Science.gov

Sample records for cell-cycle checkpoint kinase

  1. Morphogenesis checkpoint kinase Swe1 is the executor of lipolysis-dependent cell-cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Neha; Visram, Myriam; Cristobal-Sarramian, Alvaro; Sarkleti, Florian; Kohlwein, Sepp D

    2015-03-10

    Cell growth and division requires the precise duplication of cellular DNA content but also of membranes and organelles. Knowledge about the cell-cycle-dependent regulation of membrane and storage lipid homeostasis is only rudimentary. Previous work from our laboratory has shown that the breakdown of triacylglycerols (TGs) is regulated in a cell-cycle-dependent manner, by activation of the Tgl4 lipase by the major cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28. The lipases Tgl3 and Tgl4 are required for efficient cell-cycle progression during the G1/S (Gap1/replication phase) transition, at the onset of bud formation, and their absence leads to a cell-cycle delay. We now show that defective lipolysis activates the Swe1 morphogenesis checkpoint kinase that halts cell-cycle progression by phosphorylation of Cdc28 at tyrosine residue 19. Saturated long-chain fatty acids and phytosphingosine supplementation rescue the cell-cycle delay in the Tgl3/Tgl4 lipase-deficient strain, suggesting that Swe1 activity responds to imbalanced sphingolipid metabolism, in the absence of TG degradation. We propose a model by which TG-derived sphingolipids are required to activate the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A(Cdc55)) to attenuate Swe1 phosphorylation and its inhibitory effect on Cdc28 at the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. PMID:25713391

  2. Morphogenesis checkpoint kinase Swe1 is the executor of lipolysis-dependent cell-cycle progression

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Neha; Visram, Myriam; Cristobal-Sarramian, Alvaro; Sarkleti, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Cell growth and division requires the precise duplication of cellular DNA content but also of membranes and organelles. Knowledge about the cell-cycle–dependent regulation of membrane and storage lipid homeostasis is only rudimentary. Previous work from our laboratory has shown that the breakdown of triacylglycerols (TGs) is regulated in a cell-cycle–dependent manner, by activation of the Tgl4 lipase by the major cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28. The lipases Tgl3 and Tgl4 are required for efficient cell-cycle progression during the G1/S (Gap1/replication phase) transition, at the onset of bud formation, and their absence leads to a cell-cycle delay. We now show that defective lipolysis activates the Swe1 morphogenesis checkpoint kinase that halts cell-cycle progression by phosphorylation of Cdc28 at tyrosine residue 19. Saturated long-chain fatty acids and phytosphingosine supplementation rescue the cell-cycle delay in the Tgl3/Tgl4 lipase-deficient strain, suggesting that Swe1 activity responds to imbalanced sphingolipid metabolism, in the absence of TG degradation. We propose a model by which TG-derived sphingolipids are required to activate the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2ACdc55) to attenuate Swe1 phosphorylation and its inhibitory effect on Cdc28 at the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. PMID:25713391

  3. FHA domain boundaries of the dun1p and rad53p cell cycle checkpoint kinases.

    PubMed

    Hammet, A; Pike, B L; Mitchelhill, K I; Teh, T; Kobe, B; House, C M; Kemp, B E; Heierhorst, J

    2000-04-14

    Dun1p and Rad53p of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are members of a conserved family of cell cycle checkpoint protein kinases that contain forkhead-associated (FHA) domains. Here, we demonstrate that these FHA domains contain 130-140 residues, and are thus considerably larger than previously predicted by sequence comparisons (55-75 residues). In vivo, expression of the proteolytically defined Dun1p FHA domain, but not a fragment containing only the predicted domain boundaries, inhibited the transcriptional induction of repair genes following replication blocks. This indicates that the non-catalytic FHA domain plays an important role in the transcriptional function of the Dun1p protein kinase. PMID:10767410

  4. Cell Cycle Regulation by Checkpoints

    PubMed Central

    Barnum, Kevin J.; O’Connell, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Cell cycle checkpoints are surveillance mechanisms that monitor the order, integrity, and fidelity of the major events of the cell cycle. These include growth to the appropriate cell size, the replication and integrity of the chromosomes, and their accurate segregation at mitosis. Many of these mechanisms are ancient in origin and highly conserved, and hence have been heavily informed by studies in simple organisms such as the yeasts. Others have evolved in higher organisms, and control alternative cell fates with significant impact on tumor suppression. Here, we consider these different checkpoint pathways and the consequences of their dysfunction on cell fate. PMID:24906307

  5. Cell cycle checkpoint regulators reach a zillion

    PubMed Central

    Yasutis, Kimberly M.; Kozminski, Keith G.

    2013-01-01

    Entry into mitosis is regulated by a checkpoint at the boundary between the G2 and M phases of the cell cycle (G2/M). In many organisms, this checkpoint surveys DNA damage and cell size and is controlled by both the activation of mitotic cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and the inhibition of an opposing phosphatase, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Misregulation of mitotic entry can often lead to oncogenesis or cell death. Recent research has focused on discovering the signaling pathways that feed into the core checkpoint control mechanisms dependent on Cdk and PP2A. Herein, we review the conserved mechanisms of the G2/M transition, including recently discovered upstream signaling pathways that link cell growth and DNA replication to cell cycle progression. Critical consideration of the human, frog and yeast models of mitotic entry frame unresolved and emerging questions in this field, providing a prediction of signaling molecules and pathways yet to be discovered. PMID:23598718

  6. Xenopus Cds1 Is Regulated by DNA-Dependent Protein Kinase and ATR during the Cell Cycle Checkpoint Response to Double-Stranded DNA Ends

    PubMed Central

    McSherry, Troy D.; Mueller, Paul R.

    2004-01-01

    The checkpoint kinase Cds1 (Chk2) plays a key role in cell cycle checkpoint responses with functions in cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and induction of apoptosis. Proper regulation of Cds1 is essential for appropriate cellular responses to checkpoint-inducing insults. While the kinase ATM has been shown to be important in the regulation of human Cds1 (hCds1), here we report that the kinases ATR and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) play more significant roles in the regulation of Xenopus Cds1 (XCds1). Under normal cell cycle conditions, nonactivated XCds1 constitutively associates with a Xenopus ATR complex. The association of XCds1 with this complex does not require a functional forkhead activation domain but does require a putative SH3 binding region that is found in XCds1. In response to double-stranded DNA ends, the amino terminus of XCds1 is rapidly phosphorylated in a sequential pattern. First DNA-PK phosphorylates serine 39, a site not previously recognized as important in Cds1 regulation. Xenopus ATM, ATR, and/or DNA-PK then phosphorylate three consensus serine/glutamine sites. Together, these phosphorylations have the dual function of inducing dissociation from the ATR complex and independently promoting the full activation of XCds1. Thus, the checkpoint-mediated activation of XCds1 requires phosphorylation by multiple phosphoinositide 3-kinase-related kinases, protein-protein dissociation, and autophosphorylation. PMID:15509799

  7. Piperine Causes G1 Phase Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Melanoma Cells through Checkpoint Kinase-1 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Fofaria, Neel M.; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Srivastava, Sanjay K.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we determined the cytotoxic effects of piperine, a major constituent of black and long pepper in melanoma cells. Piperine treatment inhibited the growth of SK MEL 28 and B16 F0 cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. The growth inhibitory effects of piperine were mediated by cell cycle arrest of both the cell lines in G1 phase. The G1 arrest by piperine correlated with the down-regulation of cyclin D1 and induction of p21. Furthermore, this growth arrest by piperine treatment was associated with DNA damage as indicated by phosphorylation of H2AX at Ser139, activation of ataxia telangiectasia and rad3-related protein (ATR) and checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1). Pretreatment with AZD 7762, a Chk1 inhibitor not only abrogated the activation of Chk1 but also piperine mediated G1 arrest. Similarly, transfection of cells with Chk1 siRNA completely protected the cells from G1 arrest induced by piperine. Piperine treatment caused down-regulation of E2F1 and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (Rb). Apoptosis induced by piperine was associated with down-regulation of XIAP, Bid (full length) and cleavage of Caspase-3 and PARP. Furthermore, our results showed that piperine treatment generated ROS in melanoma cells. Blocking ROS by tiron protected the cells from piperine mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. These results suggest that piperine mediated ROS played a critical role in inducing DNA damage and activation of Chk1 leading to G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. PMID:24804719

  8. [Preparation and identification of monoclonal antibodies against chicken cell cycle checkpoint kinase 2 (cChk2)].

    PubMed

    Gao, Junna; Lian, Xue; Sun, Haiwei; Lu, Zejun; Zhang, Xunhai; Jung, Yong-Sam; Chen, Hongjun; Qian, Yingjuan

    2016-09-01

    Objective To prepare monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against chicken cell cycle checkpoint kinase 2 (cChk2). Methods The cChk2 gene was amplified by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and subcloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T-3. After induced by IPTG, cChk2 was expressed in BL21 (DE3) E.coli cells and analyzed by SDS-PAGE to determine its soluability. BALB/c mice were immunized with cChk2 protein peritoneally. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and Western blotting were used to detect anti-serum; if the detection result was positive, IFA and limited dilution was performed to screen hybridoma clones that produced antibodies against cChk2. Results cChk2 was mainly expressed in inclusion bodies. The anti-sera were able to recognize Chk2. Nine positive hybridoma clones were obtained and identified as 1F4, 2D9, 2G1, 3D9, 3E3, 4B5, 4E2, 5C9 and 5F7. Conclusion The study has prepared mAbs against cChk2 with a good specificity and a high titer. PMID:27609583

  9. Cell cycle control, checkpoint mechanisms, and genotoxic stress.

    PubMed Central

    Shackelford, R E; Kaufmann, W K; Paules, R S

    1999-01-01

    The ability of cells to maintain genomic integrity is vital for cell survival and proliferation. Lack of fidelity in DNA replication and maintenance can result in deleterious mutations leading to cell death or, in multicellular organisms, cancer. The purpose of this review is to discuss the known signal transduction pathways that regulate cell cycle progression and the mechanisms cells employ to insure DNA stability in the face of genotoxic stress. In particular, we focus on mammalian cell cycle checkpoint functions, their role in maintaining DNA stability during the cell cycle following exposure to genotoxic agents, and the gene products that act in checkpoint function signal transduction cascades. Key transitions in the cell cycle are regulated by the activities of various protein kinase complexes composed of cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) molecules. Surveillance control mechanisms that check to ensure proper completion of early events and cellular integrity before initiation of subsequent events in cell cycle progression are referred to as cell cycle checkpoints and can generate a transient delay that provides the cell more time to repair damage before progressing to the next phase of the cycle. A variety of cellular responses are elicited that function in checkpoint signaling to inhibit cyclin/Cdk activities. These responses include the p53-dependent and p53-independent induction of Cdk inhibitors and the p53-independent inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdk molecules themselves. Eliciting proper G1, S, and G2 checkpoint responses to double-strand DNA breaks requires the function of the Ataxia telangiectasia mutated gene product. Several human heritable cancer-prone syndromes known to alter DNA stability have been found to have defects in checkpoint surveillance pathways. Exposures to several common sources of genotoxic stress, including oxidative stress, ionizing radiation, UV radiation, and the genotoxic compound benzo[a]pyrene, elicit cell cycle

  10. Development of cell-cycle checkpoint therapy for solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Kenji

    2015-12-01

    Cellular proliferation is tightly controlled by several cell-cycle checkpoint proteins. In cancer, the genes encoding these proteins are often disrupted and cause unrestrained cancer growth. The proteins are over-expressed in many malignancies; thus, they are potential targets for anti-cancer therapies. These proteins include cyclin-dependent kinase, checkpoint kinase, WEE1 kinase, aurora kinase and polo-like kinase. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors are the most advanced cell-cycle checkpoint therapeutics available. For instance, palbociclib (PD0332991) is a first-in-class, oral, highly selective inhibitor of CDK4/6 and, in combination with letrozole (Phase II; PALOMA-1) or with fulvestrant (Phase III; PALOMA-3), it has significantly prolonged progression-free survival, in patients with metastatic estrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer, in comparison with that observed in patients using letrozole, or fulvestrant alone, respectively. In this review, we provide an overview of the current compounds available for cell-cycle checkpoint protein-directed therapy for solid tumors. PMID:26486823

  11. Role of the N-terminal forkhead-associated domain in the cell cycle checkpoint function of the Rad53 kinase.

    PubMed

    Pike, B L; Hammet, A; Heierhorst, J

    2001-04-27

    Forkhead-associated (FHA) domains are multifunctional phosphopeptide-binding modules and are the hallmark of the conserved family of Rad53-like checkpoint protein kinases. Rad53-like kinases, including the human tumor suppressor protein Chk2, play crucial roles in cell cycle arrest and activation of repair processes following DNA damage and replication blocks. Here we show that ectopic expression of the N-terminal FHA domain (FHA1) of the yeast Rad53 kinase causes a growth defect by arresting the cell cycle in G(1). This phenotype was highly specific for the Rad53-FHA1 domain and not observed with the similar Rad53-FHA2, Dun1-FHA, and Chk2-FHA domains, and it was abrogated by mutations that abolished binding to a phosphothreonine-containing peptide in vitro. Furthermore, replacement of the RAD53 gene with alleles containing amino acid substitutions in the FHA1 domain resulted in an increased DNA damage sensitivity in vivo. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the FHA1 domain contributes to the checkpoint function of Rad53, possibly by associating with a phosphorylated target protein in response to DNA damage in G(1). PMID:11278522

  12. Kinase signaling in the spindle checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jungseog; Yu, Hongtao

    2009-06-01

    The spindle checkpoint is a cell cycle surveillance system that ensures the fidelity of chromosome segregation. In mitosis, it elicits the "wait anaphase" signal to inhibit the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome until all chromosomes achieve bipolar microtubule attachment and align at the metaphase plate. Because a single kinetochore unattached to microtubules activates the checkpoint, the wait anaphase signal is thought to be generated by this kinetochore and is then amplified and distributed throughout the cell to inhibit the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. Several spindle checkpoint kinases participate in the generation and amplification of this signal. Recent studies have begun to reveal the activation mechanisms of these checkpoint kinases. Increasing evidence also indicates that the checkpoint kinases not only help to generate the wait anaphase signal but also actively correct kinetochore-microtubule attachment defects. PMID:19228686

  13. DNA replication and damage checkpoints and meiotic cell cycle controls in the fission and budding yeasts.

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, H; Nurse, P

    2000-01-01

    The cell cycle checkpoint mechanisms ensure the order of cell cycle events to preserve genomic integrity. Among these, the DNA-replication and DNA-damage checkpoints prevent chromosome segregation when DNA replication is inhibited or DNA is damaged. Recent studies have identified an outline of the regulatory networks for both of these controls, which apparently operate in all eukaryotes. In addition, it appears that these checkpoints have two arrest points, one is just before entry into mitosis and the other is prior to chromosome separation. The former point requires the central cell-cycle regulator Cdc2 kinase, whereas the latter involves several key regulators and substrates of the ubiquitin ligase called the anaphase promoting complex. Linkages between these cell-cycle regulators and several key checkpoint proteins are beginning to emerge. Recent findings on post-translational modifications and protein-protein interactions of the checkpoint proteins provide new insights into the checkpoint responses, although the functional significance of these biochemical properties often remains unclear. We have reviewed the molecular mechanisms acting at the DNA-replication and DNA-damage checkpoints in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and the modifications of these controls during the meiotic cell cycle. We have made comparisons with the controls in fission yeast and other organisms, mainly the distantly related budding yeast. PMID:10861204

  14. Identification of a novel EGF-sensitive cell cycle checkpoint

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Francesca . E-mail: francesca.walker@ludwig.edu.au; Zhang Huihua; Burgess, Antony W.

    2007-02-01

    The site of action of growth factors on mammalian cell cycle has been assigned to the boundary between the G1 and S phases. We show here that Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) is also required for mitosis. BaF/3 cells expressing the EGFR (BaF/wtEGFR) synthesize DNA in response to EGF, but arrest in S-phase. We have generated a cell line (BaF/ERX) with defective downregulation of the EGFR and sustained activation of EGFR signalling pathways: these cells undergo mitosis in an EGF-dependent manner. The transit of BaF/ERX cells through G2/M strictly requires activation of EGFR and is abolished by AG1478. This phenotype is mimicked by co-expression of ErbB2 in BaF/wtEGFR cells, and abolished by inhibition of the EGFR kinase, suggesting that sustained signalling of the EGFR, through impaired downregulation of the EGFR or heterodimerization, is required for completion of the cycle. We have confirmed the role of EGFR signalling in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle using a human tumor cell line which overexpresses the EGFR and is dependent on EGFR signalling for growth. These findings unmask an EGF-sensitive checkpoint, helping to understand the link between sustained EGFR signalling, proliferation and the acquisition of a radioresistant phenotype in cancer cells.

  15. AZD7762, a novel checkpoint kinase inhibitor, drives checkpoint abrogation and potentiates DNA-targeted therapies.

    PubMed

    Zabludoff, Sonya D; Deng, Chun; Grondine, Michael R; Sheehy, Adam M; Ashwell, Susan; Caleb, Benjamin L; Green, Stephen; Haye, Heather R; Horn, Candice L; Janetka, James W; Liu, Dongfang; Mouchet, Elizabeth; Ready, Shannon; Rosenthal, Judith L; Queva, Christophe; Schwartz, Gary K; Taylor, Karen J; Tse, Archie N; Walker, Graeme E; White, Anne M

    2008-09-01

    Insights from cell cycle research have led to the hypothesis that tumors may be selectively sensitized to DNA-damaging agents resulting in improved antitumor activity and a wider therapeutic margin. The theory relies on the observation that the majority of tumors are deficient in the G1-DNA damage checkpoint pathway resulting in reliance on S and G2 checkpoints for DNA repair and cell survival. The S and G2 checkpoints are regulated by checkpoint kinase 1, a serine/threonine kinase that is activated in response to DNA damage; thus, inhibition of checkpoint kinase 1 signaling impairs DNA repair and increases tumor cell death. Normal tissues, however, have a functioning G1 checkpoint signaling pathway allowing for DNA repair and cell survival. Here, we describe the preclinical profile of AZD7762, a potent ATP-competitive checkpoint kinase inhibitor in clinical trials. AZD7762 has been profiled extensively in vitro and in vivo in combination with DNA-damaging agents and has been shown to potentiate response in several different settings where inhibition of checkpoint kinase results in the abrogation of DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest. Dose-dependent potentiation of antitumor activity, when AZD7762 is administered in combination with DNA-damaging agents, has been observed in multiple xenograft models with several DNA-damaging agents, further supporting the potential of checkpoint kinase inhibitors to enhance the efficacy of both conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy and increase patient response rates in a variety of settings. PMID:18790776

  16. The Dynamical Mechanisms of the Cell Cycle Size Checkpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Shi-Fu; Yan, Jie; Liu, Zeng-Rong; Yang, Ling

    2012-10-01

    Cell division must be tightly coupled to cell growth in order to maintain cell size, whereas the mechanisms of how initialization of mitosis is regulated by cell size remain to be elucidated. We develop a mathematical model of the cell cycle, which incorporates cell growth to investigate the dynamical properties of the size checkpoint in embryos of Xenopus laevis. We show that the size checkpoint is naturally raised from a saddle-node bifurcation, and in a mutant case, the cell loses its size control ability due to the loss of this saddle-node point.

  17. 5-ASA Affects Cell Cycle Progression in Colorectal Cells by Reversibly Activating a Replication Checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    LUCIANI, M. GLORIA; CAMPREGHER, CHRISTOPH; FORTUNE, JOHN M.; KUNKEL, THOMAS A.; GASCHE, CHRISTOPH

    2007-01-01

    Background & Aims Individuals with inflammatory bowel disease are at risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Epidemiologic, animal, and laboratory studies suggest that 5-amino-salicylic acid (5-ASA) protects from the development of CRC by altering cell cycle progression and by inducing apoptosis. Our previous results indicate that 5-ASA improves replication fidelity in colorectal cells, an effect that is active in reducing mutations. In this study, we hypothesized that 5-ASA restrains cell cycle progression by activating checkpoint pathways in colorectal cell lines, which would prevent tumor development and improve genomic stability. Methods CRC cells with different genetic backgrounds such as HT29, HCT116, HCT116p53−/−, HCT116+chr3, and LoVo were treated with 5-ASA for 2–96 hours. Cell cycle progression, phosphorylation, and DNA binding of cell cycle checkpoint proteins were analyzed. Results We found that 5-ASA at concentrations between 10 and 40 mmol/L affects cell cycle progression by inducing cells to accumulate in the S phase. This effect was independent of the hMLH1, hMSH2, and p53 status because it was observed to a similar extent in all cell lines under investigation. Moreover, wash-out experiments demonstrated reversibility within 48 hours. Although p53 did not have a causative role, p53 Ser15 was strongly phosphorylated. Proteins involved in the ATM-and-Rad3-related kinase (ATR)-dependent S-phase checkpoint response (Chk1 and Rad17) were also phosphorylated but not ataxia telengectasia mutated kinase. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that 5-ASA causes cells to reversibly accumulate in S phase and activate an ATR-dependent checkpoint. The activation of replication checkpoint may slow down DNA replication and improve DNA replication fidelity, which increases the maintenance of genomic stability and counteracts carcinogenesis. PMID:17241873

  18. PEA15 Regulates the DNA Damage-Induced Cell Cycle Checkpoint and Oncogene-Directed Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Arvindhan; Dogra, Shaillay Kumar; Liu, Alex Y.; Green, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of the DNA damage response and cell cycle progression is critical for maintaining genome integrity. Here, we report that in response to DNA damage, COPS5 deubiquitinates and stabilizes PEA15 in an ATM kinase-dependent manner. PEA15 expression oscillates throughout the cell cycle, and the loss of PEA15 accelerates cell cycle progression by activating CDK6 expression via the c-JUN transcription factor. Cells lacking PEA15 exhibit a DNA damage-induced G2/M checkpoint defect due to increased CDC25C activity and, consequentially, higher cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1)/cyclin B activity, and accordingly they have an increased rate of spontaneous mutagenesis. We find that oncogenic RAS inhibits PEA15 expression and that ectopic PEA15 expression blocks RAS-mediated transformation, which can be partially rescued by ectopic expression of CDK6. Finally, we show that PEA15 expression is downregulated in colon, breast, and lung cancer samples. Collectively, our results demonstrate that tumor suppressor PEA15 is a regulator of genome integrity and is an integral component of the DNA damage response pathway that regulates cell cycle progression, the DNA-damage-induced G2/M checkpoint, and cellular transformation. PMID:24710276

  19. PEA15 regulates the DNA damage-induced cell cycle checkpoint and oncogene-directed transformation.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Arvindhan; Dogra, Shaillay Kumar; Liu, Alex Y; Green, Michael R; Wajapeyee, Narendra

    2014-06-01

    Regulation of the DNA damage response and cell cycle progression is critical for maintaining genome integrity. Here, we report that in response to DNA damage, COPS5 deubiquitinates and stabilizes PEA15 in an ATM kinase-dependent manner. PEA15 expression oscillates throughout the cell cycle, and the loss of PEA15 accelerates cell cycle progression by activating CDK6 expression via the c-JUN transcription factor. Cells lacking PEA15 exhibit a DNA damage-induced G2/M checkpoint defect due to increased CDC25C activity and, consequentially, higher cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1)/cyclin B activity, and accordingly they have an increased rate of spontaneous mutagenesis. We find that oncogenic RAS inhibits PEA15 expression and that ectopic PEA15 expression blocks RAS-mediated transformation, which can be partially rescued by ectopic expression of CDK6. Finally, we show that PEA15 expression is downregulated in colon, breast, and lung cancer samples. Collectively, our results demonstrate that tumor suppressor PEA15 is a regulator of genome integrity and is an integral component of the DNA damage response pathway that regulates cell cycle progression, the DNA-damage-induced G2/M checkpoint, and cellular transformation. PMID:24710276

  20. RACK1 inhibits colonic cell growth by regulating Src activity at cell cycle checkpoints.

    PubMed

    Mamidipudi, V; Dhillon, N K; Parman, T; Miller, L D; Lee, K C; Cartwright, C A

    2007-05-01

    Previously, we showed that Src tyrosine kinases are activated early in the development of human colon cancer and are suppressed as intestinal cells differentiate. We identified RACK1 as an endogenous substrate, binding partner and inhibitor of Src. Here we show (by overexpressing RACK1, depleting Src or RACK1 and utilizing cell-permeable peptides that perturb RACK1's interaction with Src) that RACK1 regulates growth of colon cells by suppressing Src activity at G(1) and mitotic checkpoints, and consequently delaying cell cycle progression. Activated Src rescues RACK1-inhibited growth of HT-29 cells. Conversely, inhibiting Src abolishes growth promoted by RACK1 depletion in normal cells. Two potential mechanisms whereby RACK1 regulates mitotic exit are identified: suppression of Src-mediated Sam68 phosphorylation and maintenance of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 1-cyclin B complex in an active state. Our results reveal novel mechanisms of cell cycle control in G(1) and mitosis of colon cells. The significance of this work lies in the discovery of a mechanism by which the growth of colon cancer cells can be slowed, by RACK1 suppression of an oncogenic kinase at critical cell cycle checkpoints. Small molecules that mimic RACK1 function may provide a powerful new approach to the treatment of colon cancer. PMID:17072338

  1. Checkpoint kinase inhibitor synergizes with DNA-damaging agents in G1 checkpoint-defective neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Cheung, Irene Y; Wei, Xiao X; Tran, Hoa; Gao, Xiaoni; Cheung, Nai-Kong V

    2011-10-15

    Checkpoint kinase inhibitors can enhance the cancer killing action of DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents by disrupting the S/G(2) cell cycle checkpoints. The in vitro and in vivo effects of the Chk1/2 inhibitor AZD7762 when combined with these agents were examined using neuroblastoma cell lines with known p53/MDM2/p14(ARF) genomic status. Four of four p53 mutant lines and three of five MDM2/p14(ARF) abnormal lines were defective in G(1) checkpoint, correlating with failure to induce endogenous p21 after treatment with DNA-damaging agents. In cytotoxicity assays, these G(1) checkpoint-defective lines were more resistant to DNA-damaging agents when compared to G(1) checkpoint intact lines, yet becoming more sensitive when AZD7762 was added. Moreover, AZD7762 abrogated DNA damage-induced S/G(2) checkpoint arrest both in vitro and in vivo. In xenograft models, a significant delay in tumor growth accompanied by histological evidence of increased apoptosis was observed, when AZD7762 was added to the DNA-damaging drug gemcitabine. These results suggest a therapeutic potential of combination therapy using checkpoint kinase inhibitor and chemotherapy to reverse or prevent drug resistance in treating neuroblastomas with defective G(1) checkpoints. PMID:21154747

  2. Cell cycle regulation by the NEK family of protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Fry, Andrew M; O'Regan, Laura; Sabir, Sarah R; Bayliss, Richard

    2012-10-01

    Genetic screens for cell division cycle mutants in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans led to the discovery of never-in-mitosis A (NIMA), a serine/threonine kinase that is required for mitotic entry. Since that discovery, NIMA-related kinases, or NEKs, have been identified in most eukaryotes, including humans where eleven genetically distinct proteins named NEK1 to NEK11 are expressed. Although there is no evidence that human NEKs are essential for mitotic entry, it is clear that several NEK family members have important roles in cell cycle control. In particular, NEK2, NEK6, NEK7 and NEK9 contribute to the establishment of the microtubule-based mitotic spindle, whereas NEK1, NEK10 and NEK11 have been implicated in the DNA damage response. Roles for NEKs in other aspects of mitotic progression, such as chromatin condensation, nuclear envelope breakdown, spindle assembly checkpoint signalling and cytokinesis have also been proposed. Interestingly, NEK1 and NEK8 also function within cilia, the microtubule-based structures that are nucleated from basal bodies. This has led to the current hypothesis that NEKs have evolved to coordinate microtubule-dependent processes in both dividing and non-dividing cells. Here, we review the functions of the human NEKs, with particular emphasis on those family members that are involved in cell cycle control, and consider their potential as therapeutic targets in cancer. PMID:23132929

  3. Sum1, a highly conserved WD-repeat protein, suppresses S-M checkpoint mutants and inhibits the osmotic stress cell cycle response in fission yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, T; Enoch, T

    1998-01-01

    The S-M checkpoint ensures that entry into mitosis is dependent on completion of DNA replication. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the SM checkpoint mutant cdc2-3w is thought to be defective in receiving the checkpoint signal. To isolate genes that function in the checkpoint pathway, we screened an S. pombe cDNA library for genes that, when overexpressed, could suppress the checkpoint defect of cdc2-3w. Using this approach, we have identified a novel gene, sum1+ (suppressor of uncontrolled mitosis). sum1+ encodes a highly conserved WD-transducin repeat protein with striking sequence similarity to the human transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta-receptor interacting protein TRIP-1 and to the translation initiation factor 3 subunit eIF3-p39, encoded by the TIF34 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. S. pombe sum1+ is an essential gene, required for normal cell growth and division. In addition to restoring checkpoint control, overexpression of sum1+ inhibits the normal cell cycle response to osmotic stress. Furthermore, we demonstrate that inactivation of the stress-activated MAP kinase pathway, required for cell cycle stress response, restores the S-M checkpoint in cdc2-3w cells. These results suggest that Suml interacts with the stress-activated MAP kinase pathway and raise the possibility that environmental conditions may influence the checkpoint response in fission yeast. PMID:9560390

  4. Defective Cell Cycle Checkpoint Functions in Melanoma Are Associated with Altered Patterns of Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, William K.; Nevis, Kathleen R.; Qu, Pingping; Ibrahim, Joseph G.; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yingchun; Simpson, Dennis A.; Helms-Deaton, Jennifer; Cordeiro-Stone, Marila; Moore, Dominic T.; Thomas, Nancy E.; Hao, Honglin; Liu, Zhi; Shields, Janiel M.; Scott, Glynis A.; Sharpless, Norman E.

    2009-01-01

    Defects in DNA damage responses may underlie genetic instability and malignant progression in melanoma. Cultures of normal human melanocytes (NHMs) and melanoma lines were analyzed to determine whether global patterns of gene expression could predict the efficacy of DNA damage cell cycle checkpoints that arrest growth and suppress genetic instability. NHMs displayed effective G1 and G2 checkpoint responses to ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage. A majority of melanoma cell lines (11/16) displayed significant quantitative defects in one or both checkpoints. Melanomas with B-RAF mutations as a class displayed a significant defect in DNA damage G2 checkpoint function. In contrast the epithelial-like subtype of melanomas with wild-type N-RAS and B-RAF alleles displayed an effective G2 checkpoint but a significant defect in G1 checkpoint function. RNA expression profiling revealed that melanoma lines with defects in the DNA damage G1 checkpoint displayed reduced expression of p53 transcriptional targets, such as CDKN1A and DDB2, and enhanced expression of proliferation-associated genes, such as CDC7 and GEMININ. A Bayesian analysis tool was more accurate than significance analysis of microarrays for predicting checkpoint function using a leave-one-out method. The results suggest that defects in DNA damage checkpoints may be recognized in melanomas through analysis of gene expression. PMID:17597816

  5. A DNA-damage-induced cell cycle checkpoint in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Preuss, S B; Britt, A B

    2003-01-01

    Although it is well established that plant seeds treated with high doses of gamma radiation arrest development as seedlings, the cause of this arrest is unknown. The uvh1 mutant of Arabidopsis is defective in a homolog of the human repair endonuclease XPF, and uvh1 mutants are sensitive to both the toxic effects of UV and the cytostatic effects of gamma radiation. Here we find that gamma irradiation of uvh1 plants specifically triggers a G(2)-phase cell cycle arrest. Mutants, termed suppressor of gamma (sog), that suppress this radiation-induced arrest and proceed through the cell cycle unimpeded were recovered in the uvh1 background; the resulting irradiated plants are genetically unstable. The sog mutations fall into two complementation groups. They are second-site suppressors of the uvh1 mutant's sensitivity to gamma radiation but do not affect the susceptibility of the plant to UV radiation. In addition to rendering the plants resistant to the growth inhibitory effects of gamma radiation, the sog1 mutation affects the proper development of the pollen tetrad, suggesting that SOG1 might also play a role in the regulation of cell cycle progression during meiosis. PMID:12750343

  6. Clamping the Mec1/ATR checkpoint kinase into action.

    PubMed

    Majka, Jerzy; Burgers, Peter M J

    2007-05-15

    The yeast checkpoint protein kinase Mec1, the ortholog of human ATR, is the essential upstream regulator of the cell cycle checkpoint in response to DNA damage and to stalling of DNA replication forks. The activity of Mec1/ATR is not directly regulated by the DNA substrates that signal checkpoint activation. Rather the signal appears to be transduced to Mec1 by factors that interact with the signaling DNA substrates. One of these factors, the DNA damage checkpoint clamp Rad17-Mec3-Ddc1 (human 9-1-1) is loaded onto gapped DNA resulting from the partial repair of DNA damage, and the Ddc1 subunit of this complex activates Mec1. In vertebrate cells, the TopBP1 protein (Cut5 in S. pombe and Dpb11 in S. cervisiae) that is also required for establishment of the replication fork, functions during replication fork dysfunction to activate ATR. Both mechanisms of activation generally upregulate the kinase activity towards all downstream targets. PMID:17495536

  7. DNA Damage Response and Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Function throughout the Cell Cycle to Ensure Genomic Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Katherine S.; Chau, Thinh; Engebrecht, JoAnne

    2015-01-01

    Errors in replication or segregation lead to DNA damage, mutations, and aneuploidies. Consequently, cells monitor these events and delay progression through the cell cycle so repair precedes division. The DNA damage response (DDR), which monitors DNA integrity, and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), which responds to defects in spindle attachment/tension during metaphase of mitosis and meiosis, are critical for preventing genome instability. Here we show that the DDR and SAC function together throughout the cell cycle to ensure genome integrity in C. elegans germ cells. Metaphase defects result in enrichment of SAC and DDR components to chromatin, and both SAC and DDR are required for metaphase delays. During persistent metaphase arrest following establishment of bi-oriented chromosomes, stability of the metaphase plate is compromised in the absence of DDR kinases ATR or CHK1 or SAC components, MAD1/MAD2, suggesting SAC functions in metaphase beyond its interactions with APC activator CDC20. In response to DNA damage, MAD2 and the histone variant CENPA become enriched at the nuclear periphery in a DDR-dependent manner. Further, depletion of either MAD1 or CENPA results in loss of peripherally associated damaged DNA. In contrast to a SAC-insensitive CDC20 mutant, germ cells deficient for SAC or CENPA cannot efficiently repair DNA damage, suggesting that SAC mediates DNA repair through CENPA interactions with the nuclear periphery. We also show that replication perturbations result in relocalization of MAD1/MAD2 in human cells, suggesting that the role of SAC in DNA repair is conserved. PMID:25898113

  8. Tumor-suppressor Genes, Cell Cycle Regulatory Checkpoints, and the Skin

    PubMed Central

    Velez, Ana Maria Abreu; Howard, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    The cell cycle (or cell-division cycle) is a series of events that take place in a cell, leading to its division and duplication. Cell division requires cell cycle checkpoints (CPs) that are used by the cell to both monitor and regulate the progress of the cell cycle. Tumor-suppressor genes (TSGs) or antioncogenes are genes that protect the cell from a single event or multiple events leading to cancer. When these genes mutate, the cell can progress to a cancerous state. We aimed to perform a narrative review, based on evaluation of the manuscripts published in MEDLINE-indexed journals using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms “tumor suppressor's genes,” “skin,” and “cell cycle regulatory checkpoints.” We aimed to review the current concepts regarding TSGs, CPs, and their association with selected cutaneous diseases. It is important to take into account that in some cell cycle disorders, multiple genetic abnormalities may occur simultaneously. These abnormalities may include intrachromosomal insertions, unbalanced division products, recombinations, reciprocal deletions, and/or duplication of the inserted segments or genes; thus, these presentations usually involve several genes. Due to their complexity, these disorders require specialized expertise for proper diagnosis, counseling, personal and family support, and genetic studies. Alterations in the TSGs or CP regulators may occur in many benign skin proliferative disorders, neoplastic processes, and genodermatoses. PMID:26110128

  9. RNA interference regulates the cell cycle checkpoint through the RNA export factor, Ptr1, in fission yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Iida, Tetsushi; Iida, Naoko; Tsutsui, Yasuhiro; Yamao, Fumiaki; Kobayashi, Takehiko

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RNAi is linked to the cell cycle checkpoint in fission yeast. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ptr1 co-purifies with Ago1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ptr1-1 mutation impairs the checkpoint but does not affect gene silencing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ago1{sup +} and ptr1{sup +} regulate the cell cycle checkpoint via the same pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mutations in ago1{sup +} and ptr1{sup +} lead to the nuclear accumulation of poly(A){sup +} RNAs. -- Abstract: Ago1, an effector protein of RNA interference (RNAi), regulates heterochromatin silencing and cell cycle arrest in fission yeast. However, the mechanism by which Ago1 controls cell cycle checkpoint following hydroxyurea (HU) treatment has not been elucidated. In this study, we show that Ago1 and other RNAi factors control cell cycle checkpoint following HU treatment via a mechanism independent of silencing. While silencing requires dcr1{sup +}, the overexpression of ago1{sup +} alleviated the cell cycle defect in dcr1{Delta}. Ago1 interacted with the mRNA export factor, Ptr1. The ptr1-1 mutation impaired cell cycle checkpoint but gene silencing was unaffected. Genetic analysis revealed that the regulation of cell cycle checkpoint by ago1{sup +} is dependent on ptr1{sup +}. Nuclear accumulation of poly(A){sup +} RNAs was detected in mutants of ago1{sup +} and ptr1{sup +}, suggesting there is a functional link between the cell cycle checkpoint and RNAi-mediated RNA quality control.

  10. p53 and Translation Attenuation Regulate Distinct Cell Cycle Checkpoints during Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Sally E.; Malzer, Elke; Ordóñez, Adriana; Dalton, Lucy E.; van ′t Wout, Emily F. A.; Liniker, Elizabeth; Crowther, Damian C.; Lomas, David A.; Marciniak, Stefan J.

    2013-01-01

    Cell cycle checkpoints ensure that proliferation occurs only under permissive conditions, but their role in linking nutrient availability to cell division is incompletely understood. Protein folding within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is exquisitely sensitive to energy supply and amino acid sources because deficiencies impair luminal protein folding and consequently trigger ER stress signaling. Following ER stress, many cell types arrest within the G1 phase, although recent studies have identified a novel ER stress G2 checkpoint. Here, we report that ER stress affects cell cycle progression via two classes of signal: an early inhibition of protein synthesis leading to G2 delay involving CHK1 and a later induction of G1 arrest associated both with the induction of p53 target genes and loss of cyclin D1. We show that substitution of p53/47 for p53 impairs the ER stress G1 checkpoint, attenuates the recovery of protein translation, and impairs induction of NOXA, a mediator of cell death. We propose that cell cycle regulation in response to ER stress comprises redundant pathways invoked sequentially first to impair G2 progression prior to ultimate G1 arrest. PMID:23341460

  11. The human papillomavirus type 58 E7 oncoprotein modulates cell cycle regulatory proteins and abrogates cell cycle checkpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Weifang; Li Jing; Kanginakudru, Sriramana; Zhao Weiming; Yu Xiuping; Chen, Jason J.

    2010-02-05

    HPV type 58 (HPV-58) is the third most common HPV type in cervical cancer from Eastern Asia, yet little is known about how it promotes carcinogenesis. In this study, we demonstrate that HPV-58 E7 significantly promoted the proliferation and extended the lifespan of primary human keratinocytes (PHKs). HPV-58 E7 abrogated the G1 and the postmitotic checkpoints, although less efficiently than HPV-16 E7. Consistent with these observations, HPV-58 E7 down-regulated the cellular tumor suppressor pRb to a lesser extent than HPV-16 E7. Similar to HPV-16 E7 expressing PHKs, Cdk2 remained active in HPV-58 E7 expressing PHKs despite the presence of elevated levels of p53 and p21. Interestingly, HPV-58 E7 down-regulated p130 more efficiently than HPV-16 E7. Our study demonstrates a correlation between the ability of down-regulating pRb/p130 and abrogating cell cycle checkpoints by HPV-58 E7, which also correlates with the biological risks of cervical cancer progression associated with HPV-58 infection.

  12. p53 Promotes Cell Survival Due to the Reversibility of its Cell Cycle Checkpoints

    PubMed Central

    Lukin, Dana J.; Carvajal, Luis A.; Liu, Wen-jun; Resnick-Silverman, Lois; Manfredi, James J.

    2014-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 (TP53) has a well-studied role in triggering cell cycle checkpoint in response to DNA damage. Previous studies have suggested that functional p53 enhances chemosensitivity. In contrast, data are presented to show that p53 can be required for cell survival following DNA damage due to activation of reversible cell cycle checkpoints. The cellular outcome to DNA damage is determined by the duration and extent of the stimulus in a p53-dependent manner. In response to transient or low levels of DNA damage, p53 triggers a reversible G2 arrest whereas a sustained p53-dependent cell cycle arrest and senescence follows prolonged or high levels of DNA damage. Regardless of the length of treatment, p53-null cells arrest in G2, but ultimately adapt and proceed into mitosis. Interestingly, they fail to undergo cytokinesis, become multinucleated, and then die from apoptosis. Upon transient treatment with DNA damaging agents, wild-type p53 cells reversibly arrest and repair the damage, whereas p53-null cells fail to do so and die. These data indicate that p53 can promote cell survival by inducing reversible cell cycle arrest, thereby allowing for DNA repair. Thus, transient treatments may exploit differences between wild-type p53 and p53-null cells. PMID:25158956

  13. The Morphogenesis Checkpoint in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Cell Cycle Control of Swe1p Degradation by Hsl1p and Hsl7p

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, John N.; Longtine, Mark S.; Sia, Rey A. L.; Theesfeld, Chandra L.; Bardes, Elaine S. G.; Pringle, John R.; Lew, Daniel J.

    1999-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Wee1 family kinase Swe1p is normally stable during G1 and S phases but is unstable during G2 and M phases due to ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. However, perturbations of the actin cytoskeleton lead to a stabilization and accumulation of Swe1p. This response constitutes part of a morphogenesis checkpoint that couples cell cycle progression to proper bud formation, but the basis for the regulation of Swe1p degradation by the morphogenesis checkpoint remains unknown. Previous studies have identified a protein kinase, Hsl1p, and a phylogenetically conserved protein of unknown function, Hsl7p, as putative negative regulators of Swe1p. We report here that Hsl1p and Hsl7p act in concert to target Swe1p for degradation. Both proteins are required for Swe1p degradation during the unperturbed cell cycle, and excess Hsl1p accelerates Swe1p degradation in the G2-M phase. Hsl1p accumulates periodically during the cell cycle and promotes the periodic phosphorylation of Hsl7p. Hsl7p can be detected in a complex with Swe1p in cell lysates, and the overexpression of Hsl7p or Hsl1p produces an effective override of the G2 arrest imposed by the morphogenesis checkpoint. These findings suggest that Hsl1p and Hsl7p interact directly with Swe1p to promote its recognition by the ubiquitination complex, leading ultimately to its destruction. PMID:10490630

  14. Cell cycle execution point analysis of ORC function and characterization of the checkpoint response to ORC inactivation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Daniel G; Bell, Stephen P; Aparicio, Oscar M

    2006-06-01

    Chromosomal replication initiates through the assembly of a prereplicative complex (pre-RC) at individual replication origins in the G1-phase, followed by activation of these complexes in the S-phase. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the origin recognition complex (ORC) binds replication origins throughout the cell cycle and participates in pre-RC assembly. Whether the ORC plays an additional role subsequent to pre-RC assembly in replication initiation or any other essential cell cycle process is not clear. To study the function of the ORC during defined cell cycle periods, we performed cell cycle execution point analyses with strains containing a conditional mutation in the ORC1, ORC2 or ORC5 subunit of ORC. We found that the ORC is essential for replication initiation, but is dispensable for replication elongation or later cell cycle events. Defective initiation in ORC mutant cells results in incomplete replication and mitotic arrest enforced by the DNA damage and spindle assembly checkpoint pathways. The involvement of the spindle assembly checkpoint implies a defect in kinetochore-spindle attachment or sister chromatid cohesion due to incomplete replication and/or DNA damage. Remarkably, under semipermissive conditions for ORC1 function, the spindle checkpoint alone suffices to block proliferation, suggesting this checkpoint is highly sensitive to replication initiation defects. We discuss the potential significance of these overlapping checkpoints and the impact of our findings on previously postulated role(s) of ORCs in other cell cycle functions. PMID:16716188

  15. Centrosome-Dependent Bypass of the DNA Damage Checkpoint by the Polo Kinase Cdc5.

    PubMed

    Ratsima, Hery; Serrano, Diego; Pascariu, Mirela; D'Amours, Damien

    2016-02-16

    Cell-cycle checkpoints are essential feedback mechanisms that promote genome integrity. However, in the face of unrepairable DNA lesions, bypass mechanisms can suppress checkpoint activity and allow cells to resume proliferation. The molecular mechanisms underlying this biological response are currently not understood. Taking advantage of unique separation-of-function mutants, we show that the Polo-like kinase (PLK) Cdc5 uses a phosphopriming-based interaction mechanism to suppress G2/M checkpoint arrest by targeting Polo kinase activity to centrosomes. We also show that key subunits of the evolutionarily conserved RSC complex are critical downstream effectors of Cdc5 activity in checkpoint suppression. Importantly, the lethality and checkpoint defects associated with loss of Cdc5 Polo box activity can be fully rescued by artificially anchoring Cdc5 kinase domain to yeast centrosomes. Collectively, our results highlight a previously unappreciated role for centrosomes as key signaling centers for the suppression of cell-cycle arrest induced by persistent or unrepairable DNA damage. PMID:26832404

  16. Src Family Kinases Promote Silencing of ATR-Chk1 Signaling in Termination of DNA Damage Checkpoint*

    PubMed Central

    Fukumoto, Yasunori; Morii, Mariko; Miura, Takahito; Kubota, Sho; Ishibashi, Kenichi; Honda, Takuya; Okamoto, Aya; Yamaguchi, Noritaka; Iwama, Atsushi; Nakayama, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2014-01-01

    The DNA damage checkpoint arrests cell cycle progression to allow time for repair. Once DNA repair is completed, checkpoint signaling is terminated. Currently little is known about the mechanism by which checkpoint signaling is terminated, and the disappearance of DNA lesions is considered to induce the end of checkpoint signaling; however, here we show that the termination of checkpoint signaling is an active process promoted by Src family tyrosine kinases. Inhibition of Src activity delays recovery from the G2 phase DNA damage checkpoint following DNA repair. Src activity is required for the termination of checkpoint signaling, and inhibition of Src activity induces persistent activation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)- and Rad3-related (ATR) and Chk1 kinases. Src-dependent nuclear protein tyrosine phosphorylation and v-Src expression suppress the ATR-mediated Chk1 and Rad17 phosphorylation induced by DNA double strand breaks or DNA replication stress. Thus, Src family kinases promote checkpoint recovery through termination of ATR- and Chk1-dependent G2 DNA damage checkpoint. These results suggest a model according to which Src family kinases send a termination signal between the completion of DNA repair and the initiation of checkpoint termination. PMID:24634213

  17. Identification of inhibitors of checkpoint kinase 1 through template screening.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Thomas P; Klair, Suki; Burns, Samantha; Boxall, Kathy; Cherry, Michael; Fisher, Martin; Westwood, Isaac M; Walton, Michael I; McHardy, Tatiana; Cheung, Kwai-Ming J; Van Montfort, Rob; Williams, David; Aherne, G Wynne; Garrett, Michelle D; Reader, John; Collins, Ian

    2009-08-13

    Checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) is an oncology target of significant current interest. Inhibition of CHK1 abrogates DNA damage-induced cell cycle checkpoints and sensitizes p53 deficient cancer cells to genotoxic therapies. Using template screening, a fragment-based approach to small molecule hit generation, we have identified multiple CHK1 inhibitor scaffolds suitable for further optimization. The sequential combination of in silico low molecular weight template selection, a high concentration biochemical assay and hit validation through protein-ligand X-ray crystallography provided 13 template hits from an initial in silico screening library of ca. 15000 compounds. The use of appropriate counter-screening to rule out nonspecific aggregation by test compounds was essential for optimum performance of the high concentration bioassay. One low molecular weight, weakly active purine template hit was progressed by iterative structure-based design to give submicromolar pyrazolopyridines with good ligand efficiency and appropriate CHK1-mediated cellular activity in HT29 colon cancer cells. PMID:19572549

  18. Cell cycle regulation of a Xenopus Wee1-like kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, P R; Coleman, T R; Dunphy, W G

    1995-01-01

    Using a polymerase chain reaction-based strategy, we have isolated a gene encoding a Wee1-like kinase from Xenopus eggs. The recombinant Xenopus Wee1 protein efficiently phosphorylates Cdc2 exclusively on Tyr-15 in a cyclin-dependent manner. The addition of exogenous Wee1 protein to Xenopus cell cycle extracts results in a dose-dependent delay of mitotic initiation that is accompanied by enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of Cdc2. The activity of the Wee1 protein is highly regulated during the cell cycle: the interphase, underphosphorylated form of Wee1 (68 kDa) phosphorylates Cdc2 very efficiently, whereas the mitotic, hyperphosphorylated version (75 kDa) is weakly active as a Cdc2-specific tyrosine kinase. The down-modulation of Wee1 at mitosis is directly attributable to phosphorylation, since dephosphorylation with protein phosphatase 2A restores its kinase activity. During interphase, the activity of this Wee1 homolog does not vary in response to the presence of unreplicated DNA. The mitosis-specific phosphorylation of Wee1 is due to at least two distinct kinases: the Cdc2 protein and another activity (kinase X) that may correspond to an MPM-2 epitope kinase. These studies indicate that the down-regulation of Wee1-like kinase activity at mitosis is a multistep process that occurs after other biochemical reactions have signaled the successful completion of S phase. Images PMID:7749193

  19. Checkpoint kinase 1 inhibitors as targeted molecular agents for clear cell carcinoma of the ovary

    PubMed Central

    KOBAYASHI, HIROSHI; SHIGETOMI, HIROSHI; YOSHIMOTO, CHIHARU

    2015-01-01

    In clear cell carcinoma of the ovary, chemoresistance frequently results in treatment failure. The present study aimed to review the potential association of transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-1β with cell cycle checkpoint machinery, as a mechanism for chemoresistance. The English-language literature on the subject was reviewed to identify genomic alterations and aberrant molecular pathways interacting with chemoresistance in clear cell carcinoma. Oxidative stress induced by repeated hemorrhage induces greater susceptibility of endometriotic cells to DNA damage, and subsequent malignant transformation results in endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer. Molecular changes, including those in HNF-1β and checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1), may be a manifestation of essential alterations in cell cycle regulation, detoxification and chemoresistance in clear cell carcinoma. Chk1 is a critical signal transducer in the cell cycle checkpoint machinery. DNA damage, in turn, increases persistent phosphorylation of Chk1 and induction of G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in cells overexpressing HNF-1β. HNF-1β deletion induces apoptosis, suggesting that enhanced levels of HNF-1β may be associated with chemoresistance. Targeted therapy with Chk1 inhibitors may be explored as a potential treatment modality for patients with clear cell carcinoma. This provides a novel direction for combination therapy, including targeting of Chk1, which may overcome drug resistance and improve treatment efficacy. PMID:26622535

  20. Creatine kinase in cell cycle regulation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yong-Bin

    2016-08-01

    The phosphocreatine-creatine kinase (CK) shuttle system is increasingly recognized as a fundamental mechanism for ATP homeostasis in both excitable and non-excitable cells. Many intracellular processes are ATP dependent. Cell division is a process requiring a rapid rate of energy turnover. Cell cycle regulation is also a key point to understanding the mechanisms underlying cancer progression. It has been known for about 40 years that aberrant CK levels are associated with various cancers and for over 30 years that CK is involved in mitosis regulation. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been investigated sufficiently until recently. By maintaining ATP at sites of high-energy demand, CK can regulate cell cycle progression by affecting the intracellular energy status as well as by influencing signaling pathways that are essential to activate cell division and cytoskeleton reorganization. Aberrant CK levels may impair cell viability under normal or stressed conditions and induce cell death. The involvement of CK in cell cycle regulation and cellular energy metabolism makes it a potential diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target in cancer. To understand the multiple physiological/pathological functions of CK, it is necessary to identify CK-binding partners and regulators including proteins, non-coding RNAs and participating endogenous small molecular weight chemical compounds. This review will focus on molecular mechanisms of CK in cell cycle regulation and cancer progression. It will also discuss the implications of recent mechanistic studies, the emerging problems and future challenges of the multifunctional enzyme CK. PMID:27020776

  1. Evaluation of checkpoint kinase targeting therapy in acute myeloid leukemia with complex karyotype.

    PubMed

    Didier, Christine; Demur, Cécile; Grimal, Fanny; Jullien, Denis; Manenti, Stéphane; Ducommun, Bernard

    2012-03-01

    There has been considerable interest in targeting cell cycle checkpoints particularly in emerging and alternative anticancer strategies. Here, we show that checkpoint abrogation by AZD7762, a potent and selective CHK1/2 kinase inhibitor enhances genotoxic treatment efficacy in immature KG1a leukemic cell line and in AML patient samples, particularly those with a complex karyotype, which display major genomic instability and chemoresistance. Furthermore, these data suggest that constitutive DNA-damage level might be useful markers to select AML patients susceptible to receive checkpoint inhibitor in combination with conventional chemotherapy. Moreover, this study demonstrates for the first time that AZD7762 inhibitor targets the CD34(+)CD38(-)CD123(+) primitive leukemic progenitors, which are responsible for the majority of AML patients relapse. Finally, CHK1 inhibition does not seem to affect clonogenic potential of normal hematopoietic progenitors. PMID:22258035

  2. Phosphorylation-Independent Inhibition of Cdc28p by the Tyrosine Kinase Swe1p in the Morphogenesis Checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, John N.; Sia, Rey A. L.; Bardes, Elaine S. G.; Lew, Daniel J.

    1999-01-01

    The morphogenesis checkpoint in budding yeast delays cell cycle progression in G2 when the actin cytoskeleton is perturbed, providing time for cells to complete bud formation prior to mitosis. Checkpoint-induced G2 arrest involves the inhibition of the master cell cycle regulatory cyclin-dependent kinase, Cdc28p, by the Wee1 family kinase Swe1p. Results of experiments using a nonphosphorylatable CDC28Y19F allele suggested that the checkpoint stimulated two inhibitory pathways, one that promoted phosphorylation at tyrosine 19 (Y19) and a poorly characterized second pathway that did not require Cdc28p Y19 phosphorylation. We present the results from a genetic screen for checkpoint-defective mutants that led to the repeated isolation of the dominant CDC28E12K allele that is resistant to Swe1p-mediated inhibition. Comparison of this allele with the nonphosphorylatable CDC28Y19F allele suggested that Swe1p is still able to inhibit CDC28Y19F in a phosphorylation-independent manner and that both the Y19 phosphorylation-dependent and -independent checkpoint pathways in fact reflect Swe1p inhibition of Cdc28p. Remarkably, we found that a Swe1p mutant lacking catalytic activity could significantly delay the cell cycle in vivo during a physiological checkpoint response, even when expressed at single copy. The finding that a Wee1 family kinase expressed at physiological levels can inhibit a nonphosphorylatable cyclin-dependent kinase has broad implications for many checkpoint studies using such mutants in other organisms. PMID:10454545

  3. Dictyostelium nucleomorphin is a member of the BRCT-domain family of cell cycle checkpoint proteins.

    PubMed

    Myre, Michael A; O'Day, Danton H

    2004-11-18

    A search of the Dictyostelium genome project database (http://dictybase.org/db/cgi-bin/blast.pl) with nucleomorphin, a protein that regulates the nuclear number, predicted it to be encoded by a larger gene containing a putative breast cancer carboxy-terminus domain (BRCT). Using RT-PCR, Northern and Western blotting we have identified a differentially expressed, 2318 bp cDNA encoding a protein isoform of Dictyostelium NumA with an apparent molecular weight of 70 kDa that we have called NumB. It contains a single amino-terminal BRCT-domain spanning residues 125-201. Starvation of shaking cultures reduces NumA expression by approximately 88+/-5.6%, whereas NumB expression increases approximately 35+/-3.5% from vegetative levels. NumC, a third isoform that is also expressed during development but not growth, remains to be characterized. These findings suggest NumB may be a member of the BRCT-domain containing cell cycle checkpoint proteins. PMID:15535983

  4. Role of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors in the Regulation of the Mitotic Checkpoint Kinase Bub1

    PubMed Central

    Breit, Claudia; Bange, Tanja; Petrovic, Arsen; Weir, John R.; Müller, Franziska; Vogt, Doro; Musacchio, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) monitors microtubule attachment to kinetochores to ensure accurate sister chromatid segregation during mitosis. The SAC members Bub1 and BubR1 are paralogs that underwent significant functional specializations during evolution. We report an in-depth characterization of the kinase domains of Bub1 and BubR1. BubR1 kinase domain binds nucleotides but is unable to deliver catalytic activity in vitro. Conversely, Bub1 is an active kinase regulated by intra-molecular phosphorylation at the P+1 loop. The crystal structure of the phosphorylated Bub1 kinase domain illustrates a hitherto unknown conformation of the P+1 loop docked into the active site of the Bub1 kinase. Both Bub1 and BubR1 bind Bub3 constitutively. A hydrodynamic characterization of Bub1:Bub3 and BubR1:Bub3 demonstrates both complexes to have 1:1 stoichiometry, with no additional oligomerization. Conversely, Bub1:Bub3 and BubR1:Bub3 combine to form a heterotetramer. Neither BubR1:Bub3 nor Knl1, the kinetochore receptor of Bub1:Bub3, modulate the kinase activity of Bub1 in vitro, suggesting autonomous regulation of the Bub1 kinase domain. We complement our study with an analysis of the Bub1 substrates. Our results contribute to the mechanistic characterization of a crucial cell cycle checkpoint. PMID:26658523

  5. Regulation of Sphingolipid Biosynthesis by the Morphogenesis Checkpoint Kinase Swe1*

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Neha; Han, Gongshe; Somashekarappa, Niranjanakumari; Gable, Kenneth; Dunn, Teresa; Kohlwein, Sepp D.

    2016-01-01

    Sphingolipid (SL) biosynthesis is negatively regulated by the highly conserved endoplasmic reticulum-localized Orm family proteins. Defective SL synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae leads to increased phosphorylation and inhibition of Orm proteins by the kinase Ypk1. Here we present evidence that the yeast morphogenesis checkpoint kinase, Swe1, regulates SL biosynthesis independent of the Ypk1 pathway. Deletion of the Swe1 kinase renders mutant cells sensitive to serine palmitoyltransferase inhibition due to impaired sphingoid long-chain base synthesis. Based on these data and previous results, we suggest that Swe1 kinase perceives alterations in SL homeostasis, activates SL synthesis, and may thus represent the missing regulatory link that controls the SL rheostat during the cell cycle. PMID:26634277

  6. Regulation of Sphingolipid Biosynthesis by the Morphogenesis Checkpoint Kinase Swe1.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Neha; Han, Gongshe; Somashekarappa, Niranjanakumari; Gable, Kenneth; Dunn, Teresa; Kohlwein, Sepp D

    2016-01-29

    Sphingolipid (SL) biosynthesis is negatively regulated by the highly conserved endoplasmic reticulum-localized Orm family proteins. Defective SL synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae leads to increased phosphorylation and inhibition of Orm proteins by the kinase Ypk1. Here we present evidence that the yeast morphogenesis checkpoint kinase, Swe1, regulates SL biosynthesis independent of the Ypk1 pathway. Deletion of the Swe1 kinase renders mutant cells sensitive to serine palmitoyltransferase inhibition due to impaired sphingoid long-chain base synthesis. Based on these data and previous results, we suggest that Swe1 kinase perceives alterations in SL homeostasis, activates SL synthesis, and may thus represent the missing regulatory link that controls the SL rheostat during the cell cycle. PMID:26634277

  7. RAD9-dependent G1 arrest defines a second checkpoint for damaged DNA in the cell cycle of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Siede, W; Friedberg, A S; Friedberg, E C

    1993-01-01

    Exposure of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ultraviolet (UV) light, the UV-mimetic chemical 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO), or gamma radiation after release from G1 arrest induced by alpha factor results in delayed resumption of the cell cycle. As is the case with G2 arrest following ionizing radiation damage [Weinert, T. A. & Hartwell, L. H. (1988) Science 241, 317-322], the normal execution of DNA damage-induced G1 arrest depends on a functional yeast RAD9 gene. We suggest that the RAD9 gene product may interact with cellular components common to the G1/S and G2/M transition points in the cell cycle of this yeast. These observations define a checkpoint in the eukaryotic cell cycle that may facilitate the repair of lesions that are otherwise processed to lethal and/or mutagenic damage during DNA replication. This checkpoint apparently operates after the mating pheromone-induced G1 arrest point but prior to replicative DNA synthesis, S phase-associated maximal induction of histone H2A mRNA, and bud emergence. Images Fig. 4 PMID:8367452

  8. Mitotic Checkpoint Kinase Mps1 Has a Role in Normal Physiology which Impacts Clinical Utility

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Ricardo; Blasina, Alessandra; Hallin, Jill F.; Hu, Wenyue; Rymer, Isha; Fan, Jeffery; Hoffman, Robert L.; Murphy, Sean; Marx, Matthew; Yanochko, Gina; Trajkovic, Dusko; Dinh, Dac; Timofeevski, Sergei; Zhu, Zhou; Sun, Peiquing; Lappin, Patrick B.; Murray, Brion W.

    2015-01-01

    Cell cycle checkpoint intervention is an effective therapeutic strategy for cancer when applied to patients predisposed to respond and the treatment is well-tolerated. A critical cell cycle process that could be targeted is the mitotic checkpoint (spindle assembly checkpoint) which governs the metaphase-to-anaphase transition and insures proper chromosomal segregation. The mitotic checkpoint kinase Mps1 was selected to explore whether enhancement in genomic instability is a viable therapeutic strategy. The basal-a subset of triple-negative breast cancer was chosen as a model system because it has a higher incidence of chromosomal instability and Mps1 expression is up-regulated. Depletion of Mps1 reduces tumor cell viability relative to normal cells. Highly selective, extremely potent Mps1 kinase inhibitors were created to investigate the roles of Mps1 catalytic activity in tumor cells and normal physiology (PF-7006, PF-3837; Ki<0.5 nM; cellular IC50 2–6 nM). Treatment of tumor cells in vitro with PF-7006 modulates expected Mps1-dependent biology as demonstrated by molecular and phenotypic measures (reduced pHH3-Ser10 levels, shorter duration of mitosis, micro-nucleation, and apoptosis). Tumor-bearing mice treated with PF-7006 exhibit tumor growth inhibition concomitant with pharmacodynamic modulation of a downstream biomarker (pHH3-Ser10). Unfortunately, efficacy only occurs at drug exposures that cause dose-limiting body weight loss, gastrointestinal toxicities, and neutropenia. Mps1 inhibitor toxicities may be mitigated by inducing G1 cell cycle arrest in Rb1-competent cells with the cyclin-dependent kinase-4/6 inhibitor palbociclib. Using an isogenic cellular model system, PF-7006 is shown to be selectively cytotoxic to Rb1-deficient cells relative to Rb1-competent cells (also a measure of kinase selectivity). Human bone marrow cells pretreated with palbociclib have decreased PF-7006-dependent apoptosis relative to cells without palbociclib pretreatment

  9. Checkpoint kinase 1 is activated and promotes cell survival after exposure to sulphur mustard.

    PubMed

    Jowsey, Paul A; Blain, Peter G

    2015-01-22

    Sulphur mustard (SM) is a vesicating agent that has been used several times as a weapon during military conflict and continues to pose a threat as an agent of warfare/terrorism. After exposure, SM exerts both acute and delayed long-term toxic effects principally to the skin, eyes and respiratory system. These effects are thought to be mediated, at least in part, by direct interaction of SM with DNA, forming a myriad of DNA lesions and initiating effects on cell cycle and cell death pathways. Previous studies have demonstrated that a complex network of cellular DNA damage response pathways are utilised in cells exposed to SM, consistent with SM causing multiple forms of DNA damage. The present study focused on the role of Checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1), a protein with putative roles in homologous recombination repair, p53 activation and the initiation of cell cycle checkpoints after certain forms of DNA damage. The data showed that SM caused robust activation of CHK1, monitored by multi-site phosphorylation analysis and that this activation was dependent on the ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) protein kinase. Furthermore, specific inhibition of CHK1 increased SM toxicity in multiple human cell lines, with concomitant increases in markers of apoptosis, DNA damage and mitosis. Finally, the effect of CHK1 inhibition on SM toxicity was much more marked in cells with non-functional p53. PMID:25448276

  10. A microRNA downregulated in human cholangiocarcinoma controls cell cycle through multiple targets involved in the G1/S checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Olaru, Alexandru V.; Ghiaur, Gabriel; Yamanaka, Sumitaka; Luvsanjav, Delgermaa; An, Fangmei; Popescu, Irinel; Alexandrescu, Sorin; Allen, Sarah; Pawlik, Timothy M.; Torbenson, Michael; Georgiades, Christos; Roberts, Lewis R.; Gores, Gregory J.; Ferguson-Smith, Anne; Almeida, Maria I.; Calin, George A.; Mezey, Esteban; Selaru, Florin M.

    2011-01-01

    Background and rationale MicroRNAs (miRs) recently emerged as prominent regulators of cancer processes. In the current study, we aimed at elucidating regulatory pathways and mechanisms through which miR-494, one of the miR species found to be downregulated in CCA, participates in cancer homeostasis. miR-494 was identified as downregulated in CCA based on miR arrays. Its expression was verified with quantitative real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). To enforce miR expression, we employed both transfection methods, as well as a retroviral construct to stably overexpress miR-494. Main Results Upregulation of miR-494 in cancer cells decreased growth, consistent with a functional role. mRNA arrays of cells treated with miR-494, followed by pathway analysis, suggested that miR-494 impacts cell cycle regulation. Cell cycle analyses demonstrated that miR-494 induces a significant G1/S checkpoint reinforcement. Further analyses demonstrated that miR-494 downregulates multiple molecules involved in this transition checkpoint. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated a direct interaction between miR-494 and the 3’-Untranslated Region (UTR) of Cyclin-dependent-kinase 6 (CDK6). Last, xenograft experiments demonstrated that miR-494 induces a significant cancer growth retardation in-vivo. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that miR-494 is downregulated in CCA and that its upregulation induces cancer cell growth retardation through multiple targets involved in G1-S transition. These findings support the paradigm that miRs are salient cellular signaling pathway modulators, and thus represent attractive therapeutic targets. miR-494 emerges as an important regulator of cholangiocarcinoma growth and its further study may lead to the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:21809359

  11. DNA Damage Response Checkpoint Activation Drives KP1019 Dependent Pre-Anaphase Cell Cycle Delay in S. cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Bierle, Lindsey A.; Reich, Kira L.; Taylor, Braden E.; Blatt, Eliot B.; Middleton, Sydney M.; Burke, Shawnecca D.; Stultz, Laura K.; Hanson, Pamela K.; Partridge, Janet F.; Miller, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Careful regulation of the cell cycle is required for proper replication, cell division, and DNA repair. DNA damage–including that induced by many anticancer drugs–results in cell cycle delay or arrest, which can allow time for repair of DNA lesions. Although its molecular mechanism of action remains a matter of debate, the anticancer ruthenium complex KP1019 has been shown to bind DNA in biophysical assays and to damage DNA of colorectal and ovarian cancer cells in vitro. KP1019 has also been shown to induce mutations and induce cell cycle arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting that budding yeast can serve as an appropriate model for characterizing the cellular response to the drug. Here we use a transcriptomic approach to verify that KP1019 induces the DNA damage response (DDR) and find that KP1019 dependent expression of HUG1 requires the Dun1 checkpoint; both consistent with KP1019 DDR in budding yeast. We observe a robust KP1019 dependent delay in cell cycle progression as measured by increase in large budded cells, 2C DNA content, and accumulation of Pds1 which functions to inhibit anaphase. Importantly, we also find that deletion of RAD9, a gene required for the DDR, blocks drug-dependent changes in cell cycle progression, thereby establishing a causal link between the DDR and phenotypes induced by KP1019. Interestingly, yeast treated with KP1019 not only delay in G2/M, but also exhibit abnormal nuclear position, wherein the nucleus spans the bud neck. This morphology correlates with short, misaligned spindles and is dependent on the dynein heavy chain gene DYN1. We find that KP1019 creates an environment where cells respond to DNA damage through nuclear (transcriptional changes) and cytoplasmic (motor protein activity) events. PMID:26375390

  12. Aristolochic acid-induced apoptosis and G2 cell cycle arrest depends on ROS generation and MAP kinases activation.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Victor; Whyard, Terry C; Waltzer, Wayne C; Grollman, Arthur P; Rosenquist, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Ingestion of aristolochic acids (AAs) contained in herbal remedies results in a renal disease and, frequently, urothelial malignancy. The genotoxicity of AA in renal cells, including mutagenic DNA adducts formation, is well documented. However, the mechanisms of AA-induced tubular atrophy and renal fibrosis are largely unknown. To better elucidate some aspects of this process, we studied cell cycle distribution and cell survival of renal epithelial cells treated with AAI at low and high doses. A low dose of AA induces cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase via activation of DNA damage checkpoint pathway ATM-Chk2-p53-p21. DNA damage signaling pathway is activated more likely via increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by AA treatment then via DNA damage induced directly by AA. Higher AA concentration induced cell death partly via apoptosis. Since mitogen-activated protein kinases play an important role in cell survival, death and cell cycle progression, we assayed their function in AA-treated renal tubular epithelial cells. ERK1/2 and p38 but not JNK were activated in cells treated with AA. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of ERK1/2 and p38 as well as suppression of ROS generation with N-acetyl-L-cysteine resulted in the partial relief of cells from G2/M checkpoint and a decline of apoptosis level. Cell cycle arrest may be a mechanism for DNA repair, cell survival and reprogramming of epithelial cells to the fibroblast type. An apoptosis of renal epithelial cells at higher AA dose might be necessary to provide space for newly reprogrammed fibrotic cells. PMID:24792323

  13. Targeting lung cancer through inhibition of checkpoint kinases

    PubMed Central

    Syljuåsen, Randi G.; Hasvold, Grete; Hauge, Sissel; Helland, Åslaug

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitors of checkpoint kinases ATR, Chk1, and Wee1 are currently being tested in preclinical and clinical trials. Here, we review the basic principles behind the use of such inhibitors as anticancer agents, and particularly discuss their potential for treatment of lung cancer. As lung cancer is one of the most deadly cancers, new treatment strategies are highly needed. We discuss how checkpoint kinase inhibition in principle can lead to selective killing of lung cancer cells while sparing the surrounding normal tissues. Several features of lung cancer may potentially be exploited for targeting through inhibition of checkpoint kinases, including mutated p53, low ERCC1 levels, amplified Myc, tumor hypoxia and presence of lung cancer stem cells. Synergistic effects have also been reported between inhibitors of ATR/Chk1/Wee1 and conventional lung cancer treatments, such as gemcitabine, cisplatin, or radiation. Altogether, inhibitors of ATR, Chk1, and Wee1 are emerging as new cancer treatment agents, likely to be useful in lung cancer treatment. However, as lung tumors are very diverse, the inhibitors are unlikely to be effective in all patients, and more work is needed to determine how such inhibitors can be utilized in the most optimal ways. PMID:25774168

  14. Rad53 kinase activation-independent replication checkpoint function of the N-terminal forkhead-associated (FHA1) domain.

    PubMed

    Pike, Brietta L; Tenis, Nora; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2004-09-17

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad53 has crucial functions in many aspects of the cellular response to DNA damage and replication blocks. To coordinate these diverse roles, Rad53 has two forkhead-associated (FHA) phosphothreonine-binding domains in addition to a kinase domain. Here, we show that the conserved N-terminal FHA1 domain is essential for the function of Rad53 to prevent the firing of late replication origins in response to replication blocks. However, the FHA1 domain is not required for Rad53 activation during S phase, and as a consequence of defective downstream signaling, Rad53 containing an inactive FHA1 domain is hyperphosphorylated in response to replication blocks. The FHA1 mutation dramatically hypersensitizes strains with defects in the cell cycle-wide checkpoint pathways (rad9Delta and rad17Delta) to DNA damage, but it is largely epistatic with defects in the replication checkpoint (mrc1Delta). Altogether, our data indicate that the FHA1 domain links activated Rad53 to downstream effectors in the replication checkpoint. The results reveal an important mechanistic difference to the homologous Schizosaccharomyces pombe FHA domain that is required for Mrc1-dependent activation of the corresponding Cds1 kinase. Surprisingly, despite the severely impaired replication checkpoint and also G(2)/M checkpoint functions, the FHA1 mutation by itself leads to only moderate viability defects in response to DNA damage, highlighting the importance of functionally redundant pathways. PMID:15271990

  15. G1/S Cell Cycle Checkpoint Defect in Lymphocytes from Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Song, Misun; Kwon, Young-Ah; Lee, Yujin; Kim, Hyeran; Yun, Ji Hea; Kim, Seonwoo

    2012-01-01

    Objective We compared the cell responsiveness of activated lymphocytes to rapamycin, which blocks the G1/S transition, between patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and normal controls to assess the early phase control defect in cell cycle. Methods Blood samples of 26 patients with AD and 28 normal controls were collected to separate peripheral lymphocytes. We measured the proportion of each cell cycle phase in activated lymphocytes using flow cytometry and evaluated the responsiveness of these lymphocytes to rapamycin. Results The patients with AD were older than the normal controls (AD 74.03±7.90 yr vs. control 68.28±6.21 yr, p=0.004). The proportion of G1 phase cells in the AD group was significantly lower than that in the control group (70.29±6.32% vs. 76.03±9.05%, p=0.01), and the proportion of S phase cells in the AD group was higher than that in control group (12.45±6.09% vs. 6.03±5.11%, p=0.001). Activated lymphocytes in patients with AD were not arrested in the G1 phase and they progressed to the late phase of the cell cycle despite rapamycin treatment, in contrast to those of normal subjects. Conclusion The patients with AD probably have a control defect of early phase cell cycle in peripheral lymphocytes that may be associated with the underlying pathology of neuronal death. PMID:23251208

  16. RACH2, a novel human gene that complements a fission yeast cell cycle checkpoint mutation.

    PubMed Central

    Davey, S; Beach, D

    1995-01-01

    We have identified a novel human gene by virtue of its ability to complement the rad1-1 checkpoint mutant of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. This gene, called RACH2, rescues the temperature-sensitive lethality of a rad1-1 wee1-50 double mutant of S. pombe. Expression of RACH2 in S. pombe rad1-1 strains partially restores UV resistance to the rad1-1 mutant strain. Expression of RACH2 in a rad1-1 cdc25-22 double mutant partially restores the dose-dependent delay in mitotic entry after irradiation that is lost in rad1-1 checkpoint-deficient mutants. Overexpression of RACH2 in human tissue culture cells induces apoptosis. Images PMID:8573795

  17. OTSSP167 Abrogates Mitotic Checkpoint through Inhibiting Multiple Mitotic Kinases.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wenbin; Arnst, Christopher; Tipton, Aaron R; Bekier, Michael E; Taylor, William R; Yen, Tim J; Liu, Song-Tao

    2016-01-01

    OTSSP167 was recently characterized as a potent inhibitor for maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) and is currently tested in Phase I clinical trials for solid tumors that have not responded to other treatment. Here we report that OTSSP167 abrogates the mitotic checkpoint at concentrations used to inhibit MELK. The abrogation is not recapitulated by RNAi mediated silencing of MELK in cells. Although OTSSP167 indeed inhibits MELK, it exhibits off-target activity against Aurora B kinase in vitro and in cells. Furthermore, OTSSP167 inhibits BUB1 and Haspin kinases, reducing phosphorylation at histones H2AT120 and H3T3 and causing mislocalization of Aurora B and associated chromosomal passenger complex from the centromere/kinetochore. The results suggest that OTSSP167 may have additional mechanisms of action for cancer cell killing and caution the use of OTSSP167 as a MELK specific kinase inhibitor in biochemical and cellular assays. PMID:27082996

  18. OTSSP167 Abrogates Mitotic Checkpoint through Inhibiting Multiple Mitotic Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Tipton, Aaron R.; Bekier, Michael E.; Taylor, William R.; Yen, Tim J.; Liu, Song-Tao

    2016-01-01

    OTSSP167 was recently characterized as a potent inhibitor for maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) and is currently tested in Phase I clinical trials for solid tumors that have not responded to other treatment. Here we report that OTSSP167 abrogates the mitotic checkpoint at concentrations used to inhibit MELK. The abrogation is not recapitulated by RNAi mediated silencing of MELK in cells. Although OTSSP167 indeed inhibits MELK, it exhibits off-target activity against Aurora B kinase in vitro and in cells. Furthermore, OTSSP167 inhibits BUB1 and Haspin kinases, reducing phosphorylation at histones H2AT120 and H3T3 and causing mislocalization of Aurora B and associated chromosomal passenger complex from the centromere/kinetochore. The results suggest that OTSSP167 may have additional mechanisms of action for cancer cell killing and caution the use of OTSSP167 as a MELK specific kinase inhibitor in biochemical and cellular assays. PMID:27082996

  19. Checkpoint kinase 1 modulates sensitivity to cisplatin after spindle checkpoint activation in SW620 cells.

    PubMed

    Peralta-Sastre, A; Manguan-Garcia, C; de Luis, A; Belda-Iniesta, C; Moreno, S; Perona, R; Sanchez-Perez, I

    2010-02-01

    Aneuploidy is a common feature of tumours that arise by errors in chromosome segregation during mitosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible signaling pathways involved in sensitization to chemotherapy in cells with chromosomal instability. We designed a screen using the fission yeast Squizossaccharomyces pombe, to isolate strains showing a phenotype of chromosome mis-segregation and higher sensitivity to the antitumoral drug Bleomycin. We examined differences in gene expression using a comparative analysis of genome-wide expression of the wild type strain and one of the mutants. The results revealed a set of genes involved in cell cycle control, including Mad3/BubR1 and Chk1. We then studied the levels of these two proteins in colorectal cancer human cell lines with different genomic content. Among these, SW620 cells showed higher BubR1 and Chk1 mRNA levels than control cells under normal conditions. Since Chk1 is required for both S and G2/M checkpoints, and the microtubule-destabilizing agent, nocodazole induces mitotic arrest, we attempted to investigate the potential anticancer effects of nocodazole in combination with cisplatin. These studies showed that SW620 cells undergo synergistic cell death after spindle checkpoint activation followed by cisplatin treatment, suggesting a role of Chk1 in this checkpoint, very likely dependent on BubR1 protein. Importantly, Chk1-depleted SW620 cells lost this synergistic effect. In summary, we propose that Chk1 could be a biomarker predictive of the efficacy of chemotherapy across different types of tumors with aneuploidy. These findings may be potentially very useful for the stratification of patients for treatment. PMID:19931410

  20. The checkpoint clamp activates Mec1 kinase during initiation of the DNA damage checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Majka, Jerzy; Niedziela-Majka, Anita; Burgers, Peter M. J.

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Yeast Mec1/Ddc2 protein kinase, the ortholog of human ATR/ATRIP, plays a central role in the DNA-damage checkpoint. The PCNA-like clamp Rad17/Mec3/Ddc1 (the 9-1-1 complex in human) and its loader Rad24-RFC are also essential components of this signal transduction pathway. Here we have studied the role of the clamp in regulating Mec1, and delineate how the signal generated by DNA lesions is transduced to the Rad53 effector kinase. The checkpoint clamp greatly activates the kinase activity of Mec1, but only if the clamp is appropriately loaded upon partial duplex DNA. Activated Mec1 phosphorylates the Ddc1 and Mec3 subunits of the clamp, the Rad24 subunit of the loader, and the Rpa1 and Rpa2 subunits of RPA. Phosphorylation of Rad53, and of human PHAS-1, a non-specific target, also requires a properly loaded clamp. Phosphorylation and binding studies with individual clamp subunits indicate that the Ddc1 subunit mediates the functional interactions with Mec1. PMID:17189191

  1. The checkpoint clamp activates Mec1 kinase during initiation of the DNA damage checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Majka, Jerzy; Niedziela-Majka, Anita; Burgers, Peter M J

    2006-12-28

    Yeast Mec1/Ddc2 protein kinase, the ortholog of human ATR/ATRIP, plays a central role in the DNA damage checkpoint. The PCNA-like clamp Rad17/Mec3/Ddc1 (the 9-1-1 complex in human) and its loader Rad24-RFC are also essential components of this signal transduction pathway. Here we have studied the role of the clamp in regulating Mec1, and we delineate how the signal generated by DNA lesions is transduced to the Rad53 effector kinase. The checkpoint clamp greatly activates the kinase activity of Mec1, but only if the clamp is appropriately loaded upon partial duplex DNA. Activated Mec1 phosphorylates the Ddc1 and Mec3 subunits of the clamp, the Rad24 subunit of the loader, and the Rpa1 and Rpa2 subunits of RPA. Phosphorylation of Rad53, and of human PHAS-1, a nonspecific target, also requires a properly loaded clamp. Phosphorylation and binding studies with individual clamp subunits indicate that the Ddc1 subunit mediates the functional interactions with Mec1. PMID:17189191

  2. Plasma membrane/cell wall perturbation activates a novel cell cycle checkpoint during G1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kono, Keiko; Al-Zain, Amr; Schroeder, Lea; Nakanishi, Makoto; Ikui, Amy E

    2016-06-21

    Cellular wound healing or the repair of plasma membrane/cell wall damage (plasma membrane damage) occurs frequently in nature. Although various cellular perturbations, such as DNA damage, spindle misalignment, and impaired daughter cell formation, are monitored by cell cycle checkpoint mechanisms in budding yeast, whether plasma membrane damage is monitored by any of these checkpoints remains to be addressed. Here, we define the mechanism by which cells sense membrane damage and inhibit DNA replication. We found that the inhibition of DNA replication upon plasma membrane damage requires GSK3/Mck1-dependent degradation of Cdc6, a component of the prereplicative complex. Furthermore, the CDK inhibitor Sic1 is stabilized in response to plasma membrane damage, leading to cell integrity maintenance in parallel with the Mck1-Cdc6 pathway. Cells defective in both Cdc6 degradation and Sic1 stabilization failed to grow in the presence of plasma membrane damage. Taking these data together, we propose that plasma membrane damage triggers G1 arrest via Cdc6 degradation and Sic1 stabilization to promote the cellular wound healing process. PMID:27274080

  3. Crystal Structure of Checkpoint Kinase 2 in Complex with Nsc 109555, a Potent and Selective Inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Lountos, George T.; Tropea, Joseph E.; Zhang, Di; Jobson, Andrew G.; Pommier, Yves; Shoemaker, Robert H.; Waugh, David S.

    2009-03-05

    Checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2), a ser/thr kinase involved in the ATM-Chk2 checkpoint pathway, is activated by genomic instability and DNA damage and results in either arrest of the cell cycle to allow DNA repair to occur or apoptosis if the DNA damage is severe. Drugs that specifically target Chk2 could be beneficial when administered in combination with current DNA-damaging agents used in cancer therapy. Recently, a novel inhibitor of Chk2, NSC 109555, was identified that exhibited high potency (IC{sub 50} = 240 nM) and selectivity. This compound represents a new chemotype and lead for the development of novel Chk2 inhibitors that could be used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer. To facilitate the discovery of new analogs of NSC 109555 with even greater potency and selectivity, we have solved the crystal structure of this inhibitor in complex with the catalytic domain of Chk2. The structure confirms that the compound is an ATP-competitive inhibitor, as the electron density clearly reveals that it occupies the ATP-binding pocket. However, the mode of inhibition differs from that of the previously studied structure of Chk2 in complex with debromohymenialdisine, a compound that inhibits both Chk1 and Chk2. A unique hydrophobic pocket in Chk2, located very close to the bound inhibitor, presents an opportunity for the rational design of compounds with higher binding affinity and greater selectivity.

  4. The Protein Kinase Cδ Catalytic Fragment Is Critical for Maintenance of the G2/M DNA Damage Checkpoint*

    PubMed Central

    LaGory, Edward L.; Sitailo, Leonid A.; Denning, Mitchell F.

    2010-01-01

    Protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) is an essential component of the intrinsic apoptotic program. Following DNA damage, such as exposure to UV radiation, PKCδ is cleaved in a caspase-dependent manner, generating a constitutively active catalytic fragment (PKCδ-cat), which is necessary and sufficient for keratinocyte apoptosis. We found that in addition to inducing apoptosis, expression of PKCδ-cat caused a pronounced G2/M cell cycle arrest in both primary human keratinocytes and immortalized HaCaT cells. Consistent with a G2/M arrest, PKCδ-cat induced phosphorylation of Cdk1 (Tyr15), a critical event in the G2/M checkpoint. Treatment with the ATM/ATR inhibitor caffeine was unable to prevent PKCδ-cat-induced G2/M arrest, suggesting that PKCδ-cat is functioning downstream of ATM/ATR in the G2/M checkpoint. To better understand the role of PKCδ and PKCδ-cat in the cell cycle response to DNA damage, we exposed wild-type and PKCδ null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to UV radiation. Wild-type MEFs underwent a pronounced G2/M arrest, Cdk1 phosphorylation, and induction of apoptosis following UV exposure, whereas PKCδ null MEFs were resistant to these effects. Expression of PKCδ-green fluorescent protein, but not caspase-resistant or kinase-inactive PKCδ, was able to restore G2/M checkpoint integrity in PKCδ null MEFs. The function of PKCδ in the DNA damage-induced G2/M cell cycle checkpoint may be a critical component of its tumor suppressor function. PMID:19917613

  5. Dissociation of gemcitabine chemosensitization by CHK1 inhibition from cell cycle checkpoint abrogation and aberrant mitotic entry.

    PubMed

    Parsels, Leslie A; Tanska, Daria M; Parsels, Joshua D; Zabludoff, Sonya D; Cuneo, Kyle C; Lawrence, Theodore S; Maybaum, Jonathan; Morgan, Meredith A

    2016-03-01

    In order to determine the relative contribution of checkpoint abrogation and subsequent aberrant mitotic entry to gemcitabine chemosensitization by CHK1 inhibition, we established a model utilizing the CDK inhibitors roscovitine or purvalanol A to re-establish cell cycle arrest and prevent aberrant mitotic entry in pancreatic cancer cells treated with gemcitabine and the CHK inhibitor AZD7762. In this study, we report that the extent of aberrant mitotic entry, as determined by flow cytometry for the mitotic marker phospho-Histone H3 (Ser10), did not reflect the relative sensitivities of pancreatic cancer cell lines to gemcitabine chemosensitization by AZD7762. In addition, re-establishing gemcitabine-induced cell cycle arrest either pharmacologically, with roscovitine or purvalanol A, or genetically, with cyclin B1 siRNA, did not inhibit chemosensitization uniformly across the cell lines. Furthermore, we found that AZD7762 augmented high-intensity γH2AX signaling in gemcitabine-treated cells, suggesting the presence of replication stress when CHK1 is inhibited. Finally, the ability of roscovitine to prevent chemosensitization correlated with its ability to inhibit AZD7762-induced high-intensity γH2AX, but not aberrant pHH3, suggesting that the effects of AZD7762 on DNA replication or repair rather than aberrant mitotic entry determine gemcitabine chemosensitization in pancreatic cancer cells. PMID:26890478

  6. Requirement for PLK1 kinase activity in the maintenance of a robust spindle assembly checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Aisling; Maffini, Stefano; Rainey, Michael D.; Kaczmarczyk, Agnieszka; Gaboriau, David; Musacchio, Andrea; Santocanale, Corrado

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT During mitotic arrest induced by microtubule targeting drugs, the weakening of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) allows cells to progress through the cell cycle without chromosome segregation occurring. PLK1 kinase plays a major role in mitosis and emerging evidence indicates that PLK1 is also involved in establishing the checkpoint and maintaining SAC signalling. However, mechanistically, the role of PLK1 in the SAC is not fully understood, with several recent reports indicating that it can cooperate with either one of the major checkpoint kinases, Aurora B or MPS1. In this study, we assess the role of PLK1 in SAC maintenance. We find that in nocodazole-arrested U2OS cells, PLK1 activity is continuously required for maintaining Aurora B protein localisation and activity at kinetochores. Consistent with published data we find that upon PLK1 inhibition, phosphoThr3-H3, a marker of Haspin activity, is reduced. Intriguingly, Aurora B inhibition causes PLK1 to relocalise from kinetochores into fewer and much larger foci, possibly due to incomplete recruitment of outer kinetochore proteins. Importantly, PLK1 inhibition, together with partial inhibition of Aurora B, allows efficient SAC override to occur. This phenotype is more pronounced than the phenotype observed by combining the same PLK1 inhibitors with partial MPS1 inhibition. We also find that PLK1 inhibition does not obviously cooperate with Haspin inhibition to promote SAC override. These results indicate that PLK1 is directly involved in maintaining efficient SAC signalling, possibly by cooperating in a positive feedback loop with Aurora B, and that partially redundant mechanisms exist which reinforce the SAC. PMID:26685311

  7. Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) is required for mitotic progression through negative regulation of polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1)

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jiabin; Erikson, Raymond L.; Liu, Xiaoqi

    2006-01-01

    Although the essential function of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) in DNA damage response has been well established, the role of Chk1 in normal cell cycle progression is unclear. By using RNAi to specifically deplete Chk1, we determined loss-of-function phenotypes in HeLa cells. A vector-based RNAi approach showed that Chk1 is required for normal cell proliferation and survival, inasmuch as a dramatic cell-cycle arrest at G2/M phase and massive apoptosis were observed in Chk1-deficient cells. Coupling of siRNA with cell synchronization further revealed that Chk1 depletion leads to metaphase block, as indicated by various mitotic markers. Neither bipolar spindle formation nor centrosome functions were affected by Chk1 depletion; however, the depleted cells exhibited chromosome misalignment during metaphase, chromosome lagging during anaphase, and kinetochore defects within the regions of misaligned/lagging chromosomes. Moreover, we showed that Chk1 is a negative regulator of polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), in either the absence or presence of DNA damage. Finally, Chk1 depletion leads to the activation of the spindle checkpoint because codepletion of spindle checkpoint proteins rescues the Chk1 depletion-induced mitotic arrest. PMID:16873548

  8. The Yeast Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Routes Carbon Fluxes to Fuel Cell Cycle Progression.

    PubMed

    Ewald, Jennifer C; Kuehne, Andreas; Zamboni, Nicola; Skotheim, Jan M

    2016-05-19

    Cell division entails a sequence of processes whose specific demands for biosynthetic precursors and energy place dynamic requirements on metabolism. However, little is known about how metabolic fluxes are coordinated with the cell division cycle. Here, we examine budding yeast to show that more than half of all measured metabolites change significantly through the cell division cycle. Cell cycle-dependent changes in central carbon metabolism are controlled by the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk1), a major cell cycle regulator, and the metabolic regulator protein kinase A. At the G1/S transition, Cdk1 phosphorylates and activates the enzyme Nth1, which funnels the storage carbohydrate trehalose into central carbon metabolism. Trehalose utilization fuels anabolic processes required to reliably complete cell division. Thus, the cell cycle entrains carbon metabolism to fuel biosynthesis. Because the oscillation of Cdk activity is a conserved feature of the eukaryotic cell cycle, we anticipate its frequent use in dynamically regulating metabolism for efficient proliferation. PMID:27203178

  9. MIF coordinates the cell cycle with DNA damage checkpoints. Lessons from knockout mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Fingerle-Rowson, Günter; Petrenko, Oleksi

    2007-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a ubiquitously expressed pro-inflammatory mediator that has also been implicated in the process of oncogenic transformation and tumor progression. We used a genetic approach to show that deletion of the MIF gene in mice has several major consequences for the proliferative and transforming properties of cells. MIF-deficient cells exhibit increased resistance to oncogenic transformation. The transformation defects associated with MIF deficiency can be overcome through concomitant inactivation of the p53 and Rb/E2F tumor suppressor pathways. We have produced compelling evidence that the effects of MIF on cell survival and tumorigenesis are mediated through overlapping pathways, wherein MIF and p53 functionally antagonize each other in the cell. However, the involvement of MIF in p53 function is secondary to p53-independent mechanisms controlling protein stability, DNA damage checkpoints, and the integrity of the genome. Given the broad spectrum of cell types that normally express MIF and its elevated levels at sites of chronic inflammation, this pathway may be generic for many early stage tumors. PMID:17640378

  10. The roles of nitric oxide synthase and eIF2alpha kinases in regulation of cell cycle upon UVB-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Yan; Wu, Shiyong

    2010-01-01

    In response to ultraviolet light (UV)-induced damage, cells initiate cellular recovery mechanisms including activation of repair genes and redistribution of cell cycle phases. While most studies have focused on DNA damage-inducible transcriptional regulation of cell cycle checkpoints, translational regulation also plays an important role in control of cell cycle progression upon UV-irradiation. UV-irradiation activates two kinases, PERK and GCN2, which phosphorylate the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha) and subsequently inhibit protein synthesis. We recently identified an upstream regulator, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which controls the activation of both PERK and GCN2 upon UVB-irradiation. Our data suggested that UVB induces NOS activation and NO(.) production, which reacts with superoxide (O(2)(*-)) to form peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and activate PERK. The NO(*) production also leads to L-Arg depletion and GCN2 activation. The elevation of nitric oxide and activation of PERK/GCN2 have been shown to play roles in regulation of cell cycle upon UVB irradiation. In the present study, we show that the cell cycle phases were redistributed by inhibition of NOS activation or reduction of oxidative stress upon UVB irradiation, indicating the roles of NO(*) and its oxidative products in regulation of cell cycle. We also demonstrate that both PERK and GCN2 were involved in regulation of cell cycle upon UVB-irradiation, but the regulation is independent of eIF2alpha phosphorylation. While the mechanism for UVB-induced cell cycle control is yet to be unraveled, we here discuss the differential roles of NOS, PERK and GCN2 in regulation of cell cycle upon UVB-irradiation. PMID:20016280

  11. Oncogenic Herpesvirus Utilizes Stress-Induced Cell Cycle Checkpoints for Efficient Lytic Replication

    PubMed Central

    Turunen, Mikko; Diaz, Raquel; Lyly, Lauri; Pekkonen, Pirita; Rantala, Juha; Ojala, Krista; Sarek, Grzegorz; Teesalu, Mari; Denisova, Oxana; Peltonen, Karita; Julkunen, Ilkka; Varjosalo, Markku; Kainov, Denis; Kallioniemi, Olli; Laiho, Marikki; Taipale, Jussi; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Ojala, Päivi M.

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) causes Kaposi’s sarcoma and certain lymphoproliferative malignancies. Latent infection is established in the majority of tumor cells, whereas lytic replication is reactivated in a small fraction of cells, which is important for both virus spread and disease progression. A siRNA screen for novel regulators of KSHV reactivation identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 as a negative regulator of viral reactivation. Depletion of MDM2, a repressor of p53, favored efficient activation of the viral lytic transcription program and viral reactivation. During lytic replication cells activated a p53 response, accumulated DNA damage and arrested at G2-phase. Depletion of p21, a p53 target gene, restored cell cycle progression and thereby impaired the virus reactivation cascade delaying the onset of virus replication induced cytopathic effect. Herpesviruses are known to reactivate in response to different kinds of stress, and our study now highlights the molecular events in the stressed host cell that KSHV has evolved to utilize to ensure efficient viral lytic replication. PMID:26891221

  12. Oncogenic Herpesvirus Utilizes Stress-Induced Cell Cycle Checkpoints for Efficient Lytic Replication.

    PubMed

    Balistreri, Giuseppe; Viiliäinen, Johanna; Turunen, Mikko; Diaz, Raquel; Lyly, Lauri; Pekkonen, Pirita; Rantala, Juha; Ojala, Krista; Sarek, Grzegorz; Teesalu, Mari; Denisova, Oxana; Peltonen, Karita; Julkunen, Ilkka; Varjosalo, Markku; Kainov, Denis; Kallioniemi, Olli; Laiho, Marikki; Taipale, Jussi; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Ojala, Päivi M

    2016-02-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) causes Kaposi's sarcoma and certain lymphoproliferative malignancies. Latent infection is established in the majority of tumor cells, whereas lytic replication is reactivated in a small fraction of cells, which is important for both virus spread and disease progression. A siRNA screen for novel regulators of KSHV reactivation identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 as a negative regulator of viral reactivation. Depletion of MDM2, a repressor of p53, favored efficient activation of the viral lytic transcription program and viral reactivation. During lytic replication cells activated a p53 response, accumulated DNA damage and arrested at G2-phase. Depletion of p21, a p53 target gene, restored cell cycle progression and thereby impaired the virus reactivation cascade delaying the onset of virus replication induced cytopathic effect. Herpesviruses are known to reactivate in response to different kinds of stress, and our study now highlights the molecular events in the stressed host cell that KSHV has evolved to utilize to ensure efficient viral lytic replication. PMID:26891221

  13. Caenorhabditis elegans ATR checkpoint kinase ATL-1 influences life span through mitochondrial maintenance.

    PubMed

    Suetomi, Kazuhiro; Mereiter, Stefan; Mori, Chihiro; Takanami, Takako; Higashitani, Atsushi

    2013-11-01

    ATR is highly conserved in all eukaryotes and functions as a cell-cycle nuclear checkpoint kinase. In mammals, ATR is essential whose complete absence results in early embryonic lethality and its hypomorphic mutation causes a complex disease known as Seckel syndrome. However, molecular mechanisms that cause a wide variety of symptoms including accelerated aging have remained unclear. Similarly, in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a deletion mutant of ATR ortholog atl-1 appears to develop into normal adults, but their eggs do not hatch and die at early embryogenesis. Here we show that the parental worms of atl-1 defective mutant achieved longevity. Transcription levels of certain superoxide dismutase genes, sod-3 and -5 and enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutases significantly increased in the mutant. Furthermore, lipid peroxidation such as a formation of malondialdehyde was attenuated. Expressions of other genes regulated by DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor were also altered. In contrast, the mutant became hypersensitive to rotenone and ethidium bromide. Compared with the wild type the mitochondrial DNA copy number in the mutant was lesser and its proliferation is more severely inhibited in the presence of rotenone. These results suggest that C. elegans ATL-1 is involved not only in the nuclear checkpoint control but also in the mitochondrial maintenance, and its dysfunction activates mild oxidative stress response, resulting in an alteration of life span. PMID:23434802

  14. MK3 Modulation Affects BMI1-Dependent and Independent Cell Cycle Check-Points

    PubMed Central

    Dahlmans, Vivian E. H.; Spaapen, Frank; Salvaing, Juliette; Vanhove, Jolien; Geijselaers, Claudia; Bartels, Stefanie J. J.; Partouns, Iris; Neumann, Dietbert; Speel, Ernst-Jan; Takihara, Yoshihiro; Wouters, Bradly G.; Voncken, Jan Willem

    2015-01-01

    Although the MK3 gene was originally found deleted in some cancers, it is highly expressed in others. The relevance of MK3 for oncogenesis is currently not clear. We recently reported that MK3 controls ERK activity via a negative feedback mechanism. This prompted us to investigate a potential role for MK3 in cell proliferation. We here show that overexpression of MK3 induces a proliferative arrest in normal diploid human fibroblasts, characterized by enhanced expression of replication stress- and senescence-associated markers. Surprisingly, MK3 depletion evokes similar senescence characteristics in the fibroblast model. We previously identified MK3 as a binding partner of Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) proteins. In the current study we show that MK3 overexpression results in reduced cellular EZH2 levels and concomitant loss of epigenetic H3K27me3-marking and PRC1/chromatin-occupation at the CDKN2A/INK4A locus. In agreement with this, the PRC1 oncoprotein BMI1, but not the PCR2 protein EZH2, bypasses MK3-induced senescence in fibroblasts and suppresses P16INK4A expression. In contrast, BMI1 does not rescue the MK3 loss-of-function phenotype, suggesting the involvement of multiple different checkpoints in gain and loss of MK3 function. Notably, MK3 ablation enhances proliferation in two different cancer cells. Finally, the fibroblast model was used to evaluate the effect of potential tumorigenic MK3 driver-mutations on cell proliferation and M/SAPK signaling imbalance. Taken together, our findings support a role for MK3 in control of proliferation and replicative life-span, in part through concerted action with BMI1, and suggest that the effect of MK3 modulation or mutation on M/SAPK signaling and, ultimately, proliferation, is cell context-dependent. PMID:25853770

  15. Elevated lung cancer risk is associated with deficiencies in cell cycle checkpoints: Genotype and phenotype analyses from a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yun-Ling; Kosti, Ourania; Loffredo, Christopher; Bowman, Elise; Mechanic, Leah; Perlmutter, Donna; Jones, Raymond; Shields, Peter G.; Harris, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Cell cycle checkpoints play critical roles in the maintenance of genomic integrity and inactivation of checkpoint genes, and are frequently perturbed in most cancers. In a case-control study of 299 non-small cell lung cancer cases and 550 controls in Maryland, we investigated the association between γ-radiation-induced G2/M arrest in cultured blood lymphocytes and lung cancer risk, and examined genotype-phenotype correlations between genetic polymorphisms of 20 genes involving in DNA repair and cell cycle control and γ-radiation-induced G2/M arrest. The study was specifically designed to examine race and gender differences in risk factors. Our data indicated that a less efficient DNA damage-induced G2/M checkpoint was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in African American women with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 2.63 (95% CI = 1.01 – 7.26); there were no statistically significant associations for Caucasians, or African American men. When the African American women were categorized into quartiles, a significant reverse trend of decreased G2/M checkpoint function and increased lung cancer risk was present, with lowest-vs-highest quartile OR of 13.72 (95% CI = 2.30 – 81.92, Ptrend < 0.01). Genotype-phenotype correlation analysis indicated that polymorphisms in ATM, CDC25C, CDKN1A, BRCA2, ERCC6, TP53, and TP53BP1 genes were significantly associated with the γ-radiation-induced G2/M arrest phenotype. This study provides evidence that a less efficient G2/M checkpoint is significantly associated with lung cancer risk in African American women. The data also suggested that the function of G2/M checkpoint is modulated by genetic polymorphisms in genes involved in DNA repair and cell cycle control. PMID:19626602

  16. Cell Cycle Checkpoint Proteins p21 and Hus1 Regulating Intercellular Signaling Induced By Alpha Particle Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lijun; Zhao, Ye; Wang, Jun; Hang, Haiying

    In recent years, the attentions for radiation induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been paid on the intercellular signaling events connecting the irradiated and non-irradiated cells. p21 is a member of the Cip/Kip family and plays essential roles in cell cycle progression arrest after cellular irradiation. DNA damage checkpoint protein Hus1 is a member of the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 complex and functions as scaffold at the damage sites to facilitate the activation of downstream effectors. Using the medium trasfer method and the cells of MEF, MEF (p21-/-), MEF (p21-/-Hus1-/-) as either medium donor or receptor cells, it was found that with 5cGy alpha particle irradiation, the bystander cells showed a significant induction of -H2AX for normal MEFs (p¡0.05). However, the absence of p21 resulted in deficiency in inducing bystander effects. Further results indicated p21 affected the intercellular DNA damage signaling mainly through disrupting the production or release of the damage signals from irradiated cells. When Hus1 and p21 were both knocked out, an obvious induction of -H2AX recurred in bystander cells and the induction of -H2AX was GJIC (gap junction-mediated intercellular communication) dependent, indicating the interrelationship between p21 and Hus1 regulated the production and relay of DNA damage signals from irradiated cells to non-irradiated bystander cells.

  17. SERPINA3 promotes endometrial cancer cells growth by regulating G2/M cell cycle checkpoint and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guang-Dong; Yang, Xiao-Mei; Lu, Huan; Ren, Yuan; Ma, Ming-Ze; Zhu, Lin-Yan; Wang, Jing-Hao; Song, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Wen-Ming; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Zhi-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is the most common gynecologic cancer worldwide and is one of the leading causes of death in women. Therefore, it is urgent to elucidate the pathological mechanisms of EC. SERPINA3 is a member of the serpin super-family of protease inhibitors. Its aberrant expression has been observed in various tumor cells. However, its clinical significance and biological function in endometrial cancer remains unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that SERPINA3 expression was significantly up-regulated in EC samples and was closely correlated with lower differentiation, higher stage, positive lymph node or vascular thrombosis and negative estrogen receptor (ER), indicating a poor prognosis. We then demonstrated that SERPINA3 promoted EC cells proliferation by regulating G2/M checkpoint in cell cycle and inhibited cells apoptosis, and we further uncovered that the pro-proliferative effect of SERPINA3 on EC was likely ascribed to the activation of MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling. The results of our study may provide insight into the application of SERPINA3 as a novel predictor of clinical outcomes and a potential therapeutic target of EC. PMID:24817931

  18. Identification of Potential Plk1 Targets in a Cell-Cycle Specific Proteome through Structural Dynamics of Kinase and Polo Box-Mediated Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bibi, Nousheen; Parveen, Zahida; Rashid, Sajid

    2013-01-01

    Polo like kinase 1 (Plk1) is a key player in orchestrating the wide variety of cell-cycle events ranging from centrosome maturation, mitotic entry, checkpoint recovery, transcriptional control, spindle assembly, mitotic progression, cytokinesis and DNA damage checkpoints recovery. Due to its versatile nature, Plk1 is considered an imperative regulator to tightly control the diverse aspects of the cell cycle network. Interactions among Plk1 polo box domain (PBD) and its putative binding proteins are crucial for the activation of Plk1 kinase domain (KD). To date, only a few substrate candidates have been characterized through the inclusion of both polo box and kinase domain-mediated interactions. Thus it became compelling to explore precise and specific Plk1 substrates through reassessment and extension of the structure-function paradigm. To narrow this apparently wide gap in knowledge, here we employed a thorough sequence search of Plk1 phosphorylation signature containing proteins and explored their structure-based features like conceptual PBD-binding capabilities and subsequent recruitment of KD directed phosphorylation to dissect novel targets of Plk1. Collectively, we identified 4,521 phosphodependent proteins sharing similarity to the consensus phosphorylation and PBD recognition motifs. Subsequent application of filters including similarity index, Gene Ontology enrichment and protein localization resulted in stringent pre-filtering of irrelevant candidates and isolated unique targets with well-defined roles in cell-cycle machinery and carcinogenesis. These candidates were further refined structurally using molecular docking and dynamic simulation assays. Overall, our screening approach enables the identification of several undefined cell-cycle associated functions of Plk1 by uncovering novel phosphorylation targets. PMID:23967120

  19. Protein Kinase C Signaling Mediates a Program of Cell Cycle Withdrawal in the Intestinal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Mark R.; Clark, Jennifer A.; Leontieva, Olga; Uronis, Joshua M.; Black, Adrian R.; Black, Jennifer D.

    2000-01-01

    Members of the protein kinase C (PKC) family of signal transduction molecules have been widely implicated in regulation of cell growth and differentiation, although the underlying molecular mechanisms involved remain poorly defined. Using combined in vitro and in vivo intestinal epithelial model systems, we demonstrate that PKC signaling can trigger a coordinated program of molecular events leading to cell cycle withdrawal into G0. PKC activation in the IEC-18 intestinal crypt cell line resulted in rapid downregulation of D-type cyclins and differential induction of p21waf1/cip1 and p27kip1, thus targeting all of the major G1/S cyclin-dependent kinase complexes. These events were associated with coordinated alterations in expression and phosphorylation of the pocket proteins p107, pRb, and p130 that drive cells to exit the cell cycle into G0 as indicated by concomitant downregulation of the DNA licensing factor cdc6. Manipulation of PKC isozyme levels in IEC-18 cells demonstrated that PKCα alone can trigger hallmark events of cell cycle withdrawal in intestinal epithelial cells. Notably, analysis of the developmental control of cell cycle regulatory molecules along the crypt–villus axis revealed that PKCα activation is appropriately positioned within intestinal crypts to trigger this program of cell cycle exit–specific events in situ. Together, these data point to PKCα as a key regulator of cell cycle withdrawal in the intestinal epithelium. PMID:11076962

  20. Cdc7 kinase mediates Claspin phosphorylation in DNA replication checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Kim, J M; Kakusho, N; Yamada, M; Kanoh, Y; Takemoto, N; Masai, H

    2008-05-29

    Cdc7 kinase is evolutionarily conserved and is involved in initiation and progression of DNA replication. However, roles of Cdc7 in checkpoint responses remain largely unknown. In this study, we show that deletion of the Cdc7 genes in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells abrogates hydroxyurea (HU)- or UV-induced activation of Chk1. HU-induced Chk1 activation is also impaired in human cancer cell lines in which Cdc7 is depleted by siRNA, and Cdc7-depleted cells are more sensitive to HU treatment. In contrast, ATR and Rad17 are relocated to chromatin in these cells following HU treatment, indicating that stalled DNA replication forks are detected normally. Cdc7-depleted cells exhibit defects in chromatin association and phosphorylation of Claspin, suggesting that Cdc7 exerts its effect at least partially through Claspin. Consistent with this prediction, Cdc7 interacts with and phosphorylates Claspin. We propose that Cdc7 is required for activation of the ATR-Chk1 checkpoint pathway through regulation of Claspin. PMID:18084324

  1. Cyclin-dependent kinases and cell-cycle transitions: does one fit all?

    PubMed

    Hochegger, Helfrid; Takeda, Shunichi; Hunt, Tim

    2008-11-01

    Cell-cycle transitions in higher eukaryotes are regulated by different cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and their activating cyclin subunits. Based on pioneering findings that a dominant-negative mutation of CDK1 blocks the cell cycle at G2-M phase, whereas dominant-negative CDK2 inhibits the transition into S phase, a model of cell-cycle control has emerged in which each transition is regulated by a specific subset of CDKs and cyclins. Recent work with gene-targeted mice has led to a revision of this model. We discuss cell-cycle control in light of overlapping and essential functions of the different CDKs and cyclins. PMID:18813291

  2. Disruption of the p53-mediated G{sub 1}/S cell cycle checkpoint results in elevated rates of spontaneous genetic recombination in human fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Strasfeld, L.; Brainerd, E.; Meyn, M.S.

    1994-09-01

    A key feature of the cancer-prone inherited disease ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is genetic instability. We recently demonstrated that one aspect of genetic instability in A-T is a marked elevation in the spontaneous rates of intrachromosomal mitotic recombination. We have proposed a model for A-T that attributes these high recombination rates to a lack of DNA damage-sensitive cell cycle checkpoints. One prediction of this model is that disrupting p53 function in normal cells should increase their spontaneous rates of recombination by interfering with their p53-dependent G{sub 1}/S cell cycle checkpoint. To test this prediction, we transfected control and A-T fibroblast lines that each harbor a single integrated copy of lacZ-based recombination vector (pLrec) with derivatives of a eukaryotic expression vector (pRep5) that contain either a dominant-negative p53 mutant (143{sup val{yields}ala}) or a human papilloma virus E6 gene (HPV18 E6). Expression of either of these genes results in loss of p53 function and abolition of the G{sub 1}/S cell cycle checkpoint. Four independent p53{sup 143ala} transformants of the control line showed 25-80 fold elevations in spontaneous recombination rates when compared to their parent cell line. Elevations in spontaneous recombination rates were also detected following transfection with the HPV18 E6 gene. In contrast, four independent p53{sup 143ala} transformants of the A-T cell line showed no significant changes in their already high spontaneous recombination rates. We are now extending these observations to additional normal human fibroblast lines and carrying out molecular analyses of the products of these recombinational events. Our results support our hypothesis that the lack of a p53-dependent G{sub 1}/S cell cycle checkpoint contributes to the hyperrecombination seen in A-T.

  3. Cardiac Progenitor Cell Cycling Stimulated by Pim-1 Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Cottage, Christopher T.; Bailey, Brandi; Fischer, Kimberlee M.; Avitable, Daniele; Collins, Brett; Tuck, Savilla; Quijada, Pearl; Gude, Natalie; Alvarez, Roberto; Muraski, John; Sussman, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Cardioprotective effects of Pim-1 kinase have been previously reported but the underlying mechanistic basis may involve a combination of cellular and molecular mechanisms that remain unresolved. The elucidation of the mechanistic basis for Pim-1 mediated cardioprotection provides important insights for designing therapeutic interventional strategies to treat heart disease. Objective Effects of cardiac-specific Pim-1 kinase expression on the cardiac progenitor cell (CPC) population were examined to determine whether Pim-1 mediates beneficial effects through augmenting CPC activity. Methods and Results Transgenic mice created with cardiac-specific Pim-1 overexpression (Pim-wt) exhibit enhanced Pim-1 expression in both cardiomyocytes and CPCs, both of which show increased proliferative activity assessed using 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), Ki-67, and c-Myc relative to nontransgenic controls. However, the total number of CPCs was not increased in the Pim-wt hearts during normal postnatal growth or after infarction challenge. These results suggest that Pim-1 overexpression leads to asymmetric division resulting in maintenance of the CPC population. Localization and quantitation of cell fate determinants Numb and α-adaptin by confocal microscopy were used to assess frequency of asymmetric division in the CPC population. Polarization of Numb in mitotic phospho-histone positive cells demonstrates asymmetric division in 65% of the CPC population in hearts of Pim-wt mice versus 26% in nontransgenic hearts after infarction challenge. Similarly, Pim-wt hearts had fewer cells with uniform α-adaptin staining indicative of symmetrically dividing CPCs, with 36% of the CPCs versus 73% in nontransgenic sections. Conclusions These findings define a mechanistic basis for enhanced myocardial regeneration in transgenic mice overexpressing Pim-1 kinase. PMID:20075333

  4. ALDH1A1 Maintains Ovarian Cancer Stem Cell-Like Properties by Altered Regulation of Cell Cycle Checkpoint and DNA Repair Network Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Erhong; Mitra, Aparna; Tripathi, Kaushlendra; Finan, Michael A.; Scalici, Jennifer; McClellan, Steve; da Silva, Luciana Madeira; Reed, Eddie; Shevde, Lalita A.; Palle, Komaraiah; Rocconi, Rodney P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) expressing cells have been characterized as possessing stem cell-like properties. We evaluated ALDH+ ovarian cancer stem cell-like properties and their role in platinum resistance. Methods Isogenic ovarian cancer cell lines for platinum sensitivity (A2780) and platinum resistant (A2780/CP70) as well as ascites from ovarian cancer patients were analyzed for ALDH+ by flow cytometry to determine its association to platinum resistance, recurrence and survival. A stable shRNA knockdown model for ALDH1A1 was utilized to determine its effect on cancer stem cell-like properties, cell cycle checkpoints, and DNA repair mediators. Results ALDH status directly correlated to platinum resistance in primary ovarian cancer samples obtained from ascites. Patients with ALDHHIGH displayed significantly lower progression free survival than the patients with ALDHLOW cells (9 vs. 3 months, respectively p<0.01). ALDH1A1-knockdown significantly attenuated clonogenic potential, PARP-1 protein levels, and reversed inherent platinum resistance. ALDH1A1-knockdown resulted in dramatic decrease of KLF4 and p21 protein levels thereby leading to S and G2 phase accumulation of cells. Increases in S and G2 cells demonstrated increased expression of replication stress associated Fanconi Anemia DNA repair proteins (FANCD2, FANCJ) and replication checkpoint (pS317 Chk1) were affected. ALDH1A1-knockdown induced DNA damage, evidenced by robust induction of γ-H2AX and BAX mediated apoptosis, with significant increases in BRCA1 expression, suggesting ALDH1A1-dependent regulation of cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair networks in ovarian cancer stem-like cells. Conclusion This data suggests that ovarian cancer cells expressing ALDH1A1 may maintain platinum resistance by altered regulation of cell cycle checkpoint and DNA repair network signaling. PMID:25216266

  5. Src family kinases maintain the balance between replication stress and the replication checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Miura, Takahito; Fukumoto, Yasunori; Morii, Mariko; Honda, Takuya; Yamaguchi, Noritaka; Nakayama, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    Progression of DNA replication is tightly controlled by replication checkpoints to ensure the accurate and rapid duplication of genetic information. Upon replication stress, the replication checkpoint slows global DNA replication by inhibiting the late-firing origins and by slowing replication fork progression. Activation of the replication checkpoint has been studied in depth; however, little is known about the termination of the replication checkpoint. Here, we show that Src family kinases promote the recovery from replication checkpoints. shRNA knockdown of a Src family kinase, Lyn, and acute chemical inhibition of Src kinases prevented inactivation of Chk1 after removal of replication stress. Consistently, Src inhibition slowed resumption of DNA replication, after the removal of replication blocks. The effect of Src inhibition was not observed in the presence of an ATM/ATR inhibitor caffeine. These data indicate that Src kinases promote the resumption of DNA replication by suppressing ATR-dependent replication checkpoints. Surprisingly, the resumption of replication was delayed by caffeine. In addition, Src inhibition delayed recovery from replication fork collapse. We propose that Src kinases maintain the balance between replication stress and the activity of the replication checkpoint. PMID:26194897

  6. DNA damage checkpoint kinase ATM regulates germination and maintains genome stability in seeds.

    PubMed

    Waterworth, Wanda M; Footitt, Steven; Bray, Clifford M; Finch-Savage, William E; West, Christopher E

    2016-08-23

    Genome integrity is crucial for cellular survival and the faithful transmission of genetic information. The eukaryotic cellular response to DNA damage is orchestrated by the DNA damage checkpoint kinases ATAXIA TELANGIECTASIA MUTATED (ATM) and ATM AND RAD3-RELATED (ATR). Here we identify important physiological roles for these sensor kinases in control of seed germination. We demonstrate that double-strand breaks (DSBs) are rate-limiting for germination. We identify that desiccation tolerant seeds exhibit a striking transcriptional DSB damage response during germination, indicative of high levels of genotoxic stress, which is induced following maturation drying and quiescence. Mutant atr and atm seeds are highly resistant to aging, establishing ATM and ATR as determinants of seed viability. In response to aging, ATM delays germination, whereas atm mutant seeds germinate with extensive chromosomal abnormalities. This identifies ATM as a major factor that controls germination in aged seeds, integrating progression through germination with surveillance of genome integrity. Mechanistically, ATM functions through control of DNA replication in imbibing seeds. ATM signaling is mediated by transcriptional control of the cell cycle inhibitor SIAMESE-RELATED 5, an essential factor required for the aging-induced delay to germination. In the soil seed bank, seeds exhibit increased transcript levels of ATM and ATR, with changes in dormancy and germination potential modulated by environmental signals, including temperature and soil moisture. Collectively, our findings reveal physiological functions for these sensor kinases in linking genome integrity to germination, thereby influencing seed quality, crucial for plant survival in the natural environment and sustainable crop production. PMID:27503884

  7. DNA damage checkpoint kinase ATM regulates germination and maintains genome stability in seeds

    PubMed Central

    Waterworth, Wanda M.; Footitt, Steven; Bray, Clifford M.; Finch-Savage, William E.; West, Christopher E.

    2016-01-01

    Genome integrity is crucial for cellular survival and the faithful transmission of genetic information. The eukaryotic cellular response to DNA damage is orchestrated by the DNA damage checkpoint kinases ATAXIA TELANGIECTASIA MUTATED (ATM) and ATM AND RAD3-RELATED (ATR). Here we identify important physiological roles for these sensor kinases in control of seed germination. We demonstrate that double-strand breaks (DSBs) are rate-limiting for germination. We identify that desiccation tolerant seeds exhibit a striking transcriptional DSB damage response during germination, indicative of high levels of genotoxic stress, which is induced following maturation drying and quiescence. Mutant atr and atm seeds are highly resistant to aging, establishing ATM and ATR as determinants of seed viability. In response to aging, ATM delays germination, whereas atm mutant seeds germinate with extensive chromosomal abnormalities. This identifies ATM as a major factor that controls germination in aged seeds, integrating progression through germination with surveillance of genome integrity. Mechanistically, ATM functions through control of DNA replication in imbibing seeds. ATM signaling is mediated by transcriptional control of the cell cycle inhibitor SIAMESE-RELATED 5, an essential factor required for the aging-induced delay to germination. In the soil seed bank, seeds exhibit increased transcript levels of ATM and ATR, with changes in dormancy and germination potential modulated by environmental signals, including temperature and soil moisture. Collectively, our findings reveal physiological functions for these sensor kinases in linking genome integrity to germination, thereby influencing seed quality, crucial for plant survival in the natural environment and sustainable crop production. PMID:27503884

  8. Biological and molecular mechanisms of sulfur mustard analogue-induced toxicity in JB6 and HaCaT cells: possible role of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated/ataxia telangiectasia-Rad3-related cell cycle checkpoint pathway.

    PubMed

    Tewari-Singh, Neera; Gu, Mallikarjuna; Agarwal, Chapla; White, Carl W; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2010-06-21

    Effective medical treatment and preventive measures for chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (HD)-caused incapacitating skin toxicity are lacking, because of limited knowledge of its mechanism of action. The proliferating basal epidermal cells are primary major sites of attack during HD-caused skin injury. Therefore, employing mouse JB6 and human HaCaT epidermal cells, here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of HD analogue 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES)-induced skin cytotoxicity. As compared to the control, up to 1 mM CEES treatment of these cells for 2, 4, and 24 h caused dose-dependent decreases in cell viability and proliferation as measured by DNA synthesis, together with S and G2-M phase arrest in cell cycle progression. Mechanistic studies showed phosphorylation of DNA damage sensors and checkpoint kinases, ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) at ser1981 and ataxia telangiectasia-Rad3-related (ATR) at ser428 within 30 min of CEES exposure, and modulation of S and G2-M phase-associated cell cycle regulatory proteins, which are downstream targets of ATM and ATR kinases. Hoechst-propidium iodide staining demonstrated that CEES-induced cell death was both necrotic and apoptotic in nature, and the latter was induced at 4 and 24 h of CEES treatment in HaCaT and JB6 cells, respectively. An increase in caspase-3 activity and both caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) cleavage coinciding with CEES-caused apoptosis in both cell lines suggested the involvement of the caspase pathway. Together, our findings suggest a DNA-damaging effect of CEES that activates ATM/ATR cell cycle checkpoint signaling as well as caspase-PARP pathways, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis/necrosis in both JB6 and HaCaT cells. The identified molecular targets, quantitative biomarkers, and epidermal cell models in this study have the potential and usefulness in rapid development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic interventions against HD-induced skin toxicity

  9. The STIM1-Orai1 pathway of store-operated Ca2+ entry controls the checkpoint in cell cycle G1/S transition

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yun-Wen; Chen, Yih-Fung; Chen, Ying-Ting; Chiu, Wen-Tai; Shen, Meng-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Ca2+ signaling is important to trigger the cell cycle progression, while it remains elusive in the regulatory mechanisms. Here we show that store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), mediated by the interaction between STIM1 (an endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ sensor) and Orai1 (a cell membrane pore structure), controls the specific checkpoint of cell cycle. The fluctuating SOCE activity during cell cycle progression is universal in different cell types, in which SOCE is upregulated in G1/S transition and downregulated from S to G2/M transition. Pharmacological or siRNA inhibition of STIM1-Orai1 pathway of SOCE inhibits the phosphorylation of CDK2 and upregulates the expression of cyclin E, resulting in autophagy accompanied with cell cycle arrest in G1/S transition. The subsequently transient expression of STIM1 cDNA in STIM1−/− MEF rescues the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of CDK2, suggesting that STIM1-mediated SOCE activation directly regulates CDK2 activity. Opposite to the important role of SOCE in controlling G1/S transition, the downregulated SOCE is a passive phenomenon from S to G2/M transition. This study uncovers SOCE-mediated Ca2+ microdomain that is the molecular basis for the Ca2+ sensitivity controlling G1/S transition. PMID:26917047

  10. Rewiring the Pneumococcal Cell Cycle with Serine/Threonine- and Tyrosine-kinases.

    PubMed

    Grangeasse, Christophe

    2016-09-01

    Over the past decade, Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) has gained prominence as a model for studying the bacterial cell cycle. This important human pathogen possesses a characteristic diplo-ovococcal cell shape and produces a protective polysaccharide capsule required for virulence, and it has been used to investigate natural genetic transformation. Recent advances have demonstrated that the pneumococcus has evolved phosphorylation-dependent regulatory mechanisms dedicated to controlling cell division and ensuring the concealment of the newborn cells by the capsule. In this review, I survey the role of the only two serine/threonine- (StkP) and tyrosine-kinases (CpsD) of the pneumococcus and discuss the existence of interconnected phosphorylation networks coordinating cell division and morphogenesis with key aspects of the cell cycle. PMID:27130634

  11. The spindle position checkpoint is coordinated by the Elm1 kinase

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jeffrey K.; Chudalayandi, Prakash; Heil-Chapdelaine, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    How dividing cells monitor the effective transmission of genomes during mitosis is poorly understood. Budding yeast use a signaling pathway known as the spindle position checkpoint (SPC) to ensure the arrival of one end of the mitotic spindle in the nascent daughter cell. An important question is how SPC activity is coordinated with mother–daughter polarity. We sought to identify factors at the bud neck, the junction between mother and bud, which contribute to checkpoint signaling. In this paper, we show that the protein kinase Elm1 is an obligate regulator of the SPC, and this function requires localization of Elm1 to the bud neck. Furthermore, we show that Elm1 promotes the activity of the checkpoint kinase Kin4. These findings reveal a novel function for Elm1 in the SPC and suggest how checkpoint activity may be linked to cellular organization. PMID:21041444

  12. A Role for Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase in the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint in XTC Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao Min; Zhai, Ye; Ferrell, James E.

    1997-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint prevents cells whose spindles are defective or chromosomes are misaligned from initiating anaphase and leaving mitosis. Studies of Xenopus egg extracts have implicated the Erk2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) in this checkpoint. Other studies have suggested that MAP kinases might be important for normal mitotic progression. Here we have investigated whether MAP kinase function is required for mitotic progression or the spindle assembly checkpoint in vivo in Xenopus tadpole cells (XTC). We determined that Erk1 and/or Erk2 are present in the mitotic spindle during prometaphase and metaphase, consistent with the idea that MAP kinase might regulate or monitor the status of the spindle. Next, we microinjected purified recombinant XCL100, a Xenopus MAP kinase phosphatase, into XTC cells in various stages of mitosis to interfere with MAP kinase activation. We found that mitotic progression was unaffected by the phosphatase. However, XCL100 rendered the cells unable to remain arrested in mitosis after treatment with nocodazole. Cells injected with phosphatase at prometaphase or metaphase exited mitosis in the presence of nocodazole—the chromosomes decondensed and the nuclear envelope re-formed—whereas cells injected with buffer or a catalytically inactive XCL100 mutant protein remained arrested in mitosis. Coinjection of constitutively active MAP kinase kinase-1, which opposes XCL100's effects on MAP kinase, antagonized the effects of XCL100. Since the only known targets of MAP kinase kinase-1 are Erk1 and Erk2, these findings argue that MAP kinase function is required for the spindle assembly checkpoint in XTC cells. PMID:9128253

  13. Targeting the Checkpoint to Kill Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Benada, Jan; Macurek, Libor

    2015-01-01

    Cancer treatments such as radiotherapy and most of the chemotherapies act by damaging DNA of cancer cells. Upon DNA damage, cells stop proliferation at cell cycle checkpoints, which provides them time for DNA repair. Inhibiting the checkpoint allows entry to mitosis despite the presence of DNA damage and can lead to cell death. Importantly, as cancer cells exhibit increased levels of endogenous DNA damage due to an excessive replication stress, inhibiting the checkpoint kinases alone could act as a directed anti-cancer therapy. Here, we review the current status of inhibitors targeted towards the checkpoint effectors and discuss mechanisms of their actions in killing of cancer cells. PMID:26295265

  14. Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) function is essential for cell cycle progression, senescence and tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Kümper, Sandra; Mardakheh, Faraz K; McCarthy, Afshan; Yeo, Maggie; Stamp, Gordon W; Paul, Angela; Worboys, Jonathan; Sadok, Amine; Jørgensen, Claus; Guichard, Sabrina; Marshall, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Rho-associated kinases 1 and 2 (ROCK1/2) are Rho-GTPase effectors that control key aspects of the actin cytoskeleton, but their role in proliferation and cancer initiation or progression is not known. Here, we provide evidence that ROCK1 and ROCK2 act redundantly to maintain actomyosin contractility and cell proliferation and that their loss leads to cell-cycle arrest and cellular senescence. This phenotype arises from down-regulation of the essential cell-cycle proteins CyclinA, CKS1 and CDK1. Accordingly, while the loss of either Rock1 or Rock2 had no negative impact on tumorigenesis in mouse models of non-small cell lung cancer and melanoma, loss of both blocked tumor formation, as no tumors arise in which both Rock1 and Rock2 have been genetically deleted. Our results reveal an indispensable role for ROCK, yet redundant role for isoforms 1 and 2, in cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis, possibly through the maintenance of cellular contractility. PMID:26765561

  15. Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) function is essential for cell cycle progression, senescence and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kümper, Sandra; Mardakheh, Faraz K; McCarthy, Afshan; Yeo, Maggie; Stamp, Gordon W; Paul, Angela; Worboys, Jonathan; Sadok, Amine; Jørgensen, Claus; Guichard, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Rho-associated kinases 1 and 2 (ROCK1/2) are Rho-GTPase effectors that control key aspects of the actin cytoskeleton, but their role in proliferation and cancer initiation or progression is not known. Here, we provide evidence that ROCK1 and ROCK2 act redundantly to maintain actomyosin contractility and cell proliferation and that their loss leads to cell-cycle arrest and cellular senescence. This phenotype arises from down-regulation of the essential cell-cycle proteins CyclinA, CKS1 and CDK1. Accordingly, while the loss of either Rock1 or Rock2 had no negative impact on tumorigenesis in mouse models of non-small cell lung cancer and melanoma, loss of both blocked tumor formation, as no tumors arise in which both Rock1 and Rock2 have been genetically deleted. Our results reveal an indispensable role for ROCK, yet redundant role for isoforms 1 and 2, in cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis, possibly through the maintenance of cellular contractility. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12203.001 PMID:26765561

  16. Inhibitors of cell cycle checkpoints and DNA replication cause different responses in normal versus malignant urothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Meuth, Mark

    2014-01-01

    S-phase checkpoints are triggered in tumor cells in response to DNA replication stress caused by the tumor microenvironment or oncogenes. A recent report from our laboratory showed that tumor cells and more normal epithelial cells have a very different response to replication stress. In this Author's View, the implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:27308366

  17. Cell-cycle-regulated activation of Akt kinase by phosphorylation at its carboxyl terminus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pengda; Begley, Michael; Michowski, Wojciech; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Ginzberg, Miriam; Gao, Daming; Tsou, Peiling; Gan, Wenjian; Papa, Antonella; Kim, Byeong Mo; Wan, Lixin; Singh, Amrik; Zhai, Bo; Yuan, Min; Wang, Zhiwei; Gygi, Steven P.; Lee, Tae Ho; Lu, Kun-Ping; Toker, Alex; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Asara, John M.; Kirschner, Marc W.; Sicinski, Piotr; Cantley, Lewis; Wei, Wenyi

    2014-01-01

    Akt, also known as protein kinase B, plays key roles in cell proliferation, survival and metabolism. Akt hyperactivation contributes to many pathophysiological conditions, including human cancers1–3, and is closely associated with poor prognosis and chemo- or radio-therapeutic resistance4. Phosphorylation of Akt at S473 (ref. 5) and T308 (ref. 6) activates Akt. However, it remains unclear whether further mechanisms account for full Akt activation, and whether Akt hyperactivation is linked to misregulated cell cycle progression, another cancer hallmark7. Here we report that Akt activity fluctuates across the cell cycle, mirroring cyclin A expression. Mechanistically, phosphorylation of S477 and T479 at the Akt extreme carboxy terminus by cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2)/cyclin A or mTORC2, under distinct physiological conditions, promotes Akt activation through facilitating, or functionally compensating for, S473 phosphorylation. Furthermore, deletion of the cyclin A2 allele in the mouse olfactory bulb leads to reduced S477/T479 phosphorylation and elevated cellular apoptosis. Notably, cyclin A2-deletion-induced cellular apoptosis in mouse embryonic stem cells is partly rescued by S477D/T479E-Akt1, supporting a physiological role for cyclin A2 in governing Akt activation. Together, the results of our study show Akt S477/T479 phosphorylation to be an essential layer of the Akt activation mechanism to regulate its physiological functions, thereby providing a new mechanistic link between aberrant cell cycle progression and Akt hyperactivation in cancer. PMID:24670654

  18. Src kinase inhibitors induce apoptosis and mediate cell cycle arrest in lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Daniel; Boehrer, Simone; Hochmuth, Simone; Trepohl, Bettina; Hofmann, Wencke; Hoelzer, Dieter; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Mitrou, Paris S; Ruthardt, Martin; Chow, Kai Uwe

    2007-10-01

    Src kinases are involved in multiple cellular contexts such as proliferation, adhesion, tumor invasiveness, angiogenesis, cell cycle control and apoptosis. We here demonstrate that three newly developed dual selective Src/Abl kinase inhibitors (SrcK-I) (AZM559756, AZD0530 and AZD0424) are able to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in BCR-ABL, c-KIT and platelet-derived growth factor-negative lymphoma cell lines. Treatment of DOHH-2, WSU-NHL, Raji, Karpas-299, HUT78 and Jurkat cells with SrcK-I revealed that the tested substances were effective on these parameters in the cell lines DOHH-2 and WSU-NHL, whereas the other tested cell lines remained unaffected. Phosphorylation of Lyn and in particular Lck were affected most heavily by treatment with the SrcK-I. Extrinsic as well as intrinsic apoptosis pathways were activated and elicited unique expressional patterns of apoptosis-relevant proteins such as downregulation of survivin, Bcl-XL and c-FLIP. Protein levels of c-abl were downregulated and Akt phosphorylation was decreased by treatment with SrcK-I. Basal expression levels of c-Myc were notably lower in sensitive cell lines as compared with nonsensitive cell lines, possibly providing an explanation for sensitivity versus resistance against these novel substances. This study provides the first basis for establishing novel SrcK-I as weapons in the arsenal against lymphoma cells. PMID:17704648

  19. Checkpoint Kinase 2 Negatively Regulates Androgen Sensitivity and Prostate Cancer Cell Growth.

    PubMed

    Ta, Huy Q; Ivey, Melissa L; Frierson, Henry F; Conaway, Mark R; Dziegielewski, Jaroslaw; Larner, James M; Gioeli, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in American men, and curing metastatic disease remains a significant challenge. Nearly all patients with disseminated prostate cancer initially respond to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), but virtually all patients will relapse and develop incurable castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). A high-throughput RNAi screen to identify signaling pathways regulating prostate cancer cell growth led to our discovery that checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2) knockdown dramatically increased prostate cancer growth and hypersensitized cells to low androgen levels. Mechanistic investigations revealed that the effects of CHK2 were dependent on the downstream signaling proteins CDC25C and CDK1. Moreover, CHK2 depletion increased androgen receptor (AR) transcriptional activity on androgen-regulated genes, substantiating the finding that CHK2 affects prostate cancer proliferation, partly, through the AR. Remarkably, we further show that CHK2 is a novel AR-repressed gene, suggestive of a negative feedback loop between CHK2 and AR. In addition, we provide evidence that CHK2 physically associates with the AR and that cell-cycle inhibition increased this association. Finally, IHC analysis of CHK2 in prostate cancer patient samples demonstrated a decrease in CHK2 expression in high-grade tumors. In conclusion, we propose that CHK2 is a negative regulator of androgen sensitivity and prostate cancer growth, and that CHK2 signaling is lost during prostate cancer progression to castration resistance. Thus, perturbing CHK2 signaling may offer a new therapeutic approach for sensitizing CRPC to ADT and radiation. PMID:26573794

  20. Structure and Substrate Recruitment of the Human Spindle Checkpoint Kinase Bub1

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Jungseog; Yang, Maojun; Li, Bing; Qi, Wei; Zhang, Chao; Shokat, Kevan M.; Tomchick, Diana R.; Machius, Mischa; Yu, Hongtao

    2009-11-10

    In mitosis, the spindle checkpoint detects a single unattached kinetochore, inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C), and prevents premature sister chromatid separation. The checkpoint kinase Bub1 contributes to checkpoint sensitivity through phosphorylating the APC/C activator, Cdc20, and inhibiting APC/C catalytically. We report here the crystal structure of the kinase domain of Bub1, revealing the requirement of an N-terminal extension for its kinase activity. Though the activation segment of Bub1 is ordered and has structural features indicative of active kinases, the C-terminal portion of this segment sterically restricts substrate access to the active site. Bub1 uses docking motifs, so-called KEN boxes, outside its kinase domain to recruit Cdc20, one of two known KEN box receptors. The KEN boxes of Bub1 are required for the spindle checkpoint in human cells. Therefore, its unusual active-site conformation and mode of substrate recruitment suggest that Bub1 has an exquisitely tuned specificity for Cdc20.

  1. Centromere-tethered Mps1 pombe homolog (Mph1) kinase is a sufficient marker for recruitment of the spindle checkpoint protein Bub1, but not Mad1.

    PubMed

    Ito, Daisuke; Saito, Yu; Matsumoto, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    The spindle checkpoint delays the onset of anaphase until all of the chromosomes properly achieve bipolar attachment to the spindle. It has been shown that unattached kinetochores are the site that emits a signal for activation of the checkpoint. Although the components of the checkpoint such as Bub1, Mad1 and Mad2 selectively accumulate at unattached kinetochores, the answer to how they recognize unattached kinetochores has remained elusive. Mps1 pombe homolog (Mph1) kinase has been shown to function upstream of most of the components of the checkpoint and thus it is thought to recognize unattached kinetochores by itself and recruit other components. In this study we have expressed a fusion protein of Mph1 and Ndc80 (a kinetochore protein of the outer plate) and shown that the fusion protein arrests cell cycle progression in a spindle-checkpoint\\x{2013}dependent manner in fission yeast. When expression of Mad2 is turned off, the cells grow normally with Mph1 constitutively localized at centromeres/kinetochores. Under this condition, Bub1 can be found with Mph1 throughout the cell cycle, indicating that localization of Mph1 at centromeres/kinetochores is sufficient to recruit Bub1. In contrast, Mad1 is found to transiently localize at kinetochores, which are presumably unattached to the spindle, but soon it dissociates from kinetochores. We propose that Mph1 is a sufficient marker for recruitment of Bub1. Mad1, in contrast, requires an additional condition/component for stable association with kinetochores. PMID:22184248

  2. A cell cycle kinase with tandem sensory PAS domains integrates cell fate cues

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Thomas H.; Seth Childers, W.; Blair, Jimmy A.; Eckart, Michael R.; Shapiro, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    All cells must integrate sensory information to coordinate developmental events in space and time. The bacterium Caulobacter crescentus uses two-component phospho-signalling to regulate spatially distinct cell cycle events through the master regulator CtrA. Here, we report that CckA, the histidine kinase upstream of CtrA, employs a tandem-PAS domain sensor to integrate two distinct spatiotemporal signals. Using CckA reconstituted on liposomes, we show that one PAS domain modulates kinase activity in a CckA density-dependent manner, mimicking the stimulation of CckA kinase activity that occurs on its transition from diffuse to densely packed at the cell poles. The second PAS domain interacts with the asymmetrically partitioned second messenger cyclic-di-GMP, inhibiting kinase activity while stimulating phosphatase activity, consistent with the selective inactivation of CtrA in the incipient stalked cell compartment. The integration of these spatially and temporally regulated signalling events within a single signalling receptor enables robust orchestration of cell-type-specific gene regulation. PMID:27117914

  3. A cell cycle kinase with tandem sensory PAS domains integrates cell fate cues.

    PubMed

    Mann, Thomas H; Seth Childers, W; Blair, Jimmy A; Eckart, Michael R; Shapiro, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    All cells must integrate sensory information to coordinate developmental events in space and time. The bacterium Caulobacter crescentus uses two-component phospho-signalling to regulate spatially distinct cell cycle events through the master regulator CtrA. Here, we report that CckA, the histidine kinase upstream of CtrA, employs a tandem-PAS domain sensor to integrate two distinct spatiotemporal signals. Using CckA reconstituted on liposomes, we show that one PAS domain modulates kinase activity in a CckA density-dependent manner, mimicking the stimulation of CckA kinase activity that occurs on its transition from diffuse to densely packed at the cell poles. The second PAS domain interacts with the asymmetrically partitioned second messenger cyclic-di-GMP, inhibiting kinase activity while stimulating phosphatase activity, consistent with the selective inactivation of CtrA in the incipient stalked cell compartment. The integration of these spatially and temporally regulated signalling events within a single signalling receptor enables robust orchestration of cell-type-specific gene regulation. PMID:27117914

  4. The involvement of cell cycle checkpoint-mutations in the mutagenesis induced in Drosophila by a longer wavelength light band of solar UV.

    PubMed

    Toyoshima, Megumi; Takinami, Syogo; Hieda, Kotaro; Fursawa, Yoshiya; Negishi, Tomoe

    2002-03-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation is considered to be injurious rather than necessary for most organisms living on the earth. It is reported that the risk of skin cancer in humans increases by the depletion of the ozone layer. We have examined the genotoxicity of solar ultraviolet, especially the longer wavelength light, using Drosophila. Recently, we have demonstrated that light of wavelength up to 340 nm is mutagenic on Drosophila larvae. Using an excision repair-deficient Drosophila strain (mus201), we have obtained results suggesting that the lesion caused in larvae by the 320 nm-light irradiation may be similar to the damage induced by irradiation at 310 nm, and that light of 330 and 340 nm may induce damage different from that induced by 310 and 320 nm-light. To examine the difference in DNA damage induced by light of a particular wavelength, we performed monochromatic irradiation on larvae of two Drosophila strains; one excision repair-deficient (mei-9) and another postreplication repair-deficient (mei-41). 310 and 320 nm-light was more mutagenic in the mei-9 strain than in mei-41, whereas 330 and 340 nm-light was more mutagenic in mei-41 than in mei-9. It is demonstrated that the mei-41 gene is a homologue of the human atm gene which is responsible for a cell cycle checkpoint. This result suggests that 310-320 nm-light induces DNA damage that is subject to nucleotide excision repair (NER) and that 330-360 nm-light causes damage to be recognized by the cell cycle checkpoint but it is not repairable by NER. PMID:12659514

  5. HTLV-I Tax-Mediated Inactivation of Cell Cycle Checkpoints and DNA Repair Pathways Contribute to Cellular Transformation: “A Random Mutagenesis Model”

    PubMed Central

    Nicot, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    To achieve cellular transformation, most oncogenic retroviruses use transduction by proto-oncogene capture or insertional mutagenesis, whereby provirus integration disrupts expression of tumor suppressors or proto-oncogenes. In contrast, the Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-I) has been classified in a separate class referred to as “transactivating retroviruses”. Current views suggest that the viral encoded Tax protein transactivates expression of cellular genes leading to deregulated growth and transformation. However, if Tax-mediated transactivation was indeed sufficient for cellular transformation, a fairly high frequency of infected cells would eventually become transformed. In contrast, the frequency of transformation by HTLV-I is very low, likely less than 5%. This review will discuss the current understanding and recent discoveries highlighting critical functions of Tax in cellular transformation. HTLV-I Tax carries out essential functions in order to override cell cycle checkpoints and deregulate cellular division. In addition, Tax expression is associated with increased DNA damage and genome instability. Since Tax can inhibit multiple DNA repair pathways and stimulate unfaithful DNA repair or bypass checkpoints, these processes allow accumulation of genetic mutations in the host genome. Given this, a “Random Mutagenesis” transformation model seems more suitable to characterize the oncogenic activities of HTLV-I. PMID:26835512

  6. Cell cycle regulation of Greatwall kinase nuclear localization facilitates mitotic progression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Galan, Jacob A.; Normandin, Karine; Bonneil, Éric; Hickson, Gilles R.; Roux, Philippe P.; Thibault, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Cell division requires the coordination of critical protein kinases and phosphatases. Greatwall (Gwl) kinase activity inactivates PP2A-B55 at mitotic entry to promote the phosphorylation of cyclin B–Cdk1 substrates, but how Gwl is regulated is poorly understood. We found that the subcellular localization of Gwl changed dramatically during the cell cycle in Drosophila. Gwl translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in prophase. We identified two critical nuclear localization signals in the central, poorly characterized region of Gwl, which are required for its function. The Polo kinase associated with and phosphorylated Gwl in this region, promoting its binding to 14-3-3ε and its localization to the cytoplasm in prophase. Our results suggest that cyclin B–Cdk1 phosphorylation of Gwl is also required for its nuclear exclusion by a distinct mechanism. We show that the nucleo-cytoplasmic regulation of Gwl is essential for its functions in vivo and propose that the spatial regulation of Gwl at mitotic entry contributes to the mitotic switch. PMID:23857770

  7. Chemogenetic profiling identifies RAD17 as synthetically lethal with checkpoint kinase inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Shen, John Paul; Srivas, Rohith; Gross, Andrew; Li, Jianfeng; Jaehnig, Eric J.; Sun, Su Ming; Bojorquez-Gomez, Ana; Licon, Katherine; Sivaganesh, Vignesh; Xu, Jia L.; Klepper, Kristin; Yeerna, Huwate; Pekin, Daniel; Qiu, Chu Ping; van Attikum, Haico; Sobol, Robert W.; Ideker, Trey

    2015-01-01

    Chemical inhibitors of the checkpoint kinases have shown promise in the treatment of cancer, yet their clinical utility may be limited by a lack of molecular biomarkers to identify specific patients most likely to respond to therapy. To this end, we screened 112 known tumor suppressor genes for synthetic lethal interactions with inhibitors of the CHEK1 and CHEK2 checkpoint kinases. We identified eight interactions, including the Replication Factor C (RFC)-related protein RAD17. Clonogenic assays in RAD17 knockdown cell lines identified a substantial shift in sensitivity to checkpoint kinase inhibition (3.5-fold) as compared to RAD17 wild-type. Additional evidence for this interaction was found in a large-scale functional shRNA screen of over 100 genotyped cancer cell lines, in which CHEK1/2 mutant cell lines were unexpectedly sensitive to RAD17 knockdown. This interaction was widely conserved, as we found that RAD17 interacts strongly with checkpoint kinases in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the setting of RAD17 knockdown, CHEK1/2 inhibition was found to be synergistic with inhibition of WEE1, another pharmacologically relevant checkpoint kinase. Accumulation of the DNA damage marker γH2AX following chemical inhibition or transient knockdown of CHEK1, CHEK2 or WEE1 was magnified by knockdown of RAD17. Taken together, our data suggest that CHEK1 or WEE1 inhibitors are likely to have greater clinical efficacy in tumors with RAD17 loss-of-function. PMID:26437225

  8. Chemogenetic profiling identifies RAD17 as synthetically lethal with checkpoint kinase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Shen, John Paul; Srivas, Rohith; Gross, Andrew; Li, Jianfeng; Jaehnig, Eric J; Sun, Su Ming; Bojorquez-Gomez, Ana; Licon, Katherine; Sivaganesh, Vignesh; Xu, Jia L; Klepper, Kristin; Yeerna, Huwate; Pekin, Daniel; Qiu, Chu Ping; van Attikum, Haico; Sobol, Robert W; Ideker, Trey

    2015-11-01

    Chemical inhibitors of the checkpoint kinases have shown promise in the treatment of cancer, yet their clinical utility may be limited by a lack of molecular biomarkers to identify specific patients most likely to respond to therapy. To this end, we screened 112 known tumor suppressor genes for synthetic lethal interactions with inhibitors of the CHEK1 and CHEK2 checkpoint kinases. We identified eight interactions, including the Replication Factor C (RFC)-related protein RAD17. Clonogenic assays in RAD17 knockdown cell lines identified a substantial shift in sensitivity to checkpoint kinase inhibition (3.5-fold) as compared to RAD17 wild-type. Additional evidence for this interaction was found in a large-scale functional shRNA screen of over 100 genotyped cancer cell lines, in which CHEK1/2 mutant cell lines were unexpectedly sensitive to RAD17 knockdown. This interaction was widely conserved, as we found that RAD17 interacts strongly with checkpoint kinases in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the setting of RAD17 knockdown, CHEK1/2 inhibition was found to be synergistic with inhibition of WEE1, another pharmacologically relevant checkpoint kinase. Accumulation of the DNA damage marker γH2AX following chemical inhibition or transient knockdown of CHEK1, CHEK2 or WEE1 was magnified by knockdown of RAD17. Taken together, our data suggest that CHEK1 or WEE1 inhibitors are likely to have greater clinical efficacy in tumors with RAD17 loss-of-function. PMID:26437225

  9. Cell-cycle dependent expression of a translocation-mediated fusion oncogene mediates checkpoint adaptation in rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Ken; Hettmer, Simone; Aslam, M Imran; Michalek, Joel E; Laub, Wolfram; Wilky, Breelyn A; Loeb, David M; Rubin, Brian P; Wagers, Amy J; Keller, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most commonly occurring soft-tissue sarcoma in childhood. Most rhabdomyosarcoma falls into one of two biologically distinct subgroups represented by alveolar or embryonal histology. The alveolar subtype harbors a translocation-mediated PAX3:FOXO1A fusion gene and has an extremely poor prognosis. However, tumor cells have heterogeneous expression for the fusion gene. Using a conditional genetic mouse model as well as human tumor cell lines, we show that that Pax3:Foxo1a expression is enriched in G2 and triggers a transcriptional program conducive to checkpoint adaptation under stress conditions such as irradiation in vitro and in vivo. Pax3:Foxo1a also tolerizes tumor cells to clinically-established chemotherapy agents and emerging molecularly-targeted agents. Thus, the surprisingly dynamic regulation of the Pax3:Foxo1a locus is a paradigm that has important implications for the way in which oncogenes are modeled in cancer cells. PMID:24453992

  10. Molecular basis of the essential s phase function of the rad53 checkpoint kinase.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Nicolas C; Chen, Eric S-W; Buckland, Robert; Wang, Shun-Chung; Fazio, Alessandro; Hammet, Andrew; Pellicioli, Achille; Chabes, Andrei; Tsai, Ming-Daw; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2013-08-01

    The essential yeast kinases Mec1 and Rad53, or human ATR and Chk1, are crucial for checkpoint responses to exogenous genotoxic agents, but why they are also required for DNA replication in unperturbed cells remains poorly understood. Here we report that even in the absence of DNA-damaging agents, the rad53-4AQ mutant, lacking the N-terminal Mec1 phosphorylation site cluster, is synthetic lethal with a deletion of the RAD9 DNA damage checkpoint adaptor. This phenotype is caused by an inability of rad53-4AQ to activate the downstream kinase Dun1, which then leads to reduced basal deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) levels, spontaneous replication fork stalling, and constitutive activation of and dependence on S phase DNA damage checkpoints. Surprisingly, the kinase-deficient rad53-K227A mutant does not share these phenotypes but is rendered inviable by additional phosphosite mutations that prevent its binding to Dun1. The results demonstrate that ultralow Rad53 catalytic activity is sufficient for normal replication of undamaged chromosomes as long as it is targeted toward activation of the effector kinase Dun1. Our findings indicate that the essential S phase function of Rad53 is comprised by the combination of its role in regulating basal dNTP levels and its compensatory kinase function if dNTP levels are perturbed. PMID:23754745

  11. Molecular Basis of the Essential S Phase Function of the Rad53 Checkpoint Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Nicolas C.; Chen, Eric S.-W.; Buckland, Robert; Wang, Shun-Chung; Fazio, Alessandro; Hammet, Andrew; Pellicioli, Achille; Chabes, Andrei; Tsai, Ming-Daw

    2013-01-01

    The essential yeast kinases Mec1 and Rad53, or human ATR and Chk1, are crucial for checkpoint responses to exogenous genotoxic agents, but why they are also required for DNA replication in unperturbed cells remains poorly understood. Here we report that even in the absence of DNA-damaging agents, the rad53-4AQ mutant, lacking the N-terminal Mec1 phosphorylation site cluster, is synthetic lethal with a deletion of the RAD9 DNA damage checkpoint adaptor. This phenotype is caused by an inability of rad53-4AQ to activate the downstream kinase Dun1, which then leads to reduced basal deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) levels, spontaneous replication fork stalling, and constitutive activation of and dependence on S phase DNA damage checkpoints. Surprisingly, the kinase-deficient rad53-K227A mutant does not share these phenotypes but is rendered inviable by additional phosphosite mutations that prevent its binding to Dun1. The results demonstrate that ultralow Rad53 catalytic activity is sufficient for normal replication of undamaged chromosomes as long as it is targeted toward activation of the effector kinase Dun1. Our findings indicate that the essential S phase function of Rad53 is comprised by the combination of its role in regulating basal dNTP levels and its compensatory kinase function if dNTP levels are perturbed. PMID:23754745

  12. TOUSLED Kinase Activity Oscillates during the Cell Cycle and Interacts with Chromatin Regulators1

    PubMed Central

    Ehsan, Hashimul; Reichheld, Jean-Philippe; Durfee, Tim; Roe, Judith L.

    2004-01-01

    The TOUSLED (TSL)-like nuclear protein kinase family is highly conserved in plants and animals. tsl loss of function mutations cause pleiotropic defects in both leaf and flower development, and growth and initiation of floral organ primordia is abnormal, suggesting that basic cellular processes are affected. TSL is more highly expressed in exponentially growing Arabidopsis culture cells than in stationary, nondividing cells. While its expression remains constant throughout the cell cycle in dividing cells, TSL kinase activity is higher in enriched late G2/M-phase and G1-phase populations of Arabidopsis suspension culture cells compared to those in S-phase. tsl mutants also display an aberrant pattern and increased expression levels of the mitotic cyclin gene CycB1;1, suggesting that TSL represses CycB1;1 expression at certain times during development or that cells are delayed in mitosis. TSL interacts with and phosphorylates one of two Arabidopsis homologs of the nucleosome assembly/silencing protein Asf1 and histone H3, as in humans, and a novel plant SANT/myb-domain protein, TKI1, suggesting that TSL plays a role in chromatin metabolism. PMID:15047893

  13. The checkpoint kinase inhibitor AZD7762 potentiates chemotherapy-induced apoptosis of p53-mutated multiple myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Landau, Heather J; McNeely, Samuel C; Nair, Jayasree S; Comenzo, Raymond L; Asai, Takashi; Friedman, Hillel; Jhanwar, Suresh C; Nimer, Stephen D; Schwartz, Gary K

    2012-08-01

    DNA cross-linking agents are frequently used in the treatment of multiple myeloma-generating lesions, which activate checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1), a critical transducer of the DNA damage response. Chk1 activation promotes cell survival by regulating cell-cycle arrest and DNA repair following genotoxic stress. The ability of AZD7762, an ATP-competitive Chk1/2 inhibitor to increase the efficacy of the DNA-damaging agents bendamustine, melphalan, and doxorubicin was examined using four human myeloma cell lines, KMS-12-BM, KMS-12-PE, RPMI-8226, and U266B1. The in vitro activity of AZD7762 as monotherapy and combined with alkylating agents and the "novel" drug bortezomib was evaluated by studying its effects on cytotoxicity, signaling, and apoptotic pathways. The Chk1/2 inhibitor AZD7762 potentiated the antiproliferative effects of bendamustine, melphalan, and doxorubicin but not bortezomib in multiple myeloma cell lines that were p53-deficient. Increased γH2AX staining in cells treated with bendamustine or melphalan plus AZD7762 indicates a greater degree of DNA damage with combined therapy. Abrogation of the G(2)-M checkpoint by AZD7762 resulted in mitotic catastrophe with ensuing apoptosis evidenced by PARP and caspase-3 cleavage. In summary, the cytotoxic effects of bendamustine, melphalan and doxorubicin on p53-deficient multiple myeloma cell lines were enhanced by the coadministration of AZD7762. These data provide a rationale for testing these combinations in patients with relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma. PMID:22653969

  14. Suppression of cell cycle progression by a fungal lectin: activation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liua, W; Ho, J C; Ng, T

    2001-01-01

    The antiproliferative activity of a fungal lectin (VVL) isolated from the mushroom, Volvariella volvacea, was studied using a battery of cultured tumor cell lines. It was revealed that [(3)H]thymidine incorporation into the cell lines was markedly reduced at 0.32 microM VVL. When S180 mouse sarcoma cells were incubated for 48 hr with doses of VVL ranging from 0.32 to 0.8 microM, prominent blebs on the cell surface and large vacuoles in the cytoplasm, but not apoptotic bodies, were observed under a fluorescence microscopy. VVL did not exert ribosome-inactivating activity or induce any changes in the expression of cyclins A, D1, and E. However, it did activate the expression of cyclin kinase inhibitors, namely p21, p27, p53, and Rb, in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated an accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase in a time- and dose-dependent manner, indicating that VVL arrested cell proliferation by blocking cell cycle progression in the G2/M phase. PMID:11137706

  15. A quantitative model of the effect of unreplicated DNA on cell cycle progression in frog egg extracts.

    PubMed

    Zwolak, Jason; Adjerid, Nassiba; Bagci, Elife Z; Tyson, John J; Sible, Jill C

    2009-09-01

    A critical goal in cell biology is to develop a systems-level perspective of eukaryotic cell cycle controls. Among these controls, a complex signaling network (called 'checkpoints') arrests progression through the cell cycle when there is a threat to genomic integrity such as unreplicated or damaged DNA. Understanding the regulatory principles of cell cycle checkpoints is important because loss of checkpoint regulation may be a requisite step on the roadway to cancer. Mathematical modeling has proved to be a useful guide to cell cycle regulation by revealing the importance of bistability, hysteresis and time lags in governing cell cycle transitions and checkpoint mechanisms. In this report, we propose a mathematical model of the frog egg cell cycle including effects of unreplicated DNA on progression into mitosis. By a stepwise approach utilizing parameter estimation tools, we build a model that is grounded in fundamental behaviors of the cell cycle engine (hysteresis and time lags), includes new elements in the signaling network (Myt1 and Chk1 kinases), and fits a large and diverse body of data from the experimental literature. The model provides a validated framework upon which to build additional aspects of the cell cycle checkpoint signaling network, including those control signals in the mammalian cell cycle that are commonly mutated in cancer. PMID:19490919

  16. Mitigation of Acetylcholine Esterase Activity in the 1,7-Diazacarbazole Series of Inhibitors of Checkpoint Kinase 1.

    PubMed

    Gazzard, Lewis; Williams, Karen; Chen, Huifen; Axford, Lorraine; Blackwood, Elizabeth; Burton, Brenda; Chapman, Kerry; Crackett, Peter; Drobnick, Joy; Ellwood, Charles; Epler, Jennifer; Flagella, Michael; Gancia, Emanuela; Gill, Matthew; Goodacre, Simon; Halladay, Jason; Hewitt, Joanne; Hunt, Hazel; Kintz, Samuel; Lyssikatos, Joseph; Macleod, Calum; Major, Sarah; Médard, Guillaume; Narukulla, Raman; Ramiscal, Judi; Schmidt, Stephen; Seward, Eileen; Wiesmann, Christian; Wu, Ping; Yee, Sharon; Yen, Ivana; Malek, Shiva

    2015-06-25

    Checkpoint kinase 1 (ChK1) plays a key role in the DNA damage response, facilitating cell-cycle arrest to provide sufficient time for lesion repair. This leads to the hypothesis that inhibition of ChK1 might enhance the effectiveness of DNA-damaging therapies in the treatment of cancer. Lead compound 1 (GNE-783), the prototype of the 1,7-diazacarbazole class of ChK1 inhibitors, was found to be a highly potent inhibitor of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and unsuitable for development. A campaign of analogue synthesis established SAR delineating ChK1 and AChE activities and allowing identification of new leads with improved profiles. In silico docking using a model of AChE permitted rationalization of the observed SAR. Compounds 19 (GNE-900) and 30 (GNE-145) were identified as selective, orally bioavailable ChK1 inhibitors offering excellent in vitro potency with significantly reduced AChE activity. In combination with gemcitabine, these compounds demonstrate an in vivo pharmacodynamic effect and are efficacious in a mouse p53 mutant xenograft model. PMID:25988399

  17. DNA damage checkpoints in mammals.

    PubMed

    Niida, Hiroyuki; Nakanishi, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    DNA damage is a common event and probably leads to mutation or deletion within chromosomal DNA, which may cause cancer or premature aging. DNA damage induces several cellular responses including DNA repair, checkpoint activity and the triggering of apoptotic pathways. DNA damage checkpoints are associated with biochemical pathways that end delay or arrest of cell-cycle progression. These checkpoints engage damage sensor proteins, such as the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) complex, and the Rad17-RFC complex, in the detection of DNA damage and transduction of signals to ATM, ATR, Chk1 and Chk2 kinases. Chk1 and Chk2 kinases regulate Cdc25, Wee1 and p53 that ultimately inactivate cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) which inhibit cell-cycle progression. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms by which DNA damage is recognized by sensor proteins and signals are transmitted to Cdks. We classify the genes involved in checkpoint signaling into four categories, namely sensors, mediators, transducers and effectors, although their proteins have the broad activity, and thus this classification is for convenience and is not definitive. PMID:16314342

  18. A novel quantitative model of cell cycle progression based on cyclin-dependent kinases activity and population balances.

    PubMed

    Pisu, Massimo; Concas, Alessandro; Cao, Giacomo

    2015-04-01

    Cell cycle regulates proliferative cell capacity under normal or pathologic conditions, and in general it governs all in vivo/in vitro cell growth and proliferation processes. Mathematical simulation by means of reliable and predictive models represents an important tool to interpret experiment results, to facilitate the definition of the optimal operating conditions for in vitro cultivation, or to predict the effect of a specific drug in normal/pathologic mammalian cells. Along these lines, a novel model of cell cycle progression is proposed in this work. Specifically, it is based on a population balance (PB) approach that allows one to quantitatively describe cell cycle progression through the different phases experienced by each cell of the entire population during its own life. The transition between two consecutive cell cycle phases is simulated by taking advantage of the biochemical kinetic model developed by Gérard and Goldbeter (2009) which involves cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) whose regulation is achieved through a variety of mechanisms that include association with cyclins and protein inhibitors, phosphorylation-dephosphorylation, and cyclin synthesis or degradation. This biochemical model properly describes the entire cell cycle of mammalian cells by maintaining a sufficient level of detail useful to identify check point for transition and to estimate phase duration required by PB. Specific examples are discussed to illustrate the ability of the proposed model to simulate the effect of drugs for in vitro trials of interest in oncology, regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. PMID:25601491

  19. Coordinate action of distinct sequence elements localizes checkpoint kinase Hsl1 to the septin collar at the bud neck in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Finnigan, Gregory C; Sterling, Sarah M; Duvalyan, Angela; Liao, Elizabeth N; Sargsyan, Aspram; Garcia, Galo; Nogales, Eva; Thorner, Jeremy

    2016-07-15

    Passage through the eukaryotic cell cycle requires processes that are tightly regulated both spatially and temporally. Surveillance mechanisms (checkpoints) exert quality control and impose order on the timing and organization of downstream events by impeding cell cycle progression until the necessary components are available and undamaged and have acted in the proper sequence. In budding yeast, a checkpoint exists that does not allow timely execution of the G2/M transition unless and until a collar of septin filaments has properly assembled at the bud neck, which is the site where subsequent cytokinesis will occur. An essential component of this checkpoint is the large (1518-residue) protein kinase Hsl1, which localizes to the bud neck only if the septin collar has been correctly formed. Hsl1 reportedly interacts with particular septins; however, the precise molecular determinants in Hsl1 responsible for its recruitment to this cellular location during G2 have not been elucidated. We performed a comprehensive mutational dissection and accompanying image analysis to identify the sequence elements within Hsl1 responsible for its localization to the septins at the bud neck. Unexpectedly, we found that this targeting is multipartite. A segment of the central region of Hsl1 (residues 611-950), composed of two tandem, semiredundant but distinct septin-associating elements, is necessary and sufficient for binding to septin filaments both in vitro and in vivo. However, in addition to 611-950, efficient localization of Hsl1 to the septin collar in the cell obligatorily requires generalized targeting to the cytosolic face of the plasma membrane, a function normally provided by the C-terminal phosphatidylserine-binding KA1 domain (residues 1379-1518) in Hsl1 but that can be replaced by other, heterologous phosphatidylserine-binding sequences. PMID:27193302

  20. Attenuation of G{sub 2} cell cycle checkpoint control in human tumor cells is associated with increased frequencies of unrejoined chromosome breaks but not increased cytotoxicity following radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J.L.; Cowan, J.; Grdina, D.J.

    1997-08-01

    The contribution of G{sub 2} cell cycle checkpoint control to ionizing radiation responses was examined in ten human tumor cell lines. Most of the delay in cell cycle progression seen in the first cell cycle following radiation exposure was due to blocks in G{sub 2} and there were large cell line-to-cell line variations in the length of the G{sub 2} block. Longer delays were seen in cell lines that had mutations in p53. There was a highly significant inverse correlation between the length of G{sub 2} delay and the frequency of unrejoined chromosome breaks seen as chromosome terminal deletions in mitosis, and observation that supports the hypothesis that the signal for G{sub 2} delay in mammalian cells is an unrejoined chromosome break. There were also an inverse correlation between the length of G{sub 2} delay and the level of chromosome aneuploidy in each cell line, suggesting that the G{sub 2} and mitotic spindel checkpoints may be linked to each other. Attenuation in G{sub 2} checkpoint control was not associated with alterations in either the frequency of induced chromosome rearrangements or cell survival following radiation exposure suggesting that chromosome rearrangements, the major radiation-induced lethal lesion in tumor cells, form before cells enters G{sub 2}. Thus, agents that act solely to override G{sub 2} arrest should produce little radiosensitization in human tumor cells.

  1. Human SAD1 kinase is involved in UV-induced DNA damage checkpoint function.

    PubMed

    Lu, Rui; Niida, Hiroyuki; Nakanishi, Makoto

    2004-07-23

    Checkpoint activation by DNA damage during G(2) prevents activation of cyclin B/Cdc2 complexes, and as a consequence, mitotic entry is blocked. Although initiation and maintenance of G(2) arrest are known to be regulated by at least two distinct signaling pathways, including those of p38MAPK and ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)- and Rad3-related (ATR)-Chk1 in higher eukaryotes, the actual number of signaling pathways involved in this regulation is still elusive. In the present study, we identified human SAD1 (hsSAD1) by searching a sequence data base. The predicted hsSAD1 protein comprises 778 amino acids and shares significant homology with the fission yeast Cdr2, a mitosis-regulatory kinase, and Caenorhabditis elegans SAD1, a neuronal cell polarity regulator. HsSAD1 transcript was expressed ubiquitously with the highest levels of expression in brain and testis. HsSAD1 specifically phosphorylated Wee1A, Cdc25-C, and -B on Ser-642, Ser-216, and Ser-361 in vitro, respectively. Overexpression of hsSAD1 resulted in an increased phosphorylation of Cdc25C on Ser-216 in vivo. DNA damage induced by UV or methyl methane sulfonate but not by IR enhanced endogenous hsSAD1 kinase activity in a caffeine-sensitive manner and caused translocation of its protein from cytoplasm to nucleus. Overexpression of wild-type hsSAD1 induced G(2)/M arrest in HeLa S2 cells. Furthermore, UV-induced G(2)/M arrest was partially abrogated by the reduced expression of hsSAD1 using small interfering RNA. These results suggest that hsSAD1 acts as checkpoint kinase upon DNA damage induced by UV or methyl methane sulfonate. The identification of this new kinase suggests the existence of an alternative checkpoint pathway other than those of ATR-Chk1 and p38MAPK. PMID:15150265

  2. Fission yeast LAMMER kinase Lkh1 regulates the cell cycle by phosphorylating the CDK-inhibitor Rum1

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Eun-Young; Lee, Ju-Hee; Kang, Won-Hwa; Park, Yun-Hee; Kim, Lila; Park, Hee-Moon

    2013-03-01

    Highlights: ► Deletion of lkh1{sup +} made cells pass the G1/S phase faster than the wild type. ► Lkh1 can interact with a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI) Rum1. ► Lkh1 can phosphorylate Rum1 to activate its CKI activity. ► Thr110 was confirmed as the Lkh1-dependent phosphorylation site of Rum1. ► Positive acting mechanism for the Rum1 activation is reported for the first time. - Abstract: In eukaryotes, LAMMER kinases are involved in various cellular events, including the cell cycle. However, no attempt has been made to investigate the mechanisms that underlie the involvement of LAMMER kinase. In this study, we performed a functional analysis of LAMMER kinase using the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. FACS analyses revealed that deletion of the gene that encodes the LAMMER kinase Lkh1 made mutant cells pass through the G1/S phase faster than their wild-type counterparts. Co-immunoprecipitation and an in vitro kinase assay also revealed that Lkh1 can interact with and phosphorylate Rum1 to activate this molecule as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, which blocks cell cycle progression from the G1 phase to the S phase. Peptide mass fingerprinting and kinase assay with Rum1{sup T110A} confirmed T110 as the Lkh1-dependent phosphorylation residue. In this report we present for the first time a positive acting mechanism that is responsible for the CKI activity of Rum1, in which the LAMMER kinase-mediated phosphorylation of Rum1 is involved.

  3. Activation of the nimA protein kinase plays a unique role during mitosis that cannot be bypassed by absence of the bimE checkpoint.

    PubMed Central

    Osmani, A H; O'Donnell, K; Pu, R T; Osmani, S A

    1991-01-01

    Mutation of nimA reversibly arrests cells in late G2 and nimA overexpression promotes premature mitosis. Here we demonstrate that the product of nimA (designated NIMA) has protein kinase activity that can phosphorylate beta-casein but not histone proteins. NIMA kinase activity is cell cycle regulated being 20-fold higher at mitosis when compared to S-phase arrested cells. NIMA activation is normally required in G2 to initiate chromosome condensation, to nucleate spindle pole body microtubules, and to allow an MPM-2 specific mitotic phosphorylation. All three of these mitotic events can occur in the absence of activated NIMA when the bimE gene is mutated (bimE7). However, the bimE7 mutation cannot completely bypass the requirement for nimA during mitosis as entry into mitosis in the absence of NIMA activation results in major mitotic defects that affect both the organization of the nuclear envelope and mitotic spindle. Thus, although nimA plays an essential but limited role during mitosis, mutation of nimA arrests all of mitosis. We therefore propose that mutation of nimA prevents mitotic initiation due to a checkpoint arrest that is negatively mediated by bimE. The checkpoint ensures that mitosis is not initiated until NIMA is mitotically activated. Images PMID:1868838

  4. Sequences contained within the promoter of the human thymidine kinase gene can direct cell-cycle regulation of heterologous fusion genes.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y K; Wells, S; Lau, Y F; Lee, A S

    1988-01-01

    Recent evidence on the transcriptional regulation of the human thymidine kinase (TK) gene raises the possibility that cell-cycle regulatory sequences may be localized within its promoter. A hybrid gene that combines the TK 5' flanking sequence and the coding region of the bacterial neomycin-resistance gene (neo) has been constructed. Upon transfection into a hamster fibroblast cell line K12, the hybrid gene exhibits cell-cycle-dependent expression. Deletion analysis reveals that the region important for cell-cycle regulation is within -441 to -63 nucleotides from the transcriptional initiation site. This region (-441 to -63) also confers cell-cycle regulation to the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) promoter, which is not expressed in a cell-cycle manner. We conclude that the -441 to -63 sequence within the human TK promoter is important for cell-cycle-dependent expression. Images PMID:3413063

  5. Lyn tyrosine kinase promotes silencing of ATM-dependent checkpoint signaling during recovery from DNA double-strand breaks

    SciTech Connect

    Fukumoto, Yasunori Kuki, Kazumasa; Morii, Mariko; Miura, Takahito; Honda, Takuya; Ishibashi, Kenichi; Hasegawa, Hitomi; Kubota, Sho; Ide, Yudai; Yamaguchi, Noritaka; Nakayama, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • Inhibition of Src family kinases decreased γ-H2AX signal. • Inhibition of Src family increased ATM-dependent phosphorylation of Chk2 and Kap1. • shRNA-mediated knockdown of Lyn increased phosphorylation of Kap1 by ATM. • Ectopic expression of Src family kinase suppressed ATM-mediated Kap1 phosphorylation. • Src is involved in upstream signaling for inactivation of ATM signaling. - Abstract: DNA damage activates the DNA damage checkpoint and the DNA repair machinery. After initial activation of DNA damage responses, cells recover to their original states through completion of DNA repair and termination of checkpoint signaling. Currently, little is known about the process by which cells recover from the DNA damage checkpoint, a process called checkpoint recovery. Here, we show that Src family kinases promote inactivation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent checkpoint signaling during recovery from DNA double-strand breaks. Inhibition of Src activity increased ATM-dependent phosphorylation of Chk2 and Kap1. Src inhibition increased ATM signaling both in G2 phase and during asynchronous growth. shRNA knockdown of Lyn increased ATM signaling. Src-dependent nuclear tyrosine phosphorylation suppressed ATM-mediated Kap1 phosphorylation. These results suggest that Src family kinases are involved in upstream signaling that leads to inactivation of the ATM-dependent DNA damage checkpoint.

  6. Checkpoint kinase Chk2 controls renal Cyp27b1 expression, calcitriol formation, and calcium-phosphate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Fahkri, Hajar; Zhang, Bingbing; Fajol, Abul; Hernando, Nati; Elvira, Bernat; Mannheim, Julia G; Pichler, Bernd J; Daniel, Christoph; Amann, Kerstin; Hirao, Atsushi; Haight, Jillian; Mak, Tak W; Lang, Florian; Föller, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) is the main effector kinase of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and responsible for cell cycle regulation. ATM signaling has been shown to upregulate interferon-regulating factor-1 (IRF-1), a transcription factor also expressed in the kidney. Calcitriol (1,25 (OH)2D3), a major regulator of mineral metabolism, is generated by 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase in the kidney. Since 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase expression is enhanced by IRF-1, the present study explored the role of Chk2 for calcitriol formation and mineral metabolism. Chk2-deficient mice (chk2 (-/-)) were compared to wild-type mice (chk2 (+/+)). Transcript levels of renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase, Chk2, and IRF-1 were determined by RT-PCR; Klotho expression by Western blotting; bone density by μCT analysis; serum or plasma 1,25 (OH)2D3, PTH, and C-terminal FGF23 concentrations by immunoassays; and serum, fecal, and urinary calcium and phosphate concentrations by photometry. The renal expression of IRF-1 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase as well as serum 1,25 (OH)2D3 and FGF23 levels were significantly lower in chk2 (-/-) mice compared to chk2 (+/+) mice. Plasma PTH was not different between the genotypes. Renal calcium and phosphate excretion were significantly higher in chk2 (-/-) mice than in chk2 (+/+) mice despite hypophosphatemia and normocalcemia. Bone density was not different between the genotypes. We conclude that Chk2 regulates renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase expression thereby impacting on calcium and phosphate metabolism. PMID:25319519

  7. Differential Roles of Two Homologous Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Genes in Regulating Cell Cycle and Innate Immunity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hamdoun, Safae; Zhang, Chong; Gill, Manroop; Kumar, Narender; Churchman, Michelle; Larkin, John C; Kwon, Ashley; Lu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Precise cell-cycle control is critical for plant development and responses to pathogen invasion. Two homologous cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor genes, SIAMESE (SIM) and SIM-RELATED 1 (SMR1), were recently shown to regulate Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) defense based on phenotypes conferred by a sim smr1 double mutant. However, whether these two genes play differential roles in cell-cycle and defense control is unknown. In this report, we show that while acting synergistically to promote endoreplication, SIM and SMR1 play different roles in affecting the ploidy of trichome and leaf cells, respectively. In addition, we found that the smr1-1 mutant, but not sim-1, was more susceptible to a virulent Pseudomonas syringae strain, and this susceptibility could be rescued by activating salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defense. Consistent with these results, smr1-1 partially suppressed the dwarfism, high SA levels, and cell death phenotypes in acd6-1, a mutant used to gauge the change of defense levels. Thus, SMR1 functions partly through SA in defense control. The differential roles of SIM and SMR1 are due to differences in temporal and spatial expression of these two genes in Arabidopsis tissues and in response to P. syringae infection. In addition, flow-cytometry analysis of plants with altered SA signaling revealed that SA is necessary, but not sufficient, to change cell-cycle progression. We further found that a mutant with three CYCD3 genes disrupted also compromised disease resistance to P. syringae. Together, this study reveals differential roles of two homologous cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in regulating cell-cycle progression and innate immunity in Arabidopsis and provides insights into the importance of cell-cycle control during host-pathogen interactions. PMID:26561564

  8. Comparative theoretical study of the binding of potential cancer-treatment drugs to Checkpoint kinase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, Pedro M. M.; Pinto da Silva, Luís; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C. G.

    2014-01-01

    This Letter focuses the binding between Checkpoint kinase 1 and two molecules with known inhibition potential, C39 and C40. In order to find the most relevant residues the structures were submitted to an optimization process. As expected C39 presented the highest inhibitory power towards Chk1, being this inhibition mode highly dependent on the interactions with Lys38 and Glu91. Glu55 and Asp148 exhibit unfavorable interactions to C39. Glu91 was the most important residues in the binding of C40 to Chk1, while interaction with Lys38, Glu55 and Gly90 resulted in repulsion.

  9. A role for Hsp90 in cell cycle control: Wee1 tyrosine kinase activity requires interaction with Hsp90.

    PubMed Central

    Aligue, R; Akhavan-Niak, H; Russell, P

    1994-01-01

    Wee1 protein kinase regulates the length of G2 phase by carrying out the inhibitory tyrosyl phosphorylation of Cdc2-cyclin B kinase. Mutations were isolated that suppressed the G2 cell cycle arrest caused by overproduction of Wee1. One class of swo (suppressor of wee1 overproduction) mutation, exemplified by swo1-26, also caused a temperature sensitive lethal phenotype in a wee1+ background. The swo1+ gene encodes a member of the Hsp90 family of stress proteins. Swo1 is essential for viability at all temperatures. Swo1 coimmunoprecipitates with Wee1, showing that the two proteins interact. The swo1-26 mutant undergoes premature mitosis when grown at a semi-permissive temperature. These data strongly indicate that formation of active Wee1 tyrosine kinase requires interaction with Swo1, perhaps in a manner analogous to the previously demonstrated interaction between Hsp90 and v-src tyrosine kinase. These observations demonstrate a unexpected role for Hsp90 in cell cycle control. Images PMID:7813446

  10. A Feed Forward Loop Involving Protein Kinase C Alpha and MicroRNAs Regulates Tumor Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Ezra Eddy Wyssam; Zhu, Hongyan; Lingen, Mark W.; Martin, Leslie E.; Kuo, Wen-Liang; Choi, Eugene A.; Kocherginsky, Masha; Parker, Joel S.; Chung, Christine H.; Rosner, Marsha Rich

    2009-01-01

    Protein Kinase C alpha (PKCα) has been implicated in cancer but the mechanism is largely unknown. Here we show that PKCα promotes head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCCHN) by a feed forward network leading to cell cycle deregulation. PKCα inhibitors decrease proliferation in SCCHN cell lines and xenografted tumors. PKCα inhibition or depletion in tumor cells decreases DNA synthesis by suppressing ERK phosphorylation and cyclin E synthesis. Additionally, PKCα down-regulates miR-15a, a microRNA that directly inhibits protein synthesis of cyclin E as well as other cell cycle regulators. Furthermore, both PKCα and cyclin E protein expression are increased in primary tumors, and PKCα inversely correlates with miR15a expression in primary tumors. Finally, PKCα is associated with poor prognosis in SCCHN. These results identify PKCα as a key regulator of HNSCC tumor cell growth by a mechanism involving activation of MAP kinase, an initiator of the cell cycle, and suppression of miR-15a, an inhibitor of DNA synthesis. Although the specific components may be different, this type of feed forward loop network, consisting of a stimulus that activates a positive signal and removes a negative brake, is likely to be a general one that enables induction of DNA synthesis by a variety of growth or oncogenic stimuli. PMID:19117988

  11. ERK1/2 MAP kinases promote cell cycle entry by rapid, kinase-independent disruption of retinoblastoma-lamin A complexes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Javier; Calvo, Fernando; González, José M; Casar, Berta; Andrés, Vicente; Crespo, Piero

    2010-11-29

    As orchestrators of essential cellular processes like proliferation, ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase signals impact on cell cycle regulation. A-type lamins are major constituents of the nuclear matrix that also control the cell cycle machinery by largely unknown mechanisms. In this paper, we disclose a functional liaison between ERK1/2 and lamin A whereby cell cycle progression is regulated. We demonstrate that lamin A serves as a mutually exclusive dock for ERK1/2 and the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein. Our results reveal that, immediately after their postactivation entrance in the nucleus, ERK1/2 dislodge Rb from its interaction with lamin A, thereby facilitating its rapid phosphorylation and consequently promoting E2F activation and cell cycle entry. Interestingly, these effects are independent of ERK1/2 kinase activity. We also show that cellular transformation and tumor cell proliferation are dependent on the balance between lamin A and nuclear ERK1/2 levels, which determines Rb accessibility for phosphorylation/inactivation. PMID:21115804

  12. Inhibition of protein kinase B activity induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis during early G₁ phase in CHO cells.

    PubMed

    van Opstal, Angélique; Bijvelt, José; van Donselaar, Elly; Humbel, Bruno M; Boonstra, Johannes

    2012-04-01

    Inhibition of PKB (protein kinase B) activity using a highly selective PKB inhibitor resulted in inhibition of cell cycle progression only if cells were in early G1 phase at the time of addition of the inhibitor, as demonstrated by time-lapse cinematography. Addition of the inhibitor during mitosis up to 2 h after mitosis resulted in arrest of the cells in early G1 phase, as deduced from the expression of cyclins D and A and incorporation of thymidine. After 24 h of cell cycle arrest, cells expressed the cleaved caspase-3, a central mediator of apoptosis. These results demonstrate that PKB activity in early G1 phase is required to prevent the induction of apoptosis. Using antibodies, it was demonstrated that active PKB translocates to the nucleus during early G1 phase, while an even distribution of PKB was observed through cytoplasm and nucleus during the end of G1 phase. PMID:22251027

  13. Modulating Mek1 kinase alters outcomes of meiotic recombination and the stringency of the recombination checkpoint response

    PubMed Central

    Hsin-Yen, Wu; Hsuan-Chung, Ho; Burgess, Sean M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background During meiosis, recombination between homologous chromosomes promotes their proper segregation. In budding yeast, programmed double-strand breaks (DSBs) promote recombination between homologs versus sister chromatids by dimerizing and activating Mek1, a chromosome axis-associated kinase. Mek1 is also a proposed effector kinase in the recombination checkpoint that arrests exit from pachytene in response to aberrant DNA/axis structures. Elucidating a role for Mek1 in the recombination checkpoint has been difficult since in mek1 loss-of-function mutants DSBs are rapidly repaired using a sister chromatid thereby bypassing formation of checkpoint-activating lesions. Here we tested the hypothesis that a MEK1 gain-of-function allele would enhance interhomolog bias and the recombination checkpoint response. Results When Mek1 activation was artificially maintained through GST-mediated dimerization, there was an enhanced skew toward interhomolog recombination and reduction of intersister events including multi-chromatid joint molecules. Increased interhomolog events were specifically repaired as noncrossovers rather than crossovers. Ectopic Mek1 dimerization was also sufficient to impose interhomolog bias in the absence of recombination checkpoint functions, thereby uncoupling these two processes. Finally, the stringency of the recombination checkpoint was enhanced in weak meiotic recombination mutants by blocking prophase exit in a subset of cells where arrest is not absolute. Conclusions We propose that Mek1 plays dual roles during meiotic prophase I by phosphorylating targets directly involved in the recombination checkpoint as well as targets involved in sister chromatid recombination. We discuss how regulation of pachytene exit by Mek1 or similar kinases could influence checkpoint stringency, which may differ among species and between sexes. PMID:20888230

  14. Natural flavonoids targeting deregulated cell cycle progression in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rana Pratap; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2006-03-01

    The prolonged duration requiring alteration of multi-genetic and epigenetic molecular events for cancer development provides a strong rationale for cancer prevention, which is developing as a potential strategy to arrest or reverse carcinogenic changes before the appearance of the malignant disease. Cell cycle progression is an important biological event having controlled regulation in normal cells, which almost universally becomes aberrant or deregulated in transformed and neoplastic cells. In this regard, targeting deregulated cell cycle progression and its modulation by various natural and synthetic agents are gaining widespread attention in recent years to control the unchecked growth and proliferation in cancer cells. In fact, a vast number of experimental studies convincingly show that many phytochemicals halt uncontrolled cell cycle progression in cancer cells. Among these phytochemicals, natural flavonoids have been identified as a one of the major classes of natural anticancer agents exerting antineoplastic activity via cell cycle arrest as a major mechanism in various types of cancer cells. This review is focused at the modulatory effects of natural flavonoids on cell cycle regulators including cyclin-dependent kinases and their inhibitors, cyclins, p53, retinoblastoma family of proteins, E2Fs, check-point kinases, ATM/ATR and survivin controlling G1/S and G2/M check-point transitions in cell cycle progression, and discusses how these molecular changes could contribute to the antineoplastic effects of natural flavonoids. PMID:16515531

  15. Resveratrol inhibits cell cycle progression by targeting Aurora kinase A and Polo-like kinase 1 in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Medina-Aguilar, Rubiceli; Marchat, Laurence A; Arechaga Ocampo, Elena; Gariglio, Patricio; García Mena, Jaime; Villegas Sepúlveda, Nicolás; Martínez Castillo, Macario; López-Camarillo, César

    2016-06-01

    The Aurora protein kinase (AURKA) and the Polo-like kinase-1 (PLK1) activate the cell cycle, and they are considered promising druggable targets in cancer therapy. However, resistance to chemotherapy and to specific small‑molecule inhibitors is common in cancer patients; thus alternative therapeutic approaches are needed to overcome clinical resistance. Here, we showed that the dietary compound resveratrol suppressed the cell cycle by targeting AURKA and PLK1 kinases. First, we identified genes modulated by resveratrol using a genome-wide analysis of gene expression in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Transcriptional profiling indicated that 375 genes were modulated at 24 h after resveratrol intervention, whereas 579 genes were regulated at 48 h. Of these, 290 genes were deregulated in common at 24 and 48 h. Interestingly, a significant decrease in the expression of genes involved in the cell cycle, DNA repair, cytoskeleton organization, and angiogenesis was detected. In particular, AURKA and PLK1 kinases were downregulated by resveratrol at 24 h. In addition the BRCA1 gene, an AURKA/PLK1 inhibitor, was upregulated at 24 h of treatment. Moreover, two well-known resveratrol effectors, cyclin D1 (CCND1) and cyclin B1 (CCNB1), were also repressed at both times. Congruently, we found that resveratrol impaired G1/S phase transition in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. By western blot assays, we confirmed that resveratrol suppressed AURKA, CCND1 and CCNB1 at 24 and 48 h. In summary, we showed for the first time that resveratrol regulates cell cycle progression by targeting AURKA and PLK1. Our findings highlight the potential use of resveratrol as an adjuvant therapy for breast cancer. PMID:27109433

  16. Casein kinase II is required for the spindle assembly checkpoint by regulating Mad2p in fission yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, Midori; Yamamoto, Ayumu; Murakami-Tonami, Yuko; Nakanishi, Makoto; Yoshida, Takashi; Aiba, Hirofumi; Murakami, Hiroshi

    2009-10-23

    The spindle checkpoint is a surveillance mechanism that ensures the fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis. Here we show that fission yeast casein kinase II (CK2) is required for this checkpoint function. In the CK2 mutants mitosis occurs in the presence of a spindle defect, and the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2p fails to localize to unattached kinetochores. The CK2 mutants are sensitive to the microtubule depolymerising drug thiabendazole, which is counteracted by ectopic expression of mad2{sup +}. The level of Mad2p is low in the CK2 mutants. These results suggest that CK2 has a role in the spindle checkpoint by regulating Mad2p.

  17. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Co-Ordinates Carbohydrate Metabolism and Cell Cycle in S. cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gang; Chen, Yuping; Carey, Lucas; Futcher, Bruce

    2016-05-19

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) control cell division in eukaryotes by phosphorylating proteins involved in division. But successful proliferation requires co-ordination between division and cellular growth in mass. Previous proteomic studies suggested that metabolic proteins, as well as cell division proteins, could potentially be substrates of cyclin-dependent kinases. Here we focus on two metabolic enzymes of the yeast S. cerevisiae, neutral trehalase (Nth1) and glycogen phosphorylase (Gph1), and show that their activities are likely directly controlled by CDK activity, thus allowing co-ordinate regulation of carbohydrate metabolism with cell division processes. In this case, co-ordinate regulation may optimize the decision to undertake a final cell division as nutrients are being exhausted. Co-regulation of cell division processes and metabolic processes by CDK activity may be a general phenomenon important for co-ordinating the cell cycle with growth. PMID:27203179

  18. Cell cycle regulatory protein p27KIP1 is a substrate and interacts with the protein kinase CK2.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Julio C; Bolanos-Garcia, Victor M; Sayed, Muhammed; Allende, Catherine C; Allende, Jorge E

    2004-04-01

    The protein kinase CK2 is constituted by two catalytic (alpha and/or alpha') and two regulatory (beta) subunits. CK2 phosphorylates more than 300 proteins with important functions in the cell cycle. This study has looked at the relation between CK2 and p27(KIP1), which is a regulator of the cell cycle and a known inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk). We demonstrated that in vitro recombinant Xenopus laevis CK2 can phosphorylate recombinant human p27(KIP1), but this phosphorylation occurs only in the presence of the regulatory beta subunit. The principal site of phosphorylation is serine-83. Analysis using pull down and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) techniques showed that p27(KIP1) interacts with the beta subunit through two domains present in the amino and carboxyl ends, while CD spectra showed that p27(KIP1) phosphorylation by CK2 affects its secondary structure. Altogether, these results suggest that p27(KIP1) phosphorylation by CK2 probably involves a docking event mediated by the CK2beta subunit. The phosphorylation of p27(KIP1) by CK2 may affect its biological activity. PMID:15034923

  19. Role of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) in the mechanisms of resistance to histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Hee; Choy, Megan L; Ngo, Lang; Venta-Perez, Gisela; Marks, Paul A

    2011-12-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are a new group of anticancer drugs with tumor selective toxicity. Normal cells are relatively resistant to HDACi-induced cell death compared with cancer cells. Previously, we found that vorinostat induces DNA breaks in normal and transformed cells, which normal but not cancer cells can repair. In this study, we found that checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1), a component of the G2 DNA damage checkpoint, is important in the resistance of normal cells to HDACi in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of Chk1 activity with Chk1 inhibitor (UCN-01, AZD7762, or CHIR-124) in normal cells increases their sensitivity to HDACi (vorinostat, romidepsin, or entinostat) induced cell death, associated with extensive mitotic disruption. Mitotic abnormalities included loss of sister chromatid cohesion and chromosomal disruption. Inhibition of Chk1 did increase HDACi-induced cell death of transformed cells. Thus, Chk1 is an important factor in the resistance of normal cells, and some transformed cells, to HDACi-induced cell death. Use of Chk1 inhibitors in combination with anticancer agents to treat cancers may be associated with substantial toxicity. PMID:22106282

  20. Structural analysis reveals features of the spindle checkpoint kinase Bub1-kinetochore subunit Knl1 interaction.

    PubMed

    Krenn, Veronica; Wehenkel, Annemarie; Li, Xiaozheng; Santaguida, Stefano; Musacchio, Andrea

    2012-02-20

    The function of the essential checkpoint kinases Bub1 and BubR1 requires their recruitment to mitotic kinetochores. Kinetochore recruitment of Bub1 and BubR1 is proposed to rely on the interaction of the tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs) of Bub1 and BubR1 with two KI motifs in the outer kinetochore protein Knl1. We determined the crystal structure of the Bub1 TPRs in complex with the cognate Knl1 KI motif and compared it with the structure of the equivalent BubR1TPR-KI motif complex. The interaction developed along the convex surface of the TPR assembly. Point mutations on this surface impaired the interaction of Bub1 and BubR1 with Knl1 in vitro and in vivo but did not cause significant displacement of Bub1 and BubR1 from kinetochores. Conversely, a 62-residue segment of Bub1 that includes a binding domain for the checkpoint protein Bub3 and is C terminal to the TPRs was necessary and largely sufficient for kinetochore recruitment of Bub1. These results shed light on the determinants of kinetochore recruitment of Bub1. PMID:22331848

  1. The Bub1–Plk1 kinase complex promotes spindle checkpoint signalling through Cdc20 phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Luying; Li, Bing; Yu, Hongtao

    2016-01-01

    The spindle checkpoint senses unattached kinetochores and inhibits the Cdc20-bound anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C), to delay anaphase, thereby preventing aneuploidy. A critical checkpoint inhibitor of APC/CCdc20 is the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC). It is unclear whether MCC suffices to inhibit all cellular APC/C. Here we show that human checkpoint kinase Bub1 not only directly phosphorylates Cdc20, but also scaffolds Plk1-mediated phosphorylation of Cdc20. Phosphorylation of Cdc20 by Bub1–Plk1 inhibits APC/CCdc20 in vitro and is required for checkpoint signalling in human cells. Bub1–Plk1-dependent Cdc20 phosphorylation is regulated by upstream checkpoint signals and is dispensable for MCC assembly. A phospho-mimicking Cdc20 mutant restores nocodazole-induced mitotic arrest in cells depleted of Mad2 or BubR1. Thus, Bub1–Plk1-mediated phosphorylation of Cdc20 constitutes an APC/C-inhibitory mechanism that is parallel, but not redundant, to MCC formation. Both mechanisms are required to sustain mitotic arrest in response to spindle defects. PMID:26912231

  2. The Aurora B Kinase in Chromosome Bi-Orientation and Spindle Checkpoint Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Krenn, Veronica; Musacchio, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Aurora B, a member of the Aurora family of serine/threonine protein kinases, is a key player in chromosome segregation. As part of a macromolecular complex known as the chromosome passenger complex, Aurora B concentrates early during mitosis in the proximity of centromeres and kinetochores, the sites of attachment of chromosomes to spindle microtubules. There, it contributes to a number of processes that impart fidelity to cell division, including kinetochore stabilization, kinetochore–microtubule attachment, and the regulation of a surveillance mechanism named the spindle assembly checkpoint. In the regulation of these processes, Aurora B is the fulcrum of a remarkably complex network of interactions that feed back on its localization and activation state. In this review, we discuss the multiple roles of Aurora B during mitosis, focusing in particular on its role at centromeres and kinetochores. Many details of the network of interactions at these locations remain poorly understood, and we focus here on several crucial outstanding questions. PMID:26528436

  3. Drosophila ATM and ATR checkpoint kinases control partially redundant pathways for telomere maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Xiaolin; Srikanta, Deepa; Fanti, Laura; Pimpinelli, Sergio; Badugu, RamaKrishna; Kellum, Rebecca; Rong, Yikang S.

    2005-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) checkpoint kinases play distinct, but partially overlapping, roles in DNA damage response. Yet their interrelated function has not been defined for telomere maintenance. We discover in Drosophila that the two proteins control partially redundant pathways for telomere protection: the loss of ATM leads to the fusion of some telomeres, whereas the loss of both ATM and ATR renders all telomeres susceptible to fusion. The ATM-controlled pathway includes the Mre11 and Nijmegen breakage syndrome complex but not the Chk2 kinase, whereas the ATR-regulated pathway includes its partner ATR-interacting protein but not the Chk1 kinase. This finding suggests that ATM and ATR regulate different molecular events at the telomeres compared with the sites of DNA damage. This compensatory relationship between ATM and ATR is remarkably similar to that observed in yeast despite the fact that the biochemistry of telomere elongation is completely different in the two model systems. We provide evidence suggesting that both the loading of telomere capping proteins and normal telomeric silencing requires ATM and ATR in Drosophila and propose that ATM and ATR protect telomere integrity by safeguarding chromatin architecture that favors the loading of telomere-elongating, capping, and silencing proteins. PMID:16203987

  4. In Silico Design and Biological Evaluation of a Dual Specificity Kinase Inhibitor Targeting Cell Cycle Progression and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Latham, Antony M.; Kankanala, Jayakanth; Fearnley, Gareth W.; Gage, Matthew C.; Kearney, Mark T.; Homer-Vanniasinkam, Shervanthi; Wheatcroft, Stephen B.; Fishwick, Colin W. G.; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2014-01-01

    Background Protein kinases play a central role in tumor progression, regulating fundamental processes such as angiogenesis, proliferation and metastasis. Such enzymes are an increasingly important class of drug target with small molecule kinase inhibitors being a major focus in drug development. However, balancing drug specificity and efficacy is problematic with off-target effects and toxicity issues. Methodology We have utilized a rational in silico-based approach to demonstrate the design and study of a novel compound that acts as a dual inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1). This compound acts by simultaneously inhibiting pro-angiogenic signal transduction and cell cycle progression in primary endothelial cells. JK-31 displays potent in vitro activity against recombinant VEGFR2 and CDK1/cyclin B proteins comparable to previously characterized inhibitors. Dual inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A)-mediated signaling response and CDK1-mediated mitotic entry elicits anti-angiogenic activity both in an endothelial-fibroblast co-culture model and a murine ex vivo model of angiogenesis. Conclusions We deduce that JK-31 reduces the growth of both human endothelial cells and human breast cancer cells in vitro. This novel synthetic molecule has broad implications for development of similar multi-kinase inhibitors with anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer properties. In silico design is an attractive and innovative method to aid such drug discovery. PMID:25393739

  5. BRCA2 Coordinates the Activities of Cell-Cycle Kinases to Promote Genome Stability

    PubMed Central

    Yata, Keiko; Bleuyard, Jean-Yves; Nakato, Ryuichiro; Ralf, Christine; Katou, Yuki; Schwab, Rebekka A.; Niedzwiedz, Wojciech; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Esashi, Fumiko

    2014-01-01

    Summary Numerous human genome instability syndromes, including cancer, are closely associated with events arising from malfunction of the essential recombinase Rad51. However, little is known about how Rad51 is dynamically regulated in human cells. Here, we show that the breast cancer susceptibility protein BRCA2, a key Rad51 binding partner, coordinates the activity of the central cell-cycle drivers CDKs and Plk1 to promote Rad51-mediated genome stability control. The soluble nuclear fraction of BRCA2 binds Plk1 directly in a cell-cycle- and CDK-dependent manner and acts as a molecular platform to facilitate Plk1-mediated Rad51 phosphorylation. This phosphorylation is important for enhancing the association of Rad51 with stressed replication forks, which in turn protects the genomic integrity of proliferating human cells. This study reveals an elaborate but highly organized molecular interplay between Rad51 regulators and has significant implications for understanding tumorigenesis and therapeutic resistance in patients with BRCA2 deficiency. PMID:24835992

  6. Histone H3 K79 methylation states play distinct roles in UV-induced sister chromatid exchange and cell cycle checkpoint arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Rossodivita, Alyssa A.; Boudoures, Anna L.; Mecoli, Jonathan P.; Steenkiste, Elizabeth M.; Karl, Andrea L.; Vines, Eudora M.; Cole, Arron M.; Ansbro, Megan R.; Thompson, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Histone post-translational modifications have been shown to contribute to DNA damage repair. Prior studies have suggested that specific H3K79 methylation states play distinct roles in the response to UV-induced DNA damage. To evaluate these observations, we examined the effect of altered H3K79 methylation patterns on UV-induced G1/S checkpoint response and sister chromatid exchange (SCE). We found that the di- and trimethylated states both contribute to activation of the G1/S checkpoint to varying degrees, depending on the synchronization method, although methylation is not required for checkpoint in response to high levels of UV damage. In contrast, UV-induced SCE is largely a product of the trimethylated state, which influences the usage of gene conversion versus popout mechanisms. Regulation of H3K79 methylation by H2BK123 ubiquitylation is important for both checkpoint function and SCE. H3K79 methylation is not required for the repair of double-stranded breaks caused by transient HO endonuclease expression, but does play a modest role in survival from continuous exposure. The overall results provide evidence for the participation of H3K79 methylation in UV-induced recombination repair and checkpoint activation, and further indicate that the di- and trimethylation states play distinct roles in these DNA damage response pathways. PMID:24748660

  7. Polydatin-induced cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest are potentiated by Janus kinase 2 inhibition in leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wei-Jie; Wu, Ke; Wang, Chong; Wan, Ding-Ming

    2016-04-01

    Polydatin (PD), a natural precursor of resveratrol, has a variety of biological activities, including anti‑tumor effects. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of the anti-cancer activity of PD has not been fully elucidated. The present study demonstrated that PD significantly inhibited the proliferation of the MOLT-4 leukemia cell line in a dose‑ and time-dependent manner by using Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay. PD also dose-dependently increased the apoptotic rate and caused cell cycle arrest in S phase in MOLT‑4 cells, as revealed by flow cytometry. In addition, PD dose-dependently decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential and led to the generation of reactive oxygen species in MOLT-4 cells. Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of anti‑apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) was decreased, whereas that of pro‑apoptotic protein Bcl‑2‑associated X was increased by PD. Furthermore, the expression of two cell cycle regulatory proteins, cyclin D1 and cyclin B1, was suppressed by PD. Of note, the pro‑apoptotic and cell cycle‑inhibitory effects of PD were potentiated by Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) inhibition. In conclusion, the results of the present study strongly suggested that PD is a promising therapeutic compound for the treatment of leukemia, particularly in combination with JAK inhibitors. PMID:26934953

  8. Sphingosine Kinase Regulates Microtubule Dynamics and Organelle Positioning Necessary for Proper G1/S Cell Cycle Transition in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Pasternack, Deborah A.; Sharma, Aabha I.; Olson, Cheryl L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sphingolipids are important constituents of cell membranes and also serve as mediators of cell signaling and cell recognition. Sphingolipid metabolites such as sphingosine-1-phosphate and ceramide regulate signaling cascades involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, autophagy, inflammation, and apoptosis. Little is known about how sphingolipids and their metabolites function in single-celled eukaryotes. In the present study, we investigated the role of sphingosine kinase (SPHK) in the biology of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, the agent of African sleeping sickness. T. brucei SPHK (TbSPHK) is constitutively but differentially expressed during the life cycle of T. brucei. Depletion of TbSPHK in procyclic-form T. brucei causes impaired growth and attenuation in the G1/S phase of the cell cycle. TbSPHK-depleted cells also develop organelle positioning defects and an accumulation of tyrosinated α-tubulin at the elongated posterior end of the cell, known as the “nozzle” phenotype, caused by other molecular perturbations in this organism. Our studies indicate that TbSPHK is involved in G1-to-S cell cycle progression, organelle positioning, and maintenance of cell morphology. Cytotoxicity assays using TbSPHK inhibitors revealed a favorable therapeutic index between T. brucei and human cells, suggesting TbSPHK to be a novel drug target. PMID:26443455

  9. Ipl1/Aurora B kinase coordinates synaptonemal complex disassembly with cell cycle progression and crossover formation in budding yeast meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Philip; Copsey, Alice; Newnham, Louise; Kolar, Elizabeth; Lichten, Michael; Hoffmann, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Several protein kinases collaborate to orchestrate and integrate cellular and chromosomal events at the G2/M transition in both mitotic and meiotic cells. During the G2/M transition in meiosis, this includes the completion of crossover recombination, spindle formation, and synaptonemal complex (SC) breakdown. We identified Ipl1/Aurora B kinase as the main regulator of SC disassembly. Mutants lacking Ipl1 or its kinase activity assemble SCs with normal timing, but fail to dissociate the central element component Zip1, as well as its binding partner, Smt3/SUMO, from chromosomes in a timely fashion. Moreover, lack of Ipl1 activity causes delayed SC disassembly in a cdc5 as well as a CDC5-inducible ndt80 mutant. Crossover levels in the ipl1 mutant are similar to those observed in wild type, indicating that full SC disassembly is not a prerequisite for joint molecule resolution and subsequent crossover formation. Moreover, expression of meiosis I and meiosis II-specific B-type cyclins occur normally in ipl1 mutants, despite delayed formation of anaphase I spindles. These observations suggest that Ipl1 coordinates changes to meiotic chromosome structure with resolution of crossovers and cell cycle progression at the end of meiotic prophase. PMID:19759266

  10. Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK): a novel regulator in cell cycle control, embryonic development, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Pengfei; Zhang, Deli

    2013-01-01

    Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) functions as a modulator of intracellular signaling and affects various cellular and biological processes, including cell cycle, cell proliferation, apoptosis, spliceosome assembly, gene expression, embryonic development, hematopoiesis, and oncogenesis. In these cellular processes, MELK functions by binding to numerous proteins. In general, the effects of multiple protein interactions with MELK are oncogenic in nature, and the overexpression of MELK in kinds of cancer provides some evidence that it may be involved in tumorigenic process. In this review, our current knowledge of MELK function and recent discoveries in MELK signaling pathway were discussed. The regulation of MELK in cancers and its potential as a therapeutic target were also described. PMID:24185907

  11. Akt kinase-mediated checkpoint of cGAS DNA sensing pathway

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Gil Ju; Yang, Aerin; Tan, Brandon; Kim, Sungyoon; Liang, Qiming; Choi, Younho; Yuan, Weiming; Feng, Pinghui; Park, Hee-Sung; Jung, Jae U.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Upon DNA stimulation, cyclic GMP-AMP synthetase (cGAS) synthesizes the second messenger cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) that binds to the STING, triggering antiviral interferon-β (IFN-β) production. However, it has remained undetermined how hosts regulate cGAS enzymatic activity after the resolution of DNA immunogen. Here, we show that Akt kinase plays a negative role in cGAS-mediated anti-viral immune response. Akt phosphorylated the S291 or S305 residue of the enzymatic domain of mouse or human cGAS, respectively, and this phosphorylation robustly suppressed its enzymatic activity. Consequently, expression of activated Akt led to the reduction of cGAMP and IFN-β production and the increase of herpes simplex virus 1 replication, whereas treatment with Akt inhibitor augmented cGAS-mediated IFN-β production. Furthermore, expression of the phosphorylation-resistant cGAS S291A mutant enhanced IFN-β production upon DNA stimulation, HSV-1 infection, and vaccinia virus infection. Our study identifies an Akt kinase-mediated checkpoint to fine-tune hosts’ immune responses to DNA stimulation. PMID:26440888

  12. PHYSICAL INTERACTIONS AMONG HUMAN CHECKPOINT CONTROL PROTEINS HUS1P, RAD1P AND RAD9P, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE REGULATION OF CELL CYCLE PROGRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe husl promotes radioresistance and hydroxyurea resistance, as well as S and G2 phase checkpoint control.We isolated a human cDNA homologous to husl, called HUSI. The major focus of this report is on a detailed analysis of the physical interactions of the ...

  13. Cyclin-dependent kinase 7 controls mRNA synthesis by affecting stability of preinitiation complexes, leading to altered gene expression, cell cycle progression, and survival of tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Kelso, Timothy W R; Baumgart, Karen; Eickhoff, Jan; Albert, Thomas; Antrecht, Claudia; Lemcke, Sarah; Klebl, Bert; Meisterernst, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7) activates cell cycle CDKs and is a member of the general transcription factor TFIIH. Although there is substantial evidence for an active role of CDK7 in mRNA synthesis and associated processes, the degree of its influence on global and gene-specific transcription in mammalian species is unclear. In the current study, we utilize two novel inhibitors with high specificity for CDK7 to demonstrate a restricted but robust impact of CDK7 on gene transcription in vivo and in in vitro-reconstituted reactions. We distinguish between relative low- and high-dose responses and relate them to distinct molecular mechanisms and altered physiological responses. Low inhibitor doses cause rapid clearance of paused RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) molecules and sufficed to cause genome-wide alterations in gene expression, delays in cell cycle progression at both the G1/S and G2/M checkpoints, and diminished survival of human tumor cells. Higher doses and prolonged inhibition led to strong reductions in RNAPII carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) phosphorylation, eventual activation of the p53 program, and increased cell death. Together, our data reason for a quantitative contribution of CDK7 to mRNA synthesis, which is critical for cellular homeostasis. PMID:25047832

  14. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 7 Controls mRNA Synthesis by Affecting Stability of Preinitiation Complexes, Leading to Altered Gene Expression, Cell Cycle Progression, and Survival of Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kelso, Timothy W. R.; Baumgart, Karen; Eickhoff, Jan; Albert, Thomas; Antrecht, Claudia; Lemcke, Sarah; Klebl, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7) activates cell cycle CDKs and is a member of the general transcription factor TFIIH. Although there is substantial evidence for an active role of CDK7 in mRNA synthesis and associated processes, the degree of its influence on global and gene-specific transcription in mammalian species is unclear. In the current study, we utilize two novel inhibitors with high specificity for CDK7 to demonstrate a restricted but robust impact of CDK7 on gene transcription in vivo and in in vitro-reconstituted reactions. We distinguish between relative low- and high-dose responses and relate them to distinct molecular mechanisms and altered physiological responses. Low inhibitor doses cause rapid clearance of paused RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) molecules and sufficed to cause genome-wide alterations in gene expression, delays in cell cycle progression at both the G1/S and G2/M checkpoints, and diminished survival of human tumor cells. Higher doses and prolonged inhibition led to strong reductions in RNAPII carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) phosphorylation, eventual activation of the p53 program, and increased cell death. Together, our data reason for a quantitative contribution of CDK7 to mRNA synthesis, which is critical for cellular homeostasis. PMID:25047832

  15. Hypoxia-induced alterations of G2 checkpoint regulators.

    PubMed

    Hasvold, Grete; Lund-Andersen, Christin; Lando, Malin; Patzke, Sebastian; Hauge, Sissel; Suo, ZhenHe; Lyng, Heidi; Syljuåsen, Randi G

    2016-05-01

    Hypoxia promotes an aggressive tumor phenotype with increased genomic instability, partially due to downregulation of DNA repair pathways. However, genome stability is also surveilled by cell cycle checkpoints. An important issue is therefore whether hypoxia also can influence the DNA damage-induced cell cycle checkpoints. Here, we show that hypoxia (24 h 0.2% O2) alters the expression of several G2 checkpoint regulators, as examined by microarray gene expression analysis and immunoblotting of U2OS cells. While some of the changes reflected hypoxia-induced inhibition of cell cycle progression, the levels of several G2 checkpoint regulators, in particular Cyclin B, were reduced in G2 phase cells after hypoxic exposure, as shown by flow cytometric barcoding analysis of individual cells. These effects were accompanied by decreased phosphorylation of a Cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) target in G2 phase cells after hypoxia, suggesting decreased CDK activity. Furthermore, cells pre-exposed to hypoxia showed increased G2 checkpoint arrest upon treatment with ionizing radiation. Similar results were found following other hypoxic conditions (∼0.03% O2 20 h and 0.2% O2 72 h). These results demonstrate that the DNA damage-induced G2 checkpoint can be altered as a consequence of hypoxia, and we propose that such alterations may influence the genome stability of hypoxic tumors. PMID:26791779

  16. A Mechanism for Cell Cycle Regulation of MAP Kinase Signaling in a Yeast Differentiation Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Strickfaden, Shelly C.; Winters, Matthew J.; Ben-Ari, Giora; Lamson, Rachel E.; Tyers, Mike; Pryciak, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Yeast cells arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle upon exposure to mating pheromones. As cells commit to a new cycle, G1 CDK activity (Cln/CDK) inhibits signaling through the mating MAPK cascade. Here, we show that the target of this inhibition is Ste5, the MAPK cascade scaffold protein. Cln/CDK phosphorylates a cluster of sites flanking a small, basic membrane-binding motif in Ste5, thereby disrupting Ste5 membrane localization. Effective inhibition of Ste5 signaling requires multiple phosphorylation sites and a substantial accumulation of negative charge, suggesting that Ste5 acts as a sensor for high G1 CDK activity. Thus, Ste5 is an integration point for both external and internal signals. When Ste5 cannot be phosphorylated, pheromone triggers an aberrant arrest of cells outside G1, either in the presence or absence of the CDK inhibitor protein Far1. These findings define a mechanism and physiological benefit of restricting antiproliferative signaling to G1. PMID:17289571

  17. Regulation of the human WEE1Hu CDK tyrosine 15-kinase during the cell cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, N; Broome, M; Hunter, T

    1995-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are negatively regulated by phosphorylation on threonine 14 (T14) and tyrosine 15 (Y15). In fission yeast, the Wee1 and mitosis inhibitory kinase 1 (Mik1) protein kinases phosphorylate Y15 in Cdc2. WEE1Hu is the only known protein kinase that can carry out this inhibitory phosphorylation on Y15 in higher eukaryotes. In the present study, we examined the endogenous products of WEE1Hu in human cells and found that the original WEE1Hu cDNA lacked 214 amino acids at the N-terminus. The predicted full-length protein has weak, but significant, similarity over its entire length with Mik1. Thus, we suggest that 'WEE1Hu' is a Mik1-related protein rather than a Wee1 homologue. When isolated in immunoprecipitates, the endogenous WEE1Hu phosphorylated several cyclin-associated CDKs on Y15. WEE1Hu activity increased during S and G2 phases in parallel with the level of protein. Its activity decreased at M phase when WEE1Hu became transiently hyperphosphorylated. In addition, a decrease in WEE1Hu protein level was observed at M/G1 phase. Apparently, the hyperphosphorylation and degradation in combination caused inactivation of WEE1Hu at M phase and the following G1 phase. These results suggest that the activity of WEE1Hu is regulated by phosphorylation and proteolytic degradation, and that WEE1Hu plays a role in inhibiting mitosis before M phase by phosphorylating cyclin B1-Cdc2. Images PMID:7743995

  18. Differences in kinase-mediated regulation of cell cycle progression in normal and transformed cells

    SciTech Connect

    Crissman, H.A.; Gadbois, D.M.; Tobey, R.A.; Stevenson, A.P.; Kraemer, P.M.; Bustos, L.D.; Dickson, J.A.; Bradbury, E.M. )

    1993-01-01

    Staurosporine (Stsp), a general protein kinase inhibitor, was used to investigate the role of kinase-mediated mechanisms in regulating mammalian cell proliferation. Low levels of Stsp (1-2nM) prevented nontransformed cells from entering S phase, indicating that protein phosphorylation processes are essential for commitment of DNA replication in normal cells. Cells resumed cycling when Stsp was removed. The period of sensitivity of nontransformed human diploid fibroblasts to low levels of the drug commenced 3 h later than the G0/G1 boundary and extended through the G1/S boundary. The initial block point at 3 h corresponds neither to the serum nor the amino acid restriction point. In contrast, neither low nor high concentrations (100nm) of Stsp affected G1 progression of transformed cells. High drug concentrations blocked normal cells in G1 and G2 but affected only G2-progression in transformed cells. These results indicate that kinase-mediated regulation of DNA replication is lost as a result of neoplastic transformation, but the G2-arrest mechanism remains intact.

  19. SCFFBXW7α modulates the intra-S-phase DNA-damage checkpoint by regulating Polo like kinase-1 stability

    PubMed Central

    Giráldez, Servando; Herrero-Ruiz, Joaquín; Mora-Santos, Mar; Japón, Miguel Á.; Tortolero, Maria; Romero, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The intra-S-checkpoint is essential to control cell progression through S phase under normal conditions and in response to replication stress. When DNA lesions are detected, replication fork progression is blocked allowing time for repair to avoid genomic instability and the risk of cancer. DNA replication initiates at many origins of replication in eukaryotic cells, where a series of proteins form pre-replicative complexes (pre-RCs) that are activated to become pre-initiation complexes and ensure a single round of replication in each cell cycle. PLK1 plays an important role in the regulation of DNA replication, contributing to the regulation of pre-RCs formation by phosphorylating several proteins, under both normal and stress conditions. Here we report that PLK1 is ubiquitinated and degraded by SCFFBXW7α/proteasome. Moreover, we identified a new Cdc4 phosphodegron in PLK1, conserved from yeast to humans, whose mutation prevents PLK1 destruction. We established that endogenous SCFFBXW7α degrades PLK1 in the G1 and S phases of an unperturbed cell cycle and in S phase following UV irradiation. Furthermore, we showed that FBXW7α overexpression or UV irradiation prevented the loading of proteins onto chromatin to form pre-RCs and, accordingly, reduced cell proliferation. We conclude that PLK1 degradation mediated by SCFFBXW7α modulates the intra-S-phase checkpoint. PMID:24970797

  20. Contributions of DNA repair, cell cycle checkpoints and cell death to suppressing the DNA damage-induced tumorigenic behavior of Drosophila epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Dekanty, A; Barrio, L; Milán, M

    2015-02-19

    When exposed to DNA-damaging agents, components of the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway trigger apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and DNA repair. Although failures in this pathway are associated with cancer development, the tumor suppressor roles of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis have recently been questioned in mouse models. Using Drosophila epithelial cells that are unable to activate the apoptotic program, we provide evidence that ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA damage elicits a tumorigenic behavior in terms of E-cadherin delocalization, cell delamination, basement membrane degradation and neoplasic overgrowth. The tumorigenic response of the tissue to IR is enhanced by depletion of Okra/DmRAD54 or spnA/DmRAD51--genes required for homologous recombination (HR) repair of DNA double-strand breaks in G2--and it is independent of the activity of Lig4, a ligase required for nonhomologous end-joining repair in G1. Remarkably, depletion of Grapes/DmChk1 or Mei-41/dATR-genes affecting DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest in G2--compromised DNA repair and enhanced the tumorigenic response of the tissue to IR. On the contrary, DDR-independent lengthening of G2 had a positive impact on the dynamics of DNA repair and suppressed the tumorigenic response of the tissue to IR. Our results support a tumor suppressor role of apoptosis, DNA repair by HR and cell cycle arrest in G2 in simple epithelia subject to IR-induced DNA damage. PMID:24632609

  1. A protein kinase antigenically related to pp60v-src possibly involved in yeast cell cycle control: positive in vivo regulation by sterol.

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, C; Biemann, H P; Dahl, J

    1987-01-01

    The effects of ergosterol, yeast's natural sterol, on cell cycling and a protein kinase antigenically related to pp60v-src were examined in a sterol auxotroph of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sterol-depleted cells accumulate in an unbudded, G1 state. Cell budding and proliferation are reinitiated upon addition of nonlimiting ergosterol or cholesterol with trace ergosterol, whereas cholesterol or trace ergosterol alone is less effective. Stimulation of a protein kinase associated with immune complexes of yeast protein and anti-pp60v-src shows a positive correlation with exit from the G1 phase following ergosterol addition. Ergosterol-stimulated cells also demonstrate an increase in phosphatidylinositol kinase activity. The data suggest that hormonal levels of ergosterol (effective concentration, approximately equal to 1 nM) participate in a signaling process associated with a protein kinase possibly involved in yeast cell cycle control. Images PMID:2438691

  2. Cdc28 tyrosine phosphorylation and the morphogenesis checkpoint in budding yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Sia, R A; Herald, H A; Lew, D J

    1996-01-01

    A morphogenesis checkpoint in budding yeast delays nuclear division (and subsequent cell cycle progression) in cells that have failed to make a bud. We show that the ability of this checkpoint to delay nuclear division requires the SWE1 gene, encoding a protein kinase that inhibits the master cell cycle regulatory kinase Cdc28. The timing of nuclear division in cells that cannot make a bud is exquisitely sensitive to the dosage of SWE1 and MIH1 genes, which control phosphorylation of Cdc28 at tyrosine 19. In contrast, the timing of nuclear division in budded cells does not rely on Cdc28 phosphorylation, suggesting that the morphogenesis checkpoint somehow turns on this regulatory pathway. We show that SWE1 mRNA levels fluctuate during the cell cycle and are elevated in cells that cannot make a bud. However, regulation of SWE1 mRNA levels by the checkpoint is indirect, acting through a feedback loop requiring Swe1 activity. Further, the checkpoint is capable of delaying nuclear division even when SWE1 transcription is deregulated. We propose that the checkpoint delays nuclear division through post-translational regulation of Swe1 and that transcriptional feedback loops enhance the efficacy of the checkpoint. Images PMID:8930890

  3. SUMOylation regulates polo-like kinase 1-interacting checkpoint helicase (PICH) during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Vinidhra; Park, Hyewon; Ryu, Hyunju; Azuma, Yoshiaki

    2015-02-01

    Mitotic SUMOylation has an essential role in faithful chromosome segregation in eukaryotes, although its molecular consequences are not yet fully understood. In Xenopus egg extract assays, we showed that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is modified by SUMO2/3 at mitotic centromeres and that its enzymatic activity could be regulated by SUMOylation. To determine the molecular consequence of mitotic SUMOylation, we analyzed SUMOylated PARP1-specific binding proteins. We identified Polo-like kinase 1-interacting checkpoint helicase (PICH) as an interaction partner of SUMOylated PARP1 in Xenopus egg extract. Interestingly, PICH also bound to SUMOylated topoisomerase IIα (TopoIIα), a major centromeric small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) substrate. Purified recombinant human PICH interacted with SUMOylated substrates, indicating that PICH directly interacts with SUMO, and this interaction is conserved among species. Further analysis of mitotic chromosomes revealed that PICH localized to the centromere independent of mitotic SUMOylation. Additionally, we found that PICH is modified by SUMO2/3 on mitotic chromosomes and in vitro. PICH SUMOylation is highly dependent on protein inhibitor of activated STAT, PIASy, consistent with other mitotic chromosomal SUMO substrates. Finally, the SUMOylation of PICH significantly reduced its DNA binding capability, indicating that SUMOylation might regulate its DNA-dependent ATPase activity. Collectively, our findings suggest a novel SUMO-mediated regulation of the function of PICH at mitotic centromeres. PMID:25564610

  4. Pharmacophore modeling and virtual screening studies of checkpoint kinase 1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Juan; Liu, Ting-Lin; Yang, Li-Jun; Li, Lin-Li; Wei, Yu-Quan; Yang, Sheng-Yong

    2009-07-01

    In this study, chemical feature-based 3-dimensional (3D) pharmacophore models of Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) inhibitors were developed based on the known inhibitors of Chk1. The best pharmacophore model Hypo1 was characterized by the best correlation coefficient (0.9577), and the lowest root mean square deviation (0.8871). Hypo1 consists of one hydrogen-bond acceptor, one hydrogen-bond donor, and two hydrophobic features, as well as one excluded volume. This pharmacophore model was further validated by both test set and cross validation methods. A comparison analysis of Hypo1 with chemical features in the active site of Chk1 indicates that the pharmacophore model Hypo1 can correctly reflect the interactions between Chk1 and its ligands. Then Hypo1 was used to screen chemical databases, including Specs and Chinese Nature Product Database (CNPD) for potential lead compounds. The hit compounds were subsequently subjected to filtering by Lipinski's rule of five and docking study to refine the retrieved hits. Finally some of the most potent (estimated) compounds were selected from the final refined hits and suggested for further experimental investigation. PMID:19571415

  5. Conformational Change of Human Checkpoint Kinase 1 (Chk1) Induced by DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiangzi; Tang, Jinshan; Wang, Jingna; Ren, Feng; Zheng, Jinhua; Gragg, Megan; Kiser, Philip; Park, Paul S H; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Yao, Xinsheng; Zhang, Youwei

    2016-06-17

    Phosphorylation of Chk1 by ataxia telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) is critical for checkpoint activation upon DNA damage. However, how phosphorylation activates Chk1 remains unclear. Many studies suggest a conformational change model of Chk1 activation in which phosphorylation shifts Chk1 from a closed inactive conformation to an open active conformation during the DNA damage response. However, no structural study has been reported to support this Chk1 activation model. Here we used FRET and bimolecular fluorescence complementary techniques to show that Chk1 indeed maintains a closed conformation in the absence of DNA damage through an intramolecular interaction between a region (residues 31-87) at the N-terminal kinase domain and the distal C terminus. A highly conserved Leu-449 at the C terminus is important for this intramolecular interaction. We further showed that abolishing the intramolecular interaction by a Leu-449 to Arg mutation or inducing ATR-dependent Chk1 phosphorylation by DNA damage disrupts the closed conformation, leading to an open and activated conformation of Chk1. These data provide significant insight into the mechanisms of Chk1 activation during the DNA damage response. PMID:27129240

  6. Novel Design Strategy for Checkpoint Kinase 2 Inhibitors Using Pharmacophore Modeling, Combinatorial Fusion, and Virtual Screening

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yen-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) has a great effect on DNA-damage and plays an important role in response to DNA double-strand breaks and related lesions. In this study, we will concentrate on Chk2 and the purpose is to find the potential inhibitors by the pharmacophore hypotheses (PhModels), combinatorial fusion, and virtual screening techniques. Applying combinatorial fusion into PhModels and virtual screening techniques is a novel design strategy for drug design. We used combinatorial fusion to analyze the prediction results and then obtained the best correlation coefficient of the testing set (rtest) with the value 0.816 by combining the BesttrainBesttest and FasttrainFasttest prediction results. The potential inhibitors were selected from NCI database by screening according to BesttrainBesttest + FasttrainFasttest prediction results and molecular docking with CDOCKER docking program. Finally, the selected compounds have high interaction energy between a ligand and a receptor. Through these approaches, 23 potential inhibitors for Chk2 are retrieved for further study. PMID:24864236

  7. Camptothecins and topoisomerase I: a foot in the door. Targeting the genome beyond topoisomerase I with camptothecins and novel anticancer drugs: importance of DNA replication, repair and cell cycle checkpoints.

    PubMed

    Pommier, Yves

    2004-09-01

    Camptothecins selectively target topoisomerase I (Top1) by trapping the catalytic intermediate of the Top1-DNA reaction, the cleavage complex. Hence, camptothecins represent a paradigm for targeting macromolecular interactions. Instead of preventing the binding of the two macromolecules they target (Top1 and DNA), camptothecins slow down the dissociation of these macromolecules. The activity of camptothecins underlines the usefulness of screening for drugs that inhibit the dissociation of macromolecules. Camptothecins and non-CPT Top1 inhibitors are being developed to improve the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and clinical pharmacology of camptothecins, and it is likely that drugs with improved anticancer activity will be discovered. Although Top1 is the only primary target of camptothecins, the mechanisms of camptothecins' anticancer activity rest beyond the formation of cleavage complexes. Indeed, Top1 cleavage complexes lead to replication- (and transcription-) mediated DNA damage. It is likely that DNA damage can be repaired more efficiently in normal than in cancer cells that are intrinsically deficient for DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoints. Evaluating such deficiencies in clinical samples is becoming possible. If specific deficiencies are associated with clinical responses, their detection should guide therapeutic decisions. Furthermore, targeting DNA repair (Tdp1) and checkpoints (ATM, Chk1 and Chk2) might increase the selectivity of Top1 inhibitors for tumors, thereby increasing the antitumor activity while reducing the side effects of Top1 inhibitors. PMID:15379698

  8. Mismatch repair-dependent G2 checkpoint induced by low doses of SN1 type methylating agents requires the ATR kinase.

    PubMed

    Stojic, Lovorka; Mojas, Nina; Cejka, Petr; Di Pietro, Massimiliano; Ferrari, Stefano; Marra, Giancarlo; Jiricny, Josef

    2004-06-01

    S(N)1-type alkylating agents represent an important class of chemotherapeutics, but the molecular mechanisms underlying their cytotoxicity are unknown. Thus, although these substances modify predominantly purine nitrogen atoms, their toxicity appears to result from the processing of O(6)-methylguanine ((6Me)G)-containing mispairs by the mismatch repair (MMR) system, because cells with defective MMR are highly resistant to killing by these agents. In an attempt to understand the role of the MMR system in the molecular transactions underlying the toxicity of alkylating agents, we studied the response of human MMR-proficient and MMR-deficient cells to low concentrations of the prototypic methylating agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). We now show that MNNG treatment induced a cell cycle arrest that was absolutely dependent on functional MMR. Unusually, the cells arrested only in the second G(2) phase after treatment. Downstream targets of both ATM (Ataxia telangiectasia mutated) and ATR (ATM and Rad3-related) kinases were modified, but only the ablation of ATR, or the inhibition of CHK1, attenuated the arrest. The checkpoint activation was accompanied by the formation of nuclear foci containing the signaling and repair proteins ATR, the S(*)/T(*)Q substrate, gamma-H2AX, and replication protein A (RPA). The persistence of these foci implied that they may represent sites of irreparable damage. PMID:15175264

  9. The Inhibition of Polo Kinase by Matrimony Maintains G2 Arrest in the Meiotic Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Youbin; Takeo, Satomi; Florens, Laurence; Hughes, Stacie E; Huo, Li-Jun; Gilliland, William D; Swanson, Selene K; Teeter, Kathy; Schwartz, Joel W; Washburn, Michael P; Jaspersen, Sue L; Hawley, R. Scott

    2007-01-01

    Many meiotic systems in female animals include a lengthy arrest in G2 that separates the end of pachytene from nuclear envelope breakdown (NEB). However, the mechanisms by which a meiotic cell can arrest for long periods of time (decades in human females) have remained a mystery. The Drosophila Matrimony (Mtrm) protein is expressed from the end of pachytene until the completion of meiosis I. Loss-of-function mtrm mutants result in precocious NEB. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments reveal that Mtrm physically interacts with Polo kinase (Polo) in vivo, and multidimensional protein identification technology mass spectrometry analysis reveals that Mtrm binds to Polo with an approximate stoichiometry of 1:1. Mutation of a Polo-Box Domain (PBD) binding site in Mtrm ablates the function of Mtrm and the physical interaction of Mtrm with Polo. The meiotic defects observed in mtrm/+ heterozygotes are fully suppressed by reducing the dose of polo+, demonstrating that Mtrm acts as an inhibitor of Polo. Mtrm acts as a negative regulator of Polo during the later stages of G2 arrest. Indeed, both the repression of Polo expression until stage 11 and the inactivation of newly synthesized Polo by Mtrm until stage 13 play critical roles in maintaining and properly terminating G2 arrest. Our data suggest a model in which the eventual activation of Cdc25 by an excess of Polo at stage 13 triggers NEB and entry into prometaphase. PMID:18052611

  10. Structure-based design, discovery and development of checkpoint kinase inhibitors as potential anti-cancer therapies

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Thomas P; Jones, Alan M; Collins, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Checkpoint kinase inhibitors offer the promise of enhancing the effectiveness of widely prescribed cancer chemotherapies and radiotherapy by inhibiting the DNA damage response, as well as the potential for single agent efficacy. Areas covered This article surveys structural insights into the checkpoint kinases CHK1 and CHK2 that have been exploited to enhance the selectivity and potency of small molecule inhibitors. The use of mechanistic cellular assays to guide the optimisation of inhibitors is reviewed. The status of the current clinical candidates and emerging new clinical contexts for CHK1 and CHK2 inhibitors are discussed, including the prospects for single agent efficacy. Expert opinion Protein bound water molecules play key roles in structural features that can be targeted to gain high selectivity for either enzyme. The results of early phase clinical trials of checkpoint inhibitors have been mixed, but significant progress has been made in testing the combination of CHK1 inhibitors with genotoxic chemotherapy. Second generation CHK1 inhibitors are likely to benefit from increased selectivity and oral bioavailability. While the optimum therapeutic context for CHK2 inhibition remains unclear, the emergence of single agent preclinical efficacy for CHK1 inhibitors in specific tumour types exhibiting constitutive replication stress represents exciting progress in exploring the therapeutic potential of these agents. PMID:23594139

  11. Cell Cycle Regulating Kinase Cdk4 as a Potential Target for Tumor Cell Treatment and Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Franziska; Koehler, Lena; Kniess, Torsten; Wuest, Frank; Mosch, Birgit; Pietzsch, Jens

    2009-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-cyclin D/retinoblastoma (pRb)/E2F cascade, which controls the G1/S transition of cell cycle, has been found to be altered in many neoplasias. Inhibition of this pathway by using, for example, selective Cdk4 inhibitors has been suggested to be a promising approach for cancer therapy. We hypothesized that appropriately radiolabeled Cdk4 inhibitors are suitable probes for tumor imaging and may be helpful studying cell proliferation processes in vivo by positron emission tomography. Herein, we report the synthesis and biological, biochemical, and radiopharmacological characterizations of two 124I-labeled small molecule Cdk4 inhibitors (8-cyclopentyl-6-iodo-5-methyl-2-(4-piperazin-1-yl-phenylamino)-8H-pyrido[2,3-d]-pyrimidin-7-one (CKIA) and 8-cyclopentyl-6-iodo-5-methyl-2-(5-(piperazin-1-yl)-pyridin-2-yl-amino)-8H-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one (CKIB)). Our data demonstrate a defined and specific inhibition of tumor cell proliferation through CKIA and CKIB by inhibition of the Cdk4/pRb/E2F pathway emphasizing potential therapeutic benefit of CKIA and CKIB. Furthermore, radiopharmacological properties of [124I]CKIA and [124I]CKIB observed in human tumor cells are promising prerequisites for in vivo biodistribution and imaging studies. PMID:19551155

  12. Msi1 promotes tumor growth and cell proliferation by targeting cell cycle checkpoint proteins p21, p27 and p53 in cervical carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xian; Yang, Wen-Ting; Zheng, Peng-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Musashi RNA-binding protein1 (Msi1), a member of the RNA-binding protein family, has been reported to be a diagnostic marker and potential therapeutic target in some cancers, its function in cervical cancer remains unknown. In this study, we found Msi1 was highly expressed in cervical cancer tissues, and over-expressing Msi1 in cervical cancer cells enhanced tumor formation and cell proliferation and accelerated cells into the S phase. Whereas, down-regulating Msi1 by shRNA in cervical cancer cells inhibited tumor formation and cell proliferation and slowed cell into the S phase, suggesting that Msi1 might act as cell cycle regulator. Immunohistochemistry assay showed the negative correlation between Msi1 and p21, p27 and p53, suggesting that Msi1 might regulate these cycle regulators in cervical cancer. Moreover, the expression of the p21, p27 and p53 proteins were down-regulated in Msi1 overexpressing cervical cancer cells and up-regulated in shMsi1 cervical cancer cells. Luciferase assays and RNA-protein binding assays confirmed that Msi1 could bind to the mRNA 3′UTRs of p21, p27 and p53 and suppress the translation of these proteins. Our findings provide new evidence that Msi1 might promote cell proliferation by accelerating the cell cycle by directly targeting p21, p27 and p53. PMID:25362645

  13. SIRT2 induces the checkpoint kinase BubR1 to increase lifespan

    PubMed Central

    North, Brian J; Rosenberg, Michael A; Jeganathan, Karthik B; Hafner, Angela V; Michan, Shaday; Dai, Jing; Baker, Darren J; Cen, Yana; Wu, Lindsay E; Sauve, Anthony A; van Deursen, Jan M; Rosenzweig, Anthony; Sinclair, David A

    2014-01-01

    Mice overexpressing the mitotic checkpoint kinase gene BubR1 live longer, whereas mice hypomorphic for BubR1 (BubR1H/H) live shorter and show signs of accelerated aging. As wild-type mice age, BubR1 levels decline in many tissues, a process that is proposed to underlie normal aging and age-related diseases. Understanding why BubR1 declines with age and how to slow this process is therefore of considerable interest. The sirtuins (SIRT1-7) are a family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases that can delay age-related diseases. Here, we show that the loss of BubR1 levels with age is due to a decline in NAD+ and the ability of SIRT2 to maintain lysine-668 of BubR1 in a deacetylated state, which is counteracted by the acetyltransferase CBP. Overexpression of SIRT2 or treatment of mice with the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) increases BubR1 abundance in vivo. Overexpression of SIRT2 in BubR1H/H animals increases median lifespan, with a greater effect in male mice. Together, these data indicate that further exploration of the potential of SIRT2 and NAD+ to delay diseases of aging in mammals is warranted. PMID:24825348

  14. Control of Swe1p degradation by the morphogenesis checkpoint.

    PubMed Central

    Sia, R A; Bardes, E S; Lew, D J

    1998-01-01

    In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a cell cycle checkpoint coordinates mitosis with bud formation. Perturbations that transiently depolarize the actin cytoskeleton cause delays in bud formation, and a 'morphogenesis checkpoint' detects the actin perturbation and imposes a G2 delay through inhibition of the cyclin-dependent kinase, Cdc28p. The tyrosine kinase Swe1p, homologous to wee1 in fission yeast, is required for the checkpoint-mediated G2 delay. In this report, we show that Swe1p stability is regulated both during the normal cell cycle and in response to the checkpoint. Swe1p is stable during G1 and accumulates to a peak at the end of S phase or in early G2, when it becomes unstable and is degraded rapidly. Destabilization of Swe1p in G2 and M phase depends on the activity of Cdc28p in complexes with B-type cyclins. Several different perturbations of actin organization all prevent Swe1p degradation, leading to the persistence or further accumulation of Swe1p, and cell cycle delay in G2. PMID:9822611

  15. Protein kinase C delta inhibits Caco-2 cell proliferation by selective changes in cell cycle and cell death regulators.

    PubMed

    Cerda, S R; Mustafi, R; Little, H; Cohen, G; Khare, S; Moore, C; Majumder, P; Bissonnette, M

    2006-05-25

    PKC-delta is a serine/threonine kinase that mediates diverse signal transduction pathways. We previously demonstrated that overexpression of PKC-delta slowed the G1 progression of Caco-2 colon cancer cells, accelerated apoptosis, and induced cellular differentiation. In this study, we further characterized the PKC-delta dependent signaling pathways involved in these tumor suppressor actions in Caco-2 cells overexpressing PKC-delta using a Zn2+ inducible expression vector. Consistent with a G1 arrest, increased expression of PKC-delta caused rapid and significant downregulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin E proteins (50% decreases, P<0.05), while mRNA levels remained unchanged. The PKC agonist, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA, 100 nM, 4 h), induced two-fold higher protein and mRNA levels of p21(Waf1), a cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitor in PKC-delta transfectants compared with empty vector (EV) transfected cells, whereas the PKC-delta specific inhibitor rottlerin (3 microM) or knockdown of this isoenzyme with specific siRNA oligonucleotides blocked p21(Waf1) expression. Concomitantly, compared to EV control cells, PKC-delta upregulation decreased cyclin D1 and cyclin E proteins co-immunoprecipitating with cdk6 and cdk2, respectively. In addition, overexpression of PKC-delta increased binding of cdk inhibitor p27(Kip1) to cdk4. These alterations in cyclin-cdks and their inhibitors are predicted to decrease G1 cyclin kinase activity. As an independent confirmation of the direct role PKC-delta plays in cell growth and cell cycle regulation, we knocked down PKC-delta using specific siRNA oligonucleotides. PKC-delta specific siRNA oligonucleotides, but not irrelevant control oligonucleotides, inhibited PKC-delta protein by more than 80% in Caco-2 cells. Moreover, PKC-delta knockdown enhanced cell proliferation ( approximately 1.4-2-fold, P<0.05) and concomitantly increased cyclin D1 and cyclin E expression ( approximately 1.7-fold, P<0.05). This was a specific

  16. The A- and B-type cyclin associated cdc2 kinases in Xenopus turn on and off at different times in the cell cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Minshull, J; Golsteyn, R; Hill, C S; Hunt, T

    1990-01-01

    Cyclins play a key role in the induction of mitosis. In this paper we report the isolation of a cyclin A cDNA clone from Xenopus eggs. Its cognate mRNA encodes a protein that shows characteristic accumulation and destruction during mitotic cell cycles. The cyclin A polypeptide is associated with a protein that cross-reacts with an antibody against the conserved 'PSTAIR' epitope of p34cdc2, and the cyclin A-cdc2 complex exhibits protein kinase activity that oscillates with the cell cycle. This kinase activity rises more smoothly than that of the cyclin B-cdc2 complexes and reaches a peak earlier in the cell cycle; indeed, cyclin A is destroyed before nuclear envelope breakdown. None of the cyclin-cdc2 complexes show simple relationships between the concentration of the cyclin moiety and the kinase activity. All three cyclin associated kinases (A, B1 and B2) phosphorylate identical sites on histones with the consensus XSPXK/R, although they show significant differences in their substrate preferences. We discuss possible models for the different roles of the A- and B-type cyclins in the control of cell division. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:2143983

  17. Inhibition of p70 S6 Kinase (S6K1) Activity by A77 1726 and Its Effect on Cell Proliferation and Cell Cycle Progress12

    PubMed Central

    Doscas, Michelle E.; Williamson, Ashley J.; Usha, Lydia; Bogachkov, Yedida; Rao, Geetha S.; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Yimin; Ruby, Carl; Kaufman, Howard; Zhou, Jingsong; Williams, James W.; Li, Yi; Xu, Xiulong

    2014-01-01

    Leflunomide is a novel immunomodulatory drug prescribed for treating rheumatoid arthritis. It inhibits the activity of protein tyrosine kinases and dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis pathway. Here, we report that A77 1726, the active metabolite of leflunomide, inhibited the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 and two other substrates of S6K1, insulin receptor substrate-1 and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 2, in an A375 melanoma cell line. A77 1726 increased the phosphorylation of AKT, p70 S6 (S6K1), ERK1/2, and MEK through the feedback activation of the IGF-1 receptor–mediated signaling pathway. Invitro kinase assay revealed that leflunomide and A77 1726 inhibited S6K1 activity with IC50 values of approximately 55 and 80 μM, respectively. Exogenous uridine partially blocked A77 1726–induced inhibition of A375 cell proliferation. S6K1 knockdown led to the inhibition of A375 cell proliferation but did not potentiate the antiproliferative effect of A77 1726. A77 1726 stimulated bromodeoxyuridine incorporation in A375 cells but arrested the cell cycle in the S phase, which was reversed by addition of exogenous uridine or by MAP kinase pathway inhibitors but not by rapamycin and LY294002 (a phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor). These observations suggest that A77 1726 accelerates cell cycle entry into the S phase through MAP kinase activation and that pyrimidine nucleotide depletion halts the completion of the cell cycle. Our study identified a novel molecular target of A77 1726 and showed that the inhibition of S6K1 activity was in part responsible for its antiproliferative activity. Our study also provides a novel mechanistic insight into A77 1726–induced cell cycle arrest in the S phase. PMID:25379019

  18. The Down syndrome-related protein kinase DYRK1A phosphorylates p27Kip1 and Cyclin D1 and induces cell cycle exit and neuronal differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Soppa, Ulf; Schumacher, Julian; Florencio Ortiz, Victoria; Pasqualon, Tobias; Tejedor, Francisco J; Becker, Walter

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental question in neurobiology is how the balance between proliferation and differentiation of neuronal precursors is maintained to ensure that the proper number of brain neurons is generated. Substantial evidence implicates DYRK1A (dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A) as a candidate gene responsible for altered neuronal development and brain abnormalities in Down syndrome. Recent findings support the hypothesis that DYRK1A is involved in cell cycle control. Nonetheless, how DYRK1A contributes to neuronal cell cycle regulation and thereby affects neurogenesis remains poorly understood. In the present study we have investigated the mechanisms by which DYRK1A affects cell cycle regulation and neuronal differentiation in a human cell model, mouse neurons, and mouse brain. Dependent on its kinase activity and correlated with the dosage of overexpression, DYRK1A blocked proliferation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells within 24 h and arrested the cells in G1 phase. Sustained overexpression of DYRK1A induced G0 cell cycle exit and neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, we provide evidence that DYRK1A modulated protein stability of cell cycle-regulatory proteins. DYRK1A reduced cellular Cyclin D1 levels by phosphorylation on Thr286, which is known to induce proteasomal degradation. In addition, DYRK1A phosphorylated p27Kip1 on Ser10, resulting in protein stabilization. Inhibition of DYRK1A kinase activity reduced p27Kip1 Ser10 phosphorylation in cultured hippocampal neurons and in embryonic mouse brain. In aggregate, these results suggest a novel mechanism by which overexpression of DYRK1A may promote premature neuronal differentiation and contribute to altered brain development in Down syndrome. PMID:24806449

  19. Fragment-Based Screening Maps Inhibitor Interactions in the ATP-Binding Site of Checkpoint Kinase 2

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Santisteban, M. Cris; Westwood, Isaac M.; Boxall, Kathy; Brown, Nathan; Peacock, Sam; McAndrew, Craig; Barrie, Elaine; Richards, Meirion; Mirza, Amin; Oliver, Antony W.; Burke, Rosemary; Hoelder, Swen; Jones, Keith; Aherne, G. Wynne; Blagg, Julian; Collins, Ian; Garrett, Michelle D.; van Montfort, Rob L. M.

    2013-01-01

    Checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2) is an important serine/threonine kinase in the cellular response to DNA damage. A fragment-based screening campaign using a combination of a high-concentration AlphaScreen™ kinase assay and a biophysical thermal shift assay, followed by X-ray crystallography, identified a number of chemically different ligand-efficient CHK2 hinge-binding scaffolds that have not been exploited in known CHK2 inhibitors. In addition, it showed that the use of these orthogonal techniques allowed efficient discrimination between genuine hit matter and false positives from each individual assay technology. Furthermore, the CHK2 crystal structures with a quinoxaline-based fragment and its follow-up compound highlight a hydrophobic area above the hinge region not previously explored in rational CHK2 inhibitor design, but which might be exploited to enhance both potency and selectivity of CHK2 inhibitors. PMID:23776527

  20. Differential Roles of Two Homologous Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Genes in Regulating Cell Cycle and Innate Immunity in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hamdoun, Safae; Zhang, Chong; Gill, Manroop; Churchman, Michelle; Larkin, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Precise cell-cycle control is critical for plant development and responses to pathogen invasion. Two homologous cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor genes, SIAMESE (SIM) and SIM-RELATED 1 (SMR1), were recently shown to regulate Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) defense based on phenotypes conferred by a sim smr1 double mutant. However, whether these two genes play differential roles in cell-cycle and defense control is unknown. In this report, we show that while acting synergistically to promote endoreplication, SIM and SMR1 play different roles in affecting the ploidy of trichome and leaf cells, respectively. In addition, we found that the smr1-1 mutant, but not sim-1, was more susceptible to a virulent Pseudomonas syringae strain, and this susceptibility could be rescued by activating salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defense. Consistent with these results, smr1-1 partially suppressed the dwarfism, high SA levels, and cell death phenotypes in acd6-1, a mutant used to gauge the change of defense levels. Thus, SMR1 functions partly through SA in defense control. The differential roles of SIM and SMR1 are due to differences in temporal and spatial expression of these two genes in Arabidopsis tissues and in response to P. syringae infection. In addition, flow-cytometry analysis of plants with altered SA signaling revealed that SA is necessary, but not sufficient, to change cell-cycle progression. We further found that a mutant with three CYCD3 genes disrupted also compromised disease resistance to P. syringae. Together, this study reveals differential roles of two homologous cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in regulating cell-cycle progression and innate immunity in Arabidopsis and provides insights into the importance of cell-cycle control during host-pathogen interactions. PMID:26561564

  1. Cell Differentiation and Checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Sancho, Sara Cuesta; Ouchi, Toru

    2015-01-01

    DNA damage is induced in many types of cells by internal and external cell stress. When DNA is damaged, DNA Damage Response (DDR) programs are activated to repair the DNA lesions in order to preserve genomic integrity and suppress subsequent malignant transformation. Among these programs is cell cycle checkpoint that ensures cell cycle arrest and subsequent repair of the damaged DNA, apoptosis and senescence in various phases of the cell cycle. Moreover, recent studies have established the cell differentiation checkpoint, the other type of the checkpoint that is specifically activated in the course of differentiation. We will discuss the evidences that support the link between DNA damage proteins and C2C12 cell differentiation. PMID:26998525

  2. Combined metformin and resveratrol confers protection against UVC-induced DNA damage in A549 lung cancer cells via modulation of cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Syu; Doonan, Barbara B; Wu, Joseph M; Hsieh, Tze-Chen

    2016-06-01

    Aging in humans is a multi-factorial cellular process that is associated with an increase in the risk of numerous diseases including diabetes, coronary heart disease and cancer. Aging is linked to DNA damage, and a persistent source of DNA damage is exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. As such, identifying agents that confer protection against DNA damage is an approach that could reduce the public health burden of age-related disorders. Metformin and resveratrol have both shown effectiveness in preventing several age-related diseases; using human A549 cells, we investigated whether metformin or resveratrol, alone or combined, prevent UVC-induced DNA damage. We found that metformin inhibited UVC-induced upregulation of p53, as well as downregulated the expression of two DNA damage markers: γH2AX and p-chk2. Metformin also upregulated DNA repair as evidenced by the increase in expression of p53R2. Treatment with metformin also induced cell cycle arrest in UVC-induced cells, in correlation with a reduction in the levels of cyclin E/cdk2/Rb and cyclin B1/cdk1. Compared to metformin, resveratrol as a single agent showed less effectiveness in counteracting UVC-elicited cellular responses. However, resveratrol displayed synergism when combined with metformin as shown by the downregulation of p53/γH2AX/p-chk2. In conclusion, the results of the present study validate the effectiveness of metformin, alone or with the addition of resveratrol, in reducing the risk of aging by conferring protection against UV-induced DNA damage. PMID:27109601

  3. Akt/Protein Kinase B-Dependent Phosphorylation and Inactivation of WEE1Hu Promote Cell Cycle Progression at G2/M Transition

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Kazuhiro; Fujita, Naoya; Tsuruo, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    The serine/threonine kinase Akt is known to promote cell growth by regulating the cell cycle in G1 phase through activation of cyclin/Cdk kinases and inactivation of Cdk inhibitors. However, how the G2/M phase is regulated by Akt remains unclear. Here, we show that Akt counteracts the function of WEE1Hu. Inactivation of Akt by chemotherapeutic drugs or the phosphatidylinositide-3-OH kinase inhibitor LY294002 induced G2/M arrest together with the inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdc2. Because the increased Cdc2 phosphorylation was completely suppressed by wee1hu gene silencing, WEE1Hu was associated with G2/M arrest induced by Akt inactivation. Further analyses revealed that Akt directly bound to and phosphorylated WEE1Hu during the S to G2 phase. Serine-642 was identified as an Akt-dependent phosphorylation site. WEE1Hu kinase activity was not affected by serine-642 phosphorylation. We revealed that serine-642 phosphorylation promoted cytoplasmic localization of WEE1Hu. The nuclear-to-cytoplasmic translocation was mediated by phosphorylation-dependent WEE1Hu binding to 14-3-3θ but not 14-3-3β or -σ. These results indicate that Akt promotes G2/M cell cycle progression by inducing phosphorylation-dependent 14-3-3θ binding and cytoplasmic localization of WEE1Hu. PMID:15964826

  4. Pheromone-Dependent G1 Cell Cycle Arrest Requires Far1 Phosphorylation, but May Not Involve Inhibition of Cdc28-Cln2 Kinase, In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gartner, Anton; Jovanović, Alexandra; Jeoung, Doo-Il; Bourlat, Sarah; Cross, Frederick R.; Ammerer, Gustav

    1998-01-01

    In yeast, the pheromone α-factor acts as an antiproliferative factor that induces G1 arrest and cellular differentiation. Previous data have indicated that Far1, a factor dedicated to pheromone-induced cell cycle arrest, is under positive and negative posttranslational regulation. Phosphorylation by the pheromone-stimulated mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase Fus3 has been thought to enhance the binding of Far1 to G1-specific cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) complexes, thereby inhibiting their catalytic activity. Cdk-dependent phosphorylation events were invoked to account for the high instability of Far1 outside early G1 phase. To confirm any functional role of Far1 phosphorylation, we undertook a systematic mutational analysis of potential MAP kinase and Cdk recognition motifs. Two putative phosphorylation sites that strongly affect Far1 behavior were identified. A change of serine 87 to alanine prevents the cell cycle-dependent degradation of Far1, causing enhanced sensitivity to pheromone. In contrast, threonine 306 seems to be an important recipient of an activating modification, as substitutions at this position abolish the G1 arrest function of Far1. Only the phosphorylated wild-type Far1 protein, not the T306-to-A substitution product, can be found in stable association with the Cdc28-Cln2 complex. Surprisingly, Far1-associated Cdc28-Cln2 complexes are at best moderately inhibited in immunoprecipitation kinase assays, suggesting unconventional inhibitory mechanisms of Far1. PMID:9632750

  5. Cdc2 H1 kinase is negatively regulated by a type 2A phosphatase in the Xenopus early embryonic cell cycle: evidence from the effects of okadaic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Félix, M A; Cohen, P; Karsenti, E

    1990-01-01

    In Xenopus embryos, the cell cycle is abbreviated to a rapid alternation between interphase and mitosis. The onset of each M phase is induced by the periodic activation of the cdc2 kinase which is triggered by a threshold level of cyclins and apparently involves dephosphorylation of p34cdc2. We have prepared post-ribosomal supernatants from eggs sampled during interphase (interphase extracts) and just before the first mitosis of the early embryonic cell cycle (prophase extracts). In 'interphase extracts', the cdc2 kinase never activates spontaneously upon incubation at room temperature whereas in 'prophase extracts' it does. We show here that in 'interphase extracts', specific inhibition of type 2A phosphatase by okadaic acid induces cdc2 kinase activation. This requires a subthreshold level of cyclin and the presence of a particulate factor in the extract. Inhibition of type 1 phosphatases by inhibitor 1 and inhibitor 2 never results in cdc2 kinase activation. These results demonstrate that during the period of cyclin accumulation, cdc2 kinase activation is inhibited by a type 2A phosphatase. In 'prophase extracts', spontaneous activation of the cdc2 kinase is inhibited by beta-glycerophosphate and NaF, but not by okadaic acid, inhibitor 1 and inhibitor 2 or divalent cation chelation. This demonstrates that when enough cyclin has accumulated, cdc2 kinase activation involves a protein phosphatase which must be distinct from the type 1 and 2A phosphatases, and from the calcium-dependent (type 2B) and magnesium-dependent (type 2C) phosphatases. Images Fig. 4. PMID:2155777

  6. Discovery of checkpoint kinase inhibitor (S)-5-(3-fluorophenyl)-N-(piperidin-3-yl)-3-ureidothiophene-2-carboxamide (AZD7762) by structure-based design and optimization of thiophenecarboxamide ureas.

    PubMed

    Oza, Vibha; Ashwell, Susan; Almeida, Lynsie; Brassil, Patrick; Breed, Jason; Deng, Chun; Gero, Thomas; Grondine, Michael; Horn, Candice; Ioannidis, Stephanos; Liu, Dongfang; Lyne, Paul; Newcombe, Nicholas; Pass, Martin; Read, Jon; Ready, Shannon; Rowsell, Siân; Su, Mei; Toader, Dorin; Vasbinder, Melissa; Yu, Dingwei; Yu, Yan; Xue, Yafeng; Zabludoff, Sonya; Janetka, James

    2012-06-14

    Checkpoint kinases CHK1 and CHK2 are activated in response to DNA damage that results in cell cycle arrest, allowing sufficient time for DNA repair. Agents that lead to abrogation of such checkpoints have potential to increase the efficacy of such compounds as chemo- and radiotherapies. Thiophenecarboxamide ureas (TCUs) were identified as inhibitors of CHK1 by high throughput screening. A structure-based approach is described using crystal structures of JNK1 and CHK1 in complex with 1 and 2 and of the CHK1-3b complex. The ribose binding pocket of CHK1 was targeted to generate inhibitors with excellent cellular potency and selectivity over CDK1and IKKβ, key features lacking from the initial compounds. Optimization of 3b resulted in the identification of a regioisomeric 3-TCU lead 12a. Optimization of 12a led to the discovery of the clinical candidate 4 (AZD7762), which strongly potentiates the efficacy of a variety of DNA-damaging agents in preclinical models. PMID:22551018

  7. [Cell cycle, mitosis and therapeutic applications].

    PubMed

    Levy, Antonin; Albiges-Sauvin, Laurence; Massard, Christophe; Soria, Jean-Charles; Deutsch, Eric

    2011-10-01

    Genomic DNA is constantly under stress of endogenous and exogenous DNA damaging agents. Without proper care, the DNA damage causes an alteration of the genomic structure and can lead to cell death or the occurrence of mutations involved in tumorigenesis. During the process of evolution, organisms have acquired a series of response mechanisms and repair of DNA damage, thereby ensuring the maintenance of genome stability and faithful transmission of genetic information. The checkpoints are the major mechanisms by which a cell can respond to DNA damage, either by actively stopping the cell cycle or by induction of apoptosis. Two parallel signalling pathways, ATM and ATR respond to genotoxic stress by activating their downstream target proteins including the two effectors kinases CHK1 and CHK2. Promising preliminary data render these proteins potential targets for therapeutic development against cancer. PMID:21669563

  8. Mps1Mph1 Kinase Phosphorylates Mad3 to Inhibit Cdc20Slp1-APC/C and Maintain Spindle Checkpoint Arrests

    PubMed Central

    Syred, Heather M.; van der Sar, Sjaak; Patel, Hitesh; Moresco, James J.; Sarkeshik, Ali; Yates, John R.; Rappsilber, Juri; Hardwick, Kevin G.

    2016-01-01

    The spindle checkpoint is a mitotic surveillance system which ensures equal segregation of sister chromatids. It delays anaphase onset by inhibiting the action of the E3 ubiquitin ligase known as the anaphase promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C). Mad3/BubR1 is a key component of the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) which binds and inhibits the APC/C early in mitosis. Mps1Mph1 kinase is critical for checkpoint signalling and MCC-APC/C inhibition, yet few substrates have been identified. Here we identify Mad3 as a substrate of fission yeast Mps1Mph1 kinase. We map and mutate phosphorylation sites in Mad3, producing mutants that are targeted to kinetochores and assembled into MCC, yet display reduced APC/C binding and are unable to maintain checkpoint arrests. We show biochemically that Mad3 phospho-mimics are potent APC/C inhibitors in vitro, demonstrating that Mad3p modification can directly influence Cdc20Slp1-APC/C activity. This genetic dissection of APC/C inhibition demonstrates that Mps1Mph1 kinase-dependent modifications of Mad3 and Mad2 act in a concerted manner to maintain spindle checkpoint arrests. PMID:26882497

  9. Dissection of Rad9 BRCT Domain Function In The Mitotic Checkpoint Response To Telomere Uncapping

    PubMed Central

    Nnakwe, Chinonye C.; Altaf, Mohammed; Côté, Jacques; Kron, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, destabilizing telomeres, via inactivation of telomeric repeat binding factor Cdc13, induces a cell cycle checkpoint that arrests cells at the metaphase to anaphase transition—much like the response to an unrepaired DNA double-strand break (DSB). Throughout the cell cycle, the multi-domain adaptor protein Rad9 is required for activation of checkpoint effector kinase Rad53 in response to DSBs and is similarly necessary for checkpoint signaling in response to telomere uncapping. Rad53 activation in G1 and S phase depends on Rad9 association with modified chromatin adjacent to DSBs, which is mediated by Tudor domains binding histone H3 di-methylated at K79 and BRCT domains to histone H2A phosphorylated at S129. Nonetheless, Rad9 Tudor or BRCT mutants can initiate a checkpoint response to DNA damage in nocodazole-treated cells. Mutations affecting di-methylation of H3 K79, or its recognition by Rad9 enhance 5' strand resection upon telomere uncapping, and potentially implicate Rad9 chromatin binding in the checkpoint response to telomere uncapping. Indeed, we report that Rad9 binds to sub-telomeric chromatin, upon telomere uncapping, up to 10 kb from the telomere. Rad9 binding occurred within 30 min after inactivating Cdc13, preceding Rad53 phosphorylation. In turn, Rad9 Tudor and BRCT domain mutations blocked chromatin binding and led to attenuated checkpoint signaling as evidenced by decreased Rad53 phosphorylation and impaired cell cycle arrest. Our work identifies a role for Rad9 chromatin association, during mitosis, in the DNA damage checkpoint response to telomere uncapping, suggesting that chromatin binding may be an initiating event for checkpoints throughout the cell cycle. PMID:19880356

  10. The Src homology 2 protein Shb promotes cell cycle progression in murine hematopoietic stem cells by regulation of focal adhesion kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafsson, Karin; Heffner, Garrett; Wenzel, Pamela L.; Curran, Matthew; Grawé, Jan; McKinney-Freeman, Shannon L.; Daley, George Q.; Welsh, Michael

    2013-07-15

    The widely expressed adaptor protein Shb has previously been reported to contribute to T cell function due to its association with the T cell receptor and furthermore, several of Shb's known interaction partners are established regulators of blood cell development and function. In addition, Shb deficient embryonic stem cells displayed reduced blood cell colony formation upon differentiation in vitro. The aim of the current study was therefore to explore hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell function in the Shb knockout mouse. Shb deficient bone marrow contained reduced relative numbers of long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs) that exhibited lower proliferation rates. Despite this, Shb knockout LT-HSCs responded promptly by entering the cell cycle in response to genotoxic stress by 5-fluorouracil treatment. In competitive LT-HSC transplantations, Shb null cells initially engrafted as well as the wild-type cells but provided less myeloid expansion over time. Moreover, Shb knockout bone marrow cells exhibited elevated basal activities of focal adhesion kinase/Rac1/p21-activated kinase signaling and reduced responsiveness to Stem Cell Factor stimulation. Consequently, treatment with a focal adhesion kinase inhibitor increased Shb knockout LT-HSC proliferation. The altered signaling characteristics thus provide a plausible mechanistic explanation for the changes in LT-HSC proliferation since these signaling intermediates have all been shown to participate in LT-HSC cell cycle control. In summary, the loss of Shb dependent signaling in bone marrow cells, resulting in elevated focal adhesion kinase activity and reduced proliferative responses in LT-HSCs under steady state hematopoiesis, confers a disadvantage to the maintenance of LT-HSCs over time. -- Highlights: • Shb is an adaptor protein operating downstream of tyrosine kinase receptors. • Shb deficiency reduces hematopoietic stem cell proliferation. • The proliferative effect of Shb occurs via increased

  11. Cell cycle regulation of the activity and subcellular localization of Plk1, a human protein kinase implicated in mitotic spindle function.

    PubMed

    Golsteyn, R M; Mundt, K E; Fry, A M; Nigg, E A

    1995-06-01

    Correct assembly and function of the mitotic spindle during cell division is essential for the accurate partitioning of the duplicated genome to daughter cells. Protein phosphorylation has long been implicated in controlling spindle function and chromosome segregation, and genetic studies have identified several protein kinases and phosphatases that are likely to regulate these processes. In particular, mutations in the serine/threonine-specific Drosophila kinase polo, and the structurally related kinase Cdc5p of Saccharomyces cerevisae, result in abnormal mitotic and meiotic divisions. Here, we describe a detailed analysis of the cell cycle-dependent activity and subcellular localization of Plk1, a recently identified human protein kinase with extensive sequence similarity to both Drosophila polo and S. cerevisiae Cdc5p. With the aid of recombinant baculoviruses, we have established a reliable in vitro assay for Plk1 kinase activity. We show that the activity of human Plk1 is cell cycle regulated, Plk1 activity being low during interphase but high during mitosis. We further show, by immunofluorescent confocal laser scanning microscopy, that human Plk1 binds to components of the mitotic spindle at all stages of mitosis, but undergoes a striking redistribution as cells progress from metaphase to anaphase. Specifically, Plk1 associates with spindle poles up to metaphase, but relocalizes to the equatorial plane, where spindle microtubules overlap (the midzone), as cells go through anaphase. These results indicate that the association of Plk1 with the spindle is highly dynamic and that Plk1 may function at multiple stages of mitotic progression. Taken together, our data strengthen the notion that human Plk1 may represent a functional homolog of polo and Cdc5p, and they suggest that this kinase plays an important role in the dynamic function of the mitotic spindle during chromosome segregation. PMID:7790358

  12. The Gcn2 Regulator Yih1 Interacts with the Cyclin Dependent Kinase Cdc28 and Promotes Cell Cycle Progression through G2/M in Budding Yeast.

    PubMed

    Silva, Richard C; Dautel, Martina; Di Genova, Bruno M; Amberg, David C; Castilho, Beatriz A; Sattlegger, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Yih1, when overexpressed, inhibits the eIF2 alpha kinase Gcn2 by competing for Gcn1 binding. However, deletion of YIH1 has no detectable effect on Gcn2 activity, suggesting that Yih1 is not a general inhibitor of Gcn2, and has no phenotypic defect identified so far. Thus, its physiological role is largely unknown. Here, we show that Yih1 is involved in the cell cycle. Yeast lacking Yih1 displays morphological patterns and DNA content indicative of a delay in the G2/M phases of the cell cycle, and this phenotype is independent of Gcn1 and Gcn2. Accordingly, the levels of phosphorylated eIF2α, which show a cell cycle-dependent fluctuation, are not altered in cells devoid of Yih1. We present several lines of evidence indicating that Yih1 is in a complex with Cdc28. Yih1 pulls down endogenous Cdc28 in vivo and this interaction is enhanced when Cdc28 is active, suggesting that Yih1 modulates the function of Cdc28 in specific stages of the cell cycle. We also demonstrate, by Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation, that endogenous Yih1 and Cdc28 interact with each other, confirming Yih1 as a bona fide Cdc28 binding partner. Amino acid substitutions within helix H2 of the RWD domain of Yih1 enhance Yih1-Cdc28 association. Overexpression of this mutant, but not of wild type Yih1, leads to a phenotype similar to that of YIH1 deletion, supporting the view that Yih1 is involved through Cdc28 in the regulation of the cell cycle. We further show that IMPACT, the mammalian homologue of Yih1, interacts with CDK1, the mammalian counterpart of Cdc28, indicating that the involvement with the cell cycle is conserved. Together, these data provide insights into the cellular function of Yih1/IMPACT, and provide the basis for future studies on the role of this protein in the cell cycle. PMID:26176233

  13. The Gcn2 Regulator Yih1 Interacts with the Cyclin Dependent Kinase Cdc28 and Promotes Cell Cycle Progression through G2/M in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Richard C.; Dautel, Martina; Di Genova, Bruno M.; Amberg, David C.; Castilho, Beatriz A.; Sattlegger, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Yih1, when overexpressed, inhibits the eIF2 alpha kinase Gcn2 by competing for Gcn1 binding. However, deletion of YIH1 has no detectable effect on Gcn2 activity, suggesting that Yih1 is not a general inhibitor of Gcn2, and has no phenotypic defect identified so far. Thus, its physiological role is largely unknown. Here, we show that Yih1 is involved in the cell cycle. Yeast lacking Yih1 displays morphological patterns and DNA content indicative of a delay in the G2/M phases of the cell cycle, and this phenotype is independent of Gcn1 and Gcn2. Accordingly, the levels of phosphorylated eIF2α, which show a cell cycle-dependent fluctuation, are not altered in cells devoid of Yih1. We present several lines of evidence indicating that Yih1 is in a complex with Cdc28. Yih1 pulls down endogenous Cdc28 in vivo and this interaction is enhanced when Cdc28 is active, suggesting that Yih1 modulates the function of Cdc28 in specific stages of the cell cycle. We also demonstrate, by Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation, that endogenous Yih1 and Cdc28 interact with each other, confirming Yih1 as a bona fide Cdc28 binding partner. Amino acid substitutions within helix H2 of the RWD domain of Yih1 enhance Yih1-Cdc28 association. Overexpression of this mutant, but not of wild type Yih1, leads to a phenotype similar to that of YIH1 deletion, supporting the view that Yih1 is involved through Cdc28 in the regulation of the cell cycle. We further show that IMPACT, the mammalian homologue of Yih1, interacts with CDK1, the mammalian counterpart of Cdc28, indicating that the involvement with the cell cycle is conserved. Together, these data provide insights into the cellular function of Yih1/IMPACT, and provide the basis for future studies on the role of this protein in the cell cycle. PMID:26176233

  14. Delayed Cell Cycle Progression in Selenoprotein W-depleted Cells Is Regulated by a Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase 4-p38/c-Jun NH2-terminal Kinase-p53 Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Wayne Chris; Alkan, Zeynep

    2012-01-01

    Selenoprotein W (SEPW1) is a ubiquitous, highly conserved thioredoxin-like protein whose depletion causes a transient p53- and p21Cip1-dependent G1-phase cell cycle arrest in breast and prostate epithelial cells. SEPW1 depletion increases phosphorylation of Ser-33 in p53, which is associated with decreased p53 ubiquitination and stabilization of p53. We report here that delayed cell cycle progression, Ser-33 phosphorylation, and p53 nuclear accumulation from SEPW1 depletion require mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4). Silencing MKK4 rescued G1 arrest, Ser-33 phosphorylation, and nuclear accumulation of p53 induced by SEPW1 depletion, but silencing MKK3, MKK6, or MKK7 did not. SEPW1 silencing did not change the phosphorylation state of MKK4 but increased total MKK4 protein. Silencing p38γ, p38δ, or JNK2 partially rescued G1 arrest from SEPW1 silencing, suggesting they signal downstream from MKK4. These results imply that SEPW1 silencing increases MKK4, which activates p38γ, p38δ, and JNK2 to phosphorylate p53 on Ser-33 and cause a transient G1 arrest. PMID:22730327

  15. Structural analysis reveals features of the spindle checkpoint kinase Bub1–kinetochore subunit Knl1 interaction

    PubMed Central

    Krenn, Veronica; Wehenkel, Annemarie; Santaguida, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The function of the essential checkpoint kinases Bub1 and BubR1 requires their recruitment to mitotic kinetochores. Kinetochore recruitment of Bub1 and BubR1 is proposed to rely on the interaction of the tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs) of Bub1 and BubR1 with two KI motifs in the outer kinetochore protein Knl1. We determined the crystal structure of the Bub1 TPRs in complex with the cognate Knl1 KI motif and compared it with the structure of the equivalent BubR1TPR–KI motif complex. The interaction developed along the convex surface of the TPR assembly. Point mutations on this surface impaired the interaction of Bub1 and BubR1 with Knl1 in vitro and in vivo but did not cause significant displacement of Bub1 and BubR1 from kinetochores. Conversely, a 62-residue segment of Bub1 that includes a binding domain for the checkpoint protein Bub3 and is C terminal to the TPRs was necessary and largely sufficient for kinetochore recruitment of Bub1. These results shed light on the determinants of kinetochore recruitment of Bub1. PMID:22331848

  16. The effect of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase-dependent hyperphosphorylation of checkpoint kinase-2 on oligodeoxynucleotide 7909 containing CpG motifs-enhanced sensitivity to X-rays in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoqun; Liu, Xiangdong; Qiao, Tiankui; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Sujuan

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study reported here was to further investigate the potential effect of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase-dependent hyperphosphorylation of checkpoint kinase-2 (Chk2) on radiosensitivity enhanced by oligodeoxynucleotide 7909 containing CpG motifs (CpG ODN7909) in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Methods In vitro A549 cells were randomly separated into control, CpG, X-ray, CpG+ X-ray, ATM kinase-small interfering RNA (siRNA)+CpG+X-ray (ATM-siRNA), and Chk2-siRNA+CpG+X-ray (Chk2-siRNA) groups. siRNAs were adopted to silence the ATM and Chk2 genes. Expression and phosphorylation of ATM kinase and Chk2 were detected by Western blot assay. Cell colonies were observed under inverted phase-contrast microscopy. Cellular survival curves were fitted using a multi-target single-hitting model. Cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results Expression of ATM kinase and Chk2 was similar among the control, CpG, X-ray, and CpG+X-ray groups. Phosphorylated ATM kinase and Chk2 were significantly increased in the CpG+X-ray group compared with in the X-ray group (t=6.00, P<0.01 and t=3.13, P<0.05, respectively), though these were hardly detected in the control and CpG groups. However, expression of ATM kinase and Chk2 was clearly downregulated in the ATM-siRNA and Chk2-siRNA groups, respectively. Similarly, their phosphorylation levels were also significantly decreased in the ATM-siRNA group (t=14.35, P<0.01 and t=8.46, P<0.01, respectively) and a significant decrease in phosphorylated Chk2 was observed in the Chk2-siRNA group (t=7.28, P<0.01) when compared with the CpG+X-ray group. Further, the number of A549 cells at Gap 2/mitotic phase and the apoptosis rate were clearly increased in the CpG+X-ray group compared with in the other groups (all P<0.05). The multi-target single-hitting model showed that the sensitization enhancement ratio calculated by mean death dose was 1.39 in CpG+X-ray group (vs 1.04 and 1.03 in the ATM

  17. The metabolic checkpoint kinase mTOR is essential for interleukin-15 signaling during NK cell development and activation

    PubMed Central

    Marçais, Antoine; Degouve, Sophie; Viel, Sébastien; Fenis, Aurore; Rabilloud, Jessica; Mayol, Katia; Tavares, Armelle; Bienvenu, Jacques; Gangloff, Yann-Gaël; Gilson, Eric; Vivier, Eric; Walzer, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-15 (IL-15) controls both the homeostasis and the peripheral activation of Natural Killer (NK) cells. The molecular basis for this duality of action remains unknown. Here we report that the metabolic checkpoint kinase mTOR is activated and boosts bioenergetic metabolism upon NK cell exposure to high concentrations of IL-15 whereas low doses of IL-15 only triggers the phosphorylation of the transcription factor STAT5. mTOR stimulates NK cell growth and nutrient uptake and positively feeds back onto the IL-15 receptor. This process is essential to sustain NK cell proliferation during development and acquisition of cytolytic potential upon inflammation or virus infection. The mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin inhibits NK cell cytotoxicity both in mouse and human, which likely contribute to the immunosuppressant activities of this drug in different clinical settings. PMID:24973821

  18. Atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) exposure-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis evasion through STAT3 activation via PKCζ and Src kinases in lung cells.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Zárate, Elizabeth; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María Concepción; Chirino, Yolanda I; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro Román; Morales-Bárcenas, Rocío; Souza-Arroyo, Verónica; García-Cuellar, Claudia María

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10) is a risk factor for the development of lung cancer, but cellular pathways are not completely understood. STAT3 is a p21(Waf1/Cip1) transcription factor and is associated with proliferation and cell survival and is upregulated in lung cancer. PM10 exposure induces p21(Waf1/Cip1) expression, which could be related to STAT3 activation. The aims of this work were to investigate whether STAT3 was activated on lung epithelial cells after PM10 exposure and to determine whether or not STAT3 could have an impact on cell cycle distribution and cell survival. Our results showed that PM10 induced STAT3 activation through Src and PKCζ kinases, and it is partially responsible for the p21(Waf1/Cip1) induction that was also observed. Moreover, PM10 induced G1-G0 cell cycle arrest. The inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation prevented cell cycle arrest and triggered apoptosis. These results suggest that PM10 exposure might activate a survival pathway related to STAT3 activation, similar to what has been described as part of the immune system and apoptosis evasion during tumor promotion and development. PMID:27131825

  19. Activation of Checkpoint Kinase 2 Is Critical for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Replication in Corneal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Alekseev, Oleg; Limonnik, Vladimir; Donovan, Kelly; Azizkhan-Clifford, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type I keratitis remains a leading cause of corneal morbidity, despite the availability of effective antiviral drugs. Improved understanding of virus-host interactions at the level of the host DNA damage response (DDR), a known factor in the development of HSV-1 keratitis, may shed light on potential new therapeutic targets. This report examines the role of checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2), a DDR mediator protein, in corneal epithelial HSV-1 infection. Methods A small-molecule inhibitor of Chk2 (Chk2 inhibitor II) was applied to HSV-1-infected cultured human corneal epithelial cells (hTCEpi and HCE) as well as to explanted and organotypically cultured human and rabbit corneas. Infection levels were assessed by plaque assay and real-time PCR. RNAi-mediated depletion of Chk2 was performed to confirm the effect of the inhibitor. Results Inhibition of the Chk2 kinase activity greatly suppresses the cytopathic effect, genome replication and infectious progeny production in vitro and ex vivo. Conclusion This report demonstrates the critical role of Chk2 kinase in the establishment of HSV-1 corneal epithelial infection. These data contribute to our understanding of herpesvirus-host interactions and underscore the significance of DDR activation in HSV-1 keratitis. PMID:25531207

  20. Engineered Covalent Inactivation of TFIIH-Kinase Reveals an Elongation Checkpoint and Results in Widespread mRNA Stabilization.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Molina, Juan B; Tseng, Sandra C; Simonett, Shane P; Taunton, Jack; Ansari, Aseem Z

    2016-08-01

    During transcription initiation, the TFIIH-kinase Kin28/Cdk7 marks RNA polymerase II (Pol II) by phosphorylating the C-terminal domain (CTD) of its largest subunit. Here we describe a structure-guided chemical approach to covalently and specifically inactivate Kin28 kinase activity in vivo. This method of irreversible inactivation recapitulates both the lethal phenotype and the key molecular signatures that result from genetically disrupting Kin28 function in vivo. Inactivating Kin28 impacts promoter release to differing degrees and reveals a "checkpoint" during the transition to productive elongation. While promoter-proximal pausing is not observed in budding yeast, inhibition of Kin28 attenuates elongation-licensing signals, resulting in Pol II accumulation at the +2 nucleosome and reduced transition to productive elongation. Furthermore, upon inhibition, global stabilization of mRNA masks different degrees of reduction in nascent transcription. This study resolves long-standing controversies on the role of Kin28 in transcription and provides a rational approach to irreversibly inhibit other kinases in vivo. PMID:27477907

  1. Structure-based and shape-complemented pharmacophore modeling for the discovery of novel checkpoint kinase 1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiu-Mei; Lu, Tao; Lu, Shuai; Li, Hui-Fang; Yuan, Hao-Liang; Ran, Ting; Liu, Hai-Chun; Chen, Ya-Dong

    2010-07-01

    Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1), a member of the serine/threonine kinase family, is an attractive therapeutic target for anticancer combination therapy. A structure-based modeling approach complemented with shape components was pursued to develop a reliable pharmacophore model for ATP-competitive Chk1 inhibitors. Common chemical features of the pharmacophore model were derived by clustering multiple structure-based pharmacophore features from different Chk1-ligand complexes in comparable binding modes. The final model consisted of one hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA), one hydrogen bond donor (HBD), two hydrophobic (HY) features, several excluded volumes and shape constraints. In the validation study, this feature-shape query yielded an enrichment factor of 9.196 and performed fairly well at distinguishing active from inactive compounds, suggesting that the pharmacophore model can serve as a reliable tool for virtual screening to facilitate the discovery of novel Chk1 inhibitors. Besides, these pharmacophore features were assumed to be essential for Chk1 inhibitors, which might be useful for the identification of potential Chk1 inhibitors. PMID:20020310

  2. Structural characterization of inhibitor complexes with checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2), a drug target for cancer therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lountos, George T.; Jobson, Andrew G.; Tropea, Joseph E.; Self, Christopher R.; Zhang, Guangtao; Pommier, Yves; Shoemaker, Robert H.; Waugh, David S.

    2012-01-20

    Chk2 (checkpoint kinase 2) is a serine/threonine kinase that participates in a series of signaling networks responsible for maintaining genomic integrity and responding to DNA damage. The development of selective Chk2 inhibitors has recently attracted much interest as a means of sensitizing cancer cells to current DNA-damaging agents used in the treatment of cancer. Additionally, selective Chk2 inhibitors may reduce p53-mediated apoptosis in normal tissues, thereby helping to mitigate adverse side effects from chemotherapy and radiation. Thus far, relatively few selective inhibitors of Chk2 have been described and none have yet progressed into clinical trials. Here, we report crystal structures of the catalytic domain of Chk2 in complex with a novel series of potent and selective small molecule inhibitors. These compounds exhibit nanomolar potencies and are selective for Chk2 over Chk1. The structures reported here elucidate the binding modes of these inhibitors to Chk2 and provide information that can be exploited for the structure-assisted design of novel chemotherapeutics.

  3. Exploration of the cell-cycle genes found within the RIKEN FANTOM2 data set.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Alistair R R; Taylor, Darrin; Grimmond, Sean

    2003-06-01

    The cell cycle is one of the most fundamental processes within a cell. Phase-dependent expression and cell-cycle checkpoints require a high level of control. A large number of genes with varying functions and modes of action are responsible for this biology. In a targeted exploration of the FANTOM2-Variable Protein Set, a number of mouse homologs to known cell-cycle regulators as well as novel members of cell-cycle families were identified. Focusing on two prototype cell-cycle families, the cyclins and the NIMA-related kinases (NEKs), we believe we have identified all of the mouse members of these families, 24 cyclins and 10 NEKs, and mapped them to ENSEMBL transcripts. To attempt to globally identify all potential cell cycle-related genes within mouse, the MGI (Mouse Genome Database) assignments for the RIKEN Representative Set (RPS) and the results from two homology-based queries were merged. We identified 1415 genes with possible cell-cycle roles, and 1758 potential paralogs. We comment on the genes identified in this screen and evaluate the merits of each approach. PMID:12819135

  4. Cell cycle-dependent nuclear accumulation of the p94fer tyrosine kinase is regulated by its NH2 terminus and is affected by kinase domain integrity and ATP binding.

    PubMed

    Ben-Dor, I; Bern, O; Tennenbaum, T; Nir, U

    1999-02-01

    p94fer and p51ferT are two tyrosine kinases that are encoded by differentially spliced transcripts of the FER locus in the mouse. The two tyrosine kinases share identical SH2 and kinase domains but differ in their NH2-terminal amino acid sequence. Unlike p94fer, the presence of which has been demonstrated in most mammalian cell lines analyzed, the expression of p51ferT is restricted to meiotic cells. Here, we show that the two related tyrosine kinases also differ in their subcellular localization profiles. Although p51ferT accumulates constitutively in the cell nucleus, p94fer is cytoplasmic in quiescent cells and enters the nucleus concomitantly with the onset of S phase. The nuclear translocation of the FER proteins is driven by a nuclear localization signal (NLS), which is located within the kinase domain of these enzymes. The functioning of that NLS depends on the integrity of the kinase domain but was not affected by inactivation of the kinase activity. The NH2 terminus of p94fer dictated the cell cycle-dependent functioning of the NLS of FER kinase. This process was governed by coiled-coil forming sequences that are present in the NH2 terminus of the kinase. The regulatory effect of the p94fer NH2-terminal sequences was not affected by kinase activity but was perturbed by mutations in the kinase domain ATP binding site. Ectopic expression of the constitutively nuclear p51ferT in CHO cells interfered with S-phase progression in these cells. This was not seen in p94fer-overexpressing cells. The FER tyrosine kinases seem, thus, to be regulated by novel mechanisms that direct their different subcellular distribution profiles and may, consequently, control their cellular functioning. PMID:10074905

  5. A Monitor for Bud Emergence in the Yeast Morphogenesis Checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Theesfeld, Chandra L.; Zyla, Trevin R.; Bardes, Elaine G.S.; Lew, Daniel J.

    2003-01-01

    Cell cycle transitions are subject to regulation by both external signals and internal checkpoints that monitor satisfactory progression of key cell cycle events. In budding yeast, the morphogenesis checkpoint arrests the cell cycle in response to perturbations that affect the actin cytoskeleton and bud formation. Herein, we identify a step in this checkpoint pathway that seems to be directly responsive to bud emergence. Activation of the kinase Hsl1p is dependent upon its recruitment to a cortical domain organized by the septins, a family of conserved filament-forming proteins. Under conditions that delayed or blocked bud emergence, Hsl1p recruitment to the septin cortex still took place, but hyperphosphorylation of Hsl1p and recruitment of the Hsl1p-binding protein Hsl7p to the septin cortex only occurred after bud emergence. At this time, the septin cortex spread to form a collar between mother and bud, and Hsl1p and Hsl7p were restricted to the bud side of the septin collar. We discuss models for translating cellular geometry (in this case, the emergence of a bud) into biochemical signals regulating cell proliferation. PMID:12925763

  6. Checkpointing filesystem

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.

    2005-05-17

    The present in invention is directed to a checkpointing filesystem of a distributed-memory parallel supercomputer comprising a node that accesses user data on the filesystem, the filesystem comprising an interface that is associated with a disk for storing the user data. The checkpointing filesystem provides for taking and checkpoint of the filesystem and rolling back to a previously taken checkpoint, as well as for writing user data to and deleting user data from the checkpointing filesystem. The checkpointing filesystem provides a recently written file allocation table (WFAT) for maintaining information regarding the user data written since a previously taken checkpoint and a recently deleted file allocation table (DFAT) for maintaining information regarding user data deleted from since the previously taken checkpoint, both of which are utilized by the checkpointing filesystem to take a checkpoint of the filesystem and rollback the filesystem to a previously taken checkpoint, as well as to write and delete user data from the checkpointing filesystem.

  7. Fisetin inhibits the activities of cyclin-dependent kinases leading to cell cycle arrest in HT-29 human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xianghua; Jung, Jae in; Cho, Han Jin; Lim, Do Young; Lee, Hyun Sook; Chun, Hyang Sook; Kwon, Dae Young; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2005-12-01

    Fisetin, a natural flavonol present in edible vegetables, fruits, and wine, was reported to exert anticarcinogenic effects. The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of fisetin on the cell cycle progression of the human colon cancer cell line HT-29. HT-29 cells were cultured in serum-free medium with 0, 20, 40, or 60 micromol/L fisetin. Fisetin dose dependently inhibited both cell growth and DNA synthesis (P < 0.05), with a 79 +/- 1% decrease in cell number observed 72 h after the addition of 60 micromol/L fisetin. Perturbed cell cycle progression from the G(1) to S phase was observed at 8 h with 60 micromol/L fisetin treatment, whereas a G(2)/M phase arrest was observed after 24 h (P < 0.05). The phosphorylation state of the retinoblastoma proteins shifted from hyperphosphorylated to hypophosphorylated in cells treated with 40 micromol/L fisetin. (P < 0.05). Fisetin decreased the activities of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK)2 and CDK4; these effects were likely attributable to decreases in the levels of cyclin E and D1 and an increase in p21(CIP1/WAF1) levels (P < 0.05). However, fisetin also inhibited CDk4 activity in a cell-free system (P < 0.05), indicating that it may directly inhibit CDk4 activity. The protein levels of cell division cycles (CDC)2 and CDC25C and the activity of CDC2 were also decreased in fisetin-treated cells (P < 0.05). These results indicate that inhibition of cell cycle progression in HT-29 cells after treatment with fisetin can be explained, at least in part, by modification of CDK activities. PMID:16317137

  8. Cell Cycle Regulation and Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen; McArthur, Grant

    2016-06-01

    Dysregulation of cell cycle control is a hallmark of melanomagenesis. Agents targeting the G1-S and G2-M checkpoints, as well as direct anti-mitotic agents, have all shown promising preclinical activity in melanoma. However, in vivo, standalone single agents targeting cell cycle regulation have only demonstrated modest efficacy in unselected patients. The advent of specific CDK 4/6 inhibitors targeting the G1-S transition, with an improved therapeutic index, is a significant step forward. Potential synergy exists with the combination of CDK4/6 inhibitors with existing therapies targeting the MAPK pathway, particularly in subsets of metastatic melanomas such as NRAS and BRAF mutants. This reviews summaries of the latest developments in both preclinical and clinical data with cell cycle-targeted therapies in melanoma. PMID:27106898

  9. Checkpoint kinase inhibitors: SAR and radioprotective properties of a series of 2-arylbenzimidazoles.

    PubMed

    Arienti, Kristen L; Brunmark, Anders; Axe, Frank U; McClure, Kelly; Lee, Alice; Blevitt, Jon; Neff, Danielle K; Huang, Liming; Crawford, Shelby; Pandit, Chennagiri R; Karlsson, Lars; Breitenbucher, J Guy

    2005-03-24

    The discovery of a series of novel, potent, and highly selective inhibitors of the DNA damage control kinase chk2 is disclosed. Here we report the first SAR study around inhibitors of this kinase. High-throughput screening of purified human chk2 led to the identification of a novel series of 2-arylbenzimidazole inhibitors of the kinase. Optimization was facilitated using homology models of chk2 and docking of inhibitors, leading to the highly potent 2-arylbenzimidazole 2h (IC(50) 15 nM). Compound 2h is an ATP-competitive inhibitor of chk2 that dose dependently protects human CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells from apoptosis due to ionizing radiation. This work suggests that a selective small molecule inhibitor of chk2 could be a useful adjuvant to radiotherapy, increasing the therapeutic window of such treatment. PMID:15771432

  10. PP2A as a master regulator of the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Wlodarchak, Nathan; Xing, Yongna

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) plays a critical multi-faceted role in the regulation of the cell cycle. It is known to dephosphorylate over 300 substrates involved in the cell cycle, regulating almost all major pathways and cell cycle checkpoints. PP2A is involved in such diverse processes by the formation of structurally distinct families of holoenzymes, which are regulated spatially and temporally by specific regulators. Here, we review the involvement of PP2A in the regulation of three cell signaling pathways: wnt, mTOR and MAP kinase, as well as the G1→S transition, DNA synthesis and mitotic initiation. These processes are all crucial for proper cell survival and proliferation and are often deregulated in cancer and other diseases. PMID:26906453

  11. PP2A as a master regulator of the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Wlodarchak, Nathan; Xing, Yongna

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) plays a critical multi-faceted role in the regulation of the cell cycle. It is known to dephosphorylate over 300 substrates involved in the cell cycle, regulating almost all major pathways and cell cycle checkpoints. PP2A is involved in such diverse processes by the formation of structurally distinct families of holoenzymes, which are regulated spatially and temporally by specific regulators. Here, we review the involvement of PP2A in the regulation of three cell signaling pathways: wnt, mTOR and MAP kinase, as well as the G1→S transition, DNA synthesis and mitotic initiation. These processes are all crucial for proper cell survival and proliferation and are often deregulated in cancer and other diseases. PMID:26906453

  12. DNA damage checkpoint recovery and cancer development

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Haiyong; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Teng, Lisong; Legerski, Randy J.

    2015-06-10

    Cell cycle checkpoints were initially presumed to function as a regulator of cell cycle machinery in response to different genotoxic stresses, and later found to play an important role in the process of tumorigenesis by acting as a guard against DNA over-replication. As a counterpart of checkpoint activation, the checkpoint recovery machinery is working in opposition, aiming to reverse the checkpoint activation and resume the normal cell cycle. The DNA damage response (DDR) and oncogene induced senescence (OIS) are frequently found in precancerous lesions, and believed to constitute a barrier to tumorigenesis, however, the DDR and OIS have been observed to be diminished in advanced cancers of most tissue origins. These findings suggest that when progressing from pre-neoplastic lesions to cancer, DNA damage checkpoint barriers are overridden. How the DDR checkpoint is bypassed in this process remains largely unknown. Activated cytokine and growth factor-signaling pathways were very recently shown to suppress the DDR and to promote uncontrolled cell proliferation in the context of oncovirus infection. In recent decades, data from cell line and tumor models showed that a group of checkpoint recovery proteins function in promoting tumor progression; data from patient samples also showed overexpression of checkpoint recovery proteins in human cancer tissues and a correlation with patients' poor prognosis. In this review, the known cell cycle checkpoint recovery proteins and their roles in DNA damage checkpoint recovery are reviewed, as well as their implications in cancer development. This review also provides insight into the mechanism by which the DDR suppresses oncogene-driven tumorigenesis and tumor progression. - Highlights: • DNA damage checkpoint works as a barrier to cancer initiation. • DDR machinary response to genotoxic and oncogenic stress in similar way. • Checkpoint recovery pathways provide active signaling in cell cycle control. • Checkpoint

  13. Downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor; p57{sup kip2}, is involved in the cell cycle progression of vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, Noritsugu . E-mail: norida@med.hokudai.ac.jp; Urasawa, Kazushi; Takagi, Yasushi; Saito, Takahiko; Kaneta, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Susumu; Higashi, Hideaki; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki; Hatakeyama, Masanori; Kitabatake, Akira

    2005-12-23

    Immature vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) proliferate responding to extrinsic mitogens and accumulate in neointima after arterial injuries. Cell proliferation is positively regulated by cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) complex and negatively controlled by CDK inhibitors; CKIs such as p27{sup kip1} and p57{sup kip2}. In this study, embryonic rat thoracic aorta VSMCs; A10 were G0/G1 arrested by serum starvation, re-stimulated with serum, and harvested every four hours. Both CKIs co-expressed in quiescent VSMCs and rapidly diminished by stimulation. Protein level of p27{sup kip1} was regulated by both transcription and post-transcription, but that of p57{sup kip2} was mainly by post-transcription. Supplemental overexpression of p57{sup kip2} inhibited the activations of G1 cyclin/CDKs and subsequent hyperphosphorylations of all three retinoblastoma pocket proteins as well as G1/S transition of cell cycle. Our findings suggest that the downregulations of not only p27{sup kip1}, but also p57{sup kip2} responding to mitogenic stimulation, play key roles in the cell cycle progression of VSMCs.

  14. Inhibition of checkpoint kinase 1 sensitizes lung cancer brain metastases to radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Heekyoung; Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710; Cancer Stem Cell Research Center, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 ; Yoon, Su Jin; Jin, Juyoun; Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710; Cancer Stem Cell Research Center, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 ; Choi, Seung Ho; Seol, Ho Jun; Lee, Jung-Il; and others

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} The most important therapeutic tool in brain metastasis is radiation therapy. {yields} Radiosensitivity of cancer cells was enhanced with treatment of Chk1 inhibitor. {yields} Depletion of Chk1 in cancer cells showed an enhancement of sensitivity to radiation. {yields} Chk1 can be a good target for enhancement of radiosensitivity. -- Abstract: The most important therapeutic tool in brain metastasis is radiation therapy. However, resistance to radiation is a possible cause of recurrence or treatment failure. Recently, signal pathways about DNA damage checkpoints after irradiation have been noticed. We investigated the radiosensitivity can be enhanced with treatment of Chk1 inhibitor, AZD7762 in lung cancer cell lines and xenograft models of lung cancer brain metastasis. Clonogenic survival assays showed enhancement of radiosensitivity with AZD7762 after irradiation of various doses. AZD7762 increased ATR/ATM-mediated Chk1 phosphorylation and stabilized Cdc25A, suppressed cyclin A expression in lung cancer cell lines. In xenograft models of lung cancer (PC14PE6) brain metastasis, AZD7762 significantly prolonged the median survival time in response to radiation. Depletion of Chk1 using shRNA also showed an enhancement of sensitivity to radiation in PC14PE6 cells. The results of this study support that Chk1 can be a good target for enhancement of radiosensitivity.

  15. Inhibition of checkpoint kinase 1 sensitizes lung cancer brain metastases to radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Heekyoung; Yoon, Su Jin; Jin, Juyoun; Choi, Seung Ho; Seol, Ho Jun; Lee, Jung-Il; Nam, Do-Hyun; Yoo, Hae Yong

    2011-03-01

    The most important therapeutic tool in brain metastasis is radiation therapy. However, resistance to radiation is a possible cause of recurrence or treatment failure. Recently, signal pathways about DNA damage checkpoints after irradiation have been noticed. We investigated the radiosensitivity can be enhanced with treatment of Chk1 inhibitor, AZD7762 in lung cancer cell lines and xenograft models of lung cancer brain metastasis. Clonogenic survival assays showed enhancement of radiosensitivity with AZD7762 after irradiation of various doses. AZD7762 increased ATR/ATM-mediated Chk1 phosphorylation and stabilized Cdc25A, suppressed cyclin A expression in lung cancer cell lines. In xenograft models of lung cancer (PC14PE6) brain metastasis, AZD7762 significantly prolonged the median survival time in response to radiation. Depletion of Chk1 using shRNA also showed an enhancement of sensitivity to radiation in PC14PE6 cells. The results of this study support that Chk1 can be a good target for enhancement of radiosensitivity. PMID:21291864

  16. A single mutation in the gatekeeper residue in TgMAPKL-1 restores the inhibitory effect of a bumped kinase inhibitor on the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Sugi, Tatsuki; Kawazu, Shin-Ichiro; Horimoto, Taisuke; Kato, Kentaro

    2015-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the causative pathogen for Toxoplasmosis. Bumped kinase inhibitor 1NM-PP1 inhibits the growth of T. gondii by targeting TgCDPK1. However, we recently reported that resistance to 1NM-PP1 can be acquired via a mutation in T. gondii mitogen-activated protein kinase like 1 (TgMAPKL-1). Further characterization of how this TgMAPKL-1 mutation restores the inhibitory effect of 1NM-PP1 would shed further light on the function of TgMAPKL-1 in the parasite life cycle. Therefore, we made parasite clones with TgMAPKL-1 mutated at the gatekeeper residue Ser 191, which is critical for 1NM-PP1 susceptibility. Host cell lysis of RH/ku80(-)/HA-TgMAPKL-1(S191A) was completely inhibited at 250 nM 1NM-PP1, whereas that of RH/ku80(-)/HA-TgMAPKL-1(S191Y) was not. By comparing 1NM-PP1-sensitive (RH/ku80(-)/HA-TgMAPKL-1(S191A)) and -resistant (RH/ku80(-)/HA-TgMAPKL-1(S191Y)) clones, we observed that inhibition of TgMAPKL-1 blocked cell cycle progression after DNA duplication. Morphological analysis revealed that TgMAPKL-1 inhibition caused enlarged parasite cells with many daughter cell scaffolds and imcomplete cytokinesis. We conclude that the mutation in TgMAPKL-1 restored the cell cycle-arresting effect of 1NM-PP1 on T. gondii endodyogeny. Given that endodyogeny is the primary mechanism of cell division for both the tachyzoite and bradyzoite stages of this parasite, TgMAPKL-1 may be a promising target for drug development. Exploration of the signals that regulate TgMAPKL-1 will provide further insights into the unique mode of T. gondii cell division. PMID:25941623

  17. Bortezomib and fenretinide induce synergistic cytotoxicity in mantle cell lymphoma through apoptosis, cell-cycle dysregulation, and IκBα kinase downregulation.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Andrew J; Frayo, Shani L; Press, Oliver W; Palanca-Wessels, Maria C; Pagel, John M; Green, Damian J; Gopal, Ajay K

    2015-10-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) remains incurable for most patients, and proteasome inhibitors like bortezomib induce responses in a minority of patients with relapsed disease. Fenretinide is a retinoid that has shown preclinical activity in B-cell lymphomas. We hypothesized that these agents could yield augmented antitumor activity. MCL lines (Granta-519, Jeko-1, and Rec-1) were treated with escalating concentrations of bortezomib and fenretinide singly and in combination. Cytotoxicity was assessed using the MTT assay. Flow cytometric methods were used to assess apoptosis and necrosis, with annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide staining, and G1 and G2 cell-cycle changes were assessed by DAPI staining. Changes in cyclin D1, cyclin B, IκBα, and IKKα expressions were quantified by western blotting. Cytotoxicity was mediated through apoptosis; both agents showed observed versus expected cytotoxicities of 92.2 versus 55.1% in Granta-519, of 87.6 versus 36.3% in Jeko-1, and of 63.2 versus 29.8% in Rec-1. Isobolographic analysis confirmed synergy in Jeko-1 and Rec-1 cell lines. Bortezomib induced G2-phase arrest, with a 1.7-fold increase compared with control, and fenretinide resulted in G1-phase arrest, with an increase of 1.3-fold compared with control. In the combination, G2-phase arrest predominated, with a 1.4-fold increase compared with control, and there was reduced expression of cyclin D1 to 24%, cyclin B to 52 and 64%, cyclin D3 to 25 and 43%, IκBα to 23 and 46%, and IκBα kinase to 34 and 44%. Bortezomib and fenretinide exhibit synergistic cytotoxicity against MCL cell lines. This activity is mediated by IκBα kinase modulation, decreased cyclin expression, cell cycle dysregulation, and apoptotic cell death. PMID:26237500

  18. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase promotes tumor cell resistance to chemotherapeutic agents via a mechanism involving delay in cell cycle progression

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Gail T.; Sullivan, Richard; Pare, Genevieve C.; Graham, Charles H.

    2010-11-15

    Approaches to overcome chemoresistance in cancer cells have involved targeting specific signaling pathways such as the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, a stress response pathway known to be involved in the regulation of cell survival, apoptosis and growth. The present study determined the effect of PI3K inhibition on the clonogenic survival of human cancer cells following exposure to various chemotherapeutic agents. Treatment with the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 or Compound 15e resulted in increased survival of MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells after exposure to doxorubicin, etoposide, 5-fluorouracil, and vincristine. Increased survival following PI3K inhibition was also observed in DU-145 prostate, HCT-116 colon and A-549 lung carcinoma cell lines exposed to doxorubicin. Increased cell survival mediated by LY294002 was correlated with a decrease in cell proliferation, which was linked to an increase in the proportion of cells in the G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle. Inhibition of PI3K signaling also resulted in higher levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21{sup Waf1/Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1}; and knockdown of p27{sup kip1} with siRNA attenuated resistance to doxorubicin in cells treated with LY294002. Incubation in the presence of LY294002 after exposure to doxorubicin resulted in decreased cell survival. These findings provide evidence that PI3K inhibition leads to chemoresistance in human cancer cells by causing a delay in cell cycle; however, the timing of PI3K inhibition (either before or after exposure to anti-cancer agents) may be a critical determinant of chemosensitivity.

  19. A single mutation in the gatekeeper residue in TgMAPKL-1 restores the inhibitory effect of a bumped kinase inhibitor on the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Sugi, Tatsuki; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro; Horimoto, Taisuke; Kato, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the causative pathogen for Toxoplasmosis. Bumped kinase inhibitor 1NM-PP1 inhibits the growth of T. gondii by targeting TgCDPK1. However, we recently reported that resistance to 1NM-PP1 can be acquired via a mutation in T. gondii mitogen-activated protein kinase like 1 (TgMAPKL-1). Further characterization of how this TgMAPKL-1 mutation restores the inhibitory effect of 1NM-PP1 would shed further light on the function of TgMAPKL-1 in the parasite life cycle. Therefore, we made parasite clones with TgMAPKL-1 mutated at the gatekeeper residue Ser 191, which is critical for 1NM-PP1 susceptibility. Host cell lysis of RH/ku80-/HA-TgMAPKL-1S191A was completely inhibited at 250 nM 1NM-PP1, whereas that of RH/ku80-/HA-TgMAPKL-1S191Y was not. By comparing 1NM-PP1-sensitive (RH/ku80-/HA-TgMAPKL-1S191A) and -resistant (RH/ku80-/HA-TgMAPKL-1S191Y) clones, we observed that inhibition of TgMAPKL-1 blocked cell cycle progression after DNA duplication. Morphological analysis revealed that TgMAPKL-1 inhibition caused enlarged parasite cells with many daughter cell scaffolds and imcomplete cytokinesis. We conclude that the mutation in TgMAPKL-1 restored the cell cycle-arresting effect of 1NM-PP1 on T. gondii endodyogeny. Given that endodyogeny is the primary mechanism of cell division for both the tachyzoite and bradyzoite stages of this parasite, TgMAPKL-1 may be a promising target for drug development. Exploration of the signals that regulate TgMAPKL-1 will provide further insights into the unique mode of T. gondii cell division. PMID:25941623

  20. Escherichia coli cytolethal distending toxin blocks the HeLa cell cycle at the G2/M transition by preventing cdc2 protein kinase dephosphorylation and activation.

    PubMed Central

    Comayras, C; Tasca, C; Pérès, S Y; Ducommun, B; Oswald, E; De Rycke, J

    1997-01-01

    Cytolethal distending toxins (CDT) constitute an emerging heterogeneous family of bacterial toxins whose common biological property is to inhibit the proliferation of cells in culture by blocking their cycle at G2/M phase. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the block caused by CDT from Escherichia coli on synchronized HeLa cell cultures. To this end, we studied specifically the behavior of the two subunits of the complex that determines entry into mitosis, i.e., cyclin B1, the regulatory unit, and cdc2 protein kinase, the catalytic unit. We thus demonstrate that CDT causes cell accumulation in G2 and not in M, that it does not slow the progression of cells through S phase, and that it does not affect the normal increase of cyclin B1 from late S to G2. On the other hand, we show that CDT inhibits the kinase activity of cdc2 by preventing its dephosphorylation, an event which, in normal cells, triggers mitosis. This inhibitory activity was demonstrated for the three partially related CDTs so far described for E. coli. Moreover, we provide evidence that cells exposed to CDT during G2 and M phases are blocked only at the subsequent G2 phase. This observation means that the toxin triggers a mechanism of cell arrest that is initiated in S phase and therefore possibly related to the DNA damage checkpoint system. PMID:9393800

  1. Aven-mediated checkpoint kinase control regulates proliferation and resistance to chemotherapy in conventional osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Baranski, Zuzanna; Booij, Tijmen H; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Price, Leo S; van de Water, Bob; Bovée, Judith V M G; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Danen, Erik H J

    2015-07-01

    Conventional high-grade osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone sarcoma, with relatively high incidence in young people. In this study we found that expression of Aven correlates inversely with metastasis-free survival in osteosarcoma patients and is increased in metastases compared to primary tumours. Aven is an adaptor protein that has been implicated in anti-apoptotic signalling and serves as an oncoprotein in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. In osteosarcoma cells, silencing Aven triggered G2 cell-cycle arrest; Chk1 protein levels were attenuated and ATR-Chk1 DNA damage response signalling in response to chemotherapy was abolished in Aven-depleted osteosarcoma cells, while ATM, Chk2 and p53 activation remained intact. Osteosarcoma is notoriously difficult to treat with standard chemotherapy, and we examined whether pharmacological inhibition of the Aven-controlled ATR-Chk1 response could sensitize osteosarcoma cells to genotoxic compounds. Indeed, pharmacological inhibitors targeting Chk1/Chk2 or those selective for Chk1 synergized with standard chemotherapy in 2D cultures. Likewise, in 3D extracellular matrix-embedded cultures, Chk1 inhibition led to effective sensitization to chemotherapy. Together, these findings implicate Aven in ATR-Chk1 signalling and point towards Chk1 inhibition as a strategy to sensitize human osteosarcomas to chemotherapy. PMID:25757065

  2. Chk1 keeps cell cycle transcription active in response to replication stress by interfering with E2F6-dependent repression

    PubMed Central

    Bertoli, Cosetta; Klier, Steffi; McGowan, Clare; Wittenberg, Curt; de Bruin, Robertus A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background In eukaryotic cells, detection of replication stress results in the activation of the DNA replication checkpoint, a signaling cascade whose central players are the kinases ATR and Chk1. The checkpoint response prevents the accumulation of DNA damage and ensures cell viability by delaying progression into mitosis. However, the role and mechanism of the replication checkpoint transcriptional response in human cells, which is p53-independent, is largely unknown. Results We show that, in response to DNA replication stress, the regular E2F-dependent cell cycle transcriptional program is maintained at high levels and we establish the mechanisms governing such transcriptional upregulation. E2F6, a repressor of E2F-dependent G1/S transcription, replaces the activating E2Fs at promoters to repress transcription in cells progressing into S-phase in unperturbed conditions. Following replication stress, the checkpoint kinase Chk1 phosphorylates E2F6 leading to its dissociation from promoters. This promotes E2F-dependent transcription, which mediates cell survival by preventing DNA damage and cell death. Conclusions This work reveals, for the first time, that the regular cell cycle transcriptional program is part of the DNA replication checkpoint response in human cells and establishes the molecular mechanism involved. We show that maintaining high levels of G1/S cell cycle transcription in response to replication stress contributes to two key functions of the DNA replication checkpoint response, namely preventing genomic instability and cell death. Given the critical role of replication stress in oncogene transformation, a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the checkpoint response will contribute to a better insight into cancer development. PMID:23954429

  3. Kick-starting the cell cycle: From growth-factor stimulation to initiation of DNA replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguda, Baltazar D.

    2001-03-01

    The essential genes, proteins and associated regulatory networks involved in the entry into the mammalian cell cycle are identified, from activation of growth-factor receptors to intracellular signal transduction pathways that impinge on the cell cycle machinery and ultimately on the initiation of DNA replication. Signaling pathways mediated by the oncoproteins Ras and Myc induce the activation of cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK2, and the assembly and firing of pre-replication complexes require a collaboration among E2F, CDK2, and Cdc7 kinase. A proposed core mechanism of the restriction point, the major checkpoint prior to commitment to DNA synthesis, involves cyclin E/CDK2, the phosphatase Cdc25A, and the CDK inhibitor p27Kip1.

  4. Docetaxel enhances apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest by suppressing mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in human renal clear cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Han, T D; Shang, D H; Tian, Y

    2016-01-01

    Tremendous efforts have been made in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients' research; however, clinical findings in patients have been disappointing. The aims of our study were to identify better or alternative therapeutic methods that can reverse chemotherapy resistance and to enhance sensitivity to docetaxel (DOX)-based chemotherapy drugs. We evaluated the anti-proliferative effect of DOX against RCC cells. DOX was found to suppress proliferation of RCC cells under in vitro and in vivo settings. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that DOX suppressed cell growth by induction of both apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner. Various patterns of gene expression were observed by cluster analysis. In addition, based on network analysis using the ingenuity pathway analysis software, DOX was found to suppress phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38, suggesting that the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway plays a vital role in the anti-proliferative effect of DOX against RCC. PMID:26909952

  5. A novel DAG-dependent mechanism links PKCa and Cyclin B1 regulating cell cycle progression

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Alessandro; Ramazzotti, Giulia; Matteucci, Alessandro; Manzoli, Lucia; Lonetti, Annalisa; Suh, Pann-Ghill; McCubrey, James A.; Cocco, Lucio

    2014-01-01

    Through the years, different studies showed the involvement of Protein Kinase C (PKC) in cell cycle control, in particular during G1/S transition. Little is known about their role at G2/M checkpoint. In this study, using K562 human erythroleukemia cell line, we found a novel and specific mechanism through which the conventional isoform PKC⍺ positively affects Cyclin B1 modulating G2/M progression of cell cycle. Since the kinase activity of this PKC isoform was not necessary in this process, we demonstrated that PKC⍺, physically interacting with Cyclin B1, avoided its degradation and stimulated its nuclear import at mitosis. Moreover, the process resulted to be strictly connected with the increase in nuclear diacylglycerol levels (DAG) at G2/M checkpoint, due to the activity of nuclear Phospholipase C β1 (PLCβ1), the only PLC isoform mainly localized in the nucleus of K562 cells. Taken together, our findings indicated a novel DAG dependent mechanism able to regulate the G2/M progression of the cell cycle. PMID:25362646

  6. Human cytomegalovirus inhibits a DNA damage response by mislocalizing checkpoint proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspar, Miguel; Shenk, Thomas

    2006-02-01

    The DNA damage checkpoint pathway responds to DNA damage and induces a cell cycle arrest to allow time for DNA repair. Several viruses are known to activate or modulate this cellular response. Here we show that the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated checkpoint pathway, which responds to double-strand breaks in DNA, is activated in response to human cytomegalovirus DNA replication. However, this activation does not propagate through the pathway; it is blocked at the level of the effector kinase, checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2). Late after infection, several checkpoint proteins, including ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and Chk2, are mislocalized to a cytoplasmic virus assembly zone, where they are colocalized with virion structural proteins. This colocalization was confirmed by immunoprecipitation of virion proteins with an antibody that recognizes Chk2. Virus replication was resistant to ionizing radiation, which causes double-strand breaks in DNA. We propose that human CMV DNA replication activates the checkpoint response to DNA double-strand breaks, and the virus responds by altering the localization of checkpoint proteins to the cytoplasm and thereby inhibiting the signaling pathway. ionizing radiation | ataxia-telangiectasia mutated pathway

  7. Autophosphorylation of the Bacterial Tyrosine-Kinase CpsD Connects Capsule Synthesis with the Cell Cycle in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Mercy, Chryslène; Cluzel, Caroline; Morlot, Cécile; Noirot-Gros, Marie-Francoise; Guiral, Sébastien; Lavergne, Jean-Pierre; Veening, Jan-Willem; Grangeasse, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial capsular polysaccharides (CPS) are produced by a multi-protein membrane complex, in which a particular type of tyrosine-autokinases named BY-kinases, regulate their polymerization and export. However, our understanding of the role of BY-kinases in these processes remains incomplete. In the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae, the BY-kinase CpsD localizes at the division site and participates in the proper assembly of the capsule. In this study, we show that the cytoplasmic C-terminal end of the transmembrane protein CpsC is required for CpsD autophosphorylation and localization at mid-cell. Importantly, we demonstrate that the CpsC/CpsD complex captures the polysaccharide polymerase CpsH at the division site. Together with the finding that capsule is not produced at the division site in cpsD and cpsC mutants, these data show that CPS production occurs exclusively at mid-cell and is tightly dependent on CpsD interaction with CpsC. Next, we have analyzed the impact of CpsD phosphorylation on CPS production. We show that dephosphorylation of CpsD induces defective capsule production at the septum together with aberrant cell elongation and nucleoid defects. We observe that the cell division protein FtsZ assembles and localizes properly although cell constriction is impaired. DAPI staining together with localization of the histone-like protein HlpA further show that chromosome replication and/or segregation is defective suggesting that CpsD autophosphorylation interferes with these processes thus resulting in cell constriction defects and cell elongation. We show that CpsD shares structural homology with ParA-like ATPases and that it interacts with the chromosome partitioning protein ParB. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy imaging demonstrates that CpsD phosphorylation modulates the mobility of ParB. These data support a model in which phosphorylation of CpsD acts as a signaling system coordinating CPS synthesis with chromosome segregation

  8. Okadaic acid overcomes the blocked cell cycle caused by depleting Cdc2-related kinases in Trypanosoma brucei

    SciTech Connect

    Li Ziyin; Tu Xiaoming; Wang, Ching C. . E-mail: ccwang@cgl.ucsf.edu

    2006-11-01

    Mitosis and cytokinesis are highly coordinated in eukaryotic cells. But procyclic-form Trypanosoma brucei under G1 or mitotic arrest is still capable of dividing, resulting in anucleate daughter cells (zoids). Okadaic acid (OKA), an inhibitor of protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A, is known to inhibit kinetoplast replication and cell division yielding multinucleate cells with single kinetoplasts. However, when OKA was applied to cells arrested in G1 or G2/M phase via RNAi knockdown of specific cdc2-related kinases (CRKs), DNA synthesis and nuclear division were resumed without kinetoplast replication or cell division, resulting in multinucleate cells as in the wild type. Cells arrested in G2/M via depleting the mitotic cyclin CycB2 or an aurora B kinase homologue TbAUK1 were, however, not released by OKA treatment. The phenomenon is thus similar to the OKA activation of Cdc2 in Xenopus oocyte by inhibiting PP2A [Maton, et al., Differential regulation of Cdc2 and Aurora-A in Xenopus oocytes: a crucial role of phosphatase 2A. J. Cell Sci. 118 (2005) 2485-2494]. A simultaneous knockdown of the seven PP1s or the PP2A catalytic subunit in T. brucei by RNA interference did not, however, result in multinucleate cells. This could be explained by assuming a negative regulation, either directly or indirectly, of CRK by an OKA-sensitive phosphatase, which could be a PP2A as in the Xenopus oocyte and a positive regulation of kinetoplast replication by an OKA-susceptible protein(s). Test of a PP2A-specific inhibitor, fostriecin, on cells arrested in G2/M via CRK depletion or a knockdown of the PP2A catalytic subunit from the CRK-depleted cells both showed a partial lift of the G2/M block without forming multinucleate cells. These observations support the abovementioned assumption and suggest the presence of a novel OKA-sensitive protein(s) regulating kinetoplast replication that still remains to be identified.

  9. Cellular Inhibition of Checkpoint Kinase 2 (Chk2) and Potentiation of Camptothecins and Radiation by the Novel Chk2 Inhibitor PV1019 [7-Nitro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid {4-[1-(guanidinohydrazone)-ethyl]-phenyl}-amide

    SciTech Connect

    Jobson, Andrew G.; Lountos, George T.; Lorenzi, Philip L.; Llamas, Jenny; Connelly, John; Cerna, David; Tropea, Joseph E.; Onda, Akikazu; Zoppoli, Gabriele; Kondapaka, Sudhir; Zhang, Guangtao; Caplen, Natasha J.; Cardellina, II, John H.; Yoo, Stephen S.; Monks, Anne; Self, Christopher; Waugh, David S.; Shoemaker, Robert H.; Pommier, Yves

    2010-04-05

    Chk2 is a checkpoint kinase involved in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated pathway, which is activated by genomic instability and DNA damage, leading to either cell death (apoptosis) or cell cycle arrest. Chk2 provides an unexplored therapeutic target against cancer cells. We recently reported 4,4'-diacetyldiphenylurea-bis(guanylhydrazone) (NSC 109555) as a novel chemotype Chk2 inhibitor. We have now synthesized a derivative of NSC 109555, PV1019 (NSC 744039) [7-nitro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid {l_brace}4-[1-(guanidinohydrazone)-ethyl]-phenyl{r_brace}-amide], which is a selective submicromolar inhibitor of Chk2 in vitro. The cocrystal structure of PV1019 bound in the ATP binding pocket of Chk2 confirmed enzymatic/biochemical observations that PV1019 acts as a competitive inhibitor of Chk2 with respect to ATP. PV1019 was found to inhibit Chk2 in cells. It inhibits Chk2 autophosphorylation (which represents the cellular kinase activation of Chk2), Cdc25C phosphorylation, and HDMX degradation in response to DNA damage. PV1019 also protects normal mouse thymocytes against ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis, and it shows synergistic antiproliferative activity with topotecan, camptothecin, and radiation in human tumor cell lines. We also show that PV1019 and Chk2 small interfering RNAs can exert antiproliferative activity themselves in the cancer cells with high Chk2 expression in the NCI-60 screen. These data indicate that PV1019 is a potent and selective inhibitor of Chk2 with chemotherapeutic and radiosensitization potential.

  10. The Late S-Phase Transcription Factor Hcm1 Is Regulated through Phosphorylation by the Cell Wall Integrity Checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Negishi, Takahiro; Veis, Jiri; Hollenstein, David; Sekiya, Mizuho; Ammerer, Gustav

    2016-01-01

    The cell wall integrity (CWI) checkpoint in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae coordinates cell wall construction and cell cycle progression. In this study, we showed that the regulation of Hcm1, a late-S-phase transcription factor, arrests the cell cycle via the cell wall integrity checkpoint. Although the HCM1 mRNA level remained unaffected when the cell wall integrity checkpoint was induced, the protein level decreased. The overproduction of Hcm1 resulted in the failure of the cell wall integrity checkpoint. We identified 39 Hcm1 phosphorylation sites, including 26 novel sites, by tandem mass spectrometry analysis. A mutational analysis revealed that phosphorylation of Hcm1 at S61, S65, and S66 is required for the proper onset of the cell wall integrity checkpoint by regulating the timely decrease in its protein level. Hyperactivation of the CWI mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway significantly reduced the Hcm1 protein level, and the deletion of CWI MAPK Slt2 resulted in a failure to decrease Hcm1 protein levels in response to stress, suggesting that phosphorylation is regulated by CWI MAPK. In conclusion, we suggest that Hcm1 is regulated negatively by the cell wall integrity checkpoint through timely phosphorylation and degradation under stress to properly control budding yeast proliferation. PMID:26729465

  11. LRD-22, a novel dual dithiocarbamatic acid ester, inhibits Aurora-A kinase and induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huiling; Li, Ridong; Li, Li; Ge, Zemei; Zhou, Rouli; Li, Runtao

    2015-02-27

    In this study we investigated the antitumor activity of the novel dual dithiocarbamatic acid ester LRD-22 in vitro and in vivo. Several cancer cell lines were employed to determine the effect of LRD-22 on cell growth, and the MTT assay showed there was a significant decrease in viable tumor cell numbers in the presence of LRD-22, especially in the HepG2 cell line. Colony formation assay also showed LRD-22 strongly inhibits HepG2 cell growth. Evaluation of the mechanism involved showed that inhibitory effects of LRD-22 on cell growth are due to induction of apoptosis and G2/M arrest. LRD-22 inhibited Aurora-A phosphorylation at Thr{sub 288} and subsequently impaired p53 phosphorylation at Ser{sub 315} which was associated with the proteasome degradation pathway. Tumor suppressor protein p53 is stabilized by this mechanism and accumulates through inhibition of Aurora-A kinase activity via treatment with LRD-22. In vivo study of HepG2 xenograft in nude mice also shows LRD-22 suppresses tumor growth at a concentration of 5 mg/kg without animals suffering loss of body weight. In conclusion, our results demonstrate LRD-22 acts as an Aurora-A kinase inhibitor to induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation in HepG2 cells, and should be considered as a promising targeting agent for HCC therapy. - Highlights: • LRD-22 significantly inhibits cancer cell growth, especially in the HepG2 cell line. • The inhibitory effect of LRD-22 is due to induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. • LRD-22 inhibits Aurora-A phosphorylation which results in subsequent impairment of the p53 pathway. • LRD-22 suppresses tumor growth in xenograft mice without body weight loss.

  12. SD-208, a Novel Protein Kinase D Inhibitor, Blocks Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation and Tumor Growth In Vivo by Inducing G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Manuj; Salamoun, Joseph M.; Carder, Evan J.; Farber, Elisa; Xu, Shuping; Deng, Fan; Tang, Hua; Wipf, Peter; Wang, Q. Jane

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinase D (PKD) has been implicated in many aspects of tumorigenesis and progression, and is an emerging molecular target for the development of anticancer therapy. Despite recent advancement in the development of potent and selective PKD small molecule inhibitors, the availability of in vivo active PKD inhibitors remains sparse. In this study, we describe the discovery of a novel PKD small molecule inhibitor, SD-208, from a targeted kinase inhibitor library screen, and the synthesis of a series of analogs to probe the structure-activity relationship (SAR) vs. PKD1. SD-208 displayed a narrow SAR profile, was an ATP-competitive pan-PKD inhibitor with low nanomolar potency and was cell active. Targeted inhibition of PKD by SD-208 resulted in potent inhibition of cell proliferation, an effect that could be reversed by overexpressed PKD1 or PKD3. SD-208 also blocked prostate cancer cell survival and invasion, and arrested cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Mechanistically, SD-208-induced G2/M arrest was accompanied by an increase in levels of p21 in DU145 and PC3 cells as well as elevated phosphorylation of Cdc2 and Cdc25C in DU145 cells. Most importantly, SD-208 given orally for 24 days significantly abrogated the growth of PC3 subcutaneous tumor xenografts in nude mice, which was accompanied by reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis and decreased expression of PKD biomarkers including survivin and Bcl-xL. Our study has identified SD-208 as a novel efficacious PKD small molecule inhibitor, demonstrating the therapeutic potential of targeted inhibition of PKD for prostate cancer treatment. PMID:25747583

  13. Combined Treatment of MCF-7 Cells with AICAR and Methotrexate, Arrests Cell Cycle and Reverses Warburg Metabolism through AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) and FOXO1

    PubMed Central

    Fodor, Tamás; Szántó, Magdolna; Abdul-Rahman, Omar; Nagy, Lilla; Dér, Ádám; Kiss, Borbála; Bai, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells are characterized by metabolic alterations, namely, depressed mitochondrial oxidation, enhanced glycolysis and pentose phosphate shunt flux to support rapid cell growth, which is called the Warburg effect. In our study we assessed the metabolic consequences of a joint treatment of MCF-7 breast cancer cells with AICAR, an inducer of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) jointly with methotrexate (MTX), a folate-analog antimetabolite that blunts de novo nucleotide synthesis. MCF7 cells, a model of breast cancer cells, were resistant to the individual application of AICAR or MTX, however combined treatment of AICAR and MTX reduced cell proliferation. Prolonged joint application of AICAR and MTX induced AMPK and consequently enhanced mitochondrial oxidation and reduced the rate of glycolysis. These metabolic changes suggest an anti-Warburg rearrangement of metabolism that led to the block of the G1/S and the G2/M transition slowing down cell cycle. The slowdown of cell proliferation was abolished when mitotropic transcription factors, PGC-1α, PGC-1β or FOXO1 were silenced. In human breast cancers higher expression of AMPKα and FOXO1 extended survival. AICAR and MTX exerts similar additive antiproliferative effect on other breast cancer cell lines, such as SKBR and 4T1 cells, too. Our data not only underline the importance of Warburg metabolism in breast cancer cells but nominate the AICAR+MTX combination as a potential cytostatic regime blunting Warburg metabolism. Furthermore, we suggest the targeting of AMPK and FOXO1 to combat breast cancer. PMID:26919657

  14. Combined Treatment of MCF-7 Cells with AICAR and Methotrexate, Arrests Cell Cycle and Reverses Warburg Metabolism through AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) and FOXO1.

    PubMed

    Fodor, Tamás; Szántó, Magdolna; Abdul-Rahman, Omar; Nagy, Lilla; Dér, Ádám; Kiss, Borbála; Bai, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells are characterized by metabolic alterations, namely, depressed mitochondrial oxidation, enhanced glycolysis and pentose phosphate shunt flux to support rapid cell growth, which is called the Warburg effect. In our study we assessed the metabolic consequences of a joint treatment of MCF-7 breast cancer cells with AICAR, an inducer of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) jointly with methotrexate (MTX), a folate-analog antimetabolite that blunts de novo nucleotide synthesis. MCF7 cells, a model of breast cancer cells, were resistant to the individual application of AICAR or MTX, however combined treatment of AICAR and MTX reduced cell proliferation. Prolonged joint application of AICAR and MTX induced AMPK and consequently enhanced mitochondrial oxidation and reduced the rate of glycolysis. These metabolic changes suggest an anti-Warburg rearrangement of metabolism that led to the block of the G1/S and the G2/M transition slowing down cell cycle. The slowdown of cell proliferation was abolished when mitotropic transcription factors, PGC-1α, PGC-1β or FOXO1 were silenced. In human breast cancers higher expression of AMPKα and FOXO1 extended survival. AICAR and MTX exerts similar additive antiproliferative effect on other breast cancer cell lines, such as SKBR and 4T1 cells, too. Our data not only underline the importance of Warburg metabolism in breast cancer cells but nominate the AICAR+MTX combination as a potential cytostatic regime blunting Warburg metabolism. Furthermore, we suggest the targeting of AMPK and FOXO1 to combat breast cancer. PMID:26919657

  15. G1-checkpoint function including a cyclin-dependent kinase 2 regulatory pathway as potential determinant of 7-hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01)-induced apoptosis and G1-phase accumulation.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, T; Sugiyama, K; Shimizu, M; Tamaoki, T; Akinaga, S

    1999-12-01

    7-Hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01), which was originally identified as a protein kinase C selective inhibitor, is currently in clinical trials as an anti-cancer drug. We previously showed that UCN-01 induced preferential G1-phase accumulation in tumor cells and this effect was associated with the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein and its regulatory factors, such as cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and CDK inhibitors p21Cip1/WAF1 and p27Kip1. We demonstrate here that G1-phase accumulation was induced by UCN-01 in Rb-proficient cell lines (WiDr and HCT116 human colon carcinomas and WI-38 human lung fibroblast), and it was accompanied by dephosphorylation of Rb. In addition, UCN-01-induced G1-phase accumulation was also demonstrated in a Rb-defective cell line (Saos-2 human osteosarcoma), but not in a simian virus 40 (SV40)-transformed cell line (WI-38 VA13). Apoptosis was induced by UCN-01 in the two Rb-deficient cell lines, but not in the other Rb-proficient cell lines. These observations suggest that G1-checkpoint function might be important for cell survival during UCN-01 treatment. In addition, there may be a UCN-01-responsive factor in the G1-checkpoint machinery other than Rb which is targeted by SV40. Further studies revealed a correlation between UCN-01-induced G1-phase accumulation and reduction of cellular CDK2 kinase activity. This reduction was strictly dependent on down-regulation of the Thr160-phosphorylated form of CDK2 protein, and coincided in part with up-regulation of p27Kip1, but it was independent of the level of the p21Cip1/WAF1 protein. These results suggest that G1-checkpoint function, including a CDK2-regulatory pathway, may be a significant determinant of the sensitivity of tumor cells to UCN-01. PMID:10665655

  16. Gene copy number and cell cycle arrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Bhaswar; Bose, Indrani

    2006-03-01

    The cell cycle is an orderly sequence of events which ultimately lead to the division of a single cell into two daughter cells. In the case of DNA damage by radiation or chemicals, the damage checkpoints in the G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle are activated. This results in an arrest of the cell cycle so that the DNA damage can be repaired. Once this is done, the cell continues with its usual cycle of activity. We study a mathematical model of the DNA damage checkpoint in the G2 phase which arrests the transition from the G2 to the M (mitotic) phase of the cell cycle. The tumor suppressor protein p53 plays a key role in activating the pathways leading to cell cycle arrest in mammalian systems. If the DNA damage is severe, the p53 proteins activate other pathways which bring about apoptosis, i.e., programmed cell death. Loss of the p53 gene results in the proliferation of cells containing damaged DNA, i.e., in the growth of tumors which may ultimately become cancerous. There is some recent experimental evidence which suggests that the mutation of a single copy of the p53 gene (in the normal cell each gene has two identical copies) is sufficient to trigger the formation of tumors. We study the effect of reducing the gene copy number of the p53 and two other genes on cell cycle arrest and obtain results consistent with experimental observations.

  17. Integrating S-phase Checkpoint Signaling with Trans-Lesion Synthesis of Bulky DNA Adducts

    PubMed Central

    Barkley, Laura R.; Ohmori, Haruo; Vaziri, Cyrus

    2011-01-01

    Bulky adducts are DNA lesions generated in response to environmental agents including benzo[a]pyrene (a combustion product) and solar ultraviolet radiation. Error-prone replication of adducted DNA can cause mutations, which may result in cancer. To minimize the detrimental effects of bulky adducts and other DNA lesions, S-phase checkpoint mechanisms sense DNA damage and integrate DNA repair with ongoing DNA replication. The essential protein kinase Chk1 mediates the S-phase checkpoint, inhibiting initiation of new DNA synthesis and promoting stabilization and recovery of stalled replication forks. Here we review the mechanisms by which Chk1 is activated in response to bulky adducts and potential mechanisms by which Chk1 signaling inhibits the initiation stage of DNA synthesis. Additionally, we discuss mechanisms by which Chk1 signaling facilitates bypass of bulky lesions by specialized Y-family DNA polymerases, thereby attenuating checkpoint signaling and allowing resumption of normal cell cycle progression. PMID:17652783

  18. Inhibition of phosphotidylinositol-3 kinase pathway by a novel naphthol derivative of betulinic acid induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells of different origin

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, R; Hamid, A; Sangwan, P L; Chinthakindi, P K; Koul, S; Rayees, S; Singh, G; Mondhe, D M; Mintoo, M J; Singh, S K; Rath, S K; Saxena, A K

    2014-01-01

    Betulinic acid (BA) is a pentacyclic triterpenoid natural product reported to inhibit cell growth in a variety of cancers. However, the further clinical development of BA got hampered because of poor solubility and pharmacological properties. Interestingly, this molecule offer several hotspots for structural modifications in order to address its associated issues. In our endeavor, we selected C-3 position for the desirable chemical modification in order to improve its cytotoxic and pharmacological potential and prepared a library of different triazoline derivatives of BA. Among them, we previously reported the identification of a potential molecule, that is, 3{1N(5-hydroxy-naphth-1yl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4yl}methyloxy betulinic acid (HBA) with significant inhibition of cancer cell growth and their properties. In the present study, we have shown for the first time that HBA decreased the expression of phosphotidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) p110α and p85α and caused significant downregulation of pAKT and of NFκB using human leukemia and breast cancer cells as in vitro models. Further it was revealed that PI3K inhibition by HBA induced cell cycle arrest via effects on different cell cycle regulatory proteins that include CDKis cyclins and pGSK3β. Also, this target-specific inhibition was associated with mitochondrial apoptosis as was reflected by the increased expression of mitochondrial bax, downregulated bcl2 and decreased mitochondrial levels of cytochrome c, together with reactive oxygen species generation and decline in mitochondrial membrane potential. The apoptotic effectors such as caspase 8, caspase 9 and caspase 3 were found to be upregulated besides DNA repair-associated enzyme, that is, PARP cleavage caused cancer cell death. Pharmacodynamic evaluation revealed that both HBA and BA were safe upto the dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight and with acceptable pharmacodynamic parameters. The in vitro data corroborated with in vivo anticancer activity wherein Ehrlich

  19. Glucose restriction induces transient G2 cell cycle arrest extending cellular chronological lifespan.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Fumie; Ishii, Mahiro; Mori, Ayaka; Uehara, Lisa; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro; Takeda, Kojiro; Saitoh, Shigeaki

    2016-01-01

    While glucose is the fundamental source of energy in most eukaryotes, it is not always abundantly available in natural environments, including within the human body. Eukaryotic cells are therefore thought to possess adaptive mechanisms to survive glucose-limited conditions, which remain unclear. Here, we report a novel mechanism regulating cell cycle progression in response to abrupt changes in extracellular glucose concentration. Upon reduction of glucose in the medium, wild-type fission yeast cells undergo transient arrest specifically at G2 phase. This cell cycle arrest is dependent on the Wee1 tyrosine kinase inhibiting the key cell cycle regulator, CDK1/Cdc2. Mutant cells lacking Wee1 are not arrested at G2 upon glucose limitation and lose viability faster than the wild-type cells under glucose-depleted quiescent conditions, suggesting that this cell cycle arrest is required for extension of chronological lifespan. Our findings indicate the presence of a novel cell cycle checkpoint monitoring glucose availability, which may be a good molecular target for cancer therapy. PMID:26804466

  20. SLA2 mutations cause SWE1-mediated cell cycle phenotypes in Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Gale, Cheryl A; Leonard, Michelle D; Finley, Kenneth R; Christensen, Leah; McClellan, Mark; Abbey, Darren; Kurischko, Cornelia; Bensen, Eric; Tzafrir, Iris; Kauffman, Sarah; Becker, Jeff; Berman, Judith

    2009-12-01

    The early endocytic patch protein Sla2 is important for morphogenesis and growth rates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans, but the mechanism that connects these processes is not clear. Here we report that growth defects in cells lacking CaSLA2 or ScSLA2 are associated with a cell cycle delay that is influenced by Swe1, a morphogenesis checkpoint kinase. To establish how Swe1 monitors Sla2 function, we compared actin organization and cell cycle dynamics in strains lacking other components of early endocytic patches (Sla1 and Abp1) with those in strains lacking Sla2. Only sla2 strains had defects in actin cables, a known trigger of the morphogenesis checkpoint, yet all three strains exhibited Swe1-dependent phenotypes. Thus, Swe1 appears to monitor actin patch in addition to actin cable function. Furthermore, Swe1 contributed to virulence in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis, implying a role for the morphogenesis checkpoint during the pathogenesis of C. albicans infections. PMID:19778960

  1. Chromium-VI arrests cell cycle and decreases granulosa cell proliferation by down-regulating cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) and cyclins and up-regulating CDK-Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Jone A.; Lee, JeHoon; Nithy, Thamizh K.; Arosh, Joe A.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Banu, Sakhila K.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental contamination with hexavalent chromium (CrVI) has been increasing in the drinking water of the USA and developing countries. CrVI causes various health problems including menstrual disorders and infertility. Recently, we reported that CrVI causes granulosa cell apoptosis through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Our previous studies showed that postnatal exposure to CrVI arrests follicle development. In order to explore the underlying mechanism, primary and immortalized granulosa cells from rats were treated with 10 μM potassium dichromate and analyses of the cell cycle, and cell cycle regulatory proteins were performed. CrVI decreased cell proliferation as a result of cell cycle arrest and down-regulated cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK), cyclins, and PCNA while up-regulating CDK-inhibitors and down-regulating FSH receptor and ERβ. Vitamin C mitigated the effects of CrVI. This study shows that CrVI causes cell cycle arrest in granulosa cells by altering cell cycle regulatory proteins with potential intervention by vitamin C. PMID:21621607

  2. Cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors as anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martínez, Concepción; Gelbert, Lawrence M; Lallena, María José; de Dios, Alfonso

    2015-09-01

    Sustained proliferative capacity is a hallmark of cancer. In mammalian cells proliferation is controlled by the cell cycle, where cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) regulate critical checkpoints. CDK4 and CDK6 are considered highly validated anticancer drug targets due to their essential role regulating cell cycle progression at the G1 restriction point. This review provides an overview of recent advances on cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors in general with special emphasis on CDK4 and CDK6 inhibitors and compounds under clinical evaluation. Chemical structures, structure activity relationships, and relevant preclinical properties will be described. PMID:26115571

  3. XPB and XPD helicases in TFIIH orchestrate DNA duplex opening and damage verification to coordinate repair with transcription and cell cycle via CAK kinase.

    PubMed

    Fuss, Jill O; Tainer, John A

    2011-07-15

    coordinate repair with transcription and cell cycle through CAK signaling. PMID:21571596

  4. Combination of ascorbate/epigallocatechin-3-gallate/gemcitabine synergistically induces cell cycle deregulation and apoptosis in mesothelioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Martinotti, Simona; Ranzato, Elia; Parodi, Monica; Vitale, Massimo; Burlando, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MMe) is a poor-prognosis tumor in need of innovative therapies. In a previous in vivo study, we showed synergistic anti-MMe properties of the ascorbate/epigallocatechin-3-gallate/gemcitabine combination. We have now focused on the mechanism of action, showing the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest through measurements of caspase 3, intracellular Ca{sup 2+}, annexin V, and DNA content. StellArray™ PCR technology and Western immunoblotting revealed DAPK2-dependent apoptosis, upregulation of cell cycle promoters, downregulation of cell cycle checkpoints and repression of NFκB expression. The complex of data indicates that the mixture is synergistic in inducing cell cycle deregulation and non-inflammatory apoptosis, suggesting its possible use in MMe treatment. - Highlights: • Ascorbate/epigallocathechin-gallate/gemcitabine has been tested on mesothelioma cells • A synergistic mechanism has been shown for cell cycle arrest and apoptosis • PCR-array analysis has revealed the de-regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle genes • Maximum upregulation has been found for the Death-Associated Protein Kinase-2 gene • Data suggest that the mixture could be used as a clinical treatment.

  5. Subcellular Proteomics Reveals a Role for Nucleo-cytoplasmic Trafficking at the DNA Replication Origin Activation Checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Mulvey, Claire M.; Tudzarova, Slavica; Crawford, Mark; Williams, Gareth H.; Stoeber, Kai; Godovac-Zimmermann, Jasminka

    2014-01-01

    Depletion of DNA replication initiation factors such as CDC7 kinase triggers the origin activation checkpoint in healthy cells and leads to a protective cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase of the mitotic cell division cycle. This protective mechanism is thought to be defective in cancer cells. To investigate how this checkpoint is activated and maintained in healthy cells, we conducted a quantitative SILAC analysis of the nuclear- and cytoplasmic-enriched compartments of CDC7-depleted fibroblasts and compared them to a total cell lysate preparation. Substantial changes in total abundance and/or subcellular location were detected for 124 proteins, including many essential proteins associated with DNA replication/cell cycle. Similar changes in protein abundance and subcellular distribution were observed for various metabolic processes, including oxidative stress, iron metabolism, protein translation and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. This is accompanied by reduced abundance of two karyopherin proteins, suggestive of reduced nuclear import. We propose that altered nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking plays a key role in the regulation of cell cycle arrest. The results increase understanding of the mechanisms underlying maintenance of the DNA replication origin activation checkpoint and are consistent with our proposal that cell cycle arrest is an actively maintained process that appears to be distributed over various subcellular locations. PMID:23320540

  6. ATR CONTRIBUTES TO CELL CYCLE ARREST AND SURVIVAL AFTER CISPLATIN BUT NOT OXALIPLATIN1

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Kriste A.; Lilly, Kia K.; Reynolds, Evelyn A.; Sullivan, William P.; Kaufmann, Scott H.; Cliby, William A.

    2009-01-01

    The DNA cross-linking agents cisplatin and oxaliplatin are widely used in the treatment of human cancer. Lesions produced by these agents are widely known to activate the G1 and G2 cell cycle checkpoints. Less is known about the role of the intra-S phase checkpoint in the response to these agents. In the present study, two different cell lines expressing a dominant negative kinase-dead (kd) version of the ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and rad3-related) kinase in an inducible fashion were examined for their responses to these two platinating agents and a variety of other DNA cross-linking drugs. Expression of the kdATR allele markedly sensitized the cells to cisplatin, but not oxaliplatin, as assessed by inhibition of colony formation, induction of apoptosis, and cell cycle analysis. Similar differences in survival were noted for melphalan (ATR-dependent) and 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4HC) (ATR-independent). Further experiments demonstrated that ATR function is not necessary for removal of Pt-DNA adducts. The predominant difference between the responses to the two platinum drugs was presence of a drug-specific ATR-dependent S phase arrest after cisplatin but not oxaliplatin. These results indicate that involvement of ATR in the response to DNA cross-linking agents is lesion specific. This observation might need to be taken into account in the development and use of ATR or Chk1 inhibitors. PMID:19372558

  7. Full activation of p34CDC28 histone H1 kinase activity is unable to promote entry into mitosis in checkpoint-arrested cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Stueland, C S; Lew, D J; Cismowski, M J; Reed, S I

    1993-01-01

    In most cells, mitosis is dependent upon completion of DNA replication. The feedback mechanisms that prevent entry into mitosis by cells with damaged or incompletely replicated DNA have been termed checkpoint controls. Studies with the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Xenopus egg extracts have shown that checkpoint controls prevent activation of the master regulatory protein kinase, p34cdc2, that normally triggers entry into mitosis. This is achieved through inhibitory phosphorylation of the Tyr-15 residue of p34cdc2. However, studies with the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have shown that phosphorylation of this residue is not essential for checkpoint controls to prevent mitosis. We have investigated the basis for checkpoint controls in this organism and show that these controls can prevent entry into mitosis even in cells which have fully activated the cyclin B (Clb)-associated forms of the budding yeast homolog of p34cdc2, p34CDC28, as assayed by histone H1 kinase activity. However, the active complexes in checkpoint-arrested cells are smaller than those in cycling cells, suggesting that assembly of mitosis-inducing complexes requires additional steps following histone H1 kinase activation. Images PMID:8388545

  8. Mdt1, a Novel Rad53 FHA1 Domain-Interacting Protein, Modulates DNA Damage Tolerance and G2/M Cell Cycle Progression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Brietta L.; Yongkiettrakul, Suganya; Tsai, Ming-Daw; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2004-01-01

    The Rad53 kinase plays a central role in yeast DNA damage checkpoints. Rad53 contains two FHA phosphothreonine-binding domains that are required for Rad53 activation and possibly downstream signaling. Here we show that the N-terminal Rad53 FHA1 domain interacts with the RNA recognition motif, coiled-coil, and SQ/TQ cluster domain-containing protein Mdt1 (YBl051C). The interaction of Rad53 and Mdt1 depends on the structural integrity of the FHA1 phosphothreonine-binding site as well as threonine-305 of Mdt1. Mdt1 is constitutively threonine phosphorylated and hyperphosphorylated in response to DNA damage in vivo. DNA damage-dependent Mdt1 hyperphosphorylation depends on the Mec1 and Tel1 checkpoint kinases, and Mec1 can directly phosphorylate a recombinant Mdt1 SQ/TQ domain fragment. MDT1 overexpression is synthetically lethal with a rad53 deletion, whereas mdt1 deletion partially suppresses the DNA damage hypersensitivity of checkpoint-compromised strains and generally improves DNA damage tolerance. In the absence of DNA damage, mdt1 deletion leads to delayed anaphase completion, with an elongated cell morphology reminiscent of that of G2/M cell cycle mutants. mdt1-dependent and DNA damage-dependent cell cycle delays are not additive, suggesting that they act in the same pathway. The data indicate that Mdt1 is involved in normal G2/M cell cycle progression and is a novel target of checkpoint-dependent cell cycle arrest pathways. PMID:15024067

  9. Myc and cell cycle control.

    PubMed

    Bretones, Gabriel; Delgado, M Dolores; León, Javier

    2015-05-01

    Soon after the discovery of the Myc gene (c-Myc), it became clear that Myc expression levels tightly correlate to cell proliferation. The entry in cell cycle of quiescent cells upon Myc enforced expression has been described in many models. Also, the downregulation or inactivation of Myc results in the impairment of cell cycle progression. Given the frequent deregulation of Myc oncogene in human cancer it is important to dissect out the mechanisms underlying the role of Myc on cell cycle control. Several parallel mechanisms account for Myc-mediated stimulation of the cell cycle. First, most of the critical positive cell cycle regulators are encoded by genes induced by Myc. These Myc target genes include Cdks, cyclins and E2F transcription factors. Apart from its direct effects on the transcription, Myc is able to hyperactivate cyclin/Cdk complexes through the induction of Cdk activating kinase (CAK) and Cdc25 phosphatases. Moreover, Myc antagonizes the activity of cell cycle inhibitors as p21 and p27 through different mechanisms. Thus, Myc is able to block p21 transcription or to induce Skp2, a protein involved in p27 degradation. Finally, Myc induces DNA replication by binding to replication origins and by upregulating genes encoding proteins required for replication initiation. Myc also regulates genes involved in the mitotic control. A promising approach to treat tumors with deregulated Myc is the synthetic lethality based on the inhibition of Cdks. Thus, the knowledge of the Myc-dependent cell cycle regulatory mechanisms will help to discover new therapeutic approaches directed against malignancies with deregulated Myc. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Myc proteins in cell biology and pathology. PMID:24704206

  10. Pneumococcal Pneumolysin Induces DNA Damage and Cell Cycle Arrest.

    PubMed

    Rai, Prashant; He, Fang; Kwang, Jimmy; Engelward, Bevin P; Chow, Vincent T K

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae produces pneumolysin toxin as a key virulence factor against host cells. Pneumolysin is a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) toxin that forms lytic pores in host membranes and mediates pneumococcal disease pathogenesis by modulating inflammatory responses. Here, we show that pneumolysin, which is released during bacterial lysis, induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), as indicated by ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-mediated H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX). Pneumolysin-induced γH2AX foci recruit mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (MDC1) and p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1), to sites of DSBs. Importantly, results show that toxin-induced DNA damage precedes cell cycle arrest and causes apoptosis when DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK)-mediated non-homologous end joining is inhibited. Further, we observe that cells that were undergoing DNA replication harbored DSBs in greater frequency during pneumolysin treatment. This observation raises the possibility that DSBs might be arising as a result of replication fork breakdown. Additionally, neutralizing the oligomerization domain of pneumolysin with monoclonal antibody suppresses DNA damage and also cell cycle arrest, indicating that pneumolysin oligomerization is important for causing DNA damage. Taken together, this study reveals a previously unidentified ability of pneumolysin to induce cytotoxicity via DNA damage, with implications in the pathophysiology of S. pneumoniae infection. PMID:27026501

  11. Pneumococcal Pneumolysin Induces DNA Damage and Cell Cycle Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Prashant; He, Fang; Kwang, Jimmy; Engelward, Bevin P.; Chow, Vincent T.K.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae produces pneumolysin toxin as a key virulence factor against host cells. Pneumolysin is a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) toxin that forms lytic pores in host membranes and mediates pneumococcal disease pathogenesis by modulating inflammatory responses. Here, we show that pneumolysin, which is released during bacterial lysis, induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), as indicated by ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-mediated H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX). Pneumolysin-induced γH2AX foci recruit mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (MDC1) and p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1), to sites of DSBs. Importantly, results show that toxin-induced DNA damage precedes cell cycle arrest and causes apoptosis when DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK)-mediated non-homologous end joining is inhibited. Further, we observe that cells that were undergoing DNA replication harbored DSBs in greater frequency during pneumolysin treatment. This observation raises the possibility that DSBs might be arising as a result of replication fork breakdown. Additionally, neutralizing the oligomerization domain of pneumolysin with monoclonal antibody suppresses DNA damage and also cell cycle arrest, indicating that pneumolysin oligomerization is important for causing DNA damage. Taken together, this study reveals a previously unidentified ability of pneumolysin to induce cytotoxicity via DNA damage, with implications in the pathophysiology of S. pneumoniae infection. PMID:27026501

  12. Functional Dissection of Caenorhabditis elegans CLK-2/TEL2 Cell Cycle Defects during Embryogenesis and Germline Development

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Sandra C.; von Elsner, Sophie; Büssing, Ingo; Alpi, Arno; Schnabel, Ralf; Gartner, Anton

    2009-01-01

    CLK-2/TEL2 is essential for viability from yeasts to vertebrates, but its essential functions remain ill defined. CLK-2/TEL2 was initially implicated in telomere length regulation in budding yeast, but work in Caenorhabditis elegans has uncovered a function in DNA damage response signalling. Subsequently, DNA damage signalling defects associated with CLK-2/TEL2 have been confirmed in yeast and human cells. The CLK-2/TEL2 interaction with the ATM and ATR DNA damage sensor kinases and its requirement for their stability led to the proposal that CLK-2/TEL2 mutants might phenocopy ATM and/or ATR depletion. We use C. elegans to dissect developmental and cell cycle related roles of CLK-2. Temperature sensitive (ts) clk-2 mutants accumulate genomic instability and show a delay of embryonic cell cycle timing. This delay partially depends on the worm p53 homolog CEP-1 and is rescued by co-depletion of the DNA replication checkpoint proteins ATL-1 (C. elegans ATR) and CHK-1. In addition, clk-2 ts mutants show a spindle orientation defect in the eight cell stages that lead to major cell fate transitions. clk-2 deletion worms progress through embryogenesis and larval development by maternal rescue but become sterile and halt germ cell cycle progression. Unlike ATL-1 depleted germ cells, clk-2–null germ cells do not accumulate DNA double-strand breaks. Rather, clk-2 mutant germ cells arrest with duplicated centrosomes but without mitotic spindles in an early prophase like stage. This germ cell cycle arrest does not depend on cep-1, the DNA replication, or the spindle checkpoint. Our analysis shows that CLK-2 depletion does not phenocopy PIKK kinase depletion. Rather, we implicate CLK-2 in multiple developmental and cell cycle related processes and show that CLK-2 and ATR have antagonising functions during early C. elegans embryonic development. PMID:19360121

  13. Topology and Control of the Cell-Cycle-Regulated Transcriptional Circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Steven B.; Wittenberg, Curt

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 20% of the budding yeast genome is transcribed periodically during the cell division cycle. The precise temporal execution of this large transcriptional program is controlled by a large interacting network of transcriptional regulators, kinases, and ubiquitin ligases. Historically, this network has been viewed as a collection of four coregulated gene clusters that are associated with each phase of the cell cycle. Although the broad outlines of these gene clusters were described nearly 20 years ago, new technologies have enabled major advances in our understanding of the genes comprising those clusters, their regulation, and the complex regulatory interplay between clusters. More recently, advances are being made in understanding the roles of chromatin in the control of the transcriptional program. We are also beginning to discover important regulatory interactions between the cell-cycle transcriptional program and other cell-cycle regulatory mechanisms such as checkpoints and metabolic networks. Here we review recent advances and contemporary models of the transcriptional network and consider these models in the context of eukaryotic cell-cycle controls. PMID:24395825

  14. The metabolic checkpoint kinase mTOR is essential for IL-15 signaling during the development and activation of NK cells.

    PubMed

    Marçais, Antoine; Cherfils-Vicini, Julien; Viant, Charlotte; Degouve, Sophie; Viel, Sébastien; Fenis, Aurore; Rabilloud, Jessica; Mayol, Katia; Tavares, Armelle; Bienvenu, Jacques; Gangloff, Yann-Gaël; Gilson, Eric; Vivier, Eric; Walzer, Thierry

    2014-08-01

    Interleukin 15 (IL-15) controls both the homeostasis and the peripheral activation of natural killer (NK) cells. The molecular basis for this duality of action remains unknown. Here we found that the metabolic checkpoint kinase mTOR was activated and boosted bioenergetic metabolism after exposure of NK cells to high concentrations of IL-15, whereas low doses of IL-15 triggered only phosphorylation of the transcription factor STAT5. mTOR stimulated the growth and nutrient uptake of NK cells and positively fed back on the receptor for IL-15. This process was essential for sustaining NK cell proliferation during development and the acquisition of cytolytic potential during inflammation or viral infection. The mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin inhibited NK cell cytotoxicity both in mice and humans; this probably contributes to the immunosuppressive activity of this drug in different clinical settings. PMID:24973821

  15. Cell Cycle Regulation of DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Sclafani, R. A.; Holzen, T. M.

    2008-01-01

    Eukaryotic DNA replication is regulated to ensure all chromosomes replicate once and only once per cell cycle. Replication begins at many origins scattered along each chromosome. Except for budding yeast, origins are not defined DNA sequences and probably are inherited by epigenetic mechanisms. Initiation at origins occurs throughout the S phase according to a temporal program that is important in regulating gene expression during development. Most replication proteins are conserved in evolution in eukaryotes and archaea, but not in bacteria. However, the mechanism of initiation is conserved and consists of origin recognition, assembly of pre-replication (pre-RC) initiative complexes, helicase activation, and replisome loading. Cell cycle regulation by protein phosphorylation ensures that pre-RC assembly can only occur in G1 phase, whereas helicase activation and loading can only occur in S phase. Checkpoint regulation maintains high fidelity by stabilizing replication forks and preventing cell cycle progression during replication stress or damage. PMID:17630848

  16. In silico analysis of deleterious single nucleotide polymorphisms in human BUB1 mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine kinase B gene.

    PubMed

    Akhoundi, Fatemeh; Parvaneh, Nikpour; Modjtaba, Emadi-Baygi

    2016-09-01

    One of the major challenges in the analysis of human genetic variation is to distinguish mutations that are functionally neutral from those that contribute to disease. BubR1 is a key protein mediating spindle-checkpoint activation that plays a role in the inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), delaying the onset of anaphase and ensuring proper chromosome segregation. Owing to the importance of BUB1B gene in mitotic checkpoint a functional analysis using different in silico approaches was undertaken to explore the possible associations between genetic mutations and phenotypic variation. In this work we found that 3 nsSNPs I82N, P334L and R814H have a functional effect on protein function and stability. A literature search revealed that R814H was already implicated in human diseases. Additionally, 2 SNPs in the 5' UTR region was predicted to exhibit a pattern change in the internal ribosome entry site (IRES), and eight MicroRNA binding sites were found to be highly affected due to 3' UTR SNPs. These in silico predictions will provide useful information in selecting the target SNPs that are likely to have functional impact on the BUB1B gene. PMID:27331020

  17. The Dimeric Architecture of Checkpoint Kinases Mec1ATR and Tel1ATM Reveal a Common Structural Organization.

    PubMed

    Sawicka, Marta; Wanrooij, Paulina H; Darbari, Vidya C; Tannous, Elias; Hailemariam, Sarem; Bose, Daniel; Makarova, Alena V; Burgers, Peter M; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2016-06-24

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinases are key regulators controlling a wide range of cellular events. The yeast Tel1 and Mec1·Ddc2 complex (ATM and ATR-ATRIP in humans) play pivotal roles in DNA replication, DNA damage signaling, and repair. Here, we present the first structural insight for dimers of Mec1·Ddc2 and Tel1 using single-particle electron microscopy. Both kinases reveal a head to head dimer with one major dimeric interface through the N-terminal HEAT (named after Huntingtin, elongation factor 3, protein phosphatase 2A, and yeast kinase TOR1) repeat. Their dimeric interface is significantly distinct from the interface of mTOR complex 1 dimer, which oligomerizes through two spatially separate interfaces. We also observe different structural organizations of kinase domains of Mec1 and Tel1. The kinase domains in the Mec1·Ddc2 dimer are located in close proximity to each other. However, in the Tel1 dimer they are fully separated, providing potential access of substrates to this kinase, even in its dimeric form. PMID:27129217

  18. The Dimeric Architecture of Checkpoint Kinases Mec1ATR and Tel1ATM Reveal a Common Structural Organization*

    PubMed Central

    Sawicka, Marta; Wanrooij, Paulina H.; Darbari, Vidya C.; Tannous, Elias; Hailemariam, Sarem; Bose, Daniel; Makarova, Alena V.; Burgers, Peter M.; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinases are key regulators controlling a wide range of cellular events. The yeast Tel1 and Mec1·Ddc2 complex (ATM and ATR-ATRIP in humans) play pivotal roles in DNA replication, DNA damage signaling, and repair. Here, we present the first structural insight for dimers of Mec1·Ddc2 and Tel1 using single-particle electron microscopy. Both kinases reveal a head to head dimer with one major dimeric interface through the N-terminal HEAT (named after Huntingtin, elongation factor 3, protein phosphatase 2A, and yeast kinase TOR1) repeat. Their dimeric interface is significantly distinct from the interface of mTOR complex 1 dimer, which oligomerizes through two spatially separate interfaces. We also observe different structural organizations of kinase domains of Mec1 and Tel1. The kinase domains in the Mec1·Ddc2 dimer are located in close proximity to each other. However, in the Tel1 dimer they are fully separated, providing potential access of substrates to this kinase, even in its dimeric form. PMID:27129217

  19. In Silico Exploration of 1,7-Diazacarbazole Analogs as Checkpoint Kinase 1 Inhibitors by Using 3D QSAR, Molecular Docking Study, and Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaodong; Han, Liping; Ren, Yujie

    2016-01-01

    Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) is an important serine/threonine kinase with a self-protection function. The combination of Chk1 inhibitors and anti-cancer drugs can enhance the selectivity of tumor therapy. In this work, a set of 1,7-diazacarbazole analogs were identified as potent Chk1 inhibitors through a series of computer-aided drug design processes, including three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) modeling, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics simulations. The optimal QSAR models showed significant cross-validated correlation q² values (0.531, 0.726), fitted correlation r² coefficients (higher than 0.90), and standard error of prediction (less than 0.250). These results suggested that the developed models possess good predictive ability. Moreover, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations were applied to highlight the important interactions between the ligand and the Chk1 receptor protein. This study shows that hydrogen bonding and electrostatic forces are key interactions that confer bioactivity. PMID:27164065

  20. Septin-Dependent Assembly of a Cell Cycle-Regulatory Module in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Longtine, Mark S.; Theesfeld, Chandra L.; McMillan, John N.; Weaver, Elizabeth; Pringle, John R.; Lew, Daniel J.

    2000-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae septin mutants have pleiotropic defects, which include the formation of abnormally elongated buds. This bud morphology results at least in part from a cell cycle delay imposed by the Cdc28p-inhibitory kinase Swe1p. Mutations in three other genes (GIN4, encoding a kinase related to the Schizosaccharomyces pombe mitotic inducer Nim1p; CLA4, encoding a p21-activated kinase; and NAP1, encoding a Clb2p-interacting protein) also produce perturbations of septin organization associated with an Swe1p-dependent cell cycle delay. The effects of gin4, cla4, and nap1 mutations are additive, indicating that these proteins promote normal septin organization through pathways that are at least partially independent. In contrast, mutations affecting the other two Nim1p-related kinases in S. cerevisiae, Hsl1p and Kcc4p, produce no detectable effect on septin organization. However, deletion of HSL1, but not of KCC4, did produce a cell cycle delay under some conditions; this delay appears to reflect a direct role of Hsl1p in the regulation of Swe1p. As shown previously, Swe1p plays a central role in the morphogenesis checkpoint that delays the cell cycle in response to defects in bud formation. Swe1p is localized to the nucleus and to the daughter side of the mother bud neck prior to its degradation in G2/M phase. Both the neck localization of Swe1p and its degradation require Hsl1p and its binding partner Hsl7p, both of which colocalize with Swe1p at the daughter side of the neck. This localization is lost in mutants with perturbed septin organization, suggesting that the release of Hsl1p and Hsl7p from the neck may reduce their ability to inactivate Swe1p and thus contribute to the G2 delay observed in such mutants. In contrast, treatments that perturb actin organization have little effect on Hsl1p and Hsl7p localization, suggesting that such treatments must stabilize Swe1p by another mechanism. The apparent dependence of Swe1p degradation on localization of

  1. PLK-1: Angel or devil for cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shiv; Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Sharma, Garima; Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Kim, Jaebong

    2016-04-01

    PLK-1 is a key player in the eukaryotic cell cycle. Cell cycle progression is precisely controlled by cell cycle regulatory kinases. PLK-1 is a mitotic kinase that actively regulates the G2/M transition, mitosis, mitotic exit, and cytokinesis. During cell cycle progression, PLK-1 controls various events related to the cell cycle maturation, directly and/or indirectly. On the contrary, aberrant expression of PLK-1 is strongly associated with tumorigenesis and its poor prognosis. The misexpression of PLK-1 causes the abnormalities including aneuploidy, mitotic defects, leading to tumorigenesis through inhibiting the p53 and pRB genes. Therefore, we reviewed the role of PLK-1 in the cell cycle progression and in the tumorigenesis either as a cell cycle regulator or on an attractive anti-cancer drug target. PMID:26899266

  2. DRC1, DNA replication and checkpoint protein 1, functions with DPB11 to control DNA replication and the S-phase checkpoint in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Elledge, S J

    1999-03-30

    In addition to DNA polymerase complexes, DNA replication requires the coordinate action of a series of proteins, including regulators Cdc28/Clb and Dbf4/Cdc7 kinases, Orcs, Mcms, Cdc6, Cdc45, and Dpb11. Of these, Dpb11, an essential BRCT repeat protein, has remained particularly enigmatic. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe homolog of DPB11, cut5, has been implicated in the DNA replication checkpoint as has the POL2 gene with which DPB11 genetically interacts. Here we describe a gene, DRC1, isolated as a dosage suppressor of dpb11-1. DRC1 is an essential cell cycle-regulated gene required for DNA replication. We show that both Dpb11 and Drc1 are required for the S-phase checkpoint, including the proper activation of the Rad53 kinase in response to DNA damage and replication blocks. Dpb11 is the second BRCT-repeat protein shown to control Rad53 function, possibly indicating a general function for this class of proteins. DRC1 and DPB11 show synthetic lethality and reciprocal dosage suppression. The Drc1 and Dpb11 proteins physically associate and function together to coordinate DNA replication and the cell cycle. PMID:10097122

  3. Phospho-Bcl-xL(Ser62) plays a key role at DNA damage-induced G2 checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianfang; Beauchemin, Myriam; Bertrand, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that Bcl-xL, an anti-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, also functions in cell cycle progression and cell cycle checkpoints. Analysis of a series of phosphorylation site mutants reveals that cells expressing Bcl-xL(Ser62Ala) mutant are less stable at the G2 checkpoint and enter mitosis more rapidly than cells expressing wild-type Bcl-xL or Bcl-xL phosphorylation site mutants, including Thr41Ala, Ser43Ala, Thr47Ala, Ser56Ala and Thr115Ala. Analysis of the dynamic phosphorylation and location of phospho-Bcl-xL(Ser62) in unperturbed, synchronized cells and during DNA damage-induced G2 arrest discloses that a pool of phospho-Bcl-xL(Ser62) accumulates into nucleolar structures in etoposide-exposed cells during G2 arrest. In a series of in vitro kinase assays, pharmacological inhibitors and specific siRNAs experiments, we found that Polo kinase 1 and MAPK9/JNK2 are major protein kinases involved in Bcl-xL(Ser62) phosphorylation and accumulation into nucleolar structures during the G2 checkpoint. In nucleoli, phospho-Bcl-xL(Ser62) binds to and co-localizes with Cdk1(cdc2), the key cyclin-dependent kinase required for entry into mitosis. These data indicate that during G2 checkpoint, phospho-Bcl-xL(Ser62) stabilizes G2 arrest by timely trapping of Cdk1(cdc2) in nucleolar structures to slow mitotic entry. It also highlights that DNA damage affects the dynamic composition of the nucleolus, which now emerges as a piece of the DNA damage response. PMID:22617334

  4. From the Cover: Hysteresis drives cell-cycle transitions in Xenopus laevis egg extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Wei; Moore, Jonathan; Chen, Katherine; Lassaletta, Antonio D.; Yi, Chung-Seon; Tyson, John J.; Sible, Jill C.

    2003-02-01

    Cells progressing through the cell cycle must commit irreversibly to mitosis without slipping back to interphase before properly segregating their chromosomes. A mathematical model of cell-cycle progression in cell-free egg extracts from frog predicts that irreversible transitions into and out of mitosis are driven by hysteresis in the molecular control system. Hysteresis refers to toggle-like switching behavior in a dynamical system. In the mathematical model, the toggle switch is created by positive feedback in the phosphorylation reactions controlling the activity of Cdc2, a protein kinase bound to its regulatory subunit, cyclin B. To determine whether hysteresis underlies entry into and exit from mitosis in cell-free egg extracts, we tested three predictions of the Novak-Tyson model. (i) The minimal concentration of cyclin B necessary to drive an interphase extract into mitosis is distinctly higher than the minimal concentration necessary to hold a mitotic extract in mitosis, evidence for hysteresis. (ii) Unreplicated DNA elevates the cyclin threshold for Cdc2 activation, indication that checkpoints operate by enlarging the hysteresis loop. (iii) A dramatic "slowing down" in the rate of Cdc2 activation is detected at concentrations of cyclin B marginally above the activation threshold. All three predictions were validated. These observations confirm hysteresis as the driving force for cell-cycle transitions into and out of mitosis.

  5. PaKRP, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor from avocado, may facilitate exit from the cell cycle during fruit growth.

    PubMed

    Sabag, Michal; Ben Ari, Giora; Zviran, Tali; Biton, Iris; Goren, Moshe; Dahan, Yardena; Sadka, Avi; Irihimovitch, Vered

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies using 'Hass' avocado cultivar showed that its small-fruit (SF) phenotype is limited by cell number. To explore the molecular components affecting avocado cell production, we isolated four cDNAs encoding: an ICK/KRP protein, known to play cell cycle-regulating roles through modulation of CDK function; two CDK proteins and a D-type cyclin, and monitored their expression patterns, comparing NF (normal fruit) versus SF profiles. The accumulation of PaKRP gradually deceased during growth in both fruit populations. Despite these similarities, SF exhibited higher levels of PaKRP accumulation at early stages of growth. Moreover, in NF, augmented PaKRP expression coincided with a decrease in CDK and PaCYCD1 levels, whereas in SF, enhanced PaKPR expression was coupled with an earlier decline of CDK and PaCYCD1 levels. For both NF and SF, enhanced mesocarp PaKRP transcript accumulation, was associated with elevated abscisic acid (ABA) and ABA catabolites content. Nevertheless, the collective ABA levels, including catabolites, were substantially higher in SF tissues, as compared with NF tissues. Finally, additional expression analysis revealed that in cultured cells, PaKRP could be induced by ABA. Together, our data links PaKRP with exit from the fruit cell cycle and suggest a role for ABA in controlling its expression. PMID:24157204

  6. Cell cycle gene expression under clinorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemenko, Olga

    2016-07-01

    Cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) are main regulators of the cell cycle of eukaryotes. It's assumes a significant change of their level in cells under microgravity conditions and by other physical factors actions. The clinorotation use enables to determine the influence of gravity on simulated events in the cell during the cell cycle - exit from the state of quiet stage and promotion presynthetic phase (G1) and DNA synthesis phase (S) of the cell cycle. For the clinorotation effect study on cell proliferation activity is the necessary studies of molecular mechanisms of cell cycle regulation and development of plants under altered gravity condition. The activity of cyclin D, which is responsible for the events of the cell cycle in presynthetic phase can be controlled by the action of endogenous as well as exogenous factors, but clinorotation is one of the factors that influence on genes expression that regulate the cell cycle.These data can be used as a model for further research of cyclin - CDK complex for study of molecular mechanisms regulation of growth and proliferation. In this investigation we tried to summarize and analyze known literature and own data we obtained relatively the main regulators of the cell cycle in altered gravity condition.

  7. Selective effects of PD-1 on Akt and Ras pathways regulate molecular components of the cell cycle and inhibit T cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Patsoukis, Nikolaos; Brown, Julia; Petkova, Victoria; Liu, Fang; Li, Lequn; Boussiotis, Vassiliki A

    2012-06-26

    The receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1) inhibits T cell proliferation and plays a critical role in suppressing self-reactive T cells, and it also compromises antiviral and antitumor responses. To determine how PD-1 signaling inhibits T cell proliferation, we used human CD4(+) T cells to examine the effects of PD-1 signaling on the molecular control of the cell cycle. The ubiquitin ligase SCF(Skp2) degrades p27(kip1), an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), and PD-1 blocked cell cycle progression through the G(1) phase by suppressing transcription of SKP2, which encodes a component of this ubiquitin ligase. Thus, in T cells stimulated through PD-1, Cdks were not activated, and two critical Cdk substrates were not phosphorylated. Activation of PD-1 inhibited phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma gene product, which suppressed expression of E2F target genes. PD-1 also inhibited phosphorylation of the transcription factor Smad3, which increased its activity. These events induced additional inhibitory checkpoints in the cell cycle by increasing the abundance of the G(1) phase inhibitor p15(INK4) and repressing the Cdk-activating phosphatase Cdc25A. PD-1 suppressed SKP2 transcription by inhibiting phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt and Ras-mitogen-activated and extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling. Exposure of cells to the proliferation-promoting cytokine interleukin-2 restored activation of MEK-ERK signaling, but not Akt signaling, and only partially restored SKP2 expression. Thus, PD-1 blocks cell cycle progression and proliferation of T lymphocytes by affecting multiple regulators of the cell cycle. PMID:22740686

  8. A role for homologous recombination proteins in cell cycle regulation

    PubMed Central

    Kostyrko, Kaja; Bosshard, Sandra; Urban, Zuzanna; Mermod, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells respond to DNA breaks, especially double-stranded breaks (DSBs), by activating the DNA damage response (DDR), which encompasses DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint signaling. The DNA damage signal is transmitted to the checkpoint machinery by a network of specialized DNA damage-recognizing and signal-transducing molecules. However, recent evidence suggests that DNA repair proteins themselves may also directly contribute to the checkpoint control. Here, we investigated the role of homologous recombination (HR) proteins in normal cell cycle regulation in the absence of exogenous DNA damage. For this purpose, we used Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells expressing the Fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicators (Fucci). Systematic siRNA-mediated knockdown of HR genes in these cells demonstrated that the lack of several of these factors alters cell cycle distribution, albeit differentially. The knock-down of MDC1, Rad51 and Brca1 caused the cells to arrest in the G2 phase, suggesting that they may be required for the G2/M transition. In contrast, inhibition of the other HR factors, including several Rad51 paralogs and Rad50, led to the arrest in the G1/G0 phase. Moreover, reduced expression of Rad51B, Rad51C, CtIP and Rad50 induced entry into a quiescent G0-like phase. In conclusion, the lack of many HR factors may lead to cell cycle checkpoint activation, even in the absence of exogenous DNA damage, indicating that these proteins may play an essential role both in DNA repair and checkpoint signaling. PMID:26125600

  9. Cell cycle: proteomics gives it a spin.

    PubMed

    Archambault, Vincent

    2005-08-01

    The eukaryotic cell division cycle has been studied at the molecular level for over 30 years, most fruitfully in model organisms. In the past 5 years, developments in mass spectrometry-based proteomics have been applied to the study of protein interactions and post-translational modifications involving key cell cycle regulators such as cyclin-dependent kinases and the anaphase-promoting complex, as well as effectors such as centrosomes, the kinetochore and DNA replication forks. In addition, innovations in chemical biology, functional proteomics and bioinformatics have been employed to study the cell cycle at the proteome level. This review surveys the contributions of proteomics to cell cycle research. The near future should see the application of more quantitative proteomic approaches to probe the dynamic aspects of the molecular system that underlie the cell cycle in model organisms and in human cells. PMID:16097893

  10. MAP Kinase Inhibition Promotes T Cell and Anti-tumor Activity in Combination with PD-L1 Checkpoint Blockade.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Peter J R; Cheung, Jeanne; Yang, Yagai; McNamara, Erin; Hong, Rebecca; Moskalenko, Marina; Gould, Stephen E; Maecker, Heather; Irving, Bryan A; Kim, Jeong M; Belvin, Marcia; Mellman, Ira

    2016-03-15

    Targeted inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase (MEK) can induce regression of tumors bearing activating mutations in the Ras pathway but rarely leads to tumor eradication. Although combining MEK inhibition with T-cell-directed immunotherapy might lead to more durable efficacy, T cell responses are themselves at least partially dependent on MEK activity. We show here that MEK inhibition did profoundly block naive CD8(+) T cell priming in tumor-bearing mice, but actually increased the number of effector-phenotype antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells within the tumor. MEK inhibition protected tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells from death driven by chronic TCR stimulation while sparing cytotoxic activity. Combining MEK inhibition with anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) resulted in synergistic and durable tumor regression even where either agent alone was only modestly effective. Thus, despite the central importance of the MAP kinase pathway in some aspects of T cell function, MEK-targeted agents can be compatible with T-cell-dependent immunotherapy. PMID:26944201

  11. Identification of novel E2F1 target genes regulated in cell cycle-dependent and independent manners.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, R; Komori, H; Ishida, S; Okamura, N; Nakayama, K; Nakayama, K I; Ohtani, K

    2006-03-16

    The transcription factor E2F mediates cell cycle-dependent expression of genes important for cell proliferation in response to growth stimulation. To further understand the role of E2F, we utilized a sensitive subtraction method to explore new E2F1 targets, which are expressed at low levels and might have been unrecognized in previous studies. We identified 33 new E2F1-inducible genes, including checkpoint genes Claspin and Rad51ap1, and four genes with unknown function required for cell cycle progression. Moreover, we found three groups of E2F1-inducible genes that were not induced by growth stimulation. At least, two groups of genes were directly induced by E2F1, indicating that E2F1 can regulate expression of genes not induced during the cell cycle. One included Neogenin, WASF1 and SGEF genes, which may have a role in differentiation or development. The other was the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1), which was involved in suppression of inappropriate cell cycle progression induced by deregulated E2F. E2F1-responsive regions of these genes were located more upstream than those of typical E2F targets and did not have typical E2F sites. These results indicate that there are groups of E2F1 targets, which are regulated in a distinct manner from that of typical E2F targets. PMID:16288221

  12. Functional Interactions between BM88/Cend1, Ran-Binding Protein M and Dyrk1B Kinase Affect Cyclin D1 Levels and Cell Cycle Progression/Exit in Mouse Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsioras, Konstantinos; Papastefanaki, Florentia; Politis, Panagiotis K.; Matsas, Rebecca; Gaitanou, Maria

    2013-01-01

    BM88/Cend1 is a neuronal-lineage specific modulator with a pivotal role in coordination of cell cycle exit and differentiation of neuronal precursors. In the current study we identified the signal transduction scaffolding protein Ran-binding protein M (RanBPM) as a BM88/Cend1 binding partner and showed that BM88/Cend1, RanBPM and the dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1B (Dyrk1B) are expressed in mouse brain as well as in cultured embryonic cortical neurons while RanBPM can form complexes with either of the two other proteins. To elucidate a potential mechanism involving BM88/Cend1, RanBPM and Dyrk1B in cell cycle progression/exit, we transiently co-expressed these proteins in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro 2a cells. We found that the BM88/Cend1-dependent or Dyrk1B-dependent down-regulation of cyclin D1 is reversed following their functional interaction with RanBPM. More specifically, functional interaction of RanBPM with either BM88/Cend1 or Dyrk1B stabilizes cyclin D1 in the nucleus and promotes 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation as a measure of enhanced cell proliferation. However, the RanBPM-dependent Dyrk1B cytosolic retention and degradation is reverted in the presence of Cend1 resulting in cyclin D1 destabilization. Co-expression of RanBPM with either BM88/Cend1 or Dyrk1B also had a negative effect on Neuro 2a cell differentiation. Our results suggest that functional interactions between BM88/Cend1, RanBPM and Dyrk1B affect the balance between cellular proliferation and differentiation in Neuro 2a cells and indicate that a potentially similar mechanism may influence cell cycle progression/exit and differentiation of neuronal precursors. PMID:24312406

  13. The DNA damage and the DNA replication checkpoints converge at the MBF transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Tsvetomira; Alves-Rodrigues, Isabel; Gómez-Escoda, Blanca; Dutta, Chaitali; DeCaprio, James A; Rhind, Nick; Hidalgo, Elena; Ayté, José

    2013-11-01

    In fission yeast cells, Cds1 is the effector kinase of the DNA replication checkpoint. We previously showed that when the DNA replication checkpoint is activated, the repressor Yox1 is phosphorylated and inactivated by Cds1, resulting in activation of MluI-binding factor (MBF)-dependent transcription. This is essential to reinitiate DNA synthesis and for correct G1-to-S transition. Here we show that Cdc10, which is an essential part of the MBF core, is the target of the DNA damage checkpoint. When fission yeast cells are treated with DNA-damaging agents, Chk1 is activated and phosphorylates Cdc10 at its carboxy-terminal domain. This modification is responsible for the repression of MBF-dependent transcription through induced release of MBF from chromatin. This inactivation of MBF is important for survival of cells challenged with DNA-damaging agents. Thus Yox1 and Cdc10 couple normal cell cycle regulation in unperturbed conditions and the DNA replication and DNA damage checkpoints into a single transcriptional complex. PMID:24006488

  14. The DNA damage and the DNA replication checkpoints converge at the MBF transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Tsvetomira; Alves-Rodrigues, Isabel; Gómez-Escoda, Blanca; Dutta, Chaitali; DeCaprio, James A.; Rhind, Nick; Hidalgo, Elena; Ayté, José

    2013-01-01

    In fission yeast cells, Cds1 is the effector kinase of the DNA replication checkpoint. We previously showed that when the DNA replication checkpoint is activated, the repressor Yox1 is phosphorylated and inactivated by Cds1, resulting in activation of MluI-binding factor (MBF)–dependent transcription. This is essential to reinitiate DNA synthesis and for correct G1-to-S transition. Here we show that Cdc10, which is an essential part of the MBF core, is the target of the DNA damage checkpoint. When fission yeast cells are treated with DNA-damaging agents, Chk1 is activated and phosphorylates Cdc10 at its carboxy-terminal domain. This modification is responsible for the repression of MBF-dependent transcription through induced release of MBF from chromatin. This inactivation of MBF is important for survival of cells challenged with DNA-damaging agents. Thus Yox1 and Cdc10 couple normal cell cycle regulation in unperturbed conditions and the DNA replication and DNA damage checkpoints into a single transcriptional complex. PMID:24006488

  15. [Regulation of the cell cycle and the development of cancer: therapeutic prospects].

    PubMed

    Peralta-Zaragoza, O; Bahena-Román, M; Díaz-Benítez, C E; Madrid-Marina, V

    1997-01-01

    Several genetic alterations occur during the transformation process from normal to tumor cells, that involve the loss of fidelity of processes as replication, reparation, and segregation of the genomic material. Although normal cells have defense mechanisms against cancer progression, in tumor cells different escape pathways are activated leading to tumor progression. Recent advances have permitted cancer research to focus on the identification of some of its etiological factors. The knowledge of cell cycle reveals a precise mechanism achieved by the coordinated interactions and functions of cyclin-dependent kinases, control checkpoint, and repair pathways. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that this coordinated function can be abrogated by specific genetic changes. These findings suggest that the molecular mechanisms responsible for cellular transformation may help to identify potential targets to improve cancer therapies. PMID:9424727

  16. Insulin-like growth factor-I extends in vitro replicative life span of skeletal muscle satellite cells by enhancing G1/S cell cycle progression via the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt signaling pathway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakravarthy, M. V.; Abraha, T. W.; Schwartz, R. J.; Fiorotto, M. L.; Booth, F. W.

    2000-01-01

    Interest is growing in methods to extend replicative life span of non-immortalized stem cells. Using the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) transgenic mouse in which the IGF-I transgene is expressed during skeletal muscle development and maturation prior to isolation and during culture of satellite cells (the myogenic stem cells of mature skeletal muscle fibers) as a model system, we elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms of IGF-I-mediated enhancement of proliferative potential of these cells. Satellite cells from IGF-I transgenic muscles achieved at least five additional population doublings above the maximum that was attained by wild type satellite cells. This IGF-I-induced increase in proliferative potential was mediated via activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt pathway, independent of mitogen-activated protein kinase activity, facilitating G(1)/S cell cycle progression via a down-regulation of p27(Kip1). Adenovirally mediated ectopic overexpression of p27(Kip1) in exponentially growing IGF-I transgenic satellite cells reversed the increase in cyclin E-cdk2 kinase activity, pRb phosphorylation, and cyclin A protein abundance, thereby implicating an important role for p27(Kip1) in promoting satellite cell senescence. These observations provide a more complete dissection of molecular events by which increased local expression of a growth factor in mature skeletal muscle fibers extends replicative life span of primary stem cells than previously known.

  17. Response of the G2-prophase checkpoint to genotoxic drugs in lymphocytes from healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Pincheira, Juana; de la Torre, Consuelo; Rodríguez, Natalie; Valenzuela, Carlos Y

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the in vitro effects of the anti-tumoral drugs doxorubicin, cytosine arabinoside and hydroxyurea on the G2-prophase checkpoint in lymphocytes from healthy individuals. At biologically equivalent concentrations, the induced DNA damage activated the corresponding checkpoint. Thus: i) there was a concentration-dependent delay of G2 time and an increase of both the total DNA lesions produced and repaired before metaphase and; ii) G2-checkpoint adaptation took place as chromosome aberrations (CAs) started to appear in the metaphase, indicating the presence of unrepaired double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the previous G2. The checkpoint ATM/ATR kinases are involved in DSB repair, since the recorded frequency of CAs increased when both kinases were caffeine-abrogated. In genotoxic-treated cells about three-fold higher repair activity was observed in relation to the endogenous background level of DNA lesions. The maximum rate of DNA repaired was 3.4 CAs/100 metaphases/hour, this rise being accompanied by a modest 1.3 fold lengthening of late G2 prophase timing. Because of mitotic chromosome condensation, no DSBs repair can take place until the G1 phase of the next cell cycle, when it occurs by DNA non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Chromosomal rearrangements formed as a consequence of these error-prone DSB repairs ensure the development of genome instability through the DNA-fusion-bridge cycle. Hence, adaptation of the G2 checkpoint supports the appearance of secondary neoplasia in patients pretreated with genotoxic drugs. PMID:23096362

  18. A kinome screen identifies checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) as a sensitizer for RRM1-dependent gemcitabine efficacy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Chen, Zhengming; Malysa, Agnes; Li, Xin; Oliveira, Paula; Zhang, Yingtao; Bepler, Gerold

    2013-01-01

    Gemcitabine is among the most efficacious and widely used antimetabolite agents. Its molecular targets are ribonucleotide reductase M1 (RRM1) and elongating DNA. Acquired and de novo resistance as a result of RRM1 overexpression are major obstacles to therapeutic efficacy. We deployed a synthetic lethality screen to investigate if knockdown of 87 selected protein kinases by siRNA could overcome RRM1-dependent gemcitabine resistance in high and low RRM1-expressing model systems. The models included genetically RRM1-modified lung and breast cancer cell lines, cell lines with gemcitabine-induced RRM1 overexpression, and a series of naturally gemcitabine-resistant cell lines. Lead molecular targets were validated by determination of differential gemcitabine activity using cell lines with and without target knock down, and by assessing synergistic activity between gemcitabine and an inhibitor of the lead target. CHK1 was identified has the kinase with the most significant and robust interaction, and it was validated using AZD7762, a small-molecule ATP-competitive inhibitor of CHK1 activation. Synergism between CHK1 inhibition and RRM1-dependent gemcitabine efficacy was observed in cells with high RRM1 levels, while antagonism was observed in cells with low RRM1 levels. In addition, four cell lines with natural gemcitabine resistance demonstrated improved gemcitabine efficacy after CHK1 inhibition. In tumor specimens from 187 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, total CHK1 and RRM1 in situ protein levels were significantly (p = 0.003) and inversely correlated. We conclude that inhibition of CHK1 may have its greatest clinical utility in malignancies where gemcitabine resistance is a result of elevated RRM1 levels. We also conclude that CHK1 inhibition in tumors with low RRM1 levels may be detrimental to gemcitabine efficacy. PMID:23483975

  19. Genome-wide inhibitory impact of the AMPK activator metformin on [kinesins, tubulins, histones, auroras and polo-like kinases] M-phase cell cycle genes in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Menendez, Javier A

    2009-05-15

    Prompted by the ever-growing scientific rationale for examining the antidiabetic drug metformin as a potential antitumor agent in breast cancer disease, we recently tested the hypothesis that the assessment of metformin-induced global changes in gene expression-as identified using 44 K (double density) Agilent's whole human genome arrays-could reveal gene-expression signatures that would allow proper selection of breast cancer patients who should be considered for metformin-based clinical trials. Using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery bioinformatics (DAVID) resources we herein reveal that, at doses that lead to activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), metformin not only downregulates genes coding for ribosomal proteins (i.e., protein and macromolecule biosynthesis) but unexpectedly suppresses numerous mitosis-related gene families including kinesins, tubulins, histones, auroras and polo-like kinases. This is, to our knowledge, the first genome-scale evidence of a mitotic core component in the transcriptional response of human breast cancer cells to metformin. These findings further support a tight relationship between the activation status of AMPK and the chromosomal and cytoskeletal checkpoints of cell mitosis at the transcriptional level. PMID:19372741

  20. The Chlamydomonas Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Frederick R.; Umen, James G.

    2015-01-01

    The position of Chlamydomonas within the eukaryotic phylogeny makes it a unique model in at least two important ways: as a representative of the critically important, early-diverging lineage leading to plants, and as a microbe retaining important features of the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) that have been lost in the highly studied yeast lineages. Its cell biology has been studied for many decades, and it has well-developed experimental genetic tools, both classical (Mendelian) and molecular. Unlike land plants, it is a haploid with very few gene duplicates, making it ideal for loss-of-function genetic studies. The Chlamydomonas cell cycle has a striking temporal and functional separation between cell growth and rapid cell divisions, probably connected to the interplay between diurnal cycles that drive photosynthetic cell growth with the cell division cycle; it also exhibits a highly choreographed interaction between the cell cycle and its centriole/basal body/flagellar cycle. Here we review the current status of studies of the Chlamydomonas cell cycle. We begin with an overview of cell cycle control in the well-studied yeast and animal systems, which has yielded a canonical, well-supported model. We discuss briefly what is known about similarities and differences in plant cell cycle control compared to this model. We next review the cytology and cell biology of the multiple fission cell cycle of Chlamydomonas. Lastly we review recent genetic approaches and insights into Chlamydomonas cell cycle regulation that have been enabled by a new generation of genomics-based tools. PMID:25690512

  1. Inositol polyphosphates are not increased by overexpression of Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase but show cell-cycle dependent changes in growth factor-stimulated fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Balla, T; Sim, S S; Baukal, A J; Rhee, S G; Catt, K J

    1994-01-01

    NIH 3T3 fibroblasts were stably transfected with rat brain inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3) 3-kinase to explore the relationship between increased production of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 and the formation of InsP5 and InsP6. Mass measurements of InsP5 and InsP6 revealed no significant difference between kinase- and vector-transfected fibroblasts. However, such 3-kinase-transfected cells, when labeled with [3H]inositol for 48-72 h, showed lower levels of [3H]InsP5 and [3H]InsP6, as well as [3H]Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 and D/L[3H]Ins(1,4,5,6)P4, than their vector-transfected counterparts. Because Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase-transfected cells grew less rapidly than vector-transfected controls, we determined whether the synthesis of InsP5 and InsP6 was related to a specific phase of the cell cycle. When NIH 3T3 cells prelabeled with [3H]inositol were synchronized by serum deprivation followed by stimulation with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), the amounts of labeled InsP5 and InsP6 began to increase only after 12 h of stimulation, when cells entered the S-phase as indicated by increased [3H]thymidine incorporation. The enhanced synthesis of these inositol polyphosphates was preceded by an early increase in Ins(1,4,5)P3 and its metabolites that was no longer evident by the fifth hour of PDGF action. There was also a prominent and biphasic increase in the level of D/L-Ins(1,4,5,6)P4 with an early peak at approximately 3 h and a second rise that paralleled the increases in InsP5 and InsP6. These results indicate that the formation of highly phosphorylated inositols is not tightly coupled to the receptor-mediated formation of Ins(1,4,5)P3 and its metabolites but is mainly determined by other factors that operate at specific points of the cell cycle. PMID:8186462

  2. Eavesdropping on the cytoskeleton: progress and controversy in the yeast morphogenesis checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Keaton, Mignon A; Lew, Daniel J

    2006-12-01

    The morphogenesis checkpoint provides a link between bud formation and mitosis in yeast. In this pathway, insults affecting the actin or septin cytoskeleton trigger a cell cycle arrest, mediated by the Wee1 homolog Swe1p, which catalyzes the inhibitory phosphorylation of the mitosis-promoting cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) on a conserved tyrosine residue. Analyses of Swe1p phosphorylation have mapped 61 sites targeted by CDKs and Polo-related kinases, which control both Swe1p activity and Swe1p degradation. Although the sites themselves are not evolutionarily conserved, the control of Swe1p degradation exhibits many conserved features, and is linked to DNA-responsive checkpoints in vertebrate cells. At the 'sensing' end of the checkpoint, recent work has begun to shed light on how septins are organized and how they impact Swe1p regulators. However, the means by which Swe1p responds to actin perturbations once a bud has formed remains controversial. PMID:17055334

  3. Delayed cell cycle progression in selenoprotein W depleted cells is regulated by a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4–p38–p53 pathway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selenoprotein W (SEPW1) is a ubiquitous, highly conserved thioredoxin-like protein whose depletion causes a p53- and p21Cip1-dependent G1-phase cell cycle arrest in breast and prostate epithelial cells. SEPW1 depletion increases phosphorylation of Ser33 in p53, which is associated with decreased p53...

  4. Curcumin Blocks Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells Migration, Invasion, Angiogenesis, Cell Cycle and Neoplasia through Janus Kinase-STAT3 Signalling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cheng-Liang; Liu, Yong-Yu; Ma, Ye-Gang; Xue, Yi-Xue; Liu, De-Gui; Ren, Yi; Liu, Xiao-Bai; Li, Yao; Li, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin, the active component of turmeric, has been shown to protect against carcinogenesis and prevent tumor development. However, little is known about its anti-tumor mechanism in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). In this study, we found that curcumin can inhibit SCLC cell proliferation, cell cycle, migration, invasion and angiogenesis through suppression of the STAT3. SCLC cells were treated with curcumin (15 µmol/L) and the results showed that curcumin was effective in inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation to downregulate of an array of STAT3 downstream targets ,which contributed to suppression of cell proliferation, loss of colony formation, depression of cell migration and invasion. Curcumin also suppressed the expression of proliferative proteins (Survivin, Bcl-XL and Cyclin B1), and invasive proteins (VEGF, MMP-2, MMP-7 and ICAM-1).Knockdown of STAT3 expression by siRNA was able to induce anti-invasive effects in vitro. In contrast, activation of STAT3 upstream of interleukin 6 (IL-6) leads to the increased cell proliferation ,cell survival, angiogenesis, invasion, migration and tumor growth. Our findings illustrate the biologic significance of IL-6/JAK/STAT3 signaling in SCLC progression and providenovel evidence that the pathway may be a new potential target for therapy of SCLC. It was concluded that curcumin is a potent agent in the inhibition of STAT3 with favorable pharmacological activity,and curcumin may have translational potential as an effective cancer therapeutic or preventive agent for SCLC. PMID:22662257

  5. Inhibition of type I insulin-like growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase by picropodophyllin induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in T lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhiwei; Fang, Zhijia; Zhen, Hong; Zhou, Li; Amin, Hesham M.; Shi, Ping

    2015-01-01

    It has been recently shown that IGF-IR contributes significantly to the survival of T lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-LBL) cells, and it was therefore suggested that IGF-IR could represent a legitimate therapeutic target in this aggressive disease. Picropodphyllin (PPP) is a potent, selective inhibitor of IGF-IR that is currently used with notable success in clinical trials that include patients with aggressive types of epithelial tumors. In the present study, we tested the effects of PPP on Jurkat and Molt-3 cells; two prototype T-LBL cell lines. Our results demonstrate that PPP efficiently induced apoptotic cell death and cell cycle arrest of these two cells. These effects were attributable to alterations of downstream target proteins. By using proteomic analysis, 7 different proteins were found to be affected by PPP treatment of Jurkat cells. These proteins are involved in various aspects of cellular metabolism, cytoskeleton organization, and signal transduction pathways. The results suggest that PPP affects multiple signaling molecules and inhibits fundamental pathways that control cell growth and survival. Our study also provides novel evidence that PPP could be potentially utilized for the treatment of the aggressive T-LBL. PMID:24206093

  6. Loss of G1/S Checkpoint in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Cells Is Associated with a Lack of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21/Waf1

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Elizabeth; Santiago, Francisco; Deng, Longwen; Chong, Siew yen; de la Fuente, Cynthia; Wang, Lai; Fu, Peng; Stein, Dana; Denny, Thomas; Lanka, Venkata; Mozafari, Fariba; Okamoto, Takashi; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2000-01-01

    Productive high-titer infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) requires the activation of target cells. Infection of quiescent peripheral CD4 lymphocytes by HIV-1 results in incomplete, labile reverse transcripts and lack of viral progeny formation. An interplay between Tat and p53 has previously been reported, where Tat inhibited the transcription of the p53 gene, which may aid in the development of AIDS-related malignancies, and p53 expression inhibited HIV-1 long terminal repeat transcription. Here, by using a well-defined and -characterized stress signal, gamma irradiation, we find that upon gamma irradiation, HIV-1-infected cells lose their G1/S checkpoints, enter the S phase inappropriately, and eventually apoptose. The loss of the G1/S checkpoint is associated with a loss of p21/Waf1 protein and increased activity of a major G1/S kinase, namely, cyclin E/cdk2. The p21/Waf1 protein, a known cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, interacts with the cdk2/cyclin E complex and inhibits progression of cells into S phase. We find that loss of the G1/S checkpoint in HIV-1-infected cells may in part be due to Tat's ability to bind p53 (a known activator of the p21/Waf1 promoter) and sequester its transactivation activity, as seen in both in vivo and in vitro transcription assays. The loss of p21/Waf1 in HIV-1-infected cells was specific to p21/Waf1 and did not occur with other KIP family members, such as p27 (KIP1) and p57 (KIP2). Finally, the advantage of a loss of the G1/S checkpoint for HIV-1 per se may be that it pushes the host cell into the S phase, which may then allow subsequent virus-associated processes, such as RNA splicing, transport, translation, and packaging of virion-specific genes, to occur. PMID:10799578

  7. Loss of G(1)/S checkpoint in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected cells is associated with a lack of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21/Waf1.

    PubMed

    Clark, E; Santiago, F; Deng, L; Chong, S; de La Fuente, C; Wang, L; Fu, P; Stein, D; Denny, T; Lanka, V; Mozafari, F; Okamoto, T; Kashanchi, F

    2000-06-01

    Productive high-titer infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) requires the activation of target cells. Infection of quiescent peripheral CD4 lymphocytes by HIV-1 results in incomplete, labile reverse transcripts and lack of viral progeny formation. An interplay between Tat and p53 has previously been reported, where Tat inhibited the transcription of the p53 gene, which may aid in the development of AIDS-related malignancies, and p53 expression inhibited HIV-1 long terminal repeat transcription. Here, by using a well-defined and -characterized stress signal, gamma irradiation, we find that upon gamma irradiation, HIV-1-infected cells lose their G(1)/S checkpoints, enter the S phase inappropriately, and eventually apoptose. The loss of the G(1)/S checkpoint is associated with a loss of p21/Waf1 protein and increased activity of a major G(1)/S kinase, namely, cyclin E/cdk2. The p21/Waf1 protein, a known cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, interacts with the cdk2/cyclin E complex and inhibits progression of cells into S phase. We find that loss of the G(1)/S checkpoint in HIV-1-infected cells may in part be due to Tat's ability to bind p53 (a known activator of the p21/Waf1 promoter) and sequester its transactivation activity, as seen in both in vivo and in vitro transcription assays. The loss of p21/Waf1 in HIV-1-infected cells was specific to p21/Waf1 and did not occur with other KIP family members, such as p27 (KIP1) and p57 (KIP2). Finally, the advantage of a loss of the G(1)/S checkpoint for HIV-1 per se may be that it pushes the host cell into the S phase, which may then allow subsequent virus-associated processes, such as RNA splicing, transport, translation, and packaging of virion-specific genes, to occur. PMID:10799578

  8. The circadian clock and cell cycle: Interconnected biological circuits

    PubMed Central

    Masri, Selma; Cervantes, Marlene; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The circadian clock governs biological timekeeping on a systemic level, helping to regulate and maintain physiological processes, including endocrine and metabolic pathways with a periodicity of 24-hours. Disruption within the circadian clock machinery has been linked to numerous pathological conditions, including cancer, suggesting that clock-dependent regulation of the cell cycle is an essential control mechanism. This review will highlight recent advances on the ‘gating’ controls of the circadian clock at various checkpoints of the cell cycle and also how the cell cycle can influence biological rhythms. The reciprocal influence that the circadian clock and cell cycle exert on each other suggests that these intertwined biological circuits are essential and multiple regulatory/control steps have been instated to ensure proper timekeeping. PMID:23969329

  9. Sonoporation induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human promyelocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wenjing; Sit, Wai Hung; Wan, Jennifer M F; Yu, Alfred C H

    2011-12-01

    Despite being a transient biophysical phenomenon, sonoporation is known to disturb the homeostasis of living cells. This work presents new evidence on how sonoporation may lead to antiproliferation effects including cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis through disrupting various cell signaling pathways. Our findings were obtained from sonoporation experiments conducted on HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells (with 1% v/v microbubbles; 1 MHz ultrasound; 0.3 or 0.5MPa peak negative pressure; 10% duty cycle; 1 kHz pulse repetition frequency; 1 min exposure period). Membrane resealing in these sonoporated cells was first verified using scanning electron microscopy. Time-lapse flow cytometry analysis of cellular deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) contents was then performed at four post-sonoporation time points (4 h, 8 h, 12 h and 24 h). Results indicate that an increasing trend in the apoptotic cell population can be observed for at least 12 h after sonoporation, whilst viable sonoporated cells are found to temporarily accumulate in the G(2)/M (gap-2/mitosis) phase of the cell cycle. Further analysis using western blotting reveals that sonoporation-induced apoptosis involves cleavage of poly adenosine diphosphate ribose polymerase (PARP) proteins: a pro-apoptotic hallmark related to loss of DNA repair functionality. Also, mitochondrial signaling seems to have taken part in triggering this cellular event as the expression of two complementary regulators for mitochondrial release of pro-apoptotic molecules, Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) and Bax (Bcl-2-associated X), are seen to be imbalanced in sonoporated cells. Furthermore, sonoporation is found to induce cell-cycle arrest through perturbing the expression of various cyclin and Cdk (cyclin-dependent kinase) checkpoint proteins that play an enabling role in cell-cycle progression. These bioeffects should be taken into account when using sonoporation for therapeutic purposes. PMID:22033133

  10. Carnosol, a dietary diterpene, displays growth inhibitory effects in human prostate cancer PC3 cells leading to G2-phase cell cycle arrest and targets the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jeremy J.; Syed, Deeba N.; Heren, Chenelle R.; Suh, Yewseok; Adhami, Vaqar M.; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The anti-cancer effect of carnosol was investigated in human prostate cancer PC3 cells. Methods Biochemical analysis and protein array data of carnosol treated PC3 cells were analyzed. Results We evaluated carnosol for its potential anti-cancer properties in the PC3 cells. Using an MTT assay we found that carnosol (10 – 70 µM) decreases cell viability in a time and dose dependent manner. Next, we evaluated the effect of carnosol (20–60 uM) effect using flow cytometry as well as biochemical analysis and found induction of G2-phase cell cycle arrest. To establish a more precise mechanism, we performed a protein array that evaluated 638 proteins involved in cell signaling pathways. The protein array identified 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a serine/threonine protein kinase involved in the regulation of cellular energy balance as a potential target. Further downstream effects consistent with cancer inhibition included the modulation of the mTOR/HSP70S6k/4E-BP1 pathway. Additionally, we found that carnosol targeted the PI3K/Akt pathway in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions These results suggest that carnosol targets multiple signaling pathways that include the AMPK pathway. The ability of carnosol to inhibit prostate cancer in vitro suggests carnosol may be a novel agent for the management of PCa. PMID:18286356

  11. Difference of cell cycle arrests induced by lidamycin in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xia; He, Hongwei; Feng, Yun; Zhang, Min; Ren, Kaihuan; Shao, Rongguang

    2006-02-01

    Lidamycin (LDM) is a member of the enediyne antibiotic family. It is undergoing phase I clinical trials in China as a potential chemotherapeutic agent. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism by which LDM induced cell cycle arrest in human breast cancer cells. The results showed that LDM induced G1 arrest in p53 wild-type MCF-7 cells at low concentrations, and caused both G1 and G2/M arrests at higher concentrations. In contrast, LDM induced only G2/M arrest in p53-mutant MCF-7/DOX cells. Western blotting analysis indicated that LDM-induced G1 and G2/M arrests in MCF-7 cells were associated with an increase of p53 and p21, and a decrease of phosphorylated retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk), Cdc2 and cyclin B1 protein levels. However, LDM-induced G2/M arrest in MCF-7/DOX cells was correlated with the reduction of cyclin B1 expression. Further study indicated that the downregulation of cyclin B1 by LDM in MCF-7 cells was associated with decreasing cyclin B1 mRNA levels and promoting protein degradation, whereas it was only due to inducing cyclin B1 protein degradation in MCF-7/DOX cells. In addition, activation of checkpoint kinases Chk1 or Chk2 maybe contributed to LDM-induced cell cycle arrest. Taken together, we provide the first evidence that LDM induces different cell cycle arrests in human breast cancer cells, which are dependent on drug concentration and p53 status. These findings are helpful in understanding the molecular anti-cancer mechanisms of LDM and support its clinical trials. PMID:16428935

  12. Cell cycle gene expression networks discovered using systems biology: Significance in carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Scott, Robert E; Ghule, Prachi N; Stein, Janet L; Stein, Gary S

    2015-10-01

    The early stages of carcinogenesis are linked to defects in the cell cycle. A series of cell cycle checkpoints are involved in this process. The G1/S checkpoint that serves to integrate the control of cell proliferation and differentiation is linked to carcinogenesis and the mitotic spindle checkpoint is associated with the development of chromosomal instability. This paper presents the outcome of systems biology studies designed to evaluate if networks of covariate cell cycle gene transcripts exist in proliferative mammalian tissues including mice, rats, and humans. The GeneNetwork website that contains numerous gene expression datasets from different species, sexes, and tissues represents the foundational resource for these studies (www.genenetwork.org). In addition, WebGestalt, a gene ontology tool, facilitated the identification of expression networks of genes that co-vary with key cell cycle targets, especially Cdc20 and Plk1 (www.bioinfo.vanderbilt.edu/webgestalt). Cell cycle expression networks of such covariate mRNAs exist in multiple proliferative tissues including liver, lung, pituitary, adipose, and lymphoid tissues among others but not in brain or retina that have low proliferative potential. Sixty-three covariate cell cycle gene transcripts (mRNAs) compose the average cell cycle network with P = e(-13) to e(-36) . Cell cycle expression networks show species, sex and tissue variability, and they are enriched in mRNA transcripts associated with mitosis, many of which are associated with chromosomal instability. PMID:25808367

  13. Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 may be expressed as multiple proteins and have functions that are independent of binding to CCND and RB and occur at the S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuan; Lou, Xiaomin; Yang, Min; Yuan, Chengfu; Ma, Ling; Xie, Bing-Kun; Wu, Jian-min; Yang, Wei; Shen, Steven XJ; Xu, Ningzhi; Liao, D Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) is known to be a 33 kD protein that drives G1 phase progression of the cell cycle by binding to a CCND protein to phosphorylate RB proteins. Using different CDK4 antibodies in western blot, we detected 2 groups of proteins around 40 and 33 kD, respectively, in human and mouse cells; each group often appeared as a duplet or triplet of bands. Some CDK4 shRNAs could decrease the 33 kD wild-type (wt) CDK4 but increase some 40 kD proteins, whereas some other shRNAs had the opposite effects. Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the existence of CDK4 isoforms smaller than 33 kD but failed to identify CDK4 at 40 kD. We cloned one CDK4 mRNA variant that lacks exon 2 and encodes a 26 kD protein without the first 74 amino acids of the wt CDK4, thus lacking the ATP binding sequence and the PISTVRE domain required for binding to CCND. Co-IP assay confirmed that this ΔE2 protein lost CCND1- and RB1-binding ability. Moreover, we found, surprisingly, that the wt CDK4 and the ΔE2 could inhibit G1–S progression, accelerate S–G2/M progression, and enhance or delay apoptosis in a cell line-specific manner in a situation where the cells were treated with a CDK4 inhibitor or the cells were serum-starved and then replenished. Hence, CDK4 seems to be expressed as multiple proteins that react differently to different CDK4 antibodies, respond differently to different shRNAs, and, in some situations, have previously unrecognized functions at the S–G2/M phases of the cell cycle via mechanisms independent of binding to CCND and RB. PMID:24091631

  14. Artemisinin triggers a G1 cell cycle arrest of human Ishikawa endometrial cancer cells and inhibits cyclin-dependent kinase-4 promoter activity and expression by disrupting nuclear factor-κB transcriptional signaling.

    PubMed

    Tran, Kalvin Q; Tin, Antony S; Firestone, Gary L

    2014-03-01

    Relatively little is known about the antiproliferative effects of artemisinin, a naturally occurring antimalarial compound from Artemisia annua, or sweet wormwood, in human endometrial cancer cells. Artemisinin induced a G1 cell cycle arrest in cultured human Ishikawa endometrial cancer cells and downregulated cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2) and CDK4 transcript and protein levels. Analysis of CDK4 promoter-luciferase reporter constructs showed that the artemisinin ablation of CDK4 gene expression was accounted for by the loss of CDK4 promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that artemisinin inhibited nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) subunit p65 and p50 interactions with the endogenous Ishikawa cell CDK4 promoter. Coimmunoprecipitation revealed that artemisinin disrupts endogenous p65 and p50 nuclear translocation through increased protein-protein interactions with IκB-α, an NF-κB inhibitor, and disrupts its interaction with the CDK4 promoter, leading to a loss of CDK4 gene expression. Artemisinin treatment stimulated the cellular levels of IκB-α protein without altering the level of IκB-α transcripts. Finally, expression of exogenous p65 resulted in the accumulation of this NF-κB subunit in the nucleus of artemisinin-treated and artemisinin-untreated cells, reversed the artemisinin downregulation of CDK4 protein expression and promoter activity, and prevented the artemisinin-induced G1 cell cycle arrest. Taken together, our results demonstrate that a key event in the artemisinin antiproliferative effects in endometrial cancer cells is the transcriptional downregulation of CDK4 expression by disruption of NF-κB interactions with the CDK4 promoter. PMID:24296733

  15. Regulation of the Embryonic Cell Cycle During Mammalian Preimplantation Development.

    PubMed

    Palmer, N; Kaldis, P

    2016-01-01

    The preimplantation development stage of mammalian embryogenesis consists of a series of highly conserved, regulated, and predictable cell divisions. This process is essential to allow the rapid expansion and differentiation of a single-cell zygote into a multicellular blastocyst containing cells of multiple developmental lineages. This period of development, also known as the germinal stage, encompasses several important developmental transitions, which are accompanied by dramatic changes in cell cycle profiles and dynamics. These changes are driven primarily by differences in the establishment and enforcement of cell cycle checkpoints, which must be bypassed to facilitate the completion of essential cell cycle events. Much of the current knowledge in this area has been amassed through the study of knockout models in mice. These mouse models are powerful experimental tools, which have allowed us to dissect the relative dependence of the early embryonic cell cycles on various aspects of the cell cycle machinery and highlight the extent of functional redundancy between members of the same gene family. This chapter will explore the ways in which the cell cycle machinery, their accessory proteins, and their stimuli operate during mammalian preimplantation using mouse models as a reference and how this allows for the usually well-defined stages of the cell cycle to be shaped and transformed during this unique and critical stage of development. PMID:27475848

  16. Neuronal cell cycle: the neuron itself and its circumstances

    PubMed Central

    Frade, José M; Ovejero-Benito, María C

    2015-01-01

    Neurons are usually regarded as postmitotic cells that undergo apoptosis in response to cell cycle reactivation. Nevertheless, recent evidence indicates the existence of a defined developmental program that induces DNA replication in specific populations of neurons, which remain in a tetraploid state for the rest of their adult life. Similarly, de novo neuronal tetraploidization has also been described in the adult brain as an early hallmark of neurodegeneration. The aim of this review is to integrate these recent developments in the context of cell cycle regulation and apoptotic cell death in neurons. We conclude that a variety of mechanisms exists in neuronal cells for G1/S and G2/M checkpoint regulation. These mechanisms, which are connected with the apoptotic machinery, can be modulated by environmental signals and the neuronal phenotype itself, thus resulting in a variety of outcomes ranging from cell death at the G1/S checkpoint to full proliferation of differentiated neurons. PMID:25590687

  17. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields and the cell cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahlke, Megan A.

    Exposure to nanosecond pulsed electrical fields (nsPEFs) can cause poration of external and internal cell membranes, DNA damage, and disassociation of cytoskeletal components, all of which are capable of disrupting a cell's ability to replicate. The phase of the cell cycle at the time of exposure is linked to differential sensitivities to nsPEFs across cell lines, as DNA structure, membrane elasticity, and cytoskeletal structure change dramatically during the cell cycle. Additionally, nsPEFs are capable of activating cell cycle checkpoints, which could lead to apoptosis or slow population growth. NsPEFs are emerging as a method for treating tumors via apoptotic induction; therefore, investigating the relevance of nsPEFs and the cell cycle could translate into improved efficacy in tumor treatment. Populations of Jurkat and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were examined post-exposure (10 ns pulse trains at 150kV/cm) by analysis of DNA content via propidium iodide staining and flow cytometric analysis at various time points (1, 6, and 12h post-exposure) to determine population distribution in cell cycle phases. Additionally, CHO and Jurkat cells were synchronized in G1/S and G2/M phases, pulsed, and analyzed to evaluate the role of cell cycle phase in survival of nsPEFs. CHO populations appeared similar to sham populations post-nsPEFs but exhibited arrest in the G1 phase at 6h after exposure. Jurkat cells exhibited increased cell death after nsPEFs compared to CHO cells but did not exhibit checkpoint arrest at any observed time point. The G1/S phase checkpoint is partially controlled by the action of p53; the lack of an active p53 response in Jurkat cells could contribute to their ability to pass this checkpoint and resist cell cycle arrest. Both cell lines exhibited increased sensitivity to nsPEFs in G2/M phase. Live imaging of CHO cells after nsPEF exposure supports the theory of G1/S phase arrest, as a reduced number of cells undergo mitosis within 24 h when

  18. The E3 ubiquitin ligase EDD regulates S-phase and G(2)/M DNA damage checkpoints.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Marcia A; Saunders, Darren N; Henderson, Michelle J; Clancy, Jennifer L; Russell, Amanda J; Lehrbach, Gillian; Musgrove, Elizabeth A; Watts, Colin K W; Sutherland, Robert L

    2007-12-15

    The cellular response to DNA damage is critical for maintenance of genomic integrity and inhibition of tumorigenesis. Mutations or aberrant expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligase EDD have been observed in a number of carcinomas and we recently reported that EDD modulates activity of the DNA damage checkpoint kinase, CHK2. Here, we demonstrate that EDD is necessary for G(1)/S and intra S phase DNA damage checkpoint activation and for the maintenance of G(2)/M arrest after double strand DNA breaks. Defective checkpoint activation in EDD-depleted cells led to radio-resistant DNA synthesis, premature entry into mitosis, accumulation of polyploid cells, and cell death via mitotic catastrophe. In addition to decreased CHK2 activation in EDD-depleted cells, the expression of several key cell cycle mediators including Cdc25A/C and E2F1 was altered, suggesting that these checkpoint defects may be both CHK2-dependent and -independent. These data support a role for EDD in the maintenance of genomic stability, emphasising the potential importance of dysregulated EDD expression and/or function in the evolution of cancer. PMID:18073532

  19. Characterization of mec1 Kinase-Deficient Mutants and of New Hypomorphic mec1 Alleles Impairing Subsets of the DNA Damage Response Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Paciotti, Vera; Clerici, Michela; Scotti, Maddalena; Lucchini, Giovanna; Longhese, Maria Pia

    2001-01-01

    DNA damage checkpoints lead to the inhibition of cell cycle progression following DNA damage. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mec1 checkpoint protein, a phosphatidylinositol kinase-related protein, is required for transient cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage or DNA replication defects. We show that mec1 kinase-deficient (mec1kd) mutants are indistinguishable from mec1Δ cells, indicating that the Mec1 conserved kinase domain is required for all known Mec1 functions, including cell viability and proper DNA damage response. Mec1kd variants maintain the ability to physically interact with both Ddc2 and wild-type Mec1 and cause dominant checkpoint defects when overproduced in MEC1 cells, impairing the ability of cells to slow down S phase entry and progression after DNA damage in G1 or during S phase. Conversely, an excess of Mec1kd in MEC1 cells does not abrogate the G2/M checkpoint, suggesting that Mec1 functions required for response to aberrant DNA structures during specific cell cycle stages can be separable. In agreement with this hypothesis, we describe two new hypomorphic mec1 mutants that are completely defective in the G1/S and intra-S DNA damage checkpoints but properly delay nuclear division after UV irradiation in G2. The finding that these mutants, although indistinguishable from mec1Δ cells with respect to the ability to replicate a damaged DNA template, do not lose viability after UV light and methyl methanesulfonate treatment suggests that checkpoint impairments do not necessarily result in hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. PMID:11359899

  20. Wogonoside induces growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest via promoting the expression and binding activity of GATA-1 in chronic myelogenous leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Hui, Hui; Xu, Jingyan; Yang, Hao; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Yuxin; Li, Zhiyu; Guo, Qinglong; Lu, Na

    2016-06-01

    GATA-1, a zinc finger transcription factor, has been demonstrated to play a key role in the progression of leukemia. In this study, we investigate the effects of wogonoside, a naturally bioactive flavonoid derived from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, on cell growth and cell cycle in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells, and uncover its underlying mechanisms. The experimental design comprised CML cell lines K562, imatinib-resistant K562 (K562r) cells, and primary CML cells, treated in vitro or in vivo, respectively, with wogonoside; growth and cell cycle were then evaluated. We found that wogonoside could induce growth inhibition and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in both normal and K562r cells. Wogonoside promotes the expression of GATA-1 and facilitates the binding to methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and p21 promoter, thus inhibiting MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling and cell cycle checkpoint proteins, including CDK2, CDK4, cyclin A, and cyclin D1, and increasing p21 expression. Furthermore, in vivo studies showed that administration of wogonoside decreased CML cells and prolonged survival in NOD/SCID mice with CML cell xenografts. In conclusion, these results clearly revealed the inhibitory effect of wogonoside on the growth in CML cells and suggested that wogonoside may act as a promising drug for the treatment of imatinib-resistant CML. PMID:26104856

  1. Landscape and flux reveal a new global view and physical quantification of mammalian cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunhe; Wang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Cell cycles, essential for biological function, have been investigated extensively. However, enabling a global understanding and defining a physical quantification of the stability and function of the cell cycle remains challenging. Based upon a mammalian cell cycle gene network, we uncovered the underlying Mexican hat landscape of the cell cycle. We found the emergence of three local basins of attraction and two major potential barriers along the cell cycle trajectory. The three local basins of attraction characterize the G1, S/G2, and M phases. The barriers characterize the G1 and S/G2 checkpoints, respectively, of the cell cycle, thus providing an explanation of the checkpoint mechanism for the cell cycle from the physical perspective. We found that the progression of a cell cycle is determined by two driving forces: curl flux for acceleration and potential barriers for deceleration along the cycle path. Therefore, the cell cycle can be promoted (suppressed), either by enhancing (suppressing) the flux (representing the energy input) or by lowering (increasing) the barrier along the cell cycle path. We found that both the entropy production rate and energy per cell cycle increase as the growth factor increases. This reflects that cell growth and division are driven by energy or nutrition supply. More energy input increases flux and decreases barrier along the cell cycle path, leading to faster oscillations. We also identified certain key genes and regulations for stability and progression of the cell cycle. Some of these findings were evidenced from experiments whereas others lead to predictions and potential anticancer strategies. PMID:25228772

  2. p53 and Cell Cycle Effects After DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Senturk, Emir; Manfredi, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Flow cytometry, a valuable technique that employs the principles of light scattering, light excitation, and emission of fluorochrome molecules, can be used to assess the cell cycle position of individual cells based on DNA content. After the permeabilization of cells, the DNA can be stained with a fluorescent dye. Cells which have a 2N amount of DNA can be distinguished from cells with a 4N amount of DNA, making flow cytometry a very useful tool for the analysis of cell cycle checkpoints following DNA damage. A critical feature of the cellular response to DNA damage is the ability to pause and repair the damage so that consequential mutations are not passed along to daughter generations of cells. If cells arrest prior to DNA replication, they will contain a 2N amount of DNA, whereas arrest after replication but before mitosis will result in a 4N amount of DNA. Using this technique, the role that p53 plays in cell cycle checkpoints following DNA damage can be evaluated based on changes in the profile of the G1, S, and G2/M phases of the cell cycle. PMID:23150436

  3. Centrosome-associated regulators of the G2/M checkpoint as targets for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yingmei; Ji, Ping; Liu, Jinsong; Broaddus, Russell R; Xue, Fengxia; Zhang, Wei

    2009-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, control mechanisms have developed that restrain cell-cycle transitions in response to stress. These regulatory pathways are termed cell-cycle checkpoints. The G2/M checkpoint prevents cells from entering mitosis when DNA is damaged in order to afford these cells an opportunity to repair the damaged DNA before propagating genetic defects to the daughter cells. If the damage is irreparable, checkpoint signaling might activate pathways that lead to apoptosis. Since alteration of cell-cycle control is a hallmark of tumorigenesis, cell-cycle regulators represent potential targets for therapy. The centrosome has recently come into focus as a critical cellular organelle that integrates G2/M checkpoint control and repairs signals in response to DNA damage. A growing number of G2/M checkpoint regulators have been found in the centrosome, suggesting that centrosome has an important role in G2/M checkpoint function. In this review, we discuss centrosome-associated regulators of the G2/M checkpoint, the dysregulation of this checkpoint in cancer, and potential candidate targets for cancer therapy. PMID:19216791

  4. Targeting cell cycle regulators in hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Aleem, Eiman; Arceci, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Hematologic malignancies represent the fourth most frequently diagnosed cancer in economically developed countries. In hematologic malignancies normal hematopoiesis is interrupted by uncontrolled growth of a genetically altered stem or progenitor cell (HSPC) that maintains its ability of self-renewal. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) not only regulate the mammalian cell cycle, but also influence other vital cellular processes, such as stem cell renewal, differentiation, transcription, epigenetic regulation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. Chromosomal translocations, amplification, overexpression and altered CDK activities have been described in different types of human cancer, which have made them attractive targets for pharmacological inhibition. Mouse models deficient for one or more CDKs have significantly contributed to our current understanding of the physiological functions of CDKs, as well as their roles in human cancer. The present review focuses on selected cell cycle kinases with recent emerging key functions in hematopoiesis and in hematopoietic malignancies, such as CDK6 and its role in MLL-rearranged leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia, CDK1 and its regulator WEE-1 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and cyclin C/CDK8/CDK19 complexes in T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia. The knowledge gained from gene knockout experiments in mice of these kinases is also summarized. An overview of compounds targeting these kinases, which are currently in clinical development in various solid tumors and hematopoietic malignances, is presented. These include the CDK4/CDK6 inhibitors (palbociclib, LEE011, LY2835219), pan-CDK inhibitors that target CDK1 (dinaciclib, flavopiridol, AT7519, TG02, P276-00, terampeprocol and RGB 286638) as well as the WEE-1 kinase inhibitor, MK-1775. The advantage of combination therapy of cell cycle inhibitors with conventional chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of AML, such as cytarabine, is discussed. PMID:25914884

  5. Outcome of treatment of human HeLa cervical cancer cells with roscovitine strongly depends on the dosage and cell cycle status prior to the treatment.

    PubMed

    Wesierska-Gadek, Józefa; Borza, Andreea; Walzi, Eva; Krystof, Vladimir; Maurer, Margarita; Komina, Oxana; Wandl, Stefanie

    2009-04-01

    Exposure of asynchronously growing human HeLa cervical carcinoma cells to roscovitine (ROSC), a selective cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) inhibitor, arrests their progression at the transition between G(2)/M and/or induces apoptosis. The outcome depends on the ROSC concentration. At higher dose ROSC represses HPV-encoded E7 oncoprotein and initiates caspase-dependent apoptosis. Inhibition of the site-specific phosphorylation of survivin and Bad, occurring at high-dose ROSC treatment, precedes the onset of apoptosis and seems to be a prerequisite for cell death. Considering the fact that in HeLa cells the G(1)/S restriction checkpoint is abolished by E7, we addressed the question whether the inhibition of CDKs by pharmacological inhibitors in synchronized cells would be able to block the cell-cycle in G(1) phase. For this purpose, we attempted to synchronize cells by serum withdrawal or by blocking of the mitotic apparatus using nocodazole. Unlike human MCF-7 cells, HeLa cells do not undergo G(1) block after serum starvation, but respond with a slight increase of the ratio of G(1) population. Exposure of G(1)-enriched HeLa cells to ROSC after re-feeding does not block their cell-cycle progression at G(1)-phase, but increases the ratio of S- and G(2)-phase, thereby mimicking the effect on asynchronously growing cells. A quite different impact is observed after treatment of HeLa cells released from mitotic block. ROSC prevents their cell cycle progression and cells transiently accumulate in G(1)-phase. These results show that inhibition of CDKs by ROSC in cells lacking the G(1)/S restriction checkpoint has different outcomes depending on the cell-cycle status prior to the onset of treatment. PMID:19180585

  6. Defective control of mitotic and post-mitotic checkpoints in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1(-/-) fibroblasts after mitotic spindle disruption.

    PubMed

    Halappanavar, Sabina S; Shah, Girish M

    2004-03-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP), a DNA damage-responsive nuclear enzyme present in higher eukaryotes, is well-known for its roles in protecting the genome after DNA damage. However, even without exogenous DNA damage, PARP may play a role in stabilizing the genome because cells or mice deficient in PARP exhibit various signs of genomic instability, such as tetraploidy, aneuploidy, chromosomal abnormalities and susceptibility to spontaneous carcinogenesis. Normally, cell cycle checkpoints ensure elimination of cells with genomic abnormalities. Therefore, we examined efficiency of mitotic and post-mitotic checkpoints in PARP-/- and PARP+/+ mouse embryonic fibroblasts treated with mitotic spindle disrupting agent colcemid. PARP+/+ cells, like most mammalian cells, eventually escaped from spindle disruption-induced mitotic checkpoint arrest by 60 h. In contrast, PARP-/- cells rapidly escaped from mitotic arrest within 24 h by downregulation of cyclin B1/CDK-1 kinase activity. After escaping from mitotic arrest; both the PARP genotypes arrive in G1 tetraploid state, where they face post-mitotic checkpoints which either induce apoptosis or prevent DNA endoreduplication. While all the G1 tetraploid PARP+/+ cells were eliminated by apoptosis, the majority of the G1 tetraploid PARP-/- cells became polyploid by resisting apoptosis and carrying out DNA endoreduplication. Introduction of PARP in PARP-/- fibroblasts partially increased the stringency of mitotic checkpoint arrest and fully restored susceptibility to G1 tetraploidy checkpoint-induced apoptosis; and thus prevented formation of polyploid cells. Our results suggest that PARP may serve as a guardian angel of the genome even without exogenous DNA damage through its role in mitotic and post-mitotic G1 tetraploidy checkpoints. PMID:14726664

  7. Cell cycle arrest induced by MPPa-PDT in MDA-MB-231 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Liming; Bi, Wenxiang; Tian, Yuanyuan

    2016-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a medical treatment using a photosensitizing agent and light source to treat cancers. Pyropheophorbidea methyl ester (MPPa), a derivative of chlorophyll, is a novel potent photosensitizer. To learn more about this photosensitizer, we examined the cell cycle arrest in MDA-MB-231. Cell cycle and apoptosis were measured by flow cytometer. Checkpoints of the cell cycle were measured by western blot. In this study, we found that the expression of Cyclin D1 was obviously decreased, while the expression of Chk2 and P21 was increased after PDT treatment. This study showed that MPPa-PDT affected the checkpoints of the cell cycle and led the cells to apoptosis.

  8. Targeting of Carbon Ion-Induced G2 Checkpoint Activation in Lung Cancer Cells Using Wee-1 Inhibitor MK-1775.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongyu; Takahashi, Akihisa; Sejimo, Yukihiko; Adachi, Akiko; Kubo, Nobuteru; Isono, Mayu; Yoshida, Yukari; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Ohno, Tatsuya; Nakano, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    The potent inhibitor of the cell cycle checkpoint regulatory factor Wee-1, MK-1775, has been reported to enhance non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell sensitivity to photon radiation by abrogating radiation-induced G2 arrest. However, little is known about the effects of this sensitizer after exposure to carbon (C)-ion radiation. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of C ions in combination with MK-1775 on the killing of NSCLC cells. Human NSCLC H1299 cells were exposed to X rays or C ions (290 MeV/n, 50 keV/μm at the center of a 6 cm spread-out Bragg peak) in the presence of MK-1775. The cell cycle was analyzed using flow cytometry and Western blotting. Radiosensitivity was determined using clonogenic survival assays. The mechanisms underlying MK-1775 radiosensitization were studied by observing H2AX phosphorylation and mitotic catastrophe. G2 checkpoint arrest was enhanced 2.3-fold by C-ion exposure compared with X-ray exposure. Radiation-induced G2 checkpoint arrest was abrogated by MK-1775. Exposure to radiation resulted in a significant reduction in the mitotic ratio and increased phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1), the primary downstream mediator of Wee-1-induced G2 arrest. The Wee-1 inhibitor, MK-1775 restored the mitotic ratio and suppressed Cdk1 phosphorylation. In addition, MK-1775 increased H1299 cell sensitivity to C ions and X rays independent of TP53 status. MK-1775 also significantly increased H2AX phosphorylation and mitotic catastrophe in irradiated cells. These results suggest that the G2 checkpoint inhibitor MK-1775 can enhance the sensitivity of human NSCLC cells to C ions as well as X rays. PMID:26645158

  9. Cell cycle control and seed development

    PubMed Central

    Dante, Ricardo A.; Larkins, Brian A.; Sabelli, Paolo A.

    2014-01-01

    Seed development is a complex process that requires coordinated integration of many genetic, metabolic, and physiological pathways and environmental cues. Different cell cycle types, such as asymmetric cell division, acytokinetic mitosis, mitotic cell division, and endoreduplication, frequently occur in sequential yet overlapping manner during the development of the embryo and the endosperm, seed structures that are both products of double fertilization. Asymmetric cell divisions in the embryo generate polarized daughter cells with different cell fates. While nuclear and cell division cycles play a key role in determining final seed cell numbers, endoreduplication is often associated with processes such as cell enlargement and accumulation of storage metabolites that underlie cell differentiation and growth of the different seed compartments. This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of different cell cycle mechanisms operating during seed development and their impact on the growth, development, and function of seed tissues. Particularly, the roles of core cell cycle regulators, such as cyclin-dependent-kinases and their inhibitors, the Retinoblastoma-Related/E2F pathway and the proteasome-ubiquitin system, are discussed in the contexts of different cell cycle types that characterize seed development. The contributions of nuclear and cellular proliferative cycles and endoreduplication to cereal endosperm development are also discussed. PMID:25295050

  10. Synchronized Cell Cycle Arrest Promotes Osteoclast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Minsuk; Kim, Jin-Man; Lee, Kyunghee; Park, So-Young; Lim, Hyun-Sook; Kim, Taesoo; Jeong, Daewon

    2016-01-01

    Osteoclast progenitors undergo cell cycle arrest before differentiation into osteoclasts, induced by exposure to macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). The role of such cell cycle arrest in osteoclast differentiation has remained unclear, however. We here examined the effect of synchronized cell cycle arrest on osteoclast formation. Osteoclast progenitors deprived of M-CSF in culture adopted a uniform morphology and exhibited cell cycle arrest at the G0–G1 phase in association with both down-regulation of cyclins A and D1 as well as up-regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1. Such M-CSF deprivation also promoted the differentiation of osteoclast progenitors into multinucleated osteoclasts expressing high levels of osteoclast marker proteins such as NFATc1, c-Fos, Atp6v0d2, cathepsin K, and integrin β3 on subsequent exposure to M-CSF and RANKL. Our results suggest that synchronized arrest and reprogramming of osteoclast progenitors renders them poised to respond to inducers of osteoclast formation. Further characterization of such effects may facilitate induction of the differentiation of heterogeneous and multipotent cells into desired cell lineages. PMID:27517906

  11. Synchronized Cell Cycle Arrest Promotes Osteoclast Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Minsuk; Kim, Jin-Man; Lee, Kyunghee; Park, So-Young; Lim, Hyun-Sook; Kim, Taesoo; Jeong, Daewon

    2016-01-01

    Osteoclast progenitors undergo cell cycle arrest before differentiation into osteoclasts, induced by exposure to macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). The role of such cell cycle arrest in osteoclast differentiation has remained unclear, however. We here examined the effect of synchronized cell cycle arrest on osteoclast formation. Osteoclast progenitors deprived of M-CSF in culture adopted a uniform morphology and exhibited cell cycle arrest at the G₀-G₁ phase in association with both down-regulation of cyclins A and D1 as well as up-regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1). Such M-CSF deprivation also promoted the differentiation of osteoclast progenitors into multinucleated osteoclasts expressing high levels of osteoclast marker proteins such as NFATc1, c-Fos, Atp6v0d2, cathepsin K, and integrin β3 on subsequent exposure to M-CSF and RANKL. Our results suggest that synchronized arrest and reprogramming of osteoclast progenitors renders them poised to respond to inducers of osteoclast formation. Further characterization of such effects may facilitate induction of the differentiation of heterogeneous and multipotent cells into desired cell lineages. PMID:27517906

  12. Cucurbitacin-I inhibits Aurora kinase A, Aurora kinase B and survivin, induces defects in cell cycle progression and promotes ABT-737-induced cell death in a caspase-independent manner in malignant human glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Premkumar, Daniel R; Jane, Esther P; Pollack, Ian F

    2015-01-01

    Because STAT signaling is commonly activated in malignant gliomas as a result of constitutive EGFR activation, strategies for inhibiting the EGFR/JAK/STAT cascade are of significant interest. We, therefore, treated a panel of established glioma cell lines, including EGFR overexpressors, and primary cultures derived from patients diagnosed with glioblastoma with the JAK/STAT inhibitor cucurbitacin-I. Treatment with cucurbitacin-I depleted p-STAT3, p-STAT5, p-JAK1 and p-JAK2 levels, inhibited cell proliferation, and induced G2/M accumulation, DNA endoreduplication, and multipolar mitotic spindles. Longer exposure to cucurbitacin-I significantly reduced the number of viable cells and this decrease in viability was associated with cell death, as confirmed by an increase in the subG1 fraction. Our data also demonstrated that cucurbitacin-I strikingly downregulated Aurora kinase A, Aurora kinase B and survivin. We then searched for agents that exhibited a synergistic effect on cell death in combination with cucurbitacin-I. We found that cotreatment with cucurbitacin-I significantly increased Bcl-2/Bcl-xL family member antagonist ABT-737-induced cell death regardless of EGFR/PTEN/p53 status of malignant human glioma cell lines. Although >50% of the cucurbitacin-I plus ABT-737 treated cells were annexin V and propidium iodide positive, PARP cleavage or caspase activation was not observed. Pretreatment of z-VAD-fmk, a pan caspase inhibitor did not inhibit cell death, suggesting a caspase-independent mechanism of cell death. Genetic inhibition of Aurora kinase A or Aurora kinase B or survivin by RNA interference also sensitized glioma cells to ABT-737, suggesting a link between STAT activation and Aurora kinases in malignant gliomas. PMID:25482928

  13. Protein phosphatase 2A is expressed in response to colony-stimulating factor 1 in macrophages and is required for cell cycle progression independently of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, N J; Moss, S T; Csar, X F; Ward, A C; Hamilton, J A

    1999-01-01

    Colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) is required for the development of monocytes/macrophages from progenitor cells and for the survival and activation of mature macrophages. The receptor for CSF-1 is the product of the c-fms proto-oncogene, which, on binding ligand, can stimulate a mitogenic response in the appropriate cells. To investigate which genes are regulated in response to CSF-1-stimulation in murine bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMM), we employed mRNA differential display reverse transcriptase-mediated PCR to identify cDNA species induced by CSF-1. Both Northern and Western blot analyses confirmed the increased expression of one of the cDNA species identified as coding for the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), an observation not previously reported during the response to a growth factor. To determine the significance of the increased expression of PP2A in response to CSF-1, the PP2A inhibitor okadaic acid (OA) was added to CSF-1-treated BMM and found to inhibit DNA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Further analysis with flow cytometry in the presence of OA led to the novel conclusion that PP2A activity is critical for CSF-1-driven BMM cell cycle progression in both early G1 and S phases. Surprisingly, in the light of previous studies with other cells, the PP2A-dependent proliferation could be dissociated from activation by extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) in macrophages because OA did not affect either the basal or CSF-1-induced ERK activity in BMM. Two-dimensional SDS/PAGE analysis of lysates of 32P-labelled BMM, which had been treated with CSF-1 in the presence or absence of OA, identified candidate substrates for PP2A. PMID:10215588

  14. Histone deacetylase inhibitors promote glioma cell death by G2 checkpoint abrogation leading to mitotic catastrophe.

    PubMed

    Cornago, M; Garcia-Alberich, C; Blasco-Angulo, N; Vall-Llaura, N; Nager, M; Herreros, J; Comella, J X; Sanchis, D; Llovera, M

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is resistant to conventional anti-tumoral treatments due to its infiltrative nature and capability of relapse; therefore, research efforts focus on characterizing gliomagenesis and identifying molecular targets useful on therapy. New therapeutic strategies are being tested in patients, such as Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) either alone or in combination with other therapies. Here two HDACi included in clinical trials have been tested, suberanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA) and valproic acid (VPA), to characterize their effects on glioma cell growth in vitro and to determine the molecular changes that promote cancer cell death. We found that both HDACi reduce glioma cell viability, proliferation and clonogenicity. They have multiple effects, such as inducing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, nevertheless cell death is not prevented by the pan-caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPh. Importantly, we found that HDACi alter cell cycle progression by decreasing the expression of G2 checkpoint kinases Wee1 and checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1). In addition, HDACi reduce the expression of proteins involved in DNA repair (Rad51), mitotic spindle formation (TPX2) and chromosome segregation (Survivin) in glioma cells and in human glioblastoma multiforme primary cultures. Therefore, HDACi treatment causes glioma cell entry into mitosis before DNA damage could be repaired and to the formation of an aberrant mitotic spindle that results in glioma cell death through mitotic catastrophe-induced apoptosis. PMID:25275596

  15. Cross talk of tyrosine kinases with the DNA damage signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Kiran; Mahajan, Nupam P.

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosine kinases respond to extracellular and intracellular cues by activating specific cellular signaling cascades to regulate cell cycle, growth, proliferation, differentiation and survival. Likewise, DNA damage response proteins (DDR) activated by DNA lesions or chromatin alterations recruit the DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint machinery to restore genome integrity and cellular homeostasis. Several new examples have been uncovered in recent studies which reveal novel epigenetic and non-epigenetic mechanisms by which tyrosine kinases interact with DDR proteins to dictate cell fate, i.e. survival or apoptosis, following DNA damage. These studies reveal the ability of tyrosine kinases to directly regulate the activity of DNA repair and cell cycle check point proteins by tyrosine phosphorylation. In addition, tyrosine kinases epigenetically regulate DNA damage signaling pathways by modifying the core histones as well as chromatin modifiers at critical tyrosine residues. Thus, deregulated tyrosine kinase driven epigenomic alterations have profound implications in cancer, aging and genetic disorders. Consequently, targeting oncogenic tyrosine kinase induced epigenetic alterations has gained significant traction in overcoming cancer cell resistance to various therapies. This review discusses mechanisms by which tyrosine kinases interact with DDR pathways to regulate processes critical for maintaining genome integrity as well as clinical strategies for targeted cancer therapies. PMID:26546517

  16. Cross talk of tyrosine kinases with the DNA damage signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Kiran; Mahajan, Nupam P

    2015-12-15

    Tyrosine kinases respond to extracellular and intracellular cues by activating specific cellular signaling cascades to regulate cell cycle, growth, proliferation, differentiation and survival. Likewise, DNA damage response proteins (DDR) activated by DNA lesions or chromatin alterations recruit the DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint machinery to restore genome integrity and cellular homeostasis. Several new examples have been uncovered in recent studies which reveal novel epigenetic and non-epigenetic mechanisms by which tyrosine kinases interact with DDR proteins to dictate cell fate, i.e. survival or apoptosis, following DNA damage. These studies reveal the ability of tyrosine kinases to directly regulate the activity of DNA repair and cell cycle check point proteins by tyrosine phosphorylation. In addition, tyrosine kinases epigenetically regulate DNA damage signaling pathways by modifying the core histones as well as chromatin modifiers at critical tyrosine residues. Thus, deregulated tyrosine kinase driven epigenomic alterations have profound implications in cancer, aging and genetic disorders. Consequently, targeting oncogenic tyrosine kinase induced epigenetic alterations has gained significant traction in overcoming cancer cell resistance to various therapies. This review discusses mechanisms by which tyrosine kinases interact with DDR pathways to regulate processes critical for maintaining genome integrity as well as clinical strategies for targeted cancer therapies. PMID:26546517

  17. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad3 checkpoint gene.

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, N J; Holtzman, D A; Flaggs, G; Keegan, K S; DeMaggio, A; Ford, J C; Hoekstra, M; Carr, A M

    1996-01-01

    The rad3 gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe is required for checkpoint pathways that respond to DNA damage and replication blocks. We report the complete rad3 gene sequence and show that rad3 is the homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ESR1 (MEC1/SAD3) and Drosophila melanogaster mei-41 checkpoint genes. This establishes Rad3/Mec1 as the only conserved protein which is required for all the DNA structure checkpoints in both yeast model systems. Rad3 is an inessential member of the 'lipid kinase' subclass of kinases which includes the ATM protein defective in ataxia telangiectasia patients. Mutational analysis indicates that the kinase domain is required for Rad3 function, and immunoprecipitation of overexpressed Rad3 demonstrates an associated protein kinase activity. The previous observation that rad3 mutations can be rescued by a truncated clone lacking the kinase domain may be due to intragenic complementation. Consistent with this, biochemical data suggest that Rad3 exists in a complex containing multiple copies of Rad3. We have identified a novel human gene (ATR) whose product is closely related to Rad3/Esr1p/Mei-41. ATR can functionally complement esr1-1 radiation sensitivity in S. cerevisiae. Together, the structural conservation and functional complementation suggest strongly that the mechanisms underlying the DNA structure checkpoints are conserved throughout evolution. Images PMID:8978690

  18. P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity is required during mitosis for timely satisfaction of the mitotic checkpoint but not for the fidelity of chromosome segregation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyunghee; Kenny, Alison E; Rieder, Conly L

    2010-07-01

    Although p38 activity is reported to be required as cells enter mitosis for proper spindle assembly and checkpoint function, its role during the division process remains controversial in lieu of direct data. We therefore conducted live cell studies to determine the effect on mitosis of inhibiting or depleting p38. We found that in the absence of p38 activity the duration of mitosis is prolonged by approximately 40% in nontransformed human RPE-1, approximately 80% in PtK2 (rat kangaroo), and approximately 25% in mouse cells, and this prolongation leads to an elevated mitotic index. However, under this condition chromatid segregation and cytokinesis are normal. Using Mad2/YFP-expressing cells, we show the prolongation of mitosis in the absence of p38 activity is directly due to a delay in satisfying the mitotic checkpoint. Inhibiting p38 did not affect the rate of chromosome motion; however, it did lead to the formation of significantly (10%) longer metaphase spindles. From these data we conclude that normal p38 activity is required for the timely stable attachment of all kinetochores to spindle microtubules, but not for the fidelity of the mitotic process. We speculate that p38 activity promotes timely checkpoint satisfaction by indirectly influencing those motor proteins (e.g., Klp10, Klp67A) involved in regulating the dynamics of kinetochore microtubule ends. PMID:20462950

  19. Danusertib, a potent pan-Aurora kinase and ABL kinase inhibitor, induces cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death and inhibits epithelial to mesenchymal transition involving the PI3K/Akt/mTOR-mediated signaling pathway in human gastric cancer AGS and NCI-N78 cells

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Chun-Xiu; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Yin-Xue; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Wang, Dong; Yang, Tianxing; Pan, Si-Yuan; Chen, Xiao-Wu; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    of N-cadherin in both cell lines. Taken together, danusertib has potent inducing effects on cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and autophagy, but has an inhibitory effect on epithelial to mesenchymal transition, with involvement of signaling pathways mediated by PI3K/Akt/mTOR, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase in AGS and NCI-N78 cells. PMID:25767376

  20. RAG-mediated DNA double-strand breaks activate a cell type-specific checkpoint to inhibit pre-B cell receptor signals.

    PubMed

    Bednarski, Jeffrey J; Pandey, Ruchi; Schulte, Emily; White, Lynn S; Chen, Bo-Ruei; Sandoval, Gabriel J; Kohyama, Masako; Haldar, Malay; Nickless, Andrew; Trott, Amanda; Cheng, Genhong; Murphy, Kenneth M; Bassing, Craig H; Payton, Jacqueline E; Sleckman, Barry P

    2016-02-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) activate a canonical DNA damage response, including highly conserved cell cycle checkpoint pathways that prevent cells with DSBs from progressing through the cell cycle. In developing B cells, pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) signals initiate immunoglobulin light (Igl) chain gene assembly, leading to RAG-mediated DNA DSBs. The pre-BCR also promotes cell cycle entry, which could cause aberrant DSB repair and genome instability in pre-B cells. Here, we show that RAG DSBs inhibit pre-BCR signals through the ATM- and NF-κB2-dependent induction of SPIC, a hematopoietic-specific transcriptional repressor. SPIC inhibits expression of the SYK tyrosine kinase and BLNK adaptor, resulting in suppression of pre-BCR signaling. This regulatory circuit prevents the pre-BCR from inducing additional Igl chain gene rearrangements and driving pre-B cells with RAG DSBs into cycle. We propose that pre-B cells toggle between pre-BCR signals and a RAG DSB-dependent checkpoint to maintain genome stability while iteratively assembling Igl chain genes. PMID:26834154

  1. Evidence for a CDK4-dependent checkpoint in a conditional model of cellular senescence

    PubMed Central

    Brookes, Sharon; Gagrica, Sladjana; Sanij, Elaine; Rowe, Janice; Gregory, Fiona J; Hara, Eiji; Peters, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Cellular senescence, the stable cell cycle arrest elicited by various forms of stress, is an important facet of tumor suppression. Although much is known about the key players in the implementation of senescence, including the pRb and p53 axes and the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p16INK4a and p21CIP1, many details remain unresolved. In studying conditional senescence in human fibroblasts that express a temperature sensitive SV40 large T-antigen (T-Ag), we uncovered an unexpected role for CDK4. At the permissive temperature, where pRb and p53 are functionally compromised by T-Ag, cyclin D-CDK4 complexes are disrupted by the high p16INK4a levels and reduced expression of p21CIP1. In cells arrested at the non-permissive temperature, p21CIP1 promotes reassembly of cyclin D-CDK4 yet pRb is in a hypo-phosphorylated state, consistent with cell cycle arrest. In exploring whether the reassembled cyclin D-CDK4-p21 complexes are functional, we found that shRNA-mediated knockdown or chemical inhibition of CDK4 prevented the increase in cell size associated with the senescent phenotype by allowing the cells to arrest in G1 rather than G2/M. The data point to a role for CDK4 kinase activity in a G2 checkpoint that contributes to senescence. PMID:25695870

  2. Specific cell cycle synchronization with butyrate and cell cycle analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synchronized cells have been invaluable for many kinds of cell cycle and cell proliferation studies. Butyrate induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MDBK cells. To explore the possibility of using butyrate-blocked cells to obtain synchronized cells, we investigated the property of the cell cyc...

  3. Different cell cycle modulation by celecoxib at different concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Mee; Pyo, Hongryull

    2013-03-01

    Abstract Different cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors were known to cause different cell cycle changes. We investigated whether this different effect on cell cycle change was due to concentration-dependent effect. We investigated the effects of celecoxib, a COX-2 selective inhibitor, on cell cycle regulation in irradiated cancer cells that express high or low levels of COX-2. Four stably COX-2 knocked-down or overexpressed cell lines were treated with various concentrations of celecoxib with or without radiation. Celecoxib differentially modulated the cell cycle according to the concentrations applied. G1 arrest was induced at lower concentrations, whereas G2/M arrest was induced at higher concentrations in each cell line tested. Radiation-induced G2/M arrest was enhanced at lower concentrations but reduced at higher concentrations. The cutoff values to divide lower and higher concentrations were cell-type specific. Celecoxib treatment activated Cdc25C and inhibited p21 expression in both unirradiated and irradiated cells, regardless of COX-2 expression. Apoptosis was induced in irradiated cells 48 hours after treatment with celecoxib dependent of COX-2. These results imply that celecoxib deactivates the G2 checkpoint via both Cdc25C- and p21-dependent pathways in irradiated cells, which subsequently die by secondary apoptosis. Cell cycle modulating effects in irradiated cells resulting from treatment with celecoxib may have clinical importance with regard to the potential application of celecoxib in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. PMID:23268707

  4. Cell cycle deregulation by methyl isocyanate: Implications in liver carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Panwar, Hariom; Raghuram, Gorantla V; Jain, Deepika; Ahirwar, Alok K; Khan, Saba; Jain, Subodh K; Pathak, Neelam; Banerjee, Smita; Maudar, Kewal K; Mishra, Pradyumna K

    2014-03-01

    Liver is often exposed to plethora of chemical toxins. Owing to its profound physiological role and central function in metabolism and homeostasis, pertinent succession of cell cycle in liver epithelial cells is of prime importance to maintain cellular proliferation. Although recent evidence has displayed a strong association between exposures to methyl isocyanate (MIC), one of the most toxic isocyanates, and neoplastic transformation, molecular characterization of the longitudinal effects of MIC on cell cycle regulation has never been performed. Here, we sequentially delineated the status of different proteins arbitrating the deregulation of cell cycle in liver epithelial cells treated with MIC. Our data reaffirms the oncogenic capability of MIC with elevated DNA damage response proteins pATM and γ-H2AX, deregulation of DNA damage check point genes CHK1 and CHK2, altered expression of p53 and p21 proteins involved in cell cycle arrest with perturbation in GADD-45 expression in the treated cells. Further, alterations in cyclin A, cyclin E, CDK2 levels along with overexpression of mitotic spindle checkpoints proteins Aurora A/B, centrosomal pericentrin protein, chromosomal aberrations, and loss of Pot1a was observed. Thus, MIC impacts key proteins involved in cell cycle regulation to trigger genomic instability as a possible mechanism of developmental basis of liver carcinogenesis. PMID:22223508

  5. Post-transcriptional RNA Regulons Affecting Cell Cycle and Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Blackinton, Jeff G.

    2014-01-01

    The cellular growth cycle is initiated and maintained by punctual, yet agile, regulatory events involving modifications of cell cycle proteins as well as coordinated gene expression to support cyclic checkpoint decisions. Recent evidence indicates that post-transcriptional partitioning of messenger RNA subsets by RNA-binding proteins help physically localize, temporally coordinate, and efficiently translate cell cycle proteins. This dynamic organization of mRNAs encoding cell cycle components contributes to the overall economy of the cell cycle consistent with the post-transcriptional RNA regulon model of gene expression. This review examines several recent studies demonstrating the coordination of mRNA subsets encoding cell cycle proteins during nuclear export and subsequent coupling to protein synthesis, and discusses evidence for mRNA coordination of p53 targets and the DNA damage response pathway. We consider how these observations may connect to upstream and downstream post-transcriptional coordination and coupling of splicing, export, localization, and translation. Published examples from yeast, nematode, insect, and mammalian systems are discussed, and we consider genetic evidence supporting the conclusion that dysregulation of RNA regulons may promote pathogenic states of growth such as carcinogenesis. PMID:24882724

  6. Optimization of the analogue-sensitive Cdc2/Cdk1 mutant by in vivo selection eliminates physiological limitations to its use in cell cycle analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aoi, Yuki; Kawashima, Shigehiro A.; Simanis, Viesturs; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Sato, Masamitsu

    2014-01-01

    Analogue-sensitive (as) mutants of kinases are widely used to selectively inhibit a single kinase with few off-target effects. The analogue-sensitive mutant cdc2-as of fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) is a powerful tool to study the cell cycle, but the strain displays meiotic defects, and is sensitive to high and low temperature even in the absence of ATP-analogue inhibitors. This has limited the use of the strain for use in these settings. Here, we used in vivo selection for intragenic suppressor mutations of cdc2-as that restore full function in the absence of ATP-analogues. The cdc2-asM17 underwent meiosis and produced viable spores to a similar degree to the wild-type strain. The suppressor mutation also rescued the sensitivity of the cdc2-as strain to high and low temperature, genotoxins and an anti-microtubule drug. We have used cdc2-asM17 to show that Cdc2 activity is required to maintain the activity of the spindle assembly checkpoint. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that maintenance of the Shugoshin Sgo1 at meiotic centromeres does not require Cdc2 activity, whereas localization of the kinase aurora does. The modified cdc2-asM17 allele can be thus used to analyse many aspects of cell-cycle-related events in fission yeast. PMID:24990387

  7. Cell Size Checkpoint Control by the Retinoblastoma Tumor Suppressor Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Su-Chiung; de los Reyes, Chris; Umen, James G

    2006-01-01

    Size control is essential for all proliferating cells, and is thought to be regulated by checkpoints that couple cell size to cell cycle progression. The aberrant cell-size phenotypes caused by mutations in the retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor pathway are consistent with a role in size checkpoint control, but indirect effects on size caused by altered cell cycle kinetics are difficult to rule out. The multiple fission cell cycle of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii uncouples growth from division, allowing direct assessment of the relationship between size phenotypes and checkpoint function. Mutations in the C. reinhardtii RB homolog encoded by MAT3 cause supernumerous cell divisions and small cells, suggesting a role for MAT3 in size control. We identified suppressors of an mat3 null allele that had recessive mutations in DP1 or dominant mutations in E2F1, loci encoding homologs of a heterodimeric transcription factor that is targeted by RB-related proteins. Significantly, we determined that the dp1 and e2f1 phenotypes were caused by defects in size checkpoint control and were not due to a lengthened cell cycle. Despite their cell division defects, mat3, dp1, and e2f1 mutants showed almost no changes in periodic transcription of genes induced during S phase and mitosis, many of which are conserved targets of the RB pathway. Conversely, we found that regulation of cell size was unaffected when S phase and mitotic transcription were inhibited. Our data provide direct evidence that the RB pathway mediates cell size checkpoint control and suggest that such control is not directly coupled to the magnitude of periodic cell cycle transcription. PMID:17040130

  8. The Replication Checkpoint Protects Fork Stability by Releasing Transcribed Genes from Nuclear Pores

    PubMed Central

    Bermejo, Rodrigo; Capra, Thelma; Jossen, Rachel; Colosio, Arianna; Frattini, Camilla; Carotenuto, Walter; Cocito, Andrea; Doksani, Ylli; Klein, Hannah; Gómez-González, Belén; Aguilera, Andrés; Katou, Yuki; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Foiani, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Summary Transcription hinders replication fork progression and stability, and the Mec1/ATR checkpoint protects fork integrity. Examining checkpoint-dependent mechanisms controlling fork stability, we find that fork reversal and dormant origin firing due to checkpoint defects are rescued in checkpoint mutants lacking THO, TREX-2, or inner-basket nucleoporins. Gene gating tethers transcribed genes to the nuclear periphery and is counteracted by checkpoint kinases through phosphorylation of nucleoporins such as Mlp1. Checkpoint mutants fail to detach transcribed genes from nuclear pores, thus generating topological impediments for incoming forks. Releasing this topological complexity by introducing a double-strand break between a fork and a transcribed unit prevents fork collapse. Mlp1 mutants mimicking constitutive checkpoint-dependent phosphorylation also alleviate checkpoint defects. We propose that the checkpoint assists fork progression and stability at transcribed genes by phosphorylating key nucleoporins and counteracting gene gating, thus neutralizing the topological tension generated at nuclear pore gated genes. PMID:21784245

  9. STK31 Is a Cell-Cycle Regulated Protein That Contributes to the Tumorigenicity of Epithelial Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Pao-Lin; Huang, Yung-Ling; Hsieh, Christine Chin-Jung; Lee, Jenq-Chang; Lin, Bo-Wen; Hung, Liang-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Serine/threonine kinase 31 (STK31) is one of the novel cancer/testis antigens for which its biological functions remain largely unclear. Here, we demonstrate that STK31 is overexpressed in many human colorectal cancer cell lines and tissues. STK31 co-localizes with pericentrin in the centrosomal region throughout all phases of the cell cycle. Interestingly, when cells undergo mitosis, STK31 also localizes to the centromeres, central spindle, and midbody. This localization behavior is similar to that of chromosomal passenger proteins, which are known to be the important players of the spindle assembly checkpoint. The expression of STK31 is cell cycle-dependent through the regulation of a putative D-box near its C-terminal region. Ectopically-expressed STK31-GFP increases cell migration and invasive ability without altering the proliferation rate of cancer cells, whereas the knockdown expression of endogenous STK31 by lentivirus-derived shRNA results in microtubule assembly defects that prolong the duration of mitosis and lead to apoptosis. Taken together, our results suggest that the aberrant expression of STK31 contributes to tumorigenicity in somatic cancer cells. STK31 might therefore act as a potential therapeutic target in human somatic cancers. PMID:24667656

  10. Analyzing the ATR-mediated checkpoint using Xenopus egg extracts

    PubMed Central

    Lupardus, Patrick J.; Van, Christopher; Cimprich, Karlene A.

    2009-01-01

    Our knowledge of cell cycle events such as DNA replication and mitosis has been advanced significantly through the use of Xenopus egg extracts as a model system. More recently, Xenopus extracts have been used to investigate the cellular mechanisms that ensure accurate and complete duplication of the genome, processes otherwise known as the DNA damage and replication checkpoints. Here we describe several Xenopus extract methods that have advanced the study of the ATR-mediated checkpoints. These include a protocol for the preparation of nucleoplasmic extract (NPE), which is a soluble extract system useful for studying nuclear events such as DNA replication and checkpoints. In addition, we describe several key assays for studying checkpoint activation as well as methods for using small DNA structures to activate ATR. PMID:17189864

  11. Checkpoint Activation of an Unconventional DNA Replication Program in Tetrahymena

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, Pamela Y.; Lee, Po-Hsuen; Meng, Xiangzhou; Kapler, Geoffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    The intra-S phase checkpoint kinase of metazoa and yeast, ATR/MEC1, protects chromosomes from DNA damage and replication stress by phosphorylating subunits of the replicative helicase, MCM2-7. Here we describe an unprecedented ATR-dependent pathway in Tetrahymena thermophila in which the essential pre-replicative complex proteins, Orc1p, Orc2p and Mcm6p are degraded in hydroxyurea-treated S phase cells. Chromosomes undergo global changes during HU-arrest, including phosphorylation of histone H2A.X, deacetylation of histone H3, and an apparent diminution in DNA content that can be blocked by the deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate. Most remarkably, the cell cycle rapidly resumes upon hydroxyurea removal, and the entire genome is replicated prior to replenishment of ORC and MCMs. While stalled replication forks are elongated under these conditions, DNA fiber imaging revealed that most replicating molecules are produced by new initiation events. Furthermore, the sole origin in the ribosomal DNA minichromosome is inactive and replication appears to initiate near the rRNA promoter. The collective data raise the possibility that replication initiation occurs by an ORC-independent mechanism during the recovery from HU-induced replication stress. PMID:26218270

  12. Mechanisms of Cell Cycle Control Revealed by a Systematic and Quantitative Overexpression Screen in S. cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Wei; Li, Zhihua; Zhan, Wenjing; Iyer, Vishwanath R.; Marcotte, Edward M.

    2008-01-01

    Regulation of cell cycle progression is fundamental to cell health and reproduction, and failures in this process are associated with many human diseases. Much of our knowledge of cell cycle regulators derives from loss-of-function studies. To reveal new cell cycle regulatory genes that are difficult to identify in loss-of-function studies, we performed a near-genome-wide flow cytometry assay of yeast gene overexpression-induced cell cycle delay phenotypes. We identified 108 genes whose overexpression significantly delayed the progression of the yeast cell cycle at a specific stage. Many of the genes are newly implicated in cell cycle progression, for example SKO1, RFA1, and YPR015C. The overexpression of RFA1 or YPR015C delayed the cell cycle at G2/M phases by disrupting spindle attachment to chromosomes and activating the DNA damage checkpoint, respectively. In contrast, overexpression of the transcription factor SKO1 arrests cells at G1 phase by activating the pheromone response pathway, revealing new cross-talk between osmotic sensing and mating. More generally, 92%–94% of the genes exhibit distinct phenotypes when overexpressed as compared to their corresponding deletion mutants, supporting the notion that many genes may gain functions upon overexpression. This work thus implicates new genes in cell cycle progression, complements previous screens, and lays the foundation for future experiments to define more precisely roles for these genes in cell cycle progression. PMID:18617996

  13. Cell cycle control in Alphaproteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Collier, Justine

    2016-04-01

    Alphaproteobacteria include many medically and environmentally important organisms. Despite the diversity of their niches and lifestyles, from free-living to host-associated, they usually rely on very similar mechanisms to control their cell cycles. Studies on Caulobacter crescentus still lay the foundation for understanding the molecular details of pathways regulating DNA replication and cell division and coordinating these two processes with other events of the cell cycle. This review highlights recent discoveries on the regulation and the mode of action of conserved global regulators and small molecules like c-di-GMP and (p)ppGpp, which play key roles in cell cycle control. It also describes several newly identified mechanisms that modulate cell cycle progression in response to stresses or environmental conditions. PMID:26871482

  14. NONO couples the circadian clock to the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Kowalska, Elzbieta; Ripperger, Juergen A.; Hoegger, Dominik C.; Bruegger, Pascal; Buch, Thorsten; Birchler, Thomas; Mueller, Anke; Albrecht, Urs; Contaldo, Claudio; Brown, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian circadian clocks restrict cell proliferation to defined time windows, but the mechanism and consequences of this interrelationship are not fully understood. Previously we identified the multifunctional nuclear protein NONO as a partner of circadian PERIOD (PER) proteins. Here we show that it also conveys circadian gating to the cell cycle, a connection surprisingly important for wound healing in mice. Specifically, although fibroblasts from NONO-deficient mice showed approximately normal circadian cycles, they displayed elevated cell doubling and lower cellular senescence. At a molecular level, NONO bound to the p16-Ink4A cell cycle checkpoint gene and potentiated its circadian activation in a PER protein-dependent fashion. Loss of either NONO or PER abolished this activation and circadian expression of p16-Ink4A and eliminated circadian cell cycle gating. In vivo, lack of NONO resulted in defective wound repair. Because wound healing defects were also seen in multiple circadian clock-deficient mouse lines, our results therefore suggest that coupling of the cell cycle to the circadian clock via NONO may be useful to segregate in temporal fashion cell proliferation from tissue organization. PMID:23267082

  15. High-dose irradiation induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and developmental defects during Drosophila oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shim, Hee Jin; Lee, Eun-Mi; Nguyen, Long Duy; Shim, Jaekyung; Song, Young-Han

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) treatment induces a DNA damage response, including cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and apoptosis in metazoan somatic cells. Because little has been reported in germline cells, we performed a temporal analysis of the DNA damage response utilizing Drosophila oogenesis as a model system. Oogenesis in the adult Drosophila female begins with the generation of 16-cell cyst by four mitotic divisions of a cystoblast derived from the germline stem cells. We found that high-dose irradiation induced S and G2 arrests in these mitotically dividing germline cells in a grp/Chk1- and mnk/Chk2-dependent manner. However, the upstream kinase mei-41, Drosophila ATR ortholog, was required for the S-phase checkpoint but not for the G2 arrest. As in somatic cells, mnk/Chk2 and dp53 were required for the major cell death observed in early oogenesis when oocyte selection and meiotic recombination occurs. Similar to the unscheduled DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) generated from defective repair during meiotic recombination, IR-induced DSBs produced developmental defects affecting the spherical morphology of meiotic chromosomes and dorsal-ventral patterning. Moreover, various morphological abnormalities in the ovary were detected after irradiation. Most of the IR-induced defects observed in oogenesis were reversible and were restored between 24 and 96 h after irradiation. These defects in oogenesis severely reduced daily egg production and the hatch rate of the embryos of irradiated female. In summary, irradiated germline cells induced DSBs, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and developmental defects resulting in reduction of egg production and defective embryogenesis. PMID:24551207

  16. Vorinostat modulates cell cycle regulatory proteins in glioma cells and human glioma slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jihong; Sampath, Deepa; Lang, Frederick F; Prabhu, Sujit; Rao, Ganesh; Fuller, Gregory N; Liu, Yuanfang; Puduvalli, Vinay K

    2011-11-01

    Chromatin modification through histone deacetylase inhibition has shown evidence of activity against malignancies. The mechanism of action of such agents are pleiotropic and potentially tumor specific. In this study, we studied the mechanisms of vorinostat-induced cellular effects in gliomas. The effects of vorinostat on proliferation, induction of apoptosis and cell cycle effects were studied in vitro (D54, U87 and U373 glioma cell lines). To gain additional insights into its effects on human gliomas, vorinostat-induced changes were examined ex vivo using a novel organotypic human glioma slice model. Vorinostat treatment resulted in increased p21 levels in all glioma cells tested in a p53 independent manner. In addition, cyclin B1 levels were transcriptionally downregulated and resulted in reduced kinase activity of the cyclin B1/cdk1 complex causing a G2 arrest. These effects were associated with a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cellular proliferation and anchorage-independent growth in association with hyperacetylation of core histones and induction of apoptosis. Of particular significance, we demonstrate histone hyperacetylation and increased p21 levels in freshly resected human glioma specimens maintained as organotypic slice cultures and exposed to vorinostat similar to cell lines suggesting that human glioma can be targeted by this agent. Our data suggest that the effects of vorinostat are associated with modulation of cell cycle related proteins and activation of a G2 checkpoint along with induction of apoptosis. These effects are mediated by both transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms which provide potential options that can be exploited to develop new therapeutic approaches against gliomas. PMID:21598070

  17. Vorinostat modulates cell cycle regulatory proteins in glioma cells and human glioma slice cultures

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jihong; Sampath, Deepa; Lang, Frederick F.; Prabhu, Sujit; Rao, Ganesh; Fuller, Gregory N.; Liu, Yuanfang

    2013-01-01

    Chromatin modification through histone deacetylase inhibition has shown evidence of activity against malignancies. The mechanism of action of such agents are pleiotropic and potentially tumor specific. In this study, we studied the mechanisms of vorinostat-induced cellular effects in gliomas. The effects of vorinostat on proliferation, induction of apoptosis and cell cycle effects were studied in vitro (D54, U87 and U373 glioma cell lines). To gain additional insights into its effects on human gliomas, vorinostat-induced changes were examined ex vivo using a novel organotypic human glioma slice model. Vorinostat treatment resulted in increased p21 levels in all glioma cells tested in a p53 independent manner. In addition, cyclin B1 levels were transcriptionally downregulated and resulted in reduced kinase activity of the cyclin B1/cdkl complex causing a G2 arrest. These effects were associated with a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cellular proliferation and anchorage-independent growth in association with hyperacetylation of core histones and induction of apoptosis. Of particular significance, we demonstrate histone hyperacetylation and increased p21 levels in freshly resected human glioma specimens maintained as organotypic slice cultures and exposed to vorinostat similar to cell lines suggesting that human glioma can be targeted by this agent. Our data suggest that the effects of vorinostat are associated with modulation of cell cycle related proteins and activation of a G2 checkpoint along with induction of apoptosis. These effects are mediated by both transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms which provide potential options that can be exploited to develop new therapeutic approaches against gliomas. PMID:21598070

  18. ATR- and ATM-Mediated DNA Damage Response Is Dependent on Excision Repair Assembly during G1 but Not in S Phase of Cell Cycle.

    PubMed

    Ray, Alo; Blevins, Chessica; Wani, Gulzar; Wani, Altaf A

    2016-01-01

    Cell cycle checkpoint is mediated by ATR and ATM kinases, as a prompt early response to a variety of DNA insults, and culminates in a highly orchestrated signal transduction cascade. Previously, we defined the regulatory role of nucleotide excision repair (NER) factors, DDB2 and XPC, in checkpoint and ATR/ATM-dependent repair pathway via ATR and ATM phosphorylation and recruitment to ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced damage sites. Here, we have dissected the molecular mechanisms of DDB2- and XPC- mediated regulation of ATR and ATM recruitment and activation upon UVR exposures. We show that the ATR and ATM activation and accumulation to UVR-induced damage not only depends on DDB2 and XPC, but also on the NER protein XPA, suggesting that the assembly of an active NER complex is essential for ATR and ATM recruitment. ATR and ATM localization and H2AX phosphorylation at the lesion sites occur as early as ten minutes in asynchronous as well as G1 arrested cells, showing that repair and checkpoint-mediated by ATR and ATM starts early upon UV irradiation. Moreover, our results demonstrated that ATR and ATM recruitment and H2AX phosphorylation are dependent on NER proteins in G1 phase, but not in S phase. We reasoned that in G1 the UVR-induced ssDNA gaps or processed ssDNA, and the bound NER complex promote ATR and ATM recruitment. In S phase, when the UV lesions result in stalled replication forks with long single-stranded DNA, ATR and ATM recruitment to these sites is regulated by different sets of proteins. Taken together, these results provide evidence that UVR-induced ATR and ATM recruitment and activation differ in G1 and S phases due to the existence of distinct types of DNA lesions, which promote assembly of different proteins involved in the process of DNA repair and checkpoint activation. PMID:27442013

  19. ATR- and ATM-Mediated DNA Damage Response Is Dependent on Excision Repair Assembly during G1 but Not in S Phase of Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Alo; Blevins, Chessica; Wani, Gulzar; Wani, Altaf A.

    2016-01-01

    Cell cycle checkpoint is mediated by ATR and ATM kinases, as a prompt early response to a variety of DNA insults, and culminates in a highly orchestrated signal transduction cascade. Previously, we defined the regulatory role of nucleotide excision repair (NER) factors, DDB2 and XPC, in checkpoint and ATR/ATM-dependent repair pathway via ATR and ATM phosphorylation and recruitment to ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced damage sites. Here, we have dissected the molecular mechanisms of DDB2- and XPC- mediated regulation of ATR and ATM recruitment and activation upon UVR exposures. We show that the ATR and ATM activation and accumulation to UVR-induced damage not only depends on DDB2 and XPC, but also on the NER protein XPA, suggesting that the assembly of an active NER complex is essential for ATR and ATM recruitment. ATR and ATM localization and H2AX phosphorylation at the lesion sites occur as early as ten minutes in asynchronous as well as G1 arrested cells, showing that repair and checkpoint-mediated by ATR and ATM starts early upon UV irradiation. Moreover, our results demonstrated that ATR and ATM recruitment and H2AX phosphorylation are dependent on NER proteins in G1 phase, but not in S phase. We reasoned that in G1 the UVR-induced ssDNA gaps or processed ssDNA, and the bound NER complex promote ATR and ATM recruitment. In S phase, when the UV lesions result in stalled replication forks with long single-stranded DNA, ATR and ATM recruitment to these sites is regulated by different sets of proteins. Taken together, these results provide evidence that UVR-induced ATR and ATM recruitment and activation differ in G1 and S phases due to the existence of distinct types of DNA lesions, which promote assembly of different proteins involved in the process of DNA repair and checkpoint activation. PMID:27442013

  20. Feedback and Modularity in Cell Cycle Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skotheim, Jan

    2009-03-01

    Underlying the wonderful diversity of natural forms is the ability of an organism to grow into its appropriate shape. Regulation ensures that cells grow, divide and differentiate so that the organism and its constitutive parts are properly proportioned and of suitable size. Although the size-control mechanism active in an individual cell is of fundamental importance to this process, it is difficult to isolate and study in complex multi-cellular systems and remains poorly understood. This motivates our use of the budding yeast model organism, whose Start checkpoint integrates multiple internal (e.g. cell size) and external signals into an irreversible decision to enter the cell cycle. We have endeavored to address the following two questions: What makes the Start transition irreversible? How does a cell compute its own size? I will report on the progress we have made. Our work is part of an emerging framework for understanding biological control circuits, which will allow us to discern the function of natural systems and aid us in engineering synthetic systems.

  1. Momilactone B induces apoptosis and G1 arrest of the cell cycle in human monocytic leukemia U937 cells through downregulation of pRB phosphorylation and induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21Waf1/Cip1.

    PubMed

    Park, Cheol; Jeong, Na Young; Kim, Gi-Young; Han, Min Ho; Chung, Ill-Min; Kim, Wun-Jae; Yoo, Young Hyun; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2014-04-01

    Momilactone B, a terpenoid phytoalexin present in rice bran, has been shown to exhibit several biological activities. The present study was conducted using cultured human leukemia U937 cells to elucidate the possible mechanisms by which momilactone B exerts its anticancer activity, which to date has remained poorly understood. Momilactone B treatment of U937 cells resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth and induced apoptotic cell death as detected by chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and Annexin V-FITC staining. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that momilactone B resulted in G1 arrest in cell cycle progression, which was associated with the dephosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (pRB) and enhanced binding of pRB with the E2F transcription factor family proteins. Treatment with momilactone B also increased the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p21Waf1/Cip1 in a p53-independent manner, without any noticeable changes in G1 cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), except a slight decrease in cyclin E. Moreover, in vitro kinase assay indicated that momilactone B significantly decreased Cdk4- and Cdk6-associated kinase activities through a notably increased binding of p21 to Cdk4 and Cdk6. Our results demonstrated that momilactone B caused G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in U937 cells through the induction of p21 expression, inhibition of Cdk/cyclin-associated kinase activities, and reduced phosphorylation of pRB, which may be related to anticancer activity. PMID:24503697

  2. Cellulose Synthesis Is Coupled to Cell Cycle Progression at G1 in the Dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Alvin C.M.; Wong, Joseph T.Y.

    2003-01-01

    Cellulosic deposition in alveolar vesicles forms the “internal cell wall” in thecated dinoflagellates. The availability of synchronized single cells, the lack of secondary deposition, and the absence of cellulosic cell plates at division facilitate investigation of the possible roles of cellulose synthesis (CS) in the entire cell cycle. Flow cytograms of cellulosic contents revealed a stepwise process of CS in the dinoflagellate cell cycle, with the highest rate occurring at G1. A cell cycle delay in G1, but not G2/M, was observed after inhibition of CS. A cell cycle inhibitor of G1/S, but not G2/M, was able to delay cell cycle progression with a corresponding reduction of CS. The increase of cellulose content in the cell cycle corresponded well to the expected increase of surface area. No differences were observed in the cellulose to surface area ratio between normal and fast-growing G1 cells, implicating the significance of surface area in linking CS to the coupling of cell growth with cell cycle progression. The coupling of CS to G1 implicates a novel link between CS and cell cycle control, and we postulate that the coupling mechanism might integrate cell wall integrity to the cell size checkpoint. PMID:12692327

  3. The multiple roles of cyclin E1 in controlling cell cycle progression and cellular morphology of Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Gourguechon, Stéphane; Savich, Jason M; Wang, Ching C

    2007-05-11

    Regulation of eukaryotic cell cycle progression requires sequential activation and inactivation of cyclin-dependent kinases. Previous RNA interference (RNAi) experiments in Trypanosoma brucei indicated that cyclin E1, cdc2-related kinase (CRK)1 and CRK2 are involved in regulating G1/S transition, whereas cyclin B2 and CRK3 play a pivotal role in controlling the G2/M checkpoint. To search for potential interactions between the other cyclins and CRKs that may not have been revealed by the RNAi assays, we used the yeast two-hybrid system and an in vitro glutathione-S-transferase pulldown assay and observed interactions between cyclin E1 and CRK1, CRK2 and CRK3. Cyclins E1-E4 are homologues of yeast Pho80 cyclin. But yeast complementation assays indicated that none of them possesses a Pho80-like function. Analysis of cyclin E1+CRK1 and cyclin E1+CRK2 double knockdowns in the procyclic form of T. brucei indicated that the cells were arrested more extensively in the G1 phase beyond the cumulative effect of individual knockdowns. But BrdU incorporation was impaired significantly only in cyclin E1+CRK1-depleted cells, whereas a higher percentage of cyclin E1+CRK2 knockdown cells assumed a grossly elongated posterior end morphology. A double knockdown of cyclin E1 and CRK3 arrested cells in G2/M much more efficiently than if only CRK3 was depleted. Taken together, these data suggest multiple functions of cyclin E1: it forms a complex with CRK1 in promoting G1/S phase transition; it forms a complex with CRK2 in controlling the posterior morphogenesis during G1/S transition; and it forms a complex with CRK3 in promoting passage across the G2/M checkpoint in the trypanosome. PMID:17376478

  4. THE MULTIPLE ROLES OF CYCLIN E1 IN CONTROLLING CELL CYCLE PROGRESSION AND CELLULAR MORPHOLOGY OF TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI

    PubMed Central

    Gourguechon, Stéphane; Savich, Jason M.; Wang, Ching C.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Regulation of eukaryotic cell cycle progression requires sequential activation and inactivation of cyclin-dependent kinases. Previous RNA interference (RNAi) experiments in Trypanosoma brucei indicated that cyclin E1, cdc2-related kinase (CRK)1 and CRK2 are involved in regulating G1/S transition, whereas cyclin B2 and CRK3 play a pivotal role in controlling the G2/M checkpoint. To search for potential interactions between the other cyclins and CRKs that may not have been revealed by the RNAi assays, we used the yeast two-hybrid system and an in vitro GST pulldown assay and observed interactions between cyclin E1 and CRK1, CRK2 and CRK3. Cyclins E1-E4 are homologues of yeast Pho80 cyclin. But yeast complementation assays indicated that none of them possesses a Pho80-like function. Analysis of cyclin E1+CRK1 and cyclin E1+CRK2 double knockdowns in the procyclic form of T. brucei indicated that the cells were arrested more extensively in the G1 phase beyond the cumulative effect of individual knockdowns. But BrdU incorporation was significantly impaired only in cyclin E1+CRK1 depleted cells, whereas a higher percentage of cyclin E1+CRK2 knockdown cells assumed a grossly elongated posterior end morphology. A double knockdown of cyclin E1 and CRK3 arrested cells in G2/M much more efficiently than if CRK3 was depleted alone. Taken together, these data suggest multiple functions of cyclin E1. It forms a complex with CRK1 in promoting G1/S phase transition, with CRK2 in controlling the posterior morphogenesis during G1/S transition and with CRK3 in promoting passage across the G2/M checkpoint in the trypanosome. PMID:17376478

  5. Connexin arrests the cell cycle through cytosolic retention of an E3 ligase.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qian; Jiang, Jean X

    2016-03-01

    The gap junction proteins connexins play important roles in cell growth and differentiation; however, the underlying mechanism remains largely elusive. We recently identified a channel-independent role of connexins in cell cycle control in which connexin 50 directly interacts with S-phase kinase 2 and prevents its nuclear localization, resulting in p27/p57 protection and cell cycle arrest. PMID:27308638

  6. The cell cycle and pluripotency.

    PubMed

    Hindley, Christopher; Philpott, Anna

    2013-04-15

    PSCs (pluripotent stem cells) possess two key properties that have made them the focus of global research efforts in regenerative medicine: they have unlimited expansion potential under conditions which favour their preservation as PSCs and they have the ability to generate all somatic cell types upon differentiation (pluripotency). Conditions have been defined in vitro in which pluripotency is maintained, or else differentiation is favoured and is directed towards specific somatic cell types. However, an unanswered question is whether or not the core cell cycle machinery directly regulates the pluripotency and differentiation properties of PSCs. If so, then manipulation of the cell cycle may represent an additional tool by which in vitro maintenance or differentiation of PSCs may be controlled in regenerative medicine. The present review aims to summarize our current understanding of links between the core cell cycle machinery and the maintenance of pluripotency in ESCs (embryonic stem cells) and iPSCs (induced PSCs). PMID:23535166

  7. Coordination of DNA damage tolerance mechanisms with cell cycle progression in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Callegari, A. John; Kelly, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT DNA damage tolerance (DDT) mechanisms allow cells to synthesize a new DNA strand when the template is damaged. Many mutations resulting from DNA damage in eukaryotes are generated during DDT when cells use the mutagenic translesion polymerases, Rev1 and Polζ, rather than mechanisms with higher fidelity. The coordination among DDT mechanisms is not well understood. We used live-cell imaging to study the function of DDT mechanisms throughout the cell cycle of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We report that checkpoint-dependent mitotic delay provides a cellular mechanism to ensure the completion of high fidelity DDT, largely by homology-directed repair (HDR). DDT by mutagenic polymerases is suppressed during the checkpoint delay by a mechanism dependent on Rad51 recombinase. When cells pass the G2/M checkpoint and can no longer delay mitosis, they completely lose the capacity for HDR and simultaneously exhibit a requirement for Rev1 and Polζ. Thus, DDT is coordinated with the checkpoint response so that the activity of mutagenic polymerases is confined to a vulnerable period of the cell cycle when checkpoint delay and HDR are not possible. PMID:26652183

  8. Cell cycle regulators and their abnormalities in breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, P L; Jares, P; Rey, M J; Campo, E; Cardesa, A

    1998-01-01

    One of the main properties of cancer cells is their increased and deregulated proliferative activity. It is now well known that abnormalities in many positive and negative modulators of the cell cycle are frequent in many cancer types, including breast carcinomas. Abnormalities such as defective function of the retinoblastoma gene and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (for example, p16, p21, and p27), as well as upregulation of cyclins, are often seen in breast tumours. These abnormalities are sometimes coincidental, and newly described interplays between them suggest the existence of a complex regulatory web in the cell cycle. PMID:10193510

  9. Arginine starvation in colorectal carcinoma cells: Sensing, impact on translation control and cell cycle distribution.

    PubMed

    Vynnytska-Myronovska, Bozhena O; Kurlishchuk, Yuliya; Chen, Oleh; Bobak, Yaroslav; Dittfeld, Claudia; Hüther, Melanie; Kunz-Schughart, Leoni A; Stasyk, Oleh V

    2016-02-01

    Tumor cells rely on a continued exogenous nutrient supply in order to maintain a high proliferative activity. Although a strong dependence of some tumor types on exogenous arginine sources has been reported, the mechanisms of arginine sensing by tumor cells and the impact of changes in arginine availability on translation and cell cycle regulation are not fully understood. The results presented herein state that human colorectal carcinoma cells rapidly exhaust the internal arginine sources in the absence of exogenous arginine and repress global translation by activation of the GCN2-mediated pathway and inhibition of mTOR signaling. Tumor suppressor protein p53 activation and G1/G0 cell cycle arrest support cell survival upon prolonged arginine starvation. Cells with the mutant or deleted TP53 fail to stop cell cycle progression at defined cell cycle checkpoints which appears to be associated with reduced recovery after durable metabolic stress triggered by arginine withdrawal. PMID:26751966

  10. Perspectives on the DNA damage and replication checkpoint responses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Putnam, Christopher D.; Jaehnig, Eric J.; Kolodner, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    The DNA damage and replication checkpoints are believed to primarily slow the progression of the cell cycle to allow DNA repair to occur. Here we summarize known aspects of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae checkpoints including how these responses are integrated into downstream effects on the cell cycle, chromatin, DNA repair, and cytoplasmic targets. Analysis of the transcriptional response demonstrates that it is far more complex and less relevant to the repair of DNA damage than the bacterial SOS response. We also address more speculative questions regarding potential roles of the checkpoint during the normal S-phase and how current evidence hints at a checkpoint activation mechanism mediated by positive feedback that amplifies initial damage signals above a minimium threshold. PMID:19477695

  11. Small-molecule survivin inhibitor YM155 enhances radiosensitization in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by the abrogation of G2 checkpoint and suppression of homologous recombination repair

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Survivin is overexpressed in cancer cells and plays a crucial role in apoptosis evasion. YM155, a small-molecule inhibitor of survivin, could enhance the cytotoxicity of various DNA-damaging agents. Here, we evaluated the radiosensitizaion potential of YM155 in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methods Cell viability was determined by CCK8 assay. The radiosensitization effect of YM155 was evaluated by clonogenic survival and progression of tumor xenograft. Cell cycle progression was determined by flow cytometric analysis. Radiation-induced DNA double strand break (DSB) and homologous recombination repair (HRR) were detected by the staining of γ-H2AX and RAD51, respectively. Expression of survivin and cell cycle regulators was detected by Western blot analysis. Results YM155 induced radiosensitization in ESCC cell lines Eca109 and TE13, associated with the abrogation of radiation induced G2/M checkpoint, impaired Rad51 focus formation, and the prolongation of γ-H2AX signaling. G2/M transition markers, including the activation of cyclinB1/Cdc2 kinase and the suppression of Cdc2 Thr14/Tyr15 phosphorylation were induced by YM155 in irradiated cells. The combination of YM155 plus irradiation delayed the growth of ESCC tumor xenografts to a greater extent compared with either treatment modality alone. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the abrogation of G2 checkpoint and the inhibition of HRR contribute to radiosensitization by YM155 in ESCC cells. PMID:25139395

  12. The Cell Cycle Switch Computes Approximate Majority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardelli, Luca; Csikász-Nagy, Attila

    2012-09-01

    Both computational and biological systems have to make decisions about switching from one state to another. The `Approximate Majority' computational algorithm provides the asymptotically fastest way to reach a common decision by all members of a population between two possible outcomes, where the decision approximately matches the initial relative majority. The network that regulates the mitotic entry of the cell-cycle in eukaryotes also makes a decision before it induces early mitotic processes. Here we show that the switch from inactive to active forms of the mitosis promoting Cyclin Dependent Kinases is driven by a system that is related to both the structure and the dynamics of the Approximate Majority computation. We investigate the behavior of these two switches by deterministic, stochastic and probabilistic methods and show that the steady states and temporal dynamics of the two systems are similar and they are exchangeable as components of oscillatory networks.

  13. Autoradiography and the Cell Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, C. Weldon

    1992-01-01

    Outlines the stages of a cell biology "pulse-chase" experiment in which the students apply autoradiography techniques to learn about the concept of the cell cycle. Includes (1) seed germination and plant growth; (2) radioactive labeling and fixation of root tips; (3) feulgen staining of root tips; (4) preparation of autoradiograms; and (5)…

  14. Infection of primary cells by adeno-associated virus type 2 results in a modulation of cell cycle-regulating proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Hermanns, J; Schulze, A; Jansen-Db1urr, P; Kleinschmidt, J A; Schmidt, R; zur Hausen, H

    1997-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that infection of primary human cells with adeno-associated viruses (AAV) leads to a decrease in cellular proliferation and to growth arrest. We analyzed the molecular basis of this phenomenon and observed that infection with AAV type 2 (AAV2) had an effect on several factors engaged in the control of the mammalian cell cycle. In particular, all of the pRB family members, pRB, p107, and p130, which are involved in G1 cell cycle checkpoint control, were affected. After infection, a shift from hyper- to hypophosphorylated forms was observed. Cyclins A and B1, which are required for G1/S transition and progression into mitosis, respectively, were downregulated at the transcriptional level as well as at the protein level, whereas the G1 cyclins D1 and E remained unaffected. In addition, the steady-state levels of cyclin-dependent kinases CDK1 and CDK2 and of transcription factor E2F-1 were diminished. Of all the factors known to be involved in phosphorylation of pRB family proteins, only the CDK inhibitor p21WAF1 exhibited a response to AAV2 infection. p21WAF1 mRNA was quickly and progressively upregulated in a p53-independent manner over at least 72 h. Consistent with the increased p21WAF1 protein levels, cyclin E- and cyclin A-dependent kinase activities declined to low levels and E2F-p130-cyclin-CDK2 complexes were disrupted. From these data, we conclude that the major effect of AAV2 infection on primary human fibroblasts appears to be upregulation of p21WAF1 gene expression and thus cell cycle arrest by the suppression of pRB family protein phosphorylation. PMID:9223493

  15. Cell cycle sibling rivalry: Cdc2 vs. Cdk2.

    PubMed

    Kaldis, Philipp; Aleem, Eiman

    2005-11-01

    It has been long believed that the cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) binds to cyclin E or cyclin A and exclusively promotes the G1/S phase transition and that Cdc2/cyclin B complexes play a major role in mitosis. We now provide evidence that Cdc2 binds to cyclin E (in addition to cyclin A and B) and is able to promote the G1/S transition. This new concept indicates that both Cdk2 and/or Cdc2 can drive cells through G1/S phase in parallel. In this review we discuss the classic cell cycle model and how results from knockout mice provide new evidence that refute this model. We focus on the roles of Cdc2 and p27 in regulating the mammalian cell cycle and propose a new model for cell cycle regulation that accommodates these novel findings. PMID:16258277

  16. Colocalization of Sensors Is Sufficient to Activate the DNA Damage Checkpoint in the Absence of Damage

    PubMed Central

    Bonilla, Carla Yaneth; Melo, Justine Amy

    2010-01-01

    Summary Previous work on the DNA damage checkpoint in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has shown that two complexes independently sense DNA lesions: the kinase Mec1-Ddc2 and the PCNA-like 9-1-1 complex. To test whether colocalization of these components is sufficient for checkpoint activation, we fused these checkpoint proteins to the LacI repressor and artificially colocalized these fusions by expressing them in cells harboring Lac operator arrays. We observed Rad53 and Rad9 phosphorylation, Sml1 degradation, and metaphase delay, demonstrating that colocalization of these sensors is sufficient to activate the checkpoint in the absence of DNA damage. Our tethering system allowed us to establish that CDK functions in the checkpoint pathway downstream of damage processing and checkpoint protein recruitment. This CDK dependence is likely, at least in part, through Rad9, since mutation of CDK consensus sites compromised its checkpoint function. PMID:18471973

  17. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Quinone Metabolite Promotes p53-Dependent DNA Damage Checkpoint Activation, S-Phase Cycle Arrest and Extrinsic Apoptosis in Human Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiufang; Li, Lingrui; Shi, Qiong; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Fu, Juanli; Su, Chuanyang; Xia, Xiaomin; Song, Erqun; Song, Yang

    2015-11-16

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of persistent organic pollutants. The toxic behavior and mechanism of PCBs individuals and congeners have been extensively investigated. However, there is only limited information on their metabolites. Our previous studies have shown that a synthetic PCB metabolite, PCB29-pQ, causes oxidative damage with the evidence of cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and mitochondrial-derived intrinsic apoptosis. Here, we investigate the effects of PCB29-pQ on DNA damage checkpoint activation, cell cycle arrest, and death receptor-related extrinsic apoptosis in human liver hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Our results illustrate that PCB29-pQ increases the S-phase cell population by down-regulating cyclins A/D1/E, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK 2/4/6), and cell division cycle 25A (CDC25A) and up-regulating p21/p27 protein expressions. PCB29-pQ also induces apoptosis via the up-regulation of Fas/FasL and the activation of caspase 8/3. Moreover, p53 plays a pivotal role in PCB29-pQ-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via the activation of ATM/Chk2 and ATR/Chk1 checkpoints. Cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death were attenuated by the pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC). Taken together, these results demonstrate that PCB29-pQ induces oxidative stress and promotes p53-dependent DNA damage checkpoint activation, S-phase cycle arrest, and extrinsic apoptosis in HepG2 cells. PMID:26451628

  18. mus304 encodes a novel DNA damage checkpoint protein required during Drosophila development

    PubMed Central

    Brodsky, Michael H.; Sekelsky, Jeff J.; Tsang, Garson; Hawley, R. Scott; Rubin, Gerald M.

    2000-01-01

    Checkpoints block cell cycle progression in eukaryotic cells exposed to DNA damaging agents. We show that several Drosophila homologs of checkpoint genes, mei-41, grapes, and 14-3-3ε, regulate a DNA damage checkpoint in the developing eye. We have used this assay to show that the mutagen-sensitive gene mus304 is also required for this checkpoint. mus304 encodes a novel coiled-coil domain protein, which is targeted to the cytoplasm. Similar to mei-41, mus304 is required for chromosome break repair and for genomic stability. mus304 animals also exhibit three developmental defects, abnormal bristle morphology, decreased meiotic recombination, and arrested embryonic development. We suggest that these phenotypes reflect distinct developmental consequences of a single underlying checkpoint defect. Similar mechanisms may account for the puzzling array of symptoms observed in humans with mutations in the ATM tumor suppressor gene. PMID:10733527

  19. Selective killing of G2 decatenation checkpoint defective colon cancer cells by catalytic topoisomerase II inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Jain, Chetan Kumar; Roychoudhury, Susanta; Majumder, Hemanta Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Cancer cells with defective DNA decatenation checkpoint can be selectively targeted by the catalytic inhibitors of DNA topoisomerase IIα (topo IIα) enzyme. Upon treatment with catalytic topo IIα inhibitors, cells with defective decatenation checkpoint fail to arrest their cell cycle in G2 phase and enter into M phase with catenated and under-condensed chromosomes resulting into impaired mitosis and eventually cell death. In the present work we analyzed decatenation checkpoint in five different colon cancer cell lines (HCT116, HT-29, Caco2, COLO 205 and SW480) and in one non-cancerous cell line (HEK293T). Four out of the five colon cancer cell lines i.e. HCT116, HT-29, Caco2, and COLO 205 were found to be compromised for the decatenation checkpoint function at different extents, whereas SW480 and HEK293T cell lines were found to be proficient for the checkpoint function. Upon treatment with ICRF193, decatenation checkpoint defective cell lines failed to arrest the cell cycle in G2 phase and entered into M phase without proper chromosomal decatenation, resulting into the formation of tangled mass of catenated and under-condensed chromosomes. Such cells underwent mitotic catastrophe and rapid apoptosis like cell death and showed higher sensitivity for ICRF193. Our study suggests that catalytic inhibitors of topoisomerase IIα are promising therapeutic agents for the treatment of colon cancers with defective DNA decatenation checkpoint. PMID:25746763

  20. Unconventional Functions of Mitotic Kinases in Kidney Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hascoet, Pauline; Chesnel, Franck; Le Goff, Cathy; Le Goff, Xavier; Arlot-Bonnemains, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    Human tumors exhibit a variety of genetic alterations, including point mutations, translocations, gene amplifications and deletions, as well as aneuploid chromosome numbers. For carcinomas, aneuploidy is associated with poor patient outcome for a large variety of tumor types, including breast, colon, and renal cell carcinoma. The Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a heterogeneous carcinoma consisting of different histologic types. The clear renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common subtype and represents 85% of the RCC. Central to the biology of the ccRCC is the loss of function of the Von Hippel–Lindau gene, but is also associated with genetic instability that could be caused by abrogation of the cell cycle mitotic spindle checkpoint and may involve the Aurora kinases, which regulate centrosome maturation. Aneuploidy can also result from the loss of cell–cell adhesion and apical–basal cell polarity that also may be regulated by the mitotic kinases (polo-like kinase 1, casein kinase 2, doublecortin-like kinase 1, and Aurora kinases). In this review, we describe the “non-mitotic” unconventional functions of these kinases in renal tumorigenesis. PMID:26579493

  1. [p53 activation by PI-3K family kinases after DNA double-strand breaks].

    PubMed

    Pernin, D; Uhrhammer, N; Verrelle, P; Bignon, Y J; Bay, J O

    2000-09-01

    p53 plays a central role in the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), and to DNA damage in general. The protein kinases ATM, ATR and DNA-PK detect DSBs and transmit this information to p53 by phosphorylation. This phosphorylation dissociates p53 from its negative regulator, mdm2. p53 then undergoes further modification and activates transcription of the genes responsible for cell cycle arrest. In certain circumstances, p53 also activates transcription of the genes responsible for apoptosis. The dysfunction of this cascade of events is oncogenic, with P53 itself being the most commonly mutated gene in malignant cells, although mutations in both the DNA damage sensors and cell cycle checkpoint and apoptosis effectors are frequent. A more complete understanding of p53 and the proteins it interacts with may allow the development of new cancer treatments. PMID:11038413

  2. Validation of the cell cycle G2 delay assay in assessing ionizing radiation sensitivity and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jeff W; Tansavatdi, Kristina; Lockett, Kristin L; Allen, Glenn O; Takita, Cristiane; Pollack, Alan; Hu, Jennifer J

    2009-01-01

    Genetic variations in cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair genes are associated with prolonged cell cycle G2 delay following ionizing radiation (IR) treatment and breast cancer risk. However, different studies reported conflicting results examining the association between post-IR cell cycle delay and breast cancer risk utilizing four different parameters: cell cycle G2 delay index, %G2–M, G2/G0–G1, and (G2/G0–G1)/S. Therefore, we evaluated whether different parameters may influence study results using a data set from 118 breast cancer cases and 225 controls as well as lymphoblastoid and breast cancer cell lines with different genetic defects. Our results suggest that cell cycle G2 delay index may serve as the best parameter in assessing breast cancer risk, genetic regulation of IR-sensitivity, and mutations of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and TP53. Cell cycle delay in 21 lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from BRCA1 mutation carriers was not different from that in controls. We also showed that IR-induced DNA-damage signaling, as measured by phosphorylation of H2AX on serine 139 (γ-H2AX) was inversely associated with cell cycle G2 delay index. In summary, the cellular responses to IR are extremely complex; mutations or genetic variations in DNA damage signaling, cell cycle checkpoints, and DNA repair contribute to cell cycle G2 delay and breast cancer risk. The cell cycle G2 delay assay characterized in this study may help identify subpopulations with elevated risk of breast cancer or susceptibility to adverse effects in normal tissue following radiotherapy. PMID:21188122

  3. A Wee1 checkpoint inhibits anaphase onset

    PubMed Central

    Lianga, Noel; Williams, Elizabeth C.; Kennedy, Erin K.; Doré, Carole; Pilon, Sophie; Girard, Stéphanie L.; Deneault, Jean-Sebastien

    2013-01-01

    Cdk1 drives both mitotic entry and the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. Past work has shown that Wee1 inhibition of Cdk1 blocks mitotic entry. Here we show that the budding yeast Wee1 kinase, Swe1, also restrains the metaphase-to-anaphase transition by preventing Cdk1 phosphorylation and activation of the mitotic form of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APCCdc20). Deletion of SWE1 or its opposing phosphatase MIH1 (the budding yeast cdc25+) altered the timing of anaphase onset, and activation of the Swe1-dependent morphogenesis checkpoint or overexpression of Swe1 blocked cells in metaphase with reduced APC activity in vivo and in vitro. The morphogenesis checkpoint also depended on Cdc55, a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). cdc55Δ checkpoint defects were rescued by mutating 12 Cdk1 phosphorylation sites on the APC, demonstrating that the APC is a target of this checkpoint. These data suggest a model in which stepwise activation of Cdk1 and inhibition of PP2ACdc55 triggers anaphase onset. PMID:23751495

  4. Regulation of steroid hormone receptors and coregulators during the cell cycle highlights potential novel function in addition to roles as transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yingfeng; Murphy, Leigh C.

    2016-01-01

    Cell cycle progression is tightly controlled by several kinase families including Cyclin-Dependent Kinases, Polo-Like Kinases, and Aurora Kinases. A large amount of data show that steroid hormone receptors and various components of the cell cycle, including cell cycle regulated kinases, interact, and this often results in altered transcriptional activity of the receptor. Furthermore, steroid hormones, through their receptors, can also regulate the transcriptional expression of genes that are required for cell cycle regulation. However, emerging data suggest that steroid hormone receptors may have roles in cell cycle progression independent of their transcriptional activity. The following is a review of how steroid receptors and their coregulators can regulate or be regulated by the cell cycle machinery, with a particular focus on roles independent of transcription in G2/M. PMID:26778927

  5. Targeting the DNA replication checkpoint by pharmacologic inhibition of Chk1 kinase: a strategy to sensitize APC mutant colon cancer cells to 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Martino-Echarri, Estefania

    2014-01-01

    5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is the first line component used in colorectal cancer (CRC) therapy however even in combination with other chemotherapeutic drugs recurrence is common. Mutations of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene are considered as the initiating step of transformation in familial and sporadic CRCs. We have previously shown that APC regulates the cellular response to DNA replication stress and recently hypothesized that APC mutations might therefore influence 5-FU resistance. To test this, we compared CRC cell lines and show that those expressing truncated APC exhibit a limited response to 5-FU and arrest in G1/S-phase without undergoing lethal damage, unlike cells expressing wild-type APC. In SW480 APC-mutant CRC cells, 5-FU-dependent apoptosis was restored after transient expression of full length APC, indicating a direct link between APC and drug response. Furthermore, we could increase sensitivity of APC truncated cells to 5-FU by inactivating the Chk1 kinase using drug treatment or siRNA-mediated knockdown. Our findings identify mutant APC as a potential tumor biomarker of resistance to 5-FU, and importantly we show that APC-mutant CRC cells can be made more sensitive to 5-FU by use of Chk1 inhibitors. PMID:25301724

  6. Temperature and the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Francis, D; Barlow, P W

    1988-01-01

    During the period between successive divisions, a cell traverses three stages of interphase: G1 (pre-synthetic interphase), S-phase (DNA synthetic interphase) and G2 (post-synthetic interphase). The time taken for all cells in a meristem to divide (the cell doubling time (cdt] decreases in response to an increase in temperature. For example, the cdt in root meristems of Zea mays decreases 21-fold as the temperature is increased from 3 to 25 degrees C. Whether all phases of the cell cycle alter proportionately with temperature has been ascertained by comparing data from the root meristem of five species: Pisum sativum, Helianthus annuus, Tradescantia paludosa, Allium cepa and Triticum aestivum. In three of the five species there is a disproportionate lengthening of the G1 phase at low temperatures. We suggest that arrest in G1 with the associated 2C amount of DNA, confers maximal protection on the genome of a somatic cell to the stress of low temperature. DNA replication has been studied at different temperatures for Helianthus annuus, Secale cereal and Oryza sativa. The rate of DNA replication, per single replication fork, increases when the temperature is raised, while the distance between initiation points (replicon size) remains constant. The temperature at which the cell cycle has a minimum duration is close to 30 degrees C in many species, and it seems that this optimum temperature is always near the upper temperature limit of the cell cycle. The rate of cell division determines the rates of organ and cell growth. Thus, temperature has a major effect on the way in which meristematic cells are deployed in organogenesis. The rate of organogenesis, in turn, determines the response of the plant to the growing season. We predict that species growing in sub-arctic conditions comprise cells with low DNA contents and hence have the potentialities for rapid cell cycles so that maximum advantage can be taken of a short growing season. Data from Triticum aestivum show

  7. Artemisinin triggers a G1 cell cycle arrest of human Ishikawa endometrial cancer cells and inhibits Cyclin Dependent Kinase-4 promoter activity and expression by disrupting NF-kB transcriptional signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Kalvin Q.; Tin, Antony S.; Firestone, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the anti-proliferative effects of Artemisinin, a naturally occurring anti-malarial compound from Artemisia annua, or sweet wormwood, in human endometrial cancer cells. Artemisinin induced a G1 cell cycle arrest in cultured human Ishikawa endometrial cancer cells and down regulated CDK2 and CDK4 transcript and protein levels. Analysis of CDK4 promoter-luciferase reporter constructs showed that the artemisinin ablation of CDK4 gene expression was accounted for by the loss of CDK4 promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that artemisinin inhibited nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) subunit p65 and p50 interactions with the endogenous Ishikawa cell CDK4 promoter. Coimmunoprecipitation revealed that artemisinin disrupts endogenous p65 and p50 nuclear translocation via increased protein-protein interactions with IκB-α, an NF-κB inhibitor, and disrupts its interaction with the CDK4 promoter, leading to a loss of CDK4 gene expression. Artemisinin treatment stimulated the cellular levels of IκB-α protein without altering the level of IκB-α transcripts. Finally, expression of exogenous p65 resulted in the accumulation of this NF-κB subunit in the nucleus of artemisinin treated and untreated cells, reversed the artemisinin down-regulation of CDK4 protein expression and promoter activity and prevented the artemisinin induced G1 cell cycle arrest. Taken together, our results demonstrate that a key event in the artemisinin anti-proliferative effects in endometrial cancer cells is the transcriptional down-regulation of CDK4 expression by disruption of NF-κB interactions with the CDK4 promoter. PMID:24296733

  8. Artemisinin blocks prostate cancer growth and cell cycle progression by disrupting Sp1 interactions with the cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (CDK4) promoter and inhibiting CDK4 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Jamin A; Sundar, Shyam N; Cheung, Mark; Tin, Antony S; Modiano, Jaime; Firestone, Gary L

    2009-01-23

    Artemisinin, a naturally occurring component of Artemisia annua, or sweet wormwood, is a potent anti-malaria compound that has recently been shown to have anti-proliferative effects on a number of human cancer cell types, although little is know about the molecular mechanisms of this response. We have observed that artemisinin treatment triggers a stringent G1 cell cycle arrest of LNCaP (lymph node carcinoma of the prostate) human prostate cancer cells that is accompanied by a rapid down-regulation of CDK2 and CDK4 protein and transcript levels. Transient transfection with promoter-linked luciferase reporter plasmids revealed that artemisinin strongly inhibits CDK2 and CDK4 promoter activity. Deletion analysis of the CDK4 promoter revealed a 231-bp artemisinin-responsive region between -1737 and -1506. Site-specific mutations revealed that the Sp1 site at -1531 was necessary for artemisinin responsiveness in the context of the CDK4 promoter. DNA binding assays as well as chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that this Sp1-binding site in the CDK4 promoter forms a specific artemisinin-responsive DNA-protein complex that contains the Sp1 transcription factor. Artemisinin reduced phosphorylation of Sp1, and when dephosphorylation of Sp1 was inhibited by treatment of cells with the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid, the ability of artemisinin to down-regulate Sp1 interactions with the CDK4 promoter was ablated, rendering the CDK4 promoter unresponsive to artemisinin. Finally, overexpression of Sp1 mostly reversed the artemisinin down-regulation of CDK4 promoter activity and partially reversed the cell cycle arrest. Taken together, our results demonstrate that a key event in the artemisinin anti-proliferative effects in prostate cancer cells is the transcriptional down-regulation of CDK4 expression by disruption of Sp1 interactions with the CDK4 promoter. PMID:19017637

  9. Phase I dose-escalation study of AZD7762, a checkpoint kinase inhibitor, in combination with gemcitabine in US patients with advanced solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sausville, Edward; LoRusso, Patricia; Carducci, Michael; Carter, Judith; Quinn, Mary F.; Malburg, Lisa; Azad, Nilofer; Cosgrove, David; Knight, Richard; Barker, Peter; Zabludoff, Sonya; Agbo, Felix; Oakes, Patricia; Senderowicz, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose AZD7762 is a Chk1 kinase inhibitor which increases sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents, including gemcitabine. We evaluated the safety of AZD7762 monotherapy and with gemcitabine in advanced solid tumor patients. Experimental design In this Phase I study, patients received intravenous AZD7762 on days 1 and 8 of a 14-day run-in cycle (cycle 0; AZD7762 monotherapy), followed by AZD7762 plus gemcitabine 750–1,000 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8, every 21 days, in ascending AZD7762 doses (cycle 1; combination therapy). Results Forty-two patients received AZD7762 6 mg (n = 9), 9 mg (n = 3), 14 mg (n = 6), 21 mg (n= 3), 30 mg (n = 7), 32 mg (n = 6), and 40 mg (n = 8), in combination with gemcitabine. Common adverse events (AEs) were fatigue [41 % (17/42) patients], neutropenia/leukopenia [36 % (15/42) patients], anemia/Hb decrease [29 % (12/42) patients] and nausea, pyrexia and alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase increase [26 % (11/42) patients each]. Grade ≥3 AEs occurred in 19 and 52 % of patients in cycles 0 and 1, respectively. Cardiac dose-limiting toxicities occurred in two patients (both AZD7762 monotherapy): grade 3 troponin I increase (32 mg) and grade 3 myocardial ischemia with chest pain, electrocardiogram changes, decreased left ventricular ejection fraction, and increased troponin I (40 mg). AZD7762 exposure increased linearly. Gemcitabine did not affect AZD7762 pharmacokinetics. Two non-small-cell lung cancer patients achieved partial tumor responses (AZD7762 6 mg/gemcitabine 750 mg/m2 and AZD7762 9 mg cohort). Conclusions The maximum-tolerated dose of AZD7762 in combination with gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m2 was 30 mg. Although development of AZD7762 is not going forward owing to unpredictable cardiac toxicity, Chk1 remains an important therapeutic target. PMID:24448638

  10. Chemical dissection of the cell cycle: probes for cell biology and anti-cancer drug development

    PubMed Central

    Senese, S; Lo, Y C; Huang, D; Zangle, T A; Gholkar, A A; Robert, L; Homet, B; Ribas, A; Summers, M K; Teitell, M A; Damoiseaux, R; Torres, J Z

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cell proliferation relies on the ability of cancer cells to grow, transition through the cell cycle, and divide. To identify novel chemical probes for dissecting the mechanisms governing cell cycle progression and cell division, and for developing new anti-cancer therapeutics, we developed and performed a novel cancer cell-based high-throughput chemical screen for cell cycle modulators. This approach identified novel G1, S, G2, and M-phase specific inhibitors with drug-like properties and diverse chemotypes likely targeting a broad array of processes. We further characterized the M-phase inhibitors and highlight the most potent M-phase inhibitor MI-181, which targets tubulin, inhibits tubulin polymerization, activates the spindle assembly checkpoint, arrests cells in mitosis, and triggers a fast apoptotic cell death. Importantly, MI-181 has broad anti-cancer activity, especially against BRAFV600E melanomas. PMID:25321469

  11. Programmed cell cycle arrest is required for infection of corn plants by the fungus Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Castanheira, Sónia; Mielnichuk, Natalia; Pérez-Martín, José

    2014-12-01

    Ustilago maydis is a plant pathogen that requires a specific structure called infective filament to penetrate the plant tissue. Although able to grow, this filament is cell cycle arrested on the plant surface. This cell cycle arrest is released once the filament penetrates the plant tissue. The reasons and mechanisms for this cell cycle arrest are unknown. Here, we have tried to address these questions. We reached three conclusions from our studies. First, the observed cell cycle arrest is the result of the cooperation of at least two distinct mechanisms: one involving the activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) cascade; and the other relying on the transcriptional downregulation of Hsl1, a kinase that modulates the G2/M transition. Second, a sustained cell cycle arrest during the infective filament step is necessary for the virulence in U. maydis, as a strain unable to arrest the cell cycle was severely impaired in its ability to infect corn plants. Third, production of the appressorium, a structure required for plant penetration, is incompatible with an active cell cycle. The inability to infect plants by strains defective in cell cycle arrest seems to be caused by their failure to induce the appressorium formation process. In summary, our findings uncover genetic circuits to arrest the cell cycle during the growth of this fungus on the plant surface, thus allowing the penetration into plant tissue. PMID:25411209

  12. Nek9 regulates spindle organization and cell cycle progression during mouse oocyte meiosis and its location in early embryo mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shang-Wu; Gao, Chen; Chen, Lei; Song, Ya-Li; Zhu, Jin-Liang; Qi, Shu-Tao; Jiang, Zong-Zhe; Wang, Zhong-Wei; Lin, Fei; Huang, Hao; Xing, Fu-Qi; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Nek9 (also known as Nercc1), a member of the NIMA (never in mitosis A) family of protein kinases, regulates spindle formation, chromosome alignment and segregation in mitosis. Here, we showed that Nek9 protein was expressed from germinal vesicle (GV) to metaphase II (MII) stages in mouse oocytes with no detectable changes. Confocal microscopy identified that Nek9 was localized to the spindle poles at the metaphase stages and associated with the midbody at anaphase or telophase stage in both meiotic oocytes and the first mitotic embyros. Depletion of Nek9 by specific morpholino injection resulted in severely defective spindles and misaligned chromosomes with significant pro-MI/MI arrest and failure of first polar body (PB1) extrusion. Knockdown of Nek9 also impaired the spindle-pole localization of γ-tubulin and resulted in retention of the spindle assembly checkpoint protein Bub3 at the kinetochores even after 10 h of culture. Live-cell imaging analysis also confirmed that knockdown of Nek9 resulted in oocyte arrest at the pro-MI/MI stage with abnormal spindles, misaligned chromosomes and failed polar body emission. Taken together, our results suggest that Nek9 may act as a MTOC-associated protein regulating microtubule nucleation, spindle organization and, thus, cell cycle progression during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation, fertilization and early embryo cleavage. PMID:23159858

  13. The Deadbeat Paternal Effect of Uncapped Sperm Telomeres on Cell Cycle Progression and Chromosome Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Yamaki, Takuo; Yasuda, Glenn K; Wakimoto, Barbara T

    2016-06-01

    Telomere-capping complexes (TCCs) protect the ends of linear chromosomes from illegitimate repair and end-to-end fusions and are required for genome stability. The identity and assembly of TCC components have been extensively studied, but whether TCCs require active maintenance in nondividing cells remains an open question. Here we show that Drosophila melanogaster requires Deadbeat (Ddbt), a sperm nuclear basic protein (SNBP) that is recruited to the telomere by the TCC and is required for TCC maintenance during genome-wide chromatin remodeling, which transforms spermatids to mature sperm. Ddbt-deficient males produce sperm lacking TCCs. Their offspring delay the initiation of anaphase as early as cycle 1 but progress through the first two cycles. Persistence of uncapped paternal chromosomes induces arrest at or around cycle 3. This early arrest can be rescued by selective elimination of paternal chromosomes and production of gynogenetic haploid or haploid mosaics. Progression past cycle 3 can also occur if embryos have reduced levels of the maternally provided checkpoint kinase Chk2. The findings provide insights into how telomere integrity affects the regulation of the earliest embryonic cell cycles. They also suggest that other SNBPs, including those in humans, may have analogous roles and manifest as paternal effects on embryo quality. PMID:27029731

  14. Use of a small molecule cell cycle inhibitor to control cell growth and improve specific productivity and product quality of recombinant proteins in CHO cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhimei; Treiber, David; McCarter, John D; Fomina-Yadlin, Dina; Saleem, Ramsey A; McCoy, Rebecca E; Zhang, Yuling; Tharmalingam, Tharmala; Leith, Matthew; Follstad, Brian D; Dell, Brad; Grisim, Brent; Zupke, Craig; Heath, Carole; Morris, Arvia E; Reddy, Pranhitha

    2015-01-01

    The continued need to improve therapeutic recombinant protein productivity has led to ongoing assessment of appropriate strategies in the biopharmaceutical industry to establish robust processes with optimized critical variables, that is, viable cell density (VCD) and specific productivity (product per cell, qP). Even though high VCD is a positive factor for titer, uncontrolled proliferation beyond a certain cell mass is also undesirable. To enable efficient process development to achieve consistent and predictable growth arrest while maintaining VCD, as well as improving qP, without negative impacts on product quality from clone to clone, we identified an approach that directly targets the cell cycle G1-checkpoint by selectively inhibiting the function of cyclin dependent kinases (CDK) 4/6 with a small molecule compound. Results from studies on multiple recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines demonstrate that the selective inhibitor can mediate a complete and sustained G0/G1 arrest without impacting G2/M phase. Cell proliferation is consistently and rapidly controlled in all recombinant cell lines at one concentration of this inhibitor throughout the production processes with specific productivities increased up to 110 pg/cell/day. Additionally, the product quality attributes of the mAb, with regard to high molecular weight (HMW) and glycan profile, are not negatively impacted. In fact, high mannose is decreased after treatment, which is in contrast to other established growth control methods such as reducing culture temperature. Microarray analysis showed major differences in expression of regulatory genes of the glycosylation and cell cycle signaling pathways between these different growth control methods. Overall, our observations showed that cell cycle arrest by directly targeting CDK4/6 using selective inhibitor compound can be utilized consistently and rapidly to optimize process parameters, such as cell growth, qP, and glycosylation profile in

  15. Alteration of cell-cycle regulation in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Nam, E J; Kim, Y T

    2008-01-01

    In spite of the clinical importance of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), little is known about the pathobiology of its precursor lesions and progression. Regulatory mechanisms of the cell cycle are mainly composed of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK), and CDK inhibitors. Alteration of these mechanisms results in uncontrolled cell proliferation, which is a distinctive feature of human cancers. This review describes the current state of knowledge about the alterations of cell-cycle regulations in the context of p16-cyclin D1-CDK4/6-pRb pathway, p21-p27-cyclin E-CDK2 pathway, p14-MDM2-p53 pathway, and ATM-Chk2-CDC25 pathway, respectively. Recent evidence suggests that ovarian cancer is a heterogenous group of neoplasms with several different histologic types, each with its own underlying molecular genetic mechanism. Therefore, expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins should be tested separately according to each histologic type. In serous ovarian carcinoma, high expression of p16, p53, and p27 and low expression of p21 and cyclin E were shown. In addition, this review focuses on the prognostic significance of cell cycle-regulating proteins in EOC. However, it is difficult to compare the results from different groups due to diverse methodologies and interpretations. Accordingly, researchers should establish standardized criteria for the interpretation of immunohistochemical results. PMID:18298566

  16. Cdk1 activity acts as a quantitative platform for coordinating cell cycle progression with periodic transcription

    PubMed Central

    Banyai, Gabor; Baïdi, Feriel; Coudreuse, Damien; Szilagyi, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    Cell proliferation is regulated by cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and requires the periodic expression of particular gene clusters in different cell cycle phases. However, the interplay between the networks that generate these transcriptional oscillations and the core cell cycle machinery remains largely unexplored. In this work, we use a synthetic regulable Cdk1 module to demonstrate that periodic expression is governed by quantitative changes in Cdk1 activity, with different clusters directly responding to specific activity levels. We further establish that cell cycle events neither participate in nor interfere with the Cdk1-driven transcriptional program, provided that cells are exposed to the appropriate Cdk1 activities. These findings contrast with current models that propose self-sustained and Cdk1-independent transcriptional oscillations. Our work therefore supports a model in which Cdk1 activity serves as a quantitative platform for coordinating cell cycle transitions with the expression of critical genes to bring about proper cell cycle progression. PMID:27045731

  17. Cyclin A- and cyclin B-dependent protein kinases are regulated by different mechanisms in Xenopus egg extracts.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, P R; Leiss, D; Pagano, M; Karsenti, E

    1992-01-01

    Cyclins are proteins which are synthesized and degraded in a cell cycle-dependent fashion and form integral regulatory subunits of protein kinase complexes involved in the regulation of the cell cycle. The best known catalytic subunit of a cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex is p34cdc2. In the cell, cyclins A and B are synthesized at different stages of the cell cycle and induce protein kinase activation with different kinetics. The kinetics of activation can be reproduced and studied in extracts of Xenopus eggs to which bacterially produced cyclins are added. In this paper we report that in egg extracts, both cyclin A and cyclin B associate with and activate the same catalytic subunit, p34cdc2. In addition, cyclin A binds a less abundant p33 protein kinase related to p34cdc2, the product of the cdk2/Eg1 gene. When complexed to cyclin B, p34cdc2 is subject to transient inhibition by tyrosine phosphorylation, producing a lag between the addition of cyclin and kinase activation. In contrast, p34cdc2 is only weakly tyrosine phosphorylated when bound to cyclin A and activates rapidly. This finding shows that a given kinase catalytic subunit can be regulated in a different manner depending on the nature of the regulatory subunit to which it binds. Tyrosine phosphorylation of p34cdc2 when complexed to cyclin B provides an inhibitory check on the activation of the M phase inducing protein kinase, allowing the coupling of processes such as DNA replication to the onset of metaphase. Our results suggest that, at least in the early Xenopus embryo, cyclin A-dependent protein kinases may not be subject to this checkpoint and are regulated primarily at the level of cyclin translation. Images PMID:1316271

  18. Mitochondrial Regulation of Cell Cycle and Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Antico Arciuch, Valeria Gabriela; Elguero, María Eugenia; Poderoso, Juan José

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Eukaryotic mitochondria resulted from symbiotic incorporation of α-proteobacteria into ancient archaea species. During evolution, mitochondria lost most of the prokaryotic bacterial genes and only conserved a small fraction including those encoding 13 proteins of the respiratory chain. In this process, many functions were transferred to the host cells, but mitochondria gained a central role in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis, and in the modulation of metabolism; accordingly, defective organelles contribute to cell transformation and cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. Most cell and transcriptional effects of mitochondria depend on the modulation of respiratory rate and on the production of hydrogen peroxide released into the cytosol. The mitochondrial oxidative rate has to remain depressed for cell proliferation; even in the presence of O2, energy is preferentially obtained from increased glycolysis (Warburg effect). In response to stress signals, traffic of pro- and antiapoptotic mitochondrial proteins in the intermembrane space (B-cell lymphoma-extra large, Bcl-2-associated death promoter, Bcl-2 associated X-protein and cytochrome c) is modulated by the redox condition determined by mitochondrial O2 utilization and mitochondrial nitric oxide metabolism. In this article, we highlight the traffic of the different canonical signaling pathways to mitochondria and the contributions of organelles to redox regulation of kinases. Finally, we analyze the dynamics of the mitochondrial population in cell cycle and apoptosis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 1150–1180. PMID:21967640

  19. Timing the Drosophila Mid-Blastula Transition: A Cell Cycle-Centered View.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kai; Seller, Charles A; Shermoen, Antony W; O'Farrell, Patrick H

    2016-08-01

    At the mid-blastula transition (MBT), externally developing embryos refocus from increasing cell number to elaboration of the body plan. Studies in Drosophila reveal a sequence of changes in regulators of Cyclin:Cdk1 that increasingly restricts the activity of this cell cycle kinase to slow cell cycles during early embryogenesis. By reviewing these events, we provide an outline of the mechanisms slowing the cell cycle at and around the time of MBT. The perspectives developed should provide a guiding paradigm for the study of other MBT changes as the embryo transits from maternal control to a regulatory program centered on the expression of zygotic genes. PMID:27339317

  20. Clusterin and DNA repair: a new function in cancer for a key player in apoptosis and cell cycle control.

    PubMed

    Shannan, B; Seifert, M; Boothman, D A; Tilgen, W; Reichrath, J

    2006-09-01

    The glycoprotein clusterin (CLU), has two known isoforms generated in human cells. A nuclear form of CLU protein (nCLU) is pro-apoptotic, while a secretory form (sCLU) is pro-survival. Both forms are implicated in various cell functions, including DNA repair, cell cycle regulation, and apoptotic cell death. CLU expression has been associated with tumorigenesis and the progression of various malignancies. In response to DNA damage, cell survival can be enhanced by activation of DNA repair mechanisms, while simultaneously stimulating energy-expensive cell cycle checkpoints that delay the cell cycle progression to allow more time for DNA repair. This review summarizes our current understanding of the role of clusterin in DNA repair, apoptosis, and cell cycle control and the relevance. PMID:17048076

  1. A novel ATM-dependent checkpoint defect distinct from loss of function mutation promotes genomic instability in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Spoerri, Loredana; Brooks, Kelly; Chia, KeeMing; Grossman, Gavriel; Ellis, Jonathan J; Dahmer-Heath, Mareike; Škalamera, Dubravka; Pavey, Sandra; Burmeister, Bryan; Gabrielli, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Melanomas have high levels of genomic instability that can contribute to poor disease prognosis. Here, we report a novel defect of the ATM-dependent cell cycle checkpoint in melanoma cell lines that promotes genomic instability. In defective cells, ATM signalling to CHK2 is intact, but the cells are unable to maintain the cell cycle arrest due to elevated PLK1 driving recovery from the arrest. Reducing PLK1 activity recovered the ATM-dependent checkpoint arrest, and over-expressing PLK1 was sufficient to overcome the checkpoint arrest and increase genomic instability. Loss of the ATM-dependent checkpoint did not affect sensitivity to ionizing radiation demonstrating that this defect is distinct from ATM loss of function mutations. The checkpoint defective melanoma cell lines over-express PLK1, and a significant proportion of melanomas have high levels of PLK1 over-expression suggesting this defect is a common feature of melanomas. The inability of ATM to impose a cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage increases genomic instability. This work also suggests that the ATM-dependent checkpoint arrest is likely to be defective in a higher proportion of cancers than previously expected. PMID:26854966

  2. Cell Cycle Phase-Specific Drug Resistance as an Escape Mechanism of Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Kimberley A; Hill, David S; Daignault, Sheena M; Lui, Goldie Y L; Sharp, Danae M; Gabrielli, Brian; Weninger, Wolfgang; Haass, Nikolas K

    2016-07-01

    The tumor microenvironment is characterized by cancer cell subpopulations with heterogeneous cell cycle profiles. For example, hypoxic tumor zones contain clusters of cancer cells that arrest in G1 phase. It is conceivable that neoplastic cells exhibit differential drug sensitivity based on their residence in specific cell cycle phases. In this study, we used two-dimensional and organotypic melanoma culture models in combination with fluorescent cell cycle indicators to investigate the effects of cell cycle phases on clinically used drugs. We demonstrate that G1-arrested melanoma cells, irrespective of the underlying cause mediating G1 arrest, are resistant to apoptosis induced by the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib or the alkylating agent temozolomide. In contrast, G1-arrested cells were more sensitive to mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway inhibitor-induced cell death. Of clinical relevance, pretreatment of melanoma cells with a mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway inhibitor, which induced G1 arrest, resulted in resistance to temozolomide or bortezomib. On the other hand, pretreatment with temozolomide, which induced G2 arrest, did not result in resistance to mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway inhibitors. In summary, we established a model to study the effects of the cell cycle on drug sensitivity. Cell cycle phase-specific drug resistance is an escape mechanism of melanoma cells that has implications on the choice and timing of drug combination therapies. PMID:26970356

  3. Anticancer Activity of Novel Daphnane Diterpenoids from Daphne genkwa through Cell-Cycle Arrest and Suppression of Akt/STAT/Src Signalings in Human Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Jo, Si-Kyoung; Hong, Ji-Young; Park, Hyen Joo; Lee, Sang Kook

    2012-11-01

    Although the immense efforts have been made for cancer prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment, cancer morbidity and mortality has not been decreased during last forty years. Especially, lung cancer is top-ranked in cancer-associated human death. Therefore, effective strategy is strongly required for the management of lung cancer. In the present study, we found that novel daphnane diterpenoids, yuanhualine (YL), yuanhuahine (YH) and yuanhuagine (YG) isolated from the flower of Daphne genkwa (Thymelaeaceae), exhibited potent anti-proliferative activities against human lung A549 cells with the IC50 values of 7.0, 15.2 and 24.7 nM, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the daphnane diterpenoids induced cell-cycle arrest in the G0/G1 as well as G2/M phase in A549 cells. The cell-cycle arrests were well correlated with the expression of checkpoint proteins including the up-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and p53 and down-regulation of cyclin A, cyclin B1, cyclin E, cyclin dependent kinase 4, cdc2, phosphorylation of Rb and cMyc expression. In the analysis of signal transduction molecules, the daphnane diterpenoids suppressed the activation of Akt, STAT3 and Src in human lung cancer cells. The daphnane diterpenoids also exerted the potent anti-proliferative activity against anticancer-drug resistant cancer cells including gemcitabine-resistant A549, gefitinib-, erlotinib-resistant H292 cells. Synergistic effects in the growth inhibition were also observed when yuanhualine was combined with gemcitabine, gefitinib or erlotinib in A549 cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that the novel daphnane diterpenoids might provide lead candidates for the development of therapeutic agents for human lung cancers. PMID:24009843

  4. Cell cycle control of DNA joint molecule resolution.

    PubMed

    Wild, Philipp; Matos, Joao

    2016-06-01

    The establishment of stable interactions between chromosomes underpins vital cellular processes such as recombinational DNA repair and bipolar chromosome segregation. On the other hand, timely disengagement of persistent connections is necessary to assure efficient partitioning of the replicated genome prior to cell division. Whereas great progress has been made in defining how cohesin-mediated chromosomal interactions are disengaged as cells prepare to undergo chromosome segregation, little is known about the metabolism of DNA joint molecules (JMs), generated during the repair of chromosomal lesions. Recent work on Mus81 and Yen1/GEN1, two conserved structure-selective endonucleases, revealed unforeseen links between JM-processing and cell cycle progression. Cell cycle kinases and phosphatases control Mus81 and Yen1/GEN1 to restrain deleterious JM-processing during S-phase, while safeguarding chromosome segregation during mitosis. PMID:26970388

  5. Regulation of Neuronal Cell Cycle and Apoptosis by MicroRNA 34a.

    PubMed

    Modi, Prashant Kumar; Jaiswal, Surbhi; Sharma, Pushkar

    2016-01-01

    The cell cycle of neurons remains suppressed to maintain the state of differentiation and aberrant cell cycle reentry results in loss of neurons, which is a feature in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD). Present studies revealed that the expression of microRNA 34a (miR-34a) needs to be optimal in neurons, as an aberrant increase or decrease in its expression causes apoptosis. miR-34a keeps the neuronal cell cycle under check by preventing the expression of cyclin D1 and promotes cell cycle arrest. Neurotoxic amyloid β1-42 peptide (Aβ42) treatment of cortical neurons suppressed miR-34a, resulting in unscheduled cell cycle reentry, which resulted in apoptosis. The repression of miR-34a was a result of degradation of TAp73, which was mediated by aberrant activation of the MEK extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway by Aβ42. A significant decrease in miR-34a and TAp73 was observed in the cortex of a transgenic (Tg) mouse model of AD, which correlated well with cell cycle reentry observed in the neurons of these animals. Importantly, the overexpression of TAp73α and miR-34a reversed cell cycle-related neuronal apoptosis (CRNA). These studies provide novel insights into how modulation of neuronal cell cycle machinery may lead to neurodegeneration and may contribute to the understanding of disorders like AD. PMID:26459758

  6. An extensive program of periodic alternative splicing linked to cell cycle progression

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, Daniel; Tsai, Yi-Hsuan; Weatheritt, Robert; Wang, Yang; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Wang, Zefeng

    2016-01-01

    Progression through the mitotic cell cycle requires periodic regulation of gene function at the levels of transcription, translation, protein-protein interactions, post-translational modification and degradation. However, the role of alternative splicing (AS) in the temporal control of cell cycle is not well understood. By sequencing the human transcriptome through two continuous cell cycles, we identify ~1300 genes with cell cycle-dependent AS changes. These genes are significantly enriched in functions linked to cell cycle control, yet they do not significantly overlap genes subject to periodic changes in steady-state transcript levels. Many of the periodically spliced genes are controlled by the SR protein kinase CLK1, whose level undergoes cell cycle-dependent fluctuations via an auto-inhibitory circuit. Disruption of CLK1 causes pleiotropic cell cycle defects and loss of proliferation, whereas CLK1 over-expression is associated with various cancers. These results thus reveal a large program of CLK1-regulated periodic AS intimately associated with cell cycle control. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10288.001 PMID:27015110

  7. Coupling end resection with the checkpoint response at DNA double-strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Villa, Matteo; Cassani, Corinne; Gobbini, Elisa; Bonetti, Diego; Longhese, Maria Pia

    2016-10-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are a nasty form of damage that needs to be repaired to ensure genome stability. The DSB ends can undergo a strand-biased nucleolytic processing (resection) to generate 3'-ended single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) that channels DSB repair into homologous recombination. Generation of ssDNA also triggers the activation of the DNA damage checkpoint, which couples cell cycle progression with DSB repair. The checkpoint response is intimately linked to DSB resection, as some checkpoint proteins regulate the resection process. The present review will highlight recent works on the mechanism and regulation of DSB resection and its interplays with checkpoint activation/inactivation in budding yeast. PMID:27141941

  8. Molecular markers and cell cycle inhibitors show the importance of cell cycle progression in nematode-induced galls and syncytia.

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida Engler, J; De Vleesschauwer, V; Burssens, S; Celenza, J L; Inzé, D; Van Montagu, M; Engler, G; Gheysen, G

    1999-01-01

    Root knot and cyst nematodes induce large multinucleated cells, designated giant cells and syncytia, respectively, in plant roots. We have used molecular markers to study cell cycle progression in these specialized feeding cells. In situ hybridization with two cyclin-dependent kinases and two cyclins showed that these genes were induced very early in galls and syncytia and that the feeding cells progressed through the G2 phase. By using cell cycle blockers, DNA synthesis and progression through the G2 phase, or mitosis, were shown to be essential for gall and syncytium establishment. When mitosis was blocked, further gall development was arrested. This result demonstrates that cycles of endoreduplication or other methods of DNA amplification are insufficient to drive giant cell expansion. On the other hand, syncytium development was much less affected by a mitotic block; however, syncytium expansion was inhibited. PMID:10330466

  9. DUBbing Cancer: Deubiquitylating Enzymes Involved in Epigenetics, DNA Damage and the Cell Cycle As Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Pinto-Fernandez, Adan; Kessler, Benedikt M.

    2016-01-01

    Controlling cell proliferation is one of the hallmarks of cancer. A number of critical checkpoints ascertain progression through the different stages of the cell cycle, which can be aborted when perturbed, for instance by errors in DNA replication and repair. These molecular checkpoints are regulated by a number of proteins that need to be present at the right time and quantity. The ubiquitin system has emerged as a central player controlling the fate and function of such molecules such as cyclins, oncogenes and components of the DNA repair machinery. In particular, proteases that cleave ubiquitin chains, referred to as deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs), have attracted recent attention due to their accessibility to modulation by small molecules. In this review, we describe recent evidence of the critical role of DUBs in aspects of cell cycle checkpoint control, associated DNA repair mechanisms and regulation of transcription, representing pathways altered in cancer. Therefore, DUBs involved in these processes emerge as potentially critical targets for the treatment of not only hematological, but potentially also solid tumors. PMID:27516771

  10. DUBbing Cancer: Deubiquitylating Enzymes Involved in Epigenetics, DNA Damage and the Cell Cycle As Therapeutic Targets.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Fernandez, Adan; Kessler, Benedikt M

    2016-01-01

    Controlling cell proliferation is one of the hallmarks of cancer. A number of critical checkpoints ascertain progression through the different stages of the cell cycle, which can be aborted when perturbed, for instance by errors in DNA replication and repair. These molecular checkpoints are regulated by a number of proteins that need to be present at the right time and quantity. The ubiquitin system has emerged as a central player controlling the fate and function of such molecules such as cyclins, oncogenes and components of the DNA repair machinery. In particular, proteases that cleave ubiquitin chains, referred to as deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs), have attracted recent attention due to their accessibility to modulation by small molecules. In this review, we describe recent evidence of the critical role of DUBs in aspects of cell cycle checkpoint control, associated DNA repair mechanisms and regulation of transcription, representing pathways altered in cancer. Therefore, DUBs involved in these processes emerge as potentially critical targets for the treatment of not only hematological, but potentially also solid tumors. PMID:27516771

  11. DNA damage checkpoint, damage repair, and genome stability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Feng; Yu, Shan-Shan; Chen, Guan-Jun; Li, Yue-Zhong

    2006-05-01

    Genomic DNA is under constant attack from both endogenous and exogenous sources of DNA damaging agents. Without proper care, the ensuing DNA damages would lead to alteration of genomic structure thus affecting the faithful transmission of genetic information. During the process of evolution, organisms have acquired a series of mechanisms responding to and repairing DNA damage, thus assuring the maintenance of genome stability and faithful transmission of genetic information. DNA damage checkpoint is one such important mechanism by which, in the face of DNA damage, a cell can respond to amplified damage signals, either by actively halting the cell cycle until it ensures that critical processes such as DNA replication or mitosis are complete or by initiating apoptosis as a last resort. Over the last decade, complex hierarchical interactions between the key components like ATM/ATR in the checkpoint pathway and various other mediators, effectors including DNA damage repair proteins have begun to emerge. In the meantime, an intimate relationship between mechanisms of damage checkpoint pathway, DNA damage repair, and genome stability was also uncovered. Reviewed herein are the recent findings on both the mechanisms of activation of checkpoint pathways and their coordination with DNA damage repair machinery as well as their effect on genomic integrity. PMID:16722332

  12. Energy Landscape Reveals That the Budding Yeast Cell Cycle Is a Robust and Adaptive Multi-stage Process

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Cheng; Li, Xiaoguang; Li, Fangting; Li, Tiejun

    2015-01-01

    Quantitatively understanding the robustness, adaptivity and efficiency of cell cycle dynamics under the influence of noise is a fundamental but difficult question to answer for most eukaryotic organisms. Using a simplified budding yeast cell cycle model perturbed by intrinsic noise, we systematically explore these issues from an energy landscape point of view by constructing an energy landscape for the considered system based on large deviation theory. Analysis shows that the cell cycle trajectory is sharply confined by the ambient energy barrier, and the landscape along this trajectory exhibits a generally flat shape. We explain the evolution of the system on this flat path by incorporating its non-gradient nature. Furthermore, we illustrate how this global landscape changes in response to external signals, observing a nice transformation of the landscapes as the excitable system approaches a limit cycle system when nutrients are sufficient, as well as the formation of additional energy wells when the DNA replication checkpoint is activated. By taking into account the finite volume effect, we find additional pits along the flat cycle path in the landscape associated with the checkpoint mechanism of the cell cycle. The difference between the landscapes induced by intrinsic and extrinsic noise is also discussed. In our opinion, this meticulous structure of the energy landscape for our simplified model is of general interest to other cell cycle dynamics, and the proposed methods can be applied to study similar biological systems. PMID:25794282

  13. "Constructing" the Cell Cycle in 3D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koc, Isil; Turan, Merve

    2012-01-01

    The cycle of duplication and division, known as the "cell cycle," is the essential mechanism by which all living organisms reproduce. This activity allows students to develop an understanding of the main events that occur during the typical eukaryotic cell cycle mostly in the process of mitotic phase that divides the duplicated genetic material…

  14. Mitochondrial regulation of cell cycle progression through SLC25A43.

    PubMed

    Gabrielson, Marike; Reizer, Edwin; Stål, Olle; Tina, Elisabet

    2016-01-22

    An increasing body of evidence is pointing towards mitochondrial regulation of the cell cycle. In a previous study of HER2-positive tumours we could demonstrate a common loss in the gene encoding for the mitochondrial transporter SLC25A43 and also a significant relation between SLC25A43 protein expression and S-phase fraction. Here, we investigated the consequence of suppressed SLC25A43 expression on cell cycle progression and proliferation in breast epithelial cells. In the present study, we suppressed SLC25A43 using siRNA in immortalised non-cancerous breast epithelial MCF10A cells and HER2-positive breast cancer cells BT-474. Viability, apoptosis, cell proliferation rate, cell cycle phase distribution, and nuclear Ki-67 and p21, were assessed by flow cytometry. Cell cycle related gene expressions were analysed using real-time PCR. We found that SLC25A43 knockdown in MCF10A cells significantly inhibited cell cycle progression during G1-to-S transition, thus significantly reducing the proliferation rate and fraction of Ki-67 positive MCF10A cells. In contrast, suppressed SLC25A43 expression in BT-474 cells resulted in a significantly increased proliferation rate together with an enhanced G1-to-S transition. This was reflected by an increased fraction of Ki-67 positive cells and reduced level of nuclear p21. In line with our previous results, we show a role for SLC25A43 as a regulator of cell cycle progression and proliferation through a putative mitochondrial checkpoint. These novel data further strengthen the connection between mitochondrial function and the cell cycle, both in non-malignant and in cancer cells. PMID:26721434

  15. Spc98p Directs the Yeast γ-Tubulin Complex into the Nucleus and Is Subject to Cell Cycle-dependent Phosphorylation on the Nuclear Side of the Spindle Pole Body

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Gislene; Knop, Michael; Schiebel, Elmar

    1998-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, microtubules are organized by the spindle pole body (SPB), which is embedded in the nuclear envelope. Microtubule organization requires the γ-tubulin complex containing the γ-tubulin Tub4p, Spc98p, and Spc97p. The Tub4p complex is associated with cytoplasmic and nuclear substructures of the SPB, which organize the cytoplasmic and nuclear microtubules. Here we present evidence that the Tub4p complex assembles in the cytoplasm and then either binds to the cytoplasmic side of the SPB or is imported into the nucleus followed by binding to the nuclear side of the SPB. Nuclear import of the Tub4p complex is mediated by the essential nuclear localization sequence of Spc98p. Our studies also indicate that Spc98p in the Tub4p complex is phosphorylated at the nuclear, but not at the cytoplasmic, side of the SPB. This phosphorylation is cell cycle dependent and occurs after SPB duplication and nucleation of microtubules by the new SPB and therefore may have a role in mitotic spindle function. In addition, activation of the mitotic checkpoint stimulates Spc98p phosphorylation. The kinase Mps1p, which functions in SPB duplication and mitotic checkpoint control, seems to be involved in Spc98p phosphorylation. Our results also suggest that the nuclear and cytoplasmic Tub4p complexes are regulated differently. PMID:9529377

  16. Aurora Kinase Inhibition Overcomes Cetuximab Resistance in Squamous Cell Cancer of the Head and Neck

    PubMed Central

    Hoellein, Alexander; Pickhard, Anja; von Keitz, Fabienne; Schoeffmann, Stephanie; Piontek, Guido; Rudelius, Martina; Baumgart, Anja; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Peschel, Christian; Dechow, Tobias; Bier, Henning; Keller, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Squamous cell cancer of the head and neck (SCCHN) is the sixth leading cause for cancer deaths worldwide. Despite extense knowledge of risk factors and pathogenesis about 50 percent of all patients and essentially every patient with metastatic SCCHN eventually die from this disease. We analyzed the clinical data and performed immunohistochemistry for Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Aurora kinase A (Aurora-A) expression in 180 SCCHN patients. Patients characterized by elevated EGFR and elevated Aurora-A protein expression in tumor tissue represent a risk group with poor disease-free and overall survival (EGFRlow Aurora-Alow versus EGFRhigh Aurora-Ahigh, p = 0.024). Treating SCCHN cell lines with a pan-Aurora kinase inhibitor resulted in defective cytokinesis, polyploidy and apoptosis, which was effective irrespective of the EGFR status. Combined Aurora kinase and EGFR targeting using a monoclonal anti-EGFR antibody was more effective compared to single EGFR and Aurora kinase inhibition. Comparing pan-Aurora kinase and Aurora-A targeting hints towards a strong and clinically relevant biological effect mediated via Aurora kinase B. Taken together, our findings characterize a new poor risk group in SCCHN patients defined by elevated EGFR and Aurora-A protein expression. Our results demonstrate that combined targeting of EGFR and Aurora kinases represents a therapeutic means to activate cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis in SCCHN. PMID:21865609

  17. Over Expression of Nucleophosmin and Nucleolin Contributes to the Suboptimal Activation of a G2/M Checkpoint in Ataxia Telangiectasia Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Nalabothula, Narasimharao; Chakravarty, Devulapalli; Pierce, Adam; Carrier, France

    2010-01-01

    Ataxia Telangiectasia (AT) cells exhibit suboptimal activation of radiation-induced cell cycle checkpoints despite having a wild type p53 genotype. Reducing or eliminating this delay could restore p53 function and reinstate normal cellular response to genotoxic stress. Here we show that the levels of Nuclephosmin (NPM), NPM phosphorylated at Serine 125, p53, p53 phosphorylated at Serine 15 and Serine 392 and the levels of Nucleolin (NCL) are high in AT fibroblasts compared to normal cells. Transfection of a functional ATM into AT fibroblasts reduced p53, phospo-p53, phospho-NPM and NCL levels to wild type fibroblasts levels. Our data indicate that ATM regulates phospho-NPM and NCL indirectly through the Protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1). Both, NPM and NCL interact with p53 and hinder its phosphorylation at Serine 15 in response to bleomycin. Moreover, NPM and NCL are phosphorylated by several of the same kinases targeting p53 and could potentially compete with p53 for phosphorylation in AT cells. In addition, our data indicate that down regulation of NCL and to a lesser extent NPM increase the number of AT cells arrested in G2/M in response to bleomycin. Together this data indicate that the lack of PP1 activation in AT cells result in increased NPM and NCL protein levels which prevents p53 phosphorylation in response to bleomycin and contributes to a defective G2/M checkpoint. PMID:21499441

  18. Regulation of zygotic genome activation and DNA damage checkpoint acquisition at the mid-blastula transition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Maomao; Kothari, Priyanka; Mullins, Mary; Lampson, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Following fertilization, oviparous embryos undergo rapid, mostly transcriptionally silent cleavage divisions until the mid-blastula transition (MBT), when large-scale developmental changes occur, including zygotic genome activation (ZGA) and cell cycle remodeling, via lengthening and checkpoint acquisition. Despite their concomitant appearance, whether these changes are co-regulated is unclear. Three models have been proposed to account for the timing of (ZGA). One model implicates a threshold nuclear to cytoplasmic (N:C) ratio, another stresses the importance cell cycle elongation, while the third model invokes a timer mechanism. We show that precocious Chk1 activity in pre-MBT zebrafish embryos elongates cleavage cycles, thereby slowing the increase in the N:C ratio. We find that cell cycle elongation does not lead to transcriptional activation. Rather, ZGA slows in parallel with the N:C ratio. We show further that the DNA damage checkpoint program is maternally supplied and independent of ZGA. Although pre-MBT embryos detect damage and activate Chk2 after induction of DNA double-strand breaks, the Chk1 arm of the DNA damage response is not activated, and the checkpoint is nonfunctional. Our results are consistent with the N:C ratio model for ZGA. Moreover, the ability of precocious Chk1 activity to delay pre-MBT cell cycles indicate that lack of Chk1 activity limits checkpoint function during cleavage cycles. We propose that Chk1 gain-of-function at the MBT underlies cell cycle remodeling, whereas ZGA is regulated independently by the N:C ratio. PMID:25558827

  19. Cell cycle control in isoproterenol-induced murine salivary acinar cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, T; Yamamoto, H; Bowen, E; Broverman, R L; Nguyen, K H; Humphreys-Beher, M G

    1996-11-01

    The eukaryotic cell cycle is a summary of a complex network of signal transduction pathways resulting in both DNA replication and cell division. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) control the cell cycle in all eukaryotes, whereas other proteins, known as cyclins, act as their regulatory subunits. Chronic injection with isoproterenol (ISO) can induce acinar cell proliferation in rodent salivary glands. Cyclins and CDK proteins from control and ISO-treated murine parotid acinar cells were detected by using Western blotting techniques. By comparing the expression of these cell cycle regulatory kinases in the parotid acinar cell transition from a quiescent state to a hypertrophic state, we found rapid increases in the protein levels of all CDKs, cyclin D and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The highest protein levels for CDKs and cyclins appeared at about 72 hr of ISO stimulation and were coincident with the highest rate of increase in gland wet weight. After 72 hr, the increase of both cell cycle protein and gland wet weight began to subside. By using a co-immunoprecipitation method, the following cell cycle regulators (CDK-cyclin complexes) were detected, CDK4-cyclin D, CDK2-cyclin E, CDK2-cyclin A, and cdc2-cyclin B, along with an increase in kinase activity over control untreated animals. Additionally, we detected significant decreases in the newly isolated CDK inhibitor (CKI) p27kip but not Wee 1 kinase. The increased levels of CKI correlated with a decrease in kinase activity of CDK/cyclin complexes by 144 hr of chronic isoproterenol treatment. Our data suggest that the holoenzymes for cell cycle control (cyclin-CDK complexes) function as a final regulatory mechanism leading to salivary gland acinar cell proliferation. The gradual decline in protein levels of the CDKs and cyclins after 3 days of chronic treatment further indicates that ISO-induced proliferation of parotid acinar cells is self-limiting and non-tumorigenic. PMID:9375366

  20. Antiproliferative activity of the isoindigo 5'-Br in HL-60 cells is mediated by apoptosis, dysregulation of mitochondrial functions and arresting cell cycle at G0/G1 phase.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Ayman M; El-Abadelah, Mustafa M; Aziz, Mohammad Azhar; Taha, Mutasem O; Nasr, Amre; Rizvi, Syed A A

    2015-06-01

    Our new compound, 5'-Br [(E)-1-(5'-bromo-2'-oxoindolin-3'-ylidene)-6-ethyl-2,3,6,9-tetrahydro-2,9-dioxo-1H-pyrrolo[3,2-f]quinoline-8-carboxylic acid], had shown strong, selective antiproliferative activity against different cancer cell lines. Here, we aim to comprehensively characterize the mechanisms associated with its cytotoxicity in the human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. We focused at studying the involvement of apoptotic pathway and cell cycle effects. 5'-Br significantly inhibited proliferation by inducing caspase-dependent apoptosis. Involvement of caspase independent mechanism is also possible due to observed inability of z-VAD-FMK to rescue apoptotic cells. 5'-Br was found to trigger intrinsic apoptotic pathway as indicated by depolarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane, decreased level of cellular ATP, modulated expression and phosphorylation of Bcl-2 leading to loss of its association with Bax, and increased release of cytochrome c. 5'-Br treated cells were found arrested at G0/G1 phase with modulation in protein levels of cyclins, dependent kinases and their inhibitors. Expression and enzymatic activity of CDK2 and CDK4 was found inhibited. Retinoblastoma protein (Rb) phosphorylation was also inhibited whereas p21 protein levels were increased. These results suggest that the antiproliferative mechanisms of action of 5'-Br could involve apoptotic pathways, dysregulation of mitochondrial functions and disruption of cell cycle checkpoint. PMID:25790909

  1. The stress-activated protein kinases p38α/β and JNK1/2 cooperate with Chk1 to inhibit mitotic entry upon DNA replication arrest

    PubMed Central

    Llopis, Alba; Salvador, Noelia; Ercilla, Amaia; Guaita-Esteruelas, Sandra; Barrantes, Ivan del Barco; Gupta, Jalaj; Gaestel, Matthias; Davis, Roger J.; Nebreda, Angel R.; Agell, Neus

    2012-01-01

    Accurate DNA replication is crucial for the maintenance of genome integrity. To this aim, cells have evolved complex surveillance mechanisms to prevent mitotic entry in the presence of partially replicated DNA. ATR and Chk1 are key elements in the signal transduction pathways of DNA replication checkpoint; however, other kinases also make significant contributions. We show here that the stress kinases p38 and JNK are activated when DNA replication is blocked, and that their activity allows S/M, but not G₂/M, checkpoint maintenance when Chk1 is inhibited. Activation of both kinases by DNA replication inhibition is not mediated by the caffeine-sensitive kinases ATR or ATM. Phosphorylation of MKK3/6 and MKK4, p38 and JNK upstream kinases was also observed upon DNA replication inhibition. Using a genetic approach, we dissected the p38 pathway and showed that both p38α and p38β isoforms collaborate to inhibit mitotic entry. We further defined MKK3/6 and MK2/3 as the key upstream and downstream elements in the p38 signaling cascade after replication arrest. Accordingly, we found that the stress signaling pathways collaborate with Chk1 to keep cyclin B1/Cdk1 complexes inactive when DNA replication is inhibited, thereby preventing cell cycle progression when DNA replication is stalled. Our results show a complex response to replication stress, where multiple pathways are activated and fulfill overlapping roles to prevent mitotic entry with unreplicated DNA. PMID:22935704

  2. Nucleosome architecture throughout the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Deniz, Özgen; Flores, Oscar; Aldea, Martí; Soler-López, Montserrat; Orozco, Modesto

    2016-01-01

    Nucleosomes provide additional regulatory mechanisms to transcription and DNA replication by mediating the access of proteins to DNA. During the cell cycle chromatin undergoes several conformational changes, however the functional significance of these changes to cellular processes are largely unexplored. Here, we present the first comprehensive genome-wide study of nucleosome plasticity at single base-pair resolution along the cell cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We determined nucleosome organization with a specific focus on two regulatory regions: transcription start sites (TSSs) and replication origins (ORIs). During the cell cycle, nucleosomes around TSSs display rearrangements in a cyclic manner. In contrast to gap (G1 and G2) phases, nucleosomes have a fuzzier organization during S and M phases, Moreover, the choreography of nucleosome rearrangements correlate with changes in gene expression during the cell cycle, indicating a strong association between nucleosomes and cell cycle-dependent gene functionality. On the other hand, nucleosomes are more dynamic around ORIs along the cell cycle, albeit with tighter regulation in early firing origins, implying the functional role of nucleosomes on replication origins. Our study provides a dynamic picture of nucleosome organization throughout the cell cycle and highlights the subsequent impact on transcription and replication activity. PMID:26818620

  3. Fission Yeast Cell Cycle Synchronization Methods.

    PubMed

    Tormos-Pérez, Marta; Pérez-Hidalgo, Livia; Moreno, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Fission yeast cells can be synchronized by cell cycle arrest and release or by size selection. Cell cycle arrest synchronization is based on the block and release of temperature-sensitive cell cycle mutants or treatment with drugs. The most widely used approaches are cdc10-129 for G1; hydroxyurea (HU) for early S-phase; cdc25-22 for G2, and nda3-KM311 for mitosis. Cells can also be synchronized by size selection using centrifugal elutriation or a lactose gradient. Here we describe the methods most commonly used to synchronize fission yeast cells. PMID:26519320

  4. INHIBITION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII GROWTH BY PYRROLIDINE DITHIOCARBAMATE IS CELL CYCLE SPECIFIC AND LEADS TO POPULATION SYNCHRONIZATION

    PubMed Central

    Conde de Felipe, Magnolia M.; Lehmann, Margaret M.; Jerome, Maria E.; White, Michael W.

    2008-01-01

    Successful completion of the Toxoplasma cell cycle requires the coordination of a series of complex and ordered processes that results in the formation of two daughters by internal budding. Although we now understand the order and timing of intracellular events associated with the parasite cell cycle, the molecular details of the checkpoints that regulate each step in T. gondii division is still uncertain. In other eukaryotic cells, the use of cytostatic inhibitors that are able to arrest replication at natural checkpoints have been exploited to induce synchronization of population growth. Herein, we describe a novel method to synchronize T. gondii tachyzoites based on the reversible growth inhibition by the drug, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. This method is an improvement over other strategies developed for this parasite as no prior genetic manipulation of the parasite was required. RH tachyzoites blocked by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate exhibited a near uniform haploid DNA content and single centrosome indicating that this compound arrests parasites in the G1 phase of the tachyzoite cell cycle with a minor block in late cytokinesis. Thus, these studies support the existence of a natural checkpoint that regulates passage through the G1 period of the cell cycle. Populations released from pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate inhibition completed progression through G1 and entered S phase ~2 hours post-drug release. The transit of drug-synchronized populations through S phase and mitosis followed a similar timeframe to previous studies of the tachyzoite cell cycle. Tachyzoites treated with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate were fully viable and completed two identical division cycles post-drug release demonstrating that this is a robust method for synchronizing population growth in Toxoplasma. PMID:17976834

  5. Loratadine dysregulates cell cycle progression and enhances the effect of radiation in human tumor cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The histamine receptor-1 (H1)-antagonist, loratadine has been shown to inhibit growth of human colon cancer xenografts in part due to cell cycle arrest in G2/M. Since this is a radiation sensitive phase of the cell cycle, we sought to determine if loratadine modifies radiosensitivity in several human tumor cell lines with emphasis on human colon carcinoma (HT29). Methods Cells were treated with several doses of loratadine at several time points before and after exposure to radiation. Radiation dose modifying factors (DMF) were determined using full radiation dose response survival curves. Cell cycle phase was determined by flow cytometry and the expression of the cell cycle-associated proteins Chk1, pChk1ser345, and Cyclin B was analyzed by western blot. Results Loratadine pre-treatment of exponentially growing cells (75 μM, 24 hours) increased radiation-induced cytotoxicity yielding a radiation DMF of 1.95. However, treatment of plateau phase cells also yielded a DMF of 1.3 suggesting that mechanisms other than cell cycle arrest also contribute to loratadine-mediated radiation modification. Like irradiation, loratadine initially induced G2/M arrest and activation of the cell-cycle associated protein Chk1 to pChk1ser345, however a subsequent decrease in expression of total Chk1 and Cyclin B correlated with abrogation of the G2/M checkpoint. Analysis of DNA repair enzyme expression and DNA fragmentation revealed a distinct pattern of DNA damage in loratadine-treated cells in addition to enhanced radiation-induced damage. Taken together, these data suggest that the observed effects of loratadine are multifactorial in that loratadine 1) directly damages DNA, 2) activates Chk1 thereby promoting G2/M arrest making cells more susceptible to radiation-induced DNA damage and, 3) downregulates total Chk1 and Cyclin B abrogating the radiation-induced G2/M checkpoint and allowing cells to re-enter the cell cycle despite the persistence of damaged DNA. Conclusions

  6. p53 as Batman: using a movie plot to understand control of the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Gadi, Nikhita; Foley, Sage E; Nowey, Mark; Plopper, George E

    2013-01-01

    This Teaching Resource provides and describes a two-part classroom exercise to help students understand control of the cell cycle, with a focus on the transcription factor p53, the E3 ubiquitin ligase Mdm2, the Mdm2 inhibitor ARF, the kinases ATM and ATR, the kinase Chk2, and the cell cycle inhibitor p21(Cip1). Students use characters and scenes from the movie The Dark Knight to represent elements of the cell cycle control machinery, then they apply these characters and scenes to translate a primary research article on p53 function into a new movie scene in the "Batman universe." This exercise is appropriate for college-level courses in cell biology and cancer biology and requires students to have a background in introductory cell biology. Explicit learning outcomes and associated assessment methods are provided, as well as slides, student assignments, the primary research article, and an instructor's guide for the exercise. PMID:23592841

  7. Checkpoint inhibition in meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Bi, Wenya Linda; Wu, Winona W; Santagata, Sandro; Reardon, David A; Dunn, Ian F

    2016-06-01

    Meningiomas are increasingly appreciated to share similar features with other intra-axial central nervous system neoplasms as well as systemic cancers. Immune checkpoint inhibition has emerged as a promising therapy in a number of cancers, with durable responses of years in a subset of patients. Several lines of evidence support a role for immune-based therapeutic strategies in the management of meningiomas, especially high-grade subtypes. Meningiomas frequently originate juxtaposed to venous sinuses, where an anatomic conduit for lymphatic drainage resides. Multiple populations of immune cells have been observed in meningiomas. PD-1/PD-L1 mediated immunosuppression has been implicated in high-grade meningiomas, with association between PD-L1 expression with negative prognostic outcome. These data point to the promise of future combinatorial therapeutic strategies in meningioma. PMID:27197540

  8. Assaying Cell Cycle Status Using Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kang Ho; Sederstrom, Joel M

    2015-01-01

    In this unit, two protocols are described for analyzing cell cycle status using flow cytometry. The first is based on the simultaneous analysis of proliferation-specific marker (Ki-67) and cellular DNA content, which discriminate resting/quiescent cell populations (G0 cell) and quantify cell cycle distribution (G1, S, or G2/M), respectively. The second is based on differential staining of DNA and RNA through co-staining of Hoechst 33342 and Pyronin Y, which is also useful to identify G0 cells from G1 cells. Along with these methods for analyzing cell cycle status, two additional methods for cell proliferation assays with recent updates of newly developed fluorophores, which allow multiplex analysis of cell cycle status, cell proliferation, and a gene of interest using flow cytometry, are outlined. PMID:26131851

  9. Requirements for Linux Checkpoint/Restart

    SciTech Connect

    Duell, Jason; Hargrove, Paul H.; Roman, Eric S.

    2002-02-26

    This document has 4 main objectives: (1) Describe data to be saved and restored during checkpoint/restart; (2) Describe how checkpoint/restart is used within the context of the Scalable Systems environment, and MPI applications; (3) Identify issues for a checkpoint/restart implementation; and (4) Sketch the architecture of a checkpoint/restart implementation.

  10. Using Drosophila Larval Imaginal Discs to Study Low-Dose Radiation-Induced Cell Cycle Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shian-Jang; Li, Willis X.

    2012-01-01

    Under genotoxic stress, activation of cell cycle checkpoint responses leads to cell cycle arrest, which allows cells to repair DNA damage before continuing to cycle. Drosophila larval epithelial sacs, called imaginal discs, are an excellent in vivo model system for studying radiation-induced cell cycle arrest. Larval imaginal discs go into cell cycle arrest after being subjected to low-dose irradiation, are subject to easy genetic manipulation, are not crucial for survival of the organism, and can be dissected easily for further molecular or cellular analysis. In this chapter, we describe methods for assessing low-dose irradiation-induced cell cycle arrest. Mitotic cells are identified by immunofluorescence staining for the mitotic marker phosphorylated histone H3 (phospho-histone H3 or pH3). When wandering third-instar control larvae, without transgene expression, are exposed to 500 rads of X-ray or γ-ray irradiation, the number of pH3-positive cells in wing imaginal discs is reduced from hundreds before irradiation to approximately 30 after irradiation, with an equal distribution between the anterior and posterior compartments (Yan et al., 2011, FASEB J). Using the GAL4/UAS system, RNAi, cDNA, or microRNA sponge transgenes can be expressed in the posterior compartment of the wing disc using drivers such as engrailed (en)-Gal4, while the anterior compartment serves as an internal control. This approach makes it possible to do genome-wide genetic screening for molecules involved in radiation-induced cell cycle arrest. PMID:21870287

  11. Using Drosophila larval imaginal discs to study low-dose radiation-induced cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shian-Jang; Li, Willis X

    2011-01-01

    Under genotoxic stress, activation of cell cycle checkpoint responses leads to cell cycle arrest, which allows cells to repair DNA damage before continuing to cycle. Drosophila larval epithelial sacs, called imaginal discs, are an excellent in vivo model system for studying radiation-induced cell cycle arrest. Larval imaginal discs go into cell cycle arrest after being subjected to low-dose irradiation, are subject to easy genetic manipulation, are not crucial for survival of the organism, and can be dissected easily for further molecular or cellular analysis. In this chapter, we describe methods for assessing low-dose irradiation-induced cell cycle arrest. Mitotic cells are identified by immunofluorescence staining for the mitotic marker phosphorylated histone H3 (phospho-histone H3 or pH3). When wandering third-instar control larvae, without transgene expression, are exposed to 500 rads of X-ray or γ-ray irradiation, the number of pH3-positive cells in wing imaginal discs is reduced from hundreds before irradiation to approximately 30 after irradiation, with an equal distribution between the anterior and posterior compartments (Yan et al., 2011, FASEB J). Using the GAL4/UAS system, RNAi, cDNA, or microRNA sponge transgenes can be expressed in the posterior compartment of the wing disc using drivers such as engrailed (en)-Gal4, while the anterior compartment serves as an internal control. This approach makes it possible to do genome-wide genetic screening for molecules involved in radiation-induced cell cycle arrest. PMID:21870287

  12. Distinct phosphatases antagonize the p53 response in different phases of the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Shaltiel, Indra A; Aprelia, Melinda; Saurin, Adrian T; Chowdhury, Dipanjan; Kops, Geert J P L; Voest, Emile E; Medema, René H

    2014-05-20

    The basic machinery that detects DNA damage is the same throughout the cell cycle. Here, we show, in contrast, that reversal of DNA damage responses (DDRs) and recovery are fundamentally different in G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle. We find that distinct phosphatases are required to counteract the checkpoint response in G1 vs. G2. Whereas WT p53-induced phosphatase 1 (Wip1) promotes recovery in G2-arrested cells by antagonizing p53, it is dispensable for recovery from a G1 arrest. Instead, we identify phosphoprotein phosphatase 4 catalytic subunit (PP4) to be specifically required for cell cycle restart after DNA damage in G1. PP4 dephosphorylates Krüppel-associated box domain-associated protein 1-S473 to repress p53-dependent transcriptional activation of p21 when the DDR is silenced. Taken together, our results show that PP4 and Wip1 are differentially required to counteract the p53-dependent cell cycle arrest in G1 and G2, by antagonizing early or late p53-mediated responses, respectively. PMID:24711418

  13. Problem-Based Test: Replication of Mitochondrial DNA during the Cell Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setalo, Gyorgy, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: cell cycle, generation time, S-phase, cell culture synchronization, isotopic pulse-chase labeling, density labeling, equilibrium density-gradient centrifugation, buoyant density, rate-zonal centrifugation, nucleoside, nucleotide, kinase enzymes, polymerization of nucleic acids,…

  14. Analysis of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Cell Cycle.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Iain M; Grallert, Agnes; Simanis, Viesturs

    2016-01-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells are rod shaped, and they grow by tip elongation. Growth ceases during mitosis and cell division; therefore, the length of a septated cell is a direct measure of the timing of mitotic commitment, and the length of a wild-type cell is an indicator of its position in the cell cycle. A large number of documented stage-specific changes can be used as landmarks to characterize cell cycle progression under specific experimental conditions. Conditional mutations can permanently or transiently block the cell cycle at almost any stage. Large, synchronously dividing cell populations, essential for the biochemical analysis of cell cycle events, can be generated by induction synchrony (arrest-release of a cell cycle mutant) or selection synchrony (centrifugal elutriation or lactose-gradient centrifugation). Schizosaccharomyces pombe cell cycle studies routinely combine particular markers, mutants, and synchronization procedures to manipulate the cycle. We describe these techniques and list key landmarks in the fission yeast mitotic cell division cycle. PMID:27587785

  15. Benzo[a]pyrene-induced cell cycle progression occurs via ERK-induced Chk1 pathway activation in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing-Yen; Wu, Sung-Yu; Tang, Sheau-Chung; Lai, Chien-Hung; Ou, Chu-Chyn; Wu, Ming-Fang; Hsiao, Yi-Min; Ko, Jiunn-Liang

    2015-03-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a potent lung carcinogen derived from tobacco smoking and environmental contamination. This study aimed to investigate the signal transduction pathway responsible for B[a]P-induced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) development. We exposed the human NSCLC cell lines Calu-1, CL3, H1299, CH27, H23, and H1355 to B[a]P and assessed cell cycle progression using flow cytometry. Expression of cell cycle mediators was measured using Western blot analyses and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs). B[a]P exposure dramatically induced S-phase accumulation in H1355 cells. Phospho-p53 (Ser15 and Ser20), phospho-ERK, phospho-p38, and Bax were significantly increased in H1355 cells whereas phospho-Rb was decreased in these cells. In addition, B[a]P induced phosphorylation of checkpoint kinase-1 (Chk1) but not Chk2. EMSA experiments revealed a slower migrating band after c-Myc bound the E-box in response to B[a]P treatment, which was abolished upon the addition of the ERK inhibitor PD98059 in H1355 cells. Phospho-ERK inhibition and dominant negative mutant Chk1 expression reversed B[a]P-induced S phase accumulation and downregulated phospho-Chk1 and phospho-ERK expression. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of ERK and its downstream mediator Chk1 may contribute to B[a]P-induced S phase accumulation in H1355 cells. The results could help in the development of lung cancer treatments that target the Chk1 pathway through ERK. PMID:25769181

  16. Mechanism-Based Screen for G1/S Checkpoint Activators Identifies a Selective Activator of EIF2AK3/PERK Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Barrie, S. Elaine; Zoumpoulidou, Georgia; te Poele, Robert H.; Aherne, G. Wynne; Wilson, Stuart C.; Sheldrake, Peter; McDonald, Edward; Venet, Mathilde; Soudy, Christelle; Elustondo, Frédéric; Rigoreau, Laurent; Blagg, Julian; Workman, Paul; Garrett, Michelle D.; Mittnacht, Sibylle

    2012-01-01

    Human cancers often contain genetic alterations that disable G1/S checkpoint control and loss of this checkpoint is thought to critically contribute to cancer generation by permitting inappropriate proliferation and distorting fate-driven cell cycle exit. The identification of cell permeable small molecules that activate the G1/S checkpoint may therefore represent a broadly applicable and clinically effective strategy for the treatment of cancer. Here we describe the identification of several novel small molecules that trigger G1/S checkpoint activation and characterise the mechanism of action for one, CCT020312, in detail. Transcriptional profiling by cDNA microarray combined with reverse genetics revealed phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2-alpha (EIF2A) through the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 3 (EIF2AK3/PERK) as the mechanism of action of this compound. While EIF2AK3/PERK activation classically follows endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signalling that sets off a range of different cellular responses, CCT020312 does not trigger these other cellular responses but instead selectively elicits EIF2AK3/PERK signalling. Phosphorylation of EIF2A by EIF2A kinases is a known means to block protein translation and hence restriction point transit in G1, but further supports apoptosis in specific contexts. Significantly, EIF2AK3/PERK signalling has previously been linked to the resistance of cancer cells to multiple anticancer chemotherapeutic agents, including drugs that target the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway and taxanes. Consistent with such findings CCT020312 sensitizes cancer cells with defective taxane-induced EIF2A phosphorylation to paclitaxel treatment. Our work therefore identifies CCT020312 as a novel small molecule chemical tool for the selective activation of EIF2A-mediated translation control with utility for proof-of-concept applications in EIF2A-centered therapeutic approaches, and as a chemical starting point for

  17. Temporal Organization of the Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Tyson, John J.; Novak, Bela

    2009-01-01

    Summary The coordination of growth, DNA replication and division in proliferating cells can be adequately explained by a ‘clock + checkpoint’ model. The clock is an underlying circular sequence of states; the checkpoints ensure that the cycle proceeds without mistakes. From the molecular complexities of the control system in modern eukaryotes, we isolate a simple network of positive and negative feedbacks that embodies a clock + checkpoints. The model accounts for the fundamental physiological properties of mitotic cell divisions, evokes a new view of the meiotic program, and suggests how the control system may have evolved in the first place. PMID:18786381

  18. Checkpointing in speculative versioning caches

    DOEpatents

    Eichenberger, Alexandre E; Gara, Alan; Gschwind, Michael K; Ohmacht, Martin

    2013-08-27

    Mechanisms for generating checkpoints in a speculative versioning cache of a data processing system are provided. The mechanisms execute code within the data processing system, wherein the code accesses cache lines in the speculative versioning cache. The mechanisms further determine whether a first condition occurs indicating a need to generate a checkpoint in the speculative versioning cache. The checkpoint is a speculative cache line which is made non-speculative in response to a second condition occurring that requires a roll-back of changes to a cache line corresponding to the speculative cache line. The mechanisms also generate the checkpoint in the speculative versioning cache in response to a determination that the first condition has occurred.

  19. ERRβ splice variants differentially regulate cell cycle progression

    PubMed Central

    Heckler, Mary Mazzotta; Riggins, Rebecca B

    2015-01-01

    Orphan receptors comprise nearly half of all members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Despite having broad structural similarities to the classical estrogen receptors, estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) have their own unique DNA response elements and functions. In this study, we focus on 2 ERRβ splice variants, short form ERRβ (ERRβsf) and ERRβ2, and identify their differing roles in cell cycle regulation. Using DY131 (a synthetic agonist of ERRβ), splice-variant selective shRNA, and exogenous ERRβsf and ERRβ2 cDNAs, we demonstrate the role of ERRβsf in mediating the G1 checkpoint through p21. We also show ERRβsf is required for DY131-induced cellular senescence. A key novel finding of this study is that ERRβ2 can mediate a G2/M arrest in response to DY131. In the absence of ERRβ2, the DY131-induced G2/M arrest is reversed, and this is accompanied by p21 induction and a G1 arrest. This study illustrates novel functions for ERRβ splice variants and provides evidence for splice variant interaction. PMID:25496115

  20. Analysis of cell cycle position in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Matthew J; Amiri, Mehdi; Dick, Frederick A

    2012-01-01

    of many different cell stimuli and pharmacologic agents on the regulation of progression through these different cell cycle phases. In this report we describe methods for labeling and staining cultured cells, as well as their analysis by flow cytometry. We also include experimental examples of how this method can be used to measure the effects of growth inhibiting signals from cytokines such as TGF-β1, and proliferative inhibitors such as the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, p27KIP1. We also include an alternate protocol that allows for the analysis of cell cycle position in a sub-population of cells within a larger culture. In this case, we demonstrate how to detect a cell cycle arrest in cells transfected with the retinoblastoma gene even when greatly outnumbered by untransfected cells in the same culture. These examples illustrate the many ways that DNA staining and flow cytometry can be utilized and adapted to investigate fundamental questions of mammalian cell cycle control. PMID:22297617

  1. Disruption of G1-phase phospholipid turnover by inhibition of Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 induces a p53-dependent cell-cycle arrest in G1 phase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu Hannah; Zhao, Chunying; Seleznev, Konstantin; Song, Keying; Manfredi, James J; Ma, Zhongmin Alex

    2006-03-15

    The G1 phase of the cell cycle is characterized by a high rate of membrane phospholipid turnover. Cells regulate this turnover by coordinating the opposing actions of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase and the group VI Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2). However, little is known about how such turnover affects cell-cycle progression. Here, we show that G1-phase phospholipid turnover is essential for cell proliferation. Specific inhibition of iPLA2 arrested cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. This G1-phase arrest was associated with marked upregulation of the tumour suppressor p53 and the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21cip1. Inactivation of iPLA2 failed to arrest p53-deficient HCT cells in the G1 phase and caused massive apoptosis of p21-deficient HCT cells, suggesting that this G1-phase arrest requires activation of p53 and expression of p21cip1. Furthermore, downregulation of p53 by siRNA in p21-deficient HCT cells reduced the cell death, indicating that inhibition of iPLA2 induced p53-dependent apoptosis in the absence of p21cip1. Thus, our study reveals hitherto unrecognized cooperation between p53 and iPLA2 to monitor membrane-phospholipid turnover in G1 phase. Disrupting the G1-phase phospholipid turnover by inhibition of iPLA2 activates the p53-p21cip1 checkpoint mechanism, thereby blocking the entry of G1-phase cells into S phase. PMID:16492706

  2. Differential expression of cell cycle regulators in CDK5-dependent medullary thyroid carcinoma tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Pozo, Karine; Hillmann, Antje; Augustyn, Alexander; Plattner, Florian; Hai, Tao; Singh, Tanvir; Ramezani, Saleh; Sun, Xiankai; Pfragner, Roswitha; Minna, John D; Cote, Gilbert J; Chen, Herbert; Bibb, James A; Nwariaku, Fiemu E

    2015-05-20

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neuroendocrine cancer of thyroid C-cells, for which few treatment options are available. We have recently reported a role for cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) in MTC pathogenesis. We have generated a mouse model, in which MTC proliferation is induced upon conditional overexpression of the CDK5 activator, p25, in C-cells, and arrested by interrupting p25 overexpression. Here, we identify genes and proteins that are differentially expressed in proliferating versus arrested benign mouse MTC. We find that downstream target genes of the tumor suppressor, retinoblastoma protein, including genes encoding cell cycle regulators such as CDKs, cyclins and CDK inhibitors, are significantly upregulated in malignant mouse tumors in a CDK5-dependent manner. Reducing CDK5 activity in human MTC cells down-regulated these cell cycle regulators suggesting that CDK5 activity is critical for cell cycle progression and MTC proliferation. Finally, the same set of cell cycle proteins was consistently overexpressed in human sporadic MTC but not in hereditary MTC. Together these findings suggest that aberrant CDK5 activity precedes cell cycle initiation and thus may function as a tumor-promoting factor facilitating cell cycle protein expression in MTC. Targeting aberrant CDK5 or its downstream effectors may be a strategy to halt MTC tumorigenesis. PMID:25900242

  3. Convergence of Alarmone and Cell Cycle Signaling from Trans-Encoded Sensory Domains

    PubMed Central

    Sanselicio, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the myriad of different sensory domains encoded in bacterial genomes, only a few are known to control the cell cycle. Here, suppressor genetics was used to unveil the regulatory interplay between the PAS (Per-Arnt-Sim) domain protein MopJ and the uncharacterized GAF (cyclic GMP-phosphodiesterase–adenylyl cyclase–FhlA) domain protein PtsP, which resembles an alternative component of the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) transferase system. Both of these systems indirectly target the Caulobacter crescentus cell cycle master regulator CtrA, but in different ways. While MopJ acts on CtrA via the cell cycle kinases DivJ and DivL, which control the removal of CtrA at the G1-S transition, our data show that PtsP signals through the conserved alarmone (p)ppGpp, which prevents CtrA cycling under nutritional stress and in stationary phase. We found that PtsP interacts genetically and physically with the (p)ppGpp synthase/hydrolase SpoT and that it modulates several promoters that are directly activated by the cell cycle transcriptional regulator GcrA. Thus, parallel systems integrate nutritional and systemic signals within the cell cycle transcriptional network, converging on the essential alphaproteobacterial regulator CtrA while also affecting global cell cycle transcription in other ways. PMID:26489861

  4. Infection with Toxoplasma gondii results in dysregulation of the host cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Molestina, Robert E.; El-Guendy, Nadia; Sinai, Anthony P.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Mammalian cells infected with Toxoplasma gondii are characterized by a profound reprogramming of gene expression. We examined whether such transcriptional responses were linked to changes in the cell cycle of the host. Human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF) in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle were infected with T. gondii and FACS analysis of DNA content was performed. Cell cycle profiles revealed a promotion into the S phase followed by an arrest towards the G2/M boundary with infection. This response was markedly different from that of growth factor stimulation which caused cell cycle entry and completion. Transcriptional profiles of T. gondii-infected HFF showed sustained increases in transcripts associated with a G1/S transition and DNA synthesis coupled to an abrogation of cell cycle regulators critical in G2/M transition relative to growth factor stimulation. These divergent responses correlated with a distinct temporal modulation of the critical cell cycle regulator kinase ERK by infection. While the kinetics of ERK phosphorylation by EGF showed rapid and sustained activation, infected cells displayed an oscillatory pattern of activation. Our results suggest that T. gondii infection induces and maintains a “proliferation response” in the infected cell which may fulfill critical growth requirements of the parasite during intracellular residence. PMID:18182087

  5. Synchronization of Cell Cycle Oscillator by Multi-pulse Chemical Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yihan; Li, Ying; Dinner, Aaron; Scherer, Norbert

    2011-03-01

    Oscillators underlie biological rhythms in various organisms and provide a timekeeping mechanism. Cell cycle oscillator, for example, controls the progression of cell cycle stage and drives cyclic reproduction in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The understanding of the underlying nonlinear regulatory network allows experimental design of external perturbations to interact and control cell cycle oscillation. We have previously demonstrated in experiment and in simulation that the cell cycle coherence of a model bacterium can be progressively tuned by the level of a histidine kinase. Here, we present our recent effort to synchronize the division of a population of bacterium cells by external pulsatile chemical perturbations. We were able to synchronize the cell population by phase-locking approach: the external oscillator (i.e. periodic perturbation) entrains the internal cell cycle oscillator which is in analogous to the phase-locking of circadian clock to external light/dark oscillator. We explored the ranges of frequencies for two external oscillators of different amplitudes where phase-locking occurred. To our surprise, non-periodic chemical perturbations could also cause synchronization of a cell population, suggesting a Markovian cell cycle oscillation dynamics.

  6. Animal Models for Studying the In Vivo Functions of Cell Cycle CDKs.

    PubMed

    Risal, Sanjiv; Adhikari, Deepak; Liu, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Multiple Cdks (Cdk4, Cdk6, and Cdk2) and a mitotic Cdk (Cdk1) are involved in cell cycle progression in mammals. Cyclins, Cdk inhibitors, and phosphorylations (both activating and inhibitory) at different cellular levels tightly modulate the activities of these kinases. Based on the results of biochemical studies, it was long believed that different Cdks functioned at specific stages during cell cycle progression. However, deletion of all three interphase Cdks in mice affected cell cycle entry and progression only in certain specialized cells such as hematopoietic cells, beta cells of the pancreas, pituitary lactotrophs, and cardiomyocytes. These genetic experiments challenged the prevailing biochemical model and established that Cdks function in a cell-specific, but not a stage-specific, manner during cell cycle entry and the progression of mitosis. Recent in vivo studies have further established that Cdk1 is the only Cdk that is both essential and sufficient for driving the resumption of meiosis during mouse oocyte maturation. These genetic studies suggest a minimal-essential cell cycle model in which Cdk1 is the central regulator of cell cycle progression. Cdk1 can compensate for the loss of the interphase Cdks by forming active complexes with A-, B-, E-, and D-type Cyclins in a stepwise manner. Thus, Cdk1 plays an essential role in both mitosis and meiosis in mammals, whereas interphase Cdks are dispensable. PMID:26231715

  7. Protein tyrosine nitration in the cell cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Min; Mateoiu, Claudia; Souchelnytskyi, Serhiy

    2011-09-23

    Highlights: {yields} Enrichment of 3-nitrotyrosine containing proteins from cells synchronized in different phases of the cell cycle. {yields} Identification of 76 tyrosine nitrated proteins that change expression during the cell cycle. {yields} Nineteen identified proteins were previously described as regulators of cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Nitration of tyrosine residues in proteins is associated with cell response to oxidative/nitrosative stress. Tyrosine nitration is relatively low abundant post-translational modification that may affect protein functions. Little is known about the extent of protein tyrosine nitration in cells during progression through the cell cycle. Here we report identification of proteins enriched for tyrosine nitration in cells synchronized in G0/G1, S or G2/M phases of the cell cycle. We identified 27 proteins in cells synchronized in G0/G1 phase, 37 proteins in S phase synchronized cells, and 12 proteins related to G2/M phase. Nineteen of the identified proteins were previously described as regulators of cell proliferation. Thus, our data indicate which tyrosine nitrated proteins may affect regulation of the cell cycle.

  8. Cell Cycle Synchronization in Xenopus Egg Extracts.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Peter J; Neusiedler, Julia; Creavin, Kevin; Chadha, Gaganmeet Singh; Blow, J Julian

    2016-01-01

    Many important discoveries in cell cycle research have been made using cell-free extracts prepared from the eggs of the South African clawed frog Xenopus laevis. These extracts efficiently support the key nuclear functions of the eukaryotic cell cycle in vitro under apparently the same controls that exist in vivo. The Xenopus cell-free system is therefore uniquely suited to the study of the mechanisms, dynamics and integration of cell cycle regulated processes at a biochemical level. Here, we describe methods currently in use in our laboratory for the preparation of Xenopus egg extracts and demembranated sperm nuclei. We detail how these extracts can be used to study the key transitions of the eukaryotic cell cycle and describe conditions under which these transitions can be manipulated by addition of drugs that either retard or advance passage. In addition, we describe in detail essential techniques that provide a practical starting point for investigating the function of proteins involved in the operation of the eukaryotic cell cycle. PMID:26254920

  9. Phosphoproteomic Profiling Reveals Epstein-Barr Virus Protein Kinase Integration of DNA Damage Response and Mitotic Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Renfeng; Pinto, Sneha M.; Shaw, Patrick G.; Huang, Tai-Chung; Wan, Jun; Qian, Jiang; Gowda, Harsha; Wu, Xinyan; Lv, Dong-Wen; Zhang, Kun; Manda, Srikanth S.; Pandey, Akhilesh; Hayward, S. Diane

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is etiologically linked to infectious mononucleosis and several human cancers. EBV encodes a conserved protein kinase BGLF4 that plays a key role in the viral life cycle. To provide new insight into the host proteins regulated by BGLF4, we utilized stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics to compare site-specific phosphorylation in BGLF4-expressing Akata B cells. Our analysis revealed BGLF4-mediated hyperphosphorylation of 3,046 unique sites corresponding to 1,328 proteins. Frequency analysis of these phosphosites revealed a proline-rich motif signature downstream of BGLF4, indicating a broader substrate recognition for BGLF4 than its cellular ortholog cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1). Further, motif analysis of the hyperphosphorylated sites revealed enrichment in ATM, ATR and Aurora kinase substrates while functional analyses revealed significant enrichment of pathways related to the DNA damage response (DDR), mitosis and cell cycle. Phosphorylation of proteins associated with the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) indicated checkpoint activation, an event that inactivates the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome, APC/C. Furthermore, we demonstrated that BGLF4 binds to and directly phosphorylates the key cellular proteins PP1, MPS1 and CDC20 that lie upstream of SAC activation and APC/C inhibition. Consistent with APC/C inactivation, we found that BGLF4 stabilizes the expression of many known APC/C substrates. We also noted hyperphosphorylation of 22 proteins associated the nuclear pore complex, which may contribute to nuclear pore disassembly and SAC activation. A drug that inhibits mitotic checkpoint activation also suppressed the accumulation of extracellular EBV virus. Taken together, our data reveal that, in addition to the DDR, manipulation of mitotic kinase signaling and SAC activation are mechanisms associated with lytic EBV replication. All MS data have been deposited in

  10. Phosphoproteomic Profiling Reveals Epstein-Barr Virus Protein Kinase Integration of DNA Damage Response and Mitotic Signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Renfeng; Liao, Gangling; Nirujogi, Raja Sekhar; Pinto, Sneha M; Shaw, Patrick G; Huang, Tai-Chung; Wan, Jun; Qian, Jiang; Gowda, Harsha; Wu, Xinyan; Lv, Dong-Wen; Zhang, Kun; Manda, Srikanth S; Pandey, Akhilesh; Hayward, S Diane

    2015-12-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is etiologically linked to infectious mononucleosis and several human cancers. EBV encodes a conserved protein kinase BGLF4 that plays a key role in the viral life cycle. To provide new insight into the host proteins regulated by BGLF4, we utilized stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics to compare site-specific phosphorylation in BGLF4-expressing Akata B cells. Our analysis revealed BGLF4-mediated hyperphosphorylation of 3,046 unique sites corresponding to 1,328 proteins. Frequency analysis of these phosphosites revealed a proline-rich motif signature downstream of BGLF4, indicating a broader substrate recognition for BGLF4 than its cellular ortholog cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1). Further, motif analysis of the hyperphosphorylated sites revealed enrichment in ATM, ATR and Aurora kinase substrates while functional analyses revealed significant enrichment of pathways related to the DNA damage response (DDR), mitosis and cell cycle. Phosphorylation of proteins associated with the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) indicated checkpoint activation, an event that inactivates the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome, APC/C. Furthermore, we demonstrated that BGLF4 binds to and directly phosphorylates the key cellular proteins PP1, MPS1 and CDC20 that lie upstream of SAC activation and APC/C inhibition. Consistent with APC/C inactivation, we found that BGLF4 stabilizes the expression of many known APC/C substrates. We also noted hyperphosphorylation of 22 proteins associated the nuclear pore complex, which may contribute to nuclear pore disassembly and SAC activation. A drug that inhibits mitotic checkpoint activation also suppressed the accumulation of extracellular EBV virus. Taken together, our data reveal that, in addition to the DDR, manipulation of mitotic kinase signaling and SAC activation are mechanisms associated with lytic EBV replication. All MS data have been deposited in

  11. Aberrant modulation of the BRCA1 and G1/S cell cycle pathways in alcoholic hepatitis patients with Mallory Denk Bodies revealed by RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    French, Barbara A.; Liao, Guanghong; Li, Jun; Tillman, Brittany; French, Samuel W.

    2015-01-01

    Mallory-Denk Bodies (MDBs) are prevalent in various liver diseases including alcoholic hepatitis (AH) and are formed in mice livers by feeding DDC. Liver injury from alcohol administration causes balloon hepatocytes and MDB formation impeding liver regeneration. By comparing AH livers where MDBs had formed with normal liver transcriptomes obtained by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), there was significant upregulation of BRCA1-mediated signaling and G1/S cell cycle checkpoint pathways. The transcriptional architecture of differentially expressed genes from AH livers reflected step-wise transcriptional changes progressing to AH. Key molecules such as BRCA1, p15 and p21 were significantly upregulated both in AH livers and in the livers of the DDC re-fed mice model where MDBs had formed. The increase of G1/S cell cycle checkpoint inhibitors p15 and p21 results in cell cycle arrest and inhibition of liver regeneration, implying that p15 and p21 could be exploited for the identification of specific targets for the treatment of liver disease. Provided here for the first time is the RNA-Seq data that represents the fully annotated catalogue of the expression of mRNAs. The most prominent alterations observed were the changes in BRCA1-mediated signaling and G1/S cell cycle checkpoint pathways. These new findings expand previous and related knowledge in the search for gene changes that might be critical in the understanding of the underlying progression to the development of AH. PMID:26623723

  12. Cdc18/CDC6 activates the Rad3-dependent checkpoint in the fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Fersht, Naomi; Hermand, Damien; Hayles, Jacqueline; Nurse, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A screen for genes that can ectopically activate a Rad3-dependent checkpoint block over mitosis in fission yeast has identified the DNA replication initiation factor cdc18 (known as CDC6 in other organisms). Either a stabilized form of Cdc18, the Cdc18-T6A phosphorylation mutant, or overexpression of wild type Cdc18, activate the Rad3-dependent S-M checkpoint in the apparent absence of detectable replication structures and gross DNA damage. This cell cycle block relies on the Rad checkpoint pathway and requires Chk1 phosphorylation and activation. Unexpectedly, Cdc18-T6A induces changes in the mobility of Chromosome III, affecting the size of a restriction fragment containing rDNA repeats and producing aberrant nucleolar structures. Recombination events within the rDNA appear to contribute at least in part to the cell cycle delay. We propose that an elevated level of Cdc18 activates the Rad3-dependent checkpoint either directly or indirectly, and additionally causes expansion of the rDNA repeats on Chromosome III. PMID:17690116

  13. Analysis of cell-cycle regulation following exposure of lung-derived cells to γ-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trani, D.; Lucchetti, C.; Cassone, M.; D'Agostino, L.; Caputi, M.; Giordano, A.

    Acute exposure of mammalian cells to ionizing radiation results in a delay of cell-cycle progression and/or augmentation of apoptosis. Following ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage, cell-cycle arrest in the G1- or G2-phase of the cell-cycle prevents or delays DNA replication or mitosis, providing time for the DNA repair machinery to exert its function. Deregulation or failing of cell-cycle checkpoints and/or DNA repair mechanisms may lead normal cells bearing chromosome mutations to acquire neoplastic autonomy, which in turn can trigger the onset of cancer. Existing studies have focused on the impact of p53 status on the radiation response of lung cancer (LC) cell lines in terms of both cell-cycle regulation and apoptosis, while no comparative studies have been performed on the radiation response of lung derived normal and cancerous epithelial cells. To investigate the radiation response in normal and cancerous phenotypes, along with the role and impact of p53 status, and possible correlations with pRb/p105 or other proteins involved in carcinogenesis and cell-cycle regulation, we selected two lung-derived epithelial cell lines, one normal (NL20, p53 wild-type) and one non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), H358 (known to be p53-deficient). We compared the levels of γ-induced cell proliferation ability, cell-cycle arrest, apoptotic index, and expression levels of cell-cycle regulating and regulated proteins. The different cell sensitivity, apoptotic response and protein expression profiles resulting from our study for NL20 and H358 cells suggest that still unknown mechanisms involving p53, pRb/p105 and their target molecules might play a pivotal role in determining cell sensitivity and resistance upon exposure to ionizing radiation.

  14. The Dawn of Aurora Kinase Research: From Fly Genetics to the Clinic.

    PubMed

    Carmena, Mar; Earnshaw, William C; Glover, David M

    2015-01-01

    Aurora kinases comprise a family of highly conserved serine-threonine protein kinases that play a pivotal role in the regulation of cell cycle. Aurora kinases are not only involved in the control of multiple processes during cell division but also coordinate chromosomal and cytoskeletal events, contributing to the regulation of checkpoints and ensuring the smooth progression of the cell cycle. Because of their fundamental contribution to cell cycle regulation, Aurora kinases were originally identified in independent genetic screens designed to find genes involved in the regulation of cell division. The first aurora mutant was part of a collection of mutants isolated in C. Nusslein-Volhard's laboratory. This collection was screened in D. M. Glover's laboratory in search for mutations disrupting the centrosome cycle in embryos derived from homozygous mutant mothers. The mutants identified were given names related to the "polar regions," and included not only aurora but also the equally famous polo. Ipl1, the only Aurora in yeast, was identified in a genetic screen looking for mutations that caused chromosome segregation defects. The discovery of a second Aurora-like kinase in mammals opened a new chapter in the research of Aurora kinases. The rat kinase AIM was found to be highly homologous to the fly and yeast proteins, but localized at the midzone and midbody and was proposed to have a role in cytokinesis. Homologs of the equatorial Aurora (Aurora B) were identified in metazoans ranging from flies to humans. Xenopus Aurora B was found to be in a complex with the chromosomal passenger INCENP, and both proteins were shown to be essential in flies for chromosome structure, segregation, central spindle formation and cytokinesis. Fifteen years on, Aurora kinase research is an active field of research. After the successful introduction of the first anti-mitotic agents in cancer therapy, both Auroras have become the focus of attention as targets for the development of new

  15. The Dawn of Aurora Kinase Research: From Fly Genetics to the Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Carmena, Mar; Earnshaw, William C.; Glover, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Aurora kinases comprise a family of highly conserved serine-threonine protein kinases that play a pivotal role in the regulation of cell cycle. Aurora kinases are not only involved in the control of multiple processes during cell division but also coordinate chromosomal and cytoskeletal events, contributing to the regulation of checkpoints and ensuring the smooth progression of the cell cycle. Because of their fundamental contribution to cell cycle regulation, Aurora kinases were originally identified in independent genetic screens designed to find genes involved in the regulation of cell division. The first aurora mutant was part of a collection of mutants isolated in C. Nusslein-Volhard's laboratory. This collection was screened in D. M. Glover's laboratory in search for mutations disrupting the centrosome cycle in embryos derived from homozygous mutant mothers. The mutants identified were given names related to the “polar regions,” and included not only aurora but also the equally famous polo. Ipl1, the only Aurora in yeast, was identified in a genetic screen looking for mutations that caused chromosome segregation defects. The discovery of a second Aurora-like kinase in mammals opened a new chapter in the research of Aurora kinases. The rat kinase AIM was found to be highly homologous to the fly and yeast proteins, but localized at the midzone and midbody and was proposed to have a role in cytokinesis. Homologs of the equatorial Aurora (Aurora B) were identified in metazoans ranging from flies to humans. Xenopus Aurora B was found to be in a complex with the chromosomal passenger INCENP, and both proteins were shown to be essential in flies for chromosome structure, segregation, central spindle formation and cytokinesis. Fifteen years on, Aurora kinase research is an active field of research. After the successful introduction of the first anti-mitotic agents in cancer therapy, both Auroras have become the focus of attention as targets for the development of

  16. Flavonoids: from cell cycle regulation to biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Woo, Ho-Hyung; Jeong, Byeong Ryong; Hawes, Martha C

    2005-03-01

    Flavonoids have been proposed to play diverse roles in plant growth and development, including defense, symbiosis, pollen development and male fertility, polar auxin transport, and protection against ultraviolet radiation. Recently, a new role in cell cycle regulation has emerged. Genetic alteration of glucuronide metabolism by altered expression of a Pisum sativum UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (PsUGT1) results in an altered cell cycle in pea, alfalfa, and Arabidopsis. In alfalfa, altered expression of PsUGT1 results in accumulation of a flavonoid-like compound that suppresses growth of cultured cells. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that PsUGT1 functions by controlling cellular levels of a factor controlling cell cycle (FCC). PMID:15834800

  17. Molecular Imaging of the ATM Kinase Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Terence M.; Nyati, Shyam; Ross, Brian D.; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine kinase critical to the cellular DNA-damage response, including from DNA double-strand breaks. ATM activation results in the initiation of a complex cascade of events including DNA damage repair, cell cycle checkpoint control, and survival. We sought to create a bioluminescent reporter that dynamically and noninvasively measures ATM kinase activity in living cells and subjects. Methods and Materials: Using the split luciferase technology, we constructed a hybrid cDNA, ATM-reporter (ATMR), coding for a protein that quantitatively reports on changes in ATM kinase activity through changes in bioluminescence. Results: Treatment of ATMR-expressing cells with ATM inhibitors resulted in a dose-dependent increase in bioluminescence activity. In contrast, induction of ATM kinase activity upon irradiation resulted in a decrease in reporter activity that correlated with ATM and Chk2 activation by immunoblotting in a time-dependent fashion. Nuclear targeting improved ATMR sensitivity to both ATM inhibitors and radiation, whereas a mutant ATMR (lacking the target phosphorylation site) displayed a muted response. Treatment with ATM inhibitors and small interfering (si)RNA-targeted knockdown of ATM confirm the specificity of the reporter. Using reporter expressing xenografted tumors demonstrated the ability of ATMR to report in ATM activity in mouse models that correlated in a time-dependent fashion with changes in Chk2 activity. Conclusions: We describe the development and validation of a novel, specific, noninvasive bioluminescent reporter that enables monitoring of ATM activity in real time, in vitro and in vivo. Potential applications of this reporter include the identification and development of novel ATM inhibitors or ATM-interacting partners through high-throughput screens and in vivo pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies of ATM inhibitors in preclinical models.

  18. Robustness and adaptation reveal plausible cell cycle controlling subnetwork in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiun-Yan; Huang, Chi-Wei; Kao, Kuo-Ching; Lai, Pik-Yin

    2013-04-10

    Biological systems are often organized spatially and temporally by multi-scale functional subsystems (modules). A specific subcellular process often corresponds to a subsystem composed of some of these interconnected modules. Accurate identification of system-level modularity organization from the large scale networks can provide valuable information on subsystem models of subcellular processes or physiological phenomena. Computational identification of functional modules from the large scale network is the key approach to solve the complexity of modularity in the past decade, but the overlapping and multi-scale nature of modules often renders unsatisfactory results in these methods. Most current methods for modularity detection are optimization-based and suffered from the drawback of size resolution limit. It is difficult to trace the origin of the unsatisfactory results, which may be due to poor data, inappropriate objective function selection or simply resulted from natural evolution, and hence no system-level accurate modular models for subcellular processes can be offered. Motivated by the idea of evolution with robustness and adaption as guiding principles, we propose a novel approach that can identify significant multi-scale overlapping modules that are sufficiently accurate at the system and subsystem levels, giving biological insights for subcellular processes. The success of our evolution strategy method is demonstrated by applying to the yeast protein-protein interaction network. Functional subsystems of important physiological phenomena can be revealed. In particular, the cell cycle controlling network is selected for detailed discussion. The cell cycle subcellular processes in yeast can be successfully dissected into functional modules of cell cycle control, cell size check point, spindle assembly checkpoint, and DNA damage check point in G2/M and S phases. The interconnections between check points and cell cycle control modules provide clues on the

  19. Spindle assembly checkpoint gene mdf-1 regulates germ cell proliferation in response to nutrition signals in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Sonoko; Yamamoto, Takaharu G; Kitagawa, Risa

    2008-01-01

    When newly hatched Caenorhabditis elegans larvae are starved, their primordial germ cells (PGCs) arrest in the post-S phase. This starvation-induced PGC arrest is mediated by the DAF-18/PTEN–AKT-1/PKB nutrient-sensing pathway. Here, we report that the conserved spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) component MDF-1/MAD1 is required for the PGC arrest. We identified 2 Akt kinase phosphorylation sites on MDF-1. Expression of a non-phosphorylatable mutant MDF-1 partially suppressed the defect in the starvation-induced PGC arrest in L1 larvae lacking DAF-18, suggesting that MDF-1 regulates germ cell proliferation as a downstream target of AKT-1, thereby demonstrating a functional link between cell-cycle regulation by the SAC components and nutrient sensing by DAF-18–AKT-1 during post-embryonic development. The phosphorylation status of MDF-1 affects its binding to another SAC component, MDF-2/MAD2. The loss of MDF-2 or another SAC component also caused inappropriate germ cell proliferation, but the defect was less severe than that caused by mdf-1 hemizygosity, suggesting that MDF-1 causes the PGC arrest by two mechanisms, one involving MDF-2 and another that is independent of other SAC components. PMID:18309291

  20. Cell Cycle Control by a Minimal Cdk Network

    PubMed Central

    Gérard, Claude; Tyson, John J.; Coudreuse, Damien; Novák, Béla

    2015-01-01

    In present-day eukaryotes, the cell division cycle is controlled by a complex network of interacting proteins, including members of the cyclin and cyclin-dependent protein kinase (Cdk) families, and the Anaphase Promoting Complex (APC). Successful progression through the cell cycle depends on precise, temporally ordered regulation of the functions of these proteins. In light of this complexity, it is surprising that in fission yeast, a minimal Cdk network consisting of a single cyclin-Cdk fusion protein can control DNA synthesis and mitosis in a manner that is indistinguishable from wild type. To improve our understanding of the cell cycle regulatory network, we built and analysed a mathematical model of the molecular interactions controlling the G1/S and G2/M transitions in these minimal cells. The model accounts for all observed properties of yeast strains operating with the fusion protein. Importantly, coupling the model’s predictions with experimental analysis of alternative minimal cells, we uncover an explanation for the unexpected fact that elimination of inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdk is benign in these strains while it strongly affects normal cells. Furthermore, in the strain without inhibitory phosphorylation of the fusion protein, the distribution of cell size at division is unusually broad, an observation that is accounted for by stochastic simulations of the model. Our approach provides novel insights into the organization and quantitative regulation of wild type cell cycle progression. In particular, it leads us to propose a new mechanistic model for the phenomenon of mitotic catastrophe, relying on a combination of unregulated, multi-cyclin-dependent Cdk activities. PMID:25658582

  1. Foxo3 circular RNA retards cell cycle progression via forming ternary complexes with p21 and CDK2

    PubMed Central

    Du, William W.; Yang, Weining; Liu, Elizabeth; Yang, Zhenguo; Dhaliwal, Preet; Yang, Burton B.

    2016-01-01

    Most RNAs generated by the human genome have no protein-coding ability and are termed non-coding RNAs. Among these include circular RNAs, which include exonic circular RNAs (circRNA), mainly found in the cytoplasm, and intronic RNAs (ciRNA), predominantly detected in the nucleus. The biological functions of circular RNAs remain largely unknown, although ciRNAs have been reported to promote gene transcription, while circRNAs may function as microRNA sponges. We demonstrate that the circular RNA circ-Foxo3 was highly expressed in non-cancer cells and were associated with cell cycle progression. Silencing endogenous circ-Foxo3 promoted cell proliferation. Ectopic expression of circ-Foxo3 repressed cell cycle progression by binding to the cell cycle proteins cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (also known as cell division protein kinase 2 or CDK2) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (or p21), resulting in the formation of a ternary complex. Normally, CDK2 interacts with cyclin A and cyclin E to facilitate cell cycle entry, while p21works to inhibit these interactions and arrest cell cycle progression. The formation of this circ-Foxo3-p21-CDK2 ternary complex arrested the function of CDK2 and blocked cell cycle progression. PMID:26861625

  2. Lazy checkpoint coordination for bounding rollback propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1992-01-01

    Independent checkpointing allows maximum process autonomy but suffers from potential domino effects. Coordinated checkpointing eliminates the domino effect by sacrificing a certain degree of process autonomy. In this paper, we propose the technique of lazy checkpoint coordination which preserves process autonomy while employing communication-induced checkpoint coordination for bounding rollback propagation. The introduction of the notion of laziness allows a flexible trade-off between the cost for checkpoint coordination and the average rollback distance. Worst-case overhead analysis provides a means for estimating the extra checkpoint overhead. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to evaluate the benefits of the proposed scheme for real applications.

  3. Compiler-assisted static checkpoint insertion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Junsheng; Fuchs, W. K.; Abraham, Jacob A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a compiler-assisted approach for static checkpoint insertion. Instead of fixing the checkpoint location before program execution, a compiler enhanced polling mechanism is utilized to maintain both the desired checkpoint intervals and reproducible checkpoint 1ocations. The technique has been implemented in a GNU CC compiler for Sun 3 and Sun 4 (Sparc) processors. Experiments demonstrate that the approach provides for stable checkpoint intervals and reproducible checkpoint placements with performance overhead comparable to a previously presented compiler assisted dynamic scheme (CATCH) utilizing the system clock.

  4. PGC-1α regulates the cell cycle through ATP and ROS in CH1 cells* #

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xu-feng; Yao, Kun; Du, Xing; Li, Yan; Yang, Xiu-yu; Yu, Min; Li, Mei-zhang; Cui, Qing-hua

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) is a transcriptional co-activator involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, respiratory capacity, and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). PGC-1α plays an important role in cellular metabolism and is associated with tumorigenesis, suggesting an involvement in cell cycle progression. However, the underlying mechanisms mediating its involvement in these processes remain unclear. To elucidate the signaling pathways involved in PGC-1α function, we established a cell line, CH1 PGC-1α, which stably overexpresses PGC-1α. Using this cell line, we found that over-expression of PGC-1α stimulated extra adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. These effects were accompanied by up-regulation of the cell cycle checkpoint regulators CyclinD1 and CyclinB1. We hypothesized that ATP and ROS function as cellular signals to regulate cyclins and control cell cycle progression. Indeed, we found that reduction of ATP levels down-regulated CyclinD1 but not CyclinB1, whereas elevation of ROS levels down-regulated CyclinB1 but not CyclinD1. Furthermore, both low ATP levels and elevated ROS levels inhibited cell growth, but PGC-1α was maintained at a constant level. Together, these results demonstrate that PGC-1α regulates cell cycle progression through modulation of CyclinD1 and CyclinB1 by ATP and ROS. These findings suggest that PGC-1α potentially coordinates energy metabolism together with the cell cycle. PMID:26834014

  5. Ghrelin regulates cell cycle-related gene expression in cultured hippocampal neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyunju; Park, Seungjoon

    2016-08-01

    We have previously demonstrated that ghrelin stimulates the cellular proliferation of cultured adult rat hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs). However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which ghrelin regulates cell cycle progression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential effects of ghrelin on cell cycle regulatory molecules in cultured hippocampal NSCs. Ghrelin treatment increased proliferation assessed by CCK-8 proliferation assay. The expression levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cell division control 2, well-known cell-proliferating markers, were also increased by ghrelin. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis revealed that ghrelin promoted progression of cell cycle from G0/G1 to S phase, whereas this progression was attenuated by the pretreatment with specific inhibitors of MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin, and janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. Ghrelin-induced proliferative effect was associated with increased expression of E2F1 transcription factor in the nucleus, as determined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. We also found that ghrelin caused an increase in protein levels of positive regulators of cell cycle, such as cyclin A and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2. Moreover, p27(KIP1) and p57(KIP2) protein levels were reduced when cell were exposed to ghrelin, suggesting downregulation of CDK inhibitors may contribute to proliferative effect of ghrelin. Our data suggest that ghrelin targets both cell cycle positive and negative regulators to stimulate proliferation of cultured hippocampal NSCs. PMID:27325242

  6. Control of sleep by a network of cell cycle genes.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Dinis J S; Machado, Daniel R; Koh, Kyunghee

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is essential for health and cognition, but the molecular and neural mechanisms of sleep regulation are not well understood. We recently reported the identification of TARANIS (TARA) as a sleep-promoting factor that acts in a previously unknown arousal center in Drosophila. tara mutants exhibit a dose-dependent reduction in sleep amount of up to ∼60%. TARA and its mammalian homologs, the Trip-Br (Transcriptional Regulators Interacting with PHD zinc fingers and/or Bromodomains) family of proteins, are primarily known as transcriptional coregulators involved in cell cycle progression, and contain a conserved Cyclin-A (CycA) binding homology domain. We found that tara and CycA synergistically promote sleep, and CycA levels are reduced in tara mutants. Additional data demonstrated that Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) antagonizes tara and CycA to promote wakefulness. Moreover, we identified a subset of CycA expressing neurons in the pars lateralis, a brain region proposed to be analogous to the mammalian hypothalamus, as an arousal center. In this Extra View article, we report further characterization of tara mutants and provide an extended discussion of our findings and future directions within the framework of a working model, in which a network of cell cycle genes, tara, CycA, and Cdk1, interact in an arousal center to regulate sleep. PMID:26925838

  7. Allyl isothiocyanate affects the cell cycle of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Åsberg, Signe E.; Bones, Atle M.; Øverby, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs) are degradation products of glucosinolates present in members of the Brassicaceae family acting as herbivore repellents and antimicrobial compounds. Recent results indicate that allyl ITC (AITC) has a role in defense responses such as glutathione depletion, ROS generation and stomatal closure. In this study we show that exposure to non-lethal concentrations of AITC causes a shift in the cell cycle distribution of Arabidopsis thaliana leading to accumulation of cells in S-phases and a reduced number of cells in non-replicating phases. Furthermore, transcriptional analysis revealed an AITC-induced up-regulation of the gene encoding cyclin-dependent kinase A while several genes encoding mitotic proteins were down-regulated, suggesting an inhibition of mitotic processes. Interestingly, visualization of DNA synthesis indicated that exposure to AITC reduced the rate of DNA replication. Taken together, these results indicate that non-lethal concentrations of AITC induce cells of A. thaliana to enter the cell cycle and accumulate in S-phases, presumably as a part of a defensive response. Thus, this study suggests that AITC has several roles in plant defense and add evidence to the growing data supporting a multifunctional role of glucosinolates and their degradation products in plants. PMID:26042144

  8. Functional Dynamics of Polo-Like Kinase 1 at the Centrosome▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kishi, Kazuhiro; van Vugt, Marcel A. T. M.; Okamoto, Ken-ichi; Hayashi, Yasunori; Yaffe, Michael B.

    2009-01-01

    Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) functions as a key regulator of mitotic events by phosphorylating substrate proteins on centrosomes, kinetochores, the mitotic spindle, and the midbody. Through mechanisms that are incompletely understood, Plk1 is released from and relocalizes to different mitotic structures as cells proceed through mitosis. We used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching to examine the kinetics of this process in more detail. We observed that Plk1 displayed a range of different recovery rates that differ at each mitotic substructure and depend on both the Polo-box domain and a functional kinase domain. Upon mitotic entry, centrosomal Plk1 becomes more dynamic, a process that is directly enhanced by Plk1 kinase activity. In contrast, Plk1 displays little dynamic exchange at the midbody, a process that again is modulated by the kinase activity of Plk1. Our findings suggest that the intrinsic kinase activity of Plk1 triggers its release from early mitotic structures and its relocalization to late mitotic structures. To assess the importance of Plk1 dynamic relocalization, Plk1 was persistently tethered to the centrosome. This resulted in a G2 delay, followed by a prominent prometaphase arrest, as a consequence of defective spindle formation and activation of the spindle checkpoint. The dynamic release of Plk1 from early mitotic structures is thus crucial for mid- to late-stage mitotic events and demonstrates the importance of a fully dynamic Plk1 at the centrosome for proper cell cycle progression. This dependence on dynamic Plk1 was further observed during the mitotic reentry of cells after a DNA damage G2 checkpoint, as this process was significantly delayed upon centrosomal tethering of Plk1. These results indicate that mitotic progression and control of mitotic reentry after DNA damage resides, at least in part, on the dynamic behavior of Plk1. PMID:19307309

  9. Receptor tyrosine kinase EphA5 is a functional molecular target in human lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Staquicini, Fernanda I.; Qian, Ming D.; Salameh, Ahmad; Dobroff, Andrey S.; Edwards, Julianna K.; Cimino, Daniel F.; Moeller, Benjamin J.; Kelly, Patrick; Nunez, Maria I.; Tang, Ximing; Liu, Diane D.; Lee, J. Jack; Hong, Waun Ki; Ferrara, Fortunato; Bradbury, Andrew R. M.; Lobb, Roy R.; Edelman, Martin J.; Sidman, Richard L.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2015-03-20

    Lung cancer is often refractory to radiotherapy, but molecular mechanisms of tumor resistance remain poorly defined. Here we show that the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA5 is specifically overexpressed in lung cancer and is involved in regulating cellular responses to genotoxic insult. In the absence of EphA5, lung cancer cells displayed a defective G1/S cell cycle checkpoint, were unable to resolve DNA damage, and became radiosensitive. Upon irradiation, EphA5 was transported into the nucleus where it interacted with activated ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) at sites of DNA repair. In conclusion, we demonstrate that a new monoclonal antibody against human EphA5 sensitized lung cancer cells and human lung cancer xenografts to radiotherapy and significantly prolonged survival, thus suggesting the likelihood of translational applications.

  10. Receptor tyrosine kinase EphA5 is a functional molecular target in human lung cancer

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Staquicini, Fernanda I.; Qian, Ming D.; Salameh, Ahmad; Dobroff, Andrey S.; Edwards, Julianna K.; Cimino, Daniel F.; Moeller, Benjamin J.; Kelly, Patrick; Nunez, Maria I.; Tang, Ximing; et al

    2015-03-20

    Lung cancer is often refractory to radiotherapy, but molecular mechanisms of tumor resistance remain poorly defined. Here we show that the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA5 is specifically overexpressed in lung cancer and is involved in regulating cellular responses to genotoxic insult. In the absence of EphA5, lung cancer cells displayed a defective G1/S cell cycle checkpoint, were unable to resolve DNA damage, and became radiosensitive. Upon irradiation, EphA5 was transported into the nucleus where it interacted with activated ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) at sites of DNA repair. In conclusion, we demonstrate that a new monoclonal antibody against human EphA5 sensitized lungmore » cancer cells and human lung cancer xenografts to radiotherapy and significantly prolonged survival, thus suggesting the likelihood of translational applications.« less

  11. Receptor Tyrosine Kinase EphA5 Is a Functional Molecular Target in Human Lung Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Staquicini, Fernanda I.; Qian, Ming D.; Salameh, Ahmad; Dobroff, Andrey S.; Edwards, Julianna K.; Cimino, Daniel F.; Moeller, Benjamin J.; Kelly, Patrick; Nunez, Maria I.; Tang, Ximing; Liu, Diane D.; Lee, J. Jack; Hong, Waun Ki; Ferrara, Fortunato; Bradbury, Andrew R. M.; Lobb, Roy R.; Edelman, Martin J.; Sidman, Richard L.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is often refractory to radiotherapy, but molecular mechanisms of tumor resistance remain poorly defined. Here we show that the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA5 is specifically overexpressed in lung cancer and is involved in regulating cellular responses to genotoxic insult. In the absence of EphA5, lung cancer cells displayed a defective G1/S cell cycle checkpoint, were unable to resolve DNA damage, and became radiosensitive. Upon irradiation, EphA5 was transported into the nucleus where it interacted with activated ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) at sites of DNA repair. Finally, we demonstrate that a new monoclonal antibody against human EphA5 sensitized lung cancer cells and human lung cancer xenografts to radiotherapy and significantly prolonged survival, thus suggesting the likelihood of translational applications. PMID:25623065

  12. Sparstolonin B Inhibits Pro-Angiogenic Functions and Blocks Cell Cycle Progression in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, Henry R.; Liang, Qiaoli; Fan, Daping; Rodriguez, Vanessa; Lessner, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Sparstolonin B (SsnB) is a novel bioactive compound isolated from Sparganium stoloniferum, an herb historically used in Traditional Chinese Medicine as an anti-tumor agent. Angiogenesis, the process of new capillary formation from existing blood vessels, is dysregulated in many pathological disorders, including diabetic retinopathy, tumor growth, and atherosclerosis. In functional assays, SsnB inhibited endothelial cell tube formation (Matrigel method) and cell migration (Transwell method) in a dose-dependent manner. Microarray experiments with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) demonstrated differential expression of several hundred genes in response to SsnB exposure (916 and 356 genes, respectively, with fold change ≥2, p<0.05, unpaired t-test). Microarray data from both cell types showed significant overlap, including genes associated with cell proliferation and cell cycle. Flow cytometric cell cycle analysis of HUVECs treated with SsnB showed an increase of cells in the G1 phase and a decrease of cells in the S phase. Cyclin E2 (CCNE2) and Cell division cycle 6 (CDC6) are regulatory proteins that control cell cycle progression through the G1/S checkpoint. Both CCNE2 and CDC6 were downregulated in the microarray data. Real Time quantitative PCR confirmed that gene expression of CCNE2 and CDC6 in HUVECs was downregulated after SsnB exposure, to 64% and 35% of controls, respectively. The data suggest that SsnB may exert its anti-angiogenic properties in part by downregulating CCNE2 and CDC6, halting progression through the G1/S checkpoint. In the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay, SsnB caused significant reduction in capillary length and branching number relative to the vehicle control group. Overall, SsnB caused a significant reduction in angiogenesis (ANOVA, p<0.05), demonstrating its ex vivo efficacy. PMID:23940584