of considerable functional importance for the secretory glycoproteins of ruminant BNC. PMID:19959226

  6. Myosin Va facilitates the distribution of secretory granules in the F-actin rich cortex of PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Rüdiger; Kögel, Tanja; Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Salm, Thorsten; Schlicker, Oliver; Hellwig, Andrea; Hammer, John A; Gerdes, Hans-Hermann

    2003-04-01

    Neuroendocrine secretory granules, the storage organelles for neuropeptides and hormones, are formed at the trans-Golgi network, stored inside the cell and exocytosed upon stimulation. Previously, we have reported that newly formed secretory granules of PC12 cells are transported in a microtubule-dependent manner from the trans-Golgi network to the F-actin-rich cell cortex, where they undergo short directed movements and exhibit a homogeneous distribution. Here we provide morphological and biochemical evidence that myosin Va is associated with secretory granules. Expression of a dominant-negative tail domain of myosin Va in PC12 cells led to an extensive clustering of secretory granules close to the cell periphery, a loss of their cortical restriction and a strong reduction in their motility in the actin cortex. Based on this data we propose a model that implies a dual transport system for secretory granules: after microtubule-dependent delivery to the cell periphery, secretory granules exhibit a myosin Va-dependent transport leading to their restriction and even dispersal in the F-actin-rich cortex of PC12 cells. PMID:12615975

  7. Protein Mobility within Secretory Granules

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Annita Ngatchou; Bittner, Mary A.; Holz, Ronald W.; Axelrod, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the basis for previous observations that fluorescent-labeled neuropeptide Y (NPY) is usually released within 200 ms after fusion, whereas labeled tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is often discharged over many seconds. We found that tPA and NPY are endogenously expressed in small and different subpopulations of bovine chromaffin cells in culture. We measured the mobility of these proteins (tagged with fluorophore) within the lumen of individual secretory granules in living chromaffin cells, and related their mobilities to postfusion release kinetics. A method was developed that is not limited by standard optical resolution, in which a bright flash of strongly decaying evanescent field (?64 nm exponential decay constant) produced by total internal reflection (TIR) selectively bleaches cerulean-labeled protein proximal to the glass coverslip within individual granules. Fluorescence recovery occurred as unbleached protein from distal regions within the 300 nm granule diffused into the bleached proximal regions. The fractional bleaching of tPA-cerulean (tPA-cer) was greater when subsequently probed with TIR excitation than with epifluorescence, indicating that tPA-cer mobility was low. The almost equal NPY-cer bleaching when probed with TIR and epifluorescence indicated that NPY-cer equilibrated within the 300 ms bleach pulse, and therefore had a greater mobility than tPA-cer. TIR-fluorescence recovery after photobleaching revealed a significant recovery of tPA-cer (but not NPY-cer) fluorescence within several hundred milliseconds after bleaching. Numerical simulations, which take into account bleach duration, granule diameter, and the limited number of fluorophores in a granule, are consistent with tPA-cer being 100% mobile, with a diffusion coefficient of 2 × 10?10 cm2/s (?1/3000 of that for a protein of similar size in aqueous solution). However, the low diffusive mobility of tPA cannot alone explain its slow postfusion release. In the accompanying study, we suggest that, additionally, tPA itself stabilizes the fusion pore with dimensions that restrict its own exit. PMID:24988337

  8. Protein mobility within secretory granules.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Annita Ngatchou; Bittner, Mary A; Holz, Ronald W; Axelrod, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the basis for previous observations that fluorescent-labeled neuropeptide Y (NPY) is usually released within 200 ms after fusion, whereas labeled tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is often discharged over many seconds. We found that tPA and NPY are endogenously expressed in small and different subpopulations of bovine chromaffin cells in culture. We measured the mobility of these proteins (tagged with fluorophore) within the lumen of individual secretory granules in living chromaffin cells, and related their mobilities to postfusion release kinetics. A method was developed that is not limited by standard optical resolution, in which a bright flash of strongly decaying evanescent field (?64 nm exponential decay constant) produced by total internal reflection (TIR) selectively bleaches cerulean-labeled protein proximal to the glass coverslip within individual granules. Fluorescence recovery occurred as unbleached protein from distal regions within the 300 nm granule diffused into the bleached proximal regions. The fractional bleaching of tPA-cerulean (tPA-cer) was greater when subsequently probed with TIR excitation than with epifluorescence, indicating that tPA-cer mobility was low. The almost equal NPY-cer bleaching when probed with TIR and epifluorescence indicated that NPY-cer equilibrated within the 300 ms bleach pulse, and therefore had a greater mobility than tPA-cer. TIR-fluorescence recovery after photobleaching revealed a significant recovery of tPA-cer (but not NPY-cer) fluorescence within several hundred milliseconds after bleaching. Numerical simulations, which take into account bleach duration, granule diameter, and the limited number of fluorophores in a granule, are consistent with tPA-cer being 100% mobile, with a diffusion coefficient of 2 × 10(-10) cm(2)/s (?1/3000 of that for a protein of similar size in aqueous solution). However, the low diffusive mobility of tPA cannot alone explain its slow postfusion release. In the accompanying study, we suggest that, additionally, tPA itself stabilizes the fusion pore with dimensions that restrict its own exit. PMID:24988337

  9. SORCS1 is necessary for normal insulin secretory granule biogenesis in metabolically stressed ? cells

    PubMed Central

    Kebede, Melkam A.; Oler, Angie T.; Gregg, Trillian; Balloon, Allison J.; Johnson, Adam; Mitok, Kelly; Rabaglia, Mary; Schueler, Kathryn; Stapleton, Donald; Thorstenson, Candice; Wrighton, Lindsay; Floyd, Brendan J.; Richards, Oliver; Raines, Summer; Eliceiri, Kevin; Seidah, Nabil G.; Rhodes, Christopher; Keller, Mark P.; Coon, Joshua L.; Audhya, Anjon; Attie, Alan D.

    2014-01-01

    We previously positionally cloned Sorcs1 as a diabetes quantitative trait locus. Sorcs1 belongs to the Vacuolar protein sorting-10 (Vps10) gene family. In yeast, Vps10 transports enzymes from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the vacuole. Whole-body Sorcs1 KO mice, when made obese with the leptinob mutation (ob/ob), developed diabetes. ? Cells from these mice had a severe deficiency of secretory granules (SGs) and insulin. Interestingly, a single secretagogue challenge failed to consistently elicit an insulin secretory dysfunction. However, multiple challenges of the Sorcs1 KO ob/ob islets consistently revealed an insulin secretion defect. The luminal domain of SORCS1 (Lum-Sorcs1), when expressed in a ? cell line, acted as a dominant-negative, leading to SG and insulin deficiency. Using syncollin-dsRed5TIMER adenovirus, we found that the loss of Sorcs1 function greatly impairs the rapid replenishment of SGs following secretagogue challenge. Chronic exposure of islets from lean Sorcs1 KO mice to high glucose and palmitate depleted insulin content and evoked an insulin secretion defect. Thus, in metabolically stressed mice, Sorcs1 is important for SG replenishment, and under chronic challenge by insulin secretagogues, loss of Sorcs1 leads to diabetes. Overexpression of full-length SORCS1 led to a 2-fold increase in SG content, suggesting that SORCS1 is sufficient to promote SG biogenesis. PMID:25157818

  10. The lytic granules of natural killer cells are dual-function organelles combining secretory and pre-lysosomal compartments

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Cytolytic lymphocytes contain specialized lytic granules whose secretion during cell-mediated cytolysis results in target cell death. Using serial section EM of RNK-16, a natural killer cell line, we show that there are structurally distinct types of granules. Each type is composed of varying proportions of a dense core domain and a multivesicular cortical domain. The dense core domains contain secretory proteins thought to play a role in cytolysis, including cytolysin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. In contrast, the multivesicular domains contain lysosomal proteins, including acid phosphatase, alpha-glucosidase, cathepsin D, and LGP-120. In addition to their protein content, the lytic granules have other properties in common with lysosomes. The multivesicular regions of the granules have an acidic pH, comparable to that of endosomes and lysosomes. The granules take up exogenous cationized ferritin with lysosome-like kinetics, and this uptake is blocked by weak bases and low temperature. The multivesicular domains of the granules are rich in the 270-kD mannose-6-phosphate receptor, a marker which is absent from mature lysosomes but present in earlier endocytic compartments. Thus, the natural killer granules represent an unusual dual-function organelle, where a regulated secretory compartment, the dense core, is contained within a pre-lysosomal compartment, the multivesicular domain. PMID:2277062

  11. cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of PTB1 promotes the expression of insulin secretory granule proteins in beta cells.

    PubMed

    Knoch, Klaus-Peter; Meisterfeld, Ronny; Kersting, Stephan; Bergert, Hendrik; Altkrüger, Anke; Wegbrod, Carolin; Jäger, Melanie; Saeger, Hans-Detlev; Solimena, Michele

    2006-02-01

    Glucose stimulates the exocytosis of insulin secretory granules of pancreatic beta cells. Granule stores are quickly refilled by activation of posttranscriptional mechanisms that enhance the biosynthesis of granule components. Rapid replacement of granules is important to sustain insulin secretion, since new granules appear to be preferentially released. Posttranscriptional regulation of granule biogenesis includes the glucose-induced nucleocytoplasmic translocation of polypyrimidine tract binding protein 1 (PTB1), which binds mRNAs encoding granule proteins, and thus promotes their stabilization and translation. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin gene expression and secretion by increasing cAMP levels in beta cells. Here, we show that elevation of cAMP levels causes the protein kinase A-dependent phosphorylation and nucleocytoplasmic translocation of PTB1, thereby preventing the rapid degradation of insulin mRNA and enhancing the expression of various granule proteins. Taken together, these findings identify PTB1 as a common downstream target of glucose and GLP-1 for the posttranscriptional upregulation of granule biogenesis. PMID:16459313

  12. Imaging direct, dynamin-dependent recapture of fusing secretory granules on plasma membrane lawns from PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Holroyd, Phillip; Lang, Thorsten; Wenzel, Dirk; De Camilli, Pietro; Jahn, Reinhard

    2002-01-01

    During exocytosis, secretory granules fuse with the plasma membrane and discharge their content into the extracellular space. The exocytosed membrane is then reinternalized in a coordinated fashion. A role of clathrin-coated vesicles in this process is well established, whereas the involvement of a direct retrieval mechanism (often called kiss and run) is still debated. Here we report that a significant population of docked secretory granules in the neuroendocrine cell line PC12 fuses with the plasma membrane, takes up fluid-phase markers, and is retrieved at the same position. Fusion allows for complete discharge of small molecules, whereas GFP-labeled neuropeptide Y (molecular mass ?35 kDa) is only partially released. Retrieved granules were preferentially associated with dynamin. Furthermore, recapture is inhibited by guanosine 5?-[?-thio]triphosphate and peptides known to block dynamin function. We conclude that secretory granules can be recaptured immediately after formation of an exocytotic opening by an endocytic reaction that is spatially and temporally coupled to soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE)-dependent fusion, but is not a reversal of the fusion reaction. PMID:12486251

  13. In vitro loading of human synovial membrane with 5-hydroxydopamine: evidence for dense core secretory granules in type B cells.

    PubMed

    Vandenabeele, F; Lambrichts, I; Lippens, P; Creemers, J

    2001-02-01

    Ultrastructural studies of the synovial membrane were performed on tissue samples obtained from the human lumbar facet joint. Ultrastructural changes in synoviocytes were studied after loading synovial samples with 5-hydroxydopamine (5-OHDA) in an oxygenated Krebs' solution, prior to fixation. Synoviocytes were set loosely in the intimal matrix and classified into type A (phagocytic) and type B (secretory) cells. In general, type A cells populated the surface of the synovial lining, whereas type B cells were located deeper in the tissue, extending a process into the synovial fluid. Type B cells in control samples contained sparse secretory granules. Free nerve endings were not found in the synovial intima. In response to incubation in 5-OHDA, a precursor of biogenic monoamines, synoviocytes clustered and established contact. The ultrastructure of type B cells in the loaded group clearly differed from controls. They possessed typical membrane-bound vesicles, containing an electron dense interior surrounded by a lucent space. The size of these dense core vesicles ranged from 100 to 260 nm (on average 180 nm). They were in relation to microtubules and located preferentially in the marginal area of the cytoplasm, close to the Golgi complex. The ultrastructure of type A cells was not significantly altered. The present observations provide morphological evidence for the amine-handling properties of type B cells, indicating that they might be added to the list of 'APUD' cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine system. A recepto-secretory function for type B cells is discussed. PMID:11310498

  14. Hydrogen sulfide induces hyperpolarization and decreases the exocytosis of secretory granules of rat GH3 pituitary tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Mustafina, Alsu N; Yakovlev, Aleksey V; Gaifullina, Aisylu Sh; Weiger, Thomas M; Hermann, Anton; Sitdikova, Guzel F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on the membrane potential, action potential discharge and exocytosis of secretory granules in neurosecretory pituitary tumor cells (GH3). The H2S donor - sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) induced membrane hyperpolarization, followed by truncation of spontaneous electrical activity and decrease of the membrane resistance. The NaHS effect was dose-dependent with an EC50 of 152 ?M (equals effective H2S of 16-19 ?M). NaHS effects were not altered after inhibition of maxi conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels by tetraethylammonium or paxilline, but were significantly reduced after inhibition or activation of ATP-dependent potassium channels (KATP) by glibenclamide or by diazoxide, respectively. In whole-cell recordings NaHS increased the amplitude of KATP currents, induced by hyperpolarizing pulses and subsequent application of glibenclamide decreased currents to control levels. Using the fluorescent dye FM 1-43 exocytosis of secretory granules was analyzed in basal and stimulated conditions (high K(+) external solution). Prior application of NaHS decreased the fluorescence of the cell membrane in both conditions which links with activation of KATP currents (basal secretion) and activation of KATP currents and BK-currents (stimulated exocytosis). We suggest that H2S induces hyperpolarization of GH3 cells by activation of KATP channels which results in a truncation of spontaneous action potentials and a decrease of hormone release. PMID:26319431

  15. Effector granules in human T lymphocytes: the luminal proteome of secretory lysosomes from human T cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cytotoxic cells of the immune system have evolved a lysosomal compartment to store and mobilize effector molecules. In T lymphocytes and NK cells, the death factor FasL is one of the characteristic marker proteins of these so-called secretory lysosomes, which combine properties of conventional lysosomes and exocytotic vesicles. Although these vesicles are crucial for immune effector function, their protein content in T cells has so far not been investigated in detail. Results In the present study, intact membranous vesicles were enriched from homogenates of polyclonally activated T cells and initially characterized by Western blotting and electron microscopic inspection. The vesicular fraction that contained the marker proteins of secretory lysosomes was subsequently analyzed by 2D electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The proteome analysis and data evaluation revealed that 70% of the 397 annotated proteins had been associated with different lysosome-related organelles in previous proteome studies. Conclusion We provide the first comprehensive proteome map of T cell-derived secretory lysosomes with only minor contaminations by cytosolic, nuclear or other proteins. This information will be useful to more precisely address the activation-dependent maturation and the specific distribution of effector organelles and proteins in individual T or NK cell populations in future studies. PMID:21255389

  16. Characterization of phospholipids in insulin secretory granules and mitochondria in pancreatic beta cells and their changes with glucose stimulation.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Michael J; Ade, Lacmbouh; Ntambi, James M; Ansari, Israr-Ul H; Stoker, Scott W

    2015-04-24

    The lipid composition of insulin secretory granules (ISG) has never previously been thoroughly characterized. We characterized the phospholipid composition of ISG and mitochondria in pancreatic beta cells without and with glucose stimulation. The phospholipid/protein ratios of most phospholipids containing unsaturated fatty acids were higher in ISG than in whole cells and in mitochondria. The concentrations of negatively charged phospholipids, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylinositol in ISG were 5-fold higher than in the whole cell. In ISG phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and sphingomyelin, fatty acids 12:0 and 14:0 were high, as were phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol containing 18-carbon unsaturated FA. With glucose stimulation, the concentration of many ISG phosphatidylserines and phosphatidylinositols increased; unsaturated fatty acids in phosphatidylserine increased; and most phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, and lysophosphatidylcholines were unchanged. Unsaturation and shorter fatty acid length in phospholipids facilitate curvature and fluidity of membranes, which favors fusion of membranes. Recent evidence suggests that negatively charged phospholipids, such as phosphatidylserine, act as coupling factors enhancing the interaction of positively charged regions in SNARE proteins in synaptic or secretory vesicle membrane lipid bilayers with positively charged regions in SNARE proteins in the plasma membrane lipid bilayer to facilitate docking of vesicles to the plasma membrane during exocytosis. The results indicate that ISG phospholipids are in a dynamic state and are consistent with the idea that changes in ISG phospholipids facilitate fusion of ISG with the plasma membrane-enhancing glucose-stimulated insulin exocytosis. PMID:25762724

  17. AP-1A controls secretory granule biogenesis and trafficking of membrane secretory granule proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bonnemaison, Mathilde; Bäck, Nils; Lin, Yimo; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Mains, Richard; Eipper, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The adaptor protein 1A complex (AP-1A) transports cargo between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes. In professional secretory cells, AP-1A also retrieves material from immature secretory granules (SGs). The role of AP-1A in SG biogenesis was explored using AtT-20 corticotrope tumor cells expressing reduced levels of the AP-1A ?1A subunit. A two-fold reduction in ?1A resulted in a decrease in TGN cisternae and immature SGs and the appearance of regulated secretory pathway components in non-condensing SGs. Although basal secretion of endogenous SG proteins was unaffected, secretagogue-stimulated release was halved. The reduced ?1A levels interfered with the normal trafficking of carboxypeptidase D (CPD) and peptidylglycine ?-amidating monooxygenase-1 (PAM-1), integral membrane enzymes that enter immature SGs. The non-condensing SGs contained POMC products and PAM-1, but not CPD. Based on metabolic labeling and secretion experiments, the cleavage of newly synthesized PAM-1 into PHM was unaltered, but PHM basal secretion was increased in sh-?1A PAM-1 cells. Despite lacking a canonical AP-1A binding motif, yeast two-hybrid studies demonstrated an interaction between the PAM-1 cytosolic domain and AP-1A. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments with PAM-1 mutants revealed an influence of the luminal domains of PAM-1 on this interaction. Thus, AP-1A is crucial for normal SG biogenesis, function and composition. PMID:25040637

  18. FRAP Analysis of Secretory Granule Lipids and Proteins in the Sea Urchin Egg

    E-print Network

    Wessel, Gary M.

    5 FRAP Analysis of Secretory Granule Lipids and Proteins in the Sea Urchin Egg Julian L. Wong of the egg plasma membrane prior to insemination such that the vesicle­plasma membrane complex may after photobleaching; FRAP; secretory vesicles. 1 Introduction Eggs undergo major cell surface changes

  19. Lumenal Protein within Secretory Granules Affects Fusion Pore Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Annita Ngatchou; Anantharam, Arun; Bittner, Mary A.; Axelrod, Daniel; Holz, Ronald W.

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that upon fusion of the secretory granule membrane with the plasma membrane, lumenal contents are rapidly discharged and dispersed into the extracellular medium. Although this is the case for low-molecular-weight neurotransmitters and some proteins, there are numerous examples of the dispersal of a protein being delayed for many seconds after fusion. We have investigated the role of fusion-pore expansion in determining the contrasting discharge rates of fluorescent-tagged neuropeptide-Y (NPY) (within 200 ms) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) (over many seconds) in adrenal chromaffin cells. The endogenous proteins are expressed in separate chromaffin cell subpopulations. Fusion pore expansion was measured by two independent methods, orientation of a fluorescent probe within the plasma membrane using polarized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and amperometry of released catecholamine. Together, they probe the continuum of the fusion-pore duration, from milliseconds to many seconds after fusion. Polarized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy revealed that 71% of the fusion events of tPA-cer-containing granules maintained curvature for >10 s, with approximately half of the structures likely connected to the plasma membrane by a short narrow neck. Such events were not commonly observed upon fusion of NPY-cer-containing granules. Amperometry revealed that the expression of tPA-green fluorescent protein (GFP) prolonged the duration of the prespike foot ?2.5-fold compared to NPY-GFP-expressing cells and nontransfected cells, indicating that expansion of the initial fusion pore in tPA granules was delayed. The t1/2 of the main catecholamine spike was also increased, consistent with a prolonged delay of fusion-pore expansion. tPA added extracellularly bound to the lumenal surface of fused granules. We propose that tPA within the granule lumen controls its own discharge. Its intrinsic biochemistry determines not only its extracellular action but also the characteristics of its presentation to the extracellular milieu. PMID:24988338

  20. Separation of rat pituitary secretory granules by continuous flow electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Daniel; Exton, Carrie; Salada, Thomas; Shellenberger, Kathy; Waddle, Jenny; Hymer, W. C.

    1990-01-01

    The separation of growth hormone-containing cytoplasmic secretory granules from the rat pituitary gland by continuous flow electrophoresis is described. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that granule subpopulations can be separated due to differences in surface charge; these, in turn, may be related to the oligomeric state of the hormone.

  1. A novel regulatory mechanism for trimeric GTP-binding proteins in the membrane and secretory granule fractions of human and rodent beta cells.

    PubMed

    Kowluru, A; Seavey, S E; Rhodes, C J; Metz, S A

    1996-01-01

    Recently we described roles for heterotrimeric and low-molecular-mass GTP-binding proteins in insulin release from normal rat islets. During these studies, we observed that a protein with an apparent molecular mass (37 kDa) similar to that of the beta subunit of trimeric GTP-binding proteins underwent phosphorylation in each of five classes of insulin-secreting cells. Incubation of the beta cell total membrane fraction or the isolated secretory granule fraction (but not the cytosolic fraction) with [gamma-32P]ATP or [gamma-32P]GTP resulted in the phosphorylation of this protein, which was selectively immunoprecipitated by an anti-serum directed against the common beta subunit of trimeric G-proteins. Disruption of the alpha beta gamma trimer (by pretreatment with either fluoroaluminate or guanosine 5'(-)[gamma-thio]triphosphate) prevented beta subunit phosphorylation. Based on differential sensitivities to pH, heat and the histidine-selective reagent diethyl pyrocarbonate (and reversal of the latter by hydroxylamine), the phosphorylated amino acid was presumptively identified as histidine. Incubation of pure beta subunit alone or in combination with the exogenous purified alpha subunit of transducin did not result in the phosphorylation of the beta subunit, but addition of the islet cell membrane fraction did support this event, suggesting that membrane localization (or a membrane-associated factor) is required for beta subunit phosphorylation. Incubation of phosphorylated beta subunit with G alpha.GDP accelerated the dephosphorylation of the beta subunit, accompanied by the formation of G alpha-GTP. Immunoblotting detected multiple alpha subunits (of Gi, G(o) and Gq) and at least one beta subunit in the secretory granule fraction of normal rat islets and insulinoma cells. These data describe a potential alternative mechanism for the activation of GTP-binding proteins in beta cells which contrasts with the classical receptor-agonist mechanism: G beta undergoes transient phosphorylation at a histidine residue by a GTP-specific protein kinase; this phosphate, in turn, may be transferred via a classical Ping-Pong mechanism to G alpha.GDP (inactive), yielding the active configuration G alpha.GTP in secretory granules (a strategic location to modulate exocytosis). PMID:8546716

  2. Secretory granules and progesterone secretion by ovine corpora lutea in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, H R; Abel, J H; McClellan, M C; Schmitz, M; Niswender, G D

    1979-02-01

    To study the relationship between formation and release of Golgi-derived secretory granules and progesterone secretion, slices of ovine luteal tissue were incubated in the presence of LH and/or calcium ionophore A23187. Increases in progesterone secretion in response to LH and/or ionophore were accompanied by a concomitant release of secretory granules. In contrast, in the presence of colchicine, LH-stimulated progesterone secretion was significantly reduced (P less than 0.01), granule formation appeared to be blocked, and there was little evidence of exocytosis. In addition, unusual pleomorphic membrane-bounded saccules containing an electron-dense material were abundant throughout the centrospheric region of cells treated with colchicine. Because of the close parallelism between formation and release of Golgi-derived secretory granules and progesterone secretion, it appears that progesterone secretion may be coupled to exocytosis of secretory granules. Although the exact content and function of the secretory granules described remains to be elucidated, the data obtained are compatible with the notion that they may contain a progesterone carrier protein. PMID:376288

  3. Redistribution of a rab3-like GTP-binding protein from secretory granules to the Golgi complex in pancreatic acinar cells during regulated exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Regulated secretion from pancreatic acinar cells occurs by exocytosis of zymogen granules (ZG) at the apical plasmalemma. ZGs originate from the TGN and undergo prolonged maturation and condensation. After exocytosis, the zymogen granule membrane (ZGM) is retrieved from the plasma membrane and ultimately reaches the TGN. In this study, we analyzed the fate of a low M(r) GTP-binding protein during induced exocytosis and membrane retrieval using immunoblots as well as light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry. This 27-kD protein, identified by a monoclonal antibody that recognizes rab3A and B, may be a novel rab3 isoform. In resting acinar cells, the rab3-like protein was detected primarily on the cytoplasmic face of ZGs, with little labeling of the Golgi complex and no significant labeling of the apical plasmalemma or any other intracellular membranes. Stimulation of pancreatic lobules in vitro by carbamylcholine for 15 min, resulted in massive exocytosis that led to a near doubling of the area of the apical plasma membrane. However, no relocation of the rab3-like protein to the apical plasmalemma was seen. After 3 h of induced exocytosis, during which time approximately 90% of the ZGs is released, the rab3- like protein appeared to translocate to small vesicles and newly forming secretory granules in the TGN. No significant increase of the rab3-like protein was found in the cytosolic fraction at any time during stimulation. Since the protein is not detected on the apical plasmalemma after stimulation, we conclude that recycling may involve a membrane dissociation-association cycle that accompanies regulated exocytosis. PMID:8294505

  4. Degradation of human anaphylatoxin C3a by rat peritoneal mast cells: a role for the secretory granule enzyme chymase and heparin proteoglycan

    SciTech Connect

    Gervasoni, J.E. Jr.; Conrad, D.H.; Hugli, T.E.; Schwartz, L.B.; Ruddy, S.

    1986-01-01

    Purified human C3a was iodinated (/sup 125/I-C3a) and used to study the interaction of labeled peptide with rat peritoneal mast cells (RMC). Cellular binding of /sup 125/I-C3a occurred within 30 sec, followed by a rapid dissociation from the cell. Once /sup 125/I-C3a was exposed to RMC, it lost the ability to rebind to a second batch of RMC. Analysis of the supernatants by trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation and electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels (SDS PAGE) revealed a decrease in the fraction of /sup 125/I precipitable by TCA and the appearance of /sup 125/-C3a cleavage fragments. Pretreatment of RMC with enzyme inhibitors specific for chymotrypsin, but not trypsin, abrogated the degradation of /sup 125/I-C3a. Treatment of RMC bearing /sup 125/I-C3a with bis (sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS/sup 3/) covalently cross-linked the /sup 125/I-C3a to chymase, the predominant enzyme found in the secretory granules. Indirect immunofluorescence of RMC by using the IgG fraction of goat anti-rat chymase showed that chymase is present on the surface of unstimulated cells. Neither purified chymase nor heparin proteoglycan alone had any appreciable effect on /sup 125/I-C3a, but together they resulted in prompt degradation of the /sup 125/I-C3a.

  5. The heterotrimeric G-protein Gi is localized to the insulin secretory granules of beta-cells and is involved in insulin exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Konrad, R J; Young, R A; Record, R D; Smith, R M; Butkerait, P; Manning, D; Jarett, L; Wolf, B A

    1995-05-26

    Mastoparan, a tetradecapeptide found in wasp venom that stimulates G-proteins, increases insulin secretion from beta-cells. In this study, we have examined the role of heterotrimeric G-proteins in mastoparan-induced insulin secretion from the insulin-secreting beta-cell line beta-TC3. Mastoparan stimulated insulin secretion in a dose-dependent manner from digitonin-permeabilized beta-TC3 cells. Active mastoparan analogues mastoparan 7, mastoparan 8, and mastoparan X also stimulated secretion. Mastoparan 17, an inactive analogue of mastoparan, did not increase insulin secretion from permeabilized beta-TC3 cells. Mastoparan-induced insulin secretion from permeabilized beta-TC3 cells was inhibited by pretreatment of the cells with pertussis toxin, suggesting that mastoparan-induced insulin secretion is mediated through a pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein present distally in exocytosis. Enriched insulin secretory granules (ISG) were prepared by sucrose/nycodenz ultracentrifugation. Western immunoblotting performed on beta-TC3 homogenate and ISG demonstrated that G alpha i was dramatically enriched in ISG. Levels of G alpha o and G alpha q were comparable in homogenate and ISG. Mastoparan stimulated ISG GTPase activity in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner. Mastoparan 7 and mastoparan 8 also stimulated GTPase activity in the ISG, while the inactive analogue mastoparan 17 had no effect. Selective localization of G alpha i to ISG was confirmed with electron microscopic immunocytochemistry in beta-TC3 cells and beta-cells from rat pancreas. In contrast to G alpha o and G alpha q, G alpha was clearly localized to the ISG. Together, these data suggest that mastoparan may act through the heterotrimeric G-protein G alpha i located in the ISG of beta-cells to stimulate insulin secretion. PMID:7759545

  6. Cell type-specific gene expression in the neuroendocrine system. A neuroendocrine-specific regulatory element in the promoter of chromogranin A, a ubiquitous secretory granule core protein.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, H; Rozansky, D J; Webster, N J; O'Connor, D T

    1994-01-01

    The acidic secretory protein chromogranin A universally occurs in amine and peptide hormone and neurotransmitter storage granules throughout the neuroendocrine system. What factors govern the activity of the chromogranin A gene, to yield such a widespread yet neuroendocrine-selective pattern of expression? To address this question, we isolated the mouse chromogranin A gene promoter. The promoter conferred cell type-specific expression in several neuroendocrine cell types (adrenal medullary chromaffin cells, anterior pituitary corticotropes, and anterior pituitary somatolactotropes) but not in control (fibroblast or kidney) cells. In neuroendocrine cells, analysis of promoter deletions established both positive and negative transcriptional regulatory domains. A distal positive domain (-4.8/-2.2 kbp) was discovered, as well as negative (-258/-181 bp) and positive (-147/-61 bp) domains in the proximate promoter. The proximate promoter contained a minimal neuroendocrine-specific element between -77 and -61 bp. Sequence alignment of the mouse promoter with corresponding regions in rat and bovine clones indicated that the mouse sequence shares over 85% homology with rat and 52% with bovine promoters. DNaseI footprinting and electrophoretic gel mobility shift assays demonstrated the presence of nuclear factors in neuroendocrine cells that recognized the proximate promoter. We conclude that the chromogranin A promoter contains both positive and negative domains governing its cell type-specific pattern of transcription, and that a small proximate region of the promoter, containing novel as well as previously described elements, interacts specifically with neuroendocrine nuclear proteins, and is thereby sufficient to ensure widespread neuroendocrine expression of the gene. Images PMID:8040254

  7. Degradation of human anaphylatoxin C3a by rat peritoneal mast cells: a role for the secretory granule enzyme chymase and heparin proteoglycan

    SciTech Connect

    Gervasoni, J.E. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Purified human C3a was iodinated (/sup 125/I-C3a) and used to study the interaction of labeled peptide with rat peritoneal mast cells (RMC). Cellular binding of /sup 125/I-C3a occurred within 30 sec, followed by a rapid dissociation from the cell. Both the binding of /sup 125/I-C3a and the rate of dissociation from the cell were temperature dependent. At 0/sup 0/C, the binding of /sup 125/I-C3a was increased and the rate of dissociation reduced, as compared to 37/sup 0/C. Once /sup 125/I-C3a was exposed to RMC, it lost the ability to rebind to a second batch of RMC. Analysis of the supernatants by trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation and electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels (SDS PAGE) revealed a decrease in the fraction of /sup 125/I precipitable by TCA and the appearance of /sup 125/I-C3a cleavage fragments. Pretreatment of RMC with enzyme inhibitors specific for chymotrypsin, but not trypsin, abrogated the degradation of /sup 125/I-C3a. Treatment of RMC bearing /sup 125/I-C3a with Bis (sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS/sup 3/) covalently crosslinked the /sup 125/I-Ca to chymase, the predominant enzyme found in the secretory granules. Indirect immunofluorescence of RMC using the IgG fraction of goat anti-rat chymase showed that chymase is present on the surface of unstimulated cells. The results indicate that /sup 125/I-C3a binds to RMC and is promptly degraded by chymase in the presence of heparin proteoglycan. In addition, this proteolysis of /sup 125/I-C3a by chymase must be blocked in order to detect plasma membrane C3a binding components on RMC.

  8. Electron microprobe analysis of human labial gland secretory granules in cystic fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Izutsu, K.; Johnson, D.; Schubert, M.; Wang, E.; Ramsey, B.; Tamarin, A.; Truelove, E.; Ensign, W.; Young, M.

    1985-06-01

    X-ray microanalysis of freeze-dried labial gland cryosections revealed that Na concentration was doubled and the Ca/S concentration ratio was decreased in secretory granules of labial glands from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) when compared with glands from normal subjects. Other results suggested that the decrease in the Ca/S concentration ratio resulted from an increase in S concentration. These findings imply that mucous granules in labial saliva showed a CF-related increase in Na and S content, and such changes would be expected to affect the rheology of the mucus after exocytosis. In contrast with a previous study in human parotid glands, no evidence was found for CF-related changes in cytoplasmic or nuclear Na, K, and Ca concentrations. Significant elemental differences were found between secretory granules and nuclei and cytoplasm of control cells.

  9. Porosome: The Universal Secretory Portal in Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jena, Bhanu

    2012-10-01

    In the past 50 years it was believed that during cell secretion, membrane-bound secretory vesicles completely merge at the cell plasma membrane resulting in the diffusion of intra-vesicular contents to the cell exterior and the compensatory retrieval of the excess membrane by endocytosis. This explanation made no sense or logic, since following cell secretion partially empty vesicles accumulate as demonstrated in electron micrographs. Furthermore, with the ``all or none'' mechanism of cell secretion by complete merger of secretory vesicle membrane at the cell plasma membrane, the cell is left with little regulation and control of the amount of content release. Moreover, it makes no sense for mammalian cells to possess such `all or none' mechanism of cell secretion, when even single-cell organisms have developed specialized and sophisticated secretory machinery, such as the secretion apparatus of Toxoplasma gondii, the contractile vacuoles in paramecium, or the various types of secretory structures in bacteria. Therefore, in 1993 in a News and Views article in Nature, E. Neher wrote ``It seems terribly wasteful that, during the release of hormones and neurotransmitters from a cell, the membrane of a vesicle should merge with the plasma membrane to be retrieved for recycling only seconds or minutes later.'' This conundrum in the molecular mechanism of cell secretion was finally resolved in 1997 following discovery of the ``Porosome,'' the universal secretory machinery in cells. Porosomes are supramolecular lipoprotein structures at the cell plasma membrane, where membrane-bound secretory vesicles transiently dock and fuse to release inravesicular contents to the outside during cell secretion. In the past decade, the composition of the porosome, its structure and dynamics at nm resolution and in real time, and its functional reconstitution into artificial lipid membrane, have all been elucidated. Since porosomes in exocrine and neuroendocrine cells measure 100-180 nm, and only 20-45% increase in porosome diameter is demonstrated following the docking and fusion of 0.2-1.2 ?m in diameter secretory vesicles, it is concluded that secretory vesicles ``transiently'' dock and fuse, rather than completely merge at the base of the porosome complex to release their contents to the outside. In agreement, it has been demonstrated that ``secretory granules are recaptured largely intact after stimulated exocytosis in cultured endocrine cells''; that ``single synaptic vesicles fuse transiently and successively without loss of identity''; and that``zymogen granule (the secretory vesicle in exocrine pancreas) exocytosis is characterized by long fusion pore openings and preservation of vesicle lipid identity.'' In this presentation, the discovery of the porosome, resulting in a paradigm shift in our understanding of cell secretion will be briefly discussed.

  10. Granule lattice protein 1 (Grl1p), an acidic, calcium-binding protein in Tetrahymena thermophila dense-core secretory granules, influences granule size, shape, content organization, and release but not protein sorting or condensation

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The electron-dense cores of regulated secretory granules in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila are crystal lattices composed of multiple proteins. Granule synthesis involves a series of steps beginning with protein sorting, followed by the condensation and precise geometric assembly of the granule cargo. These steps may to various degrees be determined by the cargo proteins themselves. A prominent group of granule proteins, in ciliates as well as in vertebrate neuronal and endocrine cells, are acidic, heat-stable, and bind calcium. We focused on a protein with these characteristics named granule lattice protein 1 (Grl1p), which represents 16% of total granule contents, and we have now cloned the corresponding gene. Mutants in which the macronuclear copies of GRL1 have been disrupted continue to synthesize dense-core granules but are nonetheless defective in regulated protein secretion. To understand the nature of this defect, we characterized mutant and wild-type granules. In the absence of Grl1p, the sorting of the remaining granule proteins appears normal, and they condense to form a well-defined core. However, the condensed cores do not demonstrate a visible crystalline lattice, and are notably different from wild type in size and shape. The cellular secretion defect arises from failure of the aberrant granule cores to undergo rapid expansion and extrusion after exocytic fusion of the granule and plasma membranes. The results suggest that sorting, condensation, and precise granule assembly are distinct in their requirements for Grl1p. PMID:8991090

  11. The Arf family G protein Arl1 is required for secretory granule biogenesis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Isabel L.; Rosa-Ferreira, Cláudia; Munro, Sean

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The small G protein Arf like 1 (Arl1) is found at the Golgi complex, and its GTP-bound form recruits several effectors to the Golgi including GRIP-domain-containing coiled-coil proteins, and the Arf1 exchange factors Big1 and Big2. To investigate the role of Arl1, we have characterised a loss-of-function mutant of the Drosophila Arl1 orthologue. The gene is essential, and examination of clones of cells lacking Arl1 shows that it is required for recruitment of three of the four GRIP domain golgins to the Golgi, with Drosophila GCC185 being less dependent on Arl1. At a functional level, Arl1 is essential for formation of secretory granules in the larval salivary gland. When Arl1 is missing, Golgi are still present but there is a dispersal of adaptor protein 1 (AP-1), a clathrin adaptor that requires Arf1 for its membrane recruitment and which is known to be required for secretory granule biogenesis. Arl1 does not appear to be required for AP-1 recruitment in all tissues, suggesting that it is crucially required to enhance Arf1 activation at the trans-Golgi in particular tissues. PMID:24610947

  12. Automated Kymograph Analysis for Profiling Axonal Transport of Secretory Granules

    E-print Network

    Radke, Rich

    (BDNF granules) being transported along a selected section of axon of a cultured neuron imaged by time an axon segment. Temporal sharp- ening during the kymograph creation helps to highlight granule movements distribution functions is used to refine the locations and velocities of the granules. The refined kymograph

  13. Immunocytochemical localization of secretory proteins in bovine pancreatic exocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Kraehenbuhl, J P; Racine, L; Jamieson, J D

    1977-02-01

    The bovine exocrine pancreatic cell produces a variety of enzymes and proenzymes for export. Biochemical studies by Greene L.J., C.H. Hirs, and G.E. Palade (J. Biol. Chem. 1963. 238:2054) have shown that the mass proportions of several of these proteins in resting pancreatic juice and zymogen granule fractions are identical. In this study we have used immunocytochemical techniques at the electron microscope level to determine whether regional differences exist in the bovine gland with regard to production of individual secretory proteins and whether specialization of product handling occurs at the subcellular level. The technique used is a modification of one previously reported (McLean, J.D., and S.J. Singer. 1970. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci U.S.A. 69:1771) in which immunocytochemical reagents are applied to thin sections of bovine serum albumin-imbedded tissue and zymogen granule fractions. A double antibody technique was used in which the first step consisted of rabbit F(ab')2 antibovine secretory protein and the detection step consisted of sheep (F(ab')2 antirabbit F(ab')2 conjugated to ferritin. The results showed that all exocrine cells in the gland, and all zymogen granules and Golgi cisternae in each cell, were qualitatively alike with regard to their content of secretory proteins examined (trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen A, carboxypeptidase A, RNase, and DNase). The data suggest that these secretory proteins are transported through the cisternae of the Golgi complex where they are intermixed before copackaging in zymogen granules; passage through the Golgi complex is apparently obligatory for these (and likely all) secretory proteins, and is independent of extent of glycosylation, e.g., trypsinogen, a nonglycoprotein vs. DNase, a glycoprotein. PMID:319100

  14. The ubiquitin ligase Mindbomb 1 coordinates gastrointestinal secretory cell maturation.

    PubMed

    Capoccia, Benjamin J; Jin, Ramon U; Kong, Young-Yun; Peek, Richard M; Fassan, Matteo; Rugge, Massimo; Mills, Jason C

    2013-04-01

    After cell fate specification, differentiating cells must amplify the specific subcellular features required for their specialized function. How cells regulate such subcellular scaling is a fundamental unanswered question. Here, we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Mindbomb 1 (MIB1) is required for the apical secretory apparatus established by gastric zymogenic cells as they differentiate from their progenitors. When Mib1 was deleted, death-associated protein kinase-1 (DAPK1) was rerouted to the cell base, microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B) was dephosphorylated, and the apical vesicles that normally support mature secretory granules were dispersed. Consequently, secretory granules did not mature. The transcription factor MIST1 bound the first intron of Mib1 and regulated its expression. We further showed that loss of MIB1 and dismantling of the apical secretory apparatus was the earliest quantifiable aberration in zymogenic cells undergoing transition to a precancerous metaplastic state in mouse and human stomach. Our results reveal a mechanistic pathway by which cells can scale up a specific, specialized subcellular compartment to alter function during differentiation and scale it down during disease. PMID:23478405

  15. The role of secretory granules in radiation-induced dysfunction of rat salivary glands

    SciTech Connect

    Peter, B.; Van Waarde, M.A.W.H.; Konings, A.W.T.; Vissink, A. |; `s-Gravenmade, E.J.

    1995-02-01

    To investigate the possible role of secretory granules in radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction, rats were pretreated with isoproterenol (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally) to degranulate salivary gland acini. At maximal depletion, salivary glands were locally irradiated with a single dose of 15 Gy of X rays. Parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva samples were collected before and 1-10 days after irradiation. The lag phase, flow rate, concentrations of potassium and sodium, and amylase secretion were determined. Sham-treated, isoproterenol-treated and irradiated animals provided reference data. In the parotid gland, but not in the submandibular gland, protection against radiation-induced changes in flow rate and composition of saliva occurred after pretreatment with isoproterenol. Combining morphological data from a previous study with data from the current study, it is suggested that improvement of parotid gland function is attributed predominantly to a proliferative stimulus on acinar cells by isoproterenol and not to its degranulation effect. After pretreatment with isoproterenol, an earlier expression of radiation-induced acinar cell damage leading to death was observed, followed by a faster tissue recovery. Thus the proliferative stimulus on acinar cells may accelerate the unmasking of latent lethal damage, resulting in the earlier replacement of dead cells by new, functionally intact cells. 33 refs., 2 figs.

  16. A Role for Rab7 in the Movement of Secretory Granules in Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Daniele, Tiziana; Hackmann, Yvonne; Ritter, Alex T.; Wenham, Matt; Booth, Sarah; Bossi, Giovanna; Schintler, Michael; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Griffiths, Gillian M.

    2014-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are potent killers of virally infected and tumorigenic cells. Upon recognition of target cells, CTL undergo polarized secretion of secretory lysosomes at the immunological synapse (IS) that forms between CTL and target. However, the molecular machinery involved in the polarization of secretory lysosomes is still largely uncharacterized. In this paper, we investigated the role of Rab7 in the polarization of secretory lysosomes. We show that silencing of Rab7 by RNA interference reduces the ability of CTL to kill targets. GTP-bound Rab7 and Rab interacting lysosomal protein, RILP, interact and both localize to secretory lysosomes in CTL. Over-expression of RILP recruits dynein to the membranes of secretory lysosomes and triggers their movement toward the centrosome. Together, these results suggest that Rab7 may play a role in secretory lysosome movement toward the centrosome by interacting with RILP to recruit the minus-end motor, dynein. PMID:21438969

  17. Porosome: the secretory NanoMachine in cells.

    PubMed

    Jena, Bhanu P

    2013-01-01

    Cells synthesize and store within membranous sacs products such as hormones, growth factors, neurotransmitters, or digestive enzymes, for release on demand. As recently as just 15 years ago, it was believed that during cell secretion, membrane-bound secretory vesicles completely merge at the cell plasma membrane resulting in the diffusion of intravesicular contents to the cell exterior and the compensatory retrieval of the excess membrane by endocytosis. This explanation, however, failed to explain the generation of partially empty vesicles observed in electron micrographs following secretion. Logically therefore, in a 1993 News and Views article in the journal Nature, Prof. Erwin Neher wrote "It seems terribly wasteful that, during the release of hormones and neurotransmitters from a cell, the membrane of a vesicle should merge with the plasma membrane to be retrieved for recycling only seconds or minutes later." The discovery of permanent secretory portals or nanomachines at the cell plasma membrane called POROSOMES, where membrane-bound secretory vesicles transiently dock and fuse to release intravesicular contents to the cell exterior, has finally resolved this conundrum. Following this discovery, the composition of the porosome, its structure and dynamics visualized with high-resolution imaging techniques atomic force and electron microscopy, and its functional reconstitution into artificial lipid membrane have provided a molecular understanding of cell secretion. In agreement, it has been demonstrated that "secretory granules are recaptured largely intact after stimulated exocytosis in cultured endocrine cells" (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:2070-2075, 2003); that "single synaptic vesicles fuse transiently and successively without loss of identity" (Nature 423:643-647, 2003); and that "zymogen granule exocytosis is characterized by long fusion pore openings and preservation of vesicle lipid identity" (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:6774-6779, 2004). It made no sense all these years to argue that mammalian cells possess an "all or none" mechanism of cell secretion resulting from complete vesicle merger at the cell plasma membrane, when even single-cell organisms have developed specialized and sophisticated secretory machinery, such as the secretion apparatus of Toxoplasma gondii, contractile vacuoles in paramecium, and different types of secretory structures in bacteria. The discovery of the porosome and its functional reconstitution in artificial lipid membrane, and an understanding of its morphology, composition, and dynamics, has resulted in a paradigm shift in our understanding of the secretory process in cells. PMID:23027011

  18. A Dynamic Analysis of Secretory Granules Containing Proteins Involved In Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prahl, Louis; Simon, Alex; Jacobs, Conor; Fulwiler, Audrey; Hilken, Lindsay; Scalettar, Bethe; Lochner, Janis

    2010-10-01

    Formation and encoding of long-term memories requires a series of structural changes at synapses, or sites of neuronal communication, in the hippocampus; these changes are mediated by neuromodulatory proteins and serve to strengthen synapses to improve communication. Two prominent neuromodulators, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are copackaged into secretory granules (SGs) in the body of nerve cells and are transported to distal synapses by motor proteins. At synapses, particularly presynaptic sites, the fate of tPA and BDNF is largely unknown. Motivated by this, and by recent data implicating presynaptic BDNF in early phases of learning, we used fluorescence microscopy to elucidate dynamic properties of presynaptic tPA and BDNF. We find that presynaptic SGs containing tPA and/or BDNF undergo Brownian and anomalous diffusive motion that, in 75% of cases, is so slow that it typically would be classified as immobility. These results suggest that tPA and BDNF are retained at presynaptic sites to facilitate their corelease and role in learning.

  19. Proteoglycans support proper granule formation in pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Aroso, Miguel; Agricola, Brigitte; Hacker, Christian; Schrader, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Zymogen granules (ZG) are specialized organelles in the exocrine pancreas which allow digestive enzyme storage and regulated secretion. The molecular mechanisms of their biogenesis and the sorting of zymogens are still incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the role of proteoglycans in granule formation and secretion of zymogens in pancreatic AR42J cells, an acinar model system. Cupromeronic Blue cytochemistry and biochemical studies revealed an association of proteoglycans primarily with the granule membrane. Removal of proteoglycans by carbonate treatment led to a loss of membrane curvature indicating a supportive role in the maintenance of membrane shape and stability. Chemical inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis impaired the formation of normal electron-dense granules in AR42J cells and resulted in the formation of unusually small granule structures. These structures still contained the zymogen carboxypeptidase, a cargo molecule of secretory granules, but migrated to lighter fractions after density gradient centrifugation. Furthermore, the basal secretion of amylase was increased in AR42J cells after inhibitor treatment. In addition, irregular-shaped granules appeared in pancreatic lobules. We conclude that the assembly of a proteoglycan scaffold at the ZG membrane is supporting efficient packaging of zymogens and the proper formation of stimulus-competent storage granules in acinar cells of the pancreas. PMID:26105026

  20. Epithelial Cell Culture from Human Adenoids: A Functional Study Model for Ciliated and Secretory Cells

    PubMed Central

    González, Claudia; Espinosa, Marisol; Sánchez, María Trinidad; Droguett, Karla; Ríos, Mariana; Fonseca, Ximena; Villalón, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Background. Mucociliary transport (MCT) is a defense mechanism of the airway. To study the underlying mechanisms of MCT, we have both developed an experimental model of cultures, from human adenoid tissue of ciliated and secretory cells, and characterized the response to local chemical signals that control ciliary activity and the secretion of respiratory mucins in vitro. Materials and Methods. In ciliated cell cultures, ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and intracellular Ca2+ levels were measured in response to ATP, UTP, and adenosine. In secretory cultures, mucin synthesis and secretion were identified by using immunodetection. Mucin content was taken from conditioned medium and analyzed in the presence or absence of UTP. Results. Enriched ciliated cell monolayers and secretory cells were obtained. Ciliated cells showed a basal CBF of 10.7?Hz that increased significantly after exposure to ATP, UTP, or adenosine. Mature secretory cells showed active secretion of granules containing different glycoproteins, including MUC5AC. Conclusion. Culture of ciliated and secretory cells grown from adenoid epithelium is a reproducible and feasible experimental model, in which it is possible to observe ciliary and secretory activities, with a potential use as a model to understand mucociliary transport control mechanisms. PMID:23484122

  1. Platelet Granule Exocytosis: A Comparison with Chromaffin Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fitch-Tewfik, Jennifer L.; Flaumenhaft, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The rapid secretion of bioactive amines from chromaffin cells constitutes an important component of the fight or flight response of mammals to stress. Platelets respond to stresses within the vasculature by rapidly secreting cargo at sites of injury, inflammation, or infection. Although chromaffin cells derive from the neural crest and platelets from bone marrow megakaryocytes, both have evolved a heterogeneous assemblage of granule types and a mechanism for efficient release. This article will provide an overview of granule formation and exocytosis in platelets with an emphasis on areas in which the study of chromaffin cells has influenced that of platelets and on similarities between the two secretory systems. Commonalities include the use of transporters to concentrate bioactive amines and other cargos into granules, the role of cytoskeletal remodeling in granule exocytosis, and the use of granules to provide membrane for cytoplasmic projections. The SNAREs and SNARE accessory proteins used by each cell type will also be considered. Finally, we will discuss the newly appreciated role of dynamin family proteins in regulated fusion pore formation. This evaluation of the comparative cell biology of regulated exocytosis in platelets and chromaffin cells demonstrates a convergence of mechanisms between two disparate cell types both tasked with responding rapidly to physiological stimuli. PMID:23805129

  2. [Submicroscopical study of the granule-containing cells of bronchial carcinoids].

    PubMed

    Dvorakovskaia, I V; Cherniakova, D N

    1978-01-01

    The submicroscopical structure of three bronchial carcinoids was studied. In all the cases, in the cytoplasm of tumor cells secretory granules formed from cisterns of the Golgi apparatus were found. Two types of granules were observed. The first ones were from 150 to 250 nm in size, the second--from 400 to 600 nm. Granules less than 500 nm in size comprise about 90% and cannot be observed by light microscopy because of the low resolving power of the microscope. It is suggested that the secretory product is eliminated by diffusion through the granular and then plasma membrane. The granules are assumed to be heterogeneous in their chemical composition. Secretion of other compounds in addition to serotonin is presumed. The ultrastructural similarity of the tumor cells and Kulchitsky cells is no proof of theif histogenetic relationship. PMID:209771

  3. Biogenesis of the secretory granule: chromogranin A coiled-coil structure results in unusual physical properties and suggests a mechanism for granule core condensation.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Coleman A; Taupenot, Laurent; Biswas, Nilima; Taulane, Joseph P; Olson, Norman H; Vaingankar, Sucheta M; Wen, Gen; Schork, Nicholas J; Ziegler, Michael G; Mahata, Sushil K; O'Connor, Daniel T

    2007-09-25

    The secretory pro-hormone chromogranin A (CHGA) is densely packed into storage granules along with catecholamines, playing a catalytic role in granule biogenesis. 3-Dimensional structural data on CHGA are lacking. We found a superfamily structural homology for CHGA in the tropomyosin family of alpha-helical coiled-coils, even in mid-molecule regions where primary sequence identity is only modest. The assignment was confirmed by an independent algorithm, suggesting approximately 6-7 such domains spanning CHGA. We provide additional physiochemical evidence (chromatographic, spectral, microscopic) consistent with this unusual structure. Alpha-helical secondary structure (at up to approximately 45%) was confirmed by circular dichroism. CHGA molecular mass was estimated by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry at approximately 50 kDa and by denaturing gel filtration at approximately 50-61 kDa, while its native Stokes radius was approximately 84.8 A, as compared to an expected approximately 30 A; the increase gave rise to an apparent native molecular weight of approximately 578 kDa, also consistent with the extended conformation of a coiled-coil. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) on CHGA in solution best fit an elongated cylindrical conformation in the monodisperse region with a radius of gyration of the rod cross-section (Rt) of approximately 52 A, compatible with a coiled-coil in the hydrated, aqueous state, or a multimeric coiled-coil. Electron microscopy with negative staining revealed an extended, filamentous CHGA structure with a diameter of approximately 94 +/- 4.5 A. Extended, coiled-coil conformation is likely to permit protein "packing" in the secretory granule at approximately 50% higher density than a globular/spherical conformation. Natural allelic variation in the catestatin region was predicted to disrupt the coiled-coil. Chromaffin granule ultrastructure revealed a approximately 108 +/- 6.3 A periodicity of electron density, suggesting nucleation of a binding complex by the CHGA core. Inhibition of CHGA expression, by siRNA, disrupted regulated secretory protein traffic by approximately 65%, while targeted ablation of the CHGA gene in the mouse reduced chromaffin granule cotransmitter concentrations by approximately 40-80%. These results suggest new roles for secretory protein tertiary structure in hormone and transmitter storage, with implications for secretory cargo condensation (or dense core "packing" structure) within the regulated pathway. PMID:17718510

  4. Biogenesis of the Secretory Granule: Chromogranin a Coiled-Coil Structure Results in Unusual Physical Properties And Suggests a Mechanism for Granule Core Condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Mosley, C.A.; Taupenot, L.; Biswas, N.; Taulane, J.P.; Olson, N.H.; Vaingankar, S.M.; Wen, G.; Schork, N.J.; Ziegler, M.G.; Mahata, S.K.; O'Connor, D.T.

    2009-06-03

    The secretory pro-hormone chromogranin A (CHGA) is densely packed into storage granules along with catecholamines, playing a catalytic role in granule biogenesis. 3-Dimensional structural data on CHGA are lacking. We found a superfamily structural homology for CHGA in the tropomyosin family of alpha-helical coiled-coils, even in mid-molecule regions where primary sequence identity is only modest. The assignment was confirmed by an independent algorithm, suggesting approximately 6-7 such domains spanning CHGA. We provide additional physiochemical evidence (chromatographic, spectral, microscopic) consistent with this unusual structure. Alpha-helical secondary structure (at up to approximately 45%) was confirmed by circular dichroism. CHGA molecular mass was estimated by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry at approximately 50 kDa and by denaturing gel filtration at approximately 50-61 kDa, while its native Stokes radius was approximately 84.8 A, as compared to an expected approximately 30 A; the increase gave rise to an apparent native molecular weight of approximately 578 kDa, also consistent with the extended conformation of a coiled-coil. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) on CHGA in solution best fit an elongated cylindrical conformation in the monodisperse region with a radius of gyration of the rod cross-section (Rt) of approximately 52 A, compatible with a coiled-coil in the hydrated, aqueous state, or a multimeric coiled-coil. Electron microscopy with negative staining revealed an extended, filamentous CHGA structure with a diameter of approximately 94 +/- 4.5 A. Extended, coiled-coil conformation is likely to permit protein 'packing' in the secretory granule at approximately 50% higher density than a globular/spherical conformation. Natural allelic variation in the catestatin region was predicted to disrupt the coiled-coil. Chromaffin granule ultrastructure revealed a approximately 108 +/- 6.3 A periodicity of electron density, suggesting nucleation of a binding complex by the CHGA core. Inhibition of CHGA expression, by siRNA, disrupted regulated secretory protein traffic by approximately 65%, while targeted ablation of the CHGA gene in the mouse reduced chromaffin granule cotransmitter concentrations by approximately 40-80%. These results suggest new roles for secretory protein tertiary structure in hormone and transmitter storage, with implications for secretory cargo condensation (or dense core 'packing' structure) within the regulated pathway.

  5. Regulation and recruitment of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase on immature secretory granules is independent of ADP-ribosylation factor 1.

    PubMed

    Panaretou, Christina; Tooze, Sharon A

    2002-04-15

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins, as well as small GTPases of the Rho and ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) family, are implicated in the regulation of lipid kinases, including PtdIns 4-kinases and PtdIns(4)P 5-kinases. Here, we describe a PtdIns 4-kinase activity on immature secretory granules (ISGs), regulated secretory organelles formed from the trans-Golgi network (TGN), and investigate the regulation of PtdIns4P levels on these membranes. Over 50% of the PtdIns 4-kinase activity on ISGs is inhibited by both a low concentration of adenosine and the monoclonal antibody 4C5G, a specific inhibitor of the type II PtdIns 4-kinase. Treatment of ISGs with mastoparan 7 (M7) stimulates the type II PtdIns 4-kinase via pertussis-toxin-sensitive G(i)/G(0) proteins, which, in contrast with previous results obtained with chromaffin granules [Gasman, Chasserot-Golaz, Hubert, Aunis and Bader (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 16913-16920], does not require Rho A, B or C. M7 treatment also leads to an inhibition in the recruitment of ARF to ISG membranes: this inhibition is not dependent on G(i)/G(0) activation, and is not linked to the stimulation of PtdIns 4-kinase observed with M7. PtdIns 4-kinase activity on ISGs is not regulated by myristoylated ARF1-GTP, in contrast with results obtained with Golgi membranes [Godi, Pertile, Meyers, Marra, Di Tullio, Iurisci, Luini, Corda and De Matteis (1999) Nat. Cell Biol. 1, 280-287; Jones, Morris, Morgan, Kondo, Irvine and Cockcroft (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 13962-13170], whereas ARF1-GTP does regulate the production of PtdIns(4,5)P(2). Our results suggest that the regulation of PtdIns 4-kinase on the ISGs differs in comparison with that on the TGN, and might be related to a specific requirement of ISG maturation. PMID:11931656

  6. Stimulation of mast cells leads to cholesterol accumulation in macrophages in vitro by a mast cell granule-mediated uptake of low density lipoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Kokkonen, J.O.; Kovanen, P.T.

    1987-04-01

    The uptake of low density lipoprotein (LDL) by cultured mouse macrophages was markedly promoted by isolated rat mast cell granules present in the culture medium. The granule-mediated uptake of /sup 125/I-LDL enhanced the rate of cholesteryl ester synthesis in the macrophages, the result being accumulation of cholesteryl esters in these cells. Binding of LDL to the granules was essential for the granule-mediated uptake of LDL by macrophages, for the uptake process was prevented by treating the granules with avidin or protamine chloride or by treating LDL with 1,2-cyclohexanedione, all of which inhibit the binding of LDL to the granules. Inhibition of granule phagocytosis by the macrophages with cytochalasin B also abolished the granule-mediated uptake of LDL. Finally, mouse macrophage monolayers and LDL were incubated in the presence of isolated rat serosal mast cells. Stimulation of the mast cells with compound 48/80, a degranulating agent, resulted in dose-dependent release of secretory granules from the mast cells and a parallel increase in /sup 14/C cholesteryl ester synthesis in the macrophages. The results show that, in this in vitro model, the sequence of events leading to accumulation of cholesteryl esters in macrophages involves initial stimulation of mast cells, subsequent release of their secretory granules, binding of LDL to the exocytosed granules, and, finally, phagocytosis of the LDL-containing granules by macrophages.

  7. Efficient sorting of TNF-alpha to rodent mast cell granules is dependent on N-linked glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Maciej B; Trzaska, Dominika; Knol, Edward F; Adamczewska, Violetta; Dastych, Jaroslaw

    2006-04-01

    Mast cells play an important role at the early stages of immunological response to bacterial infections and parasite infestations. One of the major mast cell proinflammatory mediators is TNF-alpha. Mast cells are considered the only cells capable of storing TNF-alpha in cytoplasmic granules and rapidly releasing it upon activation. To determine what pathway is utilized to direct TNF-alpha to cytoplasmic granules and what motifs are responsible for the sorting process, we constructed a fusion protein covering the full sequence of TNF-alpha, N-terminally fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). In rodent mast cells, such protein was sorted to secretory granules, and this process was inhibited by both brefeldin A and monensin. Considering the relationship between lysosomes and secretory granules and following TNF-alpha sequence analysis, it was determined whether TNF-alpha is sorted through the mannose-6-phosphate receptor (MPR)-dependent pathway. We observed that ammonium chloride and tunicamycin blocked TNF-alpha-EGFP fusion protein delivery to secretory granules. In situ mutagenesis experiments confirmed the necessity of N-linked glycosylation for efficient sorting of TNF-alpha into rodent mast cell granules. In this work we established that TNF-alpha travels from the ER to mast cell granules via a brefeldin A- and monensin-sensitive route, utilizing the MPR-dependent pathway, although this dependency does not seem to be absolute. PMID:16541468

  8. Condensing vacuole conversion and zymogen granule discharge in pancreatic exocrine cells: metabolic studies.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, J D; Palade, G E

    1971-03-01

    We have examined, in the pancreatic exocrine cell, the metabolic requirements for the conversion of condensing vacuoles into zymogen granules and for the discharge of the contents of zymogen granules. To study condensing vacuole conversion, we pulse labeled guinea pig pancreatic slices for 4 min with leucine-(3)H and incubated them in chase medium for 20 min to allow labeled proteins to reach condensing vacuoles. Glycolytic and respiratory inhibitors were then added and incubation continued for 60 min to enable labeled proteins to reach granules in control slices. Electron microscope radioautography of cells or of zymogen granule pellets from treated slices showed that a large proportion of prelabeled condensing vacuoles underwent conversion in the presence of the combined inhibitors. Osmotic fragility studies on zymogen granule suspensions suggest that condensation may result from the aggregation of secretory proteins in an osmotically inactive form. Discharge was studied using an in vitro radioassay based on the finding that prelabeled zymogen granules can be induced to release their labeled contents to the incubation medium by carbamylcholine or pancreozymin. Induced discharge is not affected if protein synthesis is blocked by cycloheximide for up to 2 hr, but is strictly dependent on respiration. The data indicate that transport and discharge do not require the pari passu synthesis of secretory or nonsecretory proteins (e.g. membrane proteins), suggesting that the cell may reutilize its membranes during the secretory process. The energy requirements for zymogen discharge may be related to the fusion-fission of the granule membrane with the apical plasmalemma. PMID:5547590

  9. Tracheobronchial epithelium of the sheep: IV. Lectin histochemical characterization of secretory epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mariassy, A T; Plopper, C G; St George, J A; Wilson, D W

    1988-09-01

    Conventional histochemical characterization of the mucus secretory apparatus is often difficult to reconcile with the biochemical analysis of respiratory secretions. This study was designed to examine the secretory glycoconjugates in airways using lectins with biochemically defined affinities for main sugar residues of mucus. We used five biotinylated lectins--DBA (Dolichos biflorus) and SBA (Glycine max) for N-acetyl galactosamine (galNAc), BSA I (Bandeiraea simplicifolia) and PNA (Arachis hypogea) for galactose (gal), and UEA I (Ulex europeus)--for detection of fucose (fuc) in HgCl2-fixed, paraffin-embedded, serially sectioned trachea, lobar and segmental bronchi and bronchioles of nine sheep. Lectins selectively localized the carbohydrate residues in luminal secretions, on epithelial cell surfaces, and in secretory cells. In proximal airways, the major carbohydrate residues in luminal secretions, cell surfaces, goblet cells, and glands were fuc and gal-NAc. PNA reacted mainly with apical granules of less than 10% of goblet cells, and gal residues were only detected in some of the mucous cells and on basolateral cell surfaces. Distal airways contained sparse secretion in the lumen, mucous cells contained weakly reactive fuc and gal-NAc, and the epithelial surfaces of Clara cells contained gal. Sugars abundant in the airway secretions were also the major component of cells in glands. We conclude that there is a correlation between specific sugar residues in secretory cells, glycocalyx, and luminal secretions in proximal and distal airways. This suggests that lectins may be used to obtain information about airway secretory cell composition from respiratory secretions. PMID:3189886

  10. Young Dentate Granule Cells Mediate Pattern Separation, whereas Old Granule Cells Facilitate Pattern Completion

    E-print Network

    Nakashiba, Toshiaki

    Adult-born granule cells (GCs), a minor population of cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, are highly active during the first few weeks after functional integration into the neuronal network, distinguishing them from ...

  11. Survey of Red Fluorescence Proteins as Markers for Secretory Granule Exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Gandasi, Nikhil R.; Vestö, Kim; Helou, Maria; Yin, Peng; Saras, Jan; Barg, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins (FPs) have proven to be valuable tools for high-resolution imaging studies of vesicle transport processes, including exo- and endocytosis. Since the pH of the vesicle lumen changes between acidic and neutral during these events, pH-sensitive FPs with near neutral pKa, such as pHluorin, are particularly useful. FPs with pKa>6 are readily available in the green spectrum, while red-emitting pH-sensitive FPs are rare and often not well characterized as reporters of exo- or endocytosis. Here we tested a panel of ten orange/red and two green FPs in fusions with neuropeptide Y (NPY) for use as secreted vesicle marker and reporter of dense core granule exocytosis and release. We report relative brightness, bleaching rate, targeting accuracy, sensitivity to vesicle pH, and their performance in detecting exocytosis in live cells. Tandem dimer (td)-mOrange2 was identified as well-targeted, bright, slowly bleaching and pH-sensitive FP that performed similar to EGFP. Single exocytosis events were readily observed, which allowed measurements of fusion pore lifetime and the dynamics of the exocytosis protein syntaxin at the release site during membrane fusion and cargo release. PMID:26091288

  12. Orai-STIM–mediated Ca2+ release from secretory granules revealed by a targeted Ca2+ and pH probe

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Eamonn J.; Duman, Joseph G.; Moody, Mark W.; Chen, Liangyi; Hille, Bertil

    2012-01-01

    Secretory granules (SGs) sequester significant calcium. Understanding roles for this calcium and potential mechanisms of release is hampered by the difficulty of measuring SG calcium directly in living cells. We adapted the Förster resonance energy transfer-based D1-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) probe to develop a unique probe (D1-SG) to measure calcium and pH in secretory granules. It significantly localizes to SGs and reports resting free Ca2+ of 69 ± 15 ?M and a pH of 5.8. Application of extracellular ATP to activate P2Y receptors resulted in a slow monotonic decrease in SG Ca2+ temporally correlated with the occurrence of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). Further investigation revealed a unique receptor-mediated mechanism of calcium release from SGs that involves SG store-operated Orai channels activated by their regulator stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) on the ER. SG Ca2+ release is completely antagonized by a SOCE antagonist, by switching to Ca2+-free medium, and by overexpression of a dominant-negative Orai1(E106A). Overexpression of the CRAC activation domain (CAD) of STIM1 resulted in a decrease of resting SG Ca2+ by ?75% and completely abolished the ATP-mediated release of Ca2+ from SGs. Overexpression of a dominant-negative CAD construct (CAD-A376K) induced no significant changes in SG Ca2+. Colocalization analysis suggests that, like the plasma membrane, SG membranes also possess Orai1 channels and that during SG Ca2+ release, colocalization between SGs and STIM1 increases. We propose Orai channel opening on SG membranes as a potential mode of calcium release from SGs that may serve to raise local cytoplasmic calcium concentrations and aid in refilling intracellular calcium stores of the ER and exocytosis. PMID:23184982

  13. Vaccine adjuvants: Tailor-made mast-cell granules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunzer, Matthias

    2012-03-01

    Mast cells induce protective immune responses through secretion of stimulatory granules. Microparticles modelled after mast-cell granules are now shown to replicate and enhance the functions of their natural counterparts and to direct the character of the resulting immunity.

  14. An aspartyl cathepsin, CTH3, is essential for proprotein processing during secretory granule maturation in Tetrahymena thermophila

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh; Briguglio, Joseph S.; Turkewitz, Aaron P.

    2014-01-01

    In Tetrahymena thermophila, peptides secreted via dense-core granules, called mucocysts, are generated by proprotein processing. We used expression profiling to identify candidate processing enzymes, which localized as cyan fluorescent protein fusions to mucocysts. Of note, the aspartyl cathepsin Cth3p plays a key role in mucocyst-based secretion, since knockdown of this gene blocked proteolytic maturation of the entire set of mucocyst proproteins and dramatically reduced mucocyst accumulation. The activity of Cth3p was eliminated by mutation of two predicted active-site mutations, and overexpression of the wild-type gene, but not the catalytic-site mutant, partially rescued a Mendelian mutant defective in mucocyst proprotein processing. Our results provide the first direct evidence for the role of proprotein processing in this system. Of interest, both localization and the CTH3 disruption phenotype suggest that the enzyme provides non–mucocyst-related functions. Phylogenetic analysis of the T. thermophila cathepsins, combined with prior work on the role of sortilin receptors in mucocyst biogenesis, suggests that repurposing of lysosomal enzymes was an important step in the evolution of secretory granules in ciliates. PMID:24943840

  15. Secretory and basal cells of the epithelium of the tubular glands in the male Mullerian gland of the caecilian Uraeotyphlus narayani (Amphibia: Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    George, Jancy M; Smita, Matthew; Kadalmani, Balamuthu; Girija, Ramankutty; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2004-12-01

    Caecilians are exceptional among the vertebrates in that males retain the Mullerian duct as a functional glandular structure. The Mullerian gland on each side is formed from a large number of tubular glands connecting to a central duct, which either connects to the urogenital duct or opens directly into the cloaca. The Mullerian gland is believed to secrete a substance to be added to the sperm during ejaculation. Thus, the Mullerian gland could function as a male accessory reproductive gland. Recently, we described the male Mullerian gland of Uraeotyphlus narayani using light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and histochemistry. The present TEM study reports that the secretory cells of both the tubular and basal portions of the tubular glands of the male Mullerian gland of this caecilian produce secretion granules in the same manner as do other glandular epithelial cells. The secretion granules are released in the form of structured granules into the lumen of the tubular glands, and such granules are traceable to the lumen of the central duct of the Mullerian gland. This is comparable to the situation prevailing in the epididymal epithelium of several reptiles. In the secretory cells of the basal portion of the tubular glands, mitochondria are intimately associated with fabrication of the secretion granules. The structural and functional organization of the epithelium of the basal portion of the tubular glands is complicated by the presence of basal cells. This study suggests the origin of the basal cells from peritubular tissue leukocytes. The study also indicates a role for the basal cells in acquiring secretion granules from the neighboring secretory cells and processing them into lipofuscin material in the context of regression of the Mullerian gland during the period of reproductive quiescence. In these respects the basal cells match those in the epithelial lining of the epididymis of amniotes. PMID:15487004

  16. Quantification of endocrine cells and ultrastructural study of insulin granules in the large intestine of opossum Didelphis aurita (Wied-Neuwied, 1826).

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Daiane Cristina Marques; Cupertino, Marli do Carmo; Fialho, Maria do Carmo Queiroz; Barbosa, Alfredo Jose Afonso; Fonseca, Cláudio Cesar; Sartori, Sirlene Souza Rodrigues; da Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the distribution of argyrophil, argentaffin, and insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells in the large intestine of opossums (Didelphis aurita) and to describe the ultrastructure of the secretory granules of insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells. Fragments of the large intestine of 10 male specimens of D. aurita were collected, processed, and subjected to staining, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy. The argyrophil, the argentaffin, and the insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells were sparsely distributed in the intestinal glands of the mucous layer, among other cell types of the epithelium in all regions studied. Proportionally, the argyrophil, the argentaffin, and the insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells represented 62.75%, 36.26%, and 0.99% of the total determined endocrine cells of the large intestine, respectively. Quantitatively, there was no difference between the argyrophil and the argentaffin endocrine cells, whereas insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells were less numerous. The insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells were elongated or pyramidal, with rounded nuclei of irregularly contoured, and large amounts of secretory granules distributed throughout the cytoplasm. The granules have different sizes and electron densities and are classified as immature and mature, with the mature granules in predominant form in the overall granular population. In general, the granule is shown with an external electron-lucent halo and electron-dense core. The ultrastructure pattern in the granules of the insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells was similar to that of the B cells of pancreatic islets in rats. PMID:24359801

  17. Gastric neuroendocrine cells and secretory products.

    PubMed Central

    Oberg, K.

    1998-01-01

    The ECL cell is the most common cell type in the oxyntic mucosa of the stomach. It is producing a number of peptides and amines where histamine and chromogranin A seems to be the most important and abundant products. Recent data indicate a direct correlation between ECL-cell mass and circulating chromogranin A levels. Chromogranin A and its splice products might serve as growth promoting agents in ECL-cell hyperplasia or gastric carcinoids. PMID:10461347

  18. Dual protein trafficking to secretory and non-secretory cell compartments: clear or double vision?

    PubMed

    Porter, Brad W; Yuen, Christen Y L; Christopher, David A

    2015-05-01

    Approximately 18% of Arabidopsis thaliana proteins encode a signal peptide for translocation to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the gateway of the eukaryotic secretory pathway. However, it was recently discovered that some ER proteins can undergo both co-translational import into the ER/secretory pathway and trafficking to compartments outside of the secretory pathway. This phenomenon is observed among members of the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family, which are traditionally regarded as ER enzymes involved in protein folding. Although classical PDIs possess an N-terminal signal peptide and a C-terminal ER retention signal, some also dual localize to secretory and non-secretory compartments, including mammalian PDI ERp57, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii PDI RB60, and A. thaliana AtPDI2. ERp57 is present in both the ER and nucleus where it influences gene transcription. RB60 localizes to the ER and chloroplast where it modulates the redox state of polyadenylate-binding protein RB47. AtPDI2, which interacts with transcription factor MEE8, localizes to the ER-secretory pathway and the nucleus. A model proposing secretory trafficking of AtPDI2 and nuclear co-translocation of an AtPDI2-MEE8 complex illustrates the diversity of dual targeting mechanisms, the multifunctional roles of some PDIs, and the potential co-translocation of other proteins to multiple subcellular compartments. PMID:25804820

  19. Synaptic representation of locomotion in single cerebellar granule cells

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Kate; Mathy, Alexandre; Duguid, Ian; Häusser, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The cerebellum plays a crucial role in the regulation of locomotion, but how movement is represented at the synaptic level is not known. Here, we use in vivo patch-clamp recordings to show that locomotion can be directly read out from mossy fiber synaptic input and spike output in single granule cells. The increase in granule cell spiking during locomotion is enhanced by glutamate spillover currents recruited during movement. Surprisingly, the entire step sequence can be predicted from input EPSCs and output spikes of a single granule cell, suggesting that a robust gait code is present already at the cerebellar input layer and transmitted via the granule cell pathway to downstream Purkinje cells. Thus, synaptic input delivers remarkably rich information to single neurons during locomotion. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07290.001 PMID:26083712

  20. Early requirement for alpha-SNAP and NSF in the secretory cascade in chromaffin cells.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, T; Ashery, U; Burgoyne, R D; Neher, E

    1999-01-01

    NSF and alpha-SNAP have been shown to be required for SNARE complex disassembly and exocytosis. However, the exact requirement for NSF and alpha-SNAP in vesicular traffic through the secretory pathway remains controversial. We performed a study on the kinetics of exocytosis from bovine chromaffin cells using high time resolution capacitance measurement and electrochemical amperometry, combined with flash photolysis of caged Ca2+ as a fast stimulus. alpha-SNAP, a C-terminal mutant of alpha-SNAP, and NEM were assayed for their effects on secretion kinetics. Two kinetically distinct components of catecholamine release can be observed upon fast step-like elevation of [Ca2+]i. One is the exocytotic burst, thought to represent the readily releasable pool of vesicles. Following the exocytotic burst, secretion proceeds slowly at maintained high [Ca2+]i, which may represent vesicle maturation/recruitment, i.e. some priming steps after docking. alpha-SNAP increased the amplitude of both the exocytotic burst and the slow component but did not change their kinetics, which we examined with millisecond time resolution. In addition, NEM only partially inhibited the slow component without altering the exocytotic burst, fusion kinetics and the rate of endocytosis. These results suggest a role for alpha-SNAP/NSF in priming granules for release at an early step, but not modifying the fusion of readily releasable granules. PMID:10369670

  1. UNUSUAL EOSINOPHILIC GRANULE CELL PROLIFERATION IN COHO SALMON (ONCHORHYNCHUS KISUTCH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proliferative lesions comprised of eosinophilic granule cells (EGCs) extended throughout the gastrointestinal tract of several mature, spawning coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum). istological examination of the tumour showed extensive proliferation and infiltration of EGC...

  2. An in Vitro system for studying insulin release caused by secretory granules-plasma membrane interaction: definition of the system.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, B; Lazarus, N R

    1976-01-01

    1. An in vitro system is described in which insulin beta-granule-plasma membrane interaction can be studied. 2. The system shows an absolute requirement for physiological amounts of Ca2+ (2 muM) in order for insulin release to proceed. 3. ATP (5 muM) is abot to augment the Ca2+ effect. 4. Glucose (17 mM) alone does not cause insulin release but in the presence of Ca2+ is as effective as ATP. 5. When glucose, ATP and Ca2+ are added together a positive cooperative effect is produced with over 85% of the total insulin, added in the form of beta-granules, being released into the medium in 10 min. 6. The system responds to tolbutamide, in the presence of Ca2+ and ATP, by releasing insulin. 7. Diazoxide, a potent insulin inhibitor in vivo, demonstrates a similar activity in vitro. 8. Various control experiments utilizing alternative membranes, granules, nucleotides, sugars and phosphorylated intermediates of metabolism have all reinforced the specificity of the release mechanisms. 9. These results demonstrate that the in vitro system mimics responses found in the intact organism and can be utilized to dissect the mechanisms associated with exocytosis of insulin granules. 10. Preliminary experiments utilizing adrenaline granules-adrenal plasma membranes and pituitary granules-pituitary plasma membranes suggest that the in vitro system can be extended to all granule secreting processes. PMID:178856

  3. L E T T E R S secretory progenitor cells revert to stem cells

    E-print Network

    van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    L E T T E R S Dll1+ secretory progenitor cells revert to stem cells upon crypt damage Johan H. van,6 , Nick Barker3 , Alexander van Oudenaarden2 and Hans Clevers1,8 Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells generate is expressed by a subset of immediate stem cell daughters. Lineage tracing in Dll1GFP­ires­CreERT2 knock

  4. Carboxypeptidase E and Secretogranin III Coordinately Facilitate Efficient Sorting of Proopiomelanocortin to the Regulated Secretory Pathway in AtT20 Cells.

    PubMed

    Cawley, Niamh X; Rathod, Trushar; Young, Sigrid; Lou, Hong; Birch, Nigel; Loh, Y Peng

    2016-01-01

    Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is a multivalent prohormone that can be processed into at least 7 biologically active peptide hormones. Processing can begin in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and continues in the secretory granules of the regulated secretory pathway (RSP). Sorting of POMC into these granules is a complex process. Previously, a membrane-associated form of carboxypeptidase E (CPE) was shown to bind to POMC and facilitate its trafficking into these granules. More recently, secretogranin III (SgIII) was also found to affect POMC trafficking. Here, we show by RNA silencing that CPE and SgIII play a synergistic role in the trafficking of POMC to granules of the RSP in AtT20 cells. Reduction of either protein resulted in increased constitutive secretion of POMC and chromogranin A, which was increased even further when both proteins were reduced together, indicative of missorting at the TGN. In SgIII-reduced cells, POMC accumulated in a compartment that cofractionated and colocalized with syntaxin 6, a marker of the TGN, on sucrose density gradients and in immunocytochemistry, respectively, indicating an accumulation of this protein in the presumed sorting compartment. Regulated secretion of ACTH, as a measure of sorting and processing of POMC in mature granules, was reduced in the SgIII down-regulated cells but was increased in the CPE down-regulated cells. These results suggest that multiple sorting systems exist, providing redundancy to ensure the important task of continuous and accurate trafficking of prohormones to the granules of the RSP for the production of peptide hormones. PMID:26646096

  5. Fallopian tube secretory cell expansion: a sensitive biomarker for ovarian serous carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiying; Li, Li; Wang, Yue; Tang, Sarah Ngocvi; Zheng, Wenxin

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances suggest that precancerous lesions of pelvic serous carcinoma originate from tubal secretory cells. The purpose of our study was to determine if an increased number of secretory cells varies with age or location in the fallopian tube and to examine its association with serous neoplasia. Three groups (benign control, high-risk, and pelvic serous carcinoma) of age-matched patients were studied. The age data were stratified into 10-year intervals ranging from 20-29 to older than 80. The number of secretory and ciliated cells from both tubal fimbria and ampulla segments was counted by microscopy and immunohistochemical staining methods. The data were analyzed by standard contingency table and Poisson distribution methods after age justification. We found that the absolute number of tubal secretory cells increased significantly with age in all three groups. But a more dramatic increase of secretory cells was observed in high-risk and pelvic serous carcinoma patients. Secretory cell expansion is more prevalent than secretory cell outgrowth in both fimbria and ampulla tubal segments and is significantly associated with serous neoplasia (P < 0.001). Furthermore, age remained a significant risk factor for serous neoplasia after age adjustment. These findings suggest that secretory cell expansion could serve as a potential sensitive biomarker for early serous carcinogenesis within the fallopian tube. The study also supports a relationship between serous neoplasia and increased secretory to ciliated cell ratios, and the relationship between frequency of secretory cell expansion within the fallopian tube and increasing age and-more significantly-presence of high-risk factors or co-existing serous cancers. PMID:26692952

  6. Granule exocytosis mediates immune surveillance of senescent cells

    PubMed Central

    Sagiv, A; Biran, A; Yon, M; Simon, J; Lowe, S W; Krizhanovsky, V

    2013-01-01

    Senescence is a stable cell cycle arrest program that contributes to tumor suppression, organismal aging and certain wound healing responses. During liver fibrosis, for example, hepatic stellate cells initially proliferate and secrete extracellular matrix components that produce fibrosis; however, these cells eventually senesce and are cleared by immune cells, including natural killer (NK) cells. Here, we examine how NK cells target senescent cells and assess the impact of this process on liver fibrosis. We show that granule exocytosis, but not death-receptor-mediated apoptosis, is required for NK-cell-mediated killing of senescent cells. This pathway bias is due to upregulation of the decoy death receptor, Dcr2, an established senescence marker that attenuates NK-mediated cell death. Accordingly, mice with defects in granule exocytosis accumulate senescent stellate cells and display more liver fibrosis in response to a fibrogenic agent. Our results thus provide new insights into the immune surveillance of senescent cells and reveal how granule exocytosis has a protective role against liver fibrosis. PMID:22751116

  7. The use of lectins as markers for differentiated secretory cells in planarians.

    PubMed

    Zayas, Ricardo M; Cebrià, Francesc; Guo, Tingxia; Feng, Junjie; Newmark, Phillip A

    2010-11-01

    Freshwater planarians have reemerged as excellent models to investigate mechanisms underlying regeneration. The introduction of molecular tools has facilitated the study of planarians, but cell- and tissue-specific markers are still needed to examine differentiation of most cell types. Here we report the utility of fluorescent lectin-conjugates to label tissues in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. We show that 16 lectin-conjugates stain planarian cells or tissues; 13 primarily label the secretory cells, their cytoplasmic projections, and terminal pores. Thus, we examined regeneration of the secretory system using lectin markers and functionally characterized two genes expressed in the secretory cells: marginal adhesive gland-1 (mag-1) and Smed-reticulocalbin1 (Smed-rcn1). RNAi knockdown of these genes caused a dramatic reduction of secretory cell lectin staining, suggesting a role for mag-1 and Smed-rcn1 in secretory cell differentiation. Our results provide new insights into planarian secretory system regeneration and add new markers for labeling several planarian tissues. PMID:20865784

  8. Cytoskeleton-secretory vesicle interactions during the docking of secretory vesicles at the cell membrane in Paramecium tetraurelia cells.

    PubMed

    Plattner, H; Westphal, C; Tiggemann, R

    1982-02-01

    Stationary-phase cells of Paramecium tetraurelia have most of their many secretory vesicles ("trichocysts") attached to the cell surface. Log-phase cells contain numerous unoccupied potential docking sites for trichocysts and many free trichocysts in the cytoplasm. To study the possible involvement of cytoskeletal elements, notably of microtubules, in the process of positioning of trichocysts at the cell surface, we took advantage of these stages. Cells were stained with tannic acid and subsequently analyzed by electron microscopy. Semithin sections allowed the determination of structural connections over a range of up to 10 micrometer. Microtubules emanating from ciliary basal bodies are seen in contact with free trichocysts, which appear to be transported, with their tip first, to the cell surface. (This can account for the saltatory movement reported by others). It is noteworthy that the "rails" represented by the microtubules do not directly determine the final attachment site of a trichocyst. Unoccupied attachment sites are characterized by a "plug" of electron-dense material just below the plasma membrane; the "plug" seems to act as a recognition or anchoring site; this material is squeezed out all around the trichocyst attachment zone, once a trichocyst is inserted (Westphal and Plattner, in press. [53]). Slightly below this "plug" we observed fasciae of microfilaments (identified by immunocytochemistry using peroxidase labeled F(ab) fragments against P. tetraurelia actin). Their arrangement is not altered when a trichocyst is docked. These fasciae seem to form a loophole for the insertion of a trichocyst. Trichocyst remain attached to the microtubules originating from the ciliary basal bodies--at least for some time--even after they are firmly installed in the preformed attachment sites. Evidently, the regular arrangement of exocytotic organelles is controlled on three levels: one operating over a long distance from the exocytosis site proper (microtubules), one over a short distance (microfilament bundles), and one directly on the exocytosis site ("plug"). PMID:7199530

  9. Behavioral experience induces zif268 expression in mature granule cells but suppresses its expression in immature granule cells

    PubMed Central

    Huckleberry, Kylie A.; Kane, Gary A.; Mathis, Rita J.; Cook, Sarah G.; Clutton, Jonathan E.; Drew, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of neurons are born each day in the dentate gyrus (DG), but many of these cells die before reaching maturity. Both death and survival of adult-born neurons are regulated by neuronal activity in the DG. The immediate-early gene (IEG) zif268 appears to be an important mediator of these effects, as its expression can be induced by neural activity and knockout of zif268 impairs survival of adult-born neurons (Richardson et al., 1992; Veyrac et al., 2013). Despite the apparent importance of zif268 for adult neurogenesis, its behavior-induced expression has not been fully characterized in adult-born neurons. Here we characterize behavior-evoked expression of zif268 in mature and newborn dentate granule cells (DGCs). We first quantified zif268 expression in doublecortin-positive (DCX+) immature neurons and in the general granule cell population after brief exposure to a novel environment (NE). In the general granule cell population, zif268 expression peaked 1 h after NE exposure and returned to baseline by 8 h post-exposure. However, in the DCX+ cells, zif268 expression was suppressed relative to home cage for at least 8 h post-exposure. We next asked whether suppression of zif268 in DCX+ immature cells occurs in other behavioral paradigms that recruit the hippocampus. Exposure to Morris water maze (MWM) training, an enriched environment, or a NE caused approximately equal suppression of zif268 expression in DCX+ cells and approximately equal activation of zif268 expression among the general granule cell population. The same behavioral procedures activated zif268 expression in 6-week-old BrdU-labeled adult-born neurons, indicating that zif268 suppression is specific to immature neurons. Finally, we asked whether zif268 suppression varied as a function of age within the DCX+ population, which ranges in age from 0 to approximately 4 weeks. NE exposure had no significant effect on zif268 expression in 2- or 4-week-old BrdU-labeled neurons, but it significantly suppressed zif268 expression in 3-week-old neurons. In summary, behavioral experience transiently activated expression of zif268 in mature granule cells but caused a more long-lasting suppression of zif268 expression in immature, adult-born granule cells. We hypothesize that zif268 suppression inhibits memory-related synaptic plasticity in immature neurons or mediates learning-induced apoptosis of immature adult-born neurons. PMID:26347620

  10. Rab27b regulates exocytosis of secretory vesicles in acinar epithelial cells from the lacrimal gland.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Lilian; Ngo, Julie; Schechter, Joel E; Karvar, Serhan; Tolmachova, Tanya; Seabra, Miguel C; Hume, Alistair N; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F

    2011-08-01

    Tear proteins are supplied by the regulated fusion of secretory vesicles at the apical surface of lacrimal gland acinar cells, utilizing trafficking mechanisms largely yet uncharacterized. We investigated the role of Rab27b in the terminal release of these secretory vesicles. Confocal fluorescence microscopy analysis of primary cultured rabbit lacrimal gland acinar cells revealed that Rab27b was enriched on the membrane of large subapical vesicles that were significantly colocalized with Rab3D and Myosin 5C. Stimulation of cultured acinar cells with the secretagogue carbachol resulted in apical fusion of these secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane. Evaluation of morphological changes by transmission electron microscopy of lacrimal glands from Rab27b(-/-) and Rab27(ash/ash)/Rab27b(-/-) mice, but not ashen mice deficient in Rab27a, showed changes in abundance and organization of secretory vesicles, further confirming a role for this protein in secretory vesicle exocytosis. Glands lacking Rab27b also showed increased lysosomes, damaged mitochondria, and autophagosome-like organelles. In vitro, expression of constitutively active Rab27b increased the average size but retained the subapical distribution of Rab27b-enriched secretory vesicles, whereas dominant-negative Rab27b redistributed this protein from membrane to the cytoplasm. Functional studies measuring release of a cotransduced secretory protein, syncollin-GFP, showed that constitutively active Rab27b enhanced, whereas dominant-negative Rab27b suppressed, stimulated release. Disruption of actin filaments inhibited vesicle fusion to the apical membrane but did not disrupt homotypic fusion. These data show that Rab27b participates in aspects of lacrimal gland acinar cell secretory vesicle formation and release. PMID:21525430

  11. Control of cerebellar granule cell output by sensory-evoked Golgi cell inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Duguid, Ian; Branco, Tiago; Chadderton, Paul; Arlt, Charlotte; Powell, Kate; Häusser, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Classical feed-forward inhibition involves an excitation–inhibition sequence that enhances the temporal precision of neuronal responses by narrowing the window for synaptic integration. In the input layer of the cerebellum, feed-forward inhibition is thought to preserve the temporal fidelity of granule cell spikes during mossy fiber stimulation. Although this classical feed-forward inhibitory circuit has been demonstrated in vitro, the extent to which inhibition shapes granule cell sensory responses in vivo remains unresolved. Here we combined whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in vivo and dynamic clamp recordings in vitro to directly assess the impact of Golgi cell inhibition on sensory information transmission in the granule cell layer of the cerebellum. We show that the majority of granule cells in Crus II of the cerebrocerebellum receive sensory-evoked phasic and spillover inhibition prior to mossy fiber excitation. This preceding inhibition reduces granule cell excitability and sensory-evoked spike precision, but enhances sensory response reproducibility across the granule cell population. Our findings suggest that neighboring granule cells and Golgi cells can receive segregated and functionally distinct mossy fiber inputs, enabling Golgi cells to regulate the size and reproducibility of sensory responses. PMID:26432880

  12. Disinhibition of olfactory bulb granule cells accelerates odour discrimination in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Daniel; Kuner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Granule cells are the dominant cell type of the olfactory bulb inhibiting mitral and tufted cells via dendrodendritic synapses; yet the factors regulating the strength of their inhibitory output, and, therefore, their impact on odour discrimination, remain unknown. Here we show that GABAAR ?3-subunits are distributed in a somatodendritic pattern, mostly sparing the large granule cell spines also known as gemmules. Granule cell-selective deletion of ?3-subunits nearly abolishes spontaneous and muscimol-induced currents mediated by GABAA receptors in granule cells, yet recurrent inhibition of mitral cells is strongly enhanced. Mice with disinhibited granule cells require less time to discriminate both dissimilar as well as highly similar odourants, while discrimination learning remains unaffected. Hence, granule cells are controlled by an inhibitory drive that in turn tunes mitral cell inhibition. As a consequence, the olfactory bulb inhibitory network adjusts the speed of early sensory processing. PMID:26592770

  13. Phospholipase C ?1 regulates early secretory trafficking and cell migration via interaction with p115

    PubMed Central

    Millarte, Valentina; Boncompain, Gaelle; Tillmann, Kerstin; Perez, Franck; Sztul, Elizabeth; Farhan, Hesso

    2015-01-01

    The role of early secretory trafficking in the regulation of cell motility remains incompletely understood. Here we used a small interfering RNA screen to monitor the effects on structure of the Golgi apparatus and cell migration. Two major Golgi phenotypes were observed—fragmented and small Golgi. The latter exhibited a stronger correlation with a defect in cell migration. Among the small Golgi hits, we focused on phospholipase C ?1 (PLC?1). We show that PLC?1 regulates Golgi structure and cell migration independently of its catalytic activity but in a manner that depends on interaction with the tethering protein p115. PLC?1 regulates the dynamics of p115 in the early secretory pathway, thereby controlling trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi. Our results uncover a new function of PLC?1 that is independent of its catalytic function and link early secretory trafficking to the regulation of cell migration. PMID:25904324

  14. Differentiation of Mucilage Secretory Cells of the Arabidopsis Seed Coat1

    E-print Network

    Haughn, George

    Differentiation of Mucilage Secretory Cells of the Arabidopsis Seed Coat1 Tamara L. Western2 into a specialized seed coat cell type with a unique morphology and containing large quantities of polysaccharide mucilage (pectin). Such seed coat mucilage cells are necessary for neither viability nor germination under

  15. Secretory profile of metapleural gland cells of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex coronatus (Formicidae: Attini).

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alexsandro Santana; Bueno, Odair Correa; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2011-01-01

    Ants present a pair of metapleural glands located at the posterolateral end of the thorax. Because of its importance in the social organization of ants, the present study was aimed at describing the morphophysiology of this gland in three worker castes of Acromyrmex coronatus, focused on secretory activity using histological and histochemical techniques. Our findings revealed that the secretory and the storage portions of this gland are connected by extracytoplasmic portion of canaliculi that drain the secretion from each secretory cell to the collecting chamber. This secretion contains glycoproteins. In minor workers, the secretion contains higher levels of polysaccharides when compared to that of major workers, supporting the role of the metapleural gland in the maintenance of the fungus garden. The nucleus as well as cytoplasm of secretory cells were strongly positive for RNA indicating that these cells are active in the synthesis of proteins and lipids, compounds found in the final secretion. The variant of the CEC revealed that the secretory activity of the entire gland is synchronous, as all cells exhibit the result. PMID:21181713

  16. Control over the morphology and segregation of Zebrafish germ cell granules during embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Markus J; Mackenzie, Natalia C; Dumstrei, Karin; Nakkrasae, La-Iad; Stebler, Jürg; Raz, Erez

    2008-01-01

    Background Zebrafish germ cells contain granular-like structures, organized around the cell nucleus. These structures share common features with polar granules in Drosophila, germinal granules in Xenopus and chromatoid bodies in mice germ cells, such as the localization of the zebrafish Vasa, Piwi and Nanos proteins, among others. Little is known about the structure of these granules as well as their segregation in mitosis during early germ-cell development. Results Using transgenic fish expressing a fluorescently labeled novel component of Zebrafish germ cell granules termed Granulito, we followed the morphology and distribution of the granules. We show that whereas these granules initially exhibit a wide size variation, by the end of the first day of development they become a homogeneous population of medium size granules. We investigated this resizing event and demonstrated the role of microtubules and the minus-end microtubule dependent motor protein Dynein in the process. Last, we show that the function of the germ cell granule resident protein the Tudor domain containing protein-7 (Tdrd7) is required for determination of granule morphology and number. Conclusion Our results suggest that Zebrafish germ cell granules undergo a transformation process, which involves germ cell specific proteins as well as the microtubular network. PMID:18507824

  17. Toxoplasma exports dense granule proteins beyond the vacuole to the host cell nucleus and rewires the host genome expression.

    PubMed

    Bougdour, Alexandre; Tardieux, Isabelle; Hakimi, Mohamed-Ali

    2014-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the most widespread apicomplexan parasite and occupies a large spectrum of niches by infecting virtually any warm-blooded animals. As an obligate intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma has evolved a repertoire of strategies to fine-tune the cellular environment in an optimal way to promote growth and persistence in host tissues hence increasing the chance to be transmitted to new hosts. Short and long-term intracellular survival is associated with Toxoplasma ability to both evade the host deleterious immune defences and to stimulate a beneficial immune balance by governing host cell gene expression. It is only recently that parasite proteins responsible for driving these transcriptional changes have been identified. While proteins contained in the apical secretory Rhoptry organelle have already been identified as bona fide secreted effectors that divert host signalling pathways, recent findings revealed that dense granule proteins should be added to the growing list of effectors as they reach the host cell cytoplasm and nucleus and target various host cell pathways in the course of cell infection. Herein, we emphasize on a novel subfamily of dense granule residentproteins, exemplified with the GRA16 and GRA24 members we recently discovered as both are exported beyond the vacuole-containing parasites and reach the host cell nucleus to reshape the host genome expression. PMID:24373221

  18. LKB1 Regulates Cerebellar Development by Controlling Sonic Hedgehog-mediated Granule Cell Precursor Proliferation and Granule Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Men, Yuqin; Zhang, Aizhen; Li, Haixiang; Jin, Yecheng; Sun, Xiaoyang; Li, Huashun; Gao, Jiangang

    2015-01-01

    The Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1) gene plays crucial roles in cell differentiation, proliferation and the establishment of cell polarity. We created LKB1 conditional knockout mice (LKB1Atoh1 CKO) to investigate the function of LKB1 in cerebellar development. The LKB1Atoh1 CKO mice displayed motor dysfunction. In the LKB1Atoh1 CKO cerebellum, the overall structure had a larger volume and morelobules. LKB1 inactivationled to an increased proliferation of granule cell precursors (GCPs), aberrant granule cell migration and overproduction of unipolar brush cells. To investigate the mechanism underlying the abnormal foliation, we examined sonic hedgehog signalling (Shh) by testing its transcriptional mediators, the Gli proteins, which regulate the GCPs proliferation and cerebellar foliation during cerebellar development. The expression levels of Gli genes were significantly increased in the mutant cerebellum. In vitro assays showed that the proliferation of cultured GCPs from mutant cerebellum significantly increased, whereas the proliferation of mutant GCPs significantly decreased in the presence of a Shh inhibitor GDC-0049. Thus, LKB1 deficiency in the LKB1Atoh1 CKO mice enhanced Shh signalling, leading to the excessive GCP proliferation and the formation of extra lobules. We proposed that LKB1 regulates cerebellar development by controlling GCPs proliferation through Shh signalling during cerebellar development. PMID:26549569

  19. Mechanisms of Ethanol-induced Death of Cerebellar Granule Cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jia

    2012-01-01

    Maternal ethanol exposure during pregnancy may cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASD is the leading cause of mental retardation. The most deleterious effect of fetal alcohol exposure is inducing neuroapoptosis in the developing brain. Ethanol-induced loss of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) underlies many of the behavioral deficits observed in FASD. The cerebellum is one of the brain areas that is most susceptible to ethanol during development. Ethanol exposure causes a loss of both cerebellar Purkinje cells and granule cells. This review focuses on the toxic effect of ethanol on cerebellar granule cells (CGC) and the underlying mechanisms. Both in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that ethanol induces apoptotic death of CGC. The vulnerability of CGC to ethanol-induced death diminishes over time as neurons mature. Several mechanisms for ethanol-induced apoptosis of CGC have been suggested. These include inhibition of NMDA receptors, interference with signaling by neurotrophic factors, induction of oxidative stress, modulation of retinoid acid signaling, disturbance of potassium channel currents, thiamine deficiency, and disruption of translational regulation. Cultures of CGC provide an excellent system to investigate cellular/molecular mechanisms of ethanol-induced neurodegeneration and to evaluate interventional strategies. This review will also discuss the approaches leading to neuroprotection against ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis. PMID:20927663

  20. In vitro viability and secretory capacity of human luteinized granulosa cells after gonadotropin-releasing

    E-print Network

    Terasaki, Mark

    protocol. Intervention(s): In vitro fertilization cycles. Main Outcome Measure(s): Proportion of apoptosisIn vitro viability and secretory capacity of human luteinized granulosa cells after gonadotropin-based fertility center. Patient(s): A subset of patients who underwent a randomized trial involving GnRH agonist

  1. The input-output transformation of the hippocampal granule cells: from grid cells to place fields

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Licurgo de; Idiart, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Grid cells in the rat medial entorhinal cortex fire (periodically) over the entire environment. These cells provide input to hippocampal granule cells whose output is characterized by one or more small place fields. We sought to understand how this input-output transformation occurs. Available information allows simulation of this process with no freely adjustable parameters. We first examined the spatial distribution of excitation in granule cells produced by the convergence of excitatory inputs from randomly chosen grid cells. Because the resulting summation depends on the number of inputs, it is necessary to use a realistic number (~1200) and to take into consideration their 20-fold variation in strength. The resulting excitation maps have only modest peaks and valleys. To analyze how this excitation interacts with inhibition, we utilized an E%-max winner-take-all rule that describes how gamma-frequency inhibition affects firing. We found that simulated granule cells have firing maps that have one or more place fields whose size and number approximates those observed experimentally. A substantial fraction of granule cells have no place fields, as observed experimentally. Because the input firing rates and synaptic properties are known, the excitatory charge into granule cells could be calculated (2–3 pC) and was found to be only somewhat larger than required to fire granule cells (1 pC). We conclude that the input-output transformation of dentate granule does not depend strongly on synaptic modification; place field formation can be understood in terms of simple summation of randomly chosen excitatory inputs, in conjunction with a winner-take-all network mechanism. PMID:19515918

  2. Regulated and constitutive protein targeting can be distinguished by secretory polarity in thyroid epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    We have studied concurrent apical/basolateral and regulated/constitutive secretory targeting in filter-grown thyroid epithelial monolayers in vitro, by following the exocytotic routes of two newly synthesized endogenous secretory proteins, thyroglobulin (Tg) and p500. Tg is a regulated secretory protein as indicated by its acute secretory response to secretagogues. Without stimulation, pulse-labeled Tg exhibits primarily two kinetically distinct routes: less than or equal to 80% is released in an apical secretory phase which is largely complete by 6-10 h, with most of the remaining Tg retained in intracellular storage from which delayed apical discharge is seen. The rapid export observed for most Tg is unlikely to be because of default secretion, since its apical polarity is preserved even during the period (less than or equal to 10 h) when p500 is released basolaterally by a constitutive pathway unresponsive to secretagogues. p500 also exhibits a second, kinetically distinct secretory route: at chase times greater than 10 h, a residual fraction (less than or equal to 8%) of p500 is secreted with an apical preponderance similar to that of Tg. It appears that this fraction of p500 has failed to be excluded from the regulated pathway, which has a predetermined apical polarity. From these data we hypothesize that a targeting hierarchy may exist in thyroid epithelial cells such that initial sorting to the regulated pathway may be a way of insuring apical surface delivery from one of two possible exocytotic routes originating in the immature storage compartment. PMID:1991788

  3. Effect of oral acetylcysteine on tobacco smoke-induced secretory cell hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, P K; Rogers, D F; Ayers, M M

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation explores whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC) inhibits the secretory cell hyperplasia known to occur experimentally in specific pathogen-free (SPF) bronchitic rats. The animals were divided into 4 groups: no tobacco smoke (TS), no drug, no TS but NAC (1040 mg/kg body weight), TS but no drug, and TS plus NAC. NAC-treated animals showed no ill effects, TS exposed animals showed an initial fall in weight gain which never fully recovered (P less than 0.01): NAC did not protect. TS caused a significant increase (62-421%) in secretory cell number at all airway levels distal to the upper trachea (P less than 0.01) and NAC significantly inhibited it (P less than 0.01-0.05) in all, mostly in secretory cells containing acidic glycoprotein. TS exposure also induced a significant rise in epithelial cell concentration and of ciliated, mucous and especially basal cell number (P less than 0.001). NAC inhibited the mucous cell increase (P less than 0.001) and had 3 effects on the peak of dividing cells: it was (a) delayed until 3 days (b) greatly reduced in size and (c) prolonged at a lower level until its return to control values at 10 days of TS exposure. PMID:3862604

  4. Effect of placenta secretory products on migration activity of endothelial EA.Hy926 cells.

    PubMed

    Stepanova, O I; L'vova, T Yu; Furaeva, K N; Sokolov, D I; Sel'kov, S A

    2013-11-01

    We studied the influence of factors secreted by the placenta in physiological and preeclampsia-complicated pregnancy on migration activity of endothelial EA.Hy926 cells. It was found that migration of endothelial cells was more intensive in the presence of secretory factors from trimester I placentas in comparison with trimester III placentas and was lower in the presence of placental factors in preeclampsia in comparison with physiological pregnancy. PMID:24319715

  5. Neuroendocrinelike (small granule) epithelial cells of the lung.

    PubMed Central

    DiAugustine, R P; Sonstegard, K S

    1984-01-01

    The presence of neuroendocrinelike epithelial cells in the lung of numerous species has been demonstrated by light and electron microscopy. Histochemical methods used to identify these cells have included staining with silver, amine-type fluorescence (APUD cell), periodic acid Schiff (PAS)-lead hematoxylin, and immunohistochemical localization of neuron-specific enolase. Cytoplasmic dense core vesicles (70-200 nm in diameter) have served as the major ultrastructural characteristic. Lung neuroendocrinelike cells have been shown to occur in fetal and adult mammals as solitary-type cells or as distinct organoids known as neuroepithelial bodies ( NEBs ). Although the frequency of both populations is considered low, solitary-type cells with dense-core granules can be found in as high as 5% of epithelial cells in the cricoid region of the guinea-pig larynx. The solitary cells can be found throughout the airways of mammals, whereas the NEBs are confined to the intrapulmonary airways. Unmyelinated fibers have been traced from the lamina propria and into the NEB, where they ramified between the component cells of the NEB. The function of lung neuroendocrinelike cells is not known, but morphological and cytochemical studies suggest that the NEBs are intrapulmonary chemoreceptors that can respond to changes in airway gas composition. Hypoxia or hypercapnia has been shown to decrease the amine cytofluorescence in these organoids and apparently to increase the exocytosis of dense core vesicles from the basal region of the cell. Immunohistochemical studies have suggested that some lung epithelial cells may contain a known neuropeptide(s), but further investigation is needed to confirm the presence of such compounds in lung neuroendocrinelike cells and their physiochemical properties. Apparent hyperplasia of lung neuroendocrinelike cells can occur readily in hamsters treated with diethylnitrosamine. It has been postulated that human lung tumors with endocrinelike properties, namely, bronchial carcinoids and lung small cell carcinomas, may originate from lung neuroendocrinelike cells. However, a more plausible explanation, based on cytokinetic studies of epithelial neuroendocrinelike cells in the lung and other organs, is that these cells originate from a nonneuroendocrine population. Interaction of such a progenitor cell population with selected carcinogens may lead to stimulation of the rate of normal differentiation or, alternately, to selection of an abnormal route of differentiation that possesses a neuroendocrine phenotype. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 13. FIGURE 14. FIGURE 15. PMID:6376101

  6. Disruption of cerebellar granule cell development in the Pax6 mutant, Sey mouse.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Douglas James; Tong, Yiai; Goldowitz, Dan

    2005-12-01

    The transcriptional regulator Pax6 is expressed in cerebellar granule cells and a mutation in that gene (Sey) has been shown to affect cerebellar development. We have defined novel phenotypes in the Sey/Sey cerebellum, indicating that the mutation of Pax6 alters granule cell behavior in vitro and also the interaction between granule cells and Purkinje cells in vivo. In culture, Sey/Sey granule cell precursors show the following abnormal phenotypes: enhanced proliferation, increased apoptotic cell death, and decreased number of morphologically differentiating beta-III tubulin-positive cells. There is an overlap in the populations of Sey/Sey cells that express markers for proliferation and neuronal differentiation indicating an abnormality in the transition between these states in granule cells. In vivo, Purkinje cell ectopias were found deep in the cerebellum and extending into the inferior colliculus. Coincident with this, Purkinje cell phenotype was the alteration in the pattern and levels of Reelin expression in granule cells of the external germinal layer (EGL). The finding of increased staining for Disabled-1, a signaling pathway intermediary that is normally downregulated by a Reelin signal, throughout the Purkinje cell population suggests that in the Sey/Sey cerebellum there is a disruption in Reelin signaling from the EGL to Purkinje cells. These findings suggest that Pax6 is critical for the proper differentiation of granule cells and their communication with developing Purkinje cells. Thus, through its guidance of granule cell development, Pax6 also has a strong influence on many of the cellular programs that guide the morphogenesis of the entire cerebellum. PMID:16289327

  7. Functional alpha7 nicotinic receptors are expressed on immature granule cells of the postnatal dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    John, Danielle; Shelukhina, Irina; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Deuchars, Jim; Henderson, Zaineb

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenesis occurs throughout life in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus, and postnatal-born granule cells migrate into the granule cell layer and extend axons to their target areas. The ?7?nicotinic receptor has been implicated in neuronal maturation during development of the brain and is abundant in interneurons of the hippocampal formation of the adult brain. Signalling through these same receptors is believed also to promote maturation and integration of adult-born granule cells in the hippocampal formation. We therefore aimed to determine whether functional ?7?nicotinic receptors are expressed in developing granule cells of the postnatal dentate gyrus. For these experiments we used 2–3 week-old Wistar rats, and 2–9 week old transgenic mice in which GABAergic interneurons were marked by expression of green fluorescent protein. Immunohistochemistry indicated the presence of ?7?nicotinic receptor subunits around granule cells close around the subgranular zone which correlated with the distribution of developmental markers for immature granule cells. Whole-cell patch clamp recording showed that a proportion of granule cells responded to puffed ACh in the presence of atropine, and that these cells possessed electrophysiological properties found in immature granule cells. The nicotinic responses were potentiated by an allosteric ?7?nicotinic receptor modulator, which were blocked by a specific ?7?nicotinic receptor antagonist and were not affected by ionotropic glutamate or GABA receptor antagonists. These results suggest the presence of functional somato-dendritic ?7?nicotinic receptors on immature granule cells of the postnatal dentate gyrus, consistent with studies implicating ?7?nicotinic receptors in dendritic maturation of dentate gyrus neurons in adult brain. PMID:25553616

  8. Phospholipase D2 Modulates the Secretory Pathway in RBL-2H3 Mast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Marchini-Alves, Claudia Maria Meirelles; Barbosa Lorenzi, Valeria Cintra; da Silva, Elaine Zayas Marcelino; Mazucato, Vivian Marino; Jamur, Maria Celia; Oliver, Constance

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) hydrolyses phosphatidylcholine to produce phosphatidic acid (PA) and choline. It has two isoforms, PLD1 and PLD2, which are differentially expressed depending on the cell type. In mast cells it plays an important role in signal transduction. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of PLD2 in the secretory pathway. RBL-2H3 cells, a mast cell line, transfected to overexpress catalytically active (PLD2CA) and inactive (PLD2CI) forms of PLD2 were used. Previous observations showed that the Golgi complex was well organized in CA cells, but was disorganized and dispersed in CI cells. Furthermore, in CI cells, the microtubule organizing center was difficult to identify and the microtubules were disorganized. These previous observations demonstrated that PLD2 is important for maintaining the morphology and organization of the Golgi complex. To further understand the role of PLD2 in secretory and vesicular trafficking, the role of PLD2 in the secretory process was investigated. Incorporation of sialic acid was used to follow the synthesis and transport of glycoconjugates in the cell lines. The modified sialic acid was subsequently detected by labeling with a fluorophore or biotin to visualize the localization of the molecule after a pulse-chase for various times. Glycoconjugate trafficking was slower in the CI cells and labeled glycans took longer to reach the plasma membrane. Furthermore, in CI cells sialic acid glycans remained at the plasma membrane for longer periods of time compared to RBL-2H3 cells. These results suggest that PLD2 activity plays an important role in regulating glycoconjugate trafficking in mast cells. PMID:26492088

  9. Deficits in cerebellar granule cell development and social interactions in CD47 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chung-Pin; Chang, Wen-Teng; Lee, Yi-Chao; Huang, A-Min

    2015-05-01

    CD47 is involved in neurite differentiation in cultured neurons, but the function of CD47 in brain development is largely unknown. We determined that CD47 mRNA was robustly expressed in the developing cerebellum, especially in granule cells. CD47 protein was mainly expressed in the inner layer of the external granule layer (EGL), molecular layer, and internal granule layer (IGL), where granule cells individually become postmitotic and migrate, leading to neurite fasciculation. At postnatal day 8 (P8), CD47 knockout mice exhibited an increased number of proliferating granule cells in the EGL, whereas the CD47 agonist peptide 4N1K increased the number of postmitotic cells in primary granule cells. Knocking out the CD47 gene and anti-CD47 antibody impaired the radial migration of granule cells from the EGL to the IGL individually in mice and slice cultures. In primary granule cells, knocking out CD47 reduced the number of axonal collaterals and dendritic branches; by contrast, overexpressing CD47 or 4N1K treatment increased the axonal length and numbers of axonal collaterals and dendritic branches. Furthermore, the length of the fissure between Lobules VI and VII was decreased in CD47 knockout mice at P21 and at 14 wk after birth. Lastly, CD47 knockout mice exhibited increased social interaction at P21 and depressive-like behaviors at 10 wk after birth. Our study revealed that the cell adhesion molecule CD47 participates in multiple phases of granule cell development, including proliferation, migration, and neurite differentiation implying that aberrations of CD47 are risk factors that cause abnormalities in cerebellar development and atypical behaviors. PMID:25288019

  10. Engineered tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease active in the secretory pathway of mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Cesaratto, Francesca; López-Requena, Alejandro; Burrone, Oscar R; Petris, Gianluca

    2015-10-20

    Tobacco etch virus protease (TEVp) is a unique endopeptidase with stringent substrate specificity. TEVp has been widely used as a purified protein for in vitro applications, but also as a biological tool directly expressing it in living cells. To adapt the protease to diverse applications, several TEVp mutants with different stability and enzymatic properties have been reported. Herein we describe the development of a novel engineered TEVp mutant designed to be active in the secretory pathway. While wild type TEVp targeted to the secretory pathway of mammalian cells is synthetized as an N-glycosylated and catalytically inactive enzyme, a TEVp mutant with selected mutations at two verified N-glycosylation sites and at an exposed cysteine was highly efficient. This mutant was very active in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of living cells and can be used as a biotechnological tool to cleave proteins within the secretory pathway. As an immediate practical application we report the expression of a complete functional monoclonal antibody expressed from a single polypeptide, which was cleaved by our TEVp mutant into the two antibody chains and secreted as an assembled and functional molecule. In addition, we show active TEVp mutants lacking auto-cleavage activity. PMID:26327323

  11. Secretory clusterin inhibits osteoclastogenesis by attenuating M-CSF-dependent osteoclast precursor cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Bongkun; Kang, Soon-Suk; Kang, Sang-Wook; Min, Bon-Hong; Lee, Eun-Jin; Song, Da-Hyun; Kim, Sang-Min; Song, Youngsup; Yoon, Seung-Yong; Chang, Eun-Ju

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • We describe the expression and secretion of clusterin in osteoclasts. • Endogenous clusterin deficiency does not affect osteoclast formation. • Exogenous treatment with secretory clusterin decreases osteoclast differentiation. • Secretory clusterin attenuates osteoclast precursor cell proliferation by inhibiting M-CSF-mediated ERK activation. - Abstract: Secretory clusterin (sCLU)/apolipoprotein J is a multifunctional glycoprotein that is ubiquitously expressed in various tissues. Reduced sCLU in the joints of patients with bone erosive disease is associated with disease activity; however, its exact role has yet to be elucidated. Here, we report that CLU is expressed and secreted during osteoclastogenesis in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) that are treated with receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). CLU-deficient BMMs obtained from CLU{sup ?/?} mice exhibited no significant alterations in OC differentiation in comparison with BMMs obtained from wild-type mice. In contrast, exogenous sCLU treatment significantly inhibited OC formation in both BMMs and OC precursor cultures. The inhibitory effect of sCLU was more prominent in BMMs than OC precursor cultures. Interestingly, treating BMMs with sCLU decreased the proliferative effects elicited by M-CSF and suppressed M-CSF-induced ERK activation of OC precursor cells without causing apoptotic cell death. This study provides the first evidence that sCLU reduces OC formation by inhibiting the actions of M-CSF, thereby suggesting its protective role in bone erosion.

  12. Granulated peripolar epithelial cells in the renal corpuscle of marine elasmobranch fish.

    PubMed

    Lacy, E R; Reale, E

    1989-07-01

    Granulated epithelial cells at the vascular pole of the renal corpuscle, peripolar cells, have been found in the kidneys of five species of elasmobranchs, the little skate (Raja erinacea), the smooth dogfish shark (Mustelus canis), the Atlantic sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae), the scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini), and the cow-nosed ray (Rhinoptera bonasus). In a sixth elasmobranch, the spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias), the peripolar cells could not be identified among numerous other granulated epithelial cells. The peripolar cells are located at the transition between the parietal epithelium of Bowman's capsule and the visceral epithelium (podocytes) of the glomerulus, thus forming a cuff-like arrangement surrounding the hilar vessels of the renal corpuscle. These cells may have granules and/or vacuoles. Electron microscopy shows that the granules are membrane-bounded, and contain either a homogeneous material or a paracrystalline structure with a repeating period of about 18 nm. The vacuoles are electron lucent or may contain remnants of a granule. These epithelial cells lie close to the granulated cells of the glomerular afferent arteriole. They correspond to the granular peripolar cells of the mammalian, avian and amphibian kidney. The present study is the first reported occurrence of peripolar cells in a marine organism or in either bony or cartilagenous fish. PMID:2519933

  13. Zinc sulfide in intestinal cell granules of Ancylostoma caninum adults

    SciTech Connect

    Gianotti, A.J.; Clark, D.T.; Dash, J. )

    1991-04-01

    A source of confusion has existed since the turn of the century about the reddish brown, weakly birefringent 'sphaerocrystals' located in the intestines of strongyle nematodes, Strongylus and Ancylostoma. X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectrometric analyses were used for accurate determination of the crystalline order and elemental composition of the granules in the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum. The composition of the intestinal pigmented granules was identified unequivocally as zinc sulfide. It seems most probable that the granules serve to detoxify high levels of metallic ions (specifically zinc) present due to the large intake of host blood.

  14. Formation of tRNA granules in the nucleus of heat-induced human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miyagawa, Ryu; Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654 ; Mizuno, Rie; Watanabe, Kazunori; Ijiri, Kenichi; Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNAs are tranlocated into the nucleus in heat-induced HeLa cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNAs form the unique granules in the nucleus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNA ganules overlap with nuclear stress granules. -- Abstract: The stress response, which can trigger various physiological phenomena, is important for living organisms. For instance, a number of stress-induced granules such as P-body and stress granule have been identified. These granules are formed in the cytoplasm under stress conditions and are associated with translational inhibition and mRNA decay. In the nucleus, there is a focus named nuclear stress body (nSB) that distinguishes these structures from cytoplasmic stress granules. Many splicing factors and long non-coding RNA species localize in nSBs as a result of stress. Indeed, tRNAs respond to several kinds of stress such as heat, oxidation or starvation. Although nuclear accumulation of tRNAs occurs in starved Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this phenomenon is not found in mammalian cells. We observed that initiator tRNA{sup Met} (Meti) is actively translocated into the nucleus of human cells under heat stress. During this study, we identified unique granules of Meti that overlapped with nSBs. Similarly, elongator tRNA{sup Met} was translocated into the nucleus and formed granules during heat stress. Formation of tRNA granules is closely related to the translocation ratio. Then, all tRNAs may form the specific granules.

  15. Hippocampal granule cell pathology in epilepsy - a possible structural basis for comorbidities of epilepsy?

    PubMed

    Hester, Michael S; Danzer, Steve C

    2014-09-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy in both animals and humans is characterized by abnormally integrated hippocampal dentate granule cells. Among other abnormalities, these cells make axonal connections with inappropriate targets, grow dendrites in the wrong direction, and migrate to ectopic locations. These changes promote the formation of recurrent excitatory circuits, leading to the appealing hypothesis that these abnormal cells may by epileptogenic. While this hypothesis has been the subject of intense study, less attention has been paid to the possibility that abnormal granule cells in the epileptic brain may also contribute to comorbidities associated with the disease. Epilepsy is associated with a variety of general findings, such as memory disturbances and cognitive dysfunction, and is often comorbid with a number of other conditions, including schizophrenia and autism. Interestingly, recent studies implicate disruption of common genes and gene pathways in all three diseases. Moreover, while neuropsychiatric conditions are associated with changes in a variety of brain regions, granule cell abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy appear to be phenocopies of granule cell deficits produced by genetic mouse models of autism and schizophrenia, suggesting that granule cell dysmorphogenesis may be a common factor uniting these seemingly diverse diseases. Disruption of common signaling pathways regulating granule cell neurogenesis may begin to provide mechanistic insight into the cooccurrence of temporal lobe epilepsy and cognitive and behavioral disorders. PMID:24468242

  16. The biology and dynamics of mammalian cortical granules

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cortical granules are membrane bound organelles located in the cortex of unfertilized oocytes. Following fertilization, cortical granules undergo exocytosis to release their contents into the perivitelline space. This secretory process, which is calcium dependent and SNARE protein-mediated pathway, is known as the cortical reaction. After exocytosis, the released cortical granule proteins are responsible for blocking polyspermy by modifying the oocytes' extracellular matrices, such as the zona pellucida in mammals. Mammalian cortical granules range in size from 0.2 um to 0.6 um in diameter and different from most other regulatory secretory organelles in that they are not renewed once released. These granules are only synthesized in female germ cells and transform an egg upon sperm entry; therefore, this unique cellular structure has inherent interest for our understanding of the biology of fertilization. Cortical granules are long thought to be static and awaiting in the cortex of unfertilized oocytes to be stimulated undergoing exocytosis upon gamete fusion. Not till recently, the dynamic nature of cortical granules is appreciated and understood. The latest studies of mammalian cortical granules document that this organelle is not only biochemically heterogeneous, but also displays complex distribution during oocyte development. Interestingly, some cortical granules undergo exocytosis prior to fertilization; and a number of granule components function beyond the time of fertilization in regulating embryonic cleavage and preimplantation development, demonstrating their functional significance in fertilization as well as early embryonic development. The following review will present studies that investigate the biology of cortical granules and will also discuss new findings that uncover the dynamic aspect of this organelle in mammals. PMID:22088197

  17. Relationship between calcium mobilization and platelet ?- and ?-granule secretion. A role for TRPC6 in thrombin-evoked ?-granule exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Lopez, E; Bermejo, N; Berna-Erro, A; Alonso, N; Salido, G M; Redondo, P C; Rosado, J A

    2015-11-01

    Changes in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) regulate granule secretion in different cell types. Thrombin activates PAR1 and PAR4 receptors and promotes release of Ca(2+) from distinct intracellular stores, which, in turn, activates store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE). A crucial step during platelet function is the release of physiological agonists stored in secretory granules to the extracellular compartment during activation. We aim to study the role of Ca(2+) mobilization from the extracellular compartment or from different intracellular stores in platelet granule secretion. By using flow cytometry, we have found that ?- and ?-granules are secreted in thrombin-stimulated platelets in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+), and in a concentration-dependent manner. Our findings show that thrombin-stimulated granule secretion depends on Ca(2+) mobilization from intracellular stores. Analysis of the kinetics of granule secretion reveals that platelet stimulation with thrombin results in rapid release of ?-granules which precedes the secretion of ?-granules. Incubation of platelets with a specific antibody, which recognizes the extracellular amino acid sequence 573-586 of TRPC6, inhibited thrombin-evoked ?-granule exocytosis. Our results indicate that the mechanisms underlying thrombin-induced ?- and ?-granule secretion show differences in dependency on Ca(2+) mobilization. PMID:26386308

  18. A hypothesis for temporal coding of young and mature granule cells

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, Lara M.; Quinn, Laleh K.; Chiba, Andrea A.; Gage, Fred H.; Aimone, James B.

    2013-01-01

    While it has been hypothesized that adult neurogenesis (NG) plays a role in the encoding of temporal information at long time-scales, the temporal relationship of immature cells to the highly rhythmic network activity of the hippocampus has been largely unexplored. Here, we present a theory for how the activity of immature adult-born granule cells relates to hippocampal oscillations. Our hypothesis is that theta rhythmic (5–10 Hz) excitatory and inhibitory inputs into the hippocampus could differentially affect young and mature granule cells due to differences in intrinsic physiology and synaptic inhibition between the two cell populations. Consequently, immature cell activity may occur at broader ranges of theta phase than the activity of their mature counterparts. We describe how this differential influence on young and mature granule cells could separate the activity of differently aged neurons in a temporal coding regime. Notably, this process could have considerable implications on how the downstream CA3 region interprets the information conveyed by young and mature granule cells. To begin to investigate the phasic behavior of granule cells, we analyzed in vivo recordings of the rat dentate gyrus (DG), observing that the temporal behavior of granule cells with respect to the theta rhythm is different between rats with normal and impaired levels of NG. Specifically, in control animals, granule cells exhibit both strong and weak coupling to the phase of the theta rhythm. In contrast, the distribution of phase relationships in NG-impaired rats is shifted such that they are significantly stronger. These preliminary data support our hypothesis that immature neurons could distinctly affect the temporal dynamics of hippocampal encoding. PMID:23717259

  19. The transcription factor Cux1 in cerebellar granule cell development and medulloblastoma pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Topka, Sabine; Glassmann, Alexander; Weisheit, Gunnar; Schüller, Ulrich; Schilling, Karl

    2014-12-01

    Cux1, also known as Cutl1, CDP or Cut is a homeodomain transcription factor implicated in the regulation of normal and oncogenic development in diverse peripheral tissues and organs. We studied the expression and functional role of Cux1 in cerebellar granule cells and medulloblastoma. Cux1 is robustly expressed in proliferating granule cell precursors and in postmitotic, migrating granule cells. Expression is lost as postmigratory granule cells mature. Moreover, Cux1 is also strongly expressed in a well-established mouse model of medulloblastoma. In contrast, expression of CUX1 in human medulloblastoma tissue samples is lower than in normal fetal cerebellum. In these tumors, CUX1 expression tightly correlates with a set of genes which, when mapped on a global protein-protein interaction dataset, yields a tight network that constitutes a cell cycle control signature and may be related to p53 and the DNA damage response pathway. Antisense-mediated reduction of CUX1 levels in two human medulloblastoma cell lines led to a decrease in proliferation and altered motility. The developmental expression of Cux1 in the cerebellum and its action in cell lines support a role in granule cell and medulloblastoma proliferation. Its expression in human medulloblastoma shifts that perspective, suggesting that CUX1 is part of a network involved in cell cycle control and maintenance of DNA integrity. The constituents of this network may be rational targets to therapeutically approach medulloblastomas. PMID:25096634

  20. Mesenchymal cell activation is the rate-limiting step of granulation tissue induction.

    PubMed

    McClain, S A; Simon, M; Jones, E; Nandi, A; Gailit, J O; Tonnesen, M G; Newman, D; Clark, R A

    1996-10-01

    During wound repair a 3-day lag occurs between injury and granulation tissue development. When full-thickness, 8-mm-round, excisional wounds were made in the paravertebral skin of outbred Yorkshire pigs and harvested at various times, no granulation tissue was observed before day 4. Day 4 wounds were 3% filled with granulation tissue, day 5 wounds 48% filled, and day 7 wounds 88% filled. The prerequisites for granulation tissue induction are not known but hypothetically include fibrin matrix maturation or cell activation. To examine whether matrix maturation was necessary, wounds were allowed to heal for 5 or 7 days and then aggressively curetted, resulting in the formation of fresh fibrin clots in the newly formed wound spaces. In contrast to original wounds, no lag phase was observed; wounds curetted on day 5 were 23% filled with granulation tissue 1 day later and 99% filled 3 days later, whereas wounds curetted on day 7 were 47% filled 1 day later and completely filled within 2 days. Thus, granulation tissue formation resumed promptly and independently of fibrin clot matrix maturation. This observation suggested that mesenchymal cell activation might be the rate-limiting step in granulation tissue formation. To address this hypothesis more directly, cultured porcine or human fibroblasts, grown to 80% confluence in Dulbecco's minimal essential medium plus 10% fetal calf serum, were added to new wounds. These wounds were sealed with a freshly made exogenous fibrin clot. In some wounds, platelet releasate was added to the fibrin clot. Granulation tissue did not form in day 3 wounds, which had received either fibrin alone, fibrin and platelet releasate, or fibrin and fibroblasts. In contrast, granulation tissue was observed in wounds receiving fibrin, human fibroblasts, and platelet releasate. By day 4, wounds receiving cultured human fibroblasts, fibrin, and platelet releasate were 14% filled with granulation tissue compared with less than 4% granulation tissue in control wounds. Thus, fibroblast activation is a limiting step of granulation tissue formation, and continued cell stimulation is required for accelerated development. PMID:8863674

  1. Diversification of memory B cells drives the continuous adaptation of secretory antibodies to gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Cornelia; Thomsen, Irene; Wahl, Benjamin; Ugur, Milas; Sethi, Maya K; Friedrichsen, Michaela; Smoczek, Anna; Ott, Stephan; Baumann, Ulrich; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Schreiber, Stefan; Bleich, André; Gaboriau-Routhiau, Valérie; Cerf-Bensussan, Nadine; Hazanov, Helena; Mehr, Ramit; Boysen, Preben; Rosenstiel, Philip; Pabst, Oliver

    2015-08-01

    Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) shields the gut epithelium from luminal antigens and contributes to host-microbe symbiosis. However, how antibody responses are regulated to achieve sustained host-microbe interactions is unknown. We found that mice and humans exhibited longitudinal persistence of clonally related B cells in the IgA repertoire despite major changes in the microbiota during antibiotic treatment or infection. Memory B cells recirculated between inductive compartments and were clonally related to plasma cells in gut and mammary glands. Our findings suggest that continuous diversification of memory B cells constitutes a central process for establishing symbiotic host-microbe interactions and offer an explanation of how maternal antibodies are optimized throughout life to protect the newborn. PMID:26147688

  2. Sperm-Storage Defects and Live Birth in Drosophila Females Lacking Spermathecal Secretory Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schnakenberg, Sandra L.; Matias, Wilfredo R.; Siegal, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Male Drosophila flies secrete seminal-fluid proteins that mediate proper sperm storage and fertilization, and that induce changes in female behavior. Females also produce reproductive-tract secretions, yet their contributions to postmating physiology are poorly understood. Large secretory cells line the female's spermathecae, a pair of sperm-storage organs. We identified the regulatory regions controlling transcription of two genes exclusively expressed in these spermathecal secretory cells (SSC): Spermathecal endopeptidase 1 (Send1), which is expressed in both unmated and mated females, and Spermathecal endopeptidase 2 (Send2), which is induced by mating. We used these regulatory sequences to perform precise genetic ablations of the SSC at distinct time points relative to mating. We show that the SSC are required for recruiting sperm to the spermathecae, but not for retaining sperm there. The SSC also act at a distance in the reproductive tract, in that their ablation: (1) reduces sperm motility in the female's other sperm-storage organ, the seminal receptacle; and (2) causes ovoviviparity—the retention and internal development of fertilized eggs. These results establish the reproductive functions of the SSC, shed light on the evolution of live birth, and open new avenues for studying and manipulating female fertility in insects. PMID:22087073

  3. Systematic single-cell analysis of Pichia pastoris reveals secretory capacity limits productivity.

    PubMed

    Love, Kerry Routenberg; Politano, Timothy J; Panagiotou, Vasiliki; Jiang, Bo; Stadheim, Terrance A; Love, J Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Biopharmaceuticals represent the fastest growing sector of the global pharmaceutical industry. Cost-efficient production of these biologic drugs requires a robust host organism for generating high titers of protein during fermentation. Understanding key cellular processes that limit protein production and secretion is, therefore, essential for rational strain engineering. Here, with single-cell resolution, we systematically analysed the productivity of a series of Pichia pastoris strains that produce different proteins both constitutively and inducibly. We characterized each strain by qPCR, RT-qPCR, microengraving, and imaging cytometry. We then developed a simple mathematical model describing the flux of folded protein through the ER. This combination of single-cell measurements and computational modelling shows that protein trafficking through the secretory machinery is often the rate-limiting step in single-cell production, and strategies to enhance the overall capacity of protein secretion within hosts for the production of heterologous proteins may improve productivity. PMID:22685548

  4. Role of granule-cell transmission in memory trace of cerebellum-dependent optokinetic motor learning.

    PubMed

    Wada, Norio; Funabiki, Kazuo; Nakanishi, Shigetada

    2014-04-01

    Adaptation of the optokinetic response (OKR) is an eye movement enhanced by repeated motion of a surrounding visual field and represents a prototype of cerebellum-dependent motor learning. Purkinje cells and vestibular nuclei (VN) receive optokinetic and retinal slip signals via the mossy fiber-granule cell pathway and climbing-fiber projections, respectively. To explore the neural circuits and mechanisms responsible for OKR adaptation, we adopted the reversible neurotransmission-blocking (RNB) technique, in which granule-cell transmission to Purkinje cells was selectively and reversibly blocked by doxycycline-dependent expression of transmission-blocking tetanus toxin in granule cells. Blockade of granule-cell inputs abolished both short-term and long-term OKR adaptation induced by repeated OKR training, but normal levels of both responses were immediately evoked in the pretrained RNB mice by OKR retraining once granule-cell transmission had recovered. Importantly, eye movement elicited by electrical stimulation of the cerebellar focculus was elevated by long-term but not by short-term OKR training in adaptive OKR-negative RNB mice. Furthermore, when the flocculus of adaptive OKR-negative RNB mice was electrically excited in-phase with OKR stimulation, these mice exhibited long-term adaptive OKR. These results indicate that convergent information to the VN was critical for acquisition and storage of long-term OKR adaptation with conjunctive action of Purkinje cells for OKR expression. Interestingly, in contrast to conditioned eyeblink memory, the expression of once acquired adaptive long-term OKR was not abrogated by blockade of granule-cell transmission, suggesting that distinct forms of neural plasticity would operate in different forms of cerebellum-dependent motor learning. PMID:24706878

  5. MicroRNAs Promote Granule Cell Expansion in the Cerebellum Through Gli2.

    PubMed

    Constantin, Lena; Wainwright, Brandon J

    2015-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of cerebellar function and homeostasis. Their deregulation results in cerebellar neuronal degeneration and spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 and contributes to medulloblastoma. Canonical miRNA processing involves Dicer, which cleaves precursor miRNAs into mature double-stranded RNA duplexes. In order to address the role of miRNAs in cerebellar granule cell precursor development, loxP-flanked exons of Dicer1 were conditionally inactivated using the granule cell precursor-specific Atoh1-Cre recombinase. A reduction of 87 % in Dicer1 transcript was achieved in this conditional Dicer knockdown model. Although knockdown resulted in normal survival, mice had disruptions to the cortical layering of the anterior cerebellum, which resulted from the premature differentiation of granule cell precursors in this region during neonatal development. This defect manifested as a thinner external granular layer with ectopic mature granule cells, and a depleted internal granular layer. We found that expression of the activator components of the Hedgehog-Patched pathway, the Gli family of transcription factors, was perturbed in conditional Dicer knockdown mice. We propose that loss of Gli2 mRNA mediated the anterior-restricted defect in conditional Dicer knockdown mice and, as proof of principle, were able to show that miR-106b positively regulated Gli2 mRNA expression. These findings confirm the importance of miRNAs as positive mediators of Hedgehog-Patched signalling during granule cell precursor development. PMID:25910616

  6. Dentate Gyrus Granule Cell Firing Patterns Can Induce Mossy Fiber Long-Term Potentiation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Rajen; Dennis, Siobhan; Frerking, Matthew; Mellor, Jack R.

    2010-01-01

    Hippocampal granule cells transmit information about behaviourally-relevant stimuli to CA3 pyramidal cells via mossy fiber synapses. These synapses express a form of long-term potentiation (mfLTP) that is non-Hebbian and does not require NMDA receptors. mfLTP is thought to be induced and expressed presynaptically, hence, the major determinant of whether mfLTP occurs is activity in the granule cells. However, it remains unclear whether mfLTP can be induced by activity patterns that granule cells exhibit in vivo, and — if so — what context generates these patterns. To address these issues, we examined granule cell activity from in vivo recordings from rats during performance of a delayed nonmatch-to-sample (DNMS) task and found that granule cells exhibit a wide range of spike patterns. In vitro slice experiments in mice demonstrated that some, but not all, of these patterns of activity could induce mfLTP. By further defining the activity thresholds for mfLTP in hippocampal slices, we found that mfLTP can only be induced by spike patterns that fire in high frequency bursts with a low average firing frequency. Using this information, we then screened for supra-threshold bursts of activity during the DNMS task. In a subset of cells, supra-threshold bursts occurred preferentially during the sampling phase of the task. If supra-threshold bursting took place later, during the delay phase, task performance was disrupted. We conclude that mfLTP can be induced by granule cell spike patterns during a memory task, and that the timing of mfLTP induction can predict task performance. PMID:20635414

  7. Identification of miRNAs differentially expressed in human epilepsy with or without granule cell pathology.

    PubMed

    Zucchini, Silvia; Marucci, Gianluca; Paradiso, Beatrice; Lanza, Giovanni; Roncon, Paolo; Cifelli, Pierangelo; Ferracin, Manuela; Giulioni, Marco; Michelucci, Roberto; Rubboli, Guido; Simonato, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The microRNAs (miRNAs) are small size non-coding RNAs that regulate expression of target mRNAs at post-transcriptional level. miRNAs differentially expressed under pathological conditions may help identifying mechanisms underlying the disease and may represent biomarkers with prognostic value. However, this kind of studies are difficult in the brain because of the cellular heterogeneity of the tissue and of the limited access to fresh tissue. Here, we focused on a pathology affecting specific cells in a subpopulation of epileptic brains (hippocampal granule cells), an approach that bypasses the above problems. All patients underwent surgery for intractable temporal lobe epilepsy and had hippocampal sclerosis associated with no granule cell pathology in half of the cases and with type-2 granule cell pathology (granule cell layer dispersion or bilamination) in the other half. The expression of more than 1000 miRNAs was examined in the laser-microdissected dentate granule cell layer. Twelve miRNAs were differentially expressed in the two groups. One of these, miR487a, was confirmed to be expressed at highly differential levels in an extended cohort of patients, using RT-qPCR. Bioinformatics searches and RT-qPCR verification identified ANTXR1 as a possible target of miR487a. ANTXR1 may be directly implicated in granule cell dispersion because it is an adhesion molecule that favors cell spreading. Thus, miR487a could be the first identified element of a miRNA signature that may be useful for prognostic evaluation of post-surgical epilepsy and may drive mechanistic studies leading to the identification of therapeutic targets. PMID:25148080

  8. Ex Vivo Imaging of Postnatal Cerebellar Granule Cell Migration Using Confocal Macroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bénard, Magalie; Lebon, Alexis; Komuro, Hitoshi; Vaudry, David; Galas, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    During postnatal development, immature granule cells (excitatory interneurons) exhibit tangential migration in the external granular layer, and then radial migration in the molecular layer and the Purkinje cell layer to reach the internal granular layer of the cerebellar cortex. Default in migratory processes induces either cell death or misplacement of the neurons, leading to deficits in diverse cerebellar functions. Centripetal granule cell migration involves several mechanisms, such as chemotaxis and extracellular matrix degradation, to guide the cells towards their final position, but the factors that regulate cell migration in each cortical layer are only partially known. In our method, acute cerebellar slices are prepared from P10 rats, granule cells are labeled with a fluorescent cytoplasmic marker and tissues are cultured on membrane inserts from 4 to 10 hr before starting real-time monitoring of cell migration by confocal macroscopy at 37 °C in the presence of CO2. During their migration in the different cortical layers of the cerebellum, granule cells can be exposed to neuropeptide agonists or antagonists, protease inhibitors, blockers of intracellular effectors or even toxic substances such as alcohol or methylmercury to investigate their possible role in the regulation of neuronal migration. PMID:25992599

  9. Kinetic analysis of the triggered exocytosis/endocytosis secretory cycle in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells are an excellent preparation for quantitative analysis of the secretory exocytosis/endocytosis cycle. In this paper we examine the kinetics of endocytosis after stimulation of secretion. Membrane retrieval was monitored by uptake of the fluid phase marker horseradish peroxidase. Horseradish peroxidase was found to be suitable because it can be washed off completely, assayed quantitatively, and its uptake increases linearly with concentration. If this marker is present during stimulation, the rate of uptake is initially slower than catecholamine secretion but faster at a later time, suggesting that the formation of endocytotic vesicles follows exocytosis. To monitor the time-dependent concentration of secretory vesicle-plasma membrane fusion product (omega-profiles), secretion was halted at various time intervals after stimulation and the excess membrane allowed to transform into endocytotic vesicles in the presence of horseradish peroxidase. By adding horseradish peroxidase at various times after inhibition of secretion, the time course of membrane retrieval could be measured directly. All our results are consistent with a two-step kinetic model in which exocytosis and membrane retrieval are consecutive events. The estimated volumes of the compartments involved are roughly equal. The rate of endocytosis is strongly temperature-dependent but unaffected by extracellular calcium in the range of 10(-8)-2.5 X 10(-3) M, suggesting that calcium is not required at the site of endocytotic membrane fusion. Membrane retrieval is also unaffected by Lanthanum (1 mM) but is slowed by hypertonic media. PMID:3782299

  10. Ex Vivo Culture of Chick Cerebellar Slices and Spatially Targeted Electroporation of Granule Cell Precursors.

    PubMed

    Hanzel, Michalina; Wingate, Richard J T; Butts, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The cerebellar external granule layer (EGL) is the site of the largest transit amplification in the developing brain, and an excellent model for studying neuronal proliferation and differentiation. In addition, evolutionary modifications of its proliferative capability have been responsible for the dramatic expansion of cerebellar size in the amniotes, making the cerebellum an excellent model for evo-devo studies of the vertebrate brain. The constituent cells of the EGL, cerebellar granule progenitors, also represent a significant cell of origin for medulloblastoma, the most prevalent paediatric neuronal tumour. Following transit amplification, granule precursors migrate radially into the internal granular layer of the cerebellum where they represent the largest neuronal population in the mature mammalian brain. In chick, the peak of EGL proliferation occurs towards the end of the second week of gestation. In order to target genetic modification to this layer at the peak of proliferation, we have developed a method for genetic manipulation through ex vivo electroporation of cerebellum slices from embryonic Day 14 chick embryos. This method recapitulates several important aspects of in vivo granule neuron development and will be useful in generating a thorough understanding of cerebellar granule cell proliferation and differentiation, and thus of cerebellum development, evolution and disease. PMID:26709704

  11. Sphingomyelin Patches on Pancreatic Beta-cells Are Indicative of Insulin Secretory Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Kavishwar, Amol

    2013-01-01

    The establishment and validation of specific markers on the surfaces of pancreatic beta-cells would have a significant impact on the development of agents that specifically target these cells for imaging and/or image-guided therapy in diabetes patient samples. We have recently described unique, cholesterol-stabilized sphingomyelin (SM) patches on the surfaces of beta-cells using the IC2 antibody. To further investigate the utility of SM patches as a unique beta-cell biomarker, we embarked on the current study to correlate the expression of this antigen with the insulin secretory capacity of beta-cells in tissue samples from patients and animals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes and compared this with samples from normal subjects. We found that the locations of SM patches were consistent with the insulin status of islets in all tissues studied. Using immunohistochemistry and staining with an IC2 antibody, we demonstrated a direct correlation between the reduced expression of SM patches and insulin production in diabetic individuals, indicating that the former could potentially serve as a functional biomarker of beta-cells. We believe that our results have significant implications for the further development of ligands with SM specificity for the non-invasive functional assessment of beta-cells and/or for targeted therapeutic delivery in diabetic patients. PMID:23920110

  12. Dengue virus infection induces formation of G3BP1 granules in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jun; Chen, Xiaoyan; Xu, Feng; Wang, Yi; Shi, Yongxia; Li, Yuye; He, Junfang; Zhang, Ping

    2015-12-01

    Cells reprogram ongoing translation in response to viral infection, resulting in formation of stress granules (SGs), while viruses have evolved a variety of strategies to antagonize the host SG response. Previous literature reported that in BHK-1 cells, infection with dengue virus (DENV) interfered with the SG formation. In the current study, we further investigated SG formation in human epithelial A549 cells by detecting subcellular localization of two SG hallmarks, TIA-1 and G3BP1. In response to DENV type 2 (DENV2) and type 3 (DENV3) infection, G3BP1, but not TIA-1, was recruited into cytoplasmic granules in some cells, and viral protein synthesis was significantly impaired in the G3BP1-granule-containing cells. Knockdown of G3BP1 significantly rescued the dsRNA-mediated suppression of DENV2 replication. Furthermore, our data showed that the phosphorylation of protein kinase regulated by dsRNA (PKR) and eIF2?, as well as accumulation of dsRNA, mainly occurred at the late stage of viral infection. This work revealed that in DENV-infected A549 cells, G3BP1 granules were assembled independently of TIA-1 and had a negative impact on viral replication. This extends our understanding of the antagonistic relationship between the SG response and dengue virus infection. PMID:26350772

  13. Senescent Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Drive Inflammation Through an Interleukin-1?–Dependent Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Sarah E.; Humphry, Melanie; Bennett, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective— Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) that become senescent are both present within atherosclerotic plaques and thought to be important to the disease process. However, senescent VSMCs are generally considered to only contribute through inaction, with failure to proliferate resulting in VSMC- and collagen-poor unstable fibrous caps. Whether senescent VSMCs can actively contribute to atherogenic processes, such as inflammation, is unknown. Approach and Results— We find that senescent human VSMCs develop a proinflammatory state known as a senescence-associated secretory phenotype. Senescent human VSMCs release high levels of multiple cytokines and chemokines driven by secreted interleukin-1? acting in an autocrine manner. Consequently, the VSMC senescence-associated secretory phenotype promotes chemotaxis of mononuclear cells in vitro and in vivo. In addition, senescent VSMCs release active matrix metalloproteinase-9, secrete less collagen, upregulate multiple inflammasome components, and prime adjacent endothelial cells and VSMCs to a proadhesive and proinflammatory state. Importantly, maintaining the senescence-associated secretory phenotype places a large metabolic burden on senescent VSMCs, such that they can be selectively killed by inhibiting glucose utilization. Conclusions— Senescent VSMCs may actively contribute toward the chronic inflammation associated with atherosclerosis through the interleukin-1?–driven senescence-associated secretory phenotype and the priming of adjacent cells to a proatherosclerotic state. These data also suggest that inhibition of this potentially important source of chronic inflammation in atherosclerosis requires blockade of interleukin-1? and not interleukin-1?. PMID:26139463

  14. Induction of target cell DNA release by the cytotoxic T lymphocyte granule protease granzyme A

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The rapid breakdown of target cell DNA during CTL-mediated lysis has been difficult to explain by the granule exocytosis model of cytotoxicity. The involvement of CTL granule proteases in this process was strongly suggested by experiments in which CTL were pretreated with the serine protease inhibitor PMSF, in combination with agents that raise the pH of acidic intracellular compartments. While PMSF pretreatment alone had little effect on target lysis or DNA breakdown, the combination of PMSF and NH4Cl or monensin profoundly reduced target cell DNA release, while little effect was observed on target lysis, as measured by 51Cr release. CTL granule extracts cause release of 125I- DNA from detergent-permeabilized cells. This nuclear DNA-releasing (NDR) activity is inhibited by serine esterase inhibitors that also inhibit the granule BLT-esterase activity, and is specifically immunoabsorbed by antibodies to the CTL granule protease granzyme A. The NDR activity comigrates with BLT-esterase activity during subcellular fractionation, solubilization, gel filtration, and aprotinin-Sepharose affinity chromatography. SDS-PAGE analysis of the affinity-purified product indicates a molecular mass of 60,000 daltons under non-reducing conditions, which moves to 30,000 daltons upon reduction, consistent with previously reported behavior of granzyme A. When the purified material was reduced and alkylated, both esterase and NDR activities comigrated at 30,000 daltons upon gel filtration. Although fully lytic concentrations of purified LGL granule cytolysin alone failed to induce target cell DNA release, a combination of purified granzyme A and the cytolysin induces substantial DNA release. PMID:2788710

  15. Physiological properties of GABAA receptors from acutely dissociated rat dentate granule cells.

    PubMed

    Kapur, J; Haas, K F; Macdonald, R L

    1999-05-01

    Physiological properties of GABAA receptors from acutely dissociated rat dentate granule cells. Study of fast, GABAA receptor-mediated, inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in hippocampal dentate granule cells has suggested that properties of GABAA receptors influence the amplitude and time course of the IPSCs. This study describes the physiological properties of GABAA receptors present on hippocampal dentate granule cells acutely isolated from 18- to 35-day-old rats. Rapid application of 1 mM GABA to outside-out macropatches excised from granule cells produced GABAA receptor currents with rapid rise time and biexponential decay of current after removal of GABA. After activation, granule cell GABAA receptor currents desensitized incompletely. During a 400-ms application of 1 mM GABA, peak current only desensitized approximately 40%. In symmetrical chloride solutions there was no outward rectification of whole cell current. Activation rates and peak currents elicited by rapid application of GABA to macropatches were also similar at positive and negative holding potentials. However, deactivation of GABAA receptor currents was slower at positive holding potentials. When whole cell currents were recorded without ATP in the pipette, current run-down was not apparent for 30 min in 50% of neurons, but run-down appeared to start soon after access was established in the remaining neurons. When 2 mM ATP was included in the recording pipette no run-down was apparent in 30 min of recording. The efficacy and potency of GABA were lower in cells recorded with no ATP in the pipette and during run-down compared with those recorded with 2 mM ATP and no run-down. PMID:10322081

  16. Cellular/Molecular Dopamine Inhibits Mitral/Tufted3Granule Cell Synapses in

    E-print Network

    Delaney, Kerry R.

    Cellular/Molecular Dopamine Inhibits Mitral/Tufted3Granule Cell Synapses in the Frog Olfactory Bulb show that dopamine, presum- ably released by TH-positive local interneurons, reduces synaptic transmission from MTs to GCs. MT neurons express D2-like receptors (D2Rs), and both dopamine and the D2 agonist

  17. Regulation of output spike patterns by phasic inhibition in cerebellar granule cells

    PubMed Central

    Nieus, Thierry R.; Mapelli, Lisa; D'Angelo, Egidio

    2014-01-01

    The complex interplay of multiple molecular mechanisms taking part to synaptic integration is hard to disentangle experimentally. Therefore, we developed a biologically realistic computational model based on the rich set of data characterizing the cerebellar glomerulus microcircuit. A specific issue was to determine the relative role of phasic and tonic inhibition in dynamically regulating granule cell firing, which has not been clarified yet. The model comprised the excitatory mossy fiber—granule cell and the inhibitory Golgi cell—granule cell synapses and accounted for vesicular release processes, neurotransmitter diffusion and activation of different receptor subtypes. Phasic inhibition was based on stochastic GABA release and spillover causing activation of two major classes of postsynaptic receptors, ?1 and ?6, while tonic inhibition was based on steady regulation of a Cl? leakage. The glomerular microcircuit model was validated against experimental responses to mossy fiber bursts while metabotropic receptors were blocked. Simulations showed that phasic inhibition controlled the number of spikes during burst transmission but predicted that it specifically controlled time-related parameters (firing initiation and conclusion and first spike precision) when the relative phase of excitation and inhibition was changed. In all conditions, the overall impact of ?6 was larger than that of ?1 subunit-containing receptors. However, ?1 receptors controlled granule cell responses in a narrow ±10 ms band while ?6 receptors showed broader ±50 ms tuning. Tonic inhibition biased these effects without changing their nature substantially. These simulations imply that phasic inhibitory mechanisms can dynamically regulate output spike patterns, as well as calcium influx and NMDA currents, at the mossy fiber—granule cell relay of cerebellum without the intervention of tonic inhibition. PMID:25202237

  18. Porosome: the secretory portal.

    PubMed

    Jena, Bhanu P

    2012-07-01

    'It seems terribly wasteful that, during the release of hormones and neurotransmitters from a cell, the membrane of a vesicle should merge with the plasma membrane to be retrieved for recycling only seconds or minutes later.' - Erwin Neher, Nature 1993;363:497-498. This insightful statement so appropriately put, clearly reflected on the perception that secretory vesicles completely merge at the cell plasma membrane, failing to justify the generation of partially empty secretory vesicles in cells following secretion. A rational cellular mechanism would employ the transient fusion of secretory vesicles at the cell plasma membrane without compromising vesicle integrity, combined with vesicle retrieval following partial discharge of contents, to generate such partially empty vesicles following secretion. This hypothesis was finally confirmed with the serendipitous discovery of the porosome almost 16 years ago. The porosome has been demonstrated to be the universal secretory portal in cells and is present at the cell plasma membrane. In the past decade, the composition of the porosome, its dynamics, its structure at nanometer resolution in realtime using atomic force and electron microscopy, and its functional reconstitution into artificial lipid membrane, has resulted in a paradigm shift and a molecular understanding of the secretory process in cells. A brief background on porosome discovery, and our current understanding of its structure and function is summarized in this Minireview. PMID:22859740

  19. Model cerebellar granule cells can faithfully transmit modulated firing rate signals

    PubMed Central

    Rössert, Christian; Solinas, Sergio; D'Angelo, Egidio; Dean, Paul; Porrill, John

    2014-01-01

    A crucial assumption of many high-level system models of the cerebellum is that information in the granular layer is encoded in a linear manner. However, granule cells are known for their non-linear and resonant synaptic and intrinsic properties that could potentially impede linear signal transmission. In this modeling study we analyse how electrophysiological granule cell properties and spike sampling influence information coded by firing rate modulation, assuming no signal-related, i.e., uncorrelated inhibitory feedback (open-loop mode). A detailed one-compartment granule cell model was excited in simulation by either direct current or mossy-fiber synaptic inputs. Vestibular signals were represented as tonic inputs to the flocculus modulated at frequencies up to 20 Hz (approximate upper frequency limit of vestibular-ocular reflex, VOR). Model outputs were assessed using estimates of both the transfer function, and the fidelity of input-signal reconstruction measured as variance-accounted-for. The detailed granule cell model with realistic mossy-fiber synaptic inputs could transmit information faithfully and linearly in the frequency range of the vestibular-ocular reflex. This was achieved most simply if the model neurons had a firing rate at least twice the highest required frequency of modulation, but lower rates were also adequate provided a population of neurons was utilized, especially in combination with push-pull coding. The exact number of neurons required for faithful transmission depended on the precise values of firing rate and noise. The model neurons were also able to combine excitatory and inhibitory signals linearly, and could be replaced by a simpler (modified) integrate-and-fire neuron in the case of high tonic firing rates. These findings suggest that granule cells can in principle code modulated firing-rate inputs in a linear manner, and are thus consistent with the high-level adaptive-filter model of the cerebellar microcircuit. PMID:25352777

  20. Model cerebellar granule cells can faithfully transmit modulated firing rate signals.

    PubMed

    Rössert, Christian; Solinas, Sergio; D'Angelo, Egidio; Dean, Paul; Porrill, John

    2014-01-01

    A crucial assumption of many high-level system models of the cerebellum is that information in the granular layer is encoded in a linear manner. However, granule cells are known for their non-linear and resonant synaptic and intrinsic properties that could potentially impede linear signal transmission. In this modeling study we analyse how electrophysiological granule cell properties and spike sampling influence information coded by firing rate modulation, assuming no signal-related, i.e., uncorrelated inhibitory feedback (open-loop mode). A detailed one-compartment granule cell model was excited in simulation by either direct current or mossy-fiber synaptic inputs. Vestibular signals were represented as tonic inputs to the flocculus modulated at frequencies up to 20 Hz (approximate upper frequency limit of vestibular-ocular reflex, VOR). Model outputs were assessed using estimates of both the transfer function, and the fidelity of input-signal reconstruction measured as variance-accounted-for. The detailed granule cell model with realistic mossy-fiber synaptic inputs could transmit information faithfully and linearly in the frequency range of the vestibular-ocular reflex. This was achieved most simply if the model neurons had a firing rate at least twice the highest required frequency of modulation, but lower rates were also adequate provided a population of neurons was utilized, especially in combination with push-pull coding. The exact number of neurons required for faithful transmission depended on the precise values of firing rate and noise. The model neurons were also able to combine excitatory and inhibitory signals linearly, and could be replaced by a simpler (modified) integrate-and-fire neuron in the case of high tonic firing rates. These findings suggest that granule cells can in principle code modulated firing-rate inputs in a linear manner, and are thus consistent with the high-level adaptive-filter model of the cerebellar microcircuit. PMID:25352777

  1. Ca2+-dependent dephosphorylation of kinesin heavy chain on beta-granules in pancreatic beta-cells. Implications for regulated beta-granule transport and insulin exocytosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donelan, Matthew J.; Morfini, Gerardo; Julyan, Richard; Sommers, Scott; Hays, Lori; Kajio, Hiroshi; Briaud, Isabelle; Easom, Richard A.; Molkentin, Jeffery D.; Brady, Scott T.; Rhodes, Christopher J.

    2002-01-01

    The specific biochemical steps required for glucose-regulated insulin exocytosis from beta-cells are not well defined. Elevation of glucose leads to increases in cytosolic [Ca2+]i and biphasic release of insulin from both a readily releasable and a storage pool of beta-granules. The effect of elevated [Ca2+]i on phosphorylation of isolated beta-granule membrane proteins was evaluated, and the phosphorylation of four proteins was found to be altered by [Ca2+]i. One (a 18/20-kDa doublet) was a Ca2+-dependent increase in phosphorylation, and, surprisingly, three others (138, 42, and 36 kDa) were Ca2+-dependent dephosphorylations. The 138-kDa beta-granule phosphoprotein was found to be kinesin heavy chain (KHC). At low levels of [Ca2+]i KHC was phosphorylated by casein kinase 2, but KHC was rapidly dephosphorylated by protein phosphatase 2B beta (PP2Bbeta) as [Ca2+]i increased. Inhibitors of PP2B specifically reduced the second, microtubule-dependent, phase of insulin secretion, suggesting that dephosphorylation of KHC was required for transport of beta-granules from the storage pool to replenish the readily releasable pool of beta-granules. This is distinct from synaptic vesicle exocytosis, because neurotransmitter release from synaptosomes did not require a Ca2+-dependent KHC dephosphorylation. These results suggest a novel mechanism for regulating KHC function and beta-granule transport in beta-cells that is mediated by casein kinase 2 and PP2B. They also implicate a novel regulatory role for PP2B/calcineurin in the control of insulin secretion downstream of a rise in [Ca2+]i.

  2. An intracellular role for ABCG1-mediated cholesterol transport in the regulated secretory pathway of mouse pancreatic ? cells

    PubMed Central

    Sturek, Jeffrey M.; Castle, J. David; Trace, Anthony P.; Page, Laura C.; Castle, Anna M.; Evans-Molina, Carmella; Parks, John S.; Mirmira, Raghavendra G.; Hedrick, Catherine C.

    2010-01-01

    Cholesterol is a critical component of cell membranes, and cellular cholesterol levels and distribution are tightly regulated in mammals. Recent evidence has revealed a critical role for pancreatic ? cell–specific cholesterol homeostasis in insulin secretion as well as in ? cell dysfunction in diabetes and the metabolic response to thiazolidinediones (TZDs), which are antidiabetic drugs. The ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) has been shown to play a role in cholesterol efflux, but its role in ? cells is currently unknown. In other cell types, ABCG1 expression is downregulated in diabetes and upregulated by TZDs. Here we have demonstrated an intracellular role for ABCG1 in ? cells. Loss of ABCG1 expression impaired insulin secretion both in vivo and in vitro, but it had no effect on cellular cholesterol content or efflux. Subcellular localization studies showed the bulk of ABCG1 protein to be present in insulin granules. Loss of ABCG1 led to altered granule morphology and reduced granule cholesterol levels. Administration of exogenous cholesterol restored granule morphology and cholesterol content and rescued insulin secretion in ABCG1-deficient islets. These findings suggest that ABCG1 acts primarily to regulate subcellular cholesterol distribution in mouse ? cells. Furthermore, islet ABCG1 expression was reduced in diabetic mice and restored by TZDs, implicating a role for regulation of islet ABCG1 expression in diabetes pathogenesis and treatment. PMID:20530872

  3. Eosinophil Secretion of Granule-Derived Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Lisa A.; Bonjour, Kennedy; Melo, Rossana C. N.; Weller, Peter F.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils are tissue-dwelling leukocytes, present in the thymus, and gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of healthy individuals at baseline, and recruited, often in large numbers, to allergic inflammatory foci and sites of active tissue repair. The biological significance of eosinophils is vast and varied. In health, eosinophils support uterine and mammary gland development, and maintain bone marrow plasma cells and adipose tissue alternatively activated macrophages, while in response to tissue insult eosinophils function as inflammatory effector cells, and, in the wake of an inflammatory response, promote tissue regeneration, and wound healing. One common mechanism driving many of the diverse eosinophil functions is the regulated and differential secretion of a vast array of eosinophil-derived cytokines. Eosinophils are distinguished from most other leukocytes in that many, if not all, of the over three dozen eosinophil-derived cytokines are pre-synthesized and stored within intracellular granules, poised for very rapid, stimulus-induced secretion. Eosinophils engaged in cytokine secretion in situ utilize distinct pathways of cytokine release that include classical exocytosis, whereby granules themselves fuse with the plasma membrane and release their entire contents extracellularly; piecemeal degranulation, whereby granule-derived cytokines are selectively mobilized into vesicles that emerge from granules, traverse the cytoplasm and fuse with the plasma membrane to release discrete packets of cytokines; and eosinophil cytolysis, whereby intact granules are extruded from eosinophils, and deposited within tissues. In this latter scenario, extracellular granules can themselves function as stimulus-responsive secretory-competent organelles within the tissue. Here, we review the distinctive processes of differential secretion of eosinophil granule-derived cytokines. PMID:25386174

  4. Electroconvulsive seizure promotes spine maturation in newborn dentate granule cells in adult rat.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunmei; Warner-Schmidt, Jennifer; Duman, Ronald S; Gage, Fred H

    2012-06-01

    Neurogenesis continues in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus throughout life in mammals. This process is influenced by daily activities such as exercise, learning, and stress and may contribute to certain forms of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is also subject to regulation by antidepressant treatment, including chronic treatment with antidepressant drugs or electroconvulsive seizure (ECS) therapy. Here we investigated how the connectivity of newborn and mature granule cells is influenced by ECS administration in rats. Specifically, we examined the dendritic spine morphology of newborn and mature granule cells in rats and found that ECS administration promoted the maturation of dendritic spines in newborn cells and increased spine density in mature cells. These changes could potentially lead to alteration in dentate circuitry and may partially contribute to the functional effects of ECS. PMID:21976455

  5. Local postsynaptic voltage-gated sodium channel activation in dendritic spines of olfactory bulb granule cells.

    PubMed

    Bywalez, Wolfgang G; Patirniche, Dinu; Rupprecht, Vanessa; Stemmler, Martin; Herz, Andreas V M; Pálfi, Dénes; Rózsa, Balázs; Egger, Veronica

    2015-02-01

    Neuronal dendritic spines have been speculated to function as independent computational units, yet evidence for active electrical computation in spines is scarce. Here we show that strictly local voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav) activation can occur during excitatory postsynaptic potentials in the spines of olfactory bulb granule cells, which we mimic and detect via combined two-photon uncaging of glutamate and calcium imaging in conjunction with whole-cell recordings. We find that local Nav activation boosts calcium entry into spines through high-voltage-activated calcium channels and accelerates postsynaptic somatic depolarization, without affecting NMDA receptor-mediated signaling. Hence, Nav-mediated boosting promotes rapid output from the reciprocal granule cell spine onto the lateral mitral cell dendrite and thus can speed up recurrent inhibition. This striking example of electrical compartmentalization both adds to the understanding of olfactory network processing and broadens the general view of spine function. PMID:25619656

  6. High sensitivity quantitative analysis of cobalt uptake in rat cerebellar granule cells with and without excitatory amino acids

    E-print Network

    Gilbert, Pupa Gelsomina De Stasio

    High sensitivity quantitative analysis of cobalt uptake in rat cerebellar granule cells and glutamate on the uptake of cobalt in primary rat cerebellar granule neurons, by using inductively coupled also found that cobalt uptake is not significantly altered by the presence of glutamate receptor

  7. Natural killer cell lytic granule secretion occurs through a pervasive actin network at the immune synapse.

    PubMed

    Rak, Gregory D; Mace, Emily M; Banerjee, Pinaki P; Svitkina, Tatyana; Orange, Jordan S

    2011-09-01

    Accumulation of filamentous actin (F-actin) at the immunological synapse (IS) is a prerequisite for the cytotoxic function of natural killer (NK) cells. Subsequent to reorganization of the actin network, lytic granules polarize to the IS where their contents are secreted directly toward a target cell, providing critical access to host defense. There has been limited investigation into the relationship between the actin network and degranulation. Thus, we have evaluated the actin network and secretion using microscopy techniques that provide unprecedented resolution and/or functional insight. We show that the actin network extends throughout the IS and that degranulation occurs in areas where there is actin, albeit in sub-micron relatively hypodense regions. Therefore we propose that granules reach the plasma membrane in clearances in the network that are appropriately sized to minimally accommodate a granule and allow it to interact with the filaments. Our data support a model whereby lytic granules and the actin network are intimately associated during the secretion process and broadly suggest a mechanism for the secretion of large organelles in the context of a cortical actin barrier. PMID:21931536

  8. Expression of S100 beta in sensory and secretory cells of the vertebrate inner ear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fermin, C. D.; Martin, D. S.

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated anti-S100 beta expression in the chick (Gallus domesticus) inner ear and determined that: 1) the monomer anti-S100 beta is expressed differentially in the vestibular and auditory perikarya; 2) expression of S100 beta in the afferent nerve terminals is time-related to synapse and myelin formation; 3) the expression of the dimer anti-S100 alpha alpha beta beta and monomer anti-S100 beta overlaps in most inner ear cell types. Most S100 alpha alpha beta beta positive cells express S100 beta, but S100 beta positive cells do not always express S100 alpha alpha beta beta. 4) the expression of S100 beta is diffused over the perikaryal cytoplasm and nuclei of the acoustic ganglia but is concentrated over the nuclei of the vestibular perikarya. 6) S100 beta is expressed in secretory cells, and it is co-localized with GABA in sensory cells. 7) Color thresholding objective quantitation indicates that the amount of S100 beta was higher (mean 22, SD +/- 4) at E19 than at E9 (mean 34, SD +/- 3) in afferent axons. 8) Moreover, S100 beta was unchanged between E11-E19 in the perikaryal cytoplasm, but did change over the nuclei. At E9, 74%, and at E21, 5% of vestibular perikarya were positive. The data suggest that S100 beta may be physically associated with neuronal and ionic controlling cells of the vertebrate inner ear, where it could provide a dual ionic and neurotrophic modulatory function.

  9. Dendritic morphology, synaptic transmission, and activity of mature granule cells born following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fei; Song, Xueying; Zhu, Dexiao; Wang, Xiaochen; Hao, Aijun; Nadler, J. Victor; Zhan, Ren-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    To understand the potential role of enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) in the development of epilepsy, we quantitatively analyzed the geometry of apical dendrites, synaptic transmission, and activation levels of normotopically distributed mature newborn granule cells in the rat. SE in male Sprague-Dawley rats (between 6 and 7 weeks old) lasting for more than 2 h was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of pilocarpine. The complexity, spine density, miniature post-synaptic currents, and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) expression of granule cells born 5 days after SE were studied between 10 and 17 weeks after CAG-GFP retroviral vector-mediated labeling. Mature granule cells born after SE had dendritic complexity similar to that of granule cells born naturally, but with denser mushroom-like spines in dendritic segments located in the outer molecular layer. Miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents (mIPSCs) were similar between the controls and rats subjected to SE; however, smaller miniature excitatory post-synaptic current (mEPSC) amplitude with a trend toward less frequent was found in mature granule cells born after SE. After maturation, granule cells born after SE did not show denser Arc expression in the resting condition or 2 h after being activated by pentylenetetrazol-induced transient seizure activity than vicinal GFP-unlabeled granule cells. Thus our results suggest that normotopic granule cells born after pilocarpine-induced SE are no more active when mature than age-matched, naturally born granule cells. PMID:26500490

  10. SNAP23 is selectively expressed in airway secretory cells and mediates baseline and stimulated mucin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Binhui; Azzegagh, Zoulikha; Jaramillo, Ana M.; Zhu, Yunxiang; Pardo-Saganta, Ana; Bagirzadeh, Rustam; Flores, Jose R.; Han, Wei; Tang, Yong-jun; Tu, Jing; Alanis, Denise M.; Evans, Christopher M.; Guindani, Michele; Roche, Paul A.; Rajagopal, Jayaraj; Chen, Jichao; Davis, C. William; Tuvim, Michael J.; Dickey, Burton F.

    2015-01-01

    Airway mucin secretion is important pathophysiologically and as a model of polarized epithelial regulated exocytosis. We find the trafficking protein, SNAP23 (23-kDa paralogue of synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa), selectively expressed in secretory cells compared with ciliated and basal cells of airway epithelium by immunohistochemistry and FACS, suggesting that SNAP23 functions in regulated but not constitutive epithelial secretion. Heterozygous SNAP23 deletant mutant mice show spontaneous accumulation of intracellular mucin, indicating a defect in baseline secretion. However mucins are released from perfused tracheas of mutant and wild-type (WT) mice at the same rate, suggesting that increased intracellular stores balance reduced release efficiency to yield a fully compensated baseline steady state. In contrast, acute stimulated release of intracellular mucin from mutant mice is impaired whether measured by a static imaging assay 5 min after exposure to the secretagogue ATP or by kinetic analysis of mucins released from perfused tracheas during the first 10 min of ATP exposure. Together, these data indicate that increased intracellular stores cannot fully compensate for the defect in release efficiency during intense stimulation. The lungs of mutant mice develop normally and clear bacteria and instilled polystyrene beads comparable to WT mice, consistent with these functions depending on baseline secretion that is fully compensated. PMID:26182382

  11. Elevated Plasma Clara Cell Secretory Protein Concentration is Associated with High-Grade Primary Graft Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Joshua M.; Kawut, Steven M.; Lederer, David J.; Ahya, Vivek N.; Kohl, Benjamin; Sonett, Joshua; Palmer, Scott M.; Crespo, Maria; Wille, Keith; Lama, Vibha; Shah, Pali D.; Orens, Jonathan; Bhorade, Sangeeta; Weinacker, Ann; Demissie, Ejigayehu; Bellamy, Scarlett; Christie, Jason D.; Ware, Lorraine B.

    2011-01-01

    Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) is the leading cause of early post-transplant morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation. Clara cell secretory protein (CC16) is produced by the non-ciliated lung epithelium and may serve as a plasma marker of epithelial cell injury. We hypothesized that elevated levels of CC16 would be associated with increased odds of PGD. We performed a prospective cohort study of 104 lung transplant recipients. Median plasma CC16 levels were determined at three time points: pre-transplant and 6 and 24 hours post transplant. The primary outcome was the development of grade 3 PGD within the first 72 hours after transplantation. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to evaluate for confounding by donor and recipient demographics and surgical characteristics. Twenty-nine patients (28%) developed grade 3 PGD within the first 72 hours. The median CC16 level 6 hours after transplant was significantly higher in patients with PGD (13.8 ng/ml (IQR 7.9, 30.4 ng/ml)) than in patients without PGD (8.2 ng/ml (IQR 4.5, 19.1 ng/ml)), p = 0.02. Elevated CC16 levels were associated with increased odds of PGD after lung transplantation. Damage to airway epithelium or altered alveolar permeability as a result of lung ischemia and reperfusion may explain this association. PMID:21299834

  12. Oncospheral Penetration Glands and Secretory Blebs Are the Sources of Taenia ovis Vaccine Antigens? †

    PubMed Central

    Jabbar, Abdul; Crawford, Simon; Gauci, Charles G.; Walduck, Anna K.; Anderson, Garry A.; Lightowlers, Marshall W.

    2010-01-01

    Taenia ovis is a cestode parasite infecting primarily sheep as intermediate hosts and dogs as definitive hosts. The first highly effective, recombinant vaccine against a parasitic organism was developed against T. ovis infection in sheep. Three separate host-protective antigens (To16, To18, and To45W) have been cloned from the oncosphere of the parasite. We localize these antigens in the oncosphere by using quantitative immunogold labeling and transmission electron microscopy. The three antigens were uniquely associated with penetration gland cells. The cytoplasm and secretory granules of both penetration gland type 1 and type 2 cells exhibited statistically significant levels of staining for each of the three antigens. The intensity of labeling of the penetration gland type 1 cell was approximately three to five times greater (P < 0.01) compared to the level of staining intensity seen in the penetration gland type 2 cell. In activated oncospheres, secretory blebs were found to contain granules with a structure similar to those observed in the penetration gland cells. The granules within the secretory blebs were shown to stain specifically for the presence of each of the three host-protective antigens. The absence of surface location of the T. ovis antigens suggests that the parasite may not be susceptible to vaccine-induced antibody- and complement-mediated attack until some postoncospheral development has occurred after infection of the intermediate host. PMID:20643854

  13. Structural Plasticity of Dentate Granule Cell Mossy Fibers During the Development of Limbic Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Danzer, Steve C.; He, Xiaoping; Loepke, Andreas W.; McNamara, James O.

    2009-01-01

    Altered granule cell?CA3 pyramidal cell synaptic connectivity may contribute to the development of limbic epilepsy. To explore this possibility, granule cell giant mossy fiber bouton plasticity was examined in the kindling and pilocarpine models of epilepsy using green fluorescent protein-expressing transgenic mice. These studies revealed significant increases in the frequency of giant boutons with satellite boutons 2 days and 1 month after pilocarpine status epilepticus, and increases in giant bouton area at 1 month. Similar increases in giant bouton area were observed shortly after kindling. Finally, both models exhibited plasticity of mossy fiber giant bouton filopodia, which contact GABAergic interneurons mediating feedforward inhibition of CA3 pyramids. In the kindling model, however, all changes were fleeting, having resolved by 1 month after the last evoked seizure. Together, these findings demonstrate striking structural plasticity of granule cell mossy fiber synaptic terminal structure in two distinct models of adult limbic epileptogenesis. We suggest that these plasticities modify local connectivities between individual mossy fiber terminals and their targets, inhibitory interneurons, and CA3 pyramidal cells potentially altering the balance of excitation and inhibition during the development of epilepsy. PMID:19294647

  14. Cellular Barcodes for Efficiently Profiling Single-Cell Secretory Responses by Microengraving

    E-print Network

    Yamanaka, Yvonne Joy

    We present a method that uses fluorescent cellular barcodes to increase the number of unique samples that can be analyzed simultaneously by microengraving, a nanowell array-based technique for quantifying the secretory ...

  15. Perfluoroalkylated compounds induce cell death and formation of reactive oxygen species in cultured cerebellar granule cells.

    PubMed

    Reistad, Trine; Fonnum, Frode; Mariussen, Espen

    2013-03-27

    The present communication investigates the effects of different perfluoroalkylated compounds (PFCs) on formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells. This allows direct comparison with similar effects found for other environmental contaminants like polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame-retardants. The increase in ROS formation and cell death was assayed using the fluorescent probe 2,7-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) and the trypan blue exclusion assay. The effects of the PFCs were structure dependent. Cell death was induced at relatively low concentrations by perfluorooctyl sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctane sulfonylamide (PFOSA) and the fluorotelomer alcohol 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecanol (FTOH 8:2) with EC(50)-values of 62 ± 7.6, 13 ± 1.8 and 15 ± 4.2 ?M (mean ± SD) respectively. PFOS, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and PFOSA induced a concentration dependent increase in ROS formation with EC(50)-values of 27 ± 9.0, 25 ± 11 and 57 ± 19?M respectively. Reduced cell viability and ROS formation were observed at concentration level close to what is found in serum of occupationally exposed workers. The effect of PFCs on ROS formation and cell viability was compared with other halogenated compounds and future investigations should emphasize effects of mixtures and how physical chemical properties of the compounds influence their toxicity. PMID:23340305

  16. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK) regulatory subunits are packaged and secreted by many exocrine and endocrine cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mednieks, M.I.; Hand, A.R.

    1986-05-01

    Regulatory (R) subunits of cAPK were identified by us as components of rat and human saliva by photoaffinity labeling with (/sup 32/P)-8-azido cyclic AMP. Photoaffinity labeling of purified rat parotid granule contents and immunogold labeling of thin sections with monoclonal antibodies showed the presence of R subunits in granules. The authors now report that cAPK R subunits are present in secretory granules and are apparently secreted by many exocrine and endocrine cell types. Labeling of thin sections of rat tissues with antibody to R subunits and protein A-gold shows gold particles over secretory granules of endocrine cells of the pituitary, pancreas and intestine. Zymogen granules of exocrine pancreatic acinar cells, the dense cores of secretory granules of seminal vesicle epithelial cells and secretory product in the seminal vesicle lumina were prominently labeled with gold. Photoaffinity labeling shows that pancreatic secretions and seminal vesicle contents have cAPK components. Phosphorylative modification of cellular proteins by cAMP controls hormonally stimulated protein secretion by many cell types. Although no catalytic activity was detected, identification of R subunits in granules and as secretory products indicates that they may have multiple roles in cellular mechanisms of action of cyclic AMP-mediated events in secretory cells.

  17. Secretory expression of Lentinula edodes intracellular laccase by yeast high-cell-density system: sub-milligram production of difficult-to-express secretory protein.

    PubMed

    Kurose, Takeshi; Saito, Yuta; Kimata, Koichi; Nakagawa, Yuko; Yano, Akira; Ito, Keisuke; Kawarasaki, Yasuaki

    2014-06-01

    While a number of heterologous expression systems have been reported for extracellular laccases, there are few for the intracellular counterparts. The Lentinula edodes intracellular laccase Lcc4 is an industrially potential enzyme with its unique substrate specificity. The heterologous production of the intracellular laccase, however, had been difficult because of its expression-dependent toxicity. We previously demonstrated that recombinant yeast cells synthesized and, interestingly, secreted Lcc4 only when they were suspended to an inducing medium in a high cell-density (J. Biosci. Bioeng., 113, 154-159, 2012). The high cell-density system was versatile and applicable to other difficult-to-express secretory proteins. Nevertheless, the system's great dependence on aeration, which was a practical obstacle to scale-up production of the enzyme and some other proteins, left the secretion pathway and enzymatic properties of the Lcc4 uncharacterized. In this report, we demonstrate a successful production of Lcc4 by applying a jar-fermentor to the high cell-density system. The elevated yield (0.6 mg L(-1)) due to the sufficient aeration allowed us to prepare and purify the enzyme to homogeneity. The enzyme had been secreted as a hyper-glycosylated protein, resulting in smear band-formations in SDS-PAGE. The amino acid sequencing analysis suggested that the N-terminal 17 residues had been recognized as a secretion signal. The recombinant enzyme showed similar enzymatic properties to the naturally occurring Lcc4. The characteristics of the scale-upped expression system, which includes helpful information for the potential users, have also been described. PMID:24411669

  18. Multifaceted Roles of Cysteinyl Leukotrienes in Eliciting Eosinophil Granule Protein Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Baptista-dos-Reis, Renata; Muniz, Valdirene S.; Neves, Josiane S.

    2015-01-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) are cell membrane-impermeant lipid mediators that play major roles in the pathogenesis of eosinophilic inflammation and are recognized to act via at least 2 receptors, namely, cysLT1 receptor (cysLT1R) and cysLT2 receptor (cysLT2R). Eosinophils, which are granulocytes classically associated with host defense against parasitic helminthes and allergic conditions, are distinguished from leukocytes by their dominant population of cytoplasmic crystalloid (also termed secretory, specific, or secondary) granules that contain robust stores of diverse preformed proteins. Human eosinophils are the main source of cysLTs and are recognized to express both cysLTs receptors (cysLTRs) on their surface, at the plasma membrane. More recently, we identified the expression of cysLTRs in eosinophil granule membranes and demonstrated that cysLTs, acting via their granule membrane-expressed receptors, elicit secretion from cell-free human eosinophil granules. Herein, we review the multifaceted roles of cysLTs in eliciting eosinophil granule protein secretion. We discuss the intracrine and autocrine/paracrine secretory responses evoked by cysLTs in eosinophils and in cell-free extracellular eosinophil crystalloid granules. We also discuss the importance of this finding in eosinophil immunobiology and speculate on its potential role(s) in eosinophilic diseases. PMID:25866815

  19. Granule cargo release from bone marrow-derived cells sustains cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fanmuyi; Dong, Anping; Ahamed, Jasimuddin; Sunkara, Manjula; Smyth, Susan S

    2014-11-15

    Bone marrow-derived inflammatory cells, including platelets, may contribute to the progression of pressure overload-induced left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). However, the underlying mechanisms for this are still unclear. One potential mechanism is through release of granule cargo. Unc13-d(Jinx) (Jinx) mice, which lack Munc13-4, a limiting factor in vesicular priming and fusion, have granule secretion defects in a variety of hematopoietic cells, including platelets. In the current study, we investigated the role of granule secretion in the development of LVH and cardiac remodeling using chimeric mice specifically lacking Munc13-4 in marrow-derived cells. Pressure overload was elicited by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Chimeric mice were created by bone marrow transplantation. Echocardiography, histology staining, immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and mass spectrometry were used to study LVH progression and inflammatory responses. Wild-type (WT) mice that were transplanted with WT bone marrow (WT?WT) and WT mice that received Jinx bone marrow (Jinx?WT) developed LVH and a classic fetal reprogramming response early (7 days) after TAC. However, at late times (5 wk), mice lacking Munc13-4 in bone marrow-derived cells (Jinx?WT) failed to sustain the cardiac hypertrophy observed in WT chimeric mice. No difference in cardiac fibrosis was observed at early or late time points. Reinjection of WT platelets or platelet releasate partially restored cardiac hypertrophy in Jinx chimeric mice. These results suggest that sustained LVH in the setting of pressure overload depends on one or more factors secreted from bone marrow-derived cells, possibly from platelets. Inhibiting granule cargo release may represent a novel target for preventing sustained LVH. PMID:25239803

  20. Granule cargo release from bone marrow-derived cells sustains cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fanmuyi; Dong, Anping; Ahamed, Jasimuddin; Sunkara, Manjula

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived inflammatory cells, including platelets, may contribute to the progression of pressure overload-induced left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). However, the underlying mechanisms for this are still unclear. One potential mechanism is through release of granule cargo. Unc13-dJinx (Jinx) mice, which lack Munc13-4, a limiting factor in vesicular priming and fusion, have granule secretion defects in a variety of hematopoietic cells, including platelets. In the current study, we investigated the role of granule secretion in the development of LVH and cardiac remodeling using chimeric mice specifically lacking Munc13-4 in marrow-derived cells. Pressure overload was elicited by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Chimeric mice were created by bone marrow transplantation. Echocardiography, histology staining, immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and mass spectrometry were used to study LVH progression and inflammatory responses. Wild-type (WT) mice that were transplanted with WT bone marrow (WT?WT) and WT mice that received Jinx bone marrow (Jinx?WT) developed LVH and a classic fetal reprogramming response early (7 days) after TAC. However, at late times (5 wk), mice lacking Munc13-4 in bone marrow-derived cells (Jinx?WT) failed to sustain the cardiac hypertrophy observed in WT chimeric mice. No difference in cardiac fibrosis was observed at early or late time points. Reinjection of WT platelets or platelet releasate partially restored cardiac hypertrophy in Jinx chimeric mice. These results suggest that sustained LVH in the setting of pressure overload depends on one or more factors secreted from bone marrow-derived cells, possibly from platelets. Inhibiting granule cargo release may represent a novel target for preventing sustained LVH. PMID:25239803

  1. The Possible Roles of the Dentate Granule Cell's Leptin and Other Ciliary Receptors in Alzheimer's Neuropathology.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, James F; Chiarini, Anna; Dal Prà, Ilaria; Armato, Ubaldo; Chakravarthy, Balu

    2015-01-01

    Dentate-gyral granule cells in the hippocampus plus dentate gyrus memory-recording/retrieving machine, unlike most other neurons in the brain, are continuously being generated in the adult brain with the important task of separating overlapping patterns of data streaming in from the outside world via the entorhinal cortex. This "adult neurogenesis" is driven by tools in the mature granule cell's cilium. Here we report our discovery of leptin's LepRb receptor in this cilium. In addition, we discuss how ciliary LepRb signaling might be involved with ciliary p75NTR and SSTR3 receptors in adult neurogenesis and memory formation as well as attenuation of Alzheimer's neuropathology by reducing the production of its toxic amyloid-?-derived drivers. PMID:26184316

  2. Loss of PPAR? expression in mammary secretory epithelial cells creates a pro-breast tumorigenic environment.

    PubMed

    Apostoli, Anthony J; Skelhorne-Gross, Graham E A; Rubino, Rachel E; Peterson, Nichole T; Di Lena, Michael A; Schneider, Mark M; SenGupta, Sandip K; Nicol, Christopher J B

    2014-03-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of new cancer diagnoses among women. Using peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)?((+/-)) mice, we showed normal expression of PPAR? was critical to stop 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast tumorigenesis. PPAR? is expressed in many breast cell types including mammary secretory epithelial (MSE) cells. MSEs proliferate as required during pregnancy, and undergo apoptosis or reversible transdifferentiation during involution once lactation is complete. Thus, MSE-specific loss of PPAR? was hypothesized to enhance DMBA-mediated breast tumorigenesis. To test this, MSE cell-specific PPAR? knockout (PPAR?-MSE KO) and control (PPAR?-WT) mice were generated, mated and allowed to nurse for three days. One week after involution, dams were treated with DMBA to initiate breast tumors, and randomized on week 7 to continue receiving a normal chow diet (DMBA Only: PPAR?-WT, n = 15; PPAR?-MSE KO, n = 25) or one supplemented with a PPAR? activating drug (DMBA + ROSI: PPAR?-WT, n = 17; PPAR?-MSE KO, n = 24), and monitored for changes in breast tumor outcomes. PPAR?-MSE KOs had significantly lower overall survival and decreased mammary tumor latency as compared to PPAR?-WT controls. PPAR? activation significantly reduced DMBA-mediated malignant mammary tumor volumes irrespective of genotype. MSE-specific PPAR? loss resulted in decreased mammary gland expression of PTEN and Bax, increased superoxide anion production, and elevated serum eotaxin and RANTES, creating a protumorigenic environment. Moreover, PPAR? activation in MSEs delayed mammary tumor growth in part by down-regulating Cox-1, Cox-2 and cyclin D1. Collectively, these studies highlight a protective role of MSE-specific PPAR? during breast tumorigenesis, and support a novel chemotherapeutic role of PPAR? activation in breast cancer. PMID:23934545

  3. Decrease in an Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Conductance in Mouse Mammary Secretory Cells after Forced Weaning

    PubMed Central

    Kamikawa, Akihiro; Sugimoto, Shota; Ichii, Osamu; Kondoh, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    Mammary glands are physiologically active in female mammals only during nursing. Immediately after weaning, most lactation-related genes are downregulated and milk production ceases. In our previous study, we have detected an inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir) 2.1-like current in mammary secretory (MS) cells freshly isolated from lactating mice. This current is highly sensitive to external Ba2+. The potassium permeability of the Kir channels may contribute to the secretion and/or preservation of ions in milk. We hypothesized that the functions of the Kir channels in MS cells are regulated after weaning. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of forced weaning on the Ba2+-sensitive Kir current and Kir2.1 expression in the mouse mammary glands. Twenty-four hours after weaning, the lumina of mammary acini were histologically enlarged by milk accumulation. The whole-cell patch-clamp analyses showed that the Ba2+-sensitive Kir current in the post-weaning MS cells was smaller than in the lactating MS cells. The inward conductances of the current in the lactating and post-weaning cells were 4.25 ± 0.77 and 0.93 ± 0.34 nS, respectively. Furthermore, real-time PCR and Western blot analyses showed that Kir2.1 mRNA and protein expression decreased in the post-weaning mammary gland (mRNA, 90% reduction; protein, 47% reduction). Moreover, the local milk accumulation caused by teat sealing decreased Kir conductance in MS cells (2.74 ± 0.45 and 0.36 ± 0.27 nS for control and sealed mammary glands, respectively). This was concomitant with the reduction in the Kir2.1 mRNA expression. Our results suggest that milk stasis after weaning immediately decreases the Kir conductance in MS cells. This decrease in the Kir conductance may be partly caused by the reduction in the Kir2.1 mRNA and protein expression. These alterations during the post-weaning period may be involved in the cessation of ion secretion and/or preservation in the milk. PMID:26484867

  4. Excretory/secretory products of the carcinogenic liver fluke are endocytosed by human cholangiocytes and drive cell proliferation and IL6 production.

    PubMed

    Chaiyadet, Sujittra; Smout, Michael; Johnson, Michael; Whitchurch, Cynthia; Turnbull, Lynne; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sotillo, Javier; Loukas, Alex; Sripa, Banchob

    2015-10-01

    Liver fluke infection caused by Opisthorchis viverrini remains a major public health problem in many parts of Asia including Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam and Cambodia, where there is a strikingly high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA - hepatic cancer of the bile duct epithelium). Among other factors, uptake of O. viverrini excretory/secretory products (OvES) by biliary epithelial cells has been postulated to be responsible for chronic inflammation and proliferation of cholangiocytes, but the mechanisms by which cells internalise O. viverrini excretory/secretory products are still unknown. Herein we incubated normal human cholangiocytes (H69), human cholangiocarcinoma cells (KKU-100, KKU-M156) and human colon cancer (Caco-2) cells with O. viverrini excretory/secretory products and analysed the effects of different endocytic inhibitors to address the mechanism of cellular uptake of ES proteins. Opisthorchis viverrini excretory/secretory products was internalised preferentially by liver cell lines, and most efficiently/rapidly by H69 cells. There was no evidence for trafficking of ES proteins to cholangiocyte organelles, and most of the fluorescence was detected in the cytoplasm. Pretreatment with clathrin inhibitors significantly reduced the uptake of O. viverrini excretory/secretory products, particularly by H69 cells. Opisthorchis viverrini excretory/secretory products induced proliferation of liver cells (H69 and CCA lines) but not intestinal (Caco-2) cells, and proliferation was blocked using inhibitors of the classical endocytic pathways (clathrin and caveolae). Opisthorchis viverrini excretory/secretory products drove IL6 secretion by H69 cells but not Caco-2 cells, and cytokine secretion was significantly reduced by endocytosis inhibitors. This the first known study to address the endocytosis of helminth ES proteins by host epithelial cells and sheds light on the pathways by which this parasite causes one of the most devastating forms of cancer in south-eastern Asia. PMID:26187786

  5. Neuroendocrine secretory protein 7B2: structure, expression and functions.

    PubMed Central

    Mbikay, M; Seidah, N G; Chrétien, M

    2001-01-01

    7B2 is an acidic protein residing in the secretory granules of neuroendocrine cells. Its sequence has been elucidated in many phyla and species. It shows high similarity among mammals. A Pro-Pro-Asn-Pro-Cys-Pro polyproline motif is its most conserved feature, being carried by both vertebrate and invertebrate sequences. It is biosynthesized as a precursor protein that is cleaved into an N-terminal fragment and a C-terminal peptide. In neuroendocrine cells, 7B2 functions as a specific chaperone for the proprotein convertase (PC) 2. Through the sequence around its Pro-Pro-Asn-Pro-Cys-Pro motif, it binds to an inactive proPC2 and facilitates its transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to later compartments of the secretory pathway where the zymogen is proteolytically matured and activated. Its C-terminal peptide can inhibit PC2 in vitro and may contribute to keep the enzyme transiently inactive in vivo. The PC2-7B2 model defines a new neuroendocrine paradigm whereby proteolytic activation of prohormones and proneuropeptides in the secretory pathway is spatially and temporally regulated by the dynamics of interactions between converting enzymes and their binding proteins. Interestingly, unlike PC2-null mice, which are viable, 7B2-null mutants die early in life from Cushing's disease due to corticotropin ('ACTH') hypersecretion by the neurointermediate lobe, suggesting a possible involvement of 7B2 in secretory granule formation and in secretion regulation. The mechanism of this regulation is yet to be elucidated. 7B2 has been shown to be a good marker of several neuroendocrine cell dysfunctions in humans. The possibility that anomalies in its structure and expression could be aetiological causes of some of these dysfunctions warrants investigation. PMID:11439082

  6. Granule cells born in the adult rat hippocampus can regulate the expression of GABAergic markers.

    PubMed

    Lara, Erika; Beltrán, Jesús Q; Segovia, José; Gutiérrez, Rafael

    2012-09-01

    The granule cells (GCs) of the dentate gyrus transiently express markers of the GABAergic phenotype early during development. However, GCs are generated throughout life, posing the question of whether the newborn neurons in the adult rodent recapitulate the development of the neurotransmitter phenotype of GCs generated during embryonic and early postnatal development. In this work we asked whether newborn GCs transiently express a GABAergic phenotype during their development in the adult rat. Using retroviral infection, we labeled dividing cells in the dorsal hippocampus with GFP, identified them as granule cells, and determined their expression of GABAergic markers at different developmental stages. We found that GFP-positive cells express Prox-1 and calbindin, identifying them as GCs. GABA or GAD(67) was expressed in 13% of GFP-positive cells at 7 dpi, in 16% at 10 dpi and in 20% at 15 dpi. At 30 dpi, however, no GFP-positive cell somata containing GABAergic markers were detected, but their mossy fiber boutons did contain GAD(67). Interestingly, developing GCs detected with doublecortin and PSA-NCAM in non-injected adult rats, did not express GABAergic markers, suggesting that retroviral injection/infection stimulates their transient expression. However, in non-injected rats, a number of mossy fiber boutons of newborn granule cells detected with PSA-NCAM did express GAD(67). Our findings reveal that developing GCs born in the adult are able to transiently up-regulate the expression of GABAergic markers to be detected in their soma in response to insults, while they constitutively express GAD(67) in their mossy fibers. PMID:22750325

  7. Synthetic mast-cell granules as adjuvants to promote and polarize immunity in lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. John, Ashley L.; Chan, Cheryl Y.; Staats, Herman F.; Leong, Kam W.; Abraham, Soman N.

    2012-03-01

    Granules of mast cells (MCs) enhance adaptive immunity when, on activation, they are released as stable particles. Here we show that submicrometre particles modelled after MC granules augment immunity when used as adjuvants in vaccines. The synthetic particles, which consist of a carbohydrate backbone with encapsulated inflammatory mediators such as tumour necrosis factor, replicate attributes of MCs in vivo including the targeting of draining lymph nodes and the timed release of the encapsulated mediators. When used as an adjuvant during vaccination of mice with haemagglutinin from the influenza virus, the particles enhanced adaptive immune responses and increased survival of mice on lethal challenge. Furthermore, differential loading of the particles with the cytokine IL-12 directed the character of the response towards Th1 lymphocytes. The synthetic MC adjuvants replicate and enhance the functions of MCs during vaccination, and can be extended to polarize the resulting immunity.

  8. Imaging exocytosis of single glucagon-like peptide-1 containing granules in a murine enteroendocrine cell line with total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ohara-Imaizumi, Mica; Aoyagi, Kyota; Akimoto, Yoshihiro; Nakamichi, Yoko; Nishiwaki, Chiyono; Kawakami, Hayato; Nagamatsu, Shinya

    2009-12-04

    To analyze the exocytosis of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) granules, we imaged the motion of GLP-1 granules labeled with enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (Venus) fused to human growth hormone (hGH-Venus) in an enteroendocrine cell line, STC-1 cells, by total internal reflection fluorescent (TIRF) microscopy. We found glucose stimulation caused biphasic GLP-1 granule exocytosis: during the first phase, fusion events occurred from two types of granules (previously docked granules and newcomers), and thereafter continuous fusion was observed mostly from newcomers during the second phase. Closely similar to the insulin granule fusion from pancreatic {beta} cells, the regulated biphasic exocytosis from two types of granules may be a common mechanism in glucose-evoked hormone release from endocrine cells.

  9. Subcellular glucose exposure biases the spatial distribution of insulin granules in single pancreatic beta cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terao, Kyohei; Gel, Murat; Okonogi, Atsuhito; Fuke, Ariko; Okitsu, Teru; Tada, Takashi; Suzuki, Takaaki; Nagamatsu, Shinya; Washizu, Masao; Kotera, Hidetoshi

    2014-02-01

    In living tissues, a cell is exposed to chemical substances delivered partially to its surface. Such a heterogeneous chemical environment potentially induces cell polarity. To evaluate this effect, we developed a microfluidic device that realizes spatially confined delivery of chemical substances at subcellular resolution. Our microfluidic device allows simple setup and stable operation for over 4 h to deliver chemicals partially to a single cell. Using the device, we showed that subcellular glucose exposure triggers an intracellular [Ca2+] change in the ?-cells. In addition, the imaging of a cell expressing GFP-tagged insulin showed that continuous subcellular exposure to glucose biased the spatial distribution of insulin granules toward the site where the glucose was delivered. Our approach illustrates an experimental technique that will be applicable to many biological experiments for imaging the response to subcellular chemical exposure and will also provide new insights about the development of polarity of ?-cells.

  10. Altered patterning of dentate granule cell mossy fiber inputs onto CA3 pyramidal cells in limbic epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    McAuliffe, John J.; Bronson, Stefanie L.; Hester, Michael S.; Murphy, Brian L.; Dahlquist-Topalá, Renée; Richards, David A.; Danzer, Steve C.

    2009-01-01

    Impaired gating by hippocampal dentate granule cells may promote the development of limbic epilepsy by facilitating seizure spread through the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit. The second synapse in this circuit, the dentate granule cell?CA3 pyramidal cell connection, may be of particular importance because pathological changes occurring within the dentate likely exert their principal effect on downstream CA3 pyramids. Here, we utilized GFP-expressing mice and immunolabeling for the zinc transporter ZnT-3 to reveal the pre- and postsynaptic components of granule cell?CA3 pyramidal cell synapses following pilocarpine-epileptogenesis. Confocal analyses of these terminals revealed that while granule cell presynaptic giant boutons increased in size and complexity one month after status epilepticus, individual thorns making up the postsynaptic thorny excrescences of the CA3 pyramidal cells were reduced in number. This reduction, however, was transient, and three months after status, thorn density recovered. This recovery was accompanied by a significant change in the distribution of thorns along pyramidal cells dendrites. While thorns in control animals tended to be tightly clustered, thorns in epileptic animals were more evenly distributed. Computational modeling of thorn distributions predicted an increase in the number of boutons required to cover equivalent numbers of thorns in epileptic vs. control mice. Confirming this prediction, ZnT-3 labeling of presynaptic giant boutons apposed to GFP-expressing thorns revealed a near doubling in bouton density, while the number of individual thorns per bouton was reduced by half. Together, these data provide clear evidence of novel plastic changes occurring within the epileptic hippocampus. PMID:20014385

  11. Elevation of susceptibility to ozone-induced acute tracheobronchial injury in transgenic mice deficient in Clara cell secretory protein

    SciTech Connect

    Plopper, C.G. . E-mail: cgplopper@ucdavis.edu; Mango, G.W.; Hatch, G.E.; Wong, V.J.; Toskala, E.; Reynolds, S.D.; Tarkington, B.K.; Stripp, B.R.

    2006-05-15

    Increases in Clara cell abundance or cellular expression of Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP) may cause increased tolerance of the lung to acute oxidant injury by repeated exposure to ozone (O{sub 3}). This study defines how disruption of the gene for CCSP synthesis affects the susceptibility of tracheobronchial epithelium to acute oxidant injury. Mice homozygous for a null allele of the CCSP gene (CCSP-/-) and wild type (CCSP+/+) littermates were exposed to ozone (0.2 ppm, 8 h; 1 ppm, 8 h) or filtered air. Injury was evaluated by light and scanning electron microscopy, and the abundance of necrotic, ciliated, and nonciliated cells was estimated by morphometry. Proximal and midlevel intrapulmonary airways and terminal bronchioles were evaluated. There was no difference in airway epithelial composition between CCSP+/+ and CCSP-/- mice exposed to filtered air, and exposure to 0.2 ppm ozone caused little injury to the epithelium of both CCSP+/+ and CCSP-/- mice. After exposure to 1.0 ppm ozone, CCSP-/- mice suffered from a greater degree of epithelial injury throughout the airways compared to CCSP+/+ mice. CCSP-/- mice had both ciliated and nonciliated cell injury. Furthermore, lack of CCSP was associated with a shift in airway injury to include proximal airway generations. Therefore, we conclude that CCSP modulates the susceptibility of the epithelium to oxidant-induced injury. Whether this is due to the presence of CCSP on the acellular lining layer surface and/or its intracellular distribution in the secretory cell population needs to be defined.

  12. A secretory cell type develops alongside multiciliated cells, ionocytes and goblet cells, and provides a protective, anti-infective function in the frog embryonic mucociliary epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Dubaissi, Eamon; Rousseau, Karine; Lea, Robert; Soto, Ximena; Nardeosingh, Siddarth; Schweickert, Axel; Amaya, Enrique; Thornton, David J.; Papalopulu, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    The larval epidermis of Xenopus is a bilayered epithelium, which is an excellent model system for the study of the development and function of mucosal and mucociliary epithelia. Goblet cells develop in the outer layer while multiciliated cells and ionocytes sequentially intercalate from the inner to the outer layer. Here, we identify and characterise a fourth cell type, the small secretory cell (SSC). We show that the development of these cells is controlled by the transcription factor Foxa1 and that they intercalate into the outer layer of the epidermis relatively late, at the same time as embryonic hatching. Ultrastructural and molecular characterisation shows that these cells have an abundance of large apical secretory vesicles, which contain highly glycosylated material, positive for binding of the lectin, peanut agglutinin, and an antibody to the carbohydrate epitope, HNK-1. By specifically depleting SSCs, we show that these cells are crucial for protecting the embryo against bacterial infection. Mass spectrometry studies show that SSCs secrete a glycoprotein similar to Otogelin, which may form the structural component of a mucus-like protective layer, over the surface of the embryo, and several potential antimicrobial substances. Our study completes the characterisation of all the epidermal cell types in the early tadpole epidermis and reinforces the suitability of this system for the in vivo study of complex epithelia, including investigation of innate immune defences. PMID:24598166

  13. The Possible Roles of the Dentate Granule Cell’s Leptin and Other Ciliary Receptors in Alzheimer’s Neuropathology

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, James F.; Chiarini, Anna; Dal Prà, Ilaria; Armato, Ubaldo; Chakravarthy, Balu

    2015-01-01

    Dentate-gyral granule cells in the hippocampus plus dentate gyrus memory-recording/retrieving machine, unlike most other neurons in the brain, are continuously being generated in the adult brain with the important task of separating overlapping patterns of data streaming in from the outside world via the entorhinal cortex. This “adult neurogenesis” is driven by tools in the mature granule cell’s cilium. Here we report our discovery of leptin’s LepRb receptor in this cilium. In addition, we discuss how ciliary LepRb signaling might be involved with ciliary p75NTR and SSTR3 receptors in adult neurogenesis and memory formation as well as attenuation of Alzheimer’s neuropathology by reducing the production of its toxic amyloid-?-derived drivers. PMID:26184316

  14. Impact of simulated microgravity on the secretory and adhesive activity of cultured human vascular endothelial cells.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudimov, Evgeny; Buravkova, Ludmila; Pogodina, Margarita; Andrianova, Irina

    The layer of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) is a dynamic,disseminated organ that perform the function of an interface between the blood and vascular wall. The endothelial monolayer is able to quickly respond to changes in the microenvironment due to its synthesis of vasoactive substances, chemokines, adhesion molecules expression, etc. ECs are highly sensitive to gravitational changes and capable of short-term and long-term responses (Sangha et al., 2001; Buravkova et al., 2005; Infanger et al., 2006, 2007. However, the question remains how to reflect the impact of microgravity on endothelium under the inflammatory process. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate secretory and adhesive activity of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) during simulated microgravity and TNF-a activation. HUVECs were isolated according to Gimbrone et al. (1978) in modification A. Antonov (1981) and used for experiments at 2-4 passages. HUVECs were activated by low level of TNF-a (2 ng/ml). Microgravity was generated by Random Positioning Machine (RPM, Dutch Space, Leiden) placed into the thermostat at 37°C. After 24 hours of clinorotation we measured adhesion molecules expression on the cell surface (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, PECAM-1, E-selectin, CD144, endoglin (CD105)) and cell viability using a flow cytometry. To evaluate the level of target gene expression was used the real time RT-PCR. IL-6 and IL-8 concentration was measured in the conditioned medium of HUVECs by using the ELISA test. We found that simulated microgravity within 24 hours caused a decrease of ICAM-1, CD144, and E-selectin expression, at the same time not affect the cell viability, endoglin and PECAM-1 expression on the surface HUVEC. Furthermore, there were no changes of the level of IL-6 and IL-8 gene expression and their products in the culture medium. TNF-activated HUVECs showed an increase in gene expression of interleukins and molecules involved in the adhesion process, which also was confirmed by the higher level of cytokines in the medium and elevated share of CD144, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1-positive cells. Comparative analysis of the level TNF-induced secretion of IL-6 and IL-8, as well as the share of cells bearing ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, showed significant variability depending on the donors. Simultaneous exposure to simulated microgravity and proinflammatory activation did not potentiate and did not cancel the effect caused by TNF-a. In summary, our findings indicate that the simulated microgravity is not activating and additional pro-inflammatory stimulus to HUVEC in vitro model. This work was supported in part by Grant from RFBR ? 12-04-31763 and Grant ? NSh-371.2014.4

  15. Distinct fusion properties of synaptotagmin-1 and synaptotagmin-7 bearing dense core granules

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Tejeshwar C.; Passmore, Daniel R.; Peleman, Andrew R.; Das, Madhurima; Chapman, Edwin R.; Anantharam, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Adrenal chromaffin cells release hormones and neuropeptides that are essential for physiological homeostasis. During this process, secretory granules fuse with the plasma membrane and deliver their cargo to the extracellular space. It was once believed that fusion was the final regulated step in exocytosis, resulting in uniform and total release of granule cargo. Recent evidence argues for nonuniform outcomes after fusion, in which cargo is released with variable kinetics and selectivity. The goal of this study was to identify factors that contribute to the different outcomes, with a focus on the Ca2+-sensing synaptotagmin (Syt) proteins. Two Syt isoforms are expressed in chromaffin cells: Syt-1 and Syt-7. We find that overexpressed and endogenous Syt isoforms are usually sorted to separate secretory granules and are differentially activated by depolarizing stimuli. In addition, overexpressed Syt-1 and Syt-7 impose distinct effects on fusion pore expansion and granule cargo release. Syt-7 pores usually fail to expand (or reseal), slowing the dispersal of lumenal cargo proteins and granule membrane proteins. On the other hand, Syt-1 diffuses from fusion sites and promotes the release of lumenal cargo proteins. These findings suggest one way in which chromaffin cells may regulate cargo release is via differential activation of synaptotagmin isoforms. PMID:24943843

  16. Glucose Toxic Effects on Granulation Tissue Productive Cells: The Diabetics' Impaired Healing

    PubMed Central

    Berlanga-Acosta, Jorge; Schultz, Gregory S.; López-Mola, Ernesto; Guillen-Nieto, Gerardo; García-Siverio, Marianela; Herrera-Martínez, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic noncommunicable disease with an expanding pandemic magnitude. Diabetes predisposes to lower extremities ulceration and impairs the healing process leading to wound chronification. Diabetes also dismantles innate immunity favoring wound infection. Amputation is therefore acknowledged as one of the disease's complications. Hyperglycemia is the proximal detonator of systemic and local toxic effectors including proinflammation, acute-phase proteins elevation, and spillover of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Insulin axis deficiency weakens wounds' anabolism and predisposes to inflammation. The systemic accumulation of advanced glycation end-products irreversibly impairs the entire physiology from cells-to-organs. These factors in concert hamper fibroblasts and endothelial cells proliferation, migration, homing, secretion, and organization of a productive granulation tissue. Diabetic wound bed may turn chronically inflammed, procatabolic, and an additional source of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, establishing a self-perpetuating loop. Diabetic fibroblasts and endothelial cells may bear mitochondrial damages becoming prone to apoptosis, which impairs granulation tissue cellularity and perfusion. Endothelial progenitor cells recruitment and tubulogenesis are also impaired. Failure of wound reepithelialization remains a clinical challenge while it appears to be biologically multifactorial. Ulcer prevention by primary care surveillance, education, and attention programs is of outmost importance to reduce worldwide amputation figures. PMID:23484099

  17. Glucose toxic effects on granulation tissue productive cells: the diabetics' impaired healing.

    PubMed

    Berlanga-Acosta, Jorge; Schultz, Gregory S; López-Mola, Ernesto; Guillen-Nieto, Gerardo; García-Siverio, Marianela; Herrera-Martínez, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic noncommunicable disease with an expanding pandemic magnitude. Diabetes predisposes to lower extremities ulceration and impairs the healing process leading to wound chronification. Diabetes also dismantles innate immunity favoring wound infection. Amputation is therefore acknowledged as one of the disease's complications. Hyperglycemia is the proximal detonator of systemic and local toxic effectors including proinflammation, acute-phase proteins elevation, and spillover of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Insulin axis deficiency weakens wounds' anabolism and predisposes to inflammation. The systemic accumulation of advanced glycation end-products irreversibly impairs the entire physiology from cells-to-organs. These factors in concert hamper fibroblasts and endothelial cells proliferation, migration, homing, secretion, and organization of a productive granulation tissue. Diabetic wound bed may turn chronically inflammed, procatabolic, and an additional source of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, establishing a self-perpetuating loop. Diabetic fibroblasts and endothelial cells may bear mitochondrial damages becoming prone to apoptosis, which impairs granulation tissue cellularity and perfusion. Endothelial progenitor cells recruitment and tubulogenesis are also impaired. Failure of wound reepithelialization remains a clinical challenge while it appears to be biologically multifactorial. Ulcer prevention by primary care surveillance, education, and attention programs is of outmost importance to reduce worldwide amputation figures. PMID:23484099

  18. Procaspase-activating compound 1 induces a caspase-3-dependent cell death in cerebellar granule neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, Gulzeb; Akselsen, Oyvind W.; Hansen, Trond V.; Paulsen, Ragnhild E.

    2010-09-15

    Procaspase-activating compound 1, PAC-1, has been introduced as a direct activator of procaspase-3 and has been suggested as a therapeutic agent against cancer. Its activation of procaspase-3 is dependent on the chelation of zinc. We have tested PAC-1 and an analogue of PAC-1 as zinc chelators in vitro as well as their ability to activate caspase-3 and induce cell death in chicken cerebellar granule neuron cultures. These neurons are non-dividing, primary cells with normal caspase-3. The results reported herein show that PAC-1 chelates zinc, activates procaspase-3, and leads to caspase-3-dependent cell death in neurons, as the specific caspase-3-inhibitor Ac-DEVD-cmk inhibited both the caspase-3 activity and cell death. Thus, chicken cerebellar granule neurons is a suitable model to study mechanisms of interference with apoptosis of PAC-1 and similar compounds. Furthermore, the present study also raises concern about potential neurotoxicity of PAC-1 if used in cancer therapy.

  19. Role of platelet activating factor in the intestinal epithelial secretory and Chinese hamster ovary cell cytoskeletal responses to cholera toxin.

    PubMed

    Guerrant, R L; Fang, G D; Thielman, N M; Fonteles, M C

    1994-09-27

    With the recent heightened concern about cholera around the world come new questions about the mechanism by which cholera toxin causes diarrhea. Peterson and Ochoa have suggested that prostaglandin synthesis is key to both the intestinal epithelial secretory and the CHO cell responses to cholera toxin [Peterson, J. W. and Ochoa, G. (1989) Science 245, 857-859]. Because platelet activating factor (PAF) can be a potent stimulus for prostaglandin synthesis, we examined its role in the intestinal and tissue culture effects of cholera toxin. We report that the specific PAF receptor antagonists BN 52021 and SR 27417 inhibit the effects of cholera toxin on intestinal secretion in rabbit ileal loops in vivo and on the cytoskeleton of Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro. We also show that PAF itself can cause net fluid secretion in the rabbit model and that PAF potentiates the effects of cholera toxin on intestinal secretion. Finally, we demonstrate that cholera toxin stimulates significant PAF production (2.6-fold) in isolated T-84 intestinal epithelial cells. We conclude that cholera toxin stimulates PAF production and that PAF is involved in both the secretory and cytoskeletal responses to cholera toxin. These findings further support the involvement of additional mediators of cholera toxin effects other than mucosal cell cyclic AMP and help explain the effects of cholera toxin on prostaglandin synthesis. PMID:7937824

  20. Enhanced acoustic startle responding in rats with radiation-induced hippocampal granule cell hypoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Mickley, G.A.; Ferguson, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Irradiation of the neonatal rat hippocampus reduces the proliferation of granule cells in the dentate gyrus and results in locomotor hyperactivity, behavioral preservation, and deficits on some learned tasks. In order to address the role of changes in stimulus salience and behavioral inhibition in animals with this type of brain damage, irradiated and normal rats were compared in their startle reactions to an acoustic stimulus. Irradiated rats startled with a consistently higher amplitude than control and were more likely to exhibit startle responses. These animals with hippocampal damage also failed to habituate to the startle stimulus and, under certain circumstances, showed potentiated startle responses after many tone presentations.

  1. Glycolytic enzymes localize to ribonucleoprotein granules in Drosophila germ cells, bind Tudor and protect from transposable elements.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ming; Thomson, Travis C; Creed, T Michael; Tu, Shikui; Loganathan, Sudan N; Jackson, Christina A; McCluskey, Patrick; Lin, Yanyan; Collier, Scott E; Weng, Zhiping; Lasko, Paul; Ohi, Melanie D; Arkov, Alexey L

    2015-03-01

    Germ cells give rise to all cell lineages in the next-generation and are responsible for the continuity of life. In a variety of organisms, germ cells and stem cells contain large ribonucleoprotein granules. Although these particles were discovered more than 100 years ago, their assembly and functions are not well understood. Here we report that glycolytic enzymes are components of these granules in Drosophila germ cells and both their mRNAs and the enzymes themselves are enriched in germ cells. We show that these enzymes are specifically required for germ cell development and that they protect their genomes from transposable elements, providing the first link between metabolism and transposon silencing. We further demonstrate that in the granules, glycolytic enzymes associate with the evolutionarily conserved Tudor protein. Our biochemical and single-particle EM structural analyses of purified Tudor show a flexible molecule and suggest a mechanism for the recruitment of glycolytic enzymes to the granules. Our data indicate that germ cells, similarly to stem cells and tumor cells, might prefer to produce energy through the glycolytic pathway, thus linking a particular metabolism to pluripotency. PMID:25600116

  2. Function suggests nano-structure: electrophysiology supports that granule membranes play dice

    PubMed Central

    Hammel, Ilan; Meilijson, Isaac

    2012-01-01

    Cellular communication depends on membrane fusion mechanisms. SNARE proteins play a fundamental role in all intracellular fusion reactions associated with the life cycle of secretory vesicles, such as vesicle–vesicle and vesicle plasma membrane fusion at the porosome base in the cell plasma membrane. We present growth and elimination (G&E), a birth and death model for the investigation of granule growth, its evoked and spontaneous secretion and their information content. Using a statistical mechanics approach in which SNARE components are viewed as interacting particles, the G&E model provides a simple ‘nano-machine’ of SNARE self-aggregation behind granule growth and secretion. Results from experimental work, mathematical calculations and statistical modelling suggest that for vesicle growth a minimal aggregation of three SNAREs is required, while for the evoked secretion one SNARE is enough. Furthermore, the required number of SNARE aggregates (which varies between cell types and is nearly proportional to the square root of the mean granule diameter) affects and is statistically identifiable from the size distributions of spontaneous and evoked secreted granules. The new statistical mechanics approach to granule fusion is bound to have a significant changing effect on the investigation of the pathophysiology of secretory mechanisms and methodologies for the investigation of secretion. PMID:22628211

  3. JC virus granule cell neuronopathy is associated with VP1 C terminus mutants

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Xin; Vidal, Jose E.; Penalva de Oliveira, Augusto C.; Simpson, David M.; Morgello, Susan; Hecht, Jonathan H.; Ngo, Long H.

    2012-01-01

    The polyomavirus JC (JCV) infects glial cells and causes progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). We described a novel JCV-variant with a 10 bp deletion in the C terminus of the VP1 capsid protein, JCVGCN1. This mutant was associated with lytic infection of cerebellar granule cell neurons and cerebellar atrophy in an human immunodeficiency virus/PML patient. This condition, also observed independently from PML, was named JCV granule cell neuronopathy (JCV GCN). We characterized JCV mutations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of four other JCV GCN patients, and reviewed the literature on 10 reported cases. The strain from one patient harboured the identical GCN1-deletion, while the other patients had novel mutations in the same area, named JCVGCN2–4, causing variable changes in VP1 structure. One patient also had wild-type JCV in the CSF. To study the mechanisms leading to JCV GCN, we compared viral replication kinetics from JCVGCN1 with the prototype JCVMad1, the PML isolate JCVHWM and the prototype JCVMad1D engineered with the GCN1-deletion. While all strains replicated at low levels in the medulloblastoma cell line DAOY from a cerebellar neuronal tumour, JCVMad1 replicated better in astroglial SVG cells than JCVMad1D or JCVGCN1 and all strains replicated at higher levels in COS-7 kidney cells, suggesting that the GCN1-deletion confers a disadvantage for viral growth in central nervous system white matter. The GCN1-deletion remained stable after 100 days in culture and VP1 protein was produced in all cell lines, indicating that JCVGCN1 is replication-competent in vitro. These data highlight an important and previously overlooked aspect of JCV-pathogenesis. Detection of GCN-type JCV strains in CSF may help clinicians diagnose JCV GCN. PMID:21940415

  4. In vitro atrazine-exposure inhibits human natural killer cell lytic granule release

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, Alexander M.; Brundage, Kathleen M.; Barnett, John B. . E-mail: jbarnett@hsc.wvu.edu

    2007-06-01

    The herbicide atrazine is a known immunotoxicant and an inhibitor of human natural killer (NK) cell lytic function. The precise changes in NK cell lytic function following atrazine exposure have not been fully elucidated. The current study identifies the point at which atrazine exerts its affect on the stepwise process of human NK cell-mediated lyses of the K562 target cell line. Using intracellular staining of human peripheral blood lymphocytes, it was determined that a 24-h in vitro exposure to atrazine did not decrease the level of NK cell lytic proteins granzyme A, granzyme B or perforin. Thus, it was hypothesized that atrazine exposure was inhibiting the ability of the NK cells to bind to the target cell and subsequently inhibit the release of lytic protein from the NK cell. To test this hypothesis, flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy were employed to analyze NK cell-target cell co-cultures following atrazine exposure. These assays demonstrated no significant decrease in the level of target cell binding. However, the levels of NK intracellular lytic protein retained and the amount of lytic protein released were assessed following a 4-h incubation with K562 target cells. The relative level of intracellular lytic protein was 25-50% higher, and the amount of lytic protein released was 55-65% less in atrazine-treated cells than vehicle-treated cells following incubation with the target cells. These results indicate that ATR exposure inhibits the ability of NK cells to lyse target cells by blocking lytic granule release without affecting the ability of the NK cell to form stable conjugates with target cells.

  5. A Western Blot-based Investigation of the Yeast Secretory Pathway Designed for an Intermediate-Level Undergraduate Cell Biology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood-DeGrenier, Jennifer K.

    2008-01-01

    The movement of newly synthesized proteins through the endomembrane system of eukaryotic cells, often referred to generally as the secretory pathway, is a topic covered in most intermediate-level undergraduate cell biology courses. An article previously published in this journal described a laboratory exercise in which yeast mutants defective in…

  6. Mast Cell Proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Rönnberg, Elin; Melo, Fabio R.

    2012-01-01

    Mast cells are versatile effector cells of the immune system, contributing to both innate and adaptive immunity toward pathogens but also having profound detrimental activities in the context of inflammatory disease. A hallmark morphological feature of mast cells is their large content of cytoplasmic secretory granules, filled with numerous secretory compounds, including highly negatively charged heparin or chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans of serglycin type. These anionic proteoglycans provide the basis for the strong metachromatic staining properties of mast cells seen when applying various cationic dyes. Functionally, the mast cell proteoglycans have been shown to have an essential role in promoting the storage of other granule-contained compounds, including bioactive monoamines and different mast cell-specific proteases. Moreover, granule proteoglycans have been shown to regulate the enzymatic activities of mast cell proteases and to promote apoptosis. Here, the current knowledge of mast cell proteoglycans is reviewed. PMID:22899859

  7. Reconstituted Human Polyclonal Plasma-derived Secretory-like IgM and IgA Maintain the Barrier Function of Epithelial Cells Infected with an Enteropathogen*

    PubMed Central

    Longet, Stéphanie; Vonarburg, Cédric; Lötscher, Marius; Miescher, Sylvia; Zuercher, Adrian; Corthésy, Blaise

    2014-01-01

    Intravenous administration of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies has proven to be a clinically valid approach in the treatment, or at least relief, of many acute and chronic pathologies, such as infection, immunodeficiency, and a broad range of autoimmune conditions. Plasma-derived IgG or recombinant IgG are most frequently used for intravenous or subcutaneous administration, whereas a few IgM-based products are available as well. We have established recently that secretory-like IgA and IgM can be produced upon association of plasma-derived polymeric IgA and IgM with a recombinant secretory component. As a next step toward potential future mucosal administration, we sought to unravel the mechanisms by which these secretory Igs protect epithelial cells located at the interface between the environment and the inside of the body. By using polarized epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers and Shigella flexneri as a model enteropathogen, we found that polyspecific plasma-derived SIgA and SIgM fulfill many protective functions, including dose-dependent recognition of the antigen via formation of aggregated immune complexes, reduction of bacterial infectivity, maintenance of epithelial cell integrity, and inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine production by epithelial cells. In this in vitro model devoid of other cellular or molecular interfering partners, IgM and secretory IgM showed stronger bacterial neutralization than secretory IgA. Together, these data suggest that mucosally delivered antibody preparations may be most effective when combining both secretory-like IgA and IgM, which, together, play a crucial role in preserving several levels of epithelial cell integrity. PMID:24951593

  8. Loss of ascl1a prevents secretory cell differentiation within the zebrafish intestinal epithelium resulting in a loss of distal intestinal motility

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Gillian; Wallace, Rachel Heath; Cameron, Amy; Ozel, Rifat Emrah; Hongay, Cintia F.; Baral, Reshica; Andreescu, Silvana; Wallace, Kenneth N.

    2013-01-01

    The vertebrate intestinal epithelium is renewed continuously from stem cells at the base of the crypt in mammals or base of the fold in fish over the life of the organism. As stem cells divide, newly formed epithelial cells make an initial choice between a secretory or enterocyte fate. This choice has previously been demonstrated to involve Notch signaling as well as Atonal and Her transcription factors in both embryogenesis and adults. Here, we demonstrate that in contrast to the atoh1 in mammals, ascl1a is responsible for formation of secretory cells in zebrafish. ascl1a?/? embryos lack all intestinal epithelial secretory cells and instead differentiate into enterocytes. ascl1a?/? embryos also fail to induce intestinal epithelial expression of deltaD suggesting that ascl1a plays a role in initiation of Notch signaling. Inhibition of Notch signaling increases the number of ascl1a and deltaD expressing intestinal epithelial cells as well as the number of developing secretory cells during two specific time periods: between 30 and 34 hpf and again between 64 and 74 hpf. Loss of enteroendocrine products results in loss of anterograde motility in ascl1a?/? embryos. 5HT produced by enterochromaffin cells is critical in motility and secretion within the intestine. We find that addition of exogenous 5HT to ascl1a?/? embryos at near physiological levels (measured by differential pulse voltammetry) induce anterograde motility at similar levels to wild type velocity, distance, and frequency. Removal or doubling the concentration of 5HT in WT embryos does not significantly affect anterograde motility, suggesting that the loss of additional enteroendocrine products in ascl1a?/? embryos also contributes to intestinal motility. Thus, zebrafish intestinal epithelial cells appear to have a common secretory progenitor from which all subtypes form. Loss of enteroendocrine cells reveals the critical need for enteroendocrine products in maintenance of normal intestinal motility. PMID:23353550

  9. Disruption of centrifugal inhibition to olfactory bulb granule cells impairs olfactory discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Nunez-Parra, Alexia; Maurer, Robert K.; Krahe, Krista; Smith, Richard S.; Araneda, Ricardo C.

    2013-01-01

    Granule cells (GCs) are the most abundant inhibitory neuronal type in the olfactory bulb and play a critical role in olfactory processing. GCs regulate the activity of principal neurons, the mitral cells, through dendrodendritic synapses, shaping the olfactory bulb output to other brain regions. GC excitability is regulated precisely by intrinsic and extrinsic inputs, and this regulation is fundamental for odor discrimination. Here, we used channelrhodopsin to stimulate GABAergic axons from the basal forebrain selectively and show that this stimulation generates reliable inhibitory responses in GCs. Furthermore, selective in vivo inhibition of GABAergic neurons in the basal forebrain by targeted expression of designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs produced a reversible impairment in the discrimination of structurally similar odors, indicating an important role of these inhibitory afferents in olfactory processing. PMID:23959889

  10. Axonin-1/TAG-1 is required for pathfinding of granule cell axons in the developing cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Baeriswyl, Thomas; Stoeckli, Esther T

    2008-01-01

    Background Neural development consists of a series of steps, including neurogenesis, patterning, cell migration, axon guidance, and finally, synaptogenesis. Because all these steps proceed in a constantly changing environment, functional gene analyses during development have to take time into account. This is quite challenging, however, as loss-of-function approaches based on classic genetic tools do not allow for the precise temporal control that is required for developmental studies. Gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) in combination with the chicken embryo or with cultured embryos opens new possibilities for functional gene analysis in vivo. Axonin-1/TAG-1 is a cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily with a well defined temporal and spatial expression pattern in the developing vertebrate nervous system. Axonin-1/TAG-1 was shown to promote neurite outgrowth in vitro and to be required for commissural and sensory axon pathfinding in vivo. Results To knock down axonin-1 in a temporally and spatially controlled manner during development of the nervous system, we have combined RNAi with the accessibility of the chicken embryo even at late stages of development. Using ex ovo RNAi, we analyzed the function of axonin-1/TAG-1 in cerebellar development. Axonin-1 is expressed in postmitotic granule cells while they extend their processes, the parallel fibers. In the absence of axonin-1 these processes still extend but no longer in a parallel manner to each other or to the pial surface of the cerebellum. Conclusion Axonin-1/TAG-1 is required for the navigation, but not for the elongation, of granule cell processes in the developing cerebellum in vivo. PMID:18346270

  11. Revisiting the single cell protein application of Cupriavidus necator H16 and recovering bioplastic granules simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Kunasundari, Balakrishnan; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Kaur, Gurjeet; Maurer, Frans H J; Sudesh, Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Cupriavidus necator H16 (formerly known as Hydrogenomonas eutropha) was famous as a potential single cell protein (SCP) in the 1970s. The drawback however was the undesirably efficient accumulation of non-nutritive polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) storage compound in the cytoplasm of this bacterium. Eventually, competition from soy-based protein resulted in SCP not receiving much attention. Nevertheless, C. necator H16 remained in the limelight as a producer of PHB, which is a material that resembles commodity plastics such as polypropylene. PHB is a 100% biobased and biodegradable polyester. Although tremendous achievements have been attained in the past 3 decades in the efficient production of PHB, this bioplastic is still costly. One of the main problems has been the recovery of PHB from the cell cytoplasm. In this study, we showed for the first time that kilogram quantities of PHB can be easily recovered in the laboratory without the use of any solvents and chemicals, just by using the cells as SCP. In addition, the present study also demonstrated the safety and tolerability of animal model used, Sprague Dawley given lyophilized cells of C. necator H16. The test animals readily produced fecal pellets that were whitish in color, as would be expected of PHB granules. The pellets were determined to contain about 82-97 wt% PHB and possessed molecular mass of around 930 kg/mol. The PHB granules recovered biologically possessed similar molecular mass compared to chloroform extracted PHB [950 kg/mol]. This method now allows the production and purification of substantial quantities of PHB for various experimental trials. The method reported here is easy, does not require expensive instrumentation, scalable and does not involve extensive use of solvents and strong chemicals. PMID:24205250

  12. Revisiting the Single Cell Protein Application of Cupriavidus necator H16 and Recovering Bioplastic Granules Simultaneously

    PubMed Central

    Kunasundari, Balakrishnan; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Kaur, Gurjeet; Maurer, Frans H. J.; Sudesh, Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Cupriavidus necator H16 (formerly known as Hydrogenomonas eutropha) was famous as a potential single cell protein (SCP) in the 1970s. The drawback however was the undesirably efficient accumulation of non-nutritive polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) storage compound in the cytoplasm of this bacterium. Eventually, competition from soy-based protein resulted in SCP not receiving much attention. Nevertheless, C. necator H16 remained in the limelight as a producer of PHB, which is a material that resembles commodity plastics such as polypropylene. PHB is a 100% biobased and biodegradable polyester. Although tremendous achievements have been attained in the past 3 decades in the efficient production of PHB, this bioplastic is still costly. One of the main problems has been the recovery of PHB from the cell cytoplasm. In this study, we showed for the first time that kilogram quantities of PHB can be easily recovered in the laboratory without the use of any solvents and chemicals, just by using the cells as SCP. In addition, the present study also demonstrated the safety and tolerability of animal model used, Sprague Dawley given lyophilized cells of C. necator H16. The test animals readily produced fecal pellets that were whitish in color, as would be expected of PHB granules. The pellets were determined to contain about 82-97 wt% PHB and possessed molecular mass of around 930 kg/mol. The PHB granules recovered biologically possessed similar molecular mass compared to chloroform extracted PHB [950 kg/mol]. This method now allows the production and purification of substantial quantities of PHB for various experimental trials. The method reported here is easy, does not require expensive instrumentation, scalable and does not involve extensive use of solvents and strong chemicals. PMID:24205250

  13. From differentiation to proliferation: The secretory amyloid precursor protein as a local mediator of growth in thyroid?epithelial?cells

    PubMed Central

    Pietrzik, Claus Ulrich; Hoffmann, Jens; Stöber, Kai; Chen, Chun-Yan; Bauer, Christoph; Otero, Deborah A. C.; Roch, Jean-Marc; Herzog, Volker

    1998-01-01

    In various species, thyrotropin (TSH) is known to stimulate both differentiation and proliferation of thyroid follicle cells. This cell type has also been shown to express members of the Alzheimer amyloid precursor (APP) protein family and to release the secretory N-terminal domain of APP (sAPP) in a TSH-dependent fashion. In this study on binding to the cell surfaces, exogenously added recombinant sAPP stimulated phosphorylation mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase and effectively evoked proliferation in the rat thyroid epithelial cell line FRTL-5. To see whether this proliverative effect of sAPP is of physiological relevance, we used antisense techniques to selectively inhibit the expression of APP and the proteolytic release of sAPP by cells grown in the presence of TSH. The antisense-induced inhibition was detected by immunoblot, immunoprecipitation, and immunocytochemical analyses. After the reduced APP expression and sAPP secretion, we observed a strong suppression of the TSH-induced cell proliferation down to 35%. Recombinant sAPP but not TSH was able to overcome this antisense effect and to completely restore cell proliferation, indicating that sAPP acts downstream of TSH, in that it is released from thyroid epithelial cells during TSH-induced differentiation. We propose that sAPP operates as an autocrine growth factor mediating the proliferative effect of TSH on neighboring thyroid epithelial cells. PMID:9465092

  14. Optofluidic platform for real-time monitoring of live cell secretory activities using Fano resonance in gold nanoslits.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu-Han; Lee, Kuang-Li; Chiou, Arthur; Cheng, Xuanhong; Wei, Pei-Kuen

    2013-10-25

    An optofluidic platform for real-time monitoring of live cell secretory activities is constructed via Fano resonance in a gold nanoslit array. Large-area and highly sensitive gold nanoslits with a period of 500 nm are fabricated on polycarbonate films using the thermal-annealed template-stripping method. The coupling between gap plasmon resonance in the slits and surface plasmon polariton Bloch waves forms a sharp Fano resonance with intensity sensitivity greater than 11 000% per refractive index unit. The nanoslit array is integrated with a cell-trapping microfluidic device to monitor dynamic secretion of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) from human acute monocytic leukemia cells in situ. Upon continuous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, MMP-9 secretion is detected within 2 h due to ultrahigh surface sensitivity and close proximity of the sensor to the target cells. In addition to the advantage of detecting early cell responses, the sensor also allows interrogation of cell secretion dynamics. Furthermore, the average secretion per cell measured using our system well matches previous reports while it requires orders of magnitude less cells. The optofluidic platform may find applications in fundamental studies of cell functions and diagnostics based on secretion signals. PMID:23606668

  15. Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotypes Reveal Cell-Nonautonomous Functions of Oncogenic RAS and the p53 Tumor Suppressor

    SciTech Connect

    Coppé, Jean-Philippe; Patil, Christopher; Rodier, Francis; Sun, Yu; Munoz, Denise; Goldstein, Joshua; Nelson, Peter; Desprez, Pierre-Yves; Campisi, Judith

    2008-10-24

    Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by arresting cell proliferation, essentially permanently, in response to oncogenic stimuli, including genotoxic stress. We modified the use of antibody arrays to provide a quantitative assessment of factors secreted by senescent cells. We show that human cells induced to senesce by genotoxic stress secrete myriad factors associated with inflammation and malignancy. This senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) developed slowly over several days and only after DNA damage of sufficient magnitude to induce senescence. Remarkably similar SASPs developed in normal fibroblasts, normal epithelial cells, and epithelial tumor cells after genotoxic stress in culture, and in epithelial tumor cells in vivo after treatment of prostate cancer patients with DNA-damaging chemotherapy. In cultured premalignant epithelial cells, SASPs induced an epithelial-mesenchyme transition and invasiveness, hallmarks of malignancy, by a paracrine mechanism that depended largely on the SASP factors interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Strikingly, two manipulations markedly amplified, and accelerated development of, the SASPs: oncogenic RAS expression, which causes genotoxic stress and senescence in normal cells, and functional loss of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Both loss of p53 and gain of oncogenic RAS also exacerbated the promalignant paracrine activities of the SASPs. Our findings define a central feature of genotoxic stress-induced senescence. Moreover, they suggest a cell-nonautonomous mechanism by which p53 can restrain, and oncogenic RAS can promote, the development of age-related cancer by altering the tissue microenvironment.

  16. Differential Structural Development of Adult-Born Septal Hippocampal Granule Cells in the Thy1-GFP Mouse, Nuclear Size as a New Index of Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Beining, Marcel; Schwarzacher, Stephan W.

    2015-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis is frequently studied in the mouse hippocampus. We examined the morphological development of adult-born, immature granule cells in the suprapyramidal blade of the septal dentate gyrus over the period of 7–77 days after mitosis with BrdU-labeling in 6-weeks-old male Thy1-GFP mice. As Thy1-GFP expression was restricted to maturated granule cells, it was combined with doublecortin-immunolabeling of immature granule cells. We developed a novel classification system that is easily applicable and enables objective and direct categorization of newborn granule cells based on the degree of dendritic development in relation to the layer specificity of the dentate gyrus. The structural development of adult-generated granule cells was correlated with age, albeit with notable differences in the time course of development between individual cells. In addition, the size of the nucleus, immunolabeled with the granule cell specific marker Prospero-related homeobox 1 gene, was a stable indicator of the degree of a cell's structural maturation and could be used as a straightforward parameter of granule cell development. Therefore, further studies could employ our doublecortin-staging system and nuclear size measurement to perform investigations of morphological development in combination with functional studies of adult-born granule cells. Furthermore, the Thy1-GFP transgenic mouse model can be used as an additional investigation tool because the reporter gene labels granule cells that are 4 weeks or older, while very young cells could be visualized through the immature marker doublecortin. This will enable comparison studies regarding the structure and function between young immature and older matured granule cells. PMID:26267362

  17. Selective vulnerability of dentate granule cells prior to amyloid deposition in PDAPP mice: Digital morphometric analyses

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chi-Cheng; Chawla, Faisal; Games, Dora; Rydel, Russell E.; Freedman, Stephen; Schenk, Dale; Young, Warren G.; Morrison, John H.; Bloom, Floyd E.

    2004-01-01

    Increasing evidence from mouse models of Alzheimer's disease shows that overexpression of a mutant form of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its product, ?-amyloid peptide, initiate pathological changes before amyloid deposition. To evaluate the cytological basis for one of these early changes, namely reduced volume of the dentate gyrus (DG), we have used high-throughput diOlistic cell loading and 3D neuronal reconstruction to investigate potential dendritic pathology of granule cells (GCs) in 90-day-old PDAPP mice. Labeled GCs from fixed hippocampal slices were selected randomly and imaged digitally by using confocal laser-scanning microscopy. The dendritic complexity of GCs was quantified according to subordinate morphological parameters, including soma position within the granule cell layer (superficial versus deep) and topographic location within the DG (dorsal versus ventral blade) along the anterior-posterior hippocampal axis. Initial analysis, which included all sampled GC types, revealed a 12% reduction of total dendritic length in PDAPP mice compared with littermate controls. Further analysis, performed with refined subgroups, found that superficially located GCs in the dorsal blade were profoundly altered, exhibiting a 23% loss in total dendritic length, whereas neurons in the ventral blade were unaffected. Superficial GCs were particularly vulnerable (a 32% reduction) in the posterior region of the DG. Furthermore, the dendritic reductions of this select group were uniformly localized within middle-to-outer portions of the dentate molecular layer. We conclude that substantial dendritic pathology is evident in 90-day-old PDAPP mice for a spatially defined subset of GCs well before amyloid accumulation occurs. PMID:15118092

  18. Plasticity of the GABAergic phenotype of the "glutamatergic" granule cells of the rat dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Rafael; Romo-Parra, Héctor; Maqueda, Jasmín; Vivar, Carmen; Ramìrez, Mónica; Morales, Miguel A; Lamas, Mónica

    2003-07-01

    The "glutamatergic" granule cells of the dentate gyrus transiently express a GABAergic phenotype when a state of hyperexcitability is induced in the adult rat. Consequently, granule cell (GC) activation provokes monosynaptic GABAergic responses in their targets of area CA3. Because GABA exerts a trophic action on neonatal CA3 and mossy fibers (MF) constitute its main input, we hypothesized that the GABAergic phenotype of the MF could also be transiently expressed early in life. We addressed this possibility with a multidisciplinary approach. Electrophysiological recordings in developing rats revealed that, until day 22-23 of age, glutamate receptor antagonists block the excitatory response evoked in pyramidal cells by GCs, isolating a fast metabotropic glutamate receptor-sensitive GABAergic response. In a clear-cut manner from day 23-24 of age, GC activation in the presence of glutamatergic antagonists was unable to evoke synaptic responses in CA3. Immunohistological experiments showed the presence of GABA and GAD67 (glutamate decarboxylase 67 kDa isoform) in the developing GCs and their MF, and, using reverse transcription-PCR, we confirmed the expression of vesicular GABA transporter mRNA in the developing dentate gyrus and its downregulation in the adult. The GABAergic markers were upregulated and MF inhibitory transmission reappeared when hyperexcitability was induced in adult rats. Our data evidence for the first time a developmental and activity-dependent regulation of the complex phenotype of the GC. At early ages, the GABAergic input from the MF may add to the interneuronal input to CA3 to foster development, and, in the adult, it can possibly protect the system from enhanced excitability. PMID:12843261

  19. The GABAergic phenotype of the "glutamatergic" granule cells of the dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Rafael

    2003-12-01

    The granule cells of the dentate gyrus (DG), origin of the mossy fibers (MFs), have been considered to be glutamatergic. However, data obtained with different experimental approaches in recent years may be calling for a redefinition of their phenotype. Although they indeed release glutamate for fast neurotransmission, immunohistological and molecular biology evidence has revealed that these glutamatergic cells also express GABAergic markers. The granule cell expression of a GABAergic phenotype is developmentally regulated. Electrophysiological studies reveal that during the first 3 weeks of age, mossy fiber stimulation provokes monosynaptic fast inhibitory transmission mediated by GABA, besides the monosynaptic excitatory glutamatergic transmission, onto their targets in CA3. After this age, mossy fiber GABAergic transmission abruptly disappears and the GABAergic markers are undetected. In the adult, the GABAergic markers are upregulated and GABA-mediated transmission emerges after induction of hyperexcitability. The simultaneous glutamate- and GABA-mediated signals share the same plastic and pharmacological characteristics that correspond to neurotransmission of mossy fiber origin. This intriguing evidence gives rise to two fundamental points of discussion. The first is the plausible fact that glutamate and GABA, two neurotransmitters of opposing actions, are coreleased from the mossy fibers. The second relates to its functional implications that can be immediately inferred, as the dentate gyrus can exert direct GABA-mediated excitatory actions early in life and inhibitory actions in young and adult hippocampus. This evidence poses the need to reevaluate and reinterpret some aspects of the physiology of the mossy fiber pathway under normal and pathological conditions. This work reviews the recent evidence that supports the assumption that glutamate and GABA can be coreleased from a single pathway, the mossy fibers, and makes some considerations about its functional implications. PMID:14757115

  20. High-efficiency secretory expression of human neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin from mammalian cell lines with human serum albumin signal peptide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Zhao, Xiaozhi; Zhang, Mingxin; Yuan, Yimin; Ge, Liyuan; Tang, Bo; Xu, Xiaoyu; Cao, Lin; Guo, Hongqian

    2016-02-01

    Human neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a secretory glycoprotein initially isolated from neutrophils. It is thought to be involved in the incidence and development of immunological diseases and cancers. Urinary and serum levels of NGAL have been investigated as a new biomarker of acute kidney injury (AKI), for an earlier and more accurate detection method than with creatinine level. However, expressing high-quality recombinant NGAL is difficult both in Escherichia coli and mammalian cells for the low yield. Here, we cloned and fused NGAL to the C-terminus of signal peptides of human NGAL, human interleukin-2 (IL2), gaussia luciferase (Gluc), human serum albumin preproprotein (HSA) or an hidden Markov model-generated signal sequence (HMM38) respectively for transient expression in Expi293F suspension cells to screen for their ability to improve the secretory expression of recombinant NGAL. The best results were obtained with signal peptide derived from HSA. The secretory recombinant protein could react specifically with NGAL antibody. For scaled production, we used HSA signal peptide to establish stable Chinese hamster ovary cell lines. Then we developed a convenient colony-selection system to select high-expression, stable cell lines. Moreover, we purified the NGAL with Ni-Sepharose column. The recombinant human NGAL displayed full biological activity. We provide a method to enhance the secretory expression of recombinant human NGAL by using the HSA signal peptide and produce the glycoprotein in mammalian cells. PMID:26518367

  1. Cell Division Mode Change Mediates the Regulation of Cerebellar Granule Neurogenesis Controlled by the Sonic Hedgehog Signaling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rong; Wang, Minglei; Wang, Jia; Huang, Xingxu; Yang, Ru; Gao, Wei-Qiang

    2015-11-10

    Symmetric and asymmetric divisions are important for self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells during neurogenesis. Although cerebellar granule neurogenesis is controlled by sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling, whether and how this process is mediated by regulation of cell division modes have not been determined. Here, using time-lapse imaging and cell culture from neuronal progenitor-specific and differentiated neuron-specific reporter mouse lines (Math1-GFP and Dcx-DsRed) and Patched(+/-) mice in which SHH signaling is activated, we find evidence for the existence of symmetric and asymmetric divisions that are closely associated with progenitor proliferation and differentiation. While activation of the SHH pathway enhances symmetric progenitor cell divisions, blockade of the SHH pathway reverses the cell division mode change in Math1-GFP;Dcx-DsRed;Patched(+/-) mice by promoting asymmetric divisions or terminal neuronal symmetric divisions. Thus, cell division mode change mediates the regulation of cerebellar granule neurogenesis controlled by SHH signaling. PMID:26527387

  2. The Rab27a effectors JFC1/Slp1 and Munc13-4 regulate exocytosis of neutrophil granules.

    PubMed

    Brzezinska, Agnieszka A; Johnson, Jennifer L; Munafo, Daniela B; Crozat, Karine; Beutler, Bruce; Kiosses, William B; Ellis, Beverly A; Catz, Sergio D

    2008-12-01

    Neutrophil granules contain secretory molecules that contribute to the implementation of all neutrophil functions. The molecular components that regulate the exocytosis of neutrophil granules have not been characterized. In this study, using small interfering RNA gene-targeting approaches and granulocytes from genetically modified mice, we characterized the Rab27a effectors JFC1/Slp1 and Munc13-4 as components of the exocytic machinery of granulocytes. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy analysis, we show that Rab27a and JFC1 colocalize in predocked and docked vesicles in granulocytes. Next, we demonstrate that JFC1-downregulated granulocytes have impaired myeloperoxidase secretion. Using immunological interference, we confirm that JFC1 plays an important role in azurophilic granule exocytosis in human neutrophils. Interference with Rab27a but not with JFC1 impaired gelatinase B secretion in neutrophils, suggesting that a different Rab27a effector modulates this process. In similar studies, we confirmed that Munc13-4 regulates gelatinase secretion. Immunofluorescence analysis indicates that Munc13-4 localizes at secretory organelles in neutrophils. Using neutrophils from a Munc13-4-deficient mouse model (Jinx), we demonstrate that Munc13-4 plays a central role in the regulation of exocytosis of various sets of secretory organelles. However, mobilization of CD11b was not affected in Munc13-4-deficient neutrophils, indicating that secretory defects in these cells are limited to a selective group of exocytosable organelles. PMID:18939952

  3. Protective Effect of Edaravone in Primary Cerebellar Granule Neurons against Iodoacetic Acid-Induced Cell Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xinhua; Zhu, Longjun; Wang, Liang; Guo, Baojian; Zhang, Gaoxiao; Sun, Yewei; Zhang, Zaijun; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen; Yu, Pei; Wang, Yuqiang

    2015-01-01

    Edaravone (EDA) is clinically used for treatment of acute ischemic stroke in Japan and China due to its potent free radical-scavenging effect. However, it has yet to be determined whether EDA can attenuate iodoacetic acid- (IAA-) induced neuronal death in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the effect of EDA on damage of IAA-induced primary cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) and its possible underlying mechanisms. We found that EDA attenuated IAA-induced cell injury in CGNs. Moreover, EDA significantly reduced intracellular reactive oxidative stress production, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and caspase 3 activity induced by IAA. Taken together, EDA protected CGNs against IAA-induced neuronal damage, which may be attributed to its antiapoptotic and antioxidative activities. PMID:26557222

  4. Object/Context-Specific Memory Deficits Associated with Loss of Hippocampal Granule Cells after Adrenalectomy in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanswick, Simon C.; Sutherland, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic adrenalectomy (ADX) causes a gradual and selective loss of granule cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the rat. Here, we administered replacement corticosterone to rats beginning 10 wk after ADX. We then tested them in three discrimination tasks based on object novelty, location, or object/context association. Only during testing of the…

  5. Observer-independent quantification of insulin granule exocytosis and pre-exocytotic mobility by TIRF microscopy.

    PubMed

    Matz, Magnus; Schumacher, Kirstin; Hatlapatka, Kathrin; Lorenz, Dirk; Baumann, Knut; Rustenbeck, Ingo

    2014-02-01

    Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of fluorescently labeled secretory granules permits monitoring of exocytosis and the preceding granule behavior in one experiment. While observer-dependent evaluation may be sufficient to quantify exocytosis, most of the other information contained in the video files cannot be accessed this way. The present program performs observer-independent detection of exocytosis and tracking of the entire submembrane population of insulin granules. A precondition is the exact localization of the peak of the granule fluorescence. Tracking is based on the peak base radius, peak intensity, and the precrossing itineraries. Robustness of the tracking was shown by simulated tracks of original granule patterns. Mobility in the X-Y dimension is described by the caging diameter which in contrast to the widely used mean square displacement has an inherent time resolution. Observer-independent detection of exocytosis in MIN6 cells labeled with insulin-EGFP is based on the maximal decrease in fluorescence intensity and position of the centroid of the dissipating cloud of released material. Combining the quantification of KCl-induced insulin exocytosis with the analysis of prefusion mobility showed that during the last 3 s pre-exocytotic granules had a smaller caging diameter than control granules and that it increased significantly immediately before fusion. PMID:24230985

  6. Isolation of a sesquiterpene synthase expressing in specialized epithelial cells surrounding the secretory cavities in rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri).

    PubMed

    Uji, Yuya; Ozawa, Rika; Shishido, Hodaka; Taniguchi, Shiduku; Takabayashi, Junji; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2015-05-15

    Volatile terpenoids such as monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes play multiple roles in plant responses and are synthesized by terpene synthases (TPSs). We have previously isolated a partial TPS gene, RlemTPS4, that responds to microbial attack in rough lemon. In this study, we isolated a full length RlemTPS4 cDNA from rough lemon. RlemTPS4 localized in the cytosol. The recombinant RlemTPS4 protein was obtained using a prokaryotic expression system and GC-MS analysis of the terpenes produced by the RlemTPS4 enzymatic reaction determined that RlemTPS4 produces some sesquiterpenes such as ?-elemene. The RlemTPS4 gene was specifically expressed in specialized epithelial cells surrounding the oil secretory cavities in rough lemon leaf tissue. PMID:25899729

  7. The Exosome Secretory Pathway Transports Amyloid Precursor Protein Carboxyl-terminal Fragments from the Cell into the Brain Extracellular Space*

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Gonzalez, Rocio; Gauthier, Sebastien A.; Kumar, Asok; Levy, Efrat

    2012-01-01

    In vitro studies have shown that neuronal cell cultures secrete exosomes containing amyloid-? precursor protein (APP) and the APP-processing products, C-terminal fragments (CTFs) and amyloid-? (A?). We investigated the secretion of full-length APP (flAPP) and APP CTFs via the exosome secretory pathway in vivo. To this end, we developed a novel protocol designed to isolate exosomes secreted into mouse brain extracellular space. Exosomes with typical morphology were isolated from freshly removed mouse brains and from frozen mouse and human brain tissues, demonstrating that exosomes can be isolated from post-mortem tissue frozen for long periods of time. flAPP, APP CTFs, and enzymes that cleave both flAPP and APP CTFs were identified in brain exosomes. Although higher levels of both flAPP and APP CTFs were observed in exosomes isolated from the brains of transgenic mice overexpressing human APP (Tg2576) compared with wild-type control mice, there was no difference in the number of secreted brain exosomes. These data indicate that the levels of flAPP and APP CTFs associated with exosomes mirror the cellular levels of flAPP and APP CTFs. Interestingly, exosomes isolated from the brains of both Tg2576 and wild-type mice are enriched with APP CTFs relative to flAPP. Thus, we hypothesize that the exosome secretory pathway plays a pleiotropic role in the brain: exosome secretion is beneficial to the cell, acting as a specific releasing system of neurotoxic APP CTFs and A?, but the secretion of exosomes enriched with APP CTFs, neurotoxic proteins that are also a source of secreted A?, is harmful to the brain. PMID:23129776

  8. Potential implications of a monosynaptic pathway from mossy cells to adult-born granule cells of the dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Scharfman, Helen E.; Bernstein, Hannah L.

    2015-01-01

    The dentate gyrus (DG) is important to many aspects of hippocampal function, but there are many aspects of the DG that are incompletely understood. One example is the role of mossy cells (MCs), a major DG cell type that is glutamatergic and innervates the primary output cells of the DG, the granule cells (GCs). MCs innervate the GCs as well as local circuit neurons that make GABAergic synapses on GCs, so the net effect of MCs on GCs – and therefore the output of the DG – is unclear. Here we first review fundamental information about MCs and the current hypotheses for their role in the normal DG and in diseases that involve the DG. Then we review previously published data which suggest that MCs are a source of input to a subset of GCs that are born in adulthood (adult-born GCs). In addition, we discuss the evidence that adult-born GCs may support the normal inhibitory ‘gate’ functions of the DG, where the GCs are a filter or gate for information from the entorhinal cortical input to area CA3. The implications are then discussed in the context of seizures and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In TLE, it has been suggested that the DG inhibitory gate is weak or broken and MC loss leads to insufficient activation of inhibitory neurons, causing hyperexcitability. That idea was called the “dormant basket cell hypothesis.” Recent data suggest that loss of normal adult-born GCs may also cause disinhibition, and seizure susceptibility. Therefore, we propose a reconsideration of the dormant basket cell hypothesis with an intervening adult-born GC between the MC and basket cell and call this hypothesis the “dormant immature granule cell hypothesis.” PMID:26347618

  9. Arf-like GTPase Arl8b regulates lytic granule polarization and natural killer cell–mediated cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Tuli, Amit; Thiery, Jerome; James, Ashley M.; Michelet, Xavier; Sharma, Mahak; Garg, Salil; Sanborn, Keri B.; Orange, Jordan S.; Lieberman, Judy; Brenner, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) lymphocytes contain lysosome-related organelles (LROs), known as lytic granules, which upon formation of immune synapse with the target cell, polarize toward the immune synapse to deliver their contents to the target cell membrane. Here, we identify a small GTP-binding protein, ADP-ribosylation factor-like 8b (Arl8b), as a critical factor required for NK cell–mediated cytotoxicity. Our findings indicate that Arl8b drives the polarization of lytic granules and microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs) toward the immune synapse between effector NK lymphocytes and target cells. Using a glutathione S-transferase pull-down approach, we identify kinesin family member 5B (KIF5B; the heavy chain of kinesin-1) as an interaction partner of Arl8b from NK cell lysates. Previous studies showed that interaction between kinesin-1 and Arl8b is mediated by SifA and kinesin-interacting protein (SKIP) and the tripartite complex drives the anterograde movement of lysosomes. Silencing of both KIF5B and SKIP in NK cells, similar to Arl8b, led to failure of MTOC-lytic granule polarization to the immune synapse, suggesting that Arl8b and kinesin-1 together control this critical step in NK cell cytotoxicity. PMID:24088571

  10. Tocotrienols prevent hydrogen peroxide-induced axon and dendrite degeneration in cerebellar granule cells.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Koji; Ushiki, Keisuke; Takatsu, Hirokatsu; Koike, Tatsuro; Urano, Shiro

    2012-02-01

    It is well known that reactive oxygen species (ROS) attack several living tissues and increase the risk of development and progression of serious diseases. In neuronal level, ROS induce cell death in concentration-dependent fashion. However, little is known about the mechanisms of neuronal changes by ROS prior to induction of cell death. Here we found that treatment of cerebellar granule neurons (CGCs) with 0.5 ?M hydrogen peroxide induced axonal injury, but not cell death. The number of dendrites remarkably decreased in hydrogen peroxide-treated CGCs, and extensive beading was observed on survival dendrites. In addition, an abnormal band of the original collapsin response mediator protein (CRMP)-2 was detected by Western blotting in hydrogen peroxide-treated CGCs. Treatment with each tocotrienol isoform prevented axonal and dendrite degeneration and induction of the abnormal band of the original band of CRMP-2 in hydrogen peroxide-treated CGCs. These results indicate that treatment with tocotrienols may therefore be neuroprotective in the presence of hydrogen peroxide by preventing changes to the CRMP-2 that occur before neuron death. PMID:22149330

  11. Kruppel-Like Factor 4 Regulates Granule Cell Pax6 Expression and Cell Proliferation in Early Cerebellar Development

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peter; Ha, Thomas; Larouche, Matt; Swanson, Douglas; Goldowitz, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Kruppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) is a transcription factor that regulates many important cellular processes in stem cell biology, cancer, and development. We used histological and molecular methods to study the expression of Klf4 in embryonic development of the normal and Klf4 knockout cerebellum. We find that Klf4 is expressed strongly in early granule cell progenitor development but tails-off considerably by the end of embryonic development. Klf4 is also co-expressed with Pax6 in these cells. In the Klf4-null mouse, which is perinatal lethal, Klf4 positively regulates Pax6 expression and regulates the proliferation of neuronal progenitors in the rhombic lip, external granular layer and the neuroepithelium. This paper is the first to describe a role for Klf4 in the cerebellum and provides insight into this gene’s function in neuronal development. PMID:26226504

  12. Digoxin net secretory transport in bronchial epithelial cell layers is not exclusively mediated by P-glycoprotein/MDR1.

    PubMed

    Hutter, Victoria; Chau, David Y S; Hilgendorf, Constanze; Brown, Alan; Cooper, Anne; Zann, Vanessa; Pritchard, David I; Bosquillon, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    The impact of P-glycoprotein (MDR1, ABCB1) on drug disposition in the lungs as well as its presence and activity in in vitro respiratory drug absorption models remain controversial to date. Hence, we characterised MDR1 expression and the bidirectional transport of the common MDR1 probe (3)H-digoxin in air-liquid interfaced (ALI) layers of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells and of the Calu-3 bronchial epithelial cell line at different passage numbers. Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCKII) cells transfected with the human MDR1 were used as positive controls. (3)H-digoxin efflux ratio (ER) was low and highly variable in NHBE layers. In contrast, ER=11.4 or 3.0 were measured in Calu-3 layers at a low or high passage number, respectively. These were, however, in contradiction with increased MDR1 protein levels observed upon passaging. Furthermore, ATP depletion and the two MDR1 inhibitory antibodies MRK16 and UIC2 had no or only a marginal impact on (3)H-digoxin net secretory transport in the cell line. Our data do not support an exclusive role of MDR1 in (3)H-digoxin apparent efflux in ALI Calu-3 layers and suggest the participation of an ATP-independent carrier. Identification of this transporter might provide a better understanding of drug distribution in the lungs. PMID:23816640

  13. Degranulation of mast cells and inhibition of the response to secretory agents by phototoxic compounds and ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gendimenico, G.J.; Kochevar, I.E.

    1984-11-01

    The symptoms of cutaneous phototoxicity from coal tar compounds and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug benoxaprofen are characterized by wheal and flare formation which is mediated by histamine released from dermal mast cells. Rat serosal mast cells were used as an in vitro model system to study the direct effect of phototoxic compounds on mast cell degranulation. The coal tar compounds studied included acridine and pyrene. Combined exposure of cells to acridine and UVA (320 to 400 nm) radiation caused mast cells to degranulate, as assayed by the release of (/sup 3/H)serotonin. Maximum (/sup 3/H)serotonin release (70 to 80%) was obtained with 50 microM acridine and 300 kJ/m2 UVA. Pyrene (25 microM), when photoexcited with UVB (280 to 360 nm) radiation, caused about 80% release of (/sup 3/H)serotonin. No degranulation occurred with 20 microM benoxaprofen and UVB doses up to 7.2 kJ/m2. Trypan blue staining correlated well with degranulation caused by acridine plus UVA; however, with pyrene plus UVB there was greater (/sup 3/H)serotonin release than dye uptake. Excitation of photosensitizers with doses of UV radiation that did not cause trypan blue staining suppressed degranulation of mast cells in response to chemical stimulation. Acridine, pyrene, and benoxaprofen in the presence of UV radiation inhibited the mast cells from responding to compound 48/80 or the calcium ionophore, chlortetracycline. Two other phototoxic compounds, chlorpromazine and deoxytetracycline, also abolished degranulation by compound 48/80. These findings indicate that phototoxic compounds: (1) cause degranulation in the presence of high doses of UV radiation; and (2) suppress degranulation of mast cells in response to secretory stimuli at doses of UV radiation that do not cause release of mediator.

  14. Development of a Cell-Based Fluorescence Polarization Biosensor Using Preproinsulin to Identify Compounds That Alter Insulin Granule Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Yi, Na Young; He, Qingping; Caligan, Thomas B; Smith, Ginger R; Forsberg, Lawrence J; Brenman, Jay E; Sexton, Jonathan Z

    2015-11-01

    Diabetes currently affects 9.3% of the U.S. population totaling $245 billion annually in U.S. direct and indirect healthcare costs. Current therapies for diabetes are limited in their ability to control blood glucose and/or enhance insulin sensitivity. Therefore, innovative and efficacious therapies for diabetes are urgently needed. Herein we describe a fluorescent insulin reporter system (preproinsulin-mCherry, PPI-mCherry) that tracks live-cell insulin dynamics and secretion in pancreatic ?-cells with utility for high-content assessment of real-time insulin dynamics. Additionally, we report a new modality for sensing insulin granule packaging in conventional high-throughput screening (HTS), using a hybrid cell-based fluorescence polarization (FP)/internal FRET biosensor using the PPI-mCherry reporter system. We observed that bafilomycin, a vacuolar H(+) ATPase inhibitor and inhibitor of insulin granule formation, significantly increased mCherry FP in INS-1 cells with PPI-mCherry. Partial least squares regression analysis demonstrated that an increase of FP by bafilomycin is significantly correlated with a decrease in granularity of PPI-mCherry signal in the cells. The increased FP by bafilomycin is due to inhibition of self-Förster resonant energy transfer (homo-FRET) caused by the increased mCherry intermolecular distance. FP substantially decreases when insulin is tightly packaged in the granules, and the homo-FRET decreases when insulin granule packaging is inhibited, resulting in increased FP. We performed pilot HTS of 1782 FDA-approved small molecules and natural products from Prestwick and Enzo chemical libraries resulting in an overall Z'-factor of 0.52?±?0.03, indicating the suitability of this biosensor for HTS. This novel biosensor enables live-cell assessment of protein-protein interaction/protein aggregation in live cells and is compatible with conventional FP plate readers. PMID:26505612

  15. JAM-A promotes wound healing by enhancing both homing and secretory activities of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Minjuan; Ji, Shizhao; Xiao, Shichu; Kong, Zhengdong; Fang, He; Zhang, Yunqing; Ji, Kaihong; Zheng, Yongjun; Liu, Houqi; Xia, Zhaofan

    2015-10-01

    The homing ability and secretory function of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are key factors that influence cell involvement in wound repair. These factors are controlled by multilayer regulatory circuitry, including adhesion molecules, core transcription factors (TFs) and certain other regulators. However, the role of adhesion molecules in this regulatory circuitry and their underlying mechanism remain undefined. In the present paper, we demonstrate that an adhesion molecule, junction adhesion molecule A (JAM-A), may function as a key promoter molecule to regulate skin wound healing by MSCs. In in vivo experiments, we show that JAM-A up-regulation promoted both MSC homing to full-thickness skin wounds and wound healing-related cytokine secretion by MSCs. In vitro experiments also showed that JAM-A promoted MSC proliferation and migration by activating T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 (Tiam1). We suggest that JAM-A up-regulation can increase the proliferation, cytokine secretion and wound-homing ability of MSCs, thus accelerating the repair rate of full-thickness skin defects. These results may provide insights into a novel and potentially effective approach to improve the efficacy of MSC treatment. PMID:25994236

  16. Immunomodulatory effects of adult Haemonchus contortus excretory/secretory products on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Z U; Knight, J S; Koolaard, J; Simpson, H V; Pernthaner, A

    2015-12-01

    The levels of expression of surface molecules and release of cytokines and chemokines of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells were determined after their exposure to adult H. contortus excretory/secretory (ES) products or a combination of ES products and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Worm products provoked a weak response and only partial maturation of the dendritic cells, consistent with the hyporesponsiveness and more tolerogenic immune environment present in parasitized animals and humans. Co-stimulation with LPS demonstrated that H. contortus secretions, like those of other helminths, contain immunomodulators capable of reducing some aspects of the strong TH 1/TH 2 response evoked by bacterial LPS. There were significant reductions in the release of some cytokine/chemokines by LPS-stimulated mdDCs and a trend (although not significant at P < 0·05) for reduced expression levels of CD40, CD80 and HLA-DR. A prominent feature was the variability in responses of dendritic cells from the four donors, even on different days in repeat experiments, suggesting that generalized conclusions may be difficult to make, except in genetically related animals. Such observations may therefore be applicable only to restricted populations. In addition, previous exposure to parasites in a target population for immunomodulatory therapy may be an important factor in assessing the likelihood of adverse reactions or failures in the treatment to worm therapy. PMID:26457886

  17. Retromer vesicles interact with RNA granules in haploid male germ cells.

    PubMed

    Da Ros, Matteo; Hirvonen, Noora; Olotu, Opeyemi; Toppari, Jorma; Kotaja, Noora

    2015-02-01

    Spermatozoa are produced during spermatogenesis as a result of mitotic proliferation, meiosis and cellular differentiation. Postmeiotic spermatids are exceptional cells given their haploid genome and remarkable sperm-specific structural transformations to compact and reshape the nucleus and to construct the flagellum and acrosome. These processes require delicate coordination and active communication between distinct cellular compartments. In this study, we elucidated the interplay between the haploid RNA regulation and the vesicular transport system. We identified a novel interaction between VPS26A/VPS35-containing retromer vesicles and the chromatoid body (CB), which is a large ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granule unique to haploid male germ cells. VPS26A/VPS35-positive vesicles were shown to be involved in the endosomal pathway, as well as in acrosomal formation that is dependent on the Golgi complex-derived vesicular trafficking. While the exact role of the retromer vesicles in the CB function remains unclear, our results suggest a direct functional link between vesicle transport and CB-mediated RNA regulation. PMID:25486514

  18. BDNF over-expression increases olfactory bulb granule cell dendritic spine density in vivo.

    PubMed

    McDole, B; Isgor, C; Pare, C; Guthrie, K

    2015-09-24

    Olfactory bulb granule cells (GCs) are axon-less, inhibitory interneurons that regulate the activity of the excitatory output neurons, the mitral and tufted cells, through reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses located on GC spines. These contacts are established in the distal apical dendritic compartment, while GC basal dendrites and more proximal apical segments bear spines that receive glutamatergic inputs from the olfactory cortices. This synaptic connectivity is vital to olfactory circuit function and is remodeled during development, and in response to changes in sensory activity and lifelong GC neurogenesis. Manipulations that alter levels of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in vivo have significant effects on dendritic spine morphology, maintenance and activity-dependent plasticity for a variety of CNS neurons, yet little is known regarding BDNF effects on bulb GC spine maturation or maintenance. Here we show that, in vivo, sustained bulbar over-expression of BDNF in transgenic mice produces a marked increase in GC spine density that includes an increase in mature spines on their apical dendrites. Morphometric analysis demonstrated that changes in spine density were most notable in the distal and proximal apical domains, indicating that multiple excitatory inputs are potentially modified by BDNF. Our results indicate that increased levels of endogenous BDNF can promote the maturation and/or maintenance of dendritic spines on GCs, suggesting a role for this factor in modulating GC functional connectivity within adult olfactory circuitry. PMID:26211445

  19. The lysosomal membrane glycoproteins Lamp-1 and Lamp-2 are present in mobilizable organelles, but are absent from the azurophil granules of human neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Dahlgren, C; Carlsson, S R; Karlsson, A; Lundqvist, H; Sjölin, C

    1995-01-01

    The subcellular localization of two members of a highly glycosylated protein group present in lysosomal membranes in most cells, the lysosome-associated membrane proteins 1 and 2 (Lamp-1 and Lamp-2), was examined in human neutrophil granulocytes. Antibodies that were raised against purified Lamp-1 adn Lamp-2 gave a distinct granular staining of the cytoplasm upon immunostaining of neutrophils. Subcellular fractionation was used to separate the azurophil and specific granules from a light-membrane fraction containing plasma membranes and secretory vesicles, and Western blotting was used to determine the presence of the Lamps in these fractions. The results show that Lamp-1 and Lamp-2 are present in the specific-granule-enriched fraction and in the light-membrane fraction, but not in the azurophil granules. Separation of secretory vesicles from plasma membranes disclosed that the light-membrane Lamps were present primarily in the secretory-vesicle-enriched fraction. During phagocytosis both Lamp-1 and Lamp-2 became markedly concentrated around the ingested particle and they both appear on the cell surface when the secretory organelles are mobilized. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 PMID:7487911

  20. Effect of oral N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on volume and albumin content of respiratory tract fluid but not on epithelial secretory cell number in "smoking" rats.

    PubMed

    Robinson, N; Brattsand, R; Dahlbäck, M

    1990-03-01

    This study was designed to look at the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on epithelial secretory cells and the respiratory tract fluid volume and albumin content from the lower airways of "bronchitic" rats. Rats were exposed either to tobacco smoke (TS), TS and NAC, or NAC alone. TS caused a significant increase in epithelial secretory cell number which was not reduced by concomitant NAC administration; NAC alone had no effect on cell numbers. TS increased respiratory tract fluid volume and albumin content by a small but non-significant amount, whereas TS and NAC increased the volume and albumin content by a greater and significant amount; NAC alone was also shown to significantly increase both fluid volume and albumin content. PMID:2340888

  1. High cell-density expression system: yeast cells in a phalanx efficiently produce a certain range of "difficult-to-express" secretory recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Kawarasaki, Yasuaki; Kurose, Takeshi; Ito, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Yeast's extracellular expression provides a cost-efficient means of producing recombinant proteins of academic or commercial interests. However, depending on the protein to be expressed, the production occasionally results in a poor yield, which is frequently accompanied with a deteriorated growth of the host. Here we describe our simple approach, high cell-density expression, to circumvent the cellular toxicity and achieve in a production of a certain range of "difficult-to-express" secretory protein in preparative amount. The system features an ease of performing: (1) precultivate yeast cells to the stationary phase in non-inducing condition, (2) suspend the cells to a small aliquot of inducing medium to form a high cell-density suspension or "a phalanx," and then (3) give a sufficient aeration to the phalanx. Factors and pitfalls that affect the system's performance are also described. PMID:25447864

  2. Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors in the Main Olfactory Bulb Drive Granule Cell-Mediated Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Heinbockel, Thomas; Laaris, Nora; Ennis, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Main olfactory bulb (MOB) granule cells (GCs) express high levels of the group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR), mGluR5. We investigated the role of mGluRs in regulating GC activity in rodent MOB slices using whole cell patch-clamp electrophysiology. The group I/II mGluR agonist (±)-1-aminocyclopentane-trans-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (ACPD) or the selective group I agonist (RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) depolarized (~20 mV) and increased the firing rate of GCs. In the presence of ionotropic glutamate and GABA receptor antagonists, DHPG evoked a more modest depolarization (~8 mV). In voltage clamp, DHPG, but not group II [(2S,2?R,3)-2-(2?,3?-dicarboxycyclopropyl) glycine, DCG-IV] or group III [L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid, L-AP4] mGluR agonists, induced an inward current. The inward current reversed polarity near the potassium equilibrium potential, suggesting mediation by closure of potassium channels. The DHPG-evoked inward current was unaffected by the mGluR1 antagonist (S)-(+)-?-amino-4-carboxy-2-methylbenzeneacetic acid (LY367385), was blocked by the group I/II mGluR antagonist (?S)-?-amino-?-[(1S,2S)-2-carboxycyclopropyl]-9H-xanthine-9-propanoic acid (LY341495), and was absent in GCs from mGluR5 knockout mice. LY341495 also attenuated mitral cell-evoked voltage-sensitive dye signals in the external plexiform layer and mitral cell-evoked spikes in GCs. These results suggest that activation of mGluR5 increases GC excitability, an effect that should increase GC-mediated GABAergic inhibition of mitral cells. In support of this: DHPG increased the frequency of spontaneous GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents in mitral cells and LY341495 attenuated the feedback GABAergic postsynaptic potential elicited by intracellular depolarization of mitral cells. Our results suggest that activation of mGluR5 participates in feedforward and/or feedback inhibition at mitral cell to GC dendrodendritic synapses, possibly to modulate lateral inhibition and contrast in the MOB. PMID:17093122

  3. The secretory pathway Ca(2+)-ATPase 1 is associated with cholesterol-rich microdomains of human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Baron, Szilvia; Vangheluwe, Peter; Sepúlveda, Maria Rosario; Wuytack, Frank; Raeymaekers, Luc; Vanoevelen, Jo

    2010-08-01

    Lipid rafts are often considered as microdomains enriched in sphingomyelin and cholesterol, predominantly residing in the plasma membrane but which originate in earlier compartments of the cellular secretory pathway. Within this pathway, the membranes of the Golgi complex represent a transition stage between the cholesterol-poor membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the cholesterol-rich plasma membrane. The rafts are related to detergent-resistant membranes, which because of their ordered structure are poorly penetrated by cold non-ionic detergents and float in density gradient centrifugation. In this study the microdomain niche of the Golgi-resident SPCA Ca(2+)/Mn(2+) pumps was investigated in HT29 cells by Triton X-100 detergent extraction and density-gradient centrifugation. Similarly to cholesterol and the raft-resident flotillin-2, SPCA1 was found mainly in detergent-resistant fractions, while SERCA3 was detergent-soluble. Furthermore, cholesterol depletion of cells resulted in redistribution of flotillin-2 and SPCA1 to the detergent-soluble fractions of the density gradient. Additionally, the time course of solubilization by Triton X-100 was investigated in live COS-1 and HT29 cells expressing fluorescent SERCA2b, SPCA1d or SPCA2. In both cell types, the ER-resident SERCA2b protein was gradually solubilized, while SPCA1d resisted to detergent solubilization. SPCA2 was more sensitive to detergent extraction than SPCA1d. To investigate the functional impact of cholesterol on SPCA1, ATPase activity was monitored. Depletion of cholesterol inhibited the activity of SPCA1d, while SERCA2b function was not altered. From these results we conclude that SPCA1 is associated with cholesterol-rich domains of HT29 cells and that the cholesterol-rich environment is essential for the functioning of the pump. PMID:20363212

  4. Dendritic patch-clamp recordings from cerebellar granule cells demonstrate electrotonic compactness

    PubMed Central

    Delvendahl, Igor; Straub, Isabelle; Hallermann, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Cerebellar granule cells (GCs), the smallest neurons in the brain, have on average four short dendrites that receive high-frequency mossy fiber inputs conveying sensory information. The short length of the dendrites suggests that GCs are electrotonically compact allowing unfiltered integration of dendritic inputs. The small average diameter of the dendrites (~0.7 µm), however, argues for dendritic filtering. Previous studies based on somatic recordings and modeling indicated that GCs are electrotonically extremely compact. Here, we performed patch-clamp recordings from GC dendrites in acute brain slices of mice to directly analyze the electrotonic properties of GCs. Strikingly, the input resistance did not differ significantly between dendrites and somata of GCs. Furthermore, spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSP) were similar in amplitude at dendritic and somatic recording sites. From the dendritic and somatic input resistances we determined parameters characterizing the electrotonic compactness of GCs. These data directly demonstrate that cerebellar GCs are electrotonically compact and thus ideally suited for efficient high-frequency information transfer. PMID:25852483

  5. Input integration around the dendritic branches in hippocampal dentate granule cells.

    PubMed

    Kamijo, Tadanobu Chuyo; Hayakawa, Hirofumi; Fukushima, Yasuhiro; Kubota, Yoshiyuki; Isomura, Yoshikazu; Tsukada, Minoru; Aihara, Takeshi

    2014-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that the dendrites of several neurons are not simple translators but are crucial facilitators of excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) propagation and summation of synaptic inputs to compensate for inherent voltage attenuation. Granule cells (GCs)are located at the gateway for valuable information arriving at the hippocampus from the entorhinal cortex. However, the underlying mechanisms of information integration along the dendrites of GCs in the hippocampus are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the input integration around dendritic branches of GCs in the rat hippocampus. We applied differential spatiotemporal stimulations to the dendrites using a high-speed glutamate-uncaging laser. Our results showed that when two sites close to and equidistant from a branching point were simultaneously stimulated, a nonlinear summation of EPSPs was observed at the soma. In addition, nonlinear summation (facilitation) depended on the stimulus location and was significantly blocked by the application of a voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel antagonist. These findings suggest that the nonlinear summation of EPSPs around the dendritic branches of hippocampal GCs is a result of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel activation and may play a crucial role in the integration of input information. PMID:25009669

  6. Tactile responses in the granule cell layer of cerebellar folium crus IIa of freely behaving rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, M. J.; Bower, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    We recorded activity from the granule cell layer (GCL) of cerebellar folium Crus IIa as freely moving rats engaged in a variety of natural behaviors, including grooming, eating, and free tactile exploration. Multiunit responses in the 1000-4500 Hz range were found to be strongly correlated with tactile stimulation of lip and whisker (perioral) regions. These responses occurred regardless of whether the stimulus was externally or self-generated and during both active and passive touch. In contrast, perioral movements that did not tactually stimulate this region of the face (e.g., chewing) produced no detectable increases in GCL activity. In addition, GCL responses were not correlated with movement extremes. When rats used their lips actively for palpation and exploration, the tactile responses in the GCL were not detectably modulated by ongoing jaw movements. However, active palpation and exploratory behaviors did result in the largest and most continuous bursts of GCL activity: responses were on average 10% larger and 50% longer during palpation and exploration than during grooming or passive stimulation. Although activity levels differed between behaviors, the position and spatial extent of the peripheral receptive field was similar over all behaviors that resulted in tactile input. Overall, our data suggest that the 1000-4500 Hz multiunit responses in the Crus IIa GCL of awake rats are correlated with tactile input rather than with movement or any movement parameter and that these responses are likely to be of particular importance during the acquisition of sensory information by perioral structures.

  7. Rapid induction of granule cell elimination in the olfactory bulb by noxious stimulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Komano-Inoue, Sayaka; Murata, Koshi; Mori, Kensaku; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2015-06-26

    Elimination of granule cells (GCs) in the olfactory bulb (OB) is not a continuous event but is rather promoted during short time windows associated with the animal's behavior. We previously showed that apoptotic GC elimination is enhanced during food eating and subsequent rest or sleep, and that top-down inputs from the olfactory cortex (OC) to the OB during the postprandial period are the crucial signal promoting GC elimination. However, whether enhanced GC elimination occurs during behaviors other than postprandial behavior is not clear. Here, we investigated whether exposure to noxious stimulation promotes apoptotic GC elimination in mice. Mice were delivered a brief electrical foot shock, during and immediately after which they showed startle and fear responses. Surprisingly, the number of apoptotic GCs increased 2-fold within 10 min after the start of foot shock delivery. This enhancement of GC apoptosis was significantly suppressed by injection of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol in the OC, despite these muscimol-injected mice showing similar behavioral responses by foot shock as control mice. These results indicate that GC elimination is promoted in foot shock-delivered mice within a short time period of startle and fear responses. They also indicate that OC activity plays a central role in the enhanced GC elimination during this period, as is also the case in GC elimination during the postprandial period. PMID:25943284

  8. Elastic behavior of zymogen granule membranes in response to changes in pH and pCa.

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, S; Fujime, S

    1990-01-01

    In the process of secretion, the membrane of secretory granules is expected to change its elastic behavior. Elastic modulus of the membrane of zymogen granules, prepared from the rat pancreas acinar cell, was measured by an osmotic swelling method. The elastic modulus of the granule membrane at pCa 8 reduced from the maximal value of 230 dyn/cm at pH 6.0 to almost zero at pH 7.5. In a cytosol of an acinar cell, calcium ions play an important role as a second messenger in secretion. The elastic modulus of the granule membrane reduced in a sigmoidal fashion at pCa between 7.0 and 6.0. This range of pCa corresponds to a physiological rise of free Ca2+ concentrations in the cell cytosol when stimulated by external secretagogues. Reduction of the elastic modulus indicates that the state of the granule membrane switches to a more flexible one in which the granule is easy to appose to the cell plasma membrane and then swell as a final step of exocytosis. PMID:2306504

  9. The Gs-Linked Receptor GPR3 Inhibits the Proliferation of Cerebellar Granule Cells during Postnatal Development

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Shigeru; Shaikh, Imran Mohammed; Chiocca, E. Antonio; Saeki, Yoshinaga

    2009-01-01

    Background During postnatal murine and rodent cerebellar development, cerebellar granule precursors (CGP) gradually stop proliferating as they differentiate after migration to the internal granule layer (IGL). Molecular events that govern this program remain to be fully elucidated. GPR3 belongs to a family of Gs-linked receptors that activate cyclic AMP and are abundantly expressed in the adult brain. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate the role of this orphan receptor in CGP differentiation, we determined that exogenous GPR3 expression in rat cerebellar granule neurons partially antagonized the proliferative effect of Sonic hedgehog (Shh), while endogenous GPR3 inhibition by siRNA stimulated Shh-induced CGP proliferation. In addition, exogenous GPR3 expression in CGPs correlated with increased p27/kip expression, while GPR3 knock-down led to a decrease in p27/kip expression. In wild-type mice, GPR3 expression increased postnatally and its expression was concentrated in the internal granular layer (IGL). In GPR3 ?/? mice, the IGL was widened with increased proliferation of CGPs, as measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Cell cycle kinetics of GPR3-transfected medulloblastoma cells revealed a G0/G1 block, consistent with cell cycle exit. Conclusions/Significance These results thus indicate that GPR3 is a novel antiproliferative mediator of CGPs in the postnatal development of murine cerebellum. PMID:19526062

  10. Beta cells transfer vesicles containing insulin to phagocytes for presentation to T cells

    PubMed Central

    Vomund, Anthony N.; Zinselmeyer, Bernd H.; Hughes, Jing; Calderon, Boris; Valderrama, Carolina; Ferris, Stephen T.; Wan, Xiaoxiao; Kanekura, Kohsuke; Carrero, Javier A.; Urano, Fumihiko; Unanue, Emil R.

    2015-01-01

    Beta cells from nondiabetic mice transfer secretory vesicles to phagocytic cells. The passage was shown in culture studies where the transfer was probed with CD4 T cells reactive to insulin peptides. Two sets of vesicles were transferred, one containing insulin and another containing catabolites of insulin. The passage required live beta cells in a close cell contact interaction with the phagocytes. It was increased by high glucose concentration and required mobilization of intracellular Ca2+. Live images of beta cell–phagocyte interactions documented the intimacy of the membrane contact and the passage of the granules. The passage was found in beta cells isolated from islets of young nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice and nondiabetic mice as well as from nondiabetic humans. Ultrastructural analysis showed intraislet phagocytes containing vesicles having the distinct morphology of dense-core granules. These findings document a process whereby the contents of secretory granules become available to the immune system. PMID:26324934

  11. Inhibition of BACE2 counteracts hIAPP-induced insulin secretory defects in pancreatic ?-cells.

    PubMed

    Alcarraz-Vizán, Gema; Casini, Paola; Cadavez, Lisa; Visa, Montse; Montane, Joel; Servitja, Joan-Marc; Novials, Anna

    2015-01-01

    BACE2 (?-site APP-cleaving enzyme 2) is a protease localized in the brain, where it appears to play a role in the development of Alzheimer disease (AD). It is also found in the pancreas, although its biologic function is not fully known. Amyloidogenic diseases, including AD and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), share the accumulation of abnormally folded and insoluble proteins that interfere with cell function. Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) deposits are a key pathogenic feature of T2D. Within this context, we found by global gene expression profiling that BACE2 was up-regulated in the rat pancreatic ?-cell line INS1E stably transfected with human IAPP gene (hIAPP-INS1E). Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in hIAPP-INS1E cells was 30% lower than in INS1E cells. Additionally, INS1E cells transfected with a transient overexpression of BACE2 showed a 60% decrease in proliferation, a 3-fold increase in reactive oxygen species production, and a 25% reduction in GSIS compared to control cells. Remarkably, silencing of endogenous BACE2 in hIAPP-INS1E cells resulted in a significant improvement in GSIS (3-fold increase vs. untransfected cells), revealing the significant role of BACE2 expression in ?-cell function. Thus, BACE2 inhibition may be useful to recover insulin secretion in hIAPP-INS1E defective cells and may be proposed as a therapeutic target for T2D. PMID:25342134

  12. Patch clamp analysis of excitatory synaptic currents in granule cells of rat hippocampus.

    PubMed Central

    Keller, B U; Konnerth, A; Yaari, Y

    1991-01-01

    1. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and their underlying currents (EPSCs) were recorded from dentate granule cells in thin hippocampal slices of rats using the tight-seal whole-cell recording technique. 2. At resting membrane potentials (ca -60 to -70 mV), the EPSCs clearly consisted of a dominant fast and a smaller slow component. The slow EPSC component markedly increased with depolarization. This resulted in a region of negative slope conductance (between -50 and -30 mV) in the peak current-voltage (I-V) relation of the dual-component EPSC in most neurones. The EPSCs reversed entirely at -1.2 +/- 2.8 mV (n = 15). 3. Using selective antagonists of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA excitatory amino acid receptors, two pharmacologically distinct components of the natural EPSCs were isolated. The non-NMDA EPSCs displayed a linear I-V relation. Their rise times (0.5-1.9 ms) were independent of membrane voltage but seemed to depend critically on the precise dendritic location of the synapse. Their decay was approximated by a single exponential with a time constant ranging from 3 to 9 ms. The time course of these EPSCs was independent of changes in extracellular Mg2+. 4. The NMDA EPSCs displayed a non-linear I-V relation. At resting membrane potentials their peak amplitudes were 20 pA and increased steadily with depolarization to -30 mV. At membrane voltages positive to -30 mV the peak I-V relation was linear. The rise times of NMDA EPSCs ranged from 4 to 9 ms and were insensitive to membrane voltage. 5. The NMDA EPSCs decayed biexponentially. Both time constants, tau f and tau s, increased with depolarization in an exponential manner, tau s being more voltage dependent than tau f. Lowering extracellular Mg2+ slightly reduced both rate constants but did not completely abolish their voltage sensitivity. 6. Bath application of NMDA to outside-out patches from granule cells induced single channel currents of 52 pS in nominally Mg(2+)-free solutions. They displayed a burst-like single-channel activity with clusters of bursts lasting several hundreds of milliseconds. Currents through single NMDA receptor channels reversed around 0 mV. 7. The fractional contributions of NMDA and non-NMDA components to peak currents and synaptic charge transfer were assessed. At resting membrane potential the NMDA EPSC component accounted for 23% of the peak current and for 64% of the synaptic charge transfer. The contribution of the NMDA EPSC component to the synaptic charge transfer strongly increased with small depolarizations from rest. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1837562

  13. Cell adhesion, ammonia removal and granulation of autotrophic nitrifying sludge facilitated by N-acyl-homoserine lactones.

    PubMed

    Li, An-Jie; Hou, Bao-Lian; Li, Mei-Xi

    2015-11-01

    In this study, six N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) molecules (C6-HSL, C8-HSL, C10-HSL, 3-oxo-C6-HSL, 3-oxo-C8-HSL and 3-oxo-C10-HSL) were each dosed into a bioreactor and seeded using autotrophic nitrifying sludge (ANS). The effects of the AHLs on cell adhesion, nitrification and sludge granulation were investigated. The results indicated that the efficiencies of cell adhesion and ammonia removal both had a close correlation with the side chain length and ? position substituent group of the AHLs. The best-performing AHL in terms of accelerating bacterial attached-growth was 3-oxo-C6-HSL, whereas C6-HSL outperformed the others in terms of the ammonia degradation rate. The addition of 3-oxo-C6-HSL or C6-HSL increased the biomass growth rate, microbial activity, extracellular proteins and nitrifying bacteria, which can accelerate the formation of nitrifying granules. Consequently, selecting AHL molecules that could improve bacteria in attached-growth mode and nitrification efficiency simultaneously will most likely facilitate the rapid granulation of nitrifying sludge. PMID:26295441

  14. A multi-stage process including transient polyploidization and EMT precedes the emergence of chemoresistent ovarian carcinoma cells with a dedifferentiated and pro-inflammatory secretory phenotype.

    PubMed

    Rohnalter, Verena; Roth, Katrin; Finkernagel, Florian; Adhikary, Till; Obert, Julia; Dorzweiler, Kristina; Bensberg, Maike; Müller-Brüsselbach, Sabine; Müller, Rolf

    2015-11-24

    DNA-damaging drugs induce a plethora of molecular and cellular alterations in tumor cells, but their interrelationship is largely obscure. Here, we show that carboplatin treatment of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells triggers an ordered sequence of events, which precedes the emergence of mitotic chemoresistant cells. The initial phase of cell death after initiation of carboplatin treatment is followed around day 14 by the emergence of a mixed cell population consisting of cycling, cell cycle-arrested and senescent cells. At this stage, giant cells make up >80% of the cell population, p21 (CDKN1A) in strongly induced, and cell numbers remain nearly static. Subsequently, cell death decreases, p21 expression drops to a low level and cell divisions increase, including regular mitoses of giant cells and depolyploidization by multi-daughter divisions. These events are accompanied by the upregulation of stemness markers and a pro-inflammatory secretory phenotype, peaking after approximately 14 days of treatment. At the same time the cells initiate epithelial to mesenchymal transition, which over the subsequent weeks continuously increases, concomitantly with the emergence of highly proliferative, migratory, dedifferentiated, pro-inflammatory and chemoresistant cells (SKOV3-R). These cells are anchorage-independent and grow in a 3D collagen matrix, while cells on day 14 do not survive under these conditions, indicating that SKOV3-R cells were generated thereafter by the multi-stage process described above. This process was essentially recapitulated with the ovarian carcinoma cell line IGROV-1. Our observations suggest that transitory cells characterized by polyploidy, features of stemness and a pro-inflammatory secretory phenotype contribute to the acquisition of chemoresistance. PMID:26503466

  15. Synaptosomal-associated protein 25 mutation induces immaturity of the dentate granule cells of adult mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Synaptosomal-associated protein, 25 kDa (SNAP-25) regulates the exocytosis of neurotransmitters. Growing evidence suggests that SNAP-25 is involved in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and epilepsy. Recently, increases in anxiety-related behaviors and epilepsy have been observed in SNAP-25 knock-in (KI) mice, which have a single amino acid substitution of Ala for Ser187. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the abnormalities in this mutant remain unknown. Results In this study, we found that a significant number of dentate gyrus (DG) granule cells was histologically and electrophysiologically similar to immature DG neurons in the dentate gyrus of the adult mutants, a phenomenon termed the “immature DG” (iDG). SNAP-25 KI mice and other mice possessing the iDG phenotype, i.e., alpha-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II heterozygous mice, Schnurri-2 knockout mice, and mice treated with the antidepressant fluoxetine, showed similar molecular expression patterns, with over 100 genes similarly altered. A working memory deficit was also identified in mutant mice during a spontaneous forced alternation task using a modified T-maze, a behavioral task known to be dependent on hippocampal function. Chronic treatments with the antiepileptic drug valproate abolished the iDG phenotype and the working memory deficit in mutants. Conclusions These findings suggest that the substitution of Ala for Ser187 in SNAP-25 induces the iDG phenotype, which can also be caused by epilepsy, and led to a severe working memory deficit. In addition, the iDG phenotype in adulthood is likely an endophenotype for at least a part of some common psychiatric disorders. PMID:23497716

  16. Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptors Transiently Silence Glutamatergic Nerve Terminals of Cultured Cerebellar Granule Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Franco, Jorge; Bartolomé-Martín, David; Alonso, Beatris; Torres, Magdalena; Sánchez-Prieto, José

    2014-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptors are the most abundant G protein-coupled receptors in the brain and they mediate retrograde short-term inhibition of neurotransmitter release, as well as long-term depression of synaptic transmission at many excitatory synapses. The induction of presynaptically silent synapses is a means of modulating synaptic strength, which is important for synaptic plasticity. Persistent activation of cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB1Rs) mutes GABAergic terminals, although it is unclear if CB1Rs can also induce silencing at glutamatergic synapses. Cerebellar granule cells were transfected with VGLUT1-pHluorin to visualise the exo-endocytotic cycle. We found that prolonged stimulation (10 min) of cannabinoid receptors with the agonist HU-210 induces the silencing of previously active synapses. However, the presynaptic silencing induced by HU-210 is transient as it reverses after 20 min. cAMP with forskolin prevented CB1R-induced synaptic silencing, via activation of the Exchange Protein directly Activated by cAMP (Epac). Furthermore, Epac activation accelerated awakening of already silent boutons. Electron microscopy revealed that silencing was associated with synaptic vesicle (SV) redistribution within the nerve terminal, which diminished the number of vesicles close to the active zone of the plasma membrane. Finally, by combining functional and immunocytochemical approaches, we observed a strong correlation between the release capacity of the nerve terminals and RIM1? protein content, but not that of Munc13-1 protein. These results suggest that prolonged stimulation of cannabinoid receptors can transiently silence glutamatergic nerve terminals. PMID:24533119

  17. Cell Division Mode Change Mediates the Regulation of Cerebellar Granule Neurogenesis Controlled by the Sonic Hedgehog Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rong; Wang, Minglei; Wang, Jia; Huang, Xingxu; Yang, Ru; Gao, Wei-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Summary Symmetric and asymmetric divisions are important for self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells during neurogenesis. Although cerebellar granule neurogenesis is controlled by sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling, whether and how this process is mediated by regulation of cell division modes have not been determined. Here, using time-lapse imaging and cell culture from neuronal progenitor-specific and differentiated neuron-specific reporter mouse lines (Math1-GFP and Dcx-DsRed) and Patched+/? mice in which SHH signaling is activated, we find evidence for the existence of symmetric and asymmetric divisions that are closely associated with progenitor proliferation and differentiation. While activation of the SHH pathway enhances symmetric progenitor cell divisions, blockade of the SHH pathway reverses the cell division mode change in Math1-GFP;Dcx-DsRed;Patched+/? mice by promoting asymmetric divisions or terminal neuronal symmetric divisions. Thus, cell division mode change mediates the regulation of cerebellar granule neurogenesis controlled by SHH signaling. PMID:26527387

  18. Histochemical and Ultrastructural Modification of Mucosal Mast Cell Granules in Parasitized Mice Lacking the ?-Chymase, Mouse Mast Cell Protease-1

    PubMed Central

    Wastling, Jonathan M.; Knight, Pamela; Ure, Jan; Wright, Steven; Thornton, Elisabeth M.; Scudamore, Cheryl L.; Mason, John; Smith, Austin; Miller, Hugh R. P.

    1998-01-01

    The soluble ?-chymases mouse mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1) and rat mast cell protease-II are predominantly expressed by intestinal mucosal mast cells (IMMCs) and may promote mucosal epithelial permeability when released during intestinal allergic hypersensitivity responses. To study the function of these chymases, we generated mice with a homozygous null mutation of the mMCP-1 gene and investigated their response to infection with the intestinal nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Whereas mMCP-2, -4, and -5 were transcribed normally, there was no transcription of the mMCP-1 gene in null (?/?) mice, nor was mature mMCP-1 protein detected in (?/?) jejunal mucosa. In contrast, levels of mMCP-1 in wild-type (+/+) jejunal mucosa increased 200- to 350-fold from 0.66 ?g mMCP-1/g wet weight in uninfected mice to 129 and 229 ?g/g wet weight on days 8 and 10 of infection, respectively. The kinetics of IMMC recruitment differed in ?/? mice compared with +/+ controls on days 8 (P < 0.05) and 10 (P < 0.03) of infection. The IMMCs in infected ?/? mice stained poorly, if at all, for esterase with naphthol AS-D chloroacetate compared with the intense staining observed in +/+ controls. Ultrastructurally, the prominent crystal intragranular structures that are found in intraepithelial +/+ IMMCs were absent from ?/? IMMCs. These data show that disruption of the mMCP-1 gene leads to profound histochemical and ultrastructural changes in IMMC granules. PMID:9708809

  19. Effects of mastoparan upon the late stages of the ACTH secretory pathway of AtT-20 cells.

    PubMed

    McFerran, B W; Guild, S B

    1995-06-01

    1. The mouse AtT-20/D16-16 anterior pituitary tumour cell line was used as a model system for the study of the effects of mastoparan upon the late stages of the adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) secretory pathway. 2. Mastoparan (10(-8)-10(-5) M), an activator of heterotrimeric guanosine 5'-triphosphate binding proteins (G-proteins), stimulated ACTH secretion from electrically-permeabilized AtT-20 cells in a concentration-dependent manner in the effective absence of calcium ions with a threshold of 10(-6) M. Guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP-gamma-S) (10(-8)-10(-4) M) also stimulated ACTH secretion from electrically-permeabilized AtT-20 cells in a concentration-dependent manner in the effective absence of calcium ions with a threshold of 10(-6) M. This GTP-gamma-S-evoked secretion is consistent with previous studies which demonstrated that a G-protein, termed GE, mediates calcium evoked ACTH secretion from AtT-20 cells. GTP-gamma-S-evoked secretion however was not as great as that obtained in response to mastoparan. 3. Both mastoparan (10(-5) M) and GTP-gamma-S (10(-4) M) stimulated ACTH secretion from electrically-permeabilized AtT20 cells in a time-dependent manner. A time of 30 min was adopted as the standard incubation period for the study of both mastoparan and GTP-gamma-S-stimulated ACTH secretion from permeabilized AtT-20 cells. 4. Mastoparan (10(-8)-10(-5) M) stimulated ACTH secretion from permeabilized AtT-20 cells to the same extent in the presence and absence of the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, chelerythrine chloride (10(-5) M). 5. Mastoparan (10-8 10-5 M)-stimulated ACTH secretion from permeabilized AtT-20 cells was significantly reduced in the presence of guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (GDP-beta-S, 10-4 M).6. The mastoparan analogue, Mas-7 (10-8-10-5 M) stimulated ACTH secretion from permeabilized AtT-20 cells to a greater extent than mastoparan (10-8 10-5 M) however, the mastoparan analogue Mas-17 (10-8- 10-5 M) had no effect upon ACTH secretion from permeabilized AtT-20 cells.7. Mastoparan (10-8-10-5 M) stimulated ACTH secretion from permeabilized AtT-20 cells in the presence and absence of ATP, normally present in the standard permeabilization medium at a concentration of 5 mM. Mastoparan (10-8- 10-5 M)-stimulated ACTH secretion as well as control secretion was reduced when ATP was omitted.8. The results of the present study demonstrate that mastoparan stimulated ACTH secretion from permeabilized AtT-20 cells and displayed characteristics consistent with calcium ion- and GTP-y-gamma-S-stimulated ACTH secretion from permeabilized AtT-20 cells. This suggests that in permeabilized AtT-20 cells, mastoparan directly activates GE and that this G-protein may be a heterotrimeric G-protein. This study also suggests mastoparan may be a useful alternative to GTP-gamma-S as a means of directly activating GE. PMID:7582493

  20. Macrophage secretory products selectively stimulate dermatan sulfate proteoglycan production in cultured arterial smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, I.J.; Wagner, W.D.; Owens, R.T. )

    1990-03-01

    Arterial dermatan sulfate proteoglycan has been shown to increase with atherosclerosis progression, but factors responsible for this increase are unknown. To test the hypothesis that smooth muscle cell proteoglycan synthesis may be modified by macrophage products, pigeon arterial smooth muscle cells were exposed to the media of either cholesteryl ester-loaded pigeon peritoneal macrophages or a macrophage cell line P388D1. Proteoglycans radiolabeled with (35S)sulfate and (3H)serine were isolated from culture media and smooth muscle cells and purified following precipitation with 1-hexadecylpyridinium chloride and chromatography. Increasing concentrations of macrophage-conditioned media were associated with a dose-response increase in (35S)sulfate incorporation into secreted proteoglycans, but there was no change in cell-associated proteoglycans. Incorporation of (3H)serine into total proteoglycan core proteins was not significantly different (5.2 X 10(5) dpm and 5.5 X 10(5) disintegrations per minute (dpm) in control and conditioned media-treated cultures, respectively), but selective effects were observed on individual proteoglycan types. Twofold increases in dermatan sulfate proteoglycan and limited degradation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan were apparent based on core proteins separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Immunoinhibition studies indicated that interleukin-1 was involved in the modulation of proteoglycan synthesis by macrophage-conditioned media. These data provide support for the role of macrophages in alteration of the matrix proteoglycans synthesized by smooth muscle cells and provide a mechanism to account for the reported increased dermatan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate ratios in the developing atherosclerotic lesion.

  1. Interaction of astrochondrin with extracellular matrix components and its involvement in astrocyte process formation and cerebellar granule cell migration

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    We have recently characterized a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan from the murine central nervous system which is expressed by astrocytes in vitro and carries the L2/HNK-1 and L5 carbohydrate structures. In the present study, we provide evidence that its three core proteins of different size are similar in their proteolytic peptide maps and thus designate this group of structurally related molecules astrochondrin. During development, astrochondrin and the L5 carbohydrate were hardly detectable in the brain of 14-d-old mouse embryos by Western blot analysis. Expression of astrochondrin and the L5 epitope was highest at postnatal day 8, the peak of cerebellar granule cell migration and Bergmann glial process formation, and decreased to weakly detectable levels in the adult. Immunocytochemical localization of astrochondrin in the cerebellar cortex of 6-d-old mice showed association of immunoreactivity with the cell surface of astrocytes, including Bergmann glial processes and astrocytes in the internal granular layer or prospective white matter. Endfeet of astrocytes contacting the basal lamina of endothelial and meningeal cells and contact sites between Bergmann glial processes and granule cells also showed detectable levels of astrochondrin. Furthermore, granule cell axons in the molecular layer were astrochondrin immunoreactive. In the adult, astrochondrin immunoreactivity was weakly present in the internal granular layer and white matter. Both Fab fragments of polyclonal antibodies to astrochondrin and monovalent fragments of the L5 monoclonal antibody reduced the formation of processes of mature GFAP- positive astrocytes on laminin and collagen type IV, but not on fibronectin as substrata. Interestingly, the initial attachment of astrocytic cell bodies was not disturbed by these antibodies. Antibodies to astrochondrin also reduced the migration of granule cells in the early postnatal mouse cerebellar cortex. In a solid phase radioligand binding assay, astrochondrin was shown to bind to the extracellular matrix components laminin and collagen type IV, being enhanced in the presence of Ca2+, but not to fibronectin, J1/tenascin or other neural recognition molecules. Furthermore, astrochondrin interacted with collagen types III and V, less strongly with collagen types I, II, and IX, but not with collagen type VI. The interaction of astrochondrin with collagen types III and V was saturable and susceptible to increasing ionic strength, and could be competed by chondroitin sulfate, heparin, and dextran sulfate, but not by hyaluronic acid, glucose-6-phosphate, or neuraminic acid.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7678837

  2. [Current methods for studying the functional morphology of apud cells].

    PubMed

    Iuzhakov, V V; Ra?khlin, N T; Kvetno?, I M; Iakovleva, N D; Kurilets, E S; Manokhina, R P

    1996-01-01

    The paper reviews methods for studying functional morphology of endocrine cells histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, radioautography and methods of ultrastructural verification of secretory granules. Methodological approach is illustrated by the authors' results on the influence of ionizing radiation and tumor growth on the cells of the diffuse endocrine system. PMID:8712935

  3. Enhanced bursts of IPSCs in dentate granule cells in mice with regionally inhibited long-term potentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Hollrigel, G S; Morris, R J; Soltesz, I

    1998-01-01

    Until recently, most studies on the synaptic-cellular basis of learning and memory concentrated on the activity-dependent changes occurring in principal cells such as hippocampal pyramidal cells and dentate granule cells. However, the ability of the inhibitory interneurons to regulate synaptic plasticity remains less understood. This study tested the hypothesis that the gamma-aminobutyric-acid (GABA)-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission is enhanced in mice that show no detectable long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus in the absence of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline. Patch clamp recordings were made from dentate granule cells in brain slices from wild-type and Thy-1 knockout (KO) mice. The frequency, amplitude and kinetics of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs, generated by the action potential-independent release of GABA) was not different between animals. However, bursts of spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs, generated by both action potential-independent and -dependent GABA release) in KO mice were associated with larger synaptic charge transfers and increased durations. When pairs of IPSCs were evoked at varying intervals, the amplitude of the second response with respect to the first was significantly larger in KO animals. These results further support the concept that enhancement of interneuronal functions in cortical structures can have profound effects on the activity-dependent synaptic plasticity observed in principal cells. PMID:9470216

  4. Anti-gastric acid secretory mechanism of 1,6-dihydro-2-[2-(2-methylpropoxy)anilino]-6-oxo-5-pyrimidinecarboxylic acid. Effect on mucosal mast cell.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Y; Kamisaki, T; Sato, M

    1996-09-01

    To clarify the anti-gastric acid secretory mechanism of 1,6-dihydro-2-[2-(2-methylpropoxy)anilino]-6-oxo-5-pyrimidinecarbo xylic acid (CAS 98772-05-5, MAR-99), the relationship between gastric acid secretion and gastric mucosal mast cell (MMC) was studied and the effect of this compound on these parameters was examined and compared with anti-allergic drugs (mast cell stabilizers) and anti-ulcer drugs. The release of histamine from MMC cultured from bone marrow and connective tissue mast cell (CTMC) isolated from peritoneal cavity was found to be induced by the addition of ethanol (final conc. 17.5%), and the inhibitory effect on histamine release from MMC is closely associated with the anti-gastric secretory effect. That is to say, MAR-99 (10(-9)-10(-7) mol/l) inhibited histamine release from MMC induced by ethanol in a concentration-dependent manner. The action of MAR-99 on MMC was more sensitive than that of CTMC. In addition, MAR-99 (100 mg/kg i.d.) suppressed gastric acid secretion. On the other hand, anti-allergic drugs (mast cell stabilizers), such as DSCG and tranilast (both 10(-7) mol/l), markedly inhibited histamine release from CTMC induced by ethanol, but these drugs (10(-8)-10(-7) mol/l) showed only a tendency to prevent the release of histamine from MMC. Furthermore these drugs (both 100 mg/ kg i.d.) had no effects on gastric acid secretion. Equally anti-ulcer drugs, such as cetraxate, teprenone and sofalcone, had no effects on histamine release from mast cells of two types and gastric acid secretion. From these results, it was suggested that MMC is closely correlated with gastric acid secretion, and the anti-gastric secretory effect of MAR-99 may mainly contribute to prevent the degranulation of MMC. PMID:8876942

  5. Interactions between Inhibitory Interneurons and Excitatory Associational Circuitry in Determining Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Hippocampal Dentate Granule Cells: A Large-Scale Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickson, Phillip J.; Yu, Gene J.; Song, Dong; Berger, Theodore W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from a million-cell granule cell model of the rat dentate gyrus that was used to explore the contributions of local interneuronal and associational circuits to network-level activity. The model contains experimentally derived morphological parameters for granule cells, which each contain approximately 200 compartments, and biophysical parameters for granule cells, basket cells, and mossy cells that were based both on electrophysiological data and previously published models. Synaptic input to cells in the model consisted of glutamatergic AMPA-like EPSPs and GABAergic-like IPSPs from excitatory and inhibitory neurons, respectively. The main source of input to the model was from layer II entorhinal cortical neurons. Network connectivity was constrained by the topography of the system, and was derived from axonal transport studies, which provided details about the spatial spread of axonal terminal fields, as well as how subregions of the medial and lateral entorhinal cortices project to subregions of the dentate gyrus. Results of this study show that strong feedback inhibition from the basket cell population can cause high-frequency rhythmicity in granule cells, while the strength of feedforward inhibition serves to scale the total amount of granule cell activity. Results furthermore show that the topography of local interneuronal circuits can have just as strong an impact on the development of spatio-temporal clusters in the granule cell population as the perforant path topography does, both sharpening existing clusters and introducing new ones with a greater spatial extent. Finally, results show that the interactions between the inhibitory and associational loops can cause high frequency oscillations that are modulated by a low-frequency oscillatory signal. These results serve to further illustrate the importance of topographical constraints on a global signal processing feature of a neural network, while also illustrating how rich spatio-temporal and oscillatory dynamics can evolve from a relatively small number of interacting local circuits. PMID:26635545

  6. Production of specific-protein secretion granules by fat body cells of the blowfly, Calliphora erythrocephala. Substitution of an ovarian key factor by beta-ecdysone.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, E; Thomsen, M

    1978-10-01

    During the first four days of the imaginal stage the fat cells of ovariectomized females of Calliphora develop a protein synthetic apparatus, and produce dense bodies (lysosomes) as do the fat cells of normal females, but apparently they cannot synthesize the protein secretion granules that characterize the productive phase of the fat cells of normal females and that we believe to represent vitellogenin. Injection of ovariectomized females with beta-ecdysone restored the ability of the fat cells to produce the secretion granules. It is suggested that the ovary gives off a factor which induces the production of the protein secretion granules by the fat cells, and that the factor from the ovary can be substituted by beta-ecdysone. This, we believe, is the first ultrastructural evidence for an effect of the ovary and of beta-ecdysone on the synthesis of specific protein. PMID:719713

  7. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls increase reactive oxygen species formation and induce cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dreiem, Anne Rykken, Sidsel; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Robertson, Larry W.; Fonnum, Frode

    2009-10-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that bioaccumulate in the body, however, they can be metabolized to more water-soluble products. Although they are more readily excreted than the parent compounds, some of the metabolites are still hydrophobic and may be more available to target tissues, such as the brain. They can also cross the placenta and reach a developing foetus. Much less is known about the toxicity of PCB metabolites than about the parent compounds. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of eight hydroxylated (OH) PCB congeners (2'-OH PCB 3, 4-OH PCB 14, 4-OH PCB 34, 4'-OH PCB 35, 4-OH PCB 36, 4'-OH PCB 36, 4-OH PCB 39, and 4'-OH PCB 68) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and cell viability in rat cerebellar granule cells. We found that, similar to their parent compounds, OH-PCBs are potent ROS inducers with potency 4-OH PCB 14 < 4-OH PCB 36 < 4-OH PCB 34 < 4'-OH PCB 36 < 4'-OH PCB 68 < 4-OH PCB 39 < 4'-OH PCB 35. 4-OH PCB 36 was the most potent cell death inducer, and caused apoptotic or necrotic morphology depending on concentration. Inhibition of ERK1/2 kinase with U0126 reduced both cell death and ROS formation, suggesting that ERK1/2 activation is involved in OH-PCB toxicity. The results indicate that the hydroxylation of PCBs may not constitute a detoxification reaction. Since OH-PCBs like their parent compounds are retained in the body and may be more widely distributed to sensitive tissues, it is important that not only the levels of the parent compounds but also the levels of their metabolites are taken into account during risk assessment of PCBs and related compounds.

  8. Calcium signalling and secretory epithelia.

    PubMed

    Petersen, O H

    2014-06-01

    Ca(2+) is now firmly established as the most important intracellular regulator of physiological and pathological events in a vast number of different cell types, including secretory epithelia. In these tissues, Ca(2+) signalling is crucially important for the control of both fluid secretion and electrolyte secretion as well as the regulation of macromolecule secretion. In this overview article, I shall attempt to give some general background to the concepts underlying our current thinking about Ca(2+) signalling in epithelia and its roles in regulating secretion. It is outside the scope of this review to provide a comprehensive account of Ca(2+) signalling and the many different processes in the many different secretory epithelia that are controlled by Ca(2+) signals. It is my aim to draw attention to some general features of Ca(2+) signalling processes in secretory epithelia, which are rather different from those in, for example, endocrine glands. The principal examples will be taken from studies of exocrine cells and, in particular, pancreatic acinar cells, as they are the pioneer cells with regard to investigations of Ca(2+) signalling due to primary intracellular Ca(2+) release. They also represent the cell type which has been characterized in most detail with regard to Ca(2+) transport events and mechanisms. PMID:24508392

  9. Pattern of rise in subplasma membrane Ca{sup 2+} concentration determines type of fusing insulin granules in pancreatic {beta} cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ohara-Imaizumi, Mica; Aoyagi, Kyota; Nakamichi, Yoko; Nishiwaki, Chiyono; Sakurai, Takashi; Nagamatsu, Shinya

    2009-07-31

    We simultaneously analyzed insulin granule fusion with insulin fused to green fluorescent protein and the subplasma membrane Ca{sup 2+} concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub PM}) with the Ca{sup 2+} indicator Fura Red in rat {beta} cells by dual-color total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. We found that rapid and marked elevation in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub PM} caused insulin granule fusion mostly from previously docked granules during the high KCl-evoked release and high glucose-evoked first phase release. In contrast, the slow and sustained elevation in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub PM} induced fusion from newcomers translocated from the internal pool during the low KCl-evoked release and glucose-evoked second phase release. These data suggest that the pattern of the [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub PM} rise directly determines the types of fusing granules.

  10. Preventing Effect of L-Type Calcium Channel Blockade on Electrophysiological Alterations in Dentate Gyrus Granule Cells Induced by Entorhinal Amyloid Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Pourbadie, Hamid Gholami; Naderi, Nima; Mehranfard, Nasrin; Janahmadi, Mahyar; Khodagholi, Fariba; Motamedi, Fereshteh

    2015-01-01

    The entorhinal cortex (EC) is one of the earliest affected brain regions in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). EC-amyloid pathology induces synaptic failure in the dentate gyrus (DG) with resultant behavioral impairment, but there is little known about its impact on neuronal properties in the DG. It is believed that calcium dyshomeostasis plays a pivotal role in the etiology of AD. Here, the effect of the EC amyloid pathogenesis on cellular properties of DG granule cells and also possible neuroprotective role of L-type calcium channel blockers (CCBs), nimodipine and isradipine, were investigated. The amyloid beta (A?) 1–42 was injected bilaterally into the EC of male rats and one week later, electrophysiological properties of DG granule cells were assessed. Voltage clamp recording revealed appearance of giant sIPSC in combination with a decrease in sEPSC frequency which was partially reversed by CCBs in granule cells from A? treated rats. EC amyloid pathogenesis induced a significant reduction of input resistance (Rin) accompanied by a profound decreased excitability in the DG granule cells. However, daily administration of CCBs, isradipine or nimodipine (i.c.v. for 6 days), almost preserved the normal excitability against A?. In conclusion, lower tendency to fire AP along with reduced Rin suggest that DG granule cells might undergo an alteration in the membrane ion channel activities which finally lead to the behavioral deficits observed in animal models and patients with early-stage Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:25689857

  11. Delayed Dendritic Development in Newly Generated Dentate Granule Cells by Cell-Autonomous Expression of the Amyloid Precursor Protein

    PubMed Central

    Castaño, Eduardo M.; Schinder, Alejandro F.

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal connectivity and synaptic remodeling are fundamental substrates for higher brain functions. Understanding their dynamics in the mammalian allocortex emerges as a critical step to tackle the cellular basis of cognitive decline that occurs during normal aging and in neurodegenerative disorders. In this work we have designed a novel approach to assess alterations in the dynamics of functional and structural connectivity elicited by chronic cell-autonomous overexpression of the human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP). We have taken advantage of the fact that the hippocampus continuously generates new dentate granule cells (GCs) to probe morphofunctional development of GCs expressing different variants of hAPP in a healthy background. hAPP was expressed together with a fluorescent reporter in neural progenitor cells of the dentate gyrus of juvenile mice by retroviral delivery. Neuronal progeny was analyzed several days post infection (dpi). Amyloidogenic cleavage products of hAPP such as the ?-C terminal fragment (?-CTF) induced a substantial reduction in glutamatergic connectivity at 21 dpi, at which time new GCs undergo active growth and synaptogenesis. Interestingly, this effect was transient, since the strength of glutamatergic inputs was normal by 35 dpi. This delay in glutamatergic synaptogenesis was paralleled by a decrease in dendritic length with no changes in spine density, consistent with a protracted dendritic development without alterations in synapse formation. Finally, similar defects in newborn GC development were observed by overexpression of ?-CTF, a non-amyloidogenic cleavage product of hAPP. These results indicate that hAPP can elicit protracted dendritic development independently of the amyloidogenic processing pathway. PMID:23851186

  12. Edinburgh Research Explorer Pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor stimulates the growth of rat

    E-print Network

    MacDonald, Andrew

    Edinburgh Research Explorer Pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor stimulates the growth of rat pancreatic carcinoma cells Citation for published version: Freeman, TC, Curry, BJ, Calam, J & Woodburn, JR 1990, 'Pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor stimulates the growth of rat pancreatic carcinoma cells

  13. Semi-quantitative monitoring of confluence of adherent mesenchymal stromal cells on calcium-phosphate granules by using widefield microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Piccinini, Filippo; Pierini, Michela; Lucarelli, Enrico; Bevilacqua, Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    The analysis of cell confluence and proliferation is essential to design biomaterials and scaffolds to use as bone substitutes in clinical applications. Accordingly, several approaches have been proposed in the literature to estimate the area of the scaffold covered by cells. Nevertheless, most of the approaches rely on sophisticated equipment not employed for routine analyses, while the rest of them usually do not provide significant statistics about the cell distribution. This research aims at studying confluence and proliferation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) adherent on OSPROLIFE(®), a commercial biomaterial in the form of granules. In particular, we propose a Computer Vision approach that can routinely be employed to monitor the surface of the single granules covered by cells because only a standard widefield fluorescent microscope is required. In order to acquire significant statistics data, we analyse wide-area images built by using MicroMos v2.0, an updated version of a previously published software specific for stitching brightfield and phase-contrast images manually acquired via a widefield microscope. In particular, MicroMos v2.0 permits to build accurate "mosaics" of fluorescent images, after correcting vignetting and photo-bleaching effects, providing a consistent representation of a sample region containing numerous granules. Then, our method allows to make automatically a statistically significant estimate of the percentage of the area of the single granules covered by cells. Finally, by analysing hundreds of granules at different time intervals we also obtained reliable data regarding cell proliferation, confirming that not only MSC adhere onto the OSPROLIFE(®) granules, but even proliferate over time. PMID:24863020

  14. ZD7288 Enhances Long-Term Depression at Early Postnatal Medial Perforant Path-Granule Cell Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Guli, Xiati; Tokay, Tursonjan; Rohde, Marco; Bender, Roland A.; Köhling, Rüdiger; Kirschstein, Timo

    2012-01-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated nonselective (HCN) channels modulate both membrane potential and resistance and play a significant role in synaptic plasticity. We compared the influence of HCN channels on long-term depression (LTD) at the medial perforant path-granule cell synapse in early postnatal (P9–15) and adult (P30–60) rats. LTD was elicited in P9–15 slices using low-frequency stimulation (LFS, 900 pulses, 1?Hz; 80 ± 4% of baseline). Application of the specific HCN channel blocker ZD7288 (10??M) before LFS significantly enhanced LTD (62 ± 4%; P < 0.01), showing HCN channels restrain LTD induction. However, when ZD7288 was applied after LFS, LTD was similar to control values and significantly different from the values obtained with ZD7288 application before LFS (81 ± 5%; P < 0.01), indicating that HCN channels do not modulate LTD expression. LTD in slices from adult rats were only marginally lower compared to those in P9–15 slices (85 ± 6%), but bath application of ZD7288 prior to LFS resulted in the same amount of LTD (85 ± 5%). HCN channels in adult tissue hence lose their modulatory effect. In conclusion, we found that HCN channels at the medial perforant path-granule cell synapse compromise LFS-associated induction, but not expression of LTD in early postnatal, but not in adult, rats. PMID:22792490

  15. Granule Associated Serine Proteases of Hematopoietic Cells – An Analysis of Their Appearance and Diversification during Vertebrate Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Akula, Srinivas; Thorpe, Michael; Boinapally, Vamsi; Hellman, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Serine proteases are among the most abundant granule constituents of several hematopoietic cell lineages including mast cells, neutrophils, cytotoxic T cells and NK cells. These proteases are stored in their active form in the cytoplasmic granules and in mammals are encoded from four different chromosomal loci: the chymase locus, the met-ase locus, the T cell tryptase and the mast cell tryptase locus. In order to study their appearance during vertebrate evolution we have performed a bioinformatic analysis of related genes and gene loci from a large panel of metazoan animals from sea urchins to placental mammals for three of these loci: the chymase, met-ase and granzyme A/K loci. Genes related to mammalian granzymes A and K were the most well conserved and could be traced as far back to cartilaginous fish. Here, the granzyme A and K genes were found in essentially the same chromosomal location from sharks to humans. However in sharks, no genes clearly identifiable as members of the chymase or met-ase loci were found. A selection of these genes seemed to appear with bony fish, but sometimes in other loci. Genes related to mammalian met-ase locus genes were found in bony fish. Here, the most well conserved member was complement factor D. However, genes distantly related to the neutrophil proteases were also identified in this locus in several bony fish species, indicating that this locus is also old and appeared at the base of bony fish. In fish, a few of the chymase locus-related genes were found in a locus with bordering genes other than the mammalian chymase locus and some were found in the fish met-ase locus. This indicates that a convergent evolution rather than divergent evolution has resulted in chymase locus-related genes in bony fish. PMID:26569620

  16. Quantitative determination of the intracellular fate of internalized plasma membrane in dissociated pituitary prolactin cells utilizing a radioiodinated cationic ferritin probe (CFI) and electron microscopic autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenzweig, L.J.; Kanwar, Y.S.

    1984-02-01

    Dissociated anterior pituitary cells derived from estrogen-treated female rats were incubated with radioiodinated cationic ferritin (CFI) for 2 min and subsequently in the absence of CFI for varying periods of time up to 3 hr in order to quantitate, using electron microscopic autoradiography, the distribution of retrieved plasma membrane in these cells. Following a 2-min incubation with CFI, autoradiographic grains were found to be associated almost exclusively with the plasma membrane. With increasing periods of incubation in the absence of CFI, grain-density analysis revealed increasing levels of CFI in multiple intracellular organelles. The levels of CFI were greatest for the lysosomes, intermediate for the mature secretory granules, and least for the Golgi cisternae and immature secretory granules. These findings are consistent with the idea that a portion of the retrieved plasma membrane is degraded in lysosomes and that the remainder is recycled to organelles comprising the secretory pathway to be reutilized in successive waves of the secretory cycle.

  17. Conditional deletion of ?-CaMKII impairs integration of adult-generated granule cells into dentate gyrus circuits and hippocampus-dependent learning.

    PubMed

    Arruda-Carvalho, Maithe; Restivo, Leonardo; Guskjolen, Axel; Epp, Jonathan R; Elgersma, Ype; Josselyn, Sheena A; Frankland, Paul W

    2014-09-01

    New granule cells are continuously integrated into hippocampal circuits throughout adulthood, and the fine-tuning of this process is likely important for efficient hippocampal function. During development, this integration process is critically regulated by the ?-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (?-CaMKII), and here we ask whether this role is conserved in the adult brain. To do this, we developed a transgenic strategy to conditionally delete ?-CaMKII from neural progenitor cells and their progeny in adult mice. First, we found that the selective deletion of ?-CaMKII from newly generated dentate granule cells led to an increase in dendritic complexity. Second, ?-CaMKII deletion led to a reduction in number of mature synapses and cell survival. Third, consistent with altered morphological and synaptic development, acquisition of one-trial contextual fear conditioning was impaired after deletion of ?-CaMKII from newly generated dentate granule cells. Previous work in Xenopus identified ?-CaMKII as playing a key role in the stabilization of dendritic and synaptic structure during development. The current study indicates that ?-CaMKII plays a plays a similar, cell-autonomous role in the adult hippocampus and, in addition, reveals that the loss of ?-CaMKII from adult-generated granule cells is associated with impaired hippocampus-dependent learning. PMID:25186740

  18. Theta-Gamma-Modulated Synaptic Currents in Hippocampal Granule Cells In Vivo Define a Mechanism for Network Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Pernía-Andrade, Alejandro Javier; Jonas, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Summary Theta-gamma network oscillations are thought to represent key reference signals for information processing in neuronal ensembles, but the underlying synaptic mechanisms remain unclear. To address this question, we performed whole-cell (WC) patch-clamp recordings from mature hippocampal granule cells (GCs) in vivo in the dentate gyrus of anesthetized and awake rats. GCs in vivo fired action potentials at low frequency, consistent with sparse coding in the dentate gyrus. GCs were exposed to barrages of fast AMPAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs), primarily relayed from the entorhinal cortex, and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs), presumably generated by local interneurons. EPSCs exhibited coherence with the field potential predominantly in the theta frequency band, whereas IPSCs showed coherence primarily in the gamma range. Action potentials in GCs were phase locked to network oscillations. Thus, theta-gamma-modulated synaptic currents may provide a framework for sparse temporal coding of information in the dentate gyrus. PMID:24333053

  19. Chymase in exocytosed rat mast cell granules effectively proteolyzes apolipoprotein AI-containing lipoproteins, so reducing the cholesterol efflux-inducing ability of serum and aortic intimal fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Lindstedt, L; Lee, M; Castro, G R; Fruchart, J C; Kovanen, P T

    1996-01-01

    Degranulated mast cells are present in human fatty streaks. Chymase in granules released from degranulated rat serosal mast cells, i.e., in granule remnants, proteolyzes human high density lipoprotein3 (HDL3), and so reduces its ability to induce cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells in vitro. In this study we found that remnant chymase, by proteolyzing human serum and human aortic intimal fluid, prevents these two physiologic fluids from effectively inducing cholesterol efflux from cultured macrophage foam cells. Inhibition was strongest when remnants were added to apolipoprotein AI (apoAI)-containing lipoproteins; the remnants had no effect on the weaker efflux produced by apoAI-deficient serum. Western blot analysis showed that granule remnants degrade apoAI in serum and in internal fluid. When released from remnants, chymase lost its ability to proteolyze HDL3 in the presence of serum. Thus, remnant chymase (but not isolated chymase) was able to resist the natural protease inhibitors present in serum and in intimal fluid. The results imply participation of exocytosed mast cell granules in foam cell formation in atherogenesis. PMID:8636396

  20. PTBP1 is required for glucose-stimulated cap-independent translation of insulin granule proteins and Coxsackieviruses in beta cells.

    PubMed

    Knoch, Klaus-Peter; Nath-Sain, Suchita; Petzold, Antje; Schneider, Hendryk; Beck, Mike; Wegbrod, Carolin; Sönmez, Anke; Münster, Carla; Friedrich, Anne; Roivainen, Merja; Solimena, Michele

    2014-08-01

    Glucose and GLP-1 stimulate not only insulin secretion, but also the post-transcriptional induction of insulin granule biogenesis. This process involves the nucleocytoplasmic translocation of the RNA binding protein PTBP1. Binding of PTBP1 to the 3'-UTRs of mRNAs for insulin and other cargoes of beta cell granules increases their stability. Here we show that glucose enhances also the binding of PTBP1 to the 5'-UTRs of these transcripts, which display IRES activity, and their translation exclusively in a cap-independent fashion. Accordingly, glucose-induced biosynthesis of granule cargoes was unaffected by pharmacological, genetic or Coxsackievirus-mediated inhibition of cap-dependent translation. Infection with Coxsackieviruses, which also depend on PTBP1 for their own cap-independent translation, reduced instead granule stores and insulin release. These findings provide insight into the mechanism for glucose-induction of insulin granule production and on how Coxsackieviruses, which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, can foster beta cell failure. PMID:25061557

  1. The chemotherapeutic drug boanmycin induces cell senescence and senescence-associated secretory phenotype factors, thus acquiring the potential to remodel the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; Guo, Hua; Chen, Jinliang; Fu, Yujie

    2016-02-01

    Boanmycin hydrochloride, a new antitumor agent, functions similarly to bleomycin, but has a shorter half-life and faster clearance in vivo. Therefore, it is used in clinical studies for lung squamous cell cancer. However, previous studies have shown that besides its antitumor effect, bleomycin also induces the generation of senescence fibroblasts, which secrete senescence-associated secretory phenotype factors that have protumorigenic potential, consequently altering the tumor microenvironment. Hence, it is critical to clarify boanmycin potential in remodeling the tumor microenvironment after the chemotherapy treatment of tumors. Bone is the favorite organ for lung cancer metastasis. Thus, in this study, lung fibroblasts and bone osteoblasts (OBs) were used to reflect the resident stromal cells in the primary lung and bone metastatic microenvironment, respectively. Lung fibroblasts (IMR90) and primary OBs were treated with 6.7??l/ml boanmycin or bleomycin for 24?h and MTT was monitored from day 1 to day 9; senescence-associated ?-galactosidase staining, which indicated the cell senescence, was performed on day 7; and well-established senescence-associated secretory phenotype factor interleukin-6 expression was detected on day 9. MTT data showed that boanmycin inhibited cell proliferation in both IMR90 and OBs. Moreover, senescence-associated ?-galactosidase staining showed that in response to boanmycin, there were 90% senescence cells in IMR90 and 95% in OBs. However, in vehicle, there were only 40 or 30% senescence cells, respectively. Furthermore, quantitative PCR data also showed that the interleukin-6 expression was highly induced by boanmycin to six-fold in OBs. Boanmycin treatment for cancer chemotherapy has the remodeling ability to alter the tumor microenvironment and might contribute toward lung cancer relapse and metastasis on long-term treatment. PMID:26460847

  2. SEC23B is required for the maintenance of murine professional secretory tissues.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jiayi; Zhu, Min; Wang, He; Afelik, Solomon; Vasievich, Matthew P; Chen, Xiao-Wei; Zhu, Guojing; Jensen, Jan; Ginsburg, David; Zhang, Bin

    2012-07-17

    In eukaryotic cells, newly synthesized secretory proteins require COPII (coat protein complex II) to exit the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). COPII contains five core components: SAR1, SEC23, SEC24, SEC13, and SEC31. SEC23 is a GTPase-activating protein that activates the SAR1 GTPase and also plays a role in cargo recognition. Missense mutations in the human COPII paralogues SEC23A and SEC23B result in craniolenticulosutural dysplasia and congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II, respectively. We now report that mice completely deficient for SEC23B are born with no apparent anemia phenotype, but die shortly after birth, with degeneration of professional secretory tissues. In SEC23B-deficient embryonic pancreas, defects occur in exocrine and endocrine tissues shortly after differentiation. Pancreatic acini are completely devoid of zymogen granules, and the ER is severely distended. Similar ultrastructural alterations are also observed in salivary glands, but not in liver. Accumulation of proteins in the ER lumen activates the proapoptotic pathway of the unfolded protein response, suggesting a central role for apoptosis in the degeneration of these tissues in SEC23B-deficient embryos. Although maintenance of the secretory pathway should be required by all cells, our findings reveal a surprising tissue-specific dependence on SEC23B for the ER exit of highly abundant cargo, with high levels of SEC23B expression observed in professional secretory tissues. The disparate phenotypes in mouse and human could result from residual SEC23B function associated with the hypomorphic mutations observed in humans, or alternatively, might be explained by a species-specific shift in function between the closely related SEC23 paralogues. PMID:22745161

  3. Amyloid ?-Mediated Zn2+ Influx into Dentate Granule Cells Transiently Induces a Short-Term Cognitive Deficit

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Atsushi; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Fujii, Hiroaki; Uematsu, Chihiro; Minamino, Tatsuya; Adlard, Paul A.; Bush, Ashley I.; Tamano, Haruna

    2014-01-01

    We examined an idea that short-term cognition is transiently affected by a state of confusion in Zn2+ transport system due to a local increase in amyloid-? (A?) concentration. A single injection of A? (25 pmol) into the dentate gyrus affected dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (LTP) 1 h after the injection, but not 4 h after the injection. Simultaneously, 1-h memory of object recognition was affected when the training was performed 1 h after the injection, but not 4 h after the injection. A?-mediated impairments of LTP and memory were rescued in the presence of zinc chelators, suggesting that Zn2+ is involved in A? action. When A? was injected into the dentate gyrus, intracellular Zn2+ levels were increased only in the injected area in the dentate gyrus, suggesting that A? induces the influx of Zn2+ into cells in the injected area. When A? was added to hippocampal slices, A? did not increase intracellular Zn2+ levels in the dentate granule cell layer in ACSF without Zn2+, but in ACSF containing Zn2+. The increase in intracellular Zn2+ levels was inhibited in the presence of CaEDTA, an extracellular zinc chelator, but not in the presence of CNQX, an AMPA receptor antagonist. The present study indicates that A?-mediated Zn2+ influx into dentate granule cells, which may occur without AMPA receptor activation, transiently induces a short-term cognitive deficit. Extracellular Zn2+ may play a key role for transiently A?-induced cognition deficits. PMID:25536033

  4. Effects of spaced learning in the water maze on development of dentate granule cells generated in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Trinchero, Mariela F; Koehl, Muriel; Bechakra, Malik; Delage, Pauline; Charrier, Vanessa; Grosjean, Noelle; Ladeveze, Elodie; Schinder, Alejandro F; Abrous, D Nora

    2015-11-01

    New dentate granule cells (GCs) are generated in the hippocampus throughout life. These adult-born neurons are required for spatial learning in the Morris water maze (MWM). In rats, spatial learning shapes the network by regulating their number and dendritic development. Here, we explored whether such modulatory effects exist in mice. New GCs were tagged using thymidine analogs or a GFP-expressing retrovirus. Animals were exposed to a reference memory protocol for 10-14 days (spaced training) at different times after newborn cells labeling. Cell proliferation, cell survival, cell death, neuronal phenotype, and dendritic and spine development were examined using immunohistochemistry. Surprisingly, spatial learning did not modify any of the parameters under scrutiny including cell number and dendritic morphology. These results suggest that although new GCs are required in mice for spatial learning in the MWM, they are, at least for the developmental intervals analyzed here, refractory to behavioral stimuli generated in the course of learning in the MWM. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25740272

  5. Delayed coupling to feedback inhibition during a critical period for the integration of adult-born granule cells.

    PubMed

    Temprana, Silvio G; Mongiat, Lucas A; Yang, Sung M; Trinchero, Mariela F; Alvarez, Diego D; Kropff, Emilio; Giacomini, Damiana; Beltramone, Natalia; Lanuza, Guillermo M; Schinder, Alejandro F

    2015-01-01

    Developing granule cells (GCs) of the adult dentate gyrus undergo a critical period of enhanced activity and synaptic plasticity before becoming mature. The impact of developing GCs on the activity of preexisting dentate circuits remains unknown. Here we combine optogenetics, acute slice electrophysiology, and in vivo chemogenetics to activate GCs at different stages of maturation to study the recruitment of local target networks. We show that immature (4-week-old) GCs can efficiently drive distal CA3 targets but poorly activate proximal interneurons responsible for feedback inhibition (FBI). As new GCs transition toward maturity, they reliably recruit GABAergic feedback loops that restrict spiking of neighbor GCs, a mechanism that would promote sparse coding. Such inhibitory loop impinges only weakly in new cohorts of young GCs. A computational model reveals that the delayed coupling of new GCs to FBI could be crucial to achieve a fine-grain representation of novel inputs in the dentate gyrus. PMID:25533485

  6. Restricted diffusion of calretinin in cerebellar granule cell dendrites implies Ca2+-dependent interactions via its EF-hand 5 domain

    PubMed Central

    Arendt, Oliver; Schwaller, Beat; Brown, Edward B; Eilers, Jens; Schmidt, Hartmut

    2013-01-01

    Ca2+-binding proteins (CaBPs) are important regulators of neuronal Ca2+ signalling, acting either as buffers that shape Ca2+ transients and Ca2+ diffusion and/or as Ca2+ sensors. The diffusional mobility represents a crucial functional parameter of CaBPs, describing their range-of-action and possible interactions with binding partners. Calretinin (CR) is a CaBP widely expressed in the nervous system with strong expression in cerebellar granule cells. It is involved in regulating excitability and synaptic transmission of granule cells, and its absence leads to impaired motor control. We quantified the diffusional mobility of dye-labelled CR in mouse granule cells using two-photon fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. We found that movement of macromolecules in granule cell dendrites was not well described by free Brownian diffusion and that CR diffused unexpectedly slow compared to fluorescein dextrans of comparable size. During bursts of action potentials, which were associated with dendritic Ca2+ transients, the mobility of CR was further reduced. Diffusion was significantly accelerated by a peptide embracing EF-hand 5 of CR. Our results suggest long-lasting, Ca2+-dependent interactions of CR with large and/or immobile binding partners. These interactions render CR a poorly mobile Ca2+ buffer and point towards a Ca2+ sensor function of CR. PMID:23732647

  7. The Journal of Neuroscience, October 1988, 8(10): 3869-3878 Control of Sensory Activation of Granule Cells in the Fascia Dentata

    E-print Network

    West, Mark O.

    , Robert E. Hampson, Mark 0. West, and Sam A. Deadwyler Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Bowman marked changes in the sequential dependence of the granule cell discharge com- pared with intact animals in the infra- and supragranularzones(Raisman, 1966;Mosko et al., 1973;Segaland Landis, 1974;Roseet al., 1976

  8. Arsenite-Activated JNK Signaling Enhances CPEB4-Vinexin Interaction to Facilitate Stress Granule Assembly and Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Wei; Huang, Yi-Shuian

    2014-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) are compartmentalized messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) where translationally repressed mRNAs are stored when cells encounter environmental stress. Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein (CPEB)4 is a sequence-specific RNA-binding protein and translational regulator. In keeping with the results obtained from the study of other RNA-binding proteins, we found CPEB4 localized in SGs in various arsenite-treated cells. In this study, we identified that Vinexin, a CPEB4-interacting protein, is a novel component of SGs. Vinexin is a SH3-domain-containing adaptor protein and affects cell migration through its association with Vinculin to localize at focal adhesions (FAs). Unexpectedly, Vinexin is translocated from FAs to SGs under arsenite-induced stress. The recruitment of Vinexin to SGs depends on its interaction with CPEB4 and influences SG formation and cell survival. Arsenite-activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling enhances the association between CPEB4 and Vinexin, which consequently facilitates SG localization of Vinexin. Taken together, this study uncovers a novel interaction between a translational regulator and an adaptor protein to influence SG assembly and cell survival. PMID:25237887

  9. Miniature IPSCs in Hippocampal Granule Cells Are Triggered by Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channels via Microdomain Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Sarit Pati; Bucurenciu, Iancu; Jonas, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The coupling between presynaptic Ca2+ channels and Ca2+ sensors of exocytosis is a key determinant of synaptic transmission. Evoked release from parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons is triggered by nanodomain coupling of P/Q-type Ca2+ channels, whereas release from cholecystokinin (CCK)-containing interneurons is generated by microdomain coupling of N-type channels. Nanodomain coupling has several functional advantages, including speed and efficacy of transmission. One potential disadvantage is that stochastic opening of presynaptic Ca2+ channels may trigger spontaneous transmitter release. We addressed this possibility in rat hippocampal granule cells, which receive converging inputs from different inhibitory sources. Both reduction of extracellular Ca2+ concentration and the unselective Ca2+ channel blocker Cd2+ reduced the frequency of miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) in granule cells by ~50%, suggesting that the opening of presynaptic Ca2+ channels contributes to spontaneous release. Application of the selective P/Q-type Ca2+ channelblocker ?-agatoxin IVa had no detectable effects, whereas both the N-type blocker ?-conotoxin GVIa and the L-type blocker nimodipine reduced mIPSC frequency. Furthermore, both the fast Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM and the slow chelator EGTA-AM reduced the mIPSC frequency, suggesting that Ca2+-dependent spontaneous release is triggered by microdomain rather than nanodomain coupling. The CB1 receptor agonist WIN 55212-2 also decreased spontaneous release; this effect was occluded by prior application of ?-conotoxin GVIa, suggesting that a major fraction of Ca2+-dependent spontaneous release was generated at the terminals of CCK-expressing interneurons. Tonic inhibition generated by spontaneous opening of presynaptic N- and L-type Ca2+ channels may be important for hippocampal information processing. PMID:23055500

  10. Ultrastructure of the rat duodenal endocrine cells after prolonged irradiation.

    PubMed

    Odintsova, E A; Kvetnoi, I M; Trofimov, A V; Tokarev, O Y; Yakovleva, N D

    2001-12-01

    We propose classification of duodenal endocrine cells of intact rats based on ultrastructural signs of secretory granules and subdivided these cells into 10 basic types. The effect of long-term irradiation in a total dose of 2.5 Gy on ultrastructural organization of duodenal apudocytes was studied. Irradiation induced nonspecific changes of cell organelles in apudocytes. Differences in the ultrastructural disorganization were detected between different types of apudocyte populations and between different types of endocrine cells. Under conditions of adaptation to radiation apudocytes released the secretory product not only through molecular extrusion and exocytosis, but also via degranulation. PMID:12152887

  11. Aligned neurite bundles of granule cells regulate orientation of Purkinje cell dendrites by perpendicular contact guidance in two-dimensional and three-dimensional mouse cerebellar cultures.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Isao; Ono, Katsuhiko; Kawana, Akio; Kimura-Kuroda, Junko

    2006-11-10

    To identify structures that determine the 90 degree orientation of thin espalier dendritic trees of Purkinje cells with respect to parallel fibers (axonal neurite bundles of granule cells) in the cerebellar cortex, we designed five types of two-dimensional and three-dimensional cell and tissue cultures of cerebella from postnatal mice and analyzed the orientation of Purkinje cell dendrites with respect to neurite bundles and astrocyte fibers by immunofluorescence double or triple staining. We cultured dissociated cerebellar cells on micropatterned substrates and preformed neurite bundles of a microexplant culture two-dimensionally and in matrix gels three-dimensionally. Dendrites, but not axons, of Purkinje cells extended toward the neurites of granule cells and oriented at right angles two-dimensionally to aligned neurite bundles in the three cultures. In a more organized explant proper of the microexplant culture, Purkinje cell dendrites extended toward thin aligned neurite bundles not only consistently at right angles but also two-dimensionally. However, in the "organotypic microexplant culture," in which three-dimensionally aligned thick neurite bundles mimicking parallel fibers were produced, Purkinje cell dendrites often oriented perpendicular to the thick bundles three-dimensionally. Astrocytes were abundant in all cultures, and there was no definite correlation between the presence of and orientation to Purkinje cell dendrites, although their fibers were frequently associated in parallel with dendrites in the organotypic microexplant culture. Therefore, Purkinje cells may grow their dendrites to the newly produced neurite bundles of parallel fibers in the cerebellar cortex and be oriented at right angles three-dimensionally mainly via "perpendicular contact guidance." PMID:16977618

  12. Actin depolymerisation and crosslinking join forces with myosin II to contract actin coats on fused secretory vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Miklavc, Pika; Ehinger, Konstantin; Sultan, Ayesha; Felder, Tatiana; Paul, Patrick; Gottschalk, Kay-Eberhard; Frick, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In many secretory cells actin and myosin are specifically recruited to the surface of secretory granules following their fusion with the plasma membrane. Actomyosin-dependent compression of fused granules is essential to promote active extrusion of cargo. However, little is known about molecular mechanisms regulating actin coat formation and contraction. Here, we provide a detailed kinetic analysis of the molecules regulating actin coat contraction on fused lamellar bodies in primary alveolar type II cells. We demonstrate that ROCK1 and myosin light chain kinase 1 (MLCK1, also known as MYLK) translocate to fused lamellar bodies and activate myosin II on actin coats. However, myosin II activity is not sufficient for efficient actin coat contraction. In addition, cofilin-1 and ?-actinin translocate to actin coats. ROCK1-dependent regulated actin depolymerisation by cofilin-1 in cooperation with actin crosslinking by ?-actinin is essential for complete coat contraction. In summary, our data suggest a complementary role for regulated actin depolymerisation and crosslinking, and myosin II activity, to contract actin coats and drive secretion. PMID:25637593

  13. Multi-method analysis of calcium localization in the secretory ameloblast

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenmann, D.R.; Ashrafi, S.; Zaki, A.E.

    1982-12-01

    X-ray micro-analysis and electron energy loss analysis were used to confirm cytochemical localization by potassium pyro-antimonate of calcium in secretory ameloblasts. Neither intercellular calcium concentration between ameloblasts nor over-all calcium levels of the enamel organ were lowered during a period of inhibition of enamel mineralization by injected fluoride. Calcium concentrations in mitochondria and secretory granules were reduced.

  14. Restricted distribution of mrg-1 mRNA in C. elegans primordial germ cells through germ granule-independent regulation.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Takashi; Takasaki, Teruaki; Inoue, Kunio; Sakamoto, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    The chromodomain protein MRG-1 is an essential maternal factor for proper germline development that protects germ cells from cell death in C. elegans. Unlike germ granules, which are exclusively segregated to the germline blastomeres at each cell division from the first cleavage of the embryo, MRG-1 is abundant in all cells in early embryos and is then gradually restricted to the primordial germ cells (PGCs) by the morphogenesis stage. Here, we show that this characteristic spatiotemporal expression pattern is dictated by the mrg-1 3'UTR and is differentially regulated at the RNA level between germline and somatic cells. Asymmetric segregation of germ granules is not necessary to localize MRG-1 to the PGCs. We found that MES-4, an essential chromatin regulator in germ cells, also accumulates in the PGCs in a germ granule-independent manner. We propose that C. elegans PGCs have a novel mechanism to accumulate at least some chromatin-associated proteins that are essential for germline immortality. PMID:26537333

  15. Molecular characterization of mouse lens epithelial cell lines and their suitability to study RNA granules and cataract associated genes.

    PubMed

    Terrell, Anne M; Anand, Deepti; Smith, Sylvie F; Dang, Christine A; Waters, Stephanie M; Pathania, Mallika; Beebe, David C; Lachke, Salil A

    2015-02-01

    The discovery of cytosolic RNA granule (RG) component proteins associated with human cataract has initiated investigations on post-transcriptional mechanisms of gene expression control in the lens. Application of established mouse lens epithelial cell lines (LECs) can provide rapid insights on RG function in lens cells, especially because mouse mutants in several RG components are not available. However, although these LECs represent potential reagents for such analyses, they are uncharacterized for lens gene expression or RG formation. Therefore, a detailed molecular and cellular characterization of three permanent mouse LECs 17EM15, 21EM15 and ?TN4 is performed in this study. Comparative analysis between microarray gene expression datasets on LEC 21EM15 and iSyTE lens tissue demonstrates that 30% of top 200 iSyTE identified lens-enriched genes are expressed in these cells. Majority of these candidates are independently validated to either have lens expression, function or linkage to cataract. Moreover, analysis of microarray data with genes described in Cat-Map, an online database of cataract associated genes and loci, demonstrates that 131 genes linked to cataract loci are expressed in 21EM15 cells. Furthermore, gene expression in LECs is compared to isolated lens epithelium or fiber cells by qRT-PCR and by comparative analyses with publically available epithelium or fiber-specific microarray and RNA-seq (sequencing) datasets. Expression of select candidate genes was validated by regular and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Expression of lens epithelium-enriched genes Foxe3, Pax6, Anxa4 and Mcm4 is up-regulated in LEC lines, compared to isolated lens fiber cells. Moreover, similar to isolated lens epithelium, all three LECs exhibit down-regulation of fiber cell-expressed genes Crybb1, Mip and Prox1 when compared to fiber cells. These data indicate that the LEC lines exhibit greater similarity to lens epithelium than to fiber cells. Compared to non-lens cell line NIH3T3, LECs exhibit significantly enriched expression of transcription factors with important function in the lens, namely Pax6, Foxe3 and Prox1. In addition to these genes, all three LECs also express key lens- and cataract-associated genes, namely Dkk3, Epha2, Hsf4, Jag1, Mab21l1, Meis1, Pknox1, Pou2f1, Sfrp1, Sparc, Tdrd7 and Trpm3. Additionally, 21EM15 microarrays indicate expression of Chmp4b, Cryab and Tcfap2a among others important genes. Immunostaining with makers for Processing bodies (P-bodies) and Stress granules (SGs) demonstrates that these classes of RGs are robustly expressed in all three LECs. Moreover, under conditions of stress, 17EM15 and ?TN4 exhibit significantly higher numbers of P-bodies and SGs compared to NIH3T3 cells. In sum, these data indicate that mouse LECs 21EM15, 17EM15 and ?TN4 express key lens or cataract genes, are similar to lens epithelium than fiber cells, and exhibit high levels of P-bodies and SGs, indicating their suitability for investigating gene expression control and RG function in lens-derived cells. PMID:25530357

  16. Neuroendocrine and Eosinophilic Granule Cells in the Gills of Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus: Effects of Waterborne Copper Exposure.

    PubMed

    Santos, Dércia; Falcão, Ana; Luzio, Ana; Fontaínhas-Fernandes, António; Monteiro, Sandra Mariza

    2015-11-01

    The contamination of aquatic ecosystems with copper (Cu) poses a serious threat to aquatic organisms. Although the histopathological changes caused by Cu in fish gills are well documented, knowledge about the impact of this metal in gill specific cell types, such as neuroendocrine cells (NECs) and eosinophilic granule cells (EGCs), is still limited. In the present work, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were exposed for 21 days to nominal concentrations of Cu (40 and 400 µg L(-1)). Stereological methods were used to estimate the volumetric density of both NECs and EGCs in fish gill filament after 3, 7, 14, and 21 days of exposure. The results showed that Cu significantly increased the relative volume of NECs, whereas the relative volume of EGCs decreased. NECs were more affected by Cu in the first 7 days of exposure, during which a greater increase in their relative volume was observed. The Cu exposure induced a progressive decrease in the relative volume of EGCs, which reached statistical significance after 14 days of exposure. An exception was observed in subepithelial EGCs with a slight increase in their relative volume after 3 days of exposure. Our findings confirm that Cu can modulate both neuroendocrine and immune systems and becomes immunotoxic after a prolonged exposure. PMID:26054594

  17. Boric acid induces cytoplasmic stress granule formation, eIF2? phosphorylation, and ATF4 in prostate DU-145 cells.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Kimberly A; Kobylewski, Sarah E; Yamada, Kristin E; Eckhert, Curtis D

    2015-02-01

    Dietary boron intake is associated with reduced prostate and lung cancer risk and increased bone mass. Boron is absorbed and circulated as boric acid (BA) and at physiological concentrations is a reversible competitive inhibitor of cyclic ADP ribose, the endogenous agonist of the ryanodine receptor calcium (Ca(+2)) channel, and lowers endoplasmic reticulum (ER) [Ca(2+)]. Low ER [Ca(2+)] has been reported to induce ER stress and activate the eIF2?/ATF4 pathway. Here we report that treatment of DU-145 prostate cells with physiological levels of BA induces ER stress with the formation of stress granules and mild activation of eIF2?, GRP78/BiP, and ATF4. Mild activation of eIF2? and its downstream transcription factor, ATF4, enables cells to reconfigure gene expression to manage stress conditions and mild activation of ATF4 is also required for the differentiation of osteoblast cells. Our results using physiological levels of boric acid identify the eIF2?/ATF pathway as a plausible mode of action that underpins the reported health effects of dietary boron. PMID:25425213

  18. ALS mutant FUS proteins are recruited into stress granules in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived motoneurons

    PubMed Central

    Lenzi, Jessica; De Santis, Riccardo; de Turris, Valeria; Morlando, Mariangela; Laneve, Pietro; Calvo, Andrea; Caliendo, Virginia; Chiò, Adriano; Rosa, Alessandro; Bozzoni, Irene

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide an opportunity to study human diseases mainly in those cases for which no suitable model systems are available. Here, we have taken advantage of in vitro iPSCs derived from patients affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and carrying mutations in the RNA-binding protein FUS to study the cellular behavior of the mutant proteins in the appropriate genetic background. Moreover, the ability to differentiate iPSCs into spinal cord neural cells provides an in vitro model mimicking the physiological conditions. iPSCs were derived from FUSR514S and FUSR521C patient fibroblasts, whereas in the case of the severe FUSP525L mutation, in which fibroblasts were not available, a heterozygous and a homozygous iPSC line were raised by TALEN-directed mutagenesis. We show that aberrant localization and recruitment of FUS into stress granules (SGs) is a prerogative of the FUS mutant proteins and occurs only upon induction of stress in both undifferentiated iPSCs and spinal cord neural cells. Moreover, we show that the incorporation into SGs is proportional to the amount of cytoplasmic FUS, strongly correlating with the cytoplasmic delocalization phenotype of the different mutants. Therefore, the available iPSCs represent a very powerful system for understanding the correlation between FUS mutations, the molecular mechanisms of SG formation and ALS ethiopathogenesis. PMID:26035390

  19. Rab27a and Rab27b are involved in stimulation-dependent RANKL release from secretory lysosomes in osteoblastic cells.

    PubMed

    Kariya, Yoshiaki; Honma, Masashi; Hanamura, Akiko; Aoki, Shigeki; Ninomiya, Tadashi; Nakamichi, Yuko; Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2011-04-01

    The quantity of the receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) expressed at the cell surface of osteoblastic cells is an important factor regulating osteoclast activation. Previously, RANKL was found to be localized to secretory lysosomes in osteoblastic cells and to translocate to the cell surface in response to stimulation with RANK-Fc-conjugated beads. However, the in vivo significance of stimulation-dependent RANKL release has not been elucidated. In this study we show that small GTPases Rab27a and Rab27b are involved in the stimulation-dependent RANKL release pathway in osteoblastic cells. Suppression of either Rab27a or Rab27b resulted in a marked reduction in RANKL release after stimulation. Slp4-a, Slp5, and Munc13-4 acted as effector molecules that coordinated Rab27a/b activity in this pathway. Suppression of Rab27a/b or these effector molecules did not inhibit accumulation of RANKL in lysosomal vesicles around the stimulated sites but did inhibit the fusion of these vesicles to the plasma membrane. In osteoblastic cells, suppression of the effector molecules resulted in reduced osteoclastogenic ability. Furthermore, Jinx mice, which lack a functional Munc13-4 gene, exhibited a phenotype characterized by increased bone volume near the tibial metaphysis caused by low bone resorptive activity. In conclusion, stimulation-dependent RANKL release is mediated by Rab27a/b and their effector molecules, and this mechanism may be important for osteoclast activation in vivo. PMID:20939018

  20. Activation of MAPK Is Required for ROS Generation and Exocytosis in HMC-1 Cells Induced by Trichomonas vaginalis-Derived Secretory Products

    PubMed Central

    Narantsogt, Giimaa; Min, Arim; Nam, Young Hee; Lee, Young Ah; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Agvaandaram, Gurbadam; Dorjsuren, Temuulen; El-Benna, Jamel; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan parasite that causes vaginitis and cervicitis in women and asymptomatic urethritis and prostatitis in men. Mast cells have been reported to be predominant in vaginal smears and vaginal walls of patients infected with T. vaginalis. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), activated by various stimuli, have been shown to regulate the transcriptional activity of various cytokine genes in mast cells. In this study, we investigated whether MAPK is involved in ROS generation and exocytotic degranulation in HMC-1 cells induced by T. vaginalis-derived secretory products (TvSP). We found that TvSP induces the activation of MAPK and NADPH oxidase in HMC-1 cells. Stimulation with TvSP induced phosphorylation of MAPK and p47phox in HMC-1 cells. Stimulation with TvSP also induced up-regulation of CD63, a marker for exocytosis, along the surfaces of human mast cells. Pretreatment with MAPK inhibitors strongly inhibited TvSP-induced ROS generation and exocytotic degranulation. Finally, our results suggest that TvSP induces intracellular ROS generation and exocytotic degranulation in HMC-1 via MAPK signaling. PMID:26537039

  1. Functional upregulation of the H2S/Cav3.2 channel pathway accelerates secretory function in neuroendocrine-differentiated human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fukami, Kazuki; Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Yasukawa, Miku; Asano, Erina; Kasamatsu, Ryuji; Ueda, Mai; Yoshida, Shigeru; Kawabata, Atsufumi

    2015-10-01

    Neuroendocrine-differentiated prostate cancer cells may contribute to androgen-independent proliferation of surrounding cells through Ca(2+)-dependent secretion of mitogenic factors. Human prostate cancer LNCaP cells, when neuroendocrine-differentiated, overexpress Cav3.2 T-type Ca(2+) channels that contribute to Ca(2+)-dependent secretion. Given evidence for the acceleration of Cav3.2 activity by hydrogen sulfide (H2S), we examined the roles of the H2S/Cav3.2 pathway and then analyzed the molecular mechanisms of the Cav3.2 overexpression in neuroendocrine-differentiated LNCaP cells. LNCaP cells were differentiated by dibutyryl cyclic AMP. Protein levels and T-type Ca(2+) channel-dependent currents (T-currents) were measured by immunoblotting and whole-cell pacth-clamp technique, respectively. Spontaneous release of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) was monitored to evaluate secretory function. The differentiated LNCaP cells exhibited neurite outgrowth, androgen-independent proliferation and upregulation of mitogenic factors, and also showed elevation of Cav3.2 expression or T-currents. Expression of cystathionine-?-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine-?-synthase (CBS), H2S-forming enzymes, and spontaneous secretion of PAP increased following the differentiation. The augmented T-currents were enhanced by H2S donors and suppressed by inhibitors of CSE, but not CBS. The PAP secretion was reduced by inhibition of CSE or T-type Ca(2+) channels. During differentiation, Egr-1 and REST, positive and negative transcriptional regulators for Cav3.2, were upregulated and downregulated, respectively, and Egr-1 knockdown prevented the Cav3.2 overexpression. Our data suggest that, in neuroendocrine-differentiated LNCaP cells, H2S formed by the upregulated CSE promotes the activity of the upregulated Cav3.2, leading to the elevated secretory functions. The overexpression of Cav3.2 appears to involve upregulation of Egr-1 and downregulation of REST. PMID:26256074

  2. Changes in cytoplasmic calcium determine the secretory response to extracellular cations in human parathyroid cells: a confocal microscopy study using FM1-43 dye.

    PubMed Central

    Mihai, R; Lai, T; Schofield, G J; Farndon, J R

    2000-01-01

    Whether activation of the calcium receptor (CaR) modulates secretory events was investigated by real-time fluorescence and confocal microscopy using fura 2 and FM1-43 fluorescent dye. Two paradigms were used: human parathyroid cells, which are stimulated by a step from a high to a low extracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](ext)), and rMTC6-23 cells, a rat medullary thyroid carcinoma cell line whose secretion is stimulated by an increase in [Ca(2+)](ext). Parathyroid cells were dispersed from parathyroid adenomas removed from 18 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. In both cell types, incubation with FM1-43 (2 microM) resulted in staining of the plasma membranes, which was rapidly increased following changes in [Ca(2+)](ext) known to stimulate secretion. A high [Ca(2+)](ext) and lanthanum (La(3+)) decreased the membrane-associated FM1-43 fluorescence. Prolonged incubation (5-30 min) in the presence of FM1-43 resulted in accumulation of the dye in the cytoplasm, its granular distribution suggesting targeting of the secretory compartment. These data suggest that FM1-43 fluorescence is determined by: (i) changes in cell membrane surface area associated with secretion-associated events, (ii) displacement/quenching by extracellular cations and (iii) endocytosis of the dye. In parathyroid cells, a rise in FM1-43 fluorescence occurred during incubation in a high (inhibitory) [Ca(2+)](ext) if the cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) was decreased by the calcium chelator BAPTA/AM [bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid tetrakis(acetoxymethyl ester)] (10-50 microM). Alternatively, the expected rise in FM1-43 fluorescence did not occur during incubation in a low (stimulatory) [Ca(2+)](ext) if [Ca(2+)](i) was increased by addition of the calcium ionophore A23187 (10-25 microM). These data suggest that [Ca(2+)](i), rather than the absolute value of [Ca(2+)](ext), is the main modulator of secretion from parathyroid cells. PMID:11085928

  3. A specific drug targeting system based on polyhydroxyalkanoate granule binding protein PhaP fused with targeted cell ligands.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yong-Chao; Zhan, Xiao-Yong; Zhang, Jing; Zou, Xiang-Hui; Wang, Zhi-Hui; Xiong, Yu-Cui; Chen, Jiong; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2008-12-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) is a family of intracellular biopolyesters produced by many bacteria. PHA granule binding protein PhaP is able to bind to hydrophobic polymers via strong hydrophobic interaction. A receptor-mediated drug delivery system was developed in this study based on PhaP. The system consists of PHA nanoparticles, PhaP and polypeptide or protein ligands fused to PhaP. The PHA nanoparticles were used to package mostly hydrophobic drugs; PhaP fused with ligands produced by over-expression of their corresponding genes in Pichia pastoris, or E. coli was able to attach to hydrophobic PHA nanoparticle. At the end, the ligands were able to pull the PhaP-PHA nanoparticles to the targeted cells with receptors recognized by the ligands. It was found in this study that the receptor-mediated drug specific delivery system ligand-PhaP-PHA nanoparticles were taken up by macrophages, hepatocellular carcinoma cell BEL7402 in vitro and liver, hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vivo, respectively, when the ligands were mannosylated human alpha1-acid glycoprotein (hAGP) and human epidermal growth factor (hEGF), respectively, which were able to bind to receptors of macrophages or hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The nanoparticle system was clearly visible in the targeted cells and organs (liver or tumor) under fluorescence microscopy when rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RBITC) was used as a delivery model drug due to the specific targeting effect created by specific ligand and receptor binding. The delivery system of hEGF-PhaP-nanoparticles carrying RBITC was found to be endocytosed by the tumor cells in tumorous model mice. Thus, the ligand-PhaP-PHA specific drug delivery system was proven effective both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:18824258

  4. Souffle/Spastizin controls secretory vesicle maturation during zebrafish oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kanagaraj, Palsamy; Gautier-Stein, Amandine; Riedel, Dietmar; Schomburg, Christoph; Cerdà, Joan; Vollack, Nadine; Dosch, Roland

    2014-06-01

    During oogenesis, the egg prepares for fertilization and early embryogenesis. As a consequence, vesicle transport is very active during vitellogenesis, and oocytes are an outstanding system to study regulators of membrane trafficking. Here, we combine zebrafish genetics and the oocyte model to identify the molecular lesion underlying the zebrafish souffle (suf) mutation. We demonstrate that suf encodes the homolog of the Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) gene SPASTIZIN (SPG15). We show that in zebrafish oocytes suf mutants accumulate Rab11b-positive vesicles, but trafficking of recycling endosomes is not affected. Instead, we detect Suf/Spastizin on cortical granules, which undergo regulated secretion. We demonstrate genetically that Suf is essential for granule maturation into secretion competent dense-core vesicles describing a novel role for Suf in vesicle maturation. Interestingly, in suf mutants immature, secretory precursors accumulate, because they fail to pinch-off Clathrin-coated buds. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of the abscission regulator Dynamin leads to an accumulation of immature secretory granules and mimics the suf phenotype. Our results identify a novel regulator of secretory vesicle formation in the zebrafish oocyte. In addition, we describe an uncharacterized cellular mechanism for Suf/Spastizin activity during secretion, which raises the possibility of novel therapeutic avenues for HSP research. PMID:24967841

  5. Influence of colchicine and vinblastine on the intracellular migration of secretory and membrane glycoproteins: I. Inhibition of glycoprotein migration in various rat cell types as shown by light microscope radioautography after injection of 3H-fucose

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, G.; Parsons, S.; Carlet, E.

    1984-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that colchicine and vinblastine inhibit secretion in many cell types by interrupting the normal intracellular migration of secretory products. In the present work, radioautography has been used to study the effects of these drugs on migration of membrane and secretory glycoproteins in a variety of cell types. Young (40 gm) rats were given a single intravenous injection of colchicine (4.0 mg) or vinblastine (2.0 mg). At 10 min after colchicine and 30 min after vinblastine administration, the rats were injected with 3H-fucose. Control rats received 3H-fucose only. All rats were sacrificed 90 min after 3H-fucose injection and their tissues processed for light microscope radioautography. Examination of secretory cell types such as ameloblasts and thyroid follicular cells in control animals revealed reactions of approximately equal intensity over the Golgi region and over extracellular secretion products, while in drug-treated rats most of the reaction was confined to the Golgi region. In a variety of other cell types, including endocrine cells (e.g., hepatocytes) and cells generally considered as nonsecretory (e.g., intestinal columnar cells), reaction in control animals occurred both over the Golgi region and over various portions of the cell surface. In drug-treated animals, a strong Golgi reaction was present, but reaction over the cell surface was weak or absent. These results indicate that in many cell types, colchicine and vinblastine inhibit migration out of the Golgi region not only of secretory glycoproteins, but also of membrane glycoproteins destined for the plasma membrane.

  6. Please cite this article in press as: Insausti, T.C., Casas, J., Turnover of pigment granules: Cyclic catabolism and anabolism of ommochromes within epidermal cells. Tissue Cell (2009), doi:10.1016/j.tice.2009.05.002

    E-print Network

    Giron, David - Institut de Recherche sur la Biologie de l'Insecte, Université François Rabelais

    2009-01-01

    : Cyclic catabolism and anabolism of ommochromes within epidermal cells. Tissue Cell (2009), doi:10.1016/j of pigment granules: Cyclic catabolism and anabolism of ommochromes within epidermal cells T.C. Insausti , J studied, the catabolism is totally unknown. In order to study it, we used the crab-spider Misumena vatia

  7. Different ataxin-3 amyloid aggregates induce intracellular Ca(2+) deregulation by different mechanisms in cerebellar granule cells.

    PubMed

    Pellistri, Francesca; Bucciantini, Monica; Invernizzi, Gaetano; Gatta, Elena; Penco, Amanda; Frana, Anna Maria; Nosi, Daniele; Relini, Annalisa; Regonesi, Maria Elena; Gliozzi, Alessandra; Tortora, Paolo; Robello, Mauro; Stefani, Massimo

    2013-12-01

    This work aims at elucidating the relation between morphological and physicochemical properties of different ataxin-3 (ATX3) aggregates and their cytotoxicity. We investigated a non-pathological ATX3 form (ATX3Q24), a pathological expanded form (ATX3Q55), and an ATX3 variant truncated at residue 291 lacking the polyQ expansion (ATX3/291?). Solubility, morphology and hydrophobic exposure of oligomeric aggregates were characterized. Then we monitored the changes in the intracellular Ca(2+) levels and the abnormal Ca(2+) signaling resulting from aggregate interaction with cultured rat cerebellar granule cells. ATX3Q55, ATX3/291? and, to a lesser extent, ATX3Q24 oligomers displayed similar morphological and physicochemical features and induced qualitatively comparable time-dependent intracellular Ca(2+) responses. However, only the pre-fibrillar aggregates of expanded ATX3 (the only variant which forms bundles of mature fibrils) triggered a characteristic Ca(2+) response at a later stage that correlated with a larger hydrophobic exposure relative to the two other variants. Cell interaction with early oligomers involved glutamatergic receptors, voltage-gated channels and monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GM1)-rich membrane domains, whereas cell interaction with more aged ATX3Q55 pre-fibrillar aggregates resulted in membrane disassembly by a mechanism involving only GM1-rich areas. Exposure to ATX3Q55 and ATX3/291? aggregates resulted in cell apoptosis, while ATX3Q24 was substantially innocuous. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms of ATX3 aggregation, aggregate cytotoxicity and calcium level modifications in exposed cerebellar cells. PMID:24035922

  8. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor 1 and 2 mediate homeostatic synaptic plasticity of denervated mouse dentate granule cells

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Denise; Deller, Thomas; Vlachos, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Neurological diseases are often accompanied by neuronal cell death and subsequent deafferentation of connected brain regions. To study functional changes after denervation we generated entorhino-hippocampal slice cultures, transected the entorhinal pathway, and denervated dentate granule cells in vitro. Our previous work revealed that partially denervated neurons respond to the loss of input with a compensatory, i.e., homeostatic, increase in their excitatory synaptic strength. TNF? maintains this denervation-induced homeostatic strengthening of excitatory synapses. Here, we used pharmacological approaches and mouse genetics to assess the role of TNF-receptor 1 and 2 in lesion-induced excitatory synaptic strengthening. Our experiments disclose that both TNF-receptors are involved in the regulation of denervation-induced synaptic plasticity. In line with this result TNF-receptor 1 and 2 mRNA-levels were upregulated after deafferentation in vitro. These findings implicate TNF-receptor signaling cascades in the regulation of homeostatic plasticity of denervated networks and suggest an important role for TNF?-signaling in the course of neurological diseases accompanied by deafferentation. PMID:26246237

  9. Osteopontin is a myosphere-derived secretory molecule that promotes angiogenic progenitor cell proliferation through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ogata, Takehiro; Ueyama, Tomomi . E-mail: tueyama@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Nomura, Tetsuya; Asada, Satoshi; Tagawa, Masashi; Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Tomosaburo; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Oh, Hidemasa . E-mail: hidemasa@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2007-07-27

    We have reported that skeletal myosphere-derived progenitor cells (MDPCs) can differentiate into vascular cells, and that MDPC transplantation into cardiomyopathic hearts improves cardiac function. However, the autocrine/paracrine molecules and underlying mechanisms responsible for MDPC growth have not yet been determined. To explore the molecules enhancing the proliferation of MDPCs, we performed serial analysis of gene expression and signal sequence trap methods using RNA isolated from MDPCs. We identified osteopontin (OPN), a secretory molecule, as one of most abundant molecules expressed in MDPCs. OPN provided a proliferative effect for MDPCs. MDPCs treated with OPN showed Akt activation, and inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway repressed the proliferative effect of OPN. Furthermore, OPN-pretreated MDPCs maintained their differentiation potential into endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. These findings indicate an important role of OPN as an autocrine/paracrine molecule in regulating the proliferative growth of muscle-derived angiogenic progenitor cells via the PI3K/Akt pathway.

  10. Inhibition of secretory activity of atrial myocytes in hypertensive rats after losartan treatment.

    PubMed

    Maksimov, V F; Korostyshevskaya, I M; Markel', A L; Yakobson, G S; Rudenko, N S

    2015-01-01

    Male ISIAH rats with inherited stress-induced arterial hypertension (BP 174.0 ± 1.3 mm Hg) received antagonist of angiotensin II receptors losartan in a dose of 10 mg/kg/day for 16 days. Ultrastructural study of the right atrium showed signs of dramatic and pronounced inhibition of synthesis of the natriuretic peptides (changes in the composition of secretory granules and decrease in their population density and size) the atrial myocytes against the background of persistent BP decrease in hypertensive rats to 142.0 ± 4.2 mm Hg. We concluded that myoendocrine cells in rats with stable hypertension retain ability to respond adequately to distention of the atria with blood. PMID:25573355

  11. Type IV Collagen Controls the Axogenesis of Cerebellar Granule Cells by Regulating Basement Membrane Integrity in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Miki; Yamaguchi, Shingo; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Kakiguchi, Kisa; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Shimizu, Takashi; Hibi, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Granule cells (GCs) are the major glutamatergic neurons in the cerebellum, and GC axon formation is an initial step in establishing functional cerebellar circuits. In the zebrafish cerebellum, GCs can be classified into rostromedial and caudolateral groups, according to the locations of their somata in the corresponding cerebellar lobes. The axons of the GCs in the caudolateral lobes terminate on crest cells in the dorsal hindbrain, as well as forming en passant synapses with Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. In the zebrafish mutant shiomaneki, the caudolateral GCs extend aberrant axons. Positional cloning revealed that the shiomaneki (sio) gene locus encodes Col4a6, a subunit of type IV collagen, which, in a complex with Col4a5, is a basement membrane (BM) component. Both col4a5 and col4a6 mutants displayed similar abnormalities in the axogenesis of GCs and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Although type IV collagen is reported to control axon targeting by regulating the concentration gradient of an axonal guidance molecule Slit, Slit overexpression did not affect the GC axons. The structure of the BM surrounding the tectum and dorsal hindbrain was disorganized in the col4a5 and col4a6 mutants. Moreover, the abnormal axogenesis of the caudolateral GCs and the RGCs was coupled with aberrant BM structures in the type IV collagen mutants. The regrowth of GC axons after experimental ablation revealed that the original and newly formed axons displayed similar branching and extension abnormalities in the col4a6 mutants. These results collectively suggest that type IV collagen controls GC axon formation by regulating the integrity of the BM, which provides axons with the correct path to their targets. PMID:26451951

  12. Evolution of apicomplexan secretory organelles

    PubMed Central

    Gubbels, Marc-Jan; Duraisingh, Manoj T.

    2013-01-01

    The alveolate superphylum includes many free-living and parasitic organisms, which are united by the presence of alveolar sacs lying proximal to the plasma membrane, providing cell structure. All species comprising the apicomplexan group of alveolates are parasites and have adapted to the unique requirements of the parasitic lifestyle. Here the evolution of apicomplexan secretory organelles that are involved in the critical process of egress from one cell and invasion of another is explored. The variations within the Apicomplexa and how these relate to species-specific biology will be discussed. In addition, recent studies have identified specific calcium-sensitive molecules that coordinate the various events and regulate the release of these secretory organelles within apicomplexan parasites. Some aspects of this machinery are conserved outside the Apicomplexa, and are beginning to elucidate the conserved nature of the machinery. Briefly, the relationship of this secretion machinery within the Apicomplexa will be discussed, compared with free-living and predatory alveolates, and how these might have evolved from a common ancestor. PMID:23068912

  13. Kistrin, an integrin antagonist, blocks endocytosis of fibrinogen into guinea pig megakaryocyte and platelet alpha-granules.

    PubMed Central

    Handagama, P; Bainton, D F; Jacques, Y; Conn, M T; Lazarus, R A; Shuman, M A

    1993-01-01

    Recent data indicate that megakaryocyte/platelet alpha-granule fibrinogen is endocytosed from plasma. Because fibrinogen is the major platelet protein present in high concentrations in alpha-granules, fibrinogen uptake into alpha-granules may occur via specific receptors. In that cells of the megakaryocyte/platelet lineage contain two integrins--alpha IIb beta 3 (GP IIb-IIIa) and the vitronectin receptor (alpha v beta 3)--that can bind fibrinogen, one or both of these receptors may mediate the endocytic uptake of fibrinogen. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of Kistrin, an RGD-containing protein purified from the venom of Agkistrodon rhodostoma that inhibits fibrinogen binding to human platelet receptors, on endocytosis of fibrinogen by megakaryocytes and platelets. Continuous intravenous infusion of kistrin into guinea pigs (200 micrograms/h) over a 24-h period inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation. When biotinylated fibrinogen was injected intravenously into animals receiving Kistrin, megakaryocytes failed to endocytose the labeled fibrinogen. Endocytosis of fibrinogen into platelets was also inhibited in these animals. In contrast, platelets and megakaryocytes obtained from sham-infused control animals contained the injected biotinylated fibrinogen. We conclude that, in addition to the well-known extracellular function of cell adhesion, integrins can also act as receptors that mediate endocytosis of exogenous proteins and incorporate them into regulated secretory granules. Images PMID:8423218

  14. A realistic bi-hemispheric model of the cerebellum uncovers the purpose of the abundant granule cells during motor control.

    PubMed

    Pinzon-Morales, Ruben-Dario; Hirata, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    The cerebellar granule cells (GCs) have been proposed to perform lossless, adaptive spatio-temporal coding of incoming sensory/motor information required by downstream cerebellar circuits to support motor learning, motor coordination, and cognition. Here we use a physio-anatomically inspired bi-hemispheric cerebellar neuronal network (biCNN) to selectively enable/disable the output of GCs and evaluate the behavioral and neural consequences during three different control scenarios. The control scenarios are a simple direct current motor (1 degree of freedom: DOF), an unstable two-wheel balancing robot (2 DOFs), and a simulation model of a quadcopter (6 DOFs). Results showed that adequate control was maintained with a relatively small number of GCs (< 200) in all the control scenarios. However, the minimum number of GCs required to successfully govern each control plant increased with their complexity (i.e., DOFs). It was also shown that increasing the number of GCs resulted in higher robustness against changes in the initialization parameters of the biCNN model (i.e., synaptic connections and synaptic weights). Therefore, we suggest that the abundant GCs in the cerebellar cortex provide the computational power during the large repertoire of motor activities and motor plants the cerebellum is involved with, and bring robustness against changes in the cerebellar microcircuit (e.g., neuronal connections). PMID:25983678

  15. Correlation between calbindin expression in granule cells of the resected hippocampal dentate gyrus and verbal memory in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Karádi, Kázmér; Janszky, József; Gyimesi, Csilla; Horváth, Zsolt; Lucza, Tivadar; Dóczi, Tamás; Kállai, János; Abrahám, Hajnalka

    2012-09-01

    Calbindin expression of granule cells of the dentate gyrus is decreased in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) regardless of its etiology. In this study, we examined the relation between reduction of calbindin immunoreactivity and the verbal and visuo-spatial memory function of patients with TLE of different etiologies. Significant linear correlation was shown between calbindin expression and short-term and long-term percent retention and retroactive interference in auditory verbal learning test (AVLT) of patients including those with hippocampal sclerosis. In addition, we found significant linear regression between calbindin expression and short-term and long-term percent retention of AVLT in patients whose epilepsy was caused by malformation of cortical development or tumor and when no hippocampal sclerosis and substantial neuronal loss were detected. Together with the role of calbindin in memory established in previous studies on calbindin knock-out mice, our results suggest that reduction of calbindin expression may contribute to memory impairments of patients with TLE, particularly, when neuronal loss is not significant. PMID:22796338

  16. A realistic bi-hemispheric model of the cerebellum uncovers the purpose of the abundant granule cells during motor control

    PubMed Central

    Pinzon-Morales, Ruben-Dario; Hirata, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    The cerebellar granule cells (GCs) have been proposed to perform lossless, adaptive spatio-temporal coding of incoming sensory/motor information required by downstream cerebellar circuits to support motor learning, motor coordination, and cognition. Here we use a physio-anatomically inspired bi-hemispheric cerebellar neuronal network (biCNN) to selectively enable/disable the output of GCs and evaluate the behavioral and neural consequences during three different control scenarios. The control scenarios are a simple direct current motor (1 degree of freedom: DOF), an unstable two-wheel balancing robot (2 DOFs), and a simulation model of a quadcopter (6 DOFs). Results showed that adequate control was maintained with a relatively small number of GCs (< 200) in all the control scenarios. However, the minimum number of GCs required to successfully govern each control plant increased with their complexity (i.e., DOFs). It was also shown that increasing the number of GCs resulted in higher robustness against changes in the initialization parameters of the biCNN model (i.e., synaptic connections and synaptic weights). Therefore, we suggest that the abundant GCs in the cerebellar cortex provide the computational power during the large repertoire of motor activities and motor plants the cerebellum is involved with, and bring robustness against changes in the cerebellar microcircuit (e.g., neuronal connections). PMID:25983678

  17. 5-HT1A receptors on mature dentate gyrus granule cells are critical for the antidepressant response.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Benjamin Adam; Anacker, Christoph; Hu, Alice; Levinstein, Marjorie R; Pickenhagen, Anouchka; Tsetsenis, Theodore; Madroñal, Noelia; Donaldson, Zoe R; Drew, Liam John; Dranovsky, Alex; Gross, Cornelius T; Tanaka, Kenji F; Hen, René

    2015-11-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely used antidepressants, but the mechanisms by which they influence behavior are only partially resolved. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is necessary for some of the responses to SSRIs, but it is not known whether mature dentate gyrus granule cells (DG GCs) also contribute. We deleted the serotonin 1A receptor (5HT1AR, a receptor required for the SSRI response) specifically from DG GCs and found that the effects of the SSRI fluoxetine on behavior and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis were abolished. By contrast, mice lacking 5HT1ARs only in young adult-born GCs (abGCs) showed normal fluoxetine responses. Notably, 5HT1AR-deficient mice engineered to express functional 5HT1ARs only in DG GCs responded to fluoxetine, indicating that 5HT1ARs in DG GCs are sufficient to mediate an antidepressant response. Taken together, these data indicate that both mature DG GCs and young abGCs must be engaged for an antidepressant response. PMID:26389840

  18. Respiratory Modulation of Spontaneous Subthreshold Synaptic Activity in Olfactory Bulb Granule Cells Recorded in Awake, Head-Fixed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Youngstrom, Isaac A.

    2015-01-01

    Although the firing patterns of principal neurons in the olfactory bulb are known to be modulated strongly by respiration even under basal conditions, less is known about whether inhibitory local circuit activity in the olfactory bulb (OB) is modulated phasically. The diverse phase preferences of principal neurons in the OB and olfactory cortex that innervate granule cells (GCs) may interfere and prevent robust respiratory coupling, as suggested by recent findings. Using whole-cell recording, we examined the spontaneous, subthreshold membrane potential of GCs in the OBs of awake head-fixed mice. We found that, during periods of basal respiration, the synaptic input to GCs was strongly phase modulated, leading to a phase preference in the average, cycle-normalized membrane potential. Subthreshold phase tuning was heterogeneous in both mitral and tufted cells (MTCs) and GCs but relatively constant within each GC during periods of increased respiratory frequency. The timing of individual EPSPs in GC recordings also was phase modulated with the phase preference imparted by large-amplitude EPSPs, with fast kinetics often matching the phase tuning of the average membrane potential. These results suggest that activity in a subset of excitatory afferents to GCs, presumably including cortical feedback projections and other sources of large-amplitude unitary EPSPs, function to provide a timing signal linked to respiration. The phase preference we find in the membrane potential may provide a mechanism to dynamically modulate recurrent and lateral dendrodendritic inhibition of MTCs and to selective engage a subpopulation of interneurons based on the alignment of their phase tuning relative to sensory-driven MTC discharges. PMID:26063910

  19. Fast freeze-fixation/freeze-substitution reveals the secretory membranes of the gastric parietal cell as a network of helically coiled tubule. A new model for parietal cell transformation.

    PubMed

    Pettitt, J M; Humphris, D C; Barrett, S P; Toh, B H; van Driel, I R; Gleeson, P A

    1995-03-01

    The parietal cell of the gastric mucosa undergoes rapid morphological transformation when it is stimulated to produce hydrochloric acid. In chemically fixed cells, this process is seen as a reduction in number of cytoplasmic 'tubulovesicles' as the apical surface of the cell progressively invaginates to increase the secretory surface area. It is widely believed that the tubulovesicles represent stored secretory membrane in the cytoplasm of the unstimulated cell, which is incorporated into the apical membrane upon stimulation, because they share H+,K+-ATPase activity with the apical membrane. However, fusion of tubulovesicles with the apical membrane concomitant with parietal cell activation has never been convincingly demonstrated. We have used fast freeze-fixation and freeze-substitution to study stages of morphological transformation in these cells. Tubulovesicles were not seen in the cytoplasm of any of our cryoprepared cells. Instead, the cytoplasm of the unstimulated cell contained numerous and densely packed helical coils of tubule, each having an axial core of cytoplasm. The helical coils were linked together by connecting tubules, lengths of relatively straight tubule. Lengths of straight connecting tubule also extended from coils lying adjacent to the apical and canalicular surfaces and ended at the apical and canaliculus membranes. Immunogold labelling with alpha- and beta-subunit-specific antibodies showed that the gastric H+,K+-ATPase was localized to the membranes of this tubular system, which therefore represented the configuration of the secretory membrane in the cytoplasm of the unstimulated parietal cell. Stimulation of the cells with histamine and isobutylmethylxanthine lead to modification of the tubular membrane system, correlated with progressive invagination of the apical membrane. The volume of the tubule lumen increased and, as this occurred, the tight spiral twist of the helical coils was lost, indicating that tubule distension was accounted for by partial unwinding. This exposed the cores of cytoplasm in the axes of the coils as rod-shaped elements of a three-dimensional reticulum, resembling a series of microvilli in random thin sections. Conversely, treatment with the H2 antagonist cimetidine caused severe contraction of the tubular membrane system and intracellular canaliculi. Our results indicate that tubulovesicles are an artifact of chemical fixation; consequently, they cannot have a role in parietal cell transformation. From our findings we propose an alternative model for morphological transformation in the parietal cell. This model predicts cytoskeleton-mediated control over expansion and contraction of the tubular membrane network revealed by cryopreparation. The model is compatible with the localization of cytoskeletal components in these cells. PMID:7622599

  20. COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF TWO POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENERS ON CALCIUM HOMEOSTASIS IN RAT CEREBELLAR GRANULE CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been reported to alter locomotor activity and decrease brain dopamine function in laboratory animals. CBs with orth- and/or para-chlorine substitutions are reportedly most potent in decreasing cell dopamine content in vitro and were dete...

  1. Hookworm Excretory/Secretory Products Induce Interleukin-4 (IL-4)+ IL-10+ CD4+ T Cell Responses and Suppress Pathology in a Mouse Model of Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ivana; Smyth, Danielle; Gaze, Soraya; Aziz, Ammar; Giacomin, Paul; Ruyssers, Nathalie; Artis, David; Laha, Thewarach; Navarro, Severine; McSorley, Henry J.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from human studies and mouse models shows that infection with parasitic helminths has a suppressive effect on the pathogenesis of some inflammatory diseases. Recently, we and others have shown that some of the suppressive effects of hookworms reside in their excretory/secretory (ES) products. Here, we demonstrate that ES products of the hookworm Ancylostoma caninum (AcES) suppress intestinal pathology in a model of chemically induced colitis. This suppression was associated with potent induction of a type 2 cytokine response characterized by coexpression of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-10 by CD4+ T cells, downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine expression in the draining lymph nodes and the colon, and recruitment of alternatively activated (M2) macrophages and eosinophils to the site of ES administration. Protease digestion and heat denaturation of AcES resulted in impaired induction of CD4+ IL-4+ IL-10+ cell responses and diminished ability to suppress colitis, indicating that protein component(s) are responsible for some of the immunosuppressive effects of AcES. Identification of the specific parasite-derived molecules responsible for reducing pathology during chemically induced colitis could lead to the development of novel therapeutics for the treatment of human inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:23545299

  2. The secretory pathway kinases.

    PubMed

    Sreelatha, Anju; Kinch, Lisa N; Tagliabracci, Vincent S

    2015-10-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a nearly universal post-translation modification involved in a plethora of cellular events. Even though phosphorylation of extracellular proteins had been observed, the identity of the kinases that phosphorylate secreted proteins remained a mystery until only recently. Advances in genome sequencing and genetic studies have paved the way for the discovery of a new class of kinases that localize within the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and the extracellular space. These novel kinases phosphorylate proteins and proteoglycans in the secretory pathway and appear to regulate various extracellular processes. Mutations in these kinases cause human disease, thus underscoring the biological importance of phosphorylation within the secretory pathway. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Inhibitors of Protein Kinases. PMID:25862977

  3. Cerebellar GABAergic progenitors adopt an external granule cell-like phenotype in the absence of Ptf1a transcription factor expression.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Marta; Abasolo, Ibane; Mingorance-Le Meur, Ana; Martínez, Albert; Del Rio, José A; Wright, Christopher V E; Real, Francisco X; Soriano, Eduardo

    2007-03-20

    We report in this study that, in the cerebellum, the pancreatic transcription factor Ptf1a is required for the specific generation of Purkinje cells (PCs) and interneurons. Moreover, granule cell progenitors in the external GCL (EGL) appear to be unaffected by deletion of Ptf1a. Cell lineage analysis in Ptf1a(Cre/Cre) mice was used to establish that, in the absence of Ptf1a expression, ventricular zone progenitors, normally fated to produce PCs and interneurons, aberrantly migrate to the EGL and express typical markers of these cells, such as Math1, Reelin, and Zic1/2. Furthermore, these cells have a fine structure typical of EGL progenitors, indicating that they adopt an EGL-like cell phenotype. These findings indicate that Ptf1a is necessary for the specification and normal production of PCs and cerebellar interneurons. Moreover, our results suggest that Ptf1a is also required for the suppression of the granule cell specification program in cerebellar ventricular zone precursors. PMID:17360405

  4. Biophysical Journal Volume 67 December 1994 2546-2557 Kinetics of the Secretory Response in Bovine Chromaffin Cells Following

    E-print Network

    Zucker, Robert S.

    Chromaffin Cells Following Flash Photolysis of Caged Ca2+ Christian Heinemann,* Robert H. Chow,* Erwin Neher chromaffin cells, Neher and Zucker (1993) combined flash photolysis ofcaged Ca21 com- pounds to achieve rapid and Neher, 1988). Electrical capacitance mea- surements give a readout of the cell membrane surface area

  5. Molecular Characterization of Severin from Clonorchis sinensis Excretory/Secretory Products and Its Potential Anti-apoptotic Role in Hepatocarcinoma PLC Cells

    PubMed Central

    He, Lei; Wang, Xiaoyun; Liang, Pei; Chen, Wenjun; Bian, Meng; Ren, Mengyu; Lin, Jinsi; Liang, Chi; Xu, Jin; Wu, Zhongdao; Li, Xuerong; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

    2013-01-01

    Background Clonorchiasis, caused by the infection of Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis), is a kind of neglected tropical disease, but it is highly related to cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It has been well known that the excretory/secretory products of C. sinensis (CsESPs) play key roles in clonorchiasis associated carcinoma. From genome and transcriptome of C. sinensis, we identified one component of CsESPs, severin (Csseverin), which had three putative gelsolin domains. Its homologues are supposed to play a vital role in apoptosis resistance of tumour cell. Methodology/Principal Findings There was significant similarity in tertiary structures between human gelsolin and Csseverin by bioinformatics analysis. We identified that Csseverin expressed at life stage of adult worm, metacercaria and egg by the method of quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting. Csseverin distributed in vitellarium and intrauterine eggs of adult worm and tegument of metacercaria by immunofluorence assay. We obtained recombinant Csseverin (rCsseverin) and confirmed that rCsseverin could bind with calciumion in circular dichroism spectrum analysis. It was demonstrated that rCsseverin was of the capability of actin binding by gel overlay assay and immunocytochemistry. Both Annexin V/PI assay and mitochondrial membrane potential assay of human hepatocarcinoma cell line PLC showed apoptosis resistance after incubation with different concentrations of rCsseverin. Morphological analysis, apoptosis-associated changes of mitochondrial membrane potential and Annexin V/PI apoptosis assay showed that co-incubation of PLC cells with rCsseverin in vitro led to an inhibition of apoptosis induced by serum-starved for 24 h. Conclusions/Significance Collectively, the molecular properties of Csseverin, a molecule of CsESPs, were characterized in our study. rCsseverin could cause obvious apoptotic inhibition in human HCC cell line. Csseverin might exacerbate the process of HCC patients combined with C. sinensis infection. PMID:24367717

  6. Effect of neurotrophin-3 precursor on glutamate-induced calcium homeostasis deregulation in rat cerebellum granule cells.

    PubMed

    Safina, Dina R; Surin, Alexander M; Pinelis, Vsevolod G; Kostrov, Sergey V

    2015-12-01

    Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) belongs to the family of highly conserved dimeric growth factors that controls the differentiation and activity of various neuronal populations. Mammals contain both the mature (NT-3) and the precursor (pro-NT-3) forms of neurotrophin. Members of the neurotrophin family are involved in the regulation of calcium homeostasis in neurons; however, the role of NT-3 and pro-NT-3 in this process remains unclear. The current study explores the effects of NT-3 and pro-NT-3 on disturbed calcium homeostasis and decline of mitochondrial potential induced by a neurotoxic concentration of glutamate (Glu; 100 µM) in the primary culture of rat cerebellar granule cells. In this Glu excitotoxicity model, mature NT-3 had no effect on the induced changes in Ca(2+) homeostasis. In contrast, pro-NT-3 decreased the period of delayed calcium deregulation (DCD) and concurrent strong mitochondrial depolarization. According to the amplitude of the increase in the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+) ]i ) and Fura-2 fluorescence quenching by Mn(2+) within the first 20 sec of exposure to Glu, pro-NT-3 had no effect on the initial rate of Ca(2+) entry into neurons. During the lag period preceding DCD, the mean amplitude of [Ca(2+) ]i rise was 1.2-fold greater in the presence of pro-NT-3 than in the presence of Glu alone (1.67?±?0.07 and 1.39?±?0.04, respectively, P?

  7. Plasma cell infiltration of the small bowel: lack of evidence for a non-secretory form of alpha-heavy chain disease.

    PubMed Central

    Gilinsky, N H; Mee, A S; Beatty, D W; Novis, B H; Young, G; Price, S; Purves, L R; Marks, I N

    1985-01-01

    Eight patients with diffuse plasma cell infiltration of the small bowel who had the clinical features of immunoproliferative small intestinal disease (IPSID), but whose serum was negative for free alpha-heavy chains, were investigated for evidence of a non-secretory form of alpha-chain disease (alpha-CD). Molecular sieving and immunoblotting of serum, immunoperoxidase staining of biopsy specimens, and in vitro protein synthesis studies utilising an immunoprecipitation technique and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, failed to detect any new cases of alpha-CD. Four of the eight cases were found to have diffuse intestinal lymphoma. The remaining four patients, who were unsuccessfully investigated for evidence of a significant abnormality in cellular immunity, have not developed detectable alpha-CD protein or lymphoma over a mean of 143 months. Despite continuing exposure to possible environmental stimuli, it is concluded that not all cases of IPSID elaborate detectable alpha-CD protein or evolve to lymphoma. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:3928450

  8. Papillary-cystic pattern is characteristic in mammary analogue secretory carcinomas but is rarely observed in acinic cell carcinomas of the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Min-Shu; Chou, Yueh-Hung; Yeh, Shin-Joe; Chang, Yih-Leong

    2015-08-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) has a specific ETV6-NTRK3 translocation and morphologically overlaps with acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC). Before the recognition of MASC, in AciCC, four histologic patterns were identified including microcystic, solid, papillary-cystic, and follicular. The aim of this study was to evaluate histologic patterns in these two neoplasms through comprehensive histologic subtyping. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we identified 14 cases of MASC and 21 cases of AciCC. We used comprehensive histologic subtyping to provide a semiquantitive assessment of histologic patterns in each tumor and performed immunohistochemical analyses including S100/vimentin/mammaglobin/DOG1. MASC often presented papillary-cystic patterns without a solid component, previously considered to be one of the four major patterns associated with AciCC. However, in our study, this histologic feature was rarely seen in AciCC and more characteristic of MASC. In aspiration cytology samples, MASC was associated with more cellular atypia. An immunohistochemical panel of S100/mammaglobin/DOG1 was found useful for differential diagnosis. Comprehensive subtyping of histologic patterns is a useful screening method prior to initiation of molecular testing. PMID:25976476

  9. Microtubules and protein secretion in rat lacrimal glands: localization of short-term effects of colchicine on the secretory process

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    The pathway and kinetics of the secretory protein transport in rat lacrimal exorbital gland have been established by an in vitro time- course radioautographic study of pulse-labeled protein secretion. The colchicine-sensitive steps have been localized by using the drug at various times with respect to the pulse labeling of proteins. Colchicine (10 microM) does not block any step of the secretory protein transport, but when introduced before the pulse it decreases the transfer of labeled proteins from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi area, suppressing their temporary accumulation in the Golgi area before any alteration of this organelle is detectable. Moreover, colchicine inhibits protein release only from the secretory granules formed in its presence because the peroxidase discharge is diminished 1 h after colchicine addition, and the secretion of newly synthesized proteins is strongly inhibited only when colchicine is introduced before secretory granule formation. Morphometric studies show that there is a great increase of secondary lysosomes, related to crinophagy, as early as 40-50 min after colchicine is added. However, changes in lysosomal enzymatic activities remained biochemically undetectable. We conclude that: (a) the labile microtubular system does not seem indispensable for protein transport in the rough endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi area but may facilitate this step, perhaps by maintaining the spatial organization of this area; and (b) in the lacrimal gland, colchicine inhibits protein release not by acting on the steps of secretion following the secretory granule formation, but by acting chiefly on the steps preceding secretory granule formation, perhaps by making the secretory granules formed in its presence incapable of discharging their content. PMID:7142282

  10. Cerebellar granule cells cultured from adolescent rats express functional N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors: an in vitro model for studying the developing cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Popp, R. Lisa; Reneau, Jason C.; Dertien, Janet S.

    2008-01-01

    In the developing rat cerebellum functional N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) expressing the NR2C subunit have been identified on or after postnatal day 19. We obtained primary cultured cells from 19 to 35 day-old rat cerebellum that expressed few oligodendrocytes or astrocytes. Cultured cells were immunoreactive for neuron-specific proteins thus indicating a neuronal population. The primary neuron present was the granule cell as indicated by immunofluorescence for the ?6 GABAA subunit. Whole-cell patch-clamp experiments indicated that functional NMDARs were present. Functional characteristics of NMDARs expressed in cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) obtained from adolescent animals were similar to those previously reported for NMDARs expressed in CGCs obtained from neonatal rats. Cultured CGCs obtained from older animals contained NMDARs that were inhibited by EtOH and were less sensitive to the NR2B subunit-specific antagonist Ro 25-6981. Furthermore, NMDA-induced currents (INMDA) were smaller than those observed in CGCs. Western blot analysis indicated the presence of the NMDA NR2A and NR2C subunits, but not the NR2B in cultures obtained from the adolescent rats. CGCs obtained from adolescent rats express functional NMDARs consistent with a developmental profile observed in vivo. PMID:18466339

  11. Bee venom secretory phospholipase A2 and phosphatidylinositol-homologues cooperatively disrupt membrane integrity, abrogate signal transduction and inhibit proliferation of renal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Putz, Thomas; Ramoner, Reinhold; Gander, Hubert; Rahm, Andrea; Bartsch, Georg; Bernardo, Katussevani; Ramsay, Steven; Thurnher, Martin

    2007-05-01

    Bee venom secretory phospholipase A2 (bv-sPLA2) and phosphatidylinositol-(3,4)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P2) act synergistically to induce cell death in tumour cells of various origins with concomitant stimulation of the immune system. Here, we investigated the mechanisms involved in such actions and examined structural requirements of PtdIns-homologues to inhibit tumour cells in combination with bv-sPLA2. Renal cancer cells were treated with bv-sPLA2 alone or in combination with PtdIns-homologues. Inhibitory effects on [(3)H] thymidine incorporation and intracellular signal transduction pathways were tested. Reaction products generated by bv-sPLA2 interaction with PtdIns(3,4)P2 were identified by mass spectrometry. Among the tested PtdIns-homologues those with a phosphate esterified to position 3 of the inositol head group, were most efficient in cooperating with bv-sPLA2 to block tumour cell proliferation. Growth inhibition induced by the combined action of bv-sPLA2 with either PtdIns(3,4)bisphosphate or PtdIns(3,4,5)trisphosphate were synergistic and accompanied by potent cell lysis. In contrast, PtdIns, which lacked the phosphate group at position 3, failed to promote synergistic growth inhibition. The combined administration of PtdIns(3,4)P2 and bv-sPLA2 abrogated signal transduction mediated by extracellular signal regulated kinase 1 and 2 and prevented transduction of survival signals mediated by protein kinase B. Surface expression of the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-receptor was reduced after PtdIns(3,4)P2-bv-sPLA2 administration and associated with a blockade of EGF-induced signalling. In addition, mass spectroscopy revealed that bv-sPLA2 cleaves PtdIns(3,4)P2 to generate lyso-PtdIns(3,4)P2. In conclusion, we suggest that the cytotoxic activity mediated by PtdIns(3,4)P2 and bv-sPLA2 is due to cell death that results from disruption of membrane integrity, abrogation of signal transduction and the generation of cytotoxic lyso-PtdIns(3,4)P2. PMID:16947021

  12. The natural scorpion peptide, BmK NT1 activates voltage-gated sodium channels and produces neurotoxicity in primary cultured cerebellar granule cells.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaohan; He, Yuwei; Qiao, Jinping; Zhang, Chunlei; Cao, Zhengyu

    2016-01-01

    The scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat neuronal diseases such as neuropathic pain, paralysis and epilepsy for thousands of years. Studies have demonstrated that scorpion venom is the primary active component. Although scorpion venom can effectively attenuate pain in the clinic, it also produces neurotoxic response. In this study, toxicity guided purification led to identify a mammalian toxin termed BmK NT1 comprising of 65 amino acid residues and an amidated C-terminus, a mature peptide encoded by the nucleotide sequence (GenBank No. AF464898). In contract to the recombinant product of the same nucleotide sequence, BmK AGAP, which displayed analgesic and anti-tumor effect, intravenous injection (i.v.) of BmK NT1 produced acute toxicity in mice with an LD50 value of 1.36 mg/kg. In primary cultured cerebellar granule cells, BmK NT1 produced a concentration-dependent cell death with an IC50 value of 0.65 ?M (0.41-1.03 ?M, 95% Confidence Intervals, 95% CI) which was abolished by TTX, a voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) blocker. We also demonstrated that BmK NT1 produced modest sodium influx in cerebellar granule cell cultures with an EC50 value of 2.19 ?M (0.76-6.40 ?M, 95% CI), an effect similar to VGSC agonist, veratridine. The sodium influx response was abolished by TTX suggesting that BmK NT1-induced sodium influx is solely through activation of VGSC. Considered these data together, we demonstrated that BmK NT1 activated VGSC and produced neurotoxicity in cerebellar granule cell cultures. PMID:26598793

  13. Larval excretory-secretory products from the parasite Schistosoma mansoni modulate HSP70 protein expression in defence cells of its snail host, Biomphalaria glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Zahoor, Zahida; Davies, Angela J.; Kirk, Ruth S.; Rollinson, David

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs) following cellular stress is a response shared by many organisms. Amongst the HSP family, the ?70 kDa HSPs are the most evolutionarily conserved with intracellular chaperone and extracellular immunoregulatory functions. This study focused on the effects of larval excretory-secretory products (ESPs) from the parasite Schistosoma mansoni on HSP70 protein expression levels in haemocytes (defence cells) from its snail intermediate host Biomphalaria glabrata. S. mansoni larval stage ESPs are known to interfere with haemocyte physiology and behaviour. Haemocytes from two different B. glabrata strains, one which is susceptible to S. mansoni infection and one which is resistant, both showed reduced HSP70 protein levels following 1 h challenge with S. mansoni ESPs when compared to unchallenged controls; however, the reduction observed in the resistant strain was less marked. The decline in intracellular HSP70 protein persisted for at least 5 h in resistant snail haemocytes only. Furthermore, in schistosome-susceptible snails infected by S. mansoni for 35 days, haemocytes possessed approximately 70% less HSP70. The proteasome inhibitor, MG132, partially restored HSP70 protein levels in ESP-challenged haemocytes, demonstrating that the decrease in HSP70 was in part due to intracellular degradation. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signalling pathway appears to regulate HSP70 protein expression in these cells, as the mitogen-activated protein-ERK kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2) inhibitor, U0126, significantly reduced HSP70 protein levels. Disruption of intracellular HSP70 protein expression in B. glabrata haemocytes by S. mansoni ESPs may be a strategy employed by the parasite to manipulate the immune response of the intermediate snail host. PMID:20182834

  14. ZINC TRANSPORTER 8 (ZNT8) AND BETA CELL FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Howard W.; Wenzlau, Janet M.; O’Brien, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Human pancreatic ? cells have exceptionally high zinc content. In ? cells the highest zinc concentration is in insulin secretory granules, from which it is co-secreted with the hormone. Uptake of zinc into secretory granules is mainly mediated by zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8), the product of the SLC30A8 gene. The minor alleles of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SLC30A8 are associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the precise mechanisms underlying the protective effects remain uncertain. In this article we review current knowledge of the role of ZnT8 in maintaining zinc homeostasis in ? cells, its role in glucose metabolism based on knockout mouse studies, and current theories regarding the link between ZnT8 function and T2D. PMID:24751356

  15. Ricinus communis L. stem bark extracts regulate ovarian cell functions and secretory activity and their response to Luteinising hormone.

    PubMed

    Nath, S; Kadasi, A; Grossmann, R; Sirotkin, A V; Kolesarova, A; Talukdar, A D; Choudhury, M D

    2015-11-01

    Ricinus communis L. has ethnopharmacological contraceptive reputation but its stem bark has unexplored mechanisms of action in female reproductive system. In the present study, the effect of methanolic and aqueous extracts from the stem bark of the plant was examined on basic porcine ovarian granulosa cell functions and its response to Luteinising hormone (LH)-the upstream hormonal regulator. Systemic treatment of methanolic and aqueous extracts stimulated cell proliferation (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA) and also promoted cell apoptosis (caspase-3). Aqueous extract has inverted the stimulatory effect of LH on PCNA but not on caspase-3. Methanolic extract stimulated as well as inhibited progesterone release and stimulated testosterone secretion. Whereas aqueous extract inhibited both steroid releases and suppressed the stimulatory effect of LH on progesterone release and promoted the inhibitory effect of LH on testosterone release. In conclusion, the present study unveils the mechanism of action of R. communis stem bark in in vitro condition. These suggest its possible contraceptive efficacy by exerting its regulatory role over LH and on basic ovarian cell functions and secretion activity. PMID:26311247

  16. Absence of Direct Delivery for Single Transmembrane Apical Proteins or Their “Secretory” Forms in Polarized Hepatic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bastaki, M.; Braiterman, L. T.; Johns, D. C.; Chen, Y.-H.; Hubbard, A. L.

    2002-01-01

    The absence of a direct route to the apical plasma membrane (PM) for single transmembrane domain (TMD) proteins in polarized hepatic cells has been inferred but never directly demonstrated. The genes encoding three pairs of apical PM proteins, whose extracellular domains are targeted exclusively to the apical milieu in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, were packaged into recombinant adenovirus and delivered to WIF-B cells in vitro and liver hepatocytes in vivo. By immunofluorescence and pulse-chase metabolic labeling, we found that the soluble constructs were overwhelmingly secreted into the basolateral milieu, which in vivo is the blood and in vitro is the culture medium. The full-length proteins were first delivered to the basolateral surface but then concentrated in the apical PM. Our results imply that hepatic cells lack trans-Golgi network (TGN)-based machinery for directly sorting single transmembrane domain apical proteins and raise interesting questions about current models of PM protein sorting in polarized and nonpolarized cells. PMID:11809835

  17. Methylmercury disrupts the balance between phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated cofilin in primary cultures of mice cerebellar granule cells A proteomic study

    SciTech Connect

    Vendrell, Iolanda; Carrascal, Montserrat; Abian, Joaquin

    2010-01-01

    Methylmercury is an environmental contaminant that is particularly toxic to the developing central nervous system; cerebellar granule neurons are especially vulnerable. Here, primary cultures of cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) were continuously exposed to methylmercury for up to 16 days in vitro (div). LC50 values were 508 +- 199, 345 +- 47, and 243 +- 45 nM after exposure for 6, 11, and 16 div, respectively. Proteins from cultured mouse CGCs were separated by 2DE. Seventy-one protein spots were identified by MALDI-TOF PMF and MALDI-TOF/TOF sequencing. Prolonged exposure to a subcytotoxic concentration of methylmercury significantly increased non-phosphorylated cofilin both in cell protein extracts (1.4-fold; p < 0.01) and in mitochondrial-enriched fractions (1.7-fold; p < 0.01). The decrease in P-cofilin induced by methylmercury was concentration-dependent and occurred after different exposure times. The percentage of P-cofilin relative to total cofilin significantly decreased to 49 +- 13% vs. control cells after exposure to 300 nM methylmercury for 5 div. The balance between the phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated form of cofilin regulates actin dynamics and facilitates actin filament turnover. Filamentous actin dynamics and reorganization are responsible of neuron shape change, migration, polarity formation, regulation of synaptic structures and function, and cell apoptosis. An alteration of the complex regulation of the cofilin phosphorylation/dephosphorylation pathway could be envisaged as an underlying mechanism compatible with reported signs of methylmercury-induced neurotoxicity.

  18. Nano-granulization of gadolinia-doped ceria electrolyte surface by aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jun Woo; Jang, Dong Young; Kim, Manjin; Choi, Hyung Jong; Shim, Joon Hyung

    2016-01-01

    We have fabricated nano-scale gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC) at the electrode-electrolyte boundary by aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) for high-performance solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) working at low temperatures below 500 °C. In AACVD, temperature is the key factor affecting the grain size. We have confirmed that by nano-granulizing the electrolyte surface using optimized AACVD, the power output of the SOFC is 50% higher than that of the bare GDC SOFC. From the impedance analysis, significant enhancement of the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction is identified from the AACVD-GDC nano-grain surface treatment.

  19. Secretory effects of kinins on colonic epithelium in relation to prostaglandins released from cells of the lamina propria.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, J. A.; Hoult, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    1. Sheets of muscle-stripped rat and rabbit colon with epithelium intact or removed were mounted in Ussing-type chambers for recording of transepithelial p.d., resistance and short circuit current (Isc), and measurement by radioimmunoassay (RIA) of the release of prostaglandins into serosal and mucosal bathing solutions. 2. In epithelial-intact preparations prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), PGE1, PGF2 alpha, U46619 and prostacyclin (10(-7)-10(-6) M) caused increases in Isc and transepithelial p.d., in (approximate) descending order of potency. Epithelial-removed preparations did not exhibit any transepithelial p.d. 3. In epithelial-intact preparations, lysyl-bradykinin (LBk) applied serosally but not mucosally caused increased p.d. and release of PGE2 (and to a lesser extent other prostaglandins) into serosal but not mucosal bathing solutions. In epithelial-removed tissues, responsiveness to LBk was maintained, but it did not exhibit 'sidedness', i.e. LBk was effective when applied on either side and PGE2 release occurred into both compartments. 4. Indomethacin and other non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) abolished the LBk-induced p.d. and reduced PGE2 release if applied serosally but not mucosally in epithelial-intact preparations. In epithelial-removed tissues, indomethacin added to either side abolished prostaglandin release into both compartments. 5. Calcium removal from serosal but not mucosal bathing solution (Ca2+-free EGTA Krebs) abolished p.d. generation by LBk in epithelial-intact preparations, and reduced PGE2 release in rabbit but not rat colon. Similarly, in epithelial-removed preparations, calcium removal did not affect kinin-induced PGE2 generation in rat but strongly attenuated it in rabbit colon. 6. We conclude that (i) kinins activate the arachidonate cascade principally by interactions with cells in the subepithelial (lamina propria) layer, rather than with the epithelial cells themselves, (ii) PGE2 contributes substantially to the kinin-induced increase of transepithelial p.d. as a messenger released from kinin-responsive subepithelial cells and acting on the basolateral pole of the epithelial cells, (iii) the apparent sidedness of colonic epithelium in terms of responses to kinins, NSAIDs and calcium removal is due to the barrier properties of the epithelial cell layer, and (iv) there are differences in calcium sequestration and apparent calcium dependence of prostaglandin biosynthesis between rat and rabbit colonic subepithelial cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 1 Figure 1 PMID:3207989

  20. Secretory phospholipase A2-IID is an effector molecule of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    von Allmen, Caroline E; Schmitz, Nicole; Bauer, Monika; Hinton, Heather J; Kurrer, Michael O; Buser, Regula B; Gwerder, Myriam; Muntwiler, Simone; Sparwasser, Tim; Beerli, Roger R; Bachmann, Martin F

    2009-07-14

    Suppression by natural CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) is one mechanism by which tolerance is maintained. However, the way in which Tregs mediate suppression is not well understood. Here, we show that secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-IID is selectively produced by Tregs. sPLA2-IID is a potent mediator of Treg function, because it strongly suppressed proliferation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in vitro and in vivo in a manner independent of its catalytic activity. Furthermore, sPLA2-IID promoted the differentiation of Tregs, presumably via attenuating signaling through the PI3K/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. Importantly, administration of a sPLA2-IID-Fc fusion protein inhibited disease development in murine models of colitis and multiple sclerosis, suggesting that sPLA2-IID's immunosuppressive function might be exploited therapeutically. PMID:19564598

  1. The type II cGMP dependent protein kinase regulates GluA1 levels at the plasma membrane of developing cerebellar granule cells

    PubMed Central

    Incontro, Salvatore; Ciruela, Francisco; Ziff, Edward; Hofmann, Franz; Sánchez-Prieto, José; Torres, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Trafficking of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) is regulated by specific interactions with other proteins and by post-translational mechanisms, such as phosphorylation. We have found that the type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGKII) phosphorylates GluA1 (formerly GluR1) at S845, augmenting the surface expression of AMPARs at both synaptic and extrasynaptic sites. Activation of cGKII by 8-Br-cGMP enhances the surface expression of GluA1, whereas its inhibition or suppression effectively diminished the expression of this protein at the cell surface. In granule cells, NMDA receptor activation (NMDAR) stimulates nitric oxide and cGMP production, which in turn activates cGKII and induces the phosphorylation of GluA1, promoting its accumulation in the plasma membrane. GluA1 is mainly incorporated into calcium permeable AMPARs as exposure to 8-Br-cGMP or NMDA activation enhanced AMPA-elicited calcium responses that are sensitive to NASPM inhibition. We summarize evidence for an increase of calcium permeable AMPA receptors downstream of NMDA receptor activation that might be relevant for granule cell development and plasticity. PMID:23545413

  2. Association of the GTP-binding protein Rab3A with bovine adrenal chromaffin granules

    SciTech Connect

    Darchen, F.; Hammel, F.; Monteils, M.P.; Scherman, D. ); Zahraoui, A.; Tavitian, A. )

    1990-08-01

    The Rab3A protein belongs to a large family of small GTP-binding proteins that are present in eukaryotic cells and that share amino acid identities with the Ras proteins (products of the ras protooncogenes). Rab3A, which is specifically located in nervous and endocrine tissues, is suspected to play a key role in secretion. Its localization was investigated in bovine adrenal gland by using a polyclonal antibody. Rab3A was detected in adrenal medulla but not in adrenal cortex. In cultured adrenal medulla cells, Rab3A was specifically expressed in the catecholamine-secreting chromaffin cells. Subcellular fractionation suggested that Rab3A is about 30% cytosolic and that particulate Rab3A is associated with the membrane of chromaffin granules (the catecholamine storage organelles) and with a second compartment likely to be the plasma membrane. The Rab3A localization on chromaffin granule membranes was confirmed by immunoadsorption with an antibody against dopamine {beta}-hydroxylase. Rab3A was not extracted from this membrane by NaCl or KBr but was partially extracted by urea and totally solubilized by Triton X-100, suggesting either an interaction with an intrinsic protein or a membrane association through fatty acid acylation. This study suggests that Rab3A, which may also be located on other secretory vesicles containing noncharacterized small GTP-binding proteins, is involved in their biogenesis or in the regulated secretion process.

  3. COBRA-LIKE2, a Member of the Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored COBRA-LIKE Family, Plays a Role in Cellulose Deposition in Arabidopsis Seed Coat Mucilage Secretory Cells1,2[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Tov, Daniela; Abraham, Yael; Stav, Shira; Thompson, Kevin; Loraine, Ann; Elbaum, Rivka; de Souza, Amancio; Pauly, Markus; Kieber, Joseph J.; Harpaz-Saad, Smadar

    2015-01-01

    Differentiation of the maternally derived seed coat epidermal cells into mucilage secretory cells is a common adaptation in angiosperms. Recent studies identified cellulose as an important component of seed mucilage in various species. Cellulose is deposited as a set of rays that radiate from the seed upon mucilage extrusion, serving to anchor the pectic component of seed mucilage to the seed surface. Using transcriptome data encompassing the course of seed development, we identified COBRA-LIKE2 (COBL2), a member of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored COBRA-LIKE gene family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), as coexpressed with other genes involved in cellulose deposition in mucilage secretory cells. Disruption of the COBL2 gene results in substantial reduction in the rays of cellulose present in seed mucilage, along with an increased solubility of the pectic component of the mucilage. Light birefringence demonstrates a substantial decrease in crystalline cellulose deposition into the cellulosic rays of the cobl2 mutants. Moreover, crystalline cellulose deposition into the radial cell walls and the columella appears substantially compromised, as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy and in situ quantification of light birefringence. Overall, the cobl2 mutants display about 40% reduction in whole-seed crystalline cellulose content compared with the wild type. These data establish that COBL2 plays a role in the deposition of crystalline cellulose into various secondary cell wall structures during seed coat epidermal cell differentiation. PMID:25583925

  4. REGULATION OF ADRENAL CHROMAFFIN CELL DEVELOPMENT BY THE CENTRAL MONOAMINERGIC SYSTEM: DIFFERENTIAL CONTROL OF NOREPINEPHRINE AND EPINEPHRINE LEVELS AND SECRETORY RESPONSES (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the mature rat, reflex sympathetic stimulation by insulin-induced hypoglycemia resulted in profound depletion of adrenal epinephrine, and to a lesser extent, Norepinephrine. In the developing rat, insulin evoked little or no secretory response from the adrenals prior to 1 week...

  5. Influence of colchicine and vinblastine on the intracellular migration of secretory and membrane glycoproteins: II. Inhibition of secretion of thyroglobulin in rat thyroid follicular cells as visualized by radioautography after 3H-fucose injection

    SciTech Connect

    Wild, G.; Bennett, G.

    1984-08-01

    Young (40 gm) rats were given a single intravenous injection of colchicine (4.0 mg) or vinblastine (2.0 mg). At 10 min after colchicine and 30 min after vinblastine administration, the rats were injected with 3H-fucose. Control rats received 3H-fucose only. All rats were sacrificed 90 min after 3H-fucose injection and their tissues processed for radioautography. In thyroid follicular cells of control animals, at this time interval, 57% of the total label was associated with colloid and secretory vesicles in the apical cytoplasm while 27% was localized in the Golgi apparatus and neighboring vesicles. In experimental animals, the proportion of label in colloid and apical vesicles was reduced by more than 69% after colchicine and more than 83% after vinblastine treatment. The proportion of label in the Golgi region, on the other hand, increased by more than 125% after colchicine and more than 179% after vinblastine treatment. Within the Golgi region, the great majority of the label was associated with secretory vesicles which accumulated adjacent to the trans face of the Golgi stacks. It is concluded that the drugs do not interfere with passage of newly synthesized thyroglobulin from the Golgi saccules to nearby secretory vesicles, but do inhibit intracellular migration of these vesicles to the cell apex. In most cells the number of vesicles in the apical cytoplasm diminished, but this was not always the case, suggesting that exocytosis may also be partially inhibited. The loss of microtubules in drug-treated cells suggests that the microtubules may be necessary for intracellular transport of thyroglobulin.

  6. Effects of 5-fluorouracil on the secretory process of the rat parotid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Sandborg, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental animals were injected intraperitoneally with 100 mg/kg 5-fluorouracil for three days. The total volume, amylase and protein content of cannulated parotid saliva were determined following stimulation with either 5 mg/kg pilocarpine or 5 mg/kg isoproterenol in experimental, pair-fed , and control animals. Saliva from experimental animals was significantly lower in volume, amylase and protein content than both control groups. 5-fluorouracil treatment reduced the total glandular amylase per unit DNA in both unstimulated and isoproterenol-stimulated parotid glands. Decreased protein synthesis may be the mechanism underlying depleted secretory protein stores since the contents of isolated secretory granules from experimental parotid glands contained less radiolabelled protein than either control group and whole gland homogenates showed marked reductions in the activities of three lysosomal enzymes and total RNA content. Experimental animals contained less labelled protein in their secretory granules than controls, but secreted a greater proportion of their total glandular radiolabelled secretory protein into saliva relative to amylase suggesting that newly synthesized secretory proteins are preferentially secreted.

  7. Selective isolation of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria from autotrophic nitrifying granules by applying cell-sorting and sub-culturing of microcolonies

    PubMed Central

    Fujitani, Hirotsugu; Kumagai, Asami; Ushiki, Norisuke; Momiuchi, Kengo; Tsuneda, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Nitrification is a key process in the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle and biological wastewater treatment that consists of two stepwise reactions, ammonia oxidation by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) or archaea followed by nitrite oxidation by nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. One of the representatives of the AOB group is Nitrosomonas mobilis species. Although a few pure strains of this species have been isolated so far, approaches to their preservation in pure culture have not been established. Here, we report isolation of novel members of the N. mobilis species from autotrophic nitrifying granules used for ammonia-rich wastewater treatment. We developed an isolation method focusing on microcolonies formation of nitrifying bacteria. Two kinds of distinctive light scattering signatures in a cell-sorting system enabled to separate microcolonies from single cells and heterogeneous aggregates within granule samples. Inoculation of a pure microcolony into 96-well microtiter plates led to successful sub-culturing and increased probability of isolation. Obtained strain Ms1 is cultivated in the liquid culture with relatively high ammonia or nitrite concentration, not extremely slow growing. Considering environmental clones that were closely related to N. mobilis and detected in various environments, the availability of this novel strain would facilitate to reveal this member’s ecophysiology in a variety of habitats. PMID:26528282

  8. The composition of Staufen-containing RNA granules from human cells indicates their role in the regulated transport and translation of messenger RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Villacé, Patricia; Marión, Rosa M.; Ortín, Juan

    2004-01-01

    hStaufen is the human homolog of dmStaufen, a double-stranded (ds)RNA-binding protein involved in early development of the fly. hStaufen-containing complexes were purified by affinity chromatography from human cells transfected with a TAP-tagged hStaufen gene. These complexes showed a size >10 MDa. Untagged complexes with similar size were identified from differentiated human neuroblasts. The identity of proteins present in purified hStaufen complexes was determined by mass spectrometry and the presence of these proteins and other functionally related ones was verified by western blot. Ribosomes and proteins involved in the control of protein synthesis (PABP1 and FMRP) were present in purified hStaufen complexes, as well as elements of the cytoskeleton (tubulins, tau, actin and internexin), cytoskeleton control proteins (IQGAP1, cdc42 and rac1) and motor proteins (dynein, kinesin and myosin). In addition, proteins normally found in the nucleus, like nucleolin and RNA helicase A, were also found associated with cytosolic hStaufen complexes. The co-localization of these components with hStaufen granules in the dendrites of differentiated neuroblasts, determined by confocal immunofluorescence, validated their association in living cells. These results support the notion that the hStaufen-containing granules are structures essential in the localization and regulated translation of human mRNAs in vivo. PMID:15121898

  9. Vesicular Trafficking and Signaling for Cytokine and Chemokine Secretion in Mast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Blank, Ulrich; Madera-Salcedo, Iris Karina; Danelli, Luca; Claver, Julien; Tiwari, Neeraj; Sánchez-Miranda, Elizabeth; Vázquez-Victorio, Genaro; Ramírez-Valadez, Karla Alina; Macias-Silva, Marina; González-Espinosa, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Upon activation mast cells (MCs) secrete numerous inflammatory compounds stored in their cytoplasmic secretory granules by a process called anaphylactic degranulation, which is responsible for type I hypersensitivity responses. Prestored mediators include histamine and MC proteases but also some cytokines and growth factors making them available within minutes for a maximal biological effect. Degranulation is followed by the de novo synthesis of lipid mediators such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes as well as a vast array of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors, which are responsible for late phase inflammatory responses. While lipid mediators diffuse freely out of the cell through lipid bilayers, both anaphylactic degranulation and secretion of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors depends on highly regulated vesicular trafficking steps that occur along the secretory pathway starting with the translocation of proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum. Vesicular trafficking in MCs also intersects with endocytic routes, notably to form specialized cytoplasmic granules called secretory lysosomes. Some of the mediators like histamine reach granules via specific vesicular monoamine transporters directly from the cytoplasm. In this review, we try to summarize the available data on granule biogenesis and signaling events that coordinate the complex steps that lead to the release of the inflammatory mediators from the various vesicular carriers in MCs. PMID:25295038

  10. Gene Expression Profiles Underlying Selective T-Cell-Mediated Immunity Activity of a Chinese Medicine Granule on Mice Infected with Influenza Virus H1N1

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Na-na; Liu, Qi; Gu, Li-gang; Ge, Shi-jie; Wu, Jun; Ze-ji, Qiu; Qiu, Ze-ji; Zhang, Hong-chun; Chao, En-xiang; Yu, Zhuo-nan

    2014-01-01

    A Chinese medicine granule, Shu-Feng-Xuan-Fei (SFXF), is critical for viral clearance in early phase of influenza virus infection. In this study, 72 ICR mice were randomly divided into six groups: normal control group, virus control group, Oseltamivir group, low-dose SFXF, medium-dose SFXF, and high-dose SFXF. Mice were anesthetized and inoculated with 4LD50 of influenza virus A (H1N1) except normal control group. Oseltamivir group received 11.375 mg·kg?1·d?1 Oseltamivir Phosphate. SFXF 3.76, 1.88 and 0.94 g·kg?1·d?1 were administrated to mice in all SFXF groups. Each group was in equal dose of 0.2ml daily for 4 consecutive days. Mice were sacrificed and then total RNA was extracted in lung tissue. Some genes involved in T-cell-mediated immunity were selected by DNA microarray. These candidate genes were verified by Real-Time PCR and western immunoblotting. Compared with virus control group, in Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, 12 virus-altered genes were significantly reduced following medium-dose SFXF treatment. Eighteen antigen processing presentation-associated genes were upregulated by medium-dose SFXF. In the process of T cell receptor signaling pathway, 19 genes were downregulated by medium-dose SFXF treatment. On exploration into effector T cells activation and cytokines, all of altered genes in virus control group were reversed by medium-dose SFXF. Real-time PCR and western immunoblotting showed that the regulation of medium-dose SFXF in IL-4, IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-1?, TLR7, MyD88, p38, and JNK was superior to Oseltamivir and high-dose SFXF group. Therefore, SFXF granules could reduce influenza infected cells and activation of T cells. PMID:24527057

  11. Insulin targeting to the regulated secretory pathway after fusion with green fluorescent protein and firefly luciferase.

    PubMed Central

    Pouli, A E; Kennedy, H J; Schofield, J G; Rutter, G A

    1998-01-01

    We have prepared recombinant cDNAs encoding chimaeras between human preproinsulin (sp.B.C.A., for B-, Connecting- and A-peptides) and a thermostable mutant of green fluorescent protein (GFPS65T,V163A, GFP*). The subcellular localization of the expressed chimaeras was monitored in living insulin-secreting INS-1 beta-cells by laser scanning confocal microscopy. When GFP* was fused at the immediate N-terminus of the B-chain (sp.[GFP*].B.C.A.myc) two distinct patterns of fluorescence were apparent. In 1530/1740 cells examined, fluorescence was confined to a reticular, exclusively extranuclear structure, and closely co-localized with the endoplasmic reticulum marker, calreticulin. However, 210/1740 (12.1%) of cells displayed punctate fluorescence, which partially co-localized with the trans-Golgi network marker, TGN 38, and with the dense core secretory granule marker, phogrin. Since secretion of GFP* fluorescence into the medium could not readily be measured, we prepared a chimaera in which firefly luciferase was fused at the C-terminus of proinsulin (sp.B.C.A.myc.[Luc]). This chimaera displayed a distribution closely similar to that of sp.[GFP*].B.C.A. myc, but with a lower proportion (15/310, 4.8%) of the cells showing clear punctate distribution. At substimulatory glucose concentrations (3 mM) secretion of sp.B.C.A.myc.[Luc] could not be detected (rate of release into the medium identical with that of the cytosolic Renilla reniformis luciferase), indicating that the chimaera did not enter the constitutive secretory pathway. However, elevated (30 mM) glucose stimulated the release of the sp.B.C.A.myc. [Luc] luciferase chimaera, without a detectable effect on R. reniformis luciferase release. These data suggest that fusion of insulin, and the much larger photoproteins GFP* and luciferase, leads predominantly to misfolding and retention in the endoplasmic reticulum. However, the properly folded chimaeras are apparently still correctly targeted to the regulated, rather than the constitutive, secretory pathway. These chimaeras should therefore be valuable tools to monitor the exocytosis of insulin in real time. PMID:9531511

  12. Profilin 1 associates with stress granules and ALS-linked mutations alter stress granule dynamics.

    PubMed

    Figley, Matthew D; Bieri, Gregor; Kolaitis, Regina-Maria; Taylor, J Paul; Gitler, Aaron D

    2014-06-11

    Mutations in the PFN1 gene encoding profilin 1 are a rare cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Profilin 1 is a well studied actin-binding protein but how PFN1 mutations cause ALS is unknown. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has one PFN1 ortholog. We expressed the ALS-linked profilin 1 mutant proteins in yeast, demonstrating a loss of protein stability and failure to restore growth to profilin mutant cells, without exhibiting gain-of-function toxicity. This model provides for simple and rapid screening of novel ALS-linked PFN1 variants. To gain insight into potential novel roles for profilin 1, we performed an unbiased, genome-wide synthetic lethal screen with yeast cells lacking profilin (pfy1?). Unexpectedly, deletion of several stress granule and processing body genes, including pbp1?, were found to be synthetic lethal with pfy1?. Mutations in ATXN2, the human ortholog of PBP1, are a known ALS genetic risk factor and ataxin 2 is a stress granule component in mammalian cells. Given this genetic interaction and recent evidence linking stress granule dynamics to ALS pathogenesis, we hypothesized that profilin 1 might also associate with stress granules. Here we report that profilin 1 and related protein profilin 2 are novel stress granule-associated proteins in mouse primary cortical neurons and in human cell lines and that ALS-linked mutations in profilin 1 alter stress granule dynamics, providing further evidence for the potential role of stress granules in ALS pathogenesis. PMID:24920614

  13. Profilin 1 Associates with Stress Granules and ALS-Linked Mutations Alter Stress Granule Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Figley, Matthew D.; Bieri, Gregor; Kolaitis, Regina-Maria; Taylor, J. Paul

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the PFN1 gene encoding profilin 1 are a rare cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Profilin 1 is a well studied actin-binding protein but how PFN1 mutations cause ALS is unknown. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has one PFN1 ortholog. We expressed the ALS-linked profilin 1 mutant proteins in yeast, demonstrating a loss of protein stability and failure to restore growth to profilin mutant cells, without exhibiting gain-of-function toxicity. This model provides for simple and rapid screening of novel ALS-linked PFN1 variants. To gain insight into potential novel roles for profilin 1, we performed an unbiased, genome-wide synthetic lethal screen with yeast cells lacking profilin (pfy1?). Unexpectedly, deletion of several stress granule and processing body genes, including pbp1?, were found to be synthetic lethal with pfy1?. Mutations in ATXN2, the human ortholog of PBP1, are a known ALS genetic risk factor and ataxin 2 is a stress granule component in mammalian cells. Given this genetic interaction and recent evidence linking stress granule dynamics to ALS pathogenesis, we hypothesized that profilin 1 might also associate with stress granules. Here we report that profilin 1 and related protein profilin 2 are novel stress granule-associated proteins in mouse primary cortical neurons and in human cell lines and that ALS-linked mutations in profilin 1 alter stress granule dynamics, providing further evidence for the potential role of stress granules in ALS pathogenesis. PMID:24920614

  14. RFP tags for labeling secretory pathway proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Liyang; Zhao, Yanhua; Xu, Pingyong; Huan, Shuangyan

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • Membrane protein Orai1 can be used to report the fusion properties of RFPs. • Artificial puncta are affected by dissociation constant as well as pKa of RFPs. • Among tested RFPs mOrange2 is the best choice for secretory protein labeling. - Abstract: Red fluorescent proteins (RFPs) are useful tools for live cell and multi-color imaging in biological studies. However, when labeling proteins in secretory pathway, many RFPs are prone to form artificial puncta, which may severely impede their further uses. Here we report a fast and easy method to evaluate RFPs fusion properties by attaching RFPs to an environment sensitive membrane protein Orai1. In addition, we revealed that intracellular artificial puncta are actually colocalized with lysosome, thus besides monomeric properties, pKa value of RFPs is also a key factor for forming intracellular artificial puncta. In summary, our current study provides a useful guide for choosing appropriate RFP for labeling secretory membrane proteins. Among RFPs tested, mOrange2 is highly recommended based on excellent monomeric property, appropriate pKa and high brightness.

  15. Transcriptomic and Physiological Insights into the Robustness of Long Filamentous Cells of Methanosaeta harundinacea, Prevalent in Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Granules

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Liguang; Yu, Haiying; Ai, Guomin; Zhang, Bo; Hu, Songnian

    2014-01-01

    Methanosaeta spp. are widely distributed in natural environments, and their filamentous cells contribute significantly to sludge granulation and the good performance of anaerobic reactors. A previous study indicated that Methanosaeta harundinacea 6Ac displays a quorum sensing-regulated morphological transition from short to long filaments, and more acetate is channeled into methane production in long filaments, whereas more is channeled into biomass synthesis in short filaments. Here, we performed transcriptomic and physiological analysis to gain insights into active methanogenesis in long filaments of M. harundinacea 6Ac. Both RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR indicated that transcription of the genes involved in aceticlastic methanogenesis and energy metabolism was upregulated 1.2- to 10.3-fold in long filaments, while transcription of the genes for the methyl oxidative shunt was upregulated in short filaments. [2-13C]acetate trace experiments demonstrated that a relatively higher portion of the acetate methyl group was oxidized to CO2 in short filaments than in long filaments. The long filaments exhibited higher catalase activity and oxygen tolerance than the short ones, which is consistent with increased transcription of the oxidant-scavenging genes. Moreover, transcription of genes for cell surface structures was upregulated in the long filaments, and transmission electron microscopy revealed a thicker cell envelope in the filaments. RNA-seq determined a >2-fold upregulation of a variety of antistress genes in short filaments, like those encoding chaperones and DNA repair systems, which implies that the short filaments can be stressed. This study reveals the genetic basis for the prevalence of the long filamentous morphology of M. harundinacea cells in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket granules. PMID:25398869

  16. Chromaffin cells in the adrenal homolog of Aphanius fasciatus (teleost fish) express piecemeal degranulation in response to osmotic stress: a hint for a conservative evolutionary process.

    PubMed

    Crivellato, Enrico; Civinini, Annalena; Gallo, Valentina Patrizia

    2006-10-01

    The effect of severe osmotic stress on the ultrastructural morphology of chromaffin cells in the adrenal homolog of Aphanius fasciatus, a small eurhyaline teleost living in saltpans, was evaluated by electron microscopy quantitative analysis. Fishes were transferred from salt water, whose salinity was 3.7%, to dechlorinated tap water and chromaffin cells were studied at resting condition and after 2 and 48 hr from the beginning of the experiment. Ultrastructural examination revealed a series of granule and cytoplasmic changes highly specific for piecemeal degranulation (PMD), a secretory process based on vesicular transport of cargoes from within granules for extracellular release, which was previously described in chromaffin cells of the mouse, rat, and human adrenal medulla. There was indeed a significant trend toward loss of content material from chromaffin granules accompanied by enlargement of granule size. Remarkably, chromaffin granules maintained their individual close structure during the whole releasing process and eventually transformed into large empty containers. A dramatic increase in the density of small, membrane-bound, variably electron-dense vesicles free in the cytoplasm or attached to granules was recognized during the first 2 hr of stress response. These features fell to control levels after 48 hr. A similar time-course pattern was observed concerning the formation of budding projections from the surface of chromaffin granules. This study provides new insight into PMD physiology and suggests that PMD is part of an adaptive secretory response to severe osmotic stress in fishes. From an evolutionary point of view, this study lends support to the concept that PMD is a secretory mechanism highly conserved throughout vertebrate classes. PMID:16964607

  17. Regulation of action potential delays via voltage-gated potassium Kv1.1 channels in dentate granule cells during hippocampal epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kirchheim, Florian; Tinnes, Stefanie; Haas, Carola A.; Stegen, Michael; Wolfart, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Action potential (AP) responses of dentate gyrus granule (DG) cells have to be tightly regulated to maintain hippocampal function. However, which ion channels control the response delay of DG cells is not known. In some neuron types, spike latency is influenced by a dendrotoxin (DTX)-sensitive delay current (ID) mediated by unidentified combinations of voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels of the Kv1 family Kv1.1–6. In DG cells, the ID has not been characterized and its molecular basis is unknown. The response phenotype of mature DG cells is usually considered homogenous but intrinsic plasticity likely occurs in particular in conditions of hyperexcitability, for example during temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In this study, we examined response delays of DG cells and underlying ion channel molecules by employing a combination of gramicidin-perforated patch-clamp recordings in acute brain slices and single-cell reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (SC RT-qPCR) experiments. An in vivo mouse model of TLE consisting of intrahippocampal kainate (KA) injection was used to examine epilepsy-related plasticity. Response delays of DG cells were DTX-sensitive and strongly increased in KA-injected hippocampi; Kv1.1 mRNA was elevated 10-fold, and the response delays correlated with Kv1.1 mRNA abundance on the single cell level. Other Kv1 subunits did not show overt changes in mRNA levels. Kv1.1 immunolabeling was enhanced in KA DG cells. The biophysical properties of ID and a delay heterogeneity within the DG cell population was characterized. Using organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHCs), where KA incubation also induced ID upregulation, the homeostatic reversibility and neuroprotective potential for DG cells were tested. In summary, the AP timing of DG cells is effectively controlled via scaling of Kv1.1 subunit transcription. With this antiepileptic mechanism, DG cells delay their responses during hyperexcitation. PMID:24367293

  18. The secretory pathway of protists: spatial and functional organization and evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, B; Melkonian, M

    1996-01-01

    All cells secrete a diversity of macromolecules to modify their environment or to protect themselves. Eukaryotic cells have evolved a complex secretory pathway consisting of several membrane-bound compartments which contain specific sets of proteins. Experimental work on the secretory pathway has focused mainly on mammalian cell lines or on yeasts. Now, some general principles of the secretory pathway have become clear, and most components of the secretory pathway are conserved between yeast cells and mammalian cells. However, the structure and function of the secretory system in protists have been less extensively studied. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the secretory pathway of five different groups of protists: Giardia lamblia, one of the earliest lines of eukaryotic evolution, kinetoplastids, the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, and two lineages within the "crown" of eukaryotic cell evolution, the alveolates (ciliates and Plasmodium species) and the green algae. Comparison of these systems with the mammalian and yeast system shows that most elements of the secretory pathway were presumably present in the earliest eukaryotic organisms. However, one element of the secretory pathway shows considerable variation: the presence of a Golgi stack and the number of cisternae within a stack. We suggest that the functional separation of the plasma membrane from the nucleus-endoplasmic reticulum system during evolution required a sorting compartment, which became the Golgi apparatus. Once a Golgi apparatus was established, it was adapted to the various needs of the different organisms. PMID:8987360

  19. Quantitative microscopy of mole rat eosinophil granule morphology.

    PubMed

    Amihai, Dina; Meilijson, Isaac; Terkel, Joseph; Hammel, Ilan

    2015-10-01

    Mole rat bone marrow cells and peritoneal eosinophils are used to study granule morphological maturation by quantitative microscopy. The bulk eosinophil granule content is pre-stored in unique granular structures known as crystalloid or secondary granules. Mole rat eosinophil granules exhibit the basic structure of an electron-dense crystalloid core surrounded by a lighter, homogeneous matrix. Morphometric analysis demonstrated that bone marrow-derived eosinophil sphere-like granules display a periodic, multimodal granule volume distribution. In contrast, peritoneal eosinophils display cigar-shaped granules, whose crystalloid cores are more variable in size and shape as compared to bone marrow eosinophil granules. Using a morphometric approach, we deduced that the basic granule volume quantum is similar in both cases, suggesting that the sphere-like young eosinophil granules turn into dense ellipsoidal ones by intragranular processes in which both volume and membrane surface are conserved. Crystalloid granule mediators are known to be widely associated with allergic inflammatory events, which may damage the host tissue following secretion to the extracellular environment. Based on mathematical modeling, we suggest that this deviation from sphere-like to ellipsoidal shape reflects an adaptive response of the mole rat to its unique solitary life. PMID:25971930

  20. Methylmercury-Dependent Increases in Fluo4 Fluorescence in Neonatal Rat Cerebellar Slices Depend on Granule Cell Migrational Stage and GABAA Receptor Modulation.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Aaron B; Mancini, Jayme D; Atchison, William D

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) disrupts cerebellar function, especially during development. Cerebellar granule cells (CGC), which are particularly susceptible to MeHg by unknown mechanisms, migrate during this process. Transient changes in intracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(2+) i) are crucial to proper migration, and MeHg is well known to disrupt CGC Ca(2+) i regulation. Acutely prepared slices of neonatal rat cerebellum in conjunction with confocal microscopy and fluo4 epifluorescence were used to track changes induced by MeHg in CGC Ca(2+) i regulation in the external (EGL) and internal granule cell layers (IGL) as well as the molecular layer (ML). MeHg caused no cytotoxicity but did cause a time-dependent increase in fluo4 fluorescence that depended on the stage of CGC development. CGCs in the EGL were most susceptible to MeHg-induced increases in fluo4 fluorescence. MeHg increased fluorescence in CGC processes but only diffusely; Purkinje cells rarely fluoresced in these slices. Neither muscimol nor bicuculline alone altered baseline fluo4 fluorescence in any CGC layer, but each delayed the onset and reduced the magnitude of effect of MeHg on fluo4 fluorescence in the EGL and ML. In the IGL, both muscimol and bicuculline delayed the onset of MeHg-induced increases in fluo4 fluorescence but did not affect fluorescence magnitude. Thus, acute exposure to MeHg causes developmental stage-dependent increases in Ca(2+) i in CGCs. Effects are most prominent in CGCs during development or early stages of migration. GABAA receptors participate in an as yet unclear manner to MeHg-induced Ca(2+) i dysregulation of CGCs. PMID:26514794

  1. An essential role of syntaxin 3 protein for granule exocytosis and secretion of IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-12b, and CCL4 from differentiated HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Naegelen, Isabelle; Plançon, Sébastien; Nicot, Nathalie; Kaoma, Tony; Muller, Arnaud; Vallar, Laurent; Tschirhart, Eric J; Bréchard, Sabrina

    2015-03-01

    Besides their roles in the killing of pathogens, neutrophils have the capacity to package a variety of cytokines into cytoplasmic granules for subsequent release upon inflammatory conditions. Because the rapid secretion of cytokines orchestrates the action of other immune cells at the infection site and thus, can contribute to the development and chronicity of inflammatory diseases, we aimed to determine the intracellular SNARE machinery responsible for the regulation of cytokine secretion and degranulation. From a constructed gene-expression network, we first selected relevant cytokines for functional validation by the CBA approach. We established a cytokine-secretion profile for human neutrophils and dHL-60 cells, underlining their similar ability to secrete a broad variety of cytokines within proinflammatory conditions mimicked by LPS stimulation. Secondly, after screening of SNARE genes by microarray experiments, we selected STX3 for further functional studies. With the use of a siRNA strategy, we show that STX3 is clearly required for the maximal release of IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-12b, and CCL4 without alteration of other cytokine secretion in dHL-60 cells. In addition, we demonstrate that STX3 is involved in MMP-9 exocytosis from gelatinase granules, where STX3 is partly localized. Our results suggest that the secretion of IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-12b, and CCL4 occurs during gelatinase degranulation, a process controlled by STX3. In summary, these findings provide first evidence that STX3 has an essential role in trafficking pathways of cytokines in neutrophil granulocytes. PMID:25548252

  2. Accumulation of protease-resistant prion protein (PrP) and apoptosis of cerebellar granule cells in transgenic mice expressing a PrP insertional mutation

    PubMed Central

    Chiesa, Roberto; Drisaldi, Bettina; Quaglio, Elena; Migheli, Antonio; Piccardo, Pedro; Ghetti, Bernardino; Harris, David A.

    2000-01-01

    We have generated lines of transgenic mice that express a mutant prion protein (PrP) containing 14 octapeptide repeats whose human homologue is associated with an inherited prion dementia. These mice develop a neurological illness with prominent ataxia at 65 or 240 days of age, depending on whether the transgene array is, respectively, homozygous or hemizygous. Starting from birth, mutant PrP is converted into a protease-resistant and detergent-insoluble form that resembles the scrapie isoform of PrP, and this form accumulates dramatically in many brain regions throughout the lifetime of the mice. As PrP accumulates, there is massive apoptosis of granule cells in the cerebellum. Our analysis provides important insights into the molecular pathogenesis of inherited prion disorders in humans. PMID:10805813

  3. Analysis of hedgehog signaling in cerebellar granule cell precursors in a conditional Nsdhl allele demonstrates an essential role for cholesterol in postnatal CNS development.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, David; DeBarber, Andrea E; Bir, Natalie; Binkley, Laura; Merkens, Louise S; Steiner, Robert D; Herman, Gail E

    2015-05-15

    NSDHL is a 3?-hydroxysterol dehydrogenase that is involved in the removal of two C-4 methyl groups in one of the later steps of cholesterol biosynthesis. Mutations in the gene encoding the enzyme are responsible for the X-linked, male lethal mouse mutations bare patches and striated, as well as most cases of human CHILD syndrome. Rare, hypomorphic NSDHL mutations are also associated with X-linked intellectual disability in males with CK syndrome. Since hemizygous male mice with Nsdhl mutations die by midgestation, we generated a conditional targeted Nsdhl mutation (Nsdhl(tm1.1Hrm)) to investigate the essential role of cholesterol in the early postnatal CNS. Ablation of Nsdhl in radial glia using GFAP-cre resulted in live-born, normal appearing affected male pups. However, the pups develop overt ataxia by postnatal day 8-10 and die shortly thereafter. Histological abnormalities include progressive loss of cortical and hippocampal neurons, as well as deficits in the proliferation and migration of cerebellar granule precursors and subsequent massive apoptosis of the cerebellar cortex. We replicated the granule cell precursor proliferation defect in vitro and demonstrate that it results from defective signaling by SHH. Furthermore, this defect is almost completely rescued by supplementation of the culture media with exogenous cholesterol, while methylsterol accumulation above the enzymatic block appears to be associated with increased cell death. These data support the absolute requirement for cholesterol synthesis in situ once the blood-brain-barrier forms and cholesterol transport to the fetus is abolished. They further emphasize the complex ramifications of cholesterogenic enzyme deficiency on cellular metabolism. PMID:25652406

  4. Development and Essential Oil Content of Secretory Glands of Sage (Salvia officinalis) 1

    PubMed Central

    Venkatachalam, K. V.; Kjonaas, Robert; Croteau, Rodney

    1984-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves confirmed the presence of two basic types of glandular trichomes consisting of a capitate stalked form containing a multicellular stalk and surmounted by a unicellular secretory head, and a capitate sessile form containing a unicellular stalk and unicellular, or multicellular, secretory head. In the latter type, secretory activity and filling of the subcuticular cavity may begin at virtually any stage of the division cycle affording fully developed glands containing from one to twelve cells in the secretory head. Gas liquid chromatographic analysis of the oil content of the most numerous gland species (capitate stalked, capitate sessile with one and with eight secretory cells) indicated only minor quantitative differences in essential oil composition. Thus, each gland type is capable of producing the four major monoterpene families (p-menthanes, pinanes, bornanes and thujanes) characteristic of sage. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16663786

  5. Formation of bacterial aerobic granules: Role of propionate.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chunli; Chen, Si; Wen, Lei; Lee, Duu-Jong; Liu, Xiang

    2015-12-01

    Propionate presents as one of the major volatile fatty acids in municipal wastewaters, which are not readily degraded as acetate by microorganisms. This study cultivated aerobic granules from column reactors with acetate, acetate/propionate mix (3:1 and 1:3) and propionate as carbon sources and noted that propionate-rich feed would delay granulation, but could generate granules with high structural strength. Propionate feed enriched strains fractionated into the hydrophobic phase, Sphaerotilus sp., Sphingomonadaceae and Thauera sp., in granules and altered hydrophobicity of Thauera sp. and Zoogloea sp. The enriched strains could secret high quantities of cyclic-di-diguanylate to increase production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The hydrophobic cell surface and increased EPS quantity led to integrated propionate-fed granules. Feed with high propionate concentration is proposed as promising way to cultivate strong aerobic granules for practical use. PMID:26369278

  6. Competitive GABA(A) receptor antagonists increase the proportion of functional high-affinity alpha6 subunit-containing receptors in granule cells of adult rat cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Wall, Mark J

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the properties of alpha6 subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from granule cells in adult rat cerebellar slices. In control, only currents evoked by low concentrations of GABA were significantly reduced in amplitude by furosemide, the alpha6 subunit-containing receptor antagonist. However, in the presence of competitive GABA(A) receptor antagonists, the furosemide block of currents evoked by higher GABA concentrations was markedly increased. Zinc, which preferentially blocks alpha6 subunit-containing receptors, also produced an increased block in the presence of bicuculline. To investigate whether similar effects occurred at synaptic receptors, inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) were recorded. In most cells, furosemide produced little or no reduction in evoked IPSC amplitude. However in the presence of SR95531, a competitive antagonist, furosemide markedly reduced IPSC amplitude. One hypothesis, which could account for these observations, is that competitive antagonists prevent the continual activation of alpha6beta2/3gamma2 receptors by endogenous GABA and thus prevent their desensitisation. This hypothesis appears feasible as prolonged applications of low concentrations of GABA to recombinant alpha6beta2gamma2s receptors resulted in their desensitisation. PMID:12559122

  7. Membrane traffic between secretory compartments is differentially affected during mitosis.

    PubMed Central

    Kreiner, T; Moore, H P

    1990-01-01

    Membrane traffic has been shown to be regulated during cell division. In particular, with the use of viral membrane proteins as markers, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi transport in mitotic cells has been shown to be essentially blocked. However, the effect of mitosis on other steps in the secretory pathway is less clear, because an early block makes examination of following steps difficult. Here, we report studies on the functional characteristics of secretory pathways in mitotic mammalian tissue culture cells by the use of a variety of markers. Chinese hamster ovary cells were transfected with cDNAs encoding secretory proteins. Consistent with earlier results following viral membrane proteins, we found that the overall secretory pathway is nonfunctional in mitotic cells, and a major block to secretion is at the step between ER and Golgi: the overall rate of secretion of human growth hormone is reduced at least 10-fold in mitotic cells, and export of truncated vesicular stomatitis virus G protein from the ER is inhibited to about the same extent, as judged by acquisition of endoglycosidase H resistance. To ascertain the integrity of transport from the trans-Golgi to plasma membrane, we followed the secretion of sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, which are synthesized in the Golgi and thus are not subject to the earlier ER-to-Golgi block. GAG chains are valid markers for the pathway taken by constitutive secretory proteins; both protein secretion and GAG chain secretion are sensitive to treatment with n-ethyl-maleimide and monensin and are blocked at 19 degrees C. We found that the extent of GAG-chain secretion is not altered during mitosis, although the initial rate of secretion is reduced about twofold in mitotic compared with interphase cells. Thus, during mitosis, transport from the trans-Golgi to plasma membrane is much less hindered than ER-to-Golgi traffic. We conclude that transport steps are not affected to the same extent during mitosis. Images PMID:2099191

  8. Proteolysis in the secretory pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Guzowski, D.E.; Bienkowski, R.S.

    1987-05-01

    Many secretory proteins are degraded intracellularly rather than secreted, however the location of this catabolic process is not known. The authors have tested the hypothesis that the degradation occurs in the organelles of the secretory pathway. Slices of rat liver were incubated with (/sup 14/C)leucine for 3 h and then incubated under chase conditions for 30 min. The tissue was homogenized and the Golgi apparatus, smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER) and rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) were isolated by ultracentrifugation on a discontinuous sucrose gradient. The organelles were incubated in 0.3M sucrose-50 mM citrate (pH 4) for 8-12 h at 37 C; control samples were incubated at 4 C. Percent degradation was calculated as the amount of acid soluble radioactivity released relative to total radioactivity in the sample. Proteolysis in the organelles incubated at 37 C was as follows: Golgi: 15-25%; sER: 10-20%; rER: 10-20%. Proteolysis at 4 C was negligible in all cases. These results support the hypothesis that the compartments of the secretory pathway are capable of degrading newly synthesized secretory proteins.

  9. Secretory proteins of the pulmonary extracellular lining

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.P.; Patton, S.E.; Eddy, M.; Smits, H.L.; Jetten, A.M.; Nettesheim, P.; Hook, G.E.R.

    1986-03-05

    The objective of this investigation was to identify proteins in the pulmonary extracellular lining (EL) that are secreted by cells of the pulmonary epithelium. Pulmonary lavage effluents from the lungs of rabbits were centrifuged to remove all cells and particulate materials. Serum proteins were removed by repeatedly passing concentrated lavage effluent fluid through an affinity column containing IgG fraction of goat anti-rabbit (whole serum) antiserum bound to Sepharose-4B. Nonserum proteins accounted for 21.3 +/- 10.3% of the total soluble proteins in pulmonary lavage effluents. Serum free lavage effluents (SFL) contained 25 identifiable proteins as determined by using SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions. Of these proteins approximately 73% was accounted for by a single protein with MW of 66 kd. The secretory nature of the proteins present in SFL was investigated by studying the incorporation of /sup 35/S-methionine into proteins released by lung slices and trachea followed by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. Many, but not all proteins present in SFL were identified as proteins secreted by pulmonary tissues. The major secretory proteins appeared to have MWs of 59, 53, 48, 43, 24, 14, and 6 kd under reducing conditions. These data demonstrate the presence of several proteins in the pulmonary extracellular lining that appear to be secreted by the pulmonary epithelium.

  10. Cultures of human tracheal gland cells of mucous or serous phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Finkbeiner, Walter E.; Zlock, Lorna T.; Mehdi, Irum

    2009-01-01

    There are two main epithelial cell types in the secretory tubules of mammalian glands: serous and mucous. The former is believed to secrete predominantly water and antimicrobials, the latter mucins. Primary cultures of human airway gland epithelium have been available for almost 20 yr, but they are poorly differentiated and lack clear features of either serous or mucous cells. In this study, by varying growth supports and media, we have produced cultures from human airway glands that in terms of their ultrastructure and secretory products resemble either mucous or serous cells. Of four types of porous-bottomed insert tested, polycarbonate filters (Transwells) most strongly promoted the mucous phenotype. Coupled with the addition of epidermal growth factor (EGF), this growth support produced “mucous” cells that contained the large electron-lucent granules characteristic of native mucous cells, but lacked the small electron-dense granules characteristic of serous cells. Furthermore, they showed high levels of mucin secretion and low levels of release of lactoferrin and lysozyme (markers of native serous cells). By contrast, growth on polyethylene terephthalate filters (Cyclopore) in medium lacking EGF produced “serous” cells in which small electron-dense granules replaced the electron-lucent ones, and the cells had high levels of lactoferrin and lysozyme but low levels of mucins. Measurements of transepithelial resistance and short-circuit current showed that both “serous” and “mucous” cell cultures possessed tight junctions, had become polarized, and were actively secreting Cl. PMID:19998060

  11. Synaptotagmin 2 Couples Mucin Granule Exocytosis to Ca2+ Signaling from Endoplasmic Reticulum*S?

    PubMed Central

    Tuvim, Michael J.; Mospan, Andrea Rossi; Burns, Kimberlie A.; Chua, Michael; Mohler, Peter J.; Melicoff, Ernestina; Adachi, Roberto; Ammar-Aouchiche, Zoulikha; Davis, C. William; Dickey, Burton F.

    2009-01-01

    Synaptotagmin 2 (Syt2) functions as a low affinity, fast exocytic Ca2+ sensor in neurons, where it is activated by Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated channels. Targeted insertion of lacZ into the mouse syt2 locus reveals expression in mucin-secreting goblet cells of the airways. In these cells, rapid Ca2+ entry from the extracellular medium does not contribute significantly to stimulated secretion (Davis, C. W., and Dickey, B. F. (2008) Annu. Rev. Physiol. 70, 487–512). Nonetheless, Syt2–/– mice show a severe defect in acute agonist-stimulated airway mucin secretion, and Syt2+/– mice show a partial defect. In contrast to Munc13-2–/– mice (Zhu, Y., Ehre, C., Abdullah, L. H., Sheehan, J. K., Roy, M., Evans, C. M., Dickey, B. F., and Davis, C. W. (2008) J. Physiol. (Lond.) 586, 1977–1992), Syt2–/– mice show no spontaneous mucin accumulation, consistent with the inhibitory action of Syt2 at resting cytoplasmic Ca2+ in neurons. In human airway goblet cells, inositol trisphosphate receptors are found in rough endoplasmic reticulum that closely invests apical mucin granules, consistent with the known dependence of exocytic Ca2+ signaling on intracellular stores in these cells. Hence, Syt2 can serve as an exocytic sensor for diverse Ca2+ signaling systems, and its levels are limiting for stimulated secretory function in airway goblet cells. PMID:19208631

  12. MULTICELLULAR SECRETORY TRICHOME DEVELOPMENT ON PERENNIAL AND ANNUAL SOYBEAN GYNOECIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multicellular secretory trichomes occur on gynoecia of wild perennial Glycine tomentella, and on the wild annual G. soja, and annual cultivars of G. max. This trichome is similar in all taxa examined, with usually 5 to 6 linearly arranged cells. These trichomes are located along the gynoecium from t...

  13. Reduction of the immunostainable length of the hippocampal dentate granule cells' primary cilia in 3xAD-transgenic mice producing human A{beta}{sub 1-42} and tau

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravarthy, Balu; Gaudet, Chantal; Menard, Michel; Brown, Leslie; Atkinson, Trevor; LaFerla, Frank M.; Ito, Shingo; Armato, Ubaldo; Dal Pra, Ilaria; Whitfield, James

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta} and tau-induced neurofibrillary tangles play a key role in Alzheimer's disease. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta}{sub 1-42} and mutant tau protein together reduce the primary cilium length. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This shortening likely reduces cilium-dependent neurogenesis and memory function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This provides a model of an A{beta}/tau targeting of a neuronal signaling organelle. -- Abstract: The hippocampal dentate gyrus is one of the two sites of continuous neurogenesis in adult rodents and humans. Virtually all dentate granule cells have a single immobile cilium with a microtubule spine or axoneme covered with a specialized cell membrane loaded with receptors such as the somatostatin receptor 3 (SSTR3), and the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75{sup NTR}). The signals from these receptors have been reported to stimulate neuroprogenitor proliferation and the post-mitotic maturation of newborn granule cells into functioning granule cells. We have found that in 6-24-months-old triple transgenic Alzheimer's disease model mice (3xTg-AD) producing both A{beta}{sub 1-42} and the mutant human tau protein tau{sub P301L,} the dentate granule cells still had immunostainable SSTR3- and p75{sup NTR}-bearing cilia but they were only half the length of the immunostained cilia in the corresponding wild-type mice. However, the immunostainable length of the granule cell cilia was not reduced either in 2xTg-AD mice accumulating large amounts of A{beta}{sub 1-42} or in mice accumulating only a mutant human tau protein. Thus it appears that a combination of A{beta}{sub 1-42} and tau protein accumulation affects the levels of functionally important receptors in 3xTg-AD mice. These observations raise the important possibility that structural and functional changes in granule cell cilia might have a role in AD.

  14. Effect of nifedipine, captopril and prazosin on secretory function of pancreatic beta-cells in hypertensive patients with type-2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes and in hypertensive non-diabetics.

    PubMed

    Jasik, M; Kasperska-Dworak, A; Czyzyk, A

    1996-06-01

    The aim of our study was to compare the effect of captopril--the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, nifedipine--the calcium antagonist, and prazosin--the alpha blocker, on the secretory function of pancreatic beta-cells in hypertensive patients with NIDDM and with normal glucose tolerance. The effect of a 2-week treatment with nifedipine, captopril and prazosin upon glycaemia, serum insulin (IRI) and C-peptide (CP) following oral and intravenous glucose load were investigated in three groups, each including 10 non-diabetic patients with essential hypertension (h) and 10 hypertensive type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetics (h + d), aged 32-63 years. Nifedipine produced increase in glycaemia in the oral test in both groups. In the (h) group, but not in the (h + d) group, the drug caused reduction of the glucose-dependent increases in serum IRI and CP, more marked with respect to CP, as expressed by the decrease in the molar serum CP/IRI ratio. These results indicate that in non-diabetic patients, nifedipine reduces the early response of beta-cells to glucose, but this effect is partly compensated by a decreased insulin uptake by the liver. In patients with type 2 diabetes, this phenomenon does not become manifest because of absence or reduction in the early glucose-dependent insulin release. After captopril, lower values of glycaemia and serum IRI and CP were observed in both groups suggesting an improvement of insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, nifedipine has a small influence, and captopril and prazosin are devoided of any influence on the secretory function of pancreatic beta-cells. These drugs may be recommended for the treatment of hypertension in patients with type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes. PMID:8877277

  15. ISOLATION OF GRANULES FROM EOSINOPHIL LEUCOCYTES AND STUDY OF THEIR ENZYME CONTENT

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Gordon T.; Hirsch, James G.

    1963-01-01

    Eosinophils were separated from other types of cells in horse blood or rat peritoneal fluid by centrifugation in concentrated albumin solutions. Eosinophils did not appear to be damaged by this separation procedure. A technique was also devised for isolation of cytoplasmic granules from eosinophils, thus allowing studies on enzyme content of the granules. Granules from both horse and rat eosinophils contained a number of hydrolytic enzymes, similar in variety and in concentration to those previously found in granules of rabbit polymorphonuclear leucocytes. Eosinophil granules differed from those of the rabbit granulocyte in their high content of peroxidase and the absence of lysozyme and phagocytin. On disruption of eosinophil granules by repeated freezing and thawing in saline, cathepsin, ribonuclease, arylsulfatase and beta glucuronidase were released into solution, but phosphatases were partially and peroxidase completely bound to the insoluble granule residue. Peroxidase could be extracted from the granule residue with weak acid. Eosinophil granules thus are lysosome-like structures. PMID:14074391

  16. Regulation of membrane fusion and secretory events in the sea urchin embryo

    SciTech Connect

    Roe, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Membrane fusion and secretory events play a key role in fertilization and early development in the sea urchin embryo. To investigate the mechanism of membrane fusion, the effect of inhibitors of metalloendoprotease activity was studied on two model systems of cell fusion; fertilization and spiculogenesis by primary mesenchyme cells in the embryo. Both the zinc chelator, 1,10-phenanthroline, and peptide metalloprotease substrates were found to inhibit both fertilization and gamete fusion, while peptides that are not substrates of metalloproteases did not affect either process. Primary mesenchyme cells form the larval skeleton in the embryo by deposition of mineral and an organic matrix into a syncytial cavity formed by fusion of filopodia of these cells. Metalloprotease inhibitors were found to inhibit spiculogenesis both in vivo and in cultures of isolated primary mesenchyme cells, and the activity of a metalloprotease of the appropriate specificity was found in the primary mesenchyme cells. These two studies implicate the activity of a metalloprotease in a necessary step in membrane fusion. Following fertilization, exocytosis of the cortical granules results in the formation of the fertilization envelope and the hyaline layer, that surround the developing embryo. The hatching enzyme is secreted by the blastula stage sea urchin embryo, which proteolyzes the fertilization envelope surrounding the embryo, allowing the embryo to hatch. Using an assay that measures {sup 125}I-fertilization envelope degradation, the hatching enzyme was identified as a 33 kDa metalloprotease, and was purified by ion-exchange and affinity chromatography from the hatching media of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryos. The hatching enzyme showed a substrate preference for only a minor subset of fertilization envelope proteins.

  17. A bacterial signal peptide is functional in plants and directs proteins to the secretory pathway

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Lorena; Gan, Qinglei; Wang, Kan

    2009-01-01

    The Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LT-B) has been used as a model antigen for the production of plant-derived high-valued proteins in maize. LT-B with its native signal peptide (BSP) has been shown to accumulate in starch granules of transgenic maize kernels. To elucidate the targeting properties of the bacterial LT-B protein and BSP in plant systems, the subcellular localization of visual marker green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to LT-B and various combinations of signal peptides was examined in Arabidopsis protoplasts and transgenic maize. Biochemical analysis indicates that the LT-B::GFP fusion proteins can assemble and fold properly retaining both the antigenicity of LT-B and the fluorescing properties of GFP. Maize kernel fractionation revealed that transgenic lines carrying BSP result in recombinant protein association with fibre and starch fractions. Confocal microscopy analysis indicates that the fusion proteins accumulate in the endomembrane system of plant cells in a signal peptide-dependent fashion. This is the first report providing evidence of the ability of a bacterial signal peptide to target proteins to the plant secretory pathway. The results provide important insights for further understanding the heterologous protein trafficking mechanisms and for developing effective strategies in molecular farming. PMID:19491306

  18. NR2A subunit of the N-methyl D-aspartate receptors are required for potentiation at the mossy fiber to granule cell synapse and vestibulo-cerebellar motor learning.

    PubMed

    Andreescu, C E; Prestori, F; Brandalise, F; D'Errico, A; De Jeu, M T G; Rossi, P; Botta, L; Kohr, G; Perin, P; D'Angelo, E; De Zeeuw, C I

    2011-03-10

    Traditionally studies aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying cerebellar motor learning have been focused on plasticity at the parallel fiber to Purkinje cell synapse. In recent years, however, the concept is emerging that formation and storage of memories are both distributed over multiple types of synapses at different sites. Here, we examined the potential role of potentiation at the mossy fiber to granule cell synapse, which occurs upstream to plasticity in Purkinje cells. We show that null-mutants of N-methyl d-aspartate-NR2A receptors (NMDA-NR2A(-/-) mice) have impaired induction of postsynaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) at the mossy fiber terminals and a reduced ability to raise the granule cell synaptic excitation, while the basic excitatory output of the mossy fibers is unaffected. In addition, we demonstrate that these NR2A(-/-) mutants as well as mutants in which the C terminal in the NR2A subunit is selectively truncated (NR2A(?C/?C) mice) have deficits in phase reversal adaptation of their vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), while their basic eye movement performance is similar to that of wild type littermates. These results indicate that NMDA-NR2A mediated potentiation at the mossy fiber to granule cell synapse is not required for basic motor performance, and they raise the possibility that it may contribute to some forms of vestibulo-cerebellar memory formation. PMID:21185357

  19. Human ?-Cell Killing by Autoreactive Preproinsulin-Specific CD8 T Cells Is Predominantly Granule-Mediated With the Potency Dependent Upon T-Cell Receptor Avidity

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Robin R.; Kronenberg, Deborah; Zhao, Min; Huang, Guo Cai; Eichmann, Martin; Bulek, Anna; Wooldridge, Linda; Cole, David K.; Sewell, Andrew K.; Peakman, Mark; Skowera, Ania

    2013-01-01

    The end-stage immunopathology of type 1 diabetes resulting in ?-cell destruction appears to be strongly dominated by cytotoxic CD8 T lymphocytes (CD8 T cells). However, the mechanism of cytotoxicity used by autoreactive CD8 T cells in the human setting remains unknown. Using type 1 diabetes patient–derived preproinsulin-specific CD8 T-cell clones recognizing either an HLA-A2 (A*0201) or HLA-A24 (A*2402)-restricted epitope (peptide of preproinsulin [PPI]15–24, ALWGPDPAAA; or PPI3–11, LWMRLLPLL), we assessed the use of conventional mediators of cytotoxicity in the destruction of human ?-cells in vitro compared with virus-specific cytotoxic CD8 T-cell clones. We show that PPI-specific CD8 T-cell clones are mainly reliant upon cytotoxic degranulation for inducing ?-cell death. Furthermore, we find that in comparison with virus-specific CD8 T cells, there are differences in the killing potency of PPI-specific CD8 T cells that are not due to cell-intrinsic differences, but rather are mediated by differences in strength of signaling by peptide–HLA ligands. The study highlights the regulation of ?-cell killing as a potential point for therapeutic control, including the possibility of blocking autoreactive CD8 T-cell function without impacting upon general immune competence. PMID:22936177

  20. Effect of acrylonitrile on the rat pituitary: enlargement of Golgi region in prolactin cells, crinophagy in prolactin cells and growth hormone cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kamijo, K.; Kovacs, K.; Szabo, S.; Bollinger-Gruber, J. N.; Reichlin, S.

    1986-01-01

    Since it has been shown that acrylonitrile prevents the appearance of spontaneous pituitary adenomas, we have investigated its effect in acute experiments on rat pituitaries by histology, immunocytochemistry, electron microscopy and morphometry; in addition, serum prolactin and growth hormone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Electron microscopy of prolactin cells revealed hypertrophy of the Golgi region without significant change in volume densities and diameters of forming and storage granules. In the 24 h group, crinophagy was observed in prolactin cells and growth hormone cells. Corticotrophs, thyrotrophs and gonadotrophs were unaltered. Dilation, congestion and rupture of capillaries, as well as pericapillary and intercellular oedema were evident in the 24 h group. One hour after intravenous acrylonitrile injection, serum prolactin levels were within the normal range, whereas at 24 h, hyperprolactinemia was noted. Serum growth hormone concentrations were unchanged. It can be concluded that acrylonitrile has a complex effect on prolactin cells. Hypertrophy of Golgi complex and hyperprolactinemia may reflect increased prolactin synthesis and release. Since volume densities and diameters of secretory granules in prolactin cells remained unchanged, it appears that newly synthesized prolactin was preferentially released and not the prolactin stored in secretory granules. Crinophagy may be the morphological manifestation of a discrepancy between hormone synthesis and release suggesting increased degradation of unused hormone by lysosomes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:3718845

  1. Contribution of a calcium-activated non-specific conductance to NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic potentials in granule cells of the frog olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Benjamin J; Delaney, Kerry R

    2002-01-01

    We studied granule cells (GCs) in the intact frog olfactory bulb (OB) by combining whole-cell recordings and functional two-photon Ca2+ imaging in an in vitro nose-brain preparation. GCs are local interneurones that shape OB output via distributed dendrodendritic inhibition of OB projection neurones, the mitral-tufted cells (MTCs). In contrast to MTCs, GCs exhibited a Ca2+-activated non-specific cation conductance (ICAN) that could be evoked through strong synaptic stimulation or suprathreshold current injection. Photolysis of the caged Ca2+ chelator o-nitrophenol-EGTA resulted in activation of an inward current with a reversal potential within the range -20 to +10 mV. ICAN in GCs was suppressed by the intracellular Ca2+ chelator BAPTA (0.5–5.0 mM), but not by EGTA (up to 5 mM). The current persisted in whole-cell recordings for up to 1.5 h post-breakthrough, was observed during perforated-patch recordings and was independent of ionotropic glutamate and GABAA receptor activity. In current-clamp mode, GC responses to synaptic stimulation consisted of an initial AMPA-mediated conductance followed by a late-phase APV-sensitive plateau (100–500 ms). BAPTA-mediated suppression of ICAN resulted in a selective reduction of the late component of the evoked synaptic potential, consistent with a positive feedback relationship between NMDA receptor (NMDAR) current and ICAN. ICAN requires Ca2+ influx either through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels or possibly NMDARs, both of which have a high threshold for activation in GCs, predicting a functional role for this current in the selective enhancement of strong synaptic inputs to GCs. PMID:12231641

  2. On the interaction between chromaffin granule membranes and intragranular vesicles--theory and analysis of freeze-fracture micrographs.

    PubMed

    Engel, J; Pastushenko, V F; Richter, W; Donath, E

    1991-01-01

    We present a model for the calculation of intragranular vesicle adhesion energy in a two-vesicle system consisting of an external secretory vesicle (chromaffin granule) and an intragranular vesicle (IGV) that adheres from the inside to the granule membrane. The geometrical parameters characterizing the granule-IGV systems were derived from freeze-fracture electron micrographs. Adhesion is brought about by incubation of the granules in hyperosmolar sucrose solutions. It is accompanied by a deformation of the granule because the intragranular vesicle bulges it outwards, and by segregation of intramembraneous particles from the adherent part of the granule membrane. Adhesion prevents the deformed granules from osmotic reexpansion and, therefore, causes hyperosmotic relaxation lysis. We estimated specific adhesion energy at -3 erg/cm2, a value which is 10 - 1000 times larger than the energy of van der Waals interaction between membranes. This large interaction energy probably results from changes of the granule core induced by dehydration. A minimization of the interface between the granule core and adjacent membranes could exclude intragranular vesicles from the core and squeeze them towards the granule membrane. This might induce a new kind of interaction between both membranes, which is irreversible and causes lysis upon osmotic relaxation. PMID:2049534

  3. Transcriptional regulation of secretory capacity by bZip transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    FOX, Rebecca M.

    2015-01-01

    Cells of specialized secretory organs expand their secretory pathways to accommodate the increased protein load necessary for their function. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the Golgi apparatus and the secretory vesicles, expand not only the membrane components but also the protein machinery required for increased protein production and transport. Increased protein load causes an ER stress response akin to the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). Recent work has implicated several bZip transcription factors in the regulation of protein components of the early secretory pathway necessary to alleviate this stress. Here, we highlight eight bZip transcription factors in regulating secretory pathway component genes. These include components of the three canonical branches of the UPR–ATF4, XBP1, and ATF6, as well as the five members of the Creb3 family of transcription factors. We review findings from both invertebrate and vertebrate model systems suggesting that all of these proteins increase secretory capacity in response to increased protein load. Finally, we propose that the Creb3 family of factors may have a dual role in secretory cell differentiation by also regulating the pathways necessary for cell cycle exit during terminal differentiation. PMID:25821458

  4. COMPARISON OF NEUROSCREEN-1 AND CEREBELLAR GRANULE CELL CULTURES FOR EVALUATING NEURITE OUTGROWTH USING THE ARRAYSCAN HIGH CONTENT ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major challenge facing the Environmental Protection Agency is the development of high-throughput screening assays amendable to resource-efficient developmental neurotoxicity for chemical screening and toxicity prioritization. One approach uses in vitro, cell-based assays which...

  5. Cell Signaling and Neurotoxicity: 3H-Arachidonic acid release (Phospholipase A2) in cerebellar granule neurons

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cell signaling is a complex process which controls basic cellular activities and coordinates actions to maintain normal cellular homeostasis. Alterations in signaling processes have been associated with neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's and cerebellar ataxia, as well as, ...

  6. NMDA-receptor inhibition restores Protease-Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1) mediated alterations in homeostatic synaptic plasticity of denervated mouse dentate granule cells.

    PubMed

    Becker, Denise; Ikenberg, Benno; Schiener, Sabine; Maggio, Nicola; Vlachos, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    A common feature of neurological diseases is the loss of central neurons, which leads to deafferentation of connected brain regions. In turn, the remodeling of denervated neuronal networks is considered to play an important role for the postlesional recovery, but has also been linked to maladaptive plasticity resulting in disease-related complications such as memory dysfunction or epilepsy. Recent work has indicated that Protease-Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1), which can be activated by thrombin that enters the brain under pathological conditions, alters synaptic plasticity and neuronal excitability. However, the role of PAR1 in lesion-induced synaptic plasticity remains incompletely understood. Here, we used entorhinal denervation of organotypic hippocampal slice cultures to study the effects of PAR1 on denervation-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Our results disclose that PAR1 activation counters the ability of denervated dentate granule cells to increase their excitatory synaptic strength in a compensatory, i.e., homeostatic manner. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this PAR1 effect is rescued by pharmacological inhibition of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDA-R). Thus, NMDA-R inhibitors may restore the ability of denervated neurons to express homeostatic synaptic plasticity under conditions of increased PAR1-activity, which may contribute to their beneficial effects seen in the context of neurological diseases. PMID:25086265

  7. Weaker control of the electrical properties of cerebellar granule cells by tonically active GABAA receptors in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down’s syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Down’s syndrome (DS) is caused by triplication of all or part of human chromosome 21 and is characterized by a decrease in the overall size of the brain. One of the brain regions most affected is the cerebellum, in which the number of granule cells (GCs) is markedly decreased. GCs process sensory information entering the cerebellum via mossy fibres and pass it on to Purkinje cells and inhibitory interneurons. How GCs transform incoming signals depends on their input–output relationship, which is adjusted by tonically active GABAA receptor channels. Results We report that in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS, in which cerebellar volume and GC number are decreased as in DS, the tonic GABAA receptor current in GCs is smaller than in wild-type mice and is less effective in moderating input resistance and raising the minimum current required for action potential firing. We also find that tonically active GABAA receptors curb the height and broaden the width of action potentials in wild-type GCs but not in Ts65Dn GCs. Single-cell real-time quantitative PCR reveals that these electrical differences are accompanied by decreased expression of the gene encoding the GABAA receptor ?3 subunit but not genes coding for some of the other GABAA receptor subunits expressed in GCs (?1, ?6, ?2 and ?). Conclusions Weaker moderation of excitability and action potential waveform in GCs of the Ts65Dn mouse by tonically active GABAA receptors is likely to contribute to atypical transfer of information through the cerebellum. Similar changes may occur in DS. PMID:23870245

  8. Drebrin A expression is altered after pilocarpine-induced seizures: time course of changes is consistent for a role in the integrity and stability of dendritic spines of hippocampal granule cells.

    PubMed

    Sbai, Oualid; Khrestchatisky, Michel; Esclapez, Monique; Ferhat, Lotfi

    2012-03-01

    We used a pathophysiological model of temporal lobe epilepsy induced by pilocarpine in adult rats in order to assess the in vivo role of drebrin A (DA), one of the major regulators of F-actin. This model displays a dynamic reorganization of the glutamatergic network including neo-spinogenesis, morphogenesis, and neo-synaptogenesis associated with an aberrant sprouting of granule cell axons in the dentate gyrus (DG). This reactive plasticity contributes in dentate granule-cell hyperexcitability that could lead to the emergence of recurrent spontaneous seizures. We investigated the hippocampal DA expression changes in pilocarpine animals using immunohistochemical, Western blot, and in situ hybridization analyses. We showed that DA immunoreactivity was decreased in the inner molecular layer (IML) and in the hilus (H) of the DG, at latent stage, when spinogenesis and morphogenesis occur. Western blot analysis confirmed these overall hippocampal decreases of DA protein expression. At chronic stage, when newly formed glutamatergic synapses are being established, the levels of immunolabeling for DA in the H and the IML were similar to control rats. This recovery is likely due to the increase of DA mRNA in perikarya of hilar and granule cells. Interestingly, our data showed that the changes pattern of labeling for Bassoon, a specific marker for presynaptic active zone, in the IML of pilocarpine-treated animals paralleled those found for DA at all time points examined. Furthermore, our double and triple immunofluorescence studies showed that the recovery in DA levels in the IML occurred within the dendritic spines involved in glutamatergic active synapses of presumed granule cells. Altogether, our results indicate that in vivo DA is not critical for spinogenesis and morphogenesis but instead is consistent with an involvement in synaptic structural integrity, stabilization, and function. Thus, DA appears as a novel modulator of reactive synaptic plasticity associated with epilepsy. PMID:21240918

  9. Nonreutilizaton of adrenal chromaffin granule membranes following secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Nobiletti, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    The intracellular postexocytotic fate of the adrenal chromaffin granule membrane (reutilization vs. nonreutilization) was addressed through two experimental approaches. First, (/sup 3/H) leucine pulse-chase labeling experiments were conducted in two systems - the isolated retrograde perfused cat adrenal gland and cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells to compare chromaffin granule soluble dopamine-B-hydroxylase (DBH) turnover (marker for granule soluble content turnover) to that of membrane-bound DBH (marker for granule membrane turnover). Experiments in cat adrenal glands showed that at all chase periods the granule distribution of radiolabeled DBH was in agreement with the DBH activity distribution (73% membrane-bound/27% soluble) - a result consistent with parallel turnover of soluble and membrane-bound DBH. Experiments in cultured bovine cells showed that labeled soluble and membrane-bound DBH had parallel turnover patterns and at all chase period, the distribution of radiolabeled DBH between the soluble contents and membranes was similar to the DBH activity distribution (50% soluble/50% membrane-bound). The above experiments showed that the soluble contents and membranes turnover in parallel and are consistent with nonreutilization of chromaffin granule membranes following exocytosis. Isolated retrograde perfused bovine adrenal glands were subjected to repetitive acetylcholine stimulation to induce exocytosis and then the dense and less-dense chromaffin granule fractions were isolated. Since both approaches gave results consistent with membrane nonreutilization, the authors conclude that once a chromaffin granule is involved in exocytosis, its membrane is not reutilized for the further synthesis, storage, and secretion of catecholamines.

  10. Comparison of PC12 and Cerebellar Granule Cell Cultures for Evaluating Neurite Outgrowth Using High Content Screening

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of high-throughput assays for chemical screening and hazard identification is a pressing priority worldwide. One approach uses in vitro, cell-based assays which recapitulate biological events observed in vivo. Neurite outgrowth is one such critical cellular process un...

  11. Secretion of Polypeptide Crystals from Tetrahymena thermophila Secretory Organelles (Mucocysts) Depends on Processing by a Cysteine Cathepsin, Cth4p.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Briguglio, Joseph S; Turkewitz, Aaron P

    2015-08-01

    In many organisms, sophisticated mechanisms facilitate release of peptides in response to extracellular stimuli. In the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, efficient peptide secretion depends on specialized vesicles called mucocysts that contain dense crystalline cores that expand rapidly during exocytosis. Core assembly depends of endoproteolytic cleavage of mucocyst proproteins by an aspartyl protease, cathepsin 3 (CTH3). Here, we show that a second enzyme identified by expression profiling, Cth4p, is also required for processing of proGrl proteins and for assembly of functional mucocysts. Cth4p is a cysteine cathepsin that localizes partially to endolysosomal structures and appears to act downstream of, and may be activated by, Cth3p. Disruption of CTH4 results in cells (?cth4) that show aberrant trimming of Grl proproteins, as well as grossly aberrant mucocyst exocytosis. Surprisingly, ?cth4 cells succeed in assembling crystalline mucocyst cores. However, those cores do not undergo normal directional expansion during exocytosis, and they thus fail to efficiently extrude from the cells. We could phenocopy the ?cth4 defects by mutating conserved catalytic residues, indicating that the in vivo function of Cth4p is enzymatic. Our results indicate that as for canonical proteins packaged in animal secretory granules, the maturation of mucocyst proproteins involves sequential processing steps. The ?cth4 defects uncouple, in an unanticipated way, the assembly of mucocyst cores and their subsequent expansion and thereby reveal a previously unsuspected aspect of polypeptide secretion in ciliates. PMID:26092918

  12. Calcium permeable AMPA receptor-dependent long lasting plasticity of intrinsic excitability in fast spiking interneurons of the dentate gyrus decreases inhibition in the granule cell layer.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Debanjan; Sikdar, Sujit Kumar

    2015-03-01

    The local fast-spiking interneurons (FSINs) are considered to be crucial for the generation, maintenance, and modulation of neuronal network oscillations especially in the gamma frequency band. Gamma frequency oscillations have been associated with different aspects of behavior. But the prolonged effects of gamma frequency synaptic activity on the FSINs remain elusive. Using whole cell current clamp patch recordings, we observed a sustained decrease of intrinsic excitability in the FSINs of the dentate gyrus (DG) following repetitive stimulations of the mossy fibers at 30 Hz (gamma bursts). Surprisingly, the granule cells (GCs) did not express intrinsic plastic changes upon similar synaptic excitation of their apical dendritic inputs. Interestingly, pairing the gamma bursts with membrane hyperpolarization accentuated the plasticity in FSINs following the induction protocol, while the plasticity attenuated following gamma bursts paired with membrane depolarization. Paired pulse ratio measurement of the synaptic responses did not show significant changes during the experiments. However, the induction protocols were accompanied with postsynaptic calcium rise in FSINs. Interestingly, the maximum and the minimum increase occurred during gamma bursts with membrane hyperpolarization and depolarization respectively. Including a selective blocker of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) in the bath; significantly attenuated the calcium rise and blocked the membrane potential dependence of the calcium rise in the FSINs, suggesting their involvement in the observed phenomenon. Chelation of intracellular calcium, blocking HCN channel conductance or blocking CP-AMPARs during the experiment forbade the long lasting expression of the plasticity. Simultaneous dual patch recordings from FSINs and synaptically connected putative GCs confirmed the decreased inhibition in the GCs accompanying the decreased intrinsic excitability in the FSINs. Experimentally constrained network simulations using NEURON predicted increased spiking in the GC owing to decreased input resistance in the FSIN. We hypothesize that the selective plasticity in the FSINs induced by local network activity may serve to increase information throughput into the downstream hippocampal subfields besides providing neuroprotection to the FSINs. PMID:25252134

  13. Stellar granulation and interferometry

    E-print Network

    Chiavassa, A

    2015-01-01

    Stars are not smooth. Their photosphere is covered by a granulation pattern associated with the heat transport by convection. The convection-related surface structures have different size, depth, and temporal variations with respect to the stellar type. The related activity (in addition to other phenomena such as magnetic spots, rotation, dust, etc.) potentially causes bias in stellar parameters determination, radial velocity, chemical abundances determinations, and exoplanet transit detections. The role of long-baseline interferometric observations in this astrophysical context is crucial to characterize the stellar surface dynamics and correct the potential biases. In this Chapter, we present how the granulation pattern is expected for different kind of stellar types ranging from main sequence to extremely evolved stars of different masses and how interferometric techniques help to study their photospheric dynamics.

  14. Oligophrenin-1 Connects Exocytotic Fusion to Compensatory Endocytosis in Neuroendocrine Cells.

    PubMed

    Houy, Sébastien; Estay-Ahumada, Catherine; Croisé, Pauline; Calco, Valérie; Haeberlé, Anne-Marie; Bailly, Yannick; Billuart, Pierre; Vitale, Nicolas; Bader, Marie-France; Ory, Stéphane; Gasman, Stéphane

    2015-08-01

    Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1) is a protein with multiple domains including a Rho family GTPase-activating (Rho-GAP) domain, and a Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain. Involved in X-linked intellectual disability, OPHN1 has been reported to control several synaptic functions, including synaptic plasticity, synaptic vesicle trafficking, and endocytosis. In neuroendocrine cells, hormones and neuropeptides stored in large dense core vesicles (secretory granules) are released through calcium-regulated exocytosis, a process that is tightly coupled to compensatory endocytosis, allowing secretory granule recycling. We show here that OPHN1 is expressed and mainly localized at the plasma membrane and in the cytosol in chromaffin cells from adrenal medulla. Using carbon fiber amperometry, we found that exocytosis is impaired at the late stage of membrane fusion in Ophn1 knock-out mice and OPHN1-silenced bovine chromaffin cells. Experiments performed with ectopically expressed OPHN1 mutants indicate that OPHN1 requires its Rho-GAP domain to control fusion pore dynamics. On the other hand, compensatory endocytosis assessed by measuring dopamine-?-hydroxylase (secretory granule membrane) internalization is severely inhibited in Ophn1 knock-out chromaffin cells. This inhibitory effect is mimicked by the expression of a truncated OPHN1 mutant lacking the BAR domain, demonstrating that the BAR domain implicates OPHN1 in granule membrane recapture after exocytosis. These findings reveal for the first time that OPHN1 is a bifunctional protein that is able, through distinct mechanisms, to regulate and most likely link exocytosis to compensatory endocytosis in chromaffin cells. PMID:26245966

  15. The mechanical properties of p-granule components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawerth, Louise; Saha, Shambaditya; Jahnel, Marcus; Juelicher, Frank; Hyman, Anthony

    2015-03-01

    We study the major constituents of liquid droplets called ``p-granules''. During the one-cell stage of Caenorhabditis elegans development, these p-granules preferentially form on the posterior side of the cell and remain there preferentially as the cell divides leading to the majority of droplets remaining in one of the daughter cells. This process repeats during subsequent cell divisions with, again, the majority of droplets being maintained in one cell. When this process concludes and the worm continues to develop, the cell containing the p-granule droplets will eventually become the gonad of the adult worm. Previous work has suggested that the spatial segregation of p-granules that occurs at each stage is the result of a phase separation analogous to classic liquid-liquid demixing. We study this process under various buffer conditions in vitro by using a model system consisting of purified p-granule components. We find that these form liquid droplets under physiological conditions which resemble p-granules. We further report on the physical properties of these liquids and how they compare to their in vivo counterparts. In particular, we measure their surface tension and viscosity. We find surface tensions around 10-7 N/m and viscosities much higher than that of water.

  16. Effects of the excretory/secretory products of six nematode species, parasites of the digestive tract, on the proliferation of HT29-D4 and HGT-1 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Huby, F; Hoste, H; Mallet, S; Fournel, S; Nano, J L

    1995-01-01

    The excretory/secretory (ES) products of the nematode parasite Trichostrongylus colubriformis have been found to increase the in vitro proliferation of the epithelial cell line HT29-D4. To assess the specificity of this effect, ES products from other trichostrongyle species were tested on colonic (HT29-D4) and gastric (HGT-1) tumour cell lines. Adult worms of six different nematode species, parasites of the stomach or the small intestine of ruminants, were incubated in vitro in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium for 24 h. The conditioned media were then added at different concentrations to the culture medium of the two cell lines. A stimulation of the HT29-D4 cell growth occurred with the ES products of two parasite species of the small intestine, at the concentrations of 0.1 microgram protein/ml (Trichostrongylus vitrinus) and 1.0-5.0 micrograms/ml (Cooperia curticei). Inversely, a decrease in cell number was observed with the ES products of another intestinal species, Nematodirus battus at concentrations of 1.0-5.0 micrograms/ml. With the ES products of the abomasal nematodes, a proliferation of HT29-D4 cells was obtained at 0.25-5.0 micrograms/ml with ES products of Teladorsagia circumcincta but no significant effect was observed for Haemonchus contortus. On the tumoral gastric cell line HGT-1, the ES products from the 6 nematode species gave a similar stimulative effect. These in vitro results suggest that nematode parasite species secrete or excrete component(s) which could affect the epithelial regeneration of the host digestive tract. PMID:9439903

  17. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands: a new entity associated with ETV6 gene rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Majewska, Hanna; Skálová, Alena; Stodulski, Dominik; Klimková, Adéla; Steiner, Petr; Stankiewicz, Czes?aw; Biernat, Wojciech

    2015-03-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumour that harbours the recurrent ETV6-NTRK3 translocation. This is the first series of MASC cases identified in the historic cohort of carcinomas of salivary glands with clinical/pathological correlation and follow-up data. We reviewed 183 primary carcinomas of major and minor salivary glands resected at the Medical University of Gda?sk, Poland, between 1992 and 2012. Based on morphology and immunohistochemistry, cases suspicious for MASC were selected, and the diagnosis was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for ETV6 rearrangement and by RT-PCR for the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript. Seven carcinomas met the criteria of MASC, as they exhibited a typical appearance with solid/microcystic and papillary architecture and intraluminal secretions, and cells completely devoid of basophilic cytoplasmic zymogen granules indicative of true acinar differentiation. The only paediatric case was an unencapsulated tumour composed of macrocystic structures covered by a mostly single but, focally, double layer of cells with apocrine morphology. In all cases, the neoplastic cells revealed immunoreactivity for S100, mammaglobin, cytokeratin CK7, CK8, STAT5a and vimentin. FISH for ETV6 gene rearrangement was positive in six out of seven cases, and RT-PCR was positive in three cases. MASC is a new entity of malignant epithelial salivary gland tumours not included in the 2005 WHO Classification of Head and Neck Tumours. There is a growing body of evidence that it is not as rare as was assumed, as is also indicated by our series (3.8 %). In most cases, MASC shares some microscopic features with AciCC, adenocarcinoma/cystadenocarcinoma NOS and low-grade MEC. In rare cases, MASC with high-grade transformation may mimic the morphological appearances of high-grade salivary gland malignancies, such as salivary duct carcinoma. PMID:25503077

  18. Granulation of increasingly hydrophobic formulations using a twin screw granulator.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shen; Reynolds, Gavin K; Huang, Zhenyu; de Matas, Marcel; Salman, Agba D

    2014-11-20

    The application of twin screw granulation in the pharmaceutical industry has generated increasing interest due to its suitability for continuous processing. However, an understanding of the impact of formulation properties such as hydrophobicity on intermediate and finished product quality has not yet been established. Hence, the current work investigated the granulation behaviour of three formulations containing increasing amounts of hydrophobic components using a Consigma™-1 twin screw granulator. Process conditions including powder feed rate, liquid to solid ratio, granulation liquid composition and screw configuration were also evaluated. The size of the wet granules was measured in order to enable exploration of granulation behaviour in isolation without confounding effects from downstream processes such as drying. The experimental observations indicated that the granulation process was not sensitive to the powder feed rate. The hydrophobicity led to heterogeneous liquid distribution and hence a relatively large proportion of un-wetted particles. Increasing numbers of kneading elements led to high shear and prolonged residence time, which acted to enhance the distribution of liquid and feeding materials. The bimodal size distributions considered to be characteristic of twin screw granulation were primarily ascribed to the breakage of relatively large granules by the kneading elements. PMID:25124058

  19. MicroRNA profiles in hippocampal granule cells and plasma of rats with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy – comparison with human epileptic samples

    PubMed Central

    Roncon, Paolo; Soukupovà, Marie; Binaschi, Anna; Falcicchia, Chiara; Zucchini, Silvia; Ferracin, Manuela; Langley, Sarah R.; Petretto, Enrico; Johnson, Michael R.; Marucci, Gianluca; Michelucci, Roberto; Rubboli, Guido; Simonato, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The identification of biomarkers of the transformation of normal to epileptic tissue would help to stratify patients at risk of epilepsy following brain injury, and inform new treatment strategies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an attractive option in this direction. In this study, miRNA microarrays were performed on laser-microdissected hippocampal granule cell layer (GCL) and on plasma, at different time points in the development of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy in the rat: latency, first spontaneous seizure and chronic epileptic phase. Sixty-three miRNAs were differentially expressed in the GCL when considering all time points. Three main clusters were identified that separated the control and chronic phase groups from the latency group and from the first spontaneous seizure group. MiRNAs from rats in the chronic phase were compared to those obtained from the laser-microdissected GCL of epileptic patients, identifying several miRNAs (miR-21-5p, miR-23a-5p, miR-146a-5p and miR-181c-5p) that were up-regulated in both human and rat epileptic tissue. Analysis of plasma samples revealed different levels between control and pilocarpine-treated animals for 27 miRNAs. Two main clusters were identified that segregated controls from all other groups. Those miRNAs that are altered in plasma before the first spontaneous seizure, like miR-9a-3p, may be proposed as putative biomarkers of epileptogenesis. PMID:26382856

  20. MicroRNA profiles in hippocampal granule cells and plasma of rats with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy--comparison with human epileptic samples.

    PubMed

    Roncon, Paolo; Soukupovà, Marie; Binaschi, Anna; Falcicchia, Chiara; Zucchini, Silvia; Ferracin, Manuela; Langley, Sarah R; Petretto, Enrico; Johnson, Michael R; Marucci, Gianluca; Michelucci, Roberto; Rubboli, Guido; Simonato, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The identification of biomarkers of the transformation of normal to epileptic tissue would help to stratify patients at risk of epilepsy following brain injury, and inform new treatment strategies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an attractive option in this direction. In this study, miRNA microarrays were performed on laser-microdissected hippocampal granule cell layer (GCL) and on plasma, at different time points in the development of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy in the rat: latency, first spontaneous seizure and chronic epileptic phase. Sixty-three miRNAs were differentially expressed in the GCL when considering all time points. Three main clusters were identified that separated the control and chronic phase groups from the latency group and from the first spontaneous seizure group. MiRNAs from rats in the chronic phase were compared to those obtained from the laser-microdissected GCL of epileptic patients, identifying several miRNAs (miR-21-5p, miR-23a-5p, miR-146a-5p and miR-181c-5p) that were up-regulated in both human and rat epileptic tissue. Analysis of plasma samples revealed different levels between control and pilocarpine-treated animals for 27 miRNAs. Two main clusters were identified that segregated controls from all other groups. Those miRNAs that are altered in plasma before the first spontaneous seizure, like miR-9a-3p, may be proposed as putative biomarkers of epileptogenesis. PMID:26382856

  1. Calmodulin-binding proteins in chromaffin cell plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Fournier, S; Trifaró, J M

    1988-11-01

    Calmodulin-binding proteins present in chromaffin cell plasma membranes were isolated and directly compared with calmodulin-binding proteins present in chromaffin granule membranes. Chromaffin cell plasma membranes were prepared using Cytodex 1 microcarriers. Marker enzyme studies on this preparation showed a nine- to 10-fold plasma membrane enrichment over cell homogenates and a low contamination of these plasma membranes by subcellular organelles. Plasma membranes prepared in this manner were solubilized with Triton X-100 and applied to a calmodulin-affinity column in the presence of calcium. Several major calmodulin-binding proteins (240, 105, and 65 kilodaltons) were eluted by an EGTA-containing buffer. 125I-Calmodulin overlay experiments on nitrocellulose sheets containing both chromaffin plasma and granule membranes showed that these two membranes have several calmodulin-binding proteins in common (65, 60, 53, and 50 kilodaltons), as well as unique calmodulin-binding proteins (34 kilodaltons in granule membranes and 240 and 160 kilodaltons in plasma membranes). The 65-kilodalton calmodulin-binding protein present in both membrane types was shown to consist of two isoforms (pI 6.0 and 6.2) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Previous experiments from our laboratory, using two monoclonal antibodies (mAb 30 and mAb 48) specific for a rat brain synaptic vesicle membrane protein (p65), showed that the monoclonal antibodies reacted with a 65-kilodalton calmodulin-binding protein present in at least three neurosecretory vesicles (chromaffin granules, neurohypophyseal granules, and rat brain synaptic vesicles). When these monoclonal antibodies were tested on chromaffin cell plasma membranes and calmodulin-binding proteins isolated from these membranes, they recognized a 65-kilodalton protein. These results indicate that an immunologically identical calmodulin-binding protein is expressed in both chromaffin granule membranes (as well as other secretory vesicle membranes) and chromaffin cell plasma membranes, thus suggesting a possible role for this protein in granule/plasma membrane interaction. PMID:3171592

  2. GP2-expressing cells in the conjunctiva and tear ducts of mice: identification of a novel type of cells in the squamous stratified epithelium.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Shunsuke; Kishimoto, Ayuko; Mutoh, Mami; Takahashi-Iwanaga, Hiromi; Iwanaga, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    GP2 is a membrane-associated secretory protein originally identified in zymogen granules of pancreatic acinar cells. Recently, this glycoprotein has attracted attention as a marker substance of M cells of Peyer's patches and for its involvement in the selective uptake of pathological bacteria via M cells. When we stained the conjunctiva and tear ducts of mice using a GP2 antibody, all goblet cells in the squamous stratified epithelium of the conjunctiva were intensely immunolabeled, while goblet cells in the intestine and airway were devoid of the immunoreactivity, indicating that the conjunctiva contains a special type of goblet cell. Further immunostaining for GP-2 labeled dispersed cells of peculiar shapes within the stratified squamous epithelium in the lacrimal canaliculi, lacrimal sac, and nasolacrimal duct. The GP2-immunoreactive cells in the tear duct projected arched or branched processes toward the basement membrane. Electron-microscopically, immunogold particles for GP2 outlined the basolateral plasma membrane of both the conjuntival goblet cells and the peculiarly shaped cells in the tear duct. Intracellularly, GP2 products of the goblet cells were localized around secretory granules in the apical cytoplasm and those of the tear duct cells inside the vesicles. The luminal contents close to apical plasma membrane were heavily labeled with immunogold particles, suggesting an exocytosis-based targeting of GP2 to the plasma membrane and its release into the lumen. The possible function of GP2 in tear ducts is discussed in relation to a defense system against invasive microoranisms and antigens. PMID:26299485

  3. Secretory function in subplate neurons during cortical development

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Shinichi; Al-Hasani, Hannah; Hoerder-Suabedissen, Anna; Wang, Wei Zhi; Molnár, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Subplate cells are among the first generated neurons in the mammalian cerebral cortex and have been implicated in the establishment of cortical wiring. In rodents some subplate neurons persist into adulthood. Here we would like to highlight several converging findings which suggest a novel secretory function of subplate neurons during cortical development. Throughout the postnatal period in rodents, subplate neurons have highly developed rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and are under an ER stress condition. By comparing gene expression between subplate and layer 6, we found that several genes encoding secreted proteins are highly expressed in subplate neurons. One of these secreted proteins, neuroserpin, encoded by the serpini1 gene, is localized to the ER in subplate cells. We propose that subplate might influence cortical circuit formation through a transient secretory function. PMID:25859180

  4. Toxoplasma gondii Vps11, a subunit of HOPS and CORVET tethering complexes, is essential for the biogenesis of secretory organelles.

    PubMed

    Morlon-Guyot, Juliette; Pastore, Sandra; Berry, Laurence; Lebrun, Maryse; Daher, Wassim

    2015-08-01

    Apicomplexan parasites harbour unique secretory organelles (dense granules, rhoptries and micronemes) that play essential functions in host infection. Toxoplasma gondii parasites seem to possess an atypical endosome-like compartment, which contains an assortment of proteins that appear to be involved in vesicular sorting and trafficking towards secretory organelles. Recent studies highlighted the essential roles of many regulators such as Rab5A, Rab5C, sortilin-like receptor and syntaxin-6 in secretory organelle biogenesis. However, little is known about the protein complexes that recruit Rab-GTPases and SNAREs for membrane tethering in Apicomplexa. In mammals and yeast, transport, tethering and fusion of vesicles from early endosomes to lysosomes and the vacuole, respectively, are mediated by CORVET and HOPS complexes, both built on the same Vps-C core that includes Vps11 protein. Here, we show that a T.?gondii Vps11 orthologue is essential for the biogenesis or proper subcellular localization of secretory organelle proteins. TgVps11 is a dynamic protein that associates with Golgi endosomal-related compartments, the vacuole and immature apical secretory organelles. Conditional knock-down of TgVps11 disrupts biogenesis of dense granules, rhoptries and micronemes. As a consequence, parasite motility, invasion, egress and intracellular growth are affected. This phenotype was confirmed with additional knock-down mutants of the HOPS complex. In conclusion, we show that apicomplexan parasites use canonical regulators of the endolysosome system to accomplish essential parasite-specific functions in the biogenesis of their unique secretory organelles. PMID:25640905

  5. Discovery and characterization of secretory IgD in rainbow trout: secretory IgD is produced through a novel splicing mechanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramirez-Gomez, F.; Greene, W.; Rego, K.; Hansen, J.D.; Costa, G.; Kataria, P.; Bromage, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    The gene encoding IgH ? has been found in all species of teleosts studied to date. However, catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) is the only species of fish in which a secretory form of IgD has been characterized, and it occurs through the use of a dedicated ?-secretory exon, which is absent from all other species examined. Our studies have revealed that rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) use a novel strategy for the generation of secreted IgD. The trout secretory ? transcript is produced via a run-on event in which the splice donor site at the end of the last constant domain exon (D7) is ignored and transcription continues until a stop codon is reached 33 nt downstream of the splice site, resulting in the production of an in-frame, 11-aa secretory tail at the end of the D7 domain. In silico analysis of several published IgD genes suggested that this unique splicing mechanism may also be used in other species of fish, reptiles, and amphibians. Alternative splicing of the secretory ? transcript resulted in two ?-H chains, which incorporated C?1 and variable domains. Secreted IgD was found in two heavily glycosylated isoforms, which are assembled as monomeric polypeptides associated with L chains. Secretory ? mRNA and IgD+ plasma cells were detected in all immune tissues at a lower frequency than secretory IgM. Our data demonstrate that secretory IgD is more prevalent and widespread across taxa than previously thought, and thus illustrate the potential that IgD may have a conserved role in immunity.

  6. Distinct and opposing roles for Rab27a/Mlph/MyoVa and Rab27b/Munc13-4 in mast cell secretion.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajesh K; Mizuno, Koichi; Wasmeier, Christina; Wavre-Shapton, Silene T; Recchi, Chiara; Catz, Sergio D; Futter, Clare; Tolmachova, Tanya; Hume, Alistair N; Seabra, Miguel C

    2013-02-01

    Mediator release from mast cells is a critical step in allergic and inflammatory disease. However, the processes regulating the latter stages of granule release are yet to be fully understood. Rab27 small GTPases regulate release of secretory lysosomes in a variety of cells, including mast cell granules. In the present study, using murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) from Rab27-deficient mutant mice, we found that, in contrast to Rab27b, Rab27a primarily plays an inhibitory role in regulating degranulation. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that resting Rab27a-deficient (ashen) BMMCs display abnormal cortical F-actin distribution. Actin disassembly prior to IgE cross-linking increased wild-type BMMC secretion to ashen levels, suggesting that changes in the integrity of cortical F-actin underlie the ashen phenotype. Comparison of the secretory impairment of Rab27b knockout and Rab27a/b double knockout BMMCs highlighted a secondary positive role for Rab27a in enhancing degranulation. Rab27 is known to interact with actin via its effectors melanophilin (Mlph) and myosin Va (MyoVa) in other cell types. To better understand the differing roles of Rab27 proteins, we analysed the secretory phenotype of BMMCs derived from mice lacking Rab27 effector proteins. These experiments revealed that the phenotype of BMMCs deficient in Mlph (leaden) and BMMCs deficient in MyoVa (dilute) resembles the hyper-secretion of ashen BMMCs, while Munc13-4-deficient (jinx) BMMCs phenocopy the Rab27b knockout and double Rab27a/b knockout secretory impairment. We conclude that Rab27a and Rab27b regulate distinct steps in the BMMC degranulation pathway, with Rab27a/Mlph/MyoVa regulating cortical actin stability upstream of Rab27a/b/Munc13-4-dependent granule exocytosis. PMID:23281710

  7. Crush Cytology of Secretory Meningioma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Na Rae; Yee, Gie-Taek

    2015-01-01

    Secretory meningioma, a histologic subtype of meningioma of World Health Organization grade 1, is clinically significant because it is frequently accompanied by peritumoral brain edema. The patient was a 53-year-old woman suffering from dysarthria and motor weakness of the right arm. Enhanced magnetic resonance images showed an enhancing mass measuring 2.5 cm in size located in the right parietal convexity. Intraoperative squash cytology showed moderately cellular smears composed mainly of clusters of ovoid cells with scattered whorl formations. The cells had round nuclei and a moderate amount of eosinophilic cytoplasm with ill-defined cell borders. Neither atypia nor mitosis was observed. Some scattered round shaped eosinophilic refractile hyaline globules, measuring from 5 to 25 µm, were observed, and a periglobular halo was occasionally observed. The diagnosis of secretory meningioma should be made as early as possible so that neurosurgeons can prevent postoperative aggravation of peritumoral edema. We emphasize that cytologic findings including eosinophilic, non-fibrillary cytoplasm with eosinophilic refractile hyaline globules are helpful in differentiating secretory meningioma from other subtypes of meningioma, primary and metastatic brain tumors. PMID:26605274

  8. Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 by secretory phospholipases A2 in nerve growth factor-stimulated rat serosal mast cells is facilitated by interaction with fibroblasts and mediated by a mechanism independent of their enzymatic functions.

    PubMed

    Tada, K; Murakami, M; Kambe, T; Kudo, I

    1998-11-01

    Mast cells exhibit a biphasic (immediate and delayed) eicosanoid-biosynthetic response after stimulation with particular cytokines or Fc epsilonRI (high affinity receptor for IgE) cross-linking. Treatment of rat serosal connective tissue mast cells (CTMC) with nerve growth factor (NGF) induced only the delayed phase of PGD2 generation that depended on inducible cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), but not constitutive COX-1, even though the subcellular distributions of these isoforms were similar. Experiments using several phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isozyme-specific probes and inhibitors suggested that both constitutive cytosolic PLA2 and inducible type IIA secretory PLA2 (sPLA2) are involved in NGF-initiated, COX-2-dependent, delayed PGD2 generation in rat CTMC. A type IIA sPLA2 inhibitor, but neither cytosolic PLA2 nor COX inhibitors, reduced, while adding exogenous type IIA sPLA2 augmented, NGF-induced COX-2 expression and its attendant PGD2 generation, indicating that the sPLA2-mediated increase in delayed PGD2 generation was attributable mainly to enhanced COX-2 expression. Type IIA sPLA2 and its close relative type V sPLA2 associated with fibroblastic cell surfaces increased NGF-induced COX-2 expression more efficiently than the soluble enzymes, revealing a particular juxtacrine sPLA2 presentation route. Surprisingly, catalytically inactive type IIA sPLA2 mutants, which were incapable of promoting arachidonic acid release from cytokine-primed cells, retained the ability to enhance COX-2 expression in CTMC, indicating that the COX-2-inducing activities of sPLA2 are independent of their catalytic functions. PMID:9794438

  9. Granulation techniques and technologies: recent progresses

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Granulation, the process of particle enlargement by agglomeration technique, is one of the most significant unit operations in the production of pharmaceutical dosage forms, mostly tablets and capsules. Granulation process transforms fine powders into free-flowing, dust-free granules that are easy to compress. Nevertheless, granulation poses numerous challenges due to high quality requirement of the formed granules in terms of content uniformity and physicochemical properties such as granule size, bulk density, porosity, hardness, moisture, compressibility, etc. together with physical and chemical stability of the drug. Granulation process can be divided into two types: wet granulation that utilize a liquid in the process and dry granulation that requires no liquid. The type of process selection requires thorough knowledge of physicochemical properties of the drug, excipients, required flow and release properties, to name a few. Among currently available technologies, spray drying, roller compaction, high shear mixing, and fluid bed granulation are worth of note. Like any other scientific field, pharmaceutical granulation technology also continues to change, and arrival of novel and innovative technologies are inevitable. This review focuses on the recent progress in the granulation techniques and technologies such as pneumatic dry granulation, reverse wet granulation, steam granulation, moisture-activated dry granulation, thermal adhesion granulation, freeze granulation, and foamed binder or foam granulation. This review gives an overview of these with a short description about each development along with its significance and limitations. PMID:25901297

  10. Eosinophil Granule Proteins: Form and Function

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, K. Ravi; Ackerman, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental and clinical data strongly support a role for the eosinophil in the pathogenesis of asthma, allergic and parasitic diseases, and hypereosinophilic syndromes, in addition to more recently identified immunomodulatory roles in shaping innate host defense, adaptive immunity, tissue repair/remodeling, and maintenance of normal tissue homeostasis. A seminal finding was the dependence of allergic airway inflammation on eosinophil-induced recruitment of Th2-polarized effector T-cells to the lung, providing a missing link between these innate immune effectors (eosinophils) and adaptive T-cell responses. Eosinophils come equipped with preformed enzymatic and nonenzymatic cationic proteins, stored in and selectively secreted from their large secondary (specific) granules. These proteins contribute to the functions of the eosinophil in airway inflammation, tissue damage, and remodeling in the asthmatic diathesis. Studies using eosinophil-deficient mouse models, including eosinophil-derived granule protein double knock-out mice (major basic protein-1/eosinophil peroxidase dual gene deletion) show that eosinophils are required for all major hallmarks of asthma pathophysiology: airway epithelial damage and hyperreactivity, and airway remodeling including smooth muscle hyperplasia and subepithelial fibrosis. Here we review key molecular aspects of these eosinophil-derived granule proteins in terms of structure-function relationships to advance understanding of their roles in eosinophil cell biology, molecular biology, and immunobiology in health and disease. PMID:24802755

  11. Cyclooxygenase-2-dependent delayed prostaglandin D2 generation is initiated by nerve growth factor in rat peritoneal mast cells: its augmentation by extracellular type II secretory phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Murakami, M; Tada, K; Nakajima, K; Kudo, I

    1997-07-01

    When rat serosal connective tissue mast cells (CTMC) were stimulated with nerve growth factor (NGF), the immediate prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) generation was followed by delayed PGD2 generation that occurred between 2 and 24 h, reaching levels as high as 50 ng and 260 ng/10(6) cells in the absence or presence of lysophosphatidylserine (lysoPS), respectively. This delayed PGD2 generation was accompanied by de novo induction of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, with NGF and lysoPS acting as inducer and enhancer, respectively. COX-2 induction and the attendant delayed PGD2 generation in CTMC were modestly induced by c-kit ligand, but not by Fc epsilonRI cross-linking. This indicated that the stimulus specificity differed from that observed in the immediate phase, in which NGF, c-kit ligand, and Fc epsilonRI cross-linking, either in combination with each other or with lysoPS as a cofactor, elicited comparable levels of PGD2 generation within 10 min, reaching 10 to 20 ng/10(6) cells. Addition of type II secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), a PLA2 isoform that is detected in microg/ml levels in inflammatory exudates, to NGF-stimulated CTMC significantly augmented delayed, but not immediate, PGD2 generation, and this augmentative effect was mediated in part by the enhancement of COX-2 expression by sPLA2. These results suggest that CTMC have the capacity to produce PGD2 over a prolonged period in the presence of tissue-derived cytokines and sPLA2 in a COX-2-dependent manner. PMID:9200484

  12. Heparinized nanohydroxyapatite/collagen granules for controlled release of vancomycin.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Catarina C; Sousa, Susana R; Monteiro, Fernando J

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a bone substitute material capable of preventing or treating osteomyelitis through a sustainable release of vancomycin and simultaneously inducing bone regeneration. Porous heparinized nanohydroxyapatite (nanoHA)/collagen granules were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, micro-computed tomography and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. After vancomycin adsorption onto the granules, its releasing profile was studied by UV molecular absorption spectroscopy. The heparinized granules presented a more sustainable release over time, in comparison with nonheparinized nanoHA and nanoHA/collagen granules. Vancomycin was released for 360 h and proved to be bioactive until 216 h. Staphylococcus aureus adhesion was higher on granules containing collagen, guiding the bacteria to the material with antibiotic, improving their eradication. Moreover, cytotoxicity of the released vancomycin was assessed using osteoblast cultures, and after 14 days of culture in the presence of vancomycin, cells were able to remain viable, increasing their metabolic activity and colonizing the granules, as observed by scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. These findings suggest that heparinized nanoHA/collagen granules are a promising material to improve the treatment of osteomyelitis, as they are capable of releasing vancomycin, eliminating the bacteria, and presented morphological and chemical characteristics to induce bone regeneration. PMID:25778540

  13. Failure of glucose to elicit a normal secretory response in fetal pancreatic beta cells results from glucose insensitivity of the ATP-regulated K+ channels.

    PubMed Central

    Rorsman, P; Arkhammar, P; Bokvist, K; Hellerström, C; Nilsson, T; Welsh, M; Welsh, N; Berggren, P O

    1989-01-01

    Fetal pancreatic beta cells demonstrate a deficient insulin release in response to glucose, but the underlying mechanism at the cellular level is unknown. By using beta cells from 21-day fetal rats we made an attempt to clarify the mechanism(s) behind this reduced glucose response. In addition to measuring insulin release, glucose metabolism, and cellular ATP content, ATP-regulated K+ channels (G channels) and voltage-activated Ca2+ currents were investigated with the patch-clamp technique. It was thus demonstrated that the ATP-regulated K+ channels in fetal beta cells were not sensitive to glucose but otherwise had similar characteristics as those of adult beta cells. Also, the characteristics of the voltage-activated Ca2+ currents were similar in adult and fetal beta cells. However, as judged from measurements of both glucose oxidation and glucose utilization, glucose metabolism was impaired in fetal beta cells. In addition, there was no increase in the ATP content, even when the cells were stimulated for 30 min. It is therefore concluded that the attenuated glucose-induced insulin release in fetal pancreatic beta cells is due to an immature glucose metabolism resulting in impaired regulation of the ATP-sensitive K+ channels. These findings may be relevant to the understanding of the deficient stimulus-secretion coupling associated with non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Images PMID:2543980

  14. Ectopically expressed pro-group X secretory phospholipase A2 is proteolytically activated in mouse adrenal cells by furin-like proprotein convertases: implications for the regulation of adrenal steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Layne, Joseph D; Shridas, Preetha; Webb, Nancy R

    2015-03-20

    Group X secretory phospholipase A2 (GX sPLA2) hydrolyzes mammalian cell membranes, liberating free fatty acids and lysophospholipids. GX sPLA2 is produced as a pro-enzyme (pro-GX sPLA2) that contains an N-terminal 11-amino acid propeptide ending in a dibasic motif, suggesting cleavage by a furin-like proprotein convertase (PC). Although propeptide cleavage is clearly required for enzymatic activity, the protease(s) responsible for pro-GX sPLA2 activation have not been identified. We previously reported that GX sPLA2 negatively regulates adrenal glucocorticoid production, likely by suppressing liver X receptor-mediated activation of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression. In this study, using a FLAG epitope-tagged pro-GX sPLA2 expression construct (FLAG-pro-GX sPLA2), we determined that adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) enhanced FLAG-pro-GX sPLA2 processing and phospholipase activity secreted by Y1 adrenal cells. ACTH increased the expression of furin and PCSK6, but not other members of the PC family, in Y1 cells. Overexpression of furin and PCSK6 in HEK 293 cells significantly enhanced FLAG-pro-GX sPLA2 processing, whereas siRNA-mediated knockdown of both PCs almost completely abolished FLAG-pro-GX sPLA2 processing in Y1 cells. Expression of either furin or PCSK6 enhanced the ability of GX sPLA2 to suppress liver X receptor reporter activity. The PC inhibitor decanoyl-Arg-Val-Lys-Arg-chloromethyl ketone significantly suppressed FLAG-pro-GX sPLA2 processing and sPLA2 activity in Y1 cells, and it significantly attenuated GX sPLA2-dependent inhibition of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression and progesterone production. These findings provide strong evidence that pro-GX sPLA2 is a substrate for furin and PCSK6 proteolytic processing and define a novel mechanism for regulating corticosteroid production in adrenal cells. PMID:25623068

  15. Secretory IgA antibodies from plants.

    PubMed

    Wycoff, K L

    2005-01-01

    Secretory IgA (SIgA) is the antibody type produced in both mammals and birds that protects the body from infection at mucosal surfaces. While monoclonal IgG antibodies, particularly those against tumor antigens, have received a great deal of attention, both scientific and commercial, as immunotherapeutic agents, the potential of SIgA antibodies has only recently begun to be exploited. Part of the reason for this is that SIgA production in vivo normally requires the cooperation of two different cell types, and single animal cell systems for monoclonal SIgA production are inefficient. Transgenic plants are currently the most productive and economical system for making SIgA. The only monoclonal SIgA to be tested therapeutically in a human clinical trial is a product called CaroRx, made in transgenic tobacco, which is designed to block adherence to teeth of the bacteria that causes cavities. This antibody accumulates to high levels in the leaves of tobacco, where it is located primarily in the endoplasmic reticulum. The antibody can be efficiently purified using the affinity reagent protein G. Topical oral treatment in human subjects was safe and effective. Characterization of the expression, secretion, purification and therapeutic use of this antibody serves as a model for additional plant-made therapeutic SIgA antibodies under development. PMID:16026297

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydophila abortus induce the expression of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor in cells of the human female reproductive tract.

    PubMed

    Wheelhouse, Nick; Wattegedera, Sean; Fleming, Diana; Fitch, Paul; Kelly, Rodney; Entrican, Gary

    2008-09-01

    C. trachomatis and C. abortus are related Gram-negative intracellular bacteria that cause reproductive failure due to infertility (C. trachomatis) or abortion (C. abortus). These organisms target epithelial cells in the reproductive tract and/or placenta, but the innate immune mechanisms that lead to protection or pathology and disease are poorly understood. SLPI is an innate immune molecule which protects mucosal surfaces from infection and injury. C. trachomatis and C. abortus were found to induce SLPI mRNA and peptide expression in HeLa (cervical epithelium) and JEG-3 cells (trophoblast) respectively. Both cell lines constitutively expressed SLPI and, although infection enhanced this expression, killed organisms did not. These data demonstrate that Chlamydia/Chlamydophila grow in cells that express SLPI, suggesting that SLPI does not exert antimicrobial effects against these organisms. However, SLPI has multiple functions, and we speculate that it may play a role in controlling tissue inflammation and pathology. PMID:19039956

  17. Behavior and Properties of Mature Lytic Granules at the Immunological Synapse of Human Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Min; Schirra, Claudia; Becherer, Ute; Stevens, David R.; Rettig, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Killing of virally infected cells or tumor cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes requires targeting of lytic granules to the junction between the CTL and its target. We used whole-cell patch clamp to measure the cell capacitance at fixed intracellular [Ca2+] to study fusion of lytic granules in human CTLs. Expression of a fluorescently labeled human granzyme B construct allowed identification of lytic granule fusion using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. In this way capacitance steps due to lytic granule fusion were identified. Our goal was to determine the size of fusing lytic granules and to describe their behavior at the plasma membrane. On average, 5.02 ± 3.09 (mean ± s.d.) lytic granules were released per CTL. The amplitude of lytic granule fusion events was ~ 3.3 fF consistent with a diameter of about 325 nm. Fusion latency was biphasic with time constants of 15.9 and 106 seconds. The dwell time of fusing lytic granules was exponentially distributed with a mean dwell time of 28.5 seconds. Fusion ended in spite of the continued presence of granules at the immune synapse. The mobility of fusing granules at the membrane was indistinguishable from that of lytic granules which failed to fuse. While dwelling at the plasma membrane lytic granules exhibit mobility consistent with docking interspersed with short periods of greater mobility. The failure of lytic granules to fuse when visible in TIRF at the membrane may indicate that a membrane-confined reaction is rate limiting. PMID:26296096

  18. Chronic Insulin Exposure Induces ER Stress and Lipid Body Accumulation in Mast Cells at the Expense of Their Secretory Degranulation Response

    PubMed Central

    Balajadia, Januaria; Shimoda, Lori M. N.; Sung, Carl; Turner, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Lipid bodies (LB) are reservoirs of precursors to inflammatory lipid mediators in immunocytes, including mast cells. LB numbers are dynamic, increasing dramatically under conditions of immunological challenge. We have previously shown in vitro that insulin-influenced lipogenic pathways induce LB biogenesis in mast cells, with their numbers attaining steatosis-like levels. Here, we demonstrate that in vivo hyperinsulinemia resulting from high fat diet is associated with LB accumulation in murine mast cells and basophils. We characterize the lipidome of purified insulin-induced LB, and the shifts in the whole cell lipid landscape in LB that are associated with their accumulation, in both model (RBL2H3) and primary mast cells. Lipidomic analysis suggests a gain of function associated with LB accumulation, in terms of elevated levels of eicosanoid precursors that translate to enhanced antigen-induced LTC4 release. Loss-of-function in terms of a suppressed degranulation response was also associated with LB accumulation, as were ER reprogramming and ER stress, analogous to observations in the obese hepatocyte and adipocyte. Taken together, these data suggest that chronic insulin elevation drives mast cell LB enrichment in vitro and in vivo, with associated effects on the cellular lipidome, ER status and pro-inflammatory responses. PMID:26263026

  19. Inhibition of Interleukin-1?-Induced Group IIA Secretory Phospholipase A2 Expression by Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs) in Rat Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells: Cooperation between PPAR? and the Proto-Oncogene BCL-6?

    PubMed Central

    Ravaux, Lucas; Denoyelle, Chantal; Monne, Claire; Limon, Isabelle; Raymondjean, Michel; El Hadri, Khadija

    2007-01-01

    The inflammation that occurs during atherosclerosis is characterized by the release of large amounts of group IIA secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IIA). This study was designed to define the function of the three peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) on sPLA2 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). We found that PPAR ligands decreased sPLA2-IIA activity and inhibited mRNA accumulation under inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, interleukin-1?-induced sPLA2-IIA promoter activity was inhibited by the three PPAR ligands and in a similar way when cells were cotransfected with PPAR?, PPAR?, or PPAR?, plus retinoid X receptor ? (RXR?). Our study revealed that the regulation of sPLA2-IIA gene transcription by PPAR?/RXR and PPAR?/RXR heterodimers requires an interaction with a PPAR response element (PPRE) of the sPLA2-IIA promoter. In contrast, PPAR? operates through a PPRE-independent mechanism. In addition, we demonstrated that VSMCs expressed the transcriptional repressor BCL-6. Overexpression of BCL-6 markedly reduced sPLA2-IIA promoter activity in VSMCs, while a dominant negative form of BCL-6 abrogated sPLA2 repression by PPAR?. The PPAR? agonist induced a BCL-6 binding to the sPLA2 promoter in VSMCs under inflammatory conditions. The knockdown of BCL-6 by short interfering RNA abolished the inhibitory effect of the PPAR? ligand on sPLA2 activity and prostaglandin E2 release. Thus, the inhibition of sPLA2-IIA activity by PPAR? agonists may provide a promising approach to impacting the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:17908795

  20. Release of endogenous opioids from duodenal enteroendocrine cells requires Trpm5

    PubMed Central

    Kokrashvili, Zaza; Rodriguez, Deniliz; Yevshayeva, Valeriya; Zhou, Hang; Margolskee, Robert F

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims Enteroendocrine cells, the largest and most diverse population of mammalian endocrine cells, comprise a number of different cell types in the gut mucosa that produce, store, and secrete small molecules, peptides and/or larger proteins that regulate many aspects of gut physiology. Little is known about less-typical endocrine cells in the intestinal mucosa that do not contain secretory granules, such as brush or caveolated cells. We studied a subset of these enteroendocrine cells in duodenum that produce several peptides, including endogenous opioids, and that also express the Trpm5 cation channel. Methods We studied expression patterns of Trpm5 and other molecules by immunohistochemical and ELISA analyses of intestinal tissues from transgenic mice that express green fluorescent protein from theTrpm5 promoter, as well as wild-type and Trpm5-null mice. Results We describe a type of enteroendocrine cell in mouse duodenum that is defined by the presence of the Trpm5, that does not contain typical secretory granules, yet expresses endogenous opioids (?-endorphin and Met-enkephalin) and uroguanylin in apical compartments close to the lumen of the gut. Conclusion Solitary chemosensory cells that co-express ?-endorphin, Met-enkephalin, uroguanylin and Trpm5 exist in mouse duodenum. These cells are likely to secrete the bioactive peptides into the intestinal lumen in response to dietary factors; release of the opioid peptides requires the Trpm5 ion channel. PMID:19272386

  1. LIPOPROTEIN GRANULES IN THE CORTICAL COLLECTING TUBULES OF MOUSE KIDNEY

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Fritz

    1961-01-01

    The light and, to a lesser extent, the dark cells of the cortical collecting tubules in mouse kidney contain a great number of granules which according to histochemical tests are composed of phospholipids and proteins. These granules are bounded by a triple-layered membrane measuring approximately 75 A across, and contain one or several crystals with a hexagonal or square lattice. These crystals are built up of rod-shaped units, which appear dense after osmium fixation, measure about 48 A in diameter, and are separated by a light interspace of similar dimensions. The mean center-to-center distance of the rods is about 96 A. The structure is explained as a lipoprotein crystallized within a membrane-bounded vacuole. No relationship between these granules and mitochondria was found. The physiological significance of the granules remains unknown. PMID:13770761

  2. The Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype Promotes Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Vital, Paz; Castro, Patricia; Tsang, Susan; Ittmann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is characterized by increased tissue mass in the transition zone of the prostate, which leads to obstruction of urine outflow and considerable morbidity in a majority of older men. Senescent cells accumulate in human tissues, including the prostate, with increasing age. Expression of proinflammatory cytokines is increased in these senescent cells, a manifestation of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. Multiplex analysis revealed that multiple cytokines are increased in BPH, including GM-CSF, IL-1?, and IL-4, and that these are also increased in senescent prostatic epithelial cells in vitro. Tissue levels of these cytokines were correlated with a marker of senescence (cathepsin D), which was also strongly correlated with prostate weight. IHC analysis revealed the multifocal epithelial expression of cathepsin D and coexpression with IL-1? in BPH tissues. In tissue recombination studies in nude mice with immortalized prostatic epithelial cells expressing IL-1? and prostatic stromal cells, both epithelial and stromal cells exhibited increased growth. Expression of IL-1? in prostatic epithelial cells in a transgenic mouse model resulted in increased prostate size and bladder obstruction. In summary, both correlative and functional evidence support the hypothesis that the senescence-associated secretory phenotype can promote the development of BPH, which is the single most common age-related pathology in older men. PMID:24434012

  3. Incorporation of a circulating protein into megakaryocyte and platelet granules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handagama, P. J.; George, J. N.; Shuman, M. A.; McEver, R. P.; Bainton, D. F.

    1987-01-01

    To determine whether or not proteins circulating in plasma can be incorporated into megakaryocytes and platelets, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was injected intravenously into guinea pigs and these cells were examined for its uptake by electron microscopy and cytochemistry. Enriched samples of megakaryocytes enabled ultrastructural analysis of large numbers of these rare cells. In megakaryocytes, 50% of alpha granules contained HRP between 75 min and 7 hr after injection. At 24 hr, 25% of the megakaryocyte granules were peroxidase-positive, less were positive by 48 hr, and there were none at 4 days. Thus, the findings demonstrate that a circulating protein can be endocytosed by megakaryocytes and rapidly packaged into alpha granules. Platelet granules also contain HRP by 7 hr after injection, and they can secrete it in response to thrombin. Unfortunately, our present studies do not allow us to distinguish between direct endocytosis by the platelet and/or shedding of new platelets from recently labeled megakaryocytes. It is concluded that while some alpha granule proteins are synthesized by megakaryocytes, others may be acquired from plasma by endocytosis. In addition to providing evidence that some of the proteins of alpha granules may be of exogenous origin, this study has allowed the definition of a pathway whereby plasma proteins may be temporarily sequestered in megakaryocytes before reentering the circulation in platelets.

  4. Rab27A Is Present in Mouse Pancreatic Acinar Cells and Is Required for Digestive Enzyme Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yanan; Ernst, Stephen A.; Stuenkel, Edward L.; Lentz, Stephen I.; Williams, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The small G-protein Rab27A has been shown to regulate the intracellular trafficking of secretory granules in various cell types. However, the presence, subcellular localization and functional impact of Rab27A on digestive enzyme secretion by mouse pancreatic acinar cells are poorly understood. Ashen mice, which lack the expression of Rab27A due to a spontaneous mutation, were used to investigate the function of Rab27A in pancreatic acinar cells. Isolated pancreatic acini were prepared from wild-type or ashen mouse pancreas by collagenase digestion, and CCK- or carbachol-induced amylase secretion was measured. Secretion occurring through the major-regulated secretory pathway, which is characterized by zymogen granules secretion, was visualized by Dextran-Texas Red labeling of exocytotic granules. The minor-regulated secretory pathway, which operates through the endosomal/lysosomal pathway, was characterized by luminal cell surface labeling of lysosomal associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1). Compared to wild-type, expression of Rab27B was slightly increased in ashen mouse acini, while Rab3D and digestive enzymes (amylase, lipase, chymotrypsin and elastase) were not affected. Localization of Rab27B, Rab3D and amylase by immunofluorescence was similar in both wild-type and ashen acinar cells. The GTP-bound states of Rab27B and Rab3D in wild-type and ashen mouse acini also remained similar in amount. In contrast, acini from ashen mice showed decreased amylase release induced by CCK- or carbachol. Rab27A deficiency reduced the apical cell surface labeling of LAMP1, but did not affect that of Dextran-Texas Red incorporation into the fusion pockets at luminal surface. These results show that Rab27A is present in mouse pancreatic acinar cells and mainly regulates secretion through the minor-regulated pathway. PMID:25951179

  5. Diversifying the secretory routes in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, José I.; Perez, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Nervous system homeostasis and synaptic function need dedicated mechanisms to locally regulate the molecular composition of the neuronal plasma membrane and allow the development, maintenance and plastic modification of the neuronal morphology. The cytoskeleton and intracellular trafficking lies at the core of all these processes. In most mammalian cells, the Golgi apparatus (GA) is at the center of the biosynthetic pathway, located in the proximity of the microtubule-organizing center. In addition to this central localization, the somatic GA in neurons is complemented by satellite Golgi outposts (GOPs) in dendrites, which are essential for dendritic morphogenesis and are emerging like local stations of membranes trafficking to synapses. Largely, GOPs participation in post-ER trafficking has been determined by imaging the transport of the exogenous protein VSVG. Here we review the diversity of neuronal cargoes that traffic through GOPs and the assortment of different biosynthetic routes to synapses. We also analyze the recent advances in understanding the role of cytoskeleton and Golgi matrix proteins in the biogenesis of GOPs and how the diversity of secretory routes can be generated. PMID:26500481

  6. The small GTPase Rab33A participates in regulation of amylase release from parotid acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Imai, Akane; Tsujimura, Maiko; Yoshie, Sumio; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2015-06-01

    Amylase is released from exocrine parotid acinar cells via typical exocytosis. Exocytosis of amylase-containing granules occurs through several steps, including formation, maturation, and transport of granules. These steps are thought to be regulated by members of the small GTPase Rab family. We previously demonstrated that Rab27 and its effectors mediate amylase release from parotid acinar cells, but the functional involvement of other Rab proteins in exocrine granule exocytosis remains largely unknown. Here, we studied isoproterenol (IPR)-induced amylase release from parotid acinar cells to investigate the possible involvement of Rab33A, which was recently suggested to regulate exocytosis in hippocampal neurons and PC12 cells. Rab33A was endogenously expressed in parotid acinar cells and present in secretory granules and the Golgi body. Functional ablation of Rab33A with anti-Rab33A antibody or a dominant-negative Rab33A-T50N mutant significantly reduced IPR-induced amylase release. Our results indicated that Rab33A is a novel component of IPR-stimulated amylase secretion from parotid acinar cells. PMID:25871792

  7. Ctr2 Regulates Mast Cell Maturation by Affecting the Storage and Expression of Tryptase and Proteoglycans.

    PubMed

    Öhrvik, Helena; Logeman, Brandon; Noguchi, Glyn; Eriksson, Inger; Kjellén, Lena; Thiele, Dennis J; Pejler, Gunnar

    2015-10-15

    Copper (Cu) is essential for multiple cellular functions. Cellular uptake of Cu(+) is carried out by the Ctr1 high-affinity Cu transporter. The mobilization of endosomal Cu pools is regulated by a protein structurally similar to Ctr1, called Ctr2. It was recently shown that ablation of Ctr2 caused an increase in the concentration of Cu localized to endolysosomes. However, the biological significance of excess endolysosomal Cu accumulation has not been assessed. In this study, we addressed this issue by investigating the impact of Ctr2 deficiency on mast cells, a cell type unusually rich in endolysosomal organelles (secretory granules). We show that Ctr2(-/-) mast cells have increased intracellular Cu concentrations and that the absence of Ctr2 results in increased metachromatic staining, the latter indicating an impact of Ctr2 on the storage of proteoglycans in the secretory granules. In agreement with this, the absence of Ctr2 caused a skewed ratio between proteoglycans of heparin and chondroitin sulfate type, with increased amounts of heparin accompanied by a reduction of chondroitin sulfate. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed a higher number of electron-dense granules in Ctr2(-/-) mast cells than in wild-type cells. The increase in granular staining and heparin content is compatible with an impact of Ctr2 on mast cell maturation and, in support of this, the absence of Ctr2 resulted in markedly increased mRNA expression, storage, and enzymatic activity of tryptase. Taken together, the present study introduces Ctr2 and Cu as novel actors in the regulation of mast cell maturation and granule homeostasis. PMID:26342034

  8. Ultrastructural morphology, cytochemistry, and morphometry of eosinophil granules in Chédiak-Higashi syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Hamanaka, S. C.; Gilbert, C. S.; White, D. A.; Parmley, R. T.

    1993-01-01

    Lysosomal enlargement in Chédiak-Higashi Syndrome (CHS) occurs to varying degrees in different cell types and has provided insight into the pathophysiology of lysosomal granules. This study was undertaken to determine the extent of involvement of eosinophil crystalloid granules (CGs) and smaller non-crystalloid granules (NCGs) in giant granule formation. Eosinophils from two CHS patients were evaluated after glutaraldehyde fixation and staining for morphologic examination, peroxidase, and complex carbohydrate using uranyl acetate-lead citrate, diaminobenzidine-lead citrate, and periodate-thiocarbohydrazide-silver proteinate (PA-TCH-SP) methods, respectively. Although many CGs appeared normal in shape and size, several CGs appeared enlarged and a few measured over 5 microns in diameter, consistent with giant granule formation in CHS. These giant granules either occasionally contained a single large crystalloid or, more frequently, contained numerous normal-size crystalloids. Enlargement of granules was also observed in some precursor CGs of bone marrow early eosinophils, indicating that giant granule formation was initiated during granule genesis. Almost all NCGs in late eosinophils were small granules and stained strongly with PA-TCH-SP in contrast to CGs. Most, but not all small granules were peroxidase-positive in eosinophil precursors, whereas the percentage of peroxidase-negative small granules increased in late eosinophils. This indicated the presence of at least two small granule populations. Morphometric studies indicated CHS selectively involved CGs and demonstrated that neither the average size nor numbers of NCGs were significantly different from normal eosinophils. Thus, these studies indicate that CHS selectively involves CGs, and demonstrate preservation of normal granule size and heterogeneity for NCGs in late eosinophils. These observations suggest that the underlying CHS pathophysiology does not involve all lysosomal subpopulations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7688187

  9. Functional Heterogeneity of Breast Fibroblasts Is Defined by a Prostaglandin Secretory Phenotype that Promotes Expansion of Cancer-Stem Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rudnick, Jenny A.; Arendt, Lisa M.; Klebba, Ina; Hinds, John W.; Iyer, Vandana; Gupta, Piyush B.; Naber, Stephen P.; Kuperwasser, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Fibroblasts are important in orchestrating various functions necessary for maintaining normal tissue homeostasis as well as promoting malignant tumor growth. Significant evidence indicates that fibroblasts are functionally heterogeneous with respect to their ability to promote tumor growth, but markers that can be used to distinguish growth promoting from growth suppressing fibroblasts remain ill-defined. Here we show that human breast fibroblasts are functionally heterogeneous with respect to tumor-promoting activity regardless of whether they were isolated from normal or cancerous breast tissues. Rather than significant differences in fibroblast marker expression, we show that fibroblasts secreting abundant levels of prostaglandin (PGE2), when isolated from either reduction mammoplasty or carcinoma tissues, were both capable of enhancing tumor growth in vivo and could increase the number of cancer stem-like cells. PGE2 further enhanced the tumor promoting properties of fibroblasts by increasing secretion of IL-6, which was necessary, but not sufficient, for expansion of breast cancer stem-like cells. These findings identify a population of fibroblasts which both produce and respond to PGE2, and that are functionally distinct from other fibroblasts. Identifying markers of these cells could allow for the targeted ablation of tumor-promoting and inflammatory fibroblasts in human breast cancers. PMID:21957456

  10. Gene expression as a sensitive endpoint to evaluate cell differentiation and maturation of the developing central nervous system in primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) exposed to pesticides

    SciTech Connect

    Hogberg, Helena T.; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; Hartung, Thomas; Coecke, Sandra; Bal-Price, Anna K.

    2009-03-15

    The major advantage of primary neuronal cultures for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing is their ability to replicate the crucial stages of neurodevelopment. In our studies using primary culture of cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) we have evaluated whether the gene expression relevant to the most critical developmental processes such as neuronal differentiation (NF-68 and NF-200) and functional maturation (NMDA and GABA{sub A} receptors), proliferation and differentiation of astrocytes (GFAP and S100{beta}) as well as the presence of neural precursor cells (nestin and Sox10) could be used as an endpoint for in vitro DNT. The expression of these genes was assessed after exposure to various pesticides (paraquat parathion, dichlorvos, pentachlorophenol and cycloheximide) that could induce developmental neurotoxicity through different mechanisms. All studied pesticides significantly modified the expression of selected genes, related to the different stages of neuronal and/or glial cell development and maturation. The most significant changes were observed after exposure to paraquat and parathion (i.e. down-regulation of mRNA expression of NF-68 and NF-200, NMDA and GABA{sub A} receptors). Similarly, dichlorvos affected mainly neurons (decreased mRNA expression of NF-68 and GABA{sub A} receptors) whereas cycloheximide had an effect on neurons and astrocytes, as significant decreases in the mRNA expression of both neurofilaments (NF-68 and NF-200) and the astrocyte marker (S100{beta}) were observed. Our results suggest that toxicity induced by pesticides that target multiple pathways of neurodevelopment can be identified by studying expression of genes that are involved in different stages of cell development and maturation, and that gene expression could be used as a sensitive endpoint for initial screening to identify the compounds with the potential to cause developmental neurotoxicity.

  11. Secretory IgA: Designed for Anti-Microbial Defense

    PubMed Central

    Brandtzaeg, Per

    2013-01-01

    Prevention of infections by vaccination remains a compelling goal to improve public health. Mucosal vaccines would make immunization procedures easier, be better suited for mass administration, and most efficiently induce immune exclusion – a term coined for non-inflammatory antibody shielding of internal body surfaces, mediated principally by secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA). The exported antibodies are polymeric, mainly IgA dimers (pIgA), produced by local plasma cells (PCs) stimulated by antigens that target the mucose. SIgA was early shown to be complexed with an epithelial glycoprotein – the secretory component (SC). A common SC-dependent transport mechanism for pIgA and pentameric IgM was then proposed, implying that membrane SC acts as a receptor, now usually called the polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR). From the basolateral surface, pIg-pIgR complexes are taken up by endocytosis and then extruded into the lumen after apical cleavage of the receptor – bound SC having stabilizing and innate functions in the secretory antibodies. Mice deficient for pIgR show that this is the only receptor responsible for epithelial export of IgA and IgM. These knockout mice show a variety of defects in their mucosal defense and changes in their intestinal microbiota. In the gut, induction of B-cells occurs in gut-associated lymphoid tissue, particularly the Peyer’s patches and isolated lymphoid follicles, but also in mesenteric lymph nodes. PC differentiation is accomplished in the lamina propria to which the activated memory/effector B-cells home. The airways also receive such cells from nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue but by different homing receptors. This compartmentalization is a challenge for mucosal vaccination, as are the mechanisms used by the mucosal immune system to discriminate between commensal symbionts (mutualism), pathobionts, and overt pathogens (elimination). PMID:23964273

  12. Intranuclear crystalloids associated with abnormal granules in eosinophilic leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Parmley, R.T.; Crist, W.M.; Roper, M.; Takagi, M.; Austin, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    Ultrastructural evaluation of eosinophilic leukocytes from a 2-yr-old asymptomatic girl with chronic benign neutropenia (CBN) revealed a variety of morphological abnormalities. All eosinophils obtained from blood and marrow specimens contained multiple microcrystalloids in most of the mature cytoplasmic granules. An increase in crystalloid-free, immature granules in late (bilobed nuclei) eosinophils suggested a delay in granule maturation. The eosinophil granules appeared to be of normal size and demonstrated normal acid phosphatase reactivity. Eosinophilic myelocytes contained abnormal cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and lacked abundant elongated RER cisternae seen in normal cells. A few eosinophilic myelocytes in specimens of bone marrow from the child contained large intranuclear crystalloids measuring up to 3 mu in length. The intranuclear crystalloid contained as cubic lattice of dense material with a periodicity similar to that described for cytoplasmic crystalloids. The ultrastructural morphology of marrow neutrophils was normal, as described in other cases of CBN. Ultrastructural examination of blood eosinophils from the father demonstrated microcrystalloids in cytoplasmic granules identical to those seen in the child. The father was asymptomatic and had normal leukocyte counts. Thus, anomalous crystalloid granule genesis occurred in the father and daughter and was not necessarily associated with neutropenia or clinical symptomatology. This anomaly is associated with the accumulation of intranuclear crystalloid material in eosinophilic myelocytes, which do not appear to be released from the marrow compartment.

  13. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt-signal pathway mediates proliferation and secretory function of hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells in rats after partial hepatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Ping . E-mail: chenping@263.net; Zhang Lin; Ding Jiming; Zhu Jin; Li Ying; Duan Shigang; Yan Hongtao; Huan Yongwei; Dong Jiahong

    2006-04-14

    Objective: To investigate the role of AKT signaling pathway in hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) early after partial hepatectomy in rats and the regulatory mechanisms involved. Methods: The animal model of 70% hepatectomy was made. Hepatic SECs were isolated and cultured according to Braet et al.'s method with some modifications. The cultured hepatic SECs were divided into two groups: 70% partial hepatectomy groups and LY294002 group (LY). We observed the expressions of AKT and NF-{kappa}B in cultured hepatic SECs by Western blot, measured the levels of NO, NOs, IL-6, and HGF in the supernatants of hepatic SEC cultures and [{sup 3}H]thymidine incorporation, and analyzed cell cycle of cultured hepatic SECs by flow cytometer. The relationship of the Akt pathway with secretions and proliferation of hepatic SECs after partial hepatectomy was probed. Results: The levels of Akt protein expression increased significantly after partial hepatectomy in OG group and with a peak at 24 h post operation. Meanwhile, there was a markedly increase in phosphorylated Akt protein during 2-72 h after operation. But the expression and activity of Akt protein did not change significantly after partial hepatectomy in the LY group. So, partial hepatectomy can marked induce Akt expression and result in rapid and marked phosphorylation of Akt from 2 to 72 h thereafter. The changes of NF-{kappa}B expression in cultured hepatic SECs were similar to those of Akt expression after operation. The concentrations of HGF and IL-6 in the supernatants of cultured hepatic SECs were relatively low in the LY group, and were markedly increased after partial hepatectomy, with a peak at 24 h in the OG group. There were significant differences between the OG and LY groups at 6 and 24 h (P < 0.05). Both NO and NOS secretion was increased in the OG group compared to the LY group within 24 h after partial hepatectomy. But the secretion of NO and NOS was increased more markedly in the LY group than that in the OG beyond 24 h. These findings suggest that the secretion of the cytokines by hepatic SECs is mediated by Akt signaling. Akt signaling pathway in relationship with proliferation of hepatic SECs and suppression of apoptosis. In OG group, the hepatic SECs in S and G2/M obviously increased. The proliferative index of hepatic SECs in OG group had significant differences with that in LY group at 6, 24, and 72 h, P < 0.05. Meanwhile, the cells of apoptosis in OG group were very low, and the cells in LY group gradually increased. Conclusions: These results suggest that AKT signaling pathway plays a crucial role in mediating proliferating and secreted signals in hepatic SECs. AKT has been suggested to play a pivotal role in early liver regeneration involved in the induction of secreted cytokines and proliferation of hepatic SECs.

  14. Functional Characterization of Monomeric GTPase Rab1 in the Secretory Pathway of Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Bahl, Surbhi; Parashar, Smriti; Malhotra, Himanshu; Raje, Manoj; Mukhopadhyay, Amitabha

    2015-12-11

    Leishmania secretes a large number of its effectors to the extracellular milieu. However, regulation of the secretory pathway in Leishmania is not well characterized. Here, we report the cloning, expression, and characterization of the Rab1 homologue from Leishmania. We have found that LdRab1 localizes in Golgi in Leishmania. To understand the role of LdRab1 in the secretory pathway of Leishmania, we have generated transgenic parasites overexpressing GFP-LdRab1:WT, GFP-LdRab1:Q67L (a GTPase-deficient dominant positive mutant of Rab1), and GFP-LdRab1:S22N (a GDP-locked dominant negative mutant of Rab1). Surprisingly, our results have shown that overexpression of GFP-LdRab1:Q67L or GFP-LdRab1:S22N does not disrupt the trafficking and localization of hemoglobin receptor in Leishmania. To determine whether the Rab1-dependent secretory pathway is conserved in parasites, we have analyzed the role of LdRab1 in the secretion of secretory acid phosphatase and Ldgp63 in Leishmania. Our results have shown that overexpression of GFP-LdRab1:Q67L or GFP-LdRab1:S22N significantly inhibits the secretion of secretory acid phosphatase by Leishmania. We have also found that overexpression of GFP-LdRab1:Q67L or GFP-LdRab1:S22N retains RFP-Ldgp63 in Golgi and blocks the secretion of Ldgp63, whereas the trafficking of RFP-Ldgp63 in GFP-LdRab1:WT-expressing cells is unaltered in comparison with control cells. Taken together, our results have shown that the Rab1-regulated secretory pathway is well conserved, and hemoglobin receptor trafficking follows an Rab1-independent secretory pathway in Leishmania. PMID:26499792

  15. Resistance of cytotoxic T lymphocytes to the lytic effects of their toxic granules

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    A cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) characteristically kills target cells one after the other by releasing toxic granules that contain one or more cytolytic components. To determine how CTLs avoid destroying themselves when they release granules and lyse target cells, 7 murine CD8+ CTL cell lines were compared with 19 other cell lines for susceptibility to lysis by the isolated toxic granules. Murine CD8+ CTLs were clearly the most resistant cells: granules did not lyse them even after they were exposed to azide, cyanide, and 2-deoxyglucose, conditions that were found to enhance the susceptibility of all the other cells tested, including other T cells. Thus, resistance of CD8+ CTLs to cytotoxic granules appears to be independent of cellular ATP. To reconcile these findings with other observations that, under some circumstances, CTLs can be lysed by other CTLs, we suggest a model in which a CTL releases only a limited proportion of its toxic granules at each antigen-specific encounter with a target cell; the amount released is sufficient to kill most target cells but to leave the CTL undamaged and with enough granules to attack other target cells. PMID:2445890

  16. The antileukoprotease secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) and its role in the prevention of HPV-infections in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Quabius, Elgar S; Görögh, Tibor; Fischer, Gerrit S; Hoffmann, Anna S; Gebhard, Maximilian; Evert, Matthias; Beule, Achim; Maune, Steffen; Knecht, Rainald; Óvári, Attila; Durisin, Martin; Hoppe, Florian; Röcken, Christoph; Hedderich, Jürgen; Ambrosch, Petra; Hoffmann, Markus

    2015-02-01

    Recently, we demonstrated a significant inverse correlation between HPV-infection and SLPI-expression suggesting that SLPI protects against HPV-infection of HNSCC. Here we analyzed in a single lab setting 307 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded HNSCC cases (tonsillar n?=?135; non-tonsillar: n?=?172) from eight health care centers. Samples were analyzed for SLPI gene- and protein-expression. Annexin A2, its heterotetramer A2t, putatively facilitating HPV- and SLPI-cell entry, was measured to study the correlation between SLPI and annexin A2. Data were correlated with tobacco consumption and HPV-status. Overall, HPV-DNA prevalence was 23.5% (72/307); attributed to: 43.7% (59/135) tonsillar and 7.6% (13/172) non-tonsillar cases. Smoking resulted in 6.44-fold increased and HPV-infection in 3.46-fold decreased SLPI-gene expression in all HNSCC with similar significant results obtained in tonsillar and non-tonsillar SCC separately. Correlating annexin A2- and SLPI-gene expression showed a significant surplus of annexin A2 in HPV-positive tumors (4.21× more annexin A2) and 6.72× more annexin A2 than SLPI in nonsmokers in all HNSCCs and similar significant results for both tumor entities separately. The surplus of annexin A2 in non-smokers and HPV-positive patients supports our hypothesis that decreased SLPI levels facilitate HPV-infection i.e., increased SLPI-expression may protect against HPV-infection of tonsillar and non-tonsillar SCC. PMID:25462861

  17. Secretory pathway Ca2+/Mn2+-ATPase isoform 2 and lactation: specific localization of plasmalemmal and secretory pathway Ca2+ pump isoforms in the mammary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Faddy, Helen M.; Smart, Chanel E.; Xu, Ren; Lee, Genee Y.; Kenny, Paraic A.; Feng, Mingye; Rao, Rajini; Brown, Melissa A.; Bissell, Mina J.; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J.; Monteith, Gregory R.

    2008-04-09

    The supply of calcium to the developing neonate via milk is an important physiological process. Until recently the mechanism for the enrichment of milk with calcium was thought to be almost entirely mediated via the secretory pathway. However, recent studies suggest that a specific isoform of the plasma membrane calcium ATPase, PMCA2, is the primary mechanism for calcium transport into milk, highlighting a major role for apical calcium transport. We compared the expression of the recently identified secretory calcium ATPase, SPCA2, and SPCA1, in the mouse mammary gland during different stages of development. SPCA2 levels increased over 35 fold during lactation, while SPCA1 increased only a modest two fold. The potential importance of SPCA2 in lactation was also highlighted by its localization to luminal secretory cells of the mammary gland during lactation, while SPCA1 was expressed throughout the cells of the mammary gland. We also observed major differences in the localization of PMCA2 and PMCA1 during lactation. Using the SCp2 mouse mammary epithelial cell 3D culture model, differences in the sub-cellular distribution of PMCA2 and PMCA1 were clear. These studies highlight the likely specific roles of PMCA2 and SPCA2 in lactation, and link the recently characterized SPCA2 calcium pump to the supply of calcium into milk and the regulation of Golgi resident enzymes important in lactation. They also indicate that calcium transport into milk is a complex interplay between apical and secretory pathways.

  18. Mechanisms of pH Regulation in the Regulated Secretory Pathway* Received for publication, May 1, 2001, and in revised form, June 11, 2001

    E-print Network

    Grabe, Michael

    Mechanisms of pH Regulation in the Regulated Secretory Pathway* Received for publication, May 1, California 92093-0647 A precise pH gradient between organelles of the reg- ulated secretory pathway is required for sorting and processing of prohormones. We studied pH regulation in live endocrine cells

  19. The Ca2+/H+ antiporter TMEM165 expression, localization in the developing, lactating and involuting mammary gland parallels the secretory pathway Ca2+ATPase (SPCA1)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase 2 (PMCA2) knockout mice showed that ~ 60 % of calcium in milk is transported across the mammary cells apical membrane by PMCA2. The remaining milk calcium is thought to arrive via the secretory pathway through the actions of secretory pathway Ca2+-ATPase’s 1 and/or 2 (SP...

  20. Cellular senescence and the senescent secretory phenotype: therapeutic opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Tchkonia, Tamara; Zhu, Yi; van Deursen, Jan; Campisi, Judith; Kirkland, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Aging is the largest risk factor for most chronic diseases, which account for the majority of morbidity and health care expenditures in developed nations. New findings suggest that aging is a modifiable risk factor, and it may be feasible to delay age-related diseases as a group by modulating fundamental aging mechanisms. One such mechanism is cellular senescence, which can cause chronic inflammation through the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). We review the mechanisms that induce senescence and the SASP, their associations with chronic disease and frailty, therapeutic opportunities based on targeting senescent cells and the SASP, and potential paths to developing clinical interventions. PMID:23454759

  1. Quantitative immunofluorescence mapping reveals little functional coclustering of proteins within platelet ?-granules.

    PubMed

    Kamykowski, Jeffrey; Carlton, Peter; Sehgal, Siddharth; Storrie, Brian

    2011-08-01

    Platelets are small anucleate blood cells that aggregate to seal leaks at sites of vascular injury and are important in the pathology of atherosclerosis, acute coronary syndromes, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, and the regulation of angiogenesis. In all cases, platelet aggregation requires release of stored proteins from ?-granules. However, how proteins with potentially antagonistic functions are packaged within ?-granules is controversial. One possibility is the packaging of functional agonists and antagonists into different ?-granule populations. By quantitative immunofluorescence colocalization, we found that pair-wise comparisons of 15 angiogenic-relevant ?-granule proteins displayed little, if any, pattern of functional coclustering. Rather, the data suggested a Gaussian distribution indicative of stochastic protein delivery to individual granules. The apparent physiologic paradox raised by these data may be explained through alternate mechanisms, such as differential content release through incomplete granule fusion or dampened and balanced regulatory networks brought about by the corelease of antagonistic factors. PMID:21622648

  2. Effects of artemisinin sustained-release granules on mixed alga growth and microcystins production and release.

    PubMed

    Ni, Lixiao; Li, Danye; Hu, Shuzhen; Wang, Peifang; Li, Shiyin; Li, Yiping; Li, Yong; Acharya, Kumud

    2015-12-01

    To safely and effectively apply artemisinin sustained-release granules to control and prevent algal water-blooms, the effects of artemisinin and its sustained-release granules on freshwater alga (Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obliquus) and Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa)), as well as the production and release of microcystins (MCs) were studied. The results showed that artemisinin sustained-release granules inhibited the growth of M. aeruginosa (above 95 % IR) and S. obliquus (about 90 % IR), with M. aeruginosa more sensitive. The artemisinin sustained-release granules had a longer inhibition effect on growth of pure algae and algal coexistence than direct artemisinin dosing. The artemisinin sustained-release granules could decrease the production and release of algal toxins due to the continued stress of artemisinin released from artemisinin sustained-release granules. There was no increase in the total amount of MC-LR in the algal cell culture medium. PMID:26432265

  3. Myosin-V is activated by binding secretory cargo and released in coordination with Rab/exocyst function

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Kirk W.; Bretscher, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Cell organization requires motor-dependent transport of specific cargos along cytoskeletal elements. How the delivery cycle is coordinated with other events is poorly understood. Here we define the in vivo delivery cycle of myosin-V in its essential function of secretory vesicle transport along actin cables in yeast. We show myosin-V is activated by binding a secretory vesicle, and myosin-V mutations that compromise vesicle binding render the motor constitutively active. About 10 motors associate with each secretory vesicle for rapid transport to sites of cell growth. Once transported, the motors remain associated with the secretory vesicles until they undergo exocytosis. Motor release is temporally regulated by vesicle-bound Rab-GTP hydrolysis and requires vesicle tethering by the exocyst complex, but does not require vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane. All components of this transport cycle are conserved in vertebrates, so these results should be generally applicable to other myosin-V delivery cycles. PMID:23079598

  4. Autophagy proteins control goblet cell function by potentiating reactive oxygen species production

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Khushbu K; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Beatty, Wandy L; Head, Richard D; Malvin, Nicole P; Cadwell, Ken; Guan, Jun-Lin; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Akira, Shizuo; Seglen, Per O; Dinauer, Mary C; Virgin, Herbert W; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S

    2013-01-01

    Delivery of granule contents to epithelial surfaces by secretory cells is a critical physiologic process. In the intestine, goblet cells secrete mucus that is required for homeostasis. Autophagy proteins are required for secretion in some cases, though the mechanism and cell biological basis for this requirement remain unknown. We found that in colonic goblet cells, proteins involved in initiation and elongation of autophagosomes were required for efficient mucus secretion. The autophagy protein LC3 localized to intracellular multi-vesicular vacuoles that were consistent with a fusion of autophagosomes and endosomes. Using cultured intestinal epithelial cells, we found that NADPH oxidases localized to and enhanced the formation of these LC3-positive vacuoles. Both autophagy proteins and endosome formation were required for maximal production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from NADPH oxidases. Importantly, generation of ROS was critical to control mucin granule accumulation in colonic goblet cells. Thus, autophagy proteins can control secretory function through ROS, which is in part generated by LC3-positive vacuole-associated NADPH oxidases. These findings provide a novel mechanism by which autophagy proteins can control secretion. PMID:24185898

  5. Targeting the secretory pathway of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Karsten, V; Qi, H; Beckers, C J; Joiner, K A

    1997-10-01

    Little is known about the extent of conservation in the organization of the secretory pathway in organisms as different as prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and humans. The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii allows easy genetic manipulations, and numerous vectors for selection of transgenic parasites have been developed. One approach to study the molecular mechanism of protein sorting and trafficking is the expression of foreign proteins. Here we describe the design and application of a vector that targets proteins to the secretory pathway of T. gondii and yields high-level expression of Escherichia coli reporter proteins. The general strategies and potential problems in expressing foreign proteins in T. gondii are discussed. PMID:9405194

  6. Wide distribution of cysteine-rich secretory proteins in snake venoms: isolation and cloning of novel snake venom cysteine-rich secretory proteins.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yasuo; Hyodo, Fumiko; Morita, Takashi

    2003-04-01

    Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs) are found in epididymis and granules of mammals, and they are thought to function in sperm maturation and in the immune system. Recently, we isolated and obtained clones for novel snake venom proteins that are classified as CRISP family proteins. To elucidate the distribution of snake venom CRISP family proteins, we evaluated a wide range of venoms for immuno-cross-reactivity. Then we isolated, characterized, and cloned genes for three novel CRISP family proteins (piscivorin, ophanin, and catrin) from the venom of eastern cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus), king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), and western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox). Our results show the wide distribution of snake venom CRISP family proteins among Viperidae and Elapidae from different continents, indicating that CRISP family proteins compose a new group of snake venom proteins. PMID:12646276

  7. Neuroendocrine cells are present in the domestic fowl ovary

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Pablo G; Báez Saldaña, Armida; Fortoul Van Der Goes, Teresa; González del Pliego, Margarita; Gutiérrez Ospina, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine cells are present in virtually all organs of the vertebrate body; however, it is yet uncertain whether they exist in the ovaries. Previous reports of ovarian neurons and neuron-like cells in mammals and birds might have resulted from misidentification. The aim of the present work was to determine the identity of neuron-like cells in immature ovaries of the domestic fowl. Cells immunoreactive to neurofilaments, synaptophysin, and chromogranin-A, with small, dense-core secretory granules, were consistently observed throughout the sub-cortical ovarian medulla and cortical interfollicular stroma. These cells also displayed immunoreactivity for tyrosine, tryptophan and dopamine ?-hydroxylases, as well as to aromatic L-DOPA decarboxylase, implying their ability to synthesize both catecholamines and indolamines. Our results support the argument that the ovarian cells previously reported as neuron-like in birds, are neuroendocrine cells. PMID:23083425

  8. Exocytosis in bovine chromaffin cells: studies with patch-clamp capacitance and FM1-43 fluorescence.

    PubMed Central

    Kilic, Gordan

    2002-01-01

    In response to physiological stimuli, neuroendocrine cells secrete neurotransmitters through a Ca(2+)-dependent fusion of secretory granules with the plasma membrane. We studied insertion of granules in bovine chromaffin cells using capacitance as a measure of plasma membrane area and fluorescence of a membrane marker FM1-43 as a measure of exocytosis. Intracellular dialysis with [Ca(2+)] (1.5-100 microM) evoked massive exocytosis that was sufficient to double plasma membrane area but did not swell cells. In principle, in the absence of endocytosis, the addition of granule membrane would be anticipated to produce similar increases in the capacitance and FM1-43 fluorescence responses. However, when endocytosis was minimal, the changes in capacitance were markedly larger than the corresponding changes in FM1-43 fluorescence. Moreover, the apparent differences between capacitance and FM1-43 fluorescence changes increased with larger exocytic responses, as more granules fused with the plasma membrane. In experiments in which exocytosis was suppressed, increasing membrane tension by osmotically induced cell swelling increased FM1-43 fluorescence, suggesting that FM1-43 fluorescence is sensitive to changes in the membrane tension. Thus, increasing membrane area through exocytosis does not swell chromaffin cells but may decrease membrane tension. PMID:12124269

  9. Activation of protein kinase C induces cortical granule exocytosis in a Ca(2+)-independent manner, but not the resumption of cell cycle in porcine eggs.

    PubMed

    Sun, Q Y; Wang, W H; Hosoe, M; Taniguchi, T; Chen, D Y; Shioya, Y

    1997-08-01

    The effects of protein kinase C (PKC) activation on meiotic resumption and cortical granule (CG) exocytosis as well as its dependence on Ca2+ in porcine eggs matured in vitro were studied. Cortical granule release was judged by both confocal laser microscopy after the eggs were labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate-peanut agglutinin (FITC-PNA) and electron microscopy. Meiotic resumption and pronuclear formation were observed after eggs were stained with acetic orcein. When eggs were treated with PKC activators, 1-oleyl-2-acetyl-glycerol (OAG) or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), the pronuclear formation percentage was significantly lower than that of Ca2+ ionophore A23187-treated group, but not statistically different from that in negative control group (P > 0.05), and most of the eggs were still arrested at metaphase II stage, suggesting that PKC activation does not induce the resumption of meiosis and pronuclear formation. In contrast, PKC activation induced 89.1% to 100% of the eggs completely or partially released their CG in different groups, not statistically different from A23187-treated group, and this effect could be overcome by PKC inhibition. When the intracellular free Ca2+ was chelated with acetoxymethal ester form of 1,2-bis(O-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA-AM), and then treated with PMA or OAG in Ca(2+)-free medium, the proportions of eggs with CG release were 90.9% and 78.1%, respectively, not statistically different from the above-treated groups, suggesting that CG exocytosis induced by PKC activation is independent of Ca2+ rise. The results indicate that different events of porcine egg activation may be uncoupled from one another. PMID:9352207

  10. Multiple Poliovirus Proteins Repress Cytoplasmic RNA Granules

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Jonathan D.; Tsai, Wei-Chih; Lloyd, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that poliovirus (PV) infection induces stress granule (SG) formation early in infection and then inhibits the formation of SG and disperses processing bodies (PBs) by the mid-phase of infection. Loss of SG was linked to cleavage of G3BP1 by viral 3C proteinase (3Cpro), however dispersal of PBs was not strongly linked to cleavage of specific factors by viral proteinases, suggesting other viral proteins may play roles in inhibition of SG or PB formation. Here we have screened all viral proteins for roles in inducing or inhibiting the formation of RNA granules by creating fusions with mCherry and expressing them individually in cells. Expression of viral proteins separately revealed that the capsid region P1, 2Apro, 3A, 3Cpro, the protease precursor 3CD and 3D polymerase all affect RNA granules to varying extents, whereas 2BC does not. 2Apro, which cleaves eIF4GI, induced SGs as expected, and entered novel foci containing the SG nucleating protein G3BP1. Of the two forms of G3BP, only G3BP1 is cleaved by a virus proteinase, 3Cpro, whereas G3BP2 is not cleaved by 3Cpro or 2Apro. Surprisingly, 3CD, which contains proteinase activity, differentially repressed PBs but not SGs. Further, both 2Apro and 3Cpro expression dispersed PBs, however molecular targets were different since PB dispersal due to 2Apro and heat shock protein (Hsp)90 inhibition but not 3Cpro, could be rescued by application of oxidative stress to cells. The data indicate that PV repression of SGs and PBs is multifactorial, though protease function is dominant. PMID:26610553

  11. Multiple Poliovirus Proteins Repress Cytoplasmic RNA Granules.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Jonathan D; Tsai, Wei-Chih; Lloyd, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that poliovirus (PV) infection induces stress granule (SG) formation early in infection and then inhibits the formation of SG and disperses processing bodies (PBs) by the mid-phase of infection. Loss of SG was linked to cleavage of G3BP1 by viral 3C proteinase (3C(pro)), however dispersal of PBs was not strongly linked to cleavage of specific factors by viral proteinases, suggesting other viral proteins may play roles in inhibition of SG or PB formation. Here we have screened all viral proteins for roles in inducing or inhibiting the formation of RNA granules by creating fusions with mCherry and expressing them individually in cells. Expression of viral proteins separately revealed that the capsid region P1, 2A(pro), 3A, 3C(pro), the protease precursor 3CD and 3D polymerase all affect RNA granules to varying extents, whereas 2BC does not. 2A(pro), which cleaves eIF4GI, induced SGs as expected, and entered novel foci containing the SG nucleating protein G3BP1. Of the two forms of G3BP, only G3BP1 is cleaved by a virus proteinase, 3C(pro), whereas G3BP2 is not cleaved by 3C(pro) or 2A(pro). Surprisingly, 3CD, which contains proteinase activity, differentially repressed PBs but not SGs. Further, both 2A(pro) and 3C(pro) expression dispersed PBs, however molecular targets were different since PB dispersal due to 2A(pro) and heat shock protein (Hsp)90 inhibition but not 3C(pro), could be rescued by application of oxidative stress to cells. The data indicate that PV repression of SGs and PBs is multifactorial, though protease function is dominant. PMID:26610553

  12. Differential effects of Ydj1 and Sis1 on Hsp70-mediated clearance of stress granules in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Robert W.; Muhlrad, Denise; Garcia, Jennifer; Parker, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Stress granules and P-bodies are conserved assemblies of nontranslating mRNAs in eukaryotic cells that can be related to RNA–protein aggregates found in some neurodegenerative diseases. Herein, we examine how the Hsp70/Hsp40 protein chaperones affected the assembly and disassembly of stress granules and P-bodies in yeast. We observed that Hsp70 and the Ydj1 and Sis1 Hsp40 proteins accumulated in stress granules and defects in these proteins led to decreases in the disassembly and/or clearance of stress granules. We observed that individual Hsp40 proteins have different effects on stress granules with defects in Ydj1 leading to accumulation of stress granules in the vacuole and limited recovery of translation following stress, which suggests that Ydj1 promotes disassembly of stress granules to promote translation. In contrast, defects in Sis1 did not affect recovery of translation, accumulated cytoplasmic stress granules, and showed reductions in the targeting of stress granules to the vacuole. This demonstrates a new principle whereby alternative disassembly machineries lead to different fates of components within stress granules, thereby providing additional avenues for regulation of their assembly, composition, and function. Moreover, a role for Hsp70 and Hsp40 proteins in stress granule disassembly couples the assembly of these stress responsive structures to the proteostatic state of the cell. PMID:26199455

  13. Edinburgh Research Explorer Pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor in gastrointestinal mucosa

    E-print Network

    MacDonald, Andrew

    Edinburgh Research Explorer Pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor in gastrointestinal mucosa, L, Young, J & Calam, J 1990, 'Pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor in gastrointestinal mucosa and investigate your claim. Download date: 05. Jul. 2015 #12;Gut, 1990, 31, 1318-1323 Pancreatic secretory trypsin

  14. Stress modulates intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael; Godínez-Victoria, Marycarmen; Abarca-Rojano, Edgar; Pacheco-Yépez, Judith; Reyna-Garfias, Humberto; Barbosa-Cabrera, Reyna Elizabeth; Drago-Serrano, Maria Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Stress is a response of the central nervous system to environmental stimuli perceived as a threat to homeostasis. The stress response triggers the generation of neurotransmitters and hormones from the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis, sympathetic axis and brain gut axis, and in this way modulates the intestinal immune system. The effects of psychological stress on intestinal immunity have been investigated mostly with the restraint/immobilization rodent model, resulting in an up or down modulation of SIgA levels depending on the intensity and time of exposure to stress. SIgA is a protein complex formed by dimeric (dIgA) or polymeric IgA (pIgA) and the secretory component (SC), a peptide derived from the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR). The latter receptor is a transmembrane protein expressed on the basolateral side of gut epithelial cells, where it uptakes dIgA or pIgA released by plasma cells in the lamina propria. As a result, the IgA-pIgR complex is formed and transported by vesicles to the apical side of epithelial cells. pIgR is then cleaved to release SIgA into the luminal secretions of gut. Down modulation of SIgA associated with stress can have negative repercussions on intestinal function and integrity. This can take the form of increased adhesion of pathogenic agents to the intestinal epithelium and/or an altered balance of inflammation leading to greater intestinal permeability. Most studies on the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stress response have focused on systemic immunity. The present review analyzes the impact of stress (mostly by restraint/immobilization, but also with mention of other models) on the generation of SIgA, pIgR and other humoral and cellular components involved in the intestinal immune response. Insights into these mechanisms could lead to better therapies for protecting against pathogenic agents and avoiding epithelial tissue damage by modulating intestinal inflammation. PMID:24348350

  15. Three-dimensional ultrastructural analysis of RNA distribution within germinal granules of Xenopus.

    PubMed

    Kloc, Malgorzata; Dougherty, Matthew T; Bilinski, Szczepan; Chan, Agnes P; Brey, Eric; King, Mary Lou; Patrick, Charles W; Etkin, Laurence D

    2002-01-01

    The germ plasm is a specialized region of oocyte cytoplasm that contains determinants of germ cell fate. In Xenopus oocytes, the germ plasm is a part of the METRO region of mitochondrial cloud. It contains the germinal granules and a variety of coding and noncoding RNAs that include Xcat2, Xlsirts, Xdazl, DEADSouth, Xpat, Xwnt11, fatVg, B7/Fingers, C10/XFACS, and mitochondrial large and small rRNA. We analyzed the distribution of these 11 different RNAs within the various compartments of germ plasm during Xenopus oogenesis and development by using whole-mount electron microscopy in situ hybridization. Serial EM sections were used to reconstruct a three-dimensional image of germinal granule distribution within the METRO region of the cloud and the distribution of RNAs on the granules in oocytes and embryos. We found that, in the oocytes, the majority of RNAs were associated either with the precursor of germinal granules or with the germ plasm matrix. Only Xcat2, Xpat, and DEADSouth RNAs were associated with the mature germinal granules in oocytes, while only Xcat2 and Xpat were associated with germinal granules in embryos. However, Xcat2 was the only RNA that was consistently sequestered inside the germinal granules, while the others were located on the periphery. Xdazl, which functions in germ cell migration/formation, was detected on the matrix between granules. Later in development, Xcat2 mRNA was released from the germinal granules. This coincides with the timing of its translational derepression. These results demonstrate that there is a dynamic three-dimensional architecture to the germinal granules that changes during oogenesis and development. They also indicate that association of specific RNAs with the germinal granules is not a prerequisite for their serving a germ cell function; however, it may be related to their state of translational repression. PMID:11784096

  16. Granules characteristics in the vertical profile of a full-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating poultry slaughterhouse wastewater.

    PubMed

    Del Nery, Valéria; Pozzi, Eloisa; Damianovic, Márcia H R Z; Domingues, Mércia R; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2008-04-01

    The performance and the granules characteristics of a 450 m(3) -UASB reactor operating for 1228 days, treating poultry slaughterhouse wastewater with an average COD reduction of 85% was examined. Granules were sampled in three different positions along the vertical central line of the reactor, revealing variations in the concentration of volatile total solids. Although the reactor had been in operation for an extended period of time, granule sizes of 0.5-1.5 mm appeared to predominate. The hollow core was well defined for granules with sizes ranging from 2 to 3 mm in all the sampling ports. The granules exhibited no layered microbial distribution and were packed with different morphotype cells intertwined randomly throughout the cross-section. Methanogenic Archaea predominated in the granules taken from every sampling port along the reactor. The results indicated that the characterization of the granules is a useful tool for the adoption of operational strategies toward optimization of UASB reactors. PMID:17478089

  17. Protein targeting to destinations of the secretory pathway in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    E-print Network

    McFadden, Geoff

    of the haemoglobin proteases targeted to the food vacuole. Protein-targeting to the apical organelles in P parasite P. falciparum has a range of unique organelles all fed by the protein secretory pathway. Indeed, with special emphasis on protein targeting to parasite organelles. Trafficking to the host red blood cell

  18. Analysis of Protein Localization and Secretory Pathway Function Using the Yeast "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallen, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    The isolation and characterization of mutants has been crucial in understanding a number of processes in the field of cell biology. In this exercise, students examine the effects of mutations in the secretory pathway on protein localization. Yeast strains deficient for synthesis of histidinol dehydrogenase are transformed with a plasmid encoding a…

  19. Morphological docking of secretory vesicles

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Calcium-dependent secretion of neurotransmitters and hormones is essential for brain function and neuroendocrine-signaling. Prior to exocytosis, neurotransmitter-containing vesicles dock to the target membrane. In electron micrographs of neurons and neuroendocrine cells, like chromaffin cells many synaptic vesicles (SVs) and large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs) are docked. For many years the molecular identity of the morphologically docked state was unknown. Recently, we resolved the minimal docking machinery in adrenal medullary chromaffin cells using embryonic mouse model systems together with electron-microscopic analyses and also found that docking is controlled by the sub-membrane filamentous (F-)actin. Currently it is unclear if the same docking machinery operates in synapses. Here, I will review our docking assay that led to the identification of the LDCV docking machinery in chromaffin cells and also discuss whether identical docking proteins are required for SV docking in synapses. PMID:20577884

  20. Rac1 Regulates Endometrial Secretory Function to Control Placental Development

    PubMed Central

    Davila, Juanmahel; Laws, Mary J.; Kannan, Athilakshmi; Li, Quanxi; Taylor, Robert N.; Bagchi, Milan K.; Bagchi, Indrani C.

    2015-01-01

    During placenta development, a succession of complex molecular and cellular interactions between the maternal endometrium and the developing embryo ensures reproductive success. The precise mechanisms regulating this maternal-fetal crosstalk remain unknown. Our study revealed that the expression of Rac1, a member of the Rho family of GTPases, is markedly elevated in mouse decidua on days 7 and 8 of gestation. To investigate its function in the uterus, we created mice bearing a conditional deletion of the Rac1 gene in uterine stromal cells. Ablation of Rac1 did not affect the formation of the decidua but led to fetal loss in mid gestation accompanied by extensive hemorrhage. To gain insights into the molecular pathways affected by the loss of Rac1, we performed gene expression profiling which revealed that Rac1 signaling regulates the expression of Rab27b, another GTPase that plays a key role in targeting vesicular trafficking. Consequently, the Rac1-null decidual cells failed to secrete vascular endothelial growth factor A, which is a critical regulator of decidual angiogenesis, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4, which regulates the bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors that promote proliferation and differentiation of trophoblast cell lineages in the ectoplacental cone. The lack of secretion of these key factors by Rac1-null decidua gave rise to impaired angiogenesis and dysregulated proliferation of trophoblast cells, which in turn results in overexpansion of the trophoblast giant cell lineage and disorganized placenta development. Further experiments revealed that RAC1, the human ortholog of Rac1, regulates the secretory activity of human endometrial stromal cells during decidualization, supporting the concept that this signaling G protein plays a central and conserved role in controlling endometrial secretory function. This study provides unique insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating endometrial secretions that mediate stromal-endothelial and stromal-trophoblast crosstalk critical for placenta development and establishment of pregnancy. PMID:26305333

  1. The VPS33B-binding protein VPS16B is required in megakaryocyte and platelet ?-granule biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Denisa; Li, Ling; Christensen, Hilary; Pluthero, Fred G.; Chen, Shao Zun; Puhacz, Michael; Garg, Parvesh M.; Lanka, Kiran K.; Cummings, James J.; Kramer, Helmut; Wasmuth, James D.; Parkinson, John

    2012-01-01

    Patients with platelet ? or dense ?-granule defects have bleeding problems. Although several proteins are known to be required for ?-granule development, less is known about ?-granule biogenesis. Our previous work showed that the BEACH protein NBEAL2 and the Sec1/Munc18 protein VPS33B are required for ?-granule biogenesis. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, mass spectrometry, coimmunoprecipitation, and bioinformatics studies, we identified VPS16B as a VPS33B-binding protein. Immunoblotting confirmed VPS16B expression in various human tissues and cells including megakaryocytes and platelets, and also in megakaryocytic Dami cells. Characterization of platelets from a patient with arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction, and cholestasis (ARC) syndrome containing mutations in C14orf133 encoding VPS16B revealed pale-appearing platelets in blood films and electron microscopy revealed a complete absence of ?-granules, whereas ?-granules were observed. Soluble and membrane-bound ?-granule proteins were reduced or undetectable, suggesting that both releasable and membrane-bound ?-granule constituents were absent. Immunofluorescence microscopy of Dami cells stably expressing GFP-VPS16B revealed that similar to VPS33B, GFP-VPS16B colocalized with markers of the trans-Golgi network, late endosomes and ?-granules. We conclude that VPS16B, similar to its binding partner VPS33B, is essential for megakaryocyte and platelet ?-granule biogenesis. PMID:23002115

  2. Stress-specific composition, assembly and kinetics of stress granules in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Buchan, J Ross; Yoon, Je-Hyun; Parker, Roy

    2011-01-15

    Eukaryotic cells respond to cellular stresses by the inhibition of translation and the accumulation of mRNAs in cytoplasmic RNA-protein (ribonucleoprotein) granules termed stress granules and P-bodies. An unresolved issue is how different stresses affect formation of messenger RNP (mRNP) granules. In the present study, we examine how sodium azide (NaN(3)), which inhibits mitochondrial respiration, affects formation of mRNP granules as compared with glucose deprivation in budding yeast. We observed that NaN(3) treatment inhibits translation and triggers formation of P-bodies and stress granules. The composition of stress granules induced by NaN(3) differs from that of glucose-deprived cells by containing eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)3, eIF4A/B, eIF5B and eIF1A proteins, and by lacking the heterogeneous nuclear RNP (hnRNP) protein Hrp1. Moreover, in contrast with glucose-deprived stress granules, NaN(3)-triggered stress granules show different assembly rules, form faster and independently from P-bodies and dock or merge with P-bodies over time. Strikingly, addition of NaN(3) and glucose deprivation in combination, regardless of the order, always results in stress granules of a glucose deprivation nature, suggesting that both granules share an mRNP remodeling pathway. These results indicate that stress granule assembly, kinetics and composition in yeast can vary in a stress-specific manner, which we suggest reflects different rate-limiting steps in a common mRNP remodeling pathway. PMID:21172806

  3. Dual-Modal Magnetic Resonance/Fluorescent Zinc Probes for Pancreatic ?-Cell Mass Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Stasiuk, Graeme J; Minuzzi, Florencia; Sae-Heng, Myra; Rivas, Charlotte; Juretschke, Hans-Paul; Piemonti, Lorenzo; Allegrini, Peter R; Laurent, Didier; Duckworth, Andrew R; Beeby, Andrew; Rutter, Guy A; Long, Nicholas J

    2015-01-01

    Despite the contribution of changes in pancreatic ?-cell mass to the development of all forms of diabetes mellitus, few robust approaches currently exist to monitor these changes prospectively in vivo. Although magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI) provides a potentially useful technique, targeting MRI-active probes to the ? cell has proved challenging. Zinc ions are highly concentrated in the secretory granule, but they are relatively less abundant in the exocrine pancreas and in other tissues. We have therefore developed functional dual-modal probes based on transition-metal chelates capable of binding zinc. The first of these, Gd?1, binds ZnII directly by means of an amidoquinoline moiety (AQA), thus causing a large ratiometric Stokes shift in the fluorescence from ?em=410 to 500?nm with an increase in relaxivity from r1=4.2 up to 4.9?mM?1?s?1. The probe is efficiently accumulated into secretory granules in ?-cell-derived lines and isolated islets, but more poorly by non-endocrine cells, and leads to a reduction in T1 in human islets. In vivo murine studies of Gd?1 have shown accumulation of the probe in the pancreas with increased signal intensity over 140?minutes. PMID:25736590

  4. Promiscuous interactions and protein disaggregases determine the material state of stress-inducible RNP granules.

    PubMed

    Kroschwald, Sonja; Maharana, Shovamayee; Mateju, Daniel; Malinovska, Liliana; Nüske, Elisabeth; Poser, Ina; Richter, Doris; Alberti, Simon

    2015-01-01

    RNA-protein (RNP) granules have been proposed to assemble by forming solid RNA/protein aggregates or through phase separation into a liquid RNA/protein phase. Which model describes RNP granules in living cells is still unclear. In this study, we analyze P bodies in budding yeast and find that they have liquid-like properties. Surprisingly, yeast stress granules adopt a different material state, which is reminiscent of solid protein aggregates and controlled by protein disaggregases. By using an assay to ectopically nucleate RNP granules, we further establish that RNP granule formation does not depend on amyloid-like aggregation but rather involves many promiscuous interactions. Finally, we show that stress granules have different properties in mammalian cells, where they show liquid-like behavior. Thus, we propose that the material state of RNP granules is flexible and that the solid state of yeast stress granules is an adaptation to extreme environments, made possible by the presence of a powerful disaggregation machine. PMID:26238190

  5. PICK1 Deficiency Impairs Secretory Vesicle Biogenesis and Leads to Growth Retardation and Decreased Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Anna M.; Jin, Chunyu; Rickhag, Mattias; Lund, Viktor K.; Jensen, Morten; Bhatia, Vikram; Sørensen, Gunnar; Madsen, Andreas N.; Xue, Zhichao; Møller, Siri K.; Woldbye, David; Qvortrup, Klaus; Huganir, Richard; Stamou, Dimitrios; Kjærulff, Ole; Gether, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Secretory vesicles in endocrine cells store hormones such as growth hormone (GH) and insulin before their release into the bloodstream. The molecular mechanisms governing budding of immature secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and their subsequent maturation remain unclear. Here, we identify the lipid binding BAR (Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs) domain protein PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1) as a key component early in the biogenesis of secretory vesicles in GH-producing cells. Both PICK1-deficient Drosophila and mice displayed somatic growth retardation. Growth retardation was rescued in flies by reintroducing PICK1 in neurosecretory cells producing somatotropic peptides. PICK1-deficient mice were characterized by decreased body weight and length, increased fat accumulation, impaired GH secretion, and decreased storage of GH in the pituitary. Decreased GH storage was supported by electron microscopy showing prominent reduction in secretory vesicle number. Evidence was also obtained for impaired insulin secretion associated with decreased glucose tolerance. PICK1 localized in cells to immature secretory vesicles, and the PICK1 BAR domain was shown by live imaging to associate with vesicles budding from the TGN and to possess membrane-sculpting properties in vitro. In mouse pituitary, PICK1 co-localized with the BAR domain protein ICA69, and PICK1 deficiency abolished ICA69 protein expression. In the Drosophila brain, PICK1 and ICA69 co-immunoprecipitated and showed mutually dependent expression. Finally, both in a Drosophila model of type 2 diabetes and in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice, we observed up-regulation of PICK1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that PICK1, together with ICA69, is critical during budding of immature secretory vesicles from the TGN and thus for vesicular storage of GH and possibly other hormones. The data link two BAR domain proteins to membrane remodeling processes in the secretory pathway of peptidergic endocrine cells and support an important role of PICK1/ICA69 in maintenance of metabolic homeostasis. PMID:23630454

  6. Eosinophilic and granular cell tumors of the breast.

    PubMed

    Damiani, S; Dina, R; Eusebi, V

    1999-05-01

    Eosinophilic and granular cell tumors of the breast are a heterogeneous group encompassing both epithelial and mesenchymal lesions. A granular appearance of the cytoplasm may be caused by the accumulation of secretory granules, mitochondria, or lysosomes. In the breast, mucoid carcinomas, carcinomas showing apocrine differentiation, and neuroendocrine carcinomas are well known entities, while tumors with oncocytic and acinic cell differentiation have been only recently recognized. An abundance of lysosomes is characteristic of Schwannian granular cell neoplasms, but smooth muscle cell tumors also may have this cytoplasmic feature. Awareness of all these possibilities when granular cells are found in breast lesions improves diagnostic accuracy and helps to avoid misdiagnosis of both benign lesions and malignant tumors. PMID:10452577

  7. A proposed aerobic granules size development scheme for aerobic granulation process.

    PubMed

    Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Abdullah, Norhayati; Yuzir, Ali; Olsson, Gustaf; Salmiati; Hamdzah, Myzairah; Din, Mohd Fadhil Mohd; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima; Khalil, Khalilah Abdul; Anuar, Aznah Nor; Noor, Zainura Zainon; Ujang, Zaini

    2015-04-01

    Aerobic granulation is increasingly used in wastewater treatment due to its unique physical properties and microbial functionalities. Granule size defines the physical properties of granules based on biomass accumulation. This study aims to determine the profile of size development under two physicochemical conditions. Two identical bioreactors namely Rnp and Rp were operated under non-phototrophic and phototrophic conditions, respectively. An illustrative scheme was developed to comprehend the mechanism of size development that delineates the granular size throughout the granulation. Observations on granules' size variation have shown that activated sludge revolutionised into the form of aerobic granules through the increase of biomass concentration in bioreactors which also determined the changes of granule size. Both reactors demonstrated that size transformed in a similar trend when tested with and without illumination. Thus, different types of aerobic granules may increase in size in the same way as recommended in the aerobic granule size development scheme. PMID:25661308

  8. TDP-43 Aggregation In Neurodegeneration: Are Stress Granules The Key?

    PubMed Central

    Dewey, Colleen M.; Cenik, Basar; Sephton, Chantelle F.; Johnson, Brett A.; Herz, Joachim; Yu, Gang

    2012-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein TDP-43 is strongly linked to neurodegeneration. Not only are mutations in the gene encoding TDP-43 associated with ALS and FTLD, but this protein is also a major constituent of pathological intracellular inclusions in these diseases. Recent studies have significantly expanded our understanding of TDP-43 physiology. TDP-43 is now known to play important roles in neuronal RNA metabolism. It binds to and regulates the splicing and stability of numerous RNAs encoding proteins involved in neuronal development, synaptic function and neurodegeneration. Thus, a loss of these essential functions is an attractive hypothesis regarding the role of TDP-43 in neurodegeneration. Moreover, TDP-43 is an aggregation-prone protein and, given the role of toxic protein aggregates in neurodegeneration, a toxic gain-of-function mechanism is another rational hypothesis. Importantly, ALS related mutations modulate the propensity of TDP-43 to aggregate in cell culture. Several recent studies have documented that cytoplasmic TDP-43 aggregates co-localize with stress granule markers. Stress granules are cytoplasmic inclusions that repress translation of a subset of RNAs in times of cellular stress, and several proteins implicated in neurodegeneration (i.e. Ataxin-2 and SMN) interact with stress granules. Thus, understanding the interplay between TDP-43 aggregation, stress granules and the effect of ALS-associated TDP-43 mutations may be the key to understanding the role of TDP-43 in neurodegeneration. We propose two models of TDP-43 aggregate formation. The “independent model” stipulates that TDP-43 aggregation is independent of stress granule formation, in contrast to the “precursor model” which presents the idea that stress granule formation contributes to a TDP-43 aggregate “seed” and that chronic stress leads to concentration-dependent TDP-43 aggregation. PMID:22405725

  9. Regulated Mucin Secretion from Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Kenneth B.; Tuvim, Michael J.; Dickey, Burton F.

    2013-01-01

    Secretory epithelial cells of the proximal airways synthesize and secrete gel-forming polymeric mucins. The secreted mucins adsorb water to form mucus that is propelled by neighboring ciliated cells, providing a mobile barrier which removes inhaled particles and pathogens from the lungs. Several features of the intracellular trafficking of mucins make the airway secretory cell an interesting comparator for the cell biology of regulated exocytosis. Polymeric mucins are exceedingly large molecules (up to 3?×?106?Da per monomer) whose folding and initial polymerization in the ER requires the protein disulfide isomerase Agr2. In the Golgi, mucins further polymerize to form chains and possibly branched networks comprising more than 20 monomers. The large size of mucin polymers imposes constraints on their packaging into transport vesicles along the secretory pathway. Sugar side chains account for >70% of the mass of mucins, and their attachment to the protein core by O-glycosylation occurs in the Golgi. Mature polymeric mucins are stored in large secretory granules ?1??m in diameter. These are translocated to the apical membrane to be positioned for exocytosis by cooperative interactions among myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate, cysteine string protein, heat shock protein 70, and the cytoskeleton. Mucin granules undergo exocytic fusion with the plasma membrane at a low basal rate and a high stimulated rate. Both rates are mediated by a regulated exocytic mechanism as indicated by phenotypes in both basal and stimulated secretion in mice lacking Munc13-2, a sensor of the second messengers calcium and diacylglycerol (DAG). Basal secretion is induced by low levels of activation of P2Y2 purinergic and A3 adenosine receptors by extracellular ATP released in paracrine fashion and its metabolite adenosine. Stimulated secretion is induced by high levels of the same ligands, and possibly by inflammatory mediators as well. Activated receptors are coupled to phospholipase C by Gq, resulting in the generation of DAG and of IP3 that releases calcium from apical ER. Stimulated secretion requires activation of the low affinity calcium sensor Synaptotagmin-2, while a corresponding high affinity calcium sensor in basal secretion is not known. The core exocytic machinery is comprised of the SNARE proteins VAMP8, SNAP23, and an unknown Syntaxin protein, together with the scaffolding protein Munc18b. Common and distinct features of this exocytic system in comparison to neuroendocrine cells and neurons are highlighted. PMID:24065956

  10. HIV-2 genomic RNA accumulates in stress granules in the absence of active translation

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Valiente-Echeverria, Fernando; Rubilar, Paulina S.; Garcia-de-Gracia, Francisco; Ricci, Emiliano P.; Limousin, Taran; Décimo, Didier; Mouland, Andrew J.; Ohlmann, Théophile

    2014-01-01

    During the post-transcriptional events of the HIV-2 replication cycle, the full-length unspliced genomic RNA (gRNA) is first used as an mRNA to synthesize Gag and Gag-Pol proteins and then packaged into progeny virions. However, the mechanisms responsible for the coordinate usage of the gRNA during these two mutually exclusive events are poorly understood. Here, we present evidence showing that HIV-2 expression induces stress granule assembly in cultured cells. This contrasts with HIV-1, which interferes with stress granules assembly even upon induced cellular stress. Moreover, we observed that the RNA-binding protein and stress granules assembly factor TIAR associates with the gRNA to form a TIAR-HIV-2 ribonucleoprotein (TH2RNP) complex localizing diffuse in the cytoplasm or aggregated in stress granules. Although the assembly of TH2RNP in stress granules did not require the binding of the Gag protein to the gRNA, we observed that increased levels of Gag promoted both translational arrest and stress granule assembly. Moreover, HIV-2 Gag also localizes to stress granules in the absence of a ‘packageable’ gRNA. Our results indicate that the HIV-2 gRNA is compartmentalized in stress granules in the absence of active translation prior to being selected for packaging by the Gag polyprotein. PMID:25352557

  11. Developmental expression of GPR3 in rodent cerebellar granule neurons is associated with cell survival and protects neurons from various apoptotic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shigeru; Miyagi, Tatsuhiro; Dohi, Eisuke; Seki, Takahiro; Hide, Izumi; Sotomaru, Yusuke; Saeki, Yoshinaga; Antonio Chiocca, E; Matsumoto, Masayasu; Sakai, Norio

    2014-08-01

    G-protein coupled receptor 3 (GPR3), GPR6, and GPR12 belong to a family of constitutively active Gs-coupled receptors that activate 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and are highly expressed in the brain. Among these receptors, the endogenous expression of GPR3 in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) is increased following development. GPR3 is important for neurite outgrowth and neural maturation; however, the physiological functions of GPR3 remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the survival and antiapoptotic functions of GPR3 under normal and apoptosis-inducing culture conditions. Under normal culture conditions, CGNs from GPR3-knockout mice demonstrated lower survival than did CGNs from wild-type or GPR3-heterozygous mice. Cerebellar sections from GPR3-/- mice at P7, P14, and P21 revealed more caspase-3-positive neurons in the internal granular layer than in cerebellar sections from wild-type mice. Conversely, in a potassium-deprivation model of apoptosis, increased expression of these three receptors promoted neuronal survival. The antiapoptotic effect of GPR3 was also observed under hypoxic (1% O2/5% CO2) and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced apoptotic conditions. We further investigated the signaling pathways involved in the GPR3-mediated antiapoptotic effect. The addition of the PKA inhibitor KT5720, the MAP kinase inhibitor U0126, and the PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 abrogated the GPR3-mediated antiapoptotic effect in a potassium-deprivation model of apoptosis, whereas the PKC inhibitor Gö6976 did not affect the antiapoptotic function of GPR3. Furthermore, downregulation of endogenous GPR3 expression in CGNs resulted in a marked reduction in the basal levels of ERK and Akt phosphorylation under normal culture conditions. Finally, we used a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model in wild-type and GPR3-knockout mice to determine whether GPR3 expression modulates neuronal survival after brain ischemia. After tMCAO, GPR3-knockout mice exhibited a significantly larger infarct area than did wild-type mice. Collectively, these in vitro and in vivo results suggest that the developmental expression of constitutively active Gs-coupled GPR3 activates the ERK and Akt signaling pathways at the basal level, thereby protecting neurons from apoptosis that is induced by various stimuli. PMID:24769160

  12. Munc13-4 is a limiting factor in the pathway required for platelet granule release and hemostasis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Qiansheng; Wimmer, Christian; Chicka, Michael C; Ye, Shaojing; Ren, Yi; Hughson, Frederick M; Whiteheart, Sidney W

    2010-08-12

    Activation-dependent platelet granule release is mediated by integral membrane proteins called soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) and their regulators; however, the mechanisms for this process are ill-defined. To further characterize platelet secretion, we analyzed the function of platelets from Unc13d(Jinx) mice. Platelets from these animals lack the putative vesicle priming factor, Munc13-4, and have a severe secretion defect. Release from dense granules was completely ablated and that from alpha-granules and lysosomes was severely compromised. Unc13d(Jinx) platelets showed attenuated aggregation and, consequently, Unc13d(Jinx) mice had prolonged tail-bleeding times. The secretion defect was not due to altered expression of SNAREs or SNARE regulators, defective granule biogenesis, or faulty platelet activation. The defective release could be rescued by adding recombinant Munc13-4 to permeabilized Unc13d(Jinx) platelets. In wild-type mouse platelets, Munc13-4 levels were lower than those of SNAREs suggesting that Munc13-4 could be a limiting component of the platelets' secretory machinery. Consistently, Munc13-4 levels directly correlated with the extent of granule release from permeabilized platelets and from intact, heterozygous Unc13d(Jinx) platelets. These data highlight the importance of Munc13-4 in platelets and indicate that it is a limiting factor required for platelet secretion and hemostasis. PMID:20435885

  13. Munc13-4 is a limiting factor in the pathway required for platelet granule release and hemostasis

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Qiansheng; Wimmer, Christian; Chicka, Michael C.; Ye, Shaojing; Ren, Yi; Hughson, Frederick M.