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Sample records for cell secretory granules

  1. Mast cell secretory granules: armed for battle.

    PubMed

    Wernersson, Sara; Pejler, Gunnar

    2014-07-01

    Mast cells are important effector cells of the immune system and recent studies show that they have immunomodulatory roles in diverse processes in both health and disease. Mast cells are distinguished by their high content of electron-dense secretory granules, which are filled with large amounts of preformed and pre-activated immunomodulatory compounds. When appropriately activated, mast cells undergo degranulation, a process by which these preformed granule compounds are rapidly released into the surroundings. In many cases, the effects that mast cells have on an immune response are closely associated with the biological actions of the granule compounds that they release, as exemplified by the recent studies showing that mast cell granule proteases account for many of the protective and detrimental effects of mast cells in various inflammatory settings. In this Review, we discuss the current knowledge of mast cell secretory granules. PMID:24903914

  2. Topology of chromogranins in secretory granules of endocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Y; Grube, D

    1991-01-01

    Chromogranins A and B are glycoproteins originally detected in the adrenal medulla. These proteins are also present in a variety of neuroendocrine cells. The subcellular distribution of the chromogranins, and particularly their intra-granular topology are of special interest with respect to their putative functions. Endocrine cells of the guinea pig adrenal medulla, pancreas and gastric mucosa were investigated immunoelectron microscopically for the subcellular distribution of both chromogranins. Out of 13 established endocrine cell types in all locations, only two endocrine cell types showed immunoreactivity for both chromogranin A and B, and eight endocrine cell types showed immunoreactivities only for chromogranin A. These immunoreactivities varied inter-cellularly. Three endocrine cell types were unreactive for the chromogranins. Moreover, some hormonally non-identified endocrine cells in the pancreas and the gastric mucosa also contained chromogranin A immunoreactivities. Subcellularly, chromogranin A or B were confined to secretory granules. In most endocrine cells, the secretory granules showed chromogranin immunoreactivities of varying densities. Furthermore, the intra-granular topology of chromogranin A or B in the secretory granules varied considerably: in some endocrine cell types, i.e. chromaffin-, gastrin- and enterochromaffin-like-cells, chromogranin A immunoreactivity was localized in the perigranular and/or dense core region of the secretory granules; in others, i.e. insulin-, pancreatic polypeptide- and bovine adrenal medulla dodecapeptide-cells, it was present preferentially in the electron-opaque centre of the secretory granules; chromogranin B immunoreactivity was localized preferentially in the perigranular region of the secretory granules of chromaffin cells and gastrin-cells. The inter-cellular and inter-granular variations of chromogranin A and B immunoreactivities point to differences in biosynthesis or processing of the chromogranins among endocrine cells and their secretory granules. PMID:1723976

  3. The use of permeabilized cells to investigate secretory granule biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ling, W L; Siddhanta, A; Shields, D

    1998-10-01

    To investigate the mechanism of secretory granule biogenesis in endocrine cells, our laboratory used rat anterior pituitary GH3 cells which secrete growth hormone and prolactin. Here we describe a simple and rapid procedure for generating permeabilized cells to dissect molecular mechanisms involved in nascent secretory vesicle budding from the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Using this system, we demonstrate that vesicle budding is temperature, energy, and cytosol dependent; in addition, cytosol from a variety of cells, including yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), can support vesicle release. The budding of nascent secretory vesicles from the TGN is stimulated by a phospholipase D activity that is associated with Golgi membranes. Our results suggest that phospholipid metabolism plays an important role in the release of nascent secretory vesicles from the TGN. PMID:9790860

  4. Characterization of Mast Cell Secretory Granules and Their Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    Azouz, Nurit Pereg; Hammel, Ilan

    2014-01-01

    Exocytosis and secretion of secretory granule (SG) contained inflammatory mediators is the primary mechanism by which mast cells exert their protective immune responses in host defense, as well as their pathological functions in allergic reactions and anaphylaxis. Despite their central role in mast cell function, the molecular mechanisms underlying the biogenesis and secretion of mast cell SGs remain largely unresolved. Early studies have established the lysosomal nature of the mast cell SGs and implicated SG homotypic fusion as an important step occurring during both their biogenesis and compound secretion. However, the molecular mechanisms that account for key features of this process largely remain to be defined. A novel high-resolution imaging based methodology allowed us to screen Rab GTPases for their phenotypic and functional impact and identify Rab networks that regulate mast cell secretion. This screen has identified Rab5 as a novel regulator of homotypic fusion of the mast cell SGs that thereby regulates their size and cargo composition. PMID:24988214

  5. Menin immunoreactivity in secretory granules of human pancreatic islet cells.

    PubMed

    Debelenko, Larisa V; Agarwal, Sunita; Du, Qiang; Yan, Wusheng; Erickson, Heidi S; Abu-Asab, Mones; Raffeld, Mark A; Libutti, Steven K; Marx, Stephen J; Emmert-Buck, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    The protein product of the Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type I (MEN1) gene is thought to be involved in predominantly nuclear functions; however, immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis data on cellular localization are conflicting. To further investigate menin expression, we analyzed human pancreas (an MEN1 target organ) using IHC analyses and 6 antibodies raised against full-length menin or its peptides. In 10 normal pancreas specimens, 2 independently raised antibodies showed unexpected cytoplasmic immunoreactivity in peripheral cells in each islet examined (over 100 total across all 10 patients). The staining exhibited a distinct punctate pattern and subsequent immunoelectron microscopy indicated the target antigen was in secretory granules. Exocrine pancreas and pancreatic stroma were not immunoreactive. In MEN1 patients, unaffected islets stained similar to those in normal samples but with a more peripheral location of positive cells, whereas hyperplastic islets and tumorlets showed increased and diffuse cytoplasmic staining, respectively. Endocrine tumors from MEN1 patients were negative for menin, consistent with a 2-hit loss of a tumor suppressor gene. Secretory granule localization of menin in a subset of islet cells suggests a function of the protein unique to a target organ of familial endocrine neoplasia, although the IHC data must be interpreted with some caution because of the possibility of antibody cross-reaction. The identity, cellular trafficking, and role of this putative secretory granule-form of menin warrant additional investigation. PMID:25153502

  6. Menin Immunoreactivity in Secretory Granules of Human Pancreatic Islet Cells

    PubMed Central

    Debelenko, Larisa V.; Agarwal, Sunita; Du, Qiang; Yan, Wusheng; Erickson, Heidi S.; Abu-Asab, Mones; Raffeld, Mark A.; Libutti, Steven K.; Marx, Stephen J.; Emmert-Buck, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    The protein product of the Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type I (MEN1) gene is thought to be involved in predominantly nuclear functions; however, immunohistochemistry (IHC) data on cellular localization are conflicting. To further investigate menin expression, we analyzed human pancreas (an MEN1 target organ) using IHC and six antibodies raised against full-length menin or its peptides. In 10 normal pancreas specimens, two independently raised antibodies showed unexpected cytoplasmic immunoreactivity in peripheral cells in each islet examined (over 100 total across all 10 patients). The staining exhibited a distinct punctate pattern and subsequent immunoelectron microscopy indicated the target antigen was in secretory granules. Exocrine pancreas and pancreatic stroma were not immunoreactive. In MEN1 patients, unaffected islets stained similar to those in normal samples but with a more peripheral location of positive cells, whereas hyperplastic islets and tumorlets showed increased and diffuse cytoplasmic staining, respectively. Endocrine tumors from MEN1 patients were negative for menin, consistent with a two-hit loss of a tumor suppressor gene. Secretory granule localization of menin in a subset of islet cells suggests a function of the protein unique to a target organ of familial endocrine neoplasia, although the IHC data must be interpreted with some caution due to the possibility of antibody cross reaction. The identity, cellular trafficking, and role of this putative secretory granule-form of menin warrant additional investigation. PMID:25153502

  7. Abnormal ion content, hydration and granule expansion of the secretory granules from cystic fibrosis airway glandular cells

    SciTech Connect

    Baconnais, S.; Delavoie, F. |; Zahm, J.M.; Milliot, M.; Castillon, N.; Terryn, C.; Banchet, V.; Michel, J.; Danos, O.; Merten, M.; Chinet, T.; Zierold, K.; Bonnet, N.; Puchelle, E. , E-Mail: edith.puchelle@univ-reims.fr; Balossier, G.

    2005-10-01

    The absence or decreased expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) induces increased Na{sup +} absorption and hyperabsorption of the airway surface liquid (ASL) resulting in a dehydrated and hyperviscous ASL. Although the implication of abnormal airway submucosal gland function has been suggested, the ion and water content in the Cystic Fibrosis (CF) glandular secretory granules, before exocytosis, is unknown. We analyzed, in non-CF and CF human airway glandular cell lines (MM-39 and KM4, respectively), the ion content in the secretory granules by electron probe X-ray microanalysis and the water content by quantitative dark field imaging on freeze-dried cryosections. We demonstrated that the ion content (Na{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, P, S and Cl{sup -}) is significantly higher and the water content significantly lower in secretory granules from the CF cell line compared to the non-CF cell line. Using videomicroscopy, we observed that the secretory granule expansion was deficient in CF glandular cells. Transfection of CF cells with CFTR cDNA or inhibition of non-CF cells with CFTR{sub inh}-172, respectively restored or decreased the water content and granule expansion, in parallel with changes in ion content. We hypothesize that the decreased water and increased ion content in glandular secretory granules may contribute to the dehydration and increased viscosity of the ASL in CF.

  8. Pasteurella multocida toxin: Targeting mast cell secretory granules during kiss-and-run secretion.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, Elisabeth M; Christiansen, Nina; Danielsen, E Michael

    2016-02-01

    Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT), a virulence factor of the pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium P. multocida, is a 146kDa protein belonging to the A-B class of toxins. Once inside a target cell, the A domain deamidates the α-subunit of heterotrimeric G-proteins, thereby activating downstream signaling cascades. However, little is known about how PMT selects and enters its cellular targets. We therefore studied PMT binding and uptake in porcine cultured intestinal mucosal explants to identify susceptible cells in the epithelium and underlying lamina propria. In comparison with Vibrio cholera B-subunit, a well-known enterotoxin taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis, PMT binding to the epithelial brush border was scarce, and no uptake into enterocytes was detected by 2h, implying that none of the glycolipids in the brush border are a functional receptor for PMT. However, in the lamina propria, PMT distinctly accumulated in the secretory granules of mast cells. This also occurred at 4°C, ruling out endocytosis, but suggestive of uptake via pores that connect the granules to the cell surface. Mast cell granules are known to secrete their contents by a "kiss-and-run" mechanism, and we propose that PMT may exploit this secretory mechanism to gain entry into this particular cell type. PMID:26763205

  9. Serglycin determines secretory granule repertoire and regulates natural killer cell and cytotoxic T lymphocyte cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Vivien R; Brennan, Amelia J; Ellis, Sarah; Danne, Jill; Thia, Kevin; Jenkins, Misty R; Voskoboinik, Ilia; Pejler, Gunnar; Johnstone, Ricky W; Andrews, Daniel M; Trapani, Joseph A

    2016-03-01

    The anionic proteoglycan serglycin is a major constituent of secretory granules in cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)/natural killer (NK) cells, and is proposed to promote the safe storage of the mostly cationic granule toxins, granzymes and perforin. Despite the extensive defects of mast cell function reported in serglycin gene-disrupted mice, no comprehensive study of physiologically relevant CTL/NK cell populations has been reported. We show that the cytotoxicity of serglycin-deficient CTL and NK cells is severely compromised but can be partly compensated in both cell types when they become activated. Reduced intracellular granzyme B levels were noted, particularly in CD27(+) CD11b(+) mature NK cells, whereas serglycin(-/-) TCR-transgenic (OTI) CD8 T cells also had reduced perforin stores. Culture supernatants from serglycin(-/-) OTI T cells and interleukin-2-activated NK contained increased granzyme B, linking reduced storage with heightened export. By contrast, granzyme A was not significantly reduced in cells lacking serglycin, indicating differentially regulated trafficking and/or storage for the two granzymes. A quantitative analysis of different granule classes by transmission electronmicroscopy showed a selective loss of dense-core granules in serglycin(-/-) CD8(+) CTLs, although other granule types were maintained quantitatively. The findings of the present study show that serglycin plays a critical role in the maturation of dense-core cytotoxic granules in cytotoxic lymphocytes and the trafficking and storage of perforin and granzyme B, whereas granzyme A is unaffected. The skewed retention of cytotoxic effector molecules markedly reduces CTL/NK cell cytotoxicity, although this is partly compensated for as a result of activating the cells by physiological means. PMID:26756195

  10. Protein mobility within secretory granules.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Annita Ngatchou; Bittner, Mary A; Holz, Ronald W; Axelrod, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the basis for previous observations that fluorescent-labeled neuropeptide Y (NPY) is usually released within 200 ms after fusion, whereas labeled tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is often discharged over many seconds. We found that tPA and NPY are endogenously expressed in small and different subpopulations of bovine chromaffin cells in culture. We measured the mobility of these proteins (tagged with fluorophore) within the lumen of individual secretory granules in living chromaffin cells, and related their mobilities to postfusion release kinetics. A method was developed that is not limited by standard optical resolution, in which a bright flash of strongly decaying evanescent field (∼64 nm exponential decay constant) produced by total internal reflection (TIR) selectively bleaches cerulean-labeled protein proximal to the glass coverslip within individual granules. Fluorescence recovery occurred as unbleached protein from distal regions within the 300 nm granule diffused into the bleached proximal regions. The fractional bleaching of tPA-cerulean (tPA-cer) was greater when subsequently probed with TIR excitation than with epifluorescence, indicating that tPA-cer mobility was low. The almost equal NPY-cer bleaching when probed with TIR and epifluorescence indicated that NPY-cer equilibrated within the 300 ms bleach pulse, and therefore had a greater mobility than tPA-cer. TIR-fluorescence recovery after photobleaching revealed a significant recovery of tPA-cer (but not NPY-cer) fluorescence within several hundred milliseconds after bleaching. Numerical simulations, which take into account bleach duration, granule diameter, and the limited number of fluorophores in a granule, are consistent with tPA-cer being 100% mobile, with a diffusion coefficient of 2 × 10(-10) cm(2)/s (∼1/3000 of that for a protein of similar size in aqueous solution). However, the low diffusive mobility of tPA cannot alone explain its slow postfusion release. In the accompanying study, we suggest that, additionally, tPA itself stabilizes the fusion pore with dimensions that restrict its own exit. PMID:24988337

  11. Toxoplasma secretory granules: one population or more?

    PubMed

    Mercier, Corinne; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France

    2015-02-01

    In Toxoplasma gondii, dense granules are known as the storage secretory organelles of the so-called GRA proteins (for dense granule proteins), which are destined to the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) and the PV-derived cyst wall. Recently, newly annotated GRA proteins targeted to the host cell nucleus have enlarged this view. Here we provide an update on the latest developments on the Toxoplasma secreted proteins, which to date have been mainly studied at both the tachyzoite and bradyzoite stages, and we point out that recent discoveries could open the issue of a possible, yet uncharacterized, distinct secretory pathway in Toxoplasma. PMID:25599584

  12. PROX1 Promotes Secretory Granule Formation in Medullary Thyroid Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Jun; Yazawa, Takuya; Chiba, Tomohiro; Shishido-Hara, Yukiko; Arimasu, Yuu; Sato, Hanako; Kamma, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    Mechanisms of endocrine secretory granule (SG) formation in thyroid C cells and medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cells have not been fully elucidated. Here we directly demonstrated that PROX1, a developmental homeobox gene, is transcriptionally involved in SG formation in MTC, which is derived from C cells. Analyses using gene expression databases on web sites revealed that, among thyroid cancer cells, MTC cells specifically and highly express PROX1 as well as several SG-forming molecule genes. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that in vivo MTC and C cells expressed PROX1, although follicular thyroid cancer and papillary thyroid cancer cells, normal follicular cells did not. Knockdown of PROX1 in an MTC cells reduced SGs detected by electron microscopy, and decreased expression of SG-related genes (chromogranin A, chromogranin B, secretogranin II, secretogranin III, synaptophysin, and carboxypeptidase E). Conversely, the introduction of a PROX1 transgene into a papillary thyroid cancer and anaplastic thyroid cancer cells induced the expression of SG-related genes. Reporter assays using the promoter sequence of chromogranin A showed that PROX1 activates the chromogranin A gene in addition to the known regulatory mechanisms, which are mediated via the cAMP response element binding protein and the repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR assays demonstrated that PROX1 binds to the transcriptional regulatory element of the chromogranin A gene. In conclusion, PROX1 is an important regulator of endocrine SG formation in MTC cells. PMID:26760117

  13. Regulation of secretory granule size by the precise generation and fusion of unit granules

    PubMed Central

    Hammel, Ilan; Lagunoff, David; Galli, Stephen J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Morphometric evidence derived from studies of mast cells, pancreatic acinar cells and other cell types supports a model in which the post-Golgi processes that generate mature secretory granules can be resolved into three steps: (1) fusion of small, Golgi-derived progranules to produce immature secretory granules which have a highly constrained volume; (2) transformation of such immature granules into mature secretory granules, a process often associated with a reduction in the maturing granule’s volume, as well as changes in the appearance of its content and (3) fusion of secretory granules of the smallest size, termed ‘unit granules’, forming granules whose volumes are multiples of the unit granule’s volume. Mutations which perturb this process can cause significant pathology. For example, Chediak–Higashi syndrome / lysosomal trafficking regulator (CHS)/(Lyst) mutations result in giant secretory granules in a number of cell types in human beings with the Chediak–Higashi syndrome and in ‘beige’ (Lystbg/Lystbg) mice. Analysis of the secretory granules of mast cells and pancreatic acinar cells in Lyst-deficient beige mice suggests that beige mouse secretory granules retain the ability to fuse randomly with other secretory granules no matter what the size of the fusion partners. By contrast, in normal mice, the pattern of granule–granule fusion occurs exclusively by the addition of unit granules, either to each other or to larger granules. The normal pattern of fusion is termed unit addition and the fusion evident in cells with CHS/Lyst mutations is called random addition. The proposed model of secretory granule formation has several implications. For example, in neurosecretory cells, the secretion of small amounts of cargo in granules constrained to a very narrow size increases the precision of the information conveyed by secretion. By contrast, in pancreatic acinar cells and mast cells, large granules composed of multiple unit granules permit the cells to store large amounts of material without requiring the amount of membrane necessary to package the same amount of cargo into small granules. In addition, the formation of mature secretory granules that are multimers of unit granules provides a mechanism for mixing in large granules the contents of unit granules which differ in their content of cargo. PMID:20406331

  14. Spiperone: evidence for uptake into secretory granules.

    PubMed Central

    Dannies, P S; Rudnick, M S; Fishkes, H; Rudnick, G

    1984-01-01

    Spiperone, a dopamine antagonist widely used as a specific ligand for dopamine and serotonin receptors, is actively accumulated into the F4C1 strain of rat pituitary tumor cells. The accumulation of 10 nM [3H]spiperone was linear for 3 min and reached a steady state after 10 min. Spiperone accumulation was reduced 50% by preincubation with 5 microM reserpine, an inhibitor of biogenic amine transport into secretory granules, and was also blocked by monensin and ammonium chloride, both of which increase the pH of intracellular storage organelles. Uptake was not affected by replacing sodium in the buffer with lithium at equimolar concentrations. Spiperone at 1 microM inhibited by over 50% serotonin transport into membrane vesicles isolated from platelet dense granules; this concentration inhibited the Na+-dependent plasma membrane transport system less than 10%. The data indicate spiperone specifically interacts with the secretory granule amine transport system and suggest that this transport system is found in the F4C1 pituitary cell strain as well as in platelets and neurons. The data also suggest that experiments utilizing spiperone to measure dopamine and serotonin receptors be interpreted with caution. PMID:6584920

  15. A method for detailed analysis of the structure of mast cell secretory granules by negative contrast imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Shotaro; Takakuwa, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Secretory granules (SGs) in mast cells contain various molecules that elicit allergy symptoms and are generally considered therapeutic targets. However, the biogenesis, maintenance, regulation, and recycling of these granules remain controversial, mainly due to the lack of suitable live-cell imaging methods. In this study, we applied negative contrast imaging with soluble green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressed in the cytoplasm as a method to validate structural information of mast cell SGs. We evaluated the accuracy of the method in detail, and we demonstrated that it can be used for quantitative analysis. Using this technique, secretory granules, the nucleus, mitochondria, and the cell body were visualized in individual RBL-2H3 mast cells without any influence. When combined with conventional multicolor fluorescence imaging, visualization of SG-associated proteins and SG–SG fusion was achieved. Moreover, 3D images were constructed based on this method, and detailed information on the number, size, and shape of individual SGs was obtained. We found that cell volume was correlated with SG number. In summary, the technique provides valuable and unique data, and will therefore advance SG research. PMID:26997316

  16. A method for detailed analysis of the structure of mast cell secretory granules by negative contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shotaro; Takakuwa, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Secretory granules (SGs) in mast cells contain various molecules that elicit allergy symptoms and are generally considered therapeutic targets. However, the biogenesis, maintenance, regulation, and recycling of these granules remain controversial, mainly due to the lack of suitable live-cell imaging methods. In this study, we applied negative contrast imaging with soluble green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressed in the cytoplasm as a method to validate structural information of mast cell SGs. We evaluated the accuracy of the method in detail, and we demonstrated that it can be used for quantitative analysis. Using this technique, secretory granules, the nucleus, mitochondria, and the cell body were visualized in individual RBL-2H3 mast cells without any influence. When combined with conventional multicolor fluorescence imaging, visualization of SG-associated proteins and SG-SG fusion was achieved. Moreover, 3D images were constructed based on this method, and detailed information on the number, size, and shape of individual SGs was obtained. We found that cell volume was correlated with SG number. In summary, the technique provides valuable and unique data, and will therefore advance SG research. PMID:26997316

  17. Secretory granules of an anterior pituitary cell line, AtT-20, contain only mature forms of corticotropin and beta-lipotropin.

    PubMed

    Gumbiner, B; Kelly, R B

    1981-01-01

    The pituitary cell line, AtT-20, synthesizes the precursor to corticotropin (adrenocorticotropic hormone; ACTH) and beta-endorphin and correctly glycosylates and cleaves it to make the mature forms of the hormones before they are secreted. This cell line was used to study the intracellular transport, packaging, and secretion of these hormones. Secretory granules from the cells were isolated by homogenization and differential centrifugation and isopycnic sedimentation on a 2H2O-Ficoll gradient to give a preparation having a specific activity of 90micrograms ACTH per mg of protein, which is 30- to 90-fold greater than that of whole cells. The granules have density characteristics and a sedimentation coefficient that are appropriate for spheres of 1000 A radius. They contain all of the fragments of the initial ACTH/endorphin precursor but almost undetectable amounts of the intact precursor. The fragments constitute about 50% of the protein in the secretory granule fraction and, from density measurements, we estimate that they are present in approximately 60,000 copies per vesicle. The cell line secretory granules appear, therefore, to be similar to mature secretory granules in normal differentiated tissues. ACTH first appears in the secretory granule at 30-45 min after synthesis. Cleavage of the precursor to mature ACTH occurs at about the same time in the whole cell. Therefore, proteolysis of the prohormone to ACTH and to beta-lipotropin is a metabolic event that can be correlated with the packaging of the hormone into a mature secretory granule. Cleavage of beta-lipotropin to beta-endorphin occurs later, probably in the secretory granule. PMID:6264438

  18. Hydrogen sulfide induces hyperpolarization and decreases the exocytosis of secretory granules of rat GH3 pituitary tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Mustafina, Alsu N; Yakovlev, Aleksey V; Gaifullina, Aisylu Sh; Weiger, Thomas M; Hermann, Anton; Sitdikova, Guzel F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on the membrane potential, action potential discharge and exocytosis of secretory granules in neurosecretory pituitary tumor cells (GH3). The H2S donor - sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) induced membrane hyperpolarization, followed by truncation of spontaneous electrical activity and decrease of the membrane resistance. The NaHS effect was dose-dependent with an EC50 of 152 μM (equals effective H2S of 16-19 μM). NaHS effects were not altered after inhibition of maxi conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels by tetraethylammonium or paxilline, but were significantly reduced after inhibition or activation of ATP-dependent potassium channels (KATP) by glibenclamide or by diazoxide, respectively. In whole-cell recordings NaHS increased the amplitude of KATP currents, induced by hyperpolarizing pulses and subsequent application of glibenclamide decreased currents to control levels. Using the fluorescent dye FM 1-43 exocytosis of secretory granules was analyzed in basal and stimulated conditions (high K(+) external solution). Prior application of NaHS decreased the fluorescence of the cell membrane in both conditions which links with activation of KATP currents (basal secretion) and activation of KATP currents and BK-currents (stimulated exocytosis). We suggest that H2S induces hyperpolarization of GH3 cells by activation of KATP channels which results in a truncation of spontaneous action potentials and a decrease of hormone release. PMID:26319431

  19. Difference in distribution of membrane proteins between low- and high-density secretory granules in parotid acinar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita-Yoshigaki, Junko . E-mail: yoshigaki.junko@nihon-u.ac.jp; Katsumata, Osamu; Matsuki, Miwako; Yoshigaki, Tomoyoshi; Furuyama, Shunsuke; Sugiya, Hiroshi

    2006-05-26

    Secretory granules (SGs) are considered to be generated as immature granules and to mature by condensation of their contents. In this study, SGs of parotid gland were separated into low-, medium-, and high-density granule fractions by Percoll-density gradient centrifugation, since it was proposed that the density corresponds to the degree of maturation. The observation with electron microscopy showed that granules in the three fractions were very similar. The average diameter of high-density granules was a little but significantly larger than that of low-density granules. Although the three fractions contained amylase, suggesting that they are all SGs, distribution of membrane proteins was markedly different. Syntaxin6 and VAMP4 were localized in the low-density granule fraction, while VAMP2 was concentrated in the high-density granule fraction. Immunoprecipitation with anti-syntaxin6 antibody caused coprecipitation of VAMP2 from the medium-density granule fraction without solubilization, but not from Triton X-100-solubilized fraction, while VAMP4 was coprecipitated from both fractions. Therefore, VAMP2 is present on the same granules, but is separated from syntaxin6 and VAMP4, which are expected to be removed from immature granules. These results suggest that the medium-density granules are intermediates from low- to high-density granules, and that the membrane components of SGs dynamically change by budding and fusion during maturation.

  20. Characterization of Phospholipids in Insulin Secretory Granules and Mitochondria in Pancreatic Beta Cells and Their Changes with Glucose Stimulation*

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Michael J.; Ade, Lacmbouh; Ntambi, James M.; Ansari, Israr-Ul H.; Stoker, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    The lipid composition of insulin secretory granules (ISG) has never previously been thoroughly characterized. We characterized the phospholipid composition of ISG and mitochondria in pancreatic beta cells without and with glucose stimulation. The phospholipid/protein ratios of most phospholipids containing unsaturated fatty acids were higher in ISG than in whole cells and in mitochondria. The concentrations of negatively charged phospholipids, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylinositol in ISG were 5-fold higher than in the whole cell. In ISG phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and sphingomyelin, fatty acids 12:0 and 14:0 were high, as were phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol containing 18-carbon unsaturated FA. With glucose stimulation, the concentration of many ISG phosphatidylserines and phosphatidylinositols increased; unsaturated fatty acids in phosphatidylserine increased; and most phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, and lysophosphatidylcholines were unchanged. Unsaturation and shorter fatty acid length in phospholipids facilitate curvature and fluidity of membranes, which favors fusion of membranes. Recent evidence suggests that negatively charged phospholipids, such as phosphatidylserine, act as coupling factors enhancing the interaction of positively charged regions in SNARE proteins in synaptic or secretory vesicle membrane lipid bilayers with positively charged regions in SNARE proteins in the plasma membrane lipid bilayer to facilitate docking of vesicles to the plasma membrane during exocytosis. The results indicate that ISG phospholipids are in a dynamic state and are consistent with the idea that changes in ISG phospholipids facilitate fusion of ISG with the plasma membrane-enhancing glucose-stimulated insulin exocytosis. PMID:25762724

  1. AP-1A controls secretory granule biogenesis and trafficking of membrane secretory granule proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bonnemaison, Mathilde; Bäck, Nils; Lin, Yimo; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Mains, Richard; Eipper, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The adaptor protein 1A complex (AP-1A) transports cargo between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes. In professional secretory cells, AP-1A also retrieves material from immature secretory granules (SGs). The role of AP-1A in SG biogenesis was explored using AtT-20 corticotrope tumor cells expressing reduced levels of the AP-1A μ1A subunit. A two-fold reduction in μ1A resulted in a decrease in TGN cisternae and immature SGs and the appearance of regulated secretory pathway components in non-condensing SGs. Although basal secretion of endogenous SG proteins was unaffected, secretagogue-stimulated release was halved. The reduced μ1A levels interfered with the normal trafficking of carboxypeptidase D (CPD) and peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase-1 (PAM-1), integral membrane enzymes that enter immature SGs. The non-condensing SGs contained POMC products and PAM-1, but not CPD. Based on metabolic labeling and secretion experiments, the cleavage of newly synthesized PAM-1 into PHM was unaltered, but PHM basal secretion was increased in sh-μ1A PAM-1 cells. Despite lacking a canonical AP-1A binding motif, yeast two-hybrid studies demonstrated an interaction between the PAM-1 cytosolic domain and AP-1A. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments with PAM-1 mutants revealed an influence of the luminal domains of PAM-1 on this interaction. Thus, AP-1A is crucial for normal SG biogenesis, function and composition. PMID:25040637

  2. Identification of chondroitin sulfate E proteoglycans and heparin proteoglycans in the secretory granules of human lung mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, R.L.; Austen, K.F. ); Fox, C.C.; Lichtenstein, L.M. )

    1988-04-01

    The predominant subclasses of mast cells in both the rat and the mouse can be distinguished from one another by their preferential synthesis of {sup 35}S-labeled proteoglycans that contain either heparin or oversulfated chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans. Although ({sup 35}S)heparin proteoglycans have been isolated from human lung mast cells of 40-70% purity and from a skin biopsy specimen of a patient with urticaria pigmentosa, no highly sulfated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan has been isolated from any enriched or highly purified population of human mast cells. The authors demonstrate that human lung mast cells of 96% purity incorporate ({sup 35}S)sulfate into separate heparin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in an {approx}2:1 ratio. As assessed by HPLC of the chondroitinase ABC digests, the chondroitin ({sup 35}S)sulfate proteoglycans isolated from these human lung mast cells contain the same unusual chondroitin sulfate E disaccharide that is present in proteoglycans produced by interleukin 3-dependent mucosal-like mouse mast cells. Both the chondroitin ({sup 35}S)sulfate E proteoglycans and the ({sup 35}S)heparin proteoglycans were exocytosed from the ({sup 35}S)sulfate-labeled cells via perturbation of the IgE receptor, indicating that both types of {sup 35}S-labeled proteoglycans reside in the secretory granules of these human lung mast cells.

  3. Vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)/synaptobrevin-2 is associated with dense core secretory granules in PC12 neuroendocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Papini, E; Rossetto, O; Cutler, D F

    1995-01-20

    The presence and intracellular distribution of vesicle-associated membrane protein-1 (VAMP-1) and VAMP-2 were investigated in the PC12 neuroendocrine cell line using isotype-specific polyclonal antibodies. VAMP-2 was detected in the total membrane fraction, while VAMP-1 was undetectable. Subcellular fractionation demonstrates that a substantial amount of the VAMP-2 (24-36%) is associated with dense core, catecholamine-containing granules (DCGs). This was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. The L chain of tetanus neurotoxin, known to inhibit granule mediated secretion in permeabilized PC12 cells, as well as botulinum neurotoxins F and G, effectively cleaved DCG-associated VAMP-2. These data demonstrate that VAMP-2 is present on the secretory granules of PC12 cells. PMID:7836399

  4. Centrosome polarization delivers secretory granules to the immunological synapse.

    PubMed

    Stinchcombe, Jane C; Majorovits, Endre; Bossi, Giovanna; Fuller, Stephen; Griffiths, Gillian M

    2006-09-28

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) destroy virally infected and tumorigenic cells by releasing the contents of specialized secretory lysosomes--termed 'lytic granules'--at the immunological synapse formed between the CTL and the target. On contact with the target cell, the microtubule organizing centre of the CTL polarizes towards the target and granules move along microtubules in a minus-end direction towards the polarized microtubule organizing centre. However, the final steps of secretion have remained unclear. Here we show that CTLs do not require actin or plus-end microtubule motors for secretion, but instead the centrosome moves to and contacts the plasma membrane at the central supramolecular activation cluster of the immunological synapse. Actin and IQGAP1 are cleared away from the synapse, and granules are delivered directly to the plasma membrane. These data show that CTLs use a previously unreported mechanism for delivering secretory granules to the immunological synapse, with granule secretion controlled by centrosome delivery to the plasma membrane. PMID:17006514

  5. Kalirin/Trio Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors Regulate a Novel Step in Secretory Granule Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Francesco; Ma, Xin-Ming; Sobota, Jacqueline A.; Eipper, Betty A.

    2007-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms involved in the maturation of secretory granules, organelles that store hormones and neuropeptides, are poorly understood. As granule content proteins are processed, the composition of granule membranes changes, yielding constitutive-like secretion of immature content proteins and producing secretagogue-responsive mature granules. Constitutive-like secretion was not previously recognized as a process subject to regulation. We show that Kalirin and Trio, homologous Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), which interact with a secretory granule resident protein, modulate cargo secretion from immature granules. Some of the Kalirin and Trio isoforms expressed in neuroendocrine cells colocalize with immature granules. Overexpression of their N-terminal GEF domain (GEF1) enhances secretion from immature granules, depleting cells of secretory cargo in the absence of secretagogue. This response requires GEF1 activity and is mimicked by Kalirin/Trio substrates Rac1 and RhoG. Accordingly, selective pharmacological inhibition of endogenous GEF1 activity decreases secretagogue-independent release of hormone precursors, accumulating product peptide in mature secretory granules. Kalirin/Trio modulation of cargo secretion from immature granules provides secretory cells with an extra layer of control over the sets of peptides released. Control of this step enhances the range of physiological responses that can be elicited, whereas lack of control could have pathological consequences. PMID:17881726

  6. Novel secretory granule morphology in physically fixed pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Dudek, R W; Boyne, A F; Charles, T M

    1984-09-01

    Protein A-gold immunocytochemistry has been applied to physically fixed beta cells from rat islets of Langerhans. The punctate nature of the gold particles permits improved resolution of the antigenic sites without obscuring the fine ultrastructural preservation obtained by physical fixation. There is a filamentous material within the halo of the secretory granules that is not preserved by aqueous, chemical fixation. When viewed in stereo the filaments appear as an annular cobweb or a series of wheel spokes attached to a centrally located hub (the dense core of the granule). The filaments demonstrate insulin-like immunoreactivity using the protein A-gold technique. The immunoreactivity appears to be restricted to the filaments and the surface of the dense cores. This may be a consequence of the preservation of a solid, insolubilized core state that resists penetration by the antibody and/or the protein A-gold complex. However, the evidence that there is a halo pool of insulin which is separate from the massive core aggregate suggests that i) correspondingly massive exocytotic pits may not be as mandatory for insulin release as has been assumed and ii) the complex kinetics of insulin secretion may be, in part, a reflection of multiple insulin compartments within secretory granules. PMID:6379039

  7. AP-1 and clathrin are essential for secretory granule biogenesis in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Jason; Jauregui, Miluska; Tan, Julie; Rollins, Janet; Lallet, Sylvie; Leventis, Peter A; Boulianne, Gabrielle L; Chang, Henry C; Le Borgne, Roland; Krämer, Helmut; Brill, Julie A

    2011-06-15

    Regulated secretion of hormones, digestive enzymes, and other biologically active molecules requires the formation of secretory granules. Clathrin and the clathrin adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1) are necessary for maturation of exocrine, endocrine, and neuroendocrine secretory granules. However, the initial steps of secretory granule biogenesis are only minimally understood. Powerful genetic approaches available in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster were used to investigate the molecular pathway for biogenesis of the mucin-containing "glue granules" that form within epithelial cells of the third-instar larval salivary gland. Clathrin and AP-1 colocalize at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and clathrin recruitment requires AP-1. Furthermore, clathrin and AP-1 colocalize with secretory cargo at the TGN and on immature granules. Finally, loss of clathrin or AP-1 leads to a profound block in secretory granule formation. These findings establish a novel role for AP-1- and clathrin-dependent trafficking in the biogenesis of mucin-containing secretory granules. PMID:21490149

  8. Separation of rat pituitary secretory granules by continuous flow electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Daniel; Exton, Carrie; Salada, Thomas; Shellenberger, Kathy; Waddle, Jenny; Hymer, W. C.

    1990-01-01

    The separation of growth hormone-containing cytoplasmic secretory granules from the rat pituitary gland by continuous flow electrophoresis is described. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that granule subpopulations can be separated due to differences in surface charge; these, in turn, may be related to the oligomeric state of the hormone.

  9. Secretory Granule Membrane Protein Recycles Through Multivesicular Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Bäck, Nils; Rajagopal, Chitra; Mains, Richard E.; Eipper, Betty A.

    2010-01-01

    The recycling of secretory granule membrane proteins that reach the plasma membrane following exocytosis is poorly understood. As a model, peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), a granule membrane protein that catalyzes a final step in peptide processing was examined. Ultrastructural analysis of antibody internalized by PAM and surface biotinylation demonstrated efficient return of plasma membrane PAM to secretory granules. Electron microscopy revealed the rapid movement of PAM from early endosomes to the limiting membranes of multivesicular bodies and then into intralumenal vesicles. Wheat germ agglutinin and PAM antibody internalized simultaneously were largely segregated when they reached multivesicular bodies. Mutation of basally phosphorylated residues (Thr946, Ser949) in the cytoplasmic domain of PAM to Asp (TS/DD) substantially slowed its entry into intralumenal vesicles. Mutation of the same sites to Ala (TS/AA) facilitated the entry of internalized PAM into intralumenal vesicles and its subsequent return to secretory granules. Entry of PAM into intralumenal vesicles is also associated with a juxtamembrane endoproteolytic cleavage that releases a 100 kDa soluble PAM fragment that can be returned to secretory granules. Controlled entry into the intralumenal vesicles of multivesicular bodies plays a key role in the recycling of secretory granule membrane proteins. PMID:20374556

  10. Association with Nitric Oxide Synthase on Insulin Secretory Granules Regulates Glucokinase Protein Levels

    PubMed Central

    Markwardt, Michele L.; Nkobena, Andongfac; Ding, Shi-Ying

    2012-01-01

    Glucokinase (GCK) association with insulin-secretory granules is controlled by interaction with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and is reversed by GCK S-nitrosylation. Nonetheless, the function of GCK sequestration on secretory granules is unknown. Here we report that the S-nitrosylation blocking V367M mutation prevents GCK accumulation on secretory granules by inhibiting association with NOS. Expression of this mutant is reduced compared with a second S-nitrosylation blocking GCK mutant (C371S) that accumulates to secretory granules and is expressed at levels greater than wild type. Even so, the rate of degradation for wild type and mutant GCK proteins were not significantly different from one another, and neither mutation disrupted the ability of GCK to be ubiquitinated. Furthermore, gene silencing of NOS reduced endogenous GCK content but did not affect β-actin content. Treatment of GCK(C371S) expressing cells with short interfering RNA specific for NOS also blocked accumulation of this protein to secretory granules and reduced expression levels to that of GCK(V367M). Conversely, cotransfection of catalytically inactive NOS increased GCK-mCherry levels. Expression of GCK(C371S) in βTC3 cells enhanced glucose metabolism compared with untransfected cells and cells expressing wild type GCK, even though this mutant has slightly reduced enzymatic activity in vitro. Finally, molecular dynamics simulations revealed that V367M induces conformational changes in GCK that are similar to S-nitrosylated GCK, thereby suggesting a mechanism for V367M-inhibition of NOS association. Our findings suggest that sequestration of GCK on secretory granules regulates cellular GCK protein content, and thus cellular GCK activity, by acting as a storage pool for GCK proteins. PMID:22771492

  11. Type II PKAs are anchored to mature insulin secretory granules in INS-1 β-cells and required for cAMP-dependent potentiation of exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Villalpando, Sabrina; Cazevieille, Chantal; Fernandez, Anne; Lamb, Ned J; Hani, El-Habib

    2016-06-01

    Specificity of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) pathway relies on an extremely sophisticated compartmentalization mechanism of the kinase within a given cell, based on high-affinity binding of PKA tetramer pools to different A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins (AKAPs). We and others have previously shown that AKAPs-dependent PKA subcellular targeting is a requisite for optimal cAMP-dependent potentiation of insulin exocytosis. We thus hypothesized that a PKA pool may directly anchor to the secretory compartment to potentiate insulin exocytosis. Here, using immunofluorescence analyses combined to subcellular fractionations and purification of insulin secretory granules (ISGs), we identified discrete subpools of type II PKAs, RIIα and RIIβ PKAs, along with the catalytic subunit, physically associated with ISGs within pancreatic insulin-secreting β-cells. Ultrastructural analysis of native rodent β-cells confirmed in vivo the occurrence of PKA on dense-core ISGs. Isoform-selective disruption of binding of PKAs to AKAPs reinforced the requirement of type II PKA isoforms for cAMP potentiation of insulin exocytosis. This granular localization of PKA was of critical importance since siRNA-mediated depletion of either RIIα or RIIβ PKAs resulted in a significant reduction of cAMP-dependent potentiation of insulin release. The present work provides evidence for a previously unrecognized pool of type II PKAs physically anchored to the β-cell ISGs compartment and supports a non-redundant function for type II PKAs during cAMP potentiation of exocytosis. PMID:26898328

  12. Proteome profiling of human neutrophil granule subsets, secretory vesicles, and cell membrane: correlation with transcriptome profiling of neutrophil precursors.

    PubMed

    Rørvig, Sara; Østergaard, Ole; Heegaard, Niels H H; Borregaard, Niels

    2013-10-01

    Neutrophils are indispensable in the innate immune defense against invading microorganisms. Neutrophils contain SVs and several subsets of granules that are essential for their function. Proteins present in neutrophil SVs and granules are synthesized during terminal granulopoiesis in the bone marrow. The heterogeneity of granules, as determined by marker proteins characteristic of each granule subset, is thought to result from differences in the biosynthetic windows of major classes of granule proteins, a process referred to as targeting by timing. Qualitative proteomic analysis of neutrophil granules, SVs, and plasma membrane has been performed before. Here, we performed subcellular fractionation on freshly isolated human neutrophils by nitrogen cavitation and density centrifugation on a four-layer Percoll gradient. Granule subsets were pooled and subjected to SDS-PAGE, and gel pieces were in-gel-digested with trypsin. The resulting peptides were analyzed using LTQ Orbitrap XL tandem MS. A total of 1292 unique proteins were identified and grouped, according to the neutrophil fraction, in which they displayed maximal expression. In addition to various known neutrophil proteins, several uncharacterized proteins were found, as well as proteins not described previously in neutrophils. To study the correlation between mRNA expression in neutrophil precursors and the localization of their cognate proteins, the distribution of 126 identified proteins was compared with their mRNA expression profiles. The neutrophil subcellular proteome profiles presented here may be used as a database in combination with the mRNA array database to predict and test the presence and localization of proteins in neutrophil granules and membranes. PMID:23650620

  13. Expression of Secretogranin III in Chicken Endocrine Cells: Its Relevance to the Secretory Granule Properties of Peptide Prohormone Processing and Bioactive Amine Content.

    PubMed

    Gomi, Hiroshi; Morikawa, Satomi; Shinmura, Naoki; Moki, Hiroaki; Yasui, Tadashi; Tsukise, Azuma; Torii, Seiji; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Maeda, Yoshinori; Hosaka, Masahiro

    2015-05-01

    The expression of secretogranin III (SgIII) in chicken endocrine cells has not been investigated. There is limited data available for the immunohistochemical localization of SgIII in the brain, pituitary, and pancreatic islets of humans and rodents. In the present study, we used immunoblotting to reveal the similarities between the expression patterns of SgIII in the common endocrine glands of chickens and rats. The protein-protein interactions between SgIII and chromogranin A (CgA) mediate the sorting of CgA/prohormone core aggregates to the secretory granule membrane. We examined these interactions using co-immunoprecipitation in chicken endocrine tissues. Using immunohistochemistry, we also examined the expression of SgIII in a wide range of chicken endocrine glands and gastrointestinal endocrine cells (GECs). SgIII was expressed in the pituitary, pineal, adrenal (medullary parts), parathyroid, and ultimobranchial glands, but not in the thyroid gland. It was also expressed in GECs of the stomach (proventriculus and gizzard), small and large intestines, and pancreatic islet cells. These SgIII-expressing cells co-expressed serotonin, somatostatin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1, glucagon, or insulin. These results suggest that SgIII is expressed in the endocrine cells that secrete peptide hormones, which mature via the intragranular enzymatic processing of prohormones and physiologically active amines in chickens. PMID:25673289

  14. Regulated phosphorylation of secretory granule membrane proteins of the rat parotid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, C.R.; Castle, J.D.; Gorelick, F.S. )

    1990-07-01

    An antiserum raised against purified rat parotid secretory granule membrane proteins has been used to identify organelle-specific protein phosphorylation events following stimulation of intact cells from the rat parotid gland. After lobules were prelabeled with ({sup 32}P)orthophosphate and exposed to secretagogues, phosphoproteins were immunoprecipitated with the granule membrane protein antiserum, separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and visualized by autoradiography. Parallel studies of stimulated amylase release were performed. Isoproterenol treatment of parotid lobules resulted in an increase in the phosphate content of immunoprecipitable 60- and 72-kDa proteins that correlated with amylase release in a time-dependent manner. Forskolin addition mimicked these effects, but only the isoproterenol effects were reversed by propranolol treatment. To confirm the specificity of the antiserum to the secretory granule membrane fraction, subcellular isolation techniques were employed following in situ phosphorylation. The 60- and 72-kDa phosphoproteins were immunoprecipitated from both a particulate fraction and a purified secretory granule fraction. Furthermore, the extraction properties of both species suggest that they are integral membrane proteins. These findings support the possibility that stimulus-regulated secretion may involve phosphorylation of integral membrane proteins of the exocrine secretory granule.

  15. Cell type-specific gene expression in the neuroendocrine system. A neuroendocrine-specific regulatory element in the promoter of chromogranin A, a ubiquitous secretory granule core protein.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, H; Rozansky, D J; Webster, N J; O'Connor, D T

    1994-01-01

    The acidic secretory protein chromogranin A universally occurs in amine and peptide hormone and neurotransmitter storage granules throughout the neuroendocrine system. What factors govern the activity of the chromogranin A gene, to yield such a widespread yet neuroendocrine-selective pattern of expression? To address this question, we isolated the mouse chromogranin A gene promoter. The promoter conferred cell type-specific expression in several neuroendocrine cell types (adrenal medullary chromaffin cells, anterior pituitary corticotropes, and anterior pituitary somatolactotropes) but not in control (fibroblast or kidney) cells. In neuroendocrine cells, analysis of promoter deletions established both positive and negative transcriptional regulatory domains. A distal positive domain (-4.8/-2.2 kbp) was discovered, as well as negative (-258/-181 bp) and positive (-147/-61 bp) domains in the proximate promoter. The proximate promoter contained a minimal neuroendocrine-specific element between -77 and -61 bp. Sequence alignment of the mouse promoter with corresponding regions in rat and bovine clones indicated that the mouse sequence shares over 85% homology with rat and 52% with bovine promoters. DNaseI footprinting and electrophoretic gel mobility shift assays demonstrated the presence of nuclear factors in neuroendocrine cells that recognized the proximate promoter. We conclude that the chromogranin A promoter contains both positive and negative domains governing its cell type-specific pattern of transcription, and that a small proximate region of the promoter, containing novel as well as previously described elements, interacts specifically with neuroendocrine nuclear proteins, and is thereby sufficient to ensure widespread neuroendocrine expression of the gene. Images PMID:8040254

  16. Role of Adaptor Proteins in Secretory Granule Biogenesis and Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Bonnemaison, Mathilde L.; Eipper, Betty A.; Mains, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    In the regulated secretory pathway, secretory granules (SGs) store peptide hormones that are released on demand. SGs are formed at the trans-Golgi network and must undergo a maturation process to become responsive to secretagogues. The production of mature SGs requires concentrating newly synthesized soluble content proteins in granules whose membranes contain the appropriate integral membrane proteins. The mechanisms underlying the sorting of soluble and integral membrane proteins destined for SGs from other proteins are not yet well understood. For soluble proteins, luminal pH and divalent metals can affect aggregation and interaction with surrounding membranes. The trafficking of granule membrane proteins can be controlled by both luminal and cytosolic factors. Cytosolic adaptor proteins (APs), which recognize the cytosolic domains of proteins that span the SG membrane, have been shown to play essential roles in the assembly of functional SGs. Adaptor protein 1A (AP-1A) is known to interact with specific motifs in its cargo proteins and with the clathrin heavy chain, contributing to the formation of a clathrin coat. AP-1A is present in patches on immature SG membranes, where it removes cargo and facilitates SG maturation. AP-1A recruitment to membranes can be modulated by Phosphofurin Acidic Cluster Sorting protein 1 (PACS-1), a cytosolic protein which interacts with both AP-1A and cargo that has been phosphorylated by casein kinase II. A cargo/PACS-1/AP-1A complex is necessary to drive the appropriate transport of several cargo proteins within the regulated secretory pathway. The Golgi-localized, γ-ear containing, ADP-ribosylation factor binding (GGA) family of APs serve a similar role. We review the functions of AP-1A, PACS-1, and GGAs in facilitating the retrieval of proteins from immature SGs and review examples of cargo proteins whose trafficking within the regulated secretory pathway is governed by APs. PMID:23966980

  17. Electron microprobe analysis of human labial gland secretory granules in cystic fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Izutsu, K.; Johnson, D.; Schubert, M.; Wang, E.; Ramsey, B.; Tamarin, A.; Truelove, E.; Ensign, W.; Young, M.

    1985-06-01

    X-ray microanalysis of freeze-dried labial gland cryosections revealed that Na concentration was doubled and the Ca/S concentration ratio was decreased in secretory granules of labial glands from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) when compared with glands from normal subjects. Other results suggested that the decrease in the Ca/S concentration ratio resulted from an increase in S concentration. These findings imply that mucous granules in labial saliva showed a CF-related increase in Na and S content, and such changes would be expected to affect the rheology of the mucus after exocytosis. In contrast with a previous study in human parotid glands, no evidence was found for CF-related changes in cytoplasmic or nuclear Na, K, and Ca concentrations. Significant elemental differences were found between secretory granules and nuclei and cytoplasm of control cells.

  18. Mapping Dynamic Protein Interactions to Insulin Secretory Granule Behavior with TIRF-FRET

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Alice D.; Ismail, Sahar; Wu, Ray; Yizhar, Ofer; Passmore, Daniel R.; Ernst, Stephen A.; Stuenkel, Edward L.

    2010-01-01

    Biological processes are governed by extensive networks of dynamic molecular interactions. Yet, establishing a spatial and temporal map of these interactions and their direct relationship to specific cell functions has remained a challenge. Here, we implement sensitized emission Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) stoichiometry under total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. We demonstrate through quantitative analysis and modeling that evanescent fields must be precisely matched between FRET excitation wavelengths to isolate dynamic interactions between bimolecular FRET pairs that are not entirely membrane-delimited. We then use TIRF-FRET to monitor the behavior of individual insulin-containing secretory granules at the plasma membrane of living cells, while simultaneously tracking the dynamic interaction between the GTPase Rab27A and its effector Slp4A, on those same granules. Notably, insulin granules that underwent exocytosis demonstrated a specific increase in Rab27A-GTP/Slp4A FRET in the 5 s before membrane fusion, which coincided temporally with an increase in granule displacement and mobility. These results demonstrate an initial spatiotemporal mapping of a dynamic protein-protein interaction on individual secretory granules that is linked to a specific granule behavior in living cells. PMID:20713017

  19. Snapin mediates insulin secretory granule docking, but not trans-SNARE complex formation.

    PubMed

    Somanath, Sangeeta; Partridge, Christopher J; Marshall, Catriona; Rowe, Tony; Turner, Mark D

    2016-04-29

    Secretory granule exocytosis is a tightly regulated process requiring granule targeting, tethering, priming, and membrane fusion. At the heart of this process is the SNARE complex, which drives fusion through a coiled-coil zippering effect mediated by the granule v-SNARE protein, VAMP2, and the plasma membrane t-SNAREs, SNAP-25 and syntaxin-1A. Here we demonstrate that in pancreatic β-cells the SNAP-25 accessory protein, snapin, C-terminal H2 domain binds SNAP-25 through its N-terminal Sn-1 domain. Interestingly whilst snapin binds SNAP-25, there is only modest binding of this complex with syntaxin-1A under resting conditions. Instead synataxin-1A appears to be recruited in response to secretory stimulation. These results indicate that snapin plays a role in tethering insulin granules to the plasma membrane through coiled coil interaction of snapin with SNAP-25, with full granule fusion competency only resulting after subsequent syntaxin-1A recruitment triggered by secretory stimulation. PMID:26946359

  20. α-Synuclein binds the KATP channel at insulin-secretory granules and inhibits insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Xuehui; Lou, Haiyan; Wang, Jian; Li, Lehong; Swanson, Alexandra L.; Sun, Ming; Beers-Stolz, Donna; Watkins, Simon; Perez, Ruth G.

    2011-01-01

    α-Synuclein has been studied in numerous cell types often associated with secretory processes. In pancreatic β-cells, α-synuclein might therefore play a similar role by interacting with organelles involved in insulin secretion. We tested for α-synuclein localizing to insulin-secretory granules and characterized its role in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Immunohistochemistry and fluorescent sulfonylureas were used to test for α-synuclein localization to insulin granules in β-cells, immunoprecipitation with Western blot analysis for interaction between α-synuclein and KATP channels, and ELISA assays for the effect of altering α-synuclein expression up or down on insulin secretion in INS1 cells or mouse islets, respectively. Differences in cellular phenotype between α-synuclein knockout and wild-type β-cells were found by using confocal microscopy to image the fluorescent insulin biosensor Ins-C-emGFP and by using transmission electron microscopy. The results show that anti-α-synuclein antibodies labeled secretory organelles within β-cells. Anti-α-synuclein antibodies colocalized with KATP channel, anti-insulin, and anti-C-peptide antibodies. α-Synuclein coimmunoprecipitated in complexes with KATP channels. Expression of α-synuclein downregulated insulin secretion at 2.8 mM glucose with little effect following 16.7 mM glucose stimulation. α-Synuclein knockout islets upregulated insulin secretion at 2.8 and 8.4 mM but not 16.7 mM glucose, consistent with the depleted insulin granule density at the β-cell surface membranes observed in these islets. These findings demonstrate that α-synuclein interacts with KATP channels and insulin-secretory granules and functionally acts as a brake on secretion that glucose stimulation can override. α-Synuclein might play similar roles in diabetes as it does in other degenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. PMID:20858756

  1. Porosome: The Universal Secretory Portal in Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jena, Bhanu

    2012-10-01

    In the past 50 years it was believed that during cell secretion, membrane-bound secretory vesicles completely merge at the cell plasma membrane resulting in the diffusion of intra-vesicular contents to the cell exterior and the compensatory retrieval of the excess membrane by endocytosis. This explanation made no sense or logic, since following cell secretion partially empty vesicles accumulate as demonstrated in electron micrographs. Furthermore, with the ``all or none'' mechanism of cell secretion by complete merger of secretory vesicle membrane at the cell plasma membrane, the cell is left with little regulation and control of the amount of content release. Moreover, it makes no sense for mammalian cells to possess such `all or none' mechanism of cell secretion, when even single-cell organisms have developed specialized and sophisticated secretory machinery, such as the secretion apparatus of Toxoplasma gondii, the contractile vacuoles in paramecium, or the various types of secretory structures in bacteria. Therefore, in 1993 in a News and Views article in Nature, E. Neher wrote ``It seems terribly wasteful that, during the release of hormones and neurotransmitters from a cell, the membrane of a vesicle should merge with the plasma membrane to be retrieved for recycling only seconds or minutes later.'' This conundrum in the molecular mechanism of cell secretion was finally resolved in 1997 following discovery of the ``Porosome,'' the universal secretory machinery in cells. Porosomes are supramolecular lipoprotein structures at the cell plasma membrane, where membrane-bound secretory vesicles transiently dock and fuse to release inravesicular contents to the outside during cell secretion. In the past decade, the composition of the porosome, its structure and dynamics at nm resolution and in real time, and its functional reconstitution into artificial lipid membrane, have all been elucidated. Since porosomes in exocrine and neuroendocrine cells measure 100-180 nm, and only 20-45% increase in porosome diameter is demonstrated following the docking and fusion of 0.2-1.2 μm in diameter secretory vesicles, it is concluded that secretory vesicles ``transiently'' dock and fuse, rather than completely merge at the base of the porosome complex to release their contents to the outside. In agreement, it has been demonstrated that ``secretory granules are recaptured largely intact after stimulated exocytosis in cultured endocrine cells''; that ``single synaptic vesicles fuse transiently and successively without loss of identity''; and that``zymogen granule (the secretory vesicle in exocrine pancreas) exocytosis is characterized by long fusion pore openings and preservation of vesicle lipid identity.'' In this presentation, the discovery of the porosome, resulting in a paradigm shift in our understanding of cell secretion will be briefly discussed.

  2. Signaling from the Secretory Granule to the Nucleus: Uhmk1 and PAM

    PubMed Central

    Francone, Victor P.; Ifrim, Marius F.; Rajagopal, Chitra; Leddy, Christopher J.; Wang, Yanping; Carson, John H.; Mains, Richard E.; Eipper, Betty A.

    2010-01-01

    Neurons and endocrine cells package peptides in secretory granules (large dense-core vesicles) for storage and stimulated release. Studies of peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), an essential secretory granule membrane enzyme, revealed a pathway that can relay information from secretory granules to the nucleus, resulting in alterations in gene expression. The cytosolic domain (CD) of PAM, a type 1 membrane enzyme essential for the production of amidated peptides, is basally phosphorylated by U2AF homology motif kinase 1 (Uhmk1) and other Ser/Thr kinases. Proopiomelanocortin processing in AtT-20 corticotrope tumor cells was increased when Uhmk1 expression was reduced. Uhmk1 was concentrated in the nucleus, but cycled rapidly between nucleus and cytosol. Endoproteolytic cleavage of PAM releases a soluble CD fragment that localizes to the nucleus. Localization of PAM-CD to the nucleus was decreased when PAM-CD with phosphomimetic mutations was examined and when active Uhmk1 was simultaneously overexpressed. Membrane-tethering Uhmk1 did not eliminate its ability to exclude PAM-CD from the nucleus, suggesting that cytosolic Uhmk1 could cause this response. Microarray analysis demonstrated the ability of PAM to increase expression of a small subset of genes, including aquaporin 1 (Aqp1) in AtT-20 cells. Aqp1 mRNA levels were higher in wild-type mice than in mice heterozygous for PAM, indicating that a similar relationship occurs in vivo. Expression of PAM-CD also increased Aqp1 levels whereas expression of Uhmk1 diminished Aqp1 expression. The outlines of a pathway that ties secretory granule metabolism to the transcriptome are thus apparent. PMID:20573687

  3. Sorting and storage during secretory granule biogenesis: looking backward and looking forward.

    PubMed Central

    Arvan, P; Castle, D

    1998-01-01

    Secretory granules are specialized intracellular organelles that serve as a storage pool for selected secretory products. The exocytosis of secretory granules is markedly amplified under physiologically stimulated conditions. While granules have been recognized as post-Golgi carriers for almost 40 years, the molecular mechanisms involved in their formation from the trans-Golgi network are only beginning to be defined. This review summarizes and evaluates current information about how secretory proteins are thought to be sorted for the regulated secretory pathway and how these activities are positioned with respect to other post-Golgi sorting events that must occur in parallel. In the first half of the review, the emerging role of immature secretory granules in protein sorting is highlighted. The second half of the review summarizes what is known about the composition of granule membranes. The numerous similarities and relatively limited differences identified between granule membranes and other vesicular carriers that convey products to and from the plasmalemma, serve as a basis for examining how granule membrane composition might be established and how its unique functions interface with general post-Golgi membrane traffic. Studies of granule formation in vitro offer additional new insights, but also important challenges for future efforts to understand how regulated secretory pathways are constructed and maintained. PMID:9620860

  4. Rapid primary microwave-aldehyde and microwave-osmium fixation: improved detection of rat parotid acinar cell secretory granule alpha-amylase using a post-embedding immunogold ultrastructural morphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Login, G R; Ku, T C; Dvorak, A M

    1995-05-01

    Studies of methods for improved fixation are becoming increasingly important in the field of quantitative immunocytochemistry. We used microwave (MW)-assisted chemical fixation to show improved retention of salivary gland acinar cell secretory granule alpha-amylase detected by a quantitative immunogold method. Blocks (4-mm3) of rat parotid gland were fixed by the following methods: (a) MW irradiation in an aldehyde fixative (AF) for 6 sec; (b) immersion in AF for 1.5 hr; (c) MW irradiation in osmium tetroxide (OT) for 9 sec; (d) immersion in OT for 1.5 hr; or (e) Sequential MW AF, 10 sec, MW OT rapid treatment (SMAORT), 10 sec. Specimens were processed routinely for transmission electron microscopy. Thin sections of Epon-embedded tissues were exposed first to rabbit IgG anti-human salivary alpha-amylase and second to gold-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG. Granule area was obtained by a point counting method. Labeling density was calculated as the number of gold particles/micron 2 +/- SD. Specimens fixed in seconds by MW-AF, MW-OT, or SMAORT showed ultrastructural preservation similar to immersion fixation in AF or OT for 1.5 hr. Immunogold labeling density of granule alpha-amylase was highest for SMAORT (874 microns 2) compared to MW-AF (295 microns 2), MW-OT (248 microns 2), routine sequential immersion in AF and OT (229 microns 2), or immersion in OT (no aldehyde) (190 microns 2). This study establishes the improved retention of salivary gland acinar cell secretory granule alpha-amylase and markedly enhanced fixation speed for ultrastructural studies made possible by MW-chemical fixation protocols that use aldehydes and osmium. PMID:7730590

  5. CAPS1 effects on intragranular pH and regulation of BDNF release from secretory granules in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Eckenstaler, Robert; Lessmann, Volkmar; Brigadski, Tanja

    2016-04-01

    The secretory protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is assumed to be a key factor for the induction of synaptic plasticity processes in neurons. However, the molecular mechanisms for activity-dependent release of the protein largely remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate the relevance of the priming factor CAPS1 (also known as CADPS) for the maturation and exocytosis of BDNF-containing secretory granules, as well as for neurotransmitter release from synaptic vesicles. Using live-cell imaging and RNA silencing methods, we show that CAPS1 has a previously unrecognized function in regulating the intragranular pH of BDNF-containing secretory granules. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that acute single-cell knockdown of CAPS1 with unaltered expression in neighboring neurons leads to a strong reduction in the number of fusion-competent secretory granules and to a significant decrease of released BDNF following exocytosis in dendrites of CAPS1-deficient neurons. In addition, our results show a reduction in synaptic vesicle turnover after CAPS1 knockdown without affecting the density of active boutons in hippocampal neurons. Thus, our results reveal new functions of endogenous CAPS1 in the BDNF secretory granule life cycle, thereby representing a new mechanism of neuronal plasticity. PMID:26869227

  6. Functional amyloids as natural storage of peptide hormones in pituitary secretory granules.

    PubMed

    Maji, Samir K; Perrin, Marilyn H; Sawaya, Michael R; Jessberger, Sebastian; Vadodaria, Krishna; Rissman, Robert A; Singru, Praful S; Nilsson, K Peter R; Simon, Rozalyn; Schubert, David; Eisenberg, David; Rivier, Jean; Sawchenko, Paul; Vale, Wylie; Riek, Roland

    2009-07-17

    Amyloids are highly organized cross-beta-sheet-rich protein or peptide aggregates that are associated with pathological conditions including Alzheimer's disease and type II diabetes. However, amyloids may also have a normal biological function, as demonstrated by fungal prions, which are involved in prion replication, and the amyloid protein Pmel17, which is involved in mammalian skin pigmentation. We found that peptide and protein hormones in secretory granules of the endocrine system are stored in an amyloid-like cross-beta-sheet-rich conformation. Thus, functional amyloids in the pituitary and other organs can contribute to normal cell and tissue physiology. PMID:19541956

  7. Regulation of secretory granule recruitment and exocytosis at rat neurohypophysial nerve endings.

    PubMed

    Giovannucci, D R; Stuenkel, E L

    1997-02-01

    1. Time-resolved cell membrane capacitance (Cm) measurements were used in combination with fura-2 microfluorometry under whole-cell patch clamp recording to investigate the kinetics and Ca2+ sensitivity of exocytotic granule fusion evoked by depolarizing stimuli at single, isolated nerve endings of the rat neurohypophysis. 2. Single step depolarizations or trains of depolarizing pulses evoked voltage-dependent, inward Ca2+ currents (ICa) and induced both Ca(2+)-dependent and Ca(2+)-independent changes in Cm. Three distinct Cm responses were observed and were differentiated by their kinetics and Ca2+ sensitivity: a non-exocytotic transient (delta Cm,t) and an exocytotic Cm 'jump' (delta Cm,J) and a slower, often latent, exocytotic Cm rise (delta Cm,s) that outlasted the depolarizing pulse stimulus. 3. The delta Cm,t was characterized by a rapid, transient component observed in 70% of nerve endings and a voltage-activation relationship that preceded that of the ICa. The amplitude and kinetics of the delta Cm,t were unaffected by ICa block by Cd2+, Ca2+ load reduction, or alterations in intracellular Ca2+ buffering. 4. In contrast to the delta Cm,t, both the delta Cm,J and delta Cm,s were Ca2+ dependent as evidenced by their sensitivity to Cd2+ block of ICa, intraterminal application of 10 mM BAPTA and reduced [Ca2+]o or replacement of Ca2+ as the charge carrier with Ba2+. 5. The delta Cm,J was proportional to depolarization-evoked Ca2+ influx with initial exocytotic rate of approximately 350 granule fusions s-1. The amplitude of the delta Cm,J rose exponentially (tau = 40 ms) and approached an asymptote (15.5 fF) with longer duration depolarizations indicating the fusion from and depletion of an immediately releasable pool (IRP) estimated at nineteen docked and primed secretory granules. 6. The delta Cm,s was induced by the application of repetitive long duration pulses and defined as the exocytosis of secretory granules from a readily releasable granule pool (RRP). The delta Cm,s response occurred only after exceeding a [Ca2+]i threshold value and rose thereafter in proportion to Ca2+ influx with a mean initial secretory rate of 36 granule fusions s-1. The mean latency for delta Cm,s activation was 850 ms following the initiation of the step depolarizations. The delta Cm,s response magnitude, reflecting the size of the RRP, was dependent on the resting [Ca2+]i and the nerve ending size, and was depletable using repetitive depolarizations of long duration. 7. Recruitment into and release from the RRP and IRP were differentially sensitive to changes in intraterminal Ca2+ buffering conditions. For example, introduction of 5 mM EGTA was shown to have no effect on the evoked IRP but significantly reduced the RRP. In comparison, diminishment of the endogenous Ca2+ buffering capacity of nerve endings by treatment with the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter blocker Ruthenium Red (10 microM) potentiated the RRP size but had no significant effect on the IRP size. 8. The present study indicates that the Ca(2+)-dependent recruitment of and release from functionally distinct pools of peptide-containing secretory granules in combination with the [Ca2+]i regulatory properties of neurohypophysial nerve endings may explain both the depletion of peptide release under prolonged stimulus and the potentiation of peptide release observed to occur during recurrent phasic action potential activity in this system. PMID:9051585

  8. Regulation of secretory granule recruitment and exocytosis at rat neurohypophysial nerve endings.

    PubMed Central

    Giovannucci, D R; Stuenkel, E L

    1997-01-01

    1. Time-resolved cell membrane capacitance (Cm) measurements were used in combination with fura-2 microfluorometry under whole-cell patch clamp recording to investigate the kinetics and Ca2+ sensitivity of exocytotic granule fusion evoked by depolarizing stimuli at single, isolated nerve endings of the rat neurohypophysis. 2. Single step depolarizations or trains of depolarizing pulses evoked voltage-dependent, inward Ca2+ currents (ICa) and induced both Ca(2+)-dependent and Ca(2+)-independent changes in Cm. Three distinct Cm responses were observed and were differentiated by their kinetics and Ca2+ sensitivity: a non-exocytotic transient (delta Cm,t) and an exocytotic Cm 'jump' (delta Cm,J) and a slower, often latent, exocytotic Cm rise (delta Cm,s) that outlasted the depolarizing pulse stimulus. 3. The delta Cm,t was characterized by a rapid, transient component observed in 70% of nerve endings and a voltage-activation relationship that preceded that of the ICa. The amplitude and kinetics of the delta Cm,t were unaffected by ICa block by Cd2+, Ca2+ load reduction, or alterations in intracellular Ca2+ buffering. 4. In contrast to the delta Cm,t, both the delta Cm,J and delta Cm,s were Ca2+ dependent as evidenced by their sensitivity to Cd2+ block of ICa, intraterminal application of 10 mM BAPTA and reduced [Ca2+]o or replacement of Ca2+ as the charge carrier with Ba2+. 5. The delta Cm,J was proportional to depolarization-evoked Ca2+ influx with initial exocytotic rate of approximately 350 granule fusions s-1. The amplitude of the delta Cm,J rose exponentially (tau = 40 ms) and approached an asymptote (15.5 fF) with longer duration depolarizations indicating the fusion from and depletion of an immediately releasable pool (IRP) estimated at nineteen docked and primed secretory granules. 6. The delta Cm,s was induced by the application of repetitive long duration pulses and defined as the exocytosis of secretory granules from a readily releasable granule pool (RRP). The delta Cm,s response occurred only after exceeding a [Ca2+]i threshold value and rose thereafter in proportion to Ca2+ influx with a mean initial secretory rate of 36 granule fusions s-1. The mean latency for delta Cm,s activation was 850 ms following the initiation of the step depolarizations. The delta Cm,s response magnitude, reflecting the size of the RRP, was dependent on the resting [Ca2+]i and the nerve ending size, and was depletable using repetitive depolarizations of long duration. 7. Recruitment into and release from the RRP and IRP were differentially sensitive to changes in intraterminal Ca2+ buffering conditions. For example, introduction of 5 mM EGTA was shown to have no effect on the evoked IRP but significantly reduced the RRP. In comparison, diminishment of the endogenous Ca2+ buffering capacity of nerve endings by treatment with the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter blocker Ruthenium Red (10 microM) potentiated the RRP size but had no significant effect on the IRP size. 8. The present study indicates that the Ca(2+)-dependent recruitment of and release from functionally distinct pools of peptide-containing secretory granules in combination with the [Ca2+]i regulatory properties of neurohypophysial nerve endings may explain both the depletion of peptide release under prolonged stimulus and the potentiation of peptide release observed to occur during recurrent phasic action potential activity in this system. Images Figure 6 PMID:9051585

  9. FLOW CYTOMETRY-ASSISTED PURIFICATION AND PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE CORTICOTROPES DENSE-CORE SECRETORY GRANULES

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Daniel J; Sobota, Jacqueline A.; Ferraro, Francesco; Mains, Richard E; Lazure, Claude

    2010-01-01

    The field of organellar proteomics has emerged as an attempt to minimize the complexity of the proteomics data obtained from whole cell and tissue extracts while maximizing the resolution on the protein composition of a single subcellular compartment. Standard methods involve lengthy density-based gradient and/or immunoaffinity purification steps followed by extraction, one-dimensional or two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, gel staining, in-gel tryptic digestion and protein identification by mass spectrometry. In this paper, we present an alternate approach to purify subcellular organelles containing a fluorescent reporter molecule. The gel-free procedure involves fluorescence-assisted sorting of the secretory granules followed by gentle extraction in a buffer compatible with tryptic digestion and mass-spectrometry. Once the subcellular organelle labeled, this procedure can be done in a single day, requires no major modification to any instrumentation and can be readily adapted to the study of other organelles. When applied to corticotrope secretory granules, it led to a much enriched granular fraction from which numerous proteins could be identified through mass spectrometry. PMID:18704904

  10. Amyloid formation of growth hormone in presence of zinc: Relevance to its storage in secretory granules.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Reeba S; Das, Subhadeep; Ghosh, Saikat; Anoop, Arunagiri; Jha, Narendra Nath; Khan, Tuhin; Singru, Praful; Kumar, Ashutosh; Maji, Samir K

    2016-01-01

    Amyloids are cross-β-sheet fibrillar aggregates, associated with various human diseases and native functions such as protein/peptide hormone storage inside secretory granules of neuroendocrine cells. In the current study, using amyloid detecting agents, we show that growth hormone (GH) could be stored as amyloid in the pituitary of rat. Moreover, to demonstrate the formation of GH amyloid in vitro, we studied various conditions (solvents, glycosaminoglycans, salts and metal ions) and found that in presence of zinc metal ions (Zn(II)), GH formed short curvy fibrils. The amyloidogenic nature of these fibrils was examined by Thioflavin T binding, Congo Red binding, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Our biophysical studies also suggest that Zn(II) initiates the early oligomerization of GH that eventually facilitates the fibrillation process. Furthermore, using immunofluorescence study of pituitary tissue, we show that GH in pituitary significantly co-localizes with Zn(II), suggesting the probable role of zinc in GH aggregation within secretory granules. We also found that GH amyloid formed in vitro is capable of releasing monomers. The study will help to understand the possible mechanism of GH storage, its regulation and monomer release from the somatotrophs of anterior pituitary. PMID:27004850

  11. Amyloid formation of growth hormone in presence of zinc: Relevance to its storage in secretory granules

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Reeba S.; Das, Subhadeep; Ghosh, Saikat; Anoop, Arunagiri; Jha, Narendra Nath; Khan, Tuhin; Singru, Praful; Kumar, Ashutosh; Maji, Samir K.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloids are cross-β-sheet fibrillar aggregates, associated with various human diseases and native functions such as protein/peptide hormone storage inside secretory granules of neuroendocrine cells. In the current study, using amyloid detecting agents, we show that growth hormone (GH) could be stored as amyloid in the pituitary of rat. Moreover, to demonstrate the formation of GH amyloid in vitro, we studied various conditions (solvents, glycosaminoglycans, salts and metal ions) and found that in presence of zinc metal ions (Zn(II)), GH formed short curvy fibrils. The amyloidogenic nature of these fibrils was examined by Thioflavin T binding, Congo Red binding, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Our biophysical studies also suggest that Zn(II) initiates the early oligomerization of GH that eventually facilitates the fibrillation process. Furthermore, using immunofluorescence study of pituitary tissue, we show that GH in pituitary significantly co-localizes with Zn(II), suggesting the probable role of zinc in GH aggregation within secretory granules. We also found that GH amyloid formed in vitro is capable of releasing monomers. The study will help to understand the possible mechanism of GH storage, its regulation and monomer release from the somatotrophs of anterior pituitary. PMID:27004850

  12. The Arf family G protein Arl1 is required for secretory granule biogenesis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Isabel L.; Rosa-Ferreira, Cláudia; Munro, Sean

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The small G protein Arf like 1 (Arl1) is found at the Golgi complex, and its GTP-bound form recruits several effectors to the Golgi including GRIP-domain-containing coiled-coil proteins, and the Arf1 exchange factors Big1 and Big2. To investigate the role of Arl1, we have characterised a loss-of-function mutant of the Drosophila Arl1 orthologue. The gene is essential, and examination of clones of cells lacking Arl1 shows that it is required for recruitment of three of the four GRIP domain golgins to the Golgi, with Drosophila GCC185 being less dependent on Arl1. At a functional level, Arl1 is essential for formation of secretory granules in the larval salivary gland. When Arl1 is missing, Golgi are still present but there is a dispersal of adaptor protein 1 (AP-1), a clathrin adaptor that requires Arf1 for its membrane recruitment and which is known to be required for secretory granule biogenesis. Arl1 does not appear to be required for AP-1 recruitment in all tissues, suggesting that it is crucially required to enhance Arf1 activation at the trans-Golgi in particular tissues. PMID:24610947

  13. [Histochemical properties of secretory granules and fine structure of terminal portion in the Japanese Macaque labial gland].

    PubMed

    Tsutusumi, T; Kurabuchi, S; Aiyama, S

    1989-06-01

    The terminal portion of the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) labial gland was examined ultrastructurally and histochemically. The results obtained are as follows. 1) The Japanese macaque, Macaca fuscata has the upper and the lower labial glands, which can be described as a compound tubulo-acinar gland. 2) The terminal portion of the labial gland appears to be consisted of the mucous acini and the demilunes when examined with the light microscope. 3) The secretory granules containing in the glandular cells of the mucous acini and the demilunes are negative with napthol yellow S, ninhydrin-Schiff and DMAB nitrite. 4) The secretory granules containing in the glandular cells of mucous acini stain intensely with PAS, alcian blue (pH1.0, 2.5, 3.5), colloidal iron and PA-methenamine silver, while those of demilunes are negative with alcian blue (pH1.0). The glandular cells of demilune with the PA-methenamine silver method shows weak positive granules and positive granules which are limited to the hallo of them. 5) In the mucous acini the mucous granules are ejected from glandular cells by the process of exocytosis. 6) The myoepithelial cell can be seen in the terminal portion. This cell surrounds the acini with long processes. These findings suggest that the glandular cells of the demilune have the granules containing mucopoly saccharides and a small quantity of protein in addition to the mucous granules, although the terminal portion of the Japanese macaque labial gland is nearly composed of mucous cells. PMID:2637414

  14. Automated kymograph analysis for profiling axonal transport of secretory granules.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Amit; Jenkins, Brian; Fang, Cheng; Radke, Richard J; Banker, Gary; Roysam, Badrinath

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes an automated method to profile the velocity patterns of small organelles (BDNF granules) being transported along a selected section of axon of a cultured neuron imaged by time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. Instead of directly detecting the granules as in conventional tracking, the proposed method starts by generating a two-dimensional spatio-temporal map (kymograph) of the granule traffic along an axon segment. Temporal sharpening during the kymograph creation helps to highlight granule movements while suppressing clutter due to stationary granules. A voting algorithm defined over orientation distribution functions is used to refine the locations and velocities of the granules. The refined kymograph is analyzed using an algorithm inspired from the minimum set cover framework to generate multiple motion trajectories of granule transport paths. The proposed method is computationally efficient, robust to significant levels of noise and clutter, and can be used to capture and quantify trends in transport patterns quickly and accurately. When evaluated on a collection of image sequences, the proposed method was found to detect granule movement events with 94% recall rate and 82% precision compared to a time-consuming manual analysis. Further, we present a study to evaluate the efficacy of velocity profiling by analyzing the impact of oxidative stress on granule transport in which the fully automated analysis correctly reproduced the biological conclusion generated by manual analysis. PMID:21330183

  15. Lysosomal sorting receptors are essential for secretory granule biogenesis in Tetrahymena

    PubMed Central

    Briguglio, Joseph S.; Kumar, Santosh

    2013-01-01

    Secretory granules, such as neuronal dense core vesicles, are specialized for storing cargo at high concentration and releasing it via regulated exocytosis in response to extracellular stimuli. Here, we used expression profiling to identify new components of the machinery for sorting proteins into mucocysts, secretory granule-like vesicles in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. We show that assembly of mucocysts depends on proteins classically associated with lysosome biogenesis. In particular, the delivery of nonaggregated, but not aggregated, cargo proteins requires classical receptors of the sortilin/VPS10 family, which indicates that dual mechanisms are involved in sorting to this secretory compartment. In addition, sortilins are required for delivery of a key protease involved in T. thermophila mucocyst maturation. Our results suggest potential similarities in the formation of regulated secretory organelles between even very distantly related eukaryotes. PMID:24189272

  16. Platelet secretory behaviour: as diverse as the granules … or not?

    PubMed

    Heijnen, H; van der Sluijs, P

    2015-12-01

    Platelets play a central role in the arrest of bleeding after damage to a blood vessel and in the development of thrombosis. Platelets rapidly respond after interaction with sub-endothelial components and release cargo from their storage granules. The three principal granule types of platelets are α-granules, dense granules and lysosomes. Timed release of granule contents and regulated expression of critical receptors are essential for maintenance of the platelet thrombus, yet also have important functions beyond hemostasis (i.e. inflammatory reactions and immune responses). α-granules store adhesive molecules such as von Willebrand factor and fibrinogen, growth factors and inflammatory and angiogenic mediators, which play crucial roles in inflammatory responses and tumor genesis. The α-granules comprise a group of subcellular compartments with a unique composition and ultrastructure. Recent studies have suggested that differential secretory kinetics of α-granule subtypes is responsible for a thematic release of adhesive and inflammatory mediators. In addition, new results indicate that activation-dependent synthesis and release of cytokines also contribute to the inflammatory role of platelets. We will discuss the various methods that platelets use to regulate secretory processes and how these relate to potential differential secretion patterns, thereby promoting adhesiveness and/or inflammatory functions. We will focus on the heterogenic granule population, open canalicular system (OCS) plasticity, the role of contractile and mechanobiological forces, and the fusogenic machinery. PMID:26391322

  17. Investigation of the protein-peptide composition of the secretory granules of bovine lactogenic hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Nagornaya, L.V.; Kizim, E.A.; Kravtsov, G.M.; Tsibezov, V.V.; Vinogradov, V.A.

    1987-02-20

    By a combination of methods of gel chromatography, fluorometric analysis, and electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel with immunochemical identification, they investigated the protein-peptide composition of the secretory granules of lactogenic hormone (LTH), isolated from the bovine anterior pituitary. It was established that the content of peptides in the granules is less than 3% of the content of immunoreactive LTH. Using gel chromatography, the monomer of the hormone and two immunoreactive forms with molecular weight 42 and 65 kilodaltons were detected in the secondary granules. The content of the forms with respect to immunoreactivity was 90, 3, and 7%, respectively. Four immunoreactive forms of LTH were detected in the secretory granules by the method of electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel followed by immunochemical identification.

  18. Functional Amyloids as Natural Storage of Peptide Hormones in Pituitary Secretory Granules

    PubMed Central

    Maji, Samir K.; Perrin, Marilyn H.; Sawaya, Michael R.; Jessberger, Sebastian; Vadodaria, Krishna; Rissman, Robert A.; Singru, Praful S.; Nilsson, K Peter R; Simon, Rozalyn; Schubert, David; Eisenberg, David; Rivier, Jean; Sawchenko, Paul; Vale, Wylie; Riek, Roland

    2009-01-01

    Amyloids are highly organized cross β-sheet-rich protein or peptide aggregates that are associated with pathological conditions including Alzheimer’s disease and type II diabetes. However, amyloids may also have a normal biological function as demonstrated by fungal prions, which are involved in prion replication, and the amyloid protein Pmel17, which is involved in mammalian skin pigmentation. Here, we show that peptide and protein hormones in secretory granules of the endocrine system are stored in an amyloid-like cross β-sheet-rich conformation. Thus, in contrast to the original association of amyloids with diseases, functional amyloids in the pituitary and other organs can contribute to normal cell and tissue physiology. PMID:19541956

  19. Myosin VI small insert isoform maintains exocytosis by tethering secretory granules to the cortical actin

    PubMed Central

    Tomatis, Vanesa M.; Papadopulos, Andreas; Malintan, Nancy T.; Martin, Sally; Wallis, Tristan; Gormal, Rachel S.; Kendrick-Jones, John; Buss, Folma

    2013-01-01

    Before undergoing neuroexocytosis, secretory granules (SGs) are mobilized and tethered to the cortical actin network by an unknown mechanism. Using an SG pull-down assay and mass spectrometry, we found that myosin VI was recruited to SGs in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Interfering with myosin VI function in PC12 cells reduced the density of SGs near the plasma membrane without affecting their biogenesis. Myosin VI knockdown selectively impaired a late phase of exocytosis, consistent with a replenishment defect. This exocytic defect was selectively rescued by expression of the myosin VI small insert (SI) isoform, which efficiently tethered SGs to the cortical actin network. These myosin VI SI–specific effects were prevented by deletion of a c-Src kinase phosphorylation DYD motif, identified in silico. Myosin VI SI thus recruits SGs to the cortical actin network, potentially via c-Src phosphorylation, thereby maintaining an active pool of SGs near the plasma membrane. PMID:23382463

  20. Myosin VI small insert isoform maintains exocytosis by tethering secretory granules to the cortical actin.

    PubMed

    Tomatis, Vanesa M; Papadopulos, Andreas; Malintan, Nancy T; Martin, Sally; Wallis, Tristan; Gormal, Rachel S; Kendrick-Jones, John; Buss, Folma; Meunier, Frédéric A

    2013-02-01

    Before undergoing neuroexocytosis, secretory granules (SGs) are mobilized and tethered to the cortical actin network by an unknown mechanism. Using an SG pull-down assay and mass spectrometry, we found that myosin VI was recruited to SGs in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Interfering with myosin VI function in PC12 cells reduced the density of SGs near the plasma membrane without affecting their biogenesis. Myosin VI knockdown selectively impaired a late phase of exocytosis, consistent with a replenishment defect. This exocytic defect was selectively rescued by expression of the myosin VI small insert (SI) isoform, which efficiently tethered SGs to the cortical actin network. These myosin VI SI-specific effects were prevented by deletion of a c-Src kinase phosphorylation DYD motif, identified in silico. Myosin VI SI thus recruits SGs to the cortical actin network, potentially via c-Src phosphorylation, thereby maintaining an active pool of SGs near the plasma membrane. PMID:23382463

  1. A functioning artificial secretory cell

    PubMed Central

    Simonsson, Lisa; Kurczy, Michael E.; Trouillon, Raphaël; Hook, Fredrik; Cans, Ann-Sofie

    2012-01-01

    We present an amperometric study of content release from individual vesicles in an artificial secretory cell designed with the minimal components required to carry out exocytosis. Here, the membranes of the cell and vesicles are substituted for protein-free giant and large unilamellar vesicles respectively. In replacement of the SNARE-complex, the cell model was equipped with an analog composed of complimentary DNA constructs. The DNA constructs hybridize in a zipper-like fashion to bring about docking of the artificial secretory vesicles and following the addition of Ca2+ artificial exocytosis was completed. Exocytotic events recorded from the artificial cell closely approximate exocytosis in live cells. The results together with simulations of vesicular release demonstrate that the molecular flux in this model is attenuated and we suggest that this is the result of restricted diffusion through a semi-stable fusion pore or a partitioning of the signalling molecule out of the fused vesicle membrane. PMID:23139869

  2. Serous cutaneous glands in anurans: Fourier transform analysis of the repeating secretory granule substructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosi, D.; Delfino, G.; Quercioli, F.

    2013-03-01

    A combined transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform analysis has been performed on the secretory granules storing active peptides/proteins in serous cutaneous glands of n = 12 anuran species. Previous TEM investigation showed that the granules are provided with remarkable repeating substructures based on discrete subunits, arranged into a consistent framework. Furthermore, TEM findings revealed that this recurrent arrangement is acquired during a prolonged post-Golgian (or maturational) processing that affects the secretory product. Maturation leads to a variety of patterns depending on the degree of subunit clustering. This variety of recurrent patterns has been plotted into a range of frequency spectra. Through this quantitative approach, we found that the varying granule substructure can be reduced to a single mechanism of peptide/protein aggregation.

  3. The role of secretory granules in radiation-induced dysfunction of rat salivary glands

    SciTech Connect

    Peter, B.; Van Waarde, M.A.W.H.; Konings, A.W.T.; Vissink, A. |; `s-Gravenmade, E.J.

    1995-02-01

    To investigate the possible role of secretory granules in radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction, rats were pretreated with isoproterenol (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally) to degranulate salivary gland acini. At maximal depletion, salivary glands were locally irradiated with a single dose of 15 Gy of X rays. Parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva samples were collected before and 1-10 days after irradiation. The lag phase, flow rate, concentrations of potassium and sodium, and amylase secretion were determined. Sham-treated, isoproterenol-treated and irradiated animals provided reference data. In the parotid gland, but not in the submandibular gland, protection against radiation-induced changes in flow rate and composition of saliva occurred after pretreatment with isoproterenol. Combining morphological data from a previous study with data from the current study, it is suggested that improvement of parotid gland function is attributed predominantly to a proliferative stimulus on acinar cells by isoproterenol and not to its degranulation effect. After pretreatment with isoproterenol, an earlier expression of radiation-induced acinar cell damage leading to death was observed, followed by a faster tissue recovery. Thus the proliferative stimulus on acinar cells may accelerate the unmasking of latent lethal damage, resulting in the earlier replacement of dead cells by new, functionally intact cells. 33 refs., 2 figs.

  4. A Dynamic Analysis of Secretory Granules Containing Proteins Involved In Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prahl, Louis; Simon, Alex; Jacobs, Conor; Fulwiler, Audrey; Hilken, Lindsay; Scalettar, Bethe; Lochner, Janis

    2010-10-01

    Formation and encoding of long-term memories requires a series of structural changes at synapses, or sites of neuronal communication, in the hippocampus; these changes are mediated by neuromodulatory proteins and serve to strengthen synapses to improve communication. Two prominent neuromodulators, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are copackaged into secretory granules (SGs) in the body of nerve cells and are transported to distal synapses by motor proteins. At synapses, particularly presynaptic sites, the fate of tPA and BDNF is largely unknown. Motivated by this, and by recent data implicating presynaptic BDNF in early phases of learning, we used fluorescence microscopy to elucidate dynamic properties of presynaptic tPA and BDNF. We find that presynaptic SGs containing tPA and/or BDNF undergo Brownian and anomalous diffusive motion that, in 75% of cases, is so slow that it typically would be classified as immobility. These results suggest that tPA and BDNF are retained at presynaptic sites to facilitate their corelease and role in learning.

  5. The econobiology of pancreatic acinar cells granule inventory and the stealthy nano-machine behind it.

    PubMed

    Hammel, Ilan; Meilijson, Isaac

    2016-03-01

    The pancreatic gland secretes most of the enzymes and many other macromolecules needed for food digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. These molecules play an important role in digestion, host defense and lubrication. The secretion of pancreatic proteins ensures the availability of the correct mix of proteins when needed. This review describes model systems available for the study of the econobiology of secretory granule content. The secretory pancreatic molecules are stored in large dense-core secretory granules that may undergo either constitutive or evoked secretion, and constitute the granule inventory of the cell. It is proposed that the Golgi complex functions as a distribution center for secretory proteins in pancreatic acinar cells, packing the newly formed secretory molecules into maturing secretory granules, also known functionally as condensing vacuoles. Mathematical modelling brings forward a process underlying granule inventory maintenance at various physiological states of condensation and aggregation by homotypic fusion. These models suggest unique but simple mechanisms accountable for inventory buildup and size, as well as for the distribution of secretory molecules into different secretory pathways in pancreatic acinar cells. PMID:26702787

  6. Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of islet secretory granule proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, D.T. )

    1991-08-01

    The effect of Ca2+ and calmodulin on phosphorylation of islet secretory granule proteins was studied. Secretory granules were incubated in a phosphorylation reaction mixture containing (32P)ATP and test reagents. The 32P-labeled proteins were resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the 32P content was visualized by autoradiography, and the relative intensities of specific bands were quantitated. When the reaction mixture contained EGTA and no added Ca2+, 32P was incorporated into two proteins with molecular weights of 45,000 and 13,000. When 10(-4) M Ca2+ was added without EGTA, two additional proteins (58,000 and 48,000 Mr) were phosphorylated, and the 13,000-Mr protein was absent. The addition of 2.4 microM calmodulin markedly enhanced the phosphorylation of the 58,000- and 48,000-Mr proteins and resulted in the phosphorylation of a major protein whose molecular weight (64,000 Mr) is identical to that of one of the calmodulin binding proteins located on the granule surface. Calmodulin had no effect on phosphorylation in the absence of Ca2+ but was effective in the presence of calcium between 10 nM and 50 microM. Trifluoperazine and calmidazolium, calmodulin antagonists, produced a dose-dependent inhibition of the calmodulin effect. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate, a phorbol ester that activates protein kinase C, produced no increase in phosphorylation, and 1-(5-isoquinoline sulfonyl)-2-methyl piperazine dihydrochloride, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, had no effect. These results indicate that Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinases and endogenous substrates are present in islet secretory granules.

  7. Proteoglycans support proper granule formation in pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Aroso, Miguel; Agricola, Brigitte; Hacker, Christian; Schrader, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Zymogen granules (ZG) are specialized organelles in the exocrine pancreas which allow digestive enzyme storage and regulated secretion. The molecular mechanisms of their biogenesis and the sorting of zymogens are still incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the role of proteoglycans in granule formation and secretion of zymogens in pancreatic AR42J cells, an acinar model system. Cupromeronic Blue cytochemistry and biochemical studies revealed an association of proteoglycans primarily with the granule membrane. Removal of proteoglycans by carbonate treatment led to a loss of membrane curvature indicating a supportive role in the maintenance of membrane shape and stability. Chemical inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis impaired the formation of normal electron-dense granules in AR42J cells and resulted in the formation of unusually small granule structures. These structures still contained the zymogen carboxypeptidase, a cargo molecule of secretory granules, but migrated to lighter fractions after density gradient centrifugation. Furthermore, the basal secretion of amylase was increased in AR42J cells after inhibitor treatment. In addition, irregular-shaped granules appeared in pancreatic lobules. We conclude that the assembly of a proteoglycan scaffold at the ZG membrane is supporting efficient packaging of zymogens and the proper formation of stimulus-competent storage granules in acinar cells of the pancreas. PMID:26105026

  8. Type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase regulates trafficking of secretory granule proteins in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Jason; Del Bel, Lauren M; Ma, Cheng-I J; Barylko, Barbara; Polevoy, Gordon; Rollins, Janet; Albanesi, Joseph P; Krämer, Helmut; Brill, Julie A

    2012-08-01

    Type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4KII) produces the lipid phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P), a key regulator of membrane trafficking. Here, we generated genetic models of the sole Drosophila melanogaster PI4KII gene. A specific requirement for PI4KII emerged in larval salivary glands. In PI4KII mutants, mucin-containing glue granules failed to reach normal size, with glue protein aberrantly accumulating in enlarged Rab7-positive late endosomes. Presence of PI4KII at the Golgi and on dynamic tubular endosomes indicated two distinct foci for its function. First, consistent with the established role of PI4P in the Golgi, PI4KII is required for sorting of glue granule cargo and the granule-associated SNARE Snap24. Second, PI4KII also has an unforeseen function in late endosomes, where it is required for normal retromer dynamics and for formation of tubular endosomes that are likely to be involved in retrieving Snap24 and Lysosomal enzyme receptor protein (Lerp) from late endosomes to the trans-Golgi network. Our genetic analysis of PI4KII in flies thus reveals a novel role for PI4KII in regulating the fidelity of granule protein trafficking in secretory tissues. PMID:22791894

  9. Molecular Interpretation of ACTH-β-Endorphin Coaggregation: Relevance to Secretory Granule Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Uday; Singru, Praful S.; Padinhateeri, Ranjith; Maji, Samir K.

    2012-01-01

    Peptide/protein hormones could be stored as non-toxic amyloid-like structures in pituitary secretory granules. ACTH and β-endorphin are two of the important peptide hormones that get co-stored in the pituitary secretory granules. Here, we study molecular interactions between ACTH and β-endorphin and their colocalization in the form of amyloid aggregates. Although ACTH is known to be a part of ACTH-β-endorphin aggregate, ACTH alone cannot aggregate into amyloid under various plausible conditions. Using all atom molecular dynamics simulation we investigate the early molecular interaction events in the ACTH-β-endorphin system, β-endorphin-only system and ACTH-only system. We find that β-endorphin and ACTH formed an interacting unit, whereas negligible interactions were observed between ACTH molecules in ACTH-only system. Our data suggest that ACTH is not only involved in interaction with β-endorphin but also enhances the stability of mixed oligomers of the entire system. PMID:22403619

  10. The internal pH and membrane potential of the insulin-secretory granule

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, John C.

    1982-01-01

    The membrane potential (ΔΨ) and the pH gradient (ΔpH) across the membrane of the insulin-secretory granule were determined in studies in vitro from the uptake of the permeant anion thio[14C]cyanate or the permeant base [14C]methylamine. Freshly prepared granules incubated in iso-osmotic medium containing sucrose and low concentrations of buffer salts exhibited an acidic internal pH and a ΔΨ positive inside. Addition of MgATP2− under these conditions did not alter the ΔpH, but produced a marked increase in the ΔΨ. Conversely, when a permeant anion was also included, ATP produced a marked increase in the ΔpH and a lesser increment in the ΔΨ. NH4+ salts reduced the ΔpH across granule membranes. In the presence of ATP this effect was accompanied by a reciprocal increase in the ΔΨ. A similar reciprocity was evident when nigericin was added together with K+ or on decreasing the medium pH, suggesting that these gradients were linked by a common electrogenic process. The effects of ATP were reversed by the protonophore carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, the combination of valinomycin, nigericin and K+, and by the Mg2+-dependent ATPase inhibitor tributyltin. Uptakes of 14C-labelled tracer molecules were also markedly reduced by cryogenic disruption of the granule membrane or hypo-osmotic incubation conditions. These results were readily interpreted within a chemiosmotic hypothesis, which proposed that the insulin granules possess an inwardly-directed electrogenic proton-translocating Mg2+-dependent ATPase with the additional postulate that the membrane has a low proton permeability. The intragranular pH was estimated as being between 5 and 6 in vivo. Such a value corresponds to optimal conditions for the crystallization of zinc–insulin hexamers. Several other functions related to chemiosmotic processes within insulin granules, however, may be envisaged. PMID:6126183

  11. Epithelial Cell Culture from Human Adenoids: A Functional Study Model for Ciliated and Secretory Cells

    PubMed Central

    González, Claudia; Espinosa, Marisol; Sánchez, María Trinidad; Droguett, Karla; Ríos, Mariana; Fonseca, Ximena; Villalón, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Background. Mucociliary transport (MCT) is a defense mechanism of the airway. To study the underlying mechanisms of MCT, we have both developed an experimental model of cultures, from human adenoid tissue of ciliated and secretory cells, and characterized the response to local chemical signals that control ciliary activity and the secretion of respiratory mucins in vitro. Materials and Methods. In ciliated cell cultures, ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and intracellular Ca2+ levels were measured in response to ATP, UTP, and adenosine. In secretory cultures, mucin synthesis and secretion were identified by using immunodetection. Mucin content was taken from conditioned medium and analyzed in the presence or absence of UTP. Results. Enriched ciliated cell monolayers and secretory cells were obtained. Ciliated cells showed a basal CBF of 10.7 Hz that increased significantly after exposure to ATP, UTP, or adenosine. Mature secretory cells showed active secretion of granules containing different glycoproteins, including MUC5AC. Conclusion. Culture of ciliated and secretory cells grown from adenoid epithelium is a reproducible and feasible experimental model, in which it is possible to observe ciliary and secretory activities, with a potential use as a model to understand mucociliary transport control mechanisms. PMID:23484122

  12. Salmeterol restores secretory functions in cystic fibrosis airway submucosal gland serous cells

    PubMed Central

    Delavoie, Franck; Molinari, Michael; Milliot, Magali; Zahm, Jean-Marie; Coraux, Christelle; Michel, Jean; Balossier, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    The activity of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) can be mediated by surface G protein-coupled receptors such as the beta2-adrenergic receptor. In this study, we explored the effect of a long-acting beta2-adrenergic agonist, salmeterol, on the CFTR-dependent secretory capacity of a human CF tracheal gland serous cell line (CF-KM4), homozygous for the delF508 mutation. We showed that, compared to the untreated CF serous cells, a 24 h pre-incubation period with 200 nM salmeterol induced an 83 % increase in delF508-CFTR-mediated chloride efflux. The restoration of the bioelectric properties is associated with increased apical surface pool of delF508-CFTR. Salmeterol induced a decrease in ion concentration and an increase in the level of hydration of the mucus packaged inside the CF secretory granules. The effects of salmeterol are not associated with a persistent production of cAMP. Western blotting on isolated secretory granules demonstrated immunoreactivity for CFTR and lysozyme. In parallel, we measured by AFM an increased size of secretory granules isolated from CF serous cells compared to non-CF serous cells (MM39 cell line) and showed that salmeterol was able to restore a CF cell granule size similar to that of non-CF cells. To demonstrate that the salmeterol effect was a CFTR-dependent mechanism, we showed that the incubation of salmeterol-treated CF serous cells with CFTR-inh172 suppressed the restoration of normal secretory functions. The capacity of salmeterol to restore the secretory capacity of glandular serous cells suggests that it could also improve the airway mucociliary clearance in patients with CF. PMID:18931328

  13. Platelet granule exocytosis: a comparison with chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Fitch-Tewfik, Jennifer L; Flaumenhaft, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The rapid secretion of bioactive amines from chromaffin cells constitutes an important component of the fight or flight response of mammals to stress. Platelets respond to stresses within the vasculature by rapidly secreting cargo at sites of injury, inflammation, or infection. Although chromaffin cells derive from the neural crest and platelets from bone marrow megakaryocytes, both have evolved a heterogeneous assemblage of granule types and a mechanism for efficient release. This article will provide an overview of granule formation and exocytosis in platelets with an emphasis on areas in which the study of chromaffin cells has influenced that of platelets and on similarities between the two secretory systems. Commonalities include the use of transporters to concentrate bioactive amines and other cargos into granules, the role of cytoskeletal remodeling in granule exocytosis, and the use of granules to provide membrane for cytoplasmic projections. The SNAREs and SNARE accessory proteins used by each cell type will also be considered. Finally, we will discuss the newly appreciated role of dynamin family proteins in regulated fusion pore formation. This evaluation of the comparative cell biology of regulated exocytosis in platelets and chromaffin cells demonstrates a convergence of mechanisms between two disparate cell types both tasked with responding rapidly to physiological stimuli. PMID:23805129

  14. Rabbit placental relaxin: ultrastructural localization in secretory granules of the syncytiotrophoblast using rabbit placental relaxin antiserum.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, R K; Fields, P A

    1986-08-01

    Although relaxin has been isolated from the placenta of the human, rabbit, horse, and cat, this study represents the first ultrastructural localization of the hormone in placental tissue. Placentas were removed from rabbits on days 15, 23, and 30 of pregnancy, and the tissues were prepared for light and electron microscopies. The cytoplasm of the syncytiotrophoblast from all stages of pregnancy studied showed positive staining for the hormone at the light level using guinea pig antirabbit relaxin serum and the avidin-biotin technique. Ultrastructurally, the syncytiotrophoblast was found to contain membrane-bounded granules (150-400 nm in diameter) which formed at the Golgi and were seen in close association with the cell membrane. Exocytosis involving the incorporation of the granule membrane into the cell membrane was observed. These granules labeled positively for relaxin after treatment with guinea pig antirabbit relaxin serum and goat antiguinea pig immunoglobulin G-colloidal gold. Control sections in which the relaxin antiserum was absorbed with purified rabbit relaxin or substituted with normal guinea pig serum contained no gold-labeled granules. Cross-reactivity of the rabbit relaxin antiserum with porcine relaxin was demonstrated by labeling of the relaxin-containing granules in the pregnant pig corpus luteum with the rabbit relaxin antiserum and by inhibiting the labeling of rabbit placental and pig corpora luteal granules by absorbing the rabbit relaxin antiserum with porcine relaxin. We have previously described the labeling of rabbit placental relaxin with porcine relaxin antiserum. This study suggests that relaxin is synthesized and secreted from the syncytiotrophoblast of the rabbit placenta, with the subcellular site of storage being membrane-bounded granules. PMID:3525122

  15. Secretory organelles in ECL cells of the rat stomach: an immunohistochemical and electron-microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, C M; Chen, D; Lintunen, M; Panula, P; Håkanson, R

    1999-12-01

    ECL cells are numerous in the rat stomach. They produce and store histamine and chromogranin-A (CGA)-derived peptides such as pancreastatin and respond to gastrin with secretion of these products. Numerous electron-lucent vesicles of varying size and a few small, dense-cored granules are found in the cytoplasm. Using confocal and electron microscopy, we examined these organelles and their metamorphosis as they underwent intracellular transport from the Golgi area to the cell periphery. ECL-cell histamine was found to occur in both cytosol and secretory vesicles. Histidine decarboxylase, the histamine-forming enzyme, was in the cytosol, while pancreastatin (and possibly other peptide products) was confined to the dense cores of granules and secretory vesicles. Dense-cored granules and small, clear microvesicles were more numerous in the Golgi area than in the docking zone, i.e. close to the plasma membrane. Secretory vesicles were numerous in both Golgi area and docking zone, where they were sometimes seen to be attached to the plasma membrane. Upon acute gastrin stimulation, histamine was mobilized and the compartment size (volume density) of secretory vesicles in the docking zone was decreased, while the compartment size of microvesicles was increased. Based on these findings, we propose the following life cycle of secretory organelles in ECL cells: small, electron-lucent microvesicles (pro-granules) bud off the trans Golgi network, carrying proteins and secretory peptide precursors (such as CGA and an anticipated prohormone). They are transformed into dense-cored granules (approximate profile diameter 100 nm) while still in the trans Golgi area. Pro-granules and granules accumulate histamine, which leads to their metamorphosis into dense-cored secretory vesicles. In the Golgi area the secretory vesicles have an approximate profile diameter of 150 nm. By the time they reach their destination in the docking zone, their profile diameter is between 200 and 500 nm. Exocytosis is coupled with endocytosis (membrane retrieval), and microvesicles in the docking zone are likely to represent membrane retrieval vesicles (endocytotic vesicles). PMID:10639736

  16. Further characterization of the peptidyl alpha-amidating enzyme in rat anterior pituitary secretory granules.

    PubMed

    Glembotski, C C

    1985-09-01

    In previous studies we have demonstrated a secretory granule-associated peptide alpha-amidation activity in rat anterior, intermediate, and posterior pituitary. This activity is capable of converting 125I-labeled synthetic D-Tyr-Val-Gly to labeled D-Tyr-Val-NH2, and requires ascorbic acid, CuSO4, and molecular oxygen for optimal activity. Because of the requirement for peptides with COOH-terminal glycine residues, and cofactor requirements similar to monooxygenases such as dopamine beta-monooxygenase, we have proposed that the alpha-amidating enzyme be named peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase, or PAM. The present study focused on (i) verifying that PAM could utilize a physiologically relevant peptide substrate, and (ii) demonstrating the retention of the cofactor requirements with purification of PAM. PAM (Mr = 50,000) was partially purified from rat anterior pituitary secretory granules and was shown to be capable of converting alpha-N-acetyl-ACTH(1-14) to alpha-N-acetyl-ACTH(1-13)NH2 (alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone) and ACTH(9-14) to ACTH(9-13)NH2. The optimal rates for these conversions were dependent on ascorbic acid and CuSO4. Kinetic analyses, using the model compound D-Tyr-Val-Gly as the peptide substrate, demonstrated that, compared to the crude granule extract, the partially purified enzyme displayed increased apparent affinities for both the peptide substrate and ascorbate. These analyses also showed that the Km for D-Tyr-Val-Gly was dependent on the concentration of ascorbate, while the Km for ascorbate was constant over a wide range of D-Tyr-Val-Gly concentrations. The results presented here indicate that PAM can alpha-amidate physiologically relevant peptides related to alpha MSH, and performs the reaction in an ascorbate-dependent fashion. Retention of the ascorbate and copper requirements with purification further support the hypothesis that these cofactors are important requirements for the COOH-terminal alpha-amidation of neuro and endocrine peptides. PMID:2994573

  17. Stimulation by ATP of proinsulin to insulin conversion in isolated rat pancreatic islet secretory granules. Association with the ATP-dependent proton pump

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, C.J.; Lucas, C.A.; Mutkoski, R.L.; Orci, L.; Halban, P.A.

    1987-08-05

    Isolated rat pancreatic islets were pulse-labeled for 5 min with (/sup 3/H)leucine then chased for 25 min, during which time endogenously labeled (/sup 3/H)proinsulin becomes predominantly compartmented in immature secretory granules. The islets were then homogenized in isotonic sucrose (pH 7.4) and a beta-granule preparation obtained by differential centrifugation and discontinuous sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. This preparation was enriched 8-fold in beta-granules. Aside from contamination with mitochondria and a limited number of lysosomes, the beta-granule preparation was essentially free of any other organelles involved in proinsulin synthesis and packaging (i.e. microsomal elements and, more particularly, Golgi complex). Conversion of endogenously labeled (/sup 3/H)proinsulin was followed in this beta-granule fraction for up to 2 h at 37 degrees C in a buffer (pH 7.3) that mimicked the cationic constituents of B-cell cytosol, during which time 92% of the beta-granules remained intact. Proinsulin conversion was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The rate of proinsulin conversion to insulin was stimulated by 2.2 +/- 0.1-fold (n = 6) (at a 60-min incubation) in the presence of ATP (2 mM) and an ATP regenerating system compared to beta-granule preparations incubated without ATP. This ATP stimulation was abolished in the presence of beta-granule proton pump ATPase inhibitors (tributyltin, 2.5 microM, or 1,3-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, 50 microM). Inhibitors of mitochondrial proton pump ATPases had no effect on the ATP stimulation of proinsulin conversion. When granules were incubated in a more acidic buffer, proinsulin conversion was increased relative to that at pH 7.3. At pH 5.5, ATP no longer stimulated conversion, and tributyltin and 1,3-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide had no effect.

  18. Low-molecular-weight constituents of isolated insulin-secretory granules. Bivalent cations, adenine nucleotides and inorganic phosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, J C; Penn, E J; Peshavaria, M

    1983-01-01

    The concentrations of Zn2+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Pi and adenine nucleotides were determined in insulin-secretory granules prepared from a transplantable rat insulinoma. Differential and density-gradient centrifugation analyses revealed that Zn2+ in this tissue was principally localized in the secretory granule, a second major fraction being found in association with cytosolic proteins. Pi was principally recovered in the latter fraction, whereas Ca2+ and Mg2+ were more widely distributed. Intragranular ion-distribution experiments suggested that Zn2+ was complexed mainly to insulin and its precursor forms and remained in the granule in an insoluble state. The Zn2+/insulin ratio (0.54) was greater than that expected for insulin molecules having two centrally co-ordinated Zn2+ atoms/hexamer, but less than the maximal Zn2+-binding capacity of the molecule. Most of the granular Ca2+, Mg2+ and Pi was released in a soluble form when granules were disrupted by sonication. Simulation in vitro of the ionic composition of the granule suggested that up to 90% of its Ca2+ was complexed to Pi and adenine nucleotides. Granular macromolecules also bound Ca2+, as shown by equilibrium-dialysis studies of granule lysates. However, such binding was displaced by Mg2+. Examination of the efflux of Ca2+ from granules incubated in iso-osmotic suspensions at 37 degrees C suggested that the passive permeability of the granule membrane to Ca2+ was very low. Nevertheless, more than 50% of the granular Ca2+ was rapidly released in an ionized form on hypo-osmotic or detergent-induced disruption of the granule membrane. This may represent a potentially mobilizable pool of Ca2+ in vivo. PMID:6344863

  19. The organization of the secretory machinery in chromaffin cells as a major factor in modeling exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, José; Torregrosa-Hetland, Cristina J.; Gil, Amparo; González-Vélez, Virginia; Segura, Javier; Viniegra, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Luis M.

    2010-01-01

    The organization of cytoplasm in excitable cells was a largely ignored factor when mathematical models were developed to understand intracellular calcium and secretory behavior. Here we employed a combination of fluorescent evanescent and transmitted light microscopy to explore the F-actin cytoskeletal organization in the vicinity of secretory sites in cultured bovine chromaffin cells. This technique and confocal fluorescent microscopy show chromaffin granules associated with the borders of cortical cytoskeletal cages forming an intricate tridimensional network. Furthermore, the overexpression of SNAP-25 in these cells also reveals the association of secretory machinery clusters with the borders of these cytoskeletal cages. The importance of these F-actin cage borders is stressed when granules appear to interact and remain associated during exocytosis visualized in acridin orange loaded vesicles. These results will prompt us to propose a model of cytoskeletal cages, where the secretory machinery is associated with its borders. Both the calcium level and the secretory response are enhanced in this geometrical arrangement when compared with a random distribution of the secretory machinery that is not restricted to the borders of the cage. PMID:20885775

  20. Granule cells in the CA3 area

    PubMed Central

    Szabadics, János; Varga, Csaba; Brunner, János; Chen, Kang; Soltesz, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental property of neuronal networks in Ammon’s horn is that each area is comprised of a single glutamatergic cell population and various types of GABAergic neurons. Here we describe an exception to this rule, in the form of granule cells that reside within the CA3 area and function as glutamatergic non-principal cells with distinct properties. CA3 granule cells in normal, healthy rats, similarly to dentate gyrus granule cells, co-expressed calbindin and the homeobox protein Prox1. However, CA3 granule cells were located outside of the dentate gyrus, often hundreds of microns from the hilar border, in the lucidum and radiatum layers. CA3 granule cells were present in numbers that were comparable to the rarer GABAergic neuronal subtypes, and their somato-dendritic morphology, intrinsic properties and perforant path inputs were similar to those of dentate gyrus granule cells. CA3 granule cell axons displayed giant mossy fiber terminals with filopodial extensions, demonstrating that not all mossy fibers originate from the dentate gyrus. Somatic paired recordings revealed that CA3 granule cells innervated CA3 pyramidal and GABAergic cells similarly to conventional mossy fiber synapses. However, CA3 granule cells were distinct in the specific organization of their GABAergic inputs. They received GABAergic synapses from cholecystokinin expressing mossy fiber-associated cells that did not innervate the dentate granule cell layer, and these synapses demonstrated unusually strong activity-dependent endocannabinoid-mediated inhibition of GABA release. These results indicate that granule cells in the CA3 constitute a glutamatergic, non-principal neuronal subtype that is integrated into the CA3 synaptic network. PMID:20554881

  1. The stealthy nano-machine behind mast cell granule size distribution.

    PubMed

    Hammel, Ilan; Meilijson, Isaac

    2015-01-01

    The classical model of mast cell secretory granule formation suggests that newly synthesized secretory mediators, transported from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex, undergo post-transitional modification and are packaged for secretion by condensation within membrane-bound granules of unit size. These unit granules may fuse with other granules to form larger granules that reside in the cytoplasm until secreted. A novel stochastic model for mast cell granule growth and elimination (G&E) as well as inventory management is presented. Resorting to a statistical mechanics approach in which SNAP (Soluble NSF Attachment Protein) REceptor (SNARE) components are viewed as interacting particles, the G&E model provides a simple 'nano-machine' of SNARE self-aggregation that can perform granule growth and secretion. Granule stock is maintained as a buffer to meet uncertainty in demand by the extracellular environment and to serve as source of supply during the lead time to produce granules of adaptive content. Experimental work, mathematical calculations, statistical modeling and a rationale for the emergence of nearly last-in, first out inventory management, are discussed. PMID:24629227

  2. Annexin A2–dependent actin bundling promotes secretory granule docking to the plasma membrane and exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Gabel, Marion; Delavoie, Franck; Demais, Valérie; Royer, Cathy; Bailly, Yannick; Vitale, Nicolas; Bader, Marie-France

    2015-01-01

    Annexin A2, a calcium-, actin-, and lipid-binding protein involved in exocytosis, mediates the formation of lipid microdomains required for the structural and spatial organization of fusion sites at the plasma membrane. To understand how annexin A2 promotes this membrane remodeling, the involvement of cortical actin filaments in lipid domain organization was investigated. 3D electron tomography showed that cortical actin bundled by annexin A2 connected docked secretory granules to the plasma membrane and contributed to the formation of GM1-enriched lipid microdomains at the exocytotic sites in chromaffin cells. When an annexin A2 mutant with impaired actin filament–bundling activity was expressed, the formation of plasma membrane lipid microdomains and the number of exocytotic events were decreased and the fusion kinetics were slower, whereas the pharmacological activation of the intrinsic actin-bundling activity of endogenous annexin A2 had the opposite effects. Thus, annexin A2–induced actin bundling is apparently essential for generating active exocytotic sites. PMID:26323692

  3. The color of lactotroph secretory granules stained with FM1-43 depends on dye concentration.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Joseph M; Betz, William J

    2008-04-15

    When pituitary lactotroph granules undergo exocytosis in the presence of FM1-43, their cores absorb dye and fluoresce brightly. We report that different granules fluoresce with different colors, despite being stained with a single fluorescent dye; emission spectra from individual granules show up to a 25 nm difference between the greenest and reddest granules. We found a correlation between granule color and average fluorescence intensity, suggesting that granule color depends upon dye concentration. We confirmed this in two ways: by increasing FM dye concentration in granules, which red shifted granule color, and by partially photobleaching the FM dye in granules, which green shifted granule color. Increasing stimulation intensity (by increasing KCl concentration) increased the proportion of red granules, indicating that granules exocytosing during intense stimulation bound more dye. This, perhaps, reflects differences in granule core maturation and condensation in which mature granules with condensed cores bind more FM dye but require more intense stimulation to be released. Concentration-dependent color shifts of FM dyes may be useful for monitoring aggregation processes occurring on a size scale smaller than the optical limit. PMID:18065476

  4. The Color of Lactotroph Secretory Granules Stained with FM1-43 Depends on Dye Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Joseph M.; Betz, William J.

    2008-01-01

    When pituitary lactotroph granules undergo exocytosis in the presence of FM1-43, their cores absorb dye and fluoresce brightly. We report that different granules fluoresce with different colors, despite being stained with a single fluorescent dye; emission spectra from individual granules show up to a 25 nm difference between the greenest and reddest granules. We found a correlation between granule color and average fluorescence intensity, suggesting that granule color depends upon dye concentration. We confirmed this in two ways: by increasing FM dye concentration in granules, which red shifted granule color, and by partially photobleaching the FM dye in granules, which green shifted granule color. Increasing stimulation intensity (by increasing KCl concentration) increased the proportion of red granules, indicating that granules exocytosing during intense stimulation bound more dye. This, perhaps, reflects differences in granule core maturation and condensation in which mature granules with condensed cores bind more FM dye but require more intense stimulation to be released. Concentration-dependent color shifts of FM dyes may be useful for monitoring aggregation processes occurring on a size scale smaller than the optical limit. PMID:18065476

  5. Subcellular distribution of docking/fusion proteins in neutrophils, secretory cells with multiple exocytic compartments.

    PubMed

    Brumell, J H; Volchuk, A; Sengelov, H; Borregaard, N; Cieutat, A M; Bainton, D F; Grinstein, S; Klip, A

    1995-12-15

    Neutrophils contain at least four distinct types of secretory organelles, which undergo exocytosis during infection and inflammation. The signaling pathways leading to secretion of individual granules and their kinetics of exocytosis vary greatly, causing temporal and regional differences in docking and fusion with the plasma membrane. As a step toward understanding the processes underlying differential granular secretion in neutrophils, we assessed the presence and distribution of a number of proteins reported to be involved in vesicular docking and/or fusion in other systems. Specific Abs were used for immunoblotting of cells fractionated by density gradients and free-flow electrophoresis, and for localization by confocal immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Syntaxin 1, VAMP (vesicle-associated membrane protein)-1, synaptosome-associated protein-25 (SNAP-25), synaptophysin, and cellubrevin were not detectable in human neutrophils. In contrast, syntaxin 4, VAMP-2, and the 39-kDa isoform of secretory carrier membrane protein (SCAMP) were present. SCAMP was found mainly in secondary and tertiary granules and in a fraction containing secretory vesicles, but was virtually absent from the primary (lysosomal) granules. This profile is consistent with the proposed "post-Golgi" distribution of SCAMP. VAMP-2 was largely absent from primary and secondary granules, but concentrated in tertiary granules and secretory vesicles. This pattern of distribution parallels the increasing sensitivity of these exocytic compartments to intracellular free calcium. Accordingly, ionomycin induced translocation of VAMP-2 toward the plasma membrane. Syntaxin 4 was found almost exclusively in the plasma membrane, and it accumulated in lamellipodia of migrating cells. This regional accumulation may contribute to localized secretion into the phagosomal lumen. PMID:7499863

  6. Localization of human intestinal defensin 5 in Paneth cell granules.

    PubMed Central

    Porter, E M; Liu, L; Oren, A; Anton, P A; Ganz, T

    1997-01-01

    Antibiotic peptides of higher animals include the defensins, first discovered in phagocytic cells but recently also found to be produced by epithelial cells. We biosynthesized recombinant human intestinal defensin 5 (rHD-5) using the baculovirus-insect cell expression system. Since insect cells process defensin incompletely and secrete the precursor proHD-5, we substituted a methionine for an alanine at a likely processing site to allow selective chemical cleavage with cyanogen bromide, and rHD-5 was used to elicit polyclonal antibodies. By the immunoperoxidase-staining technique, the antibodies selectively stained Paneth cells of the normal adult small intestine. Immunogold electron microscopy further localized HD-5 to the Paneth cell secretory granules. Since some defensins exert activity cytotoxic to mammalian cells, we assayed the effect of rHD-5 on the human intestinal cell lines Caco2 and Int407. proHD-5 did not exert cytotoxic activity, and rHD-5 showed only minimal activity against Int407 and was inert against Caco2. Since Paneth cells release their granules adjacent to the mitotic cells of the intestinal crypts, HD could protect this cell population against invasion and parasitization by microbes. PMID:9169779

  7. Evidence for two secretory cell types in the Stannius bodies of the teleosts Fundulus heteroclitus and Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Wendelaar Bonga, S E; van der Meij, J C; Pang, P K

    1980-01-01

    The Stannius bodies of killifish and goldfish were ultrastructurally investigated after exposure of the fish to media of different osmolality and calcium content. In both species two structurally different secretory cell types are found. Type-1 cells predominate. They contain an extensive granular endoplasmic reticulum, some large Golgi areas, and secretory granules with a mean diameter of about 0.4 micron. These cells are activated by transfer of freshwater fish to seawater, but not by transfer to low-calcium seawater. Type-2 cells often contain cytoplasmic processes that penetrate between the type-1 cells and are ending on the basal lamina. In this contact area granule release takes place. Type-2 cells contain some strands of granular endoplasmic reticulum, several small Golgi areas, and secretory granules with a mean diameter between 0.15 and 0.20 micron. Type-2 cells are not activated after transfer of fish to seawater. In killifish seawater exposure leads to a reduction of type-2 cells. The differences between the reactions of both cell types to different media point to functional differences between their secretory products. Type-1 cells may produce hypocalcemic factor. It is concluded that type-2 cells are typical for freshwater fish or euryhaline fish spending part of their life cycle in freshwater. The proper function of these cells is unclear. PMID:7428033

  8. In vitro conditions modify immunoassayability of bovine pituitary prolactin and growth hormone: insights into their secretory granule storage forms

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenson, M.Y.

    1985-04-01

    The amount of immunoassayable intracellular bovine (b) PRL and GH varies depending on treatment conditions. The present studies were designed to characterize the mechanisms involved and to compare immunoassayability of both hormones under similar conditions. Pituitary homogenate and secretory granule hormones displayed both time- and temperature-dependent increases when incubated at pH 10.5 with reduced glutathione. Changes in immunoassayability seem to reflect conversion from poorly immunoactive tissue hormone oligomers to monomeric hormone. The data indicate that oligomeric bPRL is stabilized primarily by intermolecular disulfide bonds, although it is also susceptible to urea, SDS, and EDTA; granule thiols may also influence the conversion to monomer. The storage form of bGH appears to be stabilized differently. Maneuvers demonstrated in these studies to influence immunoassayability correlate very well with their previously established effects on hormone release and secretion, strengthening the likelihood that a functional link exists between assayability and secretion.

  9. Studies on the pH gradient and histamine uptake of isolated mast cell granules

    SciTech Connect

    De Young, M.B.; Nemeth, E.F.; Scarpa, A.

    1986-05-01

    A purified preparation of mast cell granules with intact perigranular membranes was obtained using a method involving probe sonication of rat serosal mast cells followed by differential centrifugation and Percoll gradient separation of the granules. Purification was assessed with histamine and mast cell granule protease assays. Granule integrity was demonstrated by light and electron microscopy and quantitated with a ruthenium red binding assay. The low yield of granules (20 ..mu..g protein/4 rats) necessitated the development of two microanalytical techniques to demonstrate the existence of a pH gradient across the membrane: 9-aminoacridine fluorescence studies in a cuvet with 50 ..mu..l capacity and /sup 14/C-methylamine distribution studies on microgram quantities of granule protein. Quantitation of results from isotope studies were confounded by the presence of oil used for separating granules from the aqueous phase. Nonetheless, an extrapolation procedure calibrated by external pH yielded an internal pH value of 5.46 +/- .03 (n = 4), consistent with values observed in granules obtained from other secretory cells. Collapse of the pH gradient by NH/sub 4//sup +/ or nigericin/KCl was demonstrated using either technique. Addition of histamine depressed intragranular pH, suggesting that histamine transport may utilize the ..delta..pH as a driving force.

  10. Rapid Lytic Granule Convergence to the MTOC in Natural Killer Cells Is Dependent on Dynein But Not Cytolytic Commitment

    PubMed Central

    Mentlik, Ashley N.; Sanborn, Keri B.; Holzbaur, Erika L.

    2010-01-01

    Natural killer cells are lymphocytes specialized to participate in host defense through their innate ability to mediate cytotoxicity by secreting the contents of preformed secretory lysosomes (lytic granules) directly onto a target cell. This form of directed secretion requires the formation of an immunological synapse and occurs stepwise with actin reorganization preceding microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) polarization to the synapse. Because MTOC polarization to the synapse is required for polarization of lytic granules, we attempted to define their interrelationship. We found that compared with the time required for MTOC polarization, lytic granules converged to the MTOC rapidly. The MTOC-directed movement of lytic granules was independent of actin and microtubule reorganization, dependent on dynein motor function, occurred before MTOC polarization, and did not require a commitment to cytotoxicity. This defines a novel paradigm for rapid MTOC-directed transport as a prerequisite for directed secretion, one that may prepare, but not commit cells for precision secretory function. PMID:20444980

  11. Intestinal secretory cell ER stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    McGuckin, Michael A; Eri, Rajaraman D; Das, Indrajit; Lourie, Rohan; Florin, Timothy H

    2011-08-01

    Data from animal models and human inflammatory bowel diseases have implicated the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress pathway in intestinal inflammation. We have characterized the development of inflammation in Winnie mice in which ER stress arises due to a single missense mutation in the MUC2 mucin produced by intestinal goblet cells. This model has allowed us to explore the genesis of inflammation ensuing from a single gene polymorphism affecting secretory cells. In these mice, a proportion of MUC2 misfolds during biosynthesis, leading to ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response. Winnie mice develop spontaneous complex progressive inflammation that is most severe in the distal colon. Inflammation involves TH1, TH2 and TH17 T-cells, with a progressive development of a TH17-dominated response, but also involves innate immunity, in a pattern not dissimilar to human colitis. Experimental inhibition of tolerance in this model severely exacerbates colitis, demonstrating active effective suppression of inflammation. Even though the misfolding of MUC2 is a consequence of an inherited mutation, as inflammation develops, the molecular markers of ER stress increase further and goblet cell pathology becomes worse, suggesting that inflammation itself exacerbates ER stress. PMID:21787352

  12. Tracheobronchial epithelium of the sheep: IV. Lectin histochemical characterization of secretory epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mariassy, A T; Plopper, C G; St George, J A; Wilson, D W

    1988-09-01

    Conventional histochemical characterization of the mucus secretory apparatus is often difficult to reconcile with the biochemical analysis of respiratory secretions. This study was designed to examine the secretory glycoconjugates in airways using lectins with biochemically defined affinities for main sugar residues of mucus. We used five biotinylated lectins--DBA (Dolichos biflorus) and SBA (Glycine max) for N-acetyl galactosamine (galNAc), BSA I (Bandeiraea simplicifolia) and PNA (Arachis hypogea) for galactose (gal), and UEA I (Ulex europeus)--for detection of fucose (fuc) in HgCl2-fixed, paraffin-embedded, serially sectioned trachea, lobar and segmental bronchi and bronchioles of nine sheep. Lectins selectively localized the carbohydrate residues in luminal secretions, on epithelial cell surfaces, and in secretory cells. In proximal airways, the major carbohydrate residues in luminal secretions, cell surfaces, goblet cells, and glands were fuc and gal-NAc. PNA reacted mainly with apical granules of less than 10% of goblet cells, and gal residues were only detected in some of the mucous cells and on basolateral cell surfaces. Distal airways contained sparse secretion in the lumen, mucous cells contained weakly reactive fuc and gal-NAc, and the epithelial surfaces of Clara cells contained gal. Sugars abundant in the airway secretions were also the major component of cells in glands. We conclude that there is a correlation between specific sugar residues in secretory cells, glycocalyx, and luminal secretions in proximal and distal airways. This suggests that lectins may be used to obtain information about airway secretory cell composition from respiratory secretions. PMID:3189886

  13. Hilar mossy cell circuitry controlling dentate granule cell excitability

    PubMed Central

    Jinde, Seiichiro; Zsiros, Veronika; Nakazawa, Kazu

    2013-01-01

    Glutamatergic hilar mossy cells of the dentate gyrus can either excite or inhibit distant granule cells, depending on whether their direct excitatory projections to granule cells or their projections to local inhibitory interneurons dominate. However, it remains controversial whether the net effect of mossy cell loss is granule cell excitation or inhibition. Clarifying this controversy has particular relevance to temporal lobe epilepsy, which is marked by dentate granule cell hyperexcitability and extensive loss of dentate hilar mossy cells. Two diametrically opposed hypotheses have been advanced to explain this granule cell hyperexcitability—the “dormant basket cell” and the “irritable mossy cell” hypotheses. The “dormant basket cell” hypothesis proposes that mossy cells normally exert a net inhibitory effect on granule cells and therefore their loss causes dentate granule cell hyperexcitability. The “irritable mossy cell” hypothesis takes the opposite view that mossy cells normally excite granule cells and that the surviving mossy cells in epilepsy increase their activity, causing granule cell excitation. The inability to eliminate mossy cells selectively has made it difficult to test these two opposing hypotheses. To this end, we developed a transgenic toxin-mediated, mossy cell-ablation mouse line. Using these mutants, we demonstrated that the extensive elimination of hilar mossy cells causes granule cell hyperexcitability, although the mossy cell loss observed appeared insufficient to cause clinical epilepsy. In this review, we focus on this topic and also suggest that different interneuron populations may mediate mossy cell-induced translamellar lateral inhibition and intralamellar recurrent inhibition. These unique local circuits in the dentate hilar region may be centrally involved in the functional organization of the dentate gyrus. PMID:23407806

  14. Reconstitution in vitro of the pH-dependent aggregation of pancreatic zymogens en route to the secretory granule: implication of GP-2.

    PubMed Central

    Leblond, F A; Viau, G; Lainé, J; Lebel, D

    1993-01-01

    Regulated secretory proteins are thought to be sorted in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) via selective aggregation. To elucidate the biogenesis of the secretory granule in the exocrine pancreas, we reconstituted in vitro the conditions of pH and ions believed to exist in the TGN using the end product of this sorting process, the zymogen granule contents. Protein aggregation was dependent on pH (acidic) and on the presence of cations (10 mM Ca2+, 150 mM K+) to reproduce the pattern of proteins found in the granule. The constitutive secretory protein IgG was excluded from these aggregates. Zymogen aggregation correlated with the relative proportion of the major granule membrane protein GP-2 in the assay. These results show that the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein GP-2 co-aggregates with zymogens in the acidic environment believed to exist in the pancreatic TGN, and thus suggest that GP-2 would function as a membrane anchor for zymogen aggregates, facilitating their entrapment in budding vesicles directed towards the regulated secretory pathway. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8471046

  15. Orai-STIM–mediated Ca2+ release from secretory granules revealed by a targeted Ca2+ and pH probe

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Eamonn J.; Duman, Joseph G.; Moody, Mark W.; Chen, Liangyi; Hille, Bertil

    2012-01-01

    Secretory granules (SGs) sequester significant calcium. Understanding roles for this calcium and potential mechanisms of release is hampered by the difficulty of measuring SG calcium directly in living cells. We adapted the Förster resonance energy transfer-based D1-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) probe to develop a unique probe (D1-SG) to measure calcium and pH in secretory granules. It significantly localizes to SGs and reports resting free Ca2+ of 69 ± 15 μM and a pH of 5.8. Application of extracellular ATP to activate P2Y receptors resulted in a slow monotonic decrease in SG Ca2+ temporally correlated with the occurrence of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). Further investigation revealed a unique receptor-mediated mechanism of calcium release from SGs that involves SG store-operated Orai channels activated by their regulator stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) on the ER. SG Ca2+ release is completely antagonized by a SOCE antagonist, by switching to Ca2+-free medium, and by overexpression of a dominant-negative Orai1(E106A). Overexpression of the CRAC activation domain (CAD) of STIM1 resulted in a decrease of resting SG Ca2+ by ∼75% and completely abolished the ATP-mediated release of Ca2+ from SGs. Overexpression of a dominant-negative CAD construct (CAD-A376K) induced no significant changes in SG Ca2+. Colocalization analysis suggests that, like the plasma membrane, SG membranes also possess Orai1 channels and that during SG Ca2+ release, colocalization between SGs and STIM1 increases. We propose Orai channel opening on SG membranes as a potential mode of calcium release from SGs that may serve to raise local cytoplasmic calcium concentrations and aid in refilling intracellular calcium stores of the ER and exocytosis. PMID:23184982

  16. Vaccine adjuvants: Tailor-made mast-cell granules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunzer, Matthias

    2012-03-01

    Mast cells induce protective immune responses through secretion of stimulatory granules. Microparticles modelled after mast-cell granules are now shown to replicate and enhance the functions of their natural counterparts and to direct the character of the resulting immunity.

  17. Vesicle Associated Membrane Protein 8 (VAMP8)-mediated Zymogen Granule Exocytosis Is Dependent on Endosomal Trafficking via the Constitutive-Like Secretory Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Messenger, Scott W; Falkowski, Michelle A.; Thomas, Diana D. H.; Jones, Elaina K.; Hong, Wanjin; Giasano, Herbert Y.; Boulis, Nicholas M.; Groblewski, Guy E.

    2014-01-01

    Acinar cell zymogen granules (ZG) express 2 isoforms of the vesicle-associated membrane protein family (VAMP2 and -8) thought to regulate exocytosis. Expression of tetanus toxin to cleave VAMP2 in VAMP8 knock-out (−/−) acini confirmed that VAMP2 and -8 are the primary VAMPs for regulated exocytosis, each contributing ∼50% of the response. Analysis of VAMP8−/− acini indicated that although stimulated secretion was significantly reduced, a compensatory increase in constitutive secretion maintained total secretion equivalent to wild type (WT). Using a perifusion system to follow secretion over time revealed VAMP2 mediates an early rapid phase peaking and falling within 2–3 min, whereas VAMP8 controls a second prolonged phase that peaks at 4 min and slowly declines over 20 min to support the protracted secretory response. VAMP8−/− acini show increased expression of the endosomal proteins Ti-VAMP7 (2-fold) and Rab11a (4-fold) and their redistribution from endosomes to ZGs. Expression of GDP-trapped Rab11a-S25N inhibited secretion exclusively from the VAMP8 but not the VAMP2 pathway. VAMP8−/− acini also showed a >90% decrease in the early endosomal proteins Rab5/D52/EEA1, which control anterograde trafficking in the constitutive-like secretory pathway. In WT acini, short term (14–16 h) culture also results in a >90% decrease in Rab5/D52/EEA1 and a complete loss of the VAMP8 pathway, whereas VAMP2-secretion remains intact. Remarkably, rescue of Rab5/D52/EEA1 expression restored the VAMP8 pathway. Expressed D52 shows extensive colocalization with Rab11a and VAMP8 and partially copurifies with ZG fractions. These results indicate that robust trafficking within the constitutive-like secretory pathway is required for VAMP8- but not VAMP2-mediated ZG exocytosis. PMID:25138214

  18. An aspartyl cathepsin, CTH3, is essential for proprotein processing during secretory granule maturation in Tetrahymena thermophila

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh; Briguglio, Joseph S.; Turkewitz, Aaron P.

    2014-01-01

    In Tetrahymena thermophila, peptides secreted via dense-core granules, called mucocysts, are generated by proprotein processing. We used expression profiling to identify candidate processing enzymes, which localized as cyan fluorescent protein fusions to mucocysts. Of note, the aspartyl cathepsin Cth3p plays a key role in mucocyst-based secretion, since knockdown of this gene blocked proteolytic maturation of the entire set of mucocyst proproteins and dramatically reduced mucocyst accumulation. The activity of Cth3p was eliminated by mutation of two predicted active-site mutations, and overexpression of the wild-type gene, but not the catalytic-site mutant, partially rescued a Mendelian mutant defective in mucocyst proprotein processing. Our results provide the first direct evidence for the role of proprotein processing in this system. Of interest, both localization and the CTH3 disruption phenotype suggest that the enzyme provides non–mucocyst-related functions. Phylogenetic analysis of the T. thermophila cathepsins, combined with prior work on the role of sortilin receptors in mucocyst biogenesis, suggests that repurposing of lysosomal enzymes was an important step in the evolution of secretory granules in ciliates. PMID:24943840

  19. Identification of human cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 (CRISP-3) as a matrix protein in a subset of peroxidase-negative granules of neutrophils and in the granules of eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Udby, Lene; Calafat, Jero; Sørensen, Ole E; Borregaard, Niels; Kjeldsen, Lars

    2002-09-01

    Cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 (CRISP-3; also known as SGP28) was originally discovered in human neutrophilic granulocytes. We have recently developed a sensitive sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for CRISP-3 and demonstrated the presence of CRISP-3 in exocrine secretions. To investigate the subcellular localization and mobilization of CRISP-3 in human neutrophils, we performed subcellular fractionation of resting and activated neutrophils on three-layer Percoll density gradients, release-studies of granule proteins in response to different secretagogues, and double-labeling immunogold electron microscopy. CRISP-3 was found to be localized in a subset of granules with overlapping characteristics of specific and gelatinase granules and mobilized accordingly, thus confirming the hypothesis that peroxidase-negative granules exist as a continuum from specific to gelatinase granules regarding protein content and mobilization. CRISP-3 was found to be a matrix protein, which is stored in granules as glycosylated and as unglycosylated protein. The subcellular distribution of the two forms of CRISP-3 was identical. In addition, CRISP-3 was found as a granule protein in eosinophilic granulocytes. The presence of CRISP-3 in peroxidase-negative granules of neutrophils, in granules of eosinophils, and in exocrine secretions indicates a role in the innate host defense. PMID:12223513

  20. Secretory protein trafficking and organelle dynamics in living cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lippincott-Schwartz, J; Roberts, T H; Hirschberg, K

    2000-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein chimerae acting as reporters for protein localization and trafficking within the secretory membrane system of living cells have been used in a wide variety of applications, including time-lapse imaging, double-labeling, energy transfer, quantitation, and photobleaching experiments. Results from this work are clarifying the steps involved in the formation, translocation, and fusion of transport intermediates; the organization and biogenesis of organelles; and the mechanisms of protein retention, sorting, and recycling in the secretory pathway. In so doing, they are broadening our thinking about the temporal and spatial relationships among secretory organelles and the membrane trafficking pathways that operate between them. PMID:11031247

  1. Targeting of the zymogen-granule protein syncollin in AR42J and AtT-20 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hodel, A; Edwardson, J M

    2000-01-01

    Syncollin is a 13-kDa protein associated with the membranes of pancreatic zymogen granules. Here we determine the in situ localization of syncollin in pancreatic acinar cells from adult and neonatal rats, and study the targeting of green fluorescent protein-(GFP-) and His(6)-tagged syncollin chimaeras in model exocrine and endocrine secretory cells. Immunocytochemical analysis of the distribution of syncollin in fully differentiated and neonatal acinar cells revealed a granular pattern that corresponded with that of the zymogen-granule markers synaptobrevin 2 and amylase. In fully differentiated acinar cells syncollin-positive vesicles were detected in the apical region of the cells, whereas in neonatal acinar cells they were found clustered near the cell nucleus. Both GFP- and His(6)-tagged syncollin entered the secretory pathway when transiently expressed in AR42J or AtT-20 cells. Syncollin-GFP was found predominantly in amylase-positive granules in AR42J cells and in adrenocorticotrophic hormone- (ACTH-) positive granules in AtT-20 cells. Syncollin-GFP was also present in the Golgi complex in AR42J cells. Syncollin-His(6) became localized in ACTH-containing granules in the neuritic processes of AtT-20 cells. In AR42J cells syncollin-His(6) did not co-localize with amylase, but was detected in acidic vesicles. These results show that the exocrine protein syncollin contains intrinsic cell-type-independent targeting information that is retained in both exocrine and endocrine cells after fusion to the GFP tag. In contrast, His(6)-tagged syncollin is efficiently targeted to secretory granules only in AtT-20 cells and not in AR42J cells. PMID:10970774

  2. PTEN deletion from adult-generated dentate granule cells disrupts granule cell mossy fiber axon structure

    PubMed Central

    LaSarge, Candi L.; Santos, Victor R; Danzer, Steve C.

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of the mTOR-signaling pathway is implicated in the development of temporal lobe epilepsy. In mice, deletion of PTEN from hippocampal dentate granule cells leads to mTOR hyperactivation and promotes the rapid onset of spontaneous seizures. The mechanism by which these abnormal cells initiate epileptogenesis, however, is unclear. PTEN-knockout granule cells develop abnormally, exhibiting morphological features indicative of increased excitatory input. If these cells are directly responsible for seizure genesis, it follows that they should also possess increased output. To test this prediction, dentate granule cell axon morphology was quantified in control and PTEN-knockout mice. Unexpectedly, PTEN deletion increased giant mossy fiber bouton spacing along the axon length, suggesting reduced innervation of CA3. Increased width of the mossy fiber axon pathway in stratum lucidum, however, which likely reflects an unusual increase in mossy fiber axon collateralization in this region, offset the reduction in boutons per axon length. These morphological changes predicts a net increase in granule cell >> CA3 innervation. Increased diameter of axons from PTEN-knockout cells would further enhance granule cell >> CA3 communication. Altogether, these findings suggest that amplified information flow through the hippocampal circuit contributes to seizure occurrence in the PTEN-knockout mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:25600212

  3. Tumor protein D52 controls trafficking of an apical endolysosomal secretory pathway in pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Messenger, Scott W.; Thomas, Diana D. H.; Falkowski, Michelle A.; Byrne, Jennifer A.; Gorelick, Fred S.

    2013-01-01

    Zymogen granule (ZG) formation in acinar cells involves zymogen cargo sorting from trans-Golgi into immature secretory granules (ISGs). ISG maturation progresses by removal of lysosomal membrane and select content proteins, which enter endosomal intermediates prior to their apical exocytosis. Constitutive and stimulated secretion through this mechanism is termed the constitutive-like and minor-regulated pathways, respectively. However, the molecular components that control membrane trafficking within these endosomal compartments are largely unknown. We show that tumor protein D52 is highly expressed in endosomal compartments following pancreatic acinar cell stimulation and regulates apical exocytosis of an apically directed endolysosomal compartment. Secretion from the endolysosomal compartment was detected by cell-surface antigen labeling of lysosome-associated membrane protein LAMP1, which is absent from ZGs, and had incomplete overlap with surface labeling of synaptotagmin 1, a marker of ZG exocytosis. Although culturing (16–18 h) of isolated acinar cells is accompanied by a loss of secretory responsiveness, the levels of SNARE proteins necessary for ZG exocytosis were preserved. However, levels of endolysosomal proteins D52, EEA1, Rab5, and LAMP1 markedly decreased with culture. When D52 levels were restored by adenoviral delivery, the levels of these regulatory proteins and secretion of both LAMP1 (endolysosomal) and amylase was strongly enhanced. These secretory effects were absent in alanine and aspartate substitutions of serine 136, the major D52 phosphorylation site, and were inhibited by brefeldin A, which does not directly affect the ZG compartment. Our results indicate that D52 directly regulates apical endolysosomal secretion and are consistent with previous studies, suggesting that this pathway indirectly regulates ZG secretion of digestive enzymes. PMID:23868405

  4. Genetic deletion of Rab27B in pancreatic acinar cells affects granules size and has inhibitory effects on amylase secretion.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yanan; Ernst, Stephen A; Lentz, Stephen I; Williams, John A

    2016-03-18

    Small G protein Rab27B is expressed in various secretory cell types and plays a role in mediating secretion. In pancreatic acinar cells, Rab27B was found to be expressed on the zymogen granule membrane and by overexpression to regulate the secretion of zymogen granules. However, the effect of Rab27B deletion on the physiology of pancreatic acinar cells is unknown. In the current study, we utilized the Rab27B KO mouse model to better understand the role of Rab27B in the secretion of pancreatic acinar cells. Our data show that Rab27B deficiency had no obvious effects on the expression of major digestive enzymes and other closely related proteins, e.g. similar small G proteins, such as Rab3D and Rab27A, and putative downstream effectors. The overall morphology of acinar cells was not changed in the knockout pancreas. However, the size of zymogen granules was decreased in KO acinar cells, suggesting a role of Rab27B in regulating the maturation of secretory granules. The secretion of digestive enzymes was moderately decreased in KO acini, compared with the WT control. These data indicate that Rab27B is involved at a different steps of zymogen granule maturation and secretion, which is distinct from that of Rab3D. PMID:26845357

  5. Acquisition of Lubrol insolubility, a common step for growth hormone and prolactin in the secretory pathway of neuroendocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, M S; Zhu, Y L; Chang, J E; Dannies, P S

    2001-01-01

    Rat prolactin in the dense cores of secretory granules of the pituitary gland is a Lubrol-insoluble aggregate. In GH(4)C(1) cells, newly synthesized rat prolactin and growth hormone were soluble, but after 30 min about 40% converted to a Lubrol-insoluble form. Transport from the endoplasmic reticulum is necessary for conversion to Lubrol insolubility, since incubating cells with brefeldin A or at 15 degrees C reduced formation of insoluble rat (35)S-prolactin. Formation of Lubrol-insoluble aggregates has protein and cell specificity; newly synthesized human growth hormone expressed in AtT20 cells underwent a 40% conversion to Lubrol insolubility with time, but albumin did not, and human growth hormone expressed in COS cells underwent less than 10% conversion to Lubrol insolubility. del32-46 growth hormone, a naturally occurring form of growth hormone, and P89L growth hormone underwent conversion, although they were secreted more slowly, indicating that there is some tolerance in structural requirements for aggregation. An intracellular compartment with an acidic pH is not necessary for conversion to Lubrol insolubility, because incubation with chloroquine or bafilomycin slowed, but did not prevent, the conversion. GH(4)C(1) cells treated with estradiol, insulin, and epidermal growth factor accumulate more secretory granules and store more prolactin, but not more growth hormone, than untreated cells; Lubrol-insoluble aggregates of prolactin and growth hormone formed to the same extent in hormone-treated or untreated GH(4)C(1) cells, but prolactin was retained longer in hormone-treated cells. These findings indicate that aggregation alone is not sufficient to cause retention of secretory granule proteins, and there is an additional selective process. PMID:11024038

  6. COMPARABLE OUTCOMES IN NON-SECRETORY AND SECRETORY MULTIPLE MYELOMA AFTER AUTOLOGOUS STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Shaji; Prez, Waleska S.; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Ballen, Karen; Bashey, Asad; To, L. Bik; Bredeson, Christopher N.; Cairo, Mitchell S.; Elfenbein, Gerald J.; Freytes, Csar O.; Gale, Robert Peter; Gibson, John; Kyle, Robert A.; Lacy, Martha Q.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; McCarthy, Philip L.; Milone, Gustavo A.; Moreb, Jan S.; Pavlovsky, Santiago; Reece, Donna E.; Vesole, David H.; Wiernik, Peter H.; Hari, Parameswaran

    2008-01-01

    Non-secretory myeloma (NSM) accounts for <5% of cases of multiple myeloma (MM). The outcome of these patients following autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) has not been evaluated in clinical trials. We compared the outcomes after ASCT for patients with NSM reported to the CIBMTR between 1989 and 2003, to a matched group of 438 patients (4 controls for each patient) with secretory myeloma (SM). The patients were matched using propensity scores calculated using age, Durie-Salmon stage, sensitivity to pre-transplant therapy, time from diagnosis to transplant and year of transplant. Disease characteristics were similar in both groups at diagnosis and at transplant except higher risk of anemia, hypoalbuminemia and marrow plasmacytosis (in SM) and plasmacytoma (more in NSM). Cumulative incidence of TRM, relapse, PFS and OS were similar between the groups. In multivariate analysis, based on a Cox model stratified on matched pairs and adjusted for covariates not considered in the propensity score, we found no difference in outcome between the NSM and SM groups. In this large cohort of patients undergoing ASCT, we found no difference in outcomes of patients with NSM compared to those with SM. PMID:18804043

  7. Pancreatic β-Cell Adaptive Plasticity in Obesity Increases Insulin Production but Adversely Affects Secretory Function.

    PubMed

    Alarcon, Cristina; Boland, Brandon B; Uchizono, Yuji; Moore, Patrick C; Peterson, Bryan; Rajan, Suryalekha; Rhodes, Olivia S; Noske, Andrew B; Haataja, Leena; Arvan, Peter; Marsh, Bradly J; Austin, Jotham; Rhodes, Christopher J

    2016-02-01

    Pancreatic β-cells normally produce adequate insulin to control glucose homeostasis, but in obesity-related diabetes, there is a presumed deficit in insulin production and secretory capacity. In this study, insulin production was assessed directly in obese diabetic mouse models, and proinsulin biosynthesis was found to be contrastingly increased, coupled with a significant expansion of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (without endoplasmic reticulum stress) and Golgi apparatus, increased vesicular trafficking, and a depletion of mature β-granules. As such, β-cells have a remarkable capacity to produce substantial quantities of insulin in obesity, which are then made available for immediate secretion to meet increased metabolic demand, but this comes at the price of insulin secretory dysfunction. Notwithstanding, it can be restored. Upon exposing isolated pancreatic islets of obese mice to normal glucose concentrations, β-cells revert back to their typical morphology with restoration of regulated insulin secretion. These data demonstrate an unrealized dynamic adaptive plasticity of pancreatic β-cells and underscore the rationale for transient β-cell rest as a treatment strategy for obesity-linked diabetes. PMID:26307586

  8. Selective defect in myeloid cell lactoferrin gene expression in neutrophil specific granule deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Lomax, K J; Gallin, J I; Rotrosen, D; Raphael, G D; Kaliner, M A; Benz, E J; Boxer, L A; Malech, H L

    1989-01-01

    Neutrophil specific granule deficiency (SGD) is a congenital disorder associated with an impaired inflammatory response and a deficiency of several granule proteins. The underlying abnormality causing the deficiencies is unknown. We examined mRNA transcription and protein synthesis of two neutrophil granule proteins, lactoferrin and myeloperoxidase in SGD. Metabolically labeled SGD nucleated marrow cells produced normal amounts of myeloperoxidase, but there was no detectable synthesis of lactoferrin. Transcripts of the expected size for lactoferrin were detectable in the nucleated marrow cells of two SGD patients, but were markedly diminished in abundance when compared with normal nucleated marrow cell RNA. Because lactoferrin is secreted by the glandular epithelia of several tissues, we also assessed lactoferrin in the nasal secretions of one SGD patient by ELISA and immunoblotting. Nasal secretory lactoferrin was the same molecular weight as neutrophil lactoferrin and was secreted in normal amounts. From these data, we conclude that lactoferrin deficiency in SGD neutrophils is tissue specific and is secondary to an abnormality of RNA production. We speculate that the deficiency of several granule proteins is due to a common defect in regulation of transcription that is responsible for the abnormal myeloid differentiation seen in SGD patients. Images PMID:2536400

  9. Evidence for recognition of novel islet T cell antigens by granule-specific T cell lines from new onset type 1 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Tree, T I M; O'Byrne, D; Tremble, J M; Macfarlane, W M; Haskins, K; James, R F L; Docherty, K; Hutton, J C; Banga, J P

    2000-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease where a number of islet ?-cell target autoantigens have been characterized on the basis of reactivity with autoantibodies. Nevertheless, there remains uncertainty of the nature of another group of autoantigens associated with the secretory granule fraction of islet ?-cells that appear to be targeted predominantly by autoreactive T cells. We have previously characterized CD4+, HLA-DR-restricted T cell lines from new onset type 1 diabetic patients that are specific for the secretory granule fraction of rat tumour insulinoma, RIN. The T cell line from the first patient, HS, proliferates in response to crude microsomal membranes prepared from a recently established, pure human islet ?-cell line NES2Y. In addition, the HS line also responds to secretory granule fractions prepared from a murine tumour insulinoma grown in RIP-Tag mice, showing the recognition of species-conserved antigen(s) in ?-cells. Using partially matched antigen-presenting cells, the HS T cells and another line derived from a second patient, MR, were shown to be restricted by disease-associated DRB1*0101 and DRB1*0404 alleles, respectively. Neither the HS or MR T cell lines proliferate in response to a large panel of candidate islet cell antigens, including insulin, proinsulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, the protein tyrosine phosphatase IA-2/phogrin, imogen-38, ICA69 or hsp60. Our data provide compelling evidence of the presence of a group of antigens associated with the secretory granule fraction of islet ?-cells recognized by the T cell lines, whose definition may contribute to our knowledge of disease induction as well as to diagnosis. PMID:10886245

  10. Secretory and basal cells of the epithelium of the tubular glands in the male Mullerian gland of the caecilian Uraeotyphlus narayani (Amphibia: Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    George, Jancy M; Smita, Matthew; Kadalmani, Balamuthu; Girija, Ramankutty; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2004-12-01

    Caecilians are exceptional among the vertebrates in that males retain the Mullerian duct as a functional glandular structure. The Mullerian gland on each side is formed from a large number of tubular glands connecting to a central duct, which either connects to the urogenital duct or opens directly into the cloaca. The Mullerian gland is believed to secrete a substance to be added to the sperm during ejaculation. Thus, the Mullerian gland could function as a male accessory reproductive gland. Recently, we described the male Mullerian gland of Uraeotyphlus narayani using light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and histochemistry. The present TEM study reports that the secretory cells of both the tubular and basal portions of the tubular glands of the male Mullerian gland of this caecilian produce secretion granules in the same manner as do other glandular epithelial cells. The secretion granules are released in the form of structured granules into the lumen of the tubular glands, and such granules are traceable to the lumen of the central duct of the Mullerian gland. This is comparable to the situation prevailing in the epididymal epithelium of several reptiles. In the secretory cells of the basal portion of the tubular glands, mitochondria are intimately associated with fabrication of the secretion granules. The structural and functional organization of the epithelium of the basal portion of the tubular glands is complicated by the presence of basal cells. This study suggests the origin of the basal cells from peritubular tissue leukocytes. The study also indicates a role for the basal cells in acquiring secretion granules from the neighboring secretory cells and processing them into lipofuscin material in the context of regression of the Mullerian gland during the period of reproductive quiescence. In these respects the basal cells match those in the epithelial lining of the epididymis of amniotes. PMID:15487004

  11. Unremitting Cell Proliferation in the Secretory Phase of Eutopic Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Franco-Murillo, Yanira; Miranda-Rodríguez, José Antonio; Rendón-Huerta, Erika; Montaño, Luis F.; Cornejo, Gerardo Velázquez; Gómez, Lucila Poblano; Valdez-Morales, Francisco Javier; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Endometriosis is linked to altered cell proliferation and stem cell markers c-kit/stem cell factor (SCF) in ectopic endometrium. Our aim was to investigate whether c-kit/SCF also plays a role in eutopic endometrium. Design: Eutopic endometrium obtained from 35 women with endometriosis and 25 fertile eumenorrheic women was analyzed for in situ expression of SCF/c-kit, Ki67, RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase (Akt), phosphorylated RAC-alpha serine/threonin-protein kinase (pAkt), Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β), and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (pGSK3β), throughout the menstrual cycle. Results: Expression of Ki67 and SCF was higher in endometriosis than in control tissue (P < .05) and greater in secretory rather than proliferative (P < .01) endometrium in endometriosis. Expression of c-kit was also higher in endometriosis although similar in both phases. Expression of Akt and GSK3β was identical in all samples and cycle phases, whereas pAkt and pGSK3β, opposed to control tissue, remained overexpressed in the secretory phase in endometriosis. Conclusion: Unceasing cell proliferation in the secretory phase of eutopic endometriosis is linked to deregulation of c-kit/SCF-associated signaling pathways. PMID:25194152

  12. Approaches to imaging unfolded secretory protein stress in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Lajoie, Patrick; Fazio, Elena N.; Snapp, Erik L.

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the point of entry of proteins into the secretory pathway. Nascent peptides interact with the ER quality control machinery that ensures correct folding of the nascent proteins. Failure to properly fold proteins can lead to loss of protein function and cytotoxic aggregation of misfolded proteins that can lead to cell death. To cope with increases in the ER unfolded secretory protein burden, cells have evolved the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). The UPR is the primary signaling pathway that monitors the state of the ER folding environment. When the unfolded protein burden overwhelms the capacity of the ER quality control machinery, a state termed ER stress, sensor proteins detect accumulation of misfolded peptides and trigger the UPR transcriptional response. The UPR, which is conserved from yeast to mammals, consists of an ensemble of complex signaling pathways that aims at adapting the ER to the new misfolded protein load. To determine how different factors impact the ER folding environment, various tools and assays have been developed. In this review, we discuss recent advances in live cell imaging reporters and model systems that enable researchers to monitor changes in the unfolded secretory protein burden and activation of the UPR and its associated signaling pathways. PMID:25419521

  13. Patterns of dentate granule cell responses to perforant path stimulation in epileptic mice with granule cell dispersion.

    PubMed

    Rougier, A; Arthaud, S; Zombre, N; La Salle, G Le Gal

    2005-02-01

    In adult mice, intrahippocampal administration of kainic acid induces a structural modification of the granule cell layer reminiscent of granule cell dispersion (GCD) seen in humans with temporal lobe epilepsy. We tested that GCD might be involved in the patterns of granule cell responses to perforant path stimulation by recording field potentials in vivo after kainic acid-induced status epilepticus until the phase of chronic seizure activity in presence of GCD or after its alteration by K252a co-treatment, an inhibitor of tyrosine kinase activities. Stimulation triggered bursts of multiple population spikes, the number of which progressively increased with time whereas their amplitude decreased in parallel with the progressive decrease in granule cell density. The population spike threshold was reached for a lower excitatory synaptic drive than in controls, as assessed by the initial slope of the field excitatory post-synaptic potential. This indicates that, for identical synaptic responses, granule cells were closer to the firing threshold. Fast inhibition, assessed by paired pulse stimulation, was compromised immediately after the initial status epilepticus, consistent with the rapid loss of most hilar cells. Neither the epileptic course nor the epileptiform responses of the granule cells were modified and manipulation by alteration following GCD manipulation while granule cell neuropeptide-Y immunostaining was substantially decreased. In this mouse model of TLE, granule cells display a progressive increase in epileptiform responses to afferent input until the occurrence of spontaneous seizures. The population spike amplitude decreases in parallel with GCD while the granule cell excitability is enhanced. Consequently, data from field potentials in epilepsy experiments should be interpreted with care, taking into account the possible variations in the neuronal density in the recorded area. PMID:15777666

  14. Multimodal sensory integration in single cerebellar granule cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Taro; Shimuta, Misa; Häusser, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian cerebellum is a highly multimodal structure, receiving inputs from multiple sensory modalities and integrating them during complex sensorimotor coordination tasks. Previously, using cell-type-specific anatomical projection mapping, it was shown that multimodal pathways converge onto individual cerebellar granule cells (Huang et al., 2013). Here we directly measure synaptic currents using in vivo patch-clamp recordings and confirm that a subset of single granule cells receive convergent functional multimodal (somatosensory, auditory, and visual) inputs via separate mossy fibers. Furthermore, we show that the integration of multimodal signals by granule cells can enhance action potential output. These recordings directly demonstrate functional convergence of multimodal signals onto single granule cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12916.001 PMID:26714108

  15. UNUSUAL EOSINOPHILIC GRANULE CELL PROLIFERATION IN COHO SALMON (ONCHORHYNCHUS KISUTCH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proliferative lesions comprised of eosinophilic granule cells (EGCs) extended throughout the gastrointestinal tract of several mature, spawning coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum). istological examination of the tumour showed extensive proliferation and infiltration of EGC...

  16. Young dentate granule cells mediate pattern separation, whereas old granule cells facilitate pattern completion.

    PubMed

    Nakashiba, Toshiaki; Cushman, Jesse D; Pelkey, Kenneth A; Renaudineau, Sophie; Buhl, Derek L; McHugh, Thomas J; Rodriguez Barrera, Vanessa; Chittajallu, Ramesh; Iwamoto, Keisuke S; McBain, Chris J; Fanselow, Michael S; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2012-03-30

    Adult-born granule cells (GCs), a minor population of cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, are highly active during the first few weeks after functional integration into the neuronal network, distinguishing them from less active, older adult-born GCs and the major population of dentate GCs generated developmentally. To ascertain whether young and old GCs perform distinct memory functions, we created a transgenic mouse in which output of old GCs was specifically inhibited while leaving a substantial portion of young GCs intact. These mice exhibited enhanced or normal pattern separation between similar contexts, which was reduced following ablation of young GCs. Furthermore, these mutant mice exhibited deficits in rapid pattern completion. Therefore, pattern separation requires adult-born young GCs but not old GCs, and older GCs contribute to the rapid recall by pattern completion. Our data suggest that as adult-born GCs age, their function switches from pattern separation to rapid pattern completion. PMID:22365813

  17. Inhibition of Cerebellar Granule Cell Turning by Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Kumada, Tatsuro; Komuro, Yutaro; Li, Ying; Hu, Taofang; Wang, Zhe; Littner, Yoav; Komuro, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    Ectopic neurons are often found in the brains of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) patients, suggesting that alcohol exposure impairs neuronal cell migration. Although it has been reported that alcohol decreases the speed of neuronal cell migration, little is known about whether alcohol also affects the turning of neurons. Here we show that ethanol exposure inhibits the turning of cerebellar granule cells in vivo and in vitro. First, in vivo studies using P10 mice demonstrated that a single i.p. injection of ethanol not only reduces the number of turning granule cells but also alters the mode of turning at the EGL-ML border of the cerebellum. Second, in vitro analysis using microexplant cultures of P0-P3 mouse cerebella revealed that ethanol directly reduces the frequency of spontaneous granule cell turning in a dose-dependent manner. Third, the action of ethanol on the frequency of granule cell turning was significantly ameliorated by stimulating Ca2+ and cGMP signaling or by inhibiting cAMP signaling. Taken together, these results indicate that ethanol affects the frequency and mode of cerebellar granule cell turning through alteration of the Ca2+ and cyclic nucleotide signaling pathways, suggesting that the abnormal allocation of neurons found in the brains of FASD and FSA patients results, at least in part, from impaired turning of immature neurons by alcohol. PMID:20691765

  18. Acid-induced secretory cell metaplasia in hamster bronchi

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, T.G.; Lucey, E.C.; Breuer, R.; Snider, G.L.

    1988-02-01

    Hamsters were exposed to an intratracheal instillation of 0.5 ml of 0.08 N nitric, hydrochloric, or sulfuric acid to determine their airway epithelial response. Three weeks after exposure, the left intrapulmonary bronchi in Alcian blue/PAS-strained paraffin sections were evaluated for the amount of secretory product in the airway epithelium as a measure of secretory cell metaplasia (SCM). Compared to saline-treated control animals, all three acids caused statistically significant SCM. In addition to the bronchial lesion, all three acids caused similar interstitial fibrosis, bronchiolectasis, and bronchiolization of alveoli that varied in individual animals from mild to severe. In a separate experiment to study the persistence of the SCM, hamsters treated with a single instillation of 0.1 N nitric acid showed significant SCM 3, 7, and 17 weeks after exposure. There was a high correlation (r = 0.96) between a subjective assessment of SCM and objective assessment using a digital image-analysis system. We conclude that protons induce SCM independently of the associated anion; the SCM persists at least 17 weeks. Sulfuric acid is an atmospheric pollutant and nitric acid may form locally on the mucosa of lungs exposed to nitrogen dioxide. These acids may contribute to the development of maintenance of the SCM seen in the conducting airways of humans with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  19. Carboxypeptidase E and Secretogranin III Coordinately Facilitate Efficient Sorting of Proopiomelanocortin to the Regulated Secretory Pathway in AtT20 Cells.

    PubMed

    Cawley, Niamh X; Rathod, Trushar; Young, Sigrid; Lou, Hong; Birch, Nigel; Loh, Y Peng

    2016-01-01

    Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is a multivalent prohormone that can be processed into at least 7 biologically active peptide hormones. Processing can begin in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and continues in the secretory granules of the regulated secretory pathway (RSP). Sorting of POMC into these granules is a complex process. Previously, a membrane-associated form of carboxypeptidase E (CPE) was shown to bind to POMC and facilitate its trafficking into these granules. More recently, secretogranin III (SgIII) was also found to affect POMC trafficking. Here, we show by RNA silencing that CPE and SgIII play a synergistic role in the trafficking of POMC to granules of the RSP in AtT20 cells. Reduction of either protein resulted in increased constitutive secretion of POMC and chromogranin A, which was increased even further when both proteins were reduced together, indicative of missorting at the TGN. In SgIII-reduced cells, POMC accumulated in a compartment that cofractionated and colocalized with syntaxin 6, a marker of the TGN, on sucrose density gradients and in immunocytochemistry, respectively, indicating an accumulation of this protein in the presumed sorting compartment. Regulated secretion of ACTH, as a measure of sorting and processing of POMC in mature granules, was reduced in the SgIII down-regulated cells but was increased in the CPE down-regulated cells. These results suggest that multiple sorting systems exist, providing redundancy to ensure the important task of continuous and accurate trafficking of prohormones to the granules of the RSP for the production of peptide hormones. PMID:26646096

  20. Arabidopsis seed mucilage secretory cells: regulation and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Francoz, Edith; Ranocha, Philippe; Burlat, Vincent; Dunand, Christophe

    2015-08-01

    Seeds from various angiosperm species produce polysaccharide mucilage facilitating germination and, therefore, conferring major evolutionary advantages. The seed epidermal mucilage secretory cells (MSCs) undergo numerous tightly controlled changes of their extracellular matrixes (ECMs) throughout seed development. Recently, major progress based on the model species Arabidopsis thaliana was published, including the identification of 54 genes necessary for mucilage synthesis and release. Here, we review these genes that constitute the so-called 'MSC toolbox', within which transcription factors and proteins related to polysaccharide production, secretion, modification, and stabilization are the most abundant and belong to complex regulatory networks. We also discuss how seed coat 'omics data-mining, comparative genomics, and operon-like gene cluster studies will provide means to identify new members of the MSC toolbox. PMID:25998090

  1. Fallopian tube secretory cell expansion: a sensitive biomarker for ovarian serous carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiying; Li, Li; Wang, Yue; Tang, Sarah Ngocvi; Zheng, Wenxin

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances suggest that precancerous lesions of pelvic serous carcinoma originate from tubal secretory cells. The purpose of our study was to determine if an increased number of secretory cells vary with age or location in the fallopian tube and to examine its association with serous neoplasia. Three groups (benign control, high-risk, and pelvic serous carcinoma) of age-matched patients were studied. The age data were stratified into 10-year intervals ranging from 20-29 to older than 80. The number of secretory and ciliated cells from both tubal fimbria and ampulla segments was counted by microscopy and immunohistochemical staining methods. The data were analyzed by standard contingency table and Poisson distribution methods after age justification. We found that the absolute number of tubal secretory cells increased significantly with age in all three groups. But a more dramatic increase of secretory cells was observed in high-risk and pelvic serous carcinoma patients. Secretory cell expansion is more prevalent than secretory cell outgrowth in both fimbria and ampulla tubal segments and is significantly associated with serous neoplasia (p < 0.001). Furthermore, age remained a significant risk factor for serous neoplasia after age adjustment. These findings suggest that secretory cell expansion could serve as a potential sensitive biomarker for early serous carcinogenesis within the fallopian tube. The study also supports a relationship between serous neoplasia and increased secretory to ciliated cell ratios, and the relationship between frequency of secretory cell expansion within the fallopian tube and increasing age and-more significantly-presence of high-risk factors or co-existing serous cancers. PMID:27069556

  2. Mast Cell Mediators: Their Differential Release and the Secretory Pathways Involved

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Tae Chul; Befus, A. Dean; Kulka, Marianna

    2014-01-01

    Mast cells (MC) are widely distributed throughout the body and are common at mucosal surfaces, a major host–environment interface. MC are functionally and phenotypically heterogeneous depending on the microenvironment in which they mature. Although MC have been classically viewed as effector cells of IgE-mediated allergic diseases, they are also recognized as important in host defense, innate and acquired immunity, homeostatic responses, and immunoregulation. MC activation can induce release of pre-formed mediators such as histamine from their granules, as well as release of de novo synthesized lipid mediators, cytokines, and chemokines that play diverse roles, not only in allergic reactions but also in numerous physiological and pathophysiological responses. Indeed, MC release their mediators in a discriminating and chronological manner, depending upon the stimuli involved and their signaling cascades (e.g., IgE-mediated or Toll-like receptor-mediated). However, the precise mechanisms underlying differential mediator release in response to these stimuli are poorly known. This review summarizes our knowledge of MC mediators and will focus on what is known about the discriminatory release of these mediators dependent upon diverse stimuli, MC phenotypes, and species of origin, as well as on the intracellular synthesis, storage, and secretory processes involved. PMID:25452755

  3. Leukotrienes affect secretory function of ovarian cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Korzekwa, A J; Acosta, T J; Miklewicz, M; Okuda, K; Lee, S H; Skarzynski, D J

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine which cells are the source of production and target for leukotriene (LTs) action within the bovine ovary. Luteal (CL, days 14-16 of the oestrous cycle), steroidogenic cells (LSC) and endothelial cells (LEC) of the bovine corpus luteum (CL), and granulosa cells (GC) were isolated enzymatically, cultured in a monolayer and incubated with LTC(4), LTB(4), Azelastine (an antagonist of LTC(4)) or Dapsone (an antagonist of LTB(4)). Then cells were collected for determination of mRNA expression for LT receptors (LTRs) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) by real time RT-PCR, and media were collected for determination of prostaglandin (PG)E(2), F(2α), progesterone (P4; LSC only), endothelin-1 (ET-1; LEC only) and 17-β oestradiol (E2; GC only). The greatest mRNA expression for LTR-II and 5-LO were found in LEC, whereas LTR-I mRNA expression did not differ among cell types. The level of PGE(2) increased after LTs treatment in each type of ovarian cell, excluding LTC(4) treatment in LEC. The secretion of PGF(2α) was also increased by LTs, but decreased after LTB(4) treatment of LSC. In GC cultures, both LTs stimulated E2 secretion; in LEC cultures, LTB(4) stimulated whereas LTC(4) inhibited P4 secretion; in LEC cultures, LTC(4) stimulated but LTB(4) inhibited ET-1 secretion. The results show that LTs are produced locally and are involved in PGs production/secretion in all examined cells (LSC, LEC and GC) of bovine ovary. Leukotriene treatment modulate secretion of E2, by GC, P4 by LSC and ET-1 by LEC, which indicates that LTs are involved in regulation of ovarian secretory functions. PMID:20002606

  4. Secretory autophagy.

    PubMed

    Ponpuak, Marisa; Mandell, Michael A; Kimura, Tomonori; Chauhan, Santosh; Cleyrat, Cédric; Deretic, Vojo

    2015-08-01

    Autophagy, once viewed exclusively as a cytoplasmic auto-digestive process, has its less intuitive but biologically distinct non-degradative roles. One manifestation of these functions of the autophagic machinery is the process termed secretory autophagy. Secretory autophagy facilitates unconventional secretion of the cytosolic cargo such as leaderless cytosolic proteins, which unlike proteins endowed with the leader (N-terminal signal) peptides cannot enter the conventional secretory pathway normally operating via the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. Secretory autophagy may also export more complex cytoplasmic cargo and help excrete particulate substrates. Autophagic machinery and autophagy as a process also affect conventional secretory pathways, including the constitutive and regulated secretion, as well as promote alternative routes for trafficking of integral membrane proteins to the plasma membrane. Thus, autophagy and autophagic factors are intimately intertwined at many levels with secretion and polarized sorting in eukaryotic cells. PMID:25988755

  5. Asymmetric cell division of granule neuron progenitors in the external granule layer of the mouse cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Haldipur, Parthiv; Sivaprakasam, Iswariya; Periasamy, Vinod; Govindan, Subashika; Mani, Shyamala

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The plane of division of granule neuron progenitors (GNPs) was analysed with respect to the pial surface in P0 to P14 cerebellum and the results showed that there was a significant bias towards the plane of cell division being parallel to pial surface across this developmental window. In addition, the distribution of β-Catenin in anaphase cells was analysed, which showed that there was a significant asymmetry in the distribution of β-Catenin in dividing GNPs. Further, inhibition of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signalling had an effect on plane of cell division. Asymmetric distribution of β-Catenin was shown to occur towards the source of a localized extracellular cue. PMID:25979710

  6. Impact of Chromogranin A deficiency on catecholamine storage, catecholamine granule morphology and chromaffin cell energy metabolism in vivo.

    PubMed

    Pasqua, Teresa; Mahata, Sumana; Bandyopadhyay, Gautam K; Biswas, Angshuman; Perkins, Guy A; Sinha-Hikim, Amiya P; Goldstein, David S; Eiden, Lee E; Mahata, Sushil K

    2016-03-01

    Chromogranin A (CgA) is a prohormone and granulogenic factor in neuroendocrine tissues with a regulated secretory pathway. The impact of CgA depletion on secretory granule formation has been previously demonstrated in cell culture. However, studies linking the structural effects of CgA deficiency with secretory performance and cell metabolism in the adrenomedullary chromaffin cells in vivo have not previously been reported. Adrenomedullary content of the secreted adrenal catecholamines norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI) was decreased 30-40 % in Chga-KO mice. Quantification of NE and EPI-storing dense core (DC) vesicles (DCV) revealed decreased DCV numbers in chromaffin cells in Chga-KO mice. For both cell types, the DCV diameter in Chga-KO mice was less (100-200 nm) than in WT mice (200-350 nm). The volume density of the vesicle and vesicle number was also lower in Chga-KO mice. Chga-KO mice showed an ~47 % increase in DCV/DC ratio, implying vesicle swelling due to increased osmotically active free catecholamines. Upon challenge with 2 U/kg insulin, there was a diminution in adrenomedullary EPI, no change in NE and a very large increase in the EPI and NE precursor dopamine (DA), consistent with increased catecholamine biosynthesis during prolonged secretion. We found dilated mitochondrial cristae, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex, as well as increased synaptic mitochondria, synaptic vesicles and glycogen granules in Chga-KO mice compared to WT mice, suggesting that decreased granulogenesis and catecholamine storage in CgA-deficient mouse adrenal medulla is compensated by increased VMAT-dependent catecholamine update into storage vesicles, at the expense of enhanced energy expenditure by the chromaffin cell. PMID:26572539

  7. [Primary culture of epithelial secretory cells from venom gland of the common adder Vipera berus].

    PubMed

    Golubkov, V S; Lezhnev, E I; Bezgina, E N; Moshkov, D A

    2001-01-01

    A primary culture of epithelial secretory cells from the venom gland of Vipera berus was obtained. The cells adhered to collagen 1 and to a mixture of adhesion proteins (Matrigel), proliferated and retained the features of differentiation. Electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of all ultrastructures typical of these cells in vivo, a full complex of intercellular junctions, and cellular membrane polarity. The immunohistochemistry confirmed the capacity of secretory cells to synthesize venom in culture. We have studied the role of carbochole, an agonist of M-cholinoreceptor, in the initiation of the secretory cycle in cells in vitro. We propose that M-cholinoreceptors may play an important role in the initiation of the secretory cycle in vivo. PMID:11517661

  8. Segmental identity and cerebellar granule cell induction in rhombomere 1

    PubMed Central

    Eddison, Mark; Toole, Leah; Bell, Esther; Wingate, Richard JT

    2004-01-01

    Background Cerebellar granule cell precursors are specifically generated within the hindbrain segment, rhombomere 1, which is bounded rostrally by the midbrain/hindbrain isthmus and caudally by the boundary of the Hoxa2 expression domain. While graded signals from the isthmus have a demonstrable patterning role within this region, the significance of segmental identity for neuronal specification within rhombomere 1 is unexplored. We examined the response of granule cell precursors to the overexpression of Hoxa2, which normally determines patterns of development specific to the hindbrain. How much does the development of the cerebellum, a midbrain/hindbrain structure, reflect its neuromeric origin as a hindbrain segment? Results We show that a Gbx2-positive, Otx2-/Hoxa2-negative territory corresponding to rhombomere 1 forms prior to an identifiable isthmic organiser. Early global overexpression of Hoxa2 at embryonic day 0 has no effect on the expression of isthmic signalling molecules or the allocation of rhombomere 1 territory, but selectively results in the loss of granule cell markers at embryonic day 6 and the depletion of cell bodies from the external granule cell layer. By comparison the trochlear nucleus and locus coeruleus form normally in ventral rhombomere 1 under these conditions. Microsurgery, coupled with electroporation, to target Hoxa2 overexpression to rhombic lip precursors, reveals a profound, autonomous respecification of migration. Rhombic lip derivatives, normally destined to occupy the external granule cell layer, violate the cerebellar boundary to form a ventrolateral nucleus in a position comparable to that occupied by rhombic lip derived neurons in rhombomere 2. Conclusions Different overexpression strategies reveal that the recognition of migration cues by granule cell precursors is dependent on their identity as rhombomere 1 derivatives. Segmental patterning cues operate autonomously within the rhombic lip precursor pool. By contrast, a subset of coextensive nuclei is refractory to ectopic Hoxa2 and is presumably induced solely by isthmic organiser activity. Thus, graded (isthmic) and segmental mechanisms may operate exclusively of one another in the specification of different neuronal populations within rhombomere 1. The early designation of an Otx2-negative, Hoxa2-negative region, prior to the appearance of the isthmic organiser, is a key initial step in the specification of the cerebellum. PMID:15198802

  9. Behavioral experience induces zif268 expression in mature granule cells but suppresses its expression in immature granule cells

    PubMed Central

    Huckleberry, Kylie A.; Kane, Gary A.; Mathis, Rita J.; Cook, Sarah G.; Clutton, Jonathan E.; Drew, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of neurons are born each day in the dentate gyrus (DG), but many of these cells die before reaching maturity. Both death and survival of adult-born neurons are regulated by neuronal activity in the DG. The immediate-early gene (IEG) zif268 appears to be an important mediator of these effects, as its expression can be induced by neural activity and knockout of zif268 impairs survival of adult-born neurons (Richardson et al., 1992; Veyrac et al., 2013). Despite the apparent importance of zif268 for adult neurogenesis, its behavior-induced expression has not been fully characterized in adult-born neurons. Here we characterize behavior-evoked expression of zif268 in mature and newborn dentate granule cells (DGCs). We first quantified zif268 expression in doublecortin-positive (DCX+) immature neurons and in the general granule cell population after brief exposure to a novel environment (NE). In the general granule cell population, zif268 expression peaked 1 h after NE exposure and returned to baseline by 8 h post-exposure. However, in the DCX+ cells, zif268 expression was suppressed relative to home cage for at least 8 h post-exposure. We next asked whether suppression of zif268 in DCX+ immature cells occurs in other behavioral paradigms that recruit the hippocampus. Exposure to Morris water maze (MWM) training, an enriched environment, or a NE caused approximately equal suppression of zif268 expression in DCX+ cells and approximately equal activation of zif268 expression among the general granule cell population. The same behavioral procedures activated zif268 expression in 6-week-old BrdU-labeled adult-born neurons, indicating that zif268 suppression is specific to immature neurons. Finally, we asked whether zif268 suppression varied as a function of age within the DCX+ population, which ranges in age from 0 to approximately 4 weeks. NE exposure had no significant effect on zif268 expression in 2- or 4-week-old BrdU-labeled neurons, but it significantly suppressed zif268 expression in 3-week-old neurons. In summary, behavioral experience transiently activated expression of zif268 in mature granule cells but caused a more long-lasting suppression of zif268 expression in immature, adult-born granule cells. We hypothesize that zif268 suppression inhibits memory-related synaptic plasticity in immature neurons or mediates learning-induced apoptosis of immature adult-born neurons. PMID:26347620

  10. Rapid Feedforward Inhibition and Asynchronous Excitation Regulate Granule Cell Activity in the Mammalian Main Olfactory Bulb

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Shawn D.

    2015-01-01

    Granule cell-mediated inhibition is critical to patterning principal neuron activity in the olfactory bulb, and perturbation of synaptic input to granule cells significantly alters olfactory-guided behavior. Despite the critical role of granule cells in olfaction, little is known about how sensory input recruits granule cells. Here, we combined whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology in acute mouse olfactory bulb slices with biophysical multicompartmental modeling to investigate the synaptic basis of granule cell recruitment. Physiological activation of sensory afferents within single glomeruli evoked diverse modes of granule cell activity, including subthreshold depolarization, spikelets, and suprathreshold responses with widely distributed spike latencies. The generation of these diverse activity modes depended, in part, on the asynchronous time course of synaptic excitation onto granule cells, which lasted several hundred milliseconds. In addition to asynchronous excitation, each granule cell also received synchronous feedforward inhibition. This inhibition targeted both proximal somatodendritic and distal apical dendritic domains of granule cells, was reliably recruited across sniff rhythms, and scaled in strength with excitation as more glomeruli were activated. Feedforward inhibition onto granule cells originated from deep short-axon cells, which responded to glomerular activation with highly reliable, short-latency firing consistent with tufted cell-mediated excitation. Simulations showed that feedforward inhibition interacts with asynchronous excitation to broaden granule cell spike latency distributions and significantly attenuates granule cell depolarization within local subcellular compartments. Collectively, our results thus identify feedforward inhibition onto granule cells as a core feature of olfactory bulb circuitry and establish asynchronous excitation and feedforward inhibition as critical regulators of granule cell activity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Inhibitory granule cells are involved critically in shaping odor-evoked principal neuron activity in the mammalian olfactory bulb, yet little is known about how sensory input activates granule cells. Here, we show that sensory input to the olfactory bulb evokes a barrage of asynchronous synaptic excitation and highly reliable, short-latency synaptic inhibition onto granule cells via a disynaptic feedforward inhibitory circuit involving deep short-axon cells. Feedforward inhibition attenuates local depolarization within granule cell dendritic branches, interacts with asynchronous excitation to suppress granule cell spike-timing precision, and scales in strength with excitation across different levels of sensory input to normalize granule cell firing rates. PMID:26490853

  11. Mapping Organelle Motion Reveals a Vesicular Conveyor Belt Spatially Replenishing Secretory Vesicles in Stimulated Chromaffin Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maucort, Guillaume; Kasula, Ravikiran; Papadopulos, Andreas; Nieminen, Timo A.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Meunier, Frederic A.

    2014-01-01

    How neurosecretory cells spatially adjust their secretory vesicle pools to replenish those that have fused and released their hormonal content is currently unknown. Here we designed a novel set of image analyses to map the probability of tracked organelles undergoing a specific type of movement (free, caged or directed). We then applied our analysis to time-lapse z-stack confocal imaging of secretory vesicles from bovine Chromaffin cells to map the global changes in vesicle motion and directionality occurring upon secretagogue stimulation. We report a defined region abutting the cortical actin network that actively transports secretory vesicles and is dissipated by actin and microtubule depolymerizing drugs. The directionality of this “conveyor belt” towards the cell surface is activated by stimulation. Actin and microtubule networks therefore cooperatively probe the microenvironment to transport secretory vesicles to the periphery, providing a mechanism whereby cells globally adjust their vesicle pools in response to secretagogue stimulation. PMID:24489879

  12. Mapping organelle motion reveals a vesicular conveyor belt spatially replenishing secretory vesicles in stimulated chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Maucort, Guillaume; Kasula, Ravikiran; Papadopulos, Andreas; Nieminen, Timo A; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Meunier, Frederic A

    2014-01-01

    How neurosecretory cells spatially adjust their secretory vesicle pools to replenish those that have fused and released their hormonal content is currently unknown. Here we designed a novel set of image analyses to map the probability of tracked organelles undergoing a specific type of movement (free, caged or directed). We then applied our analysis to time-lapse z-stack confocal imaging of secretory vesicles from bovine Chromaffin cells to map the global changes in vesicle motion and directionality occurring upon secretagogue stimulation. We report a defined region abutting the cortical actin network that actively transports secretory vesicles and is dissipated by actin and microtubule depolymerizing drugs. The directionality of this "conveyor belt" towards the cell surface is activated by stimulation. Actin and microtubule networks therefore cooperatively probe the microenvironment to transport secretory vesicles to the periphery, providing a mechanism whereby cells globally adjust their vesicle pools in response to secretagogue stimulation. PMID:24489879

  13. The use of lectins as markers for differentiated secretory cells in planarians.

    PubMed

    Zayas, Ricardo M; Cebrià, Francesc; Guo, Tingxia; Feng, Junjie; Newmark, Phillip A

    2010-11-01

    Freshwater planarians have reemerged as excellent models to investigate mechanisms underlying regeneration. The introduction of molecular tools has facilitated the study of planarians, but cell- and tissue-specific markers are still needed to examine differentiation of most cell types. Here we report the utility of fluorescent lectin-conjugates to label tissues in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. We show that 16 lectin-conjugates stain planarian cells or tissues; 13 primarily label the secretory cells, their cytoplasmic projections, and terminal pores. Thus, we examined regeneration of the secretory system using lectin markers and functionally characterized two genes expressed in the secretory cells: marginal adhesive gland-1 (mag-1) and Smed-reticulocalbin1 (Smed-rcn1). RNAi knockdown of these genes caused a dramatic reduction of secretory cell lectin staining, suggesting a role for mag-1 and Smed-rcn1 in secretory cell differentiation. Our results provide new insights into planarian secretory system regeneration and add new markers for labeling several planarian tissues. PMID:20865784

  14. FIB/SEM cell sectioning for intracellular metal granules characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Marziale; Brundu, Claudia; Santisi, Grazia; Savoia, Claudio; Tatti, Francesco

    2009-05-01

    Focused Ion Beams (FIBs) provide a cross-sectioning tool for submicron dissection of cells and subcellular structures. In combination with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), FIB provides complementary morphological information, that can be further completed by EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy). This study focus onto intracellular microstructures, particularly onto metal granules (typically Zn, Cu and Fe) and on the possibility of sectioning digestive gland cells of the terrestrial isopod P. scaber making the granules available for a compositional analysis with EDX. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of metal granules size, amount and distribution are performed. Information is made available of the cellular storing pattern and, indirectly, metal metabolism. The extension to human level is of utmost interest since some pathologies of relevance are metal related. Apart from the common metal-overload-diseases (hereditary hemochromatosis, Wilson's and Menkes disease) it has been demonstrated that metal in excess can influence carcinogenesis in liver, kidney and breast. Therefore protocols will be established for the observation of mammal cells to improve our knowledge about the intracellular metal amount and distribution both in healthy cells and in those affected by primary or secondary metal overload or depletion.

  15. Control of cerebellar granule cell output by sensory-evoked Golgi cell inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Duguid, Ian; Branco, Tiago; Chadderton, Paul; Arlt, Charlotte; Powell, Kate; Häusser, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Classical feed-forward inhibition involves an excitation–inhibition sequence that enhances the temporal precision of neuronal responses by narrowing the window for synaptic integration. In the input layer of the cerebellum, feed-forward inhibition is thought to preserve the temporal fidelity of granule cell spikes during mossy fiber stimulation. Although this classical feed-forward inhibitory circuit has been demonstrated in vitro, the extent to which inhibition shapes granule cell sensory responses in vivo remains unresolved. Here we combined whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in vivo and dynamic clamp recordings in vitro to directly assess the impact of Golgi cell inhibition on sensory information transmission in the granule cell layer of the cerebellum. We show that the majority of granule cells in Crus II of the cerebrocerebellum receive sensory-evoked phasic and spillover inhibition prior to mossy fiber excitation. This preceding inhibition reduces granule cell excitability and sensory-evoked spike precision, but enhances sensory response reproducibility across the granule cell population. Our findings suggest that neighboring granule cells and Golgi cells can receive segregated and functionally distinct mossy fiber inputs, enabling Golgi cells to regulate the size and reproducibility of sensory responses. PMID:26432880

  16. Astrocytes as secretory cells of the central nervous system: idiosyncrasies of vesicular secretion.

    PubMed

    Verkhratsky, Alexei; Matteoli, Michela; Parpura, Vladimir; Mothet, Jean-Pierre; Zorec, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Astrocytes are housekeepers of the central nervous system (CNS) and are important for CNS development, homeostasis and defence. They communicate with neurones and other glial cells through the release of signalling molecules. Astrocytes secrete a wide array of classic neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and hormones, as well as metabolic, trophic and plastic factors, all of which contribute to the gliocrine system. The release of neuroactive substances from astrocytes occurs through several distinct pathways that include diffusion through plasmalemmal channels, translocation by multiple transporters and regulated exocytosis. As in other eukaryotic cells, exocytotic secretion from astrocytes involves divergent secretory organelles (synaptic-like microvesicles, dense-core vesicles, lysosomes, exosomes and ectosomes), which differ in size, origin, cargo, membrane composition, dynamics and functions. In this review, we summarize the features and functions of secretory organelles in astrocytes. We focus on the biogenesis and trafficking of secretory organelles and on the regulation of the exocytotic secretory system in the context of healthy and diseased astrocytes. PMID:26758544

  17. Disinhibition of olfactory bulb granule cells accelerates odour discrimination in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Daniel; Kuner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Granule cells are the dominant cell type of the olfactory bulb inhibiting mitral and tufted cells via dendrodendritic synapses; yet the factors regulating the strength of their inhibitory output, and, therefore, their impact on odour discrimination, remain unknown. Here we show that GABAAR β3-subunits are distributed in a somatodendritic pattern, mostly sparing the large granule cell spines also known as gemmules. Granule cell-selective deletion of β3-subunits nearly abolishes spontaneous and muscimol-induced currents mediated by GABAA receptors in granule cells, yet recurrent inhibition of mitral cells is strongly enhanced. Mice with disinhibited granule cells require less time to discriminate both dissimilar as well as highly similar odourants, while discrimination learning remains unaffected. Hence, granule cells are controlled by an inhibitory drive that in turn tunes mitral cell inhibition. As a consequence, the olfactory bulb inhibitory network adjusts the speed of early sensory processing. PMID:26592770

  18. Disinhibition of olfactory bulb granule cells accelerates odour discrimination in mice.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Daniel; Kuner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Granule cells are the dominant cell type of the olfactory bulb inhibiting mitral and tufted cells via dendrodendritic synapses; yet the factors regulating the strength of their inhibitory output, and, therefore, their impact on odour discrimination, remain unknown. Here we show that GABAAR β3-subunits are distributed in a somatodendritic pattern, mostly sparing the large granule cell spines also known as gemmules. Granule cell-selective deletion of β3-subunits nearly abolishes spontaneous and muscimol-induced currents mediated by GABAA receptors in granule cells, yet recurrent inhibition of mitral cells is strongly enhanced. Mice with disinhibited granule cells require less time to discriminate both dissimilar as well as highly similar odourants, while discrimination learning remains unaffected. Hence, granule cells are controlled by an inhibitory drive that in turn tunes mitral cell inhibition. As a consequence, the olfactory bulb inhibitory network adjusts the speed of early sensory processing. PMID:26592770

  19. Rab27b regulates exocytosis of secretory vesicles in acinar epithelial cells from the lacrimal gland

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Lilian; Ngo, Julie; Schechter, Joel E.; Karvar, Serhan; Tolmachova, Tanya; Seabra, Miguel C.; Hume, Alistair N.

    2011-01-01

    Tear proteins are supplied by the regulated fusion of secretory vesicles at the apical surface of lacrimal gland acinar cells, utilizing trafficking mechanisms largely yet uncharacterized. We investigated the role of Rab27b in the terminal release of these secretory vesicles. Confocal fluorescence microscopy analysis of primary cultured rabbit lacrimal gland acinar cells revealed that Rab27b was enriched on the membrane of large subapical vesicles that were significantly colocalized with Rab3D and Myosin 5C. Stimulation of cultured acinar cells with the secretagogue carbachol resulted in apical fusion of these secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane. Evaluation of morphological changes by transmission electron microscopy of lacrimal glands from Rab27b−/− and Rab27ash/ash/Rab27b−/− mice, but not ashen mice deficient in Rab27a, showed changes in abundance and organization of secretory vesicles, further confirming a role for this protein in secretory vesicle exocytosis. Glands lacking Rab27b also showed increased lysosomes, damaged mitochondria, and autophagosome-like organelles. In vitro, expression of constitutively active Rab27b increased the average size but retained the subapical distribution of Rab27b-enriched secretory vesicles, whereas dominant-negative Rab27b redistributed this protein from membrane to the cytoplasm. Functional studies measuring release of a cotransduced secretory protein, syncollin-GFP, showed that constitutively active Rab27b enhanced, whereas dominant-negative Rab27b suppressed, stimulated release. Disruption of actin filaments inhibited vesicle fusion to the apical membrane but did not disrupt homotypic fusion. These data show that Rab27b participates in aspects of lacrimal gland acinar cell secretory vesicle formation and release. PMID:21525430

  20. Cryopreservation of granule cells from the postnatal rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Junya; Yamada, Ryuji X; Muramatsu, Rieko; Ikegaya, Yuji; Matsuki, Norio; Koyama, Ryuta

    2007-08-01

    Although primary cultures of neurons are essential methods for cell biological and pharmacological researches, many animals must be sacrificed for each experiment. Here we introduce a novel system to cryopreserve hippocampal granule cells (GCs) prepared from postnatal rats. Being thawed after as long as 60 days of cryopreservation, GCs expressed the mature neuronal marker MAP-2 and elongated single tau-1-positive axons and multiple tau-1-negative dendrites. These properties closely resembled intact GCs in primary cultures, providing the advantage of being able to repeatedly prepare stable cultures with a single sacrifice of animals. PMID:17675794

  1. Secretory process in Brunner's glands during recovery from stimulation with a single dose of pilocarpine

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.A.; Flickinger, C.J.

    1983-07-01

    The secretory pathway and kinetics of the secretory process were studied in Brunner's glands of mice after stimulation of secretion with a parasympathomimetic drug. Adult male mice were injected with pilocarpine. The animals were subsequently administered an intravenous injection of /sup 3/H-threonine, and tissue was prepared for electron microscope autoradiography at intervals ranging from 5 minutes to 2 hours after injection of the radioactive precursor. Stimulation with pilocarpine resulted in discharge of secretory granules, which was reflected in a significantly lower percentage of the cell volume occupied by granules. In both control and stimulated mice, at 5 minutes after injection of /sup 3/H-threonine, the highest percentage of silver grains was found over the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The proportion of silver grains over the rough endoplasmic reticulum declined at later intervals, and a peak of labeling was observed over the Golgi apparatus at 1 hour. Labeling of the secretory granules increased in the 1- and 2-hour samples from both control and stimulated mice, although the relative concentration of radioactivity in both Golgi-associated and apical secretory granules was greater in stimulated than control glands at 1 hour. The results suggest that the secretory protein produced by Brunner's glands was synthesized by the rough endoplasmic reticulum and transported to the Golgi apparatus where secretory granules were formed in both stimulated and control glands. Depletion of secretory granules by prior stimulation resulted in no change in the kinetics of arrival of radioactivity in the cell organelles involved in the secretory process. However, the drainage of the radioactive label from the rough endoplasmic reticulum was significantly slower in the stimulated glands than in the controls.

  2. Proteomics of Dense Core Secretory Vesicles Reveal Distinct Protein Categories for Secretion of Neuroeffectors for Cell-Cell Communication

    PubMed Central

    Wegrzyn, Jill L.; Bark, Steven J.; Funkelstein, Lydiane; Mosier, Charles; Yap, Angel; Kazemi-Esfarjani, Parasa; La Spada, Albert; Sigurdson, Christina; O’Connor, Daniel T.; Hook, Vivian

    2010-01-01

    Regulated secretion of neurotransmitters and neurohumoural factors from dense core secretory vesicles provides essential neuroeffectors for cell-cell communication in the nervous and endocrine systems. This study provides comprehensive proteomic characterization of the categories of proteins in chromaffin dense core secretory vesicles that participate in cell-cell communication from the adrenal medulla. Proteomic studies were conducted by nano-HPLC Chip MS/MS tandem mass spectrometry. Results demonstrate that these secretory vesicles contain proteins of distinct functional categories consisting of neuropeptides and neurohumoural factors, protease systems, neurotransmitter enzymes and transporters, receptors, enzymes for biochemical processes, reduction/oxidation regulation, ATPases, protein folding, lipid biochemistry, signal transduction, exocytosis, calcium regulation, as well as structural and cell adhesion proteins. The secretory vesicle proteomic data identified 371 distinct proteins in the soluble fraction and 384 distinct membrane proteins, for a total of 686 distinct secretory vesicle proteins. Notably, these proteomic analyses illustrate the presence of several neurological disease-related proteins in these secretory vesicles, including huntingtin interacting protein, cystatin C, ataxin 7, and prion protein. Overall, these findings demonstrate that multiple protein categories participate in dense core secretory vesicles for production, storage, and secretion of bioactive neuroeffectors for cell-cell communication in health and disease. PMID:20695487

  3. Phospholipase C γ1 regulates early secretory trafficking and cell migration via interaction with p115

    PubMed Central

    Millarte, Valentina; Boncompain, Gaelle; Tillmann, Kerstin; Perez, Franck; Sztul, Elizabeth; Farhan, Hesso

    2015-01-01

    The role of early secretory trafficking in the regulation of cell motility remains incompletely understood. Here we used a small interfering RNA screen to monitor the effects on structure of the Golgi apparatus and cell migration. Two major Golgi phenotypes were observed—fragmented and small Golgi. The latter exhibited a stronger correlation with a defect in cell migration. Among the small Golgi hits, we focused on phospholipase C γ1 (PLCγ1). We show that PLCγ1 regulates Golgi structure and cell migration independently of its catalytic activity but in a manner that depends on interaction with the tethering protein p115. PLCγ1 regulates the dynamics of p115 in the early secretory pathway, thereby controlling trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi. Our results uncover a new function of PLCγ1 that is independent of its catalytic function and link early secretory trafficking to the regulation of cell migration. PMID:25904324

  4. Control over the morphology and segregation of Zebrafish germ cell granules during embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Markus J; Mackenzie, Natalia C; Dumstrei, Karin; Nakkrasae, La-Iad; Stebler, Jürg; Raz, Erez

    2008-01-01

    Background Zebrafish germ cells contain granular-like structures, organized around the cell nucleus. These structures share common features with polar granules in Drosophila, germinal granules in Xenopus and chromatoid bodies in mice germ cells, such as the localization of the zebrafish Vasa, Piwi and Nanos proteins, among others. Little is known about the structure of these granules as well as their segregation in mitosis during early germ-cell development. Results Using transgenic fish expressing a fluorescently labeled novel component of Zebrafish germ cell granules termed Granulito, we followed the morphology and distribution of the granules. We show that whereas these granules initially exhibit a wide size variation, by the end of the first day of development they become a homogeneous population of medium size granules. We investigated this resizing event and demonstrated the role of microtubules and the minus-end microtubule dependent motor protein Dynein in the process. Last, we show that the function of the germ cell granule resident protein the Tudor domain containing protein-7 (Tdrd7) is required for determination of granule morphology and number. Conclusion Our results suggest that Zebrafish germ cell granules undergo a transformation process, which involves germ cell specific proteins as well as the microtubular network. PMID:18507824

  5. Dentate granule cells form hilar basal dendrites in a rat model of hypoxia-ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Cintra, Sofia; Xue, Baogang; Spigelman, Igor; Van, K.; Wong, Alan M.; Obenaus, Andre; Ribak, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    Hilar basal dendrites form on dentate granule cells following seizures. To determine whether other brain insults cause the formation of hilar basal dendrites, a model of global cerebral hypoxia/ischemia was used. Rats underwent a transient induction of ischemia by occlusion of both common carotid arteries followed by reperfusion. Hippocampal slices were prepared from these animals 1 month after the ischemic insult, and granule cells were labeled with a retrograde tracing technique after biocytin injections into stratum lucidum of CA3b. Ischemic rats had numerous biocytin-labeled granule cells with hilar basal dendrites located at the hilar border of the granule cell layer. Quantitative analysis of ischemic rats compared to controls showed a significant increase in the percentage of biocytin-labeled granule cells with hilar basal dendrites. These data demonstrate that other brain insults in addition to epilepsy may result in the formation of hilar basal dendrites on granule cells. PMID:19539612

  6. LKB1 Regulates Cerebellar Development by Controlling Sonic Hedgehog-mediated Granule Cell Precursor Proliferation and Granule Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Men, Yuqin; Zhang, Aizhen; Li, Haixiang; Jin, Yecheng; Sun, Xiaoyang; Li, Huashun; Gao, Jiangang

    2015-01-01

    The Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1) gene plays crucial roles in cell differentiation, proliferation and the establishment of cell polarity. We created LKB1 conditional knockout mice (LKB1Atoh1 CKO) to investigate the function of LKB1 in cerebellar development. The LKB1Atoh1 CKO mice displayed motor dysfunction. In the LKB1Atoh1 CKO cerebellum, the overall structure had a larger volume and morelobules. LKB1 inactivationled to an increased proliferation of granule cell precursors (GCPs), aberrant granule cell migration and overproduction of unipolar brush cells. To investigate the mechanism underlying the abnormal foliation, we examined sonic hedgehog signalling (Shh) by testing its transcriptional mediators, the Gli proteins, which regulate the GCPs proliferation and cerebellar foliation during cerebellar development. The expression levels of Gli genes were significantly increased in the mutant cerebellum. In vitro assays showed that the proliferation of cultured GCPs from mutant cerebellum significantly increased, whereas the proliferation of mutant GCPs significantly decreased in the presence of a Shh inhibitor GDC-0049. Thus, LKB1 deficiency in the LKB1Atoh1 CKO mice enhanced Shh signalling, leading to the excessive GCP proliferation and the formation of extra lobules. We proposed that LKB1 regulates cerebellar development by controlling GCPs proliferation through Shh signalling during cerebellar development. PMID:26549569

  7. A Mobile Secretory Vesicle Cluster Involved in Mass Transport from the Golgi to the Plant Cell Exterior[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Toyooka, Kiminori; Goto, Yumi; Asatsuma, Satoru; Koizumi, Masato; Mitsui, Toshiaki; Matsuoka, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Secretory proteins and extracellular glycans are transported to the extracellular space during cell growth. These materials are carried in secretory vesicles generated at the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Analysis of the mammalian post-Golgi secretory pathway demonstrated the movement of separated secretory vesicles in the cell. Using secretory carrier membrane protein 2 (SCAMP2) as a marker for secretory vesicles and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cell as a model cell, we characterized the transport machinery in plant cells. A combination of analyses, including electron microscopy of quick-frozen cells and four-dimensional analysis of cells expressing fluorescent-tagged SCAMP2, enabled the identification of a clustered structure of secretory vesicles generated from TGN that moves in the cell and eventually fuses with plasma membrane. This structure was termed the secretory vesicle cluster (SVC). The SVC was also found in Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa) cells and moved to the cell plate in dividing tobacco cells. Thus, the SVC is a motile structure involved in mass transport from the Golgi to the plasma membrane and cell plate in plant cells. PMID:19376937

  8. Competitive Interactions of Cancer Cells and Normal Cells via Secretory MicroRNAs*

    PubMed Central

    Kosaka, Nobuyoshi; Iguchi, Haruhisa; Yoshioka, Yusuke; Hagiwara, Keitaro; Takeshita, Fumitaka; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    Normal epithelial cells regulate the secretion of autocrine and paracrine factors that prevent aberrant growth of neighboring cells, leading to healthy development and normal metabolism. One reason for tumor initiation is considered to be a failure of this homeostatic cell competitive system. Here we identify tumor-suppressive microRNAs (miRNAs) secreted by normal cells as anti-proliferative signal entities. Culture supernatant of normal epithelial prostate PNT-2 cells attenuated proliferation of PC-3M-luc cells, prostate cancer cells. Global analysis of miRNA expression signature revealed that a variety of tumor-suppressive miRNAs are released from PNT-2 cells. Of these miRNAs, secretory miR-143 could induce growth inhibition exclusively in cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that secretory tumor-suppressive miRNAs can act as a death signal in a cell competitive process. This study provides a novel insight into a tumor initiation mechanism. PMID:22123823

  9. Loss of Sonic Hedgehog Leads to Alterations in Intestinal Secretory Cell Maturation and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Gagné-Sansfaçon, Jessica; Allaire, Joannie M.; Jones, Christine; Boudreau, François; Perreault, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Background Intestinal epithelial cells express the Sonic and Indian hedgehog ligands. Despite the strong interest in gut hedgehog signaling in GI diseases, no studies have specifically addressed the singular role of intestinal epithelial cell Sonic hedgehog signaling. The aim of this study was to investigate the specific role of Sonic hedgehog in adult ileal epithelial homeostasis. Methodology/Principal Findings A Sonic hedgehog intestinal epithelial conditional knockout mouse model was generated. Assessment of ileal histological abnormalities, crypt epithelial cell proliferation, epithelial cell fate, junctional proteins, signaling pathways, as well as ultrastructural analysis of intracellular organelles were performed in control and mutant mice. Mice lacking intestinal epithelial Sonic Hedgehog displayed decreased ileal crypt/villus length, decreased crypt proliferation as well as a decrease in the number of ileal mucin-secreting goblet cells and antimicrobial peptide-secreting Paneth cells during adult life. These secretory cells also exhibited disruption of their secretory products in mutant mice. Ultrastructural microscopy analysis revealed a dilated ER lumen in secretory cells. This phenotype was also associated with a decrease in autophagy. Conclusions/Significance Altogether, these findings indicate that the loss of Sonic hedgehog can lead to ileal secretory cell modifications indicative of endoplasmic reticulum stress, accompanied by a significant reduction in autophagy. PMID:24887421

  10. Differentiation of Apical and Basal Dendrites in Pyramidal Cells and Granule Cells in Dissociated Hippocampal Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Wu, You Kure; Fujishima, Kazuto; Kengaku, Mineko

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampal pyramidal cells and dentate granule cells develop morphologically distinct dendritic arbors, yet also share some common features. Both cell types form a long apical dendrite which extends from the apex of the cell soma, while short basal dendrites are developed only in pyramidal cells. Using quantitative morphometric analyses of mouse hippocampal cultures, we evaluated the differences in dendritic arborization patterns between pyramidal and granule cells. Furthermore, we observed and described the final apical dendrite determination during dendritic polarization by time-lapse imaging. Pyramidal and granule cells in culture exhibited similar dendritic patterns with a single principal dendrite and several minor dendrites so that the cell types were not readily distinguished by appearance. While basal dendrites in granule cells are normally degraded by adulthood in vivo, cultured granule cells retained their minor dendrites. Asymmetric growth of a single principal dendrite harboring the Golgi was observed in both cell types soon after the onset of dendritic growth. Time-lapse imaging revealed that up until the second week in culture, final principal dendrite designation was not stabilized, but was frequently replaced by other minor dendrites. Before dendritic polarity was stabilized, the Golgi moved dynamically within the soma and was repeatedly repositioned at newly emerging principal dendrites. Our results suggest that polarized growth of the apical dendrite is regulated by cell intrinsic programs, while regression of basal dendrites requires cue(s) from the extracellular environment in the dentate gyrus. The apical dendrite designation is determined from among multiple growing dendrites of young developing neurons. PMID:25705877

  11. Granuphilin exclusively mediates functional granule docking to the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Kouichi; Fujita, Takuji; Gomi, Hiroshi; Izumi, Tetsuro

    2016-01-01

    In regulated exocytosis, it is generally assumed that vesicles must stably “dock” at the plasma membrane before they are primed to become fusion-competent. However, recent biophysical analyses in living cells that visualize fluorescent secretory granules have revealed that exocytic behaviors are not necessarily uniform: some granules beneath the plasma membrane are resistant to Ca2+ -triggered release, while others are accelerated to fuse without a pause for stable docking. These findings suggest that stable docking is unnecessary, and can even be inhibitory or nonfunctional, for fusion. Consistently, pancreatic β cells deficient in the Rab27 effector, granuphilin, lack insulin granules directly attached to the plasma membrane in electron micrographs but nevertheless exhibit augmented exocytosis. Here we directly compare the exocytic behaviors between granuphilin-positive and -negative insulin granules. Although granuphilin makes granules immobile and fusion-reluctant beneath the plasma membrane, those granuphilin-positive, docked granules release a portion of granuphilin upon fusion, and fuse at a frequency and time course similar to those of granuphilin-negative undocked granules. Furthermore, granuphilin forms a 180-nm cluster at the site of each docked granule, along with granuphilin-interacting Rab27a and Munc18-1 clusters. These findings indicate that granuphilin is an exclusive component of the functional and fusion-inhibitory docking machinery of secretory granules. PMID:27032672

  12. Biochemical and microscopic evidence for the internalization and degradation of heparin-containing mast cell granules by bovine endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, F.M.; Friedman, M.M.; Metcalfe, D.D.

    1985-03-01

    Incubation of (/sup 35/S)heparin-containing mast cell granules with cultured bovine endothelial cells was followed by the appearance of /sup 35/S-granule-associated radioactivity within the endothelial cells and a decrease in radioactivity in the extracellular fluid. These changes occurred during the first 24 hours of incubation and suggested ingestion of the mast cell granules by the endothelial cells. Periodic electron microscopic examination of the monolayers confirmed this hypothesis by demonstrating apposition of the granules to the plasmalemma of endothelial cells, which was followed by the engulfment of the granules by cytoplasmic projections. Under light microscopic examination, mast cell granules within endothelial cells then appeared to undergo degradation. The degradation of (/sup 35/S)heparin in mast cell granules was demonstrated by a decrease in the amount of intracellular (/sup 35/S)heparin proteoglycan after 24 hours and the appearance of free (/sup 35/S)sulfate in the extracellular compartment. Intact endothelial cells were more efficient at degrading (/sup 35/S)heparin than were cell lysates or cell supernatants. These data provide evidence of the ability of endothelial cells to ingest mast cell granules and degrade native heparin that is presented as a part of the mast cell granule.

  13. Lactadherin inhibits secretory phospholipase A2 activity on pre-apoptotic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Nyegaard, Steffen; Novakovic, Valerie A; Rasmussen, Jan T; Gilbert, Gary E

    2013-01-01

    Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) is a critical component of insect and snake venoms and is secreted by mammalian leukocytes during inflammation. Elevated secretory PLA2 concentrations are associated with autoimmune diseases and septic shock. Many sPLA2's do not bind to plasma membranes of quiescent cells but bind and digest phospholipids on the membranes of stimulated or apoptotic cells. The capacity of these phospholipases to digest membranes of stimulated or apoptotic cells correlates to the exposure of phosphatidylserine. In the present study, the ability of the phosphatidyl-L-serine-binding protein, lactadherin to inhibit phospholipase enzyme activity has been assessed. Inhibition of human secretory phospholipase A2-V on phospholipid vesicles exceeded 90%, whereas inhibition of Naja mossambica sPLA2 plateaued at 50-60%. Lactadherin inhibited 45% of activity of Naja mossambica sPLA2 and >70% of human secretory phospholipase A2-V on the membranes of human NB4 leukemia cells treated with calcium ionophore A23187. The data indicate that lactadherin may decrease inflammation by inhibiting sPLA2. PMID:24194865

  14. Dendritic spines form 'collars' in hippocampal granule cells.

    PubMed

    Rusakov, D A; Stewart, M G; Sojka, M; Richter-Levin, G; Bliss, T V

    1995-07-31

    A quantitative study of the distribution of dendritic spines was carried out in three orders of dendritic branches of granule cells from the dentate gyrus of the rat hippocampus. Golgi-stained preparations (7-19 neurones in each of seven rats) were analysed using computerized microscopy. Identification of spines and quantification of stem-spine geometry was performed using a segmentation algorithm and a line skeleton transformation of dendritic images. Analysis of data using the statistics of point processes revealed that, in all three branch orders, the distribution of visible spines along dendrites was not evenly random, but included dense clusters of spines surrounding the dendritic stem (spine 'collars'). Three-dimensional reconstructions from serial ultrathin sections have confirmed the presence of such spine groups. We speculate the spine collars represent a functional element in which associative synaptic plasticity is fostered by the proximity of individual synapses. PMID:7579148

  15. Planar cell polarity protein localization in the secretory ameloblasts of rat incisors.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Sumio; Kawamoto, Tadafumi

    2012-05-01

    The localization of the planar cell polarity proteins Vang12, frizzled-3, Vang11, and Celsr1 in the rat incisors was examined using immunocytochemistry. The results showed that Vang12 was localized at two regions of the Tomes' processes of inner enamel-secretory ameloblasts in rat incisors: a proximal and a distal region. In contrast, frizzled-3 was localized at adherens junctions of the proximal and distal areas of inner enamel- and outer enamel-secretory ameloblasts, where N-cadherin and β-catenin were localized. frizzled-3 was also localized in differentiating inner enamel epithelial cells. Vang11 was localized sparsely in differentiating preameloblasts and extensively at the cell boundary of stratum intermedium. Celsr1 was not localized in ameloblasts but localized in odontoblasts extensively. These results suggest the involvement of planar cell polarity proteins in odontogenesis. PMID:22378702

  16. Effect of oral acetylcysteine on tobacco smoke-induced secretory cell hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, P K; Rogers, D F; Ayers, M M

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation explores whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC) inhibits the secretory cell hyperplasia known to occur experimentally in specific pathogen-free (SPF) bronchitic rats. The animals were divided into 4 groups: no tobacco smoke (TS), no drug, no TS but NAC (1040 mg/kg body weight), TS but no drug, and TS plus NAC. NAC-treated animals showed no ill effects, TS exposed animals showed an initial fall in weight gain which never fully recovered (P less than 0.01): NAC did not protect. TS caused a significant increase (62-421%) in secretory cell number at all airway levels distal to the upper trachea (P less than 0.01) and NAC significantly inhibited it (P less than 0.01-0.05) in all, mostly in secretory cells containing acidic glycoprotein. TS exposure also induced a significant rise in epithelial cell concentration and of ciliated, mucous and especially basal cell number (P less than 0.001). NAC inhibited the mucous cell increase (P less than 0.001) and had 3 effects on the peak of dividing cells: it was (a) delayed until 3 days (b) greatly reduced in size and (c) prolonged at a lower level until its return to control values at 10 days of TS exposure. PMID:3862604

  17. Functional alpha7 nicotinic receptors are expressed on immature granule cells of the postnatal dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    John, Danielle; Shelukhina, Irina; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Deuchars, Jim; Henderson, Zaineb

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenesis occurs throughout life in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus, and postnatal-born granule cells migrate into the granule cell layer and extend axons to their target areas. The α7⁎nicotinic receptor has been implicated in neuronal maturation during development of the brain and is abundant in interneurons of the hippocampal formation of the adult brain. Signalling through these same receptors is believed also to promote maturation and integration of adult-born granule cells in the hippocampal formation. We therefore aimed to determine whether functional α7⁎nicotinic receptors are expressed in developing granule cells of the postnatal dentate gyrus. For these experiments we used 2–3 week-old Wistar rats, and 2–9 week old transgenic mice in which GABAergic interneurons were marked by expression of green fluorescent protein. Immunohistochemistry indicated the presence of α7⁎nicotinic receptor subunits around granule cells close around the subgranular zone which correlated with the distribution of developmental markers for immature granule cells. Whole-cell patch clamp recording showed that a proportion of granule cells responded to puffed ACh in the presence of atropine, and that these cells possessed electrophysiological properties found in immature granule cells. The nicotinic responses were potentiated by an allosteric α7⁎nicotinic receptor modulator, which were blocked by a specific α7⁎nicotinic receptor antagonist and were not affected by ionotropic glutamate or GABA receptor antagonists. These results suggest the presence of functional somato-dendritic α7⁎nicotinic receptors on immature granule cells of the postnatal dentate gyrus, consistent with studies implicating α7⁎nicotinic receptors in dendritic maturation of dentate gyrus neurons in adult brain. PMID:25553616

  18. [The cytomorphology of goblet cells of the fetal intestine. Studies of the large intestine of cattle (Bos primigenius taurus)].

    PubMed

    Wille, K H

    1990-01-01

    In the region of the base of the intestinal crypts undifferentiated goblet cells display a configuration and constellation of organelles and membrane structures that are indicative of their importance for function. These images at this stage of development deliver a scenario of the mechanism of secretory granule production: aggregates of protein vesicles from the "transitional elements" (PALADE) of the granular endoplasmic reticulum are, so to speak, rolled up on the trans side of the Golgi apparatus by inversion of peripheral membrane segments of the innermost Golgi lamellae, thereby forming corpuscles. The origin of the capsulated vacuoles, which contain vesicles as single elements or as conglomerates, is well established. Their capsule consists of a trilaminar external and external and internal membrane; between them lies condensed material of the Golgi apparatus. In the opinion of the present author, the development of the ensheathed vacuoles represents a basic, more general mechanism. In contrast, the further steps of synthesis, for the formation of secretory granules, are more heterogeneous. Condensation of the vesicles and the inner capsular membrane results in the formation of a prosecretory granule, which in the basic element in the process of secretory granule production. The prosecretory granules develop singly or by fusion with other granules to give primary secretory granules. The complexity of this mechanism of secretory granule formation, however, becomes evident when considering the apposition of capsulated vacuoles and prosecretory--primary--secondary secretory granules, of prosecretory and primary secretory granules as well as prosecretory granules and secondary secretory granules. Generally, primary granules show a tendency to become secondary secretory granules or to fuse with them. During maturation of the goblet cells the secretory granules fuse to form larger mucous bodies in the theca by fusion of the laminae of the membranes; a final product, there is a homogeneous mucous mass devoid of membranes. PMID:2096533

  19. Zinc sulfide in intestinal cell granules of Ancylostoma caninum adults

    SciTech Connect

    Gianotti, A.J.; Clark, D.T.; Dash, J. )

    1991-04-01

    A source of confusion has existed since the turn of the century about the reddish brown, weakly birefringent 'sphaerocrystals' located in the intestines of strongyle nematodes, Strongylus and Ancylostoma. X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectrometric analyses were used for accurate determination of the crystalline order and elemental composition of the granules in the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum. The composition of the intestinal pigmented granules was identified unequivocally as zinc sulfide. It seems most probable that the granules serve to detoxify high levels of metallic ions (specifically zinc) present due to the large intake of host blood.

  20. Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Stimulated by the Calcium Phosphate Porous Granules

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Sunyoung; Won, Jong-Eun; Kim, Cheol-Hwan; Kim, Hae-Won

    2011-01-01

    Effects of three-dimensional (3D) calcium phosphate (CaP) porous granules on the growth and odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) were examined for dental tissue engineering. hDPSCs isolated from adult human dental pulps were cultured for 3-4 passages, and populated on porous granules. Cell growth on the culture dish showed an ongoing increase for up to 21 days, whereas the growth on the 3D granules decreased after 14 days. This reduction in proliferative potential on the 3D granules was more conspicuous under the osteogenic medium conditions, indicating that the 3D granules may induce the odontogenic differentiation of hDPSCs. Differentiation behavior on the 3D granules was confirmed by the increased alkaline phosphatase activity, up-regulation of odontoblast-specific genes, including dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and greater level of dentin sialoprotein synthesis by western blot. Moreover, the cellular mineralization, as assessed by Alizarin red S and calcium quantification, was significantly higher in the 3D CaP granules than in the culture dish. Taken all, the 3D CaP porous granules should be useful for dental tissue engineering in combination with hDPSCs by providing favorable 3D substrate conditions for cell growth and odontogenic development. PMID:21772958

  1. Paneth cell granule depletion in the human small intestine under infective and nutritional stress.

    PubMed

    Kelly, P; Feakins, R; Domizio, P; Murphy, J; Bevins, C; Wilson, J; McPhail, G; Poulsom, R; Dhaliwal, W

    2004-02-01

    Paneth cells are important contributors to the intestinal antimicrobial barrier through synthesis and release of antimicrobial peptides and proteins. Animal studies indicate that Paneth cell numbers, location and granule morphology are altered by infection and zinc status. We examined human tissue to determine whether Paneth cell numbers, distribution or granule morphology are altered in infective, inflammatory and nutritional disorders. Archival sections from infective disorders (giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, HIV, helminth infection) were compared with active inflammatory conditions (coeliac, Crohn's and graft-versus-host diseases) and histologically normal tissues. A subset of tissues was studied by electron microscopy and TUNEL staining for apoptosis. Human defensin-5 (HD5) peptide and mRNA was analysed by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Sections from a tropical population cohort study were then analysed to determine the relationship of granule depletion to infection, nutritional status and plasma zinc concentration. In HIV-related cryptosporidiosis, but not other disorders, Paneth cells were reduced in number and markedly depleted of granules. Paneth cell granule depletion was associated with reduced HD5 immunoreactivity, but this was not due to apoptosis and there was no reduction in mRNA transcripts. In the tropical population studied, depletion of granules was associated with reduced body mass index, reduced plasma zinc levels and HIV infection. Paneth cell granules in human small intestine may be depleted in response to infective and nutritional stress. We postulate that this is one mechanism through which zinc status influences host susceptibility to intestinal infection. PMID:14738460

  2. Functional cGMP-gated channels in cerebellar granule cells.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Jimenez, Ma Elena; González, Jose C; Lizasoain, Ignacio; Sánchez-Prieto, José; Hernández-Guijo, Jesús M; Torres, Magdalena

    2012-05-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGCs) are important transducers of external signals in sensory processes. These channels are ubiquitously expressed in a variety of neurons, and are necessary to transduce signals for growth cone guidance and plasticity. Here, we demonstrate that the CNGC subunits (CNGA1 and CNGB1, presumably the 1b isoform) are expressed in rat cerebellar granule cells and that they combine to form functional channels. The expression of the mRNAs that encode these proteins is maximal after 7 days in cell culture, when the channels are expressed at synapses and co-localize with the synaptic marker synapsin I. These ligand-gated channels are functional and can be blocked by Mg(2+) or L-cis-diltiazem. Moreover, channel opening in response to increases in intracellular cGMP results in Ca(2+) entry into the cell. Chronic blockade (96 h) of these channels with L-cis-diltiazem significantly decreases the number of functional boutons, as determined by their capacity to load and unload the styryl dye FM1-43 when stimulated. Moreover, the unloading kinetics is modified from a biphasic to a monophasic profile in a subset of synaptic boutons. These channels are also expressed in early developmental stages, both in the soma and in emerging processes, and CNGA1 can be detected in growth cones. Pharmacological blockade of these channels with L-cis-diltiazem causes an overall change in growth cone morphology, impairing the formation of lamellipodia between filopodia and increasing the number of filopodia. J PMID:21809342

  3. Phospholipase D2 Modulates the Secretory Pathway in RBL-2H3 Mast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Marchini-Alves, Claudia Maria Meirelles; Barbosa Lorenzi, Valeria Cintra; da Silva, Elaine Zayas Marcelino; Mazucato, Vivian Marino; Jamur, Maria Celia; Oliver, Constance

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) hydrolyses phosphatidylcholine to produce phosphatidic acid (PA) and choline. It has two isoforms, PLD1 and PLD2, which are differentially expressed depending on the cell type. In mast cells it plays an important role in signal transduction. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of PLD2 in the secretory pathway. RBL-2H3 cells, a mast cell line, transfected to overexpress catalytically active (PLD2CA) and inactive (PLD2CI) forms of PLD2 were used. Previous observations showed that the Golgi complex was well organized in CA cells, but was disorganized and dispersed in CI cells. Furthermore, in CI cells, the microtubule organizing center was difficult to identify and the microtubules were disorganized. These previous observations demonstrated that PLD2 is important for maintaining the morphology and organization of the Golgi complex. To further understand the role of PLD2 in secretory and vesicular trafficking, the role of PLD2 in the secretory process was investigated. Incorporation of sialic acid was used to follow the synthesis and transport of glycoconjugates in the cell lines. The modified sialic acid was subsequently detected by labeling with a fluorophore or biotin to visualize the localization of the molecule after a pulse-chase for various times. Glycoconjugate trafficking was slower in the CI cells and labeled glycans took longer to reach the plasma membrane. Furthermore, in CI cells sialic acid glycans remained at the plasma membrane for longer periods of time compared to RBL-2H3 cells. These results suggest that PLD2 activity plays an important role in regulating glycoconjugate trafficking in mast cells. PMID:26492088

  4. Plasticity of intrinsic excitability in mature granule cells of the dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Rojas, Jeffrey; Heine, Martin; Kreutz, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The dentate gyrus is the main entry gate for cortical input to the hippocampus and one of the few brain areas where adult neurogenesis occurs. Several studies have shown that it is relatively difficult to induce synaptic plasticity in mature but not in newborn dentate granule cells. In the present work we have systematically addressed how classical protocols to induce synaptic plasticity affect action potential firing and intrinsic excitability in mature granule cells. We found that stimulation paradigms considered to be relevant for learning processes consistently modified the probability to generate action potentials in response to a given synaptic input in mature cells, in some paradigms even without any modification of synaptic strength. Collectively the results suggest that plasticity of intrinsic dendritic excitability has a lower induction-threshold than synaptic plasticity in mature granule cells and that this form of plasticity might be an important mechanism by which mature granule cells contribute to hippocampal function. PMID:26857841

  5. Unsupervised learning of granule cell sparse codes enhances cerebellar adaptive control.

    PubMed

    Schweighofer, N; Doya, K; Lay, F

    2001-01-01

    Marr [J. Physiol. (1969) 202, 437-470] and Albus [Math. Biosci. (1971) 10, 25-61] hypothesized that cerebellar learning is facilitated by a granule cell sparse code, i.e. a neural code in which the fraction of active neurons is low at any one time. In this paper, we re-examine this hypothesis in light of recent experimental and theoretical findings. We argue that cerebellar motor learning is enhanced by a sparse code that simultaneously maximizes information transfer between mossy fibers and granule cells, minimizes redundancies between granule cell discharges, and re-codes the mossy fiber inputs with an adaptive resolution such that inputs corresponding to large errors are finely encoded. We then propose that a set of biologically plausible unsupervised learning rules can produce such a code. To maintain a low mean firing rate compatible with a sparse code, an activity-dependent homeostatic mechanism sets the cells' thresholds. Then, to maximize information transfer, the mossy fiber--granule cell synapses are adjusted by a Hebbian rule. Furthermore, to minimize redundancies between granule cell discharges, the inhibitory Golgi cell--granule cell synapses are tuned by an anti-Hebbian rule. Finally, to allow adaptive resolution, a performance-based neuromodulator-like signal gates these three plastic processes. We integrate these gated learning rules into a simplified model of the cerebellum for arm movement control, and show that unsupervised learning of granule cell sparse codes greatly improves cerebellar adaptive motor control in comparison to a "fixed" Marr--Albus-type model. Until recently, activity-dependent cerebellar plasticity was thought to be largely confined to the granule cell--Purkinje cell synapses. This static view of the cerebellum is, however, quickly being replaced by an extremely dynamic view in which plasticity is omnipresent. The present theoretical study shows how several forms of plasticity in the granular layer of the cerebellum can produce fast, accurate and stable cerebellar learning. PMID:11311786

  6. Formation of tRNA granules in the nucleus of heat-induced human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miyagawa, Ryu; Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654 ; Mizuno, Rie; Watanabe, Kazunori; Ijiri, Kenichi; Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNAs are tranlocated into the nucleus in heat-induced HeLa cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNAs form the unique granules in the nucleus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNA ganules overlap with nuclear stress granules. -- Abstract: The stress response, which can trigger various physiological phenomena, is important for living organisms. For instance, a number of stress-induced granules such as P-body and stress granule have been identified. These granules are formed in the cytoplasm under stress conditions and are associated with translational inhibition and mRNA decay. In the nucleus, there is a focus named nuclear stress body (nSB) that distinguishes these structures from cytoplasmic stress granules. Many splicing factors and long non-coding RNA species localize in nSBs as a result of stress. Indeed, tRNAs respond to several kinds of stress such as heat, oxidation or starvation. Although nuclear accumulation of tRNAs occurs in starved Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this phenomenon is not found in mammalian cells. We observed that initiator tRNA{sup Met} (Meti) is actively translocated into the nucleus of human cells under heat stress. During this study, we identified unique granules of Meti that overlapped with nSBs. Similarly, elongator tRNA{sup Met} was translocated into the nucleus and formed granules during heat stress. Formation of tRNA granules is closely related to the translocation ratio. Then, all tRNAs may form the specific granules.

  7. Intracellular ion concentrations and cell volume during cholinergic stimulation of eccrine secretory coil cells

    SciTech Connect

    Takemura, T.; Sato, F.; Saga, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Sato, K. )

    1991-02-01

    Methacholine (MCh)-induced changes in intracellular concentrations of Na, K, and Cl (( Na)i, (K)i, and (Cl)i, respectively) and in cellular dry mass (a measure of cell shrinkage) were examined in isolated monkey eccrine sweat secretory coils by electron probe X-ray microanalysis using the peripheral standard method. To further confirm the occurrence of cell shrinkage during MCh stimulation, the change in cell volume of dissociated clear and dark cells were directly determined under a light microscope equipped with differential interference contrast (DIC) optics. X-ray microanalysis revealed a biphasic increase in cellular dry mass in clear cells during continuous MCh stimulation; an initial increase of dry mass to 158% (of control) followed by a plateau at 140%, which correspond to the decrease in cell volume of 37 and 29%, respectively. The latter agrees with the MCh-induced cell shrinkage of 29% in dissociated clear cells. The MCh-induced increase in dry mass in myoepithelial cells was less than half that of clear cells. During the steady state of MCh stimulation, both (K+)i and (Cl)i of clear cells decreased by about 45%, whereas (Na)i increased in such a way to maintain the sum of (Na) i + (K)i constant. There was a small (12-15 mM) increase in (Na)i and a decrease in (K)i in myoepithelial cells during stimulation with MCh. Dissociated dark cells failed to significantly shrink during MCh stimulation. The decrease in (Cl)i in the face of constant (Na)i + (K)i suggests the accumulation of unknown anion(s) inside the clear cell during MCh stimulation.

  8. Secretory organelles of pathogenic protozoa.

    PubMed

    Souza, Wanderley de

    2006-06-01

    Secretory processes play an important role on the biology and life cycles of parasitic protozoa. This review focus on basic aspects, from a cell biology perspective, of the secretion of (a) micronemes, rhoptries and dense granules in members of the Apicomplexa group, where these organelles are involved in the process of protozoan penetration into the host cell, survival within the parasitophorous vacuole and subsequent egress from the host cell, (b) the Maurer's cleft in Plasmodium, a structure involved in the secretion of proteins synthesized by the intravacuolar parasite and transported through vesicles to the erythrocyte surface, (c) the secretion of macromolecules into the flagellar pocket of trypanosomatids, and (d) the secretion of proteins which make the cyst wall of Giardia and Entamoeba, with the formation of encystation vesicles. PMID:16710566

  9. Proliferation of Acid-Secretory Cells in the Kidney during Adaptive Remodelling of the Collecting Duct

    PubMed Central

    Welsh-Bacic, Desa; Nowik, Marta; Kaissling, Brigitte; Wagner, Carsten A.

    2011-01-01

    The renal collecting duct adapts to changes in acid-base metabolism by remodelling and altering the relative number of acid or alkali secreting cells, a phenomenon termed plasticity. Acid secretory A intercalated cells (A-IC) express apical H+-ATPases and basolateral bicarbonate exchanger AE1 whereas bicarbonate secretory B intercalated cells (B-IC) express basolateral (and apical) H+-ATPases and the apical bicarbonate exchanger pendrin. Intercalated cells were thought to be terminally differentiated and unable to proliferate. However, a recent report in mouse kidney suggested that intercalated cells may proliferate and that this process is in part dependent on GDF-15. Here we extend these observations to rat kidney and provide a detailed analysis of regional differences and demonstrate that differentiated A-IC proliferate massively during adaptation to systemic acidosis. We used markers of proliferation (PCNA, Ki67, BrdU incorporation) and cell-specific markers for A-IC (AE1) and B-IC (pendrin). Induction of remodelling in rats with metabolic acidosis (with NH4Cl for 12 hrs, 4 and 7 days) or treatment with acetazolamide for 10 days resulted in a larger fraction of AE1 positive cells in the cortical collecting duct. A large number of AE1 expressing A-IC was labelled with proliferative markers in the cortical and outer medullary collecting duct whereas no labeling was found in B-IC. In addition, chronic acidosis also increased the rate of proliferation of principal collecting duct cells. The fact that both NH4Cl as well as acetazolamide stimulated proliferation suggests that systemic but not urinary pH triggers this response. Thus, during chronic acidosis proliferation of AE1 containing acid-secretory cells occurs and may contribute to the remodelling of the collecting duct or replace A-IC due to a shortened life span under these conditions. PMID:22039408

  10. Cysteamine depletes prolactin (PRL) but does not alter the structure of PRL-containing granules in the anterior pituitary

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, L.A.; Landis, D.M.; Sagar, S.M.; Millard, W.J.; Martin, J.B.

    1984-10-01

    Cysteamine causes a profound depletion of PRL in the anterior pituitary and in the systemic circulation, as measured by RIA and bioassay. However, electron microscopic study of PRL-containing cells in rat anterior pituitary does not reveal changes in secretory granule or cytoplasmic structure during the interval of depressed PRL content and of subsequent recovery to normal levels. In contrast to the results obtained by RIA, PRL-like immunoreactivity as detected by immunocyto-chemistry is present and similar to that of control preparations after cysteamine administration. We suggest that cysteamine alters PRL structure in secretory granules, probably by interacting with the disulfide bonds of PRL, thereby altering bioactivity and immunoreactivity. The presence of cysteamine-altered PRL in secretory granules does not seem to trigger degradation of granules by the lysosomal system.

  11. Labeling and exocytosis of secretory compartments in RBL mastocytes by polystyrene and mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ekkapongpisit, Maneerat; Giovia, Antonino; Nicotra, Giuseppina; Ozzano, Matteo; Caputo, Giuseppe; Isidoro, Ciro

    2012-01-01

    Background For a safe ‘in vivo’ biomedical utilization of nanoparticles, it is essential to assess not only biocompatibility, but also the potential to trigger unwanted side effects at both cellular and tissue levels. Mastocytes (cells having secretory granules containing cytokines, vasoactive amine, and proteases) play a pivotal role in the immune and inflammatory responses against exogenous toxins. Mastocytes are also recruited in the tumor stroma and are involved in tumor vascularization and growth. Aim and methods In this work, mastocyte-like rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells were used to investigate whether carboxyl-modified 30 nm polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles (NPs) and naked mesoporous silica (MPS) 10 nm NPs are able to label the secretory inflammatory granules, and possibly induce exocytosis of these granules. Uptake, cellular retention and localization of fluorescent NPs were analyzed by cytofluorometry and microscope imaging. Results Our findings were that: (1) secretory granules of mastocytes are accessible by NPs via endocytosis; (2) PS and MPS silica NPs label two distinct subpopulations of inflammatory granules in RBL mastocytes; and (3) PS NPs induce calcium-dependent exocytosis of inflammatory granules. Conclusion These findings highlight the value of NPs for live imaging of inflammatory processes, and also have important implications for the clinical use of PS-based NPs, due to their potential to trigger the unwanted activation of mastocytes. PMID:22605932

  12. A micromethod for the assay of cellular secretory physiology: Application to rabbit parietal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Adrian, T.E.; Goldenring, J.R.; Oddsdottir, M.; Zdon, M.J.; Zucker, K.A.; Lewis, J.J.; Modlin, I.M. )

    1989-11-01

    A micromethod for investigating secretory physiology in isolated cells was evaluated. The method utilized a specially designed polycarbonate incubation chamber to provide constant oxygenation to cells incubating in a 96-well microtiter plate. Cells were rapidly separated from media by vacuum filtration. Isolated parietal cells were utilized to demonstrate the versatility of the method for assay of intracellular accumulation of ({sup 14}C)-aminopyrine, secretion of intrinsic factor into the medium, and assay of intracellular cAMP. Histamine stimulated the uptake of ({sup 14}C)aminopyrine and intrinsic factor secretion in a sustained and linear fashion. At the end of the 2-h period uptake of aminopyrine and secretion of intrinsic factor were increased 17- and 5-fold, respectively. This response to histamine was accompanied by a rapid and sustained 3-fold rise in intracellular cyclic AMP. In contrast, carbamylcholine caused a transient increase in ({sup 14}C)aminopyrine accumulation and intrinsic factor secretion which was most pronounced during the first 10 min and had almost ceased by 30 min. Carbamylcholine had no effect on intracellular cAMP levels. This new method, which can handle 400 replicates using parietal cells from the fundic mucosa of a single rabbit, is suitable for studying the time course of intracellular events which accompany general secretory processes.

  13. Real-Time Imaging of the Axonal Transport of Granules Containing a Tissue Plasminogen Activator/Green Fluorescent Protein Hybrid

    PubMed Central

    Lochner, Janis E.; Kingma, Mary; Kuhn, Samuel; Meliza, C. Daniel; Cutler, Bryan; Scalettar, Bethe A.

    1998-01-01

    A hybrid protein, tPA/GFP, consisting of rat tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) was expressed in PC12 cells and used to study the distribution, secretory behavior, and dynamics of secretory granules containing tPA in living cells with a neuronal phenotype. High-resolution images demonstrate that tPA/GFP has a growth cone-biased distribution in differentiated cells and that tPA/GFP is transported in granules of the regulated secretory pathway that colocalize with granules containing secretogranin II. Time-lapse images of secretion reveal that secretagogues induce substantial loss of cellular tPA/GFP fluorescence, most importantly from growth cones. Time-lapse images of the axonal transport of granules containing tPA/GFP reveal a surprising complexity to granule dynamics. Some granules undergo canonical fast axonal transport; others move somewhat more slowly, especially in highly fluorescent neurites. Most strikingly, granules traffic bidirectionally along neurites to an extent that depends on granule accumulation, and individual granules can reverse their direction of motion. The retrograde component of this bidirectional transport may help to maintain cellular homeostasis by transporting excess tPA/GFP back toward the cell body. The results presented here provide a novel view of the axonal transport of secretory granules. In addition, the results suggest that tPA is targeted for regulated secretion from growth cones of differentiated cells, strategically positioning tPA to degrade extracellular barriers or to activate other barrier-degrading proteases during axonal elongation. PMID:9725906

  14. Secretory clusterin inhibits osteoclastogenesis by attenuating M-CSF-dependent osteoclast precursor cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Bongkun; Kang, Soon-Suk; Kang, Sang-Wook; Min, Bon-Hong; Lee, Eun-Jin; Song, Da-Hyun; Kim, Sang-Min; Song, Youngsup; Yoon, Seung-Yong; Chang, Eun-Ju

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • We describe the expression and secretion of clusterin in osteoclasts. • Endogenous clusterin deficiency does not affect osteoclast formation. • Exogenous treatment with secretory clusterin decreases osteoclast differentiation. • Secretory clusterin attenuates osteoclast precursor cell proliferation by inhibiting M-CSF-mediated ERK activation. - Abstract: Secretory clusterin (sCLU)/apolipoprotein J is a multifunctional glycoprotein that is ubiquitously expressed in various tissues. Reduced sCLU in the joints of patients with bone erosive disease is associated with disease activity; however, its exact role has yet to be elucidated. Here, we report that CLU is expressed and secreted during osteoclastogenesis in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) that are treated with receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). CLU-deficient BMMs obtained from CLU{sup −/−} mice exhibited no significant alterations in OC differentiation in comparison with BMMs obtained from wild-type mice. In contrast, exogenous sCLU treatment significantly inhibited OC formation in both BMMs and OC precursor cultures. The inhibitory effect of sCLU was more prominent in BMMs than OC precursor cultures. Interestingly, treating BMMs with sCLU decreased the proliferative effects elicited by M-CSF and suppressed M-CSF-induced ERK activation of OC precursor cells without causing apoptotic cell death. This study provides the first evidence that sCLU reduces OC formation by inhibiting the actions of M-CSF, thereby suggesting its protective role in bone erosion.

  15. Secretory prostate apoptosis response (Par)-4 sensitizes multicellular spheroids (MCS) of glioblastoma multiforme cells to tamoxifen-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Jagtap, Jayashree C.; Parveen, D.; Shah, Reecha D.; Desai, Aarti; Bhosale, Dipali; Chugh, Ashish; Ranade, Deepak; Karnik, Swapnil; Khedkar, Bhushan; Mathur, Aaishwarya; Natesh, Kumar; Chandrika, Goparaju; Shastry, Padma

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant form of brain tumor and is associated with resistance to conventional therapy and poor patient survival. Prostate apoptosis response (Par)-4, a tumor suppressor, is expressed as both an intracellular and secretory/extracellular protein. Though secretory Par-4 induces apoptosis in cancer cells, its potential in drug-resistant tumors remains to be fully explored. Multicellular spheroids (MCS) of cancer cells often acquire multi-drug resistance and serve as ideal experimental models. We investigated the role of Par-4 in Tamoxifen (TAM)-induced cell death in MCS of human cell lines and primary cultures of GBM tumors. TCGA and REMBRANT data analysis revealed that low levels of Par-4 correlated with low survival period (21.85 ± 19.30 days) in GBM but not in astrocytomas (59.13 ± 47.26 days) and oligodendrogliomas (58.04 ± 59.80 days) suggesting low PAWR expression as a predictive risk factor in GBM. Consistently, MCS of human cell lines and primary cultures displayed low Par-4 expression, high level of chemo-resistance genes and were resistant to TAM-induced cytotoxicity. In monolayer cells, TAM-induced cytotoxicity was associated with enhanced expression of Par-4 and was alleviated by silencing of Par-4 using specific siRNA. TAM effectively induced secretory Par-4 in conditioned medium (CM) of cells cultured as monolayer but not in MCS. Moreover, MCS were rendered sensitive to TAM-induced cell death by exposure to conditioned medium (CM)-containing Par-4 (derived from TAM-treated monolayer cells). Also TAM reduced the expression of Akt and PKCζ in GBM cells cultured as monolayer but not in MCS. Importantly, combination of TAM with inhibitors to PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) or PKCζ resulted in secretion of Par-4 and cell death in MCS. Since membrane GRP78 is overexpressed in most cancer cells but not normal cells, and secretory Par-4 induces apoptosis by binding to membrane GRP78, secretory Par-4 is an attractive candidate for potentially overcoming therapy-resistance not only in malignant glioma but in broad spectrum of cancers. PMID:25685660

  16. Secretory prostate apoptosis response (Par)-4 sensitizes multicellular spheroids (MCS) of glioblastoma multiforme cells to tamoxifen-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Jagtap, Jayashree C; Parveen, D; Shah, Reecha D; Desai, Aarti; Bhosale, Dipali; Chugh, Ashish; Ranade, Deepak; Karnik, Swapnil; Khedkar, Bhushan; Mathur, Aaishwarya; Natesh, Kumar; Chandrika, Goparaju; Shastry, Padma

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant form of brain tumor and is associated with resistance to conventional therapy and poor patient survival. Prostate apoptosis response (Par)-4, a tumor suppressor, is expressed as both an intracellular and secretory/extracellular protein. Though secretory Par-4 induces apoptosis in cancer cells, its potential in drug-resistant tumors remains to be fully explored. Multicellular spheroids (MCS) of cancer cells often acquire multi-drug resistance and serve as ideal experimental models. We investigated the role of Par-4 in Tamoxifen (TAM)-induced cell death in MCS of human cell lines and primary cultures of GBM tumors. TCGA and REMBRANT data analysis revealed that low levels of Par-4 correlated with low survival period (21.85 ± 19.30 days) in GBM but not in astrocytomas (59.13 ± 47.26 days) and oligodendrogliomas (58.04 ± 59.80 days) suggesting low PAWR expression as a predictive risk factor in GBM. Consistently, MCS of human cell lines and primary cultures displayed low Par-4 expression, high level of chemo-resistance genes and were resistant to TAM-induced cytotoxicity. In monolayer cells, TAM-induced cytotoxicity was associated with enhanced expression of Par-4 and was alleviated by silencing of Par-4 using specific siRNA. TAM effectively induced secretory Par-4 in conditioned medium (CM) of cells cultured as monolayer but not in MCS. Moreover, MCS were rendered sensitive to TAM-induced cell death by exposure to conditioned medium (CM)-containing Par-4 (derived from TAM-treated monolayer cells). Also TAM reduced the expression of Akt and PKCζ in GBM cells cultured as monolayer but not in MCS. Importantly, combination of TAM with inhibitors to PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) or PKCζ resulted in secretion of Par-4 and cell death in MCS. Since membrane GRP78 is overexpressed in most cancer cells but not normal cells, and secretory Par-4 induces apoptosis by binding to membrane GRP78, secretory Par-4 is an attractive candidate for potentially overcoming therapy-resistance not only in malignant glioma but in broad spectrum of cancers. PMID:25685660

  17. In vitro three-dimensional modeling of fallopian tube secretory epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fallopian tube secretory epithelial cells (FTSECs) have been implicated as a cell-of-origin for high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer. However, there are relatively few in vitro models of this tissue type available for use in studies of FTSEC biology and malignant transformation. In vitro three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models aim to recreate the architecture and geometry of tissues in vivo and restore the complex network of cell-cell/cell-matrix interactions that occur throughout the surface of the cell membrane. Results We have established and characterized 3D spheroid culture models of primary FTSECs. FTSEC spheroids contain central cores of hyaline matrix surrounded by mono- or multi-layer epithelial sheets. We found that 3D culturing alters the molecular characteristics of FTSECs compared to 2D cultures of the same cells. Gene expression profiling identified more than a thousand differentially expressed genes between 3D and 2D cultures of the same FTSEC lines. Pathways significantly under-represented in 3D FTSEC cultures were associated with cell cycle progression and DNA replication. This was also reflected in the reduced proliferative indices observed in 3D spheroids stained for the proliferation marker MIB1. Comparisons with gene expression profiles of fresh fallopian tube tissues revealed that 2D FTSEC cultures clustered with follicular phase tubal epithelium, whereas 3D FTSEC cultures clustered with luteal phase samples. Conclusions This 3D model of fallopian tube secretory epithelial cells will advance our ability to study the underlying biology and etiology of fallopian tube tissues and the pathogenesis of high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:24070420

  18. MicroRNAs Promote Granule Cell Expansion in the Cerebellum Through Gli2.

    PubMed

    Constantin, Lena; Wainwright, Brandon J

    2015-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of cerebellar function and homeostasis. Their deregulation results in cerebellar neuronal degeneration and spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 and contributes to medulloblastoma. Canonical miRNA processing involves Dicer, which cleaves precursor miRNAs into mature double-stranded RNA duplexes. In order to address the role of miRNAs in cerebellar granule cell precursor development, loxP-flanked exons of Dicer1 were conditionally inactivated using the granule cell precursor-specific Atoh1-Cre recombinase. A reduction of 87% in Dicer1 transcript was achieved in this conditional Dicer knockdown model. Although knockdown resulted in normal survival, mice had disruptions to the cortical layering of the anterior cerebellum, which resulted from the premature differentiation of granule cell precursors in this region during neonatal development. This defect manifested as a thinner external granular layer with ectopic mature granule cells, and a depleted internal granular layer. We found that expression of the activator components of the Hedgehog-Patched pathway, the Gli family of transcription factors, was perturbed in conditional Dicer knockdown mice. We propose that loss of Gli2 mRNA mediated the anterior-restricted defect in conditional Dicer knockdown mice and, as proof of principle, were able to show that miR-106b positively regulated Gli2 mRNA expression. These findings confirm the importance of miRNAs as positive mediators of Hedgehog-Patched signalling during granule cell precursor development. PMID:25910616

  19. Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype Is Supported by Secretory Phospholipase A2 in Human Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Daine T.; Deng, Xin-Sheng; Yu, Jessica A.; Bell, Marshall T.; Mauchley, David C.; Meng, Xianzhong; Reece, T. Brett; Fullerton, David A.; Weyant, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Lung cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a sub-population of cells that drive growth, invasiveness, and resistance to therapy. Inflammatory eicosanoids are critical to maintain this malignant subpopulation. Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIa (sPLA2) is an important mediator of the growth and invasive potential of human lung cancer cells and regulates eicosanoid production. We hypothesized that sPLA2 plays a role in the maintenance of lung CSCs. Methods Cancer stem cells from lung adenocarcinoma cell lines H125 and A549 were isolated using aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and flow cytometry. Protein and mRNA levels for sPLA2 were compared between sorted cells using Western blotting and quantitative reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction techniques. Chemical inhibition of sPLA2 and short-hairpin RNA knockdown of sPLA2 were used to evaluate effects on tumorsphere formation. Results Lung CSCs were isolated in 8.9% ± 4.1% (mean ± SD) and 4.1% ± 1.6% of H125 and A549 cells respectively. Both sPLA2 protein and mRNA expression were significantly elevated in the CSC subpopulation of H125 (p = 0.002) and A549 (p = 0.005; n = 4). Knockdown of sPLA2 significantly reduced tumorsphere formation in H125 (p = 0.026) and A549 (p = 0.001; n = 3). Chemical inhibition of sPLA2 resulted in dose-dependent reduction in tumorsphere formation in H125 (p = 0.003) and A549 (p = 0.076; n = 3). Conclusions Lung CSCs express higher levels of sPLA2 than the non–stem cell population. Our findings that viral knockdown and chemical inhibition of sPLA2 reduce tumorsphere formation in lung cancer cells demonstrate for the first time that sPLA2 plays an important role in CSCs. These findings suggest that sPLA2 may be an important therapeutic target for human lung cancer. PMID:24928671

  20. Expression of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase in mature granule cells of the adult mouse dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    New granule cells are continuously generated in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus. During granule cell maturation, the mechanisms that differentiate new cells not only describe the degree of cell differentiation, but also crucially regulate the progression of cell differentiation. Here, we describe a gene, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), whose expression distinguishes stem cells from more differentiated cells among the granule cells of the adult mouse dentate gyrus. The use of markers for proliferation, neural progenitors, and immature and mature granule cells indicated that TDO was expressed in mature cells and in some immature cells. In mice heterozygous for the alpha-isoform of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, in which dentate gyrus granule cells fail to mature normally, TDO immunoreactivity was substantially downregulated in the dentate gyrus granule cells. Moreover, a 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling experiment revealed that new neurons began to express TDO between 2 and 4 wk after the neurons were generated, when the axons and dendrites of the granule cells developed and synaptogenesis occurred. These findings indicate that TDO might be required at a late-stage of granule cell development, such as during axonal and dendritic growth, synaptogenesis and its maturation. PMID:20815922

  1. Nitric oxide inhibits exocytosis of cytolytic granules from lymphokine-activated killer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ferlito, Marcella; Irani, Kaikobad; Faraday, Nauder; Lowenstein, Charles J.

    2006-01-01

    NO inhibits cytotoxic T lymphocyte killing of target cells, although the precise mechanism is unknown. We hypothesized that NO decreases exocytosis of cytotoxic granules from activated lymphocytes. We now show that NO inhibits lymphokine-activated killer cell killing of K562 target cells. Exogenous and endogenous NO decreases the release of granzyme B, granzyme A, and perforin: all contents of cytotoxic granules. NO inhibits the signal transduction cascade initiated by cross-linking of the T cell receptor that leads to granule exocytosis. In particular, we found that NO decreases the expression of Ras, a critical signaling component within the exocytic pathway. Ectopic expression of Ras prevents NO inhibition of exocytosis. Our data suggest that Ras mediates NO inhibition of lymphocyte cytotoxicity and emphasize that alterations in the cellular redox state may regulate the exocytic signaling pathway. PMID:16857739

  2. LYST controls the biogenesis of the endosomal compartment required for secretory lysosome function.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda, Fernando E; Burgess, Agathe; Heiligenstein, Xavier; Goudin, Nicolas; Ménager, Mickaël M; Romao, Maryse; Côte, Marjorie; Mahlaoui, Nizar; Fischer, Alain; Raposo, Graça; Ménasché, Gaël; de Saint Basile, Geneviève

    2015-02-01

    Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding LYST protein, the function of which remains poorly understood. Prominent features of CHS include defective secretory lysosome exocytosis and the presence of enlarged, lysosome-like organelles in several cell types. In order to get further insight into the role of LYST in the biogenesis and exocytosis of cytotoxic granules, we analyzed cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) from patients with CHS. Using confocal microscopy and correlative light electron microscopy, we showed that the enlarged organelle in CTLs is a hybrid compartment that contains proteins components from recycling-late endosomes and lysosomes. Enlargement of cytotoxic granules results from the progressive clustering and then fusion of normal-sized endolysosomal organelles. At the immunological synapse (IS) in CHS CTLs, cytotoxic granules have limited motility and appear docked while nevertheless unable to degranulate. By increasing the expression of effectors of lytic granule exocytosis, such as Munc13-4, Rab27a and Slp3, in CHS CTLs, we were able to restore the dynamics and the secretory ability of cytotoxic granules at the IS. Our results indicate that LYST is involved in the trafficking of the effectors involved in exocytosis required for the terminal maturation of perforin-containing vesicles into secretory cytotoxic granules. PMID:25425525

  3. Synaptobrevin cleavage by the tetanus toxin light chain is linked to the inhibition of exocytosis in chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Höhne-Zell, B; Ecker, A; Weller, U; Gratzl, M

    1994-11-28

    Exocytosis of secretory granules by adrenal chromaffin cells is blocked by the tetanus toxin light chain in a zinc specific manner. Here we show that cellular synaptobrevin is almost completely degraded by the tetanus toxin light chain within 15 min. We used highly purified adrenal secretory granules to show that synaptobrevin, which can be cleaved by the tetanus toxin light chain, is localized in the vesicular membrane. Proteolysis of synaptobrevin in cells and in secretory granules is reversibly inhibited by the zinc chelating agent dipicolinic acid. Moreover, cleavage of synaptobrevin present in secretory granules by the tetanus toxin light chain is blocked by the zinc peptidase inhibitor captopril and by synaptobrevin derived peptides. Our data indicate that the tetanus toxin light chain acts as a zinc dependent protease that cleaves synaptobrevin of secretory granules, an essential component of the exocytosis machinery in adrenal chromaffin cells. PMID:7982485

  4. Identification of miRNAs differentially expressed in human epilepsy with or without granule cell pathology.

    PubMed

    Zucchini, Silvia; Marucci, Gianluca; Paradiso, Beatrice; Lanza, Giovanni; Roncon, Paolo; Cifelli, Pierangelo; Ferracin, Manuela; Giulioni, Marco; Michelucci, Roberto; Rubboli, Guido; Simonato, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The microRNAs (miRNAs) are small size non-coding RNAs that regulate expression of target mRNAs at post-transcriptional level. miRNAs differentially expressed under pathological conditions may help identifying mechanisms underlying the disease and may represent biomarkers with prognostic value. However, this kind of studies are difficult in the brain because of the cellular heterogeneity of the tissue and of the limited access to fresh tissue. Here, we focused on a pathology affecting specific cells in a subpopulation of epileptic brains (hippocampal granule cells), an approach that bypasses the above problems. All patients underwent surgery for intractable temporal lobe epilepsy and had hippocampal sclerosis associated with no granule cell pathology in half of the cases and with type-2 granule cell pathology (granule cell layer dispersion or bilamination) in the other half. The expression of more than 1000 miRNAs was examined in the laser-microdissected dentate granule cell layer. Twelve miRNAs were differentially expressed in the two groups. One of these, miR487a, was confirmed to be expressed at highly differential levels in an extended cohort of patients, using RT-qPCR. Bioinformatics searches and RT-qPCR verification identified ANTXR1 as a possible target of miR487a. ANTXR1 may be directly implicated in granule cell dispersion because it is an adhesion molecule that favors cell spreading. Thus, miR487a could be the first identified element of a miRNA signature that may be useful for prognostic evaluation of post-surgical epilepsy and may drive mechanistic studies leading to the identification of therapeutic targets. PMID:25148080

  5. Ex Vivo Imaging of Postnatal Cerebellar Granule Cell Migration Using Confocal Macroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bénard, Magalie; Lebon, Alexis; Komuro, Hitoshi; Vaudry, David; Galas, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    During postnatal development, immature granule cells (excitatory interneurons) exhibit tangential migration in the external granular layer, and then radial migration in the molecular layer and the Purkinje cell layer to reach the internal granular layer of the cerebellar cortex. Default in migratory processes induces either cell death or misplacement of the neurons, leading to deficits in diverse cerebellar functions. Centripetal granule cell migration involves several mechanisms, such as chemotaxis and extracellular matrix degradation, to guide the cells towards their final position, but the factors that regulate cell migration in each cortical layer are only partially known. In our method, acute cerebellar slices are prepared from P10 rats, granule cells are labeled with a fluorescent cytoplasmic marker and tissues are cultured on membrane inserts from 4 to 10 hr before starting real-time monitoring of cell migration by confocal macroscopy at 37 °C in the presence of CO2. During their migration in the different cortical layers of the cerebellum, granule cells can be exposed to neuropeptide agonists or antagonists, protease inhibitors, blockers of intracellular effectors or even toxic substances such as alcohol or methylmercury to investigate their possible role in the regulation of neuronal migration. PMID:25992599

  6. A morphologically distinct granule cell type in the dentate gyrus of the red fox correlates with adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Amrein, Irmgard; Slomianka, Lutz

    2010-04-30

    Wild red foxes, proverbially cunning carnivores, are investigated for adult hippocampal neurogenesis and morphological characteristics of the dentate gyrus. Adult red foxes harbor almost 15-times more young, doublecortin-positive neurons in their dentate gyrus than domesticated dogs. The number of doublecortin-positive cells corresponds to 4.4% of the total granule cell number, whereas dividing cells amount to only 0.06%. Compared to laboratory mice, proliferating (Ki67-positive) and dying cells are rare, but the percentage of new neurons is quite similar. The numbers of proliferating cells, young cells of neuronal lineage and dying cells correlate. Resident granule cells can be divided into two types with strikingly different morphologies, staining patterns and distinct septotemporal distributions. Small sized granule cells with a nuclear diameter of 7.3 microm account for approximately 83% of all granule cells. The remaining granule cells are significantly larger with a nuclear diameter of 9.4 microm diameter and stain heavily for NeuN. Septally and mid-septotemporally, densely packed small cells dominate. Here, only few large granule cells are scattered throughout the layer. Temporally, granule cells become more loosely packed and most of the cells are of the large type. High rates of neurogenesis are observed in foxes with high numbers of large granule cells, whereas the number of small granule cells does not correlate with any of the neurogenesis-related cell counts. Staining for parvalbumin, glutamate receptor 2/3, GAP-43 and dynorphin shows an anatomical context that is a composite of features common also to other mammalian species. In summary, we report a morphologically distinct granule cell type which correlates with adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the fox. Furthermore, the maturation phase of the young neurons may be prolonged as in other long living species such as primates. PMID:20206610

  7. Common spectrum of polypeptides occurs in secretion granule membranes of different exocrine glands

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, R.S.; Cameron, P.L.; Castle, J.D.

    1986-10-01

    A highly purified membrane preparation from rat parotid secretion granules has been used as a comparative probe to examine the extent of compositional overlap in granule membranes of three other exocrine secretory tissues - pancreatic, lacrimal, and submandibular - from several standpoints. First, indirect immunofluorescent studies using a polyclonal polyspecific anti-parotid granule membrane antiserum has indicated a selective staining of granule membrane profiles in all acinar cells of all tissues. Second, highly purified granule membrane subfractions have been isolated from each exocrine tissue; comparative two-dimensional (isoelectric focusing; SDS) PAGE of radioiodinated granule membranes has identified 10-15 polypeptides of identical pI and apparent molecular mass. These species are likely to be integral membrane components since they are not extracted by either saponin-sodium sulfate or sodium carbonate (pH 11.5) treatments, and they do not have counterparts in the granule content. Finally, the identity among selected parotid and pancreatic radioiodinated granule membrane polypeptides has been documented using two-dimensional peptide mapping of chymotryptic and tryptic digests. These findings clearly indicate that exocrine secretory granules, irrespective of the nature of stored secretion, comprise a type of vesicular carrier with a common (and probably refined) membrane composition. Conceivably, the polypeptides identified carry out general functions related to exocrine secretion.

  8. Intestinal label-retaining cells are secretory precursors expressing Lgr5.

    PubMed

    Buczacki, Simon J A; Zecchini, Heather Ireland; Nicholson, Anna M; Russell, Roslin; Vermeulen, Louis; Kemp, Richard; Winton, Douglas J

    2013-03-01

    The rapid cell turnover of the intestinal epithelium is achieved from small numbers of stem cells located in the base of glandular crypts. These stem cells have been variously described as rapidly cycling or quiescent. A functional arrangement of stem cells that reconciles both of these behaviours has so far been difficult to obtain. Alternative explanations for quiescent cells have been that they act as a parallel or reserve population that replace rapidly cycling stem cells periodically or after injury; their exact nature remains unknown. Here we show mouse intestinal quiescent cells to be precursors that are committed to mature into differentiated secretory cells of the Paneth and enteroendocrine lineage. However, crucially we find that after intestinal injury they are capable of extensive proliferation and can give rise to clones comprising the main epithelial cell types. Thus, quiescent cells can be recalled to the stem-cell state. These findings establish quiescent cells as an effective clonogenic reserve and provide a motivation for investigating their role in pathologies such as colorectal cancers and intestinal inflammation. PMID:23446353

  9. Serpinin: a novel chromogranin A-derived, secreted peptide up-regulates protease nexin-1 expression and granule biogenesis in endocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Koshimizu, Hisatsugu; Cawley, Niamh X; Kim, Taeyoon; Yergey, Alfred L; Loh, Y Peng

    2011-05-01

    Previously we demonstrated that chromogranin A (CgA) promoted secretory granule biogenesis in endocrine cells by stabilizing and preventing granule protein degradation in the Golgi, through up-regulation of expression of the protease inhibitor, protease nexin-1 (PN-1). However, the mechanism by which CgA signals the increase of PN-1 expression is unknown. Here we identified a 2.9-kDa CgA-C-terminus peptide, which we named serpinin, in conditioned media from AtT-20 cells, a corticotroph cell line, which up-regulated PN-1 mRNA expression. Serpinin was secreted from AtT-20 cells upon high potassium stimulation and increased PN-1 mRNA transcription in these cells, in an actinomycin D-inhibitable manner. CgA itself and other CgA-derived peptides, when added to AtT-20 cell media, had no effect on PN-1 expression. Treatment of AtT-20 cells with 10 nm serpinin elevated cAMP levels and PN-1 mRNA expression, and this effect was inhibited by a protein kinase A inhibitor, 6-22 amide. Serpinin and a cAMP analog, 8-bromo-cAMP, promoted the translocation of the transcription factor Sp1 into the nucleus, which is known to drive PN-1 expression. Additionally, an Sp1 inhibitor, mithramycin A inhibited the serpinin-induced PN-1 mRNA up-regulation. Furthermore, a luciferase reporter assay demonstrated serpinin-induced up-regulation of PN-1 promoter activity in an Sp1-dependent manner. When added to CgB-transfected 6T3 cells, a mutant AtT20 cell line, serpinin induced granule biogenesis as evidenced by the presence of CgB puncta accumulation in the processes and tips. Our findings taken together show that serpinin, a novel CgA-derived peptide, is secreted upon stimulation of corticotrophs and plays an important autocrine role in up-regulating PN-1-dependent granule biogenesis via a cAMP-protein kinase A-Sp1 pathway to replenish released granules. PMID:21436258

  10. Homotypic secretory vesicle fusion induced by the protein tyrosine phosphatase MEG2 depends on polyphosphoinositides in T cells.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Huong; Wang, Xiaodong; Li, Weizhong; Bottini, Nunzio; Williams, Scott; Nika, Konstantina; Ishihara, Hisamitsu; Godzik, Adam; Mustelin, Tomas

    2003-12-15

    Sec14p homology domains are found in a large number of proteins from plants, yeast, invertebrates, and higher eukaryotes. We report that the N-terminal Sec14p homology domain of the human protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-MEG2 binds phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)) in vitro and colocalizes with this lipid on secretory vesicle membranes in intact cells. Point mutations that prevented PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) binding abrogated the capacity of PTP-MEG2 to induce homotypic secretory vesicle fusion in cells. Inhibition of cellular PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) synthesis also rapidly reversed the effect of PTP-MEG2 on secretory vesicles. Finally, we show that several different phosphoinositide kinases colocalize with PTP-MEG2, thus allowing for local synthesis of PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) in secretory vesicle membranes. We suggest that PTP-MEG2 through its Sec14p homology domain couples inositide phosphorylation to tyrosine dephosphorylation and the regulation of intracellular traffic of the secretory pathway in T cells. PMID:14662869

  11. Secretory transport of ranitidine and famotidine across Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kiho; Ng, Chee; Brouwer, Kim L R; Thakker, Dhiren R

    2002-11-01

    The secretory transport of the H(2)-antagonists, ranitidine and famotidine, across Caco-2 cell monolayers was found to be a saturable process. Both drugs exhibited greater permeability in the basolateral (BL) to apical (AP) direction than in the AP to BL direction, indicating apically directed secretion; BL to AP transport was inhibited by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors verapamil and cyclosporin A. The cellular uptake of ranitidine across the BL membrane was saturable and temperature dependent, indicative of carrier-mediated transport. The K(m) and V(max) for the uptake process were estimated to be 66.9 mM and 20.9 nmol/mg of protein/min, respectively. The uptake of [(14)C]ranitidine across the BL membrane was inhibited by unlabeled ranitidine and structurally diverse organic cations. The tetraethylammonium (TEA)-sensitive organic cation transporters are not involved in the uptake of ranitidine and famotidine across the BL membrane of Caco-2. This conclusion was based on the evidence that functionally active TEA-sensitive organic cation transporters did not exist in the BL membranes of the Caco-2 cells, whereas the functionally active TEA-sensitive organic cation transporter(s) in LLC-PK(1) cells did not contribute to the transport of ranitidine or famotidine across the cell monolayers. Thus, we conclude that the secretory transport of ranitidine and famotidine across Caco-2 cell monolayers is mediated by 1) a carrier in the BL membrane that is distinct from the TEA-sensitive organic cation transporter(s) and 2) P-gp in the apical membrane. PMID:12388638

  12. Ovulation in Drosophila is controlled by secretory cells of the female reproductive tract.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianjun; Spradling, Allan C

    2013-01-01

    How oocytes are transferred into an oviduct with a receptive environment remains poorly known. We found that glands of the Drosophila female reproductive tract, spermathecae and/or parovaria, are required for ovulation and to promote sperm storage. Reducing total secretory cell number by interferring with Notch signaling during development blocked ovulation. Knocking down expression after adult eclosion of the nuclear hormone receptor Hr39, a master regulator of gland development, slowed ovulation and blocked sperm storage. However, ovulation (but not sperm storage) continued when only canonical protein secretion was compromised in adult glands. Our results imply that proteins secreted during adulthood by the canonical secretory pathway from female reproductive glands are needed to store sperm, while a non-canonical glandular secretion stimulates ovulation. Our results suggest that the reproductive tract signals to the ovary using glandular secretions, and that this pathway has been conserved during evolution. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00415.001. PMID:23599892

  13. Group IIa secretory phospholipase expression correlates with group IIa secretory phospholipase inhibition–mediated cell death in K-ras mutant lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jessica A.; Li, Howard; Meng, Xianzhong; Fullerton, David A.; Nemenoff, Raphael A.; Mitchell, John D.; Weyant, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective There are currently no targeted therapies against lung tumors with oncogenic K-ras mutations that are found in 25% to −40% of lung cancers and are characterized by their resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors. The isozyme group IIa secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2IIa) is a potential biomarker and regulator of lung cancer cell invasion; however, the relationship between K-ras mutations and sPLA2IIa has yet to be investigated. We hypothesize that sPLA2IIa modulates lung cancer cell growth in K-ras mutant cells and that sPLA2IIa expression in human lung tumors is increased in K-ras mutant tumors. Methods Baseline sPLA2IIa expression in K-ras mutant lung cancer cell lines (A549, SW1573, H358, H2009) was assessed. Cells were treated with a specific sPLA2IIa inhibitor and evaluated for apoptosis and cell viability. Nuclear factor kappa-b (NF-κB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activity were detected by Western blot. Human tumor samples were evaluated for sPLA2IIa mRNA expression by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results Cytotoxicity of sPLA2IIa inhibition correlates with sPLA2IIa expression. Apoptosis in response to sPLA2 inhibition parallels attenuation in NF-κB activity. In addition, sPLA2IIa expression in human tumors correlates with squamous cell pathology and increasing stage of K-ras mutant lung tumors. Conclusions Baseline sPLA2IIa expression predicts response to sPLA2IIa inhibition in some K-ras mutant lung cancer cells. This finding is independent of p53 mutation status. Furthermore, squamous tumors and advanced-stage K-ras mutant tumors express more sPLA2IIa. These data support a role for sPLA2IIa as a potential global therapeutic target in the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:23026567

  14. The origin and role of autophagy in the formation of cytoplasmic granules in canine lingual granular cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S; Uchida, K; Harada, T; Nibe, K; Yamashita, M; Ono, K; Nakayama, H

    2015-05-01

    Granular cell tumors (GCTs) are histologically characterized by polygonal neoplastic cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasmic granules. In humans, these cells are considered to be derived from Schwann cells, and the cytoplasmic granules are assumed to be autophagosomes or autophagolysosomes. However, the origin and nature of the cytoplasmic granules in canine GCTs have not been well characterized. The present study examined 9 canine lingual GCTs using immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and cell culture and xenotransplantation experiments. In some cases, the tumor cells expressed S100, CD133, and desmin. The cytoplasmic granules were positive for LC3, p62, NBR1, and ubiquitin. TEM revealed autophagosome-like structures in the cytoplasm of the granule-containing cells. The cultured GCT cells were round to spindle shaped and expressed S100, nestin, Melan-A, CD133, LC3, p62, NBR1, and ubiquitin, suggesting that they were of neural crest origin, redifferentiated into melanocytes, and exhibited upregulated autophagy. The xenotransplanted tumors consisted of spindle to polygonal cells. Only a few cells contained cytoplasmic granules, and some had melanin pigments in their cytoplasm. The xenotransplanted cells expressed S100, nestin, Melan-A, and CD133. P62 and ubiquitin were detected, regardless of the presence or absence of cytoplasmic granules, while LC3 and NBR1 were detected only in the neoplastic cells containing cytoplasmic granules. These findings suggest that some xenotransplanted cells redifferentiated into melanocytes and that autophagy was upregulated in the cytoplasmic granule-containing cells. In conclusion, canine lingual GCTs originate from the neural crest and develop cytoplasmic granules via autophagy. In addition, the microenvironment of GCT cells affects their morphology. PMID:25161210

  15. High-affinity kainate-type ion channels in rat cerebellar granule cells

    PubMed Central

    Pemberton, Karen E; Belcher, Scott M; Ripellino, James A; Howe, James R

    1998-01-01

    Patch-clamp recordings were made from rat cerebellar granule cells in primary culture. In cells pre-exposed to concanavalin A (ConA) to remove kainate receptor desensitization, concentration-response data for kainate showed two components. The EC50 value for the high-affinity component (4 μM) was consistent with activation of kainate-type channels. ConA enhanced the apparent potency of the kainate receptor ligand SYM 2081 by 100-fold. In ConA-treated granule cells, currents evoked by 10 μM kainate were not significantly reduced by the AMPA receptor antagonist GYKI 53655, nor were these currents significantly reduced by the co-application of 100 μM AMPA. Currents activated by low concentrations of kainate in the presence of AMPA were completely inhibited by 10 μM La3+. Single-cell reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis indicated that granule cells express both unedited (Q) and edited (R) versions of GluR5, with the majority of the GluR5 transcripts being unedited. In contrast, GluR6(R) was detected in seven cells and GluR6(Q) was detected in one granule cell. Whole-cell current-voltage curves for kainate-type currents in granule cells were measured and the ratio of the slope conductances at +40 mV and −40 mV was used as an index of rectification. The mean +40 mV/-40 mV ratio determined from thirty-six granule cells was 1.3 ± 0.1. Spectral density analysis of kainate-evoked whole-cell current noise gave values for the apparent single-channel conductance, γnoise, that were on average about 1 pS. To compare further the properties of recombinant kainate channels with the native kainate-type channels in granule cells, we determined EC50 and γnoise values for SYM 2081 in stable cell lines expressing either GluR6(R) or GluR6(R) and KA2. Co-expression of KA2 with GluR6(R) shifts the EC50 and γnoise values determined for SYM 2081 closer to the values typically found for native kainate-type channels in granule cells. The results demonstrate that cerebellar granule cells in culture express functional kainate-type channels and that in most cells these channels show properties that are similar to those determined for heteromeric channels formed from GluR6(R) and KA2. However, the results also suggest that different granule cells express different repertoires of kainate-type channels with different, and perhaps variable, subunit composition. PMID:9705992

  16. Convergence of pontine and proprioceptive streams onto multimodal cerebellar granule cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng-Chiu; Sugino, Ken; Shima, Yasuyuki; Guo, Caiying; Bai, Suxia; Mensh, Brett D; Nelson, Sacha B; Hantman, Adam W

    2013-01-01

    Cerebellar granule cells constitute the majority of neurons in the brain and are the primary conveyors of sensory and motor-related mossy fiber information to Purkinje cells. The functional capability of the cerebellum hinges on whether individual granule cells receive mossy fiber inputs from multiple precerebellar nuclei or are instead unimodal; this distinction is unresolved. Using cell-type-specific projection mapping with synaptic resolution, we observed the convergence of separate sensory (upper body proprioceptive) and basilar pontine pathways onto individual granule cells and mapped this convergence across cerebellar cortex. These findings inform the long-standing debate about the multimodality of mammalian granule cells and substantiate their associative capacity predicted in the Marr-Albus theory of cerebellar function. We also provide evidence that the convergent basilar pontine pathways carry corollary discharges from upper body motor cortical areas. Such merging of related corollary and sensory streams is a critical component of circuit models of predictive motor control. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00400.001 PMID:23467508

  17. Changes in mobility of chromaffin granules in actin network with its assembly and Ca(2+)-dependent disassembly by gelsolin.

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, S; Funatsu, T; Ishiwata, S; Fujime, S

    1993-01-01

    As a final stage of cell signal transduction, secretory cells release hormones by exocytosis. Before secretory granules contact with the cell membrane for fusion, an actin-network barrier must dissociate as a prelude. To elucidate dynamical behaviors of secretory granules in actin networks, in vitro assembly and disassembly processes of actin networks were examined by means of dynamic light-scattering spectroscopy. We studied actin polymerization in the presence of chromaffin granules isolated from bovine adrenal medullas and found that the entanglement of actin filaments rapidly formed cages that confined granules in them. We also studied the effect of gelsolin, one of actin-severing proteins, on the network of actin filaments preformed in the presence of chromaffin granules. It turned out that the cages that confined granules rapidly disappeared when gelsolin was added in the presence of free Ca2+ ions. A semiquantitative analysis of dynamic light-scattering spectra permitted us to estimate the changes in the mobility (or the translational diffusion coefficient) of chromaffin granules in the actin network with its assembly and Ca(2+)-dependent disassembly by gelsolin. Based on the present results and some pieces of evidence in the literature, a model is proposed for biophysical situations before, during, and after an exocytotic event. PMID:8388266

  18. Lectin histochemistry of secretory cell glycoconjugates in the nasal mucosa of Podarcis sicula campestris De Betta (Reptilia, Lacertidae).

    PubMed

    Ferri, D; Liquori, G E

    1989-01-01

    Histochemical study by traditional staining methods (AB, PAS, HID) and by the use of five peroxidase-labelled lectins (ConA, WGL, WPL, SBL, PNL) were carried out to characterize glycoconjugates in the secretory cells of the nasal mucosa of the Lacertid lizard Podarcis sicula campestris De Betta. The mucus covering the nasal epithelium is produced by the supporting cells and the Bowman glands in the olfactory area, and by typical goblet cells and, probably, a second type of secretory cell, in the non-sensory area. Neutral glycoconjugates containing N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and terminal N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, D-mannose and D-glucose residues were present in the secretory product of the Bowman glands. L-fucose and D-galactose were absent. In the supporting cells the secretory product consisted mainly of sulfated glycoproteins containing D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, D-mannose, D-glucose, but not L-fucose. Glycoconjugates containing terminal sialic acid and penultimate D-galactose were present in typical goblet cells as was N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. PMID:2818423

  19. Radioresistance of granulation tissue-derived cells from skin wounds combined with total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Dai, Tingyu; Chen, Zelin; Tan, Li; Shi, Chunmeng

    2016-04-01

    Combined radiation and wound injury (CRWI) occurs following nuclear explosions and accidents, radiological or nuclear terrorism, and radiation therapy combined with surgery. CRWI is complicated and more difficult to heal than single injuries. Stem cell‑based therapy is a promising treatment strategy for CRWI, however, sourcing stem cells remains a challenge. In the present study, the granulation tissue-derived cells (GTCs) from the skin wounds (SWs) of CRWI mice (C‑GTCs) demonstrated a higher radioresistance to the damage caused by combined injury, and were easier to isolate and harvest when compared with bone marrow‑derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs). Furthermore, the C-GTCs exhibited similar stem cell-associated properties, such as self-renewal and multilineage differentiation capacity, when compared with neonatal dermal stromal cells (DSCs) and GTCs from unirradiated SWs. Granulation tissue, which is easy to access, may present as an optimal autologous source of stem/progenitor cells for therapeutic applications in CRWI. PMID:26936439

  20. Structural, mass and elemental analyses of storage granules in methanogenic archaeal cells

    PubMed Central

    Toso, Daniel B.; Henstra, Anne M.; Gunsalus, Robert P.; Zhou, Z. Hong

    2013-01-01

    Summary Storage granules are an important component of metabolism in many organisms spanning the bacterial, eukaryal and archaeal domains, but systematic analysis of their organization inside cells is lacking. In this study, we identify and characterize granulelike inclusion bodies in a methanogenic archaeon, Methanospirillum hungatei, an anaerobic microorganism that plays an important role in nutrient recycling in the ecosystem. Using cryo electron microscopy, we show that granules in mature M. hungatei are amorphous in structure with a uniform size. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis establishes that each granule is a polyphosphate body (PPB) that consists of high concentrations of phosphorous and oxygen, and increased levels of iron and magnesium. By scanning transmission electron tomography, we further estimate that the mass density within a PPB is a little less than metal titanium at room temperature and is about four times higher than that of the surrounding cytoplasm. Finally, three-dimensional cryo electron tomography reveals that PPBs are positioned off-centre in their radial locations relative to the cylindrical axis of the cell, and almost uniformly placed near cell ends. This positioning ability points to a genetic program that spatially and temporally directs the accumulation of polyphosphate into a storage granule, perhaps for energy-consuming activities, such as cell maintenance, division or motility. PMID:21854518

  1. Synaptic action of ethanol on cerebellar auditory granule cells reveals acute tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.M.; Liu, G.; Huang, R.H. )

    1991-03-11

    The cerebellum is very sensitive to acute intoxication by ethanol. The authors have recorded electrophysiological responses of granule cells to auditory stimulation from the posterior cerebellar vermis of cats before and after a relatively low dose of ethanol. Auditory responses of granule cells were severely inhibited by ethanol at a transient, peak ethanol concentration of 15-18 mM in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Thereafter, the clearance of ethanol from CSF followed an exponential time course, with 50% of the CSF ethanol being cleared with every passing hour. Auditory responses of granule cells returned to control levels within 60-90 minutes, despite the presence of a DSF ethanol concentration at 8-10mM, indicating acute tolerance. Moreover, a second, identical dose of ethanol, delivered two hours after the first dose produced an attenuated inhibition in the auditory response of cerebellar granule cells. The inhibition took a longer time to be evident but a shorter time to recover than that followed by the first dose of ethanol.

  2. Excess influx of Zn(2+) into dentate granule cells affects object recognition memory via attenuated LTP.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Miki; Fujise, Yuki; Tsuchiya, Yuka; Tamano, Haruna; Takeda, Atsushi

    2015-08-01

    The influx of extracellular Zn(2+) into dentate granule cells is nonessential for dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (LTP) and the physiological significance of extracellular Zn(2+) dynamics is unknown in the dentate gyrus. Excess increase in extracellular Zn(2+) in the hippocampal CA1, which is induced with excitation of zincergic neurons, induces memory deficit via excess influx of Zn(2+) into CA1 pyramidal cells. In the present study, it was examined whether extracellular Zn(2+) induces object recognition memory deficit via excess influx of Zn(2+) into dentate granule cells. KCl (100 mM, 2 µl) was locally injected into the dentate gyrus. The increase in intracellular Zn(2+) in dentate granule cells induced with high K(+) was blocked by co-injection of CaEDTA and CNQX, an extracellular Zn(2+) chelator and an AMPA receptor antagonist, respectively, suggesting that high K(+) increases the influx of Zn(2+) into dentate granule cells via AMPA receptor activation. Dentate gyrus LTP induction was attenuated 1 h after KCl injection into the dentate gyrus and also attenuated when KCl was injected 5 min after the induction. Memory deficit was induced when training of object recognition test was performed 1 h after KCl injection into the dentate gyrus and also induced when KCl was injected 5 min after the training. High K(+)-induced impairments of LTP and memory were rescued by co-injection of CaEDTA. These results indicate that excess influx of Zn(2+) into dentate granule cells via AMPA receptor activation affects object recognition memory via attenuated LTP induction. Even in the dentate gyrus where is scarcely innervated by zincergic neurons, it is likely that extracellular Zn(2+) homeostasis is strictly regulated for cognition. PMID:26044210

  3. Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor (SLPI) Expression and Tumor Invasion in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jie; Nikitakis, Nikolaos G.; Chaisuparat, Risa; Greenwell-Wild, Teresa; Gliozzi, Maria; Jin, Wenwen; Adli, Azita; Moutsopoulos, Niki; Wu, Tanxia; Warburton, Gary; Wahl, Sharon M.

    2011-01-01

    Differential expression of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) impacts on tumor progression. SLPI directly inhibits elastase and other serine proteases, and regulates matrix metalloproteinases, plasminogen activation, and plasmin downstream targets to influence invasion. We examined tissues from human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) for SLPI expression in parallel with proteases associated with tumor progression and evaluated their relationships using tumor cell lines. Significantly decreased SLPI was detected in OSCC compared to normal oral epithelium. Furthermore, an inverse correlation between SLPI and histological parameters associated with tumor progression, including stage of invasion, pattern of invasion, invasive cell grade, and composite histological tumor score was evident. Conversely, elevated plasmin and elastase were positively correlated with histological parameters of tumor invasion. In addition to its known inhibition of elastase, we identify SLPI as a novel inhibitor of plasminogen activation through its interaction with annexin A2 with concomitant reduced plasmin generation by macrophages and OSCC cell lines. In an in vitro assay measuring invasive activity, SLPI blocked protease-dependent tumor cell migration. Our data suggest that SLPI may possess antitumorigenic activity by virtue of its ability to interfere with multiple requisite proteolytic steps underlying tumor cell invasion and may provide insight into potential stratification of oral cancer according to risk of occult metastasis, guiding treatment strategies. PMID:21641406

  4. Ultrastructural and functional analysis of secretory goblet cells in the midgut of the lepidopteran Anticarsia gemmatalis.

    PubMed

    Gomes, F M; Carvalho, D B; Machado, E A; Miranda, K

    2013-05-01

    Defoliation caused by Anticarsia gemmatalis larvae affects the commercial production of the soybean. Although regulation of the digestion of soybean components has become part of the suggested strategy to overcome problems caused by Anticarsia larvae, few studies have focused on the morphological and cellular aspects of Anticarsia intestinal tissue. We have therefore further analyzed the morphology and ultrastructure of the midgut of 5th instar larvae of A. gemmatalis. Dissected midgut was subjected to chemical or cryo-fixation and then to several descriptive and analytical techniques associated with both light and electron microscopy in order to correlate anatomical and physiological aspects of this organ. Histological analysis revealed typical anatomy composed of a cell layer limited by a peritrophic membrane. The identified lepidoptera-specific goblet cells were shown to contain several mitochondria inside microvilli of the goblet cell cavity and a vacuolar H(+)-ATPase possibly coupled to a K(+)-pumping system. Columnar cells were present and exhibited microvilli dispersed along the apical region that also presented secretory characteristics. We additionally found evidence for the secretion of polyphosphate (PolyP) into the midgut, a result corroborating previous reports suggesting an excretion route from the goblet cell cavity toward the luminal space. Thus, our results suggest that the Anticarsia midgut not only possesses several typical lepidopteran features but also presents some unique aspects such as the presence of a tubular network and PolyP-containing apocrine secretions, plus an apparent route for the release of cellular debris by the goblet cells. PMID:23397424

  5. Senescent Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Drive Inflammation Through an Interleukin-1α–Dependent Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Sarah E.; Humphry, Melanie; Bennett, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective— Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) that become senescent are both present within atherosclerotic plaques and thought to be important to the disease process. However, senescent VSMCs are generally considered to only contribute through inaction, with failure to proliferate resulting in VSMC- and collagen-poor unstable fibrous caps. Whether senescent VSMCs can actively contribute to atherogenic processes, such as inflammation, is unknown. Approach and Results— We find that senescent human VSMCs develop a proinflammatory state known as a senescence-associated secretory phenotype. Senescent human VSMCs release high levels of multiple cytokines and chemokines driven by secreted interleukin-1α acting in an autocrine manner. Consequently, the VSMC senescence-associated secretory phenotype promotes chemotaxis of mononuclear cells in vitro and in vivo. In addition, senescent VSMCs release active matrix metalloproteinase-9, secrete less collagen, upregulate multiple inflammasome components, and prime adjacent endothelial cells and VSMCs to a proadhesive and proinflammatory state. Importantly, maintaining the senescence-associated secretory phenotype places a large metabolic burden on senescent VSMCs, such that they can be selectively killed by inhibiting glucose utilization. Conclusions— Senescent VSMCs may actively contribute toward the chronic inflammation associated with atherosclerosis through the interleukin-1α–driven senescence-associated secretory phenotype and the priming of adjacent cells to a proatherosclerotic state. These data also suggest that inhibition of this potentially important source of chronic inflammation in atherosclerosis requires blockade of interleukin-1α and not interleukin-1β. PMID:26139463

  6. Ca2+-dependent dephosphorylation of kinesin heavy chain on beta-granules in pancreatic beta-cells. Implications for regulated beta-granule transport and insulin exocytosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donelan, Matthew J.; Morfini, Gerardo; Julyan, Richard; Sommers, Scott; Hays, Lori; Kajio, Hiroshi; Briaud, Isabelle; Easom, Richard A.; Molkentin, Jeffery D.; Brady, Scott T.; Rhodes, Christopher J.

    2002-01-01

    The specific biochemical steps required for glucose-regulated insulin exocytosis from beta-cells are not well defined. Elevation of glucose leads to increases in cytosolic [Ca2+]i and biphasic release of insulin from both a readily releasable and a storage pool of beta-granules. The effect of elevated [Ca2+]i on phosphorylation of isolated beta-granule membrane proteins was evaluated, and the phosphorylation of four proteins was found to be altered by [Ca2+]i. One (a 18/20-kDa doublet) was a Ca2+-dependent increase in phosphorylation, and, surprisingly, three others (138, 42, and 36 kDa) were Ca2+-dependent dephosphorylations. The 138-kDa beta-granule phosphoprotein was found to be kinesin heavy chain (KHC). At low levels of [Ca2+]i KHC was phosphorylated by casein kinase 2, but KHC was rapidly dephosphorylated by protein phosphatase 2B beta (PP2Bbeta) as [Ca2+]i increased. Inhibitors of PP2B specifically reduced the second, microtubule-dependent, phase of insulin secretion, suggesting that dephosphorylation of KHC was required for transport of beta-granules from the storage pool to replenish the readily releasable pool of beta-granules. This is distinct from synaptic vesicle exocytosis, because neurotransmitter release from synaptosomes did not require a Ca2+-dependent KHC dephosphorylation. These results suggest a novel mechanism for regulating KHC function and beta-granule transport in beta-cells that is mediated by casein kinase 2 and PP2B. They also implicate a novel regulatory role for PP2B/calcineurin in the control of insulin secretion downstream of a rise in [Ca2+]i.

  7. Model cerebellar granule cells can faithfully transmit modulated firing rate signals

    PubMed Central

    Rössert, Christian; Solinas, Sergio; D'Angelo, Egidio; Dean, Paul; Porrill, John

    2014-01-01

    A crucial assumption of many high-level system models of the cerebellum is that information in the granular layer is encoded in a linear manner. However, granule cells are known for their non-linear and resonant synaptic and intrinsic properties that could potentially impede linear signal transmission. In this modeling study we analyse how electrophysiological granule cell properties and spike sampling influence information coded by firing rate modulation, assuming no signal-related, i.e., uncorrelated inhibitory feedback (open-loop mode). A detailed one-compartment granule cell model was excited in simulation by either direct current or mossy-fiber synaptic inputs. Vestibular signals were represented as tonic inputs to the flocculus modulated at frequencies up to 20 Hz (approximate upper frequency limit of vestibular-ocular reflex, VOR). Model outputs were assessed using estimates of both the transfer function, and the fidelity of input-signal reconstruction measured as variance-accounted-for. The detailed granule cell model with realistic mossy-fiber synaptic inputs could transmit information faithfully and linearly in the frequency range of the vestibular-ocular reflex. This was achieved most simply if the model neurons had a firing rate at least twice the highest required frequency of modulation, but lower rates were also adequate provided a population of neurons was utilized, especially in combination with push-pull coding. The exact number of neurons required for faithful transmission depended on the precise values of firing rate and noise. The model neurons were also able to combine excitatory and inhibitory signals linearly, and could be replaced by a simpler (modified) integrate-and-fire neuron in the case of high tonic firing rates. These findings suggest that granule cells can in principle code modulated firing-rate inputs in a linear manner, and are thus consistent with the high-level adaptive-filter model of the cerebellar microcircuit. PMID:25352777

  8. Golgi cells in the superficial granule cell domain overlying the ventral cochlear nucleus: morphology and electrophysiology in slices.

    PubMed

    Ferragamo, M J; Golding, N L; Gardner, S M; Oertel, D

    1998-11-01

    Golgi cells are poised to integrate multimodal influences by participating in circuits involving granule cells in the cochlear nuclei. To understand their physiological role, intracellular recordings were made from anatomically identified Golgi cells in slices of the cochlear nuclei from mice. Cell bodies, dendrites, and terminals for all seven labeled cells were restricted to the narrow plane of the superficial granule cell domain over the ventral cochlear nucleus. The axonal arborization was the most striking feature of all Golgi cells; a dense plexus of terminals covered an area 200-400 microm in diameter in the vicinity of the cell body and dendrites. Axonal beads often surrounded granule cell bodies, indicating that granule cells are probable targets. Cells had input resistances up to 130 M omega and fired regular, overshooting action potentials. Golgi cells probably receive auditory nerve input, because shocks to the cut end of the auditory nerve excited Golgi cells with excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs). The latency of EPSPs shortened to a minimum and the amplitude of EPSPs grew in several steps as the strength of shocks was increased. The minimum latency of EPSPs in Golgi cells was on average 1.3 milliseconds, 0.6 milliseconds longer than the minimum latencies of EPSPs in nearby octopus and T stellate cells. The long latency raises the possibility that Golgi cells receive input from slowly conducting, unmyelinated auditory nerve fibers. Golgi cells are also excited by interneurons with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, probably granule cells, because repetitive shocks and single shocks in the absence of extracellular Mg2+ evoked late EPSPs that were reversibly blocked by DL-2-amino-5-phosphono-valeric acid. PMID:9786412

  9. Granulated metrial gland cells and interstitial trophoblast in the uterine wall of the bank vole, Clethrionomys glareolus, in early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    STEWART, I. J.; CLARKE, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    The morphology and distribution of granulated metrial gland cells and of interstitial trophoblast cells in the uterine wall was studied in the first half of pregnancy in the bank vole, Clethrionomys glareolus. The morphology and distribution of granulated metrial gland cells was generally similar to that found in other members of the Rodentia, although they were absent from the walls of the arterial vessels passing through the decidua basalis. Interstitial trophoblast invaded the decidualising endometrium mesometrial to, and antimesometrial to, the implanted embryos. There was no apparent spatiotemporal relationship between the distribution of granulated metrial gland cells and interstitial trophoblast cells. PMID:10337962

  10. Dentate granule cells in the rat hippocampal formation have the behavioral characteristics of theta neurons.

    PubMed

    Rose, G; Diamond, D; Lynch, G S

    1983-04-25

    Recordings were made from the dentate gyrus granule cell layer of freely-moving rats. The neurons recorded from the layer were divisible into 3 classes using a combination of electrophysiological and behavioral criteria; the duration of the extracellularly recorded unfiltered action potential provided the most reliable means of differentiating between cell types. Class I and class II neurons always fired in short duration single action potentials, while class III neurons had broader waveforms and occasionally were observed to fire complex spikes. As the most obvious behavioral correlate of class I and class II neurons was movement of the rat, these cells correspond to the theta cells of Ranck. Class III neurons for which a behavioral correlate was observed had the characteristics of the place cells described by O'Keefe. The neurons of classes I and II comprised 89% (56 of 63) of the total population sampled in the granule cell layer. Most of these neurons (49 of 56) discharged at short latency in response to a stimulus delivered via the perforant pathway; in contrast, none of the class III neurons observed were activated in this way. Horseradish peroxidase or Fast Green dye ejection through glass microelectrodes recording class I cell activity in urethane-anesthetized animals revealed the electrode tip to be in the granule cell layer in 27 of 27 cases. Six single class I neurons were also antidromically activated by a stimulus from an electrode placed in the hippocampal mossy fibers, and collision testing was successful in all cases. It is concluded that the dentate granule cells are theta cells. PMID:6850345

  11. Expression of ODC Antizyme Inhibitor 2 (AZIN2) in Human Secretory Cells and Tissues.

    PubMed

    Rasila, Tiina; Lehtonen, Alexandra; Kanerva, Kristiina; Mäkitie, Laura T; Haglund, Caj; Andersson, Leif C

    2016-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) antizyme inhibitor 2 (AZIN2), originally called ODCp, is a regulator of polyamine synthesis that we originally identified and cloned. High expression of ODCp mRNA was found in brain and testis. We reported that AZIN2 is involved in regulation of cellular vesicle transport and / or secretion, but the ultimate physiological role(s) of AZIN2 is still poorly understood. In this study we used a peptide antibody (K3) to human AZIN2 and by immunohistochemistry mapped its expression in various normal tissues. We found high expression in the nervous system, in type 2 pneumocytes in the lung, in megakaryocytes, in gastric parietal cells co-localized with H,K-ATPase beta subunit, in selected enteroendocrine cells, in acinar cells of sweat glands, in podocytes, in macula densa cells and epithelium of collecting ducts in the kidney. The high expression of AZIN2 in various cells with secretory or vesicle transport activity indicates that the polyamine metabolism regulated by AZIN2 is more significantly involved in these events than previously appreciated. PMID:26963840

  12. Expression of ODC Antizyme Inhibitor 2 (AZIN2) in Human Secretory Cells and Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Rasila, Tiina; Lehtonen, Alexandra; Kanerva, Kristiina; Mäkitie, Laura T.; Haglund, Caj; Andersson, Leif C.

    2016-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) antizyme inhibitor 2 (AZIN2), originally called ODCp, is a regulator of polyamine synthesis that we originally identified and cloned. High expression of ODCp mRNA was found in brain and testis. We reported that AZIN2 is involved in regulation of cellular vesicle transport and / or secretion, but the ultimate physiological role(s) of AZIN2 is still poorly understood. In this study we used a peptide antibody (K3) to human AZIN2 and by immunohistochemistry mapped its expression in various normal tissues. We found high expression in the nervous system, in type 2 pneumocytes in the lung, in megakaryocytes, in gastric parietal cells co-localized with H,K-ATPase beta subunit, in selected enteroendocrine cells, in acinar cells of sweat glands, in podocytes, in macula densa cells and epithelium of collecting ducts in the kidney. The high expression of AZIN2 in various cells with secretory or vesicle transport activity indicates that the polyamine metabolism regulated by AZIN2 is more significantly involved in these events than previously appreciated. PMID:26963840

  13. Clostridium difficile toxin B inhibits the secretory response of human mast cell line-1 (HMC-1) cells stimulated with high free-Ca²⁺ and GTPγS.

    PubMed

    Balletta, Andrea; Lorenz, Dorothea; Rummel, Andreas; Gerhard, Ralf; Bigalke, Hans; Wegner, Florian

    2015-02-01

    Clostridium difficile toxins A and B (TcdA and TcdB) belong to the class of large clostridial cytotoxins and inactivate by glucosylation some low molecular mass GTPases of the Rho-family (predominantly Rho, Rac and Cdc42), known as regulators of the actin cytoskeleton. TcdA and B also represent the main virulence factors of the anaerobic gram-positive bacterium that is the causal agent of pseudomembranous colitis. In our study, TcdB was chosen instead of TcdA for the well-known higher cytotoxic potency. Inactivation of Rho-family GTPases by this toxin in our experimental conditions induced morphological changes and reduction of electron-dense mast cell-specific granules in human mast cell line-1 (HMC-1) cells, but not cell death or permeabilisation of plasma-membranes. Previously reported patch-clamp dialysis experiments revealed that high intracellular free-Ca(2+) and GTPγS concentrations are capable of inducing exocytosis as indicated by significant membrane capacitance (Cm) increases in HMC-1 cells. In this study, we investigated the direct effects of TcdB upon HMC-1 cell "stimulated" Cm increase, as well as on "constitutive" secretion of hexosaminidase and interleukin-16 (IL-16). Compared to untreated control cells, HMC-1 cells incubated with TcdB for 3-24h exhibited a significant reduction of the mean absolute and relative Cm increase in response to free-Ca(2+) and GTPγS suggesting an inhibition of secretory processes by TcdB. In conclusion, the HMC-1 cell line represents a suitable model for the study of direct effects of C. difficile toxins on human mast cell secretory activity. PMID:25497110

  14. Local postsynaptic voltage-gated sodium channel activation in dendritic spines of olfactory bulb granule cells.

    PubMed

    Bywalez, Wolfgang G; Patirniche, Dinu; Rupprecht, Vanessa; Stemmler, Martin; Herz, Andreas V M; Pálfi, Dénes; Rózsa, Balázs; Egger, Veronica

    2015-02-01

    Neuronal dendritic spines have been speculated to function as independent computational units, yet evidence for active electrical computation in spines is scarce. Here we show that strictly local voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav) activation can occur during excitatory postsynaptic potentials in the spines of olfactory bulb granule cells, which we mimic and detect via combined two-photon uncaging of glutamate and calcium imaging in conjunction with whole-cell recordings. We find that local Nav activation boosts calcium entry into spines through high-voltage-activated calcium channels and accelerates postsynaptic somatic depolarization, without affecting NMDA receptor-mediated signaling. Hence, Nav-mediated boosting promotes rapid output from the reciprocal granule cell spine onto the lateral mitral cell dendrite and thus can speed up recurrent inhibition. This striking example of electrical compartmentalization both adds to the understanding of olfactory network processing and broadens the general view of spine function. PMID:25619656

  15. Distinct Contribution of Adult-Born Hippocampal Granule Cells to Context Encoding.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Nathan B; Kaifosh, Patrick; Zaremba, Jeffrey D; Lovett-Barron, Matthew; Tsai, Joseph; Denny, Christine A; Balough, Elizabeth M; Goldberg, Alexander R; Drew, Liam J; Hen, René; Losonczy, Attila; Kheirbek, Mazen A

    2016-04-01

    Adult-born granule cells (abGCs) have been implicated in cognition and mood; however, it remains unknown how these cells behave in vivo. Here, we have used two-photon calcium imaging to monitor the activity of young abGCs in awake behaving mice. We find that young adult-born neurons fire at a higher rate in vivo but paradoxically exhibit less spatial tuning than their mature counterparts. When presented with different contexts, mature granule cells underwent robust remapping of their spatial representations, and the few spatially tuned adult-born cells remapped to a similar degree. We next used optogenetic silencing to confirm the direct involvement of abGCs in context encoding and discrimination, consistent with their proposed role in pattern separation. These results provide the first in vivo characterization of abGCs and reveal their participation in the encoding of novel information. PMID:26971949

  16. Electroconvulsive Seizure Promotes Spine Maturation in Newborn Dentate Granule Cells in Adult Rat

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunmei; Warner-Schmidt, Jennifer; Duman, Ronald S.; Gage, Fred H.

    2013-01-01

    Neurogenesis continues in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus throughout life in mammals. This process is influenced by daily activities such as exercise, learning, and stress and may contribute to certain forms of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is also subject to regulation by anti depressant treatment, including chronic treatment with antidepressant drugs or electroconvulsive seizure (ECS) therapy. Here we investigated how the connectivity of newborn and mature granule cells is influenced by ECS administration in rats. Specifically, we examined the dendritic spine morphology of newborn and mature granule cells in rats and found that ECS administration promoted the maturation of dendritic spines in newborn cells and increased spine density in mature cells. These changes could potentially lead to alteration in dentate circuitry and may partially contribute to the functional effects of ECS. PMID:21976455

  17. Clonal Analysis of Newborn Hippocampal Dentate Granule Cell Proliferation and Development in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    LaSarge, Candi L.; McAuliffe, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hippocampal dentate granule cells are among the few neuronal cell types generated throughout adult life in mammals. In the normal brain, new granule cells are generated from progenitors in the subgranular zone and integrate in a typical fashion. During the development of epilepsy, granule cell integration is profoundly altered. The new cells migrate to ectopic locations and develop misoriented “basal” dendrites. Although it has been established that these abnormal cells are newly generated, it is not known whether they arise ubiquitously throughout the progenitor cell pool or are derived from a smaller number of “bad actor” progenitors. To explore this question, we conducted a clonal analysis study in mice expressing the Brainbow fluorescent protein reporter construct in dentate granule cell progenitors. Mice were examined 2 months after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, a treatment that leads to the development of epilepsy. Brain sections were rendered translucent so that entire hippocampi could be reconstructed and all fluorescently labeled cells identified. Our findings reveal that a small number of progenitors produce the majority of ectopic cells following status epilepticus, indicating that either the affected progenitors or their local microenvironments have become pathological. By contrast, granule cells with “basal” dendrites were equally distributed among clonal groups. This indicates that these progenitors can produce normal cells and suggests that global factors sporadically disrupt the dendritic development of some new cells. Together, these findings strongly predict that distinct mechanisms regulate different aspects of granule cell pathology in epilepsy. PMID:26756038

  18. Secretory IgA induces tolerogenic dendritic cells through SIGNR1 dampening autoimmunity in mice.

    PubMed

    Diana, Julien; Moura, Ivan C; Vaugier, Céline; Gestin, Aurélie; Tissandie, Emilie; Beaudoin, Lucie; Corthésy, Blaise; Hocini, Hakim; Lehuen, Agnès; Monteiro, Renato C

    2013-09-01

    IgA plays ambivalent roles in the immune system. The balance between inhibitory and activating responses relies on the multimerization status of IgA and interaction with their cognate receptors. In mucosal sites, secretory IgA (SIgA) protects the host through immune-exclusion mechanisms, but its function in the bloodstream remains unknown. Using bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, we found that both human and mouse SIgA induce tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) following binding to specific ICAM-3 grabbing nonintegrin receptor 1. This interaction was dependent on Ca(2+) and mannose residues. SIgA-primed DCs (SIgA-DCs) are resistant to TLR-dependent maturation. Although SIgA-DCs fail to induce efficient proliferation and Th1 differentiation of naive responder T cells, they generate the expansion of regulatory T cells through IL-10 production. SIgA-DCs are highly potent in inhibiting autoimmune responses in mouse models of type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis. This discovery may offer new insights about mucosal-derived DC immunoregulation through SIgA opening new therapeutic approaches to autoimmune diseases. PMID:23926325

  19. Protective role for club cell secretory protein-16 (CC16) in the development of COPD.

    PubMed

    Laucho-Contreras, Maria E; Polverino, Francesca; Gupta, Kushagra; Taylor, Katherine L; Kelly, Emer; Pinto-Plata, Victor; Divo, Miguel; Ashfaq, Naveed; Petersen, Hans; Stripp, Barry; Pilon, Aprile L; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes; Celli, Bartolome R; Owen, Caroline A

    2015-06-01

    Club cell secretory protein-16 (CC16) is the major secreted product of airway club cells, but its role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unclear. We measured CC16 airway expression in humans with and without COPD and CC16 function in a cigarette smoke (CS)-induced COPD murine model. Airway CC16 expression was measured in COPD patients, smokers without COPD and non-smokers. We exposed wildtype (WT) and CC16(-/-)mice to CS or air for up to 6?months, and measured airway CC16 expression, pulmonary inflammation, alveolar septal cell apoptosis, airspace enlargement, airway mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) expression, small airway remodelling and pulmonary function. Smokers and COPD patients had reduced airway CC16 immunostaining that decreased with increasing COPD severity. Exposing mice to CS reduced airway CC16 expression. CC16(-/-) mice had greater CS-induced emphysema, airway remodelling, pulmonary inflammation, alveolar cell apoptosis, airway MUC5AC expression, and more compliant lungs than WT mice. These changes were associated with increased nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation in CC16(-/-) lungs. CS-induced acute pulmonary changes were reversed by adenoviral-mediated over-expression of CC16. CC16 protects lungs from CS-induced injury by reducing lung NF-?B activation. CS-induced airway CC16 deficiency increases CS-induced pulmonary inflammation and injury and likely contributes to the pathogenesis of COPD. PMID:25700379

  20. Eosinophil secretion of granule-derived cytokines.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Lisa A; Bonjour, Kennedy; Melo, Rossana C N; Weller, Peter F

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils are tissue-dwelling leukocytes, present in the thymus, and gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of healthy individuals at baseline, and recruited, often in large numbers, to allergic inflammatory foci and sites of active tissue repair. The biological significance of eosinophils is vast and varied. In health, eosinophils support uterine and mammary gland development, and maintain bone marrow plasma cells and adipose tissue alternatively activated macrophages, while in response to tissue insult eosinophils function as inflammatory effector cells, and, in the wake of an inflammatory response, promote tissue regeneration, and wound healing. One common mechanism driving many of the diverse eosinophil functions is the regulated and differential secretion of a vast array of eosinophil-derived cytokines. Eosinophils are distinguished from most other leukocytes in that many, if not all, of the over three dozen eosinophil-derived cytokines are pre-synthesized and stored within intracellular granules, poised for very rapid, stimulus-induced secretion. Eosinophils engaged in cytokine secretion in situ utilize distinct pathways of cytokine release that include classical exocytosis, whereby granules themselves fuse with the plasma membrane and release their entire contents extracellularly; piecemeal degranulation, whereby granule-derived cytokines are selectively mobilized into vesicles that emerge from granules, traverse the cytoplasm and fuse with the plasma membrane to release discrete packets of cytokines; and eosinophil cytolysis, whereby intact granules are extruded from eosinophils, and deposited within tissues. In this latter scenario, extracellular granules can themselves function as stimulus-responsive secretory-competent organelles within the tissue. Here, we review the distinctive processes of differential secretion of eosinophil granule-derived cytokines. PMID:25386174

  1. Eosinophil Secretion of Granule-Derived Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Lisa A.; Bonjour, Kennedy; Melo, Rossana C. N.; Weller, Peter F.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils are tissue-dwelling leukocytes, present in the thymus, and gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of healthy individuals at baseline, and recruited, often in large numbers, to allergic inflammatory foci and sites of active tissue repair. The biological significance of eosinophils is vast and varied. In health, eosinophils support uterine and mammary gland development, and maintain bone marrow plasma cells and adipose tissue alternatively activated macrophages, while in response to tissue insult eosinophils function as inflammatory effector cells, and, in the wake of an inflammatory response, promote tissue regeneration, and wound healing. One common mechanism driving many of the diverse eosinophil functions is the regulated and differential secretion of a vast array of eosinophil-derived cytokines. Eosinophils are distinguished from most other leukocytes in that many, if not all, of the over three dozen eosinophil-derived cytokines are pre-synthesized and stored within intracellular granules, poised for very rapid, stimulus-induced secretion. Eosinophils engaged in cytokine secretion in situ utilize distinct pathways of cytokine release that include classical exocytosis, whereby granules themselves fuse with the plasma membrane and release their entire contents extracellularly; piecemeal degranulation, whereby granule-derived cytokines are selectively mobilized into vesicles that emerge from granules, traverse the cytoplasm and fuse with the plasma membrane to release discrete packets of cytokines; and eosinophil cytolysis, whereby intact granules are extruded from eosinophils, and deposited within tissues. In this latter scenario, extracellular granules can themselves function as stimulus-responsive secretory-competent organelles within the tissue. Here, we review the distinctive processes of differential secretion of eosinophil granule-derived cytokines. PMID:25386174

  2. Exocytotic release from individual granules exhibits similar properties at mast and chromaffin cells.

    PubMed Central

    Pihel, K; Travis, E R; Borges, R; Wightman, R M

    1996-01-01

    The effects of temperature on granular secretion were studied in individual bovine adrenal chromaffin and rat peritoneal mast cells. It was found that more molecules are released from individual granules at physiological temperature than at room temperature, where such experiments are normally performed. In mast cells, there is also a dramatic decrease in the time required for exocytosis to be complete at 37 degrees C compared to room temperature. In the presence of some cations, the amount released from individual granules at room temperature from both types of cells could be altered. The amount of secretion decreased with the divalent cation zinc but increased with the monovalent cation cesium. These experiments used two electrochemical techniques: cyclic voltammetry and amperometry. With amperometry, the concentration gradient created by the electrode near the cell further increased the amount of release. Similar responses to changes in the extracellular environment in chromaffin and mast cells suggest that the mechanism of extrusion of the granule contents is similar in both cell types. PMID:8874038

  3. Optical monitoring of progressive synchronization in dentate granule cells during population burst activities.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Masanori; Miyazaki, Kenichi; Kudo, Yoshihisa; Miyakawa, Hiroyoshi; Inoue, Masashi

    2005-06-01

    Monitoring multiple neurons is essential for understanding neuronal network activities. While calcium imaging from a population of cells is an effective method to study the network dynamics of a neural structure, it has been difficult to image from densely packed structures, such as the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, due to overlap of the cells. We have developed a novel method to label multiple granule cells with a Ca(2+) indicator in rat hippocampal slices using Oregon Green 488 BAPTA-1 (OGB-1) AM. Synchronized burst activities (0.3-1.4 Hz), which were induced by applying 50 microm 4-aminopyridine, were monitored extracellularly with a glass electrode placed at the granule cell layer in the dentate gyrus. During the burst activities, spontaneously occurring action potential-induced Ca(2+) transients from multiple (4-12) granule cells were monitored with a cooled CCD camera with single-cell resolution. Temporal structures of firing patterns from the multiple neurons were determined from Ca(2+) transients. In each single-burst-event recorded from the extracellular electrode, each neuron fired synchronously within a 200 ms time window. The latency and its variance from the onset time of the single-burst-events to one of the Ca(2+) transients decreased over time (< 7.5 min). These results indicate that the synchrony of the action potentials within a single-burst-event was enhanced as the burst activities proceeded. This progressive synchronization may be a key feature in making self-organizing neuronal networks. PMID:16026472

  4. Dendritic morphology, synaptic transmission, and activity of mature granule cells born following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fei; Song, Xueying; Zhu, Dexiao; Wang, Xiaochen; Hao, Aijun; Nadler, J. Victor; Zhan, Ren-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    To understand the potential role of enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) in the development of epilepsy, we quantitatively analyzed the geometry of apical dendrites, synaptic transmission, and activation levels of normotopically distributed mature newborn granule cells in the rat. SE in male Sprague-Dawley rats (between 6 and 7 weeks old) lasting for more than 2 h was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of pilocarpine. The complexity, spine density, miniature post-synaptic currents, and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) expression of granule cells born 5 days after SE were studied between 10 and 17 weeks after CAG-GFP retroviral vector-mediated labeling. Mature granule cells born after SE had dendritic complexity similar to that of granule cells born naturally, but with denser mushroom-like spines in dendritic segments located in the outer molecular layer. Miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents (mIPSCs) were similar between the controls and rats subjected to SE; however, smaller miniature excitatory post-synaptic current (mEPSC) amplitude with a trend toward less frequent was found in mature granule cells born after SE. After maturation, granule cells born after SE did not show denser Arc expression in the resting condition or 2 h after being activated by pentylenetetrazol-induced transient seizure activity than vicinal GFP-unlabeled granule cells. Thus our results suggest that normotopic granule cells born after pilocarpine-induced SE are no more active when mature than age-matched, naturally born granule cells. PMID:26500490

  5. Rapid erasure of hippocampal memory following inhibition of dentate gyrus granule cells.

    PubMed

    Madroñal, Noelia; Delgado-García, José M; Fernández-Guizán, Azahara; Chatterjee, Jayanta; Köhn, Maja; Mattucci, Camilla; Jain, Apar; Tsetsenis, Theodoros; Illarionova, Anna; Grinevich, Valery; Gross, Cornelius T; Gruart, Agnès

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampus is critical for the acquisition and retrieval of episodic and contextual memories. Lesions of the dentate gyrus, a principal input of the hippocampus, block memory acquisition, but it remains unclear whether this region also plays a role in memory retrieval. Here we combine cell-type specific neural inhibition with electrophysiological measurements of learning-associated plasticity in behaving mice to demonstrate that dentate gyrus granule cells are not required for memory retrieval, but instead have an unexpected role in memory maintenance. Furthermore, we demonstrate the translational potential of our findings by showing that pharmacological activation of an endogenous inhibitory receptor expressed selectively in dentate gyrus granule cells can induce a rapid loss of hippocampal memory. These findings open a new avenue for the targeted erasure of episodic and contextual memories. PMID:26988806

  6. Mature granule cells of the dentate gyrus-Passive bystanders or principal performers in hippocampal function?

    PubMed

    Lopez-Rojas, Jeffrey; Kreutz, Michael R

    2016-05-01

    The dentate gyrus is the main entrance of highly processed information to the hippocampus which derives from associative cortices and it is one of the few privileged areas in the brain where adult neurogenesis occurs. This creates the unique situation that neurons of diverse maturation stages are part of one neuronal network at any given point in life. While recently adult-born cells have a low induction threshold for long-term potentiation several studies suggest that following maturation granule cells are poorly excitable and they exhibit reduced Hebbian synaptic plasticity to an extent that it was even suggested that they functionally retire. Here, we review the functional properties of mature granule cells and discuss how plasticity of intrinsic excitability and alterations in excitation-inhibition balance might impact on their role in hippocampal information processing. PMID:26949226

  7. Rapid erasure of hippocampal memory following inhibition of dentate gyrus granule cells

    PubMed Central

    Madroñal, Noelia; Delgado-García, José M.; Fernández-Guizán, Azahara; Chatterjee, Jayanta; Köhn, Maja; Mattucci, Camilla; Jain, Apar; Tsetsenis, Theodoros; Illarionova, Anna; Grinevich, Valery; Gross, Cornelius T.; Gruart, Agnès

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampus is critical for the acquisition and retrieval of episodic and contextual memories. Lesions of the dentate gyrus, a principal input of the hippocampus, block memory acquisition, but it remains unclear whether this region also plays a role in memory retrieval. Here we combine cell-type specific neural inhibition with electrophysiological measurements of learning-associated plasticity in behaving mice to demonstrate that dentate gyrus granule cells are not required for memory retrieval, but instead have an unexpected role in memory maintenance. Furthermore, we demonstrate the translational potential of our findings by showing that pharmacological activation of an endogenous inhibitory receptor expressed selectively in dentate gyrus granule cells can induce a rapid loss of hippocampal memory. These findings open a new avenue for the targeted erasure of episodic and contextual memories. PMID:26988806

  8. Agglutinating Secretory IgA Preserves Intestinal Epithelial Cell Integrity during Apical Infection by Shigella flexneri

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, Amandine; Longet, Stéphanie

    2013-01-01

    Shigella flexneri, by invading intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and inducing inflammatory responses of the colonic mucosa, causes bacillary dysentery. Although M cells overlying Peyer's patches are commonly considered the primary site of entry of S. flexneri, indirect evidence suggests that bacteria can also use IECs as a portal of entry to the lamina propria. Passive delivery of secretory IgA (SIgA), the major immunoglobulin secreted at mucosal surfaces, has been shown to protect rabbits from experimental shigellosis, but no information exists as to its molecular role in maintaining luminal epithelial integrity. We have established that the interaction of virulent S. flexneri with the apical pole of a model intestinal epithelium consisting of polarized Caco-2 cell monolayers resulted in the progressive disruption of the tight junction network and actin depolymerization, eventually resulting in cell death. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific agglutinating SIgAC5 monoclonal antibody (MAb), but not monomeric IgAC5 or IgGC20 MAbs of the same specificity, achieved protective functions through combined mechanisms, including limitation of the interaction between S. flexneri and epithelial cells, maintenance of the tight junction seal, preservation of the cell morphology, reduction of NF-κB nuclear translocation, and inhibition of proinflammatory mediator secretion. Our results add to the understanding of the function of SIgA-mediated immune exclusion by identifying a mode of action whereby the formation of immune complexes translates into maintenance of the integrity of epithelial cells lining the mucosa. This novel mechanism of protection mediated by SIgA is important to extend the arsenal of effective strategies to fight against S. flexneri mucosal invasion. PMID:23753631

  9. Expression of S100 beta in sensory and secretory cells of the vertebrate inner ear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fermin, C. D.; Martin, D. S.

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated anti-S100 beta expression in the chick (Gallus domesticus) inner ear and determined that: 1) the monomer anti-S100 beta is expressed differentially in the vestibular and auditory perikarya; 2) expression of S100 beta in the afferent nerve terminals is time-related to synapse and myelin formation; 3) the expression of the dimer anti-S100 alpha alpha beta beta and monomer anti-S100 beta overlaps in most inner ear cell types. Most S100 alpha alpha beta beta positive cells express S100 beta, but S100 beta positive cells do not always express S100 alpha alpha beta beta. 4) the expression of S100 beta is diffused over the perikaryal cytoplasm and nuclei of the acoustic ganglia but is concentrated over the nuclei of the vestibular perikarya. 6) S100 beta is expressed in secretory cells, and it is co-localized with GABA in sensory cells. 7) Color thresholding objective quantitation indicates that the amount of S100 beta was higher (mean 22, SD +/- 4) at E19 than at E9 (mean 34, SD +/- 3) in afferent axons. 8) Moreover, S100 beta was unchanged between E11-E19 in the perikaryal cytoplasm, but did change over the nuclei. At E9, 74%, and at E21, 5% of vestibular perikarya were positive. The data suggest that S100 beta may be physically associated with neuronal and ionic controlling cells of the vertebrate inner ear, where it could provide a dual ionic and neurotrophic modulatory function.

  10. Granule proteinases define mast cell heterogeneity in the serosa and the gastrointestinal mucosa of the mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, H R; Huntley, J F; Newlands, G F; Mackellar, A; Lammas, D A; Wakelin, D

    1988-01-01

    In order to define further mast cell heterogeneity in the mouse, affinity-purified antibodies against a 28,000 MW serine proteinase from mouse intestinal mast cells (IMCP) and against rat mast cell proteinase I (RMCPI) were used to characterize mast cell cytoplasmic granules immunohistochemically. On Western blot, anti-IMCP cross-reacted with RMCPI and with a 25,000 MW antigen from isolated mouse serosal mast cells (SMC). Anti-RMCPI did not react with IMCP, although it identified the same 25,000 MW antigen from SMC. Isolated SMC (85-90% pure) lacked the 28,000 MW IMCP on Western blot, even though, immunohistochemically, the cells were stained with both anti-RMCPI and anti-IMCP. Anti-IMCP stained the granules of more than 85% of all mast cells detected with toluidine blue in the tongue or gastrointestinal mucosa. The specificity of anti-RMCPI which, in the rat, detects very few mucosal mast cells was almost identical to that of anti-IMCP for murine tongue and gastric and large intestinal mucosae, but a significant proportion of cells in distal jejunal, ileal and caecal mucosae were not stained with this antibody. The immunohistochemistry of the large numbers of mast cells recruited to jejunum following infection 10 days previously with 300 Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae was similar to that of uninfected control mice. The results show that considerable mast cell heterogeneity exists within the gastrointestinal mucosa of the mouse and indicate that there are both similarities and differences between mouse and rat in the distribution of mast cells and of their granule proteinases. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:3065218

  11. Loss-of-function mutations in ABCA1 and enhanced β-cell secretory capacity in young adults.

    PubMed

    Rickels, Michael R; Goeser, Eugen S; Fuller, Carissa; Lord, Christine; Bowler, Anne M; Doliba, Nicolai M; Hegele, Robert A; Cuchel, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations affecting the cholesterol transporter ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1) impair cellular cholesterol efflux and are associated with reduced HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. ABCA1 may also be important in regulating β-cell cholesterol homeostasis and insulin secretion. We sought to determine whether loss-of-function ABCA1 mutations affect β-cell secretory capacity in humans by performing glucose-potentiated arginine tests in three subjects homozygous for ABCA1 mutations (age 25 ± 11 years), eight heterozygous subjects (28 ± 7 years), and eight normal control subjects pair-matched to the heterozygous carriers. To account for any effect of low HDL-C on insulin secretion, we studied nine subjects with isolated low HDL-C with no ABCA1 mutations (age 26 ± 6 years) and nine pair-matched control subjects. Homozygotes for ABCA1 mutations exhibited enhanced oral glucose tolerance and dramatically increased β-cell secretory capacity that was also greater in ABCA1 heterozygous subjects than in control subjects, with no differences in insulin sensitivity. Isolated low HDL-C subjects also demonstrated an increase in β-cell secretory capacity but in contrast to those with ABCA1 mutations, exhibited impaired insulin sensitivity, supporting β-cell compensation for increased insulin demand. These data indicate that loss-of-function mutations in ABCA1 in young adults may be associated with enhanced β-cell secretory capacity and normal insulin sensitivity and support the importance of cellular cholesterol homeostasis in regulating β-cell insulin secretion. PMID:25125487

  12. Loss-of-Function Mutations in ABCA1 and Enhanced β-Cell Secretory Capacity in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Goeser, Eugen S.; Fuller, Carissa; Lord, Christine; Bowler, Anne M.; Doliba, Nicolai M.; Hegele, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations affecting the cholesterol transporter ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1) impair cellular cholesterol efflux and are associated with reduced HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. ABCA1 may also be important in regulating β-cell cholesterol homeostasis and insulin secretion. We sought to determine whether loss-of-function ABCA1 mutations affect β-cell secretory capacity in humans by performing glucose-potentiated arginine tests in three subjects homozygous for ABCA1 mutations (age 25 ± 11 years), eight heterozygous subjects (28 ± 7 years), and eight normal control subjects pair-matched to the heterozygous carriers. To account for any effect of low HDL-C on insulin secretion, we studied nine subjects with isolated low HDL-C with no ABCA1 mutations (age 26 ± 6 years) and nine pair-matched control subjects. Homozygotes for ABCA1 mutations exhibited enhanced oral glucose tolerance and dramatically increased β-cell secretory capacity that was also greater in ABCA1 heterozygous subjects than in control subjects, with no differences in insulin sensitivity. Isolated low HDL-C subjects also demonstrated an increase in β-cell secretory capacity but in contrast to those with ABCA1 mutations, exhibited impaired insulin sensitivity, supporting β-cell compensation for increased insulin demand. These data indicate that loss-of-function mutations in ABCA1 in young adults may be associated with enhanced β-cell secretory capacity and normal insulin sensitivity and support the importance of cellular cholesterol homeostasis in regulating β-cell insulin secretion. PMID:25125487

  13. SNAP23 is selectively expressed in airway secretory cells and mediates baseline and stimulated mucin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Binhui; Azzegagh, Zoulikha; Jaramillo, Ana M.; Zhu, Yunxiang; Pardo-Saganta, Ana; Bagirzadeh, Rustam; Flores, Jose R.; Han, Wei; Tang, Yong-jun; Tu, Jing; Alanis, Denise M.; Evans, Christopher M.; Guindani, Michele; Roche, Paul A.; Rajagopal, Jayaraj; Chen, Jichao; Davis, C. William; Tuvim, Michael J.; Dickey, Burton F.

    2015-01-01

    Airway mucin secretion is important pathophysiologically and as a model of polarized epithelial regulated exocytosis. We find the trafficking protein, SNAP23 (23-kDa paralogue of synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa), selectively expressed in secretory cells compared with ciliated and basal cells of airway epithelium by immunohistochemistry and FACS, suggesting that SNAP23 functions in regulated but not constitutive epithelial secretion. Heterozygous SNAP23 deletant mutant mice show spontaneous accumulation of intracellular mucin, indicating a defect in baseline secretion. However mucins are released from perfused tracheas of mutant and wild-type (WT) mice at the same rate, suggesting that increased intracellular stores balance reduced release efficiency to yield a fully compensated baseline steady state. In contrast, acute stimulated release of intracellular mucin from mutant mice is impaired whether measured by a static imaging assay 5 min after exposure to the secretagogue ATP or by kinetic analysis of mucins released from perfused tracheas during the first 10 min of ATP exposure. Together, these data indicate that increased intracellular stores cannot fully compensate for the defect in release efficiency during intense stimulation. The lungs of mutant mice develop normally and clear bacteria and instilled polystyrene beads comparable to WT mice, consistent with these functions depending on baseline secretion that is fully compensated. PMID:26182382

  14. YAP Induces High-Grade Serous Carcinoma in Fallopian Tube Secretory Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Guohua; Lv, Xiangmin; He, Chunbo; Remmenga, Steven W.; Rodabough, Kerry J.; Dong, Jixin; Yang, Liguo; Lele, Subodh M.; Yang, Peixin; Zhou, Jin; Karst, Alison; Drapkin, Ronny I.; Davis, John S.; Wang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) originates from Fallopian tube secretory epithelial cells (FTSECs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation and progression of HGSC derived from FTSECs remains unclear. In the present study, we found that the Hippo/YAP signaling pathway plays a critical role in the initiation and progression of Fallopian tube and ovarian HGSC. Importantly, YAP was overexpressed in inflammatory and cancerous Fallopian tube tissues. Further, overexpression of wild-type YAP, or constitutively active YAP in immortalized FTSECs, induced cell proliferation, migration, colony formation, and tumorigenesis. Moreover, the Hippo/YAP and the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathways formed an autocrine/paracrine positive feedback loop to drive the progression of the FTSECs-derived HGSC. Evidence in this study strongly suggests that combined therapy with inhibitors of YAP (such as verteporfin) and FGFRs (such as BGJ398) can provide a novel therapeutic strategy to treat Fallopian tube and ovarian HGSC. PMID:26364602

  15. YAP induces high-grade serous carcinoma in fallopian tube secretory epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hua, G; Lv, X; He, C; Remmenga, S W; Rodabough, K J; Dong, J; Yang, L; Lele, S M; Yang, P; Zhou, J; Karst, A; Drapkin, R I; Davis, J S; Wang, C

    2016-04-28

    Accumulating evidence indicates that ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) originates from fallopian tube secretory epithelial cells (FTSECs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation and progression of HGSC derived from FTSECs remains unclear. In this study, we found that the Hippo/Yes-associated protein (YAP) signaling pathway has a critical role in the initiation and progression of fallopian tube and ovarian HGSC. Importantly, YAP was overexpressed in inflammatory and cancerous fallopian tube tissues. Further, overexpression of wild-type YAP, or constitutively active YAP in immortalized FTSECs, induced cell proliferation, migration, colony formation and tumorigenesis. Moreover, the Hippo/YAP and the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathways formed an autocrine/paracrine-positive feedback loop to drive the progression of the FTSEC-derived HGSC. Evidence in this study strongly suggests that combined therapy with inhibitors of YAP (such as verteporfin) and FGF receptors (such as BGJ398) can provide a novel therapeutic strategy to treat fallopian tube and ovarian HGSC. PMID:26364602

  16. Properties of single NMDA receptor channels in human dentate gyrus granule cells.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, D N; Mody, I

    1999-07-01

    1. Cell-attached single-channel recordings of NMDA channels were carried out in human dentate gyrus granule cells acutely dissociated from slices prepared from hippocampi surgically removed for the treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The channels were activated by L-aspartate (250-500 nM) in the presence of saturating glycine (8 microM). 2. The main conductance was 51 +/- 3 pS. In ten of thirty granule cells, clear subconductance states were observed with a mean conductance of 42 +/- 3 pS, representing 8 +/- 2 % of the total openings. 3. The mean open times varied from cell to cell, possibly owing to differences in the epileptogenicity of the tissue of origin. The mean open time was 2.70 +/- 0.95 ms (range, 1.24-4.78 ms). In 87 % of the cells, three exponential components were required to fit the apparent open time distributions. In the remaining neurons, as in control rat granule cells, two exponentials were sufficient. Shut time distributions were fitted by five exponential components. 4. The average numbers of openings in bursts (1.74 +/- 0.09) and clusters (3.06 +/- 0.26) were similar to values obtained in rodents. The mean burst (6.66 +/- 0.9 ms), cluster (20.1 +/- 3.3 ms) and supercluster lengths (116.7 +/- 17.5 ms) were longer than those in control rat granule cells, but approached the values previously reported for TLE (kindled) rats. 5. As in rat NMDA channels, adjacent open and shut intervals appeared to be inversely related to each other, but it was only the relative areas of the three open time constants that changed with adjacent shut time intervals. 6. The long openings of human TLE NMDA channels resembled those produced by calcineurin inhibitors in control rat granule cells. Yet the calcineurin inhibitor FK-506 (500 nM) did not prolong the openings of human channels, consistent with a decreased calcineurin activity in human TLE. 7. Many properties of the human NMDA channels resemble those recorded in rat hippocampal neurons. Both have similar slope conductances, five exponential shut time distributions, complex groupings of openings, and a comparable number of openings per grouping. Other properties of human TLE NMDA channels correspond to those observed in kindling; the openings are considerably long, requiring an additional exponential component to fit their distributions, and inhibition of calcineurin is without effect in prolonging the openings. PMID:10373689

  17. Insulin granule biogenesis, trafficking and exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Hou, June Chunqiu; Min, Le; Pessin, Jeffrey E

    2009-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that beta cell dysfunction resulting in abnormal insulin secretion is the essential element in the progression of patients from a state of impaired glucose tolerance to frank type 2 diabetes (Del Prato, 2003; Del Prato and Tiengo, 2001). Although extensive studies have examined the molecular, cellular and physiologic mechanisms of insulin granule biogenesis, sorting, and exocytosis the precise mechanisms controlling these processes and their dysregulation in the developed of diabetes remains an area of important investigation. We now know that insulin biogenesis initiates with the synthesis of preproinsulin in rough endoplastic reticulum and conversion of preproinsulin to proinsulin. Proinsulin begins to be packaged in the Trans-Golgi Network and is sorting into immature secretory granules. These immature granules become acidic via ATP-dependent proton pump and proinsulin undergoes proteolytic cleavage resulting the formation of insulin and C-peptide. During the granule maturation process, insulin is crystallized with zinc and calcium in the form of dense-core granules and unwanted cargo and membrane proteins undergo selective retrograde trafficking to either the constitutive trafficking pathway for secretion or to degradative pathways. The newly formed mature dense-core insulin granules populate two different intracellular pools, the readily releasable pools (RRP) and the reserved pool. These two distinct populations are thought to be responsible for the biphasic nature of insulin release in which the RRP granules are associated with the plasma membrane and undergo an acute calcium-dependent release accounting for first phase insulin secretion. In contrast, second phase insulin secretion requires the trafficking of the reserved granule pool to the plasma membrane. The initial trigger for insulin granule fusion with the plasma membrane is a rise in intracellular calcium and in the case of glucose stimulation results from increased production of ATP, closure of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel and cellular depolarization. In turn, this opens voltage-dependent calcium channels allowing increased influx of extracellular calcium. Calcium is thought to bind to members of the fusion regulatory proteins synaptogamin that functionally repressors the fusion inhibitory protein complexin. Both complexin and synaptogamin interact as well as several other regulatory proteins interact with the core fusion machinery composed of the Q- or t-SNARE proteins syntaxin 1 and SNAP25 in the plasma membrane that assembles with the R- or v-SNARE protein VAMP2 in insulin granules. In this chapter we will review the current progress of insulin granule biogenesis, sorting, trafficking, exocytosis and signaling pathways that comprise the molecular basis of glucose-dependent insulin secretion. PMID:19251047

  18. The Possible Roles of the Dentate Granule Cell's Leptin and Other Ciliary Receptors in Alzheimer's Neuropathology.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, James F; Chiarini, Anna; Dal Prà, Ilaria; Armato, Ubaldo; Chakravarthy, Balu

    2015-01-01

    Dentate-gyral granule cells in the hippocampus plus dentate gyrus memory-recording/retrieving machine, unlike most other neurons in the brain, are continuously being generated in the adult brain with the important task of separating overlapping patterns of data streaming in from the outside world via the entorhinal cortex. This "adult neurogenesis" is driven by tools in the mature granule cell's cilium. Here we report our discovery of leptin's LepRb receptor in this cilium. In addition, we discuss how ciliary LepRb signaling might be involved with ciliary p75NTR and SSTR3 receptors in adult neurogenesis and memory formation as well as attenuation of Alzheimer's neuropathology by reducing the production of its toxic amyloid-β-derived drivers. PMID:26184316

  19. Adult-born hippocampal dentate granule cells undergoing maturation modulate learning and memory in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wei; Saxe, Michael D.; Gallina, Iryna S.; Gage, Fred H.

    2009-01-01

    Adult-born dentate granule cells (DGCs) contribute to learning and memory, yet it remains unknown when adult-born DGCs become involved in the cognitive processes. During neurogenesis, immature dentate granule cells (DGCs) display distinctive physiological characteristics while undergoing morphological maturation before final integration into the neural circuits. The survival and activity of the adult-born DGCs can be influenced by the experience of the animal during a critical period when newborn DGCs are still immature. To assess the temporal importance of adult neurogenesis, we developed a transgenic mouse model that allowed us to transiently reduce the numbers of adult-born DGCs in a temporally regulatable manner. We found that mice with a reduced population of adult-born DGCs at the immature stage were deficient in forming robust, long-term spatial memory and displayed impaired performance in extinction tasks. These results suggest that immature DGCs that undergo maturation make important contributions to learning and memory. PMID:19864566

  20. Leptin directly controls proliferation, apoptosis and secretory activity of cultured chicken ovarian cells.

    PubMed

    Sirotkin, A V; Grossmann, R

    2007-10-01

    The aim of our in-vitro experiments was to examine, whether leptin can directly control functions of avian ovarian cells and to outline potential intracellular mediators of its effects. Granulosa cells or fragments of ovarian follicular wall were cultured with leptin (0, 1, 10 or 100 ng/mL medium). The expression of peptides involved in apoptosis (TdT, bax, its binding protein, bcl-2, ASK-1 and p53), cell cycle-related peptides (PCNA and cyclin B1), release of hormones (progesterone, testosterone, estradiol, arginine-vasotocin), as well as the expression of protein kinases (PKA, MAPK/ERK1,2 and CDK/p34) in the ovarian cells were examined by using immunocytochemistry, TUNEL, SDS-PAGE-Western immunoblotting, EIA and RIA. It was found that leptin inhibited expression of all markers of cytoplasmic apoptosis (bax, ASK-1 and p53), stimulated expression of anti-apoptotic peptide bcl-2, but did not affect nuclear DNA fragmentation (TdT). Furthermore, leptin inhibited expression of PCNA (marker of S-phase of mitosis), but not of cyclin B1 (marker of G phase of cell cycle). Moreover, it promoted release of progesterone and estradiol, suppressed release of testosterone, but did not affect arginine-vasotocin. Finally, leptin inhibited expression of MAPK/ERK1,2 and CDK/p34 and stimulated expression of PKA. The present observations demonstrate that leptin can directly control basic chicken ovarian functions - inhibit cytoplasmic apoptosis and proliferation (S-phase, but not G-phases of mitosis), regulate secretory activity (release of steroids, but not nonapeptide hormone) and expression of MAPK, PKA and CDC2, which might be potential intracellular mediators of leptin action. PMID:17604668

  1. Elemental levels in mast cell granules differ in sections from normal and diabetic rats: an X-ray microanalysis study

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, M.D.

    1988-03-01

    Mast cells around the thymus of rats stain red with alcian blue and safranin indicating that the mast cells are probably of the peritoneal (connective tissue) type. After the onset of streptozotocin induced diabetes some cells contain both red and blue granules and blue staining cells may appear. X-ray microanalysis of frozen freeze-dried sections from diabetic male CSE Wistar rats showed electron dense granules to have similar amounts of S to normal rat mast cell granules but reduced levels of Na, Mg, P, Cl and K. Two cells also had electron lucent granules with very high levels of Na, Cl, K and Ca and reduced concentrations of S. The differences in elemental composition suggest that the mast cells from diabetic rats are not immature, but are related to the condition of induced diabetes, and that granules of very different composition can occur within a single cell. X-ray microanalysis has given an insight into mast cell granule elemental content which was not possible by conventional biochemical methods.

  2. Distinct ATOH1 and Neurog3 requirements define tuft cells as a new secretory cell type in the intestinal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Gerbe, François; van Es, Johan H.; Makrini, Leila; Brulin, Bénédicte; Mellitzer, Georg; Robine, Sylvie; Romagnolo, Béatrice; Shroyer, Noah F.; Bourgaux, Jean-François; Pignodel, Christine; Clevers, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The unique morphology of tuft cells was first revealed by electron microscopy analyses in several endoderm-derived epithelia. Here, we explore the relationship of these cells with the other cell types of the intestinal epithelium and describe the first marker signature allowing their unambiguous identification. We demonstrate that although mature tuft cells express DCLK1, a putative marker of quiescent stem cells, they are post-mitotic, short lived, derive from Lgr5-expressing epithelial stem cells, and are found in mouse and human tumors. We show that whereas the ATOH1/MATH1 transcription factor is essential for their differentiation, Neurog3, SOX9, GFI1, and SPDEF are dispensable, which distinguishes these cells from enteroendocrine, Paneth, and goblet cells, and raises from three to four the number of secretory cell types in the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, we show that tuft cells are the main source of endogenous intestinal opioids and are the only epithelial cells that express cyclooxygenase enzymes, suggesting important roles for these cells in the intestinal epithelium physiopathology. PMID:21383077

  3. Secretory responses of intact glomus cells in thin slices of rat carotid body to hypoxia and tetraethylammonium

    PubMed Central

    Pardal, Ricardo; Ludewig, Uwe; García-Hirschfeld, Julia; López-Barneo, José

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a thin-slice preparation of whole rat carotid body that allows us to perform patch-clamp recording of membrane ionic currents and to monitor catecholamine secretion by amperometry in single glomus cells under direct visual control. In normoxic conditions (PO2 ≈ 140 mmHg; 1 mmHg = 133 Pa), most glomus cells did not have measurable secretory activity, but exposure to hypoxia (PO2 ≈ 20 mmHg) elicited the appearance of a large number of spike-like exocytotic events. This neurosecretory response to hypoxia was fully reversible and required extracellular Ca2+ influx. The average charge of single quantal events was 46 ± 25 fC (n = 218), which yields an estimate of ≈140,000 catecholamine molecules per vesicle. Addition of tetraethylammonium (TEA; 2–5 mM) to the extracellular solution induced in most (>95%) cells tested (n = 32) a secretory response similar to that elicited by low PO2. Cells nonresponsive to hypoxia but activated by exposure to high external K+ were also stimulated by TEA. A secretory response similar to the responses to hypoxia and TEA was also observed after treatment of the cells with iberiotoxin to block selectively Ca2+- and voltage-activated maxi-K+ channels. Our data further show that membrane ion channels are critically involved in sensory transduction in the carotid body. We also show that in intact glomus cells inhibition of voltage-dependent K+ channels can contribute to initiation of the secretory response to low PO2. PMID:10681419

  4. Fine Tuning of Synaptic Plasticity and Filtering by GABA Released from Hippocampal Autaptic Granule Cells.

    PubMed

    Valente, Pierluigi; Orlando, Marta; Raimondi, Andrea; Benfenati, Fabio; Baldelli, Pietro

    2016-03-01

    The functional consequence of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release at mossy fiber terminals is still a debated topic. Here, we provide multiple evidence of GABA release in cultured autaptic hippocampal granule cells. In ∼50% of the excitatory autaptic neurons, GABA, VGAT, or GAD67 colocalized with vesicular glutamate transporter 1-positive puncta, where both GABAB and GABAA receptors (Rs) were present. Patch-clamp recordings showed a clear enhancement of autaptic excitatory postsynaptic currents in response to the application of the GABABR antagonist CGP58845 only in neurons positive to the selective granule cell marker Prox1, and expressing low levels of GAD67. Indeed, GCP non-responsive excitatory autaptic neurons were both Prox1- and GAD67-negative. Although the amount of released GABA was not sufficient to activate functional postsynaptic GABAARs, it effectively activated presynaptic GABABRs that maintain a tonic "brake" on the probability of release and on the size of the readily releasable pool and contributed to resting potential hyperpolarization possibly through extrasynaptic GABAAR activation. The autocrine inhibition exerted by GABABRs on glutamate release enhanced both paired-pulse facilitation and post-tetanic potentiation. Such GABABR-mediated changes in short-term plasticity confer to immature granule cells the capability to modulate their filtering properties in an activity-dependent fashion, with remarkable consequences on the dynamic behavior of neural circuits. PMID:25576534

  5. Membrane secretory component is cleaved on the cell surface of rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Musil, L.S.; Baenziger, J.U.

    1986-03-05

    Transcellular transport of polymeric IgA from serum to bile by rat hepatocytes is mediated by a 105Kd membranous form of secretory component (mSC). In the presence or absence of IgA, mSC is cleaved and released into bile as a soluble 80Kd protein (fSC). They used monolayer cultures of rat hepatocytes, which synthesize mSC and efficiently cleave it to fSC, to determine the site of this conversion. (/sup 35/S)Cys-mSC accumulated in hepatocytes in the presence of leupeptin and was released as fSC when hepatocytes were placed in leupeptin-free media at 37/sup 0/. Small amounts of fSC were also produced when leupeptin was removed at 4/sup 0/, suggesting cleavage might occur on the cell membrane. Lactoperoxidase-catalyzed iodination of hepatocytes at 4/sup 0/ selectively labeled surface mSC which remained trypsin sensitive at 4/sup 0/. Hepatocytes maintained at 4/sup 0/ released significant amounts of /sup 125/I-mSC as fSC. Anti-SC antiserum reduced fSC generation at 4/sup 0/ by 70%. Following incubation at 37/sup 0/ for 10 min, /sup 125/I-mSC became resistant to degradation by trypsin and no production of fSC was seen if the cells were returned to 4/sup 0/. /sup 125/I-mSC was also cleaved to fSC following disruption by Dounce homogenization if cells were maintained at 4/sup 0/ following iodination but not if they were incubated at 37/sup 0/ for 10 min. They propose that mSC is cleaved to fSC at the plasma membrane but not intracellularly. This may reflect localization of the protease at the cell surface in a bile canalicular-like domain.

  6. Limonene Synthase, the Enzyme Responsible for Monoterpene Biosynthesis in Peppermint, Is Localized to Leucoplasts of Oil Gland Secretory Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Glenn; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Nielson, Erik E.; Froehlich, John E.; Croteau, Rodney

    1999-01-01

    Circumstantial evidence based on ultrastructural correlation, specific labeling, and subcellular fractionation studies indicates that at least the early steps of monoterpene biosynthesis occur in plastids. (4S)-Limonene synthase, which is responsible for the first dedicated step of monoterpene biosynthesis in mint species, appears to be translated as a preprotein bearing a long plastidial transit peptide. Immunogold labeling using polyclonal antibodies raised to the native enzyme demonstrated the specific localization of limonene synthase to the leucoplasts of peppermint (Mentha × piperita) oil gland secretory cells during the period of essential oil production. Labeling was shown to be absent from all other plastid types examined, including the basal and stalk cell plastids of the secretory phase glandular trichomes. Furthermore, in vitro translation of the preprotein and import experiments with isolated pea chloroplasts were consistent in demonstrating import of the nascent protein to the plastid stroma and proteolytic processing to the mature enzyme at this site. These experiments confirm that the leucoplastidome of the oil gland secretory cells is the exclusive location of limonene synthase, and almost certainly the preceding steps of monoterpene biosynthesis, in peppermint leaves. However, succeeding steps of monoterpene metabolism in mint appear to occur outside the leucoplasts of oil gland cells. PMID:10398724

  7. Epithelial Cell Transforming 2 and Aurora Kinase B Modulate Formation of Stress Granule-Containing Transcripts from Diverse Cellular Pathways in Astrocytoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Adrienne; Agnihotri, Sameer; Lymer, Jennifer; Chalil, Alan; Diaz, Roberto; Isik, Semra; Smith, Christian; Rutka, James T

    2016-06-01

    Stress granules are small RNA-protein granules that modify the translational landscape during cellular stress to promote survival. The RhoGTPase RhoA is implicated in the formation of RNA stress granules. Our data demonstrate that the cytokinetic proteins epithelial cell transforming 2 and Aurora kinase B (AurkB) are localized to stress granules in human astrocytoma cells. AurkB and its downstream target histone-3 are phosphorylated during arsenite-induced stress. Chemical (AZD1152-HQPA) and siRNA inhibition of AurkB results in fewer and smaller stress granules when analyzed using high-throughput fluorescent-based cellomics assays. RNA immunoprecipitation with the known stress granule aggregates TIAR and G3BP1 was performed on astrocytoma cells, and subsequent analysis revealed that astrocytoma stress granules harbor unique mRNAs for various cellular pathways, including cellular migration, metabolism, translation, and transcriptional regulation. Human astrocytoma cell stress granules contain mRNAs that are known to be involved in glioma signaling and the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. These data provide evidence that RNA stress granules are a novel form of epigenetic regulation in astrocytoma cells, which may be targetable by chemical inhibitors and enhance astrocytoma susceptibility to conventional therapy, such as radiation and chemotherapy. PMID:27106762

  8. Decrease in an Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Conductance in Mouse Mammary Secretory Cells after Forced Weaning

    PubMed Central

    Kamikawa, Akihiro; Sugimoto, Shota; Ichii, Osamu; Kondoh, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    Mammary glands are physiologically active in female mammals only during nursing. Immediately after weaning, most lactation-related genes are downregulated and milk production ceases. In our previous study, we have detected an inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir) 2.1-like current in mammary secretory (MS) cells freshly isolated from lactating mice. This current is highly sensitive to external Ba2+. The potassium permeability of the Kir channels may contribute to the secretion and/or preservation of ions in milk. We hypothesized that the functions of the Kir channels in MS cells are regulated after weaning. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of forced weaning on the Ba2+-sensitive Kir current and Kir2.1 expression in the mouse mammary glands. Twenty-four hours after weaning, the lumina of mammary acini were histologically enlarged by milk accumulation. The whole-cell patch-clamp analyses showed that the Ba2+-sensitive Kir current in the post-weaning MS cells was smaller than in the lactating MS cells. The inward conductances of the current in the lactating and post-weaning cells were 4.25 ± 0.77 and 0.93 ± 0.34 nS, respectively. Furthermore, real-time PCR and Western blot analyses showed that Kir2.1 mRNA and protein expression decreased in the post-weaning mammary gland (mRNA, 90% reduction; protein, 47% reduction). Moreover, the local milk accumulation caused by teat sealing decreased Kir conductance in MS cells (2.74 ± 0.45 and 0.36 ± 0.27 nS for control and sealed mammary glands, respectively). This was concomitant with the reduction in the Kir2.1 mRNA expression. Our results suggest that milk stasis after weaning immediately decreases the Kir conductance in MS cells. This decrease in the Kir conductance may be partly caused by the reduction in the Kir2.1 mRNA and protein expression. These alterations during the post-weaning period may be involved in the cessation of ion secretion and/or preservation in the milk. PMID:26484867

  9. Oncospheral Penetration Glands and Secretory Blebs Are the Sources of Taenia ovis Vaccine Antigens▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Jabbar, Abdul; Crawford, Simon; Gauci, Charles G.; Walduck, Anna K.; Anderson, Garry A.; Lightowlers, Marshall W.

    2010-01-01

    Taenia ovis is a cestode parasite infecting primarily sheep as intermediate hosts and dogs as definitive hosts. The first highly effective, recombinant vaccine against a parasitic organism was developed against T. ovis infection in sheep. Three separate host-protective antigens (To16, To18, and To45W) have been cloned from the oncosphere of the parasite. We localize these antigens in the oncosphere by using quantitative immunogold labeling and transmission electron microscopy. The three antigens were uniquely associated with penetration gland cells. The cytoplasm and secretory granules of both penetration gland type 1 and type 2 cells exhibited statistically significant levels of staining for each of the three antigens. The intensity of labeling of the penetration gland type 1 cell was approximately three to five times greater (P < 0.01) compared to the level of staining intensity seen in the penetration gland type 2 cell. In activated oncospheres, secretory blebs were found to contain granules with a structure similar to those observed in the penetration gland cells. The granules within the secretory blebs were shown to stain specifically for the presence of each of the three host-protective antigens. The absence of surface location of the T. ovis antigens suggests that the parasite may not be susceptible to vaccine-induced antibody- and complement-mediated attack until some postoncospheral development has occurred after infection of the intermediate host. PMID:20643854

  10. Study of Mast Cells and Granules from Primo Nodes Using Scanning Ionic Conductance Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yeong-Yung; Jung, Goo-Eun; Kwon, Hee-Min; Bae, Kyoung-Hee; Cho, Sang-Joon; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2015-12-01

    Acupuncture points have a notable characteristic in that they have a higher density of mast cells (MCs) compared with nonacupoints in the skin, which is consistent with the augmentation of the immune function by acupuncture treatment. The primo vascular system, which was proposed as the anatomical structure of the acupuncture points and meridians, also has a high density of MCs. We isolated the primo nodes from the surfaces of internal abdominal organs, and the harvested primo nodes were stained with toluidine blue. The MCs were easily recognized by their stained color and their characteristic granules. The MCs were classified into four stages according to the degranulation of histamine granules in the MCs. Using conventional optical microscopes details of the degranulation state of MCs in each stage were not observable. However, we were able to investigate the distribution of the granules on the surfaces of the MCs in each stage, and to demonstrate the height profiles and three-dimensional structures of the MCs without disturbance of the cell membrane by using the scanning ion conductance microscopy. PMID:26742911

  11. Synthetic mast-cell granules as adjuvants to promote and polarize immunity in lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. John, Ashley L.; Chan, Cheryl Y.; Staats, Herman F.; Leong, Kam W.; Abraham, Soman N.

    2012-03-01

    Granules of mast cells (MCs) enhance adaptive immunity when, on activation, they are released as stable particles. Here we show that submicrometre particles modelled after MC granules augment immunity when used as adjuvants in vaccines. The synthetic particles, which consist of a carbohydrate backbone with encapsulated inflammatory mediators such as tumour necrosis factor, replicate attributes of MCs in vivo including the targeting of draining lymph nodes and the timed release of the encapsulated mediators. When used as an adjuvant during vaccination of mice with haemagglutinin from the influenza virus, the particles enhanced adaptive immune responses and increased survival of mice on lethal challenge. Furthermore, differential loading of the particles with the cytokine IL-12 directed the character of the response towards Th1 lymphocytes. The synthetic MC adjuvants replicate and enhance the functions of MCs during vaccination, and can be extended to polarize the resulting immunity.

  12. Targeting vaccinia virus-expressed secretory beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin to the cell surface induces antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, J; Singh, O; Chakrabarti, S; Talwar, G P

    1995-01-01

    We carried out experiments designed to study the effect of a protein's localization on its immunogenicity. A novel cell-surface protein was generated from a small, glycosylated secretory protein. The DNA sequence encoding the entire precursor of the human chorionic gonadotropin beta (beta hCG) subunit was fused in the correct reading frame to the DNA sequence encoding the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. This chimeric gene was introduced into the vaccinia virus genome to generate a recombinant virus. The recombinant virus, when used to infect animal cells, expressed a 135-amino-acid beta hCG subunit anchored in cellular membranes by the 48 carboxy-terminal amino acids of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. The immunogenicity of this recombinant virus with respect to its ability to generate anti-hCG antibodies was compared with that of a second recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the native secretory form of beta hCG. All animals immunized with the vaccinia virus expressing beta hCG on the cell surface elicited high titers of anti-hCG antibodies. Even after a single immunization with the recombinant vaccinia virus, the anti-hCG antibody titers persisted for a long period of time (more than 6 months). None of the animals immunized with vaccinia virus expressing the native secretory form of beta hCG showed any hCG-specific antibody response. PMID:7591154

  13. A Reinforcing Circuit Action of Extrasynaptic GABAA Receptor Modulators on Cerebellar Granule Cell Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Santhakumar, Vijayalakshmi; Otis, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    GABAA receptors (GABARs) are the targets of a wide variety of modulatory drugs which enhance chloride flux through GABAR ion channels. Certain GABAR modulators appear to acutely enhance the function of δ subunit-containing GABAR subtypes responsible for tonic forms of inhibition. Here we identify a reinforcing circuit mechanism by which these drugs, in addition to directly enhancing GABAR function, also increase GABA release. Electrophysiological recordings in cerebellar slices from rats homozygous for the ethanol-hypersensitive (α6100Q) allele show that modulators and agonists selective for δ-containing GABARs such as THDOC, ethanol and THIP (gaboxadol) increased the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) in granule cells. Ethanol fails to augment granule cell sIPSC frequency in the presence of glutamate receptor antagonists, indicating that circuit mechanisms involving granule cell output contribute to ethanol-enhancement of synaptic inhibition. Additionally, GABAR antagonists decrease ethanol-induced enhancement of Golgi cell firing. Consistent with a role for glutamatergic inputs, THIP-induced increases in Golgi cell firing are abolished by glutamate receptor antagonists. Moreover, THIP enhances the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents in Golgi cells. Analyses of knockout mice indicate that δ subunit-containing GABARs are required for enhancing GABA release in the presence of ethanol and THIP. The limited expression of the GABAR δ subunit protein within the cerebellar cortex suggests that an indirect, circuit mechanism is responsible for stimulating Golgi cell GABA release by drugs selective for extrasynaptic isoforms of GABARs. Such circuit effects reinforce direct actions of these positive modulators on tonic GABAergic inhibition and are likely to contribute to the potent effect of these compounds as nervous system depressants. PMID:23977374

  14. The calcium-sensing receptor and integrins modulate cerebellar granule cell precursor differentiation and migration.

    PubMed

    Tharmalingam, Sujeenthar; Wu, Chiping; Hampson, David R

    2016-04-01

    In the developing cerebellum granule cell precursors (GCPs) proliferate in the external granule cell layer before differentiating and migrating to the inner granule cell layer. Aberrant GCP proliferation leads to medulloblastoma, the most prevalent form of childhood brain cancer. Here, we demonstrate that the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a homodimeric G-protein coupled receptor, functions in conjunction with cell adhesion proteins, the integrins, to enhance GCP migration and cell homing by promoting GCP differentiation. During the second postnatal week a robust peak in CaSR expression was observed in GCPs; reciprocal immunoprecipitation experiments conducted during this period established that the CaSR and β1 integrins are present together in a macromolecular protein complex. Analysis of cell-surface proteins demonstrated that activation of the CaSR by positive allosteric modulators promoted plasma membrane expression of β1 integrins via ERK2 and AKT phosphorylation and resulted in increased GCP migration toward an extracellular matrix protein. The results of in vivo experiments whereby CaSR modulators were injected i.c.v. revealed that CaSR activation promoted radial migration of GCPs by enhancing GCP differentiation, and conversely, a CaSR inhibitor disrupted GCP differentiation and promoted GCP proliferation. Our results demonstrate that an ion-sensing G-protein coupled receptor acts to promote neuronal differentiation and homing during cerebellar maturation. These findings together with those of others also suggest that CaSR/integrin complexes act to transduce extracellular calcium signals into cellular movement, and may function in this capacity as a universal cell migration/homing complex in the developing brain. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 375-389, 2016. PMID:26138678

  15. The composition of intracellular granules from the metal-accumulating cells of the common garden snail (Helix aspersa).

    PubMed Central

    Howard, B; Mitchell, P C; Ritchie, A; Simkiss, K; Taylor, M

    1981-01-01

    Certain cells in the hepatopancreas of the common garden snail (Helix aspersa) contain intracellular granules that are sites of metal-ion accumulation. These granules have been extracted and investigated by u.v. and i.r. spectroscopy, atomic-absorption spectroscopy, X-ray microanalysis, thermogravimetric analysis, enzymic assay and microanalysis. The deposits contain about 18% (w/w) water, 5% (w/w) organic matter and 76% (w/w) inorganic material of which the main components are Ca2+, Mg2+ and P2O7(4)-. The possible origin of these granules is discussed, as is their role in detoxifying heavy-metal ions. PMID:6272732

  16. Electrotonic parameters of rat dentate granule cells measured using short current pulses and HRP staining.

    PubMed

    Durand, D; Carlen, P L; Gurevich, N; Ho, A; Kunov, H

    1983-11-01

    The passive electrotonic parameters of nerve cells in the dentate gyrus of the rat were studied in vitro. Intracellular recordings from 30 granule cells and 3 pyramidal basket cells followed by intracellular injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP), allowed calculations of input resistance (RN), membrane time constant (tau m), electrotonic length (L), ratio of dendritic to somatic conductance (rho), membrane specific capacitance and resistance (Rm, Cm), and specific axoplasmic resistance (Ri). The analysis of the voltage decays from long saturating (100 ms) and short (0.5 ms) current pulses showed that the short-pulse method gave better resolution for the measurement of the time constants and avoided some of the time-dependent nonlinearities but required larger currents than the long pulse. Morphological analysis of 49 branching points taken from the dendritic trees of granule cells showed that the branching power, n, is equal to 1.56 +/- 0.186 and was fairly constant throughout the tree. Given the fact that all dendrites have approximately the same length and number of branch points, the granule cell dendritic tree can be meaningfully collapsed into an equivalent cable. Moreover, electrophysiological data suggested that the cable had a "sealed" end or at least a high-impedance termination. Based on an equivalent cable model with a sealed end and a lumped soma impedance, a method was implemented to analyze the multiexponential decays from hyperpolarizing current pulses and to solve the equations of the model. This was done successfully in only 40% of the cells and yielded the following mean values for L = 1.13 and rho = 7.58. From the measurements of the soma surface area (S) and the equivalent cable diameter (D), the average specific membrane parameters were calculated: Rm = 2,726 alpha x cm2, Cm = 5.24 microF/cm2, Ri = 101 alpha x cm. The input resistance and time constant of the granule cells as measured from the short-pulse technique averaged to RN 58.57 M alpha and tau m = 16.21 ms. The failure of the model to fit 60% of the cells was interpreted to be due to the presence of a somatic shunt resulting from electrode injury, tonic synaptic activity, a lower somatic membrane specific resistance, or electronic coupling.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6196465

  17. N-hypermannose glycosylation disruption enhances recombinant protein production by regulating secretory pathway and cell wall integrity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hongting; Wang, Shenghuan; Wang, Jiajing; Song, Meihui; Xu, Mengyang; Zhang, Mengying; Shen, Yu; Hou, Jin; Bao, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a robust host for heterologous protein expression. The efficient expression of cellulases in S. cerevisiae is important for the consolidated bioprocess that directly converts lignocellulose into valuable products. However, heterologous proteins are often N-hyperglycosylated in S. cerevisiae, which may affect protein activity. In this study, the expression of three heterologous proteins, β-glucosidase, endoglucanase and cellobiohydrolase, was found to be N-hyperglycosylated in S. cerevisiae. To block the formation of hypermannose glycan, these proteins were expressed in strains with deletions in key Golgi mannosyltransferases (Och1p, Mnn9p and Mnn1p), respectively. Their extracellular activities improved markedly in the OCH1 and MNN9 deletion strains. Interestingly, truncation of the N-hypermannose glycan did not increase the specific activity of these proteins, but improved the secretion yield. Further analysis showed OCH1 and MNN9 deletion up-regulated genes in the secretory pathway, such as protein folding and vesicular trafficking, but did not induce the unfolded protein response. The cell wall integrity was also affected by OCH1 and MNN9 deletion, which contributed to the release of secretory protein extracellularly. This study demonstrated that mannosyltransferases disruption improved protein secretion through up-regulating secretory pathway and affecting cell wall integrity and provided new insights into glycosylation engineering for protein secretion. PMID:27156860

  18. N-hypermannose glycosylation disruption enhances recombinant protein production by regulating secretory pathway and cell wall integrity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hongting; Wang, Shenghuan; Wang, Jiajing; Song, Meihui; Xu, Mengyang; Zhang, Mengying; Shen, Yu; Hou, Jin; Bao, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a robust host for heterologous protein expression. The efficient expression of cellulases in S. cerevisiae is important for the consolidated bioprocess that directly converts lignocellulose into valuable products. However, heterologous proteins are often N-hyperglycosylated in S. cerevisiae, which may affect protein activity. In this study, the expression of three heterologous proteins, β-glucosidase, endoglucanase and cellobiohydrolase, was found to be N-hyperglycosylated in S. cerevisiae. To block the formation of hypermannose glycan, these proteins were expressed in strains with deletions in key Golgi mannosyltransferases (Och1p, Mnn9p and Mnn1p), respectively. Their extracellular activities improved markedly in the OCH1 and MNN9 deletion strains. Interestingly, truncation of the N-hypermannose glycan did not increase the specific activity of these proteins, but improved the secretion yield. Further analysis showed OCH1 and MNN9 deletion up-regulated genes in the secretory pathway, such as protein folding and vesicular trafficking, but did not induce the unfolded protein response. The cell wall integrity was also affected by OCH1 and MNN9 deletion, which contributed to the release of secretory protein extracellularly. This study demonstrated that mannosyltransferases disruption improved protein secretion through up-regulating secretory pathway and affecting cell wall integrity and provided new insights into glycosylation engineering for protein secretion. PMID:27156860

  19. Effect of Exenatide, Sitagliptin, or Glimepiride on β-Cell Secretory Capacity in Early Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Gudipaty, Lalitha; Rosenfeld, Nora K.; Fuller, Carissa S.; Gallop, Robert; Schutta, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Agents that augment GLP-1 effects enhance glucose-dependent β-cell insulin production and secretion and thus are hoped to prevent progressive impairment in insulin secretion characteristic of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The purpose of this study was to evaluate GLP-1 effects on β-cell secretory capacity, an in vivo measure of functional β-cell mass, early in the course of T2D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a randomized controlled trial in 40 subjects with early T2D who received the GLP-1 analog exenatide (n = 14), the dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor sitagliptin (n = 12), or the sulfonylurea glimepiride (n = 14) as an active comparator insulin secretagogue for 6 months. Acute insulin responses to arginine (AIRarg) were measured at baseline and after 6 months of treatment with 5 days of drug washout under fasting, 230 mg/dL (glucose potentiation of arginine-induced insulin release [AIRpot]), and 340 mg/dL (maximum arginine-induced insulin release [AIRmax]) hyperglycemic clamp conditions, in which AIRmax provides the β-cell secretory capacity. RESULTS The change in AIRpot was significantly greater with glimepiride versus exenatide treatment (P < 0.05), and a similar trend was notable for the change in AIRmax (P = 0.1). Within each group, the primary outcome measure, AIRmax, was unchanged after 6 months of treatment with exenatide or sitagliptin compared with baseline but was increased with glimepiride (P < 0.05). α-Cell glucagon secretion (AGRmin) was also increased with glimepiride treatment (P < 0.05), and the change in AGRmin trended higher with glimepiride than with exenatide (P = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS After 6 months of treatment, exenatide or sitagliptin had no significant effect on functional β-cell mass as measured by β-cell secretory capacity, whereas glimepiride appeared to enhance β- and α-cell secretion. PMID:24969577

  20. Imaging exocytosis of single glucagon-like peptide-1 containing granules in a murine enteroendocrine cell line with total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ohara-Imaizumi, Mica; Aoyagi, Kyota; Akimoto, Yoshihiro; Nakamichi, Yoko; Nishiwaki, Chiyono; Kawakami, Hayato; Nagamatsu, Shinya

    2009-12-04

    To analyze the exocytosis of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) granules, we imaged the motion of GLP-1 granules labeled with enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (Venus) fused to human growth hormone (hGH-Venus) in an enteroendocrine cell line, STC-1 cells, by total internal reflection fluorescent (TIRF) microscopy. We found glucose stimulation caused biphasic GLP-1 granule exocytosis: during the first phase, fusion events occurred from two types of granules (previously docked granules and newcomers), and thereafter continuous fusion was observed mostly from newcomers during the second phase. Closely similar to the insulin granule fusion from pancreatic {beta} cells, the regulated biphasic exocytosis from two types of granules may be a common mechanism in glucose-evoked hormone release from endocrine cells.

  1. Morphological alterations in newly born dentate gyrus granule cells that emerge after status epilepticus contribute to make them less excitable.

    PubMed

    Tejada, Julián; Arisi, Gabriel M; García-Cairasco, Norberto; Roque, Antonio C

    2012-01-01

    Computer simulations of external current stimulations of dentate gyrus granule cells of rats with Status Epilepticus induced by pilocarpine and control rats were used to evaluate whether morphological differences alone between these cells have an impact on their electrophysiological behavior. The cell models were constructed using morphological information from tridimensional reconstructions with Neurolucida software. To evaluate the effect of morphology differences alone, ion channel conductances, densities and distributions over the dendritic trees of dentate gyrus granule cells were the same for all models. External simulated currents were injected in randomly chosen dendrites belonging to one of three different areas of dentate gyrus granule cell molecular layer: inner molecular layer, medial molecular layer and outer molecular layer. Somatic membrane potentials were recorded to determine firing frequencies and inter-spike intervals. The results show that morphologically altered granule cells from pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats are less excitable than control cells, especially when they are stimulated in the inner molecular layer, which is the target area for mossy fibers that sprout after pilocarpine-induced cell degeneration. This suggests that morphological alterations may act as a protective mechanism to allow dentate gyrus granule cells to cope with the increase of stimulation caused by mossy fiber sprouting. PMID:22811762

  2. Morphological Alterations in Newly Born Dentate Gyrus Granule Cells That Emerge after Status Epilepticus Contribute to Make Them Less Excitable

    PubMed Central

    Tejada, Julián; Arisi, Gabriel M.; García-Cairasco, Norberto; Roque, Antonio C.

    2012-01-01

    Computer simulations of external current stimulations of dentate gyrus granule cells of rats with Status Epilepticus induced by pilocarpine and control rats were used to evaluate whether morphological differences alone between these cells have an impact on their electrophysiological behavior. The cell models were constructed using morphological information from tridimensional reconstructions with Neurolucida software. To evaluate the effect of morphology differences alone, ion channel conductances, densities and distributions over the dendritic trees of dentate gyrus granule cells were the same for all models. External simulated currents were injected in randomly chosen dendrites belonging to one of three different areas of dentate gyrus granule cell molecular layer: inner molecular layer, medial molecular layer and outer molecular layer. Somatic membrane potentials were recorded to determine firing frequencies and inter-spike intervals. The results show that morphologically altered granule cells from pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats are less excitable than control cells, especially when they are stimulated in the inner molecular layer, which is the target area for mossy fibers that sprout after pilocarpine-induced cell degeneration. This suggests that morphological alterations may act as a protective mechanism to allow dentate gyrus granule cells to cope with the increase of stimulation caused by mossy fiber sprouting. PMID:22811762

  3. Excretory/secretory products of the carcinogenic liver fluke are endocytosed by human cholangiocytes and drive cell proliferation and IL6 production.

    PubMed

    Chaiyadet, Sujittra; Smout, Michael; Johnson, Michael; Whitchurch, Cynthia; Turnbull, Lynne; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sotillo, Javier; Loukas, Alex; Sripa, Banchob

    2015-10-01

    Liver fluke infection caused by Opisthorchis viverrini remains a major public health problem in many parts of Asia including Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam and Cambodia, where there is a strikingly high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA - hepatic cancer of the bile duct epithelium). Among other factors, uptake of O. viverrini excretory/secretory products (OvES) by biliary epithelial cells has been postulated to be responsible for chronic inflammation and proliferation of cholangiocytes, but the mechanisms by which cells internalise O. viverrini excretory/secretory products are still unknown. Herein we incubated normal human cholangiocytes (H69), human cholangiocarcinoma cells (KKU-100, KKU-M156) and human colon cancer (Caco-2) cells with O. viverrini excretory/secretory products and analysed the effects of different endocytic inhibitors to address the mechanism of cellular uptake of ES proteins. Opisthorchis viverrini excretory/secretory products was internalised preferentially by liver cell lines, and most efficiently/rapidly by H69 cells. There was no evidence for trafficking of ES proteins to cholangiocyte organelles, and most of the fluorescence was detected in the cytoplasm. Pretreatment with clathrin inhibitors significantly reduced the uptake of O. viverrini excretory/secretory products, particularly by H69 cells. Opisthorchis viverrini excretory/secretory products induced proliferation of liver cells (H69 and CCA lines) but not intestinal (Caco-2) cells, and proliferation was blocked using inhibitors of the classical endocytic pathways (clathrin and caveolae). Opisthorchis viverrini excretory/secretory products drove IL6 secretion by H69 cells but not Caco-2 cells, and cytokine secretion was significantly reduced by endocytosis inhibitors. This the first known study to address the endocytosis of helminth ES proteins by host epithelial cells and sheds light on the pathways by which this parasite causes one of the most devastating forms of cancer in south-eastern Asia. PMID:26187786

  4. Rapid Signaling Actions of Environmental Estrogens in Developing Granule Cell Neurons Are Mediated by Estrogen Receptor β

    PubMed Central

    Le, Hoa H.; Belcher, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    Estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) constitute a diverse group of man-made chemicals and natural compounds derived from plants and microbial metabolism. Estrogen-like actions are mediated via the nuclear hormone receptor activity of estrogen receptor (ER)α and ERβ and rapid regulation of intracellular signaling cascades. Previous study defined cerebellar granule cell neurons as estrogen responsive and that granule cell precursor viability was developmentally sensitive to estrogens. In this study experiments using Western blot analysis and pharmacological approaches have characterized the receptor and signaling modes of action of selective and nonselective estrogen ligands in developing cerebellar granule cells. Estrogen treatments were found to briefly increase ERK1/2-phosphorylation and then cause prolonged depression of ERK1/2 activity. The sensitivity of granule cell precursors to estrogen-induced cell death was found to require the integrated activation of membrane and intracellular ER signaling pathways. The sensitivity of granule cells to selective and nonselective ER agonists and a variety of estrogenic and nonestrogenic EDCs was also examined. The ERβ selective agonist DPN, but not the ERα selective agonist 4,4′,4′-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl) trisphenol or other ERα-specific ligands, stimulated cell death. Only EDCs with selective or nonselective ERβ activities like daidzein, equol, diethylstilbestrol, and bisphenol A were observed to induce E2-like neurotoxicity supporting the conclusion that estrogen sensitivity in granule cells is mediated via ERβ. The presented results also demonstrate the utility of estrogen sensitive developing granule cells as an in vitro assay for elucidating rapid estrogen-signaling mechanisms and to detect EDCs that act at ERβ to rapidly regulate intracellular signaling. PMID:20926581

  5. ELECTRON-OPAQUE FIBRILS AND GRANULES IN AND BETWEEN THE CELL WALLS OF HIGHER PLANTS

    PubMed Central

    Leppard, Gary G.; Colvin, J. Ross

    1972-01-01

    The components of higher-plant cell walls which become electron-opaque after staining with ruthenium-osmium were studied by electron microscopy. A fibrillar material which absorbs this stain is a major wall constituent in the root epidermal cells of carrot and morning glory. In both form and size, these fibrils resemble those found on the surface of suspension-cultured cells of the same species Some cells of woody species show an irregular distribution of electron-opaque material in the cell wall matrix and middle lamella. This material, which has an amorphous appearance with many electron stains, is shown by ruthenium-osmium staining to be an aggregate of discrete granules, 150–220 A in diameter. These observations are not consistent with the concept of the cell wall matrix and middle lamella as an amorphous, uniform gel PMID:4554985

  6. Subcellular glucose exposure biases the spatial distribution of insulin granules in single pancreatic beta cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terao, Kyohei; Gel, Murat; Okonogi, Atsuhito; Fuke, Ariko; Okitsu, Teru; Tada, Takashi; Suzuki, Takaaki; Nagamatsu, Shinya; Washizu, Masao; Kotera, Hidetoshi

    2014-02-01

    In living tissues, a cell is exposed to chemical substances delivered partially to its surface. Such a heterogeneous chemical environment potentially induces cell polarity. To evaluate this effect, we developed a microfluidic device that realizes spatially confined delivery of chemical substances at subcellular resolution. Our microfluidic device allows simple setup and stable operation for over 4 h to deliver chemicals partially to a single cell. Using the device, we showed that subcellular glucose exposure triggers an intracellular [Ca2+] change in the β-cells. In addition, the imaging of a cell expressing GFP-tagged insulin showed that continuous subcellular exposure to glucose biased the spatial distribution of insulin granules toward the site where the glucose was delivered. Our approach illustrates an experimental technique that will be applicable to many biological experiments for imaging the response to subcellular chemical exposure and will also provide new insights about the development of polarity of β-cells.

  7. Protein-targeting determinants in the secretory pathway of apicomplexan parasites.

    PubMed

    Kaasch, A J; Joiner, K A

    2000-08-01

    Apicomplexan parasites possess a highly specialized secretory apparatus. The timed secretion of proteins from three different organelles--micronemes, rhoptries and dense granules--serves to establish and maintain a parasitophorous vacuole inside the host cell in which the parasites can divide. Recent efforts have identified components that sort apicomplexan proteins to these unusual secretory organelles and have shown that this machinery is evolutionarily conserved across species. Concise amino acid sequences (e.g. tyrosine-based motifs) within the targeted protein determine their destination in Apicomplexa in a way similar to mammalian cells. Additionally, the parasite exploits new or unusual mechanisms of protein targeting (e.g. post-secretory membrane insertion). PMID:10972505

  8. The Stress Granule RNA-Binding Protein TIAR-1 Protects Female Germ Cells from Heat Shock in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Huelgas-Morales, Gabriela; Silva-García, Carlos Giovanni; Salinas, Laura S.; Greenstein, David; Navarro, Rosa E.

    2016-01-01

    In response to stressful conditions, eukaryotic cells launch an arsenal of regulatory programs to protect the proteome. One major protective response involves the arrest of protein translation and the formation of stress granules, cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes containing the conserved RNA-binding proteins TIA-1 and TIAR. The stress granule response is thought to preserve mRNA for translation when conditions improve. For cells of the germline—the immortal cell lineage required for sexual reproduction—protection from stress is critically important for perpetuation of the species, yet how stress granule regulatory mechanisms are deployed in animal reproduction is incompletely understood. Here, we show that the stress granule protein TIAR-1 protects the Caenorhabditis elegans germline from the adverse effects of heat shock. Animals containing strong loss-of-function mutations in tiar-1 exhibit significantly reduced fertility compared to the wild type following heat shock. Analysis of a heat-shock protein promoter indicates that tiar-1 mutants display an impaired heat-shock response. We observed that TIAR-1 was associated with granules in the gonad core and oocytes during several stressful conditions. Both gonad core and oocyte granules are dynamic structures that depend on translation; protein synthesis inhibitors altered their formation. Nonetheless, tiar-1 was required for the formation of gonad core granules only. Interestingly, the gonad core granules did not seem to be needed for the germ cells to develop viable embryos after heat shock. This suggests that TIAR-1 is able to protect the germline from heat stress independently of these structures. PMID:26865701

  9. The Stress Granule RNA-Binding Protein TIAR-1 Protects Female Germ Cells from Heat Shock in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Huelgas-Morales, Gabriela; Silva-García, Carlos Giovanni; Salinas, Laura S; Greenstein, David; Navarro, Rosa E

    2016-01-01

    In response to stressful conditions, eukaryotic cells launch an arsenal of regulatory programs to protect the proteome. One major protective response involves the arrest of protein translation and the formation of stress granules, cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes containing the conserved RNA-binding proteins TIA-1 and TIAR. The stress granule response is thought to preserve mRNA for translation when conditions improve. For cells of the germline-the immortal cell lineage required for sexual reproduction-protection from stress is critically important for perpetuation of the species, yet how stress granule regulatory mechanisms are deployed in animal reproduction is incompletely understood. Here, we show that the stress granule protein TIAR-1 protects the Caenorhabditis elegans germline from the adverse effects of heat shock. Animals containing strong loss-of-function mutations in tiar-1 exhibit significantly reduced fertility compared to the wild type following heat shock. Analysis of a heat-shock protein promoter indicates that tiar-1 mutants display an impaired heat-shock response. We observed that TIAR-1 was associated with granules in the gonad core and oocytes during several stressful conditions. Both gonad core and oocyte granules are dynamic structures that depend on translation; protein synthesis inhibitors altered their formation. Nonetheless, tiar-1 was required for the formation of gonad core granules only. Interestingly, the gonad core granules did not seem to be needed for the germ cells to develop viable embryos after heat shock. This suggests that TIAR-1 is able to protect the germline from heat stress independently of these structures. PMID:26865701

  10. Functional Roles of Distributed Synaptic Clusters in the Mitral–Granule Cell Network of the Olfactory Bulb

    PubMed Central

    Migliore, Michele; Hines, Michael L.; McTavish, Thomas S.; Shepherd, Gordon M.

    2010-01-01

    Odors are encoded in spatio-temporal patterns within the olfactory bulb, but the mechanisms of odor recognition and discrimination are poorly understood. It is reasonable to postulate that the olfactory code is sculpted by lateral and feedforward inhibition mediated by granule cells onto the mitral cells. Recent viral tracing and physiological studies revealed patterns of distributed granule cell synaptic clusters that provided additional clues to the possible mechanisms at the network level. The emerging properties and functional roles of these patterns, however, are unknown. Here, using a realistic model of 5 mitral and 100 granule cells we show how their synaptic network can dynamically self-organize and interact through an activity-dependent dendrodendritic mechanism. The results suggest that the patterns of distributed mitral–granule cell connectivity may represent the most recent history of odor inputs, and may contribute to the basic processes underlying mixture perception and odor qualities. The model predicts how and why the dynamical interactions between the active mitral cells through the granule cell synaptic clusters can account for a variety of puzzling behavioral results on odor mixtures and on the emergence of synthetic or analytic perception. PMID:21258619

  11. Glucose Toxic Effects on Granulation Tissue Productive Cells: The Diabetics' Impaired Healing

    PubMed Central

    Berlanga-Acosta, Jorge; Schultz, Gregory S.; López-Mola, Ernesto; Guillen-Nieto, Gerardo; García-Siverio, Marianela; Herrera-Martínez, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic noncommunicable disease with an expanding pandemic magnitude. Diabetes predisposes to lower extremities ulceration and impairs the healing process leading to wound chronification. Diabetes also dismantles innate immunity favoring wound infection. Amputation is therefore acknowledged as one of the disease's complications. Hyperglycemia is the proximal detonator of systemic and local toxic effectors including proinflammation, acute-phase proteins elevation, and spillover of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Insulin axis deficiency weakens wounds' anabolism and predisposes to inflammation. The systemic accumulation of advanced glycation end-products irreversibly impairs the entire physiology from cells-to-organs. These factors in concert hamper fibroblasts and endothelial cells proliferation, migration, homing, secretion, and organization of a productive granulation tissue. Diabetic wound bed may turn chronically inflammed, procatabolic, and an additional source of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, establishing a self-perpetuating loop. Diabetic fibroblasts and endothelial cells may bear mitochondrial damages becoming prone to apoptosis, which impairs granulation tissue cellularity and perfusion. Endothelial progenitor cells recruitment and tubulogenesis are also impaired. Failure of wound reepithelialization remains a clinical challenge while it appears to be biologically multifactorial. Ulcer prevention by primary care surveillance, education, and attention programs is of outmost importance to reduce worldwide amputation figures. PMID:23484099

  12. Procaspase-activating compound 1 induces a caspase-3-dependent cell death in cerebellar granule neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, Gulzeb; Akselsen, Oyvind W.; Hansen, Trond V.; Paulsen, Ragnhild E.

    2010-09-15

    Procaspase-activating compound 1, PAC-1, has been introduced as a direct activator of procaspase-3 and has been suggested as a therapeutic agent against cancer. Its activation of procaspase-3 is dependent on the chelation of zinc. We have tested PAC-1 and an analogue of PAC-1 as zinc chelators in vitro as well as their ability to activate caspase-3 and induce cell death in chicken cerebellar granule neuron cultures. These neurons are non-dividing, primary cells with normal caspase-3. The results reported herein show that PAC-1 chelates zinc, activates procaspase-3, and leads to caspase-3-dependent cell death in neurons, as the specific caspase-3-inhibitor Ac-DEVD-cmk inhibited both the caspase-3 activity and cell death. Thus, chicken cerebellar granule neurons is a suitable model to study mechanisms of interference with apoptosis of PAC-1 and similar compounds. Furthermore, the present study also raises concern about potential neurotoxicity of PAC-1 if used in cancer therapy.

  13. Generation and Characterization of an Nse-CreERT2 Transgenic Line Suitable for Inducible Gene Manipulation in Cerebellar Granule Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pohlkamp, Theresa; Steller, Laura; May, Petra; Günther, Thomas; Schüle, Roland; Frotscher, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We created an Nse-CreERT2 mouse line expressing the tamoxifen-inducible CreERT2 recombinase under the control of the neuron-specific enolase (Nse) promoter. By using Cre reporter lines we could show that this Nse-CreERT2 line has recombination activity in the granule cells of all cerebellar lobules as well as in postmitotic granule cell precursors in the external granular layer of the developing cerebellum. A few hippocampal dentate gyrus granule cells showed Cre-mediated recombination as well. Cre activity could be induced in both the developing and adult mouse brain. The established mouse line constitutes a valuable tool to study the function of genes expressed by cerebellar granule cells in the developing and adult brain. In combination with reporter lines it is a useful model to analyze the development and maintenance of the cerebellar architecture including granule cell distribution, migration, and the extension of granule cell fibers in vivo. PMID:24950299

  14. Entorhinal Denervation Induces Homeostatic Synaptic Scaling of Excitatory Postsynapses of Dentate Granule Cells in Mouse Organotypic Slice Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Vlachos, Andreas; Becker, Denise; Jedlicka, Peter; Winkels, Raphael; Roeper, Jochen; Deller, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Denervation-induced changes in excitatory synaptic strength were studied following entorhinal deafferentation of hippocampal granule cells in mature (≥3 weeks old) mouse organotypic entorhino-hippocampal slice cultures. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed an increase in excitatory synaptic strength in response to denervation during the first week after denervation. By the end of the second week synaptic strength had returned to baseline. Because these adaptations occurred in response to the loss of excitatory afferents, they appeared to be in line with a homeostatic adjustment of excitatory synaptic strength. To test whether denervation-induced changes in synaptic strength exploit similar mechanisms as homeostatic synaptic scaling following pharmacological activity blockade, we treated denervated cultures at 2 days post lesion for 2 days with tetrodotoxin. In these cultures, the effects of denervation and activity blockade were not additive, suggesting that similar mechanisms are involved. Finally, we investigated whether entorhinal denervation, which removes afferents from the distal dendrites of granule cells while leaving the associational afferents to the proximal dendrites of granule cells intact, results in a global or a local up-scaling of granule cell synapses. By using computational modeling and local electrical stimulations in Strontium (Sr2+)-containing bath solution, we found evidence for a lamina-specific increase in excitatory synaptic strength in the denervated outer molecular layer at 3–4 days post lesion. Taken together, our data show that entorhinal denervation results in homeostatic functional changes of excitatory postsynapses of denervated dentate granule cells in vitro. PMID:22403720

  15. Impact of simulated microgravity on the secretory and adhesive activity of cultured human vascular endothelial cells.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudimov, Evgeny; Buravkova, Ludmila; Pogodina, Margarita; Andrianova, Irina

    The layer of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) is a dynamic,disseminated organ that perform the function of an interface between the blood and vascular wall. The endothelial monolayer is able to quickly respond to changes in the microenvironment due to its synthesis of vasoactive substances, chemokines, adhesion molecules expression, etc. ECs are highly sensitive to gravitational changes and capable of short-term and long-term responses (Sangha et al., 2001; Buravkova et al., 2005; Infanger et al., 2006, 2007. However, the question remains how to reflect the impact of microgravity on endothelium under the inflammatory process. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate secretory and adhesive activity of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) during simulated microgravity and TNF-a activation. HUVECs were isolated according to Gimbrone et al. (1978) in modification A. Antonov (1981) and used for experiments at 2-4 passages. HUVECs were activated by low level of TNF-a (2 ng/ml). Microgravity was generated by Random Positioning Machine (RPM, Dutch Space, Leiden) placed into the thermostat at 37°C. After 24 hours of clinorotation we measured adhesion molecules expression on the cell surface (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, PECAM-1, E-selectin, CD144, endoglin (CD105)) and cell viability using a flow cytometry. To evaluate the level of target gene expression was used the real time RT-PCR. IL-6 and IL-8 concentration was measured in the conditioned medium of HUVECs by using the ELISA test. We found that simulated microgravity within 24 hours caused a decrease of ICAM-1, CD144, and E-selectin expression, at the same time not affect the cell viability, endoglin and PECAM-1 expression on the surface HUVEC. Furthermore, there were no changes of the level of IL-6 and IL-8 gene expression and their products in the culture medium. TNF-activated HUVECs showed an increase in gene expression of interleukins and molecules involved in the adhesion process, which also was confirmed by the higher level of cytokines in the medium and elevated share of CD144, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1-positive cells. Comparative analysis of the level TNF-induced secretion of IL-6 and IL-8, as well as the share of cells bearing ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, showed significant variability depending on the donors. Simultaneous exposure to simulated microgravity and proinflammatory activation did not potentiate and did not cancel the effect caused by TNF-a. In summary, our findings indicate that the simulated microgravity is not activating and additional pro-inflammatory stimulus to HUVEC in vitro model. This work was supported in part by Grant from RFBR № 12-04-31763 and Grant № NSh-371.2014.4

  16. TIA1 oxidation inhibits stress granule assembly and sensitizes cells to stress-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Arimoto-Matsuzaki, Kyoko; Saito, Haruo; Takekawa, Mutsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic stress granules (SGs) are multimolecular aggregates of stalled translation pre-initiation complexes that prevent the accumulation of misfolded proteins, and that are formed in response to certain types of stress including ER stress. SG formation contributes to cell survival not only by suppressing translation but also by sequestering some apoptosis regulatory factors. Because cells can be exposed to various stresses simultaneously in vivo, the regulation of SG assembly under multiple stress conditions is important but unknown. Here we report that reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as H2O2 oxidize the SG-nucleating protein TIA1, thereby inhibiting SG assembly. Thus, when cells are confronted with a SG-inducing stress such as ER stress caused by protein misfolding, together with ROS-induced oxidative stress, they cannot form SGs, resulting in the promotion of apoptosis. We demonstrate that the suppression of SG formation by oxidative stress may underlie the neuronal cell death seen in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26738979

  17. Glutamate-induced protein phosphorylation in cerebellar granule cells: role of protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Eboli, M L; Mercanti, D; Ciotti, M T; Aquino, A; Castellani, L

    1994-10-01

    Protein phosphorylation in response to toxic doses of glutamate has been investigated in cerebellar granule cells. 32P-labelled cells have been stimulated with 100 microM glutamate for up to 20 min and analysed by one and two dimensional gel electrophoresis. A progressive incorporation of label is observed in two molecular species of about 80 and 43 kDa (PP80 and PP43) and acidic isoelectric point. Glutamate-stimulated phosphorylation is greatly reduced by antagonists of NMDA and non-NMDA glutamate receptors. The effect of glutamate is mimicked by phorbol esters and is markedly reduced by inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC) such as staurosporine and calphostin C. PP80 has been identified by Western blot analysis as the PKC substrate MARCKS (myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate), while antibody to GAP-43 (growth associated protein-43), the nervous tissue-specific substrate of PKC, failed to recognize PP43. Our results suggest that PKC is responsible for the early phosphorylative events induced by toxic doses of glutamate in cerebellar granule cells. PMID:7891841

  18. Different subsets of newborn granule cells: a possible role in epileptogenesis?

    PubMed

    Bielefeld, Pascal; van Vliet, Erwin A; Gorter, Jan A; Lucassen, Paul J; Fitzsimons, Carlos P

    2014-01-01

    Several factors, including epileptic seizures, can strongly stimulate ongoing neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. Although adult-born granule cells generated after seizure activity have different physiological properties from their normal counterparts, they integrate into the existing, mature network of the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus. However, the exact role of the neurogenic response during epilepsy and its possible involvement in epileptogenesis have remained elusive. Here, we discuss recent studies shedding new light on the interplay between epilepsy and neurogenesis, and try to explain discrepancies in this literature by proposing seizure severity-dependent induction of two subsets of newborn cells with different properties. We hypothesise that a low seizure intensity would stimulate neurogenesis to a 'physiological plasticity' level and have few pathological consequences. In contrast, a high initial seizure intensity may induce a specific subset of altered and/or ectopically located new granule cells with different electrophysiological properties that could initiate hyperexcitatory recurrent networks that could, in turn, contribute to chronic epilepsy. This hypothesis may clarify previously contradictory data in the literature, and could thereby aid in our understanding of the role of neurogenesis in epileptogenesis, and open up promising avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24387591

  19. MMP-13 Regulates Growth of Wound Granulation Tissue and Modulates Gene Expression Signatures Involved in Inflammation, Proteolysis, and Cell Viability

    PubMed Central

    Toriseva, Mervi; Laato, Matti; Carpén, Olli; Ruohonen, Suvi T.; Savontaus, Eriika; Inada, Masaki; Krane, Stephen M.; Kähäri, Veli-Matti

    2012-01-01

    Proteinases play a pivotal role in wound healing by regulating cell-matrix interactions and availability of bioactive molecules. The role of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) in granulation tissue growth was studied in subcutaneously implanted viscose cellulose sponge in MMP-13 knockout (Mmp13−/−) and wild type (WT) mice. The tissue samples were harvested at time points day 7, 14 and 21 and subjected to histological analysis and gene expression profiling. Granulation tissue growth was significantly reduced (42%) at day 21 in Mmp13−/− mice. Granulation tissue in Mmp13−/− mice showed delayed organization of myofibroblasts, increased microvascular density at day 14, and virtual absence of large vessels at day 21. Gene expression profiling identified differentially expressed genes in Mmp13−/− mouse granulation tissue involved in biological functions including inflammatory response, angiogenesis, cellular movement, cellular growth and proliferation and proteolysis. Among genes linked to angiogenesis, Adamts4 and Npy were significantly upregulated in early granulation tissue in Mmp13−/− mice, and a set of genes involved in leukocyte motility including Il6 were systematically downregulated at day 14. The expression of Pdgfd was downregulated in Mmp13−/− granulation tissue in all time points. The expression of matrix metalloproteinases Mmp2, Mmp3, Mmp9 was also significantly downregulated in granulation tissue of Mmp13−/− mice compared to WT mice. Mmp13−/− mouse skin fibroblasts displayed altered cell morphology and impaired ability to contract collagen gel and decreased production of MMP-2. These results provide evidence for an important role for MMP-13 in wound healing by coordinating cellular activities important in the growth and maturation of granulation tissue, including myofibroblast function, inflammation, angiogenesis, and proteolysis. PMID:22880047

  20. Elevation of susceptibility to ozone-induced acute tracheobronchial injury in transgenic mice deficient in Clara cell secretory protein

    SciTech Connect

    Plopper, C.G. . E-mail: cgplopper@ucdavis.edu; Mango, G.W.; Hatch, G.E.; Wong, V.J.; Toskala, E.; Reynolds, S.D.; Tarkington, B.K.; Stripp, B.R.

    2006-05-15

    Increases in Clara cell abundance or cellular expression of Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP) may cause increased tolerance of the lung to acute oxidant injury by repeated exposure to ozone (O{sub 3}). This study defines how disruption of the gene for CCSP synthesis affects the susceptibility of tracheobronchial epithelium to acute oxidant injury. Mice homozygous for a null allele of the CCSP gene (CCSP-/-) and wild type (CCSP+/+) littermates were exposed to ozone (0.2 ppm, 8 h; 1 ppm, 8 h) or filtered air. Injury was evaluated by light and scanning electron microscopy, and the abundance of necrotic, ciliated, and nonciliated cells was estimated by morphometry. Proximal and midlevel intrapulmonary airways and terminal bronchioles were evaluated. There was no difference in airway epithelial composition between CCSP+/+ and CCSP-/- mice exposed to filtered air, and exposure to 0.2 ppm ozone caused little injury to the epithelium of both CCSP+/+ and CCSP-/- mice. After exposure to 1.0 ppm ozone, CCSP-/- mice suffered from a greater degree of epithelial injury throughout the airways compared to CCSP+/+ mice. CCSP-/- mice had both ciliated and nonciliated cell injury. Furthermore, lack of CCSP was associated with a shift in airway injury to include proximal airway generations. Therefore, we conclude that CCSP modulates the susceptibility of the epithelium to oxidant-induced injury. Whether this is due to the presence of CCSP on the acellular lining layer surface and/or its intracellular distribution in the secretory cell population needs to be defined.

  1. Simulating Spinal Border Cells and Cerebellar Granule Cells under Locomotion – A Case Study of Spinocerebellar Information Processing

    PubMed Central

    Spanne, Anton; Geborek, Pontus; Bengtsson, Fredrik; Jörntell, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The spinocerebellar systems are essential for the brain in the performance of coordinated movements, but our knowledge about the spinocerebellar interactions is very limited. Recently, several crucial pieces of information have been acquired for the spinal border cell (SBC) component of the ventral spinocerebellar tract (VSCT), as well as the effects of SBC mossy fiber activation in granule cells of the cerebellar cortex. SBCs receive monosynaptic input from the reticulospinal tract (RST), which is an important driving system under locomotion, and disynaptic inhibition from Ib muscle afferents. The patterns of activity of RST neurons and Ib afferents under locomotion are known. The activity of VSCT neurons under fictive locomotion, i.e. without sensory feedback, is also known, but there is little information on how these neurons behave under actual locomotion and for cerebellar granule cells receiving SBC input this is completely unknown. But the available information makes it possible to simulate the interactions between the spinal and cerebellar neuronal circuitries with a relatively large set of biological constraints. Using a model of the various neuronal elements and the network they compose, we simulated the modulation of the SBCs and their target granule cells under locomotion and hence generated testable predictions of their general pattern of modulation under this condition. This particular system offers a unique opportunity to simulate these interactions with a limited number of assumptions, which helps making the model biologically plausible. Similar principles of information processing may be expected to apply to all spinocerebellar systems. PMID:25226298

  2. Myosin IIA associates with NK cell lytic granules to enable their interaction with F-actin and function at the immunological synapse1

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, Keri B.; Rak, Gregory D.; Maru, Saumya Y.; Demers, Korey; Difeo, Analisa; Martignetti, John A; Betts, Michael R.; Favier, Rémi; Banerjee, Pinaki P.; Orange, Jordan S.

    2010-01-01

    NK cell cytotoxicity requires the formation of an actin-rich immunological synapse (IS) with a target cell and the polarization of perforin-containing lytic granules toward the IS. Following the polarization of lytic granules, they traverse through the actin-rich IS to join the NK cell membrane in order for directed secretion of their contents to occur. We examined the role of myosin IIA as a candidate for facilitating this pre-final step in lytic NK cell IS function. Lytic granules in and derived from a human NK cell line, or ex vivo human NK cells, were constitutively associated with myosin IIA. When isolated using density gradients, myosin IIA-associated NK cell lytic granules directly bound to F-actin and the interaction was sensitive to the presence of ATP under conditions of flow. In NK cells from patients with a truncation mutation in myosin IIA, NK cell cytotoxicity, lytic granule penetration into F-actin at the IS, and interaction of isolated granules with F-actin were all decreased. Similarly, inhibition of myosin function also diminished the penetration of lytic granules into F-actin at the IS, as well as the final approach of lytic granules to and their dynamics at the IS. Thus, NK cell lytic granule-associated myosin IIA enables their interaction with actin and final transit through the actin-rich IS to the synaptic membrane, and can be defective in the context of naturally occurring human myosin IIA mutation. PMID:19454694

  3. Distribution and phenotypes of unipolar brush cells in relation to the granule cell system of the rat cochlear nuclear nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Diño, Maria. R.; Mugnaini, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    In most mammals the cochlear nuclear complex (CN) contains a distributed system of granule cells (GCS), whose parallel fiber axons innervate the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN). Like their counterpart in cerebellum, CN granules are innervated by mossy fibers of various origins. The GCS is complemented by unipolar brush (UBCs) and Golgi cells, and by stellate and cartwheel cells of the DCN. This cerebellum-like microcircuit modulates the activity of the DCN’s main projection neurons, the pyramidal, giant and tuberculoventral neurons, and is thought to improve auditory performance by integrating acoustic and proprioceptive information. In this paper, we focus on the UBCs, a chemically heterogeneous neuronal population, using antibodies to calretinin, mGluR1α epidermal growth factor substrate 8 (Eps8) and the transcription factor Tbr2. Eps8 and Tbr2 labeled most of the CN’s UBCs, if not the entire population, while calretinin and mGluR1α distinguished two largely separate subsets with overlapping distributions. By double labeling with antibodies to Tbr2 and the α6 GABAA-receptor subunit, we found that UBCs populate all regions of the GCS and occur at remarkably high densities in the DCN and subpeduncular corner, but rarely in the lamina. Although GCS subregions likely share the same microcircuitry, their dissimilar UBC densities suggest they may be functionally distinct. UBCs and granules are also present in regions previously not included in the GCS, namely the rostrodorsal magnocellular portions of VCN, vestibular nerve root, trapezoid body, spinal tract and sensory and principal nuclei of the trigeminal nerve, and cerebellar peduncles. The UBC’s dendritic brush receives AMPA- and NMDA-mediated input from an individual mossy fiber, favoring singularity of input, and its axon most likely forms several mossy fiber-like endings that target numerous granule cells and other UBCs, as in the cerebellum. The UBCs therefore, may amplify afferent signals temporally and spatially, synchronizing pools of target neurons. PMID:18343594

  4. Glycolytic enzymes localize to ribonucleoprotein granules in Drosophila germ cells, bind Tudor and protect from transposable elements

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ming; Thomson, Travis C; Creed, T Michael; Tu, Shikui; Loganathan, Sudan N; Jackson, Christina A; McCluskey, Patrick; Lin, Yanyan; Collier, Scott E; Weng, Zhiping; Lasko, Paul; Ohi, Melanie D; Arkov, Alexey L

    2015-01-01

    Germ cells give rise to all cell lineages in the next-generation and are responsible for the continuity of life. In a variety of organisms, germ cells and stem cells contain large ribonucleoprotein granules. Although these particles were discovered more than 100years ago, their assembly and functions are not well understood. Here we report that glycolytic enzymes are components of these granules in Drosophila germ cells and both their mRNAs and the enzymes themselves are enriched in germ cells. We show that these enzymes are specifically required for germ cell development and that they protect their genomes from transposable elements, providing the first link between metabolism and transposon silencing. We further demonstrate that in the granules, glycolytic enzymes associate with the evolutionarily conserved Tudor protein. Our biochemical and single-particle EM structural analyses of purified Tudor show a flexible molecule and suggest a mechanism for the recruitment of glycolytic enzymes to the granules. Our data indicate that germ cells, similarly to stem cells and tumor cells, might prefer to produce energy through the glycolytic pathway, thus linking a particular metabolism to pluripotency. PMID:25600116

  5. Glycolytic enzymes localize to ribonucleoprotein granules in Drosophila germ cells, bind Tudor and protect from transposable elements.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ming; Thomson, Travis C; Creed, T Michael; Tu, Shikui; Loganathan, Sudan N; Jackson, Christina A; McCluskey, Patrick; Lin, Yanyan; Collier, Scott E; Weng, Zhiping; Lasko, Paul; Ohi, Melanie D; Arkov, Alexey L

    2015-03-01

    Germ cells give rise to all cell lineages in the next-generation and are responsible for the continuity of life. In a variety of organisms, germ cells and stem cells contain large ribonucleoprotein granules. Although these particles were discovered more than 100 years ago, their assembly and functions are not well understood. Here we report that glycolytic enzymes are components of these granules in Drosophila germ cells and both their mRNAs and the enzymes themselves are enriched in germ cells. We show that these enzymes are specifically required for germ cell development and that they protect their genomes from transposable elements, providing the first link between metabolism and transposon silencing. We further demonstrate that in the granules, glycolytic enzymes associate with the evolutionarily conserved Tudor protein. Our biochemical and single-particle EM structural analyses of purified Tudor show a flexible molecule and suggest a mechanism for the recruitment of glycolytic enzymes to the granules. Our data indicate that germ cells, similarly to stem cells and tumor cells, might prefer to produce energy through the glycolytic pathway, thus linking a particular metabolism to pluripotency. PMID:25600116

  6. Distinct fusion properties of synaptotagmin-1 and synaptotagmin-7 bearing dense core granules

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Tejeshwar C.; Passmore, Daniel R.; Peleman, Andrew R.; Das, Madhurima; Chapman, Edwin R.; Anantharam, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Adrenal chromaffin cells release hormones and neuropeptides that are essential for physiological homeostasis. During this process, secretory granules fuse with the plasma membrane and deliver their cargo to the extracellular space. It was once believed that fusion was the final regulated step in exocytosis, resulting in uniform and total release of granule cargo. Recent evidence argues for nonuniform outcomes after fusion, in which cargo is released with variable kinetics and selectivity. The goal of this study was to identify factors that contribute to the different outcomes, with a focus on the Ca2+-sensing synaptotagmin (Syt) proteins. Two Syt isoforms are expressed in chromaffin cells: Syt-1 and Syt-7. We find that overexpressed and endogenous Syt isoforms are usually sorted to separate secretory granules and are differentially activated by depolarizing stimuli. In addition, overexpressed Syt-1 and Syt-7 impose distinct effects on fusion pore expansion and granule cargo release. Syt-7 pores usually fail to expand (or reseal), slowing the dispersal of lumenal cargo proteins and granule membrane proteins. On the other hand, Syt-1 diffuses from fusion sites and promotes the release of lumenal cargo proteins. These findings suggest one way in which chromaffin cells may regulate cargo release is via differential activation of synaptotagmin isoforms. PMID:24943843

  7. A secretory cell type develops alongside multiciliated cells, ionocytes and goblet cells, and provides a protective, anti-infective function in the frog embryonic mucociliary epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Dubaissi, Eamon; Rousseau, Karine; Lea, Robert; Soto, Ximena; Nardeosingh, Siddarth; Schweickert, Axel; Amaya, Enrique; Thornton, David J.; Papalopulu, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    The larval epidermis of Xenopus is a bilayered epithelium, which is an excellent model system for the study of the development and function of mucosal and mucociliary epithelia. Goblet cells develop in the outer layer while multiciliated cells and ionocytes sequentially intercalate from the inner to the outer layer. Here, we identify and characterise a fourth cell type, the small secretory cell (SSC). We show that the development of these cells is controlled by the transcription factor Foxa1 and that they intercalate into the outer layer of the epidermis relatively late, at the same time as embryonic hatching. Ultrastructural and molecular characterisation shows that these cells have an abundance of large apical secretory vesicles, which contain highly glycosylated material, positive for binding of the lectin, peanut agglutinin, and an antibody to the carbohydrate epitope, HNK-1. By specifically depleting SSCs, we show that these cells are crucial for protecting the embryo against bacterial infection. Mass spectrometry studies show that SSCs secrete a glycoprotein similar to Otogelin, which may form the structural component of a mucus-like protective layer, over the surface of the embryo, and several potential antimicrobial substances. Our study completes the characterisation of all the epidermal cell types in the early tadpole epidermis and reinforces the suitability of this system for the in vivo study of complex epithelia, including investigation of innate immune defences. PMID:24598166

  8. In vitro atrazine-exposure inhibits human natural killer cell lytic granule release

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, Alexander M.; Brundage, Kathleen M.; Barnett, John B. . E-mail: jbarnett@hsc.wvu.edu

    2007-06-01

    The herbicide atrazine is a known immunotoxicant and an inhibitor of human natural killer (NK) cell lytic function. The precise changes in NK cell lytic function following atrazine exposure have not been fully elucidated. The current study identifies the point at which atrazine exerts its affect on the stepwise process of human NK cell-mediated lyses of the K562 target cell line. Using intracellular staining of human peripheral blood lymphocytes, it was determined that a 24-h in vitro exposure to atrazine did not decrease the level of NK cell lytic proteins granzyme A, granzyme B or perforin. Thus, it was hypothesized that atrazine exposure was inhibiting the ability of the NK cells to bind to the target cell and subsequently inhibit the release of lytic protein from the NK cell. To test this hypothesis, flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy were employed to analyze NK cell-target cell co-cultures following atrazine exposure. These assays demonstrated no significant decrease in the level of target cell binding. However, the levels of NK intracellular lytic protein retained and the amount of lytic protein released were assessed following a 4-h incubation with K562 target cells. The relative level of intracellular lytic protein was 25-50% higher, and the amount of lytic protein released was 55-65% less in atrazine-treated cells than vehicle-treated cells following incubation with the target cells. These results indicate that ATR exposure inhibits the ability of NK cells to lyse target cells by blocking lytic granule release without affecting the ability of the NK cell to form stable conjugates with target cells.

  9. Local Field Potential Modeling Predicts Dense Activation in Cerebellar Granule Cells Clusters under LTP and LTD Control

    PubMed Central

    Diwakar, Shyam; Lombardo, Paola; Solinas, Sergio; Naldi, Giovanni; D'Angelo, Egidio

    2011-01-01

    Local field-potentials (LFPs) are generated by neuronal ensembles and contain information about the activity of single neurons. Here, the LFPs of the cerebellar granular layer and their changes during long-term synaptic plasticity (LTP and LTD) were recorded in response to punctate facial stimulation in the rat in vivo. The LFP comprised a trigeminal (T) and a cortical (C) wave. T and C, which derived from independent granule cell clusters, co-varied during LTP and LTD. To extract information about the underlying cellular activities, the LFP was reconstructed using a repetitive convolution (ReConv) of the extracellular potential generated by a detailed multicompartmental model of the granule cell. The mossy fiber input patterns were determined using a Blind Source Separation (BSS) algorithm. The major component of the LFP was generated by the granule cell spike Na+ current, which caused a powerful sink in the axon initial segment with the source located in the soma and dendrites. Reproducing the LFP changes observed during LTP and LTD required modifications in both release probability and intrinsic excitability at the mossy fiber-granule cells relay. Synaptic plasticity and Golgi cell feed-forward inhibition proved critical for controlling the percentage of active granule cells, which was 11% in standard conditions but ranged from 3% during LTD to 21% during LTP and raised over 50% when inhibition was reduced. The emerging picture is that of independent (but neighboring) trigeminal and cortical channels, in which synaptic plasticity and feed-forward inhibition effectively regulate the number of discharging granule cells and emitted spikes generating “dense” activity clusters in the cerebellar granular layer. PMID:21818278

  10. Parallel Expression of Enzyme Inhibitors of CD8T Cell Activity in Tumor Microenvironments and Secretory Endometrium.

    PubMed

    Ibana, Joyce A; Cutay, Sandra Jelyn; Romero, Maevel; Schust, Danny Joseph

    2016-03-01

    The divergent requirement for tolerance to support conception and protective response against sexually transmitted infections defines the unique immunological dynamics in the female reproductive tract (FRT). In part, these requirements are achieved by the cyclic modulation of cytolytic CD8T cell function in the FRT that underlie the respective immunosuppressive and immunocompetent milieus during the secretory and proliferative phases of the menstrual cycle. The CD8T cell function can be dampened by exposure to indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and/or arginase enzymes. Indeed, these 2 enzymes are known as primary inducers of immune suppression in tumor microenvironments. This review discusses the intriguing parallel expression of these 2 enzymes in tumor microenvironments and in the secretory endometrium. We surmise that investigating the underlying natural mechanisms that suppress and restore the immunocompetence of CD8T cells in the FRT each month may provide valuable insights into ways to artificially recapitulate these mechanisms and inhibit immune suppression in tumor microenvironments. PMID:26335176

  11. Bidirectional GABAergic control of action potential firing in newborn hippocampal granule cells.

    PubMed

    Heigele, Stefanie; Sultan, Sébastien; Toni, Nicolas; Bischofberger, Josef

    2016-02-01

    Newly generated young neurons in the adult hippocampus receive GABAergic synaptic inputs, which are crucial for activity-dependent survival and functional maturation between 1-3 weeks after mitosis. We found synaptically driven action potential (AP) firing in these newborn young cells in adult mice. Although glutamatergic synaptic inputs remained subthreshold, activation of GABAergic synaptic inputs depolarized young neurons and reliably evoked APs. Furthermore, pairing of subthreshold excitatory postsynaptic potentials or somatic current injection with brief bursts of GABAergic inputs revealed efficient GABAergic excitation at conductances of ∼1.5 nS, corresponding to the activity of only three or four interneurons. Stronger GABAergic inputs (>4 nS) effectively blocked AP firing via shunting inhibition, which might be important to dynamically control spiking output in both directions. Taken together, GABAergic interneurons differentially recruit newborn young granule cells by supporting either AP generation or shunting inhibition dependent on hippocampal network activity. PMID:26752162

  12. Rapid, sensitive, and simple method for quantification of both neurotoxic and neurotrophic effects of NMDA on cultured cerebellar granule cells.

    PubMed

    Didier, M; Heaulme, M; Soubrié, P; Bockaert, J; Pin, J P

    1990-09-01

    A simple and sensitive method adapted from the staining of living cells with fluorescein diacetate was developed to rapidly estimate the number of living cells remaining in a culture dish 24 hr after a few min of NMDA treatment of cerebellar neurons. This method consists of the measurement, after cell lysis, of the total amount of fluorescein produced from fluorescein diacetate by the living granule cells present in each culture dish. We show that this method can also be used to quantify the survival effect of chronic exposure of granule cells to either K+ or NMDA. In both cases, the fluorescence measured was found to be proportional to the number of fluorescein-labelled cells counted under a fluorescence microscope, indicating that the present method can be used to quantify both toxic and trophic effects of NMDA on cerebellar granule cells. This study confirms that these two NMDA effects occur at the same NMDA concentration, and both are inhibited by MK 801 in the same concentration range. We showed, moreover, that granule neurons developed in the presence of NMDA are much less sensitive to NMDA toxicity than neurons developed in K(+)-enriched medium. PMID:1979352

  13. Revisiting the Single Cell Protein Application of Cupriavidus necator H16 and Recovering Bioplastic Granules Simultaneously

    PubMed Central

    Kunasundari, Balakrishnan; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Kaur, Gurjeet; Maurer, Frans H. J.; Sudesh, Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Cupriavidus necator H16 (formerly known as Hydrogenomonas eutropha) was famous as a potential single cell protein (SCP) in the 1970s. The drawback however was the undesirably efficient accumulation of non-nutritive polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) storage compound in the cytoplasm of this bacterium. Eventually, competition from soy-based protein resulted in SCP not receiving much attention. Nevertheless, C. necator H16 remained in the limelight as a producer of PHB, which is a material that resembles commodity plastics such as polypropylene. PHB is a 100% biobased and biodegradable polyester. Although tremendous achievements have been attained in the past 3 decades in the efficient production of PHB, this bioplastic is still costly. One of the main problems has been the recovery of PHB from the cell cytoplasm. In this study, we showed for the first time that kilogram quantities of PHB can be easily recovered in the laboratory without the use of any solvents and chemicals, just by using the cells as SCP. In addition, the present study also demonstrated the safety and tolerability of animal model used, Sprague Dawley given lyophilized cells of C. necator H16. The test animals readily produced fecal pellets that were whitish in color, as would be expected of PHB granules. The pellets were determined to contain about 82-97 wt% PHB and possessed molecular mass of around 930 kg/mol. The PHB granules recovered biologically possessed similar molecular mass compared to chloroform extracted PHB [950 kg/mol]. This method now allows the production and purification of substantial quantities of PHB for various experimental trials. The method reported here is easy, does not require expensive instrumentation, scalable and does not involve extensive use of solvents and strong chemicals. PMID:24205250

  14. Revisiting the single cell protein application of Cupriavidus necator H16 and recovering bioplastic granules simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Kunasundari, Balakrishnan; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Kaur, Gurjeet; Maurer, Frans H J; Sudesh, Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Cupriavidus necator H16 (formerly known as Hydrogenomonas eutropha) was famous as a potential single cell protein (SCP) in the 1970s. The drawback however was the undesirably efficient accumulation of non-nutritive polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) storage compound in the cytoplasm of this bacterium. Eventually, competition from soy-based protein resulted in SCP not receiving much attention. Nevertheless, C. necator H16 remained in the limelight as a producer of PHB, which is a material that resembles commodity plastics such as polypropylene. PHB is a 100% biobased and biodegradable polyester. Although tremendous achievements have been attained in the past 3 decades in the efficient production of PHB, this bioplastic is still costly. One of the main problems has been the recovery of PHB from the cell cytoplasm. In this study, we showed for the first time that kilogram quantities of PHB can be easily recovered in the laboratory without the use of any solvents and chemicals, just by using the cells as SCP. In addition, the present study also demonstrated the safety and tolerability of animal model used, Sprague Dawley given lyophilized cells of C. necator H16. The test animals readily produced fecal pellets that were whitish in color, as would be expected of PHB granules. The pellets were determined to contain about 82-97 wt% PHB and possessed molecular mass of around 930 kg/mol. The PHB granules recovered biologically possessed similar molecular mass compared to chloroform extracted PHB [950 kg/mol]. This method now allows the production and purification of substantial quantities of PHB for various experimental trials. The method reported here is easy, does not require expensive instrumentation, scalable and does not involve extensive use of solvents and strong chemicals. PMID:24205250

  15. Illuminating cellular structure and function in the early secretory pathway by multispectral 3D imaging in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietdorf, Jens; Stephens, David J.; Squire, Anthony; Simpson, Jeremy; Shima, David T.; Paccaud, Jean-Pierre; Bastiaens, Philippe I.; Pepperkok, Rainer

    2000-04-01

    Membrane traffic between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi complex is regulated by two vesicular coat complexes, COPII and COPI. COPII has been implicated in selective packaging of anterograde cargo into coated transport vesicles budding from the ER. COPI-coated vesicles are proposed to mediate recycling of proteins from the Golgi complex to the ER. We have used multi spectral 3D imaging to visualize COPI and COPII behavior simultaneously with various GFP-tagged secretory markers in living cells. This shows that COPII and COPI act sequentially whereby COPI association with anterograde transport complexes is involved in microtubule-based transport and the en route segregation of ER recycling molecules from secretory cargo within TCS in transit to the Golgi complex. We have also investigated the possibility to discriminate spectrally GFP fusion proteins by fluorescence lifetime imaging. This shows that at least two, and possibly up to three GFP fusion proteins can be discriminated and localized in living cells using a single excitation wavelength and a single broad band emission filter.

  16. Localization of p24 putative cargo receptors in the early secretory pathway depends on the biosynthetic activity of the cell.

    PubMed Central

    Kuiper, R P; Bouw, G; Janssen, K P; Rötter, J; van Herp, F; Martens, G J

    2001-01-01

    Members of the p24 family of putative cargo receptors (subdivided into p24-alpha, -beta, -gamma and -delta) are localized in the intermediate-and cis-Golgi compartments of the early secretory pathway, and are thought to play an important role in protein transport. In the present study, we wondered what effect increased biosynthetic cell activity with resulting high levels of protein transport would have on the subcellular localization of p24. We examined p24 localization in Xenopus intermediate pituitary melanotrope cells, which in black- and white-adapted animals are biosynthetically highly active and virtually inactive respectively. In addition, p24 localization was studied in Xenopus anterior pituitary cells whose activity is not changed during background adaptation. Using organelle fractionation, we found that in the inactive melanotropes and moderately active anterior pituitary cells of white-adapted animals, the p24-alpha, -beta, -gamma and -delta proteins are all located in the Golgi compartment. In the highly active melanotropes, but not in the anterior cells of black-adapted animals, the steady-state distribution of all four p24 members changed towards the intermediate compartment and subdomains of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), most probably the ER exit sites. In the active melanotropes, the major cargo protein pro-opiomelanocortin was mostly localized to ER subdomains and partially co-localized with the p24 proteins. Furthermore, in the active cells, in vitro blocking of protein biosynthesis by cycloheximide or dispersion of the Golgi complex by brefeldin A led to a redistribution of the p24 proteins, indicating their involvement in ER-to-Golgi protein transport and extensive cycling in the early secretory pathway. We conclude that the subcellular localization of p24 proteins is dynamic and depends on the biosynthetic activity of the cell. PMID:11716771

  17. Stress Granules Modulate SYK to Cause Microglial Cell Dysfunction in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Soumitra; Geahlen, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Microglial cells in the brains of Alzheimer's patients are known to be recruited to amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques where they exhibit an activated phenotype, but are defective for plaque removal by phagocytosis. In this study, we show that microglia stressed by exposure to sodium arsenite or Aβ(1–42) peptides or fibrils form extensive stress granules (SGs) to which the tyrosine kinase, SYK, is recruited. SYK enhances the formation of SGs, is active within the resulting SGs and stimulates the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that are toxic to neuronal cells. This sequestration of SYK inhibits the ability of microglial cells to phagocytose Escherichia coli or Aβ fibrils. We find that aged microglial cells are more susceptible to the formation of SGs; and SGs containing SYK and phosphotyrosine are prevalent in the brains of patients with severe Alzheimer's disease. Phagocytic activity can be restored to stressed microglial cells by treatment with IgG, suggesting a mechanism to explain the therapeutic efficacy of intravenous IgG. These studies describe a mechanism by which stress, including exposure to Aβ, compromises the function of microglial cells in Alzheimer's disease and suggest approaches to restore activity to dysfunctional microglial cells. PMID:26870803

  18. Similar GABAergic inputs in dentate granule cells born during embryonic and adult neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Laplagne, Diego A; Kamienkowski, Juan E; Espsito, M Soledad; Piatti, Vernica C; Zhao, Chunmei; Gage, Fred H; Schinder, Alejandro F

    2007-05-01

    Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus follows a unique temporal pattern that begins during embryonic development, peaks during the early postnatal stages and persists through adult life. We have recently shown that dentate granule cells born in early postnatal and adult mice acquire a remarkably similar afferent connectivity and firing behavior, suggesting that they constitute a homogeneous functional population [Laplagne et al. (2006)PLoS Biol., 4, e409]. Here we extend our previous study by comparing mature neurons born in the embryonic and adult hippocampus, with a focus on intrinsic membrane properties and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic synaptic inputs. For this purpose, dividing neuroblasts of the ventricular wall were retrovirally labeled with green fluorescent protein at embryonic day 15 (E15), and progenitor cells of the subgranular zone were labeled with red fluorescent protein in the same mice at postnatal day 42 (P42, adulthood). Electrophysiological properties of mature neurons born at either stage were then compared in the same brain slices. Evoked and spontaneous GABAergic postsynaptic responses of perisomatic and dendritic origin displayed similar characteristics in both neuronal populations. Miniature GABAergic inputs also showed similar functional properties and pharmacological profile. A comparative analysis of the present data with our previous observations rendered no significant differences among GABAergic inputs recorded from neurons born in the embryonic, early postnatal and adult mice. Yet, embryo-born neurons showed a reduced membrane excitability, suggesting a lower engagement in network activity. Our results demonstrate that granule cells of different age, location and degree of excitability receive GABAergic inputs of equivalent functional characteristics. PMID:17509085

  19. Anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and T cell cytokine profile in periodontitis granulation tissue

    PubMed Central

    Lappin, D F; Macleod, C P; Kerr, A; Mitchell, T; Kinane, D F

    2001-01-01

    Th2 cells are more abundant than Th1 cells in periodontitis lesions, but the relative importance of the Th1 and Th2 subsets in periodontal disease is not understood. In addition, the role of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in this disease process is unclear. Biopsies were obtained from 10 patients with early onset periodontitis (EOP) and 10 patients with adult periodontitis (AP). From all of the patients in the AP group we were able to obtain and section the gingival tissue to serve as controls. We used polyclonal monospecific antibodies to detect cells expressing IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-15, tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of granulation tissue from periodontitis lesions. We also employed a series of oligonucleotide probes to detect cells expressing the cytokine transcripts in the same tissue biopsies. Cells that expressed IL-4 or IL-6 were more numerous than cells expressing either IL-2 or IFN-γ. Th2 cells were more numerous in EOP and AP tissues. IL-15 substitutes for IL-2 in a number of biological activities related to the Th1 immune response, and interestingly, in periodontal lesions the IL-15-expressing cells outnumbered IL-2-expressing cells, suggesting that this is the pattern of immune regulation by T cells in the periodontium. The functional balance in the T cell subsets detected by their cytokine profiles underlies the importance of the anti-inflammatory mechanisms taking place in the diseased tissue. The numbers of inflammatory leucocytes that express the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 are much more widely distributed than those that express the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α. This study suggests that large numbers of infiltrating inflammatory cells as well as accessory cells are involved in the down-regulation of the inflammatory and immune response in periodontitis. PMID:11207661

  20. Perturbations in maturation of secretory proteins and their association with endoplasmic reticulum chaperones in a cell culture model for epithelial ischemia.

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsov, G; Bush, K T; Zhang, P L; Nigam, S K

    1996-01-01

    The effects of ischemia on the maturation of secretory proteins are not well understood. Among several events that occur during ischemia-reperfusion are a rapid and extensive decrease in ATP levels and an alteration of cellular oxidative state. Since the normal folding and assembly of secretory proteins are mediated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) molecular chaperones, the function of which depends on ATP and maintenance of an appropriate redox environment, ischemia might be expected to perturb folding of secretory proteins. In this study, whole animal and cultured cell models for the epithelial ischemic state were used to examine this possibility. After acute kidney ischemia, marked increases in the mRNA levels of the ER chaperones glucose-regulated protein (grp)78/immunoglobulin-binding protein (BiP), grp94, and ER protein (ERp)72 were noted. Likewise, when cellular ATP was depleted to less than 10% of control with antimycin A, mRNA levels of BiP, ERp72, and grp94 were increased in kidney and thyroid epithelial cell culture models. Since the signal for the up-regulation of these stress proteins is believed to be the accumulation of misfolded/misassembled secretory proteins in the ER, their induction after ischemia in vivo and antimycin treatment of cultured cells suggests that maturation of secretory proteins in the ER lumen might indeed be perturbed. To analyze the effects of antimycin A on the maturation of secretory proteins, we studied the fate of thyroglobulin (Tg), a large oligomeric secretory glycoprotein, the folding and assembly of which seems to require a variety of ER chaperones. Treatment of cultured thyroid epithelial cells with antimycin A greatly inhibited ( > 90%) the secretion of Tg. Sucrose density gradient analysis revealed that in antimycin A-treated cells Tg associates into large macromolecular complexes which, by immunofluorescence, appeared to localize to the ER. Furthermore, coimmunoprecipitation studies after antimycin A treatment demonstrated that Tg stably associates with BiP, grp94, and ERp72. Together, our results suggest that a key cellular lesion in ischemia is the misfolding of secretory proteins as they transit the ER, and this leads not only to increased expression of ER chaperones but also to their stable association with and the subsequent retention of at least some misfolded secretory proteins. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8710914

  1. Expression and role of a2 vacuolar-ATPase (a2V) in trafficking of human neutrophil granules and exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Gilman-Sachs, Alice; Tikoo, Anjali; Akman-Anderson, Leyla; Jaiswal, Mukesh; Ntrivalas, Evangelos; Beaman, Kenneth

    2015-06-01

    Neutrophils kill microorganisms by inducing exocytosis of granules with antibacterial properties. Four isoforms of the "a" subunit of V-ATPase-a1V, a2V, a3V, and a4V-have been identified. a2V is expressed in white blood cells, that is, on the surface of monocytes or activated lymphocytes. Neutrophil associated-a2V was found on membranes of primary (azurophilic) granules and less often on secondary (specific) granules, tertiary (gelatinase granules), and secretory vesicles. However, it was not found on the surface of resting neutrophils. Following stimulation of neutrophils, primary granules containing a2V as well as CD63 translocated to the surface of the cell because of exocytosis. a2V was also found on the cell surface when the neutrophils were incubated in ammonium chloride buffer (pH 7.4) a weak base. The intracellular pH (cytosol) became alkaline within 5 min after stimulation, and the pH increased from 7.2 to 7.8; this pH change correlated with intragranular acidification of the neutrophil granules. Upon translocation and exocytosis, a2V on the membrane of primary granules remained on the cell surface, but myeloperoxidase was secreted. V-ATPase may have a role in the fusion of the granule membrane with the cell surface membrane before exocytosis. These findings suggest that the granule-associated a2V isoform has a role in maintaining a pH gradient within the cell between the cytosol and granules in neutrophils and also in fusion between the surface and the granules before exocytosis. Because a2V is not found on the surface of resting neutrophils, surface a2V may be useful as a biomarker for activated neutrophils. PMID:25877929

  2. Sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor, induces formation of stress granules in hepatocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Adjibade, Pauline; St-Sauveur, Valérie Grenier; Huberdeau, Miguel Quevillon; Fournier, Marie-Josée; Savard, Andreanne; Coudert, Laetitia; Khandjian, Edouard W.; Mazroui, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic RNA multimeric bodies that form under stress conditions known to inhibit translation initiation. In most reported stress cases, the formation of SGs was associated with the cell recovery from stress and survival. In cells derived from cancer, SGs formation was shown to promote resistance to either proteasome inhibitors or 5-Fluorouracil used as chemotherapeutic agents. Despite these studies, the induction of SGs by chemotherapeutic drugs contributing to cancer cells resistance is still understudied. Here we identified sorafenib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor used to treat hepatocarcinoma, as a potent chemotherapeutic inducer of SGs. The formation of SGs in sorafenib-treated hepatocarcionoma cells correlates with inhibition of translation initiation; both events requiring the phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α. Further characterisation of the mechanism of sorafenib-induced SGs revealed PERK as the main eIF2α kinase responsible for SGs formation. Depletion experiments support the implication of PERK-eIF2α-SGs pathway in hepatocarcinoma cells resistance to sorafenib. This study also suggests the existence of an unexpected complex regulatory balance between SGs and phospho-eIF2α where SGs dampen the activation of the phospho-eIF2α-downstream ATF4 cell death pathway. PMID:26556863

  3. A Western Blot-based Investigation of the Yeast Secretory Pathway Designed for an Intermediate-Level Undergraduate Cell Biology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood-DeGrenier, Jennifer K.

    2008-01-01

    The movement of newly synthesized proteins through the endomembrane system of eukaryotic cells, often referred to generally as the secretory pathway, is a topic covered in most intermediate-level undergraduate cell biology courses. An article previously published in this journal described a laboratory exercise in which yeast mutants defective in…

  4. The bHLH transcription factor Ascl1a is essential for the specification of the intestinal secretory cells and mediates Notch signaling in the zebrafish intestine.

    PubMed

    Flasse, Lydie C; Stern, David G; Pirson, Justine L; Manfroid, Isabelle; Peers, Bernard; Voz, Marianne L

    2013-04-15

    Notch signaling has a fundamental role in stem cell maintenance and in cell fate choice in the intestine of different species. Canonically, Notch signaling represses the expression of transcription factors of the achaete-scute like (ASCL) or atonal related protein (ARP) families. Identifying the ARP/ASCL genes expressed in the gastrointestinal tract is essential to build the regulatory cascade controlling the differentiation of gastrointestinal progenitors into the different intestinal cell types. The expression of the ARP/ASCL factors was analyzed in zebrafish to identify, among all the ARP/ASCL factors found in the zebrafish genome, those expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. ascl1a was found to be the earliest factor detected in the intestine. Loss-of-function analyses using the pia/ascl1a mutant, revealed that ascl1a is crucial for the differentiation of all secretory cells. Furthermore, we identify a battery of transcription factors expressed during secretory cell differentiation and downstream of ascl1a. Finally, we show that the repression of secretory cell fate by Notch signaling is mediated by the inhibition of ascl1a expression. In conclusion, this work identifies Ascl1a as a key regulator of the secretory cell lineage in the zebrafish intestine, playing the same role as Atoh1 in the mouse intestine. This highlights the diversity in the ARP/ASCL family members acting as cell fate determinants downstream from Notch signaling. PMID:23352790

  5. A Western Blot-based Investigation of the Yeast Secretory Pathway Designed for an Intermediate-Level Undergraduate Cell Biology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood-DeGrenier, Jennifer K.

    2008-01-01

    The movement of newly synthesized proteins through the endomembrane system of eukaryotic cells, often referred to generally as the secretory pathway, is a topic covered in most intermediate-level undergraduate cell biology courses. An article previously published in this journal described a laboratory exercise in which yeast mutants defective in

  6. Protective Effect of Edaravone in Primary Cerebellar Granule Neurons against Iodoacetic Acid-Induced Cell Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xinhua; Zhu, Longjun; Wang, Liang; Guo, Baojian; Zhang, Gaoxiao; Sun, Yewei; Zhang, Zaijun; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen; Yu, Pei; Wang, Yuqiang

    2015-01-01

    Edaravone (EDA) is clinically used for treatment of acute ischemic stroke in Japan and China due to its potent free radical-scavenging effect. However, it has yet to be determined whether EDA can attenuate iodoacetic acid- (IAA-) induced neuronal death in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the effect of EDA on damage of IAA-induced primary cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) and its possible underlying mechanisms. We found that EDA attenuated IAA-induced cell injury in CGNs. Moreover, EDA significantly reduced intracellular reactive oxidative stress production, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and caspase 3 activity induced by IAA. Taken together, EDA protected CGNs against IAA-induced neuronal damage, which may be attributed to its antiapoptotic and antioxidative activities. PMID:26557222

  7. Core structure, internal osmotic pressure and irreversible structural changes of chromaffin granules during osmometer behaviour.

    PubMed

    Südhof, T C

    1982-01-01

    In the adrenal medullary cells, catecholamines are stored in and secreted from specialized secretory vesicles, the chromaffin granules. In order to gain some understanding of both functions of chromaffin granules, it is important to characterize their biophysical organization. Using isolated bovine chromaffin granules we have investigated the osmometer behaviour of chromaffin granules by 31P-NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy, by turbidity measurements and by electron-microscopic determination of chromaffin granule size distributions. On the basis of the osmometer model we have formulated equations predicting the behaviour of the native catecholamine fluorescence quenching and of the size of chromaffin granules a a function of osmolarity and have shown experimentally that the granules' behaviour conforms to these. It was possible to estimate the osmotic activity of the chromaffin granule core solution and the mean absolute water space in chromaffin granules from the determination of the size distributions as a function of osmotic pressure. With NMR spectroscopy a selective line-broadening of the alpha-resonances was observed with increasing osmolarities, while the gamma-phosphorus resonances remained virtually unchanged. Possibly there is an increase in core viscosity with osmolarity which affects only the alpha- and beta-phosphorus groups. While suspending chromaffin granules from lower to higher osmolarities causes no lysis, moving them back to their original osmolarity at which they were previously stable lyses them, thereby releasing a maximum of 70% of their releasable protein. This 'hyperosmolar' lysis is independent of preincubation times in the higher osmolarities and of the absolute dilution applied but depends on dilution beyond the 405 to 322 mosM sucrose range. Under the experiment conditions no uptake of sucrose from the medium into the granules could be measured, thereby suggesting that hyperosmolar lysis is a phenomenon not due to solute penetration. Since with NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy no chemical changes in the core composition can be observed, we conclude that hyperosmolar lysis may be caused by irreversible membrane relaxation upon osmotic shrinking. PMID:7055554

  8. Selective transgene expression in cerebellar Purkinje cells and granule cells using adeno-associated viruses together with specific promoters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoonhee; Kim, Taegon; Rhee, Jun Kyu; Lee, Dongwon; Tanaka-Yamamoto, Keiko; Yamamoto, Yukio

    2015-09-16

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a powerful tool for gene delivery into the brain and has been used for transgene expression in the cerebellar cortex. Although the efficacies of different AAV serotypes to transduce cerebellar Purkinje cells were examined, it has been difficult to achieve cell-type specific transgene expression. Here we used AAV serotype 1 with two specific promoters, namely, Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II α (CaMKIIα) and the minimum region of the GABAA receptor α6 subunit (GABRα6) promoters, and compared their expression patterns in the cerebellar cortex with the expression patterns of ubiquitous promoters that are often used for AAV-mediated expression. Whereas AAV with ubiquitous promoters, the cytomegalovirus early enhancer/chicken β-actin promoter, and a small fragment of the synapsin-1 gene promoter caused ubiquitous expression in all cerebellar neurons tested, AAV with the CaMKIIα promoter injected into 10-day-old mice enabled selective expression in Purkinje cells. Furthermore, we developed AAV with the GABRα6 promoter, and succeeded for the first time to express the transgene exclusively in granule cells. Fresh cerebellar slices of mice injected with these AAVs were applicable for physiological experiments, such as patch clamp recording, optogenetic imaging, and stimulation. Thus, these AAV vectors are useful tools towards understanding the basic properties of cerebellar neurons or mechanisms of cerebellar functions. Particularly, selective expression in Purkinje or granule cells is useful for analyses using genetically-modified animals, such as knockout mice. PMID:25988836

  9. Increased generation of granule cells in adult Bcl-2-overexpressing mice: a role for cell death during continued hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, H Georg; Biebl, Manfred; Wilhelm, Daniel; Li, Mingwei; Friedlander, Robert M; Winkler, Jürgen

    2005-10-01

    Programmed cell death is an important mechanism during brain development in order to control neuronal cell numbers and to correctly form neuronal circuitries. Programmed cell death is also present in neurogenic regions of the adult brain, and a significant portion of the adult-born cells is eliminated during the first months of maturation. We here address the question whether overexpression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 would improve the survival of neural progenitor cells and, as a consequence, increase neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. Transgenic animals, which express human Bcl-2 under the neuron-specific enolase promoter (NSE-huBcl-2), show a significant reduction of apoptotic cells in the hippocampal granule cell layer to about half of the wild-type level. These apoptotic cells are almost exclusively found in the zone of hippocampal progenitor activity and frequently co-label with the neuronal progenitor marker doublecortin (DCX). The rate of adult neurogenesis is doubled in the dentate gyrus of Bcl-2-overexpressing mice as demonstrated by quantification of progenitor cells using DCX and new neurons using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)/neuronal nuclei antigen (NeuN) double-labelling. The effect of Bcl-2 is limited to the late phase of progenitor maturation, as proliferation and early-phase progenitor cells were not affected. The increased level of neurogenesis leads to a significantly higher total number of granule cells in the dentate gyrus. These results underline the importance of developmental cell death during neurogenesis in the adult brain. PMID:16262630

  10. Prenatal ethanol exposure reduces phosphoinositide hydrolysis stimulated by quisqualate in rat cerebellar granule cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, P G; Cai, Z; Zhu, N

    1994-09-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure-induced alteration in poly-phosphoinositide (PPI) hydrolysis stimulated by excitatory amino acids (EAA) was studied in rat cerebellar granule cells previously labeled with [3H]myoinositol. The prenatal exposure to ethanol was achieved via maternal consumption of a Sustacal (chocolate flavored) liquid diet containing either 5% ethanol (w/v, 35% of calories) or isocaloric sucrose (pair-fed) substituted for ethanol from gestation d 11 until the day of parturition. The ionotropic glutamate receptor agonists, N-methyl-D-aspartate, kainate or (+/-)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) (100 microM each) induced a two- to four-fold increase in PPI hydrolysis over the basal level, regardless of the liquid dietary treatment. Stimulation with quisqualate (QA), an agonist activating both metabotropic and ionotropic glutamate receptors, resulted in a much stronger and dose-dependent response in PPI hydrolysis and exposure in utero to ethanol significantly reduced this response. Tetrodotoxin, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), or (+/-)-3-(2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP) had no effect on QA-stimulated PPI hydrolysis nor on the suppression of this hydrolysis by ethanol. Exposure in utero to ethanol did not affect PPI hydrolysis stimulated by a selective metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, trans-(+/-)-l-amino-1,3-cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid (t-ACPD). Although the PPI hydrolysis stimulated by t-ACPD could be blocked by (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG), an antagonist of the metabotropic glutamate receptor, MCPG was incapable of affecting QA-induced PPI hydrolysis and the suppressive effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on this hydrolysis. Taken together, the data suggest that the long-lasting suppressive effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on QA-stimulated PPI hydrolysis in cerebellar granule cell cultures is through a metabotropic QA receptor pathway that may be different from the one activated by t-ACPD. PMID:7893331

  11. Concomitant granule cell neuronopathy in patients with natalizumab-associated PML.

    PubMed

    Wijburg, Martijn T; Siepman, Dorine; van Eijk, Jeroen J J; Killestein, Joep; Wattjes, Mike P

    2016-04-01

    Granule cell neuronopathy (GCN) is a rare JC virus infection of the cerebellar granule cell neurons in immunocompromised patients. On brain imaging, GCN is characterized by cerebellar atrophy which can be accompanied by infratentorial white matter lesions. The objective of this study is to investigate the prevalence of MRI findings suggestive of GCN in a large natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) cohort. MRI scans from before, at the time of, and during follow-up after diagnosis of PML in 44 natalizumab-treated MS patients, and a control group of 25 natalizumab-treated non-PML MS patients were retrospectively reviewed for imaging findings suggestive of GCN. To assess and quantify the degree of cerebellar atrophy, we used a 4 grade rating scale. Three patients in the PML group showed imaging findings suggestive of GCN and none in the control group. In two of these PML patients, cerebellar atrophy progressed from grade 0 at the time of diagnosis of isolated supratentorial PML to grade 1 and 2 after 2.5 and 3 months, respectively, in the absence of infratentorial white mater lesions. The third patient had grade 1 cerebellar atrophy before diagnosis of infra- and supratentorial PML, and showed progression of cerebellar atrophy to grade 2 in the 3 months following PML diagnosis. None of the other eight patients with infratentorial PML lesions developed cerebellar atrophy suggestive of GCN. Three cases with imaging findings suggestive of GCN were detected among 44 natalizumab-associated PML patients. GCN may, therefore, be more common than previously considered in natalizumab-associated PML patients. PMID:26810721

  12. Reconstituted Human Polyclonal Plasma-derived Secretory-like IgM and IgA Maintain the Barrier Function of Epithelial Cells Infected with an Enteropathogen*

    PubMed Central

    Longet, Stéphanie; Vonarburg, Cédric; Lötscher, Marius; Miescher, Sylvia; Zuercher, Adrian; Corthésy, Blaise

    2014-01-01

    Intravenous administration of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies has proven to be a clinically valid approach in the treatment, or at least relief, of many acute and chronic pathologies, such as infection, immunodeficiency, and a broad range of autoimmune conditions. Plasma-derived IgG or recombinant IgG are most frequently used for intravenous or subcutaneous administration, whereas a few IgM-based products are available as well. We have established recently that secretory-like IgA and IgM can be produced upon association of plasma-derived polymeric IgA and IgM with a recombinant secretory component. As a next step toward potential future mucosal administration, we sought to unravel the mechanisms by which these secretory Igs protect epithelial cells located at the interface between the environment and the inside of the body. By using polarized epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers and Shigella flexneri as a model enteropathogen, we found that polyspecific plasma-derived SIgA and SIgM fulfill many protective functions, including dose-dependent recognition of the antigen via formation of aggregated immune complexes, reduction of bacterial infectivity, maintenance of epithelial cell integrity, and inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine production by epithelial cells. In this in vitro model devoid of other cellular or molecular interfering partners, IgM and secretory IgM showed stronger bacterial neutralization than secretory IgA. Together, these data suggest that mucosally delivered antibody preparations may be most effective when combining both secretory-like IgA and IgM, which, together, play a crucial role in preserving several levels of epithelial cell integrity. PMID:24951593

  13. Cerebellar granule cell survival and maturation induced by K+ and NMDA correlate with c-fos proto-oncogene expression.

    PubMed

    Didier, M; Roux, P; Piechaczyk, M; Verrier, B; Bockaert, J; Pin, J P

    1989-12-15

    Persistent depolarization with a high K+ concentration (30 mM) or sustained activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (12.5 mM K+ plus 100 microM NMDA) enhance both survival and maturation of mouse cerebellar granule neurons in vitro taking as criteria the amount of protein and DNA and the release of endogenous glutamate respectively. K+ and NMDA neurotrophic effects are associated with c-fos protein expression in the nucleus of these cells suggesting that c-fos protein could play a role in the survival and/or maturation of granule neurons. PMID:2575730

  14. Clonal analysis reveals granule cell behaviors and compartmentalization that determine the folded morphology of the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Legué, Emilie; Riedel, Elyn; Joyner, Alexandra L

    2015-05-01

    The mammalian cerebellum consists of folds of different sizes and shapes that house distinct neural circuits. A crucial factor underlying foliation is the generation of granule cells (gcs), the most numerous neuron type in the brain. We used clonal analysis to uncover global as well as folium size-specific cellular behaviors that underlie cerebellar morphogenesis. Unlike most neural precursors, gc precursors divide symmetrically, accounting for their massive expansion. We found that oriented cell divisions underlie an overall anteroposteriorly polarized growth of the cerebellum and gc clone geometry. Clone geometry is further refined by mediolateral oriented migration and passive dispersion of differentiating gcs. Most strikingly, the base of each fissure acts as a boundary for gc precursor dispersion, which we propose allows each folium to be regulated as a developmental unit. Indeed, the geometry and size of clones in long and short folia are distinct. Moreover, in engrailed 1/2 mutants with shorter folia, clone cell number and geometry are most similar to clones in short folia of wild-type mice. Thus, the cerebellum has a modular mode of development that allows the plane of cell division and number of divisions to be differentially regulated to ensure that the appropriate number of cells are partitioned into each folium. PMID:25834018

  15. Transient degradation of NF-kappaB proteins in macrophages after interaction with mast cell granules.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, N; Li, Y; Suzuki, T; Stechschulte, D J; Dileepan, K N

    1998-01-01

    The exposure of the macrophage cell line, J774 to mast cell granules (MCG) led to the formation of altered nuclear transcription factor proteins (NF-kappaBx), which had faster electrophoretic mobility than the p50 homodimer of NF-KB, but retained comparable DNA binding capacity. Antibodies to N-terminal peptides of p50, p52, p65 or c-Rel supershifted only a fraction of NF-kappaBx. Western blot analyses revealed that nuclear p65 and c-Rel were progressively degraded after exposure to MCG, whereas nuclear p50 appeared to be unaffected. In contrast, cytoplasmic p50, p65, c-Rel as well as IkBalpha remained intact after MCG treatment, although p52 was clearly degraded. In comparison to J774 cells, incubation of mouse peritoneal macrophages with MCG resulted in more extensive alterations to NF-KB proteins. The alterations in NF-KB proteins did not affect the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) or TNF-alpha mRNA inJ774 cells. These data indicate that exposure of J774 cells to MCG leads to generation of altered nuclear p52, p65 and c-Rel, which retain intact N-terminal peptides, specific oligonucleotide binding and transactivating activity. On the other hand, in peritoneal macrophages, MCG induce more extensive modifications to NF-KB proteins with associated inhibition of iNOS or TNF-alpha mRNA expression. PMID:9927232

  16. Iron oxide nanoparticles suppress the production of IL-1beta via the secretory lysosomal pathway in murine microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been used as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents for various research and diagnostic purposes, such as the detection of neuroinflammation and blood-brain-barrier integrity. As the central resident macrophage-like cells, microglia are responsible for managing foreign agents invading the CNS. The present study investigated the direct effect of IONPs on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by murine microglia stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods Primary murine microglial cells were pretreated with IONPs (1–50 μg Fe/mL) for 30 min and then stimulated with LPS (100 ng/mL) for 24 h. Confocal microscopy is used to visualize the intracellular IONP distribution and secretory lysosomes after staining with LysoTracker and Rab27a, respectively. The production of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α was quantified by ELISA. The activity of IL-1β converting enzyme (ICE) and TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE) was measured by fluorescent microplate assay using specific substrates. The lysosomal number, alkalinity, permeability and cathepsin B activity were determined by flow cytometry with ectodermal dysplasia-1, lysosensor and acridine orange staining, and using cathepsin B specific substrate, respectively. Results Confocal imaging revealed that IONPs were markedly engulfed by microglia. Exposure to IONPs attenuated the production of IL-1β, but not TNF-α. Concordantly, the activity of ICE, but not the TACE, was suppressed in IONP-treated cells. Mechanistic studies showed that IONPs accumulated in lysosomes and the number of lysosomes was increased in IONP-treated cells. In addition, exposure to IONPs increased lysosomal permeability and alkalinity, but decreased the activity of cathepsin B, a secretory lysosomal enzyme involved in the activation of ICE. Conclusions Our results demonstrated a contrasting effect of IONPs on the production of IL-1β and TNF-α by LPS-stimulated microglia, in which the attenuation of IL-1β by IONPs was mediated by inhibiting the secretory lysosomal pathway of cytokine processing. PMID:24047432

  17. Object/Context-Specific Memory Deficits Associated with Loss of Hippocampal Granule Cells after Adrenalectomy in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanswick, Simon C.; Sutherland, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic adrenalectomy (ADX) causes a gradual and selective loss of granule cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the rat. Here, we administered replacement corticosterone to rats beginning 10 wk after ADX. We then tested them in three discrimination tasks based on object novelty, location, or object/context association. Only during testing of the…

  18. Object/Context-Specific Memory Deficits Associated with Loss of Hippocampal Granule Cells after Adrenalectomy in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanswick, Simon C.; Sutherland, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic adrenalectomy (ADX) causes a gradual and selective loss of granule cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the rat. Here, we administered replacement corticosterone to rats beginning 10 wk after ADX. We then tested them in three discrimination tasks based on object novelty, location, or object/context association. Only during testing of the

  19. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated neuroprotection in cerebellar granule cells requires new RNA and protein synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Marini, A M; Paul, S M

    1992-01-01

    Cerebellar granule cells are susceptible to the excitotoxin glutamate, which acts at N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, as well as the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+), the active cytotoxic metabolite of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Paradoxically, preincubation of cultured cerebellar granule cells with low concentrations of NMDA or glutamate markedly antagonizes the neurotoxicity resulting from subsequent exposure to toxic concentrations of either MPP+ or glutamate. The neuroprotective effects of NMDA and glutamate against MPP+ toxicity are observed at agonist concentrations as low as 1 microM, are blocked by specific NMDA receptor antagonists, and require at least 30 min to develop fully. Moreover, NMDA receptor-mediated neuroprotection is prevented by the RNA synthesis inhibitor actinomycin D or the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Thus, in cerebellar granule cells activation of NMDA receptors by glutamate can result in either neurotoxicity or neuroprotection, depending on the apparent degree of receptor stimulation. NMDA receptor-mediated neuroprotection requires new RNA and protein synthesis and therefore appears to be mediated by the expression of a neuroprotective protein(s). These data demonstrate the presence of an active NMDA receptor-mediated and transcriptionally directed neuroprotective mechanism in cerebellar granule cells. Images PMID:1385875

  20. Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotypes Reveal Cell-Nonautonomous Functions of Oncogenic RAS and the p53 Tumor Suppressor

    SciTech Connect

    Coppé, Jean-Philippe; Patil, Christopher; Rodier, Francis; Sun, Yu; Munoz, Denise; Goldstein, Joshua; Nelson, Peter; Desprez, Pierre-Yves; Campisi, Judith

    2008-10-24

    Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by arresting cell proliferation, essentially permanently, in response to oncogenic stimuli, including genotoxic stress. We modified the use of antibody arrays to provide a quantitative assessment of factors secreted by senescent cells. We show that human cells induced to senesce by genotoxic stress secrete myriad factors associated with inflammation and malignancy. This senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) developed slowly over several days and only after DNA damage of sufficient magnitude to induce senescence. Remarkably similar SASPs developed in normal fibroblasts, normal epithelial cells, and epithelial tumor cells after genotoxic stress in culture, and in epithelial tumor cells in vivo after treatment of prostate cancer patients with DNA-damaging chemotherapy. In cultured premalignant epithelial cells, SASPs induced an epithelial-mesenchyme transition and invasiveness, hallmarks of malignancy, by a paracrine mechanism that depended largely on the SASP factors interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Strikingly, two manipulations markedly amplified, and accelerated development of, the SASPs: oncogenic RAS expression, which causes genotoxic stress and senescence in normal cells, and functional loss of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Both loss of p53 and gain of oncogenic RAS also exacerbated the promalignant paracrine activities of the SASPs. Our findings define a central feature of genotoxic stress-induced senescence. Moreover, they suggest a cell-nonautonomous mechanism by which p53 can restrain, and oncogenic RAS can promote, the development of age-related cancer by altering the tissue microenvironment.

  1. Adverse influence of coumestrol on secretory function of bovine luteal cells in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Młynarczuk, J; Wróbel, M H; Kotwica, J

    2013-07-01

    Coumestrol is one of a few biologically active substances present in leguminous plants, which are widely used as fodder for ruminants. Depending on the doses, coumestrol acts on the reproductive processes as an estrogen-like factor or antiestrogen to evoke a decrease in ovulation frequency, elongation of estrous cycle duration. The aim of the current investigations was to study the influence of coumestrol on secretory function of luteal cells obtained from first trimester of pregnant cows. Luteal cells (2.5 × 10(5) /mL) from 3rd to 5th, 6th to 8th, and 9th to 12th week of pregnancy were preincubated for 24 h and incubated with coumestrol (1 × 10(-6) M) for successive 48 h and the medium concentrations of progesterone (P4), oxytocin (OT), prostaglandin (PG) E2 and F2α were determined. Moreover, the expression of mRNA for neurophysin-I/oxytocin (NP-I/OT; precursor of OT) and peptidyl-glycine-α-amidating mono-oxygenase (PGA, an enzyme responsible for post-translational OT synthesis) was determined after 8 h of treatment. Coumestrol did not affect P4 secretion but increased the secretion of OT from the cells collected at all stages of gestation studied. Hence, the ratio of P4 to OT was markedly decreased. Simultaneously, coumestrol increased the expression of NP-I/OT mRNA during 9th to 12th weeks of pregnancy, and mRNA for PGA during 3rd to 5th and 9th to 12th weeks of gestation. Furthermore, coumestrol decreased PGE2 secretion from luteal cells in all studied stages of pregnancy, while it affected PGF2α metabolite (PGFM) concentration only from week 3 to 5 of pregnancy. Obtained results suggest that coumestrol impairs secretory function of the corpus luteum (CL) and this way it can affect the maintenance of pregnancy in the cow. PMID:21656645

  2. Calnuc plays a role in dynamic distribution of Gαi but not Gβ subunits and modulates ACTH secretion in AtT-20 neuroendocrine secretory cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ping; Fischer, Thierry; Lavoie, Christine; Huang, Haining; Farquhar, Marilyn Gist

    2009-01-01

    In AtT-20 cells ACTH secretion is regulated by both Ca2+ and G proteins. We previously demonstrated that calnuc, an EF-hand Ca2+ binding protein which regulates Alzheimer's β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) biogenesis, binds both Ca2+ as well as Gα subunits. Here we investigate calnuc's role in G protein-mediated regulation of ACTH secretion in AtT-20 neuroendocrine secretory cells stably overexpressing calnuc-GFP. Similar to endogenous calnuc, calnuc-GFP is mainly found in the Golgi, on the plasma membrane (PM), and associated with regulated secretion granules (RSG). By deconvolution immunofluorescence, calnuc-GFP partially colocalizes with Gαi1/2 and Gαi3 at the PM and on RSG. Cytosolic calnuc(ΔSS)-CFP with the signal sequence deleted also partially colocalizes with RSG and partially cosediments with Gαi1/2 in fractions enriched in RSG. Overexpression of calnuc-GFP specifically increases the distribution of Gαi1/2 on the PM whereas the distribution of Gβ subunits and synaptobrevin 2 (Vamp 2) is unchanged. Overexpression of calnuc-GFP or cytosolic calnuc(ΔSS)-CFP enhances ACTH secretion two-fold triggered by mastoparan or GTPγS but does not significantly affect glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain secretion along the constitutive pathway or basal secretion of ACTH. Calnuc's facilitating effects on ACTH secretion are decreased after introducing anti-Gαi1/2, Gαi3, Gβ or calnuc IgG into permeabilized cells but not when Gα12 or preimmune IgG is introduced. The results suggest that calnuc binds to Gα subunits on the Golgi and on RSG and that overexpression of calnuc causes redistribution of Gαi subunits to the PM and RSG, indicating that calnuc plays a role in dynamic distribution of only Gα but not Gβ subunits. Thus calnuc may connect G protein signaling and calcium signaling during regulated secretion. PMID:19320978

  3. Polyamines inhibit the assembly of stress granules in normal intestinal epithelial cells regulating apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Tongtong; Rao, Jaladanki N.; Liu, Lan; Xiao, Lan; Cui, Yu-Hong; Jiang, Zhengran; Ouyang, Miao; Donahue, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Polyamines regulate multiple signaling pathways and are implicated in many aspects of cellular functions, but the exact molecular processes governed by polyamines remain largely unknown. In response to environmental stress, repression of translation is associated with the assembly of stress granules (SGs) that contain a fraction of arrested mRNAs and are thought to function as mRNA storage. Here we show that polyamines modulate the assembly of SGs in normal intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and that induced SGs following polyamine depletion are implicated in the protection of IECs against apoptosis. Increasing the levels of cellular polyamines by ectopic overexpression of the ornithine decarboxylase gene decreased cytoplasmic levels of SG-signature constituent proteins eukaryotic initiation factor 3b and T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1)-related protein and repressed the assembly of SGs induced by exposure to arsenite-induced oxidative stress. In contrast, depletion of cellular polyamines by inhibiting ornithine decarboxylase with ?-difluoromethylornithine increased cytoplasmic eukaryotic initiation factor 3b and TIA-1 related protein abundance and enhanced arsenite-induced SG assembly. Polyamine-deficient cells also exhibited an increase in resistance to tumor necrosis factor-?/cycloheximide-induced apoptosis, which was prevented by inhibiting SG formation with silencing SG resident proteins Sort1 and TIA-1. These results indicate that the elevation of cellular polyamines represses the assembly of SGs in normal IECs and that increased SGs in polyamine-deficient cells are crucial for increased resistance to apoptosis. PMID:22555848

  4. A sensitive method to assay the xanthine oxidase activity in primary cultures of cerebellar granule cells.

    PubMed

    Atlante, A; Valenti, D; Gagliardi, S; Passarella, S

    2000-11-01

    Since xanthine oxidase (XO, Xanthine:oxidoreductase, E.C.1.2.3.22) is a key enzyme in reactive oxygen specie formation which plays a major role in cell oxidative stress, the availability of a sensitive and simple assay useful to detect its activity in monolayer cell cultures is worthwhile. In order to achieve this, we developed a method in which the conversion of pterine into isoxanthopterin is monitored fluorimetrically. Temperature assay was 50 degrees C. The activity of XO was detected in cerebellar granule cells exposed to glutamate. Since XO is formed from protease-dependent xanthine dehydrogenase processing, its activity appearance was found to be prevented by the protease inhibitor, leupeptin, as well as the glutamate NMDA-receptor inhibitor, MK-801, and the Ca(++) complexing agent, EGTA. The reported novel protocol, at variance with a conventional method, is shown to be a simple, fast, sensitive and relatively cheap method to assay XO activity. In addition, the reported assay can be applied to any cell type in culture. PMID:11086257

  5. MicroRNA Biogenesis and Hedgehog-Patched Signaling Cooperate to Regulate an Important Developmental Transition in Granule Cell Development.

    PubMed

    Constantin, Lena; Constantin, Myrna; Wainwright, Brandon J

    2016-03-01

    The Dicer1, Dcr-1 homolog (Drosophila) gene encodes a type III ribonuclease required for the canonical maturation and functioning of microRNAs (miRNAs). Subsets of miRNAs are known to regulate normal cerebellar granule cell development, in addition to the growth and progression of medulloblastoma, a neoplasm that often originates from granule cell precursors. Multiple independent studies have also demonstrated that deregulation of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh)-Patched (Ptch) signaling, through miRNAs, is causative of granule cell pathologies. In the present study, we investigated the genetic interplay between miRNA biogenesis and Shh-Ptch signaling in granule cells of the cerebellum by way of the Cre/lox recombination system in genetically engineered models of Mus musculus (mouse). We demonstrate that, although the miRNA biogenesis and Shh-Ptch-signaling pathways, respectively, regulate the opposing growth processes of cerebellar hypoplasia and hyperplasia leading to medulloblastoma, their concurrent deregulation was nonadditive and did not bring the growth phenotypes toward an expected equilibrium. Instead, mice developed either hypoplasia or medulloblastoma, but of a greater severity. Furthermore, some genotypes were bistable, whereby subsets of mice developed hypoplasia or medulloblastoma. This implies that miRNAs and Shh-Ptch signaling regulate an important developmental transition in granule cells of the cerebellum. We also conclusively show that the Dicer1 gene encodes a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene for Ptch1-induced medulloblastoma, with the monoallielic loss of Dicer1 more severe than biallelic loss. These findings exemplify how genetic interplay between pathways may produce nonadditive effects with a substantial and unpredictable impact on biology. Furthermore, these findings suggest that the functional dosage of Dicer1 may nonadditively influence a wide range of Shh-Ptch-dependent pathologies. PMID:26773048

  6. Cytoskeletal Dependence of Insulin Granule Movement Dynamics in INS-1 Beta-Cells in Response to Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Heaslip, Aoife T.; Nelson, Shane R.; Lombardo, Andrew T.; Beck Previs, Samantha; Armstrong, Jessica; Warshaw, David M.

    2014-01-01

    For pancreatic ?-cells to secrete insulin in response to elevated blood glucose, insulin granules retained within the subplasmalemmal space must be transported to sites of secretion on the plasma membrane. Using a combination of super-resolution STORM imaging and live cell TIRF microscopy we investigate how the organization and dynamics of the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons in INS-1 ?-cells contribute to this process. GFP-labeled insulin granules display 3 different modes of motion (stationary, diffusive-like, and directed). Diffusive-like motion dominates in basal, low glucose conditions. Upon glucose stimulation no gross rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton is observed but there are increases in the 1) rate of microtubule polymerization; 2) rate of diffusive-like motion; and 3) proportion of granules undergoing microtubule-based directed motion. By pharmacologically perturbing the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons, we determine that microtubule-dependent granule transport occurs within the subplasmalemmal space and that the actin cytoskeleton limits this transport in basal conditions, when insulin secretion needs to be inhibited. PMID:25310693

  7. Four distinct secretory pathways serve protein secretion, cell surface growth, and peroxisome biogenesis in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Titorenko, V I; Ogrydziak, D M; Rachubinski, R A

    1997-01-01

    We have identified and characterized mutants of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica that are deficient in protein secretion, in the ability to undergo dimorphic transition from the yeast to the mycelial form, and in peroxisome biogenesis. Mutations in the SEC238, SRP54, PEX1, PEX2, PEX6, and PEX9 genes affect protein secretion, prevent the exit of the precursor form of alkaline extracellular protease from the endoplasmic reticulum, and compromise peroxisome biogenesis. The mutants sec238A, srp54KO, pex2KO, pex6KO, and pex9KO are also deficient in the dimorphic transition from the yeast to the mycelial form and are affected in the export of only plasma membrane and cell wall-associated proteins specific for the mycelial form. Mutations in the SEC238, SRP54, PEX1, and PEX6 genes prevent or significantly delay the exit of two peroxisomal membrane proteins, Pex2p and Pex16p, from the endoplasmic reticulum en route to the peroxisomal membrane. Mutations in the PEX5, PEX16, and PEX17 genes, which have previously been shown to be essential for peroxisome biogenesis, affect the export of plasma membrane and cell wall-associated proteins specific for the mycelial form but do not impair exit from the endoplasmic reticulum of either Pex2p and Pex16p or of proteins destined for secretion. Biochemical analyses of these mutants provide evidence for the existence of four distinct secretory pathways that serve to deliver proteins for secretion, plasma membrane and cell wall synthesis during yeast and mycelial modes of growth, and peroxisome biogenesis. At least two of these secretory pathways, which are involved in the export of proteins to the external medium and in the delivery of proteins for assembly of the peroxisomal membrane, diverge at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:9271399

  8. UNC-45A Is a Nonmuscle Myosin IIA Chaperone Required for NK Cell Cytotoxicity via Control of Lytic Granule Secretion.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Yoshie; Cichocki, Frank; Sieben, Andrew; Sforza, Fabio; Karim, Razaul; Coughlin, Kathleen; Isaksson Vogel, Rachel; Gavioli, Riccardo; McCullar, Valarie; Lenvik, Todd; Lee, Michael; Miller, Jeffrey; Bazzaro, Martina

    2015-11-15

    NK cell's killing is a tightly regulated process under the control of specific cytoskeletal proteins. This includes Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein-interacting protein, cofilin, Munc13-4, and nonmuscle myosin IIA (NMIIA). These proteins play a key role in controlling NK-mediated cytotoxicity either via regulating the attachment of lytic granules to the actin-based cytoskeleton or via promoting the cytoskeletal reorganization that is requisite for lytic granule release. UNC-45A is a highly conserved member of the UNC-45/CRO1/She4p family of proteins that act as chaperones for both conventional and nonconventional myosin. Although we and others have shown that in lower organisms and in mammalian cells NMIIA-associated functions, such as cytokinesis, cell motility, and organelle trafficking, are dependent upon the presence of UNC-45A, its role in NK-mediated functions is largely unknown. In this article, we describe UNC-45A as a key regulator of NK-mediated cell toxicity. Specifically we show that, in human NK cells, UNC-45A localize at the NK cell immunological synapse of activated NK cells and is part of the multiprotein complex formed during NK cell activation. Furthermore, we show that UNC-45A is disposable for NK cell immunological synapse formation and lytic granules reorientation but crucial for lytic granule exocytosis. Lastly, loss of UNC-45A leads to reduced NMIIA binding to actin, suggesting that UNC-45A is a crucial component in regulating human NK cell cytoskeletal dynamics via promoting the formation of actomyosin complexes. PMID:26438524

  9. High-efficiency secretory expression of human neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin from mammalian cell lines with human serum albumin signal peptide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Zhao, Xiaozhi; Zhang, Mingxin; Yuan, Yimin; Ge, Liyuan; Tang, Bo; Xu, Xiaoyu; Cao, Lin; Guo, Hongqian

    2016-02-01

    Human neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a secretory glycoprotein initially isolated from neutrophils. It is thought to be involved in the incidence and development of immunological diseases and cancers. Urinary and serum levels of NGAL have been investigated as a new biomarker of acute kidney injury (AKI), for an earlier and more accurate detection method than with creatinine level. However, expressing high-quality recombinant NGAL is difficult both in Escherichia coli and mammalian cells for the low yield. Here, we cloned and fused NGAL to the C-terminus of signal peptides of human NGAL, human interleukin-2 (IL2), gaussia luciferase (Gluc), human serum albumin preproprotein (HSA) or an hidden Markov model-generated signal sequence (HMM38) respectively for transient expression in Expi293F suspension cells to screen for their ability to improve the secretory expression of recombinant NGAL. The best results were obtained with signal peptide derived from HSA. The secretory recombinant protein could react specifically with NGAL antibody. For scaled production, we used HSA signal peptide to establish stable Chinese hamster ovary cell lines. Then we developed a convenient colony-selection system to select high-expression, stable cell lines. Moreover, we purified the NGAL with Ni-Sepharose column. The recombinant human NGAL displayed full biological activity. We provide a method to enhance the secretory expression of recombinant human NGAL by using the HSA signal peptide and produce the glycoprotein in mammalian cells. PMID:26518367

  10. Recovery of amorphous polyhydroxybutyrate granules from Cupriavidus necator cells grown on used cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Martino, Lucrezia; Cruz, Madalena V; Scoma, Alberto; Freitas, Filomena; Bertin, Lorenzo; Scandola, Mariastella; Reis, Maria A M

    2014-11-01

    Used cooking oil (UCO) was employed as the sole carbon source for the production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by cultivation in batch mode of Cupriavidus necator DSM 428. The produced biomass was used for extraction of the PHB granules with a solvent-free approach using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and the enzyme Alcalase in an aqueous medium. The recovered PHB granules showed a degree of purity higher than 90% and no crystallization (i.e., granules were recovered in their 'native' amorphous state) as demonstrated by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXS). Granules were characterized according to their thermal properties and stability by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Results show that UCO can be used as a renewable resource to produce amorphous PHB granules with excellent properties in a biocompatible manner. PMID:24751509

  11. Potential implications of a monosynaptic pathway from mossy cells to adult-born granule cells of the dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Scharfman, Helen E.; Bernstein, Hannah L.

    2015-01-01

    The dentate gyrus (DG) is important to many aspects of hippocampal function, but there are many aspects of the DG that are incompletely understood. One example is the role of mossy cells (MCs), a major DG cell type that is glutamatergic and innervates the primary output cells of the DG, the granule cells (GCs). MCs innervate the GCs as well as local circuit neurons that make GABAergic synapses on GCs, so the net effect of MCs on GCs – and therefore the output of the DG – is unclear. Here we first review fundamental information about MCs and the current hypotheses for their role in the normal DG and in diseases that involve the DG. Then we review previously published data which suggest that MCs are a source of input to a subset of GCs that are born in adulthood (adult-born GCs). In addition, we discuss the evidence that adult-born GCs may support the normal inhibitory ‘gate’ functions of the DG, where the GCs are a filter or gate for information from the entorhinal cortical input to area CA3. The implications are then discussed in the context of seizures and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In TLE, it has been suggested that the DG inhibitory gate is weak or broken and MC loss leads to insufficient activation of inhibitory neurons, causing hyperexcitability. That idea was called the “dormant basket cell hypothesis.” Recent data suggest that loss of normal adult-born GCs may also cause disinhibition, and seizure susceptibility. Therefore, we propose a reconsideration of the dormant basket cell hypothesis with an intervening adult-born GC between the MC and basket cell and call this hypothesis the “dormant immature granule cell hypothesis.” PMID:26347618

  12. Adult-born granule cells mature through two functionally distinct states

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, János; Neubrandt, Máté; Van-Weert, Susan; Andrási, Tibor; Kleine Borgmann, Felix B; Jessberger, Sebastian; Szabadics, János

    2014-01-01

    Adult-born granule cells (ABGCs) are involved in certain forms of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. It has been proposed that young but functionally integrated ABGCs (4-weeks-old) specifically contribute to pattern separation functions of the dentate gyrus due to their heightened excitability, whereas old ABGCs (>8 weeks old) lose these capabilities. Measuring multiple cellular and integrative characteristics of 3- 10-week-old individual ABGCs, we show that ABGCs consist of two functionally distinguishable populations showing highly distinct input integration properties (one group being highly sensitive to narrow input intensity ranges while the other group linearly reports input strength) that are largely independent of the cellular age and maturation stage, suggesting that ‘classmate’ cells (born during the same period) can contribute to the network with fundamentally different functions. Thus, ABGCs provide two temporally overlapping but functionally distinct neuronal cell populations, adding a novel level of complexity to our understanding of how life-long neurogenesis contributes to adult brain function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03104.001 PMID:25061223

  13. Adult-born granule cells mature through two functionally distinct states.

    PubMed

    Brunner, János; Neubrandt, Máté; Van-Weert, Susan; Andrási, Tibor; Kleine Borgmann, Felix B; Jessberger, Sebastian; Szabadics, János

    2014-01-01

    Adult-born granule cells (ABGCs) are involved in certain forms of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. It has been proposed that young but functionally integrated ABGCs (4-weeks-old) specifically contribute to pattern separation functions of the dentate gyrus due to their heightened excitability, whereas old ABGCs (>8 weeks old) lose these capabilities. Measuring multiple cellular and integrative characteristics of 3- 10-week-old individual ABGCs, we show that ABGCs consist of two functionally distinguishable populations showing highly distinct input integration properties (one group being highly sensitive to narrow input intensity ranges while the other group linearly reports input strength) that are largely independent of the cellular age and maturation stage, suggesting that 'classmate' cells (born during the same period) can contribute to the network with fundamentally different functions. Thus, ABGCs provide two temporally overlapping but functionally distinct neuronal cell populations, adding a novel level of complexity to our understanding of how life-long neurogenesis contributes to adult brain function. PMID:25061223

  14. Isoprenoid Biosynthesis. Metabolite Profiling of Peppermint Oil Gland Secretory Cells and Application to Herbicide Target Analysis1

    PubMed Central

    Lange, B. Markus; Ketchum, Raymond E.B.; Croteau, Rodney B.

    2001-01-01

    Two independent pathways operate in plants for the synthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate, the central intermediates in the biosynthesis of all isoprenoids. The mevalonate pathway is present in the cytosol, whereas the recently discovered mevalonate-independent pathway is localized to plastids. We have used isolated peppermint (Mentha piperita) oil gland secretory cells as an experimental model system to study the effects of the herbicides fosmidomycin, phosphonothrixin, methyl viologen, benzyl viologen, clomazone, 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl diphosphate, alendronate, and pamidronate on the pools of metabolites related to monoterpene biosynthesis via the mevalonate-independent pathway. A newly developed isolation protocol for polar metabolites together with an improved separation and detection method based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry have allowed assessment of the enzyme targets for a number of these herbicides. PMID:11553758

  15. Isolation of a sesquiterpene synthase expressing in specialized epithelial cells surrounding the secretory cavities in rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri).

    PubMed

    Uji, Yuya; Ozawa, Rika; Shishido, Hodaka; Taniguchi, Shiduku; Takabayashi, Junji; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2015-05-15

    Volatile terpenoids such as monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes play multiple roles in plant responses and are synthesized by terpene synthases (TPSs). We have previously isolated a partial TPS gene, RlemTPS4, that responds to microbial attack in rough lemon. In this study, we isolated a full length RlemTPS4 cDNA from rough lemon. RlemTPS4 localized in the cytosol. The recombinant RlemTPS4 protein was obtained using a prokaryotic expression system and GC-MS analysis of the terpenes produced by the RlemTPS4 enzymatic reaction determined that RlemTPS4 produces some sesquiterpenes such as δ-elemene. The RlemTPS4 gene was specifically expressed in specialized epithelial cells surrounding the oil secretory cavities in rough lemon leaf tissue. PMID:25899729

  16. Antiphospholipid antibodies bind to rat cerebellar granule cells: the role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors.

    PubMed

    Riccio, A; Andreassi, C; Eboli, M L

    1998-11-27

    IgGs from sera containing antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), detected as antibodies to cardiolipin, or control sera were incubated with rat cerebellar granule cells in primary culture. Using a mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity assay (MTT test), aPL IgGs were shown to decrease MTT metabolism after 24 h incubation with the cells, and to cause non-toxic amounts of glutamate to become neurotoxic when added to the cells for 45 min. Acute and chronic aPL toxicity were prevented by MK-801. Sera containing aPL bound to intact cerebellar neurons, as revealed by an immunofluorescent technique. These results suggest that antiphospholipid antibodies interfere with excitatory pathways in glutamatergic cerebellar granule cells by a mechanism involving overactivation of the NMDA glutamate receptor. PMID:9865941

  17. Restricted distribution of mrg-1 mRNA in C. elegans primordial germ cells through germ granule-independent regulation.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Takashi; Takasaki, Teruaki; Inoue, Kunio; Sakamoto, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    The chromodomain protein MRG-1 is an essential maternal factor for proper germline development that protects germ cells from cell death in C. elegans. Unlike germ granules, which are exclusively segregated to the germline blastomeres at each cell division from the first cleavage of the embryo, MRG-1 is abundant in all cells in early embryos and is then gradually restricted to the primordial germ cells (PGCs) by the morphogenesis stage. Here, we show that this characteristic spatiotemporal expression pattern is dictated by the mrg-1 3'UTR and is differentially regulated at the RNA level between germline and somatic cells. Asymmetric segregation of germ granules is not necessary to localize MRG-1 to the PGCs. We found that MES-4, an essential chromatin regulator in germ cells, also accumulates in the PGCs in a germ granule-independent manner. We propose that C.elegans PGCs have a novel mechanism to accumulate at least some chromatin-associated proteins that are essential for germline immortality. PMID:26537333

  18. Phosphorylation of the myosin IIA tailpiece regulates single myosin IIA molecule association with lytic granules to promote NK-cell cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, Keri B.; Mace, Emily M.; Rak, Gregory D.; Difeo, Analisa; Martignetti, John A.; Pecci, Alessandro; Bussel, James B.; Favier, Rémi

    2011-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune lymphocytes that provide critical defense against virally infected and transformed cells. NK-cell cytotoxicity requires the formation of an F-actin rich immunologic synapse (IS), as well as the polarization of perforin-containing lytic granules to the IS and secretion of their contents at the IS. It was reported previously that NK-cell cytotoxicity requires nonmuscle myosin IIA function and that granule-associated myosin IIA mediates the interaction of granules with F-actin at the IS. In the present study, we evaluate the nature of the association of myosin IIA with lytic granules. Using NK cells from patients with mutations in myosin IIA, we found that the nonhelical tailpiece is required for NK-cell cytotoxicity and for the phosphorylation of granule-associated myosin IIA. Ultra-resolution imaging techniques demonstrated that single myosin IIA molecules associate with NK-cell lytic granules via the nonhelical tailpiece. Phosphorylation of myosin IIA at residue serine 1943 (S1943) in the tailpiece is needed for this linkage. This defines a novel mechanism for myosin II function, in which myosin IIA can act as a single-molecule actin motor, claiming granules as cargo through tail-dependent phosphorylation for the execution of a pre-final step in human NK-cell cytotoxicity. PMID:22123909

  19. Accumulation of abnormal adult-generated hippocampal granule cells predicts seizure frequency and severity

    PubMed Central

    Hester, Michael S.; Danzer, Steve C.

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of abnormally integrated, adult-born, hippocampal dentate granule cells (DGC) is hypothesized to contribute to the development of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). DGCs have long been implicated in TLE, as they regulate excitatory signaling through the hippocampus and exhibit neuroplastic changes during epileptogenesis. Furthermore, DGCs are unusual in that they are continually generated throughout life, with aberrant integration of new cells underlying the majority of restructuring in the dentate during epileptogenesis. While it is known that these abnormal networks promote abnormal neuronal firing and hyperexcitability, it has yet to be established whether they directly contribute to seizure generation. If abnormal DGCs do contribute, a reasonable prediction would be that the severity of epilepsy will be correlated with the number or load of abnormal DGCs. To test this prediction, we utilized a conditional, inducible transgenic mouse model to fate-map adult-generated DGCs. Mossy cell loss, also implicated in epileptogenesis, was assessed as well. Transgenic mice rendered epileptic using the pilocarpine-status epilepticus model of epilepsy were monitored 24/7 by video/EEG for four weeks to determine seizure frequency and severity. Positive correlations were found between seizure frequency and: 1) the percentage of hilar ectopic DGCs, 2) the amount of mossy fiber sprouting and 3) the extent of mossy cell death. In addition, mossy fiber sprouting and mossy cell death were correlated with seizure severity. These studies provide correlative evidence in support of the hypothesis that abnormal DGCs contribute to the development of TLE, and also support a role for mossy cell loss. PMID:23699504

  20. Mast Cell Proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Rönnberg, Elin; Melo, Fabio R.

    2012-01-01

    Mast cells are versatile effector cells of the immune system, contributing to both innate and adaptive immunity toward pathogens but also having profound detrimental activities in the context of inflammatory disease. A hallmark morphological feature of mast cells is their large content of cytoplasmic secretory granules, filled with numerous secretory compounds, including highly negatively charged heparin or chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans of serglycin type. These anionic proteoglycans provide the basis for the strong metachromatic staining properties of mast cells seen when applying various cationic dyes. Functionally, the mast cell proteoglycans have been shown to have an essential role in promoting the storage of other granule-contained compounds, including bioactive monoamines and different mast cell-specific proteases. Moreover, granule proteoglycans have been shown to regulate the enzymatic activities of mast cell proteases and to promote apoptosis. Here, the current knowledge of mast cell proteoglycans is reviewed. PMID:22899859

  1. Yolk granule tethering: a role in cell resealing and identification of several protein components.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Anna; McNeil, Paul L

    2005-10-15

    Homotypic fusion among echinoderm egg yolk granules has previously been reconstituted in vitro, and shown to be a rapid, Ca2+-triggered reaction that can produce extremely large (>10 microm diameter) fusion products. We here show that, prior to Ca2+-triggered fusion, yolk granules in vitro, if isolated in an appropriate buffer, became tethered to one another, forming large aggregates of more than 100 granules. Granule washing with mildly chaotropic salt abolished this tethering reaction, and prevented Ca2+-triggered formation of the large fusion products characteristic of tethered granules. Protein factors present in the wash restored tethering activity and these factors could be substantially enriched by anion exchange chromatography. The enriched fraction behaved under native conditions as a high molecular weight (approximately 670 kDa), multisubunit complex of at least seven proteins. Monoclonal antibodies directed against this complex of proteins were capable of immunodepleting tethering activity, confirming the role of the complex in granule tethering. These antibodies selectively stained the surface of yolk granules in the intact egg. We therefore propose a new role for tethering: it can promote the formation of large vesicular fusion products, such as those required for successful resealing. We have, moreover, identified several proteins that may be critical to this tethering mechanism. PMID:16188936

  2. Retromer vesicles interact with RNA granules in haploid male germ cells.

    PubMed

    Da Ros, Matteo; Hirvonen, Noora; Olotu, Opeyemi; Toppari, Jorma; Kotaja, Noora

    2015-02-01

    Spermatozoa are produced during spermatogenesis as a result of mitotic proliferation, meiosis and cellular differentiation. Postmeiotic spermatids are exceptional cells given their haploid genome and remarkable sperm-specific structural transformations to compact and reshape the nucleus and to construct the flagellum and acrosome. These processes require delicate coordination and active communication between distinct cellular compartments. In this study, we elucidated the interplay between the haploid RNA regulation and the vesicular transport system. We identified a novel interaction between VPS26A/VPS35-containing retromer vesicles and the chromatoid body (CB), which is a large ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granule unique to haploid male germ cells. VPS26A/VPS35-positive vesicles were shown to be involved in the endosomal pathway, as well as in acrosomal formation that is dependent on the Golgi complex-derived vesicular trafficking. While the exact role of the retromer vesicles in the CB function remains unclear, our results suggest a direct functional link between vesicle transport and CB-mediated RNA regulation. PMID:25486514

  3. Distinct roles of NMDA receptors at different stages of granule cell development in the adult brain.

    PubMed

    Mu, Yangling; Zhao, Chunmei; Toni, Nicolas; Yao, Jun; Gage, Fred H

    2015-01-01

    NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity are thought to underlie the assembly of developing neuronal circuits and to play a crucial role in learning and memory. It remains unclear how NMDAR might contribute to the wiring of adult-born granule cells (GCs). Here we demonstrate that nascent GCs lacking NMDARs but rescued from apoptosis by overexpressing the pro-survival protein Bcl2 were deficient in spine formation. Insufficient spinogenesis might be a general cause of cell death restricted within the NMDAR-dependent critical time window for GC survival. NMDAR loss also led to enhanced mushroom spine formation and synaptic AMPAR activity throughout the development of newborn GCs. Moreover, similar elevated synapse maturation in the absence of NMDARs was observed in neonate-generated GCs and CA1 pyramidal neurons. Together, these data suggest that NMDAR operates as a molecular monitor for controlling the activity-dependent establishment and maturation rate of synaptic connections between newborn neurons and others. PMID:26473971

  4. Forward transport of proteins in the plasma membrane of migrating cerebellar granule cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; She, Liang; Sui, Ya-nan; Yuan, Xiao-bing; Wen, Yunqing; Poo, Mu-ming

    2012-12-18

    Directional flow of membrane components has been detected at the leading front of fibroblasts and the growth cone of neuronal processes, but whether there exists global directional flow of plasma membrane components over the entire migrating neuron remains largely unknown. By analyzing the trajectories of antibody-coated single quantum dots (QDs) bound to two membrane proteins, overexpressed myc-tagged synaptic vesicle-associated membrane protein VAMP2 and endogenous neurotrophin receptor TrkB, we found that these two proteins exhibited net forward transport, which is superimposed upon Brownian motion, in both leading and trailing processes of migrating cerebellar granule cells in culture. Furthermore, no net directional transport of membrane proteins was observed in nonmigrating cells with either growing or stalling leading processes. Analysis of the correlation of motion direction between two QDs on the same process in migrating neurons also showed a higher frequency of correlated forward than rearward movements. Such correlated QD movements were markedly reduced in the presence of myosin II inhibitor blebbistatin,suggesting the involvement of myosin II-dependent active transport processes. Thus, a net forward transport of plasma membrane proteins exists in the leading and trailing processes of migrating neurons, in line with the translocation of the soma. PMID:23213239

  5. Age-Dependent Degeneration of Mature Dentate Gyrus Granule Cells Following NMDA Receptor Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Yasuhito; Müller, Michaela K.; von Engelhardt, Jakob; Sprengel, Rolf; Seeburg, Peter H.; Monyer, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in all hippocampal areas play an essential role in distinct processes of memory formation as well as in sustaining cell survival of postnatally generated neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG). In contrast to the beneficial effects, over-activation of NMDARs has been implicated in many acute and chronic neurological diseases, reason why therapeutic approaches and clinical trials involving receptor blockade have been envisaged for decades. Here we employed genetically engineered mice to study the long-term effect of NMDAR ablation on selective hippocampal neuronal populations. Ablation of either GluN1 or GluN2B causes degeneration of the DG. The neuronal demise affects mature neurons specifically in the dorsal DG and is NMDAR subunit-dependent. Most importantly, the degenerative process exacerbates with increasing age of the animals. These results lead us to conclude that mature granule cells in the dorsal DG undergo neurodegeneration following NMDAR ablation in aged mouse. Thus, caution needs to be exerted when considering long-term administration of NMDAR antagonists for therapeutic purposes. PMID:26793056

  6. Semaphorin 5A inhibits synaptogenesis in early postnatal- and adult-born hippocampal dentate granule cells

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Yuntao; Wang, Shih-Hsiu; Song, Juan; Mironova, Yevgeniya; Ming, Guo-li; Kolodkin, Alex L; Giger, Roman J

    2014-01-01

    Human SEMAPHORIN 5A (SEMA5A) is an autism susceptibility gene; however, its function in brain development is unknown. In this study, we show that mouse Sema5A negatively regulates synaptogenesis in early, developmentally born, hippocampal dentate granule cells (GCs). Sema5A is strongly expressed by GCs and regulates dendritic spine density in a cell-autonomous manner. In the adult mouse brain, newly born Sema5A−/− GCs show an increase in dendritic spine density and increased AMPA-type synaptic responses. Sema5A signals through PlexinA2 co-expressed by GCs, and the PlexinA2-RasGAP activity is necessary to suppress spinogenesis. Like Sema5A−/− mutants, PlexinA2−/− mice show an increase in GC glutamatergic synapses, and we show that Sema5A and PlexinA2 genetically interact with respect to GC spine phenotypes. Sema5A−/− mice display deficits in social interaction, a hallmark of autism-spectrum-disorders. These experiments identify novel intra-dendritic Sema5A/PlexinA2 interactions that inhibit excitatory synapse formation in developmentally born and adult-born GCs, and they provide support for SEMA5A contributions to autism-spectrum-disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04390.001 PMID:25313870

  7. Protracted Postnatal Development of Sparse, Specific Dentate Granule Cell Activation in the Mouse Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Esther P.; Dengler, Christopher G.; Frausto, Shanti F.; Putt, Mary E.; Yue, Cuiyong; Takano, Hajime; Coulter, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    The dentate gyrus (DG) is a critical entry point regulating function of the hippocampus. Integral to this role are the sparse, selective activation characteristics of the principal cells of the DG, dentate granule cells (DGCs). This sparse activation is important both in cognitive processing, and in regulation of pathological activity in disease states. Using a novel, combined dynamic imaging approach capable of resolving sequentially both synaptic potentials and action potential firing in large populations of DGCs, we characterized the postnatal development of firing properties of DG neurons in response to afferent activation in mouse hippocampal-entorhinal cortical slices. During postnatal development, there was a protracted, progressive sparsification of responses, accompanied by increased temporal precision of activation. Both of these phenomena were primarily mediated by changes in local circuit inhibition, and not by alterations in afferent innervation of DGCs, since GABAA antagonists normalized developmental differences. There was significant theta and gamma frequency-dependent synaptic recruitment of DGC activation in adult, but not developing, animals. Finally, we found that the decision to fire or not fire by individual DGCs was robust and repeatable at all stages of development. The protracted postnatal development of sparse, selective firing properties, increased temporal precision and frequency dependence of activation, and the fidelity with which the decision to fire is made are all fundamental circuit determinants of DGC excitation, critical in both normal and pathological function of the DG. PMID:23407953

  8. Eighteen New Candidate Effectors of the Phytonematode Heterodera glycines Produced Specifically in the Secretory Esophageal Gland Cells During Parasitism.

    PubMed

    Noon, Jason B; Hewezi, Tarek; Maier, Thomas R; Simmons, Carl; Wei, Jun-Zhi; Wu, Gusui; Llaca, Victor; Deschamps, Stéphane; Davis, Eric L; Mitchum, Melissa G; Hussey, Richard S; Baum, Thomas J

    2015-10-01

    Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode, is the number one pathogen of soybean (Glycine max). This nematode infects soybean roots and forms an elaborate feeding site in the vascular cylinder. H. glycines produces an arsenal of effector proteins in the secretory esophageal gland cells. More than 60 H. glycines candidate effectors were identified in previous gland-cell-mining projects. However, it is likely that additional candidate effectors remained unidentified. With the goal of identifying remaining H. glycines candidate effectors, we constructed and sequenced a large gland cell cDNA library resulting in 11,814 expressed sequence tags. After bioinformatic filtering for candidate effectors using a number of criteria, in situ hybridizations were performed in H. glycines whole-mount specimens to identify candidate effectors whose mRNA exclusively accumulated in the esophageal gland cells, which is a hallmark of many nematode effectors. This approach resulted in the identification of 18 new H. glycines esophageal gland-cell-specific candidate effectors. Of these candidate effectors, 11 sequences were pioneers without similarities to known proteins while 7 sequences had similarities to functionally annotated proteins in databases. These putative homologies provided the bases for the development of hypotheses about potential functions in the parasitism process. PMID:25871857

  9. Development of a Cell-Based Fluorescence Polarization Biosensor Using Preproinsulin to Identify Compounds That Alter Insulin Granule Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Yi, Na Young; He, Qingping; Caligan, Thomas B; Smith, Ginger R; Forsberg, Lawrence J; Brenman, Jay E; Sexton, Jonathan Z

    2015-11-01

    Diabetes currently affects 9.3% of the U.S. population totaling $245 billion annually in U.S. direct and indirect healthcare costs. Current therapies for diabetes are limited in their ability to control blood glucose and/or enhance insulin sensitivity. Therefore, innovative and efficacious therapies for diabetes are urgently needed. Herein we describe a fluorescent insulin reporter system (preproinsulin-mCherry, PPI-mCherry) that tracks live-cell insulin dynamics and secretion in pancreatic ?-cells with utility for high-content assessment of real-time insulin dynamics. Additionally, we report a new modality for sensing insulin granule packaging in conventional high-throughput screening (HTS), using a hybrid cell-based fluorescence polarization (FP)/internal FRET biosensor using the PPI-mCherry reporter system. We observed that bafilomycin, a vacuolar H(+) ATPase inhibitor and inhibitor of insulin granule formation, significantly increased mCherry FP in INS-1 cells with PPI-mCherry. Partial least squares regression analysis demonstrated that an increase of FP by bafilomycin is significantly correlated with a decrease in granularity of PPI-mCherry signal in the cells. The increased FP by bafilomycin is due to inhibition of self-Frster resonant energy transfer (homo-FRET) caused by the increased mCherry intermolecular distance. FP substantially decreases when insulin is tightly packaged in the granules, and the homo-FRET decreases when insulin granule packaging is inhibited, resulting in increased FP. We performed pilot HTS of 1782 FDA-approved small molecules and natural products from Prestwick and Enzo chemical libraries resulting in an overall Z'-factor of 0.52??0.03, indicating the suitability of this biosensor for HTS. This novel biosensor enables live-cell assessment of protein-protein interaction/protein aggregation in live cells and is compatible with conventional FP plate readers. PMID:26505612

  10. Tracing CD34+ Stromal Fibroblasts in Palatal Mucosa and Periodontal Granulation Tissue as a Possible Cell Reservoir for Periodontal Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Roman, Alexandra; Páll, Emőke; Mihu, Carmen M; Petruţiu, Adrian S; Barbu-Tudoran, Lucian; Câmpian, Radu S; Florea, Adrian; Georgiu, Carmen

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present research was to trace CD34+ stromal fibroblastic cells (CD34+ SFCs) in the palatal connective tissue harvested for muco-gingival surgical procedures and in granulation tissues from periodontal pockets using immunohistochemical and transmission electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical analysis targeted the presence of three antigens: CD31, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and CD34. In the palate, CD31 staining revealed a colored inner ring of the vessels representing the endothelium, α-SMA+ was located in the medial layer of the vasculature, and CD34 was intensely expressed by endothelial cells and artery adventitial cells (considered to be CD34+ SFCs). Granulation tissue showed the same pattern for CD31+ and α-SMA, but a different staining pattern for CD34. Ultrastructural examination of the palatal tissue highlighted perivascular cells with fibroblast-like characteristics and pericytes in close spatial relationship to endothelial cells. The ultrastructural evaluation of granulation tissue sections confirmed the presence of neovasculature and the inflammatory nature of this tissue. The present study traced the presence of CD34+ SFCs and of pericytes in the palatal connective tissue thus highlighting once more its intrinsic regenerative capabilities. The clinical and systemic factors triggering mobilization and influencing the fate of local CD34+SCFs and other progenitors are issues to be further investigated. PMID:26040442

  11. Cognitive Enhancing Treatment with a PPARγ Agonist Normalizes Dentate Granule Cell Presynaptic Function in Tg2576 APP Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nenov, Miroslav N.; Laezza, Fernanda; Haidacher, Sigmund J.; Zhao, Yingxin; Sadygov, Rovshan G.; Starkey, Jonathan M.; Spratt, Heidi; Luxon, Bruce A.; Dineley, Kelly T.

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal network hyperexcitability is considered an early indicator of Alzheimer's disease (AD) memory impairment. Some AD mouse models exhibit similar network phenotypes. In this study we focused on dentate gyrus (DG) granule cell spontaneous and evoked properties in 9-month-old Tg2576 mice that model AD amyloidosis and cognitive deficits. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we found that Tg2576 DG granule cells exhibited spontaneous EPSCs that were higher in frequency but not amplitude compared with wild-type mice, suggesting hyperactivity of DG granule cells via a presynaptic mechanism. Further support of a presynaptic mechanism was revealed by increased I–O relationships and probability of release in Tg2576 DG granule cells. Since we and others have shown that activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) axis improves hippocampal cognition in mouse models for AD as well as benefitting memory performance in some humans with early AD, we investigated how PPARγ agonism affected synaptic activity in Tg2576 DG. We found that PPARγ agonism normalized the I–O relationship of evoked EPSCs, frequency of spontaneous EPSCs, and probability of release that, in turn, correlated with selective expression of DG proteins essential for presynaptic SNARE function that are altered in patients with AD. These findings provide evidence that DG principal cells may contribute to early AD hippocampal network hyperexcitability via a presynaptic mechanism, and that hippocampal cognitive enhancement via PPARγ activation occurs through regulation of presynaptic vesicular proteins critical for proper glutamatergic neurotransmitter release, synaptic transmission, and short-term plasticity. PMID:24431460

  12. Posttraining ablation of adult-generated olfactory granule cells degrades odor-reward memories.

    PubMed

    Arruda-Carvalho, Maithe; Akers, Katherine G; Guskjolen, Axel; Sakaguchi, Masanori; Josselyn, Sheena A; Frankland, Paul W

    2014-11-19

    Proliferation of neural progenitor cells in the subventricular zone leads to the continuous generation of new olfactory granule cells (OGCs) throughout life. These cells synaptically integrate into olfactory bulb circuits after ∼2 weeks and transiently exhibit heightened plasticity and responses to novel odors. Although these observations suggest that adult-generated OGCs play important roles in olfactory-related memories, global suppression of olfactory neurogenesis does not typically prevent the formation of odor-reward memories, perhaps because residual OGCs can compensate. Here, we used a transgenic strategy to selectively ablate large numbers of adult-generated OGCs either before or after learning in mice. Consistent with previous studies, pretraining ablation of adult-generated OGCs did not prevent the formation of an odor-reward memory, presumably because existing OGCs can support memory formation in their absence. However, ablation of a similar cohort of adult-generated OGCs after training impaired subsequent memory expression, indicating that if these cells are available at the time of training, they play an essential role in subsequent expression of odor-reward memories. Memory impairment was associated with the loss of adult-generated OGCs that were >10 d in age and did not depend on the developmental stage in which they were generated, suggesting that, once sufficiently mature, OGCs generated during juvenility and adulthood play similar roles in the expression of odor-reward memories. Finally, ablation of adult-generated OGCs 1 month after training did not produce amnesia, indicating that adult-generated OGCs play a time-limited role in the expression of odor-reward memories. PMID:25411506

  13. Endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract of a stomachless teleostean fish.

    PubMed

    Reifel, C W

    1988-01-01

    Endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract of the stomachless teleostean fish, Notemigonus crysoleucas, were studied using electron microscopy. Located between the absorptive cells of the intestinal epithelium, the enteroendocrine cells were very few in number. While some of the cells had their secretory granules located basally and a long narrow part extending toward the lumen, many appeared rounder and the plane of the section did not indicate that they extended to the lumen. Based upon size and shape of secretory granules, there appear to be several different types of cells: those with the smallest granules distributed throughout the intestine, those with intermediate sized granules more commonly found in the middle and distal segments and a few with large granules seen most often in the distal intestine. PMID:3223592

  14. PICK1 and ICA69 control insulin granule trafficking and their deficiencies lead to impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Cao, Mian; Mao, Zhuo; Kam, Chuen; Xiao, Nan; Cao, Xiaoxing; Shen, Chong; Cheng, Kenneth K Y; Xu, Aimin; Lee, Kwong-Man; Jiang, Liwen; Xia, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia. Insulin, which is secreted by pancreatic beta cells, is recognized as the critical regulator of blood glucose, but the molecular machinery responsible for insulin trafficking remains poorly defined. In particular, the roles of cytosolic factors that govern the formation and maturation of insulin granules are unclear. Here we report that PICK1 and ICA69, two cytosolic lipid-binding proteins, formed heteromeric BAR-domain complexes that associated with insulin granules at different stages of their maturation. PICK1-ICA69 heteromeric complexes associated with immature secretory granules near the trans-Golgi network (TGN). A brief treatment of Brefeldin A, which blocks vesicle budding from the Golgi, increased the amount of PICK1 and ICA69 at TGN. On the other hand, mature secretory granules were associated with PICK1 only, not ICA69. PICK1 deficiency in mice caused the complete loss of ICA69 and led to increased food and water intake but lower body weight. Glucose tolerance tests demonstrated that these mutant mice had high blood glucose, a consequence of insufficient insulin. Importantly, while the total insulin level was reduced in PICK1-deficient beta cells, proinsulin was increased. Lastly, ICA69 knockout mice also displayed similar phenotype as the mice deficient in PICK1. Together, our results indicate that PICK1 and ICA69 are key regulators of the formation and maturation of insulin granules. PMID:23630453

  15. Chromaffin granule membrane-F-actin interactions and spectrin-like protein of subcellular organelles: a possible relationship.

    PubMed

    Aunis, D; Perrin, D

    1984-06-01

    The membrane of chromaffin granule, the secretory vesicle of adrenal medullary cells storing catecholamines, enkephalins, and many other components, interacts with F-actin. Using low shear falling ball viscometry to estimate actin binding to membranes, we demonstrated that mitochondrial and plasma membranes from chromaffin cells also provoked large increases in viscosity of F-actin solutions. Mitochondrial membranes also had the capacity to cause complete gelation of F-actin. In addition, vasopressin-containing granules from neurohypophysial tissue were shown to bind F-actin and to increase the viscosity of F-actin solutions. Using an antibody directed against human erythrocyte spectrin, it was found that a spectrin-like protein was associated with secretory granule membrane, mitochondrial membrane, and plasma membrane. The chromaffin granule membrane-associated spectrin-like protein faces the cytoplasmic side, is composed of two subunits (240 kD and 235kD ), the alpha-subunit (240 kD, pHi5 .5) being recognized by the antibody. Nonionic detergents such as Triton X-100 or Nonidet P40 failed to release fully active spectrin-like protein. In contrast, Kyro EOB , a different nonionic detergent, was found to release spectrin-like protein while keeping intact F-actin binding capacity, at least below 0.5% Kyro EOB concentration. Chromaffin cells in culture were stained with antispectrin antibody, showing the presence of spectrin-like protein in the cell periphery close to the cell membrane but also in the cytoplasm. We conclude that in living cells the interaction of F-actin with chromaffin granule membrane spectrin observed in vitro is important in controlling the potential function of secretory vesicles. PMID:6374036

  16. Improved performance of microbial fuel cell using combination biocathode of graphite fiber brush and graphite granules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guo-dong; Zhao, Qing-liang; Jiao, Yan; Zhang, Jin-na; Jiang, Jun-qiu; Ren, Nanqi; Kim, Byung Hong

    2011-08-01

    The efficiency and sustainability of microbial fuel cell (MFC) are heavily dependent on the cathode performance. We show here that the use of graphite fiber brush (GBF) together with graphite granules (GGs) as a basal material for biocathode (MFC reactor type R1) significantly improve the performance of a MFC compared with MFCs using GGs (MFC reactor type R2) or GFB (MFC reactor type R3) individually. Compared with R3, the use of the combination biocathode (R1) can shorten the start-up time by 53.75%, improve coulombic efficiencies (CEs) by 21.0 ± 2.7% at external resistance (REX) of 500 Ω, and increase maximum power densities by 38.2 ± 12.6%. Though the start-up time and open circuit voltage (OCV) of the reactor R2 are similar to R1, the CE (REX = 500 Ω) and maximum power density of R2 are 21.4 ± 1.7% and 38.2 ± 15.6% lower than that of R1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses indicate the bacteria on cathodes of R1 and R2 are richer than that of R3. Molecular taxonomic analyses reveal that the biofilm formed on the biocathode surface is dominated by strains belonging to Nitrobacter, Achromobacter, Acinetobacter, and Bacteroidetes. Combination of GFB and GGs as biocathode material in MFC is more efficient and can achieve sustainable electricity recovery from organic substances, which substantially increases the viability and sustainability of MFCs.

  17. Rapid induction of granule cell elimination in the olfactory bulb by noxious stimulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Komano-Inoue, Sayaka; Murata, Koshi; Mori, Kensaku; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2015-06-26

    Elimination of granule cells (GCs) in the olfactory bulb (OB) is not a continuous event but is rather promoted during short time windows associated with the animal's behavior. We previously showed that apoptotic GC elimination is enhanced during food eating and subsequent rest or sleep, and that top-down inputs from the olfactory cortex (OC) to the OB during the postprandial period are the crucial signal promoting GC elimination. However, whether enhanced GC elimination occurs during behaviors other than postprandial behavior is not clear. Here, we investigated whether exposure to noxious stimulation promotes apoptotic GC elimination in mice. Mice were delivered a brief electrical foot shock, during and immediately after which they showed startle and fear responses. Surprisingly, the number of apoptotic GCs increased 2-fold within 10 min after the start of foot shock delivery. This enhancement of GC apoptosis was significantly suppressed by injection of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol in the OC, despite these muscimol-injected mice showing similar behavioral responses by foot shock as control mice. These results indicate that GC elimination is promoted in foot shock-delivered mice within a short time period of startle and fear responses. They also indicate that OC activity plays a central role in the enhanced GC elimination during this period, as is also the case in GC elimination during the postprandial period. PMID:25943284

  18. Dendritic patch-clamp recordings from cerebellar granule cells demonstrate electrotonic compactness

    PubMed Central

    Delvendahl, Igor; Straub, Isabelle; Hallermann, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Cerebellar granule cells (GCs), the smallest neurons in the brain, have on average four short dendrites that receive high-frequency mossy fiber inputs conveying sensory information. The short length of the dendrites suggests that GCs are electrotonically compact allowing unfiltered integration of dendritic inputs. The small average diameter of the dendrites (~0.7 µm), however, argues for dendritic filtering. Previous studies based on somatic recordings and modeling indicated that GCs are electrotonically extremely compact. Here, we performed patch-clamp recordings from GC dendrites in acute brain slices of mice to directly analyze the electrotonic properties of GCs. Strikingly, the input resistance did not differ significantly between dendrites and somata of GCs. Furthermore, spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSP) were similar in amplitude at dendritic and somatic recording sites. From the dendritic and somatic input resistances we determined parameters characterizing the electrotonic compactness of GCs. These data directly demonstrate that cerebellar GCs are electrotonically compact and thus ideally suited for efficient high-frequency information transfer. PMID:25852483

  19. Relative densities of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA receptors on cerebellar granule cells as determined by a quantitative immunogold method.

    PubMed

    Nusser, Z; Roberts, J D; Baude, A; Richards, J G; Somogyi, P

    1995-04-01

    Ion channels gated by the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are thought to be located in synaptic junctions, but they have also been found throughout the somatodendritic membrane of neurons independent of synapses. To test whether synaptic junctions are enriched in GABAA receptors, and to determine the relative densities of synaptic and extrasynaptic receptors, the alpha 1 and beta 2/3 subunits of the GABAA receptor were localized on cerebellar granule cells using a postembedding immunogold method in cats. Immunoparticle density for the alpha 1 and beta 2/3 subunits was approximately 230 and 180 times more concentrated, respectively, in the synaptic junction made by GABAergic Golgi cell terminals with granule cell dendrites than on the extrasynaptic somatic membrane. Quantification of immunoreactivity revealed one synapse population for the beta 2/3, but appeared to show two populations for the alpha 1 subunit immunoreactivity. The concentration of these subunits on somatic membrane was significantly lower than on the extrasynaptic dendritic membrane. Synaptic junctions with glutamatergic mossy fiber terminals were immunonegative. The results demonstrate that granule cells receiving GABAergic synapses at a restricted location on their distal dendrites exhibit a highly compartmentalized distribution of GABAA receptor in their plasma membrane. PMID:7722639

  20. Pharmacological characterization of mGlu1 receptors in cerebellar granule cells reveals biased agonism.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, Hannah A; Pshenichkin, Sergey; Grajkowska, Ewa; Gelb, Tara; Emery, Andrew C; Wolfe, Barry B; Wroblewski, Jarda T

    2015-06-01

    The majority of existing research on the function of metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor 1 focuses on G protein-mediated outcomes. However, similar to other G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), it is becoming apparent that mGlu1 receptor signaling is multi-dimensional and does not always involve G protein activation. Previously, in transfected CHO cells, we showed that mGlu1 receptors activate a G protein-independent, β-arrestin-dependent signal transduction mechanism and that some mGlu1 receptor ligands were incapable of stimulating this response. Here we set out to investigate the physiological relevance of these findings in a native system using primary cultures of cerebellar granule cells. We tested the ability of a panel of compounds to stimulate two mGlu1 receptor-mediated outcomes: (1) protection from decreased cell viability after withdrawal of trophic support and (2) G protein-mediated phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis. We report that the commonly used mGlu1 receptor ligands quisqualate, DHPG, and ACPD are completely biased towards PI hydrolysis and do not induce mGlu1 receptor-stimulated neuroprotection. On the other hand, endogenous compounds including glutamate, aspartate, cysteic acid, cysteine sulfinic acid, and homocysteic acid stimulate both responses. These results show that some commonly used mGlu1 receptor ligands are biased agonists, stimulating only a fraction of mGlu1 receptor-mediated responses in neurons. This emphasizes the importance of utilizing multiple agonists and assays when studying GPCR function. PMID:25700650

  1. PACAP modulation of calcium ion activity in developing granule cells of the neonatal mouse olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Mavis; Greig, Ann; Tvrdik, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Ca2+ activity in the CNS is critical for the establishment of developing neuronal circuitry prior to and during early sensory input. In developing olfactory bulb (OB), the neuromodulators that enhance network activity are largely unknown. Here we provide evidence that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP)-specific PAC1 receptors (PAC1Rs) expressed in postnatal day (P)2–P5 mouse OB are functional and enhance network activity as measured by increases in calcium in genetically identified granule cells (GCs). We used confocal Ca2+ imaging of OB slices from Dlx2-tdTomato mice to visualize GABAergic GCs. To address whether the PACAP-induced Ca2+ oscillations were direct or indirect effects of PAC1R activation, we used antagonists for the GABA receptors (GABARs) and/or glutamate receptors (GluRs) in the presence and absence of PACAP. Combined block of GABARs and GluRs yielded a 66% decrease in the numbers of PACAP-responsive cells, suggesting that 34% of OB neurons are directly activated by PACAP. Similarly, immunocytochemistry using anti-PAC1 antibody showed that 34% of OB neurons express PAC1R. Blocking either GluRs or GABARs alone indirectly showed that PACAP stimulates release of both glutamate and GABA, which activate GCs. The appearance of PACAP-induced Ca2+ activity in immature GCs suggests a role for PACAP in GC maturation. To conclude, we find that PACAP has both direct and indirect effects on neonatal OB GABAergic cells and may enhance network activity by promoting glutamate and GABA release. Furthermore, the numbers of PACAP-responsive GCs significantly increased between P2 and P5, suggesting that PACAP-induced Ca2+ activity contributes to neonatal OB development. PMID:25475351

  2. Electrical responses of three classes of granule cells of the olfactory bulb to synaptic inputs in different dendritic locations

    PubMed Central

    Simões-de-Souza, Fábio M.; Antunes, Gabriela; Roque, Antonio C.

    2014-01-01

    This work consists of a computational study of the electrical responses of three classes of granule cells of the olfactory bulb to synaptic activation in different dendritic locations. The constructed models were based on morphologically detailed compartmental reconstructions of three granule cell classes of the olfactory bulb with active dendrites described by Bhalla and Bower (1993, pp. 1948–1965) and dendritic spine distributions described by Woolf et al. (1991, pp. 1837–1854). The computational studies with the model neurons showed that different quantities of spines have to be activated in each dendritic region to induce an action potential, which always was originated in the active terminal dendrites, independently of the location of the stimuli, and the morphology of the dendritic tree. These model predictions might have important computational implications in the context of olfactory bulb circuits. PMID:25360108

  3. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in human cholangiocarcinoma cells treated with Clonorchis sinensis excretory-secretory products.

    PubMed

    Pak, Jhang Ho; Moon, Ju Hyun; Hwang, Seung-Jun; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Seo, Sang-Beom; Kim, Tong-Soo

    2009-12-15

    Severe Clonorchis sinensis infection is a significant risk factor for malignant changes in bile ducts and surrounding liver tissues occurring as a result of direct contact with C. sinensis worms and their excretory-secretory products (ESP). However, the intrinsic molecular mechanisms involved in these processes remain obscure. To determine the effects of C. sinensis infection on protein expression in host bile duct epithelium, we examined proteomic profile changes in the human cholangiocarcinoma cell line (HuCCT1) treated with ESP at 24 h. Using a combination of 2-DE, quantitative image and MALDI-TOF MS analysis, we identified 83 proteins that were translationally modulated in response to ESP, among which 49 were up-regulated and 34 down-regulated. These proteins were classified under various biological categories, including metabolism, cell structure and architecture, proteolysis, protein modification, transport, signal transduction, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification. In particular, ESP induced the expression of redox-regulating proteins, including peroxiredoxins (Prdx 2, 3, and 6) and thioredoxin 1 (Trx 1), possibly via intracellular ROS generation. Application of the proteomic approach to identify ESP response proteins should be a prerequisite before further investigation to clarify the molecular pathways and mechanisms involved in C. sinensis infection of host cells. PMID:19798681

  4. JAM-A promotes wound healing by enhancing both homing and secretory activities of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Minjuan; Ji, Shizhao; Xiao, Shichu; Kong, Zhengdong; Fang, He; Zhang, Yunqing; Ji, Kaihong; Zheng, Yongjun; Liu, Houqi; Xia, Zhaofan

    2015-10-01

    The homing ability and secretory function of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are key factors that influence cell involvement in wound repair. These factors are controlled by multilayer regulatory circuitry, including adhesion molecules, core transcription factors (TFs) and certain other regulators. However, the role of adhesion molecules in this regulatory circuitry and their underlying mechanism remain undefined. In the present paper, we demonstrate that an adhesion molecule, junction adhesion molecule A (JAM-A), may function as a key promoter molecule to regulate skin wound healing by MSCs. In in vivo experiments, we show that JAM-A up-regulation promoted both MSC homing to full-thickness skin wounds and wound healing-related cytokine secretion by MSCs. In vitro experiments also showed that JAM-A promoted MSC proliferation and migration by activating T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 (Tiam1). We suggest that JAM-A up-regulation can increase the proliferation, cytokine secretion and wound-homing ability of MSCs, thus accelerating the repair rate of full-thickness skin defects. These results may provide insights into a novel and potentially effective approach to improve the efficacy of MSC treatment. PMID:25994236

  5. Characterisation of the biosynthesis and processing of the neutrophil granule membrane protein CD63 in myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Ageberg, M; Lindmark, A

    2003-10-01

    The biosynthesis and processing of the neutrophil granule membrane protein CD63, present in azurophil granules, was investigated in four myeloid cell lines. The amount of CD63 synthesised differed, so did the amount of protein processed to high molecular weight forms, with the demonstration of a more prominent synthesis of CD63 in K562 cells. Newly synthesised CD63 was initially detected as two precursor forms with molecular weight of 32 and 35 kDa, respectively. These two initial forms were processed further to yield high molecular weight forms of CD63 with a mean molecular weight of 50 kDa. Treatment with endoglycosidase H or N-glycosidase F revealed a protein core, free from asparagine-linked carbohydrates, with a molecular weight of 23 kDa. Newly synthesised CD63 was susceptible to digestion with endoglycosidase H, and the protein was not completely resistant to endoglycosidase H until after 4 h of chase, indicating that transport through the medial and trans-Golgi complex with conversion of high-mannose carbohydrates to complex oligosaccharide side chains had occurred. This finding indicates a relatively long processing time for CD63 compared to that of soluble azurophil granule proteins. By digestion with O-glycanase, the existence of O-linked oligosaccharides on CD63 could not be demonstrated. Biosynthetic labelling of cells in the presence of brefeldin A showed the importance of a functional Golgi apparatus for processing of the protein to its high molecular weight forms. PMID:12974720

  6. Inhibition of excessive neuronal apoptosis by the calcium antagonist amlodipine and antioxidants in cerebellar granule cells.

    PubMed

    Mason, R P; Leeds, P R; Jacob, R F; Hough, C J; Zhang, K G; Mason, P E; Chuang, D M

    1999-04-01

    Neuronal cell death as a result of apoptosis is associated with cerebrovascular stroke and various neurodegenerative disorders. Pharmacological agents that maintain normal intracellular Ca2+ levels and inhibit cellular oxidative stress may be effective in blocking abnormal neuronal apoptosis. In this study, a spontaneous (also referred to as age-induced) model of apoptosis consisting of rat cerebellar granule cells was used to evaluate the antiapoptotic activities of voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channel blockers and various antioxidants. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the charged, dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel blocker amlodipine had very potent neuroprotective activity in this system, compared with antioxidants and neutral Ca2+ channel blockers (nifedipine and nimodipine). Within its effective pharmacological range (10-100 nM), amlodipine attenuated intracellular neuronal Ca2+ increases elicited by KCl depolarization but did not affect Ca2+ changes triggered by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation. Amlodipine also inhibited free radical-induced damage to lipid constituents of the membrane in a dose-dependent manner, independent of Ca2+ channel modulation. In parallel experiments, spontaneous neuronal apoptosis was inhibited in dose- and time-dependent manners by antioxidants (U-78439G, alpha-tocopherol, and melatonin), nitric oxide synthase inhibitors (N-nitro-L-arginine and N-nitro-D-arginine), and a nitric oxide chelator (hemoglobin) in the micromolar range. These results suggest that spontaneous neuronal apoptosis is associated with excessive Ca2+ influx, leading to further intracellular Ca2+ increases and the generation of reactive oxygen species. Agents such as amlodipine that block voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels and inhibit cellular oxidative stress may be effective in the treatment of cerebrovascular stroke and neurodegenerative diseases associated with excessive apoptosis. PMID:10098848

  7. Initiation of human lactation: secretory differentiation and secretory activation.

    PubMed

    Pang, Wei Wei; Hartmann, Peter E

    2007-12-01

    Theories for the origin of milk have been recorded since the time of Ancient Greeks. In those times it was believed that milk was derived from special vessels that connected the uterus to the breasts. The "chyle theory" on the origin of milk was another prominent theory which persisted well into the nineteenth century before the realisation that milk components were derived from blood and some milk constituents were actually synthesized within the breasts. The demonstration that milk ejection was the expulsion of milk that had already been secreted and that milk secretion was a separate continuous process, set the background for the development for the current understanding of milk synthesis and secretion. Today we know that there are two stages in the initiation of lactation- secretory differentiation and secretory activation. Secretory differentiation represents the stage of pregnancy when the mammary epithelial cells differentiate into lactocytes with the capacity to synthesize unique milk constituents such as lactose. This process requires the presence of a 'lactogenic hormone complex' of the reproductive hormones, estrogen, progesterone, prolactin and some metabolic hormones. Secretory activation on the other hand, is the initiation of copious milk secretion and is associated with major changes in the concentrations of many milk constituents. The withdrawal of progesterone triggers the onset of secretory activation but prolactin, insulin and cortisol must also be present. This review describes the works of pioneers that have led to our current understanding of the biochemical and endocrinological processes involved in the initiation of human lactation. PMID:18027076

  8. Extracellular vesicles from parasitic helminths contain specific excretory/secretory proteins and are internalized in intestinal host cells.

    PubMed

    Marcilla, Antonio; Trelis, María; Cortés, Alba; Sotillo, Javier; Cantalapiedra, Fernando; Minguez, María Teresa; Valero, María Luz; Sánchez del Pino, Manuel Mateo; Muñoz-Antoli, Carla; Toledo, Rafael; Bernal, Dolores

    2012-01-01

    The study of host-parasite interactions has increased considerably in the last decades, with many studies focusing on the identification of parasite molecules (i.e. surface or excretory/secretory proteins (ESP)) as potential targets for new specific treatments and/or diagnostic tools. In parallel, in the last few years there have been significant advances in the field of extracellular vesicles research. Among these vesicles, exosomes of endocytic origin, with a characteristic size ranging from 30-100 nm, carry several atypical secreted proteins in different organisms, including parasitic protozoa. Here, we present experimental evidence for the existence of exosome-like vesicles in parasitic helminths, specifically the trematodes Echinostoma caproni and Fasciola hepatica. These microvesicles are actively released by the parasites and are taken up by host cells. Trematode extracellular vesicles contain most of the proteins previously identified as components of ESP, as confirmed by proteomic, immunogold labeling and electron microscopy studies. In addition to parasitic proteins, we also identify host proteins in these structures. The existence of extracellular vesicles explains the secretion of atypical proteins in trematodes, and the demonstration of their uptake by host cells suggests an important role for these structures in host-parasite communication, as described for other infectious agents. PMID:23029346

  9. Effect of oral N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on volume and albumin content of respiratory tract fluid but not on epithelial secretory cell number in "smoking" rats.

    PubMed

    Robinson, N; Brattsand, R; Dahlbäck, M

    1990-03-01

    This study was designed to look at the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on epithelial secretory cells and the respiratory tract fluid volume and albumin content from the lower airways of "bronchitic" rats. Rats were exposed either to tobacco smoke (TS), TS and NAC, or NAC alone. TS caused a significant increase in epithelial secretory cell number which was not reduced by concomitant NAC administration; NAC alone had no effect on cell numbers. TS increased respiratory tract fluid volume and albumin content by a small but non-significant amount, whereas TS and NAC increased the volume and albumin content by a greater and significant amount; NAC alone was also shown to significantly increase both fluid volume and albumin content. PMID:2340888

  10. [Rapid biosynthesis and release of 35 kD granzyme B by NK92 cells bypassing secretory lysosomes].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Jiang, Shaowei; Xiao, Ling; Chen, Lin; Li, Anzheng; Zheng, Fang

    2016-02-01

    Objective To investigate the possibility of the biosynthesis and release of granzyme B (GZB) by NK92 cells bypassing the way of secretory lysosomes (SLs) and the possible mechanism. Methods As cell models, NK92 cells were activated by the phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin (ION). Within 4 hours following the activation, immuno- fluorescence and electron microscopy were used to detect the content and distribution of 35 000 (Mr) and 32 000 (Mr) GZB in the cytoplasm of NK92 before and after the protein synthesis was inhibited; Western blotting was performed to detect GZB inside and outside the SLs. After blocking the release of 32 000 (Mr) GZB by inhibiting the exocytosis of SLs with EDTA, we tested the content of Mr 35 000 GZB in activated NK92 supernatant. Activated NK92 cells were co-cultured with K562 cells to observe whether the Mr 35 000 GZB could enter the K562 cells. Activated NK92 cell death rate was determined and the enzyme activity of secreted Mr 35 000 GZB was examined. Results Four hours after stimulated by PMA/ION, NK92 cells generated large amount of Mr 35 000 GZB in the cytoplasm outside SLs where Mr 32 000 GZB was located. Immunoelectron microscope and immunofluorescence further approved that Mr 35 000 GZB outside SLs was located in vesicles. In addition, Mr 35 000 GZB could be secreted outside NK92 cells. Further investigation found that GZB/Serpinb9 composite and Mr 35 000 GZB could simultaneously emerge in the cytoplasm outside SLs. However, activated NK92 cell death rate did not rise. Mr 32 000 GZB inside SLs had enzyme activity in contrast with the Mr 35 000 GZB in zymogen form outside SLs, which suggested that Mr 35 000 GZB was not originated from the SLs. Conclusion The activated human NK cell lines could secreted rapidly inactive Mr 35 000 GZB outside SLs, and the GZB could enter the extracellular matrix or target cells bypassing SLs, which provides a part of the extracellular GZB. PMID:26927382

  11. Histological characterization of the special venom secretory cells in the stinger of rays in the northern waters of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Hadi; Sajjadi, Mir Masoud; Parto, Paria; Rajaian, Hamid; Mokhlesi, Amin

    2010-06-01

    Rays are common elasmobranches in the northern waters of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea that may have one or more mineralized serrated stingers on the whip-like tail. The stingers are covered by epidermal cells among which some can produce venom. When these animals are dorsally touched, the stinger can be introduced into the aggressor by a whip reflex mechanism of the tail when the pectoral fins are touched, causing severe mechanical injuries and inoculating the venom. The exact localization of the venom secretory cells in the stinger of different species is controversial, but it is known that the cells are preferentially located in the ventro-lateral grooves in marine stingrays. A comparative morphological characterization of the stinger epidermal tissue of different ray species in the northern part of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea was carried out in this study. EDTA was used for decalcification of stings and conventional histological processes were subsequently employed. The results indicated that structure of dermis and epidermis layers of stings in all species are similar to the structure of corresponding layers in other parts of fish's body. The results of the present study have shown that all examined species of Dasyatidae family, but not Myliobatidae and Gymnuridae families, had venom secretory cells. Distribution of venom secretory cells varies in each species and is often located around or inside the stinger ventro-lateral grooves. These differences among the stingers of various species may explain the envenomation severity in these species. PMID:20080118

  12. Cell adhesion, ammonia removal and granulation of autotrophic nitrifying sludge facilitated by N-acyl-homoserine lactones.

    PubMed

    Li, An-Jie; Hou, Bao-Lian; Li, Mei-Xi

    2015-11-01

    In this study, six N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) molecules (C6-HSL, C8-HSL, C10-HSL, 3-oxo-C6-HSL, 3-oxo-C8-HSL and 3-oxo-C10-HSL) were each dosed into a bioreactor and seeded using autotrophic nitrifying sludge (ANS). The effects of the AHLs on cell adhesion, nitrification and sludge granulation were investigated. The results indicated that the efficiencies of cell adhesion and ammonia removal both had a close correlation with the side chain length and β position substituent group of the AHLs. The best-performing AHL in terms of accelerating bacterial attached-growth was 3-oxo-C6-HSL, whereas C6-HSL outperformed the others in terms of the ammonia degradation rate. The addition of 3-oxo-C6-HSL or C6-HSL increased the biomass growth rate, microbial activity, extracellular proteins and nitrifying bacteria, which can accelerate the formation of nitrifying granules. Consequently, selecting AHL molecules that could improve bacteria in attached-growth mode and nitrification efficiency simultaneously will most likely facilitate the rapid granulation of nitrifying sludge. PMID:26295441

  13. Anoctamin 1 in secretory epithelia.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yongwoo; Oh, Uhtaek

    2014-06-01

    Fluid and electrolyte releasing from secretory epithelia are elaborately regulated by orchestrated activity of ion channels. The activity of chloride channel at the apical membrane decides on the direction and the rate of secretory fluid and electrolyte. Chloride-dependent secretion is conventionally associated with intracellular increases in two second messengers, cAMP and Ca(2+), responding to luminal purinergic and basolateral adrenergic or cholinergic stimulation. While it is broadly regarded that cAMP-dependent Cl(-) secretion is regulated by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel (CaCC) had been veiled for quite some time. Now, Anoctamin 1 (ANO1 or TMEM16A) confers Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents. Ano 1 and its paralogs have been actively investigated for multiple functions underlying Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) efflux and fluid secretion in a variety of secretory epithelial cells. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in the secretory function and signaling of ANO1 in the secretory epithelia, such as airways, intestines, and salivary glands. PMID:24636668

  14. Synaptosomal-associated protein 25 mutation induces immaturity of the dentate granule cells of adult mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Synaptosomal-associated protein, 25 kDa (SNAP-25) regulates the exocytosis of neurotransmitters. Growing evidence suggests that SNAP-25 is involved in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and epilepsy. Recently, increases in anxiety-related behaviors and epilepsy have been observed in SNAP-25 knock-in (KI) mice, which have a single amino acid substitution of Ala for Ser187. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the abnormalities in this mutant remain unknown. Results In this study, we found that a significant number of dentate gyrus (DG) granule cells was histologically and electrophysiologically similar to immature DG neurons in the dentate gyrus of the adult mutants, a phenomenon termed the “immature DG” (iDG). SNAP-25 KI mice and other mice possessing the iDG phenotype, i.e., alpha-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II heterozygous mice, Schnurri-2 knockout mice, and mice treated with the antidepressant fluoxetine, showed similar molecular expression patterns, with over 100 genes similarly altered. A working memory deficit was also identified in mutant mice during a spontaneous forced alternation task using a modified T-maze, a behavioral task known to be dependent on hippocampal function. Chronic treatments with the antiepileptic drug valproate abolished the iDG phenotype and the working memory deficit in mutants. Conclusions These findings suggest that the substitution of Ala for Ser187 in SNAP-25 induces the iDG phenotype, which can also be caused by epilepsy, and led to a severe working memory deficit. In addition, the iDG phenotype in adulthood is likely an endophenotype for at least a part of some common psychiatric disorders. PMID:23497716

  15. Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptors Transiently Silence Glutamatergic Nerve Terminals of Cultured Cerebellar Granule Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Franco, Jorge; Bartolomé-Martín, David; Alonso, Beatris; Torres, Magdalena; Sánchez-Prieto, José

    2014-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptors are the most abundant G protein-coupled receptors in the brain and they mediate retrograde short-term inhibition of neurotransmitter release, as well as long-term depression of synaptic transmission at many excitatory synapses. The induction of presynaptically silent synapses is a means of modulating synaptic strength, which is important for synaptic plasticity. Persistent activation of cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB1Rs) mutes GABAergic terminals, although it is unclear if CB1Rs can also induce silencing at glutamatergic synapses. Cerebellar granule cells were transfected with VGLUT1-pHluorin to visualise the exo-endocytotic cycle. We found that prolonged stimulation (10 min) of cannabinoid receptors with the agonist HU-210 induces the silencing of previously active synapses. However, the presynaptic silencing induced by HU-210 is transient as it reverses after 20 min. cAMP with forskolin prevented CB1R-induced synaptic silencing, via activation of the Exchange Protein directly Activated by cAMP (Epac). Furthermore, Epac activation accelerated awakening of already silent boutons. Electron microscopy revealed that silencing was associated with synaptic vesicle (SV) redistribution within the nerve terminal, which diminished the number of vesicles close to the active zone of the plasma membrane. Finally, by combining functional and immunocytochemical approaches, we observed a strong correlation between the release capacity of the nerve terminals and RIM1α protein content, but not that of Munc13-1 protein. These results suggest that prolonged stimulation of cannabinoid receptors can transiently silence glutamatergic nerve terminals. PMID:24533119

  16. Cannabinoid type 1 receptors transiently silence glutamatergic nerve terminals of cultured cerebellar granule cells.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Franco, Jorge; Bartolomé-Martín, David; Alonso, Beatris; Torres, Magdalena; Sánchez-Prieto, José

    2014-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptors are the most abundant G protein-coupled receptors in the brain and they mediate retrograde short-term inhibition of neurotransmitter release, as well as long-term depression of synaptic transmission at many excitatory synapses. The induction of presynaptically silent synapses is a means of modulating synaptic strength, which is important for synaptic plasticity. Persistent activation of cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB1Rs) mutes GABAergic terminals, although it is unclear if CB1Rs can also induce silencing at glutamatergic synapses. Cerebellar granule cells were transfected with VGLUT1-pHluorin to visualise the exo-endocytotic cycle. We found that prolonged stimulation (10 min) of cannabinoid receptors with the agonist HU-210 induces the silencing of previously active synapses. However, the presynaptic silencing induced by HU-210 is transient as it reverses after 20 min. cAMP with forskolin prevented CB1R-induced synaptic silencing, via activation of the Exchange Protein directly Activated by cAMP (Epac). Furthermore, Epac activation accelerated awakening of already silent boutons. Electron microscopy revealed that silencing was associated with synaptic vesicle (SV) redistribution within the nerve terminal, which diminished the number of vesicles close to the active zone of the plasma membrane. Finally, by combining functional and immunocytochemical approaches, we observed a strong correlation between the release capacity of the nerve terminals and RIM1α protein content, but not that of Munc13-1 protein. These results suggest that prolonged stimulation of cannabinoid receptors can transiently silence glutamatergic nerve terminals. PMID:24533119

  17. GABAB receptor subtypes differentially modulate synaptic inhibition in the dentate gyrus to enhance granule cell output

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Joshua D; Kitchen, Ian; Bettler, Bernhard; Chen, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Activation of GABAB receptors in the dentate gyrus (DG) enhances granule cell (GC) activity by reducing synaptic inhibition imposed by hilar interneurons. This disinhibitory action facilitates signal transfer from the perforant path to the hippocampus. However, as the two main molecular subtypes, GABAB(1a,2) and GABAB(1b,2) receptors, prefer axonal terminal and dendritic compartments, respectively, they may modulate the hilar pathways at different synaptic localizations. We examined their relative expression and functions in the DG. Experimental Approach The localization of GABAB subtypes was revealed immunohistochemically using subunit-selective antibodies in GABAB1a–/– and GABAB1b–/– mice. Effects of subtype activation by the GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, were examined on the perforant path-stimulated GC population activities in brain slices. Key Results GABAB(1a,2) receptors were concentrated in the inner molecular layer, the neuropil of the hilus and hilar neurons at the border zone; while GABAB(1b,2) receptors dominated the outer molecular layer and hilar neurons in the deep layer, showing their differential localization on GC dendrite and in the hilus. Baclofen enhanced the GC population spike to a larger extent in the GABAB1b–/– mice, demonstrating exclusively disinhibitory roles of the GABAB(1a,2) receptors. Conversely, in the GABAB1a–/– mice baclofen not only enhanced but also inhibited the population spike during GABAA blockade, revealing both disinhibitory and inhibitory effects of GABAB(1b,2) receptors. Conclusions and Implications The GABAB(1a,2) and GABAB(1b,2) receptor subtypes differentially modulate GC outputs via selective axonal terminal and dendritic locations in the hilar pathways. The GABAB(1a,2) receptors exclusively mediate disinhibition, thereby playing a greater role in gating signal transfer for hippocampal spatial and pattern learning. PMID:23186302

  18. Interplay between sodium and calcium dynamics in granule cell presynaptic terminals.

    PubMed Central

    Regehr, W G

    1997-01-01

    Fluorescent indicators were used to detect stimulus-evoked changes in presynaptic levels of intracellular sodium (Na(i)) and calcium (Ca(i)) in granule cell parallel fibers in brain slices from rat cerebellum. Ca(i) increased during stimulation, and three exponentials were needed to approximate its return to prestimulus levels. Ca(i) decayed to approximately 10% of peak levels with tau approximately 100 ms, to approximately 1% of peak values with tau approximately 6 s, and then returned to prestimulus levels with tau approximately 1-2 min. After stimulation, Na(i) accumulated in two phases; one rapid, the other continuing for several hundred milliseconds. The return of Na(i) to prestimulus levels was well approximated by a double exponential decay with time constants of 6-17 s and 2-3 min. Manipulations that prevented calcium entry eliminated both the slow component of sodium entry and the rapid component of Na(i) decay. Reductions of extracellular sodium slowed the rapid phase of Ca(i) decay. These Ca(i) and Na(i) transients were well described by a model in which the plasma membrane of presynaptic boutons contained both a sodium/calcium exchanger and a calcium ATPase (Ca-ATPase). According to this model, immediately after stimulation the sodium/calcium exchanger removes calcium from the terminal more rapidly than does the Ca-ATPase. Eventually, the large concomitant sodium influx brings the exchanger into steady-state, leaving only the Ca-ATPase to remove calcium. This perturbs the equilibrium of the sodium/calcium exchanger, which opposes the Ca-ATPase, leading to a slow return of Ca(i) and Na(i) to resting levels. PMID:9370441

  19. The Etv1 transcription factor activity-dependently downregulates a set of genes controlling cell growth and differentiation in maturing cerebellar granule cells.

    PubMed

    Okazawa, Makoto; Abe, Haruka; Nakanishi, Shigetada

    2016-05-13

    In the early postnatal period, cerebellar granule cells exhibit an activity-dependent downregulation of a set of immaturation genes involved in cell growth and migration and are shifted to establishment of a mature network formation. Through the use of a granule cell culture and both pharmacological and RNA interference (siRNA) analyses, the present investigation revealed that the downregulation of these immaturation genes is controlled by strikingly unified signaling mechanisms that operate sequentially through the stimulation of AMPA and NMDA receptors, tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na(+) channels and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). This signaling cascade induces the Etv1 transcription factor, and knockdown of Etv1 by a siRNA technique prevented this activity-dependent downregulation of immaturation genes. Thus, taken into consideration the mechanism that controls the upregulation of maturation genes involved in synaptic formation, these results indicate that Etv1 orchestrates the activity-dependent regulation of both maturation and immaturation genes in developing granule cells and plays a key role in specifying the identity of mature granule cells in the cerebellum. PMID:27059140

  20. Antioxidants J811 and 17beta-estradiol protect cerebellar granule cells from methylmercury-induced apoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Dar, E; Gtz, M E; Zhivotovsky, B; Manzo, L; Ceccatelli, S

    2000-11-15

    Cerebellar granule cells (CGC) have provided a reliable model for studying the toxicity of methylmercury (MeHg), a well-known neurotoxicant contaminating the environment. In the present study we report that doses of MeHg ranging from 0.1 microM to 1.5 microM activated apoptosis, as shown by cell shrinkage, nuclear condensation, and formation of high-molecular-weight DNA fragments. Nevertheless, caspase-3-like activity was not significantly induced, and the broad caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK was not capable of protecting the cells. This argues for a minor role of caspases in the intracellular pathways leading to MeHg-induced cell death in CGC. Instead, proteolytic fragments obtained by specific calpain cleavage of procaspase-3 and alpha-fodrin were increased consistently in samples exposed to MeHg, pointing to a substantial activation of calpain. Notably, two antioxidants, 17beta-estradiol (10 microM) and the Delta(8,9)-dehydro derivative of 17alpha-estradiol J811 (10 microM), protected from MeHg damage, preventing morphological alterations, chromatin fragmentation, and activation of calpain. These findings underscore the key role of oxidative stress in MeHg toxicity, placing it upstream of calpain activation. The shielding effect of the 17beta-estradiol and the radical scavenger J811 is potentially relevant for the development of therapeutic strategies for MeHg intoxication. PMID:11070499

  1. Differential expression of markers for endothelial cells, pericytes, and basal lamina in the microvasculature of tumors and granulation tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Schlingemann, R. O.; Rietveld, F. J.; Kwaspen, F.; van de Kerkhof, P. C.; de Waal, R. M.; Ruiter, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The structure and function of the tumor microvasculature is of great interest for cancer biology, diagnosis, and therapy. The distribution of endothelial cells, pericytes, and basal lamina in tumors is not well documented. In this study, the authors investigated the distribution of markers for these different components in a series of malignant human tumors and in human granulation tissue, both situations with extensive angiogenesis. Their results show a striking heterogeneity in the expression of markers for pericytes and endothelial cells between different tumors, but also within a single tumor lesion. To be able to distinguish between these two adjacent cell types decisively, all marker studies were carried out both on the light and the electron microscopical level and compared with staining results in granulation tissue of cutaneous wounds in healthy volunteers and of decubitus lesions. In granulation tissue of decubitus lesions, well-defined zones with increasing levels of maturation can be delineated. It was found that antibodies recognizing von Willebrand factor often failed to stain the tumor capillaries. Of the pericyte markers, alpha-smooth muscle actin was only locally expressed by pericytes in the tumor vasculature, whereas the high-molecular-weight melanoma-associated antigen, a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, stained the microvasculature broadly. Staining of the basal lamina components collagen type IV and laminin was, within the tumor, not restricted to the microvasculature. From their findings the authors conclude that 1) for the visualization of the tumor vasculature, antibodies recognizing endothelial markers, especially monoclonal antibodies PAL-E and BMA 120, are preferable to those recognizing pericytes or basal lamina; 2) within the microvasculature of tumors and granulation tissue, a heterogeneity of expression of endothelial and pericyte markers is observed; 3) during the formation of granulation tissue, all three microvascular components can be demonstrated already in the histologically earliest stage, suggesting not only an involvement of endothelial cells but also of pericytes and basal lamina in the initial steps of angiogenesis in wound healing. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:1711288

  2. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and p70S6 kinase is not correlated with cerebellar granule cell survival.

    PubMed Central

    Gunn-Moore, F J; Williams, A G; Toms, N J; Tavaré, J M

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the role of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in the survival of cerebellar granule cells in primary culture. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin, but not epidermal growth factor (EGF), promoted the survival of P6 cerebellar granule neurons. BDNF promoted a sustained activation of MAP kinase, whereas that induced by EGF was only transient. Insulin promoted a small but transient activation of MAP kinase that was completely blocked by PD98059, an inhibitor of MAP kinase kinase activation. PD98059 had no effect on the insulin- or BDNF-induced survival of cerebellar granule cells. We also investigated the role of p70S6 kinase in survival. The activation of p70S6 kinase by EGF was transient, whereas BDNF and insulin promoted a sustained activation of p70S6 kinase. Rapamycin, which blocked p70S6 kinase activation, had no effect on the BDNF- or insulin-induced survival of cerebellar granule cells. We conclude that sustained activation of MAP kinase is not correlated with the survival response of cerebellar granule cells; indeed insulin-mediated survival is independent of MAP kinase. Survival of cerebellar granule cells is also independent of the activation of p70S6 kinase. PMID:9182692

  3. Cdc42-dependent actin dynamics controls maturation and secretory activity of dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Anna M.; Stutte, Susanne; Hogl, Sebastian; Luckashenak, Nancy; Dudziak, Diana; Leroy, Céline; Forné, Ignasi; Imhof, Axel; Müller, Stephan A.; Brakebusch, Cord H.; Lichtenthaler, Stefan F.

    2015-01-01

    Cell division cycle 42 (Cdc42) is a member of the Rho guanosine triphosphatase family and has pivotal functions in actin organization, cell migration, and proliferation. To further study the molecular mechanisms of dendritic cell (DC) regulation by Cdc42, we used Cdc42-deficient DCs. Cdc42 deficiency renders DCs phenotypically mature as they up-regulate the co-stimulatory molecule CD86 from intracellular storages to the cell surface. Cdc42 knockout DCs also accumulate high amounts of invariant chain–major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II complexes at the cell surface, which cannot efficiently present peptide antigens (Ag’s) for priming of Ag-specific CD4 T cells. Proteome analyses showed a significant reduction in lysosomal MHC class II–processing proteins, such as cathepsins, which are lost from DCs by enhanced secretion. As these effects on DCs can be mimicked by chemical actin disruption, our results propose that Cdc42 control of actin dynamics keeps DCs in an immature state, and cessation of Cdc42 activity during DC maturation facilitates secretion as well as rapid up-regulation of intracellular molecules to the cell surface. PMID:26553928

  4. The Role of Secretory Immunoglobulin A in the Natural Sensing of Commensal Bacteria by Mouse Peyer's Patch Dendritic Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Rol, Nicolas; Favre, Laurent; Benyacoub, Jalil; Corthsy, Blaise

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbors a diverse population of commensal species collectively known as the microbiota, which interact continuously with the host. From very early in life, secretory IgA (SIgA) is found in association with intestinal bacteria. It is considered that this helps to ensure self-limiting growth of the microbiota and hence participates in symbiosis. However, the importance of this association in contributing to the mechanisms ensuring natural host-microorganism communication is in need of further investigation. In the present work, we examined the possible role of SIgA in the transport of commensal bacteria across the GI epithelium. Using an intestinal loop mouse model and fluorescently labeled bacteria, we found that entry of commensal bacteria in Peyer's patches (PP) via the M cell pathway was mediated by their association with SIgA. Preassociation of bacteria with nonspecific SIgA increased their dynamics of entry and restored the reduced transport observed in germ-free mice known to have a marked reduction in intestinal SIgA production. Selective SIgA-mediated targeting of bacteria is restricted to the tolerogenic CD11c+CD11b+CD8? dendritic cell subset located in the subepithelial dome region of PPs, confirming that the host is not ignorant of its resident commensals. In conclusion, our work supports the concept that SIgA-mediated monitoring of commensal bacteria targeting dendritic cells in the subepithelial dome region of PPs represents a mechanism whereby the host mucosal immune system controls the continuous dialogue between the host and commensal bacteria. PMID:23027876

  5. Investigation into the Role of Phosphatidylserine in Modifying the Susceptibility of Human Lymphocytes to Secretory Phospholipase A2 using Cells Deficient in the Expression of Scramblase

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jennifer; Francom, Lyndee L.; Anderson, Lynn; Damm, Kelly; Baker, Ryan; Chen, Joseph; Franklin, Sarah; Hamaker, Amy; Izidoro, Izadora; Moss, Eric; Orton, Mikayla; Stevens, Evan; Yeung, Celestine; Judd, Allan M.; Bell, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Normal human lymphocytes resisted the hydrolytic action of secretory phospholipase A2 but became susceptible to the enzyme following treatment with a calcium ionophore, ionomycin. To test the hypothesis that this susceptibility requires exposure of the anionic lipid phosphatidylserine on the external face of the cell membrane, experiments were repeated with a human Burkitt’s lymphoma cell line (Raji cells). In contrast to normal lymphocytes or S49 mouse lymphoma cells, most of the Raji cells (83%) did not translocate phosphatidylserine to the cell surface upon treatment with ionomycin. Those few that did display exposed phosphatidylserine were hydrolyzed immediately upon addition of phospholipase A2. Interestingly, the remaining cells were also completely susceptible to the enzyme but were hydrolyzed at a slower rate and after a latency of about 100 s. In contradistinction to the defect in phosphatidylserine translocation, Raji cells did display other physical membrane changes upon ionomycin treatment that may be relevant to hydrolysis by phospholipase A2. These changes were detected by merocyanine 540 and trimethylammonium diphenylhexatriene fluorescence and were common among normal lymphocytes, S49 cells, and Raji cells. The levels of these latter effects corresponded well with the relative rates of hydrolysis among the three cell lines. These results suggested that while phosphatidylserine enhances the rate of cell membrane hydrolysis by secretory phospholipase A2, it is not an absolute requirement. Other physical properties such as membrane order contribute to the level of membrane susceptibility to the enzyme independent of phosphatidylserine. PMID:22266334

  6. Regulation of renin processing and secretion: chemiosmotic control and novel secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    King, J A; Lush, D J; Fray, J C

    1993-08-01

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays an important role in cardiovascular and electrolyte regulation in health and disease. Juxtaglomerular cells in the kidney regulate endocrine RAAS by physiologically controlling conversion of prorenin and secretion of renin. The classical baroceptor, neurogenic, and macula densa mechanisms regulate renin expression at the cellular level by Ca2+, adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), and chemiosmotic forces (K+, Cl-, and water flux coupled to H+ movement). The baroceptor mechanism (through Ca2+) activates K+ and Cl- channels in the surface membrane and deactivates a KCl-H+ exchange chemiosmotic transporter in the secretory granular membrane. The neurogenic mechanism (through cAMP) promotes prorenin processing to renin. The macula densa mechanism (through K+ and Cl-) involves the processing of prorenin to renin. Ca2+, by inhibiting the KCl-H+ exchange transporter, prevents secretory granules from engaging in chemiosmotically mediated exocytosis. cAMP, on the other hand, by stimulating H+ influx, provides the acidic granular environment for prorenin processing to renin. It is concluded that, in the presence of a favorable chemiosmotic environment, prorenin is processed to renin, which may then be secreted by regulative degranulation or divergence translocation, a novel secretory pathway used by several secretory proteins, including renin. PMID:7690183

  7. Cell Division Mode Change Mediates the Regulation of Cerebellar Granule Neurogenesis Controlled by the Sonic Hedgehog Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rong; Wang, Minglei; Wang, Jia; Huang, Xingxu; Yang, Ru; Gao, Wei-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Summary Symmetric and asymmetric divisions are important for self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells during neurogenesis. Although cerebellar granule neurogenesis is controlled by sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling, whether and how this process is mediated by regulation of cell division modes have not been determined. Here, using time-lapse imaging and cell culture from neuronal progenitor-specific and differentiated neuron-specific reporter mouse lines (Math1-GFP and Dcx-DsRed) and Patched+/− mice in which SHH signaling is activated, we find evidence for the existence of symmetric and asymmetric divisions that are closely associated with progenitor proliferation and differentiation. While activation of the SHH pathway enhances symmetric progenitor cell divisions, blockade of the SHH pathway reverses the cell division mode change in Math1-GFP;Dcx-DsRed;Patched+/− mice by promoting asymmetric divisions or terminal neuronal symmetric divisions. Thus, cell division mode change mediates the regulation of cerebellar granule neurogenesis controlled by SHH signaling. PMID:26527387

  8. Cell Division Mode Change Mediates the Regulation of Cerebellar Granule Neurogenesis Controlled by the Sonic Hedgehog Signaling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rong; Wang, Minglei; Wang, Jia; Huang, Xingxu; Yang, Ru; Gao, Wei-Qiang

    2015-11-10

    Symmetric and asymmetric divisions are important for self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells during neurogenesis. Although cerebellar granule neurogenesis is controlled by sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling, whether and how this process is mediated by regulation of cell division modes have not been determined. Here, using time-lapse imaging and cell culture from neuronal progenitor-specific and differentiated neuron-specific reporter mouse lines (Math1-GFP and Dcx-DsRed) and Patched ± mice in which SHH signaling is activated, we find evidence for the existence of symmetric and asymmetric divisions that are closely associated with progenitor proliferation and differentiation. While activation of the SHH pathway enhances symmetric progenitor cell divisions, blockade of the SHH pathway reverses the cell division mode change in Math1-GFP; Dcx-DsRed; Patched ± mice by promoting asymmetric divisions or terminal neuronal symmetric divisions. Thus, cell division mode change mediates the regulation of cerebellar granule neurogenesis controlled by SHH signaling. PMID:26527387

  9. Proteomic analysis reveals that MAEL, a component of nuage, interacts with stress granule proteins in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Liqin; Xiao, Yuzhong; Zhou, Qiuzhi; Yuan, Dongmei; Wu, Baiping; Chen, Gannong; Zhou, Jianlin

    2014-01-01

    The Maelstrom (MAEL) gene is a cancer-testis (or cancer-germline) gene, which is predominantly expressed in germline cells under normal conditions, but is aberrantly expressed in a range of human cancer cells. In germline cells, MAEL is found predominantly in the nuage, where it plays an essential role in piRNA biogenesis and piRNA-mediated silencing of transposons. However, the role of MAEL in cancer has not been elucidated. We performed immunoprecipitation and Nano-LC-MS/MS analysis to investigate the interactome of MAEL, and identified 14 components of stress granules (SGs) as potential binding partners of MAEL in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer and SW480 colorectal cancer cells. The interactions between MAEL and 8 of these SG components (PABPC1, YBX1, KHSRP, SYNCRIP, DDX39, ELAV1, EIF4A1 and EIF3F) were confirmed by anti-tag immunoprecipitation. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that MAEL co-localizes with the SG marker PABPC1 in SGs during oxidative stress. Nuages and SGs are the cytoplasmic RNA granules of germline cells and stressed somatic cells, respectively, and both serve as a platform for small RNA-mediated gene silencing. It is, therefore, suggested that MAEL may be involved in miRNA-mediated gene silencing in SGs, as it does in the nuage. This finding should be valuable toward understanding the function of MAEL in carcinogenesis. PMID:24189637

  10. MicroRNA-34a Induces Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Senescence by SIRT1 Downregulation and Promotes the Expression of Age-Associated Pro-inflammatory Secretory Factors.

    PubMed

    Badi, Ileana; Burba, Ilaria; Ruggeri, Clarissa; Zeni, Filippo; Bertolotti, Matteo; Scopece, Alessandro; Pompilio, Giulio; Raucci, Angela

    2015-11-01

    Arterial aging is a major risk factor for the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. The aged artery is characterized by endothelial dysfunction and vascular smooth muscle cells altered physiology together with low-grade chronic inflammation. MicroRNA-34a (miR-34a) has been recently implicated in cardiac, endothelial, and endothelial progenitor cell senescence; however, its contribution to aging-associated vascular smooth muscle cells phenotype has not been explored so far. We found that miR-34a was highly expressed in aortas isolated from old mice. Moreover, its well-known target, the longevity-associated protein SIRT1, was significantly downregulated during aging in both endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. Increased miR-34a as well as decreased SIRT1 expression was also observed in replicative-senescent human aortic smooth muscle cells. miR-34a overexpression in proliferative human aortic smooth muscle cells caused cell cycle arrest along with enhanced p21 protein levels and evidence of cell senescence. Furthermore, miR-34a ectopic expression induced pro-inflammatory senescence-associated secretory phenotype molecules. Finally, SIRT1 protein significantly decreased upon miR-34a overexpression and restoration of its levels rescued miR-34a-dependent human aortic smooth muscle cells senescence, but not senescence-associated secretory phenotype factors upregulation. Taken together, our findings suggest that aging-associated increase of miR-34a expression levels, by promoting vascular smooth muscle cells senescence and inflammation through SIRT1 downregulation and senescence-associated secretory phenotype factors induction, respectively, may lead to arterial dysfunctions. PMID:25352462

  11. Phosducin regulates secretory activity in TT line of thyroid parafollicular C cells.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska, U; Adler, G; Kozicki, I

    2015-02-01

    The endocrine activity of the thyroid gland is accomplished by its follicular and parafollicular cells. In these cells, numerous G proteins-dependent pathways are active and potentially could be regulated by a 33-kDa cytoplasmic protein phosducin, which interacts with the Gβ subunit and may compete with Gα or Gβγ dimer effectors. Significant expression of phosducin has been shown in the retina, pineal gland, and some neurons. Here, we studied postoperative thyroid tissue samples collected from patients with nodular goiter and 2 thyroid-derived cell lines for the presence of phosducin. Using reverse transcription PCR with product sequencing and highly sensitive immunodetection we identified phosducin mRNA and protein in the thyroid gland and parafollicular C TT cells, but not in the follicular Nthy-ori 3-1 cell line. We also observed that siRNA-mediated silencing of phosducin gene expression decreased Ca(2+)-stimulated secretion of calcitonin and serotonin by TT cells. PMID:25153685

  12. Histochemical and Ultrastructural Modification of Mucosal Mast Cell Granules in Parasitized Mice Lacking the ?-Chymase, Mouse Mast Cell Protease-1

    PubMed Central

    Wastling, Jonathan M.; Knight, Pamela; Ure, Jan; Wright, Steven; Thornton, Elisabeth M.; Scudamore, Cheryl L.; Mason, John; Smith, Austin; Miller, Hugh R. P.

    1998-01-01

    The soluble ?-chymases mouse mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1) and rat mast cell protease-II are predominantly expressed by intestinal mucosal mast cells (IMMCs) and may promote mucosal epithelial permeability when released during intestinal allergic hypersensitivity responses. To study the function of these chymases, we generated mice with a homozygous null mutation of the mMCP-1 gene and investigated their response to infection with the intestinal nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Whereas mMCP-2, -4, and -5 were transcribed normally, there was no transcription of the mMCP-1 gene in null (?/?) mice, nor was mature mMCP-1 protein detected in (?/?) jejunal mucosa. In contrast, levels of mMCP-1 in wild-type (+/+) jejunal mucosa increased 200- to 350-fold from 0.66 ?g mMCP-1/g wet weight in uninfected mice to 129 and 229 ?g/g wet weight on days 8 and 10 of infection, respectively. The kinetics of IMMC recruitment differed in ?/? mice compared with +/+ controls on days 8 (P < 0.05) and 10 (P < 0.03) of infection. The IMMCs in infected ?/? mice stained poorly, if at all, for esterase with naphthol AS-D chloroacetate compared with the intense staining observed in +/+ controls. Ultrastructurally, the prominent crystal intragranular structures that are found in intraepithelial +/+ IMMCs were absent from ?/? IMMCs. These data show that disruption of the mMCP-1 gene leads to profound histochemical and ultrastructural changes in IMMC granules. PMID:9708809

  13. Spatial Relationships between Markers for Secretory and Endosomal Machinery in Human Cytomegalovirus-Infected Cells versus Those in Uninfected Cells▿†

    PubMed Central

    Das, Subhendu; Pellett, Philip E.

    2011-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) induces extensive remodeling of the secretory apparatus to form the cytoplasmic virion assembly compartment (cVAC), where virion tegumentation and envelopment take place. We studied the structure of the cVAC by confocal microscopy to assess the three-dimensional distribution of proteins specifically associated with individual secretory organelles. In infected cells, early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1)-positive vesicles are concentrated at the center of the cVAC and, as previously seen, are distinct from structures visualized by markers for the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and trans-Golgi network (TGN). EEA1-positive vesicles can be strongly associated with markers for recycling endosomes, to a lesser extent with markers associated with components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport III (ESCRT III) machinery, and then with markers of late endosomes. In comparisons of uninfected and infected cells, we found significant changes in the structural associations and colocalization of organelle markers, as well as in net organelle volumes. These results provide new evidence that the HCMV-induced remodeling of the membrane transport apparatus involves much more than simple relocation and expansion of preexisting structures and are consistent with the hypothesis that the shift in identity of secretory organelles in HCMV-infected cells results in new functional profiles. PMID:21471245

  14. The Secretory System of Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Bassham, Diane C.; Brandizzi, Federica; Otegui, Marisa S.; Sanderfoot, Anton A.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past few years, a vast amount of research has illuminated the workings of the secretory system of eukaryotic cells. The bulk of this work has been focused on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or on mammalian cells. At a superficial level, plants are typical eukaryotes with respect to the operation of the secretory system; however, important differences emerge in the function and appearance of endomembrane organelles. In particular, the plant secretory system has specialized in several ways to support the synthesis of many components of the complex cell wall, and specialized kinds of vacuole have taken on a protein storage role—a role that is intended to support the growing seedling, but has been co-opted to support human life in the seeds of many crop plants. In the past, most research on the plant secretory system has been guided by results in mammalian or fungal systems but recently plants have begun to stand on their own as models for understanding complex trafficking events within the eukaryotic endomembrane system. PMID:22303241

  15. Changes in epithelial secretory cells and potentiation of neurogenic inflammation in the trachea of rats with respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Huang, H T; Haskell, A; McDonald, D M

    1989-01-01

    In rats respiratory tract infections due to Sendai virus and coronavirus usually are transient, but they can have long-lasting consequences when accompanied by Mycoplasma pulmonis infections. Morphological alterations in the tracheal epithelium and a potentiation of the inflammatory response evoked by sensory nerve stimulation ("neurogenic inflammation") are evident nine weeks after the infections begin, but the extent to which these changes are present at earlier times is not known. In the present study we characterized these abnormalities in the epithelium and determined the extent to which they are present 3 and 6 weeks after the infections begin. We also determined the magnitude of the potentiation of neurogenic inflammation at these times, whether the potentiation can be reversed by glucocorticoids, and whether a proliferation of blood vessels contributes to the abnormally large amount of plasma extravasation associated with this potentiation. To this end, we studied Long-Evans rats that acquired these viral and mycoplasmal infections from other rats. We found that the tracheal epithelium of the infected rats had ten times as many Alcian blue-PAS positive mucous cells as did that of pathogen-free rats; but it contained none of the serous cells typical of pathogen-free rats, so the total number of secretory cells was not increased. In addition, the epithelium of the infected rats had three times the number of ciliated cells and had only a third of the number of globule leukocytes. In response to an injection of capsaicin (150 micrograms/kg i.v.), the tracheas of the infected rats developed an abnormally large amount of extravasation of two tracers, Evans blue dye and Monastral blue pigment, and had an abnormally large number of Monastral blue-labeled venules, particularly in regions of mucosa overlying the cartilaginous rings. This abnormally large amount of extravasation was blocked by dexamethasone (1 mg/day i.p. for 5 days). We conclude that M. pulmonis infections, exacerbated at the outset by viral infections, result within three weeks in the transformation of epithelial serous cells into mucous cells, the proliferation of ciliated cells, and the depletion of globule leukocytes. They also cause a proliferation of mediator-sensitive blood vessels in the airway mucosa, which is likely to contribute to the potentiation of neurogenic inflammation that accompanies these infections. PMID:2552865

  16. Isolated secretion granules from parotid glands of chronically stimulated rats possess an alkaline internal pH and inward-directed H/sup +/ pump activity

    SciTech Connect

    Arvan, P.; Castle, J.D.

    1986-10-01

    Secretion granules have been isolated from the parotid glands of rats that have been chronically stimulated with the ..beta..-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol. These granules are of interest because they package a quantitatively different set of secretory proteins in comparison with granules from the normal gland. Polypeptides enriched in proline, glycine, and glutamine, which are known to have pI's >10, replace ..cap alpha..-amylase (pI's = 6.8) as the principal content species. The internal pH of granules from the treated rats changes from 7.8 in a potassium sulfate medium to 6.9 in a choline chloride medium. The increased pH over that of normal parotid granules (approx.6.8) appears to protect the change in composition of the secretory contents. Whereas normal mature parotide granules have practically negligible levels of H/sup +/ pumping ATPase activity, the isolated granules from isoproterenol-treated rats undergo a time-dependent internal acidification that requires the presence of ATP and is abolished by an H/sup +/ ionophore. Additionally, an inside-positive granule transmembrane potential develops after ATP addition that depends upon ATP hydrolysis. Two independent methods have been used that exclude the possibility that contaminating organelles are the source of the H/sup +/-ATPase activity. Together these data provide clear evidence for the presence of an H/sup +/ pump in the membranes of parotid granules from chronically stimulated rats. However, despite the presence of H/sup +/-pump activity, fluorescence microscopy with the weak base, acridine orange, reveals that the intragranular pH in live cells is greater than that of the cytoplasm.

  17. Macrophage secretory products selectively stimulate dermatan sulfate proteoglycan production in cultured arterial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, I. J.; Wagner, W. D.; Owens, R. T.

    1990-01-01

    Arterial dermatan sulfate proteoglycan has been shown to increase with atherosclerosis progression, but factors responsible for this increase are unknown. To test the hypothesis that smooth muscle cell proteoglycan synthesis may be modified by macrophage products, pigeon arterial smooth muscle cells were exposed to the media of either cholesteryl ester-loaded pigeon peritoneal macrophages or a macrophage cell line P388D1. Proteoglycans radiolabeled with [35S]sulfate and [3H]serine were isolated from culture media and smooth muscle cells and purified following precipitation with 1-hexadecylpyridinium chloride and chromatography. Increasing concentrations of macrophage-conditioned media were associated with a dose-response increase in [35S]sulfate incorporation into secreted proteoglycans, but there was no change in cell-associated proteoglycans. Incorporation of [3H]serine into total proteoglycan core proteins was not significantly different (5.2 X 10(5) dpm and 5.5 X 10(5) disintegrations per minute (dpm) in control and conditioned media-treated cultures, respectively), but selective effects were observed on individual proteoglycan types. Twofold increases in dermatan sulfate proteoglycan and limited degradation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan were apparent based on core proteins separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Immunoinhibition studies indicated that interleukin-1 was involved in the modulation of proteoglycan synthesis by macrophage-conditioned media. These data provide support for the role of macrophages in alteration of the matrix proteoglycans synthesized by smooth muscle cells and provide a mechanism to account for the reported increased dermatan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate ratios in the developing atherosclerotic lesion. Images Figure 6 PMID:2316626

  18. Macrophage secretory products selectively stimulate dermatan sulfate proteoglycan production in cultured arterial smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, I.J.; Wagner, W.D.; Owens, R.T. )

    1990-03-01

    Arterial dermatan sulfate proteoglycan has been shown to increase with atherosclerosis progression, but factors responsible for this increase are unknown. To test the hypothesis that smooth muscle cell proteoglycan synthesis may be modified by macrophage products, pigeon arterial smooth muscle cells were exposed to the media of either cholesteryl ester-loaded pigeon peritoneal macrophages or a macrophage cell line P388D1. Proteoglycans radiolabeled with (35S)sulfate and (3H)serine were isolated from culture media and smooth muscle cells and purified following precipitation with 1-hexadecylpyridinium chloride and chromatography. Increasing concentrations of macrophage-conditioned media were associated with a dose-response increase in (35S)sulfate incorporation into secreted proteoglycans, but there was no change in cell-associated proteoglycans. Incorporation of (3H)serine into total proteoglycan core proteins was not significantly different (5.2 X 10(5) dpm and 5.5 X 10(5) disintegrations per minute (dpm) in control and conditioned media-treated cultures, respectively), but selective effects were observed on individual proteoglycan types. Twofold increases in dermatan sulfate proteoglycan and limited degradation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan were apparent based on core proteins separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Immunoinhibition studies indicated that interleukin-1 was involved in the modulation of proteoglycan synthesis by macrophage-conditioned media. These data provide support for the role of macrophages in alteration of the matrix proteoglycans synthesized by smooth muscle cells and provide a mechanism to account for the reported increased dermatan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate ratios in the developing atherosclerotic lesion.

  19. Clathrin-coated, Golgi-related compartment of the insulin secreting cell accumulates proinsulin in the presence of monensin

    SciTech Connect

    Orci, L.; Halban, P.; Amherdt, M.; Ravazzola, M.; Vassalli, J.D.; Perrelet, A.

    1984-11-01

    When the intracellular transit of /sup 3/H-labeled (pro)-insulin polypeptides is perturbed by monensin in the pancreatic B-cell, proinsulin conversion is impaired and the radioactive peptides accumulate in a clathrin-coated membrane compartment related to the Golgi apparatus. Clathrin was demonstrated by immunocytochemistry using the postembedding protein A-gold technique. The coated compartment, which is dilated by monensin, comprises Golgi cisternae with condensing secretory material and newly formed secretory granules; under monensin block, the noncoated (storage) secretory granules do not become significantly labeled. These data suggest that an unperturbed passage through a Golgi-related, clathrin-coated membrane compartment which subsequently matures into noncoated secretory granules is needed for the normal processing of (pro)insulin polypeptides.

  20. Transcriptional Profiling of Newly Generated Dentate Granule Cells Using TU Tagging Reveals Pattern Shifts in Gene Expression during Circuit Integration1,2

    PubMed Central

    Chatzi, Christina; Shen, Rongkun; Goodman, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite representing only a small fraction of hippocampal granule cells, adult-generated newborn granule cells have been implicated in learning and memory (Aimone et al., 2011). Newborn granule cells undergo functional maturation and circuit integration over a period of weeks. However, it is difficult to assess the accompanying gene expression profiles in vivo with high spatial and temporal resolution using traditional methods. Here we used a novel method [“thiouracil (TU) tagging”] to map the profiles of nascent mRNAs in mouse immature newborn granule cells compared with mature granule cells. We targeted a nonmammalian uracil salvage enzyme, uracil phosphoribosyltransferase, to newborn neurons and mature granule cells using retroviral and lentiviral constructs, respectively. Subsequent injection of 4-TU tagged nascent RNAs for analysis by RNA sequencing. Several hundred genes were significantly enhanced in the retroviral dataset compared with the lentiviral dataset. We compared a selection of the enriched genes with steady-state levels of mRNAs using quantitative PCR. Ontology analysis revealed distinct patterns of nascent mRNA expression, with newly generated immature neurons showing enhanced expression for genes involved in synaptic function, and neural differentiation and development, as well as genes not previously associated with granule cell maturation. Surprisingly, the nascent mRNAs enriched in mature cells were related to energy homeostasis and metabolism, presumably indicative of the increased energy demands of synaptic transmission and their complex dendritic architecture. The high spatial and temporal resolution of our modified TU-tagging method provides a foundation for comparison with steady-state RNA analyses by traditional transcriptomic approaches in defining the functional roles of newborn neurons. PMID:27011954

  1. Platelet α–granules: Basic biology and clinical correlates

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Price; Flaumenhaft, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Summary α–Granules are essential to normal platelet activity. These unusual secretory granules derive their cargo from both regulated secretory and endocytotic pathways in megakaryocytes. Rare, inheritable defects of α–granule formation in mice and man have enabled identification of proteins that mediate cargo trafficking and α–granule formation. In platelets, α–granules fuse with the plasma membrane upon activation, releasing their cargo and increasing platelet surface area. The mechanisms that control α–granule membrane fusion have begun to be elucidated at the molecular level. SNAREs and SNARE accessory proteins that control α–granule secretion have been identified. Proteomic studies demonstrate that hundreds of bioactive proteins are released from α–granules. This breadth of proteins implies a versatile functionality. While initially known primarily for their participation in thrombosis and hemostasis, the role of α–granules in inflammation, atherosclerosis, antimicrobial host defense, wound healing, angiogenesis, and malignancy has become increasingly appreciated as the function of platelets in the pathophysiology of these processes has been defined. This review will consider the formation, release, and physiologic roles of α–granules with special emphasis on work performed over the last decade. PMID:19450911

  2. Melanoma cell lysosome secretory burst neutralizes the CTL-mediated cytotoxicity at the lytic synapse

    PubMed Central

    Khazen, Roxana; Müller, Sabina; Gaudenzio, Nicolas; Espinosa, Eric; Puissegur, Marie-Pierre; Valitutti, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Human melanoma cells express various tumour antigens that are recognized by CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and elicit tumour-specific responses in vivo. However, natural and therapeutically enhanced CTL responses in melanoma patients are of limited efficacy. The mechanisms underlying CTL effector phase failure when facing melanomas are still largely elusive. Here we show that, on conjugation with CTL, human melanoma cells undergo an active late endosome/lysosome trafficking, which is intensified at the lytic synapse and is paralleled by cathepsin-mediated perforin degradation and deficient granzyme B penetration. Abortion of SNAP-23-dependent lysosomal trafficking, pH perturbation or impairment of lysosomal proteolytic activity restores susceptibility to CTL attack. Inside the arsenal of melanoma cell strategies to escape immune surveillance, we identify a self-defence mechanism based on exacerbated lysosome secretion and perforin degradation at the lytic synapse. Interfering with this synaptic self-defence mechanism might be useful in potentiating CTL-mediated therapies in melanoma patients. PMID:26940455

  3. Melanoma cell lysosome secretory burst neutralizes the CTL-mediated cytotoxicity at the lytic synapse.

    PubMed

    Khazen, Roxana; Müller, Sabina; Gaudenzio, Nicolas; Espinosa, Eric; Puissegur, Marie-Pierre; Valitutti, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Human melanoma cells express various tumour antigens that are recognized by CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and elicit tumour-specific responses in vivo. However, natural and therapeutically enhanced CTL responses in melanoma patients are of limited efficacy. The mechanisms underlying CTL effector phase failure when facing melanomas are still largely elusive. Here we show that, on conjugation with CTL, human melanoma cells undergo an active late endosome/lysosome trafficking, which is intensified at the lytic synapse and is paralleled by cathepsin-mediated perforin degradation and deficient granzyme B penetration. Abortion of SNAP-23-dependent lysosomal trafficking, pH perturbation or impairment of lysosomal proteolytic activity restores susceptibility to CTL attack. Inside the arsenal of melanoma cell strategies to escape immune surveillance, we identify a self-defence mechanism based on exacerbated lysosome secretion and perforin degradation at the lytic synapse. Interfering with this synaptic self-defence mechanism might be useful in potentiating CTL-mediated therapies in melanoma patients. PMID:26940455

  4. Lamellar granule biogenesis: a role for ceramide glucosyltransferase, lysosomal enzyme transport, and the Golgi.

    PubMed

    Madison, K C; Sando, G N; Howard, E J; True, C A; Gilbert, D; Swartzendruber, D C; Wertz, P W

    1998-08-01

    Although lamellar granules are critical to the formation of the epidermal permeability barrier and are a known marker of late keratinocyte differentiation, very little is known about the physiologic regulators of lamellar granule assembly and extrusion. Ceramide glucosyltransferase (CGT), the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of lamellar granule glucosylceramides (GlcCer; the precursors of the stratum corneum ceramides), is localized to the Golgi apparatus in other cell types. We have found that CGT is induced during keratinocyte culture differentiation coincident with increased GlcCer content and the appearance of lamellar granules. In this study we show that the differentiation-related CGT induction is likely mediated at the transcriptional level. In addition, all-trans retinoic acid, a well-known inhibitor of keratinocyte differentiation, prevents the appearance of lamellar granules and decreases culture CGT activity and GlcCer content without affecting sphingomyelin or total lipid content, indicating a specific inhibition of this enzymatic pathway. These data show a direct relationship between CGT activity and epidermal differentiation, suggesting that regulation of CGT expression is a critical part of epidermal barrier generation. The differentiation dependence of CGT activity, the key role of this Golgi-localized enzyme in epidermal GlcCer synthesis, and our previous finding that ceramides are converted to GlcCer in the Golgi apparatus in keratinocyte cultures, strongly suggest a Golgi origin for lamellar granules. In contrast to CGT, the activity of the lysosomal enzymes acid lipase and glucocerebrosidase is less clearly related to epidermal differentiation and the appearance of lamellar granules, although both enzymes show striking colocalization and enrichment in a subcellular lamellar granule fraction derived from pig epidermis. Acid lipase activity in the lamellar granule fraction was found to contain primarily a small lysosomal form of the enzyme, whereas total acid lipase secreted by keratinocyte cultures was found to contain a mannose-6-phosphorylated large prelysosomal form as well as a small lysosomal form. That secreted acid lipase activity is derived from both prelysosomal and lysosomal compartments suggests there may be multiple pathways by which lysosomal enzymes are secreted from keratinocytes. The combined secretion of lipid and lysosomal enzymes from lamellar granules places these organelles in the category of "dual-function" specialized secretory vesicles described in certain other cell types. Electron microscopic images of lamellar granules show shapes consistent with cross-sections of tubules or buds from tubules in addition to vesicles. These images provide evidence for the involvement of trans-Golgi network tubules and/or buds in lamellar granule synthesis and secretion. PMID:9734819

  5. Stimulation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor has a trophic effect on differentiating cerebellar granule cells.

    PubMed

    Balázs, R; Hack, N; Jørgensen, O S

    1988-04-22

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) supplementation of cerebellar cultures enriched in granule neurones (about 90%) prevented the extensive cell loss which occurs when cultivation takes place, in serum containing media, in the presence of 'low' K+ (5-15 mM). Estimation of tetanus toxin receptors and N-CAM contents indicated that NMDA rescued primarily nerve cells. The influence of NMDA in promoting cell survival was blocked by the receptor antagonist, 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate. The effect depended both on the concentration of NMDA and on the degree of depolarization of cells, the affinity in the presence of 15 mM K+ being similar to that of NMDA receptor binding. The results attest a new role for excitatory amino acid transmitters by showing that they can exert a stage-dependent trophic action on developing nerve cells. PMID:2837687

  6. Stimulation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor has a trophic effect on differentiating cerebellar granule cells.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Balázs R; Hack N; Jørgensen OS

    1988-04-22

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) supplementation of cerebellar cultures enriched in granule neurones (about 90%) prevented the extensive cell loss which occurs when cultivation takes place, in serum containing media, in the presence of 'low' K+ (5-15 mM). Estimation of tetanus toxin receptors and N-CAM contents indicated that NMDA rescued primarily nerve cells. The influence of NMDA in promoting cell survival was blocked by the receptor antagonist, 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate. The effect depended both on the concentration of NMDA and on the degree of depolarization of cells, the affinity in the presence of 15 mM K+ being similar to that of NMDA receptor binding. The results attest a new role for excitatory amino acid transmitters by showing that they can exert a stage-dependent trophic action on developing nerve cells.

  7. A multi-stage process including transient polyploidization and EMT precedes the emergence of chemoresistent ovarian carcinoma cells with a dedifferentiated and pro-inflammatory secretory phenotype.

    PubMed

    Rohnalter, Verena; Roth, Katrin; Finkernagel, Florian; Adhikary, Till; Obert, Julia; Dorzweiler, Kristina; Bensberg, Maike; Müller-Brüsselbach, Sabine; Müller, Rolf

    2015-11-24

    DNA-damaging drugs induce a plethora of molecular and cellular alterations in tumor cells, but their interrelationship is largely obscure. Here, we show that carboplatin treatment of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells triggers an ordered sequence of events, which precedes the emergence of mitotic chemoresistant cells. The initial phase of cell death after initiation of carboplatin treatment is followed around day 14 by the emergence of a mixed cell population consisting of cycling, cell cycle-arrested and senescent cells. At this stage, giant cells make up >80% of the cell population, p21 (CDKN1A) in strongly induced, and cell numbers remain nearly static. Subsequently, cell death decreases, p21 expression drops to a low level and cell divisions increase, including regular mitoses of giant cells and depolyploidization by multi-daughter divisions. These events are accompanied by the upregulation of stemness markers and a pro-inflammatory secretory phenotype, peaking after approximately 14 days of treatment. At the same time the cells initiate epithelial to mesenchymal transition, which over the subsequent weeks continuously increases, concomitantly with the emergence of highly proliferative, migratory, dedifferentiated, pro-inflammatory and chemoresistant cells (SKOV3-R). These cells are anchorage-independent and grow in a 3D collagen matrix, while cells on day 14 do not survive under these conditions, indicating that SKOV3-R cells were generated thereafter by the multi-stage process described above. This process was essentially recapitulated with the ovarian carcinoma cell line IGROV-1. Our observations suggest that transitory cells characterized by polyploidy, features of stemness and a pro-inflammatory secretory phenotype contribute to the acquisition of chemoresistance. PMID:26503466

  8. A multi-stage process including transient polyploidization and EMT precedes the emergence of chemoresistent ovarian carcinoma cells with a dedifferentiated and pro-inflammatory secretory phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Rohnalter, Verena; Roth, Katrin; Finkernagel, Florian; Adhikary, Till; Obert, Julia; Dorzweiler, Kristina; Bensberg, Maike; Müller-Brüsselbach, Sabine; Müller, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    DNA-damaging drugs induce a plethora of molecular and cellular alterations in tumor cells, but their interrelationship is largely obscure. Here, we show that carboplatin treatment of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells triggers an ordered sequence of events, which precedes the emergence of mitotic chemoresistant cells. The initial phase of cell death after initiation of carboplatin treatment is followed around day 14 by the emergence of a mixed cell population consisting of cycling, cell cycle-arrested and senescent cells. At this stage, giant cells make up >80% of the cell population, p21 (CDKN1A) in strongly induced, and cell numbers remain nearly static. Subsequently, cell death decreases, p21 expression drops to a low level and cell divisions increase, including regular mitoses of giant cells and depolyploidization by multi-daughter divisions. These events are accompanied by the upregulation of stemness markers and a pro-inflammatory secretory phenotype, peaking after approximately 14 days of treatment. At the same time the cells initiate epithelial to mesenchymal transition, which over the subsequent weeks continuously increases, concomitantly with the emergence of highly proliferative, migratory, dedifferentiated, pro-inflammatory and chemoresistant cells (SKOV3-R). These cells are anchorage-independent and grow in a 3D collagen matrix, while cells on day 14 do not survive under these conditions, indicating that SKOV3-R cells were generated thereafter by the multi-stage process described above. This process was essentially recapitulated with the ovarian carcinoma cell line IGROV-1. Our observations suggest that transitory cells characterized by polyploidy, features of stemness and a pro-inflammatory secretory phenotype contribute to the acquisition of chemoresistance. PMID:26503466

  9. Secretory competence in a gateway endocrine cell conferred by the nuclear receptor βFTZ-F1 enables stage-specific ecdysone responses throughout development in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kook-Ho; Daubnerová, Ivana; Park, Yoonseong; Zitnan, Dusan; Adams, Michael E

    2014-01-15

    Hormone-induced changes in gene expression initiate periodic molts and metamorphosis during insect development. Successful execution of these developmental steps depends upon successive phases of rising and falling 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) levels, leading to a cascade of nuclear receptor-driven transcriptional activity that enables stage- and tissue-specific responses to the steroid. Among the cellular processes associated with declining steroids is acquisition of secretory competence in endocrine Inka cells, the source of ecdysis triggering hormones (ETHs). We show here that Inka cell secretory competence is conferred by the orphan nuclear receptor βFTZ-F1. Selective RNA silencing of βftz-f1 in Inka cells prevents ETH release, causing developmental arrest at all stages. Affected larvae display buttoned-up, the ETH-null phenotype characterized by double mouthparts, absence of ecdysis behaviors, and failure to shed the old cuticle. During the mid-prepupal period, individuals fail to translocate the air bubble, execute head eversion and elongate incipient wings and legs. Those that escape to the adult stage are defective in wing expansion and cuticle sclerotization. Failure to release ETH in βftz-f1 silenced animals is indicated by persistent ETH immunoreactivity in Inka cells. Arrested larvae are rescued by precisely-timed ETH injection or Inka cell-targeted βFTZ-F1 expression. Moreover, premature βftz-f1 expression in these cells also results in developmental arrest. The Inka cell therefore functions as a "gateway cell", whose secretion of ETH serves as a key downstream physiological output enabling stage-specific responses to 20E that are required to advance through critical developmental steps. This secretory function depends on transient and precisely timed βFTZ-F1 expression late in the molt as steroids decline. PMID:24247008

  10. Chronic ethanol administration decreases phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein in granule cells of rat cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Horn, K; Baraban, J M; Wand, G S

    1998-01-01

    To help define the molecular basis of ethanol's actions on the nervous system, we have in previous studies demonstrated that ethanol administration triggers a robust increase in cyclic AMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in the cerebellum. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure on the phosphorylation of CREB in rat cerebellum and to determine which cell types in the cerebellum display this response to ethanol. An acute ethanol challenge (3.0 g/kg of body weight) induced a rapid increase in content of the phosphorylated form of CREB, peaking at 30 min and declining to basal levels within 2 h. Immunocytochemical studies revealed prominent ethanol-induced changes in phosphoCREB in the granule cell layer, with little phosphoCREB apparent in Purkinje cells. Following chronic ethanol exposure (5 weeks), induction of CREB phosphorylation by a subsequent acute ethanol challenge was markedly attenuated. The attenuation in CREB phosphorylation was associated with a significant reduction in the levels of the catalytic unit of protein kinase A and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV. In summary, induction of CREB phosphorylation in cerebellum is most prominent in the granule cell layer. Neuroadaptation to chronic ethanol exposure includes a reduction in nuclear protein kinase A and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV levels, an event associated with impaired CREB phosphorylation. PMID:9422366

  11. Endothelin-1 stimulates the release of preloaded ( sup 3 H)D-aspartate from cultured cerebellar granule cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W.W.; Lee, C.Y.; Chuang, D.M. )

    1990-03-16

    We have recently reported that endothelin-1 (ET) induces phosphoinositide hydrolysis in primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule cells. Here we found that ET in a dose-dependent manner (1-30 nM) stimulated the release of preloaded ({sup 3}H)D-aspartate from granule cells. The ET-induced aspartate release was completely blocked in the absence of extracellular Ca{sup 2+}, but was unaffected by 1 mM Co{sup 2+} or 1 microM dihydropyridine derivatives (nisoldipine and nimodipine). At higher concentration (10 microM) of nisoldipine and nimodipine, the release was partially inhibited. Short-term pretreatment of cells with phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) potentiated the ET-induced aspartate release, while long-term pretreatment with PDBu attenuated the release. Long-term exposure of cells to pertussis toxin (PTX), on the other hand, potentiated the ET-induced effects. Our results suggest that ET has a neuromodulatory function in the central nervous system.

  12. Tonic Inhibitory Control of Dentate Gyrus Granule Cells by α5-Containing GABAA Receptors Reduces Memory Interference

    PubMed Central

    Zarnowska, Ewa D.; Benke, Dietmar; Tsvetkov, Evgeny; Sigal, Maksim; Keist, Ruth; Bolshakov, Vadim Y.; Pearce, Robert A.; Rudolph, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Interference between similar or overlapping memories formed at different times poses an important challenge on the hippocampal declarative memory system. Difficulties in managing interference are at the core of disabling cognitive deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders. Computational models have suggested that, in the normal brain, the sparse activation of the dentate gyrus granule cells maintained by tonic inhibitory control enables pattern separation, an orthogonalization process that allows distinct representations of memories despite interference. To test this mechanistic hypothesis, we generated mice with significantly reduced expression of the α5-containing GABAA (α5-GABAARs) receptors selectively in the granule cells of the dentate gyrus (α5DGKO mice). α5DGKO mice had reduced tonic inhibition of the granule cells without any change in fast phasic inhibition and showed increased activation in the dentate gyrus when presented with novel stimuli. α5DGKO mice showed impairments in cognitive tasks characterized by high interference, without any deficiencies in low-interference tasks, suggesting specific impairment of pattern separation. Reduction of fast phasic inhibition in the dentate gyrus through granule cell-selective knock-out of α2-GABAARs or the knock-out of the α5-GABAARs in the downstream CA3 area did not detract from pattern separation abilities, which confirms the anatomical and molecular specificity of the findings. In addition to lending empirical support to computational hypotheses, our findings have implications for the treatment of interference-related cognitive symptoms in neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly considering the availability of pharmacological agents selectively targeting α5-GABAARs. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Interference between similar memories poses a significant limitation on the hippocampal declarative memory system, and impaired interference management is a cognitive symptom in many disorders. Thus, understanding mechanisms of successful interference management or processes that can lead to interference-related memory problems has high theoretical and translational importance. This study provides empirical evidence that tonic inhibition in the dentate gyrus (DG), which maintains sparseness of neuronal activation in the DG, is essential for management of interference. The specificity of findings to tonic, but not faster, more transient types of neuronal inhibition and to the DG, but not the neighboring brain areas, is presented through control experiments. Thus, the findings link interference management to a specific mechanism, proposed previously by computational models. PMID:26446222

  13. Single mossy fiber axonal systems of human dentate granule cells studied in hippocampal slices from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Isokawa, M; Levesque, M F; Babb, T L; Engel, J

    1993-04-01

    Previous histological and immunocytochemical studies suggest that reorganization of the dentate granule cell axons, the mossy fibers, can occur in epileptic human hippocampus (Sutula et al., 1989; Houser et al., 1990; Babb et al., 1991) and in animal models of epilepsy (Tauck and Nadler, 1985; Sutula et al., 1988; Cronin et al., 1992). However, neuroanatomical analyses of the trajectory and morphology of reorganized axons are not yet available. The present study was conducted to investigate single dentate granule cell axonal systems in human epileptic hippocampus. Individual mossy fibers were directly visualized by injecting a tracer (biocytin or Lucifer yellow) intracellularly in hippocampal slices prepared from temporal lobes that were surgically removed from patients for treatment of intractable epilepsy. Two major arborization patterns were identified: (1) the parent axons extended to and coursed through the hilus toward CA3, leaving collaterals along their paths in the hilus (N = 19 neurons); (2) in addition to the aforementioned axonal system, collateral(s) branched from the parent axon near the soma and projected to the granule cell layer and molecular layer, forming an aberrant axonal pathway (N = 9 neurons). These aberrant collaterals bore large boutons similar to those of the hilar axons and formed extensive plexuses in the granule cell layer and/or in the molecular layer. The summed length of collaterals in the granular/molecular layers was 1110.8 microns on average, which was one-fourth of the total summed length of the mossy fibers (3698.5 microns on average). The size of the somata in neurons that had aberrant collaterals was significantly larger than that of neurons without such collaterals (p < 0.025). In four cases, filopodium-like fine processes were present near the axon hillock and proximal parts of the parent axon, suggesting that the aberrant collateral formation might be an ongoing process in these tissues. The lack of control slices from normal living human hippocampus makes it difficult to assess to what extent the present findings are epilepsy associated. However, the presence of aberrant mossy fiber collaterals in the hippocampi used in the present study has been confirmed by Timm's staining and/or dynorphin immunohistochemistry in comparison with nonepileptic autopsy material, indicating its relation to epilepsy (Babb et al., 1991, 1992). At present, there seems to be a consensus that the projection of mossy fiber collaterals to the supragranular layer is a rare occurrence in normal rats (Lorento de Nó, 1934; Claiborne et al., 1986; Seress et al., 1991; present study), normal monkeys (Seress et al., 1991), and normal humans (Houser et al., 1990).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8463831

  14. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls increase reactive oxygen species formation and induce cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dreiem, Anne Rykken, Sidsel; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Robertson, Larry W.; Fonnum, Frode

    2009-10-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that bioaccumulate in the body, however, they can be metabolized to more water-soluble products. Although they are more readily excreted than the parent compounds, some of the metabolites are still hydrophobic and may be more available to target tissues, such as the brain. They can also cross the placenta and reach a developing foetus. Much less is known about the toxicity of PCB metabolites than about the parent compounds. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of eight hydroxylated (OH) PCB congeners (2'-OH PCB 3, 4-OH PCB 14, 4-OH PCB 34, 4'-OH PCB 35, 4-OH PCB 36, 4'-OH PCB 36, 4-OH PCB 39, and 4'-OH PCB 68) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and cell viability in rat cerebellar granule cells. We found that, similar to their parent compounds, OH-PCBs are potent ROS inducers with potency 4-OH PCB 14 < 4-OH PCB 36 < 4-OH PCB 34 < 4'-OH PCB 36 < 4'-OH PCB 68 < 4-OH PCB 39 < 4'-OH PCB 35. 4-OH PCB 36 was the most potent cell death inducer, and caused apoptotic or necrotic morphology depending on concentration. Inhibition of ERK1/2 kinase with U0126 reduced both cell death and ROS formation, suggesting that ERK1/2 activation is involved in OH-PCB toxicity. The results indicate that the hydroxylation of PCBs may not constitute a detoxification reaction. Since OH-PCBs like their parent compounds are retained in the body and may be more widely distributed to sensitive tissues, it is important that not only the levels of the parent compounds but also the levels of their metabolites are taken into account during risk assessment of PCBs and related compounds.

  15. Interactions between Inhibitory Interneurons and Excitatory Associational Circuitry in Determining Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Hippocampal Dentate Granule Cells: A Large-Scale Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickson, Phillip J.; Yu, Gene J.; Song, Dong; Berger, Theodore W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from a million-cell granule cell model of the rat dentate gyrus that was used to explore the contributions of local interneuronal and associational circuits to network-level activity. The model contains experimentally derived morphological parameters for granule cells, which each contain approximately 200 compartments, and biophysical parameters for granule cells, basket cells, and mossy cells that were based both on electrophysiological data and previously published models. Synaptic input to cells in the model consisted of glutamatergic AMPA-like EPSPs and GABAergic-like IPSPs from excitatory and inhibitory neurons, respectively. The main source of input to the model was from layer II entorhinal cortical neurons. Network connectivity was constrained by the topography of the system, and was derived from axonal transport studies, which provided details about the spatial spread of axonal terminal fields, as well as how subregions of the medial and lateral entorhinal cortices project to subregions of the dentate gyrus. Results of this study show that strong feedback inhibition from the basket cell population can cause high-frequency rhythmicity in granule cells, while the strength of feedforward inhibition serves to scale the total amount of granule cell activity. Results furthermore show that the topography of local interneuronal circuits can have just as strong an impact on the development of spatio-temporal clusters in the granule cell population as the perforant path topography does, both sharpening existing clusters and introducing new ones with a greater spatial extent. Finally, results show that the interactions between the inhibitory and associational loops can cause high frequency oscillations that are modulated by a low-frequency oscillatory signal. These results serve to further illustrate the importance of topographical constraints on a global signal processing feature of a neural network, while also illustrating how rich spatio-temporal and oscillatory dynamics can evolve from a relatively small number of interacting local circuits. PMID:26635545

  16. Effect of Calcium on Embryonic Rat Thyroid C Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Sanford I.; Feinblatt, Joel D.; Raisz, Lawrence G.

    1974-01-01

    The alterations in the ultrastructure of rat embryonic thyroid C cells in vitro produced by variation in the ambient calcium of the medium were studied. The thyroid C cells from 19-day-old rat fetuses were cultured for 48 hours in calcium concentrations of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mg%. The C cells show a cyclic change in the ultrastructure. The resting cells have a sparse, dispersed granular endoplasmic reticulum, small Golgi apparatus and numerous secretory granules. The granules are emptied into the extracellular space followed by aggregation of the granular endoplasmic reticulum, enlargement of the Golgi apparatus, and reaccumulation of secretory products in granules. Varying the calcium concentration failed to change the proportion of cells in the various stages of the secretory cycle, though the mean number of secretory granules per unit area of cytoplasm fell proportionally with increasing ambient calcium concentration (y = -0.1675x +3.93). This decrease is largely due to a reduction in the number of cells with higher densities of secretory granules and corresponds to the direct increase in calcitonin content of the medium. This could indicate that secretion is directly stimulated in cells rich in secretory granules by a high calcium concentration. In contrast, these ultrastructural studies also indicate that, unlike the situation in the parathyroid chief cell, alteration of the ambient calcium concentration has little effect on the rate of synthesis of thyrocalcitonin by thyroid C cells. ImagesFig 6Fig 7Fig 1Figs 2-3Fig 4Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 5 PMID:4825617

  17. Pattern of rise in subplasma membrane Ca{sup 2+} concentration determines type of fusing insulin granules in pancreatic {beta} cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ohara-Imaizumi, Mica; Aoyagi, Kyota; Nakamichi, Yoko; Nishiwaki, Chiyono; Sakurai, Takashi; Nagamatsu, Shinya

    2009-07-31

    We simultaneously analyzed insulin granule fusion with insulin fused to green fluorescent protein and the subplasma membrane Ca{sup 2+} concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub PM}) with the Ca{sup 2+} indicator Fura Red in rat {beta} cells by dual-color total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. We found that rapid and marked elevation in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub PM} caused insulin granule fusion mostly from previously docked granules during the high KCl-evoked release and high glucose-evoked first phase release. In contrast, the slow and sustained elevation in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub PM} induced fusion from newcomers translocated from the internal pool during the low KCl-evoked release and glucose-evoked second phase release. These data suggest that the pattern of the [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub PM} rise directly determines the types of fusing granules.

  18. Thrombopoietin regulates proliferation, apoptosis, secretory activity and intracellular messengers in porcine ovarian follicular cells: involvement of protein kinase A.

    PubMed

    Sirotkin, A V; Sanislo, P; Schaeffer, H-J; Florkovicová, I; Kotwica, J; Bulla, J; Hetényi, L

    2004-12-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) is known to be involved in megakariocytopoesis, but its role in the control of ovarian function is unknown. The aims of this study were to determine whether TPO can regulate the proliferation, apoptosis and secretory activity of ovarian cells, to identify possible intracellular mediators of TPO action, especially protein kinase A (PKA), and to define their interrelationships within ovarian cells. We investigated the effect of TPO treatment (0, 1, 10 or 100 ng/ml) on the following characteristics of cultured porcine ovarian follicles, determined using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting, immunocytochemistry, RIA and ELISA: the expression of intracellular peptides associated with proliferation (PCNA), apoptosis (Bax), tyrosine kinase (TK, phosphotyrosine), Cdc2/p34 kinase, PKA and the transcription factor CREB-1, and the secretion of progesterone, androstenedione, estradiol-17beta, oxytocin, inhibin A, inhibin B, IGF-I, transforming growth factor-2beta (TGF-2beta) and IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3). The involvement of PKA-dependent pathways was examined by evaluating the effect of a PKA blocker (KT5720, 1 microg/ml), either alone or in combination with TPO, on the parameters listed above. A TPO-induced increase in expression of PCNA, Bax, PKA, TK, Cdc2/p34 and CREB was observed. Furthermore, TPO was able to inhibit androstenedione, estradiol, TGF-2beta and IGFBP-3 secretion, and to stimulate oxytocin, inhibin A, inhibin B and IGF-I secretion. Progesterone secretion was not stimulated. The PKA blocker KT5720, when given alone, reduced the expression of Bax and TGF-2beta, augmented the expression of PKA, CREB and oxytocin, but did not influence the secretion of progesterone, androstenedione, estradiol, IGFBP-3, inhibins A and B or IGF-I. When given together with TPO, the PKA blocker prevented or reversed the action of TPO on PKA, CREB, androstenedione, estradiol, IGFBP-3, oxytocin, but not its effect on Bax, TGF-2beta or inhibin B. On the other hand, treatment with KT5720 augmented the effect of TPO on progesterone, inhibin A and IGF-I. These results provide the first evidence that TPO may be a potent regulator of ovarian function (e.g. proliferation, apoptosis and the secretion of peptide hormones, steroids, growth factors and growth factor-binding protein, as well as of the expression of some intracellular messengers). Furthermore, they demonstrated the importance of PKA in controlling these functions and in mediating the effects of TPO on ovarian cells. It remains possible that other (TK- and Cdc2/p34-dependent) intracellular mechanisms are also involved in mediating TPO action on the ovary. PMID:15590985

  19. Preventing Effect of L-Type Calcium Channel Blockade on Electrophysiological Alterations in Dentate Gyrus Granule Cells Induced by Entorhinal Amyloid Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Pourbadie, Hamid Gholami; Naderi, Nima; Mehranfard, Nasrin; Janahmadi, Mahyar; Khodagholi, Fariba; Motamedi, Fereshteh

    2015-01-01

    The entorhinal cortex (EC) is one of the earliest affected brain regions in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). EC-amyloid pathology induces synaptic failure in the dentate gyrus (DG) with resultant behavioral impairment, but there is little known about its impact on neuronal properties in the DG. It is believed that calcium dyshomeostasis plays a pivotal role in the etiology of AD. Here, the effect of the EC amyloid pathogenesis on cellular properties of DG granule cells and also possible neuroprotective role of L-type calcium channel blockers (CCBs), nimodipine and isradipine, were investigated. The amyloid beta (Aβ) 1–42 was injected bilaterally into the EC of male rats and one week later, electrophysiological properties of DG granule cells were assessed. Voltage clamp recording revealed appearance of giant sIPSC in combination with a decrease in sEPSC frequency which was partially reversed by CCBs in granule cells from Aβ treated rats. EC amyloid pathogenesis induced a significant reduction of input resistance (Rin) accompanied by a profound decreased excitability in the DG granule cells. However, daily administration of CCBs, isradipine or nimodipine (i.c.v. for 6 days), almost preserved the normal excitability against Aβ. In conclusion, lower tendency to fire AP along with reduced Rin suggest that DG granule cells might undergo an alteration in the membrane ion channel activities which finally lead to the behavioral deficits observed in animal models and patients with early-stage Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:25689857

  20. Preventing effect of L-type calcium channel blockade on electrophysiological alterations in dentate gyrus granule cells induced by entorhinal amyloid pathology.

    PubMed

    Pourbadie, Hamid Gholami; Naderi, Nima; Mehranfard, Nasrin; Janahmadi, Mahyar; Khodagholi, Fariba; Motamedi, Fereshteh

    2015-01-01

    The entorhinal cortex (EC) is one of the earliest affected brain regions in Alzheimer's disease (AD). EC-amyloid pathology induces synaptic failure in the dentate gyrus (DG) with resultant behavioral impairment, but there is little known about its impact on neuronal properties in the DG. It is believed that calcium dyshomeostasis plays a pivotal role in the etiology of AD. Here, the effect of the EC amyloid pathogenesis on cellular properties of DG granule cells and also possible neuroprotective role of L-type calcium channel blockers (CCBs), nimodipine and isradipine, were investigated. The amyloid beta (A?) 1-42 was injected bilaterally into the EC of male rats and one week later, electrophysiological properties of DG granule cells were assessed. Voltage clamp recording revealed appearance of giant sIPSC in combination with a decrease in sEPSC frequency which was partially reversed by CCBs in granule cells from A? treated rats. EC amyloid pathogenesis induced a significant reduction of input resistance (Rin) accompanied by a profound decreased excitability in the DG granule cells. However, daily administration of CCBs, isradipine or nimodipine (i.c.v. for 6 days), almost preserved the normal excitability against A?. In conclusion, lower tendency to fire AP along with reduced Rin suggest that DG granule cells might undergo an alteration in the membrane ion channel activities which finally lead to the behavioral deficits observed in animal models and patients with early-stage Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25689857

  1. Beta cells transfer vesicles containing insulin to phagocytes for presentation to T cells.

    PubMed

    Vomund, Anthony N; Zinselmeyer, Bernd H; Hughes, Jing; Calderon, Boris; Valderrama, Carolina; Ferris, Stephen T; Wan, Xiaoxiao; Kanekura, Kohsuke; Carrero, Javier A; Urano, Fumihiko; Unanue, Emil R

    2015-10-01

    Beta cells from nondiabetic mice transfer secretory vesicles to phagocytic cells. The passage was shown in culture studies where the transfer was probed with CD4 T cells reactive to insulin peptides. Two sets of vesicles were transferred, one containing insulin and another containing catabolites of insulin. The passage required live beta cells in a close cell contact interaction with the phagocytes. It was increased by high glucose concentration and required mobilization of intracellular Ca2+. Live images of beta cell-phagocyte interactions documented the intimacy of the membrane contact and the passage of the granules. The passage was found in beta cells isolated from islets of young nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice and nondiabetic mice as well as from nondiabetic humans. Ultrastructural analysis showed intraislet phagocytes containing vesicles having the distinct morphology of dense-core granules. These findings document a process whereby the contents of secretory granules become available to the immune system. PMID:26324934