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1

Characterization of mast cell secretory granules and their cell biology.  

PubMed

Exocytosis and secretion of secretory granule (SG) contained inflammatory mediators is the primary mechanism by which mast cells exert their protective immune responses in host defense, as well as their pathological functions in allergic reactions and anaphylaxis. Despite their central role in mast cell function, the molecular mechanisms underlying the biogenesis and secretion of mast cell SGs remain largely unresolved. Early studies have established the lysosomal nature of the mast cell SGs and implicated SG homotypic fusion as an important step occurring during both their biogenesis and compound secretion. However, the molecular mechanisms that account for key features of this process largely remain to be defined. A novel high-resolution imaging based methodology allowed us to screen Rab GTPases for their phenotypic and functional impact and identify Rab networks that regulate mast cell secretion. This screen has identified Rab5 as a novel regulator of homotypic fusion of the mast cell SGs that thereby regulates their size and cargo composition. PMID:24988214

Azouz, Nurit Pereg; Hammel, Ilan; Sagi-Eisenberg, Ronit

2014-10-01

2

Menin immunoreactivity in secretory granules of human pancreatic islet cells.  

PubMed

The protein product of the Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type I (MEN1) gene is thought to be involved in predominantly nuclear functions; however, immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis data on cellular localization are conflicting. To further investigate menin expression, we analyzed human pancreas (an MEN1 target organ) using IHC analyses and 6 antibodies raised against full-length menin or its peptides. In 10 normal pancreas specimens, 2 independently raised antibodies showed unexpected cytoplasmic immunoreactivity in peripheral cells in each islet examined (over 100 total across all 10 patients). The staining exhibited a distinct punctate pattern and subsequent immunoelectron microscopy indicated the target antigen was in secretory granules. Exocrine pancreas and pancreatic stroma were not immunoreactive. In MEN1 patients, unaffected islets stained similar to those in normal samples but with a more peripheral location of positive cells, whereas hyperplastic islets and tumorlets showed increased and diffuse cytoplasmic staining, respectively. Endocrine tumors from MEN1 patients were negative for menin, consistent with a 2-hit loss of a tumor suppressor gene. Secretory granule localization of menin in a subset of islet cells suggests a function of the protein unique to a target organ of familial endocrine neoplasia, although the IHC data must be interpreted with some caution because of the possibility of antibody cross-reaction. The identity, cellular trafficking, and role of this putative secretory granule-form of menin warrant additional investigation. PMID:25153502

Debelenko, Larisa V; Agarwal, Sunita; Du, Qiang; Yan, Wusheng; Erickson, Heidi S; Abu-Asab, Mones; Raffeld, Mark A; Libutti, Steven K; Marx, Stephen J; Emmert-Buck, Michael R

2014-01-01

3

Biogenesis and Transport of Secretory Granules to Release Site in Neuroendocrine Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogenesis and post-Golgi transport of peptidergic secretory granules to the release site are crucial for secretion of neuropeptides\\u000a from neuroendocrine cells. Recent studies have uncovered multilevel molecular mechanisms for the regulation of secretory granule\\u000a biogenesis. Insulinoma-associated protein 2 (ICA512\\/IA-2), polypyrimidine-tract binding protein, and chromogranin A have been\\u000a identified to regulate secretory granule biogenesis at the transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational levels,

Joshua J. Park; Hisatsugu Koshimizu; Y. Peng Loh

2009-01-01

4

Abnormal ion content, hydration and granule expansion of the secretory granules from cystic fibrosis airway glandular cells  

SciTech Connect

The absence or decreased expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) induces increased Na{sup +} absorption and hyperabsorption of the airway surface liquid (ASL) resulting in a dehydrated and hyperviscous ASL. Although the implication of abnormal airway submucosal gland function has been suggested, the ion and water content in the Cystic Fibrosis (CF) glandular secretory granules, before exocytosis, is unknown. We analyzed, in non-CF and CF human airway glandular cell lines (MM-39 and KM4, respectively), the ion content in the secretory granules by electron probe X-ray microanalysis and the water content by quantitative dark field imaging on freeze-dried cryosections. We demonstrated that the ion content (Na{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, P, S and Cl{sup -}) is significantly higher and the water content significantly lower in secretory granules from the CF cell line compared to the non-CF cell line. Using videomicroscopy, we observed that the secretory granule expansion was deficient in CF glandular cells. Transfection of CF cells with CFTR cDNA or inhibition of non-CF cells with CFTR{sub inh}-172, respectively restored or decreased the water content and granule expansion, in parallel with changes in ion content. We hypothesize that the decreased water and increased ion content in glandular secretory granules may contribute to the dehydration and increased viscosity of the ASL in CF.

Baconnais, S.; Delavoie, F. [INSERM ERM 203, Laboratoire de Microscopie Electronique Analytique, IFR53, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 21 rue Clement Ader, 51685 Reims Cedex 2 (France)]|[INSERM UMRS 514, IFR 53, CHU Maison Blanche, 45, rue Cognac-Jay, 51092 Reims Cedex (France); Zahm, J.M.; Milliot, M.; Castillon, N. [INSERM UMRS 514, IFR 53, CHU Maison Blanche, 45, rue Cognac-Jay, 51092 Reims Cedex (France); Terryn, C. [INSERM ERM 203, Laboratoire de Microscopie Electronique Analytique, IFR53, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 21 rue Clement Ader, 51685 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Banchet, V. [INSERM ERM 203, Laboratoire de Microscopie Electronique Analytique, IFR53, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 21 rue Clement Ader, 51685 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Michel, J. [INSERM ERM 203, Laboratoire de Microscopie Electronique Analytique, IFR53, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 21 rue Clement Ader, 51685 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Danos, O. [Genethon, CNRS UMR 8115, 1bis rue de l'Internationale, Evry (France); Merten, M. [INSERM EMI 0014, Faculte de Medecine, 9, Avenue de la Foret de Haye, BP 184, 54505 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy cedex, (France); Chinet, T. [Laboratoire de Biologie et Pharmacologie des Epitheliums Respiratoires, UFR Paris Ile de France Ouest, Boulogne-Billancourt (France); Zierold, K. [Max Planck Institute of Molekular Physiology, Laboratory for Analytical Microscopy, Otto-Hahn-Strasse 11, D-44227 Dortmund (Germany); Bonnet, N. [INSERM UMRS 514, IFR 53, CHU Maison Blanche, 45, rue Cognac-Jay, 51092 Reims Cedex (France); Puchelle, E. [INSERM UMRS 514, IFR 53, CHU Maison Blanche, 45, rue Cognac-Jay, 51092 Reims Cedex (France)], E-Mail: edith.puchelle@univ-reims.fr; Balossier, G. [INSERM ERM 203, Laboratoire de Microscopie Electronique Analytique, IFR53, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 21 rue Clement Ader, 51685 Reims Cedex 2 (France)

2005-10-01

5

Syntaxin clusters assemble reversibly at sites of secretory granules in live cells  

PubMed Central

Syntaxin resides in the plasma membrane, where it helps to catalyze membrane fusion during exocytosis. The protein also forms clusters in cell-free and granule-free plasma-membrane sheets. We imaged the interaction between syntaxin and single secretory granules by two-color total internal reflection microscopy in PC12 cells. Syntaxin-GFP assembled in clusters at sites where single granules had docked at the plasma membrane. Clusters were intermittently present at granule sites, as syntaxin molecules assembled and disassembled in a coordinated fashion. Recruitment to granules required the N-terminal domain of syntaxin, but not the entry of syntaxin into SNARE complexes. Clusters facilitated exocytosis and disassembled once exocytosis was complete. Syntaxin cluster formation defines an intermediate step in exocytosis. PMID:21076041

Barg, S.; Knowles, M. K.; Chen, X.; Midorikawa, M.; Almers, Wolfhard

2010-01-01

6

Avian minor salivary glands: an ultrastructural study of the secretory granules in mucous and seromucous cells.  

PubMed

Ultrastructural descriptions in birds are scarce thus, in this study we have characterized the secretory granules of mucous and seromucous cells from the palatine and lingual salivary glands of birds with different diets. The samples were taken from the tongue and palatine mucosa of chicken (Gallus gallus), quail (Coturnix coturnix), chimango (Milvago chimango) and white heron (Egretta thula). The samples were processed for observation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) employing 4% Karnovsky solution for fixation. The most noteworthy finding was the heterogeneous ultrastructural appearance of the secretory granules. Differences in substructure were found between the four species, between the palatine and lingual glands in the same species and even within the same acinus and the same cell. At variance with other authors, these differences cannot be attributed to the type of fixative solution used taking into account that all the samples were processed in the same way. Previous histochemical studies have shown the presence of sulfated and non sulfated glycoconjugates in these glands which can be associated to the maturation of the granules. These granules are probably representative of peculiar storage of the secretory products that would give rise to a heterogeneous and complex ultrastructural pattern of granules in the mucosa and seromucosa cells of these avian species. PMID:15211928

Olmedo, L A; Samar, M E; Avila, R E; de Crosa, M G; Dettin, L

2000-01-01

7

5-Hydroxytryptamine transport in cells and secretory granules from a transplantable rat insulinoma.  

PubMed

Mechanisms of transport of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the pancreatic B-cell were investigated by using cell suspensions and secretory granules prepared from a transplantable rat insulinoma. (1) Cells incubated with 5-hydroxy[G-3H]tryptamine at concentrations ranging from 0.1 microM to 5 mM accumulated the radioisotope principally by a simple diffusion process. The incorporated radioactivity was recovered principally as the parent molecule and was recovered predominantly in soluble protein and secretory-granule fractions prepared from the tissue. (2) Isolated granules incubated in buffered iso-osmotic medium without ATP accumulated the amine to concentrations up to 38-fold that of the medium. This process was insensitive to reserpine and occurred over a wide range of 5-hydroxytryptamine concentrations (0.075 microM-25 mM). Above 5 mM, 5-hydroxytryptamine accumulation decreased in parallel with the breakdown of the delta pH across the granule membrane. Uptake was favoured by alkaline media and was reduced by the addition of (NH4)2SO4. In both cases a close correlation was observed between uptake and the transmembrane delta pH, a finding that suggested that 5-hydroxytryptamine permeated the membrane as the free base and equilibrated across the membrane with the delta pH. Binding of 5-hydroxytryptamine to granule constituents also played a part in this process. ATP caused a further doubling of granule 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake by a process that was sensitive to reserpine (0.5 microM). Inhibitor studies suggested that amine transport in this instance was linked to the activity of the granule membrane proton-translocating ATPase. (3) It was concluded that the uptake of amines driven by proton gradients across the insulin-granule membrane could account for the accumulation in vivo of amines in the B-cell. PMID:6307272

Hutton, J C; Peshavaria, M; Tooke, N E

1983-03-15

8

Accumulation of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Molecules in Mast Cell Secretory Granules and Their Release upon Degranulation  

PubMed Central

To investigate the relationship between major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II compartments, secretory granules, and secretory lysosomes, we analyzed the localization and fate of MHC class II molecules in mast cells. In bone marrow-derived mast cells, the bulk of MHC class II molecules is contained in two distinct compartments, with features of both lysosomal compartments and secretory granules defined by their protein content and their accessibility to endocytic tracers. Type I granules display internal membrane vesicles and are accessed by exogenous molecules after a time lag of 20 min; type II granules are reached by the endocytic tracer later and possess a serotonin-rich electron-dense core surrounded by a multivesicular domain. In these type I and type II granules, MHC class II molecules, mannose-6-phosphate receptors and lysosomal membrane proteins (lamp1 and lamp2) localize to small intralumenal vesicles. These 60–80-nm vesicles are released along with inflammatory mediators during mast cell degranulation triggered by IgE-antigen complexes. These observations emphasize the intimate connection between the endocytic and secretory pathways in cells of the hematopoietic lineage which allows regulated secretion of the contents of secretory lysosomes, including membrane proteins associated with small vesicles. PMID:9398681

Raposo, Graca; Tenza, Danielle; Mecheri, Salahedine; Peronet, Roger; Bonnerot, Christian; Desaymard, Catherine

1997-01-01

9

Protein mobility within secretory granules.  

PubMed

We investigated the basis for previous observations that fluorescent-labeled neuropeptide Y (NPY) is usually released within 200 ms after fusion, whereas labeled tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is often discharged over many seconds. We found that tPA and NPY are endogenously expressed in small and different subpopulations of bovine chromaffin cells in culture. We measured the mobility of these proteins (tagged with fluorophore) within the lumen of individual secretory granules in living chromaffin cells, and related their mobilities to postfusion release kinetics. A method was developed that is not limited by standard optical resolution, in which a bright flash of strongly decaying evanescent field (?64 nm exponential decay constant) produced by total internal reflection (TIR) selectively bleaches cerulean-labeled protein proximal to the glass coverslip within individual granules. Fluorescence recovery occurred as unbleached protein from distal regions within the 300 nm granule diffused into the bleached proximal regions. The fractional bleaching of tPA-cerulean (tPA-cer) was greater when subsequently probed with TIR excitation than with epifluorescence, indicating that tPA-cer mobility was low. The almost equal NPY-cer bleaching when probed with TIR and epifluorescence indicated that NPY-cer equilibrated within the 300 ms bleach pulse, and therefore had a greater mobility than tPA-cer. TIR-fluorescence recovery after photobleaching revealed a significant recovery of tPA-cer (but not NPY-cer) fluorescence within several hundred milliseconds after bleaching. Numerical simulations, which take into account bleach duration, granule diameter, and the limited number of fluorophores in a granule, are consistent with tPA-cer being 100% mobile, with a diffusion coefficient of 2 × 10(-10) cm(2)/s (?1/3000 of that for a protein of similar size in aqueous solution). However, the low diffusive mobility of tPA cannot alone explain its slow postfusion release. In the accompanying study, we suggest that, additionally, tPA itself stabilizes the fusion pore with dimensions that restrict its own exit. PMID:24988337

Weiss, Annita Ngatchou; Bittner, Mary A; Holz, Ronald W; Axelrod, Daniel

2014-07-01

10

Dense-Core Secretory Granule Biogenesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The dense-core secretory granule is a key organelle for secretion of hormones and neuropeptides in endocrine cells and neurons, in response to stimulation. Cholesterol and granins are critical for the assembly of these organelles at the trans-Golgi network, and their biogenesis is regulated quantitatively by posttranscriptional and posttranslational mechanisms.

Taeyoon Kim (National Institutes of Health Section on Cellular Neurobiology, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development); Marjorie C. Gondré-Lewis (National Institutes of Health Section on Cellular Neurobiology, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development); Irina Arnaoutova (National Institutes of Health Section on Cellular Neurobiology, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development); Y. Peng Loh (National Institutes of Health Section on Cellular Neurobiology, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development)

2006-04-01

11

The lytic granules of natural killer cells are dual-function organelles combining secretory and pre-lysosomal compartments  

PubMed Central

Cytolytic lymphocytes contain specialized lytic granules whose secretion during cell-mediated cytolysis results in target cell death. Using serial section EM of RNK-16, a natural killer cell line, we show that there are structurally distinct types of granules. Each type is composed of varying proportions of a dense core domain and a multivesicular cortical domain. The dense core domains contain secretory proteins thought to play a role in cytolysis, including cytolysin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. In contrast, the multivesicular domains contain lysosomal proteins, including acid phosphatase, alpha-glucosidase, cathepsin D, and LGP-120. In addition to their protein content, the lytic granules have other properties in common with lysosomes. The multivesicular regions of the granules have an acidic pH, comparable to that of endosomes and lysosomes. The granules take up exogenous cationized ferritin with lysosome-like kinetics, and this uptake is blocked by weak bases and low temperature. The multivesicular domains of the granules are rich in the 270-kD mannose-6-phosphate receptor, a marker which is absent from mature lysosomes but present in earlier endocytic compartments. Thus, the natural killer granules represent an unusual dual-function organelle, where a regulated secretory compartment, the dense core, is contained within a pre-lysosomal compartment, the multivesicular domain. PMID:2277062

1990-01-01

12

Quercetin-induced expression of rat mast cell protease II and accumulation of secretory granules in rat basophilic leukemia cells.  

PubMed

Rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells are considered to be similar to bone-marrow derived mast cells and to mucosal mast cells (MMC), the latter of which may be involved in inflammatory bowel diseases. RBL cells are not able to accumulate histamine and secretory granules under regular growing conditions. Here we show that the flavonoid quercetin, which inhibits mast cell secretion of histamine, also inhibited RBL cell proliferation and constitutive histamine release while it induced synthesis of rat mast cell protease (RMCP) II and triggered processes leading to accumulation of secretory granules. Cell viability was also retained in the presence of quercetin, whereas untreated cells did not survive past 6 days of growth. Quercetin did not affect the expression of mRNA for alpha-subunit of immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor, but led to increased expression of mRNA for, and synthesis of RMCP II, which is a marker protein for MMC. Many of these granules showed metachromasia with toluidine blue after 3 days of growth, stained red with alcian blue counterstained with safranin after 8 days of growth, and contained electron dense material. Our results suggest that RBL cells have the capacity to progress to a more mature state and may lend themselves to further analysis of a growth regulator(s) with action similar to that of quercetin. PMID:7506028

Trnovsky, J; Letourneau, R; Haggag, E; Boucher, W; Theoharides, T C

1993-12-14

13

Protein Kinase C Enhances Exocytosis from Chromaffin Cells by Increasing the Size of the Readily Releasable Pool of Secretory Granules  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used membrane capacitance measurements to assay Ca2+-triggered exocytosis in single bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Brief application of phorbol ester (PMA) enhances depolarization-evoked exocytosis severalfold while actually decreasing the Ca2+ current. Ca2+ metabolism is unchanged. Three different protocols were used to show that PMA increases the size of the readily releasable pool of secretory granules. PMA treatment leads to

Kevin D. Gillis; Rotraut Mößner; Erwin Neher

1996-01-01

14

Cell surface expression of the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins is directed from intracellular CTLA-4-containing regulated secretory granules  

PubMed Central

The envelope glycoprotein (Env) of HIV-1 is incorporated into virions that bud from the cell surface of infected T cells. With immunofluorescence microscopy and subcellular membrane fractionation techniques, the intracellular fate of Env in the secretory pathway of HIV-1-infected T cells was evaluated. Rather than trafficking constitutively from the Golgi to the cell surface, Env is directed to intracellular CTLA-4-containing granules, whose recruitment to the cell surface is regulated. The use of the regulated pathway for intracellular Env storage before virion assembly holds implications for the staging of Env exposure at the cell surface of infected cells and of coordinating HIV virion assembly. PMID:12060749

Miranda, Luis R.; Schaefer, Brian C.; Kupfer, Abraham; Hu, Zixin; Franzusoff, Alex

2002-01-01

15

Difference in distribution of membrane proteins between low- and high-density secretory granules in parotid acinar cells  

SciTech Connect

Secretory granules (SGs) are considered to be generated as immature granules and to mature by condensation of their contents. In this study, SGs of parotid gland were separated into low-, medium-, and high-density granule fractions by Percoll-density gradient centrifugation, since it was proposed that the density corresponds to the degree of maturation. The observation with electron microscopy showed that granules in the three fractions were very similar. The average diameter of high-density granules was a little but significantly larger than that of low-density granules. Although the three fractions contained amylase, suggesting that they are all SGs, distribution of membrane proteins was markedly different. Syntaxin6 and VAMP4 were localized in the low-density granule fraction, while VAMP2 was concentrated in the high-density granule fraction. Immunoprecipitation with anti-syntaxin6 antibody caused coprecipitation of VAMP2 from the medium-density granule fraction without solubilization, but not from Triton X-100-solubilized fraction, while VAMP4 was coprecipitated from both fractions. Therefore, VAMP2 is present on the same granules, but is separated from syntaxin6 and VAMP4, which are expected to be removed from immature granules. These results suggest that the medium-density granules are intermediates from low- to high-density granules, and that the membrane components of SGs dynamically change by budding and fusion during maturation.

Fujita-Yoshigaki, Junko [Department of Physiology, Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Matsudo, Chiba 271-8587 (Japan)]. E-mail: yoshigaki.junko@nihon-u.ac.jp; Katsumata, Osamu [Department of Physiology, Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Matsudo, Chiba 271-8587 (Japan); Matsuki, Miwako [Department of Pathology, Tokyo Dental College, Chiba 261-8502 (Japan); Yoshigaki, Tomoyoshi [Department of Physiology, Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Matsudo, Chiba 271-8587 (Japan); Furuyama, Shunsuke [Department of Physiology, Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Matsudo, Chiba 271-8587 (Japan); Sugiya, Hiroshi [Department of Physiology, Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Matsudo, Chiba 271-8587 (Japan)

2006-05-26

16

Age-Dependent Labeling and Imaging of Insulin Secretory Granules  

PubMed Central

Insulin is stored within the secretory granules of pancreatic ?-cells, and impairment of its release is the hallmark of type 2 diabetes. Preferential exocytosis of newly synthesized insulin suggests that granule aging is a key factor influencing insulin secretion. Here, we illustrate a technology that enables the study of granule aging in insulinoma cells and ?-cells of knock-in mice through the conditional and unequivocal labeling of insulin fused to the SNAP tag. This approach, which overcomes the limits encountered with previous strategies based on radiolabeling or fluorescence timer proteins, allowed us to formally demonstrate the preferential release of newly synthesized insulin and reveal that the motility of cortical granules significantly changes over time. Exploitation of this approach may enable the identification of molecular signatures associated with granule aging and unravel possible alterations of granule turnover in diabetic ?-cells. Furthermore, the method is of general interest for the study of membrane traffic and aging. PMID:23929935

Ivanova, Anna; Kalaidzidis, Yannis; Dirkx, Ronald; Sarov, Mihail; Gerlach, Michael; Schroth-Diez, Britta; Muller, Andreas; Liu, Yanmei; Andree, Cordula; Mulligan, Bernard; Munster, Carla; Kurth, Thomas; Bickle, Marc; Speier, Stephan; Anastassiadis, Konstantinos; Solimena, Michele

2013-01-01

17

Identification of chondroitin sulfate E proteoglycans and heparin proteoglycans in the secretory granules of human lung mast cells  

SciTech Connect

The predominant subclasses of mast cells in both the rat and the mouse can be distinguished from one another by their preferential synthesis of {sup 35}S-labeled proteoglycans that contain either heparin or oversulfated chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans. Although ({sup 35}S)heparin proteoglycans have been isolated from human lung mast cells of 40-70% purity and from a skin biopsy specimen of a patient with urticaria pigmentosa, no highly sulfated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan has been isolated from any enriched or highly purified population of human mast cells. The authors demonstrate that human lung mast cells of 96% purity incorporate ({sup 35}S)sulfate into separate heparin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in an {approx}2:1 ratio. As assessed by HPLC of the chondroitinase ABC digests, the chondroitin ({sup 35}S)sulfate proteoglycans isolated from these human lung mast cells contain the same unusual chondroitin sulfate E disaccharide that is present in proteoglycans produced by interleukin 3-dependent mucosal-like mouse mast cells. Both the chondroitin ({sup 35}S)sulfate E proteoglycans and the ({sup 35}S)heparin proteoglycans were exocytosed from the ({sup 35}S)sulfate-labeled cells via perturbation of the IgE receptor, indicating that both types of {sup 35}S-labeled proteoglycans reside in the secretory granules of these human lung mast cells.

Stevens, R.L.; Austen, K.F. (Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (USA)); Fox, C.C.; Lichtenstein, L.M. (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA))

1988-04-01

18

Signaling from the secretory granule to the nucleus.  

PubMed

Neurons and endocrine cells use a complex array of signaling molecules to communicate with each other and with various targets. The majority of these signaling molecules are stored in specialized organelles awaiting release on demand: 40-60 nm vesicles carry conventional or small molecule neurotransmitters, and 200-400 nm granules contain bioactive peptides. The supply of small molecule neurotransmitters is tightly regulated by local feedback of synthetic rates and transport processes at sites of release. The larger granules that contain bioactive peptides present the secretory cell with special challenges, as the peptide precursors are inserted into the lumen of the secretory pathway in the cell soma and undergo biosynthetic processing while being transported to distant sites for eventual secretion. One solution to this dilemma in information handling has been to employ proteolytic cleavage of secretory granule membrane proteins to produce cytosolic fragments that can signal to the nucleus, affecting gene expression. The use of regulated intramembrane proteolysis to signal from secretory granules to the nucleus is compared to its much better understood role in relaying information from the endoplasmic reticulum by SREBP and ATF6 and from the plasma membrane by cadherins, Notch and ErbB4. PMID:22681236

Rajagopal, Chitra; Mains, Richard E; Eipper, Betty A

2012-01-01

19

Cdc42 and Rac Stimulate Exocytosis of Secretory Granules by Activating the Ip3/Calcium Pathway in Rbl-2h3 Mast Cells  

PubMed Central

We have expressed dominant-active and dominant-negative forms of the Rho GTPases, Cdc42 and Rac, using vaccinia virus to evaluate the effects of these mutants on the signaling pathway leading to the degranulation of secretory granules in RBL-2H3 cells. Dominant-active Cdc42 and Rac enhance antigen-stimulated secretion by about twofold, whereas the dominant-negative mutants significantly inhibit secretion. Interestingly, treatment with the calcium ionophore, A23187, and the PKC activator, PMA, rescues the inhibited levels of secretion in cells expressing the dominant-negative mutants, implying that Cdc42 and Rac act upstream of the calcium influx pathway. Furthermore, cells expressing the dominant-active mutants exhibit elevated levels of antigen-stimulated IP3 production, an amplified antigen-stimulated calcium response consisting of both calcium release from internal stores and influx from the extracellular medium, and an increase in aggregate formation of the IP3 receptor. In contrast, cells expressing the dominant-negative mutants display the opposite phenotypes. Finally, we are able to detect an in vitro interaction between Cdc42 and PLC?1, the enzyme immediately upstream of IP3 formation. Taken together, these findings implicate Cdc42 and Rac in regulating the exocytosis of secretory granules by stimulation of IP3 formation and calcium mobilization upon antigen stimulation. PMID:10662774

Hong-Geller, Elizabeth; Cerione, Richard A.

2000-01-01

20

AP-1 and clathrin are essential for secretory granule biogenesis in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

?Regulated secretion of hormones, digestive enzymes, and other biologically active molecules requires the formation of secretory granules. Clathrin and the clathrin adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1) are necessary for maturation of exocrine, endocrine, and neuroendocrine secretory granules. However, the initial steps of secretory granule biogenesis are only minimally understood. Powerful genetic approaches available in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster were used to investigate the molecular pathway for biogenesis of the mucin-containing “glue granules” that form within epithelial cells of the third-instar larval salivary gland. Clathrin and AP-1 colocalize at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and clathrin recruitment requires AP-1. Furthermore, clathrin and AP-1 colocalize with secretory cargo at the TGN and on immature granules. Finally, loss of clathrin or AP-1 leads to a profound block in secretory granule formation. These findings establish a novel role for AP-1– and clathrin-dependent trafficking in the biogenesis of mucin-containing secretory granules. PMID:21490149

Burgess, Jason; Jauregui, Miluska; Tan, Julie; Rollins, Janet; Lallet, Sylvie; Leventis, Peter A.; Boulianne, Gabrielle L.; Chang, Henry C.; Le Borgne, Roland; Kramer, Helmut; Brill, Julie A.

2011-01-01

21

Lumenal protein within secretory granules affects fusion pore expansion.  

PubMed

It is often assumed that upon fusion of the secretory granule membrane with the plasma membrane, lumenal contents are rapidly discharged and dispersed into the extracellular medium. Although this is the case for low-molecular-weight neurotransmitters and some proteins, there are numerous examples of the dispersal of a protein being delayed for many seconds after fusion. We have investigated the role of fusion-pore expansion in determining the contrasting discharge rates of fluorescent-tagged neuropeptide-Y (NPY) (within 200 ms) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) (over many seconds) in adrenal chromaffin cells. The endogenous proteins are expressed in separate chromaffin cell subpopulations. Fusion pore expansion was measured by two independent methods, orientation of a fluorescent probe within the plasma membrane using polarized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and amperometry of released catecholamine. Together, they probe the continuum of the fusion-pore duration, from milliseconds to many seconds after fusion. Polarized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy revealed that 71% of the fusion events of tPA-cer-containing granules maintained curvature for >10 s, with approximately half of the structures likely connected to the plasma membrane by a short narrow neck. Such events were not commonly observed upon fusion of NPY-cer-containing granules. Amperometry revealed that the expression of tPA-green fluorescent protein (GFP) prolonged the duration of the prespike foot ?2.5-fold compared to NPY-GFP-expressing cells and nontransfected cells, indicating that expansion of the initial fusion pore in tPA granules was delayed. The t1/2 of the main catecholamine spike was also increased, consistent with a prolonged delay of fusion-pore expansion. tPA added extracellularly bound to the lumenal surface of fused granules. We propose that tPA within the granule lumen controls its own discharge. Its intrinsic biochemistry determines not only its extracellular action but also the characteristics of its presentation to the extracellular milieu. PMID:24988338

Weiss, Annita Ngatchou; Anantharam, Arun; Bittner, Mary A; Axelrod, Daniel; Holz, Ronald W

2014-07-01

22

Giant secretory granules in the ducts of the parotid and submandibular glands of the slow loris.  

PubMed

The parotid and submandibular glands of a slow loris, a rare Southeast Asian primate, were obtained after the head had been perfused by fixative for a study of the brain. These tissues were processed by conventional means for electron microscopy. Glands also were obtained at autopsy from 2 other lorises, fixed by immersion in formalin, and subjected to a battery of tests for glycoconjugates. In the parotid gland, a short segment of the proximal striated duct lacks both basal striations and any sign of secretory activity. The major portion of the striated duct consists of tall cells that contain a spectrum of secretory granules, some larger than the nuclei (many granules are > 9 mum in diameter). These granules, which are delimited by a single membrane, are capable of chain exocytosis. Many of the giant granules have bundles of cytofilaments (4.5-6.5 nm) in apparent association with their surface. Occasional cells contain numerous small granules. Duct cells with or without granules lack basal striations. The granules contain neutral glycoconjugates but no acidic glycoconjugates. Some, but not all, interlobular excretory ducts also have secretory granules that run the gamut from tiny to giant. Exactly the same situation occurs in the submandibular gland. Unlike other primates, which may have duct cells that contain only a few tiny granules in their apices, the cells in both the striated and excretory ducts in the slow loris appear to be specialized for secretion rather than for transport. The biofunction of the giant granules is unknown. PMID:18621331

Tandler, B; Pinkstaff, C A; Nagato, T; Phillips, C J

1996-06-01

23

Observing secretory granules with a multiangle evanescent wave microscope.  

PubMed Central

In total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM), fluorophores near a surface can be excited with evanescent waves, which decay exponentially with distance from the interface. Penetration depths of evanescent waves from 60 nm to 300 nm were generated by varying the angle of incidence of a laser beam. With a novel telecentric multiangle evanescent wave microscope, we monitored and investigated both single secretory granules and pools of granules in bovine chromaffin cells. By measuring the fluorescence intensity as a function of penetration depth, it is possible through a Laplace transform to obtain the fluorophore distribution as a function of axial position. We discuss the extent to which it is possible to determine distances and diameters of granules with this microscopy technique by modeling the fluorescent volumes of spheres in evanescent fields. The anisotropic near-field detection of fluorophores and the influence of the detection point-spread function are considered. The diameters of isolated granules between 70 nm and 300 nm have been reconstructed, which is clearly beyond the resolution limit of a confocal microscope. Furthermore, the paper demonstrates how evanescent waves propagate along surfaces and scatter at objects with a higher refractive index. TIRFM will have a limited applicability for quantitative measurements when the parameters used to define evanescent waves are not optimally selected. PMID:10777760

Rohrbach, A

2000-01-01

24

A novel regulatory mechanism for trimeric GTP-binding proteins in the membrane and secretory granule fractions of human and rodent beta cells.  

PubMed Central

Recently we described roles for heterotrimeric and low-molecular-mass GTP-binding proteins in insulin release from normal rat islets. During these studies, we observed that a protein with an apparent molecular mass (37 kDa) similar to that of the beta subunit of trimeric GTP-binding proteins underwent phosphorylation in each of five classes of insulin-secreting cells. Incubation of the beta cell total membrane fraction or the isolated secretory granule fraction (but not the cytosolic fraction) with [gamma-32P]ATP or [gamma-32P]GTP resulted in the phosphorylation of this protein, which was selectively immunoprecipitated by an anti-serum directed against the common beta subunit of trimeric G-proteins. Disruption of the alpha beta gamma trimer (by pretreatment with either fluoroaluminate or guanosine 5'(-)[gamma-thio]triphosphate) prevented beta subunit phosphorylation. Based on differential sensitivities to pH, heat and the histidine-selective reagent diethyl pyrocarbonate (and reversal of the latter by hydroxylamine), the phosphorylated amino acid was presumptively identified as histidine. Incubation of pure beta subunit alone or in combination with the exogenous purified alpha subunit of transducin did not result in the phosphorylation of the beta subunit, but addition of the islet cell membrane fraction did support this event, suggesting that membrane localization (or a membrane-associated factor) is required for beta subunit phosphorylation. Incubation of phosphorylated beta subunit with G alpha.GDP accelerated the dephosphorylation of the beta subunit, accompanied by the formation of G alpha-GTP. Immunoblotting detected multiple alpha subunits (of Gi, G(o) and Gq) and at least one beta subunit in the secretory granule fraction of normal rat islets and insulinoma cells. These data describe a potential alternative mechanism for the activation of GTP-binding proteins in beta cells which contrasts with the classical receptor-agonist mechanism: G beta undergoes transient phosphorylation at a histidine residue by a GTP-specific protein kinase; this phosphate, in turn, may be transferred via a classical Ping-Pong mechanism to G alpha.GDP (inactive), yielding the active configuration G alpha.GTP in secretory granules (a strategic location to modulate exocytosis). PMID:8546716

Kowluru, A; Seavey, S E; Rhodes, C J; Metz, S A

1996-01-01

25

A hydrophobic patch in a charged alpha-helix is sufficient to target proteins to dense core secretory granules.  

PubMed

Many endocrine and neuroendocrine cells contain specialized secretory organelles called dense core secretory granules. These organelles are the repository of proteins and peptides that are secreted in a regulated manner when the cell receives a physiological stimulus. The targeting of proteins to these secretory granules is crucial for the generation of certain peptide hormones, including insulin and ACTH. Although previous work has demonstrated that proteins destined to a variety of cellular locations, including secretory granules, contain targeting sequences, no single consensus sequence for secretory granule-sorting signals has emerged. We have shown previously that alpha-helical domains in the C-terminal tail of the prohormone convertase PC1/3 play an important role in the ability of this region of the protein to direct secretory granule targeting (Jutras, I. Seidah, N. G., and Reudelhuber, T. L. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 40337-40343). In this study, we show that a variety of alpha-helical domains are capable of directing a heterologous secretory protein to granules. By testing a series of synthetic alpha-helices, we also demonstrate that the presence of charged (either positive or negative) amino acids spatially segregated from a hydrophobic patch in the alpha-helices of secretory proteins likely plays a critical role in the ability of these structures to direct secretory granule sorting. PMID:17092937

Dikeakos, Jimmy D; Lacombe, Marie-Josée; Mercure, Chantal; Mireuta, Matei; Reudelhuber, Timothy L

2007-01-12

26

Association with nitric oxide synthase on insulin secretory granules regulates glucokinase protein levels.  

PubMed

Glucokinase (GCK) association with insulin-secretory granules is controlled by interaction with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and is reversed by GCK S-nitrosylation. Nonetheless, the function of GCK sequestration on secretory granules is unknown. Here we report that the S-nitrosylation blocking V367M mutation prevents GCK accumulation on secretory granules by inhibiting association with NOS. Expression of this mutant is reduced compared with a second S-nitrosylation blocking GCK mutant (C371S) that accumulates to secretory granules and is expressed at levels greater than wild type. Even so, the rate of degradation for wild type and mutant GCK proteins were not significantly different from one another, and neither mutation disrupted the ability of GCK to be ubiquitinated. Furthermore, gene silencing of NOS reduced endogenous GCK content but did not affect ?-actin content. Treatment of GCK(C371S) expressing cells with short interfering RNA specific for NOS also blocked accumulation of this protein to secretory granules and reduced expression levels to that of GCK(V367M). Conversely, cotransfection of catalytically inactive NOS increased GCK-mCherry levels. Expression of GCK(C371S) in ?TC3 cells enhanced glucose metabolism compared with untransfected cells and cells expressing wild type GCK, even though this mutant has slightly reduced enzymatic activity in vitro. Finally, molecular dynamics simulations revealed that V367M induces conformational changes in GCK that are similar to S-nitrosylated GCK, thereby suggesting a mechanism for V367M-inhibition of NOS association. Our findings suggest that sequestration of GCK on secretory granules regulates cellular GCK protein content, and thus cellular GCK activity, by acting as a storage pool for GCK proteins. PMID:22771492

Markwardt, Michele L; Nkobena, Andongfac; Ding, Shi-Ying; Rizzo, Mark A

2012-09-01

27

Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Like-1 (FGFRL1) Interacts with SHP-1 Phosphatase at Insulin Secretory Granules and Induces Beta-cell ERK1/2 Protein Activation*  

PubMed Central

FGFRL1 is a newly identified member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family expressed in adult pancreas. Unlike canonical FGFRs that initiate signaling via tyrosine kinase domains, the short intracellular sequence of FGFRL1 consists of a putative Src homology domain-2 (SH2)-binding motif adjacent to a histidine-rich C terminus. As a consequence of nonexistent kinase domains, FGFRL1 has been postulated to act as a decoy receptor to inhibit canonical FGFR ligand-induced signaling. In pancreatic islet beta-cells, canonical FGFR1 signaling affects metabolism and insulin processing. This study determined beta-cell expression of FGFRL1 as well as consequent effects on FGFR1 signaling and biological responses. We confirmed FGFRL1 expression at the plasma membrane and within distinct intracellular granules of both primary beta-cells and ?TC3 cells. Fluorescent protein-tagged FGFRL1 (RL1) induced a significant ligand-independent increase in MAPK signaling. Removal of the histidine-rich domain (RL1-?His) or entire intracellular sequence (RL1-?C) resulted in greater retention at the plasma membrane and significantly reduced ligand-independent ERK1/2 responses. The SHP-1 phosphatase was identified as an RL1-binding substrate. Point mutation of the SH2-binding motif reduced the ability of FGFRL1 to bind SHP-1 and activate ERK1/2 but did not affect receptor localization to insulin secretory granules. Finally, overexpression of RL1 increased cellular insulin content and matrix adhesion. Overall, these data suggest that FGFRL1 does not function as a decoy receptor in beta-cells, but rather it enhances ERK1/2 signaling through association of SHP-1 with the receptor's intracellular SH2-binding motif. PMID:23640895

Silva, Pamuditha N.; Altamentova, Svetlana M.; Kilkenny, Dawn M.; Rocheleau, Jonathan V.

2013-01-01

28

Expression of airway secretory epithelial functions by lung carcinoma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined 12 non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines for expression of airway goblet, serous, and mucous cell characteristics.\\u000a The cells expressed some ultrastructural traits of secretory epithelial cells but none contained secretory granules typical\\u000a of the airway secretory cells. Using immunocytochemistry and cell-specific monoclonal antibodies, we identified heterogeneous\\u000a expression of goblet, mucous, and serous cell markers among the cell

Walter E. Finkbeiner; Lorna T. Zlock; Suzanne D. Carrier; Susan Y. Chun; Lawrence Watt; Albert Chow

1995-01-01

29

Degradation of human anaphylatoxin C3a by rat peritoneal mast cells: a role for the secretory granule enzyme chymase and heparin proteoglycan  

SciTech Connect

Purified human C3a was iodinated (/sup 125/I-C3a) and used to study the interaction of labeled peptide with rat peritoneal mast cells (RMC). Cellular binding of /sup 125/I-C3a occurred within 30 sec, followed by a rapid dissociation from the cell. Once /sup 125/I-C3a was exposed to RMC, it lost the ability to rebind to a second batch of RMC. Analysis of the supernatants by trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation and electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels (SDS PAGE) revealed a decrease in the fraction of /sup 125/I precipitable by TCA and the appearance of /sup 125/-C3a cleavage fragments. Pretreatment of RMC with enzyme inhibitors specific for chymotrypsin, but not trypsin, abrogated the degradation of /sup 125/I-C3a. Treatment of RMC bearing /sup 125/I-C3a with bis (sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS/sup 3/) covalently cross-linked the /sup 125/I-C3a to chymase, the predominant enzyme found in the secretory granules. Indirect immunofluorescence of RMC by using the IgG fraction of goat anti-rat chymase showed that chymase is present on the surface of unstimulated cells. Neither purified chymase nor heparin proteoglycan alone had any appreciable effect on /sup 125/I-C3a, but together they resulted in prompt degradation of the /sup 125/I-C3a.

Gervasoni, J.E. Jr.; Conrad, D.H.; Hugli, T.E.; Schwartz, L.B.; Ruddy, S.

1986-01-01

30

Regulated phosphorylation of secretory granule membrane proteins of the rat parotid gland  

SciTech Connect

An antiserum raised against purified rat parotid secretory granule membrane proteins has been used to identify organelle-specific protein phosphorylation events following stimulation of intact cells from the rat parotid gland. After lobules were prelabeled with ({sup 32}P)orthophosphate and exposed to secretagogues, phosphoproteins were immunoprecipitated with the granule membrane protein antiserum, separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and visualized by autoradiography. Parallel studies of stimulated amylase release were performed. Isoproterenol treatment of parotid lobules resulted in an increase in the phosphate content of immunoprecipitable 60- and 72-kDa proteins that correlated with amylase release in a time-dependent manner. Forskolin addition mimicked these effects, but only the isoproterenol effects were reversed by propranolol treatment. To confirm the specificity of the antiserum to the secretory granule membrane fraction, subcellular isolation techniques were employed following in situ phosphorylation. The 60- and 72-kDa phosphoproteins were immunoprecipitated from both a particulate fraction and a purified secretory granule fraction. Furthermore, the extraction properties of both species suggest that they are integral membrane proteins. These findings support the possibility that stimulus-regulated secretion may involve phosphorylation of integral membrane proteins of the exocrine secretory granule.

Marino, C.R.; Castle, J.D.; Gorelick, F.S. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

1990-07-01

31

Electron microprobe analysis of human labial gland secretory granules in cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed Central

X-ray microanalysis of freeze-dried labial gland cryosections revealed that Na concentration was doubled and the Ca/S concentration ratio was decreased in secretory granules of labial glands from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) when compared with glands from normal subjects. Other results suggested that the decrease in the Ca/S concentration ratio resulted from an increase in S concentration. These findings imply that mucous granules in labial saliva showed a CF-related increase in Na and S content, and such changes would be expected to affect the rheology of the mucus after exocytosis. In contrast with a previous study in human parotid glands, no evidence was found for CF-related changes in cytoplasmic or nuclear Na, K, and Ca concentrations. Significant elemental differences were found between secretory granules and nuclei and cytoplasm of control cells. Images PMID:4008647

Izutsu, K; Johnson, D; Schubert, M; Wang, E; Ramsey, B; Tamarin, A; Truelove, E; Ensign, W; Young, M

1985-01-01

32

Electron microprobe analysis of human labial gland secretory granules in cystic fibrosis  

SciTech Connect

X-ray microanalysis of freeze-dried labial gland cryosections revealed that Na concentration was doubled and the Ca/S concentration ratio was decreased in secretory granules of labial glands from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) when compared with glands from normal subjects. Other results suggested that the decrease in the Ca/S concentration ratio resulted from an increase in S concentration. These findings imply that mucous granules in labial saliva showed a CF-related increase in Na and S content, and such changes would be expected to affect the rheology of the mucus after exocytosis. In contrast with a previous study in human parotid glands, no evidence was found for CF-related changes in cytoplasmic or nuclear Na, K, and Ca concentrations. Significant elemental differences were found between secretory granules and nuclei and cytoplasm of control cells.

Izutsu, K.; Johnson, D.; Schubert, M.; Wang, E.; Ramsey, B.; Tamarin, A.; Truelove, E.; Ensign, W.; Young, M.

1985-06-01

33

Cholesterol biosynthesis pathway intermediates and inhibitors regulate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and secretory granule formation in pancreatic beta-cells.  

PubMed

Cholesterol is reportedly abundant in the endocrine secretory granule (SG) membrane. In this study, we examined the involvement of cholesterol biosynthesis intermediates and inhibitors in insulin secretion and SG formation mechanisms. There are two routes for the supply of cholesterol to the cells: one via de novo biosynthesis and the other via low-density lipoprotein receptor-mediated endocytosis. We found that insulin secretion and content are diminished by ?-hydroxy-?-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A inhibitor lovastatin but not by lipoprotein depletion from the culture medium in MIN6 ?-cells. Cholesterol biosynthesis intermediates mevalonate, squalene, and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and the former two increased insulin content. The glucose-stimulated insulin secretion-enhancing effect of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate was also confirmed in perifusion with rat islets. Morphologically, mevalonate and squalene increased the population of SGs without affecting their size. In contrast, lovastatin increased the SG size with reduction of insulin-accumulating dense cores, leading to a decrease in insulin content. Furthermore, insulin was secreted in a constitutive manner, indicating disruption of regulated insulin secretion. Because secretogranin III, a cholesterol-binding SG-residential granin-family protein, coincides with SG localization based on the cholesterol composition, secretogranin III may be associated with insulin-accumulating mechanisms. Although the SG membrane exhibits a high cholesterol composition, we could not find detergent-resistant membrane regions using a lipid raft-residential protein flotillin and a fluorescent cholesterol-Si-pyrene probe as markers on a sucrose-density gradient fractionation. We suggest that the high cholesterol composition of SG membrane with 40-50 mol% is crucial for insulin secretion and SG formation functions. PMID:20685866

Tsuchiya, Miho; Hosaka, Masahiro; Moriguchi, Tomohisa; Zhang, Shaojuan; Suda, Masayuki; Yokota-Hashimoto, Hiromi; Shinozuka, Kazuo; Takeuchi, Toshiyuki

2010-10-01

34

Porosome: The Universal Secretory Portal in Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past 50 years it was believed that during cell secretion, membrane-bound secretory vesicles completely merge at the cell plasma membrane resulting in the diffusion of intra-vesicular contents to the cell exterior and the compensatory retrieval of the excess membrane by endocytosis. This explanation made no sense or logic, since following cell secretion partially empty vesicles accumulate as demonstrated in electron micrographs. Furthermore, with the ``all or none'' mechanism of cell secretion by complete merger of secretory vesicle membrane at the cell plasma membrane, the cell is left with little regulation and control of the amount of content release. Moreover, it makes no sense for mammalian cells to possess such `all or none' mechanism of cell secretion, when even single-cell organisms have developed specialized and sophisticated secretory machinery, such as the secretion apparatus of Toxoplasma gondii, the contractile vacuoles in paramecium, or the various types of secretory structures in bacteria. Therefore, in 1993 in a News and Views article in Nature, E. Neher wrote ``It seems terribly wasteful that, during the release of hormones and neurotransmitters from a cell, the membrane of a vesicle should merge with the plasma membrane to be retrieved for recycling only seconds or minutes later.'' This conundrum in the molecular mechanism of cell secretion was finally resolved in 1997 following discovery of the ``Porosome,'' the universal secretory machinery in cells. Porosomes are supramolecular lipoprotein structures at the cell plasma membrane, where membrane-bound secretory vesicles transiently dock and fuse to release inravesicular contents to the outside during cell secretion. In the past decade, the composition of the porosome, its structure and dynamics at nm resolution and in real time, and its functional reconstitution into artificial lipid membrane, have all been elucidated. Since porosomes in exocrine and neuroendocrine cells measure 100-180 nm, and only 20-45% increase in porosome diameter is demonstrated following the docking and fusion of 0.2-1.2 ?m in diameter secretory vesicles, it is concluded that secretory vesicles ``transiently'' dock and fuse, rather than completely merge at the base of the porosome complex to release their contents to the outside. In agreement, it has been demonstrated that ``secretory granules are recaptured largely intact after stimulated exocytosis in cultured endocrine cells''; that ``single synaptic vesicles fuse transiently and successively without loss of identity''; and that``zymogen granule (the secretory vesicle in exocrine pancreas) exocytosis is characterized by long fusion pore openings and preservation of vesicle lipid identity.'' In this presentation, the discovery of the porosome, resulting in a paradigm shift in our understanding of cell secretion will be briefly discussed.

Jena, Bhanu

2012-10-01

35

Modulation of secretory granule-targeting efficiency by cis and trans compounding of sorting signals.  

PubMed

Several protein domains acting through seemingly different mechanisms have been reported to have the capacity to target proteins to dense core secretory granules. Because proteins enter secretory granules with different efficiencies and because some of these proteins contain more than one granule-targeting motif, we have investigated whether compounding sorting signals could alter the efficiency of protein entry into secretory granules. In the current study we demonstrate that a paired basic cleavage site from human prorenin and an alpha-helix-containing secretory granule-sorting signal from the prohormone convertase PC1/3 can synergize to increase granule-sorting efficiency not only when located on the same protein, but also when located on distinct proteins that associate in the secretory pathway. PMID:15569678

Lacombe, Marie-Josée; Mercure, Chantal; Dikeakos, Jimmy D; Reudelhuber, Timothy L

2005-02-11

36

Kinetics of release of serotonin from isolated secretory granules. I. Amperometric detection of serotonin from electroporated granules.  

PubMed Central

We developed a method for measuring the efflux of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) from isolated intact granules of the mast cell of the beige mouse. This method combines electroporation of the vesicle membrane with amperometric detection of 5-HT. A single secretory granule is placed between two platinum electrodes (distance approximately 100 microm) and positioned adjacent (<1 microm) to a carbon fiber microelectrode. A short (approximately 30 micros) high-intensity voltage pulse (electric field of approximately 5 kV/cm) is delivered to the electrodes to trigger the mechanical breakdown of the granule membrane, which activates the release of 5-HT. We observed concurrent swelling of the granule matrix with the oxidation of 5-HT at the carbon fiber electrode (overpotential + 650 mV). Similar to the release of secretory products during exocytosis, the oxidation current exhibits a spike-like time course with a noninstantaneous rising phase (time between onset of current and maximum flux, t(max)) with approximately 25% of the molecules released during this period. When the current reaches its maximum, the granule matrix attains its maximum swollen state. We found that the rising phase depends on the initial cross-sectional area of the granule (t(max) approximately 21r2) and reflects the time required for membrane rupture. The average t(1/2)spike of the amperometric spikes was found to be approximately 150 ms, which is 3-7 times faster than the t(1/2) measured during cellular exocytosis. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:9284283

Marszalek, P E; Farrell, B; Verdugo, P; Fernandez, J M

1997-01-01

37

Sorting and storage during secretory granule biogenesis: looking backward and looking forward.  

PubMed Central

Secretory granules are specialized intracellular organelles that serve as a storage pool for selected secretory products. The exocytosis of secretory granules is markedly amplified under physiologically stimulated conditions. While granules have been recognized as post-Golgi carriers for almost 40 years, the molecular mechanisms involved in their formation from the trans-Golgi network are only beginning to be defined. This review summarizes and evaluates current information about how secretory proteins are thought to be sorted for the regulated secretory pathway and how these activities are positioned with respect to other post-Golgi sorting events that must occur in parallel. In the first half of the review, the emerging role of immature secretory granules in protein sorting is highlighted. The second half of the review summarizes what is known about the composition of granule membranes. The numerous similarities and relatively limited differences identified between granule membranes and other vesicular carriers that convey products to and from the plasmalemma, serve as a basis for examining how granule membrane composition might be established and how its unique functions interface with general post-Golgi membrane traffic. Studies of granule formation in vitro offer additional new insights, but also important challenges for future efforts to understand how regulated secretory pathways are constructed and maintained. PMID:9620860

Arvan, P; Castle, D

1998-01-01

38

Evidence for defects in membrane traffic in Paramecium secretory mutants unable to produce functional storage granules  

PubMed Central

The ciliated protozoan Paramecium has a regulated secretory system amenable to genetic analysis. The secretory storage granules, known as trichocysts, enclose a crystalline matrix with a genetically determined shape whose biogenesis involves proteolytic maturation of a family of precursor molecules into a heterogeneous set of small acidic polypeptides that crystallize within the maturing vesicles. We have developed an original pulse-chase protocol for monoxenic Paramecium cultures using radiolabeled bacteria to study the processing of trichocyst matrix proteins in wild-type and mutant cells. In wild-type cells, proteolytic processing is blocked in the presence of monensin and otherwise rapidly completed after approximately 20 min of chase, suggesting that the conversion occurs in the trans-Golgi and/or in small vesicles soon after sorting to the regulated pathway, probably before crystallization begins. In trichless mutant cells, which contain no visible trichocysts, secretory proteins are synthesized but not processed and we report constitutive secretion of the uncleaved precursor molecules. The mutation thus appears to affect sorting to the regulated pathway and should prove useful for analysis of the sorting machinery and of the relationship between sorting and proteolytic processing of secretory proteins. In mutants bearing misshapen trichocysts with poorly crystallized contents (tam33, tam38, stubbyA), the proteolytic processing of the trichocyst matrix proteins appears to be normal, while both pulse-chase and morphological data indicate that intracellular transport is perturbed, probably between ER and Golgi. Precursor molecules are present in the mutant trichocysts but not in wild-type trichocysts and may account for the defective crystallization. Our analysis of these mutants suggests that the temporal coordination of intracellular traffic plays a regulatory role in granule maturation. PMID:8132711

1994-01-01

39

Homotypic Fusion of Immature Secretory Granules During Maturation Requires Syntaxin 6  

PubMed Central

Homotypic fusion of immature secretory granules (ISGs) gives rise to mature secretory granules (MSGs), the storage compartment in endocrine and neuroendocrine cells for hormones and neuropeptides. With the use of a cell-free fusion assay, we investigated which soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment receptor (SNARE) molecules are involved in the homotypic fusion of ISGs. Interestingly, the SNARE molecules mediating the exocytosis of MSGs in neuroendocrine cells, syntaxin 1, SNAP-25, and VAMP2, were not involved in homotypic ISG fusion. Instead, we have identified syntaxin 6 as a component of the core machinery responsible for homotypic ISG fusion. Subcellular fractionation studies and indirect immunofluorescence microscopy show that syntaxin 6 is sorted away during the maturation of ISGs to MSGs. Although, syntaxin 6 on ISG membranes is associated with SNAP-25 and SNAP-29/GS32, we could not find evidence that these target (t)-SNARE molecules are involved in homotypic ISG fusion. Nor could we find any involvement for the vesicle (v)-SNARE VAMP4, which is known to be associated with syntaxin 6. Importantly, we have shown that homotypic fusion requires the function of syntaxin 6 on both donor as well as acceptor membranes, which suggests that t–t-SNARE interactions, either direct or indirect, may be required during fusion of ISG membranes. PMID:11408578

Wendler, Franz; Page, Lesley; Urbe, Sylvie; Tooze, Sharon A.

2001-01-01

40

Kinetics of release of serotonin from isolated secretory granules. II. Ion exchange determines the diffusivity of serotonin.  

PubMed Central

We measured the efflux of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) from an intact secretory granule extracted from the mast cell of the beige mouse. The efflux was measured with amperometry after rupture of the granule membrane was triggered by electroporation. We determined the diffusivity of 5-HT within the secretory granule to be 2.0 x 10(-8) cm2 s(-1) when the granule is in contact with a physiological saline and found that this diffusivity depends on the valence of the cation in the external electrolyte. There is a fivefold increase in the diffusion coefficient of 5-HT determined in CsCl (150 mM, pH 7.2) at 3.7 x 10(-8) cm2 s(-1) compared to that determined in histamine dihydrochloride (Hi, 100 mM at pH 4.5) at 0.7 x 10(-8) cm2 s(-1). We found that the rate of expansion of the granule matrix observed in physiological medium correlates with the efflux of 5-HT, and that the rate of swelling of the matrix and the efflux depend on the microviscosity within the granule matrix and not the bulk viscosity of the external solution. The low diffusivity of 5-HT (approximately 500-fold less than in the bulk), the observation that the valence of the counterion affects this diffusivity, and the relationship between the volume changes of the matrix and the efflux suggest that 5-HT is released from the granule by ion exchange. We discuss the implications of this result for exocytotic release in mast cells and propose that an ion exchange mechanism could control the rate of release in other secretory systems. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:9284284

Marszalek, P E; Farrell, B; Verdugo, P; Fernandez, J M

1997-01-01

41

The Arf family G protein Arl1 is required for secretory granule biogenesis in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The small G protein Arf like 1 (Arl1) is found at the Golgi complex, and its GTP-bound form recruits several effectors to the Golgi including GRIP-domain-containing coiled-coil proteins, and the Arf1 exchange factors Big1 and Big2. To investigate the role of Arl1, we have characterised a loss-of-function mutant of the Drosophila Arl1 orthologue. The gene is essential, and examination of clones of cells lacking Arl1 shows that it is required for recruitment of three of the four GRIP domain golgins to the Golgi, with Drosophila GCC185 being less dependent on Arl1. At a functional level, Arl1 is essential for formation of secretory granules in the larval salivary gland. When Arl1 is missing, Golgi are still present but there is a dispersal of adaptor protein 1 (AP-1), a clathrin adaptor that requires Arf1 for its membrane recruitment and which is known to be required for secretory granule biogenesis. Arl1 does not appear to be required for AP-1 recruitment in all tissues, suggesting that it is crucially required to enhance Arf1 activation at the trans-Golgi in particular tissues. PMID:24610947

Torres, Isabel L.; Rosa-Ferreira, Claudia; Munro, Sean

2014-01-01

42

Evidence for G proteins in rat parotid plasma membranes and secretory granule membranes.  

PubMed Central

G proteins were identified in rat parotid plasma membrane-enriched fractions and in two populations of isolated secretory granule membrane fractions. Both [32P]ADP-ribosylation analysis with bacterial toxins and immunoblot analysis with crude and affinity-purified antisera specific for alpha subunits of G proteins were utilized. Pertussis toxin catalysed the ADP-ribosylation of a 41 kDa substrate in the plasma membrane fraction and both secretory granule membrane fractions. Cholera toxin catalysed the ADP-ribosylation of two substrates with molecular masses of 44 kDa and 48 kDa in the plasma membrane fraction but not in the secretory granule fractions. However, these substrates were detected in the secretory granule fractions when recombinant ADP-ribosylating factor was present in the assay medium. Immunoblot analysis of rat parotid membrane fractions using both affinity-purified and crude antisera revealed strong immunoreactivity of these membranes with anti-Gs alpha, -Gi alpha 1/alpha 2 and -Gi alpha 3 sera. In contrast Gs alpha was the major substrate found in both of the secretory granule fractions. Granule membrane fractions also reacted moderately with anti-Gi alpha 3 antiserum, and weakly with anti-Gi alpha 1/alpha 2 and -G(o) alpha sera. The results demonstrate that the parotid gland membranes express a number of G proteins. The presence of G proteins in secretory granule membranes suggests that they may play a direct role in regulating exocytosis in exocrine glands. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:1637337

Watson, E L; DiJulio, D; Kauffman, D; Iversen, J; Robinovitch, M R; Izutsu, K T

1992-01-01

43

IP3 Receptor Type 2 Deficiency Is Associated with a Secretory Defect in the Pancreatic Acinar Cell and an Accumulation of Zymogen Granules  

PubMed Central

Acute pancreatitis is a painful, life-threatening disorder of the pancreas whose etiology is often multi-factorial. It is of great importance to understand the interplay between factors that predispose patients to develop the disease. One such factor is an excessive elevation in pancreatic acinar cell Ca2+. These aberrant Ca2+ elevations are triggered by release of Ca2+ from apical Ca2+ pools that are gated by the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) types 2 and 3. In this study, we examined the role of IP3R type 2 (IP3R2) using mice deficient in this Ca2+ release channel (IP3R2?/?). Using live acinar cell Ca2+ imaging we found that loss of IP3R2 reduced the amplitude of the apical Ca2+ signal and caused a delay in its initiation. This was associated with a reduction in carbachol-stimulated amylase release and an accumulation of zymogen granules (ZGs). Specifically, there was a 2-fold increase in the number of ZGs (P<0.05) and an expansion of the ZG pool area within the cell. There was also a 1.6- and 2.6-fold increase in cellular amylase and trypsinogen, respectively. However, the mice did not have evidence of pancreatic injury at baseline, other than an elevated serum amylase level. Further, pancreatitis outcomes using a mild caerulein hyperstimulation model were similar between IP3R2?/? and wild type mice. In summary, IP3R2 modulates apical acinar cell Ca2+ signals and pancreatic enzyme secretion. IP3R-deficient acinar cells accumulate ZGs, but the mice do not succumb to pancreatic damage or worse pancreatitis outcomes. PMID:23185258

Orabi, Abrahim I.; Luo, Yuhuan; Ahmad, Mahwish U.; Shah, Ahsan U.; Mannan, Zahir; Wang, Dong; Sarwar, Sheharyar; Muili, Kamaldeen A.; Shugrue, Christine; Kolodecik, Thomas R.; Singh, Vijay P.; Lowe, Mark E.; Thrower, Edwin; Chen, Ju; Husain, Sohail Z.

2012-01-01

44

Lysosomal sorting receptors are essential for secretory granule biogenesis in Tetrahymena  

PubMed Central

Secretory granules, such as neuronal dense core vesicles, are specialized for storing cargo at high concentration and releasing it via regulated exocytosis in response to extracellular stimuli. Here, we used expression profiling to identify new components of the machinery for sorting proteins into mucocysts, secretory granule-like vesicles in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. We show that assembly of mucocysts depends on proteins classically associated with lysosome biogenesis. In particular, the delivery of nonaggregated, but not aggregated, cargo proteins requires classical receptors of the sortilin/VPS10 family, which indicates that dual mechanisms are involved in sorting to this secretory compartment. In addition, sortilins are required for delivery of a key protease involved in T. thermophila mucocyst maturation. Our results suggest potential similarities in the formation of regulated secretory organelles between even very distantly related eukaryotes. PMID:24189272

Briguglio, Joseph S.; Kumar, Santosh

2013-01-01

45

RNA Granules in Germ Cells  

PubMed Central

“Germ granules” are cytoplasmic, nonmembrane-bound organelles unique to germline. Germ granules share components with the P bodies and stress granules of somatic cells, but also contain proteins and RNAs uniquely required for germ cell development. In this review, we focus on recent advances in our understanding of germ granule assembly, dynamics, and function. One hypothesis is that germ granules operate as hubs for the posttranscriptional control of gene expression, a function at the core of the germ cell differentiation program. PMID:21768607

Voronina, Ekaterina; Seydoux, Geraldine; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo; Nagamori, Ippei

2011-01-01

46

A functioning artificial secretory cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an amperometric study of content release from individual vesicles in an artificial secretory cell designed with the minimal components required to carry out exocytosis. Here, the membranes of the cell and vesicles are substituted for protein-free giant and large unilamellar vesicles respectively. In replacement of the SNARE-complex, the cell model was equipped with an analog composed of complimentary DNA constructs. The DNA constructs hybridize in a zipper-like fashion to bring about docking of the artificial secretory vesicles and following the addition of Ca2+ artificial exocytosis was completed. Exocytotic events recorded from the artificial cell closely approximate exocytosis in live cells. The results together with simulations of vesicular release demonstrate that the molecular flux in this model is attenuated and we suggest that this is the result of restricted diffusion through a semi-stable fusion pore or a partitioning of the signalling molecule out of the fused vesicle membrane.

Simonsson, Lisa; Kurczy, Michael E.; Trouillon, Raphaël; Hook, Fredrik; Cans, Ann-Sofie

2012-11-01

47

A functioning artificial secretory cell  

PubMed Central

We present an amperometric study of content release from individual vesicles in an artificial secretory cell designed with the minimal components required to carry out exocytosis. Here, the membranes of the cell and vesicles are substituted for protein-free giant and large unilamellar vesicles respectively. In replacement of the SNARE-complex, the cell model was equipped with an analog composed of complimentary DNA constructs. The DNA constructs hybridize in a zipper-like fashion to bring about docking of the artificial secretory vesicles and following the addition of Ca2+ artificial exocytosis was completed. Exocytotic events recorded from the artificial cell closely approximate exocytosis in live cells. The results together with simulations of vesicular release demonstrate that the molecular flux in this model is attenuated and we suggest that this is the result of restricted diffusion through a semi-stable fusion pore or a partitioning of the signalling molecule out of the fused vesicle membrane. PMID:23139869

Simonsson, Lisa; Kurczy, Michael E.; Trouillon, Raphael; Hook, Fredrik; Cans, Ann-Sofie

2012-01-01

48

Serous cutaneous glands in anurans: Fourier transform analysis of the repeating secretory granule substructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combined transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform analysis has been performed on the secretory granules storing active peptides/proteins in serous cutaneous glands of n = 12 anuran species. Previous TEM investigation showed that the granules are provided with remarkable repeating substructures based on discrete subunits, arranged into a consistent framework. Furthermore, TEM findings revealed that this recurrent arrangement is acquired during a prolonged post-Golgian (or maturational) processing that affects the secretory product. Maturation leads to a variety of patterns depending on the degree of subunit clustering. This variety of recurrent patterns has been plotted into a range of frequency spectra. Through this quantitative approach, we found that the varying granule substructure can be reduced to a single mechanism of peptide/protein aggregation.

Nosi, D.; Delfino, G.; Quercioli, F.

2013-03-01

49

The ubiquitin ligase Mindbomb 1 coordinates gastrointestinal secretory cell maturation  

PubMed Central

After cell fate specification, differentiating cells must amplify the specific subcellular features required for their specialized function. How cells regulate such subcellular scaling is a fundamental unanswered question. Here, we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Mindbomb 1 (MIB1) is required for the apical secretory apparatus established by gastric zymogenic cells as they differentiate from their progenitors. When Mib1 was deleted, death-associated protein kinase–1 (DAPK1) was rerouted to the cell base, microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B) was dephosphorylated, and the apical vesicles that normally support mature secretory granules were dispersed. Consequently, secretory granules did not mature. The transcription factor MIST1 bound the first intron of Mib1 and regulated its expression. We further showed that loss of MIB1 and dismantling of the apical secretory apparatus was the earliest quantifiable aberration in zymogenic cells undergoing transition to a precancerous metaplastic state in mouse and human stomach. Our results reveal a mechanistic pathway by which cells can scale up a specific, specialized subcellular compartment to alter function during differentiation and scale it down during disease. PMID:23478405

Capoccia, Benjamin J.; Jin, Ramon U.; Kong, Young-Yun; Peek, Richard M.; Fassan, Matteo; Rugge, Massimo; Mills, Jason C.

2013-01-01

50

The role of secretory granules in radiation-induced dysfunction of rat salivary glands  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the possible role of secretory granules in radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction, rats were pretreated with isoproterenol (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally) to degranulate salivary gland acini. At maximal depletion, salivary glands were locally irradiated with a single dose of 15 Gy of X rays. Parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva samples were collected before and 1-10 days after irradiation. The lag phase, flow rate, concentrations of potassium and sodium, and amylase secretion were determined. Sham-treated, isoproterenol-treated and irradiated animals provided reference data. In the parotid gland, but not in the submandibular gland, protection against radiation-induced changes in flow rate and composition of saliva occurred after pretreatment with isoproterenol. Combining morphological data from a previous study with data from the current study, it is suggested that improvement of parotid gland function is attributed predominantly to a proliferative stimulus on acinar cells by isoproterenol and not to its degranulation effect. After pretreatment with isoproterenol, an earlier expression of radiation-induced acinar cell damage leading to death was observed, followed by a faster tissue recovery. Thus the proliferative stimulus on acinar cells may accelerate the unmasking of latent lethal damage, resulting in the earlier replacement of dead cells by new, functionally intact cells. 33 refs., 2 figs.

Peter, B.; Van Waarde, M.A.W.H.; Konings, A.W.T. [Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands); Vissink, A. [Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands)]|[Univ. Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands); `s-Gravenmade, E.J. [Univ. Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands)

1995-02-01

51

A Nibbling Mechanism for Clathrin-mediated Retrieval of Secretory Granule Membrane after Exocytosis*  

PubMed Central

Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is the major pathway for recycling of granule membrane components after strong stimulation and high exocytotic rates. It resembles “classical” receptor-mediated endocytosis but has a trigger that is unique to secretion, the sudden appearance of the secretory granule membrane in the plasma membrane. The spatial localization, the relationship to individual fusion events, the nature of the cargo, and the timing and nature of the nucleation events are unknown. Furthermore, a size mismatch between chromaffin granules (?300-nm diameter) and typical clathrin-coated vesicles (?90 nm) makes it unlikely that clathrin-mediated endocytosis internalizes as a unit the entire fused granule membrane. We have used a combination of total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of transiently expressed proteins and time-resolved quantitative confocal imaging of endogenous proteins along with a fluid-phase marker to address these issues. We demonstrate that the fused granule membrane remains a distinct entity and serves as a nucleation site for clathrin- and dynamin-mediated endocytosis that internalizes granule membrane components in small increments. PMID:23386611

Bittner, Mary A.; Aikman, Rachel L.; Holz, Ronald W.

2013-01-01

52

Ca2+ dynamics in the secretory vesicles of neurosecretory PC12 and INS1 cells.  

PubMed

We have investigated the dynamics of the free [Ca(2+)] inside the secretory granules of neurosecretory PC12 and INS1 cells using a low-Ca(2+)-affinity aequorin chimera fused to synaptobrevin-2. The steady-state secretory granule [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)](SG)] was around 20-40 ?M in both cell types, about half the values previously found in chromaffin cells. Inhibition of SERCA-type Ca(2+) pumps with thapsigargin largely blocked Ca(2+) uptake by the granules in Ca(2+)-depleted permeabilized cells, and the same effect was obtained when the perfusion medium lacked ATP. Consistently, the SERCA-type Ca(2+) pump inhibitor benzohydroquinone induced a rapid release of Ca(2+) from the granules both in intact and permeabilized cells, suggesting that the continuous activity of SERCA-type Ca(2+) pumps is essential to maintain the steady-state [Ca(2+)](SG). Both inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)) and caffeine produced a rapid Ca(2+) release from the granules, suggesting the presence of InsP(3) and ryanodine receptors in the granules. The response to high-K(+) depolarization was different in both cell types, a decrease in [Ca(2+)](SG) in PC12 cells and an increase in [Ca(2+)](SG) in INS1 cells. The difference may rely on the heterogeneous response of different vesicle populations in each cell type. Finally, increasing the glucose concentration triggered a decrease in [Ca(2+)](SG) in INS1 cells. In conclusion, our data show that the secretory granules of PC12 and INS1 cells take up Ca(2+) through SERCA-type Ca(2+) pumps and can release it through InsP(3) and ryanodine receptors, supporting the hypothesis that secretory granule Ca(2+) may be released during cell stimulation and contribute to secretion. PMID:21088885

SantoDomingo, Jaime; Fonteriz, Rosalba I; Lobatón, Carmen D; Montero, Mayte; Moreno, Alfredo; Alvarez, Javier

2010-11-01

53

Redundant and Segregated Functions of Granule-Associated Heparin-Binding Group II Subfamily of Secretory  

E-print Network

constitute the delayed phase of mast cell activation. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2),3 which liberates free fatty before and after cell activation differ as a function of mast cell phenotype (18­21). Several lines of Secretory Phospholipases A2 in the Regulation of Degranulation and Prostaglandin D2 Synthesis in Mast Cells1

Gelb, Michael

54

PC1/3, PC2 and PC5/6A are targeted to dense core secretory granules by a common mechanism.  

PubMed

There are seven members of the proprotein convertase (PC) family of secreted serine proteases that cleave their substrates at basic amino acids, thereby activating a variety of hormones, growth factors, and viruses. PC1/3, PC2 and PC5/6A are the only members of the PC family that are targeted to dense core secretory granules, where they carry out the processing of proteins that are secreted from the cell in a regulated manner. Previous studies have identified alpha-helices in the C-termini of the PC1/3 and PC2 proteases that are required for this subcellular targeting. In the current study, we demonstrate that a predicted alpha-helix in the C-terminus of PC5/6A is also critical for the ability of this domain to target a heterologous protein to the regulated secretory pathway of mouse endocrine AtT-20 cells. Analysis of the subcellular distribution of fusion proteins containing the C-terminal domains of PC1/3, PC2 and PC5/6A confirmed that all three domains have the capacity to redirect a constitutively secreted protein to the granule-containing cytoplasmic extensions. Analysis of the predicted structures formed by these three granule-sorting helices shows a correlation between their granule-sorting efficiency and the clustering of hydrophobic amino acids in their granule-targeting helices. PMID:17645548

Dikeakos, Jimmy D; Mercure, Chantal; Lacombe, Marie-Josée; Seidah, Nabil G; Reudelhuber, Timothy L

2007-08-01

55

The last few milliseconds in the life of a secretory granule  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have monitored single vesicles (granules) in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells using an optical sectioning technique, total\\u000a internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM). With TIR, fluorescence excitation is limited to an optical slice near\\u000a a glass\\/water interface. In cells located at the interface, granules loaded with fluorescent dye can be visualized near to\\u000a or docked at the plasma membrane. Here we

Martin Oheim; Dinah Loerke; Walter Stühmer; Robert H. Chow

1998-01-01

56

?2-Syntrophin Is a Cdk5 Substrate That Restrains the Motility of Insulin Secretory Granules  

PubMed Central

The molecular basis for the interaction of insulin granules with the cortical cytoskeleton of pancreatic ?-cells remains unknown. We have proposed that binding of the granule protein ICA512 to the PDZ domain of ?2-syntrophin anchors granules to actin filaments and that the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of ?2-syntrophin regulates this association. Here we tested this hypothesis by analyzing INS-1 cells expressing GFP-?2-syntrophin through the combined use of biochemical approaches, imaging studies by confocal and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy as well as electron microscopy. Our results support the notion that ?2-syntrophin restrains the mobility of cortical granules in insulinoma INS-1 cells, thereby reducing insulin secretion and increasing insulin stores in resting cells, while increasing insulin release upon stimulation. Using mass spectrometry, in vitro phosphorylation assays and ?2-syntrophin phosphomutants we found that phosphorylation of ?2-syntrophin on S75 near the PDZ domain decreases its binding to ICA512 and correlates with increased granule motility, while phosphorylation of S90 has opposite effects. We further show that Cdk5, which regulates insulin secretion, phosphorylates S75. These findings provide mechanistic insight into how stimulation displaces insulin granules from cortical actin, thus promoting their motility and exocytosis. PMID:20886068

Schubert, Sandra; Knoch, Klaus-Peter; Ouwendijk, Joke; Mohammed, Shabaz; Bodrov, Yury; Jager, Melanie; Altkruger, Anke; Wegbrod, Carolin; Adams, Marvin E.; Kim, Yong; Froehner, Stanley C.; Jensen, Ole N.; Kalaidzidis, Yannis; Solimena, Michele

2010-01-01

57

Purinergic Modulation of Granule Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracellular purines exert their action in the nervous system through purinergic neurotransmission and neuromodulatory processes.\\u000a Among brain areas, efforts have been made to investigate the purinergic modulation of the cerebellar cortex. In addition,\\u000a the use of granule cells in culture as a neuronal in vitro model provided important information about the implications of\\u000a purines in mechanisms such as cell survival

Raphaël Courjaret; María Teresa Miras-Portugal; Joachim W. Deitmer

58

INTRACELLULAR TRANSPORT OF SECRETORY PROTEINS IN THE PANCREATIC EXOCRINE CELL  

PubMed Central

It has been established by electron microscopic radioautography of guinea pig pancreatic exocrine cells (Caro and Palade, 1964) that secretory proteins are transported from the elements of the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to condensing vacuoles of the Golgi complex possibly via small vesicles located in the periphery of the complex. To define more clearly the role of these vesicles in the intracellular transport of secretory proteins, we have investigated the secretory cycle of the guinea pig pancreas by cell fractionation procedures applied to pancreatic slices incubated in vitro. Such slices remain viable for 3 hr and incur minimal structural damage in this time. Their secretory proteins can be labeled with radioactive amino acids in short, well defined pulses which, followed by cell fractionation, makes possible a kinetic analysis of transport. To determine the kinetics of transport, we pulse-labeled sets of slices for 3 min with leucine-14C and incubated them for further +7, +17, and +57 min in chase medium. At each time, smooth microsomes ( = peripheral elements of the Golgi complex) and rough microsomes ( = elements of the rough ER) were isolated from the slices by density gradient centrifugation of the total microsomal fraction. Labeled proteins appeared initially (end of pulse) in the rough microsomes and were subsequently transferred during incubation in chase medium to the smooth microsomes, reaching a maximal concentration in this fraction after +7 min chase incubation. Later, labeled proteins left the smooth microsomes to appear in the zymogen granule fraction. These data provide direct evidence that secretory proteins are transported from the cisternae of the rough ER to condensing vacuoles via the small vesicles of the Golgi complex. PMID:6035647

Jamieson, James D.; Palade, George E.

1967-01-01

59

Epithelial Cell Culture from Human Adenoids: A Functional Study Model for Ciliated and Secretory Cells  

PubMed Central

Background. Mucociliary transport (MCT) is a defense mechanism of the airway. To study the underlying mechanisms of MCT, we have both developed an experimental model of cultures, from human adenoid tissue of ciliated and secretory cells, and characterized the response to local chemical signals that control ciliary activity and the secretion of respiratory mucins in vitro. Materials and Methods. In ciliated cell cultures, ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and intracellular Ca2+ levels were measured in response to ATP, UTP, and adenosine. In secretory cultures, mucin synthesis and secretion were identified by using immunodetection. Mucin content was taken from conditioned medium and analyzed in the presence or absence of UTP. Results. Enriched ciliated cell monolayers and secretory cells were obtained. Ciliated cells showed a basal CBF of 10.7?Hz that increased significantly after exposure to ATP, UTP, or adenosine. Mature secretory cells showed active secretion of granules containing different glycoproteins, including MUC5AC. Conclusion. Culture of ciliated and secretory cells grown from adenoid epithelium is a reproducible and feasible experimental model, in which it is possible to observe ciliary and secretory activities, with a potential use as a model to understand mucociliary transport control mechanisms. PMID:23484122

Gonzalez, Claudia; Espinosa, Marisol; Sanchez, Maria Trinidad; Droguett, Karla; Rios, Mariana; Fonseca, Ximena; Villalon, Manuel

2013-01-01

60

Platelet Granule Exocytosis: A Comparison with Chromaffin Cells  

PubMed Central

The rapid secretion of bioactive amines from chromaffin cells constitutes an important component of the fight or flight response of mammals to stress. Platelets respond to stresses within the vasculature by rapidly secreting cargo at sites of injury, inflammation, or infection. Although chromaffin cells derive from the neural crest and platelets from bone marrow megakaryocytes, both have evolved a heterogeneous assemblage of granule types and a mechanism for efficient release. This article will provide an overview of granule formation and exocytosis in platelets with an emphasis on areas in which the study of chromaffin cells has influenced that of platelets and on similarities between the two secretory systems. Commonalities include the use of transporters to concentrate bioactive amines and other cargos into granules, the role of cytoskeletal remodeling in granule exocytosis, and the use of granules to provide membrane for cytoplasmic projections. The SNAREs and SNARE accessory proteins used by each cell type will also be considered. Finally, we will discuss the newly appreciated role of dynamin family proteins in regulated fusion pore formation. This evaluation of the comparative cell biology of regulated exocytosis in platelets and chromaffin cells demonstrates a convergence of mechanisms between two disparate cell types both tasked with responding rapidly to physiological stimuli. PMID:23805129

Fitch-Tewfik, Jennifer L.; Flaumenhaft, Robert

2013-01-01

61

Platelet granule exocytosis: a comparison with chromaffin cells.  

PubMed

The rapid secretion of bioactive amines from chromaffin cells constitutes an important component of the fight or flight response of mammals to stress. Platelets respond to stresses within the vasculature by rapidly secreting cargo at sites of injury, inflammation, or infection. Although chromaffin cells derive from the neural crest and platelets from bone marrow megakaryocytes, both have evolved a heterogeneous assemblage of granule types and a mechanism for efficient release. This article will provide an overview of granule formation and exocytosis in platelets with an emphasis on areas in which the study of chromaffin cells has influenced that of platelets and on similarities between the two secretory systems. Commonalities include the use of transporters to concentrate bioactive amines and other cargos into granules, the role of cytoskeletal remodeling in granule exocytosis, and the use of granules to provide membrane for cytoplasmic projections. The SNAREs and SNARE accessory proteins used by each cell type will also be considered. Finally, we will discuss the newly appreciated role of dynamin family proteins in regulated fusion pore formation. This evaluation of the comparative cell biology of regulated exocytosis in platelets and chromaffin cells demonstrates a convergence of mechanisms between two disparate cell types both tasked with responding rapidly to physiological stimuli. PMID:23805129

Fitch-Tewfik, Jennifer L; Flaumenhaft, Robert

2013-01-01

62

A novel framework for segmentation of secretory granules in electron micrographs.  

PubMed

It is still a standard practice for biologists to manually analyze transmission electron microscopy images. This is not only time consuming but also not reproducible and prone to induce subjective bias. For large-scale studies of insulin granules inside beta cells of the islet of Langerhans, an automated method for analysis is essential. Due to the complex structure of the images, standard microscopy segmentation techniques cannot be applied. We present a new approach to segment and measure transmission electron microscopy images of insulin granule cores and membranes from beta cells of rat islets of Langerhans. The algorithm is separated into two broad components, core segmentation and membrane segmentation. Core segmentation proceeds through three steps: pre-segmentation using a novel level-set active contour, morphological cleaning and a refining segmentation on each granule using a novel dual level-set active contour. Membrane segmentation is achieved in four steps: morphological cleaning, membrane sampling and scaling, vector field convolution for gap filling and membrane verification using a novel convergence filter. We show results from our algorithm alongside popular microscopy segmentation methods; the advantages of our method are demonstrated. Our algorithm is validated by comparing automated results to a manually defined ground truth. When the number of granules detected is compared to the number of granules in the ground truth a precision of 91% and recall of 87% is observed. The average granule areas differ by 13.35% and 6.08% for core and membranes respectively, when compared to the average areas of the ground truth. These results compare favorably to previously published data. PMID:24444668

Nam, David; Mantell, Judith; Bull, David; Verkade, Paul; Achim, Alin

2014-02-01

63

Intracisternal crystals in pancreatic acinar cells: failure in the distinct aggregation of secretory proteins.  

PubMed

Mechanisms leading to the formation of crystalline inclusions in the cisternal space of the rough endoplasmic reticulum are poorly understood. This phenomenon was investigated in pancreatic acinar cells using two different experimental models: 1) Intraperitoneal injection of DL-p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester, and 2) culture of isolated acinar cells within the Matrigel basement membrane in the presence of 2% dimethyl sulfoxide. Features and composition of induced crystals were analyzed by protein A-gold and lectin-gold cytochemistry, electron microscope autoradiography, electron energy loss spectroscopic imaging and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Crystal formation occurred in ribosome partially free rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) regions and was similar in both experimental protocols. The protein A-gold revealed the presence of nine major pancreatic enzymes in the crystals. However, the labeling intensities varied among enzymes with higher concentrations of amylase than chymotrypsinogen when compared to the secretory granules. Concanavalin A and Helix pomatia labelings were weak over the crystals and did not correspond to those of RER or secretory granules. Sulfur contents in crystals were lower than phosphorus and their ratio was opposite to the one found in secretory granules. Electron microscope autoradiography demonstrated incorporation of radiolabeled leucine and presence of newly synthesized proteins in the crystals. Furthermore, cells containing both crystals and secretory granules displayed silver grains in most of the cellular compartments involved in secretion. Thus, failure in the normal concentration and sorting process of secretory proteins leading to crystal formation includes changes in protein glycosylation and decrease of disulfide bond formation while retaining secretory capabilities. PMID:7523126

Arias, A E; Bendayan, M

1993-12-01

64

The stealthy nano-machine behind mast cell granule size distribution.  

PubMed

The classical model of mast cell secretory granule formation suggests that newly synthesized secretory mediators, transported from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex, undergo post-transitional modification and are packaged for secretion by condensation within membrane-bound granules of unit size. These unit granules may fuse with other granules to form larger granules that reside in the cytoplasm until secreted. A novel stochastic model for mast cell granule growth and elimination (G&E) as well as inventory management is presented. Resorting to a statistical mechanics approach in which SNAP (Soluble NSF Attachment Protein) REceptor (SNARE) components are viewed as interacting particles, the G&E model provides a simple 'nano-machine' of SNARE self-aggregation that can perform granule growth and secretion. Granule stock is maintained as a buffer to meet uncertainty in demand by the extracellular environment and to serve as source of supply during the lead time to produce granules of adaptive content. Experimental work, mathematical calculations, statistical modeling and a rationale for the emergence of nearly last-in, first out inventory management, are discussed. PMID:24629227

Hammel, Ilan; Meilijson, Isaac

2015-01-01

65

Stimulation of mast cells leads to cholesterol accumulation in macrophages in vitro by a mast cell granule-mediated uptake of low density lipoprotein  

SciTech Connect

The uptake of low density lipoprotein (LDL) by cultured mouse macrophages was markedly promoted by isolated rat mast cell granules present in the culture medium. The granule-mediated uptake of /sup 125/I-LDL enhanced the rate of cholesteryl ester synthesis in the macrophages, the result being accumulation of cholesteryl esters in these cells. Binding of LDL to the granules was essential for the granule-mediated uptake of LDL by macrophages, for the uptake process was prevented by treating the granules with avidin or protamine chloride or by treating LDL with 1,2-cyclohexanedione, all of which inhibit the binding of LDL to the granules. Inhibition of granule phagocytosis by the macrophages with cytochalasin B also abolished the granule-mediated uptake of LDL. Finally, mouse macrophage monolayers and LDL were incubated in the presence of isolated rat serosal mast cells. Stimulation of the mast cells with compound 48/80, a degranulating agent, resulted in dose-dependent release of secretory granules from the mast cells and a parallel increase in /sup 14/C cholesteryl ester synthesis in the macrophages. The results show that, in this in vitro model, the sequence of events leading to accumulation of cholesteryl esters in macrophages involves initial stimulation of mast cells, subsequent release of their secretory granules, binding of LDL to the exocytosed granules, and, finally, phagocytosis of the LDL-containing granules by macrophages.

Kokkonen, J.O.; Kovanen, P.T.

1987-04-01

66

Phosphatidylinositol kinase in rat mast cell granules  

SciTech Connect

Intact granules were isolated from sonicated purified rat serosal mast cells on a Percoll gradient. The granules were shown to contain a highly active phosphatidylinositol kinase that catalyzes the formation of diphosphoinositide from endogenous phosphatidylinositol in the granule membrane. The enzyme requires ATP and Mg/sup 2 +/ or Mn/sup 2 +/ for activity; Ca/sup 2 +/, fluoride and cyclic AMP are inhibitory. The K/sub m/ for ATP is 25 ..mu..M. The initial reaction is rapid, but the response ceases within a few minutes. A comparison of the rate of phosphorylation of intact and broken membrane granules suggests that the phosphorylation occurs on the outer (cytoplasmic) surface of the granules.

Kurosawa, M.; Parker, C.W.

1986-01-01

67

Proinsulin Intermolecular Interactions during Secretory Trafficking in Pancreatic ? Cells*  

PubMed Central

Classically, exit from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is rate-limiting for secretory protein trafficking because protein folding/assembly occurs there. In this study, we have exploited “hPro-CpepSfGFP,” a human proinsulin bearing “superfolder” green fluorescent C-peptide expressed in pancreatic ? cells where it is processed to human insulin and CpepSfGFP. Remarkably, steady-state accumulation of hPro-CpepSfGFP and endogenous proinsulin is in the Golgi region, as if final stages of protein folding/assembly were occurring there. The Golgi regional distribution of proinsulin is dynamic, influenced by fasting/refeeding, and increased with ? cell zinc deficiency. However, coexpression of ER-entrapped mutant proinsulin-C(A7)Y shifts the steady-state distribution of wild-type proinsulin to the ER. Endogenous proinsulin coprecipitates with hPro-CpepSfGFP and even more so with hProC(A7)Y-CpepSfGFP. Using Cerulean and Venus-tagged proinsulins, we find that both WT-WT and WT-mutant proinsulin pairs exhibit FRET. The data demonstrate that wild-type proinsulin dimerizes within the ER but accumulates at a poorly recognized slow step within the Golgi region, reflecting either slow kinetics of proinsulin hexamerization, steps in formation of nascent secretory granules, or other unknown molecular events. However, in the presence of ongoing misfolding of a subpopulation of proinsulin in ? cells, the rate-limiting step in transport of the remaining proinsulin shifts to the ER. PMID:23223446

Haataja, Leena; Snapp, Erik; Wright, Jordan; Liu, Ming; Hardy, Alexandre B.; Wheeler, Michael B.; Markwardt, Michele L.; Rizzo, Mark; Arvan, Peter

2013-01-01

68

In vitro conditions modify immunoassayability of bovine pituitary prolactin and growth hormone: insights into their secretory granule storage forms  

SciTech Connect

The amount of immunoassayable intracellular bovine (b) PRL and GH varies depending on treatment conditions. The present studies were designed to characterize the mechanisms involved and to compare immunoassayability of both hormones under similar conditions. Pituitary homogenate and secretory granule hormones displayed both time- and temperature-dependent increases when incubated at pH 10.5 with reduced glutathione. Changes in immunoassayability seem to reflect conversion from poorly immunoactive tissue hormone oligomers to monomeric hormone. The data indicate that oligomeric bPRL is stabilized primarily by intermolecular disulfide bonds, although it is also susceptible to urea, SDS, and EDTA; granule thiols may also influence the conversion to monomer. The storage form of bGH appears to be stabilized differently. Maneuvers demonstrated in these studies to influence immunoassayability correlate very well with their previously established effects on hormone release and secretion, strengthening the likelihood that a functional link exists between assayability and secretion.

Lorenson, M.Y.

1985-04-01

69

Studies on the pH gradient and histamine uptake of isolated mast cell granules  

SciTech Connect

A purified preparation of mast cell granules with intact perigranular membranes was obtained using a method involving probe sonication of rat serosal mast cells followed by differential centrifugation and Percoll gradient separation of the granules. Purification was assessed with histamine and mast cell granule protease assays. Granule integrity was demonstrated by light and electron microscopy and quantitated with a ruthenium red binding assay. The low yield of granules (20 ..mu..g protein/4 rats) necessitated the development of two microanalytical techniques to demonstrate the existence of a pH gradient across the membrane: 9-aminoacridine fluorescence studies in a cuvet with 50 ..mu..l capacity and /sup 14/C-methylamine distribution studies on microgram quantities of granule protein. Quantitation of results from isotope studies were confounded by the presence of oil used for separating granules from the aqueous phase. Nonetheless, an extrapolation procedure calibrated by external pH yielded an internal pH value of 5.46 +/- .03 (n = 4), consistent with values observed in granules obtained from other secretory cells. Collapse of the pH gradient by NH/sub 4//sup +/ or nigericin/KCl was demonstrated using either technique. Addition of histamine depressed intragranular pH, suggesting that histamine transport may utilize the ..delta..pH as a driving force.

De Young, M.B.; Nemeth, E.F.; Scarpa, A.

1986-05-01

70

Mechanisms of Granule Membrane Recapture following Exocytosis in Intact Mast Cells*  

PubMed Central

In secretory cells, several exocytosis-coupled forms of endocytosis have been proposed including clathrin-mediated endocytosis, kiss-and-run endocytosis, cavicapture, and bulk endocytosis. These forms of endocytosis can be induced under different conditions, but their detailed molecular mechanisms and functions are largely unknown. We studied exocytosis and endocytosis in mast cells with both perforated-patch and whole-cell configurations of the patch clamp technique using cell capacitance measurements in combination with amperometric serotonin detection. We found that intact mast cells exhibit an early endocytosis that follows exocytosis induced by compound 48/80. Direct observation of individual exocytic and endocytic events showed a higher percentage of capacitance flickers (27.3%) and off-steps (11.4%) in intact mast cells than in dialyzed cells (5.4% and 2.9%, respectively). Moreover, we observed a type of endocytosis of large pieces of membrane that were likely formed by cumulative fusion of several secretory granules with the cell membrane. We also identified “large-capacitance flickers” that occur after large endocytosis events. Pore conductance analysis indicated that these transient events may represent “compound cavicapture,” most likely due to the flickering of a dilated fusion pore. Using fluorescence imaging of individual exocytic and endocytic events we observed that granules can fuse to granules already fused with the plasma membrane, and then the membranes and dense cores of fused granules are internalized. Altogether, our results suggest that stimulated exocytosis in intact mast cells is followed by several forms of compensatory endocytosis, including kiss-and-run endocytosis and a mechanism for efficient retrieval of the compound membrane of several secretory granules through a single membrane fission event. PMID:23709219

Cabeza, Jose M.; Acosta, Jorge; Ales, Eva

2013-01-01

71

Vaccine adjuvants: Tailor-made mast-cell granules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mast cells induce protective immune responses through secretion of stimulatory granules. Microparticles modelled after mast-cell granules are now shown to replicate and enhance the functions of their natural counterparts and to direct the character of the resulting immunity.

Gunzer, Matthias

2012-03-01

72

Two modes of lytic granule fusion during degranulation by natural killer cells  

PubMed Central

Lytic granules in cytotoxic lymphocytes, which include T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, are secretory lysosomes that release their content upon fusion with the plasma membrane (PM), a process known as degranulation. Although vesicle exocytosis has been extensively studied in endocrine and neuronal cells, much less is known about the fusion of lytic granules in cytotoxic lymphocytes. Here, we used total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to examine lytic granules labeled with fluorescently tagged Fas ligand (FasL) in the NK cell line NKL stimulated with phorbol ester and ionomycin and in primary NK cells activated by physiological receptor–ligand interactions. Two fusion modes were observed: complete fusion, characterized by loss of granule content and rapid diffusion of FasL at the PM; and incomplete fusion, characterized by transient fusion pore opening and retention of FasL at the fusion site. The pH-sensitive green fluorescence protein (pHluorin) fused to the lumenal domain of FasL was used to visualize fusion pore opening with a time resolution of 30?ms. Upon incomplete fusion, pHluorin emission lasted several seconds in the absence of noticeable diffusion. Thus, we conclude that lytic granules in NK cells undergo both complete and incomplete fusion with the PM, and propose that incomplete fusion may promote efficient recycling of lytic granule membrane after the release of cytotoxic effector molecules. PMID:21483445

Liu, Dongfang; Martina, Jose A; Wu, Xufeng S; Hammer III, John A; Long, Eric O

2011-01-01

73

Vesicle associated membrane protein 8 (VAMP8)-mediated zymogen granule exocytosis is dependent on endosomal trafficking via the constitutive-like secretory pathway.  

PubMed

Acinar cell zymogen granules (ZG) express 2 isoforms of the vesicle-associated membrane protein family (VAMP2 and -8) thought to regulate exocytosis. Expression of tetanus toxin to cleave VAMP2 in VAMP8 knock-out (-/-) acini confirmed that VAMP2 and -8 are the primary VAMPs for regulated exocytosis, each contributing ?50% of the response. Analysis of VAMP8(-/-) acini indicated that although stimulated secretion was significantly reduced, a compensatory increase in constitutive secretion maintained total secretion equivalent to wild type (WT). Using a perifusion system to follow secretion over time revealed VAMP2 mediates an early rapid phase peaking and falling within 2-3 min, whereas VAMP8 controls a second prolonged phase that peaks at 4 min and slowly declines over 20 min to support the protracted secretory response. VAMP8(-/-) acini show increased expression of the endosomal proteins Ti-VAMP7 (2-fold) and Rab11a (4-fold) and their redistribution from endosomes to ZGs. Expression of GDP-trapped Rab11a-S25N inhibited secretion exclusively from the VAMP8 but not the VAMP2 pathway. VAMP8(-/-) acini also showed a >90% decrease in the early endosomal proteins Rab5/D52/EEA1, which control anterograde trafficking in the constitutive-like secretory pathway. In WT acini, short term (14-16 h) culture also results in a >90% decrease in Rab5/D52/EEA1 and a complete loss of the VAMP8 pathway, whereas VAMP2-secretion remains intact. Remarkably, rescue of Rab5/D52/EEA1 expression restored the VAMP8 pathway. Expressed D52 shows extensive colocalization with Rab11a and VAMP8 and partially copurifies with ZG fractions. These results indicate that robust trafficking within the constitutive-like secretory pathway is required for VAMP8- but not VAMP2-mediated ZG exocytosis. PMID:25138214

Messenger, Scott W; Falkowski, Michelle A; Thomas, Diana D H; Jones, Elaina K; Hong, Wanjin; Giasano, Herbert Y; Boulis, Nicholas M; Groblewski, Guy E

2014-10-01

74

An aspartyl cathepsin, CTH3, is essential for proprotein processing during secretory granule maturation in Tetrahymena thermophila  

PubMed Central

In Tetrahymena thermophila, peptides secreted via dense-core granules, called mucocysts, are generated by proprotein processing. We used expression profiling to identify candidate processing enzymes, which localized as cyan fluorescent protein fusions to mucocysts. Of note, the aspartyl cathepsin Cth3p plays a key role in mucocyst-based secretion, since knockdown of this gene blocked proteolytic maturation of the entire set of mucocyst proproteins and dramatically reduced mucocyst accumulation. The activity of Cth3p was eliminated by mutation of two predicted active-site mutations, and overexpression of the wild-type gene, but not the catalytic-site mutant, partially rescued a Mendelian mutant defective in mucocyst proprotein processing. Our results provide the first direct evidence for the role of proprotein processing in this system. Of interest, both localization and the CTH3 disruption phenotype suggest that the enzyme provides non–mucocyst-related functions. Phylogenetic analysis of the T. thermophila cathepsins, combined with prior work on the role of sortilin receptors in mucocyst biogenesis, suggests that repurposing of lysosomal enzymes was an important step in the evolution of secretory granules in ciliates. PMID:24943840

Kumar, Santosh; Briguglio, Joseph S.; Turkewitz, Aaron P.

2014-01-01

75

Secretory function of autophagy in innate immune cells.  

PubMed

Eukaryotic cells utilize two main secretory pathways to transport proteins to the extracellular space. Proteins with a leader signal sequence often undergo co-translational transport into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and then to the Golgi apparatus before they reach their destination. This pathway is called the conventional secretory pathway. Proteins without signal peptides can bypass this ER-Golgi system and are secreted by a variety of mechanisms collectively called the unconventional secretory pathway. The molecular mechanisms of unconventional secretion are emerging. Autophagy is a conserved bulk degradation mechanism that regulates many intracellular functions. Recent evidence implicates autophagy in the secretory pathway. This review focuses on potential secretory roles of autophagy and how they could modulate the functions of innate immune cells that secrete a wide range of mediators in response to environmental and biological stimuli. We provide a brief overview of the secretory pathways, enumerate the potential mechanistic themes by which autophagy interacts with these pathways and describe their relevance in the context of innate immune cell function. PMID:25237740

Bhattacharya, Abhisek; Prakash, Y S; Eissa, N Tony

2014-11-01

76

Constitutively polarized granules prime KHYG-1 NK cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major mechanism for NK cell lysis of tumor cells is granule-mediated cytotoxicity. Polarization of granules is a prelude to the release of their cytotoxic contents in response to target-cell binding. We describe the novel observation of constitutive granule polarization in the cytotoxic NK cell line, KHYG-1. Continuous degranulation of KHYG-1 cells, however, does not occur and still requires target-cell

Garnet Suck; Donald R. Branch; Paola Aravena; Mark Mathieson; Simone Helke; Armand Keating

2006-01-01

77

Tumor protein D52 controls trafficking of an apical endolysosomal secretory pathway in pancreatic acinar cells  

PubMed Central

Zymogen granule (ZG) formation in acinar cells involves zymogen cargo sorting from trans-Golgi into immature secretory granules (ISGs). ISG maturation progresses by removal of lysosomal membrane and select content proteins, which enter endosomal intermediates prior to their apical exocytosis. Constitutive and stimulated secretion through this mechanism is termed the constitutive-like and minor-regulated pathways, respectively. However, the molecular components that control membrane trafficking within these endosomal compartments are largely unknown. We show that tumor protein D52 is highly expressed in endosomal compartments following pancreatic acinar cell stimulation and regulates apical exocytosis of an apically directed endolysosomal compartment. Secretion from the endolysosomal compartment was detected by cell-surface antigen labeling of lysosome-associated membrane protein LAMP1, which is absent from ZGs, and had incomplete overlap with surface labeling of synaptotagmin 1, a marker of ZG exocytosis. Although culturing (16–18 h) of isolated acinar cells is accompanied by a loss of secretory responsiveness, the levels of SNARE proteins necessary for ZG exocytosis were preserved. However, levels of endolysosomal proteins D52, EEA1, Rab5, and LAMP1 markedly decreased with culture. When D52 levels were restored by adenoviral delivery, the levels of these regulatory proteins and secretion of both LAMP1 (endolysosomal) and amylase was strongly enhanced. These secretory effects were absent in alanine and aspartate substitutions of serine 136, the major D52 phosphorylation site, and were inhibited by brefeldin A, which does not directly affect the ZG compartment. Our results indicate that D52 directly regulates apical endolysosomal secretion and are consistent with previous studies, suggesting that this pathway indirectly regulates ZG secretion of digestive enzymes. PMID:23868405

Messenger, Scott W.; Thomas, Diana D. H.; Falkowski, Michelle A.; Byrne, Jennifer A.; Gorelick, Fred S.

2013-01-01

78

An antigen retrieval method using an alkaline solution allows immunoelectron microscopic identification of secretory granules in conventional epoxy-embedded tissue sections.  

PubMed

Immunoelectron microscopy using chromogranin A-specific antibodies has been proposed as an efficient technique for identification of secretory granules (SGs) in tumor cells with evidence of apparent neuroendocrine differentiation. Using an antigen retrieval (AR) method, we succeeded in immunolabeling SGs with antibodies in ultrathin sections of routinely processed epoxy-embedded blocks of tissue. Samples of an insulinoma were fixed in 2% glutaraldehyde, postfixed in 1% OsO(4), and embedded in epoxy resin. Ultrathin sections were immunostained with chromogranin A-specific antibodies and gold-conjugated second antibodies. There was no significant labeling in the absence of AR. Neither etching with sodium metaperiodate nor microwave irradiation of ultrathin sections in citrate buffer (pH 6.0) or in EDTA buffer (pH 8.0) was effective in improving the efficiency of immunolabeling. However, ultrathin epoxy-embedded sections that were microwaved in alkaline solution (pH 10) were adequately labeled (5.2 +/- 0.34 particles per SG). Moreover, considerably improved efficiency of immunostaining was achieved by microwaving sections in alkaline solution (pH 10) with subsequent immunostaining at 60C (12.2 +/- 0.51 particles per SG). This method can also be applied to epoxy-embedded sections obtained from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks of tissue and was even valid for an old epoxy-embedded block of tissue prepared 15 years previously. PMID:12533528

Yano, Shinji; Kashima, Kenji; Daa, Tsutomu; Urabe, Shogo; Tsuji, Koichi; Nakayama, Iwao; Yokoyama, Shigeo

2003-02-01

79

Parallel secretory pathways to the cell surface in yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants that have a post-Golgi block in the exocytic pathway accumulate 100-nm vesicles carrying secretory enzymes as well as plasma membrane and cell-wall components. We have separated the vesicle markers into two groups by equi- librium isodensity centrifugation. The major population of vesicles contains Bgl2p, an endoglucanase destined to be a cell-wall component, as well as Pmalp, the

Edina Harsay; Anthony Bretscher

1995-01-01

80

COMPARABLE OUTCOMES IN NON-SECRETORY AND SECRETORY MULTIPLE MYELOMA AFTER AUTOLOGOUS STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION  

PubMed Central

Non-secretory myeloma (NSM) accounts for <5% of cases of multiple myeloma (MM). The outcome of these patients following autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) has not been evaluated in clinical trials. We compared the outcomes after ASCT for patients with NSM reported to the CIBMTR between 1989 and 2003, to a matched group of 438 patients (4 controls for each patient) with secretory myeloma (SM). The patients were matched using propensity scores calculated using age, Durie-Salmon stage, sensitivity to pre-transplant therapy, time from diagnosis to transplant and year of transplant. Disease characteristics were similar in both groups at diagnosis and at transplant except higher risk of anemia, hypoalbuminemia and marrow plasmacytosis (in SM) and plasmacytoma (more in NSM). Cumulative incidence of TRM, relapse, PFS and OS were similar between the groups. In multivariate analysis, based on a Cox model stratified on matched pairs and adjusted for covariates not considered in the propensity score, we found no difference in outcome between the NSM and SM groups. In this large cohort of patients undergoing ASCT, we found no difference in outcomes of patients with NSM compared to those with SM. PMID:18804043

Kumar, Shaji; Perez, Waleska S.; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Ballen, Karen; Bashey, Asad; To, L. Bik; Bredeson, Christopher N.; Cairo, Mitchell S.; Elfenbein, Gerald J.; Freytes, Cesar O.; Gale, Robert Peter; Gibson, John; Kyle, Robert A.; Lacy, Martha Q.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; McCarthy, Philip L.; Milone, Gustavo A.; Moreb, Jan S.; Pavlovsky, Santiago; Reece, Donna E.; Vesole, David H.; Wiernik, Peter H.; Hari, Parameswaran

2008-01-01

81

Quantification of endocrine cells and ultrastructural study of insulin granules in the large intestine of opossum Didelphis aurita (Wied-Neuwied, 1826).  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the distribution of argyrophil, argentaffin, and insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells in the large intestine of opossums (Didelphis aurita) and to describe the ultrastructure of the secretory granules of insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells. Fragments of the large intestine of 10 male specimens of D. aurita were collected, processed, and subjected to staining, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy. The argyrophil, the argentaffin, and the insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells were sparsely distributed in the intestinal glands of the mucous layer, among other cell types of the epithelium in all regions studied. Proportionally, the argyrophil, the argentaffin, and the insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells represented 62.75%, 36.26%, and 0.99% of the total determined endocrine cells of the large intestine, respectively. Quantitatively, there was no difference between the argyrophil and the argentaffin endocrine cells, whereas insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells were less numerous. The insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells were elongated or pyramidal, with rounded nuclei of irregularly contoured, and large amounts of secretory granules distributed throughout the cytoplasm. The granules have different sizes and electron densities and are classified as immature and mature, with the mature granules in predominant form in the overall granular population. In general, the granule is shown with an external electron-lucent halo and electron-dense core. The ultrastructure pattern in the granules of the insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells was similar to that of the B cells of pancreatic islets in rats. PMID:24359801

dos Santos, Daiane Cristina Marques; Cupertino, Marli do Carmo; Fialho, Maria do Carmo Queiroz; Barbosa, Alfredo Jose Afonso; Fonseca, Cláudio Cesar; Sartori, Sirlene Souza Rodrigues; da Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto

2014-02-01

82

Histochemical investigations on the secretory cells in the oesophagogastric tract of the Eurasian green toad, Bufo viridis.  

PubMed

The secretory cells of the oesophagogastric tract of the Eurasian toad, Bufo viridis, were examined using standard histochemical methods and lectin histochemistry. Two goblet cell types were found in the oesophageal epithelium, differing in their morphology and the histochemical features of the secretory granules. These contained mainly acidic glycoconjugates, both sulphated and carboxylated, and a small amount of pepsinogen. Type I goblet cells contained stable class-III mucosubstances, which were absent in Type II. No pluricellular oesophageal glands were found. The oesophagogastric junction had a superficial epithelium similar to that of the oesophageal epithelium, with alveolar pluricellular glands, secreting stable class-III mucins, and few oxynticopeptic cells. The gastric mucosa presented secretory cells both in the surface epithelium and in the gastric glands. Superficial and foveolar cells produced neutral mucins with Gal(beta)1,3GalNAc residues. Neck cells, oxynticopeptic cells and endocrine cells were found in the gastric glands. Neck cells produced stable class-III mucosubstances. A functional gradient was observed in the oxynticopeptic cells from the oral to the aboral fundus, with a decrease in pepsinogen secretion towards the aboral fundus and a possible increase in HCl secretion. In the pyloric mucosa, the oxynticopeptic cells disappeared and the glands produced only neutral mucins, without stable class-III mucosubstances. PMID:12945734

Liquori, Giuseppa E; Scillitani, Giovanni; Mastrodonato, Maria; Ferri, Domenico

2002-10-01

83

Approaches to imaging unfolded secretory protein stress in living cells  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the point of entry of proteins into the secretory pathway. Nascent peptides interact with the ER quality control machinery that ensures correct folding of the nascent proteins. Failure to properly fold proteins can lead to loss of protein function and cytotoxic aggregation of misfolded proteins that can lead to cell death. To cope with increases in the ER unfolded secretory protein burden, cells have evolved the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). The UPR is the primary signaling pathway that monitors the state of the ER folding environment. When the unfolded protein burden overwhelms the capacity of the ER quality control machinery, a state termed ER stress, sensor proteins detect accumulation of misfolded peptides and trigger the UPR transcriptional response. The UPR, which is conserved from yeast to mammals, consists of an ensemble of complex signaling pathways that aims at adapting the ER to the new misfolded protein load. To determine how different factors impact the ER folding environment, various tools and assays have been developed. In this review, we discuss recent advances in live cell imaging reporters and model systems that enable researchers to monitor changes in the unfolded secretory protein burden and activation of the UPR and its associated signaling pathways.

Lajoie, Patrick; Fazio, Elena N.; Snapp, Erik L.

2014-01-01

84

The Rab27a effector exophilin7 promotes fusion of secretory granules that have not been docked to the plasma membrane  

PubMed Central

Granuphilin, an effector of the small GTPase Rab27a, mediates the stable attachment (docking) of insulin granules to the plasma membrane and inhibits subsequent fusion of docked granules, possibly through interaction with a fusion-inhibitory Munc18-1/syntaxin complex. However, phenotypes of insulin exocytosis differ considerably between Rab27a- and granuphilin-deficient pancreatic ? cells, suggesting that other Rab27a effectors function in those cells. We found that one of the putative Rab27a effector family proteins, exophilin7/JFC1/Slp1, is expressed in ? cells; however, unlike granuphilin, exophilin7 overexpressed in the ?-cell line MIN6 failed to show granule-docking or fusion-inhibitory activity. Furthermore, exophilin7 has no affinities to either Munc18-1 or Munc18-1–interacting syntaxin-1a, in contrast to granuphilin. Although ? cells of exophilin7-knockout mice show no apparent abnormalities in intracellular distribution or in ordinary glucose-induced exocytosis of insulin granules, they do show impaired fusion in response to some stronger stimuli, specifically from granules that have not been docked to the plasma membrane. Exophilin7 appears to mediate the fusion of undocked granules through the affinity of its C2A domain toward the plasma membrane phospholipids. These findings indicate that the two Rab27a effectors, granuphilin and exophilin7, differentially regulate the exocytosis of either stably or minimally docked granules, respectively. PMID:23223571

Wang, Hao; Ishizaki, Ray; Xu, Jun; Kasai, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Eri; Gomi, Hiroshi; Izumi, Tetsuro

2013-01-01

85

How helminths use excretory secretory fractions to modulate dendritic cells  

PubMed Central

It is well known that helminth parasites have immunomodulatory effects on their hosts. They characteristically cause a skew toward TH2 immunity, stimulate Treg cells while simultaneously inhibiting TH1 and TH17 responses. Additionally, they induce eosinophilia and extensive IgE release. The exact mechanism of how the worms achieve this effect have yet to be fully elucidated; however, parasite-derived secretions and their interaction with antigen presenting cells have been centrally implicated. Herein, we will review the effects of helminth excretory-secretory fractions on dendritic cells and discuss how this interaction is crucial in shaping the host response. PMID:23221477

White, Rhiannon R.; Artavanis-Tsakonas, Katerina

2012-01-01

86

UNUSUAL EOSINOPHILIC GRANULE CELL PROLIFERATION IN COHO SALMON (ONCHORHYNCHUS KISUTCH)  

EPA Science Inventory

Proliferative lesions comprised of eosinophilic granule cells (EGCs) extended throughout the gastrointestinal tract of several mature, spawning coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum). istological examination of the tumour showed extensive proliferation and infiltration of EGC...

87

Human NK cell lytic granules and regulation of their exocytosis  

PubMed Central

Natural killer (NK) cells form a subset of lymphocytes that play a key role in immuno-surveillance and host defense against cancer and viral infections. They recognize stressed cells through a variety of germline-encoded activating cell surface receptors and utilize their cytotoxic ability to eliminate abnormal cells. Killing of target cells is a complex, multi-stage process that concludes in the directed secretion of lytic granules, containing perforin and granzymes, at the immunological synapse. Upon delivery to a target cell, perforin mediates generation of pores in membranes of target cells, allowing granzymes to access target cell cytoplasm and induce apoptosis. Therefore, lytic granules of NK cells are indispensable for normal NK cell cytolytic function. Indeed, defects in lytic granule secretion lead or are related to serious and often fatal diseases, such as familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) type 2–5 or Griscelli syndrome type 2. A number of reports highlight the role of several proteins involved in lytic granule release and NK cell-mediated killing of tumor cells. This review focuses on lytic granules of human NK cells and the advancements in understanding the mechanisms controlling their exocytosis. PMID:23162553

Krzewski, Konrad; Coligan, John E.

2012-01-01

88

Isolating stromal stem cells from periodontal granulation tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cell therapy is a promising area in regenerative medicine. Periodontal granulation tissues are often discarded during\\u000a conventional surgery. If stromal stem cells can be isolated from these tissues, they can be used for subsequent surgery on\\u000a the same patient. Fifteen human periodontal granulation tissue samples were obtained from intrabony defects during surgery.\\u000a Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was carried out on five

Tzu-Yuan Hung; Hsiang-Chun Lin; Ying-Jen Chan; Kuo Yuan

89

UVC-Induced Stress Granules in Mammalian Cells  

PubMed Central

Stress granules (SGs) are well characterized cytoplasmic RNA bodies that form under various stress conditions. We have observed that exposure of mammalian cells in culture to low doses of UVC induces the formation of discrete cytoplasmic RNA granules that were detected by immunofluorescence staining using antibodies to RNA-binding proteins. UVC-induced cytoplasmic granules are not Processing Bodies (P-bodies) and are bone fide SGs as they contain TIA-1, TIA-1/R, Caprin1, FMRP, G3BP1, PABP1, well known markers, and mRNA. Concomitant with the accumulation of the granules in the cytoplasm, cells enter a quiescent state, as they are arrested in G1 phase of the cell cycle in order to repair DNA damages induced by UVC irradiation. This blockage persists as long as the granules are present. A tight correlation between their decay and re-entry into S-phase was observed. However the kinetics of their formation, their low number per cell, their absence of fusion into larger granules, their persistence over 48 hours and their slow decay, all differ from classical SGs induced by arsenite or heat treatment. The induction of these SGs does not correlate with major translation inhibition nor with phosphorylation of the ? subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2?). We propose that a restricted subset of mRNAs coding for proteins implicated in cell cycling are removed from the translational apparatus and are sequestered in a repressed form in SGs. PMID:25409157

Moutaoufik, Mohamed Taha; El Fatimy, Rachid; Nassour, Hassan; Gareau, Cristina; Lang, Jérôme; Tanguay, Robert M.; Mazroui, Rachid; Khandjian, Edouard W.

2014-01-01

90

Acid-induced secretory cell metaplasia in hamster bronchi  

SciTech Connect

Hamsters were exposed to an intratracheal instillation of 0.5 ml of 0.08 N nitric, hydrochloric, or sulfuric acid to determine their airway epithelial response. Three weeks after exposure, the left intrapulmonary bronchi in Alcian blue/PAS-strained paraffin sections were evaluated for the amount of secretory product in the airway epithelium as a measure of secretory cell metaplasia (SCM). Compared to saline-treated control animals, all three acids caused statistically significant SCM. In addition to the bronchial lesion, all three acids caused similar interstitial fibrosis, bronchiolectasis, and bronchiolization of alveoli that varied in individual animals from mild to severe. In a separate experiment to study the persistence of the SCM, hamsters treated with a single instillation of 0.1 N nitric acid showed significant SCM 3, 7, and 17 weeks after exposure. There was a high correlation (r = 0.96) between a subjective assessment of SCM and objective assessment using a digital image-analysis system. We conclude that protons induce SCM independently of the associated anion; the SCM persists at least 17 weeks. Sulfuric acid is an atmospheric pollutant and nitric acid may form locally on the mucosa of lungs exposed to nitrogen dioxide. These acids may contribute to the development of maintenance of the SCM seen in the conducting airways of humans with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Christensen, T.G.; Lucey, E.C.; Breuer, R.; Snider, G.L.

1988-02-01

91

Cholesterol accumulation increases insulin granule size and impairs membrane trafficking  

PubMed Central

The formation of mature secretory granules is essential for proper storage and regulated release of hormones and neuropeptides. In pancreatic ?-cells, cholesterol accumulation causes defects in insulin secretion and may participate in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Using a novel cholesterol analog, we show for the first time that insulin granules are the major sites of intracellular cholesterol accumulation in live ?-cells. This is distinct from other, non-secretory cell types, in which cholesterol is concentrated in the recycling endosomes and the trans-Golgi network. Excess cholesterol was delivered specifically to insulin granules, which caused granule enlargement and retention of syntaxin 6 and VAMP4 in granule membranes, with concurrent depletion of these proteins from the trans-Golgi network. Clathrin also accumulated in the granules of cholesterol-overloaded cells, consistent with a possible defect in the last stage of granule maturation, during which clathrin-coated vesicles bud from the immature granules. Excess cholesterol also reduced the docking and fusion of insulin granules at the plasma membrane. Together, the data support a model in which cholesterol accumulation in insulin secretory granules impairs the ability of these vesicles to respond to stimuli, and thus reduces insulin secretion. PMID:22889194

Bogan, Jonathan S.; Xu, Yingke; Hao, Mingming

2012-01-01

92

Targeting of P-selectin to two regulated secretory organelles in PC12 cells  

PubMed Central

Targeting of P-selectin to the regulated secretory organelles (RSOs) of phaeochromocytoma PC12 cells has been investigated. By expressing from cDNA a chimera composed of HRP and P-selectin, and then following HRP activity through subcellular fractionation, we have discovered that P- selectin contains signals that target HRP to the synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMV) as well as the dense-core granules (DCGs) of these cells. Mutagenesis of the chimera followed by transient expression in PC12 cells shows that at least two different sequences within the carboxy-terminal cytoplasmic tail of P-selectin are necessary, but that neither is sufficient for trafficking to the SLMV. One of these sequences is centred on the 10 amino acids of the membrane-proximal C1 exon that is also implicated in lysosomal targeting. The other sequence needed for trafficking to the SLMV includes the last four amino acids of the protein. The same series of mutations have a different effect on DCG targeting, showing that traffic to the two different RSOs depends on different features within the cytoplasmic domain of P-selectin. PMID:8794864

1996-01-01

93

Visualization of Peptide Secretory Vesicles in Living Nerve Cells  

PubMed Central

Analysis of real-time movements of peptidergic vesicles in live neurons provides insight into molecular mechanism(s) supporting the activity-dependent secretion of neurotrophins and neuropeptides. We examined the effect of overexpression of exogenous peptides comprising of the cytoplasmic tail sequence of vesicular carboxypeptidase E (CPE), proposed to be involved in the mechanism of trafficking of peptidergic secretory vesicles, in live hippocampal neurons. E16 rat hippocampal neurons were transfected with the peptidergic vesicle markers, CPE C-terminally tagged with red or green fluorescent protein, or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) tagged with green fluorescent protein, and grown on dishes specialized for real-time live cell visualization. Movements of peptidergic vesicles were imaged in a temperature-controlled chamber on a confocal inverted microscope and analyzed with respect to their velocity, displacement distance, and processivity. PMID:21922405

Park, Joshua J.; Loh, Y. Peng

2014-01-01

94

Mast Cell Mediators: Their Differential Release and the Secretory Pathways Involved  

PubMed Central

Mast cells (MC) are widely distributed throughout the body and are common at mucosal surfaces, a major host–environment interface. MC are functionally and phenotypically heterogeneous depending on the microenvironment in which they mature. Although MC have been classically viewed as effector cells of IgE-mediated allergic diseases, they are also recognized as important in host defense, innate and acquired immunity, homeostatic responses, and immunoregulation. MC activation can induce release of pre-formed mediators such as histamine from their granules, as well as release of de novo synthesized lipid mediators, cytokines, and chemokines that play diverse roles, not only in allergic reactions but also in numerous physiological and pathophysiological responses. Indeed, MC release their mediators in a discriminating and chronological manner, depending upon the stimuli involved and their signaling cascades (e.g., IgE-mediated or Toll-like receptor-mediated). However, the precise mechanisms underlying differential mediator release in response to these stimuli are poorly known. This review summarizes our knowledge of MC mediators and will focus on what is known about the discriminatory release of these mediators dependent upon diverse stimuli, MC phenotypes, and species of origin, as well as on the intracellular synthesis, storage, and secretory processes involved.

Moon, Tae Chul; Befus, A. Dean; Kulka, Marianna

2014-01-01

95

Neuroendocrinology: regulated secretory cells go to the BAR for a bud.  

PubMed

Syndromes caused by insufficient secretion of peptide hormones originate either from an inadequate population of endocrine secretory cells or from deficiencies in the secretory process. Two remarkable new studies highlight the importance of PICK1 and ICA69 in creating the protein storage organelles needed for regulated exocytosis, independent of stimulus-secretion coupling. PMID:23797817

Arvan, Peter; Castle, David

2013-08-01

96

The cytochemical localization of lysozyme in Paneth cell granules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis  The breakdown products resulting from the hydrolysis of chitin by lysozyme stain with Alcian Blue. A method based upon this observation has been developed for the histochemical demonstration of lysozyme activity. The application of this method to the jejunal crypts of several animal species indicates that Paneth cell granules contain lysozyme. The binding of the hydrolysis products with Alcian Blue

Y. Ghoos; G. Vantrappen

1971-01-01

97

Pten-less dentate granule cells make fits.  

PubMed

Hippocampal dentate granule cell abnormalities are thought to play a causative role in temporal lobe epilepsy, but their precise contribution has not been dissociated from coexisting pathological changes. In this issue of Neuron, Pun et al. (2012) show, for the first time, that inducing proexcitatory changes in a subset of DGCs in isolation is sufficient to cause epilepsy in a rodent. PMID:22998860

Althaus, Alison L; Parent, Jack M

2012-09-20

98

Exocyst complexes multiple functions in plant cells secretory pathways.  

PubMed

The exocyst is a complex of proteins mediating first contact (tethering) between secretory vesicles and the target membrane. Discovered in yeast as an effector of RAB and RHO small GTPases, it was also found to function in land plants. Plant cells and tissues rely on targeted exocytosis and this implies that the exocyst is involved in regulation of cell polarity and morphogenesis, including cytokinesis, plasma membrane protein recycling (including PINs, the auxin efflux carriers), cell wall biogenesis, fertilization, stress and biotic interactions including defence against pathogens. The dramatic expansion of the EXO70 subunit gene family, of which individual members are likely responsible for exocyst complex targeting, implies that there are specialized functions of different exocysts with different EXO70s. One of these functions comprises a role in autophagy-related Golgi independent membrane trafficking into the vacuole or apoplast. It is also possible, that some EXO70 paralogues have been recruited into exocyst independent functions. The exocyst has the potential to function as an important regulatory hub to coordinate endomembrane dynamics in plants. PMID:24246229

Zárský, Viktor; Kulich, Ivan; Fendrych, Matyáš; Pe?enková, Tamara

2013-12-01

99

Morphological and functional properties of rat dentate granule cells after adrenalectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

After complete adrenalectomy, part of the granule cells in the dentate gyrus undergo apoptosis. Findings on morphological changes in non-apoptotic granule cells, though, have been equivocal. In the present study we examined the dendritic trees of dentate granule cells 7 days after adrenalectomy or sham operation, and tested the hypothesis that changes in dendritic trees have considerable consequences for ionic

J. Wossink; H. Karst; O. A. Mayboroda; M. Joels

2001-01-01

100

L E T T E R S secretory progenitor cells revert to stem cells  

E-print Network

L E T T E R S Dll1+ secretory progenitor cells revert to stem cells upon crypt damage Johan H. van,6 , Nick Barker3 , Alexander van Oudenaarden2 and Hans Clevers1,8 Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells generate is expressed by a subset of immediate stem cell daughters. Lineage tracing in Dll1GFP­ires­CreERT2 knock

van Oudenaarden, Alexander

101

Newborn granule cells in the ageing dentate gyrus  

PubMed Central

The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus generates neurons throughout life, but adult neurogenesis exhibits a marked age-dependent decline. Although the decrease in the rate of neurogenesis has been extensively documented in the ageing hippocampus, the specific characteristics of dentate granule cells born in such a continuously changing environment have received little attention. We have used retroviral labelling of neural progenitor cells of the adult mouse dentate gyrus to study morphological properties of neurons born at different ages. Dendritic spine density was measured to estimate glutamatergic afferent connectivity. Fully mature neurons born at the age of 2 months display ?2.3 spines ?m?1 and maintain their overall morphology and spine density in 1-year-old mice. Surprisingly, granule cells born in 10-month-old mice, at which time the rate of neurogenesis has decreased by ?40-fold, reach a density of dendritic spines similar to that of neurons born in young adulthood. Therefore, in spite of the sharp decline in cell proliferation, differentiation and overall neuronal number, the ageing hippocampus presents a suitable environment for new surviving neurons to reach a high level of complexity, comparable to that of all other dentate granule cells. PMID:18565998

Morgenstern, Nicolás A; Lombardi, Gabriela; Schinder, Alejandro F

2008-01-01

102

Development of secretory cells and crystal cells in Eichhornia crassipes ramet shoot apex.  

PubMed

The distribution and development of secretory cells and crystal cells in young shoot apexes of water hyacinth were investigated through morphological and cytological analysis. The density of secretory cells and crystal cells were high in parenchyma tissues around the vascular bundles of shoot apexes. Three developmental stages of the secretory cells can be distinguished under transmission electron microscopy. Firstly, a large number of electron-dense vesicles formed in the cytoplasm, then fused with the tonoplast and released into the vacuole in the form of electron-dense droplets. As these droplets fused together, a large mass of dark material completely filled the vacuole. To this end, a secretion storage vacuole (SSV) formed. Secondly, an active secretion stage accompanied with degradation of the large electron-dense masses through an ill-defined autophagic process at periphery and in the limited internal regions of the SSV. Finally, after most storage substances were withdrawn, the materials remaining in the spent SSV consisted of an electron-dense network structure. The distribution and development of crystal cells in shoot apical tissue of water hyacinth were also studied by light and electron microscopy. Crystals initially formed at one site in the vacuole, where tube-like membrane structures formed crystal chambers. The chamber enlarged as the crystal grew in bidirectional manner and formed needle-shaped raphides. Most of these crystals finally occurred as raphide bundles, and the others appeared as block-like rhombohedral crystals in the vacuole. These results suggest that the formation of both secretory cells and crystal cells are involved in the metamorphosis of vacuoles and a role for vacuoles in water hyacinth rapid growth and tolerance. PMID:20461420

Xu, Guo Xin; Tan, Chao; Wei, Xiao Jing; Gao, Xiao Yan; Zheng, Hui Qiong

2011-04-01

103

Estradiol increases cAMP in the oviductal secretory cells through a nongenomic mechanism.  

PubMed

In the rat oviduct, estradiol (E2) accelerates egg transport by a nongenomic action that requires previous conversion of E2 to methoxyestrogens via catechol-O-methyltranferase (COMT) and activation of estrogen receptor (ER) with subsequent production of cAMP and inositol triphosphate (IP3). However, the role of the different oviductal cellular phenotypes on this E2 nongenomic pathway remains undetermined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of E2 on the levels of cAMP and IP3 in primary cultures of secretory and smooth muscle cells from rat oviducts and determine the mechanism by which E2 increases cAMP in the secretory cells. In the secretory cells, E2 increased cAMP but not IP3, while in the smooth muscle cells E2 decreased cAMP and increased IP3. Suppression of protein synthesis by actinomycin D did not prevent the E2-induced cAMP increase, but this was blocked by the ER antagonist ICI 182?780 and the inhibitors of COMT OR 486, G protein-? inhibitory (G?i) protein pertussis toxin and adenylyl cyclase (AC) SQ 22536. Expression of the mRNA for the enzymes that metabolizes estrogens, Comt, Cyp1a1, and Cyp1b1 was found in the secretory cells, but this was not affected by E2. Finally, confocal immunofluorescence analysis showed that E2 induced colocalization between ESR1 (ER?) and G?i in extranuclear regions of the secretory cells. We conclude that E2 differentially regulates cAMP and IP3 in the secretory and smooth muscle cells of the rat oviduct. In the secretory cells, E2 increases cAMP via a nongenomic action that requires activation of COMT and ER, coupling between ESR1 and G?i, and stimulation of AC. PMID:25038866

Oróstica, María L; Lopez, John; Rojas, Israel; Rocco, Jocelyn; Díaz, Patricia; Reuquén, Patricia; Cardenas, Hugo; Parada-Bustamante, Alexis; Orihuela, Pedro A

2014-09-01

104

Knockdown of p180 Eliminates the Terminal Differentiation of a Secretory Cell Line  

PubMed Central

We have previously reported that the expression in yeast of an integral membrane protein (p180) of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), isolated for its ability to mediate ribosome binding, is capable of inducing new membrane biogenesis and an increase in secretory capacity. To demonstrate that p180 is necessary and sufficient for terminal differentiation and acquisition of a secretory phenotype in mammalian cells, we studied the differentiation of a secretory cell line where p180 levels had been significantly reduced using RNAi technology and by transiently expressing p180 in nonsecretory cells. A human monocytic (THP-1) cell line, that can acquire macrophage-like properties, failed to proliferate rough ER when p180 levels were lowered. The Golgi compartment and the secretion of apolipoprotein E (Apo E) were dramatically affected in cells expressing reduced p180 levels. On the other hand, expression of p180 in a human embryonic kidney nonsecretory cell line (HEK293) showed a significant increase in proliferation of rough ER membranes and Golgi complexes. The results obtained from knockdown and overexpression experiments demonstrate that p180 is both necessary and sufficient to induce a secretory phenotype in mammalian cells. These findings support a central role for p180 in the terminal differentiation of secretory cells and tissues. PMID:19037105

Benyamini, Payam; Webster, Paul

2009-01-01

105

Loss of input from the mossy cells blocks maturation of newly generated granule cells.  

PubMed

The objective of this work is to check whether the input from the mossy cells to the inner molecular layer is necessary for the integration and maturation of the newly generated granule cells of the dentate gyrus (DG) in mice, and if after status epilepticus the sprouting of the mossy fibers can substitute for this projection. Newly generated cells were labeled by administration of 5-bromo-deoxyuridine either before or after pilocarpine administration. The neuronal loss in the hippocampus after administration of pilocarpine combined with scopolamine and diazepam seemed restricted to the hilar mossy cells. The maturation of the granule cells was studied using immunohistochemistry for calretinin and NeuN in combination with detection of 5-bromo-deoxyuridine. The sprouting of the mossy fibers was detected using Timm staining for zinc-rich boutons. In normal conditions, granule cells took about 2 weeks to lose the immature marker calretinin. After the loss of the mossy cells, newly generated granule cells remained expressing calretinin for more than a month, until the sprouting of the mossy fibers substituted for the projection of the mossy cells in the inner molecular layer of the DG. Therefore, a proper pattern of connectivity is necessary for the normal development and integration of newly generated granule cells in the adult brain. In a changed environment they cannot adapt transforming in other cell types; simply they are unable to mature. The sprouting of the mossy fibers, although aberrant and a probable source of epileptic activity, may be important for the correct physiology of the granule cells, restoring a likeness of normality in their connective environment. The survival of granule cells incorporated as mature neurons was increased after pilocarpine when compared with normal conditions. Thus, it is likely that the reorganization of the circuitry after the loss of the mossy cells facilitates the survival and incorporation of the newly generated granule cells. PMID:17455193

Marqués-Marí, Ana-Isabel; Nacher, Juan; Crespo, Carlos; Gutièrrez-Mecinas, María; Martínez-Guijarro, Francisco-José; Blasco-Ibáñez, José-Miguel

2007-01-01

106

Possible mechanisms inducing granule cell dispersion in humans with temporal lobe epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stratum granulosum (SG) of the fascia dentata from 17 human epileptic hippocampi was assessed in terms of width, volumetric cell density (VCD) and percentage of cell loss to study the granule cell dispersion (GCD) phenomenon described by Houser. GCD was considered when three conditions were observed, the SG was wider than 120 ?m, granule cell (GC) somata did not

Dominique Lurton; Lars Sundstrom; Corinne Brana; Bertrand Bloch; Alain Rougier

1997-01-01

107

Secretory profile of metapleural gland cells of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex coronatus (Formicidae: Attini).  

PubMed

Ants present a pair of metapleural glands located at the posterolateral end of the thorax. Because of its importance in the social organization of ants, the present study was aimed at describing the morphophysiology of this gland in three worker castes of Acromyrmex coronatus, focused on secretory activity using histological and histochemical techniques. Our findings revealed that the secretory and the storage portions of this gland are connected by extracytoplasmic portion of canaliculi that drain the secretion from each secretory cell to the collecting chamber. This secretion contains glycoproteins. In minor workers, the secretion contains higher levels of polysaccharides when compared to that of major workers, supporting the role of the metapleural gland in the maintenance of the fungus garden. The nucleus as well as cytoplasm of secretory cells were strongly positive for RNA indicating that these cells are active in the synthesis of proteins and lipids, compounds found in the final secretion. The variant of the CEC revealed that the secretory activity of the entire gland is synchronous, as all cells exhibit the result. PMID:21181713

Vieira, Alexsandro Santana; Bueno, Odair Correa; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

2011-01-01

108

Novel actin rings within the secretory cells of honeybee royal jelly glands.  

PubMed

We describe a novel cytoskeletal element within secretory cells of an arthropod gland system, the hypopharyngeal gland of the honeybee, Apis mellifera. The hypopharyngeal secretory cells are the source of royal jelly in nurse bees and enzymes in foragers. Each cell possesses an elongate invagination that is occupied by a tubular cuticular structure, the end-apparatus, that accumulates secretion and transfers it into a cuticular microtube and then into a collecting duct. Within the secretory cell, a conspicuous series of actin rings, about 3 ?m in diameter, follows the same path as the end-apparatus, surrounding it at spaced intervals. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the actin rings lie within septa of the secretory cell that are closely juxtaposed to the end-apparatus at regularly spaced intervals. We speculate that the function of the actin rings is to hold the end apparatus in place as secretion swells the extracellular compartments between the end apparatus and the cell membrane. To our knowledge, no such cytoskeletal component has been described in animal cells. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22903954

Kheyri, Homayoun; Cribb, Bronwen W; Reinhard, Judith; Claudianos, Charles; Merritt, David J

2012-12-01

109

THE CYTOLOGY OF THE NORMAL PARATHYROID GLANDS OF MAN AND VIRGINIA DEER: A Light and Electron Microscopic Study with Morphologic Evidence of Secretory Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The normal parathyroids of six humans and a Virginia deer were studied by light and elec- tron microscopy. The parenchyma of the deer parathyroid is composed of uniform chief cells, which contained 100 to 400 m# electron-opaque, membrane-limited granules, pre- sumed to be secretory granules, in addition to the usual cytoplasmic organellcs. Desmosomes are present between adjacent cells, and rare

BRYCE L. MUNGER; M. D. Captain; SANFORD I. ROTH

1963-01-01

110

Contributions of mature granule cells to structural plasticity in temporal lobe epilepsy  

PubMed Central

During the development of epilepsy in adult animals, newly-generated granule cells integrate abnormally into the hippocampus. These new cells migrate to ectopic locations in the hilus, develop aberrant basal dendrites, contribute to mossy fiber sprouting and exhibit changes in apical dendrite structure and dendritic spine number. Mature granule cells do not appear to exhibit migration defects, basal dendrites and mossy fiber sprouting, but whether they exhibit apical dendrite abnormalities or spine changes is not known. To address these questions, we examined the apical dendritic structure of BrdU-birthdated, GFP-expressing granule cells born two months before pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. In contrast to immature granule cells, exposing mature granule cells to status epilepticus did not significantly disrupt the branching structure of their apical dendrites. Mature granule cells did, however, exhibit significant reductions in spine density and spine number relative to age-matched cells from control animals. These data demonstrate that while mature granule cells are resistant to developing the gross structural abnormalities exhibited by younger granule cells, they show similar plastic rearrangement of their dendritic spines. PMID:21963349

Santos, Victor R.; de Castro, Olagide Wagner; Pun, Raymund Y.K.; Hester, Michael S.; Murphy, Brian L.; Loepke, Andreas W.; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Danzer, Steve C.

2011-01-01

111

Purkinje-cell-derived Sonic hedgehog regulates granule neuron precursor cell proliferation in the developing mouse cerebellum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purkinje cells (PCs) are the projection neurons of the cerebellar cortex. They receive two major types of synaptic input – that from the inferior olive via climbing fibres and that from the granule neurons via parallel fibres. The precursors of granule neurons proliferate at the surface of the developing cerebellumin the external granule layer (EGL), which persists until postnatal day

Valerie A. Wallace

1999-01-01

112

Biochemical and microscopic evidence for the internalization and degradation of heparin-containing mast cell granules by bovine endothelial cells  

SciTech Connect

Incubation of (/sup 35/S)heparin-containing mast cell granules with cultured bovine endothelial cells was followed by the appearance of /sup 35/S-granule-associated radioactivity within the endothelial cells and a decrease in radioactivity in the extracellular fluid. These changes occurred during the first 24 hours of incubation and suggested ingestion of the mast cell granules by the endothelial cells. Periodic electron microscopic examination of the monolayers confirmed this hypothesis by demonstrating apposition of the granules to the plasmalemma of endothelial cells, which was followed by the engulfment of the granules by cytoplasmic projections. Under light microscopic examination, mast cell granules within endothelial cells then appeared to undergo degradation. The degradation of (/sup 35/S)heparin in mast cell granules was demonstrated by a decrease in the amount of intracellular (/sup 35/S)heparin proteoglycan after 24 hours and the appearance of free (/sup 35/S)sulfate in the extracellular compartment. Intact endothelial cells were more efficient at degrading (/sup 35/S)heparin than were cell lysates or cell supernatants. These data provide evidence of the ability of endothelial cells to ingest mast cell granules and degrade native heparin that is presented as a part of the mast cell granule.

Atkins, F.M.; Friedman, M.M.; Metcalfe, D.D.

1985-03-01

113

Fast insulin secretion reflects exocytosis of docked granules in mouse pancreatic B-cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A readily releasable pool (RRP) of granules has been proposed to underlie the first phase of insulin secretion. In the present study we combined electron microscopy, insulin secretion measurements and recordings of cell capacitance in an attempt to define this pool ultrastructurally. Mouse pancreatic B-cells contain ~9,000 granules, of which 7% are docked below the plasma membrane. The number of

Charlotta S. Olofsson; Sven O. Göpel; Sebastian Barg; Juris Galvanovskis; Xiaosong Ma; Albert Salehi; Patrik Rorsman; Lena Eliasson

2002-01-01

114

Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granule formation in Ralstonia eutropha cells: a computer simulation.  

PubMed

Computer simulation of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granule formation in vivo could help to design strategies to optimize the fermentation process and achieve higher yields of PHA. It could also suggest biotechnological approaches to control the granule size and molecular weight of the polymer. A computer program simulating the formation of PHA granules inside a Ralstonia eutropha cell was developed, based on published experimental data. The results are applicable to R. eutropha cells or other microorganisms and transgenic plants, where polyhydroxybutyrate production is made possible by heterologous expression systems. The simulation starts at the outset of the PHA accumulation phase when the cells are small and contain no PHA granules. In the presence of abundant glucose, the cell responds to phosphorus limitation by producing 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA which undergoes polymerization on the few PHA synthase molecules present in the cytoplasm. The amphiphilic PHA synthase-PHA complex attracts additional PHA synthase molecules and granules begin to grow from these initiation sites. Phosphorus limitation and the appearance of PHA in the cytoplasm also stimulate production of phasin molecules that attach themselves to the growing granules. As the granules grow bigger, they begin to touch each other and move to optimize their packing. The phasin coat prevents the granules from coalescing. The size of the cell increases and its prolate ellipsoid shape becomes closer to spherical. The accumulation process stops either when the supply of glucose is exhausted or when the granules become tightly packed within the cell, so that access to their surface is limited. All important variables, such as cell dimensions, granule size, counts of granule-associated molecules, PHA yield, degree of polymerization of the PHA molecules, etc., are recorded in real time during the simulation. Examples of virtual experiments with the cell and their results are shown. PMID:14758517

Jurasek, L; Marchessault, R H

2004-06-01

115

In vitro viability and secretory capacity of human luteinized granulosa cells after gonadotropin-releasing  

E-print Network

In vitro viability and secretory capacity of human luteinized granulosa cells after gonadotropin trigger after GnRH antagonist protocol vs. hCG trigger after pituitary suppression with GnRH agonist administration of GnRH agonist and the subse- quent pituitary suppression and withdrawal of LH support

Terasaki, Mark

116

Secretory phospholipase A2 induces dendritic cell maturation Laure Perrin-Cocon1  

E-print Network

, Sophia Antipolis, France. Running title: Secretory PLA2 induces dendritic cell maturation Key wordsLDL: oxidized low density lipoprotein; PAF: platelet-activating factor; PLA2: phospholipase A2; PC: phosphatidyl- choline; PPAR: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor; sPLA2: secreted PLA2, hGIII sPLA2: human group

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

117

Secretory Mechanisms and Intercellular Transfer of MicroRNAs in Living Cells*?  

PubMed Central

The existence of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in the blood of cancer patients has raised the possibility that miRNAs may serve as a novel diagnostic marker. However, the secretory mechanism and biological function of extracellular miRNAs remain unclear. Here, we show that miRNAs are released through a ceramide-dependent secretory machinery and that the secretory miRNAs are transferable and functional in the recipient cells. Ceramide, whose biosynthesis is regulated by neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2), triggers secretion of small membrane vesicles called exosomes. The decreased activity of nSMase2 with a chemical inhibitor, GW4869, and a specific small interfering RNA resulted in the reduced secretion of miRNAs. Complementarily, overexpression of nSMase2 increased extracellular amounts of miRNAs. We also revealed that the endosomal sorting complex required for transport system is unnecessary for the release of miRNAs. Furthermore, a tumor-suppressive miRNA secreted via this pathway was transported between cells and exerted gene silencing in the recipient cells, thereby leading to cell growth inhibition. Our findings shed a ray of light on the physiological relevance of secretory miRNAs. PMID:20353945

Kosaka, Nobuyoshi; Iguchi, Haruhisa; Yoshioka, Yusuke; Takeshita, Fumitaka; Matsuki, Yasushi; Ochiya, Takahiro

2010-01-01

118

Programmed cell death: a mechanism for the lysigenous formation of secretory cavities in leaves of Dictamnus dasycarpus.  

PubMed

The formation of secretory cavities in Rutaceae has been the subject of great interest. In this study, cytological events that are involved in the lysigenous formation of the secretory cavities in the leaves of Dictamnus dasycarpus are characterized by an interesting pattern of programmed cell death (PCD). During the developmental process, clusters of cells from a single protoepidermal cell embark on different trajectories and undergo different cell death fates: the cell walls of the secretory cells have characteristics of thinning or complete breakdown, while the sheath cells present a predominantly thick-walled feature. A DAPI assay shows deformed nuclei that are further confirmed to be TUNEL-positive. Gel electrophoresis indicates that DNA cleavage is random and does not result in ladder-like DNA fragmentation. Ultrastructurally, several remarkable features of PCD have been determined, such as misshapen nuclei with condensed chromatin and a significantly diffused membrane, degenerated mitochondria and plastids with disturbed membrane systems, multivesicular bodies, plastolysomes, vacuole disruption and lysis of the center secretory cell. Cytological evidence and Nile red stains exhibit abundant essential oils accumulated in degenerated outer secretory cells after the dissolution of the center secretory cell. In addition, explanations of taxonomic importance and the relationship between PCD and oil droplet accumulation in the secretory cavities are also discussed. PMID:25017170

Zhou, Ya-Fu; Mao, Shao-Li; Li, Si-Feng; Ni, Xi-Lu; Li, Bin; Liu, Wen-Zhe

2014-08-01

119

Regulated and constitutive protein targeting can be distinguished by secretory polarity in thyroid epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

We have studied concurrent apical/basolateral and regulated/constitutive secretory targeting in filter-grown thyroid epithelial monolayers in vitro, by following the exocytotic routes of two newly synthesized endogenous secretory proteins, thyroglobulin (Tg) and p500. Tg is a regulated secretory protein as indicated by its acute secretory response to secretagogues. Without stimulation, pulse-labeled Tg exhibits primarily two kinetically distinct routes: less than or equal to 80% is released in an apical secretory phase which is largely complete by 6-10 h, with most of the remaining Tg retained in intracellular storage from which delayed apical discharge is seen. The rapid export observed for most Tg is unlikely to be because of default secretion, since its apical polarity is preserved even during the period (less than or equal to 10 h) when p500 is released basolaterally by a constitutive pathway unresponsive to secretagogues. p500 also exhibits a second, kinetically distinct secretory route: at chase times greater than 10 h, a residual fraction (less than or equal to 8%) of p500 is secreted with an apical preponderance similar to that of Tg. It appears that this fraction of p500 has failed to be excluded from the regulated pathway, which has a predetermined apical polarity. From these data we hypothesize that a targeting hierarchy may exist in thyroid epithelial cells such that initial sorting to the regulated pathway may be a way of insuring apical surface delivery from one of two possible exocytotic routes originating in the immature storage compartment. PMID:1991788

1991-01-01

120

Use of transgenic mice to study the routing of secretory proteins in intestinal epithelial cells: analysis of human growth hormone compartmentalization as a function of cell type and differentiation [published erratum appears in J Cell Biol 1990 Jan;110(1):following 227  

PubMed Central

The intestinal epithelium is a heterogeneous cell monolayer that undergoes continuous renewal and differentiation along the crypt-villus axis. We have used transgenic mice to examine the compartmentalization of a regulated endocrine secretory protein, human growth hormone (hGH), in the four exocrine cells of the mouse intestinal epithelium (Paneth cells, intermediate cells, typical goblet cells, and granular goblet cells), as well as in its enteroendocrine and absorptive (enterocyte) cell populations. Nucleotides -596 to +21 of the rat liver fatty acid binding protein gene, when linked to the hGH gene (beginning at nucleotide +3) direct efficient synthesis of hGH in the gastrointestinal epithelium of transgenic animals (Sweetser, D. A., D. W. McKeel, E. F. Birkenmeier, P. C. Hoppe, and J. I. Gordon. 1988. Genes & Dev. 2:1318-1332). This provides a powerful in vivo model for analyzing protein sorting in diverse, differentiating, and polarized epithelial cells. Using EM immunocytochemical techniques, we demonstrated that this foreign polypeptide hormone entered the regulated basal granules of enteroendocrine cells as well as the apical secretory granules of exocrine Paneth cells, intermediate cells, and granular goblet cells. This suggests that common signals are recognized by the "sorting mechanisms" in regulated endocrine and exocrine cells. hGH was targeted to the electron-dense cores of secretory granules in granular goblet and intermediate cells, along with endogenous cell products. Thus, this polypeptide hormone contains domains that promote its segregation within certain exocrine granules. No expression of hGH was noted in typical goblet cells, suggesting that differences exist in the regulatory environments of granular and typical goblet cells. In enterocytes, hGH accumulated in dense-core granules located near apical and lateral cell surfaces, raising the possibility that these cells, which are known to conduct constitutive vesicular transport toward both apical and basolateral surfaces, also contain a previously unrecognized regulated pathway. Together our studies indicate that transgenic mice represent a valuable system for analyzing trafficking pathways and sorting mechanisms of secretory proteins in vivo. PMID:2689454

1989-01-01

121

Cerebellar granule cell neurogenesis is regulated by cell-cell interactions in vitro.  

PubMed

When CNS precursor cells purified from the external germinal layer of the early postnatal mouse cerebellum are cultured in cellular reaggregates, DNA synthesis increased 10-fold above that of cells dispersed in a monolayer or embedded in a collagen matrix. Dividing precursor cells gave rise to neurons immunopositive for the neural antigens N-CAM, L1, and TAG-1, but not to astroglial cells immunopositive for glial filament protein. Moreover, proliferating precursor cells did not generate other types of cerebellar neurons, as judged by the lack of expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase, the synthetic enzyme for gamma-amino-n-butyric acid. By contrast, the addition of astroglial cells, or astroglial cell membranes, to cellular reaggregates of granule cell neuroblasts arrested precursor cell DNA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that homotypic contact interactions among CNS neural progenitors control precursor cell proliferation and fate in generative zones of developing brain. PMID:2025426

Gao, W O; Heintz, N; Hatten, M E

1991-05-01

122

Integration of newly born dentate granule cells into adult brains: hypotheses based on normal and epileptic rodents.  

PubMed

The granule cells of the dentate gyrus are a population of neurons continuously generated throughout life. In the rat, the morphological development of newly born granule cells generated in the adult share many similarities with granule cells generated during development. These include a specific migration pattern, orientation and progression of neurite outgrowth. It appears as though varied dendritic morphology occurs depending on the position of the granule cells within the granule cell layer. A hypothesis for granule cell migration and differentiation of their dendritic processes is proposed based on normal and epileptic rats. In this hypothesis, the granule cells are generated in the subgranular zone, and then they migrate into the granule cell layer. During this migration, the sequence of neurite outgrowth is described, where the newly born granule cell first sprouts rudimentary processes. One of these processes, the basal dendrite, is transiently present on developing rodent granule cells in rats. However, in seizure-induced rats the basal dendrite often fails to retract, which leads to the formation of hilar basal dendrites, and also perhaps, ectopic granule cells in the hilus. In this review, granule cell development is discussed with relevance to the creation of the recurrent excitatory circuitry in rodent models of temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:15708627

Shapiro, Lee A; Ribak, Charles E

2005-02-01

123

Evidence that granule cells generated in the dentate gyrus of adult rats extend axonal projections.  

PubMed

Fully mature rats were injected intraperitoneally with 3H-TdR on postnatal day (P) 100. After an additional 28-32 days, a retrograde fluorescent tracer, either FB or DY, was injected into the regio inferior of the hippocampal formation to label granule cells of the dentate gyrus through their mossy fiber axons. Examination of autoradiographs from these brains reveals that 3H-TdR labeled cells within the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus are often labeled with the retrograde tracer as well. This indicates that within the mature hippocampal formation, newly generated dentate granule cells are capable of extending axonal projections for considerable distances. PMID:2465172

Stanfield, B B; Trice, J E

1988-01-01

124

Calcineurin-dependent lytic granule exocytosis in NK92 natural killer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) and natural killer cells (NKs) both kill virus-infected cells and tumor cells by releasing the cytoxic contents of their lytic granules. We recently demonstrated a role for calcineurin in lytic granule exocytosis in TALL-104 human leukemic CTLs [M.J. Grybko, J.P. Bartnik, G.A. Wurth, A.T. Pores-Fernando, A. Zweifach, Calcineurin activation is only one calcium-dependent step in cytotoxic

Arun T. Pores-Fernando; Surabhi Gaur; Michelle Y. Doyon; Adam Zweifach

2009-01-01

125

Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor by granulated metrial gland cells in pregnant murine uteri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells are a characteristic uterine component belonging to a natural killer cell lineage. This study is aimed at revealing their kinetic and spatial relationship with vascular growth during pregnancy and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). GMG cells and blood vessels were identified by periodic-acid-Schiff-reagent (PAS)-stained granules and positive staining for factor-VIII-related antigen, respectively.

Chunlian Wang; Naohiko Umesaki; Hiroaki Nakamura; Tetsuji Tanaka; Kazuki Nakatani; Ikuyo Sakaguchi; Sachio Ogita; Kenji Kaneda

2000-01-01

126

Fast insulin secretion reflects exocytosis of docked granules in mouse pancreatic B-cells.  

PubMed

A readily releasable pool (RRP) of granules has been proposed to underlie the first phase of insulin secretion. In the present study we combined electron microscopy, insulin secretion measurements and recordings of cell capacitance in an attempt to define this pool ultrastructurally. Mouse pancreatic B-cells contain approximately 9,000 granules, of which 7% are docked below the plasma membrane. The number of docked granules was reduced by 30% (200 granules) during 10 min stimulation with high K+. This stimulus depolarized the cell to -10 mV, elevated cytosolic [Ca2+] ([Ca2+](i)) from a basal concentration of 130 nM to a peak of 1.3 microM and released 0.5 ng insulin/islet, corresponding to 200-300 granules/cell. The Ca2+ transient decayed towards the prestimulatory concentration within approximately 200 s, presumably reflecting Ca2+ channel inactivation. Renewed stimulation with high K+ failed to stimulate insulin secretion when applied in the absence of glucose. The size of the RRP, derived from the insulin measurements, is similar to that estimated from the increase in cell capacitance elicited by photolytic release of caged Ca2+. We propose that the RRP represents a subset of the docked pool of granules and that replenishment of RRP can be accounted for largely by chemical modification of granules already in place or situated close to the plasma membrane. PMID:11976915

Olofsson, Charlotta S; Göpel, Sven O; Barg, Sebastian; Galvanovskis, Juris; Ma, Xiaosong; Salehi, Albert; Rorsman, Patrik; Eliasson, Lena

2002-05-01

127

Formation of tRNA granules in the nucleus of heat-induced human cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNAs are tranlocated into the nucleus in heat-induced HeLa cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNAs form the unique granules in the nucleus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNA ganules overlap with nuclear stress granules. -- Abstract: The stress response, which can trigger various physiological phenomena, is important for living organisms. For instance, a number of stress-induced granules such as P-body and stress granule have been identified. These granules are formed in the cytoplasm under stress conditions and are associated with translational inhibition and mRNA decay. In the nucleus, there is a focus named nuclear stress body (nSB) that distinguishes these structures from cytoplasmic stress granules. Many splicing factors and long non-coding RNA species localize in nSBs as a result of stress. Indeed, tRNAs respond to several kinds of stress such as heat, oxidation or starvation. Although nuclear accumulation of tRNAs occurs in starved Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this phenomenon is not found in mammalian cells. We observed that initiator tRNA{sup Met} (Meti) is actively translocated into the nucleus of human cells under heat stress. During this study, we identified unique granules of Meti that overlapped with nSBs. Similarly, elongator tRNA{sup Met} was translocated into the nucleus and formed granules during heat stress. Formation of tRNA granules is closely related to the translocation ratio. Then, all tRNAs may form the specific granules.

Miyagawa, Ryu [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan) [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan); Mizuno, Rie [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan)] [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Watanabe, Kazunori, E-mail: watanabe@ric.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan)] [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Ijiri, Kenichi [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan) [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan)

2012-02-03

128

Effect of taxol on secretory cells: functional, morphological, and electrophysiological correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of 0.5-1.0 #M taxol, a potent promoter of microtubule polymerization in vitro, was studied on the secretory activity of chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Taxol was found to have a dual effect: the long-term effect (after a 1-h incubation) of taxol was to induce almost complete inhibition of catecholamine release, whereas after a short incubation (10 rain)

JOSETTE THURET-CARNAHAN; JEAN-LOUIS BOSSU; ANNE FELTZ; KEITH LANGLEY; DOMINIQUE AUNIS

1985-01-01

129

Lobular carcinoma of the breast with hybrid myoepithelial and secretory ("myosecretory") cell differentiation.  

PubMed

Three cases of lobular carcinoma of the breast showing a complex morphology that included myoepithelial cell differentiation are reported. One case was a pure in situ acinar lesion, while the other 2 cases were in situ and invasive carcinomas. Three different cell types were seen in these tumors: one was the phenotype commonly seen in the garden variety of in situ lobular carcinoma (LCIS) constituted by noncohesive round to ovoid cells with round nuclei and positivity for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), estrogen receptor (ER), and progesteron receptor (PR). E-cadherin was negative in these cells. The second type was represented by cohesive elements with irregular nuclei. These cells were immunoreactive for smooth muscle actin, calponin, keratin 14, p63, and e-cadherin. EMA, ER, and PR were consistently negative. The third type, seen in a minority of cell population of case nos. 2 and 3, consisted of cells showing at the same time EMA and smooth muscle actin in their cytoplasm. This type was defined as "hybrid myosecretory cell" to highlight contractile and secretory properties present at the same time. Cells with hybrid features probably indicate that myoepithelial and secretory cells are strictly related and the existence of a stem cell, at least for these cases, is not necessary. PMID:16224222

Del Vecchio, Marina; Foschini, Maria Pia; Peterse, Johannes L; Eusebi, Vincenzo

2005-11-01

130

Synaptic Transmission between Rat Cerebellar Granule and Purkinje Cells in Dissociated Cell Culture: Effects of Excitatory-Amino Acid Transmitter Antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monosynaptic excitatory connections between cerebellar granule and Purkinje cells were studied in dissociated cell cultures, and identification of the transmitter and the postsynaptic receptor at this synapse was pharmacologically investigated. The presynaptic granule cell and the postsynaptic Purkinje cell were voltage- or current-clamped simultaneously, and the excitatory postsynaptic current induced by the granule cell was examined. The neurons and monosynaptic

T. Hirano; S. Hagiwara

1988-01-01

131

Calcineurin-dependent lytic granule exocytosis in NK-92 natural killer cells.  

PubMed

Cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) and natural killer cells (NKs) both kill virus-infected cells and tumor cells by releasing the cytoxic contents of their lytic granules. We recently demonstrated a role for calcineurin in lytic granule exocytosis in TALL-104 human leukemic CTLs [M.J. Grybko, J.P. Bartnik, G.A. Wurth, A.T. Pores-Fernando, A. Zweifach, Calcineurin activation is only one calcium-dependent step in cytotoxic T lymphocyte granule exocytosis, J. Biol. Chem. 282 (2007) 18009-18017]. However, whether calcineurin plays a similar role in NK lytic granule release is not known. We tested whether calcineurin is involved in lytic granule exocytosis in human leukemic NK-92 cells using immunosuppressive drugs that block calcineurin function and by overexpressing a constitutively active calcineurin fusion protein. Our results indicate that calcineurin does play a role in lytic granule exocytosis in NK-92 cells, and suggest that, as was the case in TALL-104 cells, there are likely to be multiple calcium-dependent steps. PMID:18762287

Pores-Fernando, Arun T; Gaur, Surabhi; Doyon, Michelle Y; Zweifach, Adam

2009-01-01

132

Nitric oxide as a secretory product of mammalian cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolution has resorted to nitric oxide (NO), a tiny, reactive radical gas, to mediate both ser- voregulatory and cytotoxic functions. This article reviews how different forms of nitric oxide synthase help confer specificity and diversity on the effects of this remarkable signaling molecule.- Nathan, C. Nitric oxide as a secre- tory product of mammalian cells. FASEBJ. 6: 3051-3064; 1992.

CARL NATHAN

1992-01-01

133

The cell wall and secretory proteome of a tobacco cell line synthesising secondary wall.  

PubMed

The utility of plant secondary cell wall biomass for industrial and biofuel purposes depends upon improving cellulose amount, availability and extractability. The possibility of engineering such biomass requires much more knowledge of the genes and proteins involved in the synthesis, modification and assembly of cellulose, lignin and xylans. Proteomic data are essential to aid gene annotation and understanding of polymer biosynthesis. Comparative proteomes were determined for secondary walls of stem xylem and transgenic xylogenic cells of tobacco and detected peroxidase, cellulase, chitinase, pectinesterase and a number of defence/cell death related proteins, but not marker proteins of primary walls such as xyloglucan endotransglycosidase and expansins. Only the corresponding detergent soluble proteome of secretory microsomes from the xylogenic cultured cells, subjected to ion-exchange chromatography, could be determined accurately since, xylem-specific membrane yields were of poor quality from stem tissue. Among the 109 proteins analysed, many of the protein markers of the ER such as BiP, HSP70, calreticulin and calnexin were identified, together with some of the biosynthetic enzymes and associated polypeptides involved in polymer synthesis. However 53% of these endomembrane proteins failed identification despite the use of two different MS methods, leaving considerable possibilities for future identification of novel proteins involved in secondary wall polymer synthesis once full genomic data are available. PMID:19402043

Millar, David J; Whitelegge, Julian P; Bindschedler, Laurence V; Rayon, Catherine; Boudet, Alain-Michel; Rossignol, Michel; Borderies, Gisèle; Bolwell, G Paul

2009-05-01

134

Hilar Mossy Cells Provide the First Glutamatergic Synapses to Adult-Born Dentate Granule Cells  

PubMed Central

Adult-generated granule cells (GCs) in the dentate gyrus must establish synapses with preexisting neurons to participate in network activity. To determine the source of early glutamatergic synapses on newborn GCs in adult mice, we examined synaptic currents at the developmental stage when NMDA receptor-mediated silent synapses are first established. We show that hilar mossy cells provide initial glutamatergic synapses as well as disynaptic GABAergic input to adult-generated dentate GCs. PMID:24501373

Chancey, Jessica H.; Poulsen, David J.

2014-01-01

135

Morphometry of Hilar Ectopic Granule Cells in the Rat  

PubMed Central

Granule cell (GC) neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) does not always proceed normally. After severe seizures (e.g., status epilepticus [SE]) and some other conditions, newborn GCs appear in the hilus. Hilar ectopic GCs (EGCs) can potentially provide insight into the effects of abnormal location and seizures on GC development. Additionally, hilar EGCs that develop after SE may contribute to epileptogenesis and cognitive impairments that follow SE. Thus, it is critical to understand how EGCs differ from normal GCs. Relatively little morphometric information is available on EGCs, especially those restricted to the hilus. This study quantitatively analyzed the structural morphology of hilar EGCs from adult male rats several months after pilocarpineinduced SE, when they are considered to have chronic epilepsy. Hilar EGCs were physiologically identified in slices, intracellularly labeled, processed for light microscopic reconstruction, and compared to GC layer GCs, from both the same post-SE tissue and the NeuroMorpho database (normal GCs). Consistently, hilar EGC and GC layer GCs had similar dendritic lengths and field sizes, and identifiable apical dendrites. However, hilar EGC dendrites were topologically more complex, with more branch points and tortuous dendritic paths. Three-dimensional analysis revealed that, remarkably, hilar EGC dendrites often extended along the longitudinal DG axis, suggesting increased capacity for septotemporal integration. Axonal reconstruction demonstrated that hilar EGCs contributed to mossy fiber sprouting. This combination of preserved and aberrant morphological features, potentially supporting convergent afferent input to EGCs and broad, divergent efferent output, could help explain why the hilar EGC population could impair DG function. PMID:21344409

Pierce, Joseph P.; McCloskey, Daniel P.; Scharfman, Helen E.

2014-01-01

136

The Secretory Pathway Mediates Localization of the Cell Polarity Regulator Aip3p/Bud6p  

PubMed Central

Aip3p/Bud6p is a regulator of cell and cytoskeletal polarity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that was previously identified as an actin-interacting protein. Actin-interacting protein 3 (Aip3p) localizes at the cell cortex where cytoskeleton assembly must be achieved to execute polarized cell growth, and deletion of AIP3 causes gross defects in cell and cytoskeletal polarity. We have discovered that Aip3p localization is mediated by the secretory pathway. Mutations in early- or late-acting components of the secretory apparatus lead to Aip3p mislocalization. Biochemical data show that a pool of Aip3p is associated with post-Golgi secretory vesicles. An investigation of the sequences within Aip3p necessary for Aip3p localization has identified a sequence within the N terminus of Aip3p that is sufficient for directing Aip3p localization. Replacement of the N terminus of Aip3p with a homologous region from a Schizosaccharomyces pombe protein allows for normal Aip3p localization, indicating that the secretory pathway–mediated Aip3p localization pathway is conserved. Delivery of Aip3p also requires the type V myosin motor Myo2p and its regulatory light-chain calmodulin. These data suggest that one function of calmodulin is to activate Myo2p's activity in the secretory pathway; this function is likely the polarized movement of late secretory vesicles and associated Aip3p on actin cables. PMID:10679021

Jin, Hui; Amberg, David C.

2000-01-01

137

Differential effects of 1-deoxynojirimycin on the intracellular transport of secretory glycoproteins of human hepatoma cells in culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate our earlier hypothesis that carbohydrates play a regulatory role in the intracellular transport of secretory glycoproteins, we used 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), and inhibitor of glucosidase I and II of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), to modify the structure of N-linked glycan moieties of secretory glycoproteins of human hepatoma (Hep G2) cells in culture. Using a pulse-chase protocol, we found

J. Brian Parent; Tet-Kin Yeol; Kiang-Teck Yeol; Kenneth Olden

1986-01-01

138

Mesenchymal cell activation is the rate-limiting step of granulation tissue induction.  

PubMed Central

During wound repair a 3-day lag occurs between injury and granulation tissue development. When full-thickness, 8-mm-round, excisional wounds were made in the paravertebral skin of outbred Yorkshire pigs and harvested at various times, no granulation tissue was observed before day 4. Day 4 wounds were 3% filled with granulation tissue, day 5 wounds 48% filled, and day 7 wounds 88% filled. The prerequisites for granulation tissue induction are not known but hypothetically include fibrin matrix maturation or cell activation. To examine whether matrix maturation was necessary, wounds were allowed to heal for 5 or 7 days and then aggressively curetted, resulting in the formation of fresh fibrin clots in the newly formed wound spaces. In contrast to original wounds, no lag phase was observed; wounds curetted on day 5 were 23% filled with granulation tissue 1 day later and 99% filled 3 days later, whereas wounds curetted on day 7 were 47% filled 1 day later and completely filled within 2 days. Thus, granulation tissue formation resumed promptly and independently of fibrin clot matrix maturation. This observation suggested that mesenchymal cell activation might be the rate-limiting step in granulation tissue formation. To address this hypothesis more directly, cultured porcine or human fibroblasts, grown to 80% confluence in Dulbecco's minimal essential medium plus 10% fetal calf serum, were added to new wounds. These wounds were sealed with a freshly made exogenous fibrin clot. In some wounds, platelet releasate was added to the fibrin clot. Granulation tissue did not form in day 3 wounds, which had received either fibrin alone, fibrin and platelet releasate, or fibrin and fibroblasts. In contrast, granulation tissue was observed in wounds receiving fibrin, human fibroblasts, and platelet releasate. By day 4, wounds receiving cultured human fibroblasts, fibrin, and platelet releasate were 14% filled with granulation tissue compared with less than 4% granulation tissue in control wounds. Thus, fibroblast activation is a limiting step of granulation tissue formation, and continued cell stimulation is required for accelerated development. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8863674

McClain, S. A.; Simon, M.; Jones, E.; Nandi, A.; Gailit, J. O.; Tonnesen, M. G.; Newman, D.; Clark, R. A.

1996-01-01

139

Differing polarity of the constitutive and regulated secretory pathways for von Willebrand factor in endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

von Willebrand factor (vWf) is secreted from endothelial cells by one of two pathways-a constitutive pathway and a regulated pathway originating from the Weibel-Palade bodies. The molecular form of vWf from each of these pathways differs, with the most biologically potent molecules being released from Weibel-Palade bodies (Loesberg, C., M. D. Gonsalves, J. Zandbergen, C. Willems, W. G. Van Aken, H. V. Stel, J. A. Van Mourik, and P. G. DeGroot. 1983. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 763:160- 168; Sporn, L. A., V. J. Marder, and D. D. Wagner. 1987. Cell. 46:185- 190). We investigated the polarity of the two secretory pathways using human umbilical vein endothelial cells cultured on polycarbonate membrane filters which allowed sampling of media from both the apical and basolateral compartments. After metabolic labeling of cells, vWf (constitutively secreted during a 10-min period or released during a 10- min treatment with a secretagogue) was purified from the apical and basolateral chambers and subjected to gel analysis. Approximately equal amounts of vWf were constitutively secreted into both chambers, and therefore this secretory pathway appeared to be nonpolarized. On the contrary, an average of 90% of vWf released from Weibel-Palade bodies after treatment with the calcium ionophore A23187 or PMA appeared in the basolateral chamber, indicating that the regulated pathway of secretion is highly polarized. Thrombin, a secretagogue which promotes disruption of the endothelial monolayer, led to release of vWf from cells with no apparent polarity. The presence of microtubule- depolymerizing agents nocodazol and colchicine inhibited the polarized release of vWf. Ammonium chloride treatment did not disrupt the polarity of the regulated secretory pathway, indicating that maintenance of low pH in intracellular compartments was not required for the polarized delivery of preformed Weibel-Palade bodies to the plasma membrane. PMID:2494192

1989-01-01

140

Measurement of the internal pH of mast cell granules using microvolumetric fluorescence and isotopic techniques  

SciTech Connect

The intragranular pH of isolated mast cell granules was measured. Because of the minute amounts of isolated granules available, two techniques were developed by modifying aminoacridine fluorescence and (/sup 14/C)methylamine accumulation techniques to permit measurements with microliter sample volumes. Granule purity was demonstrated by electron microscopy, ruthenium red exclusion, and biochemical (histamine, mast cell granule protease) analysis. The internal pH was determined to be 5.55 +/- 0.06, indicating that the pH environment within mast cell granules is not significantly different from that of previously studied granule types (i.e., chromaffin, platelet, pancreatic islet, and pituitary granules). Collapse of the pH gradient by NH+4 was demonstrated with both techniques. No evidence of Cl-/OH- or specific cation/H+ transport was found, and major chloride permeability could not be unequivocably demonstrated. Ca/sup 2 +/ and Cl- at concentrations normally present extracellularly destabilized granules in the presence of NH+4, but this phenomenon does not necessarily indicate a role for these ions in the exocytotic release of granule contents from intact cells. The pH measurement techniques developed for investigating the properties of granules in mast cells may be useful for studying other granules that can be obtained only in limited quantities.

De Young, M.B.; Nemeth, E.F.; Scarpa, A.

1987-04-01

141

Proteins are secreted by both constitutive and regulated secretory pathways in lactating mouse mammary epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Lactating mammary epithelial cells secrete high levels of caseins and other milk proteins. The extent to which protein secretion from these cells occurs in a regulated fashion was examined in experiments on secretory acini isolated from the mammary glands of lactating mice at 10 d postpartum. Protein synthesis and secretion were assayed by following the incorporation or release, respectively, of [35S]methionine-labeled TCA-precipitable protein. The isolated cells incorporated [35S]methionine into protein linearly for at least 5 h with no discernible lag period. In contrast, protein secretion was only detectable after a lag of approximately 1 h, consistent with exocytotic secretion of proteins immediately after passage through the secretory pathway and package into secretory vesicles. The extent of protein secretion was unaffected by the phorbol ester PMA, 8-bromo-cAMP, or 8- bromo-cGMP but was doubled by the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin. In a pulse- label protocol in which proteins were prelabeled for 1 h before a chase period, constitutive secretion was unaffected by depletion of cytosolic Ca2+ but ionomycin was found to give a twofold stimulation of the secretion of presynthesized protein in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Ionomycin was still able to stimulate protein secretion after constitutive secretion had terminated. These results suggest that lactating mammary cells possess both a Ca(2+)-independent constitutive pathway and a Ca(2+)-activated regulatory pathway for protein secretion. The same proteins were secreted by both pathways. No ultrastructural evidence for apocrine secretion was seen in response to ionomycin and so it appears that regulated casein release involves exocytosis. Ionomycin was unlikely to be acting by disassembling the cortical actin network since cytochalasin D did not mimic its effects on secretion. The regulated pathway may be controlled by Ca2+ acting at a late step such as exocytotic membrane fusion. PMID:1313813

1992-01-01

142

Foxa1 and Foxa2 Maintain the Metabolic and Secretory Features of the Mature ?-Cell  

PubMed Central

Foxa1 and Foxa2 play both redundant and distinct roles in early pancreas development. We demonstrate here that inducible ablation of both transcription factors in mature mouse ?-cells leads to impaired glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion. The defects in both glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and intracellular calcium oscillation are more pronounced than those in ?-cells lacking only Foxa2. Unexpectedly, in contrast to the severe reduction of ?-cell-enriched factors contributing to metabolic and secretory pathways, expression of a large number of genes that are involved in neural differentiation and function is significantly elevated. We further demonstrate that expression of carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP or Mlxipl), an important transcriptional regulator of carbohydrate metabolism, is significantly affected in compound Foxa1/a2 mutant ?-cells. ChREBP expression is directly controlled by Foxa1 and Foxa2 in both the fetal endocrine pancreas as well as mature islets. These data demonstrate that Foxa1 and Foxa2 play crucial roles in the development and maintenance of ?-cell-specific secretory and metabolic pathways. PMID:20534694

Gao, Nan; Le Lay, John; Qin, Wei; Doliba, Nicolai; Schug, Jonathan; Fox, Alan J.; Smirnova, Olga; Matschinsky, Franz M.; Kaestner, Klaus H.

2010-01-01

143

Altered morphology of hippocampal dentate granule cell presynaptic and postsynaptic terminals following conditional deletion of TrkB.  

PubMed

Dentate granule cells play a critical role in the function of the entorhinal-hippocampal circuitry in health and disease. Dentate granule cells are situated to regulate the flow of information into the hippocampus, a structure required for normal learning and memory. Correspondingly, impaired granule cell function leads to memory deficits, and, interestingly, altered granule cell connectivity may contribute to the hyperexcitability of limbic epilepsy. It is important, therefore, to understand the molecular determinants of synaptic connectivity of these neurons. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor TrkB are expressed at high levels in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, and are implicated in regulating neuronal development, neuronal plasticity, learning, and the development of epilepsy. Whether and how TrkB regulates granule cell structure, however, is incompletely understood. To begin to elucidate the role of TrkB in regulating granule cell morphology, here we examine conditional TrkB knockout mice crossed to mice expressing green fluorescent protein in subsets of dentate granule cells. In stratum lucidum, where granule cell mossy fiber axons project, the density of giant mossy fiber boutons was unchanged, suggesting similar output to CA3 pyramidal cell targets. However, filopodial extensions of giant boutons, which contact inhibitory interneurons, were increased in number in TrkB knockout mice relative to wildtype controls, predicting enhanced feedforward inhibition of CA3 pyramidal cells. In knockout animals, dentate granule cells possessed fewer primary dendrites and enlarged dendritic spines, indicative of disrupted excitatory synaptic input to the granule cells. Together, these findings demonstrate that TrkB is required for development and/or maintenance of normal synaptic connectivity of the granule cells, thereby implying an important role for TrkB in the function of the granule cells and hippocampal circuitry. PMID:18398849

Danzer, Steve C; Kotloski, Robert J; Walter, Cynthia; Hughes, Maya; McNamara, James O

2008-01-01

144

Role of LAT in the granule-mediated cytotoxicity of CD8 T cells.  

PubMed

Linker for activation of T cells (LAT) is a transmembrane adaptor protein that is essential to bridge T cell receptor (TCR) engagement to downstream signaling events. The indispensable role of LAT in thymocyte development and T cell activation has been well characterized; however, the function of LAT in cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte (CTL) cytotoxicity remains unknown. We show here that LAT-deficient CTLs failed to upregulate FasL and produce gamma interferon after engagement with target cells and had impaired granule-mediated killing. We further dissected the effect of the LAT deletion on each step of granule exocytosis. LAT deficiency led to altered synapse formation, subsequently causing unstable T cell-antigen-presenting cell (APC) conjugates. Microtubule organizing center polarization and granule reorientation were also impaired by LAT deficiency, leading to reduced granule delivery. Despite these defects, granule release was still observed in LAT-deficient CTLs due to residual calcium flux and phospholipase C (PLC) activity. Our data demonstrated that LAT-mediated signaling intricately regulates CTL cytotoxicity at multiple steps. PMID:22566687

Ou-Yang, Chih-wen; Zhu, Minghua; Fuller, Deirdre M; Sullivan, Sarah A; Chuck, Mariana I; Ogden, Sarah; Li, Qi-Jing; Zhang, Weiguo

2012-07-01

145

Mitochondrial Membrane Potential and Glutamate Excitotoxicity in Cultured Cerebellar Granule Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (Dcm) and the failure of cytoplasmic Ca 21 homeostasis, delayed Ca 21deregulation (DCD), is investigated for cultured rat cerebellar granule cells exposed to glutamate. To interpret the single-cell fluorescence response of cells loaded with tetrameth- ylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM 1) or rhodamine-123, we de- vised and validated a mathematical simulation with well

Manus W. Ward; A. Cristina Rego; Bruno G. Frenguelli; David G. Nicholls

2000-01-01

146

UNIT 3.37Isolation of Cytotoxic T Cell and NK Granules and Purification of Their  

E-print Network

-glycine backbone; Lieberman, 2003). The dense core of activated human CTL and NK cells cytotoxic granules also, the expression of these proteins is largely restricted to activated CTL and NK cells. However, some of the granzymes, especially granzyme B, are also expressed together with mast cell proteases, but without perforin

Lieberman, Judy

147

Myosin Va Transports Dense Core Secretory Vesicles in Pancreatic MIN6 ?-CellsV?  

PubMed Central

The role of unconventional myosins in neuroendocrine cells is not fully understood, with involvement suggested in the movement of both secretory vesicles and mitochondria. Here, we demonstrate colocalization of myosin Va (MyoVa) with insulin in pancreatic ?-cells and show that MyoVa copurifies with insulin in density gradients and with the vesicle marker phogrin-enhanced green fluorescent protein upon fluorescence-activated sorting of vesicles. By contrast, MyoVa immunoreactivity was poorly colocalized with mitochondrial or other markers. Demonstrating an important role for MyoVa in the recruitment of secretory vesicles to the cell surface, a reduction of MyoVa protein levels achieved by RNA interference caused a significant decrease in glucose- or depolarization-stimulated insulin secretion. Similarly, expression of the dominant-negative–acting globular tail domain of MyoVa decreased by ?50% the number of vesicles docked at the plasma membrane and by 87% the number of depolarization-stimulated exocytotic events detected by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. We conclude that MyoVa-driven movements of vesicles along the cortical actin network are essential for the terminal stages of regulated exocytosis in ?-cells. PMID:15788565

Varadi, Aniko; Tsuboi, Takashi; Rutter, Guy A.

2005-01-01

148

Influence of Culture Conditions on the Androgen Control of Secretory Component Production by Acinor Cells from the Rot Locrimol Gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that androgens regulate the production of secretory component (SC), the IgA antibody receptor, by lacrimal gland acinar cells in vivo. This study was designed to establish an optimal culture system to permit analysis of this endocrine-acinar cell interrelationship in vitro. Acinar cells were isolated from male rat lacrimal glands and cultured on Matrigel (Collaborative Research, Bedford, MA)

Louone E. Hann; David A. Sullivan

1991-01-01

149

Dendritic differentiation of cerebellar Purkinje cells is promoted by ryanodine receptors expressed by Purkinje and granule cells.  

PubMed

Cerebellar Purkinje cells have the most elaborate dendritic trees among neurons in the brain. We examined the roles of ryanodine receptor (RyR), an intracellular Ca(2+) release channel, in the dendrite formation of Purkinje cells using cerebellar cell cultures. In the cerebellum, Purkinje cells express RyR1 and RyR2, whereas granule cells express RyR2. When ryanodine (10 µM), a blocker of RyR, was added to the culture medium, the elongation and branching of Purkinje cell dendrites were markedly inhibited. When we transferred small interfering RNA (siRNA) against RyR1 into Purkinje cells using single-cell electroporation, dendritic branching but not elongation of the electroporated Purkinje cells was inhibited. On the other hand, transfection of RyR2 siRNA into granule cells also inhibited dendritic branching of Purkinje cells. Furthermore, ryanodine reduced the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the culture medium. The ryanodine-induced inhibition of dendritic differentiation was partially rescued when BDNF was exogenously added to the culture medium in addition to ryanodine. Overall, these results suggest that RyRs expressed by both Purkinje and granule cells play important roles in promoting the dendritic differentiation of Purkinje cells and that RyR2 expressed by granule cells is involved in the secretion of BDNF from granule cells. PMID:24123915

Ohashi, Ryo; Sakata, Shin-ichi; Naito, Asami; Hirashima, Naohide; Tanaka, Masahiko

2014-04-01

150

Effect of disturbance of nervous integration on relations between auricular granules and other components of the myocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

UDC 611.127-018.63 +616.125-018.63-02 : 616.833.191.5-089.85-092.9 The morphology of the specific auricular granules and their connection with the cell organelles of the cardiomyocytes were studied by electron microscopy in normal rats and after division of the right vagus nerve; The results suggest that the muscle cells of the mamalian auricles have a secretory function. The secretory activity of the cardiomyocytes is

V. G. Tsyplenkova

1973-01-01

151

Nitric oxide inhibits exocytosis of cytolytic granules from lymphokine-activated killer cells  

PubMed Central

NO inhibits cytotoxic T lymphocyte killing of target cells, although the precise mechanism is unknown. We hypothesized that NO decreases exocytosis of cytotoxic granules from activated lymphocytes. We now show that NO inhibits lymphokine-activated killer cell killing of K562 target cells. Exogenous and endogenous NO decreases the release of granzyme B, granzyme A, and perforin: all contents of cytotoxic granules. NO inhibits the signal transduction cascade initiated by cross-linking of the T cell receptor that leads to granule exocytosis. In particular, we found that NO decreases the expression of Ras, a critical signaling component within the exocytic pathway. Ectopic expression of Ras prevents NO inhibition of exocytosis. Our data suggest that Ras mediates NO inhibition of lymphocyte cytotoxicity and emphasize that alterations in the cellular redox state may regulate the exocytic signaling pathway. PMID:16857739

Ferlito, Marcella; Irani, Kaikobad; Faraday, Nauder; Lowenstein, Charles J.

2006-01-01

152

Culturing of cerebellar granule cells to study neuronal migration: gradient and local perfusion assays.  

PubMed

Cultures of cerebellar granule cells are a suitable model to analyze the mechanisms governing neuronal migration. In this unit, we describe a protocol to obtain cultures of dissociated granule cells at a low density, where individual cells can be easily observed. In addition, we include a protocol for studying neuronal migration in these cultures, using single, actively migrating cerebellar granule cells. Following this protocol, a factor of interest can be applied either in a gradient concentration by means of a micropipet located near the neuron, or in a homogeneous concentration by locally perfusing a certain region of the neuron. Time-lapse images are taken to analyze changes in the speed and/or directionality of the observed neuron. Overall, the two protocols take more or less a day and a half to perform, and are a useful way to evaluate a certain factor/drug for its chemotactic activity or its capacity to alter migration speed. PMID:22752893

Guijarro, Patricia; Jiang, Jian; Yuan, Xiao-bing

2012-07-01

153

Dentate Gyrus Granule Cell Firing Patterns Can Induce Mossy Fiber Long-Term Potentiation In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Hippocampal granule cells transmit information about behaviourally-relevant stimuli to CA3 pyramidal cells via mossy fiber synapses. These synapses express a form of long-term potentiation (mfLTP) that is non-Hebbian and does not require NMDA receptors. mfLTP is thought to be induced and expressed presynaptically, hence, the major determinant of whether mfLTP occurs is activity in the granule cells. However, it remains unclear whether mfLTP can be induced by activity patterns that granule cells exhibit in vivo, and — if so — what context generates these patterns. To address these issues, we examined granule cell activity from in vivo recordings from rats during performance of a delayed nonmatch-to-sample (DNMS) task and found that granule cells exhibit a wide range of spike patterns. In vitro slice experiments in mice demonstrated that some, but not all, of these patterns of activity could induce mfLTP. By further defining the activity thresholds for mfLTP in hippocampal slices, we found that mfLTP can only be induced by spike patterns that fire in high frequency bursts with a low average firing frequency. Using this information, we then screened for supra-threshold bursts of activity during the DNMS task. In a subset of cells, supra-threshold bursts occurred preferentially during the sampling phase of the task. If supra-threshold bursting took place later, during the delay phase, task performance was disrupted. We conclude that mfLTP can be induced by granule cell spike patterns during a memory task, and that the timing of mfLTP induction can predict task performance. PMID:20635414

Mistry, Rajen; Dennis, Siobhan; Frerking, Matthew; Mellor, Jack R.

2010-01-01

154

Identification of miRNAs differentially expressed in human epilepsy with or without granule cell pathology.  

PubMed

The microRNAs (miRNAs) are small size non-coding RNAs that regulate expression of target mRNAs at post-transcriptional level. miRNAs differentially expressed under pathological conditions may help identifying mechanisms underlying the disease and may represent biomarkers with prognostic value. However, this kind of studies are difficult in the brain because of the cellular heterogeneity of the tissue and of the limited access to fresh tissue. Here, we focused on a pathology affecting specific cells in a subpopulation of epileptic brains (hippocampal granule cells), an approach that bypasses the above problems. All patients underwent surgery for intractable temporal lobe epilepsy and had hippocampal sclerosis associated with no granule cell pathology in half of the cases and with type-2 granule cell pathology (granule cell layer dispersion or bilamination) in the other half. The expression of more than 1000 miRNAs was examined in the laser-microdissected dentate granule cell layer. Twelve miRNAs were differentially expressed in the two groups. One of these, miR487a, was confirmed to be expressed at highly differential levels in an extended cohort of patients, using RT-qPCR. Bioinformatics searches and RT-qPCR verification identified ANTXR1 as a possible target of miR487a. ANTXR1 may be directly implicated in granule cell dispersion because it is an adhesion molecule that favors cell spreading. Thus, miR487a could be the first identified element of a miRNA signature that may be useful for prognostic evaluation of post-surgical epilepsy and may drive mechanistic studies leading to the identification of therapeutic targets. PMID:25148080

Zucchini, Silvia; Marucci, Gianluca; Paradiso, Beatrice; Lanza, Giovanni; Roncon, Paolo; Cifelli, Pierangelo; Ferracin, Manuela; Giulioni, Marco; Michelucci, Roberto; Rubboli, Guido; Simonato, Michele

2014-01-01

155

Ultrastructural studies on the cerebellar histogenesis. I. Differentiation of granule cells and development of Glomeeruli in the chick embryo  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuum of transitional forms between the cells in the external (transitory) granular layer of the cerebellar cortex and the granule cells in the internal (definitive) granular layer has been identified with the electron microscope in chick embryos 17–20 day old. This confirms that at least a number of the granule neurons is derived from the cells of the external

Enrico Mugnaini; Paul F. Forstrønen

1967-01-01

156

Intestinal label-retaining cells are secretory precursors expressing Lgr5.  

PubMed

The rapid cell turnover of the intestinal epithelium is achieved from small numbers of stem cells located in the base of glandular crypts. These stem cells have been variously described as rapidly cycling or quiescent. A functional arrangement of stem cells that reconciles both of these behaviours has so far been difficult to obtain. Alternative explanations for quiescent cells have been that they act as a parallel or reserve population that replace rapidly cycling stem cells periodically or after injury; their exact nature remains unknown. Here we show mouse intestinal quiescent cells to be precursors that are committed to mature into differentiated secretory cells of the Paneth and enteroendocrine lineage. However, crucially we find that after intestinal injury they are capable of extensive proliferation and can give rise to clones comprising the main epithelial cell types. Thus, quiescent cells can be recalled to the stem-cell state. These findings establish quiescent cells as an effective clonogenic reserve and provide a motivation for investigating their role in pathologies such as colorectal cancers and intestinal inflammation. PMID:23446353

Buczacki, Simon J A; Zecchini, Heather Ireland; Nicholson, Anna M; Russell, Roslin; Vermeulen, Louis; Kemp, Richard; Winton, Douglas J

2013-03-01

157

Mitochondrial membrane potential and hydroethidine-monitored superoxide generation in cultured cerebellar granule cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial depolarisation has been reported to enhance the generation of superoxide anion (O??2) in a number of cell preparations while an inhibition has been observed with isolated mitochondria. Cerebellar granule cells equilibrated with >1 ?M hydroethidine (dihydroethidium) which is oxidised to the fluorescent ethidium cation by O??2 showed a large increase in fluorescence on protonophore addition. However, controls showed the

Samantha L. Budd; Roger F. Castilho; David G. Nicholls

1997-01-01

158

Degranulation of eosinophilic granule cells in neurofibromas and gastrointestinal tract in the bicolor damselfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Damselfish neurofibromatosis (DNF) is a neoplastic disease affecting bicolor damselfish (Stegastes partitus Poey) on Florida reefs. Previous studies have demonstrated high densities of eosinophilic granule containing cells (EGC), the proposed equivalent of mast cells in fishes, in neurofibromas and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (mpnst) in DNF. These lesions are similar to those in the disease neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)

Michael C Schmale; Dale Vicha; Saul M Cacal

2004-01-01

159

Systematic Single-Cell Analysis of Pichia pastoris Reveals Secretory Capacity Limits Productivity  

PubMed Central

Biopharmaceuticals represent the fastest growing sector of the global pharmaceutical industry. Cost-efficient production of these biologic drugs requires a robust host organism for generating high titers of protein during fermentation. Understanding key cellular processes that limit protein production and secretion is, therefore, essential for rational strain engineering. Here, with single-cell resolution, we systematically analysed the productivity of a series of Pichia pastoris strains that produce different proteins both constitutively and inducibly. We characterized each strain by qPCR, RT-qPCR, microengraving, and imaging cytometry. We then developed a simple mathematical model describing the flux of folded protein through the ER. This combination of single-cell measurements and computational modelling shows that protein trafficking through the secretory machinery is often the rate-limiting step in single-cell production, and strategies to enhance the overall capacity of protein secretion within hosts for the production of heterologous proteins may improve productivity. PMID:22685548

Love, Kerry Routenberg; Politano, Timothy J.; Panagiotou, Vasiliki; Jiang, Bo; Stadheim, Terrance A.; Love, J. Christopher

2012-01-01

160

Spatial relationships between markers for secretory and endosomal machinery in human cytomegalovirus-infected cells versus those in uninfected cells.  

PubMed

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) induces extensive remodeling of the secretory apparatus to form the cytoplasmic virion assembly compartment (cVAC), where virion tegumentation and envelopment take place. We studied the structure of the cVAC by confocal microscopy to assess the three-dimensional distribution of proteins specifically associated with individual secretory organelles. In infected cells, early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1)-positive vesicles are concentrated at the center of the cVAC and, as previously seen, are distinct from structures visualized by markers for the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and trans-Golgi network (TGN). EEA1-positive vesicles can be strongly associated with markers for recycling endosomes, to a lesser extent with markers associated with components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport III (ESCRT III) machinery, and then with markers of late endosomes. In comparisons of uninfected and infected cells, we found significant changes in the structural associations and colocalization of organelle markers, as well as in net organelle volumes. These results provide new evidence that the HCMV-induced remodeling of the membrane transport apparatus involves much more than simple relocation and expansion of preexisting structures and are consistent with the hypothesis that the shift in identity of secretory organelles in HCMV-infected cells results in new functional profiles. PMID:21471245

Das, Subhendu; Pellett, Philip E

2011-06-01

161

Spatial Relationships between Markers for Secretory and Endosomal Machinery in Human Cytomegalovirus-Infected Cells versus Those in Uninfected Cells?†  

PubMed Central

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) induces extensive remodeling of the secretory apparatus to form the cytoplasmic virion assembly compartment (cVAC), where virion tegumentation and envelopment take place. We studied the structure of the cVAC by confocal microscopy to assess the three-dimensional distribution of proteins specifically associated with individual secretory organelles. In infected cells, early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1)-positive vesicles are concentrated at the center of the cVAC and, as previously seen, are distinct from structures visualized by markers for the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and trans-Golgi network (TGN). EEA1-positive vesicles can be strongly associated with markers for recycling endosomes, to a lesser extent with markers associated with components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport III (ESCRT III) machinery, and then with markers of late endosomes. In comparisons of uninfected and infected cells, we found significant changes in the structural associations and colocalization of organelle markers, as well as in net organelle volumes. These results provide new evidence that the HCMV-induced remodeling of the membrane transport apparatus involves much more than simple relocation and expansion of preexisting structures and are consistent with the hypothesis that the shift in identity of secretory organelles in HCMV-infected cells results in new functional profiles. PMID:21471245

Das, Subhendu; Pellett, Philip E.

2011-01-01

162

Green fluorescent protein as a secretory reporter and a tool for process optimization in transgenic plant cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is an attractive reporter for bioprocess monitoring. Although expression of GFP in plants has been widely reported, research on the use of GFP in plant cell cultures for bioprocess applications has been limited. In this study, the suitability of GFP as a secretory reporter and a useful tool in plant cell bioprocess optimization was demonstrated. GFP

S. Liu; R. C. Bugos; N. Dharmasiri; W. W. Su

2001-01-01

163

Convergence of pontine and proprioceptive streams onto multimodal cerebellar granule cells  

PubMed Central

Cerebellar granule cells constitute the majority of neurons in the brain and are the primary conveyors of sensory and motor-related mossy fiber information to Purkinje cells. The functional capability of the cerebellum hinges on whether individual granule cells receive mossy fiber inputs from multiple precerebellar nuclei or are instead unimodal; this distinction is unresolved. Using cell-type-specific projection mapping with synaptic resolution, we observed the convergence of separate sensory (upper body proprioceptive) and basilar pontine pathways onto individual granule cells and mapped this convergence across cerebellar cortex. These findings inform the long-standing debate about the multimodality of mammalian granule cells and substantiate their associative capacity predicted in the Marr-Albus theory of cerebellar function. We also provide evidence that the convergent basilar pontine pathways carry corollary discharges from upper body motor cortical areas. Such merging of related corollary and sensory streams is a critical component of circuit models of predictive motor control. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00400.001 PMID:23467508

Huang, Cheng-Chiu; Sugino, Ken; Shima, Yasuyuki; Guo, Caiying; Bai, Suxia; Mensh, Brett D; Nelson, Sacha B; Hantman, Adam W

2013-01-01

164

Increased Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor (SLPI) Production by Highly Metastatic Mouse Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

The precise molecular mechanisms enabling cancer cells to metastasize from the primary tumor to different tissue locations are still largely unknown. Secretion of some proteins by metastatic cells could facilitate metastasis formation. The comparison of secreted proteins from cancer cells with different metastatic capabilities in vivo might provide insight into proteins involved in the metastatic process. Comparison of the secreted proteins from the mouse breast cancer cell line 4T1 and its highly metastatic 4T1.2 clone revealed a prominent differentially secreted protein which was identified as SLPI (secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor). Western blotting indicated higher levels of the protein in both conditioned media and whole cell lysates of 4T1.2 cells. Additionally higher levels of SLPI were also observed in 4T1.2 breast tumors in vivo following immunohistochemical staining. A comparison of SLPI mRNA levels by gene profiling using microarrays and RT-PCR did not detect major differences in SLPI gene expression between the 4T1 and 4T1.2 cells indicating that SLPI secretion is regulated at the protein level. Our results demonstrate that secretion of SLPI is drastically increased in highly metastatic cells, suggesting a possible role for SLPI in enhancing the metastatic behavior of breast cancer cell line 4T1. PMID:25110884

Sayers, Kevin T.; Brooks, Alan D.; Sayers, Thomas J.; Chertov, Oleg

2014-01-01

165

Facilitation of granule cell epileptiform activity by mossy fiber-released zinc in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recurrent mossy fiber synapses in the dentate gyrus of epileptic brain facilitate the synchronous firing of granule cells and may promote seizure propagation. Mossy fiber terminals contain and release zinc. Released zinc inhibits the activation of NMDA receptors and may therefore oppose the development of granule cell epileptiform activity. Hippocampal slices from rats that had experienced pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and

Olga Timofeeva; J. Victor Nadler

2006-01-01

166

Kainic acid increases the proliferation of granule cell progenitors in the dentate gyrus of the adult rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granule cell progenitors in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation have the unusual capacity to be able to divide in the brains of adult rats and primates. The basal proliferation rate of granule cell progenitors in the adult rat is low compared with development, however, it is possible that this rate may become significantly altered under pathological conditions such

William Peter Gray; Lars Eric Sundstrom

1998-01-01

167

Evidence for evoked release of adenosine and glutamate from cultured cerebellar granule cells  

SciTech Connect

Evoked release of ({sup 3}H)-D-aspartate which labels the neurotransmitter glutamate pool in cultured cerebellar granule cells was compared with evoked release of adenosine from similar cultures. It was found that both adenosine and (3H)-D-aspartate could be released from the neurons in a calcium dependent manner after depolarization of the cells with either 10-100 microM glutamate or 50 mM KCl. Cultures of cerebellar granule cells treated with 50 microM kainate to eliminate GABAergic neurons behaved in the same way. This together with the observation that cultured astrocytes did not exhibit a calcium dependent, potassium stimulated adenosine release strongly suggest that cerebellar granule cells release adenosine in a neurotransmitter-like fashion together with glutamate which is the classical neurotransmitter of these neurons. Studies of the metabolism of adenosine showed that in the granule cells adenosine is rapidly metabolized to ATP, ADP, and AMP, but in spite of this, adenosine was found to be released preferential to ATP.

Schousboe, A.; Frandsen, A.; Drejer, J. (Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark))

1989-09-01

168

The plant secretory pathway: an essential factory for building the plant cell wall.  

PubMed

For building and maintaining the complex structure of the surrounding wall throughout their life, plant cells rely on the endomembrane system, which functions as the main provider and transporter of cell wall constituents. Efforts to understand the mechanisms of synthesis and transport of cell wall materials have been generating valuable information for diverse practical applications. Nonetheless, the identity of the endomembrane components necessary for the transport of cell wall enzymes and polysaccharides is not well known. Evidence indicates that plant cells can accomplish secretion of cell wall constituents through multiple pathways during development or under stress conditions and, that compared with other eukaryotes, they rely on a highly diversified toolkit of proteins for membrane traffic. This suggests that production of the cell wall in plants consists of intricate and highly regulated pathways. In this review, we summarize important discoveries that have allowed the activities of the plant secretory pathway to be linked to the production and deposition of cell wall-synthesizing enzymes and polysaccharides. PMID:24401957

Kim, Sang-Jin; Brandizzi, Federica

2014-04-01

169

Tactile Responses in the Granule Cell Layer of Cerebellar Folium Crus IIa of Freely Behaving Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recorded activity from the granule cell layer (GCL) of cere- bellar folium Crus IIa as freely moving rats engaged in a variety of natural behaviors, including grooming, eating, and free tactile exploration. Multiunit responses in the 1000-4500 Hz range were found to be strongly correlated with tactile stimulation of lip and whisker (perioral) regions. These responses occurred regardless of

Mitra J. Hartmann; James M. Bower

2001-01-01

170

Regulation of output spike patterns by phasic inhibition in cerebellar granule cells  

PubMed Central

The complex interplay of multiple molecular mechanisms taking part to synaptic integration is hard to disentangle experimentally. Therefore, we developed a biologically realistic computational model based on the rich set of data characterizing the cerebellar glomerulus microcircuit. A specific issue was to determine the relative role of phasic and tonic inhibition in dynamically regulating granule cell firing, which has not been clarified yet. The model comprised the excitatory mossy fiber—granule cell and the inhibitory Golgi cell—granule cell synapses and accounted for vesicular release processes, neurotransmitter diffusion and activation of different receptor subtypes. Phasic inhibition was based on stochastic GABA release and spillover causing activation of two major classes of postsynaptic receptors, ?1 and ?6, while tonic inhibition was based on steady regulation of a Cl? leakage. The glomerular microcircuit model was validated against experimental responses to mossy fiber bursts while metabotropic receptors were blocked. Simulations showed that phasic inhibition controlled the number of spikes during burst transmission but predicted that it specifically controlled time-related parameters (firing initiation and conclusion and first spike precision) when the relative phase of excitation and inhibition was changed. In all conditions, the overall impact of ?6 was larger than that of ?1 subunit-containing receptors. However, ?1 receptors controlled granule cell responses in a narrow ±10 ms band while ?6 receptors showed broader ±50 ms tuning. Tonic inhibition biased these effects without changing their nature substantially. These simulations imply that phasic inhibitory mechanisms can dynamically regulate output spike patterns, as well as calcium influx and NMDA currents, at the mossy fiber—granule cell relay of cerebellum without the intervention of tonic inhibition. PMID:25202237

Nieus, Thierry R.; Mapelli, Lisa; D'Angelo, Egidio

2014-01-01

171

Glucocorticoids increase amylase mRNA levels, secretory organelles, and secretion in pancreatic acinar AR42J cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have suggested a role for glucocorticoids in the differentiation of the acinar pancreas. We have now used the rat tumor cell line AR42J, derived from the acinar pancreas, to directly study this effect of glucocorticoids in vitro. The steroid hormones dexamethasone, corticosterone, aldosterone, and progesterone, but not estrogen, increased both the amylase content and the number of secretory

CRAIG D. LOGSDON; JOACHIM MOESSNER; JOHN A. WILLIAMS; IRA D. GOLDFINE

1985-01-01

172

Model cerebellar granule cells can faithfully transmit modulated firing rate signals  

PubMed Central

A crucial assumption of many high-level system models of the cerebellum is that information in the granular layer is encoded in a linear manner. However, granule cells are known for their non-linear and resonant synaptic and intrinsic properties that could potentially impede linear signal transmission. In this modeling study we analyse how electrophysiological granule cell properties and spike sampling influence information coded by firing rate modulation, assuming no signal-related, i.e., uncorrelated inhibitory feedback (open-loop mode). A detailed one-compartment granule cell model was excited in simulation by either direct current or mossy-fiber synaptic inputs. Vestibular signals were represented as tonic inputs to the flocculus modulated at frequencies up to 20 Hz (approximate upper frequency limit of vestibular-ocular reflex, VOR). Model outputs were assessed using estimates of both the transfer function, and the fidelity of input-signal reconstruction measured as variance-accounted-for. The detailed granule cell model with realistic mossy-fiber synaptic inputs could transmit information faithfully and linearly in the frequency range of the vestibular-ocular reflex. This was achieved most simply if the model neurons had a firing rate at least twice the highest required frequency of modulation, but lower rates were also adequate provided a population of neurons was utilized, especially in combination with push-pull coding. The exact number of neurons required for faithful transmission depended on the precise values of firing rate and noise. The model neurons were also able to combine excitatory and inhibitory signals linearly, and could be replaced by a simpler (modified) integrate-and-fire neuron in the case of high tonic firing rates. These findings suggest that granule cells can in principle code modulated firing-rate inputs in a linear manner, and are thus consistent with the high-level adaptive-filter model of the cerebellar microcircuit.

Rossert, Christian; Solinas, Sergio; D'Angelo, Egidio; Dean, Paul; Porrill, John

2014-01-01

173

Ca2+-dependent dephosphorylation of kinesin heavy chain on beta-granules in pancreatic beta-cells. Implications for regulated beta-granule transport and insulin exocytosis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The specific biochemical steps required for glucose-regulated insulin exocytosis from beta-cells are not well defined. Elevation of glucose leads to increases in cytosolic [Ca2+]i and biphasic release of insulin from both a readily releasable and a storage pool of beta-granules. The effect of elevated [Ca2+]i on phosphorylation of isolated beta-granule membrane proteins was evaluated, and the phosphorylation of four proteins was found to be altered by [Ca2+]i. One (a 18/20-kDa doublet) was a Ca2+-dependent increase in phosphorylation, and, surprisingly, three others (138, 42, and 36 kDa) were Ca2+-dependent dephosphorylations. The 138-kDa beta-granule phosphoprotein was found to be kinesin heavy chain (KHC). At low levels of [Ca2+]i KHC was phosphorylated by casein kinase 2, but KHC was rapidly dephosphorylated by protein phosphatase 2B beta (PP2Bbeta) as [Ca2+]i increased. Inhibitors of PP2B specifically reduced the second, microtubule-dependent, phase of insulin secretion, suggesting that dephosphorylation of KHC was required for transport of beta-granules from the storage pool to replenish the readily releasable pool of beta-granules. This is distinct from synaptic vesicle exocytosis, because neurotransmitter release from synaptosomes did not require a Ca2+-dependent KHC dephosphorylation. These results suggest a novel mechanism for regulating KHC function and beta-granule transport in beta-cells that is mediated by casein kinase 2 and PP2B. They also implicate a novel regulatory role for PP2B/calcineurin in the control of insulin secretion downstream of a rise in [Ca2+]i.

Donelan, Matthew J.; Morfini, Gerardo; Julyan, Richard; Sommers, Scott; Hays, Lori; Kajio, Hiroshi; Briaud, Isabelle; Easom, Richard A.; Molkentin, Jeffery D.; Brady, Scott T.; Rhodes, Christopher J.

2002-01-01

174

Secretory characteristics and phenotypic plasticity of growth hormone- and prolactin-producing cell lines.  

PubMed

Considerable information regarding the regulation of GH and prolactin (PRL) release has been generated using pituitary cell lines as model systems. Inasmuch as these cultures have been derived from single cells by clonal selection it has frequently been assumed that they are composed of homogeneous populations of hormone secretors. However, experience with GH3 cells clearly demonstrates that such is not the case, since this GH- and PRL-producing line is comprised of a mixture of cells that are bihormonal, secrete only GH, or secrete neither hormone. Interestingly, the relative amount of these phenotypic subpopulations is not fixed, but can be altered by treatment with established regulators of GH and PRL secretion. This potential for secretory heterogeneity and phenotypic plasticity prompted us to examine the cellular composition of other commonly used GH- and/or PRL-secreting cell lines under control and treatment conditions. First, GH4C1, GH1, GC, MMQ and P0 cells were maintained according to established media and culture protocols and the relative abundance of GH and PRL secretors was assessed by reverse haemolytic plaque assays. As shown previously for GH3 cells, two cell lines were found to be functionally heterogeneous. Specifically, GH4C1 and GH1 were comprised of mixed populations of GH (25.9 +/- 1.1% and 51.3 +/- 6.5% (S.E.M.) respectively) and PRL (44.8 +/- 3.7 and 66.1 +/- 4.1% respectively) secretors. However, MMQ and GC cell cultures were relatively homogeneous with respect to hormone secretion in that the MMQ cells released PRL (72.2 +/- 4.9%) but not GH, while GC cells released GH (93.6 +/- 1.4%) but not PRL.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8182374

Kineman, R D; Frawley, L S

1994-03-01

175

Mechanisms and benefits of granule cell latency coding in the mouse olfactory bulb  

PubMed Central

Inhibitory circuits are critical for shaping odor representations in the olfactory bulb. There, individual granule cells can respond to brief stimulation with extremely long (up to 1000 ms), input-specific latencies that are highly reliable. However, the mechanism and function of this long timescale activity remain unknown. We sought to elucidate the mechanism responsible for long-latency activity, and to understand the impact of widely distributed interneuron latencies on olfactory coding. We used a combination of electrophysiological, optical, and pharmacological techniques to show that long-latency inhibition is driven by late onset synaptic excitation to granule cells. This late excitation originates from tufted cells, which have intrinsic properties that favor longer latency spiking than mitral cells. Using computational modeling, we show that widely distributed interneuron latency increases the discriminability of similar stimuli. Thus, long-latency inhibition in the olfactory bulb requires a combination of circuit- and cellular-level mechanisms that function to improve stimulus representations. PMID:22754503

Giridhar, Sonya; Urban, Nathaniel N.

2012-01-01

176

Exocytosis of Neutrophil Granule Subsets and Activation of Prolyl Isomerase 1 are required for Respiratory Burst Priming  

PubMed Central

This study tested the hypothesis that priming the neutrophil respiratory burst requires both granule exocytosis and activation of the prolyl isomerase, Pin1. Fusion proteins containing the TAT cell permeability sequence and either the SNARE domain of syntaxin-4 or the N-terminal SNARE domain of SNAP-23 were used to examine the role of granule subsets in TNF-mediated respiratory burst priming using human neutrophils. Concentration-inhibition curves for exocytosis of individual granule subsets and for priming of fMLF-stimulated superoxide release and phagocytosis-stimulated H2O2 production were generated. Maximal inhibition of priming ranged from 72% to 88%. Linear regression lines for inhibition of priming versus inhibition of exocytosis did not differ from the line of identity for secretory vesicles and gelatinase granules, while the slopes or the y-intercepts were different from the line of identity for specific and azurophilic granules. Inhibition of Pin1 reduced priming by 56%, while exocytosis of secretory vesicles and specific granules was not affected. These findings indicate that exocytosis of secretory vesicles and gelatinase granules and activation of Pin1 are independent events required for TNF-mediated priming of neutrophil respiratory burst. PMID:23363774

McLeish, Kenneth R.; Uriarte, Silvia M.; Tandon, Shweta; Creed, Timothy M.; Le, Junyi; Ward, Richard A.

2013-01-01

177

Exocytosis of neutrophil granule subsets and activation of prolyl isomerase 1 are required for respiratory burst priming.  

PubMed

This study tested the hypothesis that priming the neutrophil respiratory burst requires both granule exocytosis and activation of the prolyl isomerase Pin1. Fusion proteins containing the TAT cell permeability sequence and either the SNARE domain of syntaxin-4 or the N-terminal SNARE domain of SNAP-23 were used to examine the role of granule subsets in TNF-mediated respiratory burst priming using human neutrophils. Concentration-inhibition curves for exocytosis of individual granule subsets and for priming of fMLF-stimulated superoxide release and phagocytosis-stimulated H2O2 production were generated. Maximal inhibition of priming ranged from 72 to 88%. Linear regression lines for inhibition of priming versus inhibition of exocytosis did not differ from the line of identity for secretory vesicles and gelatinase granules, while the slopes or the y-intercepts were different from the line of identity for specific and azurophilic granules. Inhibition of Pin1 reduced priming by 56%, while exocytosis of secretory vesicles and specific granules was not affected. These findings indicate that exocytosis of secretory vesicles and gelatinase granules and activation of Pin1 are independent events required for TNF-mediated priming of neutrophil respiratory burst. PMID:23363774

McLeish, Kenneth R; Uriarte, Silvia M; Tandon, Shweta; Creed, Timothy M; Le, Junyi; Ward, Richard A

2013-01-01

178

Target Cell Lysis by CTL Granule Exocytosis Is Independent of ICE\\/Ced3 Family Proteases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activation of ICE\\/Ced-3 family proteases (caspases) has been proposed to mediate both the granule exocytosis and Fas–Fas ligand pathways of rapid target cell death by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In agreement with this model, two peptide fluoromethyl ketone caspase inhibitors and baculovirus p35 blocked apoptotic nuclear damage and target cell lysis by the CTL-mediated Fas–Fas ligand pathway. The peptide caspase inhibitors

Apurva Sarin; Mark S. Williams; Martha A. Alexander-Miller; Jay A. Berzofsky; Charles M. Zacharchuk; Pierre A. Henkart

1997-01-01

179

Acetyl-L-Carnitine Arginine Amide Prevents ? 25–35Induced Neurotoxicity in Cerebellar Granule Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebellar granule cells (CGC) at different stages of maturation in vitro (1 or 6 DIV), were treated with ß 25–35 and acetyl-L-carnitine arginine amide (ST857) in presence of 25 mM KC1 in the culture medium, and neuronal viability was assessed. Three days of treatment slightly modified the survival of 1 DIV-treated cells, which degenerate and die five days later ß-amyloid

A. Scorziello; O. Meucci; M. Calvani; G. Schettini

1997-01-01

180

Evidence that granule cells generated in the dentate gyrus of adult rats extend axonal projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fully mature rats were injected intraperitoneally with 3H-TdR on postnatal day (P) 100. After an additional 28–32 days, a retrograde fluorescent tracer, either FB or DY, was injected into the regio inferior of the hippocampal formation to label granule cells of the dentate gyrus through their mossy fiber axons. Examination of autoradiographs from these brains reveals that 3H-TdR labeled cells

B. B. Stanfield; J. E. Trice

1988-01-01

181

Tonic and Spillover Inhibition of Granule Cells Control Information Flow through Cerebellar Cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that information flow through the adult cerebellar cortex, from the mossy fiber input to the Purkinje cell output, is controlled by furosemide-sensitive, diazepam- and neurosteroid-insensitive GABAA receptors on granule cells, which are activated both tonically and by GABA spillover from synaptic release sites. Tonic activation of these receptors contributes a 3-fold larger mean inhibitory conductance than GABA released

Martine Hamann; David J Rossi; David Attwell

2002-01-01

182

Eosinophil Secretion of Granule-Derived Cytokines  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are tissue-dwelling leukocytes, present in the thymus, and gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of healthy individuals at baseline, and recruited, often in large numbers, to allergic inflammatory foci and sites of active tissue repair. The biological significance of eosinophils is vast and varied. In health, eosinophils support uterine and mammary gland development, and maintain bone marrow plasma cells and adipose tissue alternatively activated macrophages, while in response to tissue insult eosinophils function as inflammatory effector cells, and, in the wake of an inflammatory response, promote tissue regeneration, and wound healing. One common mechanism driving many of the diverse eosinophil functions is the regulated and differential secretion of a vast array of eosinophil-derived cytokines. Eosinophils are distinguished from most other leukocytes in that many, if not all, of the over three dozen eosinophil-derived cytokines are pre-synthesized and stored within intracellular granules, poised for very rapid, stimulus-induced secretion. Eosinophils engaged in cytokine secretion in situ utilize distinct pathways of cytokine release that include classical exocytosis, whereby granules themselves fuse with the plasma membrane and release their entire contents extracellularly; piecemeal degranulation, whereby granule-derived cytokines are selectively mobilized into vesicles that emerge from granules, traverse the cytoplasm and fuse with the plasma membrane to release discrete packets of cytokines; and eosinophil cytolysis, whereby intact granules are extruded from eosinophils, and deposited within tissues. In this latter scenario, extracellular granules can themselves function as stimulus-responsive secretory-competent organelles within the tissue. Here, we review the distinctive processes of differential secretion of eosinophil granule-derived cytokines. PMID:25386174

Spencer, Lisa A.; Bonjour, Kennedy; Melo, Rossana C. N.; Weller, Peter F.

2014-01-01

183

Hippocampal granule cells are necessary for normal spatial learning but not for spatially-selective pyramidal cell discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of massive destruction of granule cells of the fascia dentata on the spatial and temporal firing characteristics of pyramidal cells in the CA1 and CA3 subfields of the hippocampus were examined in freely moving rats. Microinjections of the neurotoxin colchicine were made at a number of levels along the septo-temporal axis of the dentate gyri of both hemispheres,

B. L. McNaughton; C. A. Barnes; J. Meltzer; R. J. Sutherland

1989-01-01

184

Structural Plasticity of Dentate Granule Cell Mossy Fibers During the Development of Limbic Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Altered granule cell?CA3 pyramidal cell synaptic connectivity may contribute to the development of limbic epilepsy. To explore this possibility, granule cell giant mossy fiber bouton plasticity was examined in the kindling and pilocarpine models of epilepsy using green fluorescent protein-expressing transgenic mice. These studies revealed significant increases in the frequency of giant boutons with satellite boutons 2 days and 1 month after pilocarpine status epilepticus, and increases in giant bouton area at 1 month. Similar increases in giant bouton area were observed shortly after kindling. Finally, both models exhibited plasticity of mossy fiber giant bouton filopodia, which contact GABAergic interneurons mediating feedforward inhibition of CA3 pyramids. In the kindling model, however, all changes were fleeting, having resolved by 1 month after the last evoked seizure. Together, these findings demonstrate striking structural plasticity of granule cell mossy fiber synaptic terminal structure in two distinct models of adult limbic epileptogenesis. We suggest that these plasticities modify local connectivities between individual mossy fiber terminals and their targets, inhibitory interneurons, and CA3 pyramidal cells potentially altering the balance of excitation and inhibition during the development of epilepsy. PMID:19294647

Danzer, Steve C.; He, Xiaoping; Loepke, Andreas W.; McNamara, James O.

2009-01-01

185

Inhibition of cerebellar granule cell turning by alcohol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ectopic neurons are often found in the brains of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) patients, suggesting that alcohol exposure impairs neuronal cell migration. Although it has been reported that alcohol decreases the speed of neuronal cell migration, little is known about whether alcohol also affects the turning of neurons. Here we show that ethanol exposure

T. Kumada; Y. Komuro; Y. Li; T. Hu; Z. Wang; Y. Littner; H. Komuro

2010-01-01

186

Expression of S100 beta in sensory and secretory cells of the vertebrate inner ear  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We evaluated anti-S100 beta expression in the chick (Gallus domesticus) inner ear and determined that: 1) the monomer anti-S100 beta is expressed differentially in the vestibular and auditory perikarya; 2) expression of S100 beta in the afferent nerve terminals is time-related to synapse and myelin formation; 3) the expression of the dimer anti-S100 alpha alpha beta beta and monomer anti-S100 beta overlaps in most inner ear cell types. Most S100 alpha alpha beta beta positive cells express S100 beta, but S100 beta positive cells do not always express S100 alpha alpha beta beta. 4) the expression of S100 beta is diffused over the perikaryal cytoplasm and nuclei of the acoustic ganglia but is concentrated over the nuclei of the vestibular perikarya. 6) S100 beta is expressed in secretory cells, and it is co-localized with GABA in sensory cells. 7) Color thresholding objective quantitation indicates that the amount of S100 beta was higher (mean 22, SD +/- 4) at E19 than at E9 (mean 34, SD +/- 3) in afferent axons. 8) Moreover, S100 beta was unchanged between E11-E19 in the perikaryal cytoplasm, but did change over the nuclei. At E9, 74%, and at E21, 5% of vestibular perikarya were positive. The data suggest that S100 beta may be physically associated with neuronal and ionic controlling cells of the vertebrate inner ear, where it could provide a dual ionic and neurotrophic modulatory function.

Fermin, C. D.; Martin, D. S.

1995-01-01

187

Eosinophil extracellular DNA trap cell death mediates lytic release of free secretion-competent eosinophil granules in humans  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils release their granule proteins extracellularly through exocytosis, piecemeal degranulation, or cytolytic degranulation. Findings in diverse human eosinophilic diseases of intact extracellular eosinophil granules, either free or clustered, indicate that eosinophil cytolysis occurs in vivo, but the mechanisms and consequences of lytic eosinophil degranulation are poorly understood. We demonstrate that activated human eosinophils can undergo extracellular DNA trap cell death (ETosis) that cytolytically releases free eosinophil granules. Eosinophil ETosis (EETosis), in response to immobilized immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA), cytokines with platelet activating factor, calcium ionophore, or phorbol myristate acetate, develops within 120 minutes in a reduced NADP (NADPH) oxidase-dependent manner. Initially, nuclear lobular formation is lost and some granules are released by budding off from the cell as plasma membrane–enveloped clusters. Following nuclear chromatolysis, plasma membrane lysis liberates DNA that forms weblike extracellular DNA nets and releases free intact granules. EETosis-released eosinophil granules, still retaining eosinophil cationic granule proteins, can be activated to secrete when stimulated with CC chemokine ligand 11 (eotaxin-1). Our results indicate that an active NADPH oxidase-dependent mechanism of cytolytic, nonapoptotic eosinophil death initiates nuclear chromatolysis that eventuates in the release of intact secretion-competent granules and the formation of extracellular DNA nets. PMID:23303825

Ueki, Shigeharu; Melo, Rossana C. N.; Ghiran, Ionita; Spencer, Lisa A.; Dvorak, Ann M.; Weller, Peter F.

2013-01-01

188

Influence of Experimental Diabetes Mellitus on Secretary Granules in ?-Cells in the Dog Pancreatic Islet. II. Relationship between the Spherical Granule and the Cored Vesicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A category of the spherical granules contains two types of granules such as a filled granule and a cored vesicle. The spherical granules were counted to separate the filled granule and the cored vesicle. Ten mixed-breed dogs were separated into two groups. One was the control group, and the other was experimental DM using Streptozotocin at sub cutaneous. The experimental

Yuji Asai; Hiroyuki Morimoto; Yoshio Mabuchi; Eisuke Sakuma; Nobuyuki Shirasawa; Osamu Horiuchi; Damon C. Herbert; Tsuyoshi Soji

189

Constitutive and basal secretion from the endocrine cell line, AtT-20  

PubMed Central

A variant of the ACTH-secreting pituitary cell line, AtT-20, has been isolated that does not make ACTH, sulfated proteins characteristic of the regulated secretory pathway, or dense-core secretory granules but retains constitutive secretion. Unlike wild type AtT-20 cells, the variant cannot store or release on stimulation, free glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. In addition, the variant cells cannot store trypsinogen or proinsulin, proteins that are targeted to dense core secretory granules in wild type cells. The regulated pathway could not be restored by transfecting with DNA encoding trypsinogen, a soluble regulated secretory protein targeted to secretory granules. A comparison of secretion from variant and wild type cells allows a distinction to be made between constitutive secretion and basal secretion, the spontaneous release of regulated proteins that occurs in the absence of stimulation. PMID:1847928

1991-01-01

190

Granule cargo release from bone marrow-derived cells sustains cardiac hypertrophy.  

PubMed

Bone marrow-derived inflammatory cells, including platelets, may contribute to the progression of pressure overload-induced left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). However, the underlying mechanisms for this are still unclear. One potential mechanism is through release of granule cargo. Unc13-d(Jinx) (Jinx) mice, which lack Munc13-4, a limiting factor in vesicular priming and fusion, have granule secretion defects in a variety of hematopoietic cells, including platelets. In the current study, we investigated the role of granule secretion in the development of LVH and cardiac remodeling using chimeric mice specifically lacking Munc13-4 in marrow-derived cells. Pressure overload was elicited by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Chimeric mice were created by bone marrow transplantation. Echocardiography, histology staining, immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and mass spectrometry were used to study LVH progression and inflammatory responses. Wild-type (WT) mice that were transplanted with WT bone marrow (WT?WT) and WT mice that received Jinx bone marrow (Jinx?WT) developed LVH and a classic fetal reprogramming response early (7 days) after TAC. However, at late times (5 wk), mice lacking Munc13-4 in bone marrow-derived cells (Jinx?WT) failed to sustain the cardiac hypertrophy observed in WT chimeric mice. No difference in cardiac fibrosis was observed at early or late time points. Reinjection of WT platelets or platelet releasate partially restored cardiac hypertrophy in Jinx chimeric mice. These results suggest that sustained LVH in the setting of pressure overload depends on one or more factors secreted from bone marrow-derived cells, possibly from platelets. Inhibiting granule cargo release may represent a novel target for preventing sustained LVH. PMID:25239803

Yang, Fanmuyi; Dong, Anping; Ahamed, Jasimuddin; Sunkara, Manjula; Smyth, Susan S

2014-11-15

191

Elemental levels in mast cell granules differ in sections from normal and diabetic rats: an X-ray microanalysis study  

SciTech Connect

Mast cells around the thymus of rats stain red with alcian blue and safranin indicating that the mast cells are probably of the peritoneal (connective tissue) type. After the onset of streptozotocin induced diabetes some cells contain both red and blue granules and blue staining cells may appear. X-ray microanalysis of frozen freeze-dried sections from diabetic male CSE Wistar rats showed electron dense granules to have similar amounts of S to normal rat mast cell granules but reduced levels of Na, Mg, P, Cl and K. Two cells also had electron lucent granules with very high levels of Na, Cl, K and Ca and reduced concentrations of S. The differences in elemental composition suggest that the mast cells from diabetic rats are not immature, but are related to the condition of induced diabetes, and that granules of very different composition can occur within a single cell. X-ray microanalysis has given an insight into mast cell granule elemental content which was not possible by conventional biochemical methods.

Kendall, M.D.

1988-03-01

192

Effects of adult-generated granule cells on coordinated network activity in the dentate gyrus.  

PubMed

Throughout the adult life of most mammals, new neurons are continuously generated in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation. Recent work has documented specific cognitive deficits after elimination of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in rodents, suggesting that these neurons may contribute to information processing in hippocampal circuits. Young adult-born neurons exhibit enhanced excitability and have altered capacity for synaptic plasticity in hippocampal slice preparations in vitro. Still, little is known about the effect of adult-born granule cells on hippocampal activity in vivo. To assess the impact of these new neurons on neural circuits in the dentate, we recorded perforant-path evoked responses and spontaneous network activity from the dentate gyrus of urethane-anesthetized mice whose hippocampus had been focally X-irradiated to eliminate the population of young adult-born granule cells. After X-irradiation, perforant-path responses were reduced in magnitude. In contrast, there was a marked increase in the amplitude of spontaneous ?-frequency bursts in the dentate gyrus and hilus, as well as increased synchronization of dentate neuron firing to these bursts. A similar increase in gamma burst amplitude was also found in animals in which adult neurogenesis was eliminated using the GFAP:TK pharmacogenetic ablation technique. These data suggest that young neurons may inhibit or destabilize recurrent network activity in the dentate and hilus. This unexpected result yields a new perspective on how a modest number of young adult-generated granule cells may modulate activity in the larger population of mature granule cells, rather than acting solely as independent encoding units. PMID:20882540

Lacefield, Clay O; Itskov, Vladimir; Reardon, Thomas; Hen, René; Gordon, Joshua A

2012-01-01

193

Changes in synaptic efficacy of dentate granule cells during operant behavior in rats.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted that long-term potentiation (LTP) is one of the fundamental physiological mechanisms underlying memory function based on its response properties and behavior of the induced sites. Many experimental approaches have been used to investigate whether the mechanisms underlying LTP are activated during learning and whether these mechanisms underlie the formation of certain types of memory. However, relatively few studies have reported the time course of changes in the efficacy of synaptic transmission in the learning process. We simultaneously monitored changes in slope of field EPSPs (fEPSP slope) and the amplitude of population spikes (pop. spike) in perforant path-evoked potentials in the dentate gyrus over the course of an appetitively motivated operant paradigm in freely moving rats. We found that the fEPSP slope recorded from the granule cell layer was potentiated about 7%, the fEPSP slope recorded from the molecular layer was depressed about 20%, and the amplitude of pop. spike recorded from the granule cell layer was significantly depressed about 40% after the trial in which rats began to press the lever frequently. These results suggested that the granule cells in the dentate gyrus received excitatory inputs in the somatic region and inhibitory inputs in the dendritic region, and that outputs from the granule cells were significantly reduced in the process of acquisition of the operant behavioral task. We observed no LTP in this study although our rats were capable of having LTP induced by a high-frequency stimulus. The depression of fEPSP slope induced without any artificial stimulation in this study is thought to be another neural mechanism underlying learning and memory. The origins of excitatory and inhibitory inputs are unknown at the moment. PMID:22108509

Nomoto, Shigeki; Yamamoto, Tomohiro; Tomioka, Jun-Ichi; Nomoto, Emi

2012-02-28

194

Differential pharmacological properties of GABAA receptors in axon terminals and soma of dentate gyrus granule cells.  

PubMed

Although it has been well established that GABA(A) receptors are molecular targets of a variety of allosteric modulators, such as benzodiazepines, the pharmacological properties of presynaptic GABA(A) receptors are poorly understood. In this study, the effects of diazepam and Zn(2+) on presynaptic GABA(A) receptors have been investigated by measuring the GABA(A) receptor-mediated facilitation of spontaneous glutamate release in mechanically dissociated rat CA3 pyramidal neurons. Diazepam significantly enhanced the muscimol-induced facilitation (particularly at submicromolar concentrations) of spontaneous glutamate release and shifted the concentration-response relationship for muscimol toward the left, whereas Zn(2+) (granule cells, which are parent neurons of mossy fibers, whereas the effect of diazepam on GABA(A) receptors expressed on dentate gyrus granule cells was lesser than that on presynaptic GABA(A) receptors. The results suggest that the pharmacological properties of GABA(A) receptors differ considerably between presynaptic (axon terminals) and somatic regions in the same granule cell and that presynaptic GABA(A) receptors should be considered as one of the important pharmacological targets of many drugs affecting GABA(A) receptors. PMID:19519773

Han, Jin-Wuk; Nakamura, Michiko; Choi, In-Sun; Cho, Jin-Hwa; Park, Hye-Mi; Lee, Maan-Gee; Choi, Byung-Ju; Jang, Hyun-Jung; Jang, Il-Sung

2009-05-01

195

Calcium Influx Measured at Single Presynaptic Boutons of Cerebellar Granule Cell Ascending Axons and Parallel Fibers  

PubMed Central

Action potential-evoked calcium influx into presynaptic boutons is a key determinant of synaptic strength and function. Here, we have examined the calcium dynamics at individual presynaptic boutons of the cerebellar granule cells in the molecular layer of cerebellar slices and investigated whether different subpopulations of granule cell boutons exhibit different calcium dynamics. We found that a population of boutons with low basal calcium clearance rates may activate a second clearance mechanism and exhibit biphasic calcium decay on high calcium influx induced by bursts of action potentials. We also found that boutons on ascending axons and parallel fibers show similar calcium influx amplitudes and calcium clearance rates in response to action potentials. Lastly, we found that parallel fiber boutons located in the inner molecular layer have a higher calcium clearance rate than boutons located in the outer molecular layer. These results suggest that cerebellar granule cell boutons should not be regarded as a homogeneous population, but rather that different subpopulations of boutons may exhibit different properties. The heterogeneity of presynaptic boutons may allow different learned behaviors to be encoded in the same circuit without mutual interference and may be a general mechanism for increasing the computational capacity of the brain. PMID:20049574

Zhang, Wei

2010-01-01

196

Neurodegeneration in cerebellar granule cells of p/q type voltage gated calcium channel mutant leaner mice  

E-print Network

that leaner CGC death continues into adulthood and the spatial pattern of granule cell death observed during postnatal development also continues into adulthood. The present investigation showed a reduced resting intracellular calcium in CGC from leaner mice...

Bawa, Bhupinder

2009-05-15

197

Targeted Proteomics of the Secretory Pathway Reveals the Secretome of Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts and Human Embryonic Stem Cells*  

PubMed Central

Proteins endogenously secreted by human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and those present in hESC culture medium are critical regulators of hESC self-renewal and differentiation. Current MS-based approaches for identifying secreted proteins rely predominantly on MS analysis of cell culture supernatants. Here we show that targeted proteomics of secretory pathway organelles is a powerful alternate approach for interrogating the cellular secretome. We have developed procedures to obtain subcellular fractions from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and hESCs that are enriched in secretory pathway organelles while ensuring retention of the secretory cargo. MS analysis of these fractions from hESCs cultured in MEF conditioned medium (MEF-CM) or MEFs exposed to hESC medium revealed 99 and 129 proteins putatively secreted by hESCs and MEFs, respectively. Of these, 53 and 62 proteins have been previously identified in cell culture supernatants of MEFs and hESCs, respectively, thus establishing the validity of our approach. Furthermore, 76 and 37 putatively secreted proteins identified in this study in MEFs and hESCs, respectively, have not been reported in previous MS analyses. The identification of low abundance secreted proteins via MS analysis of cell culture supernatants typically necessitates the use of altered culture conditions such as serum-free medium. However, an altered medium formulation might directly influence the cellular secretome. Indeed, we observed significant differences between the abundances of several secreted proteins in subcellular fractions isolated from hESCs cultured in MEF-CM and those exposed to unconditioned hESC medium for 24 h. In contrast, targeted proteomics of secretory pathway organelles does not require the use of customized media. We expect that our approach will be particularly valuable in two contexts highly relevant to hESC biology: obtaining a temporal snapshot of proteins secreted in response to a differentiation trigger, and identifying proteins secreted by cells that are isolated from a heterogeneous population. PMID:22984290

Sarkar, Prasenjit; Randall, Shan M.; Muddiman, David C.; Rao, Balaji M.

2012-01-01

198

Ascending Granule Cell Axon: An Important Component of Cerebellar  

E-print Network

GUNDAPPA-SULUR,1 ERIK DE SCHUTTER,2 AND JAMES M. BOWER3* 1Department of Pathology, University of California. 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Indexing terms: cerebellum; Purkinje cells; synapses; electron microscopy influence on theories and models of cerebellar function (Eccles et al., 1967; Marr, 1969; Albus, 1971

De Schutter, Erik

199

Mossy cell axon synaptic contacts on ectopic granule cells that are born following pilocarpine-induced seizures.  

PubMed

Granule cell neurogenesis increases following seizures, and some newly born granule cells develop at abnormal locations within the hilus. These ectopic granule cells (EGCs) demonstrate regular bursts of action potentials that are synchronized with CA3 pyramidal cell burst discharges and the bursts of hilar neurons, including mossy cells. Such findings suggest that mossy cells may participate in circuits that activate EGCs. Electron microscopic immunolabeling was therefore used to determine if mossy cell axon terminals form synapses with hilar EGC dendrites, using animals that underwent pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. Pilocarpine was administered to adult male rats, and those which developed status epilepticus were perfused 5-7 months later, after the period of EGC genesis. Hippocampal sections were processed for dual electron microscopic immunolabeling (using calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) as a marker for mossy cells and calbindin (CaBP) as a marker for EGCs). Light microscopic analysis revealed large CGRP-immunoreactive cells in the hilus, with the appearance and distribution of mossy cells. Electron microscopic analysis revealed numerous CaBP-immunoreactive dendrites in the hilus, some of which were innervated by CGRP-immunoreactive terminals. The results suggest that mossy cells participate in the excitatory circuits which activate EGCs, providing further insight into the network rearrangements that accompany seizure-induced neurogenesis in this animal model of epilepsy. PMID:17611032

Pierce, Joseph P; Punsoni, Michael; McCloskey, Daniel P; Scharfman, Helen E

2007-07-11

200

Oncospheral Penetration Glands and Secretory Blebs Are the Sources of Taenia ovis Vaccine Antigens? †  

PubMed Central

Taenia ovis is a cestode parasite infecting primarily sheep as intermediate hosts and dogs as definitive hosts. The first highly effective, recombinant vaccine against a parasitic organism was developed against T. ovis infection in sheep. Three separate host-protective antigens (To16, To18, and To45W) have been cloned from the oncosphere of the parasite. We localize these antigens in the oncosphere by using quantitative immunogold labeling and transmission electron microscopy. The three antigens were uniquely associated with penetration gland cells. The cytoplasm and secretory granules of both penetration gland type 1 and type 2 cells exhibited statistically significant levels of staining for each of the three antigens. The intensity of labeling of the penetration gland type 1 cell was approximately three to five times greater (P < 0.01) compared to the level of staining intensity seen in the penetration gland type 2 cell. In activated oncospheres, secretory blebs were found to contain granules with a structure similar to those observed in the penetration gland cells. The granules within the secretory blebs were shown to stain specifically for the presence of each of the three host-protective antigens. The absence of surface location of the T. ovis antigens suggests that the parasite may not be susceptible to vaccine-induced antibody- and complement-mediated attack until some postoncospheral development has occurred after infection of the intermediate host. PMID:20643854

Jabbar, Abdul; Crawford, Simon; Gauci, Charles G.; Walduck, Anna K.; Anderson, Garry A.; Lightowlers, Marshall W.

2010-01-01

201

High-frequency stimulation induces gradual immediate early gene expression in maturing adult-generated hippocampal granule cells.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence shows that adult neurogenesis of hippocampal granule cells is advantageous for learning and memory. We examined at which stage of structural maturation and age new granule cells can be activated by strong synaptic stimulation. High-frequency stimulation of the perforant pathway in urethane-anesthetized rats elicited expression of the immediate early genes c-fos, Arc, zif268 and pCREB133 in almost 100% of mature, calbindin-positive granule cells. In contrast, it failed to induce immediate early gene expression in immature doublecortin-positive granule cells. Furthermore, doublecortin-positive neurons did not react with c-fos or Arc expression to mild theta-burst stimulation or novel environment exposure. Endogenous expression of pCREB133 was increasingly present in young cells with more elaborated dendrites, revealing a close correlation to structural maturation. Labeling with bromodeoxyuridine revealed cell age dependence of stimulation-induced c-fos, Arc and zif268 expression, with only a few cells reacting at 21 days, but with up to 75% of cells activated at 35-77 days of cell age. Our results indicate an increasing synaptic integration of maturing granule cells, starting at 21 days of cell age, but suggest a lack of ability to respond to activation with synaptic potentiation on the transcriptional level as long as immature cells express doublecortin. PMID:23425888

Jungenitz, Tassilo; Radic, Tijana; Jedlicka, Peter; Schwarzacher, Stephan W

2014-07-01

202

Perturbation of 1Integrin Function in Involuting Mammary Gland Results in Premature Dedifferentiation of Secretory Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the mechanism of 1-integrin function in vivo, we have generated transgenic mouse expressing a dominant negative mutant of 1-integrin under the control of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter (MMTV-1-cyto). Mammary glands from MMTV-1-cyto trans- genic females present significant growth defects during pregnancy and lactation and impaired differentiation of secretory epithelial cells at the onset of lactation. We

Marisa M. Faraldo; Marie-Ange Deugnier; Sylvie Tlouzeau; Jean Paul Thiery; Marina A. Glukhova

2002-01-01

203

A DISTINCTIVE LAYERING PATTERN OF MOUSE DENTATE GRANULE CELLS IS GENERATED BY DEVELOPMENTAL AND ADULT NEUROGENESIS  

PubMed Central

New neurons are continuously added throughout life to the dentate gyrus of the mammalian hippocampus. During embryonic and early postnatal development, the dentate gyrus is formed in an outside-in layering pattern that may extend through adulthood. In this work we aimed to systematically quantify the relative position of dentate granule cells generated at different ages. We used 5’-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and retroviral methodologies to birth-date cells born in the embryonic, early postnatal and adult hippocampus and assessed their final position in the adult mouse granule cell layer. We also quantified both developmental and adult-born cohorts of neural progenitor cells that contribute to the pool of adult progenitor cells. Our data confirm that the outside-in layering of the dentate gyrus continues through adulthood and that early-born cells constitute most of the adult dentate gyrus. We also found that a substantial fraction of the dividing cells in the adult dentate gyrus were derived from early-dividing cells and retained BrdU, suggesting that a subpopulation of hippocampal progenitors divides infrequently from early development on. PMID:20886617

Mathews, Emily A.; Morgenstern, Nicolas A.; Piatti, Veronica C.; Zhao, Chunmei; Jessberger, Sebastian; Schinder, Alejandro F.; Gage, Fred H.

2010-01-01

204

Synthetic mast-cell granules as adjuvants to promote and polarize immunity in lymph nodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Granules of mast cells (MCs) enhance adaptive immunity when, on activation, they are released as stable particles. Here we show that submicrometre particles modelled after MC granules augment immunity when used as adjuvants in vaccines. The synthetic particles, which consist of a carbohydrate backbone with encapsulated inflammatory mediators such as tumour necrosis factor, replicate attributes of MCs in vivo including the targeting of draining lymph nodes and the timed release of the encapsulated mediators. When used as an adjuvant during vaccination of mice with haemagglutinin from the influenza virus, the particles enhanced adaptive immune responses and increased survival of mice on lethal challenge. Furthermore, differential loading of the particles with the cytokine IL-12 directed the character of the response towards Th1 lymphocytes. The synthetic MC adjuvants replicate and enhance the functions of MCs during vaccination, and can be extended to polarize the resulting immunity.

St. John, Ashley L.; Chan, Cheryl Y.; Staats, Herman F.; Leong, Kam W.; Abraham, Soman N.

2012-03-01

205

Mechanisms of pH Regulation in the Regulated Secretory Pathway* Received for publication, May 1, 2001, and in revised form, June 11, 2001  

E-print Network

cells, we found that steady-state pH decreased from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (pHER 7.4 0.2, mean S increasingly acidic. Indirect measurements of pH in isolated secretory granules of endocrine and neuroendocrine

Tsien, Roger Y.

206

The secretory dynamics of the CHH-producing cell group in the eyestalk of the crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus , in the course of the day\\/night cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The secretory dynamics of the Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (CHH)-producing cells in the eyestalk of the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus were studied during the daily cycle (12 h light\\/12 h dark). The different secretory stages of individual cells were determined by means of immunocytochemistry combined with morphometric analysis at the light-microscopic level. The data obtained were correlated with the 24-h rhythmicity of

Janine L. Gorgels-Kallen; Christina E. M. Voorter

1985-01-01

207

Differential dendritic Ca2+ signalling in young and mature hippocampal granule cells  

PubMed Central

Neuronal activity is critically important for development and plasticity of dendrites, axons and synaptic connections. Although Ca2+ is an important signal molecule for these processes, not much is known about the regulation of the dendritic Ca2+ concentration in developing neurons. Here we used confocal Ca2+ imaging to investigate dendritic Ca2+ signalling in young and mature hippocampal granule cells, identified by the expression of the immature neuronal marker polysialated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM). Using the Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dye OGB-5N, we found that both young and mature granule cells showed large action-potential evoked dendritic Ca2+ transients with similar amplitude of ?200 nm, indicating active backpropagation of action potentials. However, the decay of the dendritic Ca2+ concentration back to baseline values was substantially different with a decay time constant of 550 ms in young versus 130 ms in mature cells, leading to a more efficient temporal summation of Ca2+ signals during theta-frequency stimulation in the young neurons. Comparison of the peak Ca2+ concentration and the decay measured with different Ca2+ indicators (OGB-5N, OGB-1) in the two populations of neurons revealed that the young cells had an ?3 times smaller endogenous Ca2+-binding ratio (?75 versus?220) and an ?10 times slower Ca2+ extrusion rate (?170 s?1versus?1800 s?1). These data suggest that the large dendritic Ca2+ signals due to low buffer capacity and slow extrusion rates in young granule cells may contribute to the activity-dependent growth and plasticity of dendrites and new synaptic connections. This will finally support differentiation and integration of young neurons into the hippocampal network. PMID:18591186

Stocca, Gabriella; Schmidt-Hieber, Christoph; Bischofberger, Josef

2008-01-01

208

The translocation, folding, assembly and redox-dependent degradation of secretory and membrane proteins in semi-permeabilized mammalian cells.  

PubMed Central

We describe here a semi-permeabilized cell-system which reconstitutes the efficient synthesis, translocation, folding, assembly and degradation of membrane and secretory proteins. Cells grown in culture were treated with the detergent digitonin which selectively permeabilized the plasma membrane leaving the cellular organelles, such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and trans-Golgi network intact. These permeabilized cells were added to an in vitro translation system, either wheatgerm or reticulocyte lysate, supplemented with RNA coding for either membrane or secretory proteins. Efficient translocation and modification of proteins by these cells was demonstrated by protease protection, photocross-linking of nascent chains to components of the translocation apparatus and by post-translational modifications such as glycosylation or hydroxylation. A comparison was made between the ability of semi-permeabilized cells and microsomal vesicles to fold and assemble proteins. The results show that the intact ER within these cells can assemble proteins much more efficiently than vesicularized ER. Furthermore, the semi-permeabilized cells carried out the redox-dependent degradation of tissue-type plasminogen activator. This system has all the advantages of conventional cell-free systems, including speed and, importantly, the ability to manipulate the components of the assay, while retaining intracellular organelles and, therefore, allowing cellular processes to occur as they would in the intact cell. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:7741697

Wilson, R; Allen, A J; Oliver, J; Brookman, J L; High, S; Bulleid, N J

1995-01-01

209

Granzymes, cytotoxic granules and cell death: the early work of Dr. Jurg Tschopp  

PubMed Central

Within the powerful legacy left by Jurg Tschopp, we should not forget his early work that helped to elucidate the molecular pathways responsible for the clearance of virus-infected and transformed cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells. Jurg's skilful biochemical approach formed a firm platform upon which the work of so many other biochemists, cell biologists and immunologists would come to rely. Jurg coined the shorthand term ‘granzyme' to denote the individual members of a family of serine proteases sequestered in and secreted from the cytotoxic granules of CTL/NK cells. He was also one of the first to describe the lytic properties of purified perforin and to postulate the synergy of perforin and granzymes, which we now know to underpin target cell apoptosis. Jurg was a major protagonist in the debate that raged throughout the 1980's and early 1990's on the physiological relevance of the ‘granule exocytosis' pathway. Ultimately, resolving this issue led Jurg and his colleagues to even greater and impactful discoveries in the broader field of apoptosis research. Jurg Tschopp ranks with other pioneers, particularly Gideon Berke, Chris Bleackley, Pierre Golstein, Pierre Henkart and Eckhard Podack for making seminal discoveries on our understanding of how the immune system eliminates dangerous cells. PMID:22095283

Trapani, J A

2012-01-01

210

Subcellular glucose exposure biases the spatial distribution of insulin granules in single pancreatic beta cells  

PubMed Central

In living tissues, a cell is exposed to chemical substances delivered partially to its surface. Such a heterogeneous chemical environment potentially induces cell polarity. To evaluate this effect, we developed a microfluidic device that realizes spatially confined delivery of chemical substances at subcellular resolution. Our microfluidic device allows simple setup and stable operation for over 4?h to deliver chemicals partially to a single cell. Using the device, we showed that subcellular glucose exposure triggers an intracellular [Ca2+] change in the ?-cells. In addition, the imaging of a cell expressing GFP-tagged insulin showed that continuous subcellular exposure to glucose biased the spatial distribution of insulin granules toward the site where the glucose was delivered. Our approach illustrates an experimental technique that will be applicable to many biological experiments for imaging the response to subcellular chemical exposure and will also provide new insights about the development of polarity of ?-cells. PMID:24535122

Terao, Kyohei; Gel, Murat; Okonogi, Atsuhito; Fuke, Ariko; Okitsu, Teru; Tada, Takashi; Suzuki, Takaaki; Nagamatsu, Shinya; Washizu, Masao; Kotera, Hidetoshi

2014-01-01

211

Ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists inhibit the proliferation of granule cell precursors in the adult brain after seizures induced by pentylenetrazol.  

PubMed

Seizures have been shown to promote the proliferation of granule cell precursors in the adult brain, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Using systemic bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells, we examined the effects of selective ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists on granule cell precursor proliferation in adult rats after pentylenetrazol (PTZ)-induced generalized clonic seizures. We found that the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 significantly inhibited behavioral and EEG seizures and completely blocked seizure-induced increase in the number of BrdU-labeled cells in the dentate gyrus. Although the AMPA/KA receptor antagonist DNQX was not observed to affect seizures, it significantly suppressed the number of BrdU-labeled cells in the dentate gyrus. Double immunohistochemical staining showed that both the mature granule cells and the majority of BrdU-labeled, mitotically active cells expressed the NMDA receptor subunit NR1 and the AMPA/KA receptor subunit GluR2. Because accumulated evidence showed that mild seizures are sufficient to promote precursor cell proliferation, the present findings that MK-801 inhibited seizures and completely blocked seizure-induced increase in precursor cell proliferation suggest that the direct blockade action of MK-801 on NMDA receptors on the granule cell precursors may play an important role in blocking seizure-induced precursor cell proliferation. The suppression of seizure-induced proliferation of granule cell precursors by DNQX may be achieved by the direct action of DNQX on AMPA/KA receptors on the granule cell precursors. Thus, our findings indicate that seizures may promote cell proliferation in the adult rat dentate gyrus through glutamatergic mechanisms acting on both NMDA and AMPA/KA receptors. PMID:15312797

Jiang, Wen; Wolfe, Ken; Xiao, Lan; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Huang, Yuan-Gui; Zhang, Xia

2004-09-10

212

Altered patterning of dentate granule cell mossy fiber inputs onto CA3 pyramidal cells in limbic epilepsy.  

PubMed

Impaired gating by hippocampal dentate granule cells may promote the development of limbic epilepsy by facilitating seizure spread through the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit. The second synapse in this circuit, the dentate granule cell?CA3 pyramidal cell connection, may be of particular importance because pathological changes occurring within the dentate likely exert their principal effect on downstream CA3 pyramids. Here, we utilized GFP-expressing mice and immunolabeling for the zinc transporter ZnT-3 to reveal the pre- and postsynaptic components of granule cell?CA3 pyramidal cell synapses following pilocarpine-epileptogenesis. Confocal analyses of these terminals revealed that while granule cell presynaptic giant boutons increased in size and complexity 1 month after status epilepticus, individual thorns making up the postsynaptic thorny excrescences of the CA3 pyramidal cells were reduced in number. This reduction, however, was transient, and 3 months after status, thorn density recovered. This recovery was accompanied by a significant change in the distribution of thorns along pyramidal cells dendrites. While thorns in control animals tended to be tightly clustered, thorns in epileptic animals were more evenly distributed. Computational modeling of thorn distributions predicted an increase in the number of boutons required to cover equivalent numbers of thorns in epileptic vs. control mice. Confirming this prediction, ZnT-3 labeling of presynaptic giant boutons apposed to GFP-expressing thorns revealed a near doubling in bouton density, while the number of individual thorns per bouton was reduced by half. Together, these data provide clear evidence of novel plastic changes occurring within the epileptic hippocampus. PMID:20014385

McAuliffe, John J; Bronson, Stefanie L; Hester, Michael S; Murphy, Brian L; Dahlquist-Topalá, Renée; Richards, David A; Danzer, Steve C

2011-01-01

213

Altered patterning of dentate granule cell mossy fiber inputs onto CA3 pyramidal cells in limbic epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Impaired gating by hippocampal dentate granule cells may promote the development of limbic epilepsy by facilitating seizure spread through the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit. The second synapse in this circuit, the dentate granule cell?CA3 pyramidal cell connection, may be of particular importance because pathological changes occurring within the dentate likely exert their principal effect on downstream CA3 pyramids. Here, we utilized GFP-expressing mice and immunolabeling for the zinc transporter ZnT-3 to reveal the pre- and postsynaptic components of granule cell?CA3 pyramidal cell synapses following pilocarpine-epileptogenesis. Confocal analyses of these terminals revealed that while granule cell presynaptic giant boutons increased in size and complexity one month after status epilepticus, individual thorns making up the postsynaptic thorny excrescences of the CA3 pyramidal cells were reduced in number. This reduction, however, was transient, and three months after status, thorn density recovered. This recovery was accompanied by a significant change in the distribution of thorns along pyramidal cells dendrites. While thorns in control animals tended to be tightly clustered, thorns in epileptic animals were more evenly distributed. Computational modeling of thorn distributions predicted an increase in the number of boutons required to cover equivalent numbers of thorns in epileptic vs. control mice. Confirming this prediction, ZnT-3 labeling of presynaptic giant boutons apposed to GFP-expressing thorns revealed a near doubling in bouton density, while the number of individual thorns per bouton was reduced by half. Together, these data provide clear evidence of novel plastic changes occurring within the epileptic hippocampus. PMID:20014385

McAuliffe, John J.; Bronson, Stefanie L.; Hester, Michael S.; Murphy, Brian L.; Dahlquist-Topala, Renee; Richards, David A.; Danzer, Steve C.

2009-01-01

214

EPSPs of dentate gyrus granule cells during epileptiform bursts of dentate hilar "mossy" cells and area CA3 pyramidal cells in disinhibited rat hippocampal slices.  

PubMed

When hippocampal slices are exposed to GABAA antagonists, area CA3 pyramidal cells and dentate hilar "mossy" cells discharge in synchronized epileptiform bursts (Müller and Misgeld, 1991; Scharfman, 1994b). Dentate interneurons are excited simultaneously, but the degree of discharge varies (Scharfman, 1994b). This study primarily examined the activity of dentate granule cells simultaneous to the epileptiform bursts of pyramidal cells and mossy cells. EPSPs followed by large GABAB receptor-mediated IPSPs were generated in granule cells during all epileptiform bursts of pyramidal cells and mossy cells, regardless of whether they were evoked or spontaneous. By simultaneous recording it was determined that granule cell EPSPs began several milliseconds after the start of pyramidal cell bursts (n = 48 simultaneous recordings) and immediately after the first action potential of a mossy cell burst (n = 77). Interneurons were similar to granule cells in the timing of their depolarizations relative to the onset of pyramidal cell (n = 24; Scharfman, 1994b) and mossy cell (n = 9) bursts. All excitatory activity was blocked by bath application of the glutamatergic AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist CNQX (5 microM, n = 5), but not the NMDA receptor antagonist D-APV (25-50 microM, n = 9). Granule cell EPSPs were decreased after focal application of CNQX to the molecular layer at a site close to the impaled granule cell (n = 5), whereas D-APV had no effect (n = 3). EPSPs also decreased after focal application of CNQX to the hilus, in two of four slices tested. The extracellularly recorded EPSP of granule cells was maximal in the inner molecular layer (n = 33), the site of the mossy cell axonal plexus. Severing the junction of the dentate gyrus and area CA3 blocked all spontaneous and evoked activity of dentate neurons without affecting burst discharges in area CA3a and CA3b (n = 6). None of the excitatory activity of any cell type was affected by cholinergic antagonists (atropine and mecamylamine, 25 microM each, n = 5; pirenzipine and dihydro-beta-erythroidine, 25 microM each, n = 5). The results suggest that there is a glutamatergic, AMPA/kainate receptor-mediated, excitatory pathway from area CA3 to the dentate gyrus in disinhibited slices. The pharmacological results, analyses of latency, as well as the known axonal projections of the sampled cells, suggest that the excitatory pathway begins within area CA3 and leads to granule cells via mossy cells. The data also suggest that dentate interneurons are excited by mossy cells, and possibly by pyramidal cells as well.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7931561

Scharfman, H E

1994-10-01

215

In Silico Identification of Specialized Secretory-Organelle Proteins in Apicomplexan Parasites and In Vivo Validation in Toxoplasma gondii  

PubMed Central

Apicomplexan parasites, including the human pathogens Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum, employ specialized secretory organelles (micronemes, rhoptries, dense granules) to invade and survive within host cells. Because molecules secreted from these organelles function at the host/parasite interface, their identification is important for understanding invasion mechanisms, and central to the development of therapeutic strategies. Using a computational approach based on predicted functional domains, we have identified more than 600 candidate secretory organelle proteins in twelve apicomplexan parasites. Expression in transgenic T. gondii of eight proteins identified in silico confirms that all enter into the secretory pathway, and seven target to apical organelles associated with invasion. An in silico approach intended to identify possible host interacting proteins yields a dataset enriched in secretory/transmembrane proteins, including most of the antigens known to be engaged by apicomplexan parasites during infection. These domain pattern and projected interactome approaches significantly expand the repertoire of proteins that may be involved in host parasite interactions. PMID:18974850

2008-01-01

216

PAX2-null secretory cell outgrowths in the oviduct and their relationship to pelvic serous cancer.  

PubMed

With the exception of germ-line mutations in ovarian cancer susceptibility genes, genetic predictors for women destined for ovarian serous cancer cannot be identified in advance of malignancy. We recently showed that benign secretory cell outgrowths (SCOUTs) in the oviduct are increased in frequency with concurrent serous cancer and typically lack PAX2 expression (PAX2-null). The present study examined the relationship of PAX2-null SCOUTs to high-grade serous cancers by comparing oviducts from women with benign gynecologic conditions and high-grade serous cancers. PAX2-null SCOUTs were identified by immunostaining and computed as a function of location, frequency (F) per number of cross-sections examined, and age. Six hundred thirty-nine cross-sections from 35 serous cancers (364) and 35 controls (275) were examined. PAX2-null SCOUTs consisted of discrete linear stretches of altered epithelium ranging from cuboidal/columnar, to pseudostratified, the latter including ciliated differentiation. They were evenly distributed among proximal and fimbrial tubal sections. One hundred fourteen (F=0.31) and 45 (F=0.16) PAX2-null SCOUTs were identified in cases and controls, respectively. Mean individual case-specific frequencies for cases and controls were 0.39 and 0.14, respectively. SCOUT frequency increased significantly with age in both groups (P=0.01). However, when adjusted for age and the number of sections examined, the differences in frequency between cases and controls remained significant at P=0.006. This study supports a relationship between discrete PAX2 gene dysregulation in the oviduct and both increasing age and, more significantly, the presence of co-existing serous cancer. We propose a unique co-variable in benign oviductal epithelium-the PAX2-null SCOUT-that reflects underlying dysregulation in genes linked to serous neoplasia. PMID:22080059

Quick, Charles M; Ning, Gang; Bijron, Jonathan; Laury, Anna; Wei, Tay Seok; Chen, Eleanor Y; Vargas, Sara O; Betensky, Rebecca A; McKeon, Frank D; Xian, Wa; Crum, Christopher P

2012-03-01

217

Glucose Toxic Effects on Granulation Tissue Productive Cells: The Diabetics' Impaired Healing  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic noncommunicable disease with an expanding pandemic magnitude. Diabetes predisposes to lower extremities ulceration and impairs the healing process leading to wound chronification. Diabetes also dismantles innate immunity favoring wound infection. Amputation is therefore acknowledged as one of the disease's complications. Hyperglycemia is the proximal detonator of systemic and local toxic effectors including proinflammation, acute-phase proteins elevation, and spillover of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Insulin axis deficiency weakens wounds' anabolism and predisposes to inflammation. The systemic accumulation of advanced glycation end-products irreversibly impairs the entire physiology from cells-to-organs. These factors in concert hamper fibroblasts and endothelial cells proliferation, migration, homing, secretion, and organization of a productive granulation tissue. Diabetic wound bed may turn chronically inflammed, procatabolic, and an additional source of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, establishing a self-perpetuating loop. Diabetic fibroblasts and endothelial cells may bear mitochondrial damages becoming prone to apoptosis, which impairs granulation tissue cellularity and perfusion. Endothelial progenitor cells recruitment and tubulogenesis are also impaired. Failure of wound reepithelialization remains a clinical challenge while it appears to be biologically multifactorial. Ulcer prevention by primary care surveillance, education, and attention programs is of outmost importance to reduce worldwide amputation figures. PMID:23484099

Berlanga-Acosta, Jorge; Schultz, Gregory S.; López-Mola, Ernesto; Guillen-Nieto, Gerardo; García-Siverio, Marianela; Herrera-Martínez, Luis

2013-01-01

218

Glucose toxic effects on granulation tissue productive cells: the diabetics' impaired healing.  

PubMed

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic noncommunicable disease with an expanding pandemic magnitude. Diabetes predisposes to lower extremities ulceration and impairs the healing process leading to wound chronification. Diabetes also dismantles innate immunity favoring wound infection. Amputation is therefore acknowledged as one of the disease's complications. Hyperglycemia is the proximal detonator of systemic and local toxic effectors including proinflammation, acute-phase proteins elevation, and spillover of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Insulin axis deficiency weakens wounds' anabolism and predisposes to inflammation. The systemic accumulation of advanced glycation end-products irreversibly impairs the entire physiology from cells-to-organs. These factors in concert hamper fibroblasts and endothelial cells proliferation, migration, homing, secretion, and organization of a productive granulation tissue. Diabetic wound bed may turn chronically inflammed, procatabolic, and an additional source of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, establishing a self-perpetuating loop. Diabetic fibroblasts and endothelial cells may bear mitochondrial damages becoming prone to apoptosis, which impairs granulation tissue cellularity and perfusion. Endothelial progenitor cells recruitment and tubulogenesis are also impaired. Failure of wound reepithelialization remains a clinical challenge while it appears to be biologically multifactorial. Ulcer prevention by primary care surveillance, education, and attention programs is of outmost importance to reduce worldwide amputation figures. PMID:23484099

Berlanga-Acosta, Jorge; Schultz, Gregory S; López-Mola, Ernesto; Guillen-Nieto, Gerardo; García-Siverio, Marianela; Herrera-Martínez, Luis

2013-01-01

219

Evaluation of secretory mucin concentration of patients with squamous cell carcinoma oral cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Secretory salivary mucins constitute a hetero- genous group of glycoproteins, synthesized and secreted by submandibular, sublingual gland and small glands of oral mucosa. The most significant functions of mucins in case of oral cavity carcinoma are: participation in oral pellicle for- mation, lubrication and creation of heterotypic complexing. The aim of this study was to assess mucins concentra- tion,

Grabowska SZ

2005-01-01

220

Toxoplasma gondii ADP-ribosylation factor 1 mediates enhanced release of constitutively secreted dense granule proteins.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii dense granules are morphologically similar to dense matrix granules in specialized secretory cells, yet are secreted in a constitutive, calcium-independent fashion. We previously demonstrated that secretion of dense granule proteins in permeabilized parasites was augmented by the non-hydrolyzable GTP analogue guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate (GTPgammaS) (Chaturvedi, S., Qi, H., Coleman, D. L., Hanson, P., Rodriguez, A., and Joiner, K. A. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 2424-2431). As now demonstrated by pharmacological and electron microscopic approaches, GTPgammaS enhanced release of dense granule proteins in the permeabilized cell system. To investigate the role of ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) in this process, a cDNA encoding T. gondii ARF1 (TgARF1) was isolated. Endogenous and transgenic TgARF1 localized to the Golgi of T. gondii, but not to dense granules. An epitope-tagged mutant of TgARF1 predicted to be impaired in GTP hydrolysis (Q71L) partially dispersed the Golgi signal, with localization to scattered vesicles, whereas a mutant impaired in nucleotide binding (T31N) was cytosolic in location. Both mutants caused partial dispersion of a Golgi/trans-Golgi network marker. TgARF1 mutants inhibited delivery of the secretory reporter, Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase, to dense granules, precluding an in vivo assessment of the role of TgARF1 in release of intact dense granules. To circumvent this limitation, recombinant TgARF1 was purified using two separate approaches, and used in the permeabilized cell assay. TgARF1 protein purified on a Cibacron G3 column and able to bind GTP stimulated dense granule secretion in the permeabilized cell secretion assay. These results are the first to show that ARF1 can augment release of constitutively secreted vesicles at the target membrane. PMID:11278405

Liendo, A; Stedman, T T; Ngo, H M; Chaturvedi, S; Hoppe, H C; Joiner, K A

2001-05-25

221

Enhanced acoustic startle responding in rats with radiation-induced hippocampal granule cell hypoplasia  

SciTech Connect

Irradiation of the neonatal rat hippocampus reduces the proliferation of granule cells in the dentate gyrus and results in locomotor hyperactivity, behavioral preservation, and deficits on some learned tasks. In order to address the role of changes in stimulus salience and behavioral inhibition in animals with this type of brain damage, irradiated and normal rats were compared in their startle reactions to an acoustic stimulus. Irradiated rats startled with a consistently higher amplitude than control and were more likely to exhibit startle responses. These animals with hippocampal damage also failed to habituate to the startle stimulus and, under certain circumstances, showed potentiated startle responses after many tone presentations.

Mickley, G.A.; Ferguson, J.L.

1989-01-01

222

Simulating Spinal Border Cells and Cerebellar Granule Cells under Locomotion - A Case Study of Spinocerebellar Information Processing  

PubMed Central

The spinocerebellar systems are essential for the brain in the performance of coordinated movements, but our knowledge about the spinocerebellar interactions is very limited. Recently, several crucial pieces of information have been acquired for the spinal border cell (SBC) component of the ventral spinocerebellar tract (VSCT), as well as the effects of SBC mossy fiber activation in granule cells of the cerebellar cortex. SBCs receive monosynaptic input from the reticulospinal tract (RST), which is an important driving system under locomotion, and disynaptic inhibition from Ib muscle afferents. The patterns of activity of RST neurons and Ib afferents under locomotion are known. The activity of VSCT neurons under fictive locomotion, i.e. without sensory feedback, is also known, but there is little information on how these neurons behave under actual locomotion and for cerebellar granule cells receiving SBC input this is completely unknown. But the available information makes it possible to simulate the interactions between the spinal and cerebellar neuronal circuitries with a relatively large set of biological constraints. Using a model of the various neuronal elements and the network they compose, we simulated the modulation of the SBCs and their target granule cells under locomotion and hence generated testable predictions of their general pattern of modulation under this condition. This particular system offers a unique opportunity to simulate these interactions with a limited number of assumptions, which helps making the model biologically plausible. Similar principles of information processing may be expected to apply to all spinocerebellar systems. PMID:25226298

Spanne, Anton; Geborek, Pontus; Bengtsson, Fredrik; Jorntell, Henrik

2014-01-01

223

MMP-13 Regulates Growth of Wound Granulation Tissue and Modulates Gene Expression Signatures Involved in Inflammation, Proteolysis, and Cell Viability  

PubMed Central

Proteinases play a pivotal role in wound healing by regulating cell-matrix interactions and availability of bioactive molecules. The role of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) in granulation tissue growth was studied in subcutaneously implanted viscose cellulose sponge in MMP-13 knockout (Mmp13?/?) and wild type (WT) mice. The tissue samples were harvested at time points day 7, 14 and 21 and subjected to histological analysis and gene expression profiling. Granulation tissue growth was significantly reduced (42%) at day 21 in Mmp13?/? mice. Granulation tissue in Mmp13?/? mice showed delayed organization of myofibroblasts, increased microvascular density at day 14, and virtual absence of large vessels at day 21. Gene expression profiling identified differentially expressed genes in Mmp13?/? mouse granulation tissue involved in biological functions including inflammatory response, angiogenesis, cellular movement, cellular growth and proliferation and proteolysis. Among genes linked to angiogenesis, Adamts4 and Npy were significantly upregulated in early granulation tissue in Mmp13?/? mice, and a set of genes involved in leukocyte motility including Il6 were systematically downregulated at day 14. The expression of Pdgfd was downregulated in Mmp13?/? granulation tissue in all time points. The expression of matrix metalloproteinases Mmp2, Mmp3, Mmp9 was also significantly downregulated in granulation tissue of Mmp13?/? mice compared to WT mice. Mmp13?/? mouse skin fibroblasts displayed altered cell morphology and impaired ability to contract collagen gel and decreased production of MMP-2. These results provide evidence for an important role for MMP-13 in wound healing by coordinating cellular activities important in the growth and maturation of granulation tissue, including myofibroblast function, inflammation, angiogenesis, and proteolysis. PMID:22880047

Toriseva, Mervi; Laato, Matti; Carpen, Olli; Ruohonen, Suvi T.; Savontaus, Eriika; Inada, Masaki; Krane, Stephen M.; Kahari, Veli-Matti

2012-01-01

224

Impact of simulated microgravity on the secretory and adhesive activity of cultured human vascular endothelial cells.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The layer of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) is a dynamic,disseminated organ that perform the function of an interface between the blood and vascular wall. The endothelial monolayer is able to quickly respond to changes in the microenvironment due to its synthesis of vasoactive substances, chemokines, adhesion molecules expression, etc. ECs are highly sensitive to gravitational changes and capable of short-term and long-term responses (Sangha et al., 2001; Buravkova et al., 2005; Infanger et al., 2006, 2007. However, the question remains how to reflect the impact of microgravity on endothelium under the inflammatory process. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate secretory and adhesive activity of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) during simulated microgravity and TNF-a activation. HUVECs were isolated according to Gimbrone et al. (1978) in modification A. Antonov (1981) and used for experiments at 2-4 passages. HUVECs were activated by low level of TNF-a (2 ng/ml). Microgravity was generated by Random Positioning Machine (RPM, Dutch Space, Leiden) placed into the thermostat at 37°C. After 24 hours of clinorotation we measured adhesion molecules expression on the cell surface (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, PECAM-1, E-selectin, CD144, endoglin (CD105)) and cell viability using a flow cytometry. To evaluate the level of target gene expression was used the real time RT-PCR. IL-6 and IL-8 concentration was measured in the conditioned medium of HUVECs by using the ELISA test. We found that simulated microgravity within 24 hours caused a decrease of ICAM-1, CD144, and E-selectin expression, at the same time not affect the cell viability, endoglin and PECAM-1 expression on the surface HUVEC. Furthermore, there were no changes of the level of IL-6 and IL-8 gene expression and their products in the culture medium. TNF-activated HUVECs showed an increase in gene expression of interleukins and molecules involved in the adhesion process, which also was confirmed by the higher level of cytokines in the medium and elevated share of CD144, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1-positive cells. Comparative analysis of the level TNF-induced secretion of IL-6 and IL-8, as well as the share of cells bearing ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, showed significant variability depending on the donors. Simultaneous exposure to simulated microgravity and proinflammatory activation did not potentiate and did not cancel the effect caused by TNF-a. In summary, our findings indicate that the simulated microgravity is not activating and additional pro-inflammatory stimulus to HUVEC in vitro model. This work was supported in part by Grant from RFBR ? 12-04-31763 and Grant ? NSh-371.2014.4

Rudimov, Evgeny; Buravkova, Ludmila; Pogodina, Margarita; Andrianova, Irina

225

Elevation of susceptibility to ozone-induced acute tracheobronchial injury in transgenic mice deficient in Clara cell secretory protein  

SciTech Connect

Increases in Clara cell abundance or cellular expression of Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP) may cause increased tolerance of the lung to acute oxidant injury by repeated exposure to ozone (O{sub 3}). This study defines how disruption of the gene for CCSP synthesis affects the susceptibility of tracheobronchial epithelium to acute oxidant injury. Mice homozygous for a null allele of the CCSP gene (CCSP-/-) and wild type (CCSP+/+) littermates were exposed to ozone (0.2 ppm, 8 h; 1 ppm, 8 h) or filtered air. Injury was evaluated by light and scanning electron microscopy, and the abundance of necrotic, ciliated, and nonciliated cells was estimated by morphometry. Proximal and midlevel intrapulmonary airways and terminal bronchioles were evaluated. There was no difference in airway epithelial composition between CCSP+/+ and CCSP-/- mice exposed to filtered air, and exposure to 0.2 ppm ozone caused little injury to the epithelium of both CCSP+/+ and CCSP-/- mice. After exposure to 1.0 ppm ozone, CCSP-/- mice suffered from a greater degree of epithelial injury throughout the airways compared to CCSP+/+ mice. CCSP-/- mice had both ciliated and nonciliated cell injury. Furthermore, lack of CCSP was associated with a shift in airway injury to include proximal airway generations. Therefore, we conclude that CCSP modulates the susceptibility of the epithelium to oxidant-induced injury. Whether this is due to the presence of CCSP on the acellular lining layer surface and/or its intracellular distribution in the secretory cell population needs to be defined.

Plopper, C.G. [Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Cell Biology, California National Primate Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, 1 Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: cgplopper@ucdavis.edu; Mango, G.W. [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Hatch, G.E. [Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Wong, V.J. [Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Cell Biology, California National Primate Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, 1 Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Toskala, E. [Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Cell Biology, California National Primate Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, 1 Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Reynolds, S.D. [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Tarkington, B.K. [Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Cell Biology, California National Primate Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, 1 Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Stripp, B.R. [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)

2006-05-15

226

Platelet alpha-granule fibrinogen, albumin, and immunoglobulin G are not synthesized by rat and mouse megakaryocytes.  

PubMed Central

It has been assumed that endogenous synthesis by the platelet precursor cell, the bone marrow megakaryocyte, is the major source of platelet alpha-granule protein. To test this hypothesis, we used mRNA phenotyping to detect in megakaryocytes the presence of mRNA transcripts specific for various proteins. Our results indicate that megakaryocytes synthesize platelet factor 4, a protein relatively specific for platelets, but do not express mRNA transcripts for the fibrinogen, albumin, or IgG found in alpha-granules. We have previously shown that megakaryocytes endocytose circulating proteins, including fibrinogen, albumin, and IgG, and incorporate them into alpha-granules. Thus, platelets appear to contain a unique type of secretory granule whose contents originate by both endogenous synthesis and endocytosis from plasma. Under basal conditions, the source of alpha-granule fibrinogen is plasma. Images PMID:2212018

Handagama, P; Rappolee, D A; Werb, Z; Levin, J; Bainton, D F

1990-01-01

227

Inhibition of NK and ADCC activity by antibodies against purified cytoplasmic granules from rat LGL tumors.  

PubMed

Highly purified preparations of cytoplasmic granules from transplantable rat large granular lymphocyte (LGL) tumor lines (rat natural killer (RNK) tumors) were used to immunize rabbits. Antibodies from these animals gave two precipitin lines with granule extracts in Ouchterlony experiments. They reacted with at least four different bands on nitrocellulose blots of SDS gels of LGL granule proteins. By immunofluorescence, specifically adsorbed antigranule antibodies did not recognize LGL or T cell surface antigens but reacted with the cytoplasmic granules in permeabilized RNK tumor cells as well as with normal rat LGL. These same antisera showed little or no reactivity with a panel of other cells, including peripheral blood T cells, thymocytes, macrophages, and EL-4 tumor cells. F(ab')2 preparations of these antigranule antibodies completely blocked granule-mediated lysis of both SRBC and nucleated targets, while control F(ab')2 preparations from rabbits immunized with EL-4 granules or TNP-KLH showed no significant inhibition of this cytolytic activity at the same antibody concentration. Anti-granule F(ab')2 preparations specifically inhibited (greater than 75%) rat natural killer (NK) and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activities in a dose-dependent manner but did not effect cytotoxic T cell activity. Pretreatment of either effectors or targets by these antibodies had no effect. Anti-granule F(ab')2 preparations, at concentrations showing strong inhibition of lysis, did not inhibit the binding of LGL to YAC-1 or Ab-coated P815 targets. These results demonstrate that a granule component(s) is necessary for the lytic activity of LGL in both NK and ADCC and provide the first direct evidence that a secretory event involving these granules is part of the lytic process. PMID:3316462

Reynolds, C W; Reichardt, D; Henkart, M; Millard, P; Henkart, P

1987-12-01

228

Neuroanatomical clues to altered neuronal activity in epilepsy: from ultrastructure to signaling pathways of dentate granule cells.  

PubMed

The dynamic aspects of epilepsy, in which seizures occur sporadically and are interspersed with periods of relatively normal brain function, present special challenges for neuroanatomical studies. Although numerous morphologic changes can be identified during the chronic period, the relationship of many of these changes to seizure generation and propagation remains unclear. Mossy fiber sprouting is an example of a frequently observed morphologic change for which a functional role in epilepsy continues to be debated. This review focuses on neuroanatomically identified changes that would support high levels of activity in reorganized mossy fibers and potentially associated granule cell activation. Early ultrastructural studies of reorganized mossy fiber terminals in human temporal lobe epilepsy tissue have identified morphologic substrates for highly efficacious excitatory connections among granule cells. If similar connections in animal models contribute to seizure activity, activation of granule cells would be expected. Increased labeling with two activity-related markers, Fos and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase, has suggested increased activity of dentate granule cells at the time of spontaneous seizures in a mouse model of epilepsy. However, neuroanatomical support for a direct link between activation of reorganized mossy fiber terminals and increased granule cell activity remains elusive. As novel activity-related markers are developed, it may yet be possible to demonstrate such functional links and allow mapping of seizure activity throughout the brain. Relating patterns of neuronal activity during seizures to the underlying morphologic changes could provide important new insights into the basic mechanisms of epilepsy and seizure generation. PMID:22612811

Houser, Carolyn R; Zhang, Nianhui; Peng, Zechun; Huang, Christine S; Cetina, Yliana

2012-06-01

229

Stereoselective uptake of atenolol into storage granules isolated from PC12 cells.  

PubMed

Atenolol has been shown to be stored and secreted from PC12 cells by calcium-dependent and stereoselective mechanisms. The present study was designed to determine if the cytoplasmic amine storage granule was the site for storage and release of atenolol and if the drug was, in fact, an enantiomeric selective substrate for the vesicular amine transport protein. Uptake of racemic [3H]atenolol and (-)-[3H]norepinephrine was studied in a vesicular preparation of storage granules isolated from PC12 cells. Uptake of both molecules was found to be ATP-dependent (80%) and to reach steady state in approximately 10 to 15 min. Uptake and storage was inhibited (95%) by either reserpine, an inhibitor of the vesicular amine carrier, or by nigericin which dissipates the proton gradient across the membrane. Uptake of neither compound was inhibited by desipramine, an inhibitor of uptake 1, or oligomycin, an inhibitor of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphatase. Furthermore, uptake of the (-)-enantiomer of atenolol was found to be approximately 5-fold greater than the (+)-enantiomer. Kinetic studies revealed a Km of 184 microM for (+/-)-atenolol and 79 microM for (-)-norepinephrine and Vmax values of 750 and 503 pmol/min/mg of protein for atenolol and norepinephrine, respectively. The interaction of the two compounds with the transport process was found to be kinetically competitive. In separate experiments, atenolol was also found to be transported stereoselectively into bovine adrenal chromaffin granule ghosts and to be ATP dependent (85%) and reserpine sensitive (44%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2724136

Bagwell, E E; Webb, J G; Walle, T; Gaffney, T E

1989-05-01

230

Distinct fusion properties of synaptotagmin-1 and synaptotagmin-7 bearing dense core granules  

PubMed Central

Adrenal chromaffin cells release hormones and neuropeptides that are essential for physiological homeostasis. During this process, secretory granules fuse with the plasma membrane and deliver their cargo to the extracellular space. It was once believed that fusion was the final regulated step in exocytosis, resulting in uniform and total release of granule cargo. Recent evidence argues for nonuniform outcomes after fusion, in which cargo is released with variable kinetics and selectivity. The goal of this study was to identify factors that contribute to the different outcomes, with a focus on the Ca2+-sensing synaptotagmin (Syt) proteins. Two Syt isoforms are expressed in chromaffin cells: Syt-1 and Syt-7. We find that overexpressed and endogenous Syt isoforms are usually sorted to separate secretory granules and are differentially activated by depolarizing stimuli. In addition, overexpressed Syt-1 and Syt-7 impose distinct effects on fusion pore expansion and granule cargo release. Syt-7 pores usually fail to expand (or reseal), slowing the dispersal of lumenal cargo proteins and granule membrane proteins. On the other hand, Syt-1 diffuses from fusion sites and promotes the release of lumenal cargo proteins. These findings suggest one way in which chromaffin cells may regulate cargo release is via differential activation of synaptotagmin isoforms. PMID:24943843

Rao, Tejeshwar C.; Passmore, Daniel R.; Peleman, Andrew R.; Das, Madhurima; Chapman, Edwin R.; Anantharam, Arun

2014-01-01

231

Distribution and phenotypes of unipolar brush cells in relation to the granule cell system of the rat cochlear nuclear nucleus  

PubMed Central

In most mammals the cochlear nuclear complex (CN) contains a distributed system of granule cells (GCS), whose parallel fiber axons innervate the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN). Like their counterpart in cerebellum, CN granules are innervated by mossy fibers of various origins. The GCS is complemented by unipolar brush (UBCs) and Golgi cells, and by stellate and cartwheel cells of the DCN. This cerebellum-like microcircuit modulates the activity of the DCN’s main projection neurons, the pyramidal, giant and tuberculoventral neurons, and is thought to improve auditory performance by integrating acoustic and proprioceptive information. In this paper, we focus on the UBCs, a chemically heterogeneous neuronal population, using antibodies to calretinin, mGluR1? epidermal growth factor substrate 8 (Eps8) and the transcription factor Tbr2. Eps8 and Tbr2 labeled most of the CN’s UBCs, if not the entire population, while calretinin and mGluR1? distinguished two largely separate subsets with overlapping distributions. By double labeling with antibodies to Tbr2 and the ?6 GABAA-receptor subunit, we found that UBCs populate all regions of the GCS and occur at remarkably high densities in the DCN and subpeduncular corner, but rarely in the lamina. Although GCS subregions likely share the same microcircuitry, their dissimilar UBC densities suggest they may be functionally distinct. UBCs and granules are also present in regions previously not included in the GCS, namely the rostrodorsal magnocellular portions of VCN, vestibular nerve root, trapezoid body, spinal tract and sensory and principal nuclei of the trigeminal nerve, and cerebellar peduncles. The UBC’s dendritic brush receives AMPA- and NMDA-mediated input from an individual mossy fiber, favoring singularity of input, and its axon most likely forms several mossy fiber-like endings that target numerous granule cells and other UBCs, as in the cerebellum. The UBCs therefore, may amplify afferent signals temporally and spatially, synchronizing pools of target neurons. PMID:18343594

Dino, Maria. R.; Mugnaini, Enrico

2009-01-01

232

Stimulation of rat Sertoli cell secretory activity in vitro by germ cells and residual bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The direct influence of germ cells and residual bodies on Sertoli cell basal and FSH-stimulated secretion of androgen-binding protein (ABP) was studied using Sertoli cells, recovered from 20-day-old rats, cultured alone or cocultured with a crude germ cell preparation from adult rats or with pachytene spermatocytes, round sperma- tids or populations of residual bodies enriched by centrifugal elutriation. The

B. Le Magueresse; F. Le Gac; M. Loir; B. Jegou

1986-01-01

233

Granzymes A and B are targeted to the lytic granules of lymphocytes by the mannose-6-phosphate receptor  

PubMed Central

To investigate the question of whether lytic granules share a common biogenesis with lysosomes, cloned cytolytic T cell lines were derived from a patient with I-cell disease. The targeting of two soluble lytic granule components, granzymes A and B, was studied in these cells which lack a functional mannose-6-phosphate (Man-6-P) receptor-mediated pathway to lysosomes. Using antibodies and enzymatic substrates to detect the lytic proteins, I-cells were found to constitutively secrete granzymes A and B in contrast to normal cells in which these proteins were stored for regulated secretion. These results suggest that granzymes A and B are normally targeted to the lytic granules of activated lymphocytes by the Man-6-P receptor. In normal cells, the granzymes bear Man-6-P residues, since the oligosaccharide side chains of granzymes A and B, as well as radioactive phosphate on granzyme A from labeled cells, were removed by endoglycosidase H (Endo H). However, in I-cells, granzymes cannot bear Man-6-P and granzyme B acquires complex glycans, becoming Endo H resistant. Although the levels of granzymes A and B in cytolytic I-cell lymphocytes are < 30% of the normal levels, immunolocalization and cell fractionation of granzyme A demonstrated that this reduced amount is correctly localized in the lytic granules. Therefore, a Man-6-P receptor-independent pathway to the lytic granules must also exist. Cathepsin B colocalizes with granzyme A in both normal and I-cells indicating that lysosomal proteins can also use the Man-6-P receptor-independent pathway in these cells. The complete overlap of these lysosomal and lytic markers implies that the lytic granules perform both lysosomal and secretory roles in cytolytic lymphocytes. The secretory role of lytic granules formed by the Man-6-P receptor-independent pathway is intact as assessed by the ability of I-cell lymphocytes to lyse target cells by regulated secretion. PMID:8432729

1993-01-01

234

Mtgr1 Is a Transcriptional Corepressor That Is Required for Maintenance of the Secretory Cell Lineage in the Small Intestine  

PubMed Central

Two members of the MTG/ETO family of transcriptional corepressors, MTG8 and MTG16, are disrupted by chromosomal translocations in up to 15% of acute myeloid leukemia cases. The third family member, MTGR1, was identified as a factor that associates with the t(8;21) fusion protein RUNX1-MTG8. We demonstrate that Mtgr1 associates with mSin3A, N-CoR, and histone deacetylase 3 and that when tethered to DNA, Mtgr1 represses transcription, suggesting that Mtgr1 also acts as a transcriptional corepressor. To define the biological function of Mtgr1, we created Mtgr1-null mice. These mice are proportionally smaller than their littermates during embryogenesis and throughout their life span but otherwise develop normally. However, these mice display a progressive reduction in the secretory epithelial cell lineage in the small intestine. This is not due to the loss of small intestinal progenitor cells expressing Gfi1, which is required for the formation of goblet and Paneth cells, implying that loss of Mtgr1 impairs the maturation of secretory cells in the small intestine. PMID:16227606

Amann, Joseph M.; Chyla, Brenda J. Irvin; Ellis, Tiffany C.; Martinez, Andres; Moore, Amy C.; Franklin, Jeffrey L.; McGhee, Laura; Meyers, Shari; Ohm, Joyce E.; Luce, K. Scott; Ouelette, Andre J.; Washington, M. Kay; Thompson, Mary Ann; King, Dana; Gautam, Shiva; Coffey, Robert J.; Whitehead, Robert H.; Hiebert, Scott W.

2005-01-01

235

In vitro atrazine-exposure inhibits human natural killer cell lytic granule release  

SciTech Connect

The herbicide atrazine is a known immunotoxicant and an inhibitor of human natural killer (NK) cell lytic function. The precise changes in NK cell lytic function following atrazine exposure have not been fully elucidated. The current study identifies the point at which atrazine exerts its affect on the stepwise process of human NK cell-mediated lyses of the K562 target cell line. Using intracellular staining of human peripheral blood lymphocytes, it was determined that a 24-h in vitro exposure to atrazine did not decrease the level of NK cell lytic proteins granzyme A, granzyme B or perforin. Thus, it was hypothesized that atrazine exposure was inhibiting the ability of the NK cells to bind to the target cell and subsequently inhibit the release of lytic protein from the NK cell. To test this hypothesis, flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy were employed to analyze NK cell-target cell co-cultures following atrazine exposure. These assays demonstrated no significant decrease in the level of target cell binding. However, the levels of NK intracellular lytic protein retained and the amount of lytic protein released were assessed following a 4-h incubation with K562 target cells. The relative level of intracellular lytic protein was 25-50% higher, and the amount of lytic protein released was 55-65% less in atrazine-treated cells than vehicle-treated cells following incubation with the target cells. These results indicate that ATR exposure inhibits the ability of NK cells to lyse target cells by blocking lytic granule release without affecting the ability of the NK cell to form stable conjugates with target cells.

Rowe, Alexander M. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Brundage, Kathleen M. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Center for Immunopathology and Microbial Pathogenesis, Robert C. Byrd Health Sciences Center, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Barnett, John B. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States) and Center for Immunopathology and Microbial Pathogenesis, Robert C. Byrd Health Sciences Center, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)]. E-mail: jbarnett@hsc.wvu.edu

2007-06-01

236

Anion permeation in an apical membrane chloride channel of a secretory epithelial cell.  

PubMed

Single channel currents though apical membrane Cl channels of the secretory epithelial cell line T84 were measured to determine the anionic selectivity and concentration dependence of permeation. The current-voltage relation was rectified with single channel conductance increasing at positive potentials. At 0 mV the single channel conductance was 41 +/- 2 pS. Permeability, determined from reversal potentials, was optimal for anions with diameters between 0.4 and 0.5 nm. Anions of larger diameter had low permeability, consistent with a minimum pore diameter of 0.55 nm. Permeability for anions of similar size was largest for those ions with a more symmetrical charge distribution. Both HCO3 and H2PO4 had lower permeability than the similar-sized symmetrical anions, NO3 and ClO4. The permeability sequence was SCN greater than I approximately NO3 approximately ClO4 greater than Br greater than Cl greater than PF6 greater than HCO3 approximately F much greater than H2PO4. Highly permeant anions had lower relative single channel conductance, consistent with longer times of residence in the channel for these ions. The conductance sequence for anion efflux was NO3 greater than SCN approximately ClO4 greater than Cl approximately I approximately Br greater than PF6 greater than F approximately HCO3 much greater than H2PO4. At high internal concentrations, anions with low permeability and conductance reduced Cl influx consistent with block of the pore. The dependence of current on Cl concentration indicated that Cl can also occupy the channel long enough to limit current flow. Interaction of Cl and SCN within the conduction pathway is supported by the presence of a minimum in the conductance vs. mole fraction relation. These results indicate that this 40-pS Cl channel behaves as a multi-ion pathway in which other permeant anions could alter Cl flow across the apical membrane. PMID:1375274

Halm, D R; Frizzell, R A

1992-03-01

237

Anion permeation in an apical membrane chloride channel of a secretory epithelial cell  

PubMed Central

Single channel currents though apical membrane Cl channels of the secretory epithelial cell line T84 were measured to determine the anionic selectivity and concentration dependence of permeation. The current-voltage relation was rectified with single channel conductance increasing at positive potentials. At 0 mV the single channel conductance was 41 +/- 2 pS. Permeability, determined from reversal potentials, was optimal for anions with diameters between 0.4 and 0.5 nm. Anions of larger diameter had low permeability, consistent with a minimum pore diameter of 0.55 nm. Permeability for anions of similar size was largest for those ions with a more symmetrical charge distribution. Both HCO3 and H2PO4 had lower permeability than the similar-sized symmetrical anions, NO3 and ClO4. The permeability sequence was SCN greater than I approximately NO3 approximately ClO4 greater than Br greater than Cl greater than PF6 greater than HCO3 approximately F much greater than H2PO4. Highly permeant anions had lower relative single channel conductance, consistent with longer times of residence in the channel for these ions. The conductance sequence for anion efflux was NO3 greater than SCN approximately ClO4 greater than Cl approximately I approximately Br greater than PF6 greater than F approximately HCO3 much greater than H2PO4. At high internal concentrations, anions with low permeability and conductance reduced Cl influx consistent with block of the pore. The dependence of current on Cl concentration indicated that Cl can also occupy the channel long enough to limit current flow. Interaction of Cl and SCN within the conduction pathway is supported by the presence of a minimum in the conductance vs. mole fraction relation. These results indicate that this 40-pS Cl channel behaves as a multi-ion pathway in which other permeant anions could alter Cl flow across the apical membrane. PMID:1375274

1992-01-01

238

Time-dependent involvement of adult-born dentate granule cells in behavior.  

PubMed

Adult-born neurons are continuously generated and incorporated into the circuitry of the hippocampus throughout life in mammals. Cumulative evidence supports a physiological role for adult-born neurons, yet it not clear whether this subset of dentate granule cells makes a unique contribution to hippocampal function. Perturbation or ablation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis leads to deficits in the acquisition of learned associations or memory recall, whereas an increase in adult hippocampal neurogenesis enhances some forms of learning and memory. The observed effects thus far appear to be task-dependent, species-specific, and sensitive to the timing of manipulations. Here, we review the recent evidence correlating adult-born dentate granule cells (DGCs) with hippocampal-dependent behavior and focus on the dynamic properties of this neuronal population that may underlie its function. We further discuss a framework for future investigations of how newly integrated neurons may contribute to hippocampal processing using advanced genetic techniques with enhanced temporal resolution. PMID:21801754

Kim, Woon Ryoung; Christian, Kimberly; Ming, Guo-Li; Song, Hongjun

2012-02-14

239

Secretion granules of the rabbit parotid gland. Isolation, subfractionation, and characterization of the membrane and content subfractions  

PubMed Central

A fraction of secretion granules has been isolated from rabbit parotid by a procedure which was found to be especially effective in reducing contamination resulting from aggregation and/or cosedimentation of granules with other cell particulates. The fraction, representing 15 percent (on the average) of the total tissue amylase activity, was homogeneous as judged by electron microscopy and contaminated to exceedingly low levels by other cellular organelles as judged by marker enzymatic and chemical assays. Lysis of the granules was achieved by their gradual exposure to hypotonic NaHCO3, containing 0.5 mM EDTA. The content and the membranes separated by centrifugation of the granule lysate were characterized primarily by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis which indicated that the content was composed of a limited number of molecular weight classes of polypeptides of which three bands (having approximate mol wt 58,000, 33, 000, and 12,000) could be considered major components. The gel profile of the membrane subfraction was characterized by 20-30 Coomassie brilliant blue-staining bands of which a single species of mol wt 40,000 was the conspicuous major polypeptide. Two types of experiments employing gel electrophoretic analysis were carried out for identifying and assessing the extent of residual secretory protein adsorbed to purified granule membranes: (a) examination of staining and radioactivity profiles after mixing of radioactive secretion granule extract with nonradioactively labeled granule membranes and (b) comparison of gel profiles of secretion granule extract and granule membranes with those of unlysed secretion granules and secretory protein dischraged from lobules in vitro or collected by cannulation of parotid ducts, the last two samples being considered physiologic secretory standards. The results indicated that the membranes were contaminated to a substantial degree by residual, poorly extractable secretory protein even though assays of membrane fractions for a typical secretory enzyme activity (amylase) indicated quite through separation of membranes and content. Hence, detailed examination of membrane subfractions for residual content species by gel electrophoresis points to the general unity and sensitivity of this technique as a means for accurately detecting a defined set of polypeptides occurring as contaminants in cellular fractions or organelle subfractions. PMID:162790

1975-01-01

240

Cytoplasmic domain of P-selectin (CD62) contains the signal for sorting into the regulated secretory pathway.  

PubMed Central

P-selectin (CD62), formerly called GMP-140 or PADGEM, is a membrane protein located in secretory storage granules of platelets and endothelial cells. To study the mechanisms responsible for the targeting of P-selectin to storage granules, we transfected its cDNA into COS-7 and CHO-K1 cells, which lack a regulated exocytic pathway, or into AtT20 cells, which are capable of regulated secretion. P-selectin was expressed on the plasma membrane of COS-7 and CHO-K1 cells but was concentrated in storage granules of AtT20 cells. Immunogold electron microscopy indicated that the electron-dense granules containing P-selectin in AtT20 cells also stored the endogenous soluble hormone ACTH. Activation of AtT20 cells with 8-Br-cAMP increased the surface expression of P-selectin, consistent with agonist-induced fusion of granule membranes with the plasma membrane. Deletion of the last 23 amino acids of the 35-residue cytoplasmic domain resulted in delivery of P-selectin to the plasma membrane of AtT20 cells. Replacement of the cytoplasmic tail of tissue factor, a plasma membrane protein, with the cytoplasmic domain of P-selectin redirected the chimeric molecule to granules. We conclude that the cytoplasmic domain of P-selectin is both necessary and sufficient for sorting of membrane proteins into the regulated pathway of secretion. Images PMID:1378326

Disdier, M; Morrissey, J H; Fugate, R D; Bainton, D F; McEver, R P

1992-01-01

241

Neurotoxic effects of indocyanine green -cerebellar granule cell culture viability study  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to examine neurotoxicity indocyanine green (ICG). We assessed viability of primary cerebellar granule cell culture (CGC) exposed to ICG to test two mechanisms that could be the first triggers causing neuronal toxicity: imbalance in calcium homeostasis and the degree of oligomerization of ICG molecules. We have observed this imbalance in CGC after exposure to 75-125?? ICG and dose and application sequence dependent protective effect of Gadovist on surviving neurons in vitro when used with ICG. Spectroscopic studies suggest the major cause of toxicity of the ICG is connected with oligomers formation. ICG at concentration of 25 ?M (which is about 4 times higher than the highest concentration of ICG in the brain applied in in-vivo human studies) is not neurotoxic in the cell culture. PMID:24688815

Toczylowska, Beata; Zieminska, Elzbieta; Goch, Grazyna; Milej, Daniel; Gerega, Anna; Liebert, Adam

2014-01-01

242

Illuminating cellular structure and function in the early secretory pathway by multispectral 3D imaging in living cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Membrane traffic between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi complex is regulated by two vesicular coat complexes, COPII and COPI. COPII has been implicated in selective packaging of anterograde cargo into coated transport vesicles budding from the ER. COPI-coated vesicles are proposed to mediate recycling of proteins from the Golgi complex to the ER. We have used multi spectral 3D imaging to visualize COPI and COPII behavior simultaneously with various GFP-tagged secretory markers in living cells. This shows that COPII and COPI act sequentially whereby COPI association with anterograde transport complexes is involved in microtubule-based transport and the en route segregation of ER recycling molecules from secretory cargo within TCS in transit to the Golgi complex. We have also investigated the possibility to discriminate spectrally GFP fusion proteins by fluorescence lifetime imaging. This shows that at least two, and possibly up to three GFP fusion proteins can be discriminated and localized in living cells using a single excitation wavelength and a single broad band emission filter.

Rietdorf, Jens; Stephens, David J.; Squire, Anthony; Simpson, Jeremy; Shima, David T.; Paccaud, Jean-Pierre; Bastiaens, Philippe I.; Pepperkok, Rainer

2000-04-01

243

Ultrastructural study of the response of eosinophil granule cells to Aeromonas salmonicida extracellular products and histamine liberators in rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri Richardson.  

PubMed

Intraperitoneal injections of Aeromonas salmonicida extracellular products (ECP), Compound 48/80 and Concanavalin A were found to degranulate the eosinophil granule cells (EGC) in the lower intestine and rectum of the rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri Richardson. Ultrastructurally, the EGC response resembled the anaphylactic granule extrusion of mammalian mast cells. Varying degrees of granule vacuolation and loss of electron density occurred. Labyrinthine channels were observed at the peak of degranulation. EGC response however, differed from mammalian mast cells in two respects. Firstly, degranulation involved the release of intact electron lucent granules and the subsequent disintegration of the granule matrix extracellularly. Mammalian mast cells on the other hand, release their granules by direct exocytosis. Secondly, the 48/80 and Con A-stimulated EGC degranulation was inhibited by antihistamines, promethazine and cimetidine. In mast cells, antihistamines do not prevent granule release but block histamine receptors in target cells. The degranulation of the ECGs was a non-cytotoxic event and the cells were capable of regeneration. As soon as the cells lost most of their granules, increased cytoplasmic activity was observed. This involved the expansion of the Golgi-endoplasmic reticulum complex. PMID:2776934

Vallejo, A N; Ellis, A E

1989-01-01

244

Neurotoxic glutamate treatment of cultured cerebellar granule cells induces Ca 2+-dependent collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and ultrastructural alterations of mitochondria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhodamine 123 staining and electron microscopy were used to reveal a correlation between the ultrastructural and functional state of cultured cerebellar granule cells after short glutamate treatment. Glutamate exposure (15 min, 100 ?M) in Mg2+-free solution caused considerable ultrastructural alterations in a granule cell: clumping of the chromatin, swelling of the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, and disruption of the mitochondrial

Nikolaj K. Isaev; Dmitry B. Zorov; Elena V. Stelmashook; Rustem E. Uzbekov; Maxim B. Kozhemyakin; Ilya V. Victorov

1996-01-01

245

A Western Blot-based Investigation of the Yeast Secretory Pathway Designed for an Intermediate-Level Undergraduate Cell Biology Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The movement of newly synthesized proteins through the endomembrane system of eukaryotic cells, often referred to generally as the secretory pathway, is a topic covered in most intermediate-level undergraduate cell biology courses. An article previously published in this journal described a laboratory exercise in which yeast mutants defective in…

Hood-DeGrenier, Jennifer K.

2008-01-01

246

Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas showing finger-print-like zymogen granules by electron microscopy: immunohistochemical study.  

PubMed

A rare case of finger-print-like zymogen granules shown by electron microscopy is reported. The patient was a 75-year-old man who was histologically and ultrastructurally confirmed to have acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas. Frozen section and postmortem examination revealed that the tumor was made up of solid nests of cells resembling the appearance of normal pancreatic acini, showing polygonal cells which had round or oval nuclei, and rare mitotic figures. Zymogen-like granules, shown by eosinophilic granular staining, were abundant in the cytoplasm. Electron microscopy showed that the tumor cells were closely packed, occasionally forming small intercellular spaces resembling pancreatic acini (microtubules). The cytoplasm contained characteristic zymogen granules with dark-to-medium electron density, measuring 660 nm +/-213 SD in diameter. The granules of medium density were large, and showed finger-print-like patterns. Investigation of more cases is necessary to identify whether these finger-print-like patterns are an important factor in the genesis of acinar cell carcinoma. PMID:10982600

Toyota, N; Takada, T; Ammori, B J; Toida, S; Haebara, H

2000-01-01

247

Visualization of cytolytic T cell differentiation and granule exocytosis with T cells from mice expressing active fluorescent granzyme B.  

PubMed

To evaluate acquisition and activation of cytolytic functions during immune responses we generated knock in (KI) mice expressing Granzyme B (GZMB) as a fusion protein with red fluorescent tdTomato (GZMB-Tom). As for GZMB in wild type (WT) lymphocytes, GZMB-Tom was absent from naïve CD8 and CD4 T cells in GZMB-Tom-KI mice. It was rapidly induced in most CD8 T cells and in a subpopulation of CD4 T cells in response to stimulation with antibodies to CD3/CD28. A fraction of splenic NK cells expressed GZMB-Tom ex vivo with most becoming positive upon culture in IL-2. GZMB-Tom was present in CTL granules and active as a protease when these degranulated into cognate target cells, as shown with target cells expressing a specific FRET reporter construct. Using T cells from mice expressing GZMB-Tom but lacking perforin, we show that the transfer of fluorescent GZMB-Tom into target cells was dependent on perforin, favoring a role for perforin in delivery of GZMB at the target cells' plasma membranes. Time-lapse video microscopy showed Ca++ signaling in CTL upon interaction with cognate targets, followed by relocalization of GZMB-Tom-containing granules to the synaptic contact zone. A perforin-dependent step was next visualized by the fluorescence signal from the non-permeant dye TO-PRO-3 at the synaptic cleft, minutes before the labeling of the target cell nucleus, characterizing a previously undescribed synaptic event in CTL cytolysis. Transferred OVA-specific GZMB-Tom-expressing CD8 T cells acquired GZMB-Tom expression in Listeria monocytogenes-OVA infected mice as soon as 48h after infection. These GZMB-Tom positive CD8 T cells localized in the splenic T-zone where they interacted with CD11c positive dendritic cells (DC), as shown by GZMB-Tom granule redistribution to the T/DC contact zone. GZMB-Tom-KI mice thus also provide tools to visualize acquisition and activation of cytolytic function in vivo. PMID:23840635

Mouchacca, Pierre; Schmitt-Verhulst, Anne-Marie; Boyer, Claude

2013-01-01

248

Visualization of Cytolytic T Cell Differentiation and Granule Exocytosis with T Cells from Mice Expressing Active Fluorescent Granzyme B  

PubMed Central

To evaluate acquisition and activation of cytolytic functions during immune responses we generated knock in (KI) mice expressing Granzyme B (GZMB) as a fusion protein with red fluorescent tdTomato (GZMB-Tom). As for GZMB in wild type (WT) lymphocytes, GZMB-Tom was absent from naïve CD8 and CD4 T cells in GZMB-Tom-KI mice. It was rapidly induced in most CD8 T cells and in a subpopulation of CD4 T cells in response to stimulation with antibodies to CD3/CD28. A fraction of splenic NK cells expressed GZMB-Tom ex vivo with most becoming positive upon culture in IL-2. GZMB-Tom was present in CTL granules and active as a protease when these degranulated into cognate target cells, as shown with target cells expressing a specific FRET reporter construct. Using T cells from mice expressing GZMB-Tom but lacking perforin, we show that the transfer of fluorescent GZMB-Tom into target cells was dependent on perforin, favoring a role for perforin in delivery of GZMB at the target cells’ plasma membranes. Time-lapse video microscopy showed Ca++ signaling in CTL upon interaction with cognate targets, followed by relocalization of GZMB-Tom-containing granules to the synaptic contact zone. A perforin-dependent step was next visualized by the fluorescence signal from the non-permeant dye TO-PRO-3 at the synaptic cleft, minutes before the labeling of the target cell nucleus, characterizing a previously undescribed synaptic event in CTL cytolysis. Transferred OVA-specific GZMB-Tom-expressing CD8 T cells acquired GZMB-Tom expression in Listeria monocytogenes-OVA infected mice as soon as 48h after infection. These GZMB-Tom positive CD8 T cells localized in the splenic T-zone where they interacted with CD11c positive dendritic cells (DC), as shown by GZMB-Tom granule redistribution to the T/DC contact zone. GZMB-Tom-KI mice thus also provide tools to visualize acquisition and activation of cytolytic function in vivo. PMID:23840635

Mouchacca, Pierre; Schmitt-Verhulst, Anne-Marie; Boyer, Claude

2013-01-01

249

Reconstituted human polyclonal plasma-derived secretory-like IgM and IgA maintain the barrier function of epithelial cells infected with an enteropathogen.  

PubMed

Intravenous administration of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies has proven to be a clinically valid approach in the treatment, or at least relief, of many acute and chronic pathologies, such as infection, immunodeficiency, and a broad range of autoimmune conditions. Plasma-derived IgG or recombinant IgG are most frequently used for intravenous or subcutaneous administration, whereas a few IgM-based products are available as well. We have established recently that secretory-like IgA and IgM can be produced upon association of plasma-derived polymeric IgA and IgM with a recombinant secretory component. As a next step toward potential future mucosal administration, we sought to unravel the mechanisms by which these secretory Igs protect epithelial cells located at the interface between the environment and the inside of the body. By using polarized epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers and Shigella flexneri as a model enteropathogen, we found that polyspecific plasma-derived SIgA and SIgM fulfill many protective functions, including dose-dependent recognition of the antigen via formation of aggregated immune complexes, reduction of bacterial infectivity, maintenance of epithelial cell integrity, and inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine production by epithelial cells. In this in vitro model devoid of other cellular or molecular interfering partners, IgM and secretory IgM showed stronger bacterial neutralization than secretory IgA. Together, these data suggest that mucosally delivered antibody preparations may be most effective when combining both secretory-like IgA and IgM, which, together, play a crucial role in preserving several levels of epithelial cell integrity. PMID:24951593

Longet, Stéphanie; Vonarburg, Cédric; Lötscher, Marius; Miescher, Sylvia; Zuercher, Adrian; Corthésy, Blaise

2014-08-01

250

Ethanol Inhibits L1-mediated Neurite Outgrowth in Postnatal Rat Cerebellar Granule Cells  

PubMed Central

The neuropathology of the effects of ethanol on the developing central nervous system are similar to those of patients with mutations in L1, a neural cell adhesion molecule. This observation suggests that inhibition of L1 plays a role in the pathogenesis of alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders. Here we examine the effects of ethanol on L1 homophilic binding and on L1-mediated neurite outgrowth. Ethanol had no effect on cell adhesion or aggregation in a myeloma cell line expressing full-length human L1. In contrast, the rate of L1-mediated neurite outgrowth of rat postnatal day 6 cerebellar granule cells grown on a substratum of Ng-CAM, the chick homologue of L1, was inhibited by 48.6% in the presence of ethanol with a half-maximal concentration of 4.7mm. The same effect was found with soluble L1-Fc, thus showing that the inhibitory effect is not dependent on cell adhesion. In contrast, neither laminin nor N-cadherin-mediated neurite outgrowth was inhibited by physiologic concentrations of ethanol. We conclude that one mechanism of ethanol’s toxicity to the developing central nervous system may be the inhibition of L1-mediated neurite outgrowth. PMID:10224086

Bearer, Cynthia F.; Swick, Alan R.; O'Riordan, Mary Ann; Cheng, Guanghui

2014-01-01

251

Characterization of zinc-induced neuronal death in primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule cells.  

PubMed

Although zinc is essential for the activity of numerous biological systems, and zinc deficiency has been associated with various pathologies, this metal can also exert direct neurotoxic action. In primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule neurons, a brief, 15- to 30-min exposure to zinc (100-500 microM) resulted in concentration-dependent delayed neuronal death. The toxicity of zinc depended on the maturity of the neuronal cultures-it was not apparent prior to Day 5 and it reached a plateau at about 9-10 days in vitro. We assayed cell injury by measuring mitochondrial functioning (MTT assay) and cell death with the trypan blue exclusion assay. Apoptosis was assayed by the morphological appearance of cells following fluorescence staining with propidium iodide and by the in situ TUNEL technique. Mitochondrial injury was an early result of zinc treatment. Actinomycin D, an inhibitor of macromolecular synthesis, attenuated delayed cell death. The calcium channel blockers nimodipine and amlodipine reduced both mitochondrial injury and cell death; the blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors with MK-801 or CNQX was ineffective. These results suggest that calcium channel-blocker-sensitive mitochondrial injury and DNA damage are operative in the protein-synthesis-dependent neurotoxicity of zinc. An imbalance of zinc homeostasis might play a role in the pathophysiology of apoptosis-associated neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:9225750

Manev, H; Kharlamov, E; Uz, T; Mason, R P; Cagnoli, C M

1997-07-01

252

Ultrastructural studies of perichromatin granules with special references to Merkel cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Since it has been convincingly demonstrated that Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), a new type of virus, isolated in 2008, induces some of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), we searched MCPyV in specimens taken from MCC patients by electron microscopy. The purpose of this communication is to report the presence of perichromatin granules (PCGs), which can be misinterpreted as virus-like particles (VLP). Tissues from several cutaneous tumors including MCC were examined by electron microscopy (EM). EM revealed intranuclear and spherical electron-dense particles with halo, approximately 55 nm in diameter suggesting possible VLP. However, granular structures were detected in MCPyV DNA positive and also negative MCC. Moreover, the same structures were detected in the tumor cells of SCC associated with MCC, those of malignant melanoma (MM), schwannoma, and also in the lesional melanocyte, fibroblast, apoptotic cell and mitotic cell. Since MCPyV DNA could not be detected in collision MCC with SCC, MM and schwannoma, this observation could mean that the granular structures we dealt with in this report represent PCGs, but not VLP and show an absence of viral particles in MCC. PMID:24845804

Narisawa, Yutaka; Koba, Shinichi; Nagase, Kotaro; Inoue, Takuya; Misago, Noriyuki; Hashimoto, Ken

2014-08-01

253

Effects of early environment on granule cell morphology in the dentate gyrus of the guinea-pig  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to determine whether early environment affects the morphology of the dentate gyrus granule cells in the guinea-pig, a rodent whose brain is at an advanced stage of maturation at birth. Male and female guinea-pigs were assigned at six to seven days of age to either a control (social) or an isolated environment where

R Bartesaghi; A Serrai

2001-01-01

254

Object/Context-Specific Memory Deficits Associated with Loss of Hippocampal Granule Cells after Adrenalectomy in Rats  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chronic adrenalectomy (ADX) causes a gradual and selective loss of granule cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the rat. Here, we administered replacement corticosterone to rats beginning 10 wk after ADX. We then tested them in three discrimination tasks based on object novelty, location, or object/context association. Only during testing of the…

Spanswick, Simon C.; Sutherland, Robert J.

2010-01-01

255

Loss of patched and disruption of granule cell development in a pre-neoplastic stage of medulloblastoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. It is thought to result from the transformation of granule cell precursors (GCPs) in the developing cerebellum, but little is known about the early stages of the disease. Here, we identify a pre-neoplastic stage of medulloblastoma in patched heterozygous mice, a model of the human disease. We show that pre-neoplastic

Trudy G. Oliver; Tracy Ann Read; Jessica D. Kessler; Anriada Mehmeti; Jonathan F. Wells; Trang T. T. Huynh; Simon M. Lin; Robert J. Wechsler-Reya

2005-01-01

256

Contribution of somatosensory cortex to responses in the rat cerebellar granule cell layer following peripheral tactile stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial coincidence of somatosensory cerebral cortex (SI) and trigeminal projections to the cerebellar hemisphere has been previously demonstrated. In this paper we describe the temporal relationship between tactilely-evoked responses in SI and in the granule cell layer of the cerebellar hemisphere, in anesthetized rats. We simultaneously recorded field potentials in areas of common receptive fields of SI and of

Josée Morissette; James M. Bower

1996-01-01

257

A Human-Like Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype Is Conserved in Mouse Cells Dependent on Physiological Oxygen  

PubMed Central

Cellular senescence irreversibly arrests cell proliferation in response to oncogenic stimuli. Human cells develop a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which increases the secretion of cytokines and other factors that alter the behavior of neighboring cells. We show here that “senescent” mouse fibroblasts, which arrested growth after repeated passage under standard culture conditions (20% oxygen), do not express a human-like SASP, and differ from similarly cultured human cells in other respects. However, when cultured in physiological (3%) oxygen and induced to senesce by radiation, mouse cells more closely resemble human cells, including expression of a robust SASP. We describe two new aspects of the human and mouse SASPs. First, cells from both species upregulated the expression and secretion of several matrix metalloproteinases, which comprise a conserved genomic cluster. Second, for both species, the ability to promote the growth of premalignant epithelial cells was due primarily to the conserved SASP factor CXCL-1/KC/GRO-?. Further, mouse fibroblasts made senescent in 3%, but not 20%, oxygen promoted epithelial tumorigenesis in mouse xenographs. Our findings underscore critical mouse-human differences in oxygen sensitivity, identify conditions to use mouse cells to model human cellular senescence, and reveal novel conserved features of the SASP. PMID:20169192

Coppé, Jean-Philippe; Krtolica, Ana; Beauséjour, Christian M.; Parrinello, Simona; Hodgson, J. Graeme; Chin, Koei; Desprez, Pierre-Yves; Campisi, Judith

2010-01-01

258

Optofluidic platform for real-time monitoring of live cell secretory activities using Fano resonance in gold nanoslits.  

PubMed

An optofluidic platform for real-time monitoring of live cell secretory activities is constructed via Fano resonance in a gold nanoslit array. Large-area and highly sensitive gold nanoslits with a period of 500 nm are fabricated on polycarbonate films using the thermal-annealed template-stripping method. The coupling between gap plasmon resonance in the slits and surface plasmon polariton Bloch waves forms a sharp Fano resonance with intensity sensitivity greater than 11 000% per refractive index unit. The nanoslit array is integrated with a cell-trapping microfluidic device to monitor dynamic secretion of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) from human acute monocytic leukemia cells in situ. Upon continuous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, MMP-9 secretion is detected within 2 h due to ultrahigh surface sensitivity and close proximity of the sensor to the target cells. In addition to the advantage of detecting early cell responses, the sensor also allows interrogation of cell secretion dynamics. Furthermore, the average secretion per cell measured using our system well matches previous reports while it requires orders of magnitude less cells. The optofluidic platform may find applications in fundamental studies of cell functions and diagnostics based on secretion signals. PMID:23606668

Wu, Shu-Han; Lee, Kuang-Li; Chiou, Arthur; Cheng, Xuanhong; Wei, Pei-Kuen

2013-10-25

259

Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotypes Reveal Cell-Nonautonomous Functions of Oncogenic RAS and the p53 Tumor Suppressor  

SciTech Connect

Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by arresting cell proliferation, essentially permanently, in response to oncogenic stimuli, including genotoxic stress. We modified the use of antibody arrays to provide a quantitative assessment of factors secreted by senescent cells. We show that human cells induced to senesce by genotoxic stress secrete myriad factors associated with inflammation and malignancy. This senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) developed slowly over several days and only after DNA damage of sufficient magnitude to induce senescence. Remarkably similar SASPs developed in normal fibroblasts, normal epithelial cells, and epithelial tumor cells after genotoxic stress in culture, and in epithelial tumor cells in vivo after treatment of prostate cancer patients with DNA-damaging chemotherapy. In cultured premalignant epithelial cells, SASPs induced an epithelial-mesenchyme transition and invasiveness, hallmarks of malignancy, by a paracrine mechanism that depended largely on the SASP factors interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Strikingly, two manipulations markedly amplified, and accelerated development of, the SASPs: oncogenic RAS expression, which causes genotoxic stress and senescence in normal cells, and functional loss of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Both loss of p53 and gain of oncogenic RAS also exacerbated the promalignant paracrine activities of the SASPs. Our findings define a central feature of genotoxic stress-induced senescence. Moreover, they suggest a cell-nonautonomous mechanism by which p53 can restrain, and oncogenic RAS can promote, the development of age-related cancer by altering the tissue microenvironment.

Coppé, Jean-Philippe; Patil, Christopher; Rodier, Francis; Sun, Yu; Munoz, Denise; Goldstein, Joshua; Nelson, Peter; Desprez, Pierre-Yves; Campisi, Judith

2008-10-24

260

Newly generated granule cells show rapid neuroplastic changes in the adult rat dentate gyrus during the first five days following pilocarpine-induced seizures.  

PubMed

Long-term neuroplastic changes to dentate granule cells have been reported after seizures and were shown to contribute to recurrent excitatory circuitry. These changes include increased numbers of newborn granule cells, sprouted mossy fibers, granule cell layer dispersion, increased hilar ectopic granule cells and formation of hilar basal dendrites on granule cells. The goal of the current study was to determine the acute progression of neuroplastic changes involving newly generated granule cells after pilocarpine-induced seizures. Doublecortin (DCX) immunocytochemical preparations were used to examine the newly generated granule cells 1-5 days after seizures were induced. The results showed that there are rapid neuroplastic changes to the DCX-labeled cells. At 1 day after seizures were induced, there were significant increases in the percentage of DCX-labeled cells with hilar basal dendrites and in the progenitor cell population. At 2 days after seizures were induced, an increase in the thickness of the layer of DCX-labeled cells occurred. At 3 days after seizures were induced, the number of DCX-labeled cells was significantly increased. At 4 days after seizures were induced, developing synapses were observed on DCX-labeled hilar basal dendrites. Thus, newly generated granule cells in the adult dentate gyrus display neuroplastic changes by 1 day after pilocarpine-induced seizures and further changes occur to this population of cells in the subsequent 4 days. The presence of synapses, albeit developing ones, on hilar basal dendrites during this period indicates that newly generated granule cells become rapidly incorporated into dentate gyrus circuitry following seizures. PMID:17686039

Shapiro, Lee A; Figueroa-Aragon, Sergio; Ribak, Charles E

2007-08-01

261

Calcium-independent phospholipase A 2 mediates store-operated calcium entry in rat cerebellar granule cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) has been extensively studied in non-neuronal cells, such as glial cells and smooth muscle cells, in which Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) has been shown to play a key role in the regulation of SOCE channels. In the present study, we have investigated the role\\u000a of iPLA2 for store-operated Ca2+ entry in rat cerebellar granule neurons in

Karthika Singaravelu; Christian Lohr; Joachim W. Deitmer

2008-01-01

262

Supernormal Histamine Release and Normal Cytotoxic Activity of Beige (Chédiak-Higashi Syndrome) Rat Mast Cells with Giant Granules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beige rat is an animal model of the Chédiak-Higashi syndrome. Since mast cells can be easily purified from the peritoneal cavity of rats, we investigated the function of beige rat mast cells with giant granules by using quantitative methods. Beige and normal rat mast cells were sensitized with anti-dinitrophenol (DNP) IgE antibodies and stimulated by DNP conjugated with human

Tomoko Jippo-Kanemoto; Tsutomu Kasugai; Atsushi Yamatodani; Hiroko Ushio; Takatoshi Mochizuki; Kazuo Tohya; Michio Kimura; Masahiko Nishimura; Yukihiko Kitamura

1993-01-01

263

Adverse influence of coumestrol on secretory function of bovine luteal cells in the first trimester of pregnancy.  

PubMed

Coumestrol is one of a few biologically active substances present in leguminous plants, which are widely used as fodder for ruminants. Depending on the doses, coumestrol acts on the reproductive processes as an estrogen-like factor or antiestrogen to evoke a decrease in ovulation frequency, elongation of estrous cycle duration. The aim of the current investigations was to study the influence of coumestrol on secretory function of luteal cells obtained from first trimester of pregnant cows. Luteal cells (2.5 × 10(5) /mL) from 3rd to 5th, 6th to 8th, and 9th to 12th week of pregnancy were preincubated for 24 h and incubated with coumestrol (1 × 10(-6) M) for successive 48 h and the medium concentrations of progesterone (P4), oxytocin (OT), prostaglandin (PG) E2 and F2? were determined. Moreover, the expression of mRNA for neurophysin-I/oxytocin (NP-I/OT; precursor of OT) and peptidyl-glycine-?-amidating mono-oxygenase (PGA, an enzyme responsible for post-translational OT synthesis) was determined after 8 h of treatment. Coumestrol did not affect P4 secretion but increased the secretion of OT from the cells collected at all stages of gestation studied. Hence, the ratio of P4 to OT was markedly decreased. Simultaneously, coumestrol increased the expression of NP-I/OT mRNA during 9th to 12th weeks of pregnancy, and mRNA for PGA during 3rd to 5th and 9th to 12th weeks of gestation. Furthermore, coumestrol decreased PGE2 secretion from luteal cells in all studied stages of pregnancy, while it affected PGF2? metabolite (PGFM) concentration only from week 3 to 5 of pregnancy. Obtained results suggest that coumestrol impairs secretory function of the corpus luteum (CL) and this way it can affect the maintenance of pregnancy in the cow. PMID:21656645

M?ynarczuk, J; Wróbel, M H; Kotwica, J

2013-07-01

264

Mast Cell Proteoglycans  

PubMed Central

Mast cells are versatile effector cells of the immune system, contributing to both innate and adaptive immunity toward pathogens but also having profound detrimental activities in the context of inflammatory disease. A hallmark morphological feature of mast cells is their large content of cytoplasmic secretory granules, filled with numerous secretory compounds, including highly negatively charged heparin or chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans of serglycin type. These anionic proteoglycans provide the basis for the strong metachromatic staining properties of mast cells seen when applying various cationic dyes. Functionally, the mast cell proteoglycans have been shown to have an essential role in promoting the storage of other granule-contained compounds, including bioactive monoamines and different mast cell-specific proteases. Moreover, granule proteoglycans have been shown to regulate the enzymatic activities of mast cell proteases and to promote apoptosis. Here, the current knowledge of mast cell proteoglycans is reviewed. PMID:22899859

Ronnberg, Elin; Melo, Fabio R.

2012-01-01

265

Facilitation of granule cell epileptiform activity by mossy fiber-released zinc in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.  

PubMed

Recurrent mossy fiber synapses in the dentate gyrus of epileptic brain facilitate the synchronous firing of granule cells and may promote seizure propagation. Mossy fiber terminals contain and release zinc. Released zinc inhibits the activation of NMDA receptors and may therefore oppose the development of granule cell epileptiform activity. Hippocampal slices from rats that had experienced pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and developed a recurrent mossy fiber pathway were used to investigate this possibility. Actions of released zinc were inferred from the effects of chelation with 1 mM calcium disodium EDTA (CaEDTA). When granule cell population bursts were evoked by mossy fiber stimulation in the presence of 6 mM K(+) and 30 microM bicuculline, CaEDTA slowed the rate at which evoked bursting developed, but did not change the magnitude of the bursts once they had developed fully. The effects of CaEDTA were then studied on the pharmacologically isolated NMDA receptor- and AMPA/kainate receptor-mediated components of the fully developed bursts. CaEDTA increased the magnitude of NMDA receptor-mediated bursts and reduced the magnitude of AMPA/kainate receptor-mediated bursts. CaEDTA did not affect the granule cell bursts evoked in slices from untreated rats by stimulating the perforant path in the presence of bicuculline and 6 mM K(+). These results suggest that zinc released from the recurrent mossy fibers serves mainly to facilitate the recruitment of dentate granule cells into population bursts. PMID:16490181

Timofeeva, Olga; Nadler, J Victor

2006-03-17

266

Neuroanatomical Clues to Altered Neuronal Activity in Epilepsy: From Ultrastructure to Signaling Pathways of Dentate Granule Cells  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The dynamic aspects of epilepsy, in which seizures occur sporadically and are interspersed with periods of relatively normal brain function, present special challenges for neuroanatomical studies. While numerous morphological changes can be identified during the chronic period, the relationship of many of these changes to seizure generation and propagation remain unclear. Mossy fiber sprouting is an example of a fequently observed morphological change for which a functional role in epilepsy continues to be debated. This review will focus on neuroanatomically-identified changes that would support high levels of activity in reorganized mossy fibers and potentially associated granule cell activation. Early ultrastructural studies of reorganized mossy fiber terminals in human temporal lobe epilepsy tissue have identified morphological substrates for highly efficacious excitatory connections among granule cells. If similar connections in animal models contribute to seizure activity, activation of granule cells would be expected. Increaed labeling with two activity-related markers, Fos and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase, has suggested increased activity of dentate granule cells at the time of a spontaneous seizures in a mouse model of epilepsy. However, neuroanatomical support for a direct link between activation of reorganized mossy fiber terminals and increased granule cell activity remains elusive. As novel activity-related markers are developed, it may yet be possible to demonstrate such functional links and allow mapping of seizure activity throughout the brain. Relating patterns of neuronal activity during seizures to the underlying morphological changes could provide important new insights into the basic mechanisms of epilepsy and seizure generation. PMID:22612811

Houser, Carolyn R.; Zhang, Nianhui; Peng, Zechun; Huang, Christine S.; Cetina, Yliana

2014-01-01

267

Translation suppression promotes stress granule formation and cell survival in response to cold shock  

PubMed Central

Cells respond to different types of stress by inhibition of protein synthesis and subsequent assembly of stress granules (SGs), cytoplasmic aggregates that contain stalled translation preinitiation complexes. Global translation is regulated through the translation initiation factor eukaryotic initiation factor 2? (eIF2?) and the mTOR pathway. Here we identify cold shock as a novel trigger of SG assembly in yeast and mammals. Whereas cold shock–induced SGs take hours to form, they dissolve within minutes when cells are returned to optimal growth temperatures. Cold shock causes eIF2? phosphorylation through the kinase PERK in mammalian cells, yet this pathway is not alone responsible for translation arrest and SG formation. In addition, cold shock leads to reduced mitochondrial function, energy depletion, concomitant activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and inhibition of mTOR signaling. Compound C, a pharmacological inhibitor of AMPK, prevents the formation of SGs and strongly reduces cellular survival in a translation-dependent manner. Our results demonstrate that cells actively suppress protein synthesis by parallel pathways, which induce SG formation and ensure cellular survival during hypothermia. PMID:22875991

Hofmann, Sarah; Cherkasova, Valeria; Bankhead, Peter; Bukau, Bernd; Stoecklin, Georg

2012-01-01

268

Cytoskeletal Dependence of Insulin Granule Movement Dynamics in INS-1 Beta-Cells in Response to Glucose.  

PubMed

For pancreatic ?-cells to secrete insulin in response to elevated blood glucose, insulin granules retained within the subplasmalemmal space must be transported to sites of secretion on the plasma membrane. Using a combination of super-resolution STORM imaging and live cell TIRF microscopy we investigate how the organization and dynamics of the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons in INS-1 ?-cells contribute to this process. GFP-labeled insulin granules display 3 different modes of motion (stationary, diffusive-like, and directed). Diffusive-like motion dominates in basal, low glucose conditions. Upon glucose stimulation no gross rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton is observed but there are increases in the 1) rate of microtubule polymerization; 2) rate of diffusive-like motion; and 3) proportion of granules undergoing microtubule-based directed motion. By pharmacologically perturbing the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons, we determine that microtubule-dependent granule transport occurs within the subplasmalemmal space and that the actin cytoskeleton limits this transport in basal conditions, when insulin secretion needs to be inhibited. PMID:25310693

Heaslip, Aoife T; Nelson, Shane R; Lombardo, Andrew T; Beck Previs, Samantha; Armstrong, Jessica; Warshaw, David M

2014-01-01

269

Cytoskeletal Dependence of Insulin Granule Movement Dynamics in INS-1 Beta-Cells in Response to Glucose  

PubMed Central

For pancreatic ?-cells to secrete insulin in response to elevated blood glucose, insulin granules retained within the subplasmalemmal space must be transported to sites of secretion on the plasma membrane. Using a combination of super-resolution STORM imaging and live cell TIRF microscopy we investigate how the organization and dynamics of the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons in INS-1 ?-cells contribute to this process. GFP-labeled insulin granules display 3 different modes of motion (stationary, diffusive-like, and directed). Diffusive-like motion dominates in basal, low glucose conditions. Upon glucose stimulation no gross rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton is observed but there are increases in the 1) rate of microtubule polymerization; 2) rate of diffusive-like motion; and 3) proportion of granules undergoing microtubule-based directed motion. By pharmacologically perturbing the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons, we determine that microtubule-dependent granule transport occurs within the subplasmalemmal space and that the actin cytoskeleton limits this transport in basal conditions, when insulin secretion needs to be inhibited. PMID:25310693

Heaslip, Aoife T.; Nelson, Shane R.; Lombardo, Andrew T.; Beck Previs, Samantha; Armstrong, Jessica; Warshaw, David M.

2014-01-01

270

Observer-independent quantification of insulin granule exocytosis and pre-exocytotic mobility by TIRF microscopy.  

PubMed

Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of fluorescently labeled secretory granules permits monitoring of exocytosis and the preceding granule behavior in one experiment. While observer-dependent evaluation may be sufficient to quantify exocytosis, most of the other information contained in the video files cannot be accessed this way. The present program performs observer-independent detection of exocytosis and tracking of the entire submembrane population of insulin granules. A precondition is the exact localization of the peak of the granule fluorescence. Tracking is based on the peak base radius, peak intensity, and the precrossing itineraries. Robustness of the tracking was shown by simulated tracks of original granule patterns. Mobility in the X-Y dimension is described by the caging diameter which in contrast to the widely used mean square displacement has an inherent time resolution. Observer-independent detection of exocytosis in MIN6 cells labeled with insulin-EGFP is based on the maximal decrease in fluorescence intensity and position of the centroid of the dissipating cloud of released material. Combining the quantification of KCl-induced insulin exocytosis with the analysis of prefusion mobility showed that during the last 3 s pre-exocytotic granules had a smaller caging diameter than control granules and that it increased significantly immediately before fusion. PMID:24230985

Matz, Magnus; Schumacher, Kirstin; Hatlapatka, Kathrin; Lorenz, Dirk; Baumann, Knut; Rustenbeck, Ingo

2014-02-01

271

A 'telomere-associated secretory phenotype' cooperates with BCR-ABL to drive malignant proliferation of leukemic cells.  

PubMed

Telomere biology is frequently associated with disease evolution in human cancer and dysfunctional telomeres have been demonstrated to contribute to genetic instability. In BCR-ABL(+) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), accelerated telomere shortening has been shown to correlate with leukemia progression, risk score and response to treatment. Here, we demonstrate that proliferation of murine CML-like bone marrow cells strongly depends on telomere maintenance. CML-like cells of telomerase knockout mice with critically short telomeres (CML-iG4) are growth retarded and proliferation is terminally stalled by a robust senescent cell cycle arrest. In sharp contrast, CML-like cells with pre-shortened, but not critically short telomere lengths (CML-G2) grew most rapidly and were found to express a specific 'telomere-associated secretory phenotype', comprising secretion of chemokines, interleukins and other growth factors, thereby potentiating oncogene-driven growth. Moreover, conditioned supernatant of CML-G2 cells markedly enhanced proliferation of CML-WT and pre-senescent CML-iG4 cells. Strikingly, a similar inflammatory mRNA expression pattern was found with disease progression from chronic phase to accelerated phase in CML patients. These findings demonstrate that telomere-induced senescence needs to be bypassed by leukemic cells in order to progress to blast crisis and provide a novel mechanism by which telomere shortening may contribute to disease evolution in CML. PMID:24603533

Braig, M; Pällmann, N; Preukschas, M; Steinemann, D; Hofmann, W; Gompf, A; Streichert, T; Braunschweig, T; Copland, M; Rudolph, K L; Bokemeyer, C; Koschmieder, S; Schuppert, A; Balabanov, S; Brümmendorf, T H

2014-10-01

272

Silencing the majority of cerebellar granule cells uncovers their essential role in motor learning and consolidation.  

PubMed

Cerebellar granule cells (GCs) account for more than half of all neurons in the CNS of vertebrates. Theoretical work has suggested that the abundance of GCs is advantageous for sparse coding during memory formation. Here, we minimized the output of the majority of GCs by selectively eliminating their CaV2.1 (P/Q-type) Ca(2+) channels, which mediate the bulk of their neurotransmitter release. This resulted in reduced GC output to Purkinje cells (PCs) and stellate cells (SCs) as well as in impaired long-term plasticity at GC-PC synapses. As a consequence modulation amplitude and regularity of simple spike (SS) output were affected. Surprisingly, the overall motor performance was intact, whereas demanding motor learning and memory consolidation tasks were compromised. Our findings indicate that a minority of functionally intact GCs is sufficient for the maintenance of basic motor performance, whereas acquisition and stabilization of sophisticated memories require higher numbers of normal GCs controlling PC firing. PMID:23583179

Galliano, Elisa; Gao, Zhenyu; Schonewille, Martijn; Todorov, Boyan; Simons, Esther; Pop, Andreea S; D'Angelo, Egidio; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Hoebeek, Freek E; De Zeeuw, Chris I

2013-04-25

273

Arf-like GTPase Arl8b regulates lytic granule polarization and natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Natural killer (NK) lymphocytes contain lysosome-related organelles (LROs), known as lytic granules, which upon formation of immune synapse with the target cell, polarize toward the immune synapse to deliver their contents to the target cell membrane. Here, we identify a small GTP-binding protein, ADP-ribosylation factor-like 8b (Arl8b), as a critical factor required for NK cell–mediated cytotoxicity. Our findings indicate that Arl8b drives the polarization of lytic granules and microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs) toward the immune synapse between effector NK lymphocytes and target cells. Using a glutathione S-transferase pull-down approach, we identify kinesin family member 5B (KIF5B; the heavy chain of kinesin-1) as an interaction partner of Arl8b from NK cell lysates. Previous studies showed that interaction between kinesin-1 and Arl8b is mediated by SifA and kinesin-interacting protein (SKIP) and the tripartite complex drives the anterograde movement of lysosomes. Silencing of both KIF5B and SKIP in NK cells, similar to Arl8b, led to failure of MTOC-lytic granule polarization to the immune synapse, suggesting that Arl8b and kinesin-1 together control this critical step in NK cell cytotoxicity. PMID:24088571

Tuli, Amit; Thiery, Jerome; James, Ashley M.; Michelet, Xavier; Sharma, Mahak; Garg, Salil; Sanborn, Keri B.; Orange, Jordan S.; Lieberman, Judy; Brenner, Michael B.

2013-01-01

274

Endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract of a stomachless teleostean fish.  

PubMed

Endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract of the stomachless teleostean fish, Notemigonus crysoleucas, were studied using electron microscopy. Located between the absorptive cells of the intestinal epithelium, the enteroendocrine cells were very few in number. While some of the cells had their secretory granules located basally and a long narrow part extending toward the lumen, many appeared rounder and the plane of the section did not indicate that they extended to the lumen. Based upon size and shape of secretory granules, there appear to be several different types of cells: those with the smallest granules distributed throughout the intestine, those with intermediate sized granules more commonly found in the middle and distal segments and a few with large granules seen most often in the distal intestine. PMID:3223592

Reifel, C W

1988-01-01

275

The Exosome Secretory Pathway Transports Amyloid Precursor Protein Carboxyl-terminal Fragments from the Cell into the Brain Extracellular Space*  

PubMed Central

In vitro studies have shown that neuronal cell cultures secrete exosomes containing amyloid-? precursor protein (APP) and the APP-processing products, C-terminal fragments (CTFs) and amyloid-? (A?). We investigated the secretion of full-length APP (flAPP) and APP CTFs via the exosome secretory pathway in vivo. To this end, we developed a novel protocol designed to isolate exosomes secreted into mouse brain extracellular space. Exosomes with typical morphology were isolated from freshly removed mouse brains and from frozen mouse and human brain tissues, demonstrating that exosomes can be isolated from post-mortem tissue frozen for long periods of time. flAPP, APP CTFs, and enzymes that cleave both flAPP and APP CTFs were identified in brain exosomes. Although higher levels of both flAPP and APP CTFs were observed in exosomes isolated from the brains of transgenic mice overexpressing human APP (Tg2576) compared with wild-type control mice, there was no difference in the number of secreted brain exosomes. These data indicate that the levels of flAPP and APP CTFs associated with exosomes mirror the cellular levels of flAPP and APP CTFs. Interestingly, exosomes isolated from the brains of both Tg2576 and wild-type mice are enriched with APP CTFs relative to flAPP. Thus, we hypothesize that the exosome secretory pathway plays a pleiotropic role in the brain: exosome secretion is beneficial to the cell, acting as a specific releasing system of neurotoxic APP CTFs and A?, but the secretion of exosomes enriched with APP CTFs, neurotoxic proteins that are also a source of secreted A?, is harmful to the brain. PMID:23129776

Perez-Gonzalez, Rocio; Gauthier, Sebastien A.; Kumar, Asok; Levy, Efrat

2012-01-01

276

Simulated Responses of Cerebellar Purkinje Cells are Independent of the Dendritic Location of Granule Cell Synaptic Inputs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cerebellar Purkinje cell responses to granule cell synaptic inputs were examined with a computer model including active dendritic conductances. Dendritic P-type Ca2+ channels amplified postsynaptic responses when the model was firing at a physiological rate. Small synchronous excitatory inputs applied distally on the large dendritic tree resulted in somatic responses of similar size to those generated by more proximal inputs. In contrast, in a passive model the somatic postsynaptic potentials to distal inputs were 76% smaller. The model predicts that the somatic firing response of Purkinje cells is relatively insensitive to the exact dendritic location of synaptic inputs. We describe a mechanism of Ca2+-mediated synaptic amplification, based on the subspiking threshold recruitment of P-type Ca2+ channels in the dendritic branches surrounding the input site.

de Schutter, Erik; Bower, James M.

1994-05-01

277

Distinct Role of Rab27a in Granule Movement at the Plasma Membrane and in the Cytosol of NK Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protocols were developed to automate image analysis and to track the movement of thousands of vesicular compartments in live cells. Algorithms were used to discriminate among different types of movement (e.g. random, caged, and directed). We applied these tools to investigate the steady-state distribution and movement of lytic granules (LG) in live natural killer (NK) cells by high-speed 3-dimensional (3D)

Dongfang Liu; Tobias Meckel; Eric O. Long; Graham Pockley

2010-01-01

278

Accumulation of abnormal adult-generated hippocampal granule cells predicts seizure frequency and severity  

PubMed Central

Accumulation of abnormally integrated, adult-born, hippocampal dentate granule cells (DGC) is hypothesized to contribute to the development of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). DGCs have long been implicated in TLE, as they regulate excitatory signaling through the hippocampus and exhibit neuroplastic changes during epileptogenesis. Furthermore, DGCs are unusual in that they are continually generated throughout life, with aberrant integration of new cells underlying the majority of restructuring in the dentate during epileptogenesis. While it is known that these abnormal networks promote abnormal neuronal firing and hyperexcitability, it has yet to be established whether they directly contribute to seizure generation. If abnormal DGCs do contribute, a reasonable prediction would be that the severity of epilepsy will be correlated with the number or load of abnormal DGCs. To test this prediction, we utilized a conditional, inducible transgenic mouse model to fate-map adult-generated DGCs. Mossy cell loss, also implicated in epileptogenesis, was assessed as well. Transgenic mice rendered epileptic using the pilocarpine-status epilepticus model of epilepsy were monitored 24/7 by video/EEG for four weeks to determine seizure frequency and severity. Positive correlations were found between seizure frequency and: 1) the percentage of hilar ectopic DGCs, 2) the amount of mossy fiber sprouting and 3) the extent of mossy cell death. In addition, mossy fiber sprouting and mossy cell death were correlated with seizure severity. These studies provide correlative evidence in support of the hypothesis that abnormal DGCs contribute to the development of TLE, and also support a role for mossy cell loss. PMID:23699504

Hester, Michael S.; Danzer, Steve C.

2013-01-01

279

Semaphorin 5A inhibits synaptogenesis in early postnatal- and adult-born hippocampal dentate granule cells  

PubMed Central

Human SEMAPHORIN 5A (SEMA5A) is an autism susceptibility gene; however, its function in brain development is unknown. In this study, we show that mouse Sema5A negatively regulates synaptogenesis in early, developmentally born, hippocampal dentate granule cells (GCs). Sema5A is strongly expressed by GCs and regulates dendritic spine density in a cell-autonomous manner. In the adult mouse brain, newly born Sema5A?/? GCs show an increase in dendritic spine density and increased AMPA-type synaptic responses. Sema5A signals through PlexinA2 co-expressed by GCs, and the PlexinA2-RasGAP activity is necessary to suppress spinogenesis. Like Sema5A?/? mutants, PlexinA2?/? mice show an increase in GC glutamatergic synapses, and we show that Sema5A and PlexinA2 genetically interact with respect to GC spine phenotypes. Sema5A?/? mice display deficits in social interaction, a hallmark of autism-spectrum-disorders. These experiments identify novel intra-dendritic Sema5A/PlexinA2 interactions that inhibit excitatory synapse formation in developmentally born and adult-born GCs, and they provide support for SEMA5A contributions to autism-spectrum-disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04390.001 PMID:25313870

Duan, Yuntao; Wang, Shih-Hsiu; Song, Juan; Mironova, Yevgeniya; Ming, Guo-li; Kolodkin, Alex L; Giger, Roman J

2014-01-01

280

Electrophysiological characterization of granule cells in the dentate gyrus immediately after birth  

PubMed Central

Granule cells (GCs) in the dentate gyrus are generated mainly postnatally. Between embryonic day 10 and 14, neural precursors migrate from the primary dentate matrix to the dentate gyrus where they differentiate into neurons. Neurogenesis reaches a peak at the end of the first postnatal week and it is completed at the end of the first postnatal month. This process continues at a reduced rate throughout life. Interestingly, immediately after birth, GCs exhibit a clear GABAergic phenotype. Only later they integrate the classical glutamatergic trisynaptic hippocampal circuit. Here, whole cell patch clamp recordings, in current clamp mode, were performed from immature GCs, intracellularly loaded with biocytin (in hippocampal slices from P0 to P3 old rats) in order to compare their morphological characteristics with their electrophysiological properties. The vast majority of GCs were very immature with small somata, few dendritic branches terminating with small varicosities and growth cones. In spite of their immaturity their axons reached often the cornu ammonis 3 area. Immature GCs generated, upon membrane depolarization, either rudimentary sodium spikes or more clear overshooting action potentials that fired repetitively. They exhibited also low threshold calcium spikes. In addition, most spiking neurons showed spontaneous synchronized network activity, reminiscent of giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs) generated in the hippocampus by the synergistic action of glutamate and GABA, both depolarizing and excitatory. This early synchronized activity, absent during adult neurogenesis, may play a crucial role in the refinement of local neuronal circuits within the developing dentate gyrus. PMID:24592213

Pedroni, Andrea; Minh, Do Duc; Mallamaci, Antonello; Cherubini, Enrico

2014-01-01

281

Transcriptome profiling of human hippocampus dentate gyrus granule cells in mental illness  

PubMed Central

This study is, to the best of our knowledge, the first application of whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) to cells isolated from postmortem human brain by laser capture microdissection. We investigated the transcriptome of dentate gyrus (DG) granule cells in postmortem human hippocampus in 79 subjects with mental illness (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression) and nonpsychiatric controls. We show that the choice of normalization approach for analysis of RNA-seq data had a strong effect on results; under our experimental conditions a nonstandard normalization method gave superior results. We found evidence of disrupted signaling by miR-182 in mental illness. This was confirmed using a novel method of leveraging microRNA genetic variant information to indicate active targeting. In healthy subjects and those with bipolar disorder, carriers of a high- vs those with a low-expressing genotype of miR-182 had different levels of miR-182 target gene expression, indicating an active role of miR-182 in shaping the DG transcriptome for those subject groups. By contrast, comparing the transcriptome between carriers of different genotypes among subjects with major depression and schizophrenia suggested a loss of DG miR-182 signaling in these conditions. PMID:24594777

Kohen, R; Dobra, A; Tracy, J H; Haugen, E

2014-01-01

282

Transcriptome profiling of human hippocampus dentate gyrus granule cells in mental illness.  

PubMed

This study is, to the best of our knowledge, the first application of whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) to cells isolated from postmortem human brain by laser capture microdissection. We investigated the transcriptome of dentate gyrus (DG) granule cells in postmortem human hippocampus in 79 subjects with mental illness (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression) and nonpsychiatric controls. We show that the choice of normalization approach for analysis of RNA-seq data had a strong effect on results; under our experimental conditions a nonstandard normalization method gave superior results. We found evidence of disrupted signaling by miR-182 in mental illness. This was confirmed using a novel method of leveraging microRNA genetic variant information to indicate active targeting. In healthy subjects and those with bipolar disorder, carriers of a high- vs those with a low-expressing genotype of miR-182 had different levels of miR-182 target gene expression, indicating an active role of miR-182 in shaping the DG transcriptome for those subject groups. By contrast, comparing the transcriptome between carriers of different genotypes among subjects with major depression and schizophrenia suggested a loss of DG miR-182 signaling in these conditions. PMID:24594777

Kohen, R; Dobra, A; Tracy, J H; Haugen, E

2014-01-01

283

Forward transport of proteins in the plasma membrane of migrating cerebellar granule cells.  

PubMed

Directional flow of membrane components has been detected at the leading front of fibroblasts and the growth cone of neuronal processes, but whether there exists global directional flow of plasma membrane components over the entire migrating neuron remains largely unknown. By analyzing the trajectories of antibody-coated single quantum dots (QDs) bound to two membrane proteins, overexpressed myc-tagged synaptic vesicle-associated membrane protein VAMP2 and endogenous neurotrophin receptor TrkB, we found that these two proteins exhibited net forward transport, which is superimposed upon Brownian motion, in both leading and trailing processes of migrating cerebellar granule cells in culture. Furthermore, no net directional transport of membrane proteins was observed in nonmigrating cells with either growing or stalling leading processes. Analysis of the correlation of motion direction between two QDs on the same process in migrating neurons also showed a higher frequency of correlated forward than rearward movements. Such correlated QD movements were markedly reduced in the presence of myosin II inhibitor blebbistatin,suggesting the involvement of myosin II-dependent active transport processes. Thus, a net forward transport of plasma membrane proteins exists in the leading and trailing processes of migrating neurons, in line with the translocation of the soma. PMID:23213239

Wang, Dong; She, Liang; Sui, Ya-nan; Yuan, Xiao-bing; Wen, Yunqing; Poo, Mu-ming

2012-12-18

284

Global Topology Analysis of Pancreatic Zymogen Granule Membrane Proteins *S?  

PubMed Central

The zymogen granule is the specialized organelle in pancreatic acinar cells for digestive enzyme storage and regulated secretion and is a classic model for studying secretory granule function. Our long term goal is to develop a comprehensive architectural model for zymogen granule membrane (ZGM) proteins that would direct new hypotheses for subsequent functional studies. Our initial proteomics analysis focused on identification of proteins from purified ZGM (Chen, X., Walker, A. K., Strahler, J. R., Simon, E. S., Tomanicek-Volk, S. L., Nelson, B. B., Hurley, M. C., Ernst, S. A., Williams, J. A., and Andrews, P. C. (2006) Organellar proteomics: analysis of pancreatic zymogen granule membranes. Mol. Cell. Proteomics 5, 306–312). In the current study, a new global topology analysis of ZGM proteins is described that applies isotope enrichment methods to a protease protection protocol. Our results showed that tryptic peptides of ZGM proteins were separated into two distinct clusters according to their isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) ratios for proteinase K-treated versus control zymogen granules. The low iTRAQ ratio cluster included cytoplasm-orientated membrane and membrane-associated proteins including myosin V, vesicle-associated membrane proteins, syntaxins, and all the Rab proteins. The second cluster having unchanged ratios included predominantly luminal proteins. Because quantification is at the peptide level, this technique is also capable of mapping both cytoplasm- and lumen-orientated domains from the same transmembrane protein. To more accurately assign the topology, we developed a statistical mixture model to provide probabilities for identified peptides to be cytoplasmic or luminal based on their iTRAQ ratios. By implementing this approach to global topology analysis of ZGM proteins, we report here an experimentally constrained, comprehensive topology model of identified zymogen granule membrane proteins. This model contributes to a firm foundation for developing a higher order architecture model of the ZGM and for future functional studies of individual ZGM proteins. PMID:18682380

Chen, Xuequn; Ulintz, Peter J.; Simon, Eric S.; Williams, John A.; Andrews, Philip C.

2008-01-01

285

Cognitive Enhancing Treatment with a PPAR? Agonist Normalizes Dentate Granule Cell Presynaptic Function in Tg2576 APP Mice  

PubMed Central

Hippocampal network hyperexcitability is considered an early indicator of Alzheimer's disease (AD) memory impairment. Some AD mouse models exhibit similar network phenotypes. In this study we focused on dentate gyrus (DG) granule cell spontaneous and evoked properties in 9-month-old Tg2576 mice that model AD amyloidosis and cognitive deficits. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we found that Tg2576 DG granule cells exhibited spontaneous EPSCs that were higher in frequency but not amplitude compared with wild-type mice, suggesting hyperactivity of DG granule cells via a presynaptic mechanism. Further support of a presynaptic mechanism was revealed by increased I–O relationships and probability of release in Tg2576 DG granule cells. Since we and others have shown that activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) axis improves hippocampal cognition in mouse models for AD as well as benefitting memory performance in some humans with early AD, we investigated how PPAR? agonism affected synaptic activity in Tg2576 DG. We found that PPAR? agonism normalized the I–O relationship of evoked EPSCs, frequency of spontaneous EPSCs, and probability of release that, in turn, correlated with selective expression of DG proteins essential for presynaptic SNARE function that are altered in patients with AD. These findings provide evidence that DG principal cells may contribute to early AD hippocampal network hyperexcitability via a presynaptic mechanism, and that hippocampal cognitive enhancement via PPAR? activation occurs through regulation of presynaptic vesicular proteins critical for proper glutamatergic neurotransmitter release, synaptic transmission, and short-term plasticity. PMID:24431460

Nenov, Miroslav N.; Laezza, Fernanda; Haidacher, Sigmund J.; Zhao, Yingxin; Sadygov, Rovshan G.; Starkey, Jonathan M.; Spratt, Heidi; Luxon, Bruce A.; Dineley, Kelly T.

2014-01-01

286

Posttraining ablation of adult-generated olfactory granule cells degrades odor-reward memories.  

PubMed

Proliferation of neural progenitor cells in the subventricular zone leads to the continuous generation of new olfactory granule cells (OGCs) throughout life. These cells synaptically integrate into olfactory bulb circuits after ?2 weeks and transiently exhibit heightened plasticity and responses to novel odors. Although these observations suggest that adult-generated OGCs play important roles in olfactory-related memories, global suppression of olfactory neurogenesis does not typically prevent the formation of odor-reward memories, perhaps because residual OGCs can compensate. Here, we used a transgenic strategy to selectively ablate large numbers of adult-generated OGCs either before or after learning in mice. Consistent with previous studies, pretraining ablation of adult-generated OGCs did not prevent the formation of an odor-reward memory, presumably because existing OGCs can support memory formation in their absence. However, ablation of a similar cohort of adult-generated OGCs after training impaired subsequent memory expression, indicating that if these cells are available at the time of training, they play an essential role in subsequent expression of odor-reward memories. Memory impairment was associated with the loss of adult-generated OGCs that were >10 d in age and did not depend on the developmental stage in which they were generated, suggesting that, once sufficiently mature, OGCs generated during juvenility and adulthood play similar roles in the expression of odor-reward memories. Finally, ablation of adult-generated OGCs 1 month after training did not produce amnesia, indicating that adult-generated OGCs play a time-limited role in the expression of odor-reward memories. PMID:25411506

Arruda-Carvalho, Maithe; Akers, Katherine G; Guskjolen, Axel; Sakaguchi, Masanori; Josselyn, Sheena A; Frankland, Paul W

2014-11-19

287

Elements of the nitric oxide/cGMP pathway expressed in cerebellar granule cells: biochemical and functional characterisation.  

PubMed

It is known that the nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP pathway affects neuronal development and the expression of the different proteins is developmentally dependent in several brain areas. However, so far there are no data on the expression of the proteins involved in this signalling system during the development of the cerebellar granule cell, one of the most widely used models of neuronal development. This study was accordingly designed to analyse the developmental regulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), soluble guanylyl cyclase subunits (alpha1, alpha2 and beta1) and cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cGK I and cGK II) in cerebellar granule cells through real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. We were able to detect guanylyl cyclase subunits and cGK I and cGK II in cerebellar granule cells at every stage of development examined (cells freshly isolated from 7-day-old rat pups, and cells cultured for 7 days or 14 days). Expression levels, nevertheless, varied significantly at each stage. nNOS, alpha2 and beta1 and cGK II levels increased during granule cell development, while alpha1 and cGK I showed an opposite behaviour pattern; the levels of these latter proteins diminished as the cells matured. The functionality of this pathway was assessed by stimulating cells kept in culture for 7 days with DEA/NO or with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). Cells responded by increasing intracellular cGMP and activating cGMP-dependent protein kinase activity, which effectively phosphorylated two well-known substrates of this activity, the vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) and the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). In summary, through both functional and biochemical tests, this is the first demonstration of a complete NO/cGMP signalling transduction pathway in cerebellar granule cells. Our results also indicate the developmental regulation of the proteins in this system. PMID:15312977

Jurado, Sandra; Sánchez-Prieto, José; Torres, Magdalena

2004-11-01

288

Volutin Granules in Zoogloea ramigera  

PubMed Central

Zoogloea ramigera, a gram-negative bacterium found in activated sludge, formed volutin granules when excess orthophosphate was added to a phosphate-starved culture. These volutin granules were stainable by hydrogen sulfide after lead acetate treatment and extractable by N-perchloric acid but were not adsorbed by activated charcoal. They appeared to consist of inorganic polyphosphate. Optimum granule formation in the arginine broth required 10 g of glucose, 3 mg of phosphate, and 1 to 20 mg of magnesium per liter of medium. At an Mg2+ concentration of 1 mg/liter, very large granules appeared which often appeared to fill the cell. An excess of glucose, orthophosphate, or magnesium reduced granule formation. In the absence of sulfate, moderate granulation occurred in arginine broth before the addition of excess orthophosphate; granulation did not increase after the addition of phosphate. Images PMID:4195479

Roinestad, Frank A.; Yall, Irving

1970-01-01

289

Influence of Experimental Diabetes Mellitus on Secretary Gran- ules in ß-Cells in the Dog Pancreatic Islet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The secretory granules of the ß-cells (ß-granules) in the pancreatic islets differ in shape in different animals. Whether ß-granules are made entirely of insulin or not is unknown. Ten mixed-breed dogs were used and separated into two groups. One was a control group and the other served as those with experimental diabetes mellitus (DM) and received injec- tions of Streptozotocin.

Yuji Asai; Hiroyuki Morimoto; Yoshio Mabuchi; Eisuke Sakuma; Nobuyuki Shirasawa; Ikuo Wada; Osamu Horiuchi; Atsushi Sakamoto; Chiharu Tanaka; Damon C. Herbert

2007-01-01

290

Degranulation of mast cells and inhibition of the response to secretory agents by phototoxic compounds and ultraviolet radiation  

SciTech Connect

The symptoms of cutaneous phototoxicity from coal tar compounds and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug benoxaprofen are characterized by wheal and flare formation which is mediated by histamine released from dermal mast cells. Rat serosal mast cells were used as an in vitro model system to study the direct effect of phototoxic compounds on mast cell degranulation. The coal tar compounds studied included acridine and pyrene. Combined exposure of cells to acridine and UVA (320 to 400 nm) radiation caused mast cells to degranulate, as assayed by the release of (/sup 3/H)serotonin. Maximum (/sup 3/H)serotonin release (70 to 80%) was obtained with 50 microM acridine and 300 kJ/m2 UVA. Pyrene (25 microM), when photoexcited with UVB (280 to 360 nm) radiation, caused about 80% release of (/sup 3/H)serotonin. No degranulation occurred with 20 microM benoxaprofen and UVB doses up to 7.2 kJ/m2. Trypan blue staining correlated well with degranulation caused by acridine plus UVA; however, with pyrene plus UVB there was greater (/sup 3/H)serotonin release than dye uptake. Excitation of photosensitizers with doses of UV radiation that did not cause trypan blue staining suppressed degranulation of mast cells in response to chemical stimulation. Acridine, pyrene, and benoxaprofen in the presence of UV radiation inhibited the mast cells from responding to compound 48/80 or the calcium ionophore, chlortetracycline. Two other phototoxic compounds, chlorpromazine and deoxytetracycline, also abolished degranulation by compound 48/80. These findings indicate that phototoxic compounds: (1) cause degranulation in the presence of high doses of UV radiation; and (2) suppress degranulation of mast cells in response to secretory stimuli at doses of UV radiation that do not cause release of mediator.

Gendimenico, G.J.; Kochevar, I.E.

1984-11-01

291

Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors in the Main Olfactory Bulb Drive Granule Cell-Mediated Inhibition  

PubMed Central

Main olfactory bulb (MOB) granule cells (GCs) express high levels of the group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR), mGluR5. We investigated the role of mGluRs in regulating GC activity in rodent MOB slices using whole cell patch-clamp electrophysiology. The group I/II mGluR agonist (±)-1-aminocyclopentane-trans-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (ACPD) or the selective group I agonist (RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) depolarized (~20 mV) and increased the firing rate of GCs. In the presence of ionotropic glutamate and GABA receptor antagonists, DHPG evoked a more modest depolarization (~8 mV). In voltage clamp, DHPG, but not group II [(2S,2?R,3)-2-(2?,3?-dicarboxycyclopropyl) glycine, DCG-IV] or group III [L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid, L-AP4] mGluR agonists, induced an inward current. The inward current reversed polarity near the potassium equilibrium potential, suggesting mediation by closure of potassium channels. The DHPG-evoked inward current was unaffected by the mGluR1 antagonist (S)-(+)-?-amino-4-carboxy-2-methylbenzeneacetic acid (LY367385), was blocked by the group I/II mGluR antagonist (?S)-?-amino-?-[(1S,2S)-2-carboxycyclopropyl]-9H-xanthine-9-propanoic acid (LY341495), and was absent in GCs from mGluR5 knockout mice. LY341495 also attenuated mitral cell-evoked voltage-sensitive dye signals in the external plexiform layer and mitral cell-evoked spikes in GCs. These results suggest that activation of mGluR5 increases GC excitability, an effect that should increase GC-mediated GABAergic inhibition of mitral cells. In support of this: DHPG increased the frequency of spontaneous GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents in mitral cells and LY341495 attenuated the feedback GABAergic postsynaptic potential elicited by intracellular depolarization of mitral cells. Our results suggest that activation of mGluR5 participates in feedforward and/or feedback inhibition at mitral cell to GC dendrodendritic synapses, possibly to modulate lateral inhibition and contrast in the MOB. PMID:17093122

Heinbockel, Thomas; Laaris, Nora; Ennis, Matthew

2009-01-01

292

Inhibition of mTORC1 by astrin and stress granules prevents apoptosis in cancer cells.  

PubMed

Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) controls growth and survival in response to metabolic cues. Oxidative stress affects mTORC1 via inhibitory and stimulatory inputs. Whereas downregulation of TSC1-TSC2 activates mTORC1 upon oxidative stress, the molecular mechanism of mTORC1 inhibition remains unknown. Here, we identify astrin as an essential negative mTORC1 regulator in the cellular stress response. Upon stress, astrin inhibits mTORC1 association and recruits the mTORC1 component raptor to stress granules (SGs), thereby preventing mTORC1-hyperactivation-induced apoptosis. In turn, balanced mTORC1 activity enables expression of stress factors. By identifying astrin as a direct molecular link between mTORC1, SG assembly, and the stress response, we establish a unifying model of mTORC1 inhibition and activation upon stress. Importantly, we show that in cancer cells, apoptosis suppression during stress depends on astrin. Being frequently upregulated in tumors, astrin is a potential clinically relevant target to sensitize tumors to apoptosis. PMID:23953116

Thedieck, Kathrin; Holzwarth, Birgit; Prentzell, Mirja Tamara; Boehlke, Christopher; Kläsener, Kathrin; Ruf, Stefanie; Sonntag, Annika Gwendolin; Maerz, Lars; Grellscheid, Sushma-Nagaraja; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Nitschke, Roland; Kuehn, E Wolfgang; Jonker, Johan W; Groen, Albert K; Reth, Michael; Hall, Michael N; Baumeister, Ralf

2013-08-15

293

Electrical responses of three classes of granule cells of the olfactory bulb to synaptic inputs in different dendritic locations  

PubMed Central

This work consists of a computational study of the electrical responses of three classes of granule cells of the olfactory bulb to synaptic activation in different dendritic locations. The constructed models were based on morphologically detailed compartmental reconstructions of three granule cell classes of the olfactory bulb with active dendrites described by Bhalla and Bower (1993, pp. 1948–1965) and dendritic spine distributions described by Woolf et al. (1991, pp. 1837–1854). The computational studies with the model neurons showed that different quantities of spines have to be activated in each dendritic region to induce an action potential, which always was originated in the active terminal dendrites, independently of the location of the stimuli, and the morphology of the dendritic tree. These model predictions might have important computational implications in the context of olfactory bulb circuits. PMID:25360108

Simões-de-Souza, Fábio M.; Antunes, Gabriela; Roque, Antonio C.

2014-01-01

294

Electrical responses of three classes of granule cells of the olfactory bulb to synaptic inputs in different dendritic locations.  

PubMed

This work consists of a computational study of the electrical responses of three classes of granule cells of the olfactory bulb to synaptic activation in different dendritic locations. The constructed models were based on morphologically detailed compartmental reconstructions of three granule cell classes of the olfactory bulb with active dendrites described by Bhalla and Bower (1993, pp. 1948-1965) and dendritic spine distributions described by Woolf et al. (1991, pp. 1837-1854). The computational studies with the model neurons showed that different quantities of spines have to be activated in each dendritic region to induce an action potential, which always was originated in the active terminal dendrites, independently of the location of the stimuli, and the morphology of the dendritic tree. These model predictions might have important computational implications in the context of olfactory bulb circuits. PMID:25360108

Simões-de-Souza, Fábio M; Antunes, Gabriela; Roque, Antonio C

2014-01-01

295

Expression of NR2B in Cerebellar Granule Cells Specifically Facilitates Effect of Motor Training on Motor Learning  

PubMed Central

It is believed that gene/environment interaction (GEI) plays a pivotal role in the development of motor skills, which are acquired via practicing or motor training. However, the underlying molecular/neuronal mechanisms are still unclear. Here, we reported that the expression of NR2B, a subunit of NMDA receptors, in cerebellar granule cells specifically enhanced the effect of voluntary motor training on motor learning in the mouse. Moreover, this effect was characterized as motor learning-specific and developmental stage-dependent, because neither emotional/spatial memory was affected nor was the enhanced motor learning observed when the motor training was conducted starting at the age of 3 months old in these transgenic mice. These results indicate that changes in the expression of gene(s) that are involved in regulating synaptic plasticity in cerebellar granule cells may constitute a molecular basis for the cerebellum to be involved in the GEI by facilitating motor skill learning. PMID:18301761

Jiao, Jianwei; Nakajima, Akira; Janssen, William G. M.; Bindokas, Vytautas P.; Xiong, Xiaoli; Morrison, John H.; Brorson, James R.; Tang, Ya-Ping

2008-01-01

296

Expression of NR2B in Cerebellar Granule Cells Specifically Facilitates Effect of Motor Training on Motor Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is believed that gene\\/environment interaction (GEI) plays a pivotal role in the development of motor skills, which are acquired via practicing or motor training. However, the underlying molecular\\/neuronal mechanisms are still unclear. Here, we reported that the expression of NR2B, a subunit of NMDA receptors, in cerebellar granule cells specifically enhanced the effect of voluntary motor training on motor

Jianwei Jiao; Akira Nakajima; William G. M. Janssen; Vytautas P. Bindokas; Xiaoli Xiong; John H. Morrison; James R. Brorson; Ya-Ping Tang; Martin Giurfa

2008-01-01

297

The effect of gallium nitride on long-term culture induced aging of neuritic function in cerebellar granule cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gallium nitride (GaN) has been developed for a variety of microelectronic and optical applications due to its unique electric property and chemical stability. In the present study, n-type and p-type GaN were used as substrates to culture cerebellar granule neurons to examine the effect of GaN on cell response for a long-term culture period. It was found that GaN could

Chi-Ruei Chen; Tai-Horng Young

2008-01-01

298

The lysosomal membrane glycoproteins Lamp-1 and Lamp-2 are present in mobilizable organelles, but are absent from the azurophil granules of human neutrophils.  

PubMed Central

The subcellular localization of two members of a highly glycosylated protein group present in lysosomal membranes in most cells, the lysosome-associated membrane proteins 1 and 2 (Lamp-1 and Lamp-2), was examined in human neutrophil granulocytes. Antibodies that were raised against purified Lamp-1 adn Lamp-2 gave a distinct granular staining of the cytoplasm upon immunostaining of neutrophils. Subcellular fractionation was used to separate the azurophil and specific granules from a light-membrane fraction containing plasma membranes and secretory vesicles, and Western blotting was used to determine the presence of the Lamps in these fractions. The results show that Lamp-1 and Lamp-2 are present in the specific-granule-enriched fraction and in the light-membrane fraction, but not in the azurophil granules. Separation of secretory vesicles from plasma membranes disclosed that the light-membrane Lamps were present primarily in the secretory-vesicle-enriched fraction. During phagocytosis both Lamp-1 and Lamp-2 became markedly concentrated around the ingested particle and they both appear on the cell surface when the secretory organelles are mobilized. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 PMID:7487911

Dahlgren, C; Carlsson, S R; Karlsson, A; Lundqvist, H; Sjölin, C

1995-01-01

299

Metastatic C-cell carcinoma: Calcitonin and CEA production in monolayer culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanically dissociated cells from a surgically removed mediastinal C-cell carcinoma (MTC) were cultured over a period of 4 months. The cells of the monolayer culture consisted of clusters of small epithelial-like cells. Using semithin and ultrathin sections, two different types of cells could be characterized by shape of nucleus and by content and distribution of secretory granules. One type of

W. Schurr; E. Rix; H. Schmidt-Gayk; F. Raue; R. Ziegler

1986-01-01

300

Cyclic AMP-mediated regulation of transcription factor Lot1 expression in cerebellar granule cells.  

PubMed

Lot1, a zinc finger transcription factor acting as a tumor suppressor gene on tumoral cells, is highly expressed during brain development. In developing rat cerebellum, Lot1 expression is high in cerebellar granule cells (CGC), a neuronal population undergoing postnatal neurogenesis. The time course of Lot1 cerebellar expression closely matches the expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptors coupled to adenylyl cyclase. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether Lot1 expression is regulated by cAMP-dependent pathways and to identify mechanisms of Lot1 activation in CGC cultures. Our results show that Lot1 expression in CGC is cAMP-dependent, as treatments with either forskolin or PACAP-38 induced an increase in its expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. This effect on Lot1 expression was mimicked by dibutyryl cAMP and suppressed by protein kinase A and MEK inhibitors. In parallel, we found that treatments with forskolin and PACAP-38 in precursor CGC inhibited bromodeoxyuridine incorporation by 25 and 35%, respectively, indicating a negative effect on neuronal precursor proliferation. Luciferase reporter analysis and mutagenesis of the Lot1 promoter region indicated a crucial role of the AP1-binding site (located at -268 bp) in cAMP-induced Lot1 transcription. In addition, cotransfection experiments indicated that the c-Fos/c-Jun heterodimer is responsible for cAMP-dependent Lot1 transcriptional activation. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that, in CGC, Lot1 is under the transcriptional control of cAMP through an AP1 site regulated by the c-Fos/c-Jun heterodimer and suggest that this gene may be an important element of the cAMP-mediated pathway that regulates neuronal proliferation through the protein kinase A-MEK signaling cascade. PMID:16061485

Contestabile, Andrea; Fila, Tatiana; Bartesaghi, Renata; Ciani, Elisabetta

2005-09-30

301

Extracellular Vesicles from Parasitic Helminths Contain Specific Excretory/Secretory Proteins and Are Internalized in Intestinal Host Cells  

PubMed Central

The study of host-parasite interactions has increased considerably in the last decades, with many studies focusing on the identification of parasite molecules (i.e. surface or excretory/secretory proteins (ESP)) as potential targets for new specific treatments and/or diagnostic tools. In parallel, in the last few years there have been significant advances in the field of extracellular vesicles research. Among these vesicles, exosomes of endocytic origin, with a characteristic size ranging from 30–100 nm, carry several atypical secreted proteins in different organisms, including parasitic protozoa. Here, we present experimental evidence for the existence of exosome-like vesicles in parasitic helminths, specifically the trematodes Echinostoma caproni and Fasciola hepatica. These microvesicles are actively released by the parasites and are taken up by host cells. Trematode extracellular vesicles contain most of the proteins previously identified as components of ESP, as confirmed by proteomic, immunogold labeling and electron microscopy studies. In addition to parasitic proteins, we also identify host proteins in these structures. The existence of extracellular vesicles explains the secretion of atypical proteins in trematodes, and the demonstration of their uptake by host cells suggests an important role for these structures in host-parasite communication, as described for other infectious agents. PMID:23029346

Marcilla, Antonio; Trelis, Maria; Cortes, Alba; Sotillo, Javier; Cantalapiedra, Fernando; Minguez, Maria Teresa; Valero, Maria Luz; Sanchez del Pino, Manuel Mateo; Munoz-Antoli, Carla; Toledo, Rafael; Bernal, Dolores

2012-01-01

302

The mast cell nature of granule cells in the digestive tract of the pike, Esox lucius : similarity to mammalian mucosal mast cells and globule leucocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations were made on sections of intestinal tissue from the pike,Esox lucius, fixed in a solution containing 4% formaldehyde and 5% acetic acid in methanol. Four staining procedures, using May-Grünwald Giemsa combi-nation dye, hematoxylin and eosin, toluidine blue, and alcian blue in sequence with safranin, were applied. Numerous granule cells were found in the area of stratum compactum and in

OLA B. REITE

1996-01-01

303

Kinetic Evaluation of Cell Membrane Hydrolysis during Apoptosis by Human Isoforms of Secretory  

E-print Network

process such as apoptosis. To test this idea, S49 lymphoma cell death was induced by glucocorticoid (6).2 Ordinarily, healthy cells resist hydrolysis, but during apoptosis they become vulnerable to destruction

Gelb, Michael

304

Unlocking the secrets of cytotoxic granule proteins.  

PubMed

Cytotoxic lymphocytes largely comprise CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells and form the major defense of higher organisms against virus-infected and transformed cells. A key function of cytotoxic lymphocytes is to detect and eliminate potentially harmful cells by inducing them to undergo apoptosis. This is achieved through two principal pathways, both of which require direct but transient contact between the killer cell and its target. The first, involving ligation of TNF receptor-like molecules such as Fas/CD95 by their cognate ligands, results in mobilization of conventional, programmed cell-death pathways centered on activation of pro-apoptotic caspases. This review concentrates on the second pathway, in which the toxic contents of secretory vesicles of the cytotoxic lymphocyte are secreted toward the target cell, and some toxins penetrate into the target cell cytoplasm and nucleus. In addition to invoking a powerful stimulus to caspase activation, this "granule-exocytosis mechanism" provides a variety of additional strategies for overcoming inhibitors of the caspase cascade that may be elaborated by viruses. The key molecular players in this process are the pore-forming protein perforin and a family of granule-bound serine proteases or granzymes. The molecular functions of perforin and granzymes are under intense investigation in many laboratories including our own, and recent advances will be discussed. In addition, this review discusses the evidence pointing to the importance of perforin and granzyme function in pathophysiological situations as diverse as infection with intracellular pathogens, graft versus host disease, susceptibility to transplantable and spontaneous malignancies, lymphoid homeostasis, and the tendency to auto-immune diseases. PMID:11435481

Smyth, M J; Kelly, J M; Sutton, V R; Davis, J E; Browne, K A; Sayers, T J; Trapani, J A

2001-07-01

305

Various secretory phospholipase A2 enzymes are expressed in rheumatoid arthritis and augment prostaglandin production in cultured synovial cells.  

PubMed

Although group IIA secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IIA) is known to be abundantly present in the joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), expression of other sPLA2s in this disease has remained unknown. In this study, we examined the expression and localization of six sPLA2s (groups IIA, IID, IIE, IIF, V and X) in human RA. Immunohistochemistry of RA sections revealed that sPLA2-IIA was generally located in synovial lining and sublining cells and cartilage chondrocytes, sPLA2-IID in lymph follicles and capillary endothelium, sPLA2-IIE in vascular smooth muscle cells, and sPLA2-V in interstitial fibroblasts. Expression levels of these group II subfamily sPLA2s appeared to be higher in severe RA than in inactive RA. sPLA2-X was detected in synovial lining cells and interstitial fibers in both active and inactive RA sections. Expression of sPLA2-IIF was partially positive, yet its correlation with disease states was unclear. Expression of sPLA2 transcripts was also evident in cultured normal human synoviocytes, in which sPLA2-IIA and -V were induced by interleukin-1 and sPLA2-X was expressed constitutively. Adenovirus-mediated expression of sPLA2s in cultured synoviocytes resulted in increased prostaglandin E2 production at low ng x mL(-1) concentrations. Thus, multiple sPLA2s are expressed in human RA, in which they may play a role in the augmentation of arachidonate metabolism or exhibit other cell type-specific functions. PMID:15670148

Masuda, Seiko; Murakami, Makoto; Komiyama, Kazuo; Ishihara, Motoko; Ishikawa, Yukio; Ishii, Toshiharu; Kudo, Ichiro

2005-02-01

306

Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptors Transiently Silence Glutamatergic Nerve Terminals of Cultured Cerebellar Granule Cells  

PubMed Central

Cannabinoid receptors are the most abundant G protein-coupled receptors in the brain and they mediate retrograde short-term inhibition of neurotransmitter release, as well as long-term depression of synaptic transmission at many excitatory synapses. The induction of presynaptically silent synapses is a means of modulating synaptic strength, which is important for synaptic plasticity. Persistent activation of cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB1Rs) mutes GABAergic terminals, although it is unclear if CB1Rs can also induce silencing at glutamatergic synapses. Cerebellar granule cells were transfected with VGLUT1-pHluorin to visualise the exo-endocytotic cycle. We found that prolonged stimulation (10 min) of cannabinoid receptors with the agonist HU-210 induces the silencing of previously active synapses. However, the presynaptic silencing induced by HU-210 is transient as it reverses after 20 min. cAMP with forskolin prevented CB1R-induced synaptic silencing, via activation of the Exchange Protein directly Activated by cAMP (Epac). Furthermore, Epac activation accelerated awakening of already silent boutons. Electron microscopy revealed that silencing was associated with synaptic vesicle (SV) redistribution within the nerve terminal, which diminished the number of vesicles close to the active zone of the plasma membrane. Finally, by combining functional and immunocytochemical approaches, we observed a strong correlation between the release capacity of the nerve terminals and RIM1? protein content, but not that of Munc13-1 protein. These results suggest that prolonged stimulation of cannabinoid receptors can transiently silence glutamatergic nerve terminals. PMID:24533119

Ramirez-Franco, Jorge; Bartolome-Martin, David; Alonso, Beatris; Torres, Magdalena; Sanchez-Prieto, Jose

2014-01-01

307

L-type voltage-gated calcium channels modulate kainic acid neurotoxicity in cerebellar granule cells.  

PubMed

This study reports on the regulation of kainate neurotoxicity in cerebellar granule cells by calcium entry through voltage-gated calcium channels and by calcium release from internal cellular stores. Kainate neurotoxicity was prevented by the AMPA selective antagonist LY 303070 (10 microM). Kainate neurotoxicity was potentiated by cadmium, a general voltage-gated calcium channel blocker, and the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel blocker nifedipine. The antagonists of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) release, thapsigargin and ryanodine, were also able to potentiate kainate neurotoxicity. Kainate treatment elevated [Ca2+]i concentration with a rapid initial increase that peaked at 1543 nM and then declined to plateau at approximately 400 nM. Nifedipine lowered the peak response to 764 nM and the plateau response to approximately 90 nM. Thapsigargin also lowered the kainate-induced increase in [Ca2+]i (640 nM peak, 125 nM plateau). The ryanodine receptor agonist caffeine eliminated the kainate-induced increase in [Ca2+]i, and reduced kainate neurotoxicity. Kainate neurotoxicity potentiated by nifedipine was not prevented by RNA or protein synthesis inhibitors, nor by the caspase inhibitors YVAD-CHO and DEVD-CHO. Neither DNA laddering nor the number of apoptotic nuclei were increased following treatment with kainate and nifedipine. Increased nuclear staining with the membrane impermeable dye propidium iodide was observed immediately following kainate treatment, indicating a loss of plasma membrane integrity. Thus, kainate neurotoxicity is prevented by calcium entry through L-type calcium channels. PMID:10320722

Leski, M L; Valentine, S L; Coyle, J T

1999-05-15

308

Synaptosomal-associated protein 25 mutation induces immaturity of the dentate granule cells of adult mice  

PubMed Central

Background Synaptosomal-associated protein, 25 kDa (SNAP-25) regulates the exocytosis of neurotransmitters. Growing evidence suggests that SNAP-25 is involved in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and epilepsy. Recently, increases in anxiety-related behaviors and epilepsy have been observed in SNAP-25 knock-in (KI) mice, which have a single amino acid substitution of Ala for Ser187. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the abnormalities in this mutant remain unknown. Results In this study, we found that a significant number of dentate gyrus (DG) granule cells was histologically and electrophysiologically similar to immature DG neurons in the dentate gyrus of the adult mutants, a phenomenon termed the “immature DG” (iDG). SNAP-25 KI mice and other mice possessing the iDG phenotype, i.e., alpha-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II heterozygous mice, Schnurri-2 knockout mice, and mice treated with the antidepressant fluoxetine, showed similar molecular expression patterns, with over 100 genes similarly altered. A working memory deficit was also identified in mutant mice during a spontaneous forced alternation task using a modified T-maze, a behavioral task known to be dependent on hippocampal function. Chronic treatments with the antiepileptic drug valproate abolished the iDG phenotype and the working memory deficit in mutants. Conclusions These findings suggest that the substitution of Ala for Ser187 in SNAP-25 induces the iDG phenotype, which can also be caused by epilepsy, and led to a severe working memory deficit. In addition, the iDG phenotype in adulthood is likely an endophenotype for at least a part of some common psychiatric disorders. PMID:23497716

2013-01-01

309

In vivo 7 Tesla imaging of the dentate granule cell layer in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE The hippocampus is central to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Histology shows abnormalities in the dentate granule cell layer (DGCL), but its small size (~100 micron thickness) has precluded in vivo human studies. We used ultra high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compare DGCL morphology of schizophrenic patients to matched controls’. METHOD Bilateral hippocampi of 16 schizophrenia patients (10 male) 40.7±10.6 years old (mean ±standard deviation) were imaged at 7 Tesla MRI with heavily T2*-weighted gradient-echo sequence at 232 micron in-plane resolution (0.08 ?L image voxels). Fifteen matched controls (8 male, 35.6±9.4 years old) and one ex vivo post mortem hippocampus (that also underwent histopathology) were scanned with same protocol. Three blinded neuroradiologists rated each DGCL on a qualitative scale of 1 to 6 (from “not discernible” to “easily visible, appearing dark gray or black”) and mean left and right DGCL scores were compared using a non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS MRI identification of the DGCL was validated with histopathology. Mean right and left DGCL ratings in patients (3.2±1.0 and 3.5±1.2) were not statistically different from controls’ (3.9±1.1 and 3.8±0.8), but patients’ had a trend for lower right DGCL score (p=0.07), which was significantly associated with patient diagnosis (p=0.05). The optimal 48% sensitivity and 80% specificity for schizophrenia was achieved with a DGCL rating of ?2. CONCLUSION Decreased contrast in the right DGCL in schizophrenia was predictive of schizophrenia diagnosis. Better utility of this metric as a schizophrenia biomarker may be achieved in future studies of patients with homogeneous disease subtypes and progression rates. PMID:23664589

Kirov, Ivan I.; Hardy, Caitlin J.; Matsuda, Kant; Messinger, Julie; Cankurtaran, Ceylan Z.; Warren, Melina; Wiggins, Graham C.; Perry, Nissa N.; Babb, James S.; Goetz, Raymond R.; George, Ajax; Malaspina, Dolores; Gonen, Oded

2013-01-01

310

Regulation of renin processing and secretion: chemiosmotic control and novel secretory pathway.  

PubMed

The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays an important role in cardiovascular and electrolyte regulation in health and disease. Juxtaglomerular cells in the kidney regulate endocrine RAAS by physiologically controlling conversion of prorenin and secretion of renin. The classical baroceptor, neurogenic, and macula densa mechanisms regulate renin expression at the cellular level by Ca2+, adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), and chemiosmotic forces (K+, Cl-, and water flux coupled to H+ movement). The baroceptor mechanism (through Ca2+) activates K+ and Cl- channels in the surface membrane and deactivates a KCl-H+ exchange chemiosmotic transporter in the secretory granular membrane. The neurogenic mechanism (through cAMP) promotes prorenin processing to renin. The macula densa mechanism (through K+ and Cl-) involves the processing of prorenin to renin. Ca2+, by inhibiting the KCl-H+ exchange transporter, prevents secretory granules from engaging in chemiosmotically mediated exocytosis. cAMP, on the other hand, by stimulating H+ influx, provides the acidic granular environment for prorenin processing to renin. It is concluded that, in the presence of a favorable chemiosmotic environment, prorenin is processed to renin, which may then be secreted by regulative degranulation or divergence translocation, a novel secretory pathway used by several secretory proteins, including renin. PMID:7690183

King, J A; Lush, D J; Fray, J C

1993-08-01

311

Larval excretory-secretory products from the parasite Schistosoma mansoni modulate HSP70 protein expression in defence cells of its snail host, Biomphalaria glabrata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs) following cellular stress is a response shared by many organisms. Amongst the HSP\\u000a family, the ?70 kDa HSPs are the most evolutionarily conserved with intracellular chaperone and extracellular immunoregulatory\\u000a functions. This study focused on the effects of larval excretory-secretory products (ESPs) from the parasite Schistosoma mansoni on HSP70 protein expression levels in haemocytes (defence cells)

Zahida Zahoor; Angela J. Davies; Ruth S. Kirk; David Rollinson; Anthony John Walker

2010-01-01

312

Characterisation of glycoproteins in the secretory cells in the operculum of an Indian hill stream fish Garra lamta (Hamilton) (Cyprinidae, Cypriniformes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycoproteins (GPs) elaborated by the secretory cells in the opercular epidermis (OE) and the epithelium lining the inner\\u000a surface of the operculum (EISO), of an Indian hill stream fish Garra lamta have been analysed by means of a battery of histochemical methods. These included methods for the characterisation and simultaneous\\u000a visualisation of GPs with oxidizable vicinal diols, O-acyl sugars, O-sulphate

S. Mittal; Pinky; A. K. Mittal

2002-01-01

313

Adult Dirofilaria immitis excretory\\/secretory antigens upregulate the production of prostaglandin E2 and downregulate monocyte transmigration in an “in vitro” model of vascular endothelial cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine and feline cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis caused by Dirofilaria immitis is a chronic and potentially fatal disease. Adult worms live in the pulmonary arteries of infected immunocompetent hosts for years. The aim of the present study is the identification of the influence of the metabolic products (excretory\\/secretory antigens, DiE\\/S) of D. immitis on the vascular endothelial cells, because the vascular endothelium

R. Morchón; J. González-Miguel; I. Mellado; S. Velasco; A. Rodríguez-Barbero; F. Simón

2010-01-01

314

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Stimulates the Expression and Production of Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor (SLPI) in Oral Epithelial Cells: a Role for SLPI in Innate Mucosal Immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The innate immune response is a key barrier against pathogenic microorganisms such as human immuno- deficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Because HIV-1 is rarely transmitted orally, we hypothesized that oral epithelial cells participate in the innate immune defense against this virus. We further hypothesized that secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), a 12-kDa mucosal antiviral protein, is a component of the

N. K. Jana; L. R. Gray; D. C. Shugars

2005-01-01

315

Disproportionately Elevated Proinsulin Levels Reflect the Degree of Impaired B Cell Secretory Capacity in Patients with Noninsulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increased proportion of fasting proinsulin (PI) relative to im- munoreactive insulin (IRI; increased PI\\/IRI) occurs in noninsulin- dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). To determine whether the magnitude of the increase in PI\\/IRI is an indicator of the degree of reduced B cell secretory capacity, we measured fasting plasma glu- cose, PI, IRI, and PI\\/IRI and related them to maximal B

MICHAEL E. RØDER; DANIEL PORTE; ROBERT S. SCHWARTZ; STEVEN E. KAHN

316

Cholinergic Stimulation of Lacrimal Acinar Cells Promotes Redistribution of Membrane-associated Kinesin and the Secretory Protein, ?-hexosaminidase, and Increases Kinesin Motor Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the microtubule-based motor, kinesin, in membrane trafficking has been investigated in resting and stimulated acinar cells from rabbit lacrimal gland, a cholinergically controlled secretory tissue. Microtubule-dependent motors from extracts of control and carbachol-treated acini were isolated by microtubule-affinity purification and their activity was determined using a video-enhanced differential interference contrast microscopy assay for microtubule gliding. The observation

SARAH F. HAMM-ALVAREZ; SILVIA DA COSTA; TAO YANG; XINHUA WEI; PETER J. GIEROW; AUSTIN K. MIRCHEFF

1997-01-01

317

Tenascin promotes cerebellar granule cell migration and neurite outgrowth by different domains in the fibronectin type III repeats  

PubMed Central

The extracellular matrix molecule tenascin has been implicated in neuron-glia recognition in the developing central and peripheral nervous system and in regeneration. In this study, its role in Bergmann glial process-mediated neuronal migration was assayed in vitro using tissue explants of the early postnatal mouse cerebellar cortex. Of the five mAbs reacting with nonoverlapping epitopes on tenascin, mAbs J1/tn1, J1/tn4, and J1/tn5, but not mAbs J1/tn2 and J1/tn3 inhibited granule cell migration. Localization of the immunoreactive domains by EM of rotary shadowed tenascin molecules revealed that the mAbs J1/tn4 and J1/tn5, like the previously described J1/tn1 antibody, bound between the third and fifth fibronectin type III homologous repeats and mAb J1/tn3 bound between the third and fifth EGF-like repeats. mAb J1/tn2 had previously been found to react between fibronectin type III homologous repeats 10 and 11 of the mouse molecule (Lochter, A., L. Vaughan, A. Kaplony, A. Prochiantz, M. Schachner, and A. Faissner. 1991. J. Cell Biol. 113:1159-1171). When postnatal granule cell neurons were cultured on tenascin adsorbed to polyornithine, both the percentage of neurite-bearing cells and the length of outgrowing neurites were increased when compared to neurons growing on polyornithine alone. This neurite outgrowth promoting effect of tenascin was abolished only by mAb J1/tn2 or tenascin added to the culture medium in soluble form. The other antibodies did not modify the stimulatory or inhibitory effects of the molecule. These observations indicate that tenascin influences neurite outgrowth and migration of cerebellar granule cells by different domains in the fibronectin type III homologous repeats. PMID:1371773

1992-01-01

318

Developmental changes of chromaffin cell secretory response to hypoxia studied in thin adrenal slices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adrenomedullary chromaffin (AMC) cells are sensitive to hypoxia in the newborn, but whether this property is lost during postnatal\\u000a maturation is a matter of controversy. We have developed a rat adrenal slice preparation that allows the study of neonatal\\u000a and adult AMC cell sensitivity to hypoxia in almost optimal physiological conditions. Responses to secretagogues can be quantitatively\\u000a and noninvasively monitored

María García-Fernández; Rebeca Mejías; José López-Barneo

2007-01-01

319

Characterization of cytoskeletal and junctional proteins expressed by cells cultured from human arachnoid granulation tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The arachnoid granulations (AGs) are projections of the arachnoid membrane into the dural venous sinuses. They function, along with the extracranial lymphatics, to circulate the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to the systemic venous circulation. Disruption of normal CSF dynamics may result in increased intracranial pressures causing many problems including headaches and visual loss, as in idiopathic intracranial hypertension and hydrocephalus.

David W Holman; Deborah M Grzybowski; Bhavya C Mehta; Steven E Katz; Martin Lubow

2005-01-01

320

Macrophage secretory products selectively stimulate dermatan sulfate proteoglycan production in cultured arterial smooth muscle cells  

SciTech Connect

Arterial dermatan sulfate proteoglycan has been shown to increase with atherosclerosis progression, but factors responsible for this increase are unknown. To test the hypothesis that smooth muscle cell proteoglycan synthesis may be modified by macrophage products, pigeon arterial smooth muscle cells were exposed to the media of either cholesteryl ester-loaded pigeon peritoneal macrophages or a macrophage cell line P388D1. Proteoglycans radiolabeled with (35S)sulfate and (3H)serine were isolated from culture media and smooth muscle cells and purified following precipitation with 1-hexadecylpyridinium chloride and chromatography. Increasing concentrations of macrophage-conditioned media were associated with a dose-response increase in (35S)sulfate incorporation into secreted proteoglycans, but there was no change in cell-associated proteoglycans. Incorporation of (3H)serine into total proteoglycan core proteins was not significantly different (5.2 X 10(5) dpm and 5.5 X 10(5) disintegrations per minute (dpm) in control and conditioned media-treated cultures, respectively), but selective effects were observed on individual proteoglycan types. Twofold increases in dermatan sulfate proteoglycan and limited degradation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan were apparent based on core proteins separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Immunoinhibition studies indicated that interleukin-1 was involved in the modulation of proteoglycan synthesis by macrophage-conditioned media. These data provide support for the role of macrophages in alteration of the matrix proteoglycans synthesized by smooth muscle cells and provide a mechanism to account for the reported increased dermatan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate ratios in the developing atherosclerotic lesion.

Edwards, I.J.; Wagner, W.D.; Owens, R.T. (Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC (USA))

1990-03-01

321

Role of Actin Depolymerization in the Surfactant Secretory Response of Alveolar Epithelial Type II Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alveolar epithelial type II cells (AET 2 ) respond with exocytosis of surfactant containing lamellar bod- ies to stimulation with mechanical stretch and secretagogues, a process that is fundamental for main- taining alveolar stability and lung gas exchange. In the present study in cultured rat AET 2 , we em- ployed botulinum C 2 toxin, a binary toxin which ADP

FRANK ROSE; CRISTOPHER KÜRTH-LANDWEHR; ULF SIBELIUS; KARL H. REUNER; KLAUS AKTORIES; WERNER SEEGER; FRIEDRICH GRIMMINGER

1999-01-01

322

Endoplasmic Reticulum Export Sites and Golgi Bodies Behave as Single Mobile Secretory Units in Plant Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast with animals, plant cells contain multiple mobile Golgi stacks distributed over the entire cytoplasm. However, the distribution and dynamics of protein export sites on the plant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) surface have yet to be characterized. A widely accepted model for ER-to-Golgi transport is based on the sequential action of COPII and COPI coat complexes. The COPII complex assembles

Luis L. P. daSilva; Erik L. Snapp; Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz; Chris Hawes; Federica Brandizzic

2004-01-01

323

A Western Blot-based Investigation of the Yeast Secretory Pathway Designed for an Intermediate-Level Undergraduate Cell Biology Laboratory  

PubMed Central

The movement of newly synthesized proteins through the endomembrane system of eukaryotic cells, often referred to generally as the secretory pathway, is a topic covered in most intermediate-level undergraduate cell biology courses. An article previously published in this journal described a laboratory exercise in which yeast mutants defective in two distinct steps of protein secretion were differentiated using a genetic reporter designed specifically to identify defects in the first step of the pathway, the insertion of proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum (Vallen, 2002). We have developed two versions of a Western blotting assay that serves as a second way of distinguishing the two secretory mutants, which we pair with the genetic assay in a 3-wk laboratory module. A quiz administered before and after students participated in the lab activities revealed significant postlab gains in their understanding of the secretory pathway and experimental techniques used to study it. A second survey administered at the end of the lab module assessed student perceptions of the efficacy of the lab activities; the results of this survey indicated that the experiments were successful in meeting a set of educational goals defined by the instructor. PMID:18316814

2008-01-01

324

Secretory competence in a gateway endocrine cell conferred by the nuclear receptor ?FTZ-F1 enables stage-specific ecdysone responses throughout development in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Hormone-induced changes in gene expression initiate periodic molts and metamorphosis during insect development. Successful execution of these developmental steps depends upon successive phases of rising and falling 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) levels, leading to a cascade of nuclear receptor-driven transcriptional activity that enables stage- and tissue-specific responses to the steroid. Among the cellular processes associated with declining steroids is acquisition of secretory competence in endocrine Inka cells, the source of ecdysis triggering hormones (ETHs). We show here that Inka cell secretory competence is conferred by the orphan nuclear receptor ?FTZ-F1. Selective RNA silencing of ?ftz-f1 in Inka cells prevents ETH release, causing developmental arrest at all stages. Affected larvae display buttoned-up, the ETH-null phenotype characterized by double mouthparts, absence of ecdysis behaviors, and failure to shed the old cuticle. During the mid-prepupal period, individuals fail to translocate the air bubble, execute head eversion and elongate incipient wings and legs. Those that escape to the adult stage are defective in wing expansion and cuticle sclerotization. Failure to release ETH in ?ftz-f1 silenced animals is indicated by persistent ETH immunoreactivity in Inka cells. Arrested larvae are rescued by precisely-timed ETH injection or Inka cell-targeted ?FTZ-F1 expression. Moreover, premature ?ftz-f1 expression in these cells also results in developmental arrest. The Inka cell therefore functions as a "gateway cell", whose secretion of ETH serves as a key downstream physiological output enabling stage-specific responses to 20E that are required to advance through critical developmental steps. This secretory function depends on transient and precisely timed ?FTZ-F1 expression late in the molt as steroids decline. PMID:24247008

Cho, Kook-Ho; Daubnerová, Ivana; Park, Yoonseong; Zitnan, Dusan; Adams, Michael E

2014-01-15

325

Endothelin-1 stimulates the release of preloaded ( sup 3 H)D-aspartate from cultured cerebellar granule cells  

SciTech Connect

We have recently reported that endothelin-1 (ET) induces phosphoinositide hydrolysis in primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule cells. Here we found that ET in a dose-dependent manner (1-30 nM) stimulated the release of preloaded ({sup 3}H)D-aspartate from granule cells. The ET-induced aspartate release was completely blocked in the absence of extracellular Ca{sup 2+}, but was unaffected by 1 mM Co{sup 2+} or 1 microM dihydropyridine derivatives (nisoldipine and nimodipine). At higher concentration (10 microM) of nisoldipine and nimodipine, the release was partially inhibited. Short-term pretreatment of cells with phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) potentiated the ET-induced aspartate release, while long-term pretreatment with PDBu attenuated the release. Long-term exposure of cells to pertussis toxin (PTX), on the other hand, potentiated the ET-induced effects. Our results suggest that ET has a neuromodulatory function in the central nervous system.

Lin, W.W.; Lee, C.Y.; Chuang, D.M. (NIMH Neuroscience Center, Washington, DC (USA))

1990-03-16

326

NOTCH signaling is required for formation and self-renewal of tumor-initiating cells and for repression of secretory cell differentiation in colon cancer.  

PubMed

NOTCH signaling is critical for specifying the intestinal epithelial cell lineage and for initiating colorectal adenomas and colorectal cancers (CRC). Based on evidence that NOTCH is important for the maintenance and self-renewal of cancer-initiating cells in other malignancies, we studied the role of NOTCH signaling in colon cancer-initiating cells (CCIC). Tumors formed by CCICs maintain many properties of the primary CRCs from which they were derived, such as glandular organization, cell polarity, gap junctions, and expression of characteristic CRC molecular markers. Furthermore, CCICs have the property of self-renewal. In this study, we show that NOTCH signaling is 10- to 30-fold higher in CCIC compared with widely used colon cancer cell lines. Using small-molecule inhibition and short hairpin RNA knockdown, we show that NOTCH prevents CCIC apoptosis through repression of cell cycle kinase inhibitor p27 and transcription factor ATOH1. NOTCH is also critical to intrinsic maintenance of CCIC self-renewal and the repression of secretory cell lineage differentiation genes such as MUC2. Our findings describe a novel human cell system to study NOTCH signaling in CRC tumor initiation and suggest that inhibition of NOTCH signaling may improve CRC chemoprevention and chemotherapy. PMID:20145124

Sikandar, Shaheen S; Pate, Kira T; Anderson, Scott; Dizon, Diana; Edwards, Robert A; Waterman, Marian L; Lipkin, Steven M

2010-02-15

327

Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls increase reactive oxygen species formation and induce cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells  

PubMed Central

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that bioaccumulate in the body, however, they can be metabolized to more water-soluble products. Although they are more readily excreted than the parent compounds, some of the metabolites are still hydrophobic and may be more available to target tissues, such as the brain. They can also cross the placenta and reach a developing foetus. Much less is known about the toxicity of PCB metabolites than about the parent compounds. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of eight hydroxylated (OH) PCB congeners (2?-OH PCB 3, 4-OH PCB 14, 4-OH PCB 34, 4?-OH PCB 35, 4-OH PCB 36, 4?-OH PCB 36, 4-OH PCB 39, and 4?-OH PCB 68) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and cell viability in rat cerebellar granule cells. We found that, similar to their parent compounds, OH-PCBs are potent ROS inducers with potency 4-OH PCB 14 < 4-OH PCB 36 < 4-OH PCB 34 < 4?-OH PCB 36 < 4?-OH PCB 68 < 4-OH PCB 39 < 4?-OH PCB 35. 4-OH PCB 36 was the most potent cell death inducer, and caused apoptotic or necrotic morphology depending on concentration. Inhibition of ERK1/2 kinase with U0126 reduced both cell death and ROS formation, suggesting that ERK1/2 activation is involved in OH-PCB toxicity. The results indicate that the hydroxylation of PCBs may not constitute a detoxification reaction. Since OH-PCBs like their parent compounds are retained in the body and may be more widely distributed to sensitive tissues, it is important that not only the levels of the parent compounds but also the levels of their metabolites are taken into account during risk assessment of PCBs and related compounds. PMID:19631230

Dreiem, Anne; Rykken, Sidsel; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Robertson, Larry W.; Fonnum, Frode

2009-01-01

328

The Effect of Secretory Factors of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Human Keratinocytes  

PubMed Central

The beneficial effects of adipose-derived stem cell conditioned medium (ADSC-CM) on skin regeneration have been reported. Although the mechanism of how ADSC-CM promotes skin regeneration is unclear, ADSC-CM contained various growth factors and it is an excellent raw material for skin treatment. ADSC-CM produced in a hypoxia condition of ADSC—in other words, Advanced Adipose-Derived Stem cell Protein Extract (AAPE)—has great merits for skin regeneration. In this study, human primary keratinocytes (HKs), which play fundamental roles in skin tissue, was used to examine how AAPE affects HK. HK proliferation was significantly higher in the experimental group (1.22 ?g/mL) than in the control group. DNA gene chip demonstrated that AAPE in keratinocytes (p < 0.05) notably affected expression of 290 identified transcripts, which were associated with cell proliferation, cycle and migration. More keratinocyte wound healing and migration was shown in the experimental group (1.22 ?g/mL). AAPE treatment significantly stimulated stress fiber formation, which was linked to the RhoA-ROCK pathway. We identified 48 protein spots in 2-D gel analysis and selected proteins were divided into 64% collagen components and 30% non-collagen components as shown by the MALDI-TOF analysis. Antibody array results contained growth factor/cytokine such as HGF, FGF-1, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-6, VEGF, and TGF-?3 differing from that shown by 2-D analysis. Conclusion: AAPE activates HK proliferation and migration. These results highlight the potential of the topical application of AAPE in the treatment of skin regeneration. PMID:22312315

Moon, Kyoung Mi; Park, Ye-Hyoung; Lee, Jae Seol; Chae, Yong-Byung; Kim, Moon-Moo; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Byung-Woo; Nam, Soo-Wan; Lee, Jong-Hwan

2012-01-01

329

Two distinct secretory vesicle-priming steps in adrenal chromaffin cells  

PubMed Central

Priming of large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs) is a Ca2+-dependent step by which LDCVs enter a release-ready pool, involving the formation of the soluble N-ethyl-maleimide sensitive fusion protein attachment protein (SNAP) receptor complex consisting of syntaxin, SNAP-25, and synaptobrevin. Using mice lacking both isoforms of the calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion (CAPS), we show that LDCV priming in adrenal chromaffin cells entails two distinct steps. CAPS is required for priming of the readily releasable LDCV pool and sustained secretion in the continued presence of high Ca2+ concentrations. Either CAPS1 or CAPS2 can rescue secretion in cells lacking both CAPS isoforms. Furthermore, the deficit in the readily releasable LDCV pool resulting from CAPS deletion is reversed by a constitutively open form of syntaxin but not by Munc13-1, a priming protein that facilitates the conversion of syntaxin to the open conformation. Our data indicate that CAPS functions downstream of Munc13s but also interacts functionally with Munc13s in the LDCV-priming process. PMID:20855507

Liu, Yuanyuan; Schirra, Claudia; Edelmann, Ludwig; Matti, Ulf; Rhee, JeongSeop; Hof, Detlef; Bruns, Dieter; Brose, Nils; Rieger, Heiko; Stevens, David R.

2010-01-01

330

Regulation of lipid synthesis genes and milk fat production in human mammary epithelial cells during secretory activation  

PubMed Central

Expression of genes for lipid biosynthetic enzymes during initiation of lactation in humans is unknown. Our goal was to study mRNA expression of lipid metabolic enzymes in human mammary epithelial cell (MEC) in conjunction with the measurement of milk fatty acid (FA) composition during secretory activation. Gene expression from mRNA isolated from milk fat globule (MFG) and milk FA composition were measured from 6 h to 42 days postpartum in seven normal women. Over the first 96 h postpartum, daily milk fat output increased severalfold and mirrored expression of genes for all aspects of lipid metabolism and milk FA production, including lipolysis at the MEC membrane, FA uptake from blood, intracellular FA transport, de novo FA synthesis, FA and glycerol activation, FA elongation, FA desaturation, triglyceride synthesis, cholesterol synthesis, and lipid droplet formation. Expression of the gene for a key lipid synthesis regulator, sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1), increased 2.0-fold by 36 h and remained elevated over the study duration. Expression of genes for estrogen receptor 1, thyroid hormone-responsive protein, and insulin-induced 2 increased progressively to plateau by 96 h. In contrast, mRNA of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? decreased severalfold. With onset of lactation, increased de novo synthesis of FA was the most prominent change in milk FA composition and mirrored the expression of FA synthesis genes. In conclusion, milk lipid synthesis and secretion in humans is a complex process requiring the orchestration of a wide variety of pathways of which SREBF1 may play a primary role. PMID:23880316

Mohammad, Mahmoud A.

2013-01-01

331

Secretory PLA2 inhibitor indoxam suppresses LDL modification and associated inflammatory responses in TNF?-stimulated human endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) is implicated in atherosclerosis, although the effects of specific sPLA2 inhibitors have not been studied. We investigated the effects of the indole analogue indoxam on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) modification by sPLA2 enzymes of different types and on the associated inflammatory responses in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Experimental approach: LDL modification was assessed by measuring the contents of two major molecular species of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) using electrospray ionization-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The proinflammatory activity of the modified LDL was evaluated by determining monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA expression and transcriptional factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) activity in HUVEC. Key results: Indoxam dose-dependently inhibited palmitoyl- and stearoyl-LPC production in LDL incubated with snake venom sPLA2 (IC50 1.2??M for palmitoyl-LPC, 0.8??M for stearoyl-LPC). MCP-1 mRNA expression and NF-?B activity were enhanced by venom sPLA2-treated LDL, which was completely suppressed by indoxam but not by thioetheramide-PC, a competitive sPLA2 inhibitor. Indoxam also suppressed LPC production in LDL treated with human synovial type IIA sPLA2. Tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF?) increased type V sPLA2 expression in HUVEC. Indoxam dose-dependently suppressed LPC production in native and glycoxidized LDL treated with TNF?-stimulated HUVEC. Indoxam suppressed MCP-1 mRNA expression and NF-?B activity in TNF?-stimulated HUVEC incubated with native or glycoxidized LDL. Conclusions and implications: Indoxam prevented sPLA2-induced LPC production in native and glycoxidized LDL as well as LDL-induced inflammatory activity in HUVEC. Our results suggest that indoxam may be a potentially useful anti-atherogenic agent. PMID:18264128

Sonoki, K; Iwase, M; Sasaki, N; Ohdo, S; Higuchi, S; Takata, Y; Iida, M

2008-01-01

332

Posttranslational isomerization of a neuropeptide in crustacean neurosecretory cells studied by ultrastructural immunocytochemistry.  

PubMed

Isomerization of the third amino acid residue (a phenylalanine) of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) has been previously reported to occur as a late step of hormone precursor maturation in a few neurosecretory cells in the X-organ-sinus gland complex of the crayfish Orconectes limosus. In the present report, using conformation-specific antisera combined with immunogold labeling, we have studied, at the ultrastructural level, the distribution of L- and D-CHH immunoreactivity in CHH-secreting cells of the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus. Two CHH-secreting cell populations were observed, the first one (L-cells), the most numerous, exhibited only labeling for L-CHH. In the second one (D-cells), four secretory granule populations were distinguished according to their labeling: unlabeled, either L- or D- exclusively or both L- and D-granules. Labeling quantification by image analysis in D-cells showed a marked increase in D-labeling from the cell body to the axon terminal. However some L- and mixed granules remain in axon terminals. Our results demonstrate that Phe3 isomerization of CHH occurs within the secretory granules of specialized neurosecretory cells and progresses as the granules migrate along the axonal tract. The observation that not all the CHH synthesized is isomerized, and the great variability in the proportion of L- and D-immunoreactivity in granules in every cell region may suggest an heterogeneous distribution of the putative enzyme involved in Phe3 isomerization, a peptide isomerase, within the secretory pathway. PMID:14533741

Gallois, Dominique; Brisorgueil, Marie-Jeanne; Conrath, Marie; Mailly, Philippe; Soyez, Daniel

2003-08-01

333

Perfluorooctane sulfonate induces apoptosis of cerebellar granule cells via a ROS-dependent protein kinase C signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have been widely used in a variety of industry and consumer products. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a prominent member of perfluoroalkyls, is known as a neurotoxicant in developing brain and affects behavior and motor activity. However, mechanism of neurotoxicity still remains unknown. In this study, we attempted to analyze apoptotic effects of PFOS on developing neuron. Cerebellar granule cells derived from 7-day old SD rats and grown in culture for additional 7 days were used to mimic postnatal day (PND)-14 conditions. PFOS exposure increased ROS production, which was blocked by ROS inhibitor, N-acetylcysteine (NAC). PFOS selectively induced dose-dependent translocations of PKC-?, -?II and -? among PKC isozymes tested. The translocation of these specific PKC isozymes was blocked by NAC. A panel of different approaches was utilized to detect apoptotic effects. PFOS induced caspase-3 activity and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependent manner, which were blocked by pretreatment of NAC. These apoptotic effects were further confirmed by TUNEL staining. Increases of caspase-3 activity and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation were dampened by the inhibition of PKC isozymes using siRNA technique. Taken together, our results suggest that PFOS may induce apoptosis of cerebellar granule cells via a ROS-mediated PKC signaling pathway. PKC signal transduction pathway is pivotal in learning and memory and apoptosis of neuronal cells is a critical event in neurotoxicity. Thus, this study may contribute to understand a new mechanistic aspect of PFOS-induced neurotoxicities. PMID:22326494

Lee, Hyun-Gyo; Lee, Youn Ju; Yang, Jae-Ho

2012-06-01

334

The biologic activity of mast cell granules. VIII. In vivo and in vitro characterization of mast cell granule-derived inflammatory factors involved in rat late-phase reactions.  

PubMed

Intradermal injections of isolated mast cell granules (MCGs), as well as solubilized high-molecular-weight (HMW) (greater than 10,000 daltons) and low-molecular-weight (LMW) (10,000 greater than MW greater than 500 daltons) fractionated granule constituents, can produce inflammatory responses termed late-phase reactions (LPRs). The identity and mechanism of action of various inflammatory factor(s) contained within these fractions is incompletely established. Since rat LPRs are neutrophil-dependent responses, we analyzed the inherent neutrophil chemoattractant potential of HMW and LMW granule fractions using a 48-well microchemotaxis chamber. Although both HMW and LMW fractions attracted rat neutrophils, the LMW fraction was less active at equivalent protein concentrations. Checkerboard analysis demonstrated that the HMW fraction enhanced random migration of neutrophils, indicating that the HMW fraction contains factors that are primarily chemokinetic. To analyze further the HMW fraction, solubilized MCGs were sequentially fractionated with XM300 (MW greater than 300,000 daltons), and YM100 (300,000 greater than MW greater than 100,000 daltons), XM50 (100,000 greater than MW greater than 50,000 daltons), and YM10 (50,000 greater than MW greater than 10,000 daltons) ultrafiltration membranes. This process revealed that most in vivo inflammation-provoking activity as well as the in vitro chemoattractant activity resided in the XM300 and YM100 retentate fractions. Two of the major constituents of the HMW fraction, heparin and chymase, were evaluated for their contribution to the chemoattraction. Purified MCG heparin did not evoke neutrophil migratory responses in vitro or in vivo. Sepharose 4B chromatography of solubilized MCG demonstrated a peak of inflammation-provoking activity beginning at the void volume and tapering off near the 400,000 MW range. This in vivo activity was clearly separable from the chymase activity and represents the HMW inflammatory factors. These results demonstrate that both HMW and LMW granule fractions contain inflammatory activities capable of producing LPR in vivo and suggest that enhancement of neutrophil migration at sites of mast cell degranulation is one mechanism of action. PMID:3805545

Lemanske, R F; Esser, B; Kopp, D; Asperheim, M; Junk, P; Tashoff, T

1987-01-01

335

PICK1 and ICA69 Control Insulin Granule Trafficking and Their Deficiencies Lead to Impaired Glucose Tolerance  

PubMed Central

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia. Insulin, which is secreted by pancreatic beta cells, is recognized as the critical regulator of blood glucose, but the molecular machinery responsible for insulin trafficking remains poorly defined. In particular, the roles of cytosolic factors that govern the formation and maturation of insulin granules are unclear. Here we report that PICK1 and ICA69, two cytosolic lipid-binding proteins, formed heteromeric BAR-domain complexes that associated with insulin granules at different stages of their maturation. PICK1-ICA69 heteromeric complexes associated with immature secretory granules near the trans-Golgi network (TGN). A brief treatment of Brefeldin A, which blocks vesicle budding from the Golgi, increased the amount of PICK1 and ICA69 at TGN. On the other hand, mature secretory granules were associated with PICK1 only, not ICA69. PICK1 deficiency in mice caused the complete loss of ICA69 and led to increased food and water intake but lower body weight. Glucose tolerance tests demonstrated that these mutant mice had high blood glucose, a consequence of insufficient insulin. Importantly, while the total insulin level was reduced in PICK1-deficient beta cells, proinsulin was increased. Lastly, ICA69 knockout mice also displayed similar phenotype as the mice deficient in PICK1. Together, our results indicate that PICK1 and ICA69 are key regulators of the formation and maturation of insulin granules. Author Summary Insulin is a key regulator of blood glucose and insufficient insulin leads to diabetes. Insulin is synthesized as proinsulin, processed in endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi, and eventually packaged into insulin granules, a type of dense core vesicles. Despite its importance, the molecular mechanisms governing the biogenesis and maturation of insulin granules are not fully understood. In this study, we identified two cytosolic proteins, PICK1 and ICA69, as important regulators of insulin granule biogenesis and maturation. Both PICK1 and ICA69 have the banana-shaped BAR domain that can bend the lipid membrane and help the formation of dense core vesicles. We show that without PICK1 or ICA69, insulin granules cannot be properly formed and, as a result, proinsulin cannot be effectively processed into mature insulin. Mice lacking functional PICK1 or ICA69 genes have reduced insulin but increased proinsulin. Consequently, these mice have high levels of glucose, a prominent feature found in diabetes patients. These results add to previous findings that PICK1 is important for the generation of proacrosomal granules found in cells of the testis, and thereby support a wider role for PICK1 and ICA69 in regulating dense core vesicle biogenesis and maturation. PMID:23630453

Kam, Chuen; Xiao, Nan; Cao, Xiaoxing; Shen, Chong; Cheng, Kenneth K. Y.; Xu, Aimin; Lee, Kwong-Man; Jiang, Liwen; Xia, Jun

2013-01-01

336

Delayed dendritic development in newly generated dentate granule cells by cell-autonomous expression of the amyloid precursor protein.  

PubMed

Neuronal connectivity and synaptic remodeling are fundamental substrates for higher brain functions. Understanding their dynamics in the mammalian allocortex emerges as a critical step to tackle the cellular basis of cognitive decline that occurs during normal aging and in neurodegenerative disorders. In this work we have designed a novel approach to assess alterations in the dynamics of functional and structural connectivity elicited by chronic cell-autonomous overexpression of the human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP). We have taken advantage of the fact that the hippocampus continuously generates new dentate granule cells (GCs) to probe morphofunctional development of GCs expressing different variants of hAPP in a healthy background. hAPP was expressed together with a fluorescent reporter in neural progenitor cells of the dentate gyrus of juvenile mice by retroviral delivery. Neuronal progeny was analyzed several days post infection (dpi). Amyloidogenic cleavage products of hAPP such as the ?-C terminal fragment (?-CTF) induced a substantial reduction in glutamatergic connectivity at 21 dpi, at which time new GCs undergo active growth and synaptogenesis. Interestingly, this effect was transient, since the strength of glutamatergic inputs was normal by 35 dpi. This delay in glutamatergic synaptogenesis was paralleled by a decrease in dendritic length with no changes in spine density, consistent with a protracted dendritic development without alterations in synapse formation. Finally, similar defects in newborn GC development were observed by overexpression of ?-CTF, a non-amyloidogenic cleavage product of hAPP. These results indicate that hAPP can elicit protracted dendritic development independently of the amyloidogenic processing pathway. PMID:23851186

Morgenstern, Nicolás A; Giacomini, Damiana; Lombardi, Gabriela; Castaño, Eduardo M; Schinder, Alejandro F

2013-09-01

337

Contributions of mossy fiber and CA1 pyramidal cell sprouting to dentate granule cell hyperexcitability in kainic acid-treated hippocampal slice cultures.  

PubMed

Axonal sprouting like that of the mossy fibers is commonly associated with temporal lobe epilepsy, but its significance remains uncertain. To investigate the functional consequences of sprouting of mossy fibers and alternative pathways, kainic acid (KA) was used to induce robust mossy fiber sprouting in hippocampal slice cultures. Physiological comparisons documented many similarities in granule cell responses between KA- and vehicle-treated cultures, including: seizures, epileptiform bursts, and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) >600 pA. GABAergic control and contribution of glutamatergic synaptic transmission were similar. Analyses of neurobiotin-filled CA1 pyramidal cells revealed robust axonal sprouting in both vehicle- and KA-treated cultures, which was significantly greater in KA-treated cultures. Hilar stimulation evoked an antidromic population spike followed by variable numbers of postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) and population spikes in both vehicle- and KA-treated cultures. Despite robust mossy fiber sprouting, knife cuts separating CA1 from dentate gyrus virtually abolished EPSPs evoked by hilar stimulation in KA-treated but not vehicle-treated cultures, suggesting a pivotal role of functional afferents from CA1 to dentate gyrus in KA-treated cultures. Together, these findings demonstrate striking hyperexcitability of dentate granule cells in long-term hippocampal slice cultures after treatment with either vehicle or KA. The contribution to hilar-evoked hyperexcitability of granule cells by the unexpected axonal projection from CA1 to dentate in KA-treated cultures reinforces the idea that axonal sprouting may contribute to pathologic hyperexcitability of granule cells. PMID:15269228

Bausch, Suzanne B; McNamara, James O

2004-12-01

338

Progressive behavioral changes during the maturation of rats with early radiation-induced hypoplasia of fascia dentata granule cells  

SciTech Connect

Localized exposure of the neonatal rat brain to x rays produces neuronal hypoplasia specific to the granule cell layer of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. This brain damage causes locomotor hyperactivity, slowed acquisition of passive avoidance tasks and long bouts of spontaneous turning (without reversals) in a bowl apparatus. The authors report here how these behavioral deficits change as a function of subject aging and behavioral test replications. Portions of the neonatal rat cerebral hemispheres were X-irradiated in order to selectively damage the granule cells of the dentate gyrus. Rats between the ages of 71-462 days were tested 3 separate times on each of the following 3 behavioral tests: (1) spontaneous locomotion, (2) passive avoidance acquisition, and (3) spontaneous circling in a large plastic hemisphere. Rats with radiation-induced damage to the fascia dentata exhibited long bouts of slow turns without reversals. Once they began, irradiated subjects perseverated in turning to an extent significantly greater than sham-irradiated control subjects. The hyperactivity of the irradiated animals decreased significantly as they matured. These data suggest that radiation-induced damage to the fascia dentata produces task-dependent behavioral deficits that change as a function of subject age and/or behavioral testing.

Mickley, G.A.; Ferguson, J.L.; Mulvihill, M.A.; Nemeth, T.J.

1989-01-01

339

Effects of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and trichostatin A on high glucose- and interleukin-1?-induced secretory mediators from human retinal endothelial cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Purpose We aimed to elucidate the effects of two epigenetic inhibitors, 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) and trichostatin A (TSA), on several key secretory mediators of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) and human retinal pigment epithelial (HRPE) cells treated with high glucose or interleukin-1? (IL-1?). Methods HRECs and HRPE cells were incubated in 30 mM D-glucose or 10 ng/ml IL-1? with or without the presence of various concentrations of 5-aza-dC or TSA. The production of pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF), vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), IL-1?, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) was evaluated at the mRNA and protein levels using real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Results In the 30 mM D-glucose and the 10 ng/ml IL-1? condition, the expression of VEGF, ICAM-1, IL-1?, and MMP2 was induced in the HRECs and the HRPE cells. PEDF was downregulated in the HRPE cells but upregulated in the HRECs. However, the PEDF-to-VEGF ratio, which is thought to be critical in DR, was downregulated in both cell types. 5-aza-dC dose-dependently alleviated VEGF, ICAM-1, IL-1?, and MMP2 and reversed PEDF or the PEDF/VEGF ratio in both cell types. TSA had similar effects as 5-aza-dC on the target mediators. However, ICAM-1 production was aggravated in the HRECs while remaining unchanged in the HRPE cells after TSA was administered. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that 5-aza-dC and TSA enhance the protective PEDF and the PEDF/VEGF ratio and ameliorate the adverse effects of diabetic stimuli in vitro, suggesting that these two drugs may be of potential therapeutic value in DR.

Xie, Manyun; Tian, Jingyi; Luo, Yan; Wei, Liqing; Lin, Shaofen

2014-01-01

340

Identification of a cKit+ Colonic Crypt Base Secretory Cell That Supports Lgr5+ Stem Cells in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Paneth cells contribute to the small intestinal niche of Lgr5+ stem cells. Although the colon also contains Lgr5+ stem cells, it does not contain Paneth cells. We investigated the existence of colonic Paneth-like cells that have a distinct transcriptional signature and support Lgr5+ stem cells. Methods We used multicolor fluorescence-activated cell sorting to isolate different subregions of colon crypts, based on known markers, from dissociated colonic epithelium of mice. We performed multiplexed single-cell gene expression analysis with quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction followed by hierarchical clustering analysis to characterize distinct cell types. We used immunostaining and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses with in vivo administration of a Notch inhibitor and in vitro organoid cultures to characterize different cell types. Results Multicolor fluorescence-activated cell sorting could isolate distinct regions of colonic crypts. Four major epithelial subtypes or transcriptional states were revealed by gene expression analysis of selected populations of single cells. One of these, the goblet cells, contained a distinct cKit/CD117+ crypt base subpopulation that expressed Dll1, Dll4, and epidermal growth factor, similar to Paneth cells, which were also marked by cKit. In the colon, cKit+ goblet cells were interdigitated with Lgr5+ stem cells. In vivo, this colonic cKit+ population was regulated by Notch signaling; administration of a ?-secretase inhibitor to mice increased the number of cKit+ cells. When isolated from mouse colon, cKit+ cells promoted formation of organoids from Lgr5+ stem cells, which expressed Kitl/stem cell factor, the ligand for cKit. When organoids were depleted of cKit+ cells using a toxin-conjugated antibody, organoid formation decreased. Conclusions cKit marks small intestinal Paneth cells and a subset of colonic goblet cells that are regulated by Notch signaling and support Lgr5+stem cells. PMID:22333952

Rothenberg, Michael E.; Nusse, Ysbrand; Kalisky, Tomer; Lee, John J.; Dalerba, Piero; Scheeren, Ferenc; Lobo, Neethan; Kulkarni, Subhash; Sim, Sopheak; Qian, Dalong; Beachy, Philip A.; Pasricha, Pankaj J.; Quake, Stephen R.; Clarke, Michael F.

2013-01-01

341

Lipids are a constitutive component of cytolytic granules.  

PubMed

Cytolytic granules are specific organelles of activated cytotoxic lymphocytes mediating storage and regulated excretion of lytic molecules for killing of target cells. A variety of the other granule components may also participate in granule-mediated cytotoxicity. In this study, the subcellular localization of lipids in the granules of human decidual CD56+ natural killer-like cells was determined by staining with malachite green aldehyde and imidazole-buffered osmium tetroxide. Lipids were shown, for the first time, to be a constitutive component of cytolytic granules. Lipids formed an additional structural microdomain, located between the granule-limiting membrane and the granule core. Images of the granules on serial sections suggested that intragranular lipids wrap the core. We speculate that granule lipids participate in packing of lytic molecules inside the granules, in autocrine signaling ending granule secretion, and in the killing process. PMID:11052265

Baranov, V; Nagaeva, O; Hammarström, S; Mincheva-Nilsson, L

2000-08-01

342

Lack of Intestinal Epithelial Atg7 Affects Paneth Cell Granule Formation but Does Not Compromise Immune Homeostasis in the Gut  

PubMed Central

Genetic polymorphisms of autophagy-related genes have been associated with an increased risk to develop inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Autophagy is an elementary process participating in several cellular events such as cellular clearance and nonapoptotic programmed cell death. Furthermore, autophagy may be involved in intestinal immune homeostasis due to its participation in the digestion of intracellular pathogens and in antigen presentation. In the present study, the role of autophagy in the intestinal epithelial layer was investigated. The intestinal epithelium is essential to maintain gut homeostasis, and defects within this barrier have been associated with the pathogenesis of IBD. Therefore, mice with intestinal epithelial deletion of Atg7 were generated and investigated in different mouse models. Knockout mice showed reduced size of granules and decreased levels of lysozyme in Paneth cells. However, this was dispensable for gut immune homeostasis and had no effect on susceptibility in mouse models of experimentally induced colitis. PMID:22291845

Wittkopf, Nadine; Gunther, Claudia; Martini, Eva; Waldner, Maximilian; Amann, Kerstin U.; Neurath, Markus F.; Becker, Christoph

2012-01-01

343

Lack of intestinal epithelial atg7 affects paneth cell granule formation but does not compromise immune homeostasis in the gut.  

PubMed

Genetic polymorphisms of autophagy-related genes have been associated with an increased risk to develop inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Autophagy is an elementary process participating in several cellular events such as cellular clearance and nonapoptotic programmed cell death. Furthermore, autophagy may be involved in intestinal immune homeostasis due to its participation in the digestion of intracellular pathogens and in antigen presentation. In the present study, the role of autophagy in the intestinal epithelial layer was investigated. The intestinal epithelium is essential to maintain gut homeostasis, and defects within this barrier have been associated with the pathogenesis of IBD. Therefore, mice with intestinal epithelial deletion of Atg7 were generated and investigated in different mouse models. Knockout mice showed reduced size of granules and decreased levels of lysozyme in Paneth cells. However, this was dispensable for gut immune homeostasis and had no effect on susceptibility in mouse models of experimentally induced colitis. PMID:22291845

Wittkopf, Nadine; Günther, Claudia; Martini, Eva; Waldner, Maximilian; Amann, Kerstin U; Neurath, Markus F; Becker, Christoph

2012-01-01

344

Calcium-independent phospholipase A2 mediates store-operated calcium entry in rat cerebellar granule cells.  

PubMed

Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) has been extensively studied in non-neuronal cells, such as glial cells and smooth muscle cells, in which Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)) has been shown to play a key role in the regulation of SOCE channels. In the present study, we have investigated the role of iPLA(2) for store-operated Ca(2+) entry in rat cerebellar granule neurons in acute brain slices using confocal Ca(2+) imaging. Depletion of Ca(2+) stores by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) induced a Ca(2+) influx, which could be inhibited by SOCE channel blockers 2-aminoethoxy-diphenylborate (2-APB) and 3,5-bistrifluoromethyl pyrazole derivative (BTP2), but not by the voltage-operated Ca(2+) channel blocker diltiazem and by the Na+ channel blocker tetrodotoxin. The inhibitors of iPLA(2), bromoenol lactone (BEL) and 1,1,1-trifluoro-2-heptadecanone, and the selective suppression of iPLA(2) expression by antisense oligodeoxynucleotides, inhibited CPA-induced Ca(2+) influx. Calmidazolium, which relieves the block of inhibitory calmodulin from iPLA(2), elicited a Ca(2+) influx similar to CPA-induced Ca(2+) entry. The product of iPLA(2), lysophosphatidylinositol, elicited a 2-APB- and BTP2-sensitive, but BEL-insensitive, Ca(2+) influx. Spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations in granule cells in acute brain slices were reduced after inhibiting iPLA(2) activity or by blocking SOCE channels. The results suggest that depletion of Ca(2+) stores activates iPLA(2) to trigger Ca(2+) influx by the formation of lysophospholipids in these neurons. PMID:18784973

Singaravelu, Karthika; Lohr, Christian; Deitmer, Joachim W

2008-01-01

345

Chymase in exocytosed rat mast cell granules effectively proteolyzes apolipoprotein AI-containing lipoproteins, so reducing the cholesterol efflux-inducing ability of serum and aortic intimal fluid.  

PubMed Central

Degranulated mast cells are present in human fatty streaks. Chymase in granules released from degranulated rat serosal mast cells, i.e., in granule remnants, proteolyzes human high density lipoprotein3 (HDL3), and so reduces its ability to induce cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells in vitro. In this study we found that remnant chymase, by proteolyzing human serum and human aortic intimal fluid, prevents these two physiologic fluids from effectively inducing cholesterol efflux from cultured macrophage foam cells. Inhibition was strongest when remnants were added to apolipoprotein AI (apoAI)-containing lipoproteins; the remnants had no effect on the weaker efflux produced by apoAI-deficient serum. Western blot analysis showed that granule remnants degrade apoAI in serum and in internal fluid. When released from remnants, chymase lost its ability to proteolyze HDL3 in the presence of serum. Thus, remnant chymase (but not isolated chymase) was able to resist the natural protease inhibitors present in serum and in intimal fluid. The results imply participation of exocytosed mast cell granules in foam cell formation in atherogenesis. PMID:8636396

Lindstedt, L; Lee, M; Castro, G R; Fruchart, J C; Kovanen, P T

1996-01-01

346

PTBP1 is required for glucose-stimulated cap-independent translation of insulin granule proteins and Coxsackieviruses in beta cells  

PubMed Central

Glucose and GLP-1 stimulate not only insulin secretion, but also the post-transcriptional induction of insulin granule biogenesis. This process involves the nucleocytoplasmic translocation of the RNA binding protein PTBP1. Binding of PTBP1 to the 3?-UTRs of mRNAs for insulin and other cargoes of beta cell granules increases their stability. Here we show that glucose enhances also the binding of PTBP1 to the 5?-UTRs of these transcripts, which display IRES activity, and their translation exclusively in a cap-independent fashion. Accordingly, glucose-induced biosynthesis of granule cargoes was unaffected by pharmacological, genetic or Coxsackievirus-mediated inhibition of cap-dependent translation. Infection with Coxsackieviruses, which also depend on PTBP1 for their own cap-independent translation, reduced instead granule stores and insulin release. These findings provide insight into the mechanism for glucose-induction of insulin granule production and on how Coxsackieviruses, which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, can foster beta cell failure. PMID:25061557

Knoch, Klaus-Peter; Nath-Sain, Suchita; Petzold, Antje; Schneider, Hendryk; Beck, Mike; Wegbrod, Carolin; Sonmez, Anke; Munster, Carla; Friedrich, Anne; Roivainen, Merja; Solimena, Michele

2014-01-01

347

Multiple trimeric G-proteins on the trans-Golgi network exert stimulatory and inhibitory effects on secretory vesicle formation.  

PubMed Central

The role of heterotrimeric G-proteins on the formation of constitutive secretory vesicles (CSVs) and immature secretory granules (ISGs) from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) of PC12 cells was investigated. Using immunofluorescence and subcellular fractionation in conjunction with immunoblotting or ADP-ribosylation by either pertussis toxin or cholera toxin, TGN membranes were found to contain not only several alpha i/alpha o G-protein subunits including apparently alpha i3, but also alpha s. Pertussis toxin treatment of cells, which resulted in the stoichiometric ADP-ribosylation of alpha i/alpha o, a modification known to prevent their coupling to receptors, led to the stimulation of cell-free CSV and ISG formation, suggesting the presence of a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for alpha i/alpha o on the TGN. Mastoparan-7, a peptide known to mimic an activated receptor and to stimulate nucleotide exchange on alpha i/alpha o, inhibited cell-free vesicle formation, an effect abolished by pertussis toxin. In contrast, activation of alpha s by cholera toxin treatment of cells resulted in a stimulation of cell-free CSV and ISG formation. This stimulation could be reversed when the alpha subunits not activated by cholera toxin, i.e. alpha i/alpha o, were activated by GTP gamma S and [AIF4]-. Our results show that both inhibitory and stimulatory trimeric G-proteins on the TGN participate in the regulation of secretory vesicle formation. Images PMID:1464309

Leyte, A; Barr, F A; Kehlenbach, R H; Huttner, W B

1992-01-01

348

Mutant Human FUS Is Ubiquitously Mislocalized and Generates Persistent Stress Granules in Primary Cultured Transgenic Zebrafish Cells  

PubMed Central

FUS mutations can occur in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS), a neurodegenerative disease with cytoplasmic FUS inclusion bodies in motor neurons. To investigate FUS pathology, we generated transgenic zebrafish expressing GFP-tagged wild-type or fALS (R521C) human FUS. Cell cultures were made from these zebrafish and the subcellular localization of human FUS and the generation of stress granule (SG) inclusions examined in different cell types, including differentiated motor neurons. We demonstrate that mutant FUS is mislocalized from the nucleus to the cytosol to a similar extent in motor neurons and all other cell types. Both wild-type and R521C FUS localized to SGs in zebrafish cells, demonstrating an intrinsic ability of human FUS to accumulate in SGs irrespective of the presence of disease-associated mutations or specific cell type. However, elevation in relative cytosolic to nuclear FUS by the R521C mutation led to a significant increase in SG assembly and persistence within a sub population of vulnerable cells, although these cells were not selectively motor neurons. PMID:24912067

Acosta, Jamie Rae; Goldsbury, Claire; Winnick, Claire; Badrock, Andrew P.; Fraser, Stuart T.; Laird, Angela S.; Hall, Thomas E.; Don, Emily K.; Fifita, Jennifer A.; Blair, Ian P.; Nicholson, Garth A.; Cole, Nicholas J.

2014-01-01

349

Evaluation of mast cell activation (tryptase) in two patients suffering from drug-induced hypotensoid reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tryptase is predominantly found in mast cells, where it resides in secretory granules, and is released with other mediators during mast cell degranulation. By using a newly developed commercial assay for measurements of tryptase levels we have investigated two cases of suspected drug-induced anaphylaxis. Each patient had a similar clinical presentation, consisting of hypotension and cyanosis after administration of thiopentone

P. Matsson; I. Enander; A.-S. Andersson; J. Nystrand; L. Schwartz; J. Watkins

1991-01-01

350

Characterisation of secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein-proline-glutamine-rich 1: a novel basal lamina component expressed at cell-tooth interfaces.  

PubMed

Functional genomic screening of the rat enamel organ (EO) has led to the identification of a number of secreted proteins expressed during the maturation stage of amelogenesis, including amelotin (AMTN) and odontogenic ameloblast-associated (ODAM). In this study, we characterise the gene, protein and pattern of expression of a related protein called secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein-proline-glutamine-rich 1 (SCPPPQ1). The Scpppq1 gene resides within the secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein (Scpp) cluster. SCPPPQ1 is a highly conserved, 75-residue, secreted protein rich in proline, leucine, glutamine and phenylalanine. In silico data mining has revealed no correlation to any known sequences. Northern blotting of various rat tissues suggests that the expression of Scpppq1 is restricted to tooth and associated tissues. Immunohistochemical analyses show that the protein is expressed during the late maturation stage of amelogenesis and in the junctional epithelium where it localises to an atypical basal lamina at the cell-tooth interface. This discrete localisation suggests that SCPPPQ1, together with AMTN and ODAM, participates in structuring the basal lamina and in mediating attachment of epithelia cells to mineralised tooth surfaces. PMID:25193156

Moffatt, Pierre; Wazen, Rima M; Dos Santos Neves, Juliana; Nanci, Antonio

2014-12-01

351

NGF Induces the Expression of Group IIA Secretory Phospholipase A2 in PC12 Cells: The Newly Synthesized Enzyme Is Addressed to Growing Neurites.  

PubMed

We proposed that group IIA secretory phospholipase A2 (GIIA) participates in neuritogenesis based on our observations that the enzyme migrates to growth cones and neurite tips when PC12 cells are induced to differentiate by nerve growth factor (NGF) (Ferrini et al., Neurochem Res 35:2168-2174, 2010). The involvement of other secretory PLA2 isoforms in neuronal development has been suggested by others but through different mechanisms. In the present study, we compared the subcellular distribution of GIIA and group X sPLA2 (GX) after stimulation of PC12 cells with NGF. We found that GIIA, but not GX, localized at the neuritic tips after treatment with NGF, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence analysis. We also found that NGF stimulated the expression and the activity of GIIA. In addition, NGF induced the expressed myc-tagged GIIA protein to migrate to neurite tips in its active form. We propose that GIIA expression, activity, and subcellular localization is regulated by NGF and that the enzyme may participate in neuritogenesis through intracellular mechanisms, most likely by facilitating the remodelling of glycerophospholipid molecular species by deacylation-reacylation reactions necessary for the incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:24390571

Nardicchi, Vincenza; Ferrini, Monica; Pilolli, Francesca; Angeli, Emanuela Biagioni; Persichetti, Emanuele; Beccari, Tommaso; Mannucci, Roberta; Arcuri, Cataldo; Donato, Rosario; Dorman, Robert V; Goracci, Gianfrancesco

2014-08-01

352

Sorting of neutrophil-specific granule protein human cathelicidin, hCAP-18, when constitutively expressed in myeloid cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutrophil granulocytes carry storage organelles, e.g., azurophil and specific granules. Poorly understood are the mechanisms for re- trieval from constitutive secretion followed by sort- ing for storage. Therefore, we asked whether the specific granule protein human cathelicidin (hCAP- 18) could be sorted for storage in other granules when the biosynthetic window is widened to allow this. We observed that hCAP-18

Elinor Bulow; Niklas Bengtsson; Jero Calafat; Urban Gullberg; Inge Olsson

353

Distinct Role of Rab27a in Granule Movement at the Plasma Membrane and in the Cytosol of NK Cells  

PubMed Central

Protocols were developed to automate image analysis and to track the movement of thousands of vesicular compartments in live cells. Algorithms were used to discriminate among different types of movement (e.g. random, caged, and directed). We applied these tools to investigate the steady-state distribution and movement of lytic granules (LG) in live natural killer (NK) cells by high-speed 3-dimensional (3D) spinning disc confocal and 2-dimensional total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Both mouse NK cells and a human NK cell line deficient in the small GTPase Rab27a were examined. The unbiased analysis of large datasets led to the following observations and conclusions. The majority of LG in the cytosol and at the plasma membrane of unstimulated NK cells are mobile. The use of inhibitors indicated that movement in the cytosol required microtubules but not actin, whereas movement at the plasma membrane required both. Rab27a deficiency resulted in fewer LG, and in a reduced fraction of mobile LG, at the plasma membrane. In contrast, loss of Rab27a increased the fraction of mobile LG and the extent of their movement in the cytosol. Therefore, in addition to its documented role in LG delivery to the plasma membrane, Rab27a may restrict LG movement in the cytosol. PMID:20877725

Long, Eric O.

2010-01-01

354

Mossy fibers are the primary source of afferent input to ectopic granule cells that are born after pilocarpine-induced seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granule cell (GC) neurogenesis increases following seizures, and some newborn GCs develop in abnormal locations within the hilus. These ectopic GCs (EGCs) display robust spontaneous and evoked excitatory activity. However, the pattern of afferent input they receive has not been fully defined. This study used electron microscopic immunolabeling to quantitatively evaluate mossy fiber (MF) input to EGCs since MFs densely

Joseph P. Pierce; Jay Melton; Michael Punsoni; Daniel P. McCloskey; Helen E. Scharfman

2005-01-01

355

Restricted diffusion of calretinin in cerebellar granule cell dendrites implies Ca2+-dependent interactions via its EF-hand 5 domain  

PubMed Central

Ca2+-binding proteins (CaBPs) are important regulators of neuronal Ca2+ signalling, acting either as buffers that shape Ca2+ transients and Ca2+ diffusion and/or as Ca2+ sensors. The diffusional mobility represents a crucial functional parameter of CaBPs, describing their range-of-action and possible interactions with binding partners. Calretinin (CR) is a CaBP widely expressed in the nervous system with strong expression in cerebellar granule cells. It is involved in regulating excitability and synaptic transmission of granule cells, and its absence leads to impaired motor control. We quantified the diffusional mobility of dye-labelled CR in mouse granule cells using two-photon fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. We found that movement of macromolecules in granule cell dendrites was not well described by free Brownian diffusion and that CR diffused unexpectedly slow compared to fluorescein dextrans of comparable size. During bursts of action potentials, which were associated with dendritic Ca2+ transients, the mobility of CR was further reduced. Diffusion was significantly accelerated by a peptide embracing EF-hand 5 of CR. Our results suggest long-lasting, Ca2+-dependent interactions of CR with large and/or immobile binding partners. These interactions render CR a poorly mobile Ca2+ buffer and point towards a Ca2+ sensor function of CR. PMID:23732647

Arendt, Oliver; Schwaller, Beat; Brown, Edward B; Eilers, Jens; Schmidt, Hartmut

2013-01-01

356

Langerin, a Novel C-Type Lectin Specific to Langerhans Cells, Is an Endocytic Receptor that Induces the Formation of Birbeck Granules  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified a type II Ca2+-dependent lectin displaying mannose-binding specificity, exclusively expressed by Langerhans cells (LC), and named Langerin. LC are uniquely characterized by Birbeck granules (BG), which are organelles consisting of superimposed and zippered membranes. Here, we have shown that Langerin is constitutively associated with BG and that antibody to Langerin is internalized into these structures. Remarkably, transfection

Jenny Valladeau; Odile Ravel; Colette Dezutter-Dambuyant; Kevin Moore; Monique Kleijmeer; Ying Liu; Valérie Duvert-Frances; Claude Vincent; Daniel Schmitt; Jean Davoust; Christophe Caux; Serge Lebecque; Sem Saeland

2000-01-01

357

The neuroendocrine protein VGF is sorted into dense-core granules and is secreted apically by polarized rat thyroid epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have expressed the neuroendocrine VGF protein in FRT rat thyroid cells to study the molecular mechanisms of its sorting to the regulated and polarized pathways of secretion. By immunoelectron microscopy, we have demonstrated that VGF localizes in dense-core granules. Rapid secretion of VGF is induced by PMA stimulation. Moreover, human chromogranin B, a protein of the regulated pathway, co-localizes

Flaviana Gentile; Chiara Zurzolo; Annunziata Corteggio; Patrizia Rosa; Federico Calegari; Andrea Levi; Roberta Possenti; Claudia Puri; Carlo Tacchetti; Lucio Nitsch

2004-01-01

358

Dense granule-containing cells in the wall of the branchio-cardiac veins of a fresh water crayfish ( Astacus leptodactylus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anatomical structure of oxygen-sensitive receptors in branchio-cardiac veins of a crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus) was studied with fluorescence and electron microscopy. Fluorescent cells were observed in the wall of a restricted part of the branchio-cardiac veins which was electrophysiologically shown to be a chemoreceptor region. Electron microscopy disclosed that they were dense granule-containing cells, and form, together with supporting cells

Tatsumi Kusakabe; Kazuko Ishii; Kosei Ishii

1991-01-01

359

Topically delivered adipose derived stem cells show an activated-fibroblast phenotype and enhance granulation tissue formation in skin wounds.  

PubMed

Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are found in various tissues and can proliferate extensively in vitro. MSCs have been used in preclinical animal studies and clinical trials in many fields. Adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) have several advantages compared to other MSCs for use in cell-based treatments because they are easy to isolate with relative abundance. However, quantitative approaches for wound repair using ASCs have been limited because of lack of animal models which allow for quantification. Here, we addressed the effect of topically delivered ASCs in wound repair by quantitative analysis using the rabbit ear model. We characterized rabbit ASCs, and analyzed their multipotency in comparison to bone marrow derived-MSCs (BM-MSCs) and dermal fibroblasts (DFs) in vitro. Topically delivered ASCs increased granulation tissue formation in wounds when compared to saline controls, whereas BM-MSCs or DFs did not. These studies suggest that ASCs and BM-MSCs are not identical, though they have similar surface markers. We found that topically delivered ASCs are engrafted and proliferate in the wounds. We showed that transplanted ASCs exhibited activated fibroblast phenotype, increased endothelial cell recruitment, and enhanced macrophage recruitment in vivo. PMID:23383253

Hong, Seok Jong; Jia, Sheng-Xian; Xie, Ping; Xu, Wei; Leung, Kai P; Mustoe, Thomas A; Galiano, Robert D

2013-01-01

360

Exacerbation of Lung Radiation Injury by Viral Infection: The Role of Clara Cells and Clara Cell Secretory Protein  

PubMed Central

Viral infections have been associated with exacerbation of disease in human cases of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Since pulmonary fibrosis is a common outcome after irradiation to the lung, we hypothesized that viral infection after radiation exposure would exacerbate radiation-induced lung injury. Epithelial injury, a frequent outcome after infection, has been hypothesized to contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis and bronchiolar epithelial Clara cells participate in epithelial repair. Therefore, it was further hypothesized that altered responses after irradiation involve the bronchiolar epithelial Clara cells. C57BL/6J or CCSP?/? mice were irradiated with 0 (sham), 5, 10 or 15 Gy to the whole thorax. At ten weeks post-irradiation, animals were mock infected or infected with influenza A virus and body weight and survival were monitored. Pulmonary function was assessed by whole-body plethysmography. The Clara cell markers, CCSP and Cyp2f2, were measured in the lung by qRT-PCR, and protein expression was visualized in the lung by immunofluorescence. Following pulmonary function tests, mice were sacrificed and tissues were collected for pathological analysis. In 15 Gy irradiated animals infected with influenza A virus, accelerated respiratory rates, reduced pulmonary function, and exacerbated lung pathology occurred earlier post-irradiation than previously observed after irradiation alone, suggesting infection accelerates the development of radiation injury. After irradiation alone, CCSP and Cyp2f2 mRNA levels were reduced, correlating with reductions in the number of Clara cells lining the airways. When combined with infection, these markers further declined and an apparent delay in recovery of mRNA expression was observed, suggesting that radiation injury leads to a chronic reduction in the number of Clara cells that may potentiate the epithelial injury observed after influenza A virus infection. This novel finding may have considerable therapeutic implications with respect to both thoracic tumor patients and recipients of bone marrow transplants. PMID:23621375

Manning, Casey M.; Johnston, Carl J.; Hernady, Eric; Miller, Jennie H.; Reed, Christina K.; Lawrence, B. Paige; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Finkelstein, Jacob N.

2013-01-01

361

Secretory product of the lateral oviducts of Baculum thaii haus. (Phasmida: Phasmatidae) and its change during egg transit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The secretory product elaborated by the epithelium of the lateral oviducts of Baculumthaii (Phasmida: Phasmatidae) gives rise, in the oviduct lumen, to 2 main structural types: fibrils and granules. The ultrastructural characteristics of the fibrils are uniform throughout the various oviductal zones in both the virgin and mated females. However, the organization of the granules is characteristic of a particular

Renata Viscuso; Lucia Narcisi; Lorenzo Sottile; Andrea Giuffrida

1996-01-01

362

Atelectasis and secretory otitis media.  

PubMed

That condition where the tympanic membrane is displaced toward the promontory is termed atelectasis. Thirty-seven patients (61 ears) showing various degrees of atelectasis graded from stage 1 to stage 4 were studied. Atelectatic drums are an inflammatory phenomenon occurring in underventilated ears. This conclusion is reached by considering the reversibility of the atelectasis upon ventilation; while the inflammatory factor can be deduced from the history and histopathology of the atelectatic drum, as well as the histology of the necrosed incus, the latter occurs in over a third of our cases. Also pneumatization of the mastoid is almost never present. Twelve (21%) of the ears treated did indeed develop a perforation at one time or another (two had cholesteatomas). Chronic granulating external otitis with specific features occurred in 15% of cases. The characteristics of these ears and their case histories lead us to view atelectatic ears as part of the otitis media syndrome, where their place is somehow transitional between secretory otitis media on the one hand and chronic otitis media on the other. PMID:1267370

Sadé, J; Berco, E

1976-01-01

363

Starch granule formation and protein deposition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) starchy endosperm cells is altered by high temperature during grain fill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High temperatures during wheat grain fill decrease starch and protein levels, adversely affecting wheat yield and flour quality. To determine the effect of high temperature on starchy endosperm cell development, grain (Triticum aestivum L. 'Butte 86') was produced under a 24/17°C or 37/28°C day/night regimen imposed from flowering to maturity and starch and protein deposition examined using scanning electron microscopy. The high temperature regimen shortened the duration of grain fill from 40 to 18 days. Under the 37/28°C regimen, A- and B-type starch granules decreased in size. A-type starch granules also exhibited pitting, suggesting enhanced action of starch degradative enzymes. Under both temperature regimens, protein bodies originated early in development and coalesced during mid to late development to form a continuous protein matrix surrounding the starch granules. Under the 37/28°C regimen, the proportion of protein matrix increased in endosperm cells of mature grain. Taken together, the changes in starch granule number and size and in protein matrix amount provide clues for understanding how high temperature during grain fill can affect end use properties of wheat flour.

Hurkman, William J.; Wood, Delilah F.

2010-06-01