Science.gov

Sample records for cell-derived embryoid bodies

  1. Profiling ethanol-targeted transcription factors in human carcinoma cell-derived embryoid bodies.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Chanchal; Halder, Debasish; Chai, Jin Choul; Lee, Young Seek; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Chai, Young Gyu

    2016-01-15

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is a collective term that represents fetal abnormalities associated with maternal alcohol consumption. Prenatal alcohol exposure and related anomalies are well characterized, but the molecular mechanism behind this phenomenon is not yet understood. Few insights have been gained from genetic and epigenetic studies of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Our aim was to profile the important molecular regulators of ethanol-related alterations of the genome. For this purpose, we have analyzed the gene expression pattern of human carcinoma cell-derived embryoid bodies in the absence or presence of ethanol. A cDNA microarray analysis was used to profile mRNA expression in embryoid bodies at day 7 with or without ethanol treatment. A total of 493 differentially expressed genes were identified in response to 50 mM ethanol exposure. Of these, 111 genes were up-regulated, and 382 were down-regulated. Gene ontology term enrichment analysis revealed that these genes are involved in important biological processes: neurological system processes, cognition, behavior, sensory perception of smell, taste and chemical stimuli and synaptic transmission. Similarly, the enrichment of disease-related genes included relevant categories such as neurological diseases, developmental disorders, skeletal and muscular disorders, and connective tissue disorders. Furthermore, we have identified a group of 26 genes that encode transcription factors. We validated the relative gene expression of several transcription factors using quantitative real time PCR. We hope that our study substantially contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathology of alcohol-mediated anomalies and facilitates further research. PMID:26456191

  2. Embryonic stem cell-derived embryoid bodies development in collagen gels recapitulates sprouting angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Feraud, O; Cao, Y; Vittet, D

    2001-12-01

    The formation of new blood vessels proceeds by both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. The development of models, which fully recapitulate spatio-temporal events involved during these processes, are crucial to fully understand their mechanisms of regulation. In vitro differentiation of murine embryonic stem (ES) cells has been shown to be a useful tool to investigate factors and genes potentially involved in vasculogenesis (Hirashima et al, 1999; Risau et al, 1988; Vittet et al, 1996; Wang et al, 1992; Wartenberg et al, 1998). We asked here whether this model system can also recapitulate angiogenesis, which may offer new means to study mechanisms involved in this process. ES-derived embryoid bodies (EBs) obtained after 11 days of differentiation, in which a primitive vascular network had formed, were then subcultured into a type I collagen matrix. In the presence of angiogenic growth factors, EBs rapidly developed branching pseudopods. Whole mount immunostainings with a PECAM antibody revealed that more than 75% EBs displayed, within a few days, a large number of endothelial outgrowths that can give tube-like structures with concomitant differentiation of alpha-smooth muscle actin positive cells, thus evoking sprouting angiogenesis. High expression levels of flk1 (VEGFR2), flt1 (VEGFR1), tie-1, and tie-2 are also found, indicating that budding endothelial cells displayed an angiogenic phenotype. The endothelial sprouting response was specifically induced by angiogenic factors with a major contribution of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Known angiostatic agents, such as platelet factor 4 (PF4), angiostatin, and endostatin inhibited the formation of endothelial sprouts induced by angiogenic factors. Moreover, consistent with the in vivo phenotype, VE-cadherin deficient EBs failed to develop angiogenesis in this model. ES cell differentiation can then recapitulate, in addition to vasculogenesis, the early stages of sprouting angiogenesis. This model system

  3. Role of Ceacam1 in VEGF induced vasculogenesis of murine embryonic stem cell-derived embryoid bodies in 3D culture

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Angel; Tsark, Walter; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Shively, John E.

    2009-06-10

    CEACAM1 (carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1), a type I transmembrane glycoprotein involved in cell-cell adhesion has been shown to act as an angiogenic factor for mouse and human endothelial cells. Based on the ability of CEACAM1 to initiate lumen formation in human mammary epithelial cells grown in 3D culture (Matrigel), we hypothesized that murine CEACAM1 may play a similar role in vasculogenesis. In order to test this hypothesis, murine embryonic stem (ES) cells stimulated with VEGF were differentiated into embryoid bodies (EB) for 8 days (- 8-0 d) and transferred to Matrigel in the presence or absence of anti-CEACAM1 antibody for an additional 12 days (0-12 d). In the absence of anti-CEACAM1 antibody or in the presence of an isotype control antibody, the EB in Matrigel underwent extensive sprouting, generating lengthy vascular structures with well-defined lumina as demonstrated by confocal microscopy, electron microscopy, and immunohistochemical analysis. Both the length and architecture of the vascular tubes were inhibited by anti-CEACAM1 mAb CC1, a mAb that blocks the cell-cell adhesion functions of CEACAM1, thus demonstrating a critical role for this cell-cell adhesion molecule in generating and maintaining vasculogenesis. QRT-PCR analysis of the VEGF treated ES cells grown under conditions that convert them to EB revealed expression of Ceacam1 as early as - 5 to - 3 d reaching a maximum at day 0 at which time EBs were transferred to Matrigel, thereafter levels at first declined and then increased over time. Other markers of vasculogenesis including Pecam1, VE-Cad, and Tie-1 were not detected until day 0 when EBs were transferred to Matrigel followed by a steady increase in levels, indicating later roles in vasculogenesis. In contrast, Tie-2 and Flk-1 (VEGFR2) were detected on day five of EB formation reaching a maximum at day 0 on transfer to Matrigel, similar to Ceacam1, but after which Tie-2 declined over time, while Flk-1 increased

  4. Microwell arrays for uniform-sized embryoid body-mediated endothelial cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-eun; Lee, Jong Min; Chung, Bong Geun

    2014-08-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cell is of great interest cell source in regenerating tissue constructs. We hypothesized that the interaction of cell-extracellular matrices (ECMs) would enable the control of ES cell differentiation pathway. We fabricated the hydrogel microwell array system to regulate uniform-sized embryoid bodies (EBs) and replate into various ECM components (e.g., gelatin, collagen I, fibronectin, laminin, and Matrigel). We demonstrated that collagen I and laminin largely induced ES cell-derived endothelial cell differentiation compared to gelatin. We also characterized ECMs-dependent endothelial cell differentiation by evaluating the endothelial gene expression, showing that Flk1 endothelial gene was highly expressed on collagen I. We also demonstrated the effect of the integrin on uniform-sized EBs-derived endothelial cell differentiation, showing that integrin α1 was largely expressed on laminin. Therefore, the cell-ECM interaction could be potentially powerful for controlling the uniform-sized EBs-derived endothelial cell differentiation. PMID:24652615

  5. Graphene induces spontaneous cardiac differentiation in embryoid bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahadian, Samad; Zhou, Yuanshu; Yamada, Shukuyo; Estili, Mehdi; Liang, Xiaobin; Nakajima, Ken; Shiku, Hitoshi; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2016-03-01

    Graphene was embedded into the structure of mouse embryoid bodies (EBs) using the hanging drop technique. The inclusion of 0.2 mg per mL graphene in the EBs did not affect the viability of the stem cells. However, the graphene decreased the stem cell proliferation, probably by accelerating cell differentiation. The graphene also enhanced the mechanical properties and electrical conductivity of the EBs. Interestingly, the cardiac differentiation of the EB-graphene was significantly greater than that of the EBs at day 5 of culture, as confirmed by high-throughput gene analysis. Electrical stimulation (voltage, 4 V; frequency, 1 Hz; and duration, 10 ms for 2 continuous days) further enhanced the cardiac differentiation of the EBs, as demonstrated by analyses of the cardiac protein and gene expression and the beating activity of the EBs. Taken together, the results demonstrated that graphene played a major role in directing the cardiac differentiation of EBs, which has potential cell therapy and tissue regeneration applications.Graphene was embedded into the structure of mouse embryoid bodies (EBs) using the hanging drop technique. The inclusion of 0.2 mg per mL graphene in the EBs did not affect the viability of the stem cells. However, the graphene decreased the stem cell proliferation, probably by accelerating cell differentiation. The graphene also enhanced the mechanical properties and electrical conductivity of the EBs. Interestingly, the cardiac differentiation of the EB-graphene was significantly greater than that of the EBs at day 5 of culture, as confirmed by high-throughput gene analysis. Electrical stimulation (voltage, 4 V; frequency, 1 Hz; and duration, 10 ms for 2 continuous days) further enhanced the cardiac differentiation of the EBs, as demonstrated by analyses of the cardiac protein and gene expression and the beating activity of the EBs. Taken together, the results demonstrated that graphene played a major role in directing the cardiac

  6. Neural induced embryoid bodies present high levels of metals detected by x-ray microfluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelling, Mariana P.; Cardoso, Simone C.; Paulsen, Bruna S.; Rehen, Stevens K.

    2012-05-01

    Molecular mechanisms driving neural differentiation in human embryonic stem cells are not completely elucidated, specially, the role of atomic elements within this process. In this work, we described the distribution of trace elements in those stem cells growing as embryoid bodies by using synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence (SR-XRF). Naive and neural induced embryoid bodies derived from embryonic stem cells were irradiated with a spatial resolution of 20 μm to make elemental maps and qualitative chemical analyses. We consistently detected metallic elements content raise on neural induced embryoid bodies, mimicking characteristic brain development. The use of SR-XRF reveals that human embryoid bodies exhibit self-organization at the atomic level, which is enhanced during neurogenesis triggered in vitro.

  7. Neural induced embryoid bodies present high levels of metals detected by x-ray microfluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Stelling, Mariana P.; Cardoso, Simone C.; Paulsen, Bruna S.; Rehen, Stevens K.

    2012-05-17

    Molecular mechanisms driving neural differentiation in human embryonic stem cells are not completely elucidated, specially, the role of atomic elements within this process. In this work, we described the distribution of trace elements in those stem cells growing as embryoid bodies by using synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence (SR-XRF). Naive and neural induced embryoid bodies derived from embryonic stem cells were irradiated with a spatial resolution of 20 {mu}m to make elemental maps and qualitative chemical analyses. We consistently detected metallic elements content raise on neural induced embryoid bodies, mimicking characteristic brain development. The use of SR-XRF reveals that human embryoid bodies exhibit self-organization at the atomic level, which is enhanced during neurogenesis triggered in vitro.

  8. Functional maintenance of differentiated embryoid bodies in microfluidic systems: a platform for personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Guven, Sinan; Lindsey, Jennifer S; Poudel, Ishwari; Chinthala, Sireesha; Nickerson, Michael D; Gerami-Naini, Behzad; Gurkan, Umut A; Anchan, Raymond M; Demirci, Utkan

    2015-03-01

    Hormone replacement therapies have become important for treating diseases such as premature ovarian failure or menopausal complications. The clinical use of bioidentical hormones might significantly reduce some of the potential risks reportedly associated with the use of synthetic hormones. In the present study, we demonstrate the utility and advantage of a microfluidic chip culture system to enhance the development of personalized, on-demand, treatment modules using embryoid bodies (EBs). Functional EBs cultured on microfluidic chips represent a platform for personalized, patient-specific treatment cassettes that can be cryopreserved until required for treatment. We assessed the viability, differentiation, and functionality of EBs cultured and cryopreserved in this system. During extended microfluidic culture, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and anti-müllerian hormone levels were measured, and the expression of differentiated steroidogenic cells was confirmed by immunocytochemistry assay for the ovarian tissue markers anti-müllerian hormone receptor type II, follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, and inhibin β-A and the estrogen biosynthesis enzyme aromatase. Our studies showed that under microfluidic conditions, differentiated steroidogenic EBs continued to secrete estradiol and progesterone at physiologically relevant concentrations (30-120 pg/ml and 150-450 pg/ml, respectively) for up to 21 days. Collectively, we have demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of using a microfluidic chip system with continuous flow for the differentiation and extended culture of functional steroidogenic stem cell-derived EBs, the differentiation of EBs into cells expressing ovarian antigens in a microfluidic system, and the ability to cryopreserve this system with restoration of growth and functionality on thawing. These results present a platform for the development of a new therapeutic system for personalized medicine. PMID:25666845

  9. Functional Maintenance of Differentiated Embryoid Bodies in Microfluidic Systems: A Platform for Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Guven, Sinan; Lindsey, Jennifer S.; Poudel, Ishwari; Chinthala, Sireesha; Nickerson, Michael D.; Gerami-Naini, Behzad; Gurkan, Umut A.

    2015-01-01

    Hormone replacement therapies have become important for treating diseases such as premature ovarian failure or menopausal complications. The clinical use of bioidentical hormones might significantly reduce some of the potential risks reportedly associated with the use of synthetic hormones. In the present study, we demonstrate the utility and advantage of a microfluidic chip culture system to enhance the development of personalized, on-demand, treatment modules using embryoid bodies (EBs). Functional EBs cultured on microfluidic chips represent a platform for personalized, patient-specific treatment cassettes that can be cryopreserved until required for treatment. We assessed the viability, differentiation, and functionality of EBs cultured and cryopreserved in this system. During extended microfluidic culture, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and anti-müllerian hormone levels were measured, and the expression of differentiated steroidogenic cells was confirmed by immunocytochemistry assay for the ovarian tissue markers anti-müllerian hormone receptor type II, follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, and inhibin β-A and the estrogen biosynthesis enzyme aromatase. Our studies showed that under microfluidic conditions, differentiated steroidogenic EBs continued to secrete estradiol and progesterone at physiologically relevant concentrations (30–120 pg/ml and 150–450 pg/ml, respectively) for up to 21 days. Collectively, we have demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of using a microfluidic chip system with continuous flow for the differentiation and extended culture of functional steroidogenic stem cell-derived EBs, the differentiation of EBs into cells expressing ovarian antigens in a microfluidic system, and the ability to cryopreserve this system with restoration of growth and functionality on thawing. These results present a platform for the development of a new therapeutic system for personalized medicine. PMID:25666845

  10. Rapid fabrication of a microdevice with concave microwells and its application in embryoid body formation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Youchun; Xie, Fengbo; Qiu, Tian; Xie, Lan; Xing, Wanli; Cheng, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Here, we report a novel method for the fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane microdevices with complicated 3-D structures, such as concave and crater shapes, using an easily machined polymethyl methacrylate mold combined with a one-step molding process. The procedure presented here enables rapid preparation of complex 3-D microstructures varying in shape and dimensions. To regulate embryoid body (EB) formation, we fabricated a microfluidic device with an array of concave microwells and found that EBs growing in microwells maintained their shape, viability, and a high degree of homogeneity. We believe that this novel method provides an alternative for rapid prototyping, especially in fabricating devices with curved 3-D microstructures. PMID:22662100

  11. Systematic analysis of embryonic stem cell differentiation in hydrodynamic environments with controlled embryoid body size

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, Melissa A.; Saeed, Rabbia; McDevitt, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    The sensitivity of stem cells to environmental perturbations has prompted many studies which aim to characterize the influence of mechanical factors on stem cell morphogenesis and differentiation. Hydrodynamic cultures, often employed for large scale bioprocessing applications, impart complex fluid shear and transport profiles, and influence cell fate as a result of changes in media mixing conditions. However, previous studies of hydrodynamic cultures have been limited in their ability to distinguish confounding factors that may affect differentiation, including modulation of embryoid body size in response to changes in the hydrodynamic environment. In this study, we demonstrate the ability to control and maintain embryoid body (EB) size using a combination of forced aggregation formation and rotary orbital suspension culture, in order to assess the impact of hydrodynamic cultures on ESC differentiation, independent of EB size. Size-controlled EBs maintained at different rotary orbital speeds exhibited similar morphological features and gene expression profiles, consistent with ESC differentiation. The similar differentiation of ESCs across a range of hydrodynamic conditions suggests that controlling EB formation and resultant size may be important for scalable bioprocessing applications, in order to standardize EB morphogenesis. However, perturbations in the hydrodynamic environment also led to subtle changes in differentiation toward certain lineages, including temporal modulation of gene expression, as well changes in the relative efficiencies of differentiated phenotypes, thereby highlighting important tissue engineering principles that should be considered for implementation in bioreactor design, as well as for directed ESC differentiation. PMID:22609810

  12. Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells into Endoderm without Embryoid Body Formation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Peter T. W.; Hoffman, Brad G.; Plesner, Annette; Helgason, Cheryl D.; Verchere, C. Bruce; Chung, Stephen W.; Warnock, Garth L.; Mui, Alice L. F.; Ong, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells hold a great promise as an unlimited source of tissue for treatment of chronic diseases such as Type 1 diabetes. Herein, we describe a protocol using all-trans-retinoic acid, basic fibroblast growth factor and dibutyryl cAMP (DBcAMP) in the absence of embryoid body formation, for differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells into definitive endoderm that may serve as pancreatic precursors. The produced cells were analyzed by quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry and static insulin release assay for markers of trilaminar embryo, and pancreas. Differentiated cells displayed increased Sox17 and Foxa2 expression consistent with definitive endoderm production. There was minimal production of Sox7, an extraembryonic endoderm marker, and Oct4, a marker of pluripotency. There was minimal mesoderm or neuroectoderm formation based on expression levels of the markers brachyury and Sox1, respectively. Various assays revealed that the cell clusters generated by this protocol express markers of the pancreatic lineage including insulin I, insulin II, C-peptide, PDX-1, carboxypeptidase E, pan-cytokeratin, amylase, glucagon, PAX6, Ngn3 and Nkx6.1. This protocol using all-trans-retinoic acid, DBcAMP, in the absence of embryoid bodies, generated cells that have features of definitive endoderm that may serve as pancreatic endocrine precursors. PMID:21152387

  13. Engineering Strategies for the Formation of Embryoid Bodies from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pettinato, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are powerful tools for regenerative therapy and studying human developmental biology, attributing to their ability to differentiate into many functional cell types in the body. The main challenge in realizing hPSC potential is to guide their differentiation in a well-controlled manner. One way to control the cell differentiation process is to recapitulate during in vitro culture the key events in embryogenesis to obtain the three developmental germ layers from which all cell types arise. To achieve this goal, many techniques have been tested to obtain a cellular cluster, an embryoid body (EB), from both mouse and hPSCs. Generation of EBs that are homogeneous in size and shape would allow directed hPSC differentiation into desired cell types in a more synchronous manner and define the roles of cell–cell interaction and spatial organization in lineage specification in a setting similar to in vivo embryonic development. However, previous success in uniform EB formation from mouse PSCs cannot be extrapolated to hPSCs possibly due to the destabilization of adherens junctions on cell surfaces during the dissociation into single cells, making hPSCs extremely vulnerable to cell death. Recently, new advances have emerged to form uniform human embryoid bodies (hEBs) from dissociated single cells of hPSCs. In this review, the existing methods for hEB production from hPSCs and the results on the downstream differentiation of the hEBs are described with emphases on the efficiency, homogeneity, scalability, and reproducibility of the hEB formation process and the yield in terminal differentiation. New trends in hEB production and directed differentiation are discussed. PMID:25900308

  14. Engineering Strategies for the Formation of Embryoid Bodies from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Pettinato, Giuseppe; Wen, Xuejun; Zhang, Ning

    2015-07-15

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are powerful tools for regenerative therapy and studying human developmental biology, attributing to their ability to differentiate into many functional cell types in the body. The main challenge in realizing hPSC potential is to guide their differentiation in a well-controlled manner. One way to control the cell differentiation process is to recapitulate during in vitro culture the key events in embryogenesis to obtain the three developmental germ layers from which all cell types arise. To achieve this goal, many techniques have been tested to obtain a cellular cluster, an embryoid body (EB), from both mouse and hPSCs. Generation of EBs that are homogeneous in size and shape would allow directed hPSC differentiation into desired cell types in a more synchronous manner and define the roles of cell-cell interaction and spatial organization in lineage specification in a setting similar to in vivo embryonic development. However, previous success in uniform EB formation from mouse PSCs cannot be extrapolated to hPSCs possibly due to the destabilization of adherens junctions on cell surfaces during the dissociation into single cells, making hPSCs extremely vulnerable to cell death. Recently, new advances have emerged to form uniform human embryoid bodies (hEBs) from dissociated single cells of hPSCs. In this review, the existing methods for hEB production from hPSCs and the results on the downstream differentiation of the hEBs are described with emphases on the efficiency, homogeneity, scalability, and reproducibility of the hEB formation process and the yield in terminal differentiation. New trends in hEB production and directed differentiation are discussed. PMID:25900308

  15. A PDMS-Based Microfluidic Hanging Drop Chip for Embryoid Body Formation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huei-Wen; Hsiao, Yi-Hsing; Chen, Chih-Chen; Yet, Shaw-Fang; Hsu, Chia-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    The conventional hanging drop technique is the most widely used method for embryoid body (EB) formation. However, this method is labor intensive and limited by the difficulty in exchanging the medium. Here, we report a microfluidic chip-based approach for high-throughput formation of EBs. The device consists of microfluidic channels with 6 × 12 opening wells in PDMS supported by a glass substrate. The PDMS channels were fabricated by replicating polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) from SU-8 mold. The droplet formation in the chip was tested with different hydrostatic pressures to obtain optimal operation pressures for the wells with 1000 μm diameter openings. The droplets formed at the opening wells were used to culture mouse embryonic stem cells which could subsequently developed into EBs in the hanging droplets. This device also allows for medium exchange of the hanging droplets making it possible to perform immunochemistry staining and characterize EBs on chip. PMID:27399655

  16. Microfabric Vessels for Embryoid Body Formation and Rapid Differentiation of Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Hiroki; Idiris, Alimjan; Miwa, Tatsuaki; Kumagai, Hiromichi

    2016-01-01

    Various scalable three-dimensional culture systems for regenerative medicine using human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have been developed to date. However, stable production of hiPSCs with homogeneous qualities still remains a challenge. Here, we describe a novel and simple embryoid body (EB) formation system using unique microfabricated culture vessels. Furthermore, this culture system is useful for high throughput EB formation and rapid generation of differentiated cells such as neural stem cells (NSCs) from hiPSCs. The period of NSC differentiation was significantly shortened under high EB density culture conditions. Simultaneous mass production of a pure population of NSCs was possible within 4 days. These results indicate that the novel culture system might not only become a unique tool to obtain new insights into developmental biology based on human stem cells, but also provide an important tractable platform for efficient and stable production of NSCs for clinical applications. PMID:27507707

  17. Microfabric Vessels for Embryoid Body Formation and Rapid Differentiation of Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroki; Idiris, Alimjan; Miwa, Tatsuaki; Kumagai, Hiromichi

    2016-01-01

    Various scalable three-dimensional culture systems for regenerative medicine using human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have been developed to date. However, stable production of hiPSCs with homogeneous qualities still remains a challenge. Here, we describe a novel and simple embryoid body (EB) formation system using unique microfabricated culture vessels. Furthermore, this culture system is useful for high throughput EB formation and rapid generation of differentiated cells such as neural stem cells (NSCs) from hiPSCs. The period of NSC differentiation was significantly shortened under high EB density culture conditions. Simultaneous mass production of a pure population of NSCs was possible within 4 days. These results indicate that the novel culture system might not only become a unique tool to obtain new insights into developmental biology based on human stem cells, but also provide an important tractable platform for efficient and stable production of NSCs for clinical applications. PMID:27507707

  18. Phenotype characterization of embryoid body structures generated by a crystal comet effect tail in an intercellular cancer collision scenario

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Jairo A; Murillo, Mauricio F

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is, by definition, the uncontrolled growth of autonomous cells that eventually destroy adjacent tissues and generate architectural disorder. However, this concept cannot be totally true. In three well documented studies, we have demonstrated that cancer tissues produce order zones that evolve over time and generate embryoid body structures in a space-time interval. The authors decided to revise the macroscopic and microscopic material in well-developed malignant tumors in which embryoid bodies were identified to determine the phenotype characterization that serves as a guideline for easy recognition. The factors responsible for this morphogenesis are physical, bioelectric, and magnetic susceptibilities produced by crystals that act as molecular designers for the topographic gradients that guide the surrounding silhouette and establish tissue head-tail positional identities. The structures are located in amniotic-like cavities and show characteristic somite-like embryologic segmentation. Immunophenotypic study has demonstrated exclusion factor positional identity in relation to enolase-immunopositive expression of embryoid body and human chorionic gonadotropin immunopositivity exclusion factor expression in the surrounding tissues. The significance of these observations is that they can also be predicted by experimental image data collected by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, in which two-beam subatomic collision particles in the resulting debris show hyperorder domains similar to those identified by us in intercellular cancer collisions. Our findings suggest that we are dealing with true reverse biologic system information in an activated collective cancer stem cell memory, in which physics participates in the elaboration of geometric complexes and chiral biomolecules that serve to build bodies with embryoid print as it develops during gestation. Reversal mechanisms in biology are intimately

  19. ROCK Inhibitor Is Not Required for Embryoid Body Formation from Singularized Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pettinato, Giuseppe; Vanden Berg-Foels, Wendy S.; Zhang, Ning; Wen, Xuejun

    2014-01-01

    We report a technology to form human embryoid bodies (hEBs) from singularized human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) without the use of the p160 rho-associated coiled-coil kinase inhibitor (ROCKi) or centrifugation (spin). hEB formation was tested under four conditions: +ROCKi/+spin, +ROCKi/-spin, -ROCKi/+spin, and -ROCKi/-spin. Cell suspensions of BG01V/hOG and H9 hESC lines were pipetted into non-adherent hydrogel substrates containing defined microwell arrays. hEBs of consistent size and spherical geometry can be formed in each of the four conditions, including the -ROCKi/-spin condition. The hEBs formed under the -ROCKi/-spin condition differentiated to develop the three embryonic germ layers and tissues derived from each of the germ layers. This simplified hEB production technique offers homogeneity in hEB size and shape to support synchronous differentiation, elimination of the ROCKi xeno-factor and rate-limiting centrifugation treatment, and low-cost scalability, which will directly support automated, large-scale production of hEBs and hESC-derived cells needed for clinical, research, or therapeutic applications. PMID:25365581

  20. Osteogenic Embryoid Body-Derived Material Induces Bone Formation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sutha, Ken; Schwartz, Zvi; Wang, Yun; Hyzy, Sharon; Boyan, Barbara D.; McDevitt, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    The progressive loss of endogenous regenerative capacity that accompanies mammalian aging has been attributed at least in part to alterations in the extracellular matrix (ECM) composition of adult tissues. Thus, creation of a more regenerative microenvironment, analogous to embryonic morphogenesis, may be achieved via pluripotent embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation and derivation of devitalized materials as an alternative to decellularized adult tissues, such as demineralized bone matrix (DBM). Transplantation of devitalized ESC materials represents a novel approach to promote functional tissue regeneration and reduce the inherent batch-to-batch variability of allograft-derived materials. In this study, the osteoinductivity of embryoid body-derived material (EBM) was compared to DBM in a standard in vivo ectopic osteoinduction assay in nude mice. EBM derived from EBs differentiated for 10 days with osteogenic media (+β-glycerophosphate) exhibited similar osteoinductivity to active DBM (osteoinduction score = 2.50 ± 0.27 vs. 2.75 ± 0.16) based on histological scoring, and exceeded inactive DBM (1.13 ± 0.13, p < 0.005). Moreover, EBM stimulated formation of new bone, ossicles, and marrow spaces, similar to active DBM. The potent osteoinductivity of EBM demonstrates that morphogenic factors expressed by ESCs undergoing osteogenic differentiation yield a novel devitalized material capable of stimulating de novo bone formation in vivo. PMID:25961152

  1. The Microenvironment of Embryoid Bodies Modulated the Commitment to Neural Lineage Postcryopreservation

    PubMed Central

    Sart, Sébastien; Yan, Yuanwei

    2015-01-01

    Neural progenitor cells are usually derived from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) through the formation of embryoid bodies (EBs), the three-dimensional (3D) aggregate-like structure mimicking embryonic development. Cryo-banking of EBs is a critical step for sample storage, process monitoring, and preservation of intermediate cell populations during the lengthy differentiation procedure of PSCs. However, the impact of microenvironment (including 3D cell organization and biochemical factors) of EBs on neural lineage commitment postcryopreservation has not been well understood. In this study, intact EBs (I-E) and dissociated EBs (D-E) were compared for the recovery and neural differentiation after cryopreservation. I-E group showed the enhanced viability and recovery upon thaw compared with D-E group due to the preservation of extracellular matrix, cell–cell contacts, and F-actin organization. Moreover, both I-E and D-E groups showed the increased neuronal differentiation and D-E group also showed the enhanced astrocyte differentiation after thaw, probably due to the modulation of cellular redox state indicated by the expression of reactive oxygen species. In addition, mesenchymal stem cell secretome, known to bear a broad spectrum of protective factors, enhanced EB recovery. Taken together, EB microenvironment plays a critical role in the recovery and neural differentiation postcryopreservation. PMID:25187378

  2. Integrated live imaging and molecular profiling of embryoid bodies reveals a synchronized progression of early differentiation.

    PubMed

    Boxman, Jonathan; Sagy, Naor; Achanta, Sirisha; Vadigepalli, Rajanikanth; Nachman, Iftach

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells can spontaneously differentiate into cell types of all germ layers within embryoid bodies (EBs) in a highly variable manner. Whether there exists an intrinsic differentiation program common to all EBs is unknown. Here, we present a novel combination of high-throughput live two-photon imaging and gene expression profiling to study early differentiation dynamics spontaneously occurring within developing EBs. Onset timing of Brachyury-GFP was highly variable across EBs, while the spatial patterns as well as the dynamics of mesendodermal progression following onset were remarkably similar. We therefore defined a 'developmental clock' using the Brachyury-GFP signal onset timing. Mapping snapshot gene expression measurements to this clock revealed their temporal trends, indicating that loss of pluripotency, formation of primitive streak and mesodermal lineage progression are synchronized in EBs. Exogenous activation of Wnt or BMP signaling accelerated the intrinsic clock. CHIR down-regulated Wnt3, allowing insights into dependency mechanisms between canonical Wnt signaling and multiple genes. Our findings reveal a developmental clock characteristic of an early differentiation program common to all EBs, further establishing them as an in vitro developmental model. PMID:27530599

  3. Effect of perfluorooctane sulfonate on pluripotency and differentiation factors in mouse embryoid bodies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bo; Ji, Xiaoli; Chen, Xiaojiao; Yao, Mengmeng; Han, Xiumei; Chen, Minjian; Tang, Wei; Xia, Yankai

    2015-02-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) poses potential risks to early development, but the molecular mechanisms how PFOS affects embryonic development are still unclear. Mouse embryoid bodies (mEBs) provide ideal models for testing safety or toxicity of chemicals in vitro. In this study, mEBs were exposed to PFOS up to 6 days and then their pluripotency and differentiation markers were evaluated. Our data showed that the mRNA and protein levels of pluripotency markers (Oct4, Sox2, Nanog) in mEBs were significantly increased following exposure to PFOS. Meanwhile, the expressions of miR-134, miR-145, miR-490-3p were decreased accordingly. PFOS reduced the mRNA levels of endodermal markers (Sox17, FOXA2), mesodermal markers (SMA, Brachyury) and ectodermal markers (Nestin, Fgf5) in mEBs. Meanwhile, PFOS increased the mRNA and protein levels of polycomb group (PcG) family members (Cbx4, Cbx7, Ezh2). Overall, our results showed that PFOS could increase the expression levels of pluripotency factors and decrease the differentiation markers. PMID:25510869

  4. Effects of Activin in Embryoid Bodies Expressing Fibroblast Growth Factor 5.

    PubMed

    Shirouzu, Yasumasa; Yanai, Goichi; Yang, Kai-Chiang; Sumi, Shoichiro

    2016-06-01

    Nodal/activin signaling is indispensable for embryonic development. We examined what activin does to the embryoid bodies (EBs) produced from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) expressing an epiblast marker. The EBs were produced by culturing mESCs by the hanging drop method for 24 hours. The resulting EBs were transferred onto gelatin-coated dishes and allowed to further differentiate. The 24-hour EBs showed a stronger expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)5 and Brachyury (specific to the epiblast) in comparison with mESCs. Treating the transferred EBs with activin A maintained transcript levels of FGF5 and Oct4, while inhibiting definitive endoderm differentiation. The activin A treatment reversed the endoderm differentiation induced by retinoic acid (RA), while the inhibition of nodal/activin signaling promoted RA-induced endoderm differentiation. Inhibition of nodal/activin signaling in EBs, including epiblast-like cells, promotes differentiation into the endoderm, facilitating the transition from the pluripotent state to specification of the endoderm. PMID:27253628

  5. Parietal endoderm secreted S100A4 promotes early cardiomyogenesis in embryoid bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Stary, Martina; Schneider, Mikael; Sheikh, Soren P.; Weitzer, Georg . E-mail: georg.weitzer@meduniwien.ac.at

    2006-05-05

    Cardiomyogenesis is influenced by factors secreted by anterior-lateral and extra-embryonic endoderm. Differentiation of embryonic stem cells in embryoid bodies allows to study the influence of growth factors on cardiomyogenesis. By these means SPARC was identified as a new factor enhancing cardiomyogenesis [M. Stary, W. Pasteiner, A. Summer, A. Hrdina, A. Eger, G. Weitzer, Parietal endoderm secreted SPARC promotes early cardiomyogenesis in vitro, Exp. Cell Res. 310 (2005) 331-341]. Here we report a similar and new function for S100A4, a calcium-binding protein of the EF-hand type. S100A4 is secreted by parietal endoderm and promotes early differentiation and proliferation of cardiomyocytes. Oligomeric S100A4 supports cardiomyogenesis in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas inhibition of autocrine S100A4 severely attenuates cardiomyogenesis. S100A4 specifically influences transcription in differentiating cardiomyocytes, as evident from increased expression of cardiac transcription factor genes nkx2.5 and mef2C. These data suggest that S100A4, like SPARC, plays a supportive role in early in vitro cardiomyogenesis.

  6. Integrated live imaging and molecular profiling of embryoid bodies reveals a synchronized progression of early differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Boxman, Jonathan; Sagy, Naor; Achanta, Sirisha; Vadigepalli, Rajanikanth; Nachman, Iftach

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells can spontaneously differentiate into cell types of all germ layers within embryoid bodies (EBs) in a highly variable manner. Whether there exists an intrinsic differentiation program common to all EBs is unknown. Here, we present a novel combination of high-throughput live two-photon imaging and gene expression profiling to study early differentiation dynamics spontaneously occurring within developing EBs. Onset timing of Brachyury-GFP was highly variable across EBs, while the spatial patterns as well as the dynamics of mesendodermal progression following onset were remarkably similar. We therefore defined a ‘developmental clock’ using the Brachyury-GFP signal onset timing. Mapping snapshot gene expression measurements to this clock revealed their temporal trends, indicating that loss of pluripotency, formation of primitive streak and mesodermal lineage progression are synchronized in EBs. Exogenous activation of Wnt or BMP signaling accelerated the intrinsic clock. CHIR down-regulated Wnt3, allowing insights into dependency mechanisms between canonical Wnt signaling and multiple genes. Our findings reveal a developmental clock characteristic of an early differentiation program common to all EBs, further establishing them as an in vitro developmental model. PMID:27530599

  7. ROCK inhibitor is not required for embryoid body formation from singularized human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Pettinato, Giuseppe; Vanden Berg-Foels, Wendy S; Zhang, Ning; Wen, Xuejun

    2014-01-01

    We report a technology to form human embryoid bodies (hEBs) from singularized human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) without the use of the p160 rho-associated coiled-coil kinase inhibitor (ROCKi) or centrifugation (spin). hEB formation was tested under four conditions: +ROCKi/+spin, +ROCKi/-spin, -ROCKi/+spin, and -ROCKi/-spin. Cell suspensions of BG01V/hOG and H9 hESC lines were pipetted into non-adherent hydrogel substrates containing defined microwell arrays. hEBs of consistent size and spherical geometry can be formed in each of the four conditions, including the -ROCKi/-spin condition. The hEBs formed under the -ROCKi/-spin condition differentiated to develop the three embryonic germ layers and tissues derived from each of the germ layers. This simplified hEB production technique offers homogeneity in hEB size and shape to support synchronous differentiation, elimination of the ROCKi xeno-factor and rate-limiting centrifugation treatment, and low-cost scalability, which will directly support automated, large-scale production of hEBs and hESC-derived cells needed for clinical, research, or therapeutic applications. PMID:25365581

  8. Three-dimensional bioprinting of embryonic stem cells directs highly uniform embryoid body formation.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Liliang; Yao, Rui; Mao, Shuangshuang; Chen, Xi; Na, Jie; Sun, Wei

    2015-12-01

    With the ability to manipulate cells temporarily and spatially into three-dimensional (3D) tissue-like construct, 3D bioprinting technology was used in many studies to facilitate the recreation of complex cell niche and/or to better understand the regulation of stem cell proliferation and differentiation by cellular microenvironment factors. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have the capacity to differentiate into any specialized cell type of the animal body, generally via the formation of embryoid body (EB), which mimics the early stages of embryogenesis. In this study, extrusion-based 3D bioprinting technology was utilized for biofabricating ESCs into 3D cell-laden construct. The influence of 3D printing parameters on ESC viability, proliferation, maintenance of pluripotency and the rule of EB formation was systematically studied in this work. Results demonstrated that ESCs were successfully printed with hydrogel into 3D macroporous construct. Upon process optimization, about 90% ESCs remained alive after the process of bioprinting and cell-laden construct formation. ESCs continued proliferating into spheroid EBs in the hydrogel construct, while retaining the protein expression and gene expression of pluripotent markers, like octamer binding transcription factor 4, stage specific embryonic antigen 1 and Nanog. In this novel technology, EBs were formed through cell proliferation instead of aggregation, and the quantity of EBs was tuned by the initial cell density in the 3D bioprinting process. This study introduces the 3D bioprinting of ESCs into a 3D cell-laden hydrogel construct for the first time and showed the production of uniform, pluripotent, high-throughput and size-controllable EBs, which indicated strong potential in ESC large scale expansion, stem cell regulation and fabrication of tissue-like structure and drug screening studies. PMID:26531008

  9. Collagen-IV supported embryoid bodies formation and differentiation from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Taru Sharma, G.; Dubey, Pawan K.; Verma, Om Prakash; Pratheesh, M.D.; Nath, Amar; Sai Kumar, G.

    2012-08-03

    Graphical abstract: EBs formation, characterization and expression of germinal layers marker genes of in vivo developed teratoma using four different types of extracellular matrices. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV matrix is found cytocompatible for EBs formation and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Established 3D microenvironment for ES cells development and differentiation into three germ layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV may be useful as promising candidate for ES cells based therapeutic applications. -- Abstract: Embryoid bodies (EBs) are used as in vitro model to study early extraembryonic tissue formation and differentiation. In this study, a novel method using three dimensional extracellular matrices for in vitro generation of EBs from buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cells and its differentiation potential by teratoma formation was successfully established. In vitro derived inner cell masses (ICMs) of hatched buffalo blastocyst were cultured on buffalo fetal fibroblast feeder layer for primary cell colony formation. For generation of EBs, pluripotent ES cells were seeded onto four different types of extracellular matrices viz; collagen-IV, laminin, fibronectin and matrigel using undifferentiating ES cell culture medium. After 5 days of culture, ESCs gradually grew into aggregates and formed simple EBs having circular structures. Twenty-six days later, they formed cystic EBs over collagen matrix with higher EBs formation and greater proliferation rate as compared to other extracellular matrices. Studies involving histological observations, fluorescence microscopy and RT-PCR analysis of the in vivo developed teratoma revealed that presence of all the three germ layer derivatives viz. ectoderm (NCAM), mesoderm (Flk-1) and endoderm (AFP). In conclusion, the method described here demonstrates a simple and cost-effective way of generating EBs from buffalo ES cells. Collagen-IV matrix was found cytocompatible as it

  10. Hypoxia and Extracellular Matrix Proteins Influence Angiogenesis and Lymphangiogenesis in Mouse Embryoid Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Foskett, Andrea M.; Ezekiel, Uthayashanker R.; Trzeciakowski, Jerome P.; Zawieja, David C.; Muthuchamy, Mariappan

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory mechanisms for angiogenesis are relatively well established compared to lymphangiogenesis. Few studies have shown that a combination of vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF-A/C with hypoxia or collagen matrix promotes lymphatic structures along with blood vessel development in mouse embryoid bodies (EB). In this study we tested the hypothesis that while hypoxia combined with prolonged VEGF-A/C treatment would induce early lymphangiogenesis in addition to angiogenesis in mouse EBs, under similar conditions specific extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins would promote lymphatic vessel-like structures over angiogenesis. EBs were subjected to four conditions and were maintained under normoxia and hypoxia (21% and 2.6% O2, respectively) with or without VEGF-A/C. Microarray analyses of normoxic and hypoxic EBs, and immunofluorescence data showed very low expression of early lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) markers, lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE1), and prospero-related homeobox 1 (Prox1) at early time points. Double immunofluorescence using MECA-32 and Prox1/LYVE1 demonstrated that combined hypoxia and VEGF-A/C treatment promoted formation of blood vessel-like structures, whereas only Prox1+/LYVE1+ LECs were detected in EBs at E22.5. Furthermore, EBs were grown on laminin or collagen-I coated plates and were subjected to the four treatments as described above. Results revealed that LECs in EBs at E36.5 attached better to collagen-I, resulting in an organized network of lymphatic vessel-like structures as compared to EBs grown on laminin. However, blood vessel-like structures were less favored under these same conditions. Collectively, our data demonstrate that hypoxia combined with growth factors promotes angiogenesis, whereas combination of these conditions with specific ECM proteins favors lymphangiogenesis processes in mouse EBs. PMID:22194726

  11. Paramagnetic Beads and Magnetically Mediated Strain Enhance Cardiomyogenesis in Mouse Embryoid Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Geuss, Laura R.; Wu, Douglas C.; Ramamoorthy, Divya; Alford, Corinne D.; Suggs, Laura J.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical forces play an important role in proper embryologic development, and similarly such forces can directly impact pluripotency and differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) in vitro. In addition, manipulation of the embryoid body (EB) microenvironment, such as by incorporation of microspheres or microparticles, can similarly influence fate determination. In this study, we developed a mechanical stimulation regimen using permanent neodymium magnets to magnetically attract cells within an EB. Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic Acid (RGD)-conjugated paramagnetic beads were incorporated into the interior of the EBs during aggregation, allowing us to exert force on individual cells using short-term magnetization. EBs were stimulated for one hour at different magnetic field strengths, subsequently exerting a range of force intensity on the cells at different stages of early EB development. Our results demonstrated that following exposure to a 0.2 Tesla magnetic field, ESCs respond to magnetically mediated strain by activating Protein Kinase A (PKA) and increasing phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK1/2) expression. The timing of stimulation can also be tailored to guide ESC differentiation: the combination of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) supplementation with one hour of magnetic attraction on Day 3 enhances cardiomyogenesis by increasing contractile activity and the percentage of sarcomeric α-actin-expressing cells compared to control samples with BMP4 alone. Interestingly, we also observed that the beads alone had some impact on differentiation by increasingly slightly, albeit not significantly, the percentage of cardiomyocytes. Together these results suggest that magnetically mediated strain can be used to enhance the percentage of mouse ESC-derived cardiomyocytes over current differentiation protocols. PMID:25501004

  12. Characterization of mouse embryoid bodies cultured on microwell chips with different well sizes.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Kohji; Yoshiura, Yukiko; Koga, Haruka; Sakai, Yusuke

    2013-11-01

    Microwell chip culture is a promising technique for the generation of homogenous embryoid bodies (EBs). In this study, we focused on the relationship between microwell size and mouse EB properties. The basic chip design was 195 microwells in a triangular arrangement on a polymethylmethacrylate plate with a surface modified by polyethylene glycol to render it nonadhesive, and 4 similar chips were fabricated with microwell diameters of 400, 600, 800, and 1000 μm. The cell proliferation rate of EBs in larger microwells was higher than that of EBs in smaller microwells. The decrease in the expression levels of undifferentiated marker genes (Oct3/4 and Nanog) in larger microwells was faster than that in smaller microwells. The expression of hepatic (transthyretin and alpha-fetoprotein), cardiac (Nkx2.5 and alpha-myosin heavy chain), and vascular (fetal liver kinase-1; Flk1) markers in larger microwells was higher than that in smaller microwells. The expression levels of differentiation markers except Flk1 in the chip with a diameter of 1000 μm were similar to those in hanging drop culture. However, Flk1 expression in microwell chip was markedly lower than that in hanging drop culture, suggesting that microwell chip culture promotes differentiation of hepatic and cardiac lineages. Furthermore, glucose consumption and lactate production were higher in smaller microwells, suggesting that the culture proceeds under anaerobic conditions in smaller microwells. These results indicate that the difference in microwell size affects the proliferation and differentiation of embryonic stem cells, and that microwell culture is a promising technique to control EB properties. PMID:23735328

  13. Imprinted expression in cystic embryoid bodies shows an embryonic and not an extra-embryonic pattern

    PubMed Central

    Kulinski, Tomasz M.; Casari, M. Rita T.; Guenzl, Philipp M.; Wenzel, Daniel; Andergassen, Daniel; Hladik, Anastasiya; Datlinger, Paul; Farlik, Matthias; Theussl, H. -Christian; Penninger, Josef M.; Knapp, Sylvia; Bock, Christoph; Barlow, Denise P.; Hudson, Quanah J.

    2015-01-01

    A large subset of mammalian imprinted genes show extra-embryonic lineage (EXEL) specific imprinted expression that is restricted to placental trophectoderm lineages and to visceral yolk sac endoderm (ysE). Isolated ysE provides a homogenous in vivo model of a mid-gestation extra-embryonic tissue to examine the mechanism of EXEL-specific imprinted gene silencing, but an in vitro model of ysE to facilitate more rapid and cost-effective experiments is not available. Reports indicate that ES cells differentiated into cystic embryoid bodies (EBs) contain ysE, so here we investigate if cystic EBs model ysE imprinted expression. The imprinted expression pattern of cystic EBs is shown to resemble fetal liver and not ysE. To investigate the reason for this we characterized the methylome and transcriptome of cystic EBs in comparison to fetal liver and ysE, by whole genome bisulphite sequencing and RNA-seq. Cystic EBs show a fetal liver pattern of global hypermethylation and low expression of repeats, while ysE shows global hypomethylation and high expression of IAPEz retroviral repeats, as reported for placenta. Transcriptome analysis confirmed that cystic EBs are more similar to fetal liver than ysE and express markers of early embryonic endoderm. Genome-wide analysis shows that ysE shares epigenetic and repeat expression features with placenta. Contrary to previous reports, we show that cystic EBs do not contain ysE, but are more similar to the embryonic endoderm of fetal liver. This explains why cystic EBs reproduce the imprinted expression seen in the embryo but not that seen in the ysE. PMID:25912690

  14. Rapid and high-throughput formation of 3D embryoid bodies in hydrogels using the dielectrophoresis technique.

    PubMed

    Ahadian, Samad; Yamada, Shukuyo; Ramón-Azcón, Javier; Ino, Kosuke; Shiku, Hitoshi; Khademhosseini, Ali; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2014-10-01

    In this manuscript, we demonstrate the rapid formation of three-dimensional (3D) embryonic stem cell (ESC) aggregates with controllable sizes and shapes in hydrogels using dielectrophoresis (DEP). The ESCs encapsulated within a methacrylated gelatin (GelMA) prepolymer were introduced into a DEP device and, upon applying an electric field and crosslinking of the GelMA hydrogel, formed 3D ESC aggregates. Embryoid bodies (EBs) fabricated using this method showed high cellular viability and pluripotency. The proposed technique enables production of EBs on a large scale and in a high-throughput manner for potential cell therapy and tissue regeneration applications. PMID:25082412

  15. RNA Sequencing Reveals the Alteration of the Expression of Novel Genes in Ethanol-Treated Embryoid Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Chanchal; Kim, Sun Hwa; Chai, Jin Choul; Oh, Seon Mi; Lee, Young Seek; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Chai, Young Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is a collective term representing fetal abnormalities associated with maternal alcohol consumption. Prenatal alcohol exposure and related anomalies are well characterized, but the molecular mechanism behind this phenomenon is not well characterized. In this present study, our aim is to profile important genes that regulate cellular development during fetal development. Human embryonic carcinoma cells (NCCIT) are cultured to form embryoid bodies and then treated in the presence and absence of ethanol (50 mM). We employed RNA sequencing to profile differentially expressed genes in the ethanol-treated embryoid bodies from NCCIT vs. EB, NCCIT vs. EB+EtOH and EB vs. EB+EtOH data sets. A total of 632, 205 and 517 differentially expressed genes were identified from NCCIT vs. EB, NCCIT vs. EB+EtOH and EB vs. EB+EtOH, respectively. Functional annotation using bioinformatics tools reveal significant enrichment of differential cellular development and developmental disorders. Furthermore, a group of 42, 15 and 35 transcription factor-encoding genes are screened from all of the differentially expressed genes obtained from NCCIT vs. EB, NCCIT vs. EB+EtOH and EB vs. EB+EtOH, respectively. We validated relative gene expression levels of several transcription factors from these lists by quantitative real-time PCR. We hope that our study substantially contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying the pathology of alcohol-mediated anomalies and ease further research. PMID:26930486

  16. A local redox cycling-based electrochemical chip device with nanocavities for multi-electrochemical evaluation of embryoid bodies.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Yusuke; Ino, Kosuke; Shiku, Hitoshi; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2015-12-01

    An electrochemical device, which consists of electrode arrays, nanocavities, and microwells, was developed for multi-electrochemical detection with high sensitivity. A local redox cycling-based electrochemical (LRC-EC) system was used for multi-electrochemical detection and signal amplification. The LRC-EC system consists of n(2) sensors with only 2n bonding pads for external connection. The nanocavities fabricated in the sensor microwells enable significant improvement of the signal amplification compared with the previous devices we have developed. The present device was successfully applied for evaluation of embryoid bodies (EBs) from embryonic stem (ES) cells via electrochemical measurements of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the EBs. In addition, the EBs were successfully trapped in the sensor microwells of the device using dielectrophoresis (DEP) manipulation, which led to high-throughput cell analysis. This device is considered to be useful for multi-electrochemical detection and imaging for bioassays including cell analysis. PMID:26481771

  17. Characterization of a subpopulation of developing cortical interneurons from human iPSCs within serum-free embryoid bodies

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Samson; Sun, Bruce; Prè, Deborah; Sproul, Andrew A.; Hong, Seong Im; Woodard, Chris; Zimmer, Matthew; Chinchalongporn, Vorapin; Arancio, Ottavio; Noggle, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Production and isolation of forebrain interneuron progenitors are essential for understanding cortical development and developing cell-based therapies for developmental and neurodegenerative disorders. We demonstrate production of a population of putative calretinin-positive bipolar interneurons that express markers consistent with caudal ganglionic eminence identities. Using serum-free embryoid bodies (SFEBs) generated from human inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), we demonstrate that these interneuron progenitors exhibit morphological, immunocytochemical, and electrophysiological hallmarks of developing cortical interneurons. Finally, we develop a fluorescence-activated cell-sorting strategy to isolate interneuron progenitors from SFEBs to allow development of a purified population of these cells. Identification of this critical neuronal cell type within iPSC-derived SFEBs is an important and novel step in describing cortical development in this iPSC preparation. PMID:25394470

  18. Intercellular cancer collisions generate an ejected crystal comet tail effect with fractal interface embryoid body reassembly transformation

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Jairo A; Murillo, Mauricio F; Barrero, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    We have documented self-assembled geometric triangular chiral crystal complexes (GTCHC) and a framework of collagen vascular invariant geometric attractors in cancer tissues. This article shows how this system evolves in time. These structures are incorporated together and evolve in different ways. When the geometric core is stable, and the tissue architecture collapses, fragmented components emerge, which reveal a hidden interior identifying how each molecule is reassembled into the original mold, using one common connection, ie, a fractal self-similarity that guided the system from the beginning. GTCHC complexes generate ejected crystal comet tail effects and produce strange helicity states that arise in the form of spin domain interactions. As the crystal growth vibration stage progresses, biofractal echo images converge in a master-built construction of embryoid bodies with enolase-selective immunopositivity in relation to clusters of triangular chiral cell organization. In our electro-optic collision model, we were able to predict and replicate all the characteristics of this complex geometry that connects a physical phenomenon with the signal patterns that generate biologic chaos. Intrinsically, fractal geometry makes spatial correction errors embrace the chaotic system in a way that permits new structures to emerge, and as a result, an ordered self-assembly of embryoid bodies with neural differentiation at the final stage of cancer development is a predictable process. We hope that further investigation of these structures will lead not only to a new way of thinking about physics and biology, but also to a rewarding area in cancer research. PMID:21625398

  19. Suppression of the PI3K subunit p85α delays embryoid body development and inhibits cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Gurney, Susan M R; Forster, Peter; Just, Ursula; Schwanbeck, Ralf

    2011-12-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases (PI3Ks) exert a variety of signaling functions in eukaryotes. We suppressed the PI3K regulatory subunit p85α using a small interfering RNA (Pik3r1 siRNA) and examined the effects on embryoid body (EB) development in hanging drop culture. We observed a 150% increase in the volume of the treated EBs within 24 h, compared to the negative controls. Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) assays showed that this increase in volume is not due to increased cellular proliferation. Instead, the increase in volume appears to be due to reduced cellular aggregation and adherence. This is further shown by our observation that 40% of treated EBs form twin instead of single EBs, and that they have a significantly reduced ability to adhere to culture dishes when plated. A time course over the first 96 h reveals that the impaired adherence is transient and explained by an initial 12-hour delay in EB development. Quantitative PCR expression analysis suggests that the adhesion molecule integrin-β1 (ITGB1) is transiently downregulated by the p85α suppression. In conclusion we found that suppressing p85α leads to a delay in forming compact EBs, accompanied by a transient inability of the EBs to undergo normal cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion. PMID:21780162

  20. Nonlinear 3D projection printing of concave hydrogel microstructures for long-term multicellular spheroid and embryoid body culture.

    PubMed

    Hribar, K C; Finlay, D; Ma, X; Qu, X; Ondeck, M G; Chung, P H; Zanella, F; Engler, A J; Sheikh, F; Vuori, K; Chen, S C

    2015-06-01

    Long-term culture and monitoring of individual multicellular spheroids and embryoid bodies (EBs) remains a challenge for in vitro cell propagation. Here, we used a continuous 3D projection printing approach - with an important modification of nonlinear exposure - to generate concave hydrogel microstructures that permit spheroid growth and long-term maintenance, without the need for spheroid transfer. Breast cancer spheroids grown to 10 d in the concave structures showed hypoxic cores and signs of necrosis using immunofluorescent and histochemical staining, key features of the tumor microenvironment in vivo. EBs consisting of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) grown on the hydrogels demonstrated narrow size distribution and undifferentiated markers at 3 d, followed by signs of differentiation by the presence of cavities and staining of the three germ layers at 10 d. These findings demonstrate a new method for long-term (e.g. beyond spheroid formation at day 2, and with media exchange) 3D cell culture that should be able to assist in cancer spheroid studies as well as embryogenesis and patient-derived disease modeling with iPSC EBs. PMID:25900329

  1. The Microwell Control of Embryoid Body Size in order to Regulate Cardiac Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Jeffrey C.; Zhang, Jianhua; Azarin, Samira M.; Soerens, Andrew G.; de Pablo, Juan J.; Thomson, James A.; Lyons, Gary E.; Palecek, Sean P.; Kamp, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    The differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into cardiomyocytes (CMs) using embryoid bodies (EBs) is relatively inefficient and highly variable. Formation of EBs using standard enzymatic disaggregation techniques results in a wide range of sizes and geometries of EBs. Use of a 3-D cuboidal microwell system to culture hESCs in colonies of defined dimensions, 100 to 500 μm in lateral dimensions and 120 μm in depth, enabled formation of more uniform sized EBs. The 300 μm microwells produced highest percentage of contracting EBs, but flow cytometry for myosin light chain 2A (MLC2a) expressing cells revealed a similar percentage (~3%) of cardiomyocytes formed in EBs from 100 μm and 300 μm microwells. These data, and immunolabeling with anti-MF20 and MLC2a, suggest that the smaller EBs are less likely to form contracting EBs, but those contracting EBs are relatively enriched in cardiomyocytes compared to larger EB sizes where CMs make up a proportionately smaller fraction of the total cells. We conclude that microwell-engineered EB size regulates cardiogenesis and can be used for more efficient and reproducible formation of hESC-CMs needed for research and therapeutic applications. PMID:19945747

  2. Nonlinear 3D Projection Printing of Concave Hydrogel Microstructures for Long-Term Multicellular Spheroid and Embryoid Body Culture

    PubMed Central

    Hribar, K.C; Finlay, D.; Ma, X.; Qu, X.; Ondeck, M. G.; Chung, P. H.; Zanella, F.; Engler, A. J.; Sheikh, F.; Vuori, K.; Chen, S.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term culture and monitoring of individual multicellular spheroids and embryoid bodies (EBs) remains a challenge for in vitro cell propogation. Here, we used a continuous 3D projection printing approach – with an important modification of nonlinear exposure — to generate concave hydrogel microstructures that permit spheroid growth and long-term maintenance, without the need for spheroid transfer. Breast cancer spheroids grown to 10 d in the concave structures showed hypoxic cores and signs of necrosis using immunofluorescent and histochemical staining, key features of the tumor microenvironment in vivo. EBs consisting of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) grown on the hydrogels demonstrated narrow size distribution and undifferentiated markers at 3 d, followed by signs of differentiation by the presence of cavities and staining of the three germ layers at 10 d. These findings demonstrate a new method for long-term (e.g. beyond spheroid formation at day 2, and with media exchange) 3D cell culture that should be able to assist in cancer spheroid studies as well as embryogenesis and patient-derived disease modeling with iPSC EBs. PMID:25900329

  3. Positioning of the mouse Hox gene clusters in the nuclei of developing embryos and differentiating embryoid bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Lanctot, Christian . E-mail: christian.lanctot@lrz.uni-muenchen.de; Kaspar, Cornelius; Cremer, Thomas

    2007-04-15

    Expression of Hox genes located on different chromosomes is precisely regulated and synchronized during development. In order to test the hypothesis that the Hox loci might cluster in nuclear space in order to share regulatory components, we performed 3D FISH on cryosections of developing mouse embryos and differentiating embryoid bodies. We did not observe any instances of co-localization of 4 different Hox alleles. Instances of 2 different alleles touching each other were found in 20-47% of nuclei depending on the tissue. The frequency of such 'kissing' events was not significantly different in cells expressing a high proportion of the Hox clusters when compared to cells expressing none or only a few Hox genes. We found that the HoxB and HoxC clusters, which are located in gene-rich regions, were involved more frequently in gene kissing in embryonic nuclei. In the case of HoxB, this observation correlated with the positioning of the corresponding chromosome towards the interior of the nucleus. Our results indicate that co-regulation of the different Hox clusters is not associated with co-localization of the loci at a single regulatory compartment and that the chromosomal context may influence the extent to which they contact each other in the nucleus.

  4. Positioning of the mouse Hox gene clusters in the nuclei of developing embryos and differentiating embryoid bodies.

    PubMed

    Lanctôt, Christian; Kaspar, Cornelius; Cremer, Thomas

    2007-04-15

    Expression of Hox genes located on different chromosomes is precisely regulated and synchronized during development. In order to test the hypothesis that the Hox loci might cluster in nuclear space in order to share regulatory components, we performed 3D FISH on cryosections of developing mouse embryos and differentiating embryoid bodies. We did not observe any instances of co-localization of 4 different Hox alleles. Instances of 2 different alleles touching each other were found in 20-47% of nuclei depending on the tissue. The frequency of such "kissing" events was not significantly different in cells expressing a high proportion of the Hox clusters when compared to cells expressing none or only a few Hox genes. We found that the HoxB and HoxC clusters, which are located in gene-rich regions, were involved more frequently in gene kissing in embryonic nuclei. In the case of HoxB, this observation correlated with the positioning of the corresponding chromosome towards the interior of the nucleus. Our results indicate that co-regulation of the different Hox clusters is not associated with co-localization of the loci at a single regulatory compartment and that the chromosomal context may influence the extent to which they contact each other in the nucleus. PMID:17346703

  5. Use of In Vitro Morphogenesis of Mouse Embryoid Bodies to Assess Developmental Toxicity of Therapeutic Drugs Contraindicated in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Warkus, Erica L L; Yuen, Angela A Y Q; Lau, Caroline G Y; Marikawa, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    In utero exposure to certain chemicals can impair embryo development, causing embryonic death, growth retardation, or severe birth defects. Establishment of effective in vitro tests is crucial for identifying developmental toxicants and for reducing the financial and ethical burden of animal-based tests. Previously, we created an in vitro morphogenesis model using pluripotent P19C5 mouse embryonal carcinoma stem cells that mimics the process of gastrulation and axial body elongation of embryos. Because many birth defects are caused by dysregulation of cellular behaviors during embryogenesis, the morphogenesis model may serve as a unique tool to investigate the impacts of developmental toxicants. The aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability and limitations of the model using 20 therapeutic drugs, 16 of which are contraindicated in pregnancy and 4 are considered safe. P19C5 embryoid bodies (EBs) were exposed to different concentrations of drugs during 4 days of 3-dimensional culture. The treatment effects on growth and morphogenesis were analyzed using morphometric measurements of EB size and shape, respectively. Viability assays of P19C5 cells and NIH/3T3 fibroblasts were used to determine the drug concentrations that caused general cytotoxicity and those that selectively diminished P19C5 proliferation relative to NIH/3T3 proliferation. Thirteen contraindicated drugs diminished P19C5 cell proliferation, reduced EB growth, or altered morphogenesis at concentrations below generally cytotoxic levels. Two safe drugs also exhibited these impacts at the highest concentration tested. Although additional validation studies are required, this study introduces morphogenesis-based stem cell models as potentially effective in vitro tools for developmental toxicity research. PMID:26385866

  6. Synergistic Effects of Hypoxia and Morphogenetic Factors on Early Chondrogenic Commitment of Human Embryonic Stem Cells in Embryoid Body Culture

    PubMed Central

    Yodmuang, Supansa; Marolt, Darja; Marcos-Campos, Ivan; Gadjanski, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Derivation of articular chondrocytes from human stem cells would advance our current understanding of chondrogenesis, and accelerate development of new stem cell therapies for cartilage repair. Chondrogenic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) has been studied using supplemental and cell-secreted morphogenetic factors. The use of bioreactors enabled insights into the effects of physical forces and controlled oxygen tension. In this study, we investigated the interactive effects of controlled variation of oxygen tension and chondrocyte-secreted morphogenetic factors on chondrogenic differentiation of hESCs in the embryoid body format (hESC-EB). Transient hypoxic culture (2 weeks at 5 % O2 followed by 1 week at 21 % O2) of hESC-EBs in medium conditioned with primary chondrocytes up-regulated the expression of SOX9 and suppressed pluripotent markers OCT4 and NANOG. Pellets derived from these cells showed significant up-regulation of chondrogenic genes (SOX9, COL2A1, ACAN) and enhanced production of cartilaginous matrix (collagen type II and proteoglycan) as compared to the pellets from hESC-EBs cultured under normoxic conditions. Gene expression profiles corresponded to those associated with native cartilage development, with early expression of N-cadherin (indicator of cell condensation) and late expression of aggrecan (ACAN, indicator of proteoglycan production). When implanted into highly vascularized subcutaneous area in immunocompromised mice for 4 weeks, pellets remained phenotypically stable and consisted of cartilaginous extracellular matrix (ECM), without evidence of dedifferentiation or teratoma formation. Based on these results, we propose that chondrogenesis in hESC can be synergistically enhanced by a control of oxygen tension and morphogenetic factors secreted by chondrocytes. PMID:25618295

  7. Slow Turning Lateral Vessel Bioreactor Improves Embryoid Body Formation and Cardiogenic Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rungarunlert, Sasitorn; Klincumhom, Nuttha; Tharasanit, Theerawat; Techakumphu, Mongkol; Pirity, Melinda K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have the ability to form aggregates, which are called embryoid bodies (EBs). EBs mimic early embryonic development and are commonly produced for cardiomyogenesis. Here, we describe a method of EB formation in hydrodynamic conditions using a slow-turning lateral vessel (STLV) bioreactor and the subsequent differentiation of EBs into cardiomyocytes. EBs formed in the STLV were compared with conventional techniques, such as hanging drop (HD) or static suspension cell culture (SSC), for homogeneity of EB size, shape, proliferation, apoptosis, and in vitro cardiac differentiation. After 3 days of culture, a four-fold improvement in the yield of EB formation/mL, a six-fold enhancement in total yield of EB/mL, and a nearly 10-fold reduction of cells that failed to incorporate into EBs were achieved in STLV versus SSC. During cardiac differentiation, a 1.5- to 4.2-fold increase in the area of cardiac troponin T (cTnT) per single EB in STLV versus SSC and HD was achieved. These results demonstrate that the STLV method improves the quality and quantity of ES cells to form EBs and enhances the efficiency of cardiac differentiation. We have demonstrated that the mechanical method of cell differentiation creates different microenvironments for the cells and thus influences their lineage commitments, even when genetic origin and the culture medium are the same. Ascorbic acid (ASC) improved further cardiac commitment in differentiation assays. Hence, this culture system is suitable for the production of large numbers of cells for clinical cell replacement therapies and industrial drug testing applications. PMID:24020697

  8. Slow turning lateral vessel bioreactor improves embryoid body formation and cardiogenic differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Rungarunlert, Sasitorn; Klincumhom, Nuttha; Tharasanit, Theerawat; Techakumphu, Mongkol; Pirity, Melinda K; Dinnyes, Andras

    2013-10-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have the ability to form aggregates, which are called embryoid bodies (EBs). EBs mimic early embryonic development and are commonly produced for cardiomyogenesis. Here, we describe a method of EB formation in hydrodynamic conditions using a slow-turning lateral vessel (STLV) bioreactor and the subsequent differentiation of EBs into cardiomyocytes. EBs formed in the STLV were compared with conventional techniques, such as hanging drop (HD) or static suspension cell culture (SSC), for homogeneity of EB size, shape, proliferation, apoptosis, and in vitro cardiac differentiation. After 3 days of culture, a four-fold improvement in the yield of EB formation/mL, a six-fold enhancement in total yield of EB/mL, and a nearly 10-fold reduction of cells that failed to incorporate into EBs were achieved in STLV versus SSC. During cardiac differentiation, a 1.5- to 4.2-fold increase in the area of cardiac troponin T (cTnT) per single EB in STLV versus SSC and HD was achieved. These results demonstrate that the STLV method improves the quality and quantity of ES cells to form EBs and enhances the efficiency of cardiac differentiation. We have demonstrated that the mechanical method of cell differentiation creates different microenvironments for the cells and thus influences their lineage commitments, even when genetic origin and the culture medium are the same. Ascorbic acid (ASC) improved further cardiac commitment in differentiation assays. Hence, this culture system is suitable for the production of large numbers of cells for clinical cell replacement therapies and industrial drug testing applications. PMID:24020697

  9. Synergistic effects of hypoxia and morphogenetic factors on early chondrogenic commitment of human embryonic stem cells in embryoid body culture.

    PubMed

    Yodmuang, Supansa; Marolt, Darja; Marcos-Campos, Ivan; Gadjanski, Ivana; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2015-04-01

    Derivation of articular chondrocytes from human stem cells would advance our current understanding of chondrogenesis, and accelerate development of new stem cell therapies for cartilage repair. Chondrogenic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) has been studied using supplemental and cell-secreted morphogenetic factors. The use of bioreactors enabled insights into the effects of physical forces and controlled oxygen tension. In this study, we investigated the interactive effects of controlled variation of oxygen tension and chondrocyte-secreted morphogenetic factors on chondrogenic differentiation of hESCs in the embryoid body format (hESC-EB). Transient hypoxic culture (2 weeks at 5 % O2 followed by 1 week at 21 % O2) of hESC-EBs in medium conditioned with primary chondrocytes up-regulated the expression of SOX9 and suppressed pluripotent markers OCT4 and NANOG. Pellets derived from these cells showed significant up-regulation of chondrogenic genes (SOX9, COL2A1, ACAN) and enhanced production of cartilaginous matrix (collagen type II and proteoglycan) as compared to the pellets from hESC-EBs cultured under normoxic conditions. Gene expression profiles corresponded to those associated with native cartilage development, with early expression of N-cadherin (indicator of cell condensation) and late expression of aggrecan (ACAN, indicator of proteoglycan production). When implanted into highly vascularized subcutaneous area in immunocompromised mice for 4 weeks, pellets remained phenotypically stable and consisted of cartilaginous extracellular matrix (ECM), without evidence of dedifferentiation or teratoma formation. Based on these results, we propose that chondrogenesis in hESC can be synergistically enhanced by a control of oxygen tension and morphogenetic factors secreted by chondrocytes. PMID:25618295

  10. Neural Commitment of Embryonic Stem Cells through the Formation of Embryoid Bodies (EBs)

    PubMed Central

    LIYANG, Gao; ABDULLAH, Syahril; ROSLI, Rozita; NORDIN, Norshariza

    2014-01-01

    An embryonic stem cell (ESC) is a good tool to generate neurons in vitro and can be used to mimic neural development in vivo. It has been widely used in research to examine the role of cell signalling during neuronal development, test the effects of drugs on neurons, and generate a large population of functional neurons. So far, a number of protocols have been established to promote the differentiation of ESCs, such as direct and indirect differentiation. One of the widely used protocols to generate neurons is through the spontaneous formation of multicellular aggregates known as embryonic bodies (EBs). However, for some, it is not clear why EB protocol could be the protocol of choice. EB also is known to mimic an early embryo; hence, knowing the similarities between EB and an early embryo is essential, particularly the information on the players that promote the formation of EBs or the aggregation of ESCs. This review paper focuses on these issues and discusses further the generation of neural cells from EBs using a well-known protocol, the 4−/4+ protocol. PMID:25977628

  11. A three dimensional anchorage independent in vitro system for the prolonged growth of embryoid bodies to study cancer cell behaviour and anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Fong, Chui-Yee; Chak, Li-Ling; Subramanian, Arjunan; Tan, Jee-Hian; Biswas, Arijit; Gauthaman, Kalamegam; Choolani, Mahesh; Chan, Woon-Khiong; Bongso, Ariff

    2009-12-01

    We describe a three dimensional (3D) anchorage independent in vitro protocol for the prolonged growth of human embryoid bodies (EBs) up to 90 days. We grew hESCs (46XX) in methylcellulose (MC) in motion culture in the presence of EB medium (EB), EB medium with Matrigel (EB + MAT), bulk culture medium (BCM), and BCM medium with Matrigel (BCM + MAT). All four experimental groups produced embryoid bodies (EBs) which with prolonged growth to 90 days acquired blood vessels and tissues from all three germ layers. Based on histology, microarray gene expression profiles and the definition for experimental teratomas, we could classify the EBs into early EBs, mature EBs and teratomas. The EB + MAT group produced the highest number of teratomas and their microarray data suggested the presence of inductive microenvironment niches and activation of pathways for self-organization, morphogenesis and growth. When we microinjected hepatocarcinoma-Green Fluorescent Protein cells (HepG2-GFP) (46XY) into the teratomas, after 10 days the HepG2-GFP cells had grown inside the teratoma as confirmed by confocal microscopy and SRY gene analysis. This 3D-MC-(EB + MAT) in vitro system requires few cells to produce many teratomas, can be used to test pluripotency of potential human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell lines (hESC, hiPSC), and is an experimental humanized platform to study cancer cell behavior. PMID:20058203

  12. Formation of Well-defined Embryoid Bodies from Dissociated Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells using Microfabricated Cell-repellent Microwell Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Pettinato, Giuseppe; Wen, Xuejun; Zhang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    A simple, scalable, and reproducible technology that allows direct formation of large numbers of homogeneous and synchronized embryoid bodies (EBs) of defined sizes from dissociated human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) was developed. Non-cell-adhesive hydrogels were used to create round-bottom microwells to host dissociated hiPSCs. No Rho-associated kinase inhibitor (ROCK-i), or centrifugation was needed and the side effects of ROCK-i can be avoided. The key requirement for the successful EB formation in addition to the non-cell-adhesive round-bottom microwells is the input cell density per microwell. Too few or too many cells loaded into the microwells will compromise the EB formation process. In parallel, we have tested our microwell-based system for homogeneous hEB formation from dissociated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Successful production of homogeneous hEBs from dissociated hESCs in the absence of ROCK-i and centrifugation was achieved within an optimal range of input cell density per microwell. Both the hiPSC- and hESC-derived hEBs expressed key proteins characteristic of all the three developmental germ layers, confirming their EB identity. This novel EB production technology may represent a versatile platform for the production of homogeneous EBs from dissociated human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). PMID:25492588

  13. Remyelination Is Correlated with Regulatory T Cell Induction Following Human Embryoid Body-Derived Neural Precursor Cell Transplantation in a Viral Model of Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Plaisted, Warren C; Zavala, Angel; Hingco, Edna; Tran, Ha; Coleman, Ronald; Lane, Thomas E; Loring, Jeanne F; Walsh, Craig M

    2016-01-01

    We have recently described sustained clinical recovery associated with dampened neuroinflammation and remyelination following transplantation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in a viral model of the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis. The hNPCs used in that study were derived by a novel direct differentiation method (direct differentiation, DD-NPCs) that resulted in a unique gene expression pattern when compared to hNPCs derived by conventional methods. Since the therapeutic potential of human NPCs may differ greatly depending on the method of derivation and culture, we wanted to determine whether NPCs differentiated using conventional methods would be similarly effective in improving clinical outcome under neuroinflammatory demyelinating conditions. For the current study, we utilized hNPCs differentiated from a human induced pluripotent cell line via an embryoid body intermediate stage (EB-NPCs). Intraspinal transplantation of EB-NPCs into mice infected with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) resulted in decreased accumulation of CD4+ T cells in the central nervous system that was concomitant with reduced demyelination at the site of injection. Dampened neuroinflammation and remyelination was correlated with a transient increase in CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) concentrated within the peripheral lymphatics. However, compared to our earlier study, pathological improvements were modest and did not result in significant clinical recovery. We conclude that the genetic signature of NPCs is critical to their effectiveness in this model of viral-induced neurologic disease. These comparisons will be useful for understanding what factors are critical for the sustained clinical improvement. PMID:27310015

  14. Remyelination Is Correlated with Regulatory T Cell Induction Following Human Embryoid Body-Derived Neural Precursor Cell Transplantation in a Viral Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Plaisted, Warren C.; Zavala, Angel; Hingco, Edna; Tran, Ha; Coleman, Ronald; Lane, Thomas E.; Loring, Jeanne F.; Walsh, Craig M.

    2016-01-01

    We have recently described sustained clinical recovery associated with dampened neuroinflammation and remyelination following transplantation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in a viral model of the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis. The hNPCs used in that study were derived by a novel direct differentiation method (direct differentiation, DD-NPCs) that resulted in a unique gene expression pattern when compared to hNPCs derived by conventional methods. Since the therapeutic potential of human NPCs may differ greatly depending on the method of derivation and culture, we wanted to determine whether NPCs differentiated using conventional methods would be similarly effective in improving clinical outcome under neuroinflammatory demyelinating conditions. For the current study, we utilized hNPCs differentiated from a human induced pluripotent cell line via an embryoid body intermediate stage (EB-NPCs). Intraspinal transplantation of EB-NPCs into mice infected with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) resulted in decreased accumulation of CD4+ T cells in the central nervous system that was concomitant with reduced demyelination at the site of injection. Dampened neuroinflammation and remyelination was correlated with a transient increase in CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) concentrated within the peripheral lymphatics. However, compared to our earlier study, pathological improvements were modest and did not result in significant clinical recovery. We conclude that the genetic signature of NPCs is critical to their effectiveness in this model of viral-induced neurologic disease. These comparisons will be useful for understanding what factors are critical for the sustained clinical improvement. PMID:27310015

  15. Comparison of Cell Viability and Embryoid Body Size of Two Embryonic Stem Cell Lines After Different Exposure Times to Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4

    PubMed Central

    Zarei Fard, Nehleh; Talaei-Khozani, Tahereh; Bahmanpour, Soghra; Esmaeilpour, Tahereh

    2015-01-01

    Background Activation of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) signaling pathway in embryonic stem (ES) cells plays an important role in controlling cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Adverse effects of BMP4 occur in a time dependent manner; however, little is known about the effect of different time exposure of this growth factor on cell number in culture media. In this study, we investigated the role of two different exposure times to BMP4 in cell viability, embryoid body (EB), size, and cavitation of ES cells. Methods Embryonic stem cells (R1 and B1 lines) were released from the feeder cell layers and were cultured using EBs protocol by using the hanging drop method and monolayer culture system. The cells were cultured for 5 days with 100 ng/mL BMP4 from the beginning (++BMP4) or after 48 h (+BMP4) of culture and their cell number were counted by trypan blue staining. The data were analyzed using non-parametric two-tailed Mann-Whitney test. P<0.05 was considered as significant. Results In EB culture protocol, cell number significantly decreased in +BMP4 culture condition with greater cavity size compared to the ++BMP4 condition at day 5 (P=0.009). In contrast, in monolayer culture system, there was no significant difference in the cell number between all groups (P=0.91). Conclusion The results suggest that short-term exposure of BMP4 is required to promote cavitation in EBs according to lower cell number in +BMP4 condition. Different cell lines showed different behavior in cavitation formation. PMID:25821290

  16. Production of cell-enclosing hollow-core agarose microcapsules via jetting in water-immiscible liquid paraffin and formation of embryoid body-like spherical tissues from mouse ES cells enclosed within these microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Shinji; Hashimoto, Ichiro; Kawakami, Koei

    2008-01-01

    We developed agarose microcapsules with a single hollow core templated by alginate microparticles using a jet-technique. We extruded an agarose aqueous solution containing suspended alginate microparticles into a coflowing stream of liquid paraffin and controlled the diameter of the agarose microparticles by changing the flow rate of the liquid paraffin. Subsequent degradation of the inner alginate microparticles using alginate lyase resulted in the hollow-core structure. We successfully obtained agarose microcapsules with 20-50 microm of agarose gel layer thickness and hollow cores ranging in diameter from ca. 50 to 450 microm. Using alginate microparticles of ca. 150 microm in diameter and enclosing feline kidney cells, we were able to create cell-enclosing agarose microcapsules with a hollow core of ca. 150 microm in diameter. The cells in these microcapsules grew much faster than those in alginate microparticles. In addition, we enclosed mouse embryonic stem cells in agarose microcapsules. The embryonic stem cells began to self-aggregate in the core just after encapsulation, and subsequently grew and formed embryoid body-like spherical tissues in the hollow core of the microcapsules. These results show that our novel microcapsule production technique and the resultant microcapsules have potential for tissue engineering, cell therapy and biopharmaceutical applications. PMID:17705234

  17. Human second trimester amniotic fluid cells are able to create embryoid body-like structures in vitro and to show typical expression profiles of embryonic and primordial germ cells.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, Ivana; Di Pietro, Roberta; Alfonsi, Melissa; Centurione, Maria Antonietta; Centurione, Lucia; Sancilio, Silvia; Pelagatti, Francesca; D'Amico, Maria Angela; Di Baldassarre, Angela; Piattelli, Adriano; Tetè, Stefano; Palka, Giandomenico; Borlongan, Cesar V; Stuppia, Liborio

    2014-01-01

    Human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSCs) represent a novel class of broadly multipotent stem cells sharing characteristics of both embryonic and adult stem cells. However, both the origin of these cells and their actual properties in terms of pluripotent differentiation potential are still debated. In order to verify the presence of features of pluripotency in human second trimester AFSCs, we have investigated the ability of these cells to form in vitro three-dimensional aggregates, known as embryoid bodies (EBs), and to express specific genes of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and primordial germ cells (PGCs). EBs were obtained after 5 days of AFSC culture in suspension and showed positivity for alkaline phosphatase (AP) staining and for specific markers of pluripotency (OCT4 and SOX2). Moreover, EB-derived cells showed the expression of specific transcripts of the three germ layers. RT-PCR analysis, carried out at different culture times (second, third, fourth, fifth, and eighth passages), revealed the presence of specific markers of ESCs (such as FGF4 and DAPPA4), as well as of markers typical of PGCs and, in particular, genes involved in early stages of germ cell development (Fragilis, Stella, Vasa, c-Kit, Rnf17). Finally, the expression of genes related to the control of DNA methylation (DNMT3A, DNMT3b1, DNMT1, DNMT3L, MBD1, MBD2, MBD3, MDB4, MeCP2), as well as the lack of inactivation of the X-chromosome in female samples, was also demonstrated. Taken together, these data provide further evidence for the presence of common features among human AFSCs, PGCs, and ESCs. PMID:24480362

  18. Atomic force microscopy combined with human pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes for biomechanical sensing.

    PubMed

    Pesl, Martin; Pribyl, Jan; Acimovic, Ivana; Vilotic, Aleksandra; Jelinkova, Sarka; Salykin, Anton; Lacampagne, Alain; Dvorak, Petr; Meli, Albano C; Skladal, Petr; Rotrekl, Vladimir

    2016-11-15

    Cardiomyocyte contraction and relaxation are important parameters of cardiac function altered in many heart pathologies. Biosensing of these parameters represents an important tool in drug development and disease modeling. Human embryonic stem cells and especially patient specific induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are well established as cardiac disease model.. Here, a live stem cell derived embryoid body (EB) based cardiac cell syncytium served as a biorecognition element coupled to the microcantilever probe from atomic force microscope thus providing reliable micromechanical cellular biosensor suitable for whole-day testing. The biosensor was optimized regarding the type of cantilever, temperature and exchange of media; in combination with standardized protocol, it allowed testing of compounds and conditions affecting the biomechanical properties of EB. The studied effectors included calcium , drugs modulating the catecholaminergic fight-or-flight stress response such as the beta-adrenergic blocker metoprolol and the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. Arrhythmogenic effects were studied using caffeine. Furthermore, with EBs originating from patient's stem cells, this biosensor can help to characterize heart diseases such as dystrophies. PMID:27266660

  19. Muse Cells, a New Type of Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived from Human Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Zhang, Ru-zhi; Li, Di; Cheng, Sai; Yang, Yu-hua; Tian, Ting; Pan, Xiao-ru

    2016-04-01

    A new type of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that expresses stage-specific embryonic antigen 3 (SSEA-3) and the mesenchymal cell marker CD105 are known as multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells. Studies have shown that stem cells in suspension cultures are more likely to generate embryoid body-like stem cell spheres and maintain an undifferentiated phenotype and pluripotency. We separated Muse cells derived from human dermal fibroblasts by long-term trypsin incubation (LTT) through suspension cultures in methylcellulose. The Muse cells obtained expressed several pluripotency markers, including Nanog, Oct4, Sox2, and SSEA-3, and could differentiate in vitro into cells of the three germ layers, such as hepatocytes (endodermal), neural cells (ectodermal) and adipocytes, and osteocytes (mesodermal cells). These cells showed a low level of DNA methylation and a high nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio. Our study provides an innovative and exciting platform for exploring the potential cell-based therapy of various human diseases using Muse cells as well as their great possibility for regenerative medicine. PMID:27055628

  20. Functional Neurons Generated from T Cell-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Neurological Disease Modeling.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Fujimori, Koki; Andoh-Noda, Tomoko; Ando, Takayuki; Kuzumaki, Naoko; Toyoshima, Manabu; Tada, Hirobumi; Imaizumi, Kent; Ishikawa, Mitsuru; Yamaguchi, Ryo; Isoda, Miho; Zhou, Zhi; Sato, Shigeto; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Ohtaka, Manami; Nishimura, Ken; Kurosawa, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Takahashi, Takuya; Nakanishi, Mahito; Ohyama, Manabu; Hattori, Nobutaka; Akamatsu, Wado; Okano, Hideyuki

    2016-03-01

    Modeling of neurological diseases using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from the somatic cells of patients has provided a means of elucidating pathogenic mechanisms and performing drug screening. T cells are an ideal source of patient-specific iPSCs because they can be easily obtained from samples. Recent studies indicated that iPSCs retain an epigenetic memory relating to their cell of origin that restricts their differentiation potential. The classical method of differentiation via embryoid body formation was not suitable for T cell-derived iPSCs (TiPSCs). We developed a neurosphere-based robust differentiation protocol, which enabled TiPSCs to differentiate into functional neurons, despite differences in global gene expression between TiPSCs and adult human dermal fibroblast-derived iPSCs. Furthermore, neurons derived from TiPSCs generated from a juvenile patient with Parkinson's disease exhibited several Parkinson's disease phenotypes. Therefore, we conclude that TiPSCs are a useful tool for modeling neurological diseases. PMID:26905201

  1. Functional Neurons Generated from T Cell-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Neurological Disease Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Fujimori, Koki; Andoh-Noda, Tomoko; Ando, Takayuki; Kuzumaki, Naoko; Toyoshima, Manabu; Tada, Hirobumi; Imaizumi, Kent; Ishikawa, Mitsuru; Yamaguchi, Ryo; Isoda, Miho; Zhou, Zhi; Sato, Shigeto; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Ohtaka, Manami; Nishimura, Ken; Kurosawa, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Takahashi, Takuya; Nakanishi, Mahito; Ohyama, Manabu; Hattori, Nobutaka; Akamatsu, Wado; Okano, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    Summary Modeling of neurological diseases using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from the somatic cells of patients has provided a means of elucidating pathogenic mechanisms and performing drug screening. T cells are an ideal source of patient-specific iPSCs because they can be easily obtained from samples. Recent studies indicated that iPSCs retain an epigenetic memory relating to their cell of origin that restricts their differentiation potential. The classical method of differentiation via embryoid body formation was not suitable for T cell-derived iPSCs (TiPSCs). We developed a neurosphere-based robust differentiation protocol, which enabled TiPSCs to differentiate into functional neurons, despite differences in global gene expression between TiPSCs and adult human dermal fibroblast-derived iPSCs. Furthermore, neurons derived from TiPSCs generated from a juvenile patient with Parkinson's disease exhibited several Parkinson's disease phenotypes. Therefore, we conclude that TiPSCs are a useful tool for modeling neurological diseases. PMID:26905201

  2. Simvastatin modulates mouse embryonic stem cell-derived chondrogenesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kramer, J; Bartsch, M; Krug, D; Klinger, M; Nitschke, M; Rohwedel, J

    2012-10-01

    It has been studied in detail that cellular differentiation during chondrogenesis can be recapitulated in vitro by differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells as embryoid bodies (EBs). We here used this model system of cartilage development to analyze the effect of simvastatin, a potentially embryotoxic substance. Statins are a group of drugs used to treat hypercholesterolaemia. We found that simvastatin activated cartilage nodule formation during EB differentiation. Extended application of simvastatin resulted in enhanced expression of cartilage marker molecules and prolonged persistence of cartilage nodules. Expression of collagen type II was upregulated during simvastatin-induced chondrogenic ES cell differentiation as demonstrated by quantitative real time PCR. However, immunostaining for cartilage marker molecules revealed that cartilage nodules within simvastatin-treated EBs were defective, bearing cavities of cell loss. Furthermore, caspase activity was reduced in comparison to untreated controls indicating reduced apoptosis. Taken together, we may speculate that simvastatin prolongs survival of chondrocytes and disrupts cellular integrity of cartilage nodules during EB development by affecting apoptotic mechanisms. The study underlines that ES cell-derived EBs are a useful in vitro model to screen substances for their embryotoxic and teratogenic potential. PMID:22771337

  3. Potential of laryngeal muscle regeneration using induced pluripotent stem cell-derived skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Dirja, Bayu Tirta; Yoshie, Susumu; Ikeda, Masakazu; Imaizumi, Mitsuyoshi; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Otsuki, Koshi; Nomoto, Yukio; Wada, Ikuo; Hazama, Akihiro; Omori, Koichi

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells may be a new potential cell source for laryngeal muscle regeneration in the treatment of vocal fold atrophy after recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis. Objectives Unilateral vocal fold paralysis can lead to degeneration, atrophy, and loss of force of the thyroarytenoid muscle. At present, there are some treatments such as thyroplasty, arytenoid adduction, and vocal fold injection. However, such treatments cannot restore reduced mass of the thyroarytenoid muscle. iPS cells have been recognized as supplying a potential resource for cell transplantation. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the use of iPS cells for the regeneration of laryngeal muscle through the evaluation of both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods Skeletal muscle cells were generated from tdTomato-labeled iPS cells using embryoid body formation. Differentiation into skeletal muscle cells was analyzed by gene expression and immunocytochemistry. The tdTomato-labeled iPS cell-derived skeletal muscle cells were transplanted into the left atrophied thyroarytenoid muscle. To evaluate the engraftment of these cells after transplantation, immunohistochemistry was performed. Results The tdTomato-labeled iPS cells were successfully differentiated into skeletal muscle cells through an in vitro experiment. These cells survived in the atrophied thyroarytenoid muscle after transplantation. PMID:26824385

  4. Etv2 rescues Flk1 mutant embryoid bodies

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Tara L.; Martin, Cindy M.; Walter, Camille A.; Shi, Xiaozhong; Perlingeiro, Rita; Koyano-Nakagawa, Naoko; Garry, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Independent mouse knockouts of Etv2 and Flk1 are embryonic lethal and lack hematopoietic and endothelial lineages. We previously reported that Flk1 activates Etv2 in the initiation of hematopoiesis and vasculogenesis. However, Flk1 and its ligand VEGF are expressed throughout development, from E7.0 to adulthood, whereas Etv2 is expressed only transiently during embryogenesis. These observations suggest a complex regulatory interaction between Flk1 and Etv2. To further examine the Flk1 and Etv2 regulatory interaction, we transduced Etv2 and Flk1 mutant ES cells with viral integrants that inducibly overexpress Flk1 or Etv2. We demonstrated that forced expression of Etv2 rescued the hematopoietic and endothelial potential of differentiating Flk1 and Etv2 mutant cells. We further discovered that forced expression of Flk1 can rescue that of the Flk1, but not Etv2 mutant cells. Therefore, we conclude that the requirement for Flk1 can be bypassed by expressing Etv2, supporting the notion that disruption of Etv2 expression is responsible for the early phenotypes of the Etv2 and Flk1 mutant embryos. PMID:23606617

  5. Stem cell derived in vivo-like human cardiac bodies in a microfluidic device for toxicity testing by beating frequency imaging.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Gunnar; Christoffersson, Jonas; Schwanke, Kristin; Zweigerdt, Robert; Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik

    2015-08-01

    Beating in vivo-like human cardiac bodies (CBs) were used in a microfluidic device for testing cardiotoxicity. The CBs, cardiomyocyte cell clusters derived from induced pluripotent stem cells, exhibited typical structural and functional properties of the native human myocardium. The CBs were captured in niches along a perfusion channel in the device. Video imaging was utilized for automatic monitoring of the beating frequency of each individual CB. The device allowed assessment of cardiotoxic effects of drug substances doxorubicin, verapamil and quinidine on the 3D clustered cardiomyocytes. Beating frequency data recorded over a period of 6 hours are presented and compared to literature data. The results indicate that this microfluidic setup with imaging of CB characteristics provides a new opportunity for label-free, non-invasive investigation of toxic effects in a 3D microenvironment. PMID:26135270

  6. Subretinal transplantation of putative retinal pigment epithelial cells derived from human embryonic stem cells in rat retinal degeneration model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Un Chul; Cho, Myung Soo; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Sang Jin; Ku, Seung-Yup; Choi, Young Min; Moon, Shin Yong

    2011-01-01

    Objective To differentiate the human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in the defined culture condition and determine its therapeutic potential for the treatment of retinal degenerative diseases. Methods The embryoid bodies were formed from hESCs and attached on the matrigel coated culture dishes. The neural structures consisting neural precursors were selected and expanded to form rosette structures. The mechanically isolated neural rosettes were differentiated into pigmented cells in the media comprised of N2 and B27. Expression profiles of markers related to RPE development were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining. Dissociated putative RPE cells (105 cells/5 µL) were transplanted into the subretinal space of rat retinal degeneration model induced by intravenous sodium iodate injection. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after transplantation, and immnohistochemistry study was performed to verify the survival of the transplanted cells. Results The putative RPE cells derived from hESC showed characteristics of the human RPE cells morphologically and expressed molecular markers and associated with RPE fate. Grafted RPE cells were found to survive in the subretinal space up to 4 weeks after transplantation, and the expression of RPE markers was confirmed with immunohistochemistry. Conclusion Transplanted RPE cells derived from hESC in the defined culture condition successfully survived and migrated within subretinal space of rat retinal degeneration model. These results support the feasibility of the hESC derived RPE cells for cell-based therapies for retinal degenerative disease. PMID:22384445

  7. Ultrasmall Magnetically Engineered Ag2Se Quantum Dots for Instant Efficient Labeling and Whole-Body High-Resolution Multimodal Real-Time Tracking of Cell-Derived Microvesicles.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing-Ya; Chen, Gang; Gu, Yi-Ping; Cui, Ran; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Yu, Zi-Li; Tang, Bo; Zhao, Yi-Fang; Pang, Dai-Wen

    2016-02-17

    Cell-derived microvesicles (MVs) are natural carriers that can transport biological molecules between cells, which are expected to be promising delivery vehicles for therapeutic purposes. Strategies to label MVs are very important for investigation and application of MVs. Herein, ultrasmall Mn-magnetofunctionalized Ag2Se quantum dots (Ag2Se@Mn QDs) integrated with excellent near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging capabilities have been developed for instant efficient labeling of MVs for their in vivo high-resolution dual-mode tracking. The Ag2Se@Mn QDs were fabricated by controlling the reaction of Mn(2+) with the Ag2Se nanocrystals having been pretreated in 80 °C NaOH solution, with an ultrasmall size of ca. 1.8 nm, water dispersibility, high NIR fluorescence quantum yield of 13.2%, and high longitudinal relaxivity of 12.87 mM(-1) s(-1) (almost four times that of the commercial contrast agent Gd-DTPA). The ultrasmall size of the Ag2Se@Mn QDs enables them to be directly and efficiently loaded into MVs by electroporation, instantly and reliably conferring both NIR fluorescence and MR traceability on MVs. Our method for labeling MVs of different origins is universal and free of unfavorable influence on intrinsic behaviors of MVs. The complementary imaging capabilities of the Ag2Se@Mn QDs have made the long-term noninvasive whole-body high-resolution dual-mode tracking of MVs in vivo realized, by which the dynamic biodistribution of MVs has been revealed in a real-time and in situ quantitative manner. This work not only opens a new window for labeling with QDs, but also facilitates greatly the investigation and application of MVs. PMID:26804745

  8. A Systemized Approach to Investigate Ca2+ Synchronization in Clusters of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem-Cell Derived Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Aled R.; Edwards, David H.; Cummins, Michael J.; Williams, Alan J.; George, Christopher H.

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (IPS-CM) are considered by many to be the cornerstone of future approaches to repair the diseased heart. However, current methods for producing IPS-CM typically yield highly variable populations with low batch-to-batch reproducibility. The underlying reasons for this are not fully understood. Here we report on a systematized approach to investigate the effect of maturation in embryoid bodies (EB) vs. “on plate” culture on spontaneous activity and regional Ca2+ synchronization in IPS-CM clusters. A detailed analysis of the temporal and spatial organization of Ca2+ spikes in IPS-CM clusters revealed that the disaggregation of EBs between 0.5 and 2 weeks produced IPS-CM characterized by spontaneous beating and high levels of regional Ca2+ synchronization. These phenomena were typically absent in IPS-CM obtained from older EBs (>2 weeks). The maintenance of all spontaneously active IPS-CM clusters under “on plate” culture conditions promoted the progressive reduction in regional Ca2+ synchronization and the loss of spontaneous Ca2+ spiking. Raising the extracellular [Ca2+] surrounding these quiescent IPS-CM clusters from ~0.4 to 1.8 mM unmasked discrete behaviors typified by either (a) long-lasting Ca2+ elevation that returned to baseline or (b) persistent, large-amplitude Ca2+ oscillations around an increased cytoplasmic [Ca2+]. The different responses of IPS-CM to elevated extracellular [Ca2+] could be traced back to their routes of derivation. The data point to the possibility of predictably influencing IPS-CM phenotype and response to external activation via defined interventions at early stages in their maturation. PMID:26793710

  9. Maximum Diastolic Potential of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Depends Critically on IKr

    PubMed Central

    Goodrow, Robert J.; Wu, Yuesheng; Cordeiro, Jonathan M.; Nesterenko, Vladislav V.; Barajas-Martínez, Héctor; Hu, Dan; Urrutia, Janire; Desai, Mayurika; Treat, Jacqueline A.; Sachinidis, Agapios; Antzelevitch, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CM) hold promise for therapeutic applications. To serve these functions, the hiPSC-CM must recapitulate the electrophysiologic properties of native adult cardiomyocytes. This study examines the electrophysiologic characteristics of hiPSC-CM between 11 and 121 days of maturity. Embryoid bodies (EBs) were generated from hiPS cell line reprogrammed with Oct4, Nanog, Lin28 and Sox2. Sharp microelectrodes were used to record action potentials (AP) from spontaneously beating clusters (BC) micro-dissected from the EBs (n = 103; 37°C) and to examine the response to 5 µM E-4031 (n = 21) or BaCl2 (n = 22). Patch-clamp techniques were used to record IKr and IK1 from cells enzymatically dissociated from BC (n = 49; 36°C). Spontaneous cycle length (CL) and AP characteristics varied widely among the 103 preparations. E-4031 (5 µM; n = 21) increased Bazett-corrected AP duration from 291.8±81.2 to 426.4±120.2 msec (p<0.001) and generated early afterdepolarizations in 8/21 preparations. In 13/21 BC, E-4031 rapidly depolarized the clusters leading to inexcitability. BaCl2, at concentrations that selectively block IK1 (50–100 µM), failed to depolarize the majority of clusters (13/22). Patch-clamp experiments revealed very low or negligible IK1 in 53% (20/38) of the cells studied, but presence of IKr in all (11/11). Consistent with the electrophysiological data, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry studies showed relatively poor mRNA and protein expression of IK1 in the majority of cells, but robust expression of IKr. In contrast to recently reported studies, our data point to major deficiencies of hiPSC-CM, with remarkable diversity of electrophysiologic phenotypes as well as pharmacologic responsiveness among beating clusters and cells up to 121 days post-differentiation (dpd). The vast majority have a maximum diastolic potential that depends critically on IKr due to the absence of IK1. Thus

  10. A preliminary study for constructing a bioartificial liver device with induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bioartificial liver systems, designed to support patients with liver failure, are composed of bioreactors and functional hepatocytes. Immunological rejection of the embedded hepatocytes by the host immune system is a serious concern that crucially degrades the performance of the device. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are considered a desirable source for bioartificial liver systems, because patient-derived iPS cells are free from immunological rejection. The purpose of this paper was to test the feasibility of a bioartificial liver system with iPS cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells. Methods Mouse iPS cells were differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells by a multi-step differentiation protocol via embryoid bodies and definitive endoderm. Differentiation of iPS cells was evaluated by morphology, PCR assay, and functional assays. iPS cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells were cultured in a bioreactor module with a pore size of 0.2 μm for 7 days. The amount of albumin secreted into the circulating medium was analyzed by ELISA. Additionally, after a 7-day culture in a bioreactor module, cells were observed by a scanning electron microscope. Results At the final stage of the differentiation program, iPS cells changed their morphology to a polygonal shape with two nucleoli and enriched cytoplasmic granules. Transmission electron microscope analysis revealed their polygonal shape, glycogen deposition in the cytoplasm, microvilli on their surfaces, and a duct-like arrangement. PCR analysis showed increased expression of albumin mRNA over the course of the differentiation program. Albumin and urea production was also observed. iPS-Heps culture in bioreactor modules showed the accumulation of albumin in the medium for up to 7 days. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the attachment of cell clusters to the hollow fibers of the module. These results indicated that iPS cells were differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells after culture for 7 days in a bioreactor

  11. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 mediates human embryonic germ cell derivation.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Marc; Liu, Cyndi; Blumenthal, Paul D; Gearhart, John D; Kerr, Candace L

    2011-02-01

    Human primordial germ cells (PGCs) have proven to be a source of pluripotent stem cells called embryonic germ cells (EGCs). Unlike embryonic stem cells, virtually little is known regarding the factors that regulate EGC survival and maintenance. In mice, the growth factor bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) has been shown to be required for maintaining mouse embryonic stem cells, and disruptions in this gene lead to defects in mouse PGC specification. Here, we sought to determine whether recombinant human BMP4 could influence EGC derivation and/or human PGC survival. We found that the addition of recombinant BMP4 increased the number of human PGCs after 1 week of culture in a dose-responsive manner. The efficiency of EGC derivation and maintenance in culture was also enhanced by the presence of recombinant BMP4 based on alkaline phosphatase and OCT4 staining. In addition, an antagonist of the BMP4 pathway, Noggin, decreased PGC proliferation and led to an increase in cystic embryoid body formation. Quantitative real-time (qRT)-polymerase chain reaction analyses and immunostaining confirmed that the constituents of the BMP4 pathway were upregulated in EGCs versus PGCs. Downstream activators of the BMP4 pathway such as ID1 and phosphorylated SMADs 1 and 5 were also expressed, suggesting a role of this growth factor in EGC pluripotency. PMID:20486775

  12. Prion Protein and Stage Specific Embryo Antigen 1 as Selection Markers to Enrich the Fraction of Murine Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Nobuhito; Nakayama, Yuji; Nakazawa, Natsumi; Yoshida, Akio; Ninomiya, Haruaki; Shirayoshi, Yasuaki

    2016-01-01

    Background The prion protein (PrP) might be useful as a tool to collect cardiac progenitor cells derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells. It is also possible that PrP+ cells include undifferentiated cells with a capacity to develop into tumors. Methods PrP+ cells isolated from embryoid bodies (EB) formed by mouse AB1 ES cells were examined using RT–PCR analysis and clonogeneic cell assay. To assess their potential to differentiate into cardiomyocytes, Nkx2.5GFP/+ (hcgp7) cells, another ES cell line that carries the GFP reporter gene in the Nkx2.5 loci, were used. Results PrP+ cells isolated from EB of day 7 and 14 did not express pluripotency markers, but expressed cardiac cell markers, while PrP+ cells isolated from EB of day 21 expressed pluripotency markers. Cultured PrP+ cells isolated from EB of day 21 expressed pluripotency markers to form colonies, whereas those isolated from EB of day 7 and 14 did not. To exclude proliferating cells from PrP+ cells, stage specific embryo antigen 1 (SSEA1) was employed as a second marker. PrP+/SSEA1– cells did not proliferate and expressed cardiac cell markers, while PrP+/SSEA1+ did proliferate. Conclusion PrP+ cells isolated from EB included undifferentiated cells in day 21. PrP+/SSEA1– cells included cardiomyoctes, suggesting PrP and SSEA1 may be useful as markers to enrich the fraction of cardiomyocytes. PMID:27493483

  13. Maximum diastolic potential of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes depends critically on I(Kr).

    PubMed

    Doss, Michael Xavier; Di Diego, José M; Goodrow, Robert J; Wu, Yuesheng; Cordeiro, Jonathan M; Nesterenko, Vladislav V; Barajas-Martínez, Héctor; Hu, Dan; Urrutia, Janire; Desai, Mayurika; Treat, Jacqueline A; Sachinidis, Agapios; Antzelevitch, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CM) hold promise for therapeutic applications. To serve these functions, the hiPSC-CM must recapitulate the electrophysiologic properties of native adult cardiomyocytes. This study examines the electrophysiologic characteristics of hiPSC-CM between 11 and 121 days of maturity. Embryoid bodies (EBs) were generated from hiPS cell line reprogrammed with Oct4, Nanog, Lin28 and Sox2. Sharp microelectrodes were used to record action potentials (AP) from spontaneously beating clusters (BC) micro-dissected from the EBs (n = 103; 37°C) and to examine the response to 5 µM E-4031 (n = 21) or BaCl(2) (n = 22). Patch-clamp techniques were used to record I(Kr) and I(K1) from cells enzymatically dissociated from BC (n = 49; 36°C). Spontaneous cycle length (CL) and AP characteristics varied widely among the 103 preparations. E-4031 (5 µM; n = 21) increased Bazett-corrected AP duration from 291.8±81.2 to 426.4±120.2 msec (p<0.001) and generated early afterdepolarizations in 8/21 preparations. In 13/21 BC, E-4031 rapidly depolarized the clusters leading to inexcitability. BaCl(2), at concentrations that selectively block I(K1) (50-100 µM), failed to depolarize the majority of clusters (13/22). Patch-clamp experiments revealed very low or negligible I(K1) in 53% (20/38) of the cells studied, but presence of I(Kr) in all (11/11). Consistent with the electrophysiological data, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry studies showed relatively poor mRNA and protein expression of I(K1) in the majority of cells, but robust expression of I(Kr.) In contrast to recently reported studies, our data point to major deficiencies of hiPSC-CM, with remarkable diversity of electrophysiologic phenotypes as well as pharmacologic responsiveness among beating clusters and cells up to 121 days post-differentiation (dpd). The vast majority have a maximum diastolic potential that depends critically on I(Kr) due to the

  14. Aescin formation in calli and embryoids from cotyledon and stem explants of Aesculus hippocastanum L.

    PubMed

    Profumo, P; Caviglia, A M; Gastaldo, P

    1994-11-01

    Aescin in calli and embryoids obtained from both cotyledon and stem explants of Aesculus hippocastanum were investigated by HPLC. Determinations were carried out on tissues cultured in agarized medium supplemented with growth substances (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; kinetin; 1-naphthaleneacetic acid). The results indicate that aescin was produced in all the analysed samples. The amount of active principle present in some samples was higher than that found in horse-chestnut seeds. PMID:7897601

  15. Isolation and Characterization of Pluripotent Human Spermatogonial Stem Cell-Derived Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kossack, Nina; Meneses, Juanito; Shefi, Shai; Nguyen, Ha Nam; Chavez, Shawn; Nicholas, Cory; Gromoll, Joerg; Turek, Paul J; Reijo-Pera, Renee A

    2009-01-01

    Several reports have documented the derivation of pluripotent cells (multipotent germline stem cells) from spermatogonial stem cells obtained from the adult mouse testis. These spermatogonia-derived stem cells express embryonic stem cell markers and differentiate to the three primary germ layers, as well as the germline. Data indicate that derivation may involve reprogramming of endogenous spermatogonia in culture. Here, we report the derivation of human multipotent germline stem cells (hMGSCs) from a testis biopsy. The cells express distinct markers of pluripotency, form embryoid bodies that contain derivatives of all three germ layers, maintain a normal XY karyotype, are hypomethylated at the H19 locus, and express high levels of telomerase. Teratoma assays indicate the presence of human cells 8 weeks post-transplantation but limited teratoma formation. Thus, these data suggest the potential to derive pluripotent cells from human testis biopsies but indicate a need for novel strategies to optimize hMGSC culture conditions and reprogramming. PMID:18927477

  16. Human primordial germ cell-derived progenitors give rise to neurons and glia in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Yincheng; Chen, Bin; Tao, Minfang

    2009-12-18

    We derived a cell population from cultured human primordial germ cells from early human embryos. The derivates, termed embryoid body-derived (EBD) cells, displayed an extensive capacity for proliferation and expressed a panel of markers in all three germ layers. Interestingly, EBD cells were also positive for markers of neural stem/progenitor cells, such as nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein. When these cells were transplanted into the brain cavities of fetal sheep and postnatal NOD-SCID mice or nerve-degenerated tibialis anterior muscles, they readily gave rise to neurons or glial cells. To our knowledge, our data are the first to demonstrate that EBD cells can undergo further neurogenesis under suitable environments in vivo. Hence, with the abilities of extensive expansion, self-renewal, and differentiation, EBD cells may provide a useful donor source for neural stem/progenitor cells to be used in cell-replacement therapies for diseases of the nervous system.

  17. Follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Dralle, Henning; Machens, Andreas; Basa, Johanna; Fatourechi, Vahab; Franceschi, Silvia; Hay, Ian D; Nikiforov, Yuri E; Pacini, Furio; Pasieka, Janice L; Sherman, Steven I

    2015-01-01

    Follicular cell-derived thyroid cancers are derived from the follicular cells in the thyroid gland, which secrete the iodine-containing thyroid hormones. Follicular cell-derived thyroid cancers can be classified into papillary thyroid cancer (80-85%), follicular thyroid cancer (10-15%), poorly differentiated thyroid cancer (<2%) and undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid cancer (<2%), and these have an excellent prognosis with the exception of undifferentiated thyroid cancer. The advent and expansion of advanced diagnostic techniques has driven and continues to drive the epidemic of occult papillary thyroid cancer, owing to overdiagnosis of clinically irrelevant nodules. This transformation of the thyroid cancer landscape at molecular and clinical levels calls for the modification of management strategies towards personalized medicine based on individual risk assessment to deliver the most effective but least aggressive treatment. In thyroid cancer surgery, for instance, injuries to structures outside the thyroid gland, such as the recurrent laryngeal nerve in 2-5% of surgeries or the parathyroid glands in 5-10% of surgeries, negatively affect quality of life more than loss of the expendable thyroid gland. Furthermore, the risks associated with radioiodine ablation may outweigh the risks of persistent or recurrent disease and disease-specific mortality. Improvement in the health-related quality of life of survivors of follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer, which is decreased despite the generally favourable outcome, hinges on early tumour detection and minimization of treatment-related sequelae. Future opportunities include more widespread adoption of molecular and clinical risk stratification and identification of actionable targets for individualized therapies. PMID:27188261

  18. Differential expression of extracellular matrix and growth factors by embryoid bodies in hydrodynamic and static cultures.

    PubMed

    Fridley, Krista M; Nair, Rekha; McDevitt, Todd C

    2014-12-01

    During development, cell fate specification and tissue development are orchestrated by the sequential presentation of soluble growth factors (GF) and extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules. Similarly, differentiation of stem cells in vitro relies upon the temporal presence of extracellular cues within the microenvironment. Hydrodynamic culture systems are not limited by volume restrictions and therefore offer several practical advantages for scalability over static cultures; however, hydrodynamic cultures expose cells to physical parameters not present in static culture, such as fluid shear stress and mass transfer through convective forces. In this study, the differences between static and hydrodynamic culture conditions on the expression of ECM and GF molecules during the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells were examined at both the gene and protein level. The expression of ECM and GF genes exhibited an early decrease in static cultures based on heat map and hierarchical clustering analysis and a relative delayed increase in hydrodynamic cultures. Although the temporal patterns of specific ECM and GF protein expression were comparable between static and hydrodynamic cultures, several notable differences in the magnitudes of expression were observed at similar time points. These results describe the establishment of an analytical framework that can be used to examine the expression patterns of ECM and GF molecules expressed by pluripotent stem cells undergoing differentiation as 3D multicellular aggregates under different culture conditions, and suggest that physical parameters of stem cell microenvironments can alter endogenous ECM and GF expression profiles that may, in turn, influence cell fate decisions. PMID:25423310

  19. Cell-derived microparticles and the lung.

    PubMed

    Nieri, Dario; Neri, Tommaso; Petrini, Silvia; Vagaggini, Barbara; Paggiaro, Pierluigi; Celi, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Cell-derived microparticles are small (0.1-1 μm) vesicles shed by most eukaryotic cells upon activation or during apoptosis. Microparticles carry on their surface, and enclose within their cytoplasm, molecules derived from the parental cell, including proteins, DNA, RNA, microRNA and phospholipids. Microparticles are now considered functional units that represent a disseminated storage pool of bioactive effectors and participate both in the maintenance of homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of diseases. The mechanisms involved in microparticle generation include intracellular calcium mobilisation, cytoskeleton rearrangement, kinase phosphorylation and activation of the nuclear factor-κB. The role of microparticles in blood coagulation and inflammation, including airway inflammation, is well established in in vitro and animal models. The role of microparticles in human pulmonary diseases, both as pathogenic determinants and biomarkers, is being actively investigated. Microparticles of endothelial origin, suggestive of apoptosis, have been demonstrated in the peripheral blood of patients with emphysema, lending support to the hypothesis that endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease and represent a link with cardiovascular comorbidities. Microparticles also have potential roles in patients with asthma, diffuse parenchymal lung disease, thromboembolism, lung cancer and pulmonary arterial hypertension. PMID:27581826

  20. Single cell derived murine embryonic stem cell clones stably express Rex1-specific green fluorescent protein and their differentiation study

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xiaopan; Wu Rongrong; Feng Shumei; Gu Bin; Dai Licheng; Zhang Ming; Zhao Xiaoli

    2007-10-19

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) often display high rates of apoptosis and spontaneous differentiation in routine culture, thus bring the proliferation of these cells highly inefficient. Moreover, little is known about the factors that are indispensable for sustaining self-renewal. To surmount these issues, we established transgenic mES cell lines expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the Rex1 promoter which is a key regulator of pluripotency in ES cells. In addition, we provided a simplified and improved protocol to derive transgenic mESCs from single cell. Finally, we showed that embryoid body (EB) development was faster than adherent differentiation in terms of differentiation ratio by real-time tracking of the EGFP expression. Therefore, these cell lines can be tracked and selected both in vitro and in vivo and should be invaluable for studying the factors that are indispensable for maintaining pluripotency.

  1. Microfluidic isolation of cancer-cell-derived microvesicles from hetergeneous extracellular shed vesicle populations

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Steven M.; Antonyak, Marc A.; Cerione, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular shed vesicles, including exosomes and microvesicles, are disseminated throughout the body and represent an important conduit of cell communication. Cancer-cell-derived microvesicles have potential as a cancer biomarker as they help shape the tumor microenvironment to promote the growth of the primary tumor and prime the metastatic niche. It is likely that, in cancer cell cultures, the two constituent extracellular shed vesicle subpopulations, observed in dynamic light scattering, represent an exosome population and a cancer-cell-specific microvesicle population and that extracellular shed vesicle size provides information about provenance and cargo. We have designed and implemented a novel microfluidic technology that separates microvesicles, as a function of diameter, from heterogeneous populations of cancer-cell-derived extracellular shed vesicles. We measured cargo carried by the microvesicle subpopulation processed through this microfluidic platform. Such analyses could enable future investigations to more accurately and reliably determine provenance, functional activity, and mechanisms of transformation in cancer. PMID:25342569

  2. Microfluidic isolation of cancer-cell-derived microvesicles from hetergeneous extracellular shed vesicle populations.

    PubMed

    Santana, Steven M; Antonyak, Marc A; Cerione, Richard A; Kirby, Brian J

    2014-12-01

    Extracellular shed vesicles, including exosomes and microvesicles, are disseminated throughout the body and represent an important conduit of cell communication. Cancer-cell-derived microvesicles have potential as a cancer biomarker as they help shape the tumor microenvironment to promote the growth of the primary tumor and prime the metastatic niche. It is likely that, in cancer cell cultures, the two constituent extracellular shed vesicle subpopulations, observed in dynamic light scattering, represent an exosome population and a cancer-cell-specific microvesicle population and that extracellular shed vesicle size provides information about provenance and cargo. We have designed and implemented a novel microfluidic technology that separates microvesicles, as a function of diameter, from heterogeneous populations of cancer-cell-derived extracellular shed vesicles. We measured cargo carried by the microvesicle subpopulation processed through this microfluidic platform. Such analyses could enable future investigations to more accurately and reliably determine provenance, functional activity, and mechanisms of transformation in cancer. PMID:25342569

  3. Structural Phenotyping of Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Pasqualini, Francesco Silvio; Sheehy, Sean Paul; Agarwal, Ashutosh; Aratyn-Schaus, Yvonne; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2015-01-01

    Summary Structural phenotyping based on classical image feature detection has been adopted to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind genetically or pharmacologically induced changes in cell morphology. Here, we developed a set of 11 metrics to capture the increasing sarcomere organization that occurs intracellularly during striated muscle cell development. To test our metrics, we analyzed the localization of the contractile protein α-actinin in a variety of primary and stem-cell derived cardiomyocytes. Further, we combined these metrics with data mining algorithms to unbiasedly score the phenotypic maturity of human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. PMID:25733020

  4. Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles and Immune-Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Burrello, Jacopo; Monticone, Silvia; Gai, Chiara; Gomez, Yonathan; Kholia, Sharad; Camussi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Extra-cellular vesicles (EVs) are bilayer membrane structures enriched with proteins, nucleic acids, and other active molecules and have been implicated in many physiological and pathological processes over the past decade. Recently, evidence suggests EVs to play a more dichotomic role in the regulation of the immune system, whereby an immune response may be enhanced or supressed by EVs depending on their cell of origin and its functional state. EVs derived from antigen (Ag)-presenting cells for instance, have been involved in both innate and acquired (or adaptive) immune responses, as Ag carriers or presenters, or as vehicles for delivering active signaling molecules. On the other hand, tumor and stem cell derived EVs have been identified to exert an inhibitory effect on immune responses by carrying immuno-modulatory effectors, such as transcriptional factors, non-coding RNA (Species), and cytokines. In addition, stem cell-derived EVs have also been reported to impair dendritic cell maturation and to regulate the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of B cells. They have been shown to control natural killer cell activity and to suppress the innate immune response (IIR). Studies reporting the role of EVs on T lymphocyte modulation are controversial. Discrepancy in literature may be due to stem cell culture conditions, methods of EV purification, EV molecular content, and functional state of both parental and target cells. However, mesenchymal stem cell-derived EVs were shown to play a more suppressive role by shifting T cells from an activated to a T regulatory phenotype. In this review, we will discuss how stem cell-derived EVs may contribute toward the modulation of the immune response. Collectively, stem cell-derived EVs mainly exhibit an inhibitory effect on the immune system. PMID:27597941

  5. Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles and Immune-Modulation.

    PubMed

    Burrello, Jacopo; Monticone, Silvia; Gai, Chiara; Gomez, Yonathan; Kholia, Sharad; Camussi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Extra-cellular vesicles (EVs) are bilayer membrane structures enriched with proteins, nucleic acids, and other active molecules and have been implicated in many physiological and pathological processes over the past decade. Recently, evidence suggests EVs to play a more dichotomic role in the regulation of the immune system, whereby an immune response may be enhanced or supressed by EVs depending on their cell of origin and its functional state. EVs derived from antigen (Ag)-presenting cells for instance, have been involved in both innate and acquired (or adaptive) immune responses, as Ag carriers or presenters, or as vehicles for delivering active signaling molecules. On the other hand, tumor and stem cell derived EVs have been identified to exert an inhibitory effect on immune responses by carrying immuno-modulatory effectors, such as transcriptional factors, non-coding RNA (Species), and cytokines. In addition, stem cell-derived EVs have also been reported to impair dendritic cell maturation and to regulate the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of B cells. They have been shown to control natural killer cell activity and to suppress the innate immune response (IIR). Studies reporting the role of EVs on T lymphocyte modulation are controversial. Discrepancy in literature may be due to stem cell culture conditions, methods of EV purification, EV molecular content, and functional state of both parental and target cells. However, mesenchymal stem cell-derived EVs were shown to play a more suppressive role by shifting T cells from an activated to a T regulatory phenotype. In this review, we will discuss how stem cell-derived EVs may contribute toward the modulation of the immune response. Collectively, stem cell-derived EVs mainly exhibit an inhibitory effect on the immune system. PMID:27597941

  6. Micropost arrays for measuring stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte contractility.

    PubMed

    Beussman, Kevin M; Rodriguez, Marita L; Leonard, Andrea; Taparia, Nikita; Thompson, Curtis R; Sniadecki, Nathan J

    2016-02-01

    Stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes have the potential to be used to study heart disease and maturation, screen drug treatments, and restore heart function. Here, we discuss the procedures involved in using micropost arrays to measure the contractile forces generated by stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. Cardiomyocyte contractility is needed for the heart to pump blood, so measuring the contractile forces of cardiomyocytes is a straightforward way to assess their function. Microfabrication and soft lithography techniques are utilized to create identical arrays of flexible, silicone microposts from a common master. Micropost arrays are functionalized with extracellular matrix protein to allow cardiomyocytes to adhere to the tips of the microposts. Live imaging is used to capture videos of the deflection of microposts caused by the contraction of the cardiomyocytes. Image analysis code provides an accurate means to quantify these deflections. The contractile forces produced by a beating cardiomyocyte are calculated by modeling the microposts as cantilever beams. We have used this assay to assess techniques for improving the maturation and contractile function of stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. PMID:26344757

  7. Isolation and characterization of alveolar epithelial type II cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huanhuan; Quan, Yuan; Yan, Qing; Peng, Xinmiao; Mao, Zhengmei; Wetsel, Rick A; Wang, Dachun

    2014-06-01

    The use of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to regenerate distal lung epithelia damaged by injuries or diseases requires development of safe and efficient methodologies that direct ESC differentiation into transplantable distal lung epithelial progenitors. Time-consuming culture procedure and low differentiation efficiency are major problems that are associated with conventional differentiation approaches via embryoid body formation. The use of a growth factor cocktail or a lung-specific cell-conditioned medium to enrich definitive endoderm for efficient differentiation of mouse ESCs (mESC) into alveolar epithelial progenitor type II cells (ATIICs) has been reported, but not yet successful for generating a homogenous population of ATIICs for tissue regeneration purpose, and it remains unclear whether or not those mESC-derived ATIICs possess normal biological functions. Here, we report a novel method using a genetically modified mESC line harboring an ATIIC-specific neomycin(R) transgene in Rosa 26 locus. We showed that ATIICs can be efficiently differentiated from mESCs as early as day 7 by culturing them directly on Matrigel-coated plates in DMEM containing 15% knockout serum replacement. With this culture condition, the genetically modified mESCs can be selectively differentiated into a homogenous population (>99%) of ATIICs. Importantly, the mESC-derived ATIICs (mESC-ATIICs) exhibited typical lamellar bodies and expressed surfactant protein A, B, and C as normal control ATIICs. When cultured with an air-liquid-interface culture system in Small Airway Epithelial Cell Growth Medium, the mESC-ATIICs can be induced to secrete surfactant proteins after being treated with dibutyryl cAMP+dexamethasone. These mESC-ATIICs can synthesize and secrete surfactant lipid in response to secretagogue, demonstrating active surfactant metabolism in mESC-ATIICs as that seen in normal control ATIICs. In addition, we demonstrated that the selected mESC-ATIICs can be maintained on Matrigel

  8. LIF-dependent primitive neural stem cells derived from mouse ES cells represent a reversible stage of neural commitment.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Wan-Hong; Wang, Bin; Wong, Wing Ki; Shi, Shuo; Chen, Xiao; He, Xiangjun; Gu, Shen; Hu, Jiabiao; Wang, Chengdong; Liu, Pi-Chu; Lu, Gang; Chen, Xiongfong; Zhao, Hui; Poon, Wai-Sang; Chan, Wai-Yee; Feng, Bo

    2013-11-01

    Primitive neural stem cells (NSCs) define an early stage of neural induction, thus provide a model to understand the mechanism that controls initial neural commitment. In this study, we investigated primitive NSCs derived from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). By genome-wide transcriptional profiling, we revealed their unique signature and depicted the molecular changes underlying critical cell fate transitions during early neural induction at a global level. Together with qRT-PCR analysis, our data illustrated that primitive NSCs retained expression of key pluripotency genes Oct4 and Nanog, while exhibiting repression of other pluripotency-related genes Zscan4, Foxp1 and Dusp9 and up-regulation of neural markers Sox1 and Hes1. The early differentiation feature in primitive NSCs was also supported by their intermediate characters on cell cycle profiles. Moreover, re-plating primitive NSCs back to ESC culture condition could reverse them back to ESC stage, as shown by reversible regulation of marker genes, cell cycle profile changes and enhanced embryoid body formation. In addition, our microarray analysis also identified genes differentially expressed in primitive NSCs, and loss-of-function analysis demonstrated that Hes1 and Ccdc141 play important function at this stage, opening up an opportunity to further understand the regulation of early neural commitment. PMID:23973799

  9. Induction of Cardiomyogenesis in Human Embryonic Stem Cells by Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Definitive Endoderm

    PubMed Central

    Van Orman, Jordan R.; Si-Tayeb, Karim; Duncan, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported that chick anterolateral endoderm (AL endoderm) induces cardiomyogenesis in mouse embryoid bodies. However, the requirement to micro-dissect AL endoderm from gastrulation-stage embryos precludes its use to identify novel cardiomyogenic factors, or to scale up cardiomyocyte numbers for therapeutic experiments. To circumvent this problem we have addressed whether human definitive endoderm (hDE) cells, which can be efficiently generated in large numbers from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), can mimic the ability of AL endoderm to induce cardiac myogenesis. Results demonstrate that both hDE cells and medium conditioned by them induce cardiac myogenesis in pluripotent hESCs, as indicated by rhythmic beating and immunohistochemical/quantitative polymerase chain reaction monitoring of marker gene expression. The cardiomyogenic effect of hDE is enhanced when pluripotent hESCs are preinduced to the mes-endoderm state. Because this approach is tractable and scalable, it may facilitate identification of novel hDE-secreted factors for inclusion in defined cardiomyogenic cocktails. PMID:21627569

  10. Equivalency of Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) Embryonic Stem Cells Derived From Fertilized, Parthenogenetic, and Hand-Made Cloned Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Muzaffar, Musharifa; Selokar, Naresh L.; Singh, Karn P.; Zandi, Mohammad; Singh, Manoj K.; Shah, Riaz A.; Chauhan, Manmohan S.; Singla, Suresh K.; Palta, Prabhat

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study was aimed at establishing buffalo embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from in vitro fertilized (IVF), parthenogenetic, and hand-made cloned (HMC) embryos and to check their equivalency in terms of stem cell marker expression, longevity, proliferation, and differentiation pattern. ESCs derived from all three sources were found by immunofluorescence to express the pluripotency markers SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, OCT4, and SOX2 and were able to form embryoid bodies containing cells expressing genes specific to endoderm (AFP, HNF4, and GATA4), mesoderm (MSX1, BMP4, and ASA), and ectoderm (cytokeratin 8 and NF68). Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) showed cells from all sources to be positive for pluripotency markers OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, STAT3, REX1, FOXD3, NUCLEOSTEMIN, and TELOMERASE. Pluripotency markers OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, and c-MYC were also analyzed by real-time PCR. No significant differences were observed among ESCs from all three sources for all these genes except NANOG, whose expression was higher (p<0.05) in HMC-derived ESCs (6.897±2.3) compared to that in parthenogenesis- and IVF-derived cells (1.603±0.315 and 1±0, respectively). Pluripotent, stable buffalo ESC lines derived from IVF, parthenogenesis, and HMC embryos may be genetically manipulated to provide a powerful tool for studies involving embryonic development, genomic imprinting, gene targeting, cloning, chimera formation, and transgenic animal production. PMID:22582863

  11. Red blood cell-derived microparticles: An overview.

    PubMed

    Westerman, Maxwell; Porter, John B

    2016-07-01

    The red blood cell (RBC) is historically the original parent cell of microparticles (MPs). In this overview, we describe the discovery and the early history of red cell-derived microparticles (RMPs) and present an overview of the evolution of RMP. We report the formation, characteristics, effects of RMP and factors which may affect RMP evaluation. The review examines RMP derived from both normal and pathologic RBC. The pathologic RBC studies include sickle cell anemia (SCA), sickle cell trait (STr), thalassemia intermedia (TI), hereditary spherocytosis (HS), hereditary elliptocytosis (HE), hereditary stomatocytosis (HSt) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD). PMID:27282583

  12. A pure population of lung alveolar epithelial type II cells derived from human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dachun; Haviland, David L; Burns, Alan R; Zsigmond, Eva; Wetsel, Rick A

    2007-03-13

    Alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cells are small, cuboidal cells that constitute approximately 60% of the pulmonary alveolar epithelium. These cells are crucial for repair of the injured alveolus by differentiating into alveolar epithelial type I cells. ATII cells derived from human ES (hES) cells are a promising source of cells that could be used therapeutically to treat distal lung diseases. We have developed a reliable transfection and culture procedure, which facilitates, via genetic selection, the differentiation of hES cells into an essentially pure (>99%) population of ATII cells (hES-ATII). Purity, as well as biological features and morphological characteristics of normal ATII cells, was demonstrated for the hES-ATII cells, including lamellar body formation, expression of surfactant proteins A, B, and C, alpha-1-antitrypsin, and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance receptor, as well as the synthesis and secretion of complement proteins C3 and C5. Collectively, these data document the successful generation of a pure population of ATII cells derived from hES cells, providing a practical source of ATII cells to explore in disease models their potential in the regeneration and repair of the injured alveolus and in the therapeutic treatment of genetic diseases affecting the lung. PMID:17360544

  13. Beta-adrenoceptor subtype dependence of chronotropy in mouse embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Ali, N N; Xu, X; Brito-Martins, M; Poole-Wilson, P A; Harding, S E; Fuller, S J

    2004-11-01

    Cardiomyocytes derived from embryonic stem cells (ESCM) have potential both as an experimental model for investigating cardiac physiology and as a source for tissue repair. For both reasons it is important to characterise the responses of these cells, and one of the key modulators of contraction is the beta-adrenergic system. We therefore undertook a detailed study of the response of the spontaneous beating rate of ESCM to beta-adrenoceptor (betaAR) stimulation. Embryoid bodies (EBs) were generated from murine ES line E14Tg2a by the hanging drop method, followed by plating. Spontaneously beating areas were seen starting from 9-14 days after differentiation: the experiments described here were performed on EBs between developmental day 19 and 48. Beating cell layers were seeded with charcoal to allow tracking of movement by a video-edge detection system. Experiments were performed in physiological medium containing 1 mM Ca2+ at 37 degrees C. Isoprenaline (Iso) increased beating rate with an EC50 value of 52 nM. Iso (0.3 microM) increased basal rate from 67 +/- 7 beats per minute (bpm) to 138 +/- 18 bpm, P < 0.001, n = 22. At earlier developmental time points the response to Iso was not maintained through 5 min exposure; this spontaneous desensitisation only being observed before day 36. A repeat application of Iso after a wash period of 20 min produced reproducible effects on beating rate. Subtype dependence of the betaAR response was determined by comparing an initial response with a second in the presence of selective beta1- or beta2AR antagonists. In the presence of the specific beta1AR-blocker CGP 20712A (300 nM) the increase in rate with Iso was reduced from 207 +/- 42% of basal to 128 +/- 13%, P < 0.01. With the beta2AR-blocker ICI 118,551 (50 nM) there was no significant change in Iso response. Exposure to the muscarinic agonist, carbachol (10 microM), inhibited the increase in frequency mediated by isoprenaline, but had mixed stimulatory and inhibitory

  14. Matrix Metalloproteinase-3 in Odontoblastic Cells Derived from Ips Cells: Unique Proliferation Response as Odontoblastic Cells Derived from ES Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hiyama, Taiki; Ozeki, Nobuaki; Mogi, Makio; Yamaguchi, Hideyuki; Kawai, Rie; Nakata, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Ayami; Nakamura, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 accelerates wound healing following dental pulp injury. In addition, we reported that a proinflammatory cytokine mixture (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and interferon-γ) induced MMP-3 activity in odontoblast-like cells derived from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, suggesting that MMP-3 plays a potential unique physiological role in wound healing and regeneration of dental pulp in odontoblast-like cells. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that upregulation of MMP-3 activity by IL-1β promotes proliferation and apoptosis of purified odontoblast-like cells derived from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) and ES cells. Each odontoblast-like cell was isolated and incubated with different concentrations of IL-1β. MMP-3 mRNA and protein expression were assessed using RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. MMP-3 activity was measured using immunoprecipitation and a fluorescence substrate. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined using ELISA for BrdU and DNA fragmentation, respectively. siRNA was used to reduce MMP-3 transcripts in these cells. Treatment with IL-1β increased MMP-3 mRNA and protein levels, and MMP-3 activity in odontoblast-like cells. Cell proliferation was found to markedly increase with no changes in apoptosis. Endogenous tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 were constitutively expressed during all experiments. The exocytosis inhibitor, Exo1, potently suppressed the appearance of MMP-3 in the conditioned medium. Treatment with siRNA against MMP-3 suppressed an IL-1β-induced increase in MMP-3 expression and activity, and also suppressed cell proliferation, but unexpectedly increased apoptosis in these cells (P<0.05). Exogenous MMP-3 was found to induce cell proliferation in odontoblast-like cells derived from iPS cells and ES cells. This siRNA-mediated increase in apoptosis could be reversed with exogenous MMP-3 stimulation (P<0.05). Taken

  15. Functional Characterization of Human Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Authors Glenn E.; Obejero-Paz, Carlos A.; Bruening-Wright, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac toxicity is a leading contributor to late-stage attrition in the drug discovery process and to withdrawal of approved from the market. In vitro assays that enable earlier and more accurate testing for cardiac risk provide early stage predictive indicators that aid in mitigating risk. Human cardiomyocytes, the most relevant subjects for early stage testing, are severely limited in supply. But human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (SC-hCM) are readily available from commercial sources and are increasingly used in academic research, drug discovery and safety pharmacology. As a result, SC-hCM electrophysiology has become a valuable tool to assess cardiac risk associated with drugs. This unit describes techniques for recording individual currents carried by sodium, calcium and potassium ions, as well as single cell action potentials, and impedance recordings from contracting syncytia of thousands of interconnected cells. PMID:25152802

  16. Trophoblast lineage cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ying; Wang, Kai; Chandramouli, Gadisetti V.R.; Knott, Jason G.; Leach, Richard

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •Epithelial-like phenotype of trophoblast lineage cells derived from human iPS cells. •Trophoblast lineage cells derived from human iPS cells exhibit trophoblast function. •Trophoblasts from iPS cells provides a proof-of-concept in regenerative medicine. -- Abstract: Background: During implantation, the blastocyst trophectoderm attaches to the endometrial epithelium and continues to differentiate into all trophoblast subtypes, which are the major components of a placenta. Aberrant trophoblast proliferation and differentiation are associated with placental diseases. However, due to ethical and practical issues, there is almost no available cell or tissue source to study the molecular mechanism of human trophoblast differentiation, which further becomes a barrier to the study of the pathogenesis of trophoblast-associated diseases of pregnancy. In this study, our goal was to generate a proof-of-concept model for deriving trophoblast lineage cells from induced pluripotency stem (iPS) cells from human fibroblasts. In future studies the generation of trophoblast lineage cells from iPS cells established from patient’s placenta will be extremely useful for studying the pathogenesis of individual trophoblast-associated diseases and for drug testing. Methods and results: Combining iPS cell technology with BMP4 induction, we derived trophoblast lineage cells from human iPS cells. The gene expression profile of these trophoblast lineage cells was distinct from fibroblasts and iPS cells. These cells expressed markers of human trophoblasts. Furthermore, when these cells were differentiated they exhibited invasive capacity and placental hormone secretive capacity, suggesting extravillous trophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts. Conclusion: Trophoblast lineage cells can be successfully derived from human iPS cells, which provide a proof-of-concept tool to recapitulate pathogenesis of patient placental trophoblasts in vitro.

  17. Stem cell-derived systems in toxicology assessment.

    PubMed

    Suter-Dick, Laura; Alves, Paula M; Blaauboer, Bas J; Bremm, Klaus-Dieter; Brito, Catarina; Coecke, Sandra; Flick, Burkhard; Fowler, Paul; Hescheler, Jürgen; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus; Jennings, Paul; Kelm, Jens M; Manou, Irene; Mistry, Pratibha; Moretto, Angelo; Roth, Adrian; Stedman, Donald; van de Water, Bob; Beilmann, Mario

    2015-06-01

    Industrial sectors perform toxicological assessments of their potential products to ensure human safety and to fulfill regulatory requirements. These assessments often involve animal testing, but ethical, cost, and time concerns, together with a ban on it in specific sectors, make appropriate in vitro systems indispensable in toxicology. In this study, we summarize the outcome of an EPAA (European Partnership of Alternatives to Animal Testing)-organized workshop on the use of stem cell-derived (SCD) systems in toxicology, with a focus on industrial applications. SCD systems, in particular, induced pluripotent stem cell-derived, provide physiological cell culture systems of easy access and amenable to a variety of assays. They also present the opportunity to apply the vast repository of existing nonclinical data for the understanding of in vitro to in vivo translation. SCD systems from several toxicologically relevant tissues exist; they generally recapitulate many aspects of physiology and respond to toxicological and pharmacological interventions. However, focused research is necessary to accelerate implementation of SCD systems in an industrial setting and subsequent use of such systems by regulatory authorities. Research is required into the phenotypic characterization of the systems, since methods and protocols for generating terminally differentiated SCD cells are still lacking. Organotypical 3D culture systems in bioreactors and microscale tissue engineering technologies should be fostered, as they promote and maintain differentiation and support coculture systems. They need further development and validation for their successful implementation in toxicity testing in industry. Analytical measures also need to be implemented to enable compound exposure and metabolism measurements for in vitro to in vivo extrapolation. The future of SCD toxicological tests will combine advanced cell culture technologies and biokinetic measurements to support regulatory and

  18. Enriched retinal ganglion cells derived from human embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Katherine P.; Hung, Sandy S. C.; Sharov, Alexei; Lo, Camden Y.; Needham, Karina; Lidgerwood, Grace E.; Jackson, Stacey; Crombie, Duncan E.; Nayagam, Bryony A.; Cook, Anthony L.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Pébay, Alice; Wong, Raymond C. B.

    2016-01-01

    Optic neuropathies are characterised by a loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) that lead to vision impairment. Development of cell therapy requires a better understanding of the signals that direct stem cells into RGCs. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) represent an unlimited cellular source for generation of human RGCs in vitro. In this study, we present a 45-day protocol that utilises magnetic activated cell sorting to generate enriched population of RGCs via stepwise retinal differentiation using hESCs. We performed an extensive characterization of these stem cell-derived RGCs by examining the gene and protein expressions of a panel of neural/RGC markers. Furthermore, whole transcriptome analysis demonstrated similarity of the hESC-derived RGCs to human adult RGCs. The enriched hESC-RGCs possess long axons, functional electrophysiological profiles and axonal transport of mitochondria, suggestive of maturity. In summary, this RGC differentiation protocol can generate an enriched population of functional RGCs from hESCs, allowing future studies on disease modeling of optic neuropathies and development of cell therapies. PMID:27506453

  19. Large-scale generation of cell-derived nanovesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, W.; Kim, J.; Yoon, J.; Jeong, D.; Cho, S.; Jeong, H.; Yoon, Y. J.; Kim, S. C.; Gho, Y. S.; Park, J.

    2014-09-01

    Exosomes are enclosed compartments that are released from cells and that can transport biological contents for the purpose of intercellular communications. Research into exosomes is hindered by their rarity. In this article, we introduce a device that uses centrifugal force and a filter with micro-sized pores to generate a large quantity of cell-derived nanovesicles. The device has a simple polycarbonate structure to hold the filter, and operates in a common centrifuge. Nanovesicles are similar in size and membrane structure to exosomes. Nanovesicles contain intracellular RNAs ranging from microRNA to mRNA, intracellular proteins, and plasma membrane proteins. The quantity of nanovesicles produced using the device is 250 times the quantity of naturally secreted exosomes. Also, the quantity of intracellular contents in nanovesicles is twice that in exosomes. Nanovesicles generated from murine embryonic stem cells can transfer RNAs to target cells. Therefore, this novel device and the nanovesicles that it generates are expected to be used in exosome-related research, and can be applied in various applications such as drug delivery and cell-based therapy.

  20. Tracing Synaptic Connectivity onto Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Isabella; Huang, Longwen; Ung, Kevin; Arenkiel, Benjamin R.

    2012-01-01

    Transsynaptic circuit tracing using genetically modified Rabies virus (RV) is an emerging technology for identifying synaptic connections between neurons. Complementing this methodology, it has become possible to assay the basic molecular and cellular properties of neuronal lineages derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells in vitro, and these properties are under intense investigation towards devising cell replacement therapies. Here, we report the generation of a novel mouse ES cell (mESC) line that harbors the genetic elements to allow RV-mediated transsynaptic circuit tracing in ES cell-derived neurons and their synaptic networks. To facilitate transsynaptic tracing, we have engineered a new reporter allele by introducing cDNA encoding tdTomato, the Rabies-G glycoprotein, and the avian TVA receptor into the ROSA26 locus by gene targeting. We demonstrate high-efficiency differentiation of these novel mESCs into functional neurons, show their capacity to functionally connect with primary neuronal cultures as evidenced by immunohistochemistry and electrophysiological recordings, and show their ability to act as source cells for presynaptic tracing of neuronal networks in vitro and in vivo. Together, our data highlight the potential for using genetically engineered stem cells to investigate fundamental mechanisms of synapse and circuit formation with unambiguous identification of presynaptic inputs onto neuronal populations of interest. PMID:22996827

  1. Enriched retinal ganglion cells derived from human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gill, Katherine P; Hung, Sandy S C; Sharov, Alexei; Lo, Camden Y; Needham, Karina; Lidgerwood, Grace E; Jackson, Stacey; Crombie, Duncan E; Nayagam, Bryony A; Cook, Anthony L; Hewitt, Alex W; Pébay, Alice; Wong, Raymond C B

    2016-01-01

    Optic neuropathies are characterised by a loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) that lead to vision impairment. Development of cell therapy requires a better understanding of the signals that direct stem cells into RGCs. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) represent an unlimited cellular source for generation of human RGCs in vitro. In this study, we present a 45-day protocol that utilises magnetic activated cell sorting to generate enriched population of RGCs via stepwise retinal differentiation using hESCs. We performed an extensive characterization of these stem cell-derived RGCs by examining the gene and protein expressions of a panel of neural/RGC markers. Furthermore, whole transcriptome analysis demonstrated similarity of the hESC-derived RGCs to human adult RGCs. The enriched hESC-RGCs possess long axons, functional electrophysiological profiles and axonal transport of mitochondria, suggestive of maturity. In summary, this RGC differentiation protocol can generate an enriched population of functional RGCs from hESCs, allowing future studies on disease modeling of optic neuropathies and development of cell therapies. PMID:27506453

  2. Ex vivo reconstitution of arterial endothelium by embryonic stem cell-derived endothelial progenitor cells in baboons.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qiang; Hodara, Vida; Simerly, Calvin R; Schatten, Gerald P; VandeBerg, John L

    2013-02-15

    There is an increasing need for an animal model that can be used to translate basic research into clinical therapy. We documented the differentiation and functional competence of embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived endothelial cells in baboons. Baboon angioblasts were sequentially differentiated from embryoid body cultures for 9 days in an angioblast differentiation medium with varying concentrations of BMP-4, FLT-3 ligand, stem cell factor, thrombopoietin, basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and knockout serum replacement. Real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed that ESC-derived angioblasts downregulated NANOG and OCT3/4, upregulated T-brachyury and GATA2, and moderately expressed CD34; they did not express CD144, TEK, or VWF, and varied in levels of CD31 expression. Several populations of putative angioblasts appeared 3 days and 9 days after differentiation, as identified by flow cytometry. Angioblasts at this stage exhibited dual paths of differentiation toward hematopoietic and vascular fates. To examine whether derived angioblasts could reconstitute the endothelium, we built an ex vivo culture system and seeded fluorescently labeled angioblast cultures onto a denuded segment of the femoral artery. We found that the seeded cells were able to grow into the endothelium on the interior surface of denuded artery segments within 5 days after seeding. After 14 days of ex vivo culture, the transplanted cells expressed CD31, an endothelial marker. The control arteries, seeded with vehicle only, did not harbor cells with endothelial markers. We conclude that ESC-derived angioblasts are promising therapeutic agents for repairing damaged vasculature, and that the baboon model will be vital for optimizing therapies for human clinical studies. PMID:22931470

  3. Functional and Transcriptional Characterization of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Endothelial Cells for Treatment of Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zongjin; Wilson, Kitchener D.; Smith, Bryan; Kraft, Daniel L.; Jia, Fangjun; Huang, Mei; Xie, Xiaoyan; Robbins, Robert C.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Weissman, Irving L.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into endothelial cells (hESC-ECs) has the potential to provide an unlimited source of cells for novel transplantation therapies of ischemic diseases by supporting angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. However, the endothelial differentiation efficiency of the conventional embryoid body (EB) method is low while the 2-dimensional method of co-culturing with mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) require animal product, both of which can limit the future clinical application of hESC-ECs. Moreover, to fully understand the beneficial effects of stem cell therapy, investigators must be able to track the functional biology and physiology of transplanted cells in living subjects over time. Methodology In this study, we developed an extracellular matrix (ECM) culture system for increasing endothelial differentiation and free from contaminating animal cells. We investigated the transcriptional changes that occur during endothelial differentiation of hESCs using whole genome microarray, and compared to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We also showed functional vascular formation by hESC-ECs in a mouse dorsal window model. Moreover, our study is the first so far to transplant hESC-ECs in a myocardial infarction model and monitor cell fate using molecular imaging methods. Conclusion Taken together, we report a more efficient method for derivation of hESC-ECs that express appropriate patterns of endothelial genes, form functional vessels in vivo, and improve cardiac function. These studies suggest that hESC-ECs may provide a novel therapy for ischemic heart disease in the future. PMID:20046878

  4. TISSUE ENGINEERING WITH MENISCUS CELLS DERIVED FROM SURGICAL DEBRIS

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Brendon M.; Nathan, Ashwin S.; Huffman, G. Russell; Mauck, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Injuries to the avascular regions of the meniscus fail to heal and so are treated by resection of the damaged tissue. This alleviates symptoms but fails to restore normal load transmission in the knee. Tissue engineering functional meniscus constructs for re-implantation may improve tissue repair. While numerous studies have developed scaffolds for meniscus repair, the most appropriate autologous cell source remains to be determined. In this study, we hypothesized that the debris generated from common meniscectomy procedures would possess cells with potential for forming replacement tissue. We also hypothesized that donor age and the disease status would influence the ability of derived cells to generate functional, fibrocartilaginous matrix. Methods Meniscus derived cells (MDCs) were isolated from waste tissue of ten human donors (seven partial meniscectomies, three total knee arthroplasties) ranging in age from 18–84 years. MDCs were expanded in monolayer culture through passage two and seeded onto fiber-aligned biodegradable nanofibrous scaffolds and cultured in a chemically-defined media. Mechanical properties, biochemical content, and histological features were evaluated over ten weeks of culture. Results Results demonstrated that cells from every donor contributed to increasing biochemical content and mechanical properties of engineered constructs. Significant variability was observed in outcome parameters (cell infiltration, proteoglycan and collagen content, and mechanical properties) amongst donors, but these variations did not correlate with patient age or disease condition. Strong correlations were observed between the amount of collagen deposition within the construct and the tensile properties achieved. In scaffolds seeded with particularly robust cells, construct tensile moduli approached maxima of ~40MPa over the ten week culture period. Conclusions This study demonstrates that cells derived from surgical debris are a potent cell source

  5. Islet Endothelial Cells Derived From Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Jain, Neha; Lee, Eun Jung

    2016-01-01

    The islet endothelium comprises a specialized population of islet endothelial cells (IECs) expressing unique markers such as nephrin and α-1 antitrypsin (AAT) that are not found in endothelial cells in surrounding tissues. However, due to difficulties in isolating and maintaining a pure population of these cells, the information on these islet-specific cells is currently very limited. Interestingly, we have identified a large subpopulation of endothelial cells exhibiting IEC phenotype, while deriving insulin-producing cells from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). These cells were identified by the uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and were successfully isolated and subsequently expanded in endothelial cell culture medium. Further analysis demonstrated that the mouse embryonic stem cell-derived endothelial cells (mESC-ECs) not only express classical endothelial markers, such as platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM1), thrombomodulin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) but also IEC-specific markers such as nephrin and AAT. Moreover, mESC-ECs secrete basement membrane proteins such as collagen type IV, laminin, and fibronectin in culture and form tubular networks on a layer of Matrigel, demonstrating angiogenic activity. Further, mESC-ECs not only express eNOS, but also its eNOS expression is glucose dependent, which is another characteristic phenotype of IECs. With the ability to obtain highly purified IECs derived from pluripotent stem cells, it is possible to closely examine the function of these cells and their interaction with pancreatic β-cells during development and maturation in vitro. Further characterization of tissue-specific endothelial cell properties may enhance our ability to formulate new therapeutic angiogenic approaches for diabetes. PMID:25751085

  6. A Microfluidic Bioreactor for Toxicity Testing of Stem Cell Derived 3D Cardiac Bodies.

    PubMed

    Christoffersson, Jonas; Bergström, Gunnar; Schwanke, Kristin; Kempf, Henning; Zweigerdt, Robert; Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Modeling tissues and organs using conventional 2D cell cultures is problematic as the cells rapidly lose their in vivo phenotype. In microfluidic bioreactors the cells reside in microstructures that are continuously perfused with cell culture medium to provide a dynamic environment mimicking the cells natural habitat. These micro scale bioreactors are sometimes referred to as organs-on-chips and are developed in order to improve and extend cell culture experiments. Here, we describe the two manufacturing techniques photolithography and soft lithography that are used in order to easily produce microfluidic bioreactors. The use of these bioreactors is exemplified by a toxicity assessment on 3D clustered human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes by beating frequency imaging. PMID:27052611

  7. Engineered Microenvironments for the Maturation and Observation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Cardiomyocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salick, Max R.

    The human heart is a dynamic system that undergoes substantial changes as it develops and adapts to the body's growing needs. To better understand the physiology of the heart, researchers have begun to produce immature heart muscle cells, or cardiomyocytes, from pluripotent stem cell sources with remarkable efficiency. These stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes hold great potential in the understanding and treatment of heart disease; however, even after prolonged culture, these cells continue to exhibit an immature phenotype, as indicated by poor sarcomere organization and calcium handling, among other features. The lack of maturation that is observed in these cardiomyocytes greatly limits their applicability towards drug screening, disease modeling, and cell therapy applications. The mechanical environment surrounding a cell has been repeatedly shown to have a large impact on that cell's behavior. For this reason, we have implemented micropatterning methods to mimic the level of alignment that occurs in the heart in vivo in order to study how this alignment may help the cells to produce a more mature sarcomere phenotype. It was discovered that the level of sarcomere organization of a cardiomyocyte can be strongly influenced by the micropattern lane geometry on which it adheres. Steps were taken to optimize this micropattern platform, and studies of protein organization, gene expression, and myofibrillogenesis were conducted. Additionally, a set of programs was developed to provide quantitative analysis of the level of sarcomere organization, as well as to assist with several other tissue engineering applications.

  8. Stem Cells and Stem Cell-derived Tissues and Their Use in Safety Assessment*

    PubMed Central

    Kolaja, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Toxicology has long relied on animal models in a tedious approach to understanding risk of exposure to an uncharacterized molecule. Stem cell-derived tissues can be made in high purity, quality, and quantity to enable a new approach to this problem. Currently, stem cell-derived tissues are primarily “generic” genetic backgrounds; the future will see the integration of various genetic backgrounds and complex three-dimensional models to create truly unique in vitro organoids. This minireview focuses on the state of the art of a number of stem cell-derived tissues and details their application in toxicology. PMID:24362027

  9. Regulation of tissue morphogenesis by endothelial cell-derived signals

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Saravana K.; Kusumbe, Anjali P.; Adams, Ralf H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Endothelial cells form an extensive network of blood vessels that has numerous essential functions in the vertebrate body. In addition to their well-established role as a versatile transport network, blood vessels can induce organ formation or direct growth and differentiation processes by providing signals in a paracrine (angiocrine) fashion. Tissue repair also requires the local restoration of vasculature. Endothelial cells are emerging as important signaling centers that coordinate regeneration and help to prevent deregulated, disease-promoting processes. Vascular cells are also part of stem cell niches and play key roles in hematopoiesis, bone formation and neurogenesis. Here, we will review these newly identified roles of endothelial cells in the regulation of organ morphogenesis, maintenance and regeneration. PMID:25529933

  10. Cell-Derived Extracellular Matrix: Basic Characteristics and Current Applications in Orthopedic Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weixiang; Zhu, Yun; Li, Jia; Guo, Quanyi; Peng, Jiang; Liu, Shichen; Yang, Jianhua; Wang, Yu

    2016-06-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic and intricate microenvironment with excellent biophysical, biomechanical, and biochemical properties, which can directly or indirectly regulate cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, and differentiation, as well as plays key roles in homeostasis and regeneration of tissues and organs. The ECM has attracted a great deal of attention with the rapid development of tissue engineering in the field of regenerative medicine. Tissue-derived ECM scaffolds (also referred to as decellularized tissues and whole organs) are considered a promising therapy for the repair of musculoskeletal defects, including those that are widely used in orthopedics, although there are a few shortcomings. Similar to tissue-derived ECM scaffolds, cell-derived ECM scaffolds also have highly advantageous biophysical and biochemical properties, in particular their ability to be produced in vitro from a number of different cell types. Furthermore, cell-derived ECM scaffolds more closely resemble native ECM microenvironments. The products of cell-derived ECM have a wide range of biomedical applications; these include reagents for cell culture substrates and biomaterials for scaffolds, hybrid scaffolds, and living cell sheet coculture systems. Although cell-derived ECM has only just begun to be investigated, it has great potential as a novel approach for cell-based tissue repair in orthopedic tissue engineering. This review summarizes and analyzes the various types of cell-derived ECM products applied in cartilage, bone, and nerve tissue engineering in vitro or in vivo and discusses future directions for investigation of cell-derived ECM. PMID:26671674

  11. Insulin-producing cells derived from stem cells: recent progress and future directions.

    PubMed

    Santana, A; Enseñat-Waser, R; Arribas, María Isabel; Reig, J A; Roche, E

    2006-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is characterized by the selective destruction of pancreatic beta-cells caused by an autoimmune attack. Type 2 diabetes is a more complex pathology which, in addition to beta-cell loss caused by apoptotic programs, includes beta-cell dedifferentiation and peripheric insulin resistance. beta-Cells are responsible for insulin production, storage and secretion in accordance to the demanding concentrations of glucose and fatty acids. The absence of insulin results in death and therefore diabetic patients require daily injections of the hormone for survival. However, they cannot avoid the appearance of secondary complications affecting the peripheral nerves as well as the eyes, kidneys and cardiovascular system. These afflictions are caused by the fact that external insulin injection does not mimic the tight control that pancreatic-derived insulin secretion exerts on the body's glycemia. Restoration of damaged beta-cells by transplantation from exogenous sources or by endocrine pancreas regeneration would be ideal therapeutic options. In this context, stem cells of both embryonic and adult origin (including beta-cell/islet progenitors) offer some interesting alternatives, taking into account the recent data indicating that these cells could be the building blocks from which insulin secreting cells could be generated in vitro under appropriate culture conditions. Although in many cases insulin-producing cells derived from stem cells have been shown to reverse experimentally induced diabetes in animal models, several concerns need to be solved before finding a definite medical application. These refer mainly to the obtainment of a cell population as similar as possible to pancreatic beta-cells, and to the problems related with the immune compatibility and tumor formation. This review will summarize the different approaches that have been used to obtain insulin-producing cells from embryonic and adult stem cells, and the main problems that hamper the

  12. Stem cell-derived vasculature: A potent and multidimensional technology for basic research, disease modeling, and tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Lowenthal, Justin; Gerecht, Sharon

    2016-05-01

    Proper blood vessel networks are necessary for constructing and re-constructing tissues, promoting wound healing, and delivering metabolic necessities throughout the body. Conversely, an understanding of vascular dysfunction has provided insight into the pathogenesis and progression of diseases both common and rare. Recent advances in stem cell-based regenerative medicine - including advances in stem cell technologies and related progress in bioscaffold design and complex tissue engineering - have allowed rapid advances in the field of vascular biology, leading in turn to more advanced modeling of vascular pathophysiology and improved engineering of vascularized tissue constructs. In this review we examine recent advances in the field of stem cell-derived vasculature, providing an overview of stem cell technologies as a source for vascular cell types and then focusing on their use in three primary areas: studies of vascular development and angiogenesis, improved disease modeling, and the engineering of vascularized constructs for tissue-level modeling and cell-based therapies. PMID:26427871

  13. Leukocyte Cell-Derived Chemotaxin 2-Associated Amyloidosis: A Recently Recognized Disease with Distinct Clinicopathologic Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Samih H; Dogan, Ahmet; Larsen, Christopher P

    2015-11-01

    Amyloidosis derived from leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 is a recently recognized form of amyloidosis, and it has already been established as a frequent form of systemic amyloidosis in the United States, with predominant involvement of kidney and liver. The disease has a strong ethnic bias, affecting mainly Hispanics (particularly Mexicans). Additional ethnic groups prone to develop amyloidosis derived from leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 include Punjabis, First Nations people in British Columbia, and Native Americans. Most patients are elderly who present with chronic renal insufficiency and bland urinary sediment. Proteinuria is variable, being absent altogether in about one third of patients. Liver involvement is frequently an incidental finding. Amyloidosis derived from leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 deposits shows a characteristic distribution: in the kidney, there is consistent involvement of cortical interstitium, whereas in the liver, there is a preferential involvement of periportal and pericentral vein regions. Concurrent renal disease is frequent, with diabetic nephropathy and IgA nephropathy being the most common. Patient survival is excellent, likely because of the rarity of cardiac involvement, whereas renal survival is guarded, with a median renal survival of 62 months in those without concurrent renal disease. There is currently no efficacious therapy for amyloidosis derived from leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 amyloidosis. Renal transplantation seems to be a reasonable treatment for patients with advanced renal failure, although the disease may recur in the allograft. The pathogenesis of amyloidosis derived from leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 amyloidosis has not yet been elucidated. It could be a result of leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 overexpression by hepatocytes either constitutively (controlled by yet-uncharacterized genetic defects) or secondary to hepatocellular damage. It is critical not to misdiagnose amyloidosis

  14. Involvement of multiple myeloma cell-derived exosomes in osteoclast differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Raimondi, Lavinia; De Luca, Angela; Amodio, Nicola; Manno, Mauro; Raccosta, Samuele; Taverna, Simona; Bellavia, Daniele; Naselli, Flores; Fontana, Simona; Schillaci, Odessa; Giardino, Roberto; Fini, Milena; Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Santoro, Alessandra; De Leo, Giacomo; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Alessandro, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Bone disease is the most frequent complication in multiple myeloma (MM) resulting in osteolytic lesions, bone pain, hypercalcemia and renal failure. In MM bone disease the perfect balance between bone-resorbing osteoclasts (OCs) and bone-forming osteoblasts (OBs) activity is lost in favour of OCs, thus resulting in skeletal disorders. Since exosomes have been described for their functional role in cancer progression, we here investigate whether MM cell-derived exosomes may be involved in OCs differentiation. We show that MM cells produce exosomes which are actively internalized by Raw264.7 cell line, a cellular model of osteoclast formation. MM cell-derived exosomes positively modulate pre-osteoclast migration, through the increasing of CXCR4 expression and trigger a survival pathway. MM cell-derived exosomes play a significant pro-differentiative role in murine Raw264.7 cells and human primary osteoclasts, inducing the expression of osteoclast markers such as Cathepsin K (CTSK), Matrix Metalloproteinases 9 (MMP9) and Tartrate-resistant Acid Phosphatase (TRAP). Pre-osteoclast treated with MM cell-derived exosomes differentiate in multinuclear OCs able to excavate authentic resorption lacunae. Similar results were obtained with exosomes derived from MM patient's sera. Our data indicate that MM-exosomes modulate OCs function and differentiation. Further studies are needed to identify the OCs activating factors transported by MM cell-derived exosomes. PMID:25944696

  15. Tumor tropism of intravenously injected human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cells and their gene therapy application in a metastatic breast cancer model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Lam, Dang Hoang; Goh, Sally Sallee; Lee, Esther Xingwei; Zhao, Ying; Tay, Felix Chang; Chen, Can; Du, Shouhui; Balasundaram, Ghayathri; Shahbazi, Mohammad; Tham, Chee Kian; Ng, Wai Hoe; Toh, Han Chong; Wang, Shu

    2012-05-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells can serve as an accessible and reliable source for the generation of functional human cells for medical therapies. In this study, we used a conventional lentiviral transduction method to derive human-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from primary human fibroblasts and then generated neural stem cells (NSCs) from the iPS cells. Using a dual-color whole-body imaging technology, we demonstrated that after tail vein injection, these human NSCs displayed a robust migratory capacity outside the central nervous system in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice and homed in on established orthotopic 4T1 mouse mammary tumors. To investigate whether the iPS cell-derived NSCs can be used as a cellular delivery vehicle for cancer gene therapy, the cells were transduced with a baculoviral vector containing the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase suicide gene and injected through tail vein into 4T1 tumor-bearing mice. The transduced NSCs were effective in inhibiting the growth of the orthotopic 4T1 breast tumor and the metastatic spread of the cancer cells in the presence of ganciclovir, leading to prolonged survival of the tumor-bearing mice. The use of iPS cell-derived NSCs for cancer gene therapy bypasses the sensitive ethical issue surrounding the use of cells derived from human fetal tissues or human embryonic stem cells. This approach may also help to overcome problems associated with allogeneic transplantation of other types of human NSCs. PMID:22311724

  16. A Novel Mechanism of Bacterial Toxin Transfer within Host Blood Cell-Derived Microvesicles

    PubMed Central

    Ståhl, Anne-lie; Arvidsson, Ida; Johansson, Karl E.; Chromek, Milan; Rebetz, Johan; Loos, Sebastian; Kristoffersson, Ann-Charlotte; Békássy, Zivile D.; Mörgelin, Matthias; Karpman, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx) is the main virulence factor of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, which are non-invasive strains that can lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), associated with renal failure and death. Although bacteremia does not occur, bacterial virulence factors gain access to the circulation and are thereafter presumed to cause target organ damage. Stx was previously shown to circulate bound to blood cells but the mechanism by which it would potentially transfer to target organ cells has not been elucidated. Here we show that blood cell-derived microvesicles, shed during HUS, contain Stx and are found within patient renal cortical cells. The finding was reproduced in mice infected with Stx-producing Escherichia coli exhibiting Stx-containing blood cell-derived microvesicles in the circulation that reached the kidney where they were transferred into glomerular and peritubular capillary endothelial cells and further through their basement membranes followed by podocytes and tubular epithelial cells, respectively. In vitro studies demonstrated that blood cell-derived microvesicles containing Stx undergo endocytosis in glomerular endothelial cells leading to cell death secondary to inhibited protein synthesis. This study demonstrates a novel virulence mechanism whereby bacterial toxin is transferred within host blood cell-derived microvesicles in which it may evade the host immune system. PMID:25719452

  17. Maturation of Stem Cell-Derived Beta-cells Guided by the Expression of Urocortin 3

    PubMed Central

    van der Meulen, Talitha; Huising, Mark O.

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a devastating disease precipitated by an autoimmune response directed at the insulin-producing beta-cells of the pancreas for which no cure exists. Stem cell-derived beta-cells show great promise for a cure as they have the potential to supply unlimited numbers of cells that could be derived from a patient's own cells, thus eliminating the need for immunosuppression. Current in vitro protocols for the differentiation of stem cell-derived beta-cells can successfully generate pancreatic endoderm cells. In diabetic rodents, such cells can differentiate further along the beta-cell lineage until they are eventually capable of restoring normoglycemia. While these observations demonstrate that stem cell-derived pancreatic endoderm has the potential to differentiate into mature, glucose-responsive beta-cells, the signals that direct differentiation and maturation from pancreatic endoderm onwards remain poorly understood. In this review, we analyze the sequence of events that culminates in the formation of beta-cells during embryonic development. and summarize how current protocols to generate beta-cells have sought to capitalize on this ontogenic template. We place particular emphasis on the current challenges and opportunities which occur in the later stages of beta-cell differentiation and maturation of transplantable stem cell-derived beta-cells. Another focus is on the question how the use of recently identified maturation markers such as urocortin 3 can be instrumental in guiding these efforts. PMID:25148370

  18. Bioenergetic phenotypes and metabolic stress responses in cells derived from ecologically and commercially important fish species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various stressors negatively affect wild and cultured fish and can result in metabolic disturbances that first manifest at the level of the cell. In the present study, we sought to further our understanding of cellular metabolism in fish by examining the stress responses of cells derived from three...

  19. Transgene Reactivation in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Derivatives and Reversion to Pluripotency of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Galat, Vasiliy; Galat, Yekaterina; Perepitchka, Mariana; Jennings, Lawrence J; Iannaccone, Philip M; Hendrix, Mary J C

    2016-07-15

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have enormous potential in regenerative medicine and disease modeling. It is now felt that clinical trials should be performed with iPSCs derived with nonintegrative constructs. Numerous studies, however, including those describing disease models, are still being published using cells derived from iPSCs generated with integrative constructs. Our experimental work presents the first evidence of spontaneous transgene reactivation in vitro in several cellular types. Our results show that the transgenes were predominantly silent in parent iPSCs, but in mesenchymal and endothelial iPSC derivatives, the transgenes experienced random upregulation of Nanog and c-Myc. Additionally, we provide evidence of spontaneous secondary reprogramming and reversion to pluripotency in mesenchymal stem cells derived from iPSCs. These findings strongly suggest that the studies, which use cellular products derived from iPSCs generated with retro- or lentiviruses, should be evaluated with consideration of the possibility of transgene reactivation. The in vitro model described here provides insight into the earliest events of culture transformation and suggests the hypothesis that reversion to pluripotency may be responsible for the development of tumors in cell replacement experiments. The main goal of this work, however, is to communicate the possibility of transgene reactivation in retro- or lenti-iPSC derivatives and the associated loss of cellular fidelity in vitro, which may impact the outcomes of disease modeling and related experimentation. PMID:27193052

  20. Transgene Reactivation in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Derivatives and Reversion to Pluripotency of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Galat, Yekaterina; Perepitchka, Mariana; Jennings, Lawrence J.; Iannaccone, Philip M.; Hendrix, Mary J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have enormous potential in regenerative medicine and disease modeling. It is now felt that clinical trials should be performed with iPSCs derived with nonintegrative constructs. Numerous studies, however, including those describing disease models, are still being published using cells derived from iPSCs generated with integrative constructs. Our experimental work presents the first evidence of spontaneous transgene reactivation in vitro in several cellular types. Our results show that the transgenes were predominantly silent in parent iPSCs, but in mesenchymal and endothelial iPSC derivatives, the transgenes experienced random upregulation of Nanog and c-Myc. Additionally, we provide evidence of spontaneous secondary reprogramming and reversion to pluripotency in mesenchymal stem cells derived from iPSCs. These findings strongly suggest that the studies, which use cellular products derived from iPSCs generated with retro- or lentiviruses, should be evaluated with consideration of the possibility of transgene reactivation. The in vitro model described here provides insight into the earliest events of culture transformation and suggests the hypothesis that reversion to pluripotency may be responsible for the development of tumors in cell replacement experiments. The main goal of this work, however, is to communicate the possibility of transgene reactivation in retro- or lenti-iPSC derivatives and the associated loss of cellular fidelity in vitro, which may impact the outcomes of disease modeling and related experimentation. PMID:27193052

  1. Lung epithelial cell-derived extracellular vesicles activate macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses via ROCK1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Moon, H-G; Cao, Y; Yang, J; Lee, J H; Choi, H S; Jin, Y

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of research, the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains poorly understood, thus impeding the development of effective treatment. Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) and lung epithelial cell death are prominent features of ARDS. Lung epithelial cells are the first line of defense after inhaled stimuli, such as in the case of hyperoxia. We hypothesized that lung epithelial cells release 'messenger' or signaling molecules to adjacent or distant macrophages, thereby initiating or propagating inflammatory responses after noxious insult. We found that, after hyperoxia, a large amount of extracellular vesicles (EVs) were generated and released into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). These hyperoxia-induced EVs were mainly derived from live lung epithelial cells as the result of hyperoxia-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. These EVs were remarkably different from epithelial 'apoptotic bodies', as reflected by the significantly smaller size and differentially expressed protein markers. These EVs fall mainly in the size range of the exosomes and smaller microvesicles (MVs) (50-120 nm). The commonly featured protein markers of apoptotic bodies were not found in these EVs. Treating alveolar macrophages with hyperoxia-induced, epithelial cell-derived EVs led to an increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2). Robustly increased macrophage and neutrophil influx was found in the lung tissue of the mice intranasally treated with hyperoxia-induced EVs. It was determined that EV-encapsulated caspase-3 was largely responsible for the alveolar macrophage activation via the ROCK1 pathway. Caspase-3-deficient EVs induced less cytokine/MIP-2 release, reduced cell counts in BALF, less neutrophil infiltration and less inflammation in lung parenchyma, both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the serum circulating EVs were increased and mainly derived from lung epithelial cells after

  2. Lung epithelial cell-derived extracellular vesicles activate macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses via ROCK1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Moon, H-G; Cao, Y; Yang, J; Lee, J H; Choi, H S; Jin, Y

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of research, the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains poorly understood, thus impeding the development of effective treatment. Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) and lung epithelial cell death are prominent features of ARDS. Lung epithelial cells are the first line of defense after inhaled stimuli, such as in the case of hyperoxia. We hypothesized that lung epithelial cells release ‘messenger' or signaling molecules to adjacent or distant macrophages, thereby initiating or propagating inflammatory responses after noxious insult. We found that, after hyperoxia, a large amount of extracellular vesicles (EVs) were generated and released into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). These hyperoxia-induced EVs were mainly derived from live lung epithelial cells as the result of hyperoxia-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. These EVs were remarkably different from epithelial ‘apoptotic bodies', as reflected by the significantly smaller size and differentially expressed protein markers. These EVs fall mainly in the size range of the exosomes and smaller microvesicles (MVs) (50–120 nm). The commonly featured protein markers of apoptotic bodies were not found in these EVs. Treating alveolar macrophages with hyperoxia-induced, epithelial cell-derived EVs led to an increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2). Robustly increased macrophage and neutrophil influx was found in the lung tissue of the mice intranasally treated with hyperoxia-induced EVs. It was determined that EV-encapsulated caspase-3 was largely responsible for the alveolar macrophage activation via the ROCK1 pathway. Caspase-3-deficient EVs induced less cytokine/MIP-2 release, reduced cell counts in BALF, less neutrophil infiltration and less inflammation in lung parenchyma, both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the serum circulating EVs were increased and mainly derived from lung epithelial cells after

  3. Concise review: the relevance of human stem cell-derived organoid models for epithelial translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Hynds, Robert E; Giangreco, Adam

    2013-03-01

    Epithelial organ remodeling is a major contributing factor to worldwide death and disease, costing healthcare systems billions of dollars every year. Despite this, most fundamental epithelial organ research fails to produce new therapies and mortality rates for epithelial organ diseases remain unacceptably high. In large part, this failure in translating basic epithelial research into clinical therapy is due to a lack of relevance in existing preclinical models. To correct this, new models are required that improve preclinical target identification, pharmacological lead validation, and compound optimization. In this review, we discuss the relevance of human stem cell-derived, three-dimensional organoid models for addressing each of these challenges. We highlight the advantages of stem cell-derived organoid models over existing culture systems, discuss recent advances in epithelial tissue-specific organoids, and present a paradigm for using organoid models in human translational medicine. PMID:23203919

  4. Autonomous beating rate adaptation in human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Eng, George; Lee, Benjamin W; Protas, Lev; Gagliardi, Mark; Brown, Kristy; Kass, Robert S; Keller, Gordon; Robinson, Richard B; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic success of human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes critically depends on their ability to respond to and integrate with the surrounding electromechanical environment. Currently, the immaturity of human cardiomyocytes derived from stem cells limits their utility for regenerative medicine and biological research. We hypothesize that biomimetic electrical signals regulate the intrinsic beating properties of cardiomyocytes. Here we show that electrical conditioning of human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes in three-dimensional culture promotes cardiomyocyte maturation, alters their automaticity and enhances connexin expression. Cardiomyocytes adapt their autonomous beating rate to the frequency at which they were stimulated, an effect mediated by the emergence of a rapidly depolarizing cell population, and the expression of hERG. This rate-adaptive behaviour is long lasting and transferable to the surrounding cardiomyocytes. Thus, electrical conditioning may be used to promote cardiomyocyte maturation and establish their automaticity, with implications for cell-based reduction of arrhythmia during heart regeneration. PMID:26785135

  5. Autonomous beating rate adaptation in human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Eng, George; Lee, Benjamin W.; Protas, Lev; Gagliardi, Mark; Brown, Kristy; Kass, Robert S.; Keller, Gordon; Robinson, Richard B.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic success of human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes critically depends on their ability to respond to and integrate with the surrounding electromechanical environment. Currently, the immaturity of human cardiomyocytes derived from stem cells limits their utility for regenerative medicine and biological research. We hypothesize that biomimetic electrical signals regulate the intrinsic beating properties of cardiomyocytes. Here we show that electrical conditioning of human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes in three-dimensional culture promotes cardiomyocyte maturation, alters their automaticity and enhances connexin expression. Cardiomyocytes adapt their autonomous beating rate to the frequency at which they were stimulated, an effect mediated by the emergence of a rapidly depolarizing cell population, and the expression of hERG. This rate-adaptive behaviour is long lasting and transferable to the surrounding cardiomyocytes. Thus, electrical conditioning may be used to promote cardiomyocyte maturation and establish their automaticity, with implications for cell-based reduction of arrhythmia during heart regeneration. PMID:26785135

  6. Glucose responsive insulin production from human embryonic germ (EG) cell derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Gregory O.; Yochem, Robert L.; Axelman, Joyce; Sheets, Timothy P.; Kaczorowski, David J.; Shamblott, Michael J. . E-mail: mshambl1@jhmi.edu

    2007-05-11

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus subjects millions to a daily burden of disease management, life threatening hypoglycemia and long-term complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, heart disease, and stroke. Cell transplantation therapies providing a glucose-regulated supply of insulin have been implemented clinically, but are limited by safety, efficacy and supply considerations. Stem cells promise a plentiful and flexible source of cells for transplantation therapies. Here, we show that cells derived from human embryonic germ (EG) cells express markers of definitive endoderm, pancreatic and {beta}-cell development, glucose sensing, and production of mature insulin. These cells integrate functions necessary for glucose responsive regulation of preproinsulin mRNA and expression of insulin C-peptide in vitro. Following transplantation into mice, cells become insulin and C-peptide immunoreactive and produce plasma C-peptide in response to glucose. These findings suggest that EG cell derivatives may eventually serve as a source of insulin producing cells for the treatment of diabetes.

  7. Large scale production of a mammalian cell derived quadrivalent hepatitis C virus like particle vaccine.

    PubMed

    Earnest-Silveira, L; Christiansen, D; Herrmann, S; Ralph, S A; Das, S; Gowans, E J; Torresi, J

    2016-10-01

    A method for the large-scale production of a quadrivalent mammalian cell derived hepatitis C virus-like particles (HCV VLPs) is described. The HCV core E1 and E2 coding sequences of genotype 1a, 1b, 2a or 3a were co-expressed in Huh7 cell factories using a recombinant adenoviral expression system. The structural proteins self-assembled into VLPs that were purified from Huh7 cell lysates by iodixanol ultracentrifugation and Stirred cell ultrafiltration. Electron microscopy, revealed VLPs of the different genotypes that are morphologically similar. Our results show that it is possible to produce large quantities of individual HCV genotype VLPs with relative ease thus making this approach an alternative for the manufacture of a quadrivalent mammalian cell derived HCV VLP vaccine. PMID:27373602

  8. Drug-loaded nanoparticles induce gene expression in human pluripotent stem cell derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Gajbhiye, Virendra; Escalante, Leah; Chen, Guojun; Laperle, Alex; Zheng, Qifeng; Steyer, Benjamin; Gong, Shaoqin; Saha, Krishanu

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineering and advanced manufacturing of human stem cells requires a suite of tools to control gene expression spatiotemporally in culture. Inducible gene expression systems offer cell-extrinsic control, typically through addition of small molecules, but small molecule inducers typically contain few functional groups for further chemical modification. Doxycycline (DXC), a potent small molecule inducer of tetracycline (Tet) transgene systems, was conjugated to a hyperbranched dendritic polymer (Boltorn H40) and subsequently reacted with polyethylene glycol (PEG). The resulting PEG-H40-DXC nanoparticle exhibited pH-sensitive drug release behavior and successfully controlled gene expression in stem-cell-derived fibroblasts with a Tet-On system. While free DXC inhibited fibroblast proliferation and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, PEG-H40-DXC nanoparticles maintained higher fibroblast proliferation levels and MMP activity. The results demonstrate that the PEG-H40-DXC nanoparticle system provides an effective tool to controlling gene expression in human stem cell derivatives. PMID:24232694

  9. Microencapsulation technology by nature: Cell derived extracellular vesicles with therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Kittel, A; Falus, A; Buzás, E

    2013-06-01

    Cell derived extracellular vesicles are submicron structures surrounded by phospholipid bilayer and released by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The sizes of these vesicles roughly fall into the size ranges of microbes, and they represent efficient delivery platforms targeting complex molecular information to professional antigen presenting cells. Critical roles of these naturally formulated units of information have been described in many physiological and pathological processes. Extracellular vesicles are not only potential biomarkers and possible pathogenic factors in numerous diseases, but they are also considered as emerging therapeutic targets and therapeutic vehicles. Strikingly, current drug delivery systems, designed to convey therapeutic proteins and peptides (such as liposomes), show many similarities to extracellular vesicles. Here we review some aspects of therapeutic implementation of natural, cell-derived extracellular vesicles in human diseases. Exploration of molecular and functional details of extracellular vesicle release and action may provide important lessons for the design of future drug delivery systems. PMID:24265924

  10. Microencapsulation technology by nature: Cell derived extracellular vesicles with therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Falus, A.; Buzás, E.

    2013-01-01

    Cell derived extracellular vesicles are submicron structures surrounded by phospholipid bilayer and released by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The sizes of these vesicles roughly fall into the size ranges of microbes, and they represent efficient delivery platforms targeting complex molecular information to professional antigen presenting cells. Critical roles of these naturally formulated units of information have been described in many physiological and pathological processes. Extracellular vesicles are not only potential biomarkers and possible pathogenic factors in numerous diseases, but they are also considered as emerging therapeutic targets and therapeutic vehicles. Strikingly, current drug delivery systems, designed to convey therapeutic proteins and peptides (such as liposomes), show many similarities to extracellular vesicles. Here we review some aspects of therapeutic implementation of natural, cell-derived extracellular vesicles in human diseases. Exploration of molecular and functional details of extracellular vesicle release and action may provide important lessons for the design of future drug delivery systems. PMID:24265924

  11. Methods for Assessing the Electromechanical Integration of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocyte Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wei-Zhong; Filice, Dominic; Palpant, Nathan J.; Laflamme, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiomyocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cells show tremendous promise for the replacement of myocardium and contractile function lost to infarction. However, until recently, no methods were available to directly determine whether these stem cell-derived grafts actually couple with host myocardium and fire synchronously following transplantation in either intact or injured hearts. To resolve this uncertainty, our group has developed techniques for the intravital imaging of hearts engrafted with stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes that have been modified to express the genetically encoded protein calcium sensor, GCaMP. When combined with the simultaneously recorded electrocardiogram, this protocol allows one to make quantitative assessments as to the presence and extent of host–graft electrical coupling as well as the timing and pattern of graft activation. As described here, this system has been employed to investigate the electromechanical integration of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes in a guinea pig model of cardiac injury, but analogous approaches should be applicable to other human graft cell types and animal models. PMID:25070341

  12. Learning-induced synaptic potentiation in implanted neural precursor cell-derived neurons

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyungjoon; Heo, Hwon; Han, Ma Eum; Choi, Kyuhyun; Yi, Jee Hyun; Kang, Shin Jung; Kwon, Yunhee Kim; Shin, Ki Soon

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal loss caused by neurodegenerative diseases, traumatic brain injury and stroke results in cognitive dysfunctioning. Implantation of neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) can improve the brain function by replacing lost neurons. Proper synaptic integration following neuronal differentiation of implanted cells is believed to be a prerequisite for the functional recovery. In the present study, we characterized the functional properties of immortalized neural progenitor HiB5 cells implanted into the rat hippocampus with chemically induced lesion. The implanted HiB5 cells migrated toward CA1 pyramidal layer and differentiated into vGluT1-positive glutamatergic neurons with morphological and electrophysiological properties of endogenous CA1 pyramidal cells. Functional synaptic integration of HiB5 cell-derived neurons was also evidenced by immunohistochemical and electrophysiological data. Lesion-caused memory deficit was significantly recovered after the implantation when assessed by inhibitory avoidance (IA) learning. Remarkably, IA learning preferentially produced long-term potentiation (LTP) at the synapses onto HiB5 cell-derived neurons, which occluded paring protocol-induced LTP ex vivo. We conclude that the implanted HiB5 cell-derived neurons actively participate in learning process through LTP formation, thereby counteracting lesion-mediated memory impairment. PMID:26634434

  13. Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes: A Potential Alternative Therapeutic Agent in Orthopaedics

    PubMed Central

    Burke, John; Kolhe, Ravindra; Hunter, Monte; Isales, Carlos; Hamrick, Mark; Fulzele, Sadanand

    2016-01-01

    Within the field of regenerative medicine, many have sought to use stem cells as a promising way to heal human tissue; however, in the past few years, exosomes (packaged vesicles released from cells) have shown more exciting promise. Specifically, stem cell-derived exosomes have demonstrated great ability to provide therapeutical benefits. Exosomal products can include miRNA, other genetic products, proteins, and various factors. They are released from cells in a paracrine fashion in order to combat local cellular stress. Because of this, there are vast benefits that medicine can obtain from stem cell-derived exosomes. If exosomes could be extracted from stem cells in an efficient manner and packaged with particular regenerative products, then diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, bone fractures, and other maladies could be treated with cell-free regenerative medicine via exosomes. Many advances must be made to get to this point, and the following review highlights the current advances of stem cell-derived exosomes with particular attention to regenerative medicine in orthopaedics. PMID:26904130

  14. Angiogenic activity mediates bone repair from human pluripotent stem cell-derived osteogenic cells

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Li; Chen, Qingshan; Quanbeck, Zachary; Bechtold, Joan E.; Kaufman, Dan S.

    2016-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells provide a standardized resource for bone repair. However, criteria to determine which exogenous cells best heal orthopedic injuries remain poorly defined. We evaluated osteogenic progenitor cells derived from both human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Phenotypic and genotypic analyses demonstrated that these hESCs/hiPSCs are similar in their osteogenic differentiation efficiency and they generate osteogenic cells comparable to osteogenic cells derived from mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs). However, expression of angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor in these osteogenic progenitor cells are markedly different, suggesting distinct pro-angiogenic potential of these stem cell derivatives. Studies to repair a femur non-union fracture demonstrate only osteogenic progenitor cells with higher pro-angiogenic potential significantly enhance bone repair in vivo. Together, these studies highlight a key role of pro-angiogenic potential of transplanted osteogenic cells for effective cell-mediated bone repair. PMID:26980556

  15. iPS-cell derived dendritic cells and macrophages for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Senju, Satoru

    2016-08-01

    Antibody-based anti-cancer immunotherapy was recently recognized as one of the truly effective therapies for cancer patients. Antibodies against cell surface cancer antigens, such as CD20, and also those against immune-inhibitory molecules called "immune checkpoint blockers", such as CTLA4 or PD1, have emerged. Large-scale clinical trials have confirmed that, in some cases, antibody-based drugs are superior to conventional chemotherapeutic agents. These antibody-based drugs are now being manufactured employing a mass-production system by pharmaceutical companies. Anti-cancer therapy by immune cells, i.e. cell-based immunotherapy, is expected to be more effective than antibody therapy, because immune cells can recognize, infiltrate, and act in cancer tissues more directly than antibodies. In order to achieve cell-based anti-cancer immunotherapy, it is necessary to develop manufacturing systems for mass-production of immune cells. Our group has been studying immunotherapy with myeloid cells derived from ES cells or iPS cells. These pluripotent stem cells can be readily propagated under constant culture conditions, with expansion into a large quantity. We consider these stem cells to be the most suitable cellular source for mass-production of immune cells. This review introduces our studies on anti-cancer therapy with iPS cell-derived dendritic cells and iPS cell-derived macrophages. PMID:27599426

  16. Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes: A Potential Alternative Therapeutic Agent in Orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    Burke, John; Kolhe, Ravindra; Hunter, Monte; Isales, Carlos; Hamrick, Mark; Fulzele, Sadanand

    2016-01-01

    Within the field of regenerative medicine, many have sought to use stem cells as a promising way to heal human tissue; however, in the past few years, exosomes (packaged vesicles released from cells) have shown more exciting promise. Specifically, stem cell-derived exosomes have demonstrated great ability to provide therapeutical benefits. Exosomal products can include miRNA, other genetic products, proteins, and various factors. They are released from cells in a paracrine fashion in order to combat local cellular stress. Because of this, there are vast benefits that medicine can obtain from stem cell-derived exosomes. If exosomes could be extracted from stem cells in an efficient manner and packaged with particular regenerative products, then diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, bone fractures, and other maladies could be treated with cell-free regenerative medicine via exosomes. Many advances must be made to get to this point, and the following review highlights the current advances of stem cell-derived exosomes with particular attention to regenerative medicine in orthopaedics. PMID:26904130

  17. Chemokine receptors in cancer metastasis and cancer cell-derived chemokines in host immune response.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Keiichi; Hojo, Shozo; Akashi, Takuya; Yasumoto, Kazuo; Saiki, Ikuo

    2007-11-01

    The chemotactic cytokines called chemokines are a superfamily of small secreted cytokines that were initially characterized through their ability to prompt the migration of leukocytes. Attention has been focused on the chemokine receptors expressed on cancer cells because cancer cell migration and metastasis show similarities to leukocyte trafficking. CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) was first investigated as a chemokine receptor that is associated with lung metastasis of breast cancers. Recently, CXCR4 was reported to be a key molecule in the formation of peritoneal carcinomatosis in gastric cancer. In the present review, we highlight current knowledge about the role of CXCR4 in cancer metastases. In contrast to chemokine receptors expressed on cancer cells, little is known about the roles of cancer cell-derived chemokines. Cancer tissue consists of both cancer cells and various stromal cells, and leukocytes that infiltrate into cancer are of particular importance in cancer progression. Although colorectal cancer invasion is regulated by the chemokine CCL9-induced infiltration of immature myeloid cells into cancer, high-level expression of cancer cell-derived chemokine CXCL16 increases infiltrating CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells into cancer tissues, and correlates with a good prognosis. We discuss the conflicting biological effects of cancer cell-derived chemokines on cancer progression, using CCL9 and CXCL16 as examples. PMID:17894551

  18. A strategy to ensure safety of stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelium cells.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Parul; Whiting, Paul John

    2016-01-01

    Cell replacement and regenerative therapy using embryonic stem cell-derived material holds promise for the treatment of several pathologies. However, the safety of this approach is of prime importance given the teratogenic potential of residual stem cells, if present in the differentiated cell product. Using the example of embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, we present a novel strategy for ensuring the absence of stem cells in the RPE population. Based on an unbiased screening approach, we identify and validate the expression of CD59, a cell surface marker expressed on RPE but absent on stem cells. We further demonstrate that flow sorting on the basis of CD59 expression can effectively purify RPE and deplete stem cells, resulting in a population free from stem cell impurity. This purification helps to ensure removal of stem cells and hence increases the safety of cells that may be used for clinical transplantation. This strategy can potentially be applied to other pluripotent stem cell-derived material and help mitigate concerns of using such cells for therapy. PMID:27590276

  19. Stem cell-derived vasculature: A potent and multidimensional technology for basic research, disease modeling, and tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Lowenthal, Justin; Gerecht, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Proper blood vessel networks are necessary for constructing and re-constructing tissues, promoting wound healing, and delivering metabolic necessities throughout the body. Conversely, an understanding of vascular dysfunction has provided insight into the pathogenesis and progression of diseases both common and rare. Recent advances in stem cell-based regenerative medicine – including advances in stem cell technologies and related progress in bioscaffold design and complex tissue engineering – have allowed rapid advances in the field of vascular biology, leading in turn to more advanced modeling of vascular pathophysiology and improved engineering of vascularized tissue constructs. In this review we examine recent advances in the field of stem cell-derived vasculature, providing an overview of stem cell technologies as a source for vascular cell types and then focusing on their use in three primary areas: studies of vascular development and angiogenesis, improved disease modeling, and the engineering of vascularized constructs for tissue-level modeling and cell-based therapies. PMID:26427871

  20. Epithelial cell-derived micro RNA-146a generates interleukin-10-producing monocytes to inhibit nasal allergy

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xi; Han, Miaomiao; Liu, Jianqi; Wang, Yu; Luo, Xiangqian; Zheng, Jing; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Zhigang; Liu, Dabo; Yang, Ping-Chang; Li, Huabin

    2015-01-01

    The aberrant immunity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. Micro RNAs (miR) are involved in regulating the immunity in the body. This study aims to test a hypothesis that miR-146a induces the expression of interleukin (IL)-10 in monocytes (Mos). In this study, the levels of miR-146a were determined by real time RT-PCR. The IL-10+ Mos were evaluated by flow cytometry. The miR-146a-laden exosomes were generated with RPMI2650 cells (an airway epithelial cell line). An allergic rhinitis mouse model was developed. The results showed that nasal epithelial cells expressed miR-146a, which was markedly lower in the nasal epithelial cells of patients with nasal allergy than that in healthy controls. Exposure to T helper (Th)2 cytokines suppressed the levels of miR-146a in the nasal epithelial cells. The nasal epithelial cell-derived miR-146a up regulated the expression of IL-10 in Mos. The inducible IL-10+ Mos showed an immune suppressor effect on the activities of CD4+ effector T cells and the Th2 polarization in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis. In summary, nasal epithelial cells express miR-146a, the latter is capable of inducing IL-10 expression in Mos, which suppress allergic reactions in the mouse nasal mucosa. PMID:26526003

  1. Long term Glycemic Control Using Polymer Encapsulated, Human Stem-Cell Derived β-cells in Immune Competent mice

    PubMed Central

    Vegas, Arturo J.; Veiseh, Omid; Gürtler, Mads; Millman, Jeffrey R.; Pagliuca, Felicia W.; Bader, Andrew R.; Doloff, Joshua C.; Li, Jie; Chen, Michael; Olejnik, Karsten; Tam, Hok Hei; Jhunjhunwala, Siddharth; Langan, Erin; Aresta-Dasilva, Stephanie; Gandham, Srujan; McGarrigle, James; Bochenek, Matthew A.; Hollister-Lock, Jennifer; Oberholzer, Jose; Greiner, Dale L.; Weir, Gordon C.; Melton, Douglas A.; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    The transplantation of glucose-responsive, insulin-producing cells offers the potential for restoring glycemic control in diabetic patients1. Pancreas transplantation and the infusion of cadaveric islets are currently implemented clinically2, but are limited by the adverse effects of lifetime immunosuppression and the limited supply of donor tissue3. The latter concern may be addressed by recently described glucose responsive mature β-cells derived from human embryonic stem cells; called SC-β, these cells may represent an unlimited human cell source for pancreas replacement therapy4. Strategies to address the immunosuppression concern include immunoisolation of insulin-producing cells with porous biomaterials that function as an immune barrier5,6. However, clinical implementation has been challenging due to host immune responses to implant materials7. Here, we report the first long term glycemic correction of a diabetic, immune-competent animal model with human SC-β cells. SC-β cells were encapsulated with alginate-derivatives capable of mitigating foreign body responses in vivo, and implanted into the intraperitoneal (IP) space of streptozotocin-treated (STZ) C57BL/6J mice. These implants induced glycemic correction until removal at 174 days without any immunosuppression. Human C-peptide concentrations and in vivo glucose responsiveness demonstrate therapeutically relevant glycemic control. Implants retrieved after 174 days contained viable insulin-producing cells. PMID:26808346

  2. Characterization of embryonic stem-like cells derived from HEK293T cells through miR302/367 expression and their potentiality to differentiate into germ-like cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Long; Zhu, Haijing; Wu, Jiang; Li, Na; Hua, Jinlian

    2014-10-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have great value for regenerative medicine, but are facing problems of low efficiency. MicroRNAs are a recently discovered class of 19-25 nt small RNAs that negatively target mRNAs. miR302/367 cluster has been demonstrated to reprogram mouse and human somatic cells to iPS cells without exogenous transcription factors, however, the repetition and differentiation potentiality of miR302/367-induced pluripotent stem (mirPS) cells need to be improved. Here, we showed overexpression of miR302/367 cluster reprogrammed human embryonic kidney 293T cells into mirPS cells in serum-free N2B27-based medium. The mirPS cells had similar morphology with embryonic stem cells, and expressed pluripotent markers including Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and Nanog. In addition, through formation of embryoid bodies, various cells and tissues from three germ layers could be determined. Moreover, we examined the potential of mirPS cells differentiating into germ cells both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these data might provide a new source of cells and technique for the investigation of the mechanisms underlying reprogramming and pluripotency. PMID:24091881

  3. A Stem Cell-Derived Platform for Studying Single Synaptic Vesicles in Dopaminergic Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Haigang; Lazarenko, Roman M.; Koktysh, Dmitry; Iacovitti, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    The exocytotic release of dopamine is one of the most characteristic but also one of the least appreciated processes in dopaminergic neurotransmission. Fluorescence imaging has yielded rich information about the properties of synaptic vesicles and the release of neurotransmitters in excitatory and inhibitory neurons. In contrast, imaging-based studies for in-depth understanding of synaptic vesicle behavior in dopamine neurons are lagging largely because of a lack of suitable preparations. Midbrain culture has been one of the most valuable preparations for the subcellular investigation of dopaminergic transmission; however, the paucity and fragility of cultured dopaminergic neurons limits their use for live cell imaging. Recent developments in stem cell technology have led to the successful production of dopamine neurons from embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells. Although the dopaminergic identity of these stem cell-derived neurons has been characterized in different ways, vesicle-mediated dopamine release from their axonal terminals has been barely assessed. We report a more efficient procedure to reliably generate dopamine neurons from embryonic stem cells, and it yields more dopamine neurons with more dopaminergic axon projections than midbrain culture does. Using a collection of functional measurements, we show that stem cell-derived dopamine neurons are indistinguishable from those in midbrain culture. Taking advantage of this new preparation, we simultaneously tracked the turnover of hundreds of synaptic vesicles individually using pH-sensitive quantum dots. By doing so, we revealed distinct fusion kinetics of the dopamine-secreting vesicles, which is consistent within both preparations. Significance For the use of stem cell-derived neurons in clinical applications, improved differentiation efficiency and more careful characterization of resultant cells are needed. A procedure has been refined for differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into

  4. The effect of PVDF-TrFE scaffolds on stem cell derived cardiovascular cells.

    PubMed

    Hitscherich, Pamela; Wu, Siliang; Gordan, Richard; Xie, Lai-Hua; Arinzeh, Treena; Lee, Eun Jung

    2016-07-01

    Recently, electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) scaffolds have been developed for tissue engineering applications. These materials have piezoelectric activity, wherein they can generate electric charge with minute mechanical deformations. Since the myocardium is an electroactive tissue, the unique feature of a piezoelectric scaffold is attractive for cardiovascular tissue engineering applications. In this study, we examined the cytocompatibility and function of pluripotent stem cell derived cardiovascular cells including mouse embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (mES-CM) and endothelial cells (mES-EC) on PVDF-TrFE scaffolds. MES-CM and mES-EC adhered well to PVDF-TrFE and became highly aligned along the fibers. When cultured on scaffolds, mES-CM spontaneously contracted, exhibited well-registered sarcomeres and expressed classic cardiac specific markers such as myosin heavy chain, cardiac troponin T, and connexin43. Moreover, mES-CM cultured on PVDF-TrFE scaffolds responded to exogenous electrical pacing and exhibited intracellular calcium handling behavior similar to that of mES-CM cultured in 2D. Similar to cardiomyocytes, mES-EC also demonstrated high viability and maintained a mature phenotype through uptake of low-density lipoprotein and expression of classic endothelial cell markers including platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and the arterial specific marker, Notch-1. This study demonstrates the feasibility of PVDF-TrFE scaffold as a candidate material for developing engineered cardiovascular tissues utilizing stem cell-derived cells. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1577-1585. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26705272

  5. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Podocytes Mature into Vascularized Glomeruli upon Experimental Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sharmin, Sazia; Taguchi, Atsuhiro; Kaku, Yusuke; Yoshimura, Yasuhiro; Ohmori, Tomoko; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Mukoyama, Masashi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kurihara, Hidetake; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi

    2016-06-01

    Glomerular podocytes express proteins, such as nephrin, that constitute the slit diaphragm, thereby contributing to the filtration process in the kidney. Glomerular development has been analyzed mainly in mice, whereas analysis of human kidney development has been minimal because of limited access to embryonic kidneys. We previously reported the induction of three-dimensional primordial glomeruli from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Here, using transcription activator-like effector nuclease-mediated homologous recombination, we generated human iPS cell lines that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the NPHS1 locus, which encodes nephrin, and we show that GFP expression facilitated accurate visualization of nephrin-positive podocyte formation in vitro These induced human podocytes exhibited apicobasal polarity, with nephrin proteins accumulated close to the basal domain, and possessed primary processes that were connected with slit diaphragm-like structures. Microarray analysis of sorted iPS cell-derived podocytes identified well conserved marker gene expression previously shown in mouse and human podocytes in vivo Furthermore, we developed a novel transplantation method using spacers that release the tension of host kidney capsules, thereby allowing the effective formation of glomeruli from human iPS cell-derived nephron progenitors. The human glomeruli were vascularized with the host mouse endothelial cells, and iPS cell-derived podocytes with numerous cell processes accumulated around the fenestrated endothelial cells. Therefore, the podocytes generated from iPS cells retain the podocyte-specific molecular and structural features, which will be useful for dissecting human glomerular development and diseases. PMID:26586691

  6. Hepatic Cells Derived from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells of Pigtail Macaques Support Hepatitis C Virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Sourisseau, Marion; Goldman, Orit; He, Wenqian; Gori, Jennifer L.; Kiem, Hans-Peter; Gouon-Evans, Valerie; Evans, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    The narrow species tropism of hepatitis C virus (HCV) limits animal studies. We found that pigtail macaque (Macaca nemestrina) hepatic cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells support the entire HCV life cycle, although infection efficiency was limited by defects in the HCV cell entry process. This block was overcome by either increasing occludin expression, complementing the cells with human CD81, or infecting them with a strain of HCV with less-restricted requirements for CD81. Using this system, we can modify viral and host cell genetics to make pigtail macaques a suitable, clinically relevant model for the study of HCV infection. PMID:23891978

  7. Drug-loaded nanoparticles induce gene expression in human pluripotent stem cell derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajbhiye, Virendra; Escalante, Leah; Chen, Guojun; Laperle, Alex; Zheng, Qifeng; Steyer, Benjamin; Gong, Shaoqin; Saha, Krishanu

    2013-12-01

    Tissue engineering and advanced manufacturing of human stem cells requires a suite of tools to control gene expression spatiotemporally in culture. Inducible gene expression systems offer cell-extrinsic control, typically through addition of small molecules, but small molecule inducers typically contain few functional groups for further chemical modification. Doxycycline (DXC), a potent small molecule inducer of tetracycline (Tet) transgene systems, was conjugated to a hyperbranched dendritic polymer (Boltorn H40) and subsequently reacted with polyethylene glycol (PEG). The resulting PEG-H40-DXC nanoparticle exhibited pH-sensitive drug release behavior and successfully controlled gene expression in stem-cell-derived fibroblasts with a Tet-On system. While free DXC inhibited fibroblast proliferation and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, PEG-H40-DXC nanoparticles maintained higher fibroblast proliferation levels and MMP activity. The results demonstrate that the PEG-H40-DXC nanoparticle system provides an effective tool to controlling gene expression in human stem cell derivatives.Tissue engineering and advanced manufacturing of human stem cells requires a suite of tools to control gene expression spatiotemporally in culture. Inducible gene expression systems offer cell-extrinsic control, typically through addition of small molecules, but small molecule inducers typically contain few functional groups for further chemical modification. Doxycycline (DXC), a potent small molecule inducer of tetracycline (Tet) transgene systems, was conjugated to a hyperbranched dendritic polymer (Boltorn H40) and subsequently reacted with polyethylene glycol (PEG). The resulting PEG-H40-DXC nanoparticle exhibited pH-sensitive drug release behavior and successfully controlled gene expression in stem-cell-derived fibroblasts with a Tet-On system. While free DXC inhibited fibroblast proliferation and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, PEG-H40-DXC nanoparticles maintained

  8. Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Seeding on Calcium Phosphate Cement-Chitosan-RGD Scaffold for Bone Repair

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenchuan; Zhou, Hongzhi; Weir, Michael D.; Tang, Minghui

    2013-01-01

    Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) has in situ-setting ability and excellent osteoconductivity. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are exciting for regenerative medicine due to their strong proliferative ability and multilineage differentiation capability. However, there has been no report on hESC seeding with CPC. The objectives of this study were to obtain hESC-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hESCd-MSCs), and to investigate hESCd-MSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation on novel CPC with chitosan immobilized with RGD (CPC-chitosan-RGD). RGD was covalently bonded with chitosan, which was then incorporated into CPC. The CPC-chitosan-RGD scaffold had higher strength and toughness than CPC-chitosan control without RGD (p<0.05). hESCs were cultured to form embryoid bodies (EBs), and the MSCs were then migrated out of the EBs. Flow cytometry indicated that the hESCd-MSCs expressed typical surface antigen profile of MSCs. hESCd-MSCs had good viability when seeded on CPC scaffolds. The percentage of live cells and the cell density were significantly higher on CPC-chitosan-RGD than CPC-chitosan control. Scanning electron microscope examination showed hESCd-MSCs with a healthy spreading morphology adherent to CPC. hESCd-MSCs expressed high levels of osteogenic markers, including alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, collagen I, and Runx2. The mineral synthesis by the hESCd-MSCs on the CPC-chitosan-RGD scaffold was twice that for CPC-chitosan control. In conclusion, hESCs were successfully seeded on CPC scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. The hESCd-MSCs had good viability and osteogenic differentiation on the novel CPC-chitosan-RGD scaffold. RGD incorporation improved the strength and toughness of CPC, and greatly enhanced the hESCd-MSC attachment, proliferation, and bone mineral synthesis. Therefore, the hESCd-MSC-seeded CPC-chitosan-RGD construct is promising to improve bone regeneration in orthopedic and craniofacial applications. PMID:23092172

  9. The case for induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes in pharmacological screening

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Jaffar M; Lyon, Alexander R; Harding, Sian E

    2013-01-01

    The current drug screening models are deficient, particularly in detecting cardiac side effects. Human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes could aid both early cardiotoxicity detection and novel drug discovery. Work over the last decade has generated human embryonic stem cells as potentially accurate sources of human cardiomyocytes, but ethical constraints and poor efficacy in establishing cell lines limit their use. Induced pluripotent stem cells do not require the use of human embryos and have the added advantage of producing patient-specific cardiomyocytes, allowing both generic and disease- and patient-specific pharmacological screening, as well as drug development through disease modelling. A critical question is whether sufficient standards have been achieved in the reliable and reproducible generation of ‘adult-like’ cardiomyocytes from human fibroblast tissue to progress from validation to safe use in practice and drug discovery. This review will highlight the need for a new experimental system, assess the validity of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and explore what the future may hold for their use in pharmacology. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Regenerative Medicine and Pharmacology: A Look to the Future. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.169.issue-2 PMID:22845396

  10. Glial cell derived neurotrophic factor induces spermatogonial stem cell marker genes in chicken mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Boozarpour, Sohrab; Matin, Maryam M; Momeni-Moghaddam, Madjid; Dehghani, Hesam; Mahdavi-Shahri, Naser; Sisakhtnezhad, Sajjad; Heirani-Tabasi, Asieh; Irfan-Maqsood, Muhammad; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza

    2016-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known with the potential of multi-lineage differentiation. Advances in differentiation technology have also resulted in the conversion of MSCs to other kinds of stem cells. MSCs are considered as a suitable source of cells for biotechnology purposes because they are abundant, easily accessible and well characterized cells. Nowadays small molecules are introduced as novel and efficient factors to differentiate stem cells. In this work, we examined the potential of glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) for differentiating chicken MSCs toward spermatogonial stem cells. MSCs were isolated and characterized from chicken and cultured under treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (RA) or glial cell derived neurotrophic factor. Expression analysis of specific genes after 7days of RA treatment, as examined by RT-PCR, proved positive for some germ cell markers such as CVH, STRA8, PLZF and some genes involved in spermatogonial stem cell maintenance like BCL6b and c-KIT. On the other hand, GDNF could additionally induce expression of POU5F1, and NANOG as well as other genes which were induced after RA treatment. These data illustrated that GDNF is relatively more effective in diverting chicken MSCs towards Spermatogonial stem cell -like cells in chickens and suggests GDNF as a new agent to obtain transgenic poultry, nevertheless, exploitability of these cells should be verified by more experiments. PMID:27026484

  11. Generation of stem cell-derived β-cells from patients with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Millman, Jeffrey R; Xie, Chunhui; Van Dervort, Alana; Gürtler, Mads; Pagliuca, Felicia W; Melton, Douglas A

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported the scalable in vitro production of functional stem cell-derived β-cells (SC-β cells). Here we extend this approach to generate the first SC-β cells from type 1 diabetic patients (T1D). β-cells are destroyed during T1D disease progression, making it difficult to extensively study them in the past. These T1D SC-β cells express β-cell markers, respond to glucose both in vitro and in vivo, prevent alloxan-induced diabetes in mice and respond to anti-diabetic drugs. Furthermore, we use an in vitro disease model to demonstrate the cells respond to different forms of β-cell stress. Using these assays, we find no major differences in T1D SC-β cells compared with SC-β cells derived from non-diabetic patients. These results show that T1D SC-β cells could potentially be used for the treatment of diabetes, drug screening and the study of β-cell biology. PMID:27163171

  12. Functional Properties of Human Stem Cell-Derived Neurons in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Weick, Jason P.

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell-derived neurons from various source materials present unique model systems to examine the fundamental properties of central nervous system (CNS) development as well as the molecular underpinnings of disease phenotypes. In order to more accurately assess potential therapies for neurological disorders, multiple strategies have been employed in recent years to produce neuronal populations that accurately represent in vivo regional and transmitter phenotypes. These include new technologies such as direct conversion of somatic cell types into neurons and glia which may accelerate maturation and retain genetic hallmarks of aging. In addition, novel forms of genetic manipulations have brought human stem cells nearly on par with those of rodent with respect to gene targeting. For neurons of the CNS, the ultimate phenotypic characterization lies with their ability to recapitulate functional properties such as passive and active membrane characteristics, synaptic activity, and plasticity. These features critically depend on the coordinated expression and localization of hundreds of ion channels and receptors, as well as scaffolding and signaling molecules. In this review I will highlight the current state of knowledge regarding functional properties of human stem cell-derived neurons, with a primary focus on pluripotent stem cells. While significant advances have been made, critical hurdles must be overcome in order for this technology to support progression toward clinical applications. PMID:27274733

  13. Functions of Müller cell-derived vascular endothelial growth factor in diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan-Juan; Zhu, Meili; Le, Yun-Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Müller cells are macroglia and play many essential roles as supporting cells in the retina. To respond to pathological changes in diabetic retinopathy (DR), a major complication in the eye of diabetic patients, retinal Müller glia produce a high level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF or VEGF-A). As VEGF is expressed by multiple retinal cell-types and Müller glia comprise only a small portion of cells in the retina, it has been a great challenge to reveal the function of VEGF or other globally expressed proteins produced by Müller cells. With the development of conditional gene targeting tools, it is now possible to dissect the function of Müller cell-derived VEGF in vivo. By using conditional gene targeting approach, we demonstrate that Müller glia are a major source of retinal VEGF in diabetic mice and Müller cell-derived VEGF plays a significant role in the alteration of protein expression and peroxynitration, which leads to retinal inflammation, neovascularization, vascular leakage, and vascular lesion, key pathological changes in DR. Therefore, Müller glia are a potential cellular target for the treatment of DR, a leading cause of blindness. PMID:26069721

  14. Possible roles of mast cell-derived chymase for skin rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Amano, Nobuyuki; Takai, Shinji; Jin, Denan; Ueda, Koichi; Miyazaki, Mizuo

    2009-03-01

    The relationships between mast cell-derived chymase, angiotensin II, and extracellular matrix production in the skin after intense pulsed light (IPL) were clarified in hamsters. Dorsal areas of the hamsters were irradiated once or twice a week by IPL. The index of extracellular matrix production in the skin was defined as the depth stained with Azan-Mallory stain from the epidermis to the dermis at the point of maximum thickness. The index had significantly increased 7 days after IPL irradiation in sections treated once or twice with IPL compared with that of untreated control sections. The numbers of mast cells, chymase-positive cells, and angiotensin II-positive cells had also significantly increased in IPL-irradiated areas. Significant increases in chymase and angiotensin II activities were observed in the extracts obtained from IPL-irradiated skin. Mast cell-derived chymase may be involved via angiotensin II formation in the dermal extracellular matrix production that occurs after IPL irradiation. PMID:18408985

  15. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cell therapies for spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Lee-Kubli, Corinne A; Lu, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The greatest challenge to successful treatment of spinal cord injury is the limited regenerative capacity of the central nervous system and its inability to replace lost neurons and severed axons following injury. Neural stem cell grafts derived from fetal central nervous system tissue or embryonic stem cells have shown therapeutic promise by differentiation into neurons and glia that have the potential to form functional neuronal relays across injured spinal cord segments. However, implementation of fetal-derived or embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem cell therapies for patients with spinal cord injury raises ethical concerns. Induced pluripotent stem cells can be generated from adult somatic cells and differentiated into neural stem cells suitable for therapeutic use, thereby providing an ethical source of implantable cells that can be made in an autologous fashion to avoid problems of immune rejection. This review discusses the therapeutic potential of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cell transplantation for treatment of spinal cord injury, as well as addressing potential mechanisms, future perspectives and challenges. PMID:25788906

  16. In-vitro stem cell derived red blood cells for transfusion: are we there yet?

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Ok

    2014-03-01

    To date, the use of red blood cells (RBCs) produced from stem cells in vitro has not proved practical for routine transfusion. However, the perpetual and widespread shortage of blood products, problems related to transfusion-transmitted infections, and new emerging pathogens elicit an increasing demand for artificial blood. Worldwide efforts to achieve the goal of RBC production through stem cell research have received vast attention; however, problems with large-scale production and cost effectiveness have yet to prove practical usefulness. Some progress has been made, though, as cord blood stem cells and embryonic stem cells have shown an ability to differentiate and proliferate, and induced pluripotent stem cells have been shown to be an unlimited source for RBC production. However, transfusion of stem cell-derived RBCs still presents a number of challenges to overcome. This paper will summarize an up to date account of research and advances in stem cell-derived RBCs, delineate our laboratory protocol in producing RBCs from cord blood, and introduce the technological developments and limitations to current RBC production practices. PMID:24532496

  17. Generation of stem cell-derived β-cells from patients with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Millman, Jeffrey R.; Xie, Chunhui; Van Dervort, Alana; Gürtler, Mads; Pagliuca, Felicia W.; Melton, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported the scalable in vitro production of functional stem cell-derived β-cells (SC-β cells). Here we extend this approach to generate the first SC-β cells from type 1 diabetic patients (T1D). β-cells are destroyed during T1D disease progression, making it difficult to extensively study them in the past. These T1D SC-β cells express β-cell markers, respond to glucose both in vitro and in vivo, prevent alloxan-induced diabetes in mice and respond to anti-diabetic drugs. Furthermore, we use an in vitro disease model to demonstrate the cells respond to different forms of β-cell stress. Using these assays, we find no major differences in T1D SC-β cells compared with SC-β cells derived from non-diabetic patients. These results show that T1D SC-β cells could potentially be used for the treatment of diabetes, drug screening and the study of β-cell biology. PMID:27163171

  18. In-Vitro Stem Cell Derived Red Blood Cells for Transfusion: Are We There Yet?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To date, the use of red blood cells (RBCs) produced from stem cells in vitro has not proved practical for routine transfusion. However, the perpetual and widespread shortage of blood products, problems related to transfusion-transmitted infections, and new emerging pathogens elicit an increasing demand for artificial blood. Worldwide efforts to achieve the goal of RBC production through stem cell research have received vast attention; however, problems with large-scale production and cost effectiveness have yet to prove practical usefulness. Some progress has been made, though, as cord blood stem cells and embryonic stem cells have shown an ability to differentiate and proliferate, and induced pluripotent stem cells have been shown to be an unlimited source for RBC production. However, transfusion of stem cell-derived RBCs still presents a number of challenges to overcome. This paper will summarize an up to date account of research and advances in stem cell-derived RBCs, delineate our laboratory protocol in producing RBCs from cord blood, and introduce the technological developments and limitations to current RBC production practices. PMID:24532496

  19. Gene expression profiling in multipotent DFAT cells derived from mature adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Hiromasa; Oki, Yoshinao; Bono, Hidemasa; Kano, Koichiro

    2011-04-15

    Highlights: {yields} Adipocyte dedifferentiation is evident in a significant decrease in typical genes. {yields} Cell proliferation is strongly related to adipocyte dedifferentiation. {yields} Dedifferentiated adipocytes express several lineage-specific genes. {yields} Comparative analyses using publicly available datasets boost the interpretation. -- Abstract: Cellular dedifferentiation signifies the withdrawal of cells from a specific differentiated state to a stem cell-like undifferentiated state. However, the mechanism of dedifferentiation remains obscure. Here we performed comparative transcriptome analyses during dedifferentiation in mature adipocytes (MAs) to identify the transcriptional signatures of multipotent dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells derived from MAs. Using microarray systems, we explored similarly expressed as well as significantly differentially expressed genes in MAs during dedifferentiation. This analysis revealed significant changes in gene expression during this process, including a significant reduction in expression of genes for lipid metabolism concomitantly with a significant increase in expression of genes for cell movement, cell migration, tissue developmental processes, cell growth, cell proliferation, cell morphogenesis, altered cell shape, and cell differentiation. Our observations indicate that the transcriptional signatures of DFAT cells derived from MAs are summarized in terms of a significant decrease in functional phenotype-related genes and a parallel increase in cell proliferation, altered cell morphology, and regulation of the differentiation of related genes. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in dedifferentiation may enable scientists to control and possibly alter the plasticity of the differentiated state, which may lead to benefits not only in stem cell research but also in regenerative medicine.

  20. Data on importance of hematopoietic cell derived Lipocalin 2 against gut inflammation.

    PubMed

    Saha, Piu; Singh, Vishal; Xiao, Xia; Yeoh, Beng San; Vijay-Kumar, Matam

    2016-09-01

    The data herein is related to the research article entitled "Microbiota-inducible innate immune siderophore binding protein Lipocalin 2 is critical for intestinal homeostasis" (Singh et al., 2016) [1]. In the present article, we monitored dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis development upon Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) neutralization, and examined the survival of Lcn2 deficient (Lcn2KO) mice and their WT littermates upon DSS challenge. To dissect the relative contribution of immune and non-immune cells-derived Lcn2 in mediating protection against gut inflammation, we generated respective bone marrow chimera and evaluated their susceptibility to IL-10 receptor neutralization-induced chronic colitis. Neutralization of Lcn2 in WT mice resulted in exacerbated DSS-induced colitis. Notably, mice lacking Lcn2 exhibited 100% mortality whereas only 20% mortality was observed in WT mice upon DSS challenge. Further, data from bone marrow chimera showed that immune cell-derived Lcn2 is the major contributor in conferring protection against colitis. PMID:27500193

  1. Decellularized Tissue and Cell-Derived Extracellular Matrices as Scaffolds for Orthopaedic Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Christina W.; Solorio, Loran D.; Alsberg, Eben

    2014-01-01

    The reconstruction of musculoskeletal defects is a constant challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. Musculoskeletal injuries such as fractures, chondral lesions, infections and tumor debulking can often lead to large tissue voids requiring reconstruction with tissue grafts. Autografts are currently the gold standard in orthopaedic tissue reconstruction; however, there is a limit to the amount of tissue that can be harvested before compromising the donor site. Tissue engineering strategies using allogeneic or xenogeneic decellularized bone, cartilage, skeletal muscle, tendon and ligament have emerged as promising potential alternative treatment. The extracellular matrix provides a natural scaffold for cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation. Decellularization of in vitro cell-derived matrices can also enable the generation of autologous constructs from tissue specific cells or progenitor cells. Although decellularized bone tissue is widely used clinically in orthopaedic applications, the exciting potential of decellularized cartilage, skeletal muscle, tendon and ligament cell-derived matrices has only recently begun to be explored for ultimate translation to the orthopaedic clinic. PMID:24417915

  2. Apoptosis induced by the Tibetan herbal remedy PADMA 28 in the T cell-derived lymphocytic leukaemia cell line CEM-C7H2

    PubMed Central

    Jenny, Marcel; Schwaiger, Wolfgang; Bernhard, David; Wrulich, Oliver A; Cosaceanu, Daria; Fuchs, Dietmar; Ueberall, Florian

    2005-01-01

    The Tibetan herbal remedy PADMA 28 revealed promising results to support treatment of atherosclerosis, Charot syndrome (intermittent claudication), chronic active hepatitis and infection of the respiratory tract. The remedy was confirmed to be closely linked with anti- and pro-oxidative properties in vitro. In this study, apoptogenic and survival effects of PADMA 28 were investigated in the T cell-derived lymphocytic leukaemia cell line CEM-C7H2. PADMA 28 led to a concentration-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation accompanied by the accumulation of CEM-C7H2 cells in subG1 phase, fragmentation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and nuclear body formation. Treatment with PADMA 28 rescued to some extent cells over-expressing Bcl-2 from apoptosis. This finding suggests that the mechanism of action of PADMA 28 may be via interference with Bcl-2 triggered survival pathways. PMID:16138918

  3. Lower Oncogenic Potential of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Cord Blood Compared to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Foroutan, T.; Najmi, M.; Kazemi, N.; Hasanlou, M.; Pedram, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In regenerative medicine, use of each of the mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow, cord blood, and adipose tissue, has several cons and pros. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from cord blood have been considered the best source for precursor transplantation. Direct reprogramming of a somatic cell into induced pluripotent stem cells by over-expression of 6 transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, lin28, Nanog, and c-Myc has great potential for regenerative medicine, eliminating the ethical issues of embryonic stem cells and the rejection problems of using non-autologous cells. Objective: To compare reprogramming and pluripotent markers OCT4, Sox-2, c-Myc, Klf4, Nanog, and lin28 in mesenchymal stem cells derived from cord blood and induced pluripotent stem cells. Methods: We analyzed the expression level of OCT4, Sox-2, c-Myc, Klf4, Nanog and lin28 genes in human mesenchymal stem cells derived from cord blood and induced pluripotent stem cells by cell culture and RT-PCR. Results: The expression level of pluripotent genes OCT4 and Sox-2, Nanog and lin28 in mesenchymal stem cells derived from cord blood were significantly higher than those in induced pluripotent stem cells. In contrast to OCT-4A and Sox-2, Nanog and lin28, the expression level of oncogenic factors c-Myc and Klf4 were significantly higher in induced pluripotent stem cells than in mesenchymal stem cells derived from cord blood. Conclusion: It could be concluded that mesenchymal stem cells derived from human cord blood have lower oncogenic potential compared to induced pluripotent stem cells. PMID:26306155

  4. The phenotype and tissue-specific nature of multipotent cells derived from human mature adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kou, Liang; Lu, Xiao-Wen; Wu, Min-Ke; Wang, Hang; Zhang, Yu-Jiao; Sato, Soh; Shen, Jie-Fei

    2014-02-21

    Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells derived from mature adipocytes have been considered to be a homogeneous group of multipotent cells, which present to be an alternative source of adult stem cells for regenerative medicine. However, many aspects of the cellular nature about DFAT cells remained unclarified. This study aimed to elucidate the basic characteristics of DFAT cells underlying their functions and differentiation potentials. By modified ceiling culture technique, DFAT cells were converted from human mature adipocytes from the human buccal fat pads. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that those derived cells were a homogeneous population of CD13(+) CD29(+) CD105(+) CD44(+) CD31(-) CD34(-) CD309(-) α-SMA(-) cells. DFAT cells in this study demonstrated tissue-specific differentiation properties with strong adipogenic but much weaker osteogenic capacity. Neither did they express endothelial markers under angiogenic induction. PMID:24486314

  5. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Afford New Opportunities in Inherited Cardiovascular Disease Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Bayzigitov, Daniel R.; Medvedev, Sergey P.; Dementyeva, Elena V.; Bayramova, Sevda A.; Pokushalov, Evgeny A.; Karaskov, Alexander M.; Zakian, Suren M.

    2016-01-01

    Fundamental studies of molecular and cellular mechanisms of cardiovascular disease pathogenesis are required to create more effective and safer methods of their therapy. The studies can be carried out only when model systems that fully recapitulate pathological phenotype seen in patients are used. Application of laboratory animals for cardiovascular disease modeling is limited because of physiological differences with humans. Since discovery of induced pluripotency generating induced pluripotent stem cells has become a breakthrough technology in human disease modeling. In this review, we discuss a progress that has been made in modeling inherited arrhythmias and cardiomyopathies, studying molecular mechanisms of the diseases, and searching for and testing drug compounds using patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. PMID:27110425

  6. Reversing drug resistance of soft tumor-repopulating cells by tumor cell-derived chemotherapeutic microparticles.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingwei; Zhang, Yi; Tang, Ke; Zhang, Huafeng; Yin, Xiaonan; Li, Yong; Xu, Pingwei; Sun, Yanling; Ma, Ruihua; Ji, Tiantian; Chen, Junwei; Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Tianzhen; Luo, Shunqun; Jin, Yang; Luo, Xiuli; Li, Chengyin; Gong, Hongwei; Long, Zhixiong; Lu, Jinzhi; Hu, Zhuowei; Cao, Xuetao; Wang, Ning; Yang, Xiangliang; Huang, Bo

    2016-06-01

    Developing novel approaches to reverse the drug resistance of tumor-repopulating cells (TRCs) or stem cell-like cancer cells is an urgent clinical need to improve outcomes of cancer patients. Here we show an innovative approach that reverses drug resistance of TRCs using tumor cell-derived microparticles (T-MPs) containing anti-tumor drugs. TRCs, by virtue of being more deformable than differentiated cancer cells, preferentially take up T-MPs that release anti-tumor drugs after entering cells, which in turn lead to death of TRCs. The underlying mechanisms include interfering with drug efflux and promoting nuclear entry of the drugs. Our findings demonstrate the importance of tumor cell softness in uptake of T-MPs and effectiveness of a novel approach in reversing drug resistance of TRCs with promising clinical applications. PMID:27167569

  7. Stimulation of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes on thin-film microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Viitanen, Jouko; Heimala, Päivi; Hokkanen, Ari; Iljin, Kristiina; Kerkelä, Erja; Kolari, Kai; Kattelus, Hannu

    2011-05-01

    We describe successful long-term stimulation of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte clusters on thin-film microelectrode structures in vitro. Interdigitated electrode structures were constructed using plain titanium on glass as the electrode material. Titanium rapidly oxidizes in atmospheric conditions to produce an insulating TiO(χ) layer with high relative permittivity. Capacitive coupling to the incubation medium and to the cells adherent to the electrodes was still efficient, and the dielectric layer prevented electrolysis, allowing a wider window of possible stimulation amplitudes to be used, relative to conducting surfaces. A common hypothesis suggests that to achieve proper differentiation of electroactive cells from the stem cells electrical stimuli are also needed. Spontaneously beating cardiomyocyte clusters were seeded on the glass-electrode surfaces, and we successfully altered and resynchronized a clearly different beat interval. The new pace was reliably maintained for extended periods of several tens of minutes. PMID:21416608

  8. Dendritic cell-derived exosomes as immunotherapies in the fight against cancer.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Jonathan M; Charrier, Mélinda; Viaud, Sophie; André, Fabrice; Besse, Benjamin; Chaput, Nathalie; Zitvogel, Laurence

    2014-08-01

    Exosomes are nanometric membrane vesicles of late endosomal origin released by most, if not all, cell types as a means of sophisticated intercellular communication. A multitude of studies showed how exosomes can mediate and regulate immune responses against tumors. Dendritic cell-derived exosomes (Dex) have received much attention as immunotherapeutic anticancer agents since the discovery that they harbor functional MHC-peptide complexes, in addition to various other immune-stimulating components, that together facilitate immune cell-dependent tumor rejection. The therapeutic potential of Dex has been substantiated with their development and clinical testing in the treatment of cancer. This review focuses on mechanisms by which Dex interact with and influence immune cells and describes how they can be engineered to promote their immunogenic capacity as novel and dynamic anticancer agents. PMID:25049431

  9. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes: boutique science or valuable arrhythmia model?

    PubMed

    Knollmann, Björn C

    2013-03-15

    This article reviews the strengths and limitations of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CM) as models of cardiac arrhythmias. Specifically, the article attempts to answer the following questions: Which clinical arrhythmias can be modeled by iPSC-CM? How well can iPSC-CM model adult ventricular myocytes? What are the strengths and limitations of published iPSC-CM arrhythmia models? What new mechanistic insight has been gained? What is the evidence that would support using iPSC-CM to personalize antiarrhythmic drug therapy? The review also discusses the pros and cons of using the iPSC-CM technology for modeling specific genetic arrhythmia disorders, such as long QT syndrome, Brugada Syndrome, or Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia. PMID:23569106

  10. PDX1-engineered embryonic stem cell-derived insulin producing cells regulate hyperglycemia in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Type 1 diabetes can be treated by the transplantation of cadaveric whole pancreata or isolated pancreatic islets. However, this form of treatment is hampered by the chronic shortage of cadaveric donors. Embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived insulin producing cells (IPCs) offer a potentially novel source of unlimited cells for transplantation to treat type 1 and possibly type 2 diabetes. However, thus far, the lack of a reliable protocol for efficient differentiation of ES cells into IPCs has hindered the clinical exploitation of these cells. Methods To efficiently generate IPCs using ES cells, we have developed a double transgenic ES cell line R1Pdx1AcGFP/RIP-Luc that constitutively expresses pancreatic β-cell-specific transcription factor pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene 1 (Pdx1) as well as rat insulin promoter (RIP) driven luciferase reporter. We have established several protocols for the reproducible differentiation of ES cells into IPCs. The differentiation of ES cells into IPCs was monitored by immunostaining as well as real-time quantitative RT-PCR for pancreatic β-cell-specific markers. Pancreatic β-cell specific RIP became transcriptionally active following the differentiation of ES cells into IPCs and induced the expression of the luciferase reporter. Glucose stimulated insulin secretion by the ES cell-derived IPCs was measured by ELISA. Further, we have investigated the therapeutic efficacy of ES cell-derived IPCs to correct hyperglycemia in syngeneic streptozotocin (STZ)-treated diabetic mice. The long term fate of the transplanted IPCs co-expressing luciferase in syngeneic STZ-induced diabetic mice was monitored by real time noninvasive in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Results We have recently demonstrated that spontaneous in vivo differentiation of R1Pdx1AcGFP/RIP-Luc ES cell-derived pancreatic endoderm-like cells (PELCs) into IPCs corrects hyperglycemia in diabetic mice. Here, we investigated whether R1Pdx1AcGFP/RIP-Luc ES cells

  11. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived fiber-shaped cardiac tissue on a chip.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Y; Mori, S; Sakai, F; Takeuchi, S

    2016-06-21

    We propose a method for the production of a fiber-shaped three-dimensional (3D) cellular construct of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs) for the quantification of the contractile force. By culturing the cardiomyocytes in a patterned hydrogel structure with fixed edges, we succeeded in fabricating hiPS-CM fibers with aligned cardiomyocytes. The fiber generated contractile force along the fiber direction due to the hiPS-CM alignment, and we were able to measure its contractile force accurately. Furthermore, to demonstrate the drug reactivity of hiPS-CM fibers, the changes in the contractile frequency and force following treatment with isoproterenol and propranolol were observed. We believe that hiPS-CM fibers will be a useful tool for pharmacokinetic analyses during drug development. PMID:27217209

  12. In vitro production of functional immune cells derived from human hematopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Payuhakrit, Witchuda; Panichakul, Tasanee; Charoenphon, Natthawut; Chalermsaenyakorn, Panus; Jaovisidha, Adithep; Wongborisuth, Chokdee; Udomsangpetch, Rachanee

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) from cord blood are potentially high sources for transplantation due to their low immunogenicity and the presence of the multipotent cells. These cells are capable of differentiating to produce various lineages of blood cells under specific conditions. We have enriched highly purified CD34+ cells from cord blood, determined in vitro growth of the cells in culture systems in the absence (condition A) or presence of GM-CSF and G-CSF (condition B), and determined the profile of immune cells during the period of cultivation by using flow cytometry. PhytohemagglutininA (PHA) was used as a mitogen to stimulate T lymphocytes derived from hematopoietic stem cells. GM-CSF and G-CSF prolonged the survival of the growing cells and also maintained expansion of cells in blastic stage. By day 12 of cultivation, when cell numbers peaked, various types of immune cells had appeared (CD14+ cells, CD40+HLA-DR+ cells, CD3+CD56+ cells, CD19+ cells, CD3+CD4+ cells, CD3+CD8+cells and CD3-CD56+). A significantly higher percentage of monocytes (p = 0.002) were observed under culture with GM-CSF, G-CSF when compared with culture without GM-CSF, G-CSF. In addition, T lymphocytes derived from HSC responded to 50 µg/ml of PHA. This is the first report showing the complete differentiation and proliferation of immune cells derived from CD34+ HSC under in vitro culture conditions. Lymphocytes, monocytes, dendritic cells and polymorph nuclear cells derived from HSC in vitro are unique, and thus may benefit various studies such as innate immunity and pathophysiology of immune disorders. PMID:26933404

  13. MicroRNA and Protein Profiling of Brain Metastasis Competent Cell-Derived Exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Laura; Guerrero, Paola; Marchetti, Dario

    2013-01-01

    Exosomes are small membrane vesicles released by most cell types including tumor cells. The intercellular exchange of proteins and genetic material via exosomes is a potentially effective approach for cell-to-cell communication and it may perform multiple functions aiding to tumor survival and metastasis. We investigated microRNA and protein profiles of brain metastatic (BM) versus non-brain metastatic (non-BM) cell-derived exosomes. We studied the cargo of exosomes isolated from brain-tropic 70W, MDA-MB-231BR, and circulating tumor cell brain metastasis-selected markers (CTC1BMSM) variants, and compared them with parental non-BM MeWo, MDA-MB-231P and CTC1P cells, respectively. By performing microRNA PCR array we identified one up-regulated (miR-210) and two down-regulated miRNAs (miR-19a and miR-29c) in BM versus non-BM exosomes. Second, we analyzed the proteomic content of cells and exosomes isolated from these six cell lines, and detected high expression of proteins implicated in cell communication, cell cycle, and in key cancer invasion and metastasis pathways. Third, we show that BM cell-derived exosomes can be internalized by non-BM cells and that they effectively transport their cargo into cells, resulting in increased cell adhesive and invasive potencies. These results provide a strong rationale for additional investigations of exosomal proteins and miRNAs towards more profound understandings of exosome roles in brain metastasis biogenesis, and for the discovery and application of non-invasive biomarkers for new therapies combating brain metastasis. PMID:24066071

  14. Suppression of Th1-Mediated Autoimmunity by Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Tokunori; Hirata, Shinya; Takamatsu, Koutaro; Haruta, Miwa; Tsukamoto, Hirotake; Ito, Takaaki; Uchino, Makoto; Ando, Yukio; Nagafuchi, Seiho; Nishimura, Yasuharu; Senju, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    We herein demonstrate the immune-regulatory effect of embryonic stem cell-derived dendritic cells (ES-DCs) using two models of autoimmune disease, namely non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Treatment of pre-diabetic NOD mice with ES-DCs exerted almost complete suppression of diabetes development during the observation period for more than 40 weeks. The prevention of diabetes by ES-DCs was accompanied with significant reduction of insulitis and decreased number of Th1 and Th17 cells in the spleen. Development of EAE was also inhibited by the treatment with ES-DCs, and the therapeutic effect was obtained even if ES-DCs were administrated after the onset of clinical symptoms. Treatment of EAE-induced mice with ES-DCs reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the spinal cord and suppressed the T cell response to the myelin antigen. Importantly, the ES-DC treatment did not affect T cell response to an exogenous antigen. As the mechanisms underlying the reduction of the number of infiltrating Th1 cells, we observed the inhibition of differentiation and proliferation of Th1 cells by ES-DCs. Furthermore, the expression of VLA-4α on Th1 cells was significantly inhibited by ES-DCs. Considering the recent advances in human induced pluripotent stem cell-related technologies, these results suggest a clinical application for pluripotent stem cell-derived dendritic cells as a therapy for T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. PMID:25522369

  15. Rapid and comprehensive 'shotgun' lipidome profiling of colorectal cancer cell derived exosomes.

    PubMed

    Lydic, Todd A; Townsend, Steven; Adda, Christopher G; Collins, Christine; Mathivanan, Suresh; Reid, Gavin E

    2015-10-01

    There is an increasing recognition of the role that cancer cell derived exosomes play in intercellular signaling upon fusion or uptake with a target cell, including immune system evasion, tumor growth and metastasis. To date, however, although exosomal membrane and cargo lipids are expected to play a pivotal role in exosome biogenesis and secretion, as well as in fusion or uptake and target cell functional response, the detailed characterization of cancer cell derived exosome lipids across a range of different cancers has not yet been broadly explored. Here, a simple and straightforward lipidome analysis strategy consisting of optimized sample extraction and novel sample derivatization techniques, coupled with high-resolution 'shotgun' mass spectrometry and 'targeted' tandem mass spectrometry methods, is demonstrated for the rapid identification of >520 individual lipids in 36 lipid classes and sub classes from exosomes secreted by the colorectal cancer cell line, LIM1215. Relative quantification and comparison of exosome versus cellular lipid profiles reveals significant enrichment of certain lipid classes, as well as substantial lipid subclass remodeling and changes in abundance of individual lipids, including sphingolipids, sterol lipids, glycerolipids and glycerophospholipids, and particularly plasmalogen- and alkyl ether-containing glycerophospholipids. This analysis strategy therefore provides a platform for comprehensive lipidome profiling across a wide range of cancer cell or tissue derived exosomes, that will facilitate subsequent functional studies aimed at elucidating the role of specific cellular or exosome lipids in the onset and progression of colorectal cancer, or to identify specific lipid(s) that could serve as effective diagnostic or prognostic disease biomarkers. PMID:25907253

  16. Effects of tacrolimus on morphology, proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from gingiva tissue

    PubMed Central

    HA, DONG-HO; YONG, CHUL SOON; KIM, JONG OH; JEONG, JEE-HEON; PARK, JUN-BEOM

    2016-01-01

    Tacrolimus is a 23-membered macrolide lactone with potent immunosuppressive activity that is effective in the prophylaxis of organ rejection following kidney, heart and liver transplantation. Tacrolimus also exerts a variety of actions on bone metabolism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of tacrolimus on the morphology and viability of human stem cells derived from the gingiva. Gingival-derived stem cells were grown in the presence of tacrolimus at final concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 100 µg/ml. The morphology of the cells was viewed under an inverted microscope and the cell viability was analyzed using Cell Counting kit-8 (CCK-8) on days 1, 3, 5 and 7. Alizarin Red S staining was used to assess mineralization of treated cells. The control group showed spindle-shaped, fibroblast-like morphology and the shapes of the cells in 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 µg/ml tacrolimus were similar to those of the control group. All groups except the 100 µg/ml group showed increased cell proliferation over time. Cultures grown in the presence of tacrolimus at 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 µg/ml were not identified to be significantly different compared with the control at days 1, 3 and 5 using the CCK-8 assays. Increased mineralized deposits were noted with increased incubation time. Treatment with tacrolimus from 0.001 to 1 µg/ml led to an increase in mineralization compared with the control group. Within the limits of this study, tacrolimus at the tested concentrations (ranging from 0.001 to 10 µg/ml) did not result in differences in the viability of stem cells derived from gingiva; however it did enhance osteogenic differentiation of the stem cells. PMID:27177273

  17. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Progenitors Differentiate to Cardiomyocytes and Form Biosynthetic Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Syandan; Chellapan, Malathi; Bursac, Nenad; Leong, Kam W.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian heart has little capacity to regenerate, and following injury the myocardium is replaced by non-contractile scar tissue. Consequently, increased wall stress and workload on the remaining myocardium leads to chamber dilation, dysfunction, and heart failure. Cell-based therapy with an autologous, epigenetically reprogrammed, and cardiac-committed progenitor cell source could potentially reverse this process by replacing the damaged myocardium with functional tissue. However, it is unclear whether cardiac progenitor cell-derived cardiomyocytes are capable of attaining levels of structural and functional maturity comparable to that of terminally-fated cardiomyocytes. Here, we first describe the derivation of mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, which once differentiated allow for the enrichment of Nkx2-5(+) cardiac progenitors, and the cardiomyocyte-specific expression of the red fluorescent protein. We show that the cardiac progenitors are multipotent and capable of differentiating into endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes. Moreover, cardiac progenitor selection corresponds to cKit(+) cell enrichment, while cardiomyocyte cell-lineage commitment is concomitant with dual expression of either cKit/Flk1 or cKit/Sca-1. We proceed to show that the cardiac progenitor-derived cardiomyocytes are capable of forming electrically and mechanically coupled large-scale 2D cell cultures with mature electrophysiological properties. Finally, we examine the cell progenitors’ ability to form electromechanically coherent macroscopic tissues, using a physiologically relevant 3D culture model and demonstrate that following long-term culture the cardiomyocytes align, and form robust electromechanical connections throughout the volume of the biosynthetic tissue construct. We conclude that the iPS cell-derived cardiac progenitors are a robust cell source for tissue engineering applications and a 3D culture platform for pharmacological screening and

  18. In vitro and in vivo analyses of human embryonic stem cell-derived dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang-Hwan; Minn, Yang-Ki; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Dong Ho; Chang, Mi-Yoon; Shim, Jae-Won; Ko, Ji-Yun; Koh, Hyun-Chul; Kang, Min Jeong; Kang, Jin Sun; Rhie, Duck-Joo; Lee, Yong-Sung; Son, Hyeon; Moon, Shin Yong; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Lee, Sang-Hun

    2005-03-01

    Human embryonic stem (hES) cells, due to their capacity of multipotency and self-renewal, may serve as a valuable experimental tool for human developmental biology and may provide an unlimited cell source for cell replacement therapy. The purpose of this study was to assess the developmental potential of hES cells to replace the selectively lost midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons in Parkinson's disease. Here, we report the development of an in vitro differentiation protocol to derive an enriched population of midbrain DA neurons from hES cells. Neural induction of hES cells co-cultured with stromal cells, followed by expansion of the resulting neural precursor cells, efficiently generated DA neurons with concomitant expression of transcriptional factors related to midbrain DA development, such as Pax2, En1 (Engrailed-1), Nurr1, and Lmx1b. Using our procedure, the majority of differentiated hES cells (> 95%) contained neuronal or neural precursor markers and a high percentage (> 40%) of TuJ1+ neurons was tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)+, while none of them expressed the undifferentiated ES cell marker, Oct 3/4. Furthermore, hES cell-derived DA neurons demonstrated functionality in vitro, releasing DA in response to KCl-induced depolarization and reuptake of DA. Finally, transplantation of hES-derived DA neurons into the striatum of hemi-parkinsonian rats failed to result in improvement of their behavioral deficits as determined by amphetamine-induced rotation and step-adjustment. Immunohistochemical analyses of grafted brains revealed that abundant hES-derived cells (human nuclei+ cells) survived in the grafts, but none of them were TH+. Therefore, unlike those from mouse ES cells, hES cell-derived DA neurons either do not survive or their DA phenotype is unstable when grafted into rodent brains. PMID:15715675

  19. Suppression of Th1-mediated autoimmunity by embryonic stem cell-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Tokunori; Hirata, Shinya; Takamatsu, Koutaro; Haruta, Miwa; Tsukamoto, Hirotake; Ito, Takaaki; Uchino, Makoto; Ando, Yukio; Nagafuchi, Seiho; Nishimura, Yasuharu; Senju, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    We herein demonstrate the immune-regulatory effect of embryonic stem cell-derived dendritic cells (ES-DCs) using two models of autoimmune disease, namely non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Treatment of pre-diabetic NOD mice with ES-DCs exerted almost complete suppression of diabetes development during the observation period for more than 40 weeks. The prevention of diabetes by ES-DCs was accompanied with significant reduction of insulitis and decreased number of Th1 and Th17 cells in the spleen. Development of EAE was also inhibited by the treatment with ES-DCs, and the therapeutic effect was obtained even if ES-DCs were administrated after the onset of clinical symptoms. Treatment of EAE-induced mice with ES-DCs reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the spinal cord and suppressed the T cell response to the myelin antigen. Importantly, the ES-DC treatment did not affect T cell response to an exogenous antigen. As the mechanisms underlying the reduction of the number of infiltrating Th1 cells, we observed the inhibition of differentiation and proliferation of Th1 cells by ES-DCs. Furthermore, the expression of VLA-4α on Th1 cells was significantly inhibited by ES-DCs. Considering the recent advances in human induced pluripotent stem cell-related technologies, these results suggest a clinical application for pluripotent stem cell-derived dendritic cells as a therapy for T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. PMID:25522369

  20. Effects of tacrolimus on morphology, proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from gingiva tissue.

    PubMed

    Ha, Dong-Ho; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh; Jeong, Jee-Heon; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-07-01

    Tacrolimus is a 23-membered macrolide lactone with potent immunosuppressive activity that is effective in the prophylaxis of organ rejection following kidney, heart and liver transplantation. Tacrolimus also exerts a variety of actions on bone metabolism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of tacrolimus on the morphology and viability of human stem cells derived from the gingiva. Gingival‑derived stem cells were grown in the presence of tacrolimus at final concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 100 µg/ml. The morphology of the cells was viewed under an inverted microscope and the cell viability was analyzed using Cell Counting kit‑8 (CCK‑8) on days 1, 3, 5 and 7. Alizarin Red S staining was used to assess mineralization of treated cells. The control group showed spindle‑shaped, fibroblast‑like morphology and the shapes of the cells in 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 µg/ml tacrolimus were similar to those of the control group. All groups except the 100 µg/ml group showed increased cell proliferation over time. Cultures grown in the presence of tacrolimus at 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 µg/ml were not identified to be significantly different compared with the control at days 1, 3 and 5 using the CCK‑8 assays. Increased mineralized deposits were noted with increased incubation time. Treatment with tacrolimus from 0.001 to 1 µg/ml led to an increase in mineralization compared with the control group. Within the limits of this study, tacrolimus at the tested concentrations (ranging from 0.001 to 10 µg/ml) did not result in differences in the viability of stem cells derived from gingiva; however it did enhance osteogenic differentiation of the stem cells. PMID:27177273

  1. Rapid Cellular Phenotyping of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes using a Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Voltage Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Leyton-Mange, Jordan S.; Mills, Robert W.; Macri, Vincenzo S.; Jang, Min Young; Butte, Faraz N.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Milan, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary In addition to their promise in regenerative medicine, pluripotent stem cells have proved to be faithful models of many human diseases. In particular, patient-specific stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes recapitulate key features of several life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia syndromes. For both modeling and regenerative approaches, phenotyping of stem cell-derived tissues is critical. Cellular phenotyping has largely relied upon expression of lineage markers rather than physiologic attributes. This is especially true for cardiomyocytes, in part because electrophysiological recordings are labor intensive. Likewise, most optical voltage indicators suffer from phototoxicity, which damages cells and degrades signal quality. Here we present the use of a genetically encoded fluorescent voltage indicator, ArcLight, which we demonstrate can faithfully report transmembrane potentials in human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. We demonstrate the application of this fluorescent sensor in high-throughput, serial phenotyping of differentiating cardiomyocyte populations and in screening for drug-induced cardiotoxicity. PMID:24527390

  2. Rapid cellular phenotyping of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes using a genetically encoded fluorescent voltage sensor.

    PubMed

    Leyton-Mange, Jordan S; Mills, Robert W; Macri, Vincenzo S; Jang, Min Young; Butte, Faraz N; Ellinor, Patrick T; Milan, David J

    2014-02-11

    In addition to their promise in regenerative medicine, pluripotent stem cells have proved to be faithful models of many human diseases. In particular, patient-specific stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes recapitulate key features of several life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia syndromes. For both modeling and regenerative approaches, phenotyping of stem cell-derived tissues is critical. Cellular phenotyping has largely relied upon expression of lineage markers rather than physiologic attributes. This is especially true for cardiomyocytes, in part because electrophysiological recordings are labor intensive. Likewise, most optical voltage indicators suffer from phototoxicity, which damages cells and degrades signal quality. Here we present the use of a genetically encoded fluorescent voltage indicator, ArcLight, which we demonstrate can faithfully report transmembrane potentials in human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. We demonstrate the application of this fluorescent sensor in high-throughput, serial phenotyping of differentiating cardiomyocyte populations and in screening for drug-induced cardiotoxicity. PMID:24527390

  3. Label-free imaging of metabolism and oxidative stress in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Rupsa; Heylman, Christopher; George, Steven C.; Gratton, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate a label-free optical imaging technique to assess metabolic status and oxidative stress in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes by two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging of endogenous fluorophores. Our results show the sensitivity of this method to detect shifts in metabolism and oxidative stress in the cardiomyocytes upon pathological stimuli of hypoxia and cardiotoxic drugs. This non-invasive imaging technique could prove beneficial for drug development and screening, especially for in vitro cardiac models created from stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and to study the pathogenesis of cardiac diseases and therapy. PMID:27231614

  4. A Non-invasive Platform for Functional Characterization of Stem-Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes with Applications in Cardiotoxicity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Maddah, Mahnaz; Heidmann, Julia D.; Mandegar, Mohammad A.; Walker, Chase D.; Bolouki, Sara; Conklin, Bruce R.; Loewke, Kevin E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary We present a non-invasive method to characterize the function of pluripotent stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes based on video microscopy and image analysis. The platform, called Pulse, generates automated measurements of beating frequency, beat duration, amplitude, and beat-to-beat variation based on motion analysis of phase-contrast images captured at a fast frame rate. Using Pulse, we demonstrate recapitulation of drug effects in stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes without the use of exogenous labels and show that our platform can be used for high-throughput cardiotoxicity drug screening and studying physiologically relevant phenotypes. PMID:25801505

  5. Label-free imaging of metabolism and oxidative stress in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Datta, Rupsa; Heylman, Christopher; George, Steven C; Gratton, Enrico

    2016-05-01

    In this work we demonstrate a label-free optical imaging technique to assess metabolic status and oxidative stress in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes by two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging of endogenous fluorophores. Our results show the sensitivity of this method to detect shifts in metabolism and oxidative stress in the cardiomyocytes upon pathological stimuli of hypoxia and cardiotoxic drugs. This non-invasive imaging technique could prove beneficial for drug development and screening, especially for in vitro cardiac models created from stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and to study the pathogenesis of cardiac diseases and therapy. PMID:27231614

  6. Use of human stem cell derived cardiomyocytes to examine sunitinib mediated cardiotoxicity and electrophysiological alterations

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.D.; Babiarz, J.E.; Abrams, R.M.; Guo, L.; Kameoka, S.; Chiao, E.; Taunton, J.; Kolaja, K.L.

    2011-11-15

    Sunitinib, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved to treat advanced renal cell carcinoma and gastrointestinal stroma tumor, is associated with clinical cardiac toxicity. Although the precise mechanism of sunitinib cardiotoxicity is not known, both the key metabolic energy regulator, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and ribosomal S 6 kinase (RSK) have been hypothesized as causative, albeit based on rodent models. To study the mechanism of sunitinib-mediated cardiotoxicity in a human model, induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) having electrophysiological and contractile properties of native cardiac tissue were investigated. Sunitinib was cardiotoxic in a dose-dependent manner with an IC{sub 50} in the low micromolar range, observed by a loss of cellular ATP, an increase in oxidized glutathione, and induction of apoptosis in iPSC-CMs. Pretreatment of iPSC-CMs with AMPK activators AICAR or metformin, increased the phosphorylation of pAMPK-T172 and pACC-S79, but only marginally attenuated sunitinib mediated cell death. Furthermore, additional inhibitors of AMPK were not directly cytotoxic to iPSC-CMs up to 250 {mu}M concentrations. Inhibition of RSK with a highly specific, irreversible, small molecule inhibitor (RSK-FMK-MEA) did not induce cytotoxicity in iPSC-CMs below 250 {mu}M. Extensive electrophysiological analysis of sunitinib and RSK-FMK-MEA mediated conduction effects were performed. Taken together, these findings suggest that inhibition of AMPK and RSK are not a major component of sunitinib-induced cardiotoxicity. Although the exact mechanism of cardiotoxicity of sunitinib is not known, it is likely due to inhibition of multiple kinases simultaneously. These data highlight the utility of human iPSC-CMs in investigating the potential molecular mechanisms underlying drug-induced cardiotoxicity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cytoxic effect of sunitinib on human stem cell derived cardiomyocytes Black

  7. Quantitative proteomic analysis of cultured skin fibroblast cells derived from patients with triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy (TGCV) is a rare disease, characterized by the massive accumulation of triglyceride (TG) in multiple tissues, especially skeletal muscle, heart muscle and the coronary artery. TGCV is caused by mutation of adipose triglyceride lipase, which is an essential molecule for the hydrolysis of TG. TGCV is at high risk for skeletal myopathy and heart dysfunction, and therefore premature death. Development of therapeutic methods for TGCV is highly desirable. This study aims to discover specific molecules responsible for TGCV pathogenesis. Methods To identify differentially expressed proteins in TGCV patient cells, the stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) method coupled with LC-MS/MS was performed using skin fibroblast cells derived from two TGCV patients and three healthy volunteers. Altered protein expression in TGCV cells was confirmed using the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) method. Microarray-based transcriptome analysis was simultaneously performed to identify changes in gene expression in TGCV cells. Results Using SILAC proteomics, 4033 proteins were quantified, 53 of which showed significantly altered expression in both TGCV patient cells. Twenty altered proteins were chosen and confirmed using SRM. SRM analysis successfully quantified 14 proteins, 13 of which showed the same trend as SILAC proteomics. The altered protein expression data set was used in Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), and significant networks were identified. Several of these proteins have been previously implicated in lipid metabolism, while others represent new therapeutic targets or markers for TGCV. Microarray analysis quantified 20743 transcripts, and 252 genes showed significantly altered expression in both TGCV patient cells. Ten altered genes were chosen, 9 of which were successfully confirmed using quantitative RT-PCR. Biological networks of altered genes were analyzed using an IPA search. Conclusions We

  8. Tolerance of human embryonic stem cell derived islet progenitor cells to vitrification-relevant solutions.

    PubMed

    Lahmy, Reyhaneh; Bolyukh, Vladimir F; Castilla, Sergio Mora; Laurent, Louise C; Katkov, Igor I; Itkin-Ansari, Pamela

    2015-06-01

    We have previously shown that human embryonic stem cell derived islet progenitors (hESC-IPs), encapsulated inside an immunoprotective device, mature in vivo and ameliorate diabetes in mice. The ability to cryopreserve hESC-IPs preloaded in these devices would enhance consistency and portability, but traditional 'slow freezing' methods did not work well for cells encapsulated in the device. Vitrification is an attractive alternative cryopreservation approach. To assess the tolerance of hESC-IPs to vitrification relevant conditions, we here are reporting cell survival following excursions in tonicity, exposure to fifteen 40% v/v combinations of 4 cryoprotectants, and varied methods for addition and elution. We find that 78% survival is achieved using a protocol in which cells are abruptly (in one step) exposed to a solution containing 10% v/v each dimethyl sulfoxide, propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, and glycerol on ice, and eluted step-wise with DPBS+0.5M sucrose at 37°C. Importantly, the hESC-IPs also maintain expression of the critical islet progenitor markers PDX-1, NKX6.1, NGN3 and NEURO-D1. Thus, hESC-IPs exhibit robust tolerance to exposure to vitrification solutions in relevant conditions. PMID:25817378

  9. Automated Electrophysiological and Pharmacological Evaluation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rajamohan, Divya; Kalra, Spandan; Duc Hoang, Minh; George, Vinoj; Staniforth, Andrew; Russell, Hugh; Yang, Xuebin

    2016-01-01

    Automated planar patch clamp systems are widely used in drug evaluation studies because of their ability to provide accurate, reliable, and reproducible data in a high-throughput manner. Typically, CHO and HEK tumorigenic cell lines overexpressing single ion channels are used since they can be harvested as high-density, homogenous, single-cell suspensions. While human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) are physiologically more relevant, these cells are fragile, have complex culture requirements, are inherently heterogeneous, and are expensive to produce, which has restricted their use on automated patch clamp (APC) devices. Here, we used high efficiency differentiation protocols to produce cardiomyocytes from six different hPSC lines for analysis on the Patchliner (Nanion Technologies GmbH) APC platform. We developed a two-step cell preparation protocol that yielded cell catch rates and whole-cell breakthroughs of ∼80%, with ∼40% of these cells allowing electrical activity to be recorded. The protocol permitted formation of long-lasting (>15 min), high quality seals (>2 GΩ) in both voltage- and current-clamp modes. This enabled density of sodium, calcium, and potassium currents to be evaluated, along with dose–response curves to their respective channel inhibitors, tetrodotoxin, nifedipine, and E-4031. Thus, we show the feasibility of using the Patchliner platform for automated evaluation of the electrophysiology and pharmacology of hPSC-CMs, which will enable considerable increase in throughput for reliable and efficient drug evaluation. PMID:26906236

  10. Generation of a functional liver tissue mimic using adipose stromal vascular fraction cell-derived vasculatures

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, S. S.; Maijub, J. G.; Krishnan, L.; Ramakrishnan, V. M.; Clayton, L. R.; Williams, S. K.; Hoying, J. B.; Boyd, N. L.

    2013-01-01

    One of the major challenges in cell implantation therapies is to promote integration of the microcirculation between the implanted cells and the host. We used adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells to vascularize a human liver cell (HepG2) implant. We hypothesized that the SVF cells would form a functional microcirculation via vascular assembly and inosculation with the host vasculature. Initially, we assessed the extent and character of neovasculatures formed by freshly isolated and cultured SVF cells and found that freshly isolated cells have a higher vascularization potential. Generation of a 3D implant containing fresh SVF and HepG2 cells formed a tissue in which HepG2 cells were entwined with a network of microvessels. Implanted HepG2 cells sequestered labeled LDL delivered by systemic intravascular injection only in SVF-vascularized implants demonstrating that SVF cell-derived vasculatures can effectively integrate with host vessels and interface with parenchymal cells to form a functional tissue mimic. PMID:23828203

  11. Efficient Generation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Corneal Endothelial Cells by Directed Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, Kathryn L.; Kunzevitzky, Noelia J.; Chiswell, Brian P.; Xia, Xin; Goldberg, Jeffrey L.; Lanza, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Aim To generate human embryonic stem cell derived corneal endothelial cells (hESC-CECs) for transplantation in patients with corneal endothelial dystrophies. Materials and Methods Feeder-free hESC-CECs were generated by a directed differentiation protocol. hESC-CECs were characterized by morphology, expression of corneal endothelial markers, and microarray analysis of gene expression. Results hESC-CECs were nearly identical morphologically to primary human corneal endothelial cells, expressed Zona Occludens 1 (ZO-1) and Na+/K+ATPaseα1 (ATPA1) on the apical surface in monolayer culture, and produced the key proteins of Descemet’s membrane, Collagen VIIIα1 and VIIIα2 (COL8A1 and 8A2). Quantitative PCR analysis revealed expression of all corneal endothelial pump transcripts. hESC-CECs were 96% similar to primary human adult CECs by microarray analysis. Conclusion hESC-CECs are morphologically similar, express corneal endothelial cell markers and express a nearly identical complement of genes compared to human adult corneal endothelial cells. hESC-CECs may be a suitable alternative to donor-derived corneal endothelium. PMID:26689688

  12. Endothelial differentiation in multipotent cells derived from mouse and human white mature adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Jumabay, Medet; Abdmaulen, Raushan; Urs, Sumithra; Heydarkhan-Hagvall, Sepideh; Chazenbalk, Gregorio D; Jordan, Maria C; Roos, Kenneth P; Yao, Yucheng; Boström, Kristina I

    2012-12-01

    White mature adipocytes give rise to multipotent cells, so-called de-differentiated fat (DFAT) cells, when losing their fat in culture. The objective of this study was to examine the ability of DFAT cells to give rise to endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro and vivo. We demonstrate that mouse and human DFAT cells, derived from adipose tissue and lipospirate, respectively, initially lack expression of CD34, CD31, CD146, CD45 and pericyte markers, distinguishing them from progenitor cells previously identified in adipose stroma. The DFAT cells spontaneously differentiate into vascular ECs in vitro, as determined by real-time PCR, fluorescence activated cell sorting, immunostaining, and formation of tube structures. Treatment with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)4 and BMP9, important in regulating angiogenesis, significantly enhances the EC differentiation. Furthermore, adipocyte-derived cells from Green Fluorescent Protein-transgenic mice were detected in the vasculature of infarcted myocardium up to 6 weeks after ligation of the left anterior descending artery in mice. We conclude that adipocyte-derived multipotent cells are able to spontaneously give rise to ECs, a process that is promoted by BMPs and may be important in cardiovascular regeneration and in physiological and pathological changes in fat and other tissues. PMID:22999861

  13. Long Term Liver Engraftment of Functional Hepatocytes Obtained from Germline Cell-Derived Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fagoonee, Sharmila; Famulari, Elvira Smeralda; Silengo, Lorenzo; Tolosano, Emanuela; Altruda, Fiorella

    2015-01-01

    One of the major hurdles in liver gene and cell therapy is availability of ex vivo-expanded hepatocytes. Pluripotent stem cells are an attractive alternative. Here, we show that hepatocyte precursors can be isolated from male germline cell-derived pluripotent stem cells (GPSCs) using the hepatoblast marker, Liv2, and induced to differentiate into hepatocytes in vitro. These cells expressed hepatic-specific genes and were functional as demonstrated by their ability to secrete albumin and produce urea. When transplanted in the liver parenchyma of partially hepatectomised mice, Liv2-sorted cells showed regional and heterogeneous engraftment in the injected lobe. Moreover, approximately 50% of Y chromosome-positive, GPSC-derived cells were found in the female livers, in the region of engraftment, even one month after cell injection. This is the first study showing that Liv2-sorted GPSCs-derived hepatocytes can undergo long lasting engraftment in the mouse liver. Thus, GPSCs might offer promise for regenerative medicine. PMID:26323094

  14. Analysis of mammary specific gene locus regulation in differentiated cells derived by somatic cell fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Claire; Kolb, Andreas F.

    2009-02-01

    The transcriptional regulation of a gene is best analysed in the context of its normal chromatin surroundings. However, most somatic cells, in contrast to embryonic stem cells, are refractory to accurate modification by homologous recombination. We show here that it is possible to introduce precise genomic modifications in ES cells and to analyse the phenotypic consequences in differentiated cells by using a combination of gene targeting, site-specific recombination and somatic cell fusion. To provide a proof of principle, we have analysed the regulation of the casein gene locus in mammary gland cells derived from modified murine ES cells by somatic cell fusion. A {beta}-galactosidase reporter gene was inserted in place of the {beta}-casein gene and the modified ES cells, which do not express the reporter gene, were fused with the mouse mammary gland cell line HC11. The resulting cell clones expressed the {beta}-galactosidase gene to a similar extent and with similar hormone responsiveness as the endogenous gene. However, a reporter gene under the control of a minimal {beta}-casein promoter (encompassing the two consensus STAT5 binding sites which mediate the hormone response of the casein genes) was unable to replicate expression levels or hormone responsiveness of the endogenous gene when inserted into the same site of the casein locus. As expected, these results implicate sequences other than the STAT5 sites in the regulation of the {beta}-casein gene.

  15. Modeling Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived-Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Maillet, Agnes; Tan, Kim; Chai, Xiaoran; Sadananda, Singh N; Mehta, Ashish; Ooi, Jolene; Hayden, Michael R; Pouladi, Mahmoud A; Ghosh, Sujoy; Shim, Winston; Brunham, Liam R

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin is a highly efficacious anti-cancer drug but causes cardiotoxicity in many patients. The mechanisms of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity (DIC) remain incompletely understood. We investigated the characteristics and molecular mechanisms of DIC in human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs). We found that doxorubicin causes dose-dependent increases in apoptotic and necrotic cell death, reactive oxygen species production, mitochondrial dysfunction and increased intracellular calcium concentration. We characterized genome-wide changes in gene expression caused by doxorubicin using RNA-seq, as well as electrophysiological abnormalities caused by doxorubicin with multi-electrode array technology. Finally, we show that CRISPR-Cas9-mediated disruption of TOP2B, a gene implicated in DIC in mouse studies, significantly reduces the sensitivity of hPSC-CMs to doxorubicin-induced double stranded DNA breaks and cell death. These data establish a human cellular model of DIC that recapitulates many of the cardinal features of this adverse drug reaction and could enable screening for protective agents against DIC as well as assessment of genetic variants involved in doxorubicin response. PMID:27142468

  16. Automated Electrophysiological and Pharmacological Evaluation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Rajamohan, Divya; Kalra, Spandan; Duc Hoang, Minh; George, Vinoj; Staniforth, Andrew; Russell, Hugh; Yang, Xuebin; Denning, Chris

    2016-03-15

    Automated planar patch clamp systems are widely used in drug evaluation studies because of their ability to provide accurate, reliable, and reproducible data in a high-throughput manner. Typically, CHO and HEK tumorigenic cell lines overexpressing single ion channels are used since they can be harvested as high-density, homogenous, single-cell suspensions. While human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) are physiologically more relevant, these cells are fragile, have complex culture requirements, are inherently heterogeneous, and are expensive to produce, which has restricted their use on automated patch clamp (APC) devices. Here, we used high efficiency differentiation protocols to produce cardiomyocytes from six different hPSC lines for analysis on the Patchliner (Nanion Technologies GmbH) APC platform. We developed a two-step cell preparation protocol that yielded cell catch rates and whole-cell breakthroughs of ∼80%, with ∼40% of these cells allowing electrical activity to be recorded. The protocol permitted formation of long-lasting (>15 min), high quality seals (>2 GΩ) in both voltage- and current-clamp modes. This enabled density of sodium, calcium, and potassium currents to be evaluated, along with dose-response curves to their respective channel inhibitors, tetrodotoxin, nifedipine, and E-4031. Thus, we show the feasibility of using the Patchliner platform for automated evaluation of the electrophysiology and pharmacology of hPSC-CMs, which will enable considerable increase in throughput for reliable and efficient drug evaluation. PMID:26906236

  17. Hydrogen sulfide induces apoptosis in epithelial cells derived from human gingiva.

    PubMed

    Murata, T; Yaegaki, K; Qian, W; Herai, M; Calenic, B; Imai, T; Sato, T; Tanaka, T; Kamoda, T; Ii, H

    2008-03-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is not only one of the main causes of halitosis but is also an agent of toxicity against periodontal cells and tissues in biofilm-related periodontal diseases. Also, apoptosis of gingival epithelial cells may play an important role in the onset and progress of periodontitis. We examined the effect of H(2)S on the induction of apoptosis, using human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and keratinocyte-like Ca9-22 cells derived from human gingiva. The cells were incubated with H(2)S (100 ng ml(-1)) for 24, 48 or 72 h by adding H(2)S to air containing 5% CO(2), supplied constantly to the culture environment during incubation. The incidence of apoptosis caused by H(2)S was determined with Annexin V staining by flow cytometry. The proportion of apoptotic cells was significantly increased by exposure to H(2)S for 48 h in comparison with the control in both Ca9-22 cells and HGF. A concentration of 100 ng ml(-1) H(2)S in air is possible in the gingival sulcus. This study indicates that apoptosis in gingival epithelial cells and HGF by H(2)S may occur in the oral cavity, which may cause a periodontal condition. PMID:21386151

  18. Modulating Innate Immunity Improves Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Replication in Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoling; Sun, Pingnan; Lucendo-Villarin, Baltasar; Angus, Allan G.N.; Szkolnicka, Dagmara; Cameron, Kate; Farnworth, Sarah L.; Patel, Arvind H.; Hay, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary In this study, human embryonic stem cell-derived hepatocytes (hESC-Heps) were investigated for their ability to support hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and replication. hESC-Heps were capable of supporting the full viral life cycle, including the release of infectious virions. Although supportive, hESC-Hep viral infection levels were not as great as those observed in Huh7 cells. We reasoned that innate immune responses in hESC-Heps may lead to the low level of infection and replication. Upon further investigation, we identified a strong type III interferon response in hESC-Heps that was triggered by HCV. Interestingly, specific inhibition of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway led to an increase in HCV infection and replication in hESC-Heps. Of note, the interferon response was not evident in Huh7 cells. In summary, we have established a robust cell-based system that allows the in-depth study of virus-host interactions in vitro. PMID:25068132

  19. Isolation and Mechanical Measurements of Myofibrils from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Pioner, Josè Manuel; Racca, Alice W; Klaiman, Jordan M; Yang, Kai-Chun; Guan, Xuan; Pabon, Lil; Muskheli, Veronica; Zaunbrecher, Rebecca; Macadangdang, Jesse; Jeong, Mark Y; Mack, David L; Childers, Martin K; Kim, Deok-Ho; Tesi, Chiara; Poggesi, Corrado; Murry, Charles E; Regnier, Michael

    2016-06-14

    Tension production and contractile properties are poorly characterized aspects of excitation-contraction coupling of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs). Previous approaches have been limited due to the small size and structural immaturity of early-stage hiPSC-CMs. We developed a substrate nanopatterning approach to produce hiPSC-CMs in culture with adult-like dimensions, T-tubule-like structures, and aligned myofibrils. We then isolated myofibrils from hiPSC-CMs and measured the tension and kinetics of activation and relaxation using a custom-built apparatus with fast solution switching. The contractile properties and ultrastructure of myofibrils more closely resembled human fetal myofibrils of similar gestational age than adult preparations. We also demonstrated the ability to study the development of contractile dysfunction of myofibrils from a patient-derived hiPSC-CM cell line carrying the familial cardiomyopathy MYH7 mutation (E848G). These methods can bring new insights to understanding cardiomyocyte maturation and developmental mechanical dysfunction of hiPSC-CMs with cardiomyopathic mutations. PMID:27161364

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa injection enhanced antitumor cytotoxicity of cytokine-induced killer cells derived from cord blood.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Li-Ping; Zhao, Xian-Lan; Wang, Fei; Huang, Lan; Wang, Meng; Chen, Xin-Feng; Li, Hong; Zhang, Yi

    2014-10-01

    Cord blood (CB) is becoming an extensive source of cytokine-induced killer cells. It had been used in several clinical settings and proven to be efficacious and safe. Therefore, we investigated the possibility of combining CIK cells derived from cord blood (CB-CIK) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa injection (PA-MSHA) in order to enhance the cytotoxicity of CB-CIK cells against tumors. Compared with the CB-CIK cells, the PA-MSHA-treated CB-CIK cells demonstrated with increased proliferation rates, higher expression of activated cell surface marker CD28 and lower expression of inhibited cell surface markers PD-1 and CTLA-4. Furthermore, PA-MSHA-treated CB-CIK cells exhibited more effectively for secreting pro-inflammatory cytokine such as IFN-γ and expressing high levels of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR6. The expression of CD107a was higher in the CD3(+)CD56(+) subset of PA-MSHA-treated CB-CIK cells. Our results indicate that the PA-MSHA-treated CB-CIK cells exhibited a more potent in cytotoxic activity against tumor cells. Thus, PA-MSHA enhanced the antitumor ability of CB-CIK cells. PMID:25465152

  1. Osteocyte specific responses to soluble and mechanical stimuli in a stem cell derived culture model

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, William R.; Uzer, Gunes; Brobst, Kaitlyn E.; Xie, Zhihui; Sen, Buer; Yen, Sherwin S.; Styner, Maya; Rubin, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Studying osteocyte behavior in culture has proven difficult because these embedded cells require spatially coordinated interactions with the matrix and surrounding cells to achieve the osteocyte phenotype. Using an easily attainable source of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, we generated cells with the osteocyte phenotype within two weeks. These “stem cell derived-osteocytes” (SCD-O) displayed stellate morphology and lacunocanalicular ultrastructure. Osteocytic genes Sost, Dmp1, E11, and Fgf23 were maximally expressed at 15 days and responded to PTH and 1,25(OH)2D3. Production of sclerostin mRNA and protein, within 15 days of culture makes the SCD-O model ideal for elucidating regulatory mechanisms. We found sclerostin to be regulated by mechanical factors, where low intensity vibration significantly reduced Sost expression. Additionally, this model recapitulates sclerostin production in response to osteoactive hormones, as PTH or LIV repressed secretion of sclerostin, significantly impacting Wnt-mediated Axin2 expression, via β-catenin signaling. In summary, SCD-O cells produce abundant matrix, rapidly attain the osteocyte phenotype, and secrete functional factors including sclerostin under non-immortalized conditions. This culture model enables ex vivo observations of osteocyte behavior while preserving an organ-like environment. Furthermore, as marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells can be obtained from transgenic animals; our model enables study of genetic control of osteocyte behaviors. PMID:26056071

  2. Human pluripotent stem cell-derived neural constructs for predicting neural toxicity.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Michael P; Hou, Zhonggang; Propson, Nicholas E; Zhang, Jue; Engstrom, Collin J; Santos Costa, Vitor; Jiang, Peng; Nguyen, Bao Kim; Bolin, Jennifer M; Daly, William; Wang, Yu; Stewart, Ron; Page, C David; Murphy, William L; Thomson, James A

    2015-10-01

    Human pluripotent stem cell-based in vitro models that reflect human physiology have the potential to reduce the number of drug failures in clinical trials and offer a cost-effective approach for assessing chemical safety. Here, human embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived neural progenitor cells, endothelial cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and microglia/macrophage precursors were combined on chemically defined polyethylene glycol hydrogels and cultured in serum-free medium to model cellular interactions within the developing brain. The precursors self-assembled into 3D neural constructs with diverse neuronal and glial populations, interconnected vascular networks, and ramified microglia. Replicate constructs were reproducible by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and expressed neurogenesis, vasculature development, and microglia genes. Linear support vector machines were used to construct a predictive model from RNA-Seq data for 240 neural constructs treated with 34 toxic and 26 nontoxic chemicals. The predictive model was evaluated using two standard hold-out testing methods: a nearly unbiased leave-one-out cross-validation for the 60 training compounds and an unbiased blinded trial using a single hold-out set of 10 additional chemicals. The linear support vector produced an estimate for future data of 0.91 in the cross-validation experiment and correctly classified 9 of 10 chemicals in the blinded trial. PMID:26392547

  3. Potential Therapies by Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes in CNS Diseases: Focusing on the Neurogenic Niche

    PubMed Central

    Luarte, Alejandro; Bátiz, Luis Federico; Wyneken, Ursula; Lafourcade, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders are one of the leading causes of death and disability and one of the biggest burdens on health care systems. Novel approaches using various types of stem cells have been proposed to treat common neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, or stroke. Moreover, as the secretome of these cells appears to be of greater benefit compared to the cells themselves, the extracellular components responsible for its therapeutic benefit have been explored. Stem cells, as well as most cells, release extracellular vesicles such as exosomes, which are nanovesicles able to target specific cell types and thus to modify their function by delivering proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Exosomes have recently been tested in vivo and in vitro as therapeutic conveyors for the treatment of diseases. As such, they could be engineered to target specific populations of cells within the CNS. Considering the fact that many degenerative brain diseases have an impact on adult neurogenesis, we discuss how the modulation of the adult neurogenic niches may be a therapeutic target of stem cell-derived exosomes. These novel approaches should be examined in cellular and animal models to provide better, more effective, and specific therapeutic tools in the future. PMID:27195011

  4. "Kill" the messenger: Targeting of cell-derived microparticles in lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Christoffer T; Rasmussen, Niclas S; Heegaard, Niels H H; Jacobsen, Søren

    2016-07-01

    Immune complex (IC) deposition in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is a key early pathogenic event in lupus nephritis (LN). The clarification of the mechanisms behind IC deposition will enable targeted therapy in the future. Circulating cell-derived microparticles (MPs) have been proposed as major sources of extracellular autoantigens and ICs and triggers of autoimmunity in LN. The overabundance of galectin-3-binding protein (G3BP) along with immunoglobulins and a few other proteins specifically distinguish circulating MPs in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and this is most pronounced in patients with active LN. G3BP co-localizes with deposited ICs in renal biopsies from LN patients supporting a significant presence of MPs in the IC deposits. G3BP binds strongly to glomerular basement membrane proteins and integrins. Accordingly, MP surface proteins, especially G3BP, may be essential for the deposition of ICs in kidneys and thus for the ensuing formation of MP-derived electron dense structures in the GBM, and immune activation in LN. This review focuses on the notion of targeting surface molecules on MPs as an entirely novel treatment strategy in LN. By targeting MPs, a double hit may be achieved by attenuating both the autoantigenic fueling of immune complexes and the triggering of the adaptive immune system. Thereby, early pathogenic events may be blocked in contrast to current treatment strategies that primarily target and modulate later events in the cellular and humoral immune response. PMID:26970484

  5. Generating and characterizing the mechanical properties of cell-derived matrices using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tello, Marta; Spenlé, Caroline; Hemmerlé, Joseph; Mercier, Luc; Fabre, Roxane; Allio, Guillaume; Simon-Assmann, Patricia; Goetz, Jacky G

    2016-02-01

    Mechanical interaction between cells and their surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) controls key processes such as proliferation, differentiation and motility. For many years, two-dimensional (2D) models were used to better understand the interactions between cells and their surrounding ECM. More recently, variation of the mechanical properties of tissues has been reported to play a major role in physiological and pathological scenarios such as cancer progression. The 3D architecture of the ECM finely tunes cellular behavior to perform physiologically relevant tasks. Technical limitations prevented scientists from obtaining accurate assessment of the mechanical properties of physiologically realistic matrices. There is therefore a need for combining the production of high-quality cell-derived 3D matrices (CDMs) and the characterization of their topographical and mechanical properties. Here, we describe methods that allow to accurately measure the young modulus of matrices produced by various cellular types. In the first part, we will describe and review several protocols for generating CDMs matrices from endothelial, epithelial, fibroblastic, muscle and mesenchymal stem cells. We will discuss tools allowing the characterization of the topographical details as well as of the protein content of such CDMs. In a second part, we will report the methodologies that can be used, based on atomic force microscopy, to accurately evaluate the stiffness properties of the CDMs through the quantification of their young modulus. Altogether, such methodologies allow characterizing the stiffness and topography of matrices deposited by the cells, which is key for the understanding of cellular behavior in physiological conditions. PMID:26439175

  6. Human ES-cell-derived cardiomyocytes electrically couple and suppress arrhythmias in injured hearts.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Yuji; Fernandes, Sarah; Zhu, Wei-Zhong; Filice, Dominic; Muskheli, Veronica; Kim, Jonathan; Palpant, Nathan J; Gantz, Jay; Moyes, Kara White; Reinecke, Hans; Van Biber, Benjamin; Dardas, Todd; Mignone, John L; Izawa, Atsushi; Hanna, Ramy; Viswanathan, Mohan; Gold, Joseph D; Kotlikoff, Michael I; Sarvazyan, Narine; Kay, Matthew W; Murry, Charles E; Laflamme, Michael A

    2012-09-13

    Transplantation studies in mice and rats have shown that human embryonic-stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) can improve the function of infarcted hearts, but two critical issues related to their electrophysiological behaviour in vivo remain unresolved. First, the risk of arrhythmias following hESC-CM transplantation in injured hearts has not been determined. Second, the electromechanical integration of hESC-CMs in injured hearts has not been demonstrated, so it is unclear whether these cells improve contractile function directly through addition of new force-generating units. Here we use a guinea-pig model to show that hESC-CM grafts in injured hearts protect against arrhythmias and can contract synchronously with host muscle. Injured hearts with hESC-CM grafts show improved mechanical function and a significantly reduced incidence of both spontaneous and induced ventricular tachycardia. To assess the activity of hESC-CM grafts in vivo, we transplanted hESC-CMs expressing the genetically encoded calcium sensor, GCaMP3 (refs 4, 5). By correlating the GCaMP3 fluorescent signal with the host ECG, we found that grafts in uninjured hearts have consistent 1:1 host–graft coupling. Grafts in injured hearts are more heterogeneous and typically include both coupled and uncoupled regions. Thus, human myocardial grafts meet physiological criteria for true heart regeneration, providing support for the continued development of hESC-based cardiac therapies for both mechanical and electrical repair. PMID:22864415

  7. Importance of being Nernst: Synaptic activity and functional relevance in stem cell-derived neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Aaron B; McNutt, Patrick M

    2015-01-01

    Functional synaptogenesis and network emergence are signature endpoints of neurogenesis. These behaviors provide higher-order confirmation that biochemical and cellular processes necessary for neurotransmitter release, post-synaptic detection and network propagation of neuronal activity have been properly expressed and coordinated among cells. The development of synaptic neurotransmission can therefore be considered a defining property of neurons. Although dissociated primary neuron cultures readily form functioning synapses and network behaviors in vitro, continuously cultured neurogenic cell lines have historically failed to meet these criteria. Therefore, in vitro-derived neuron models that develop synaptic transmission are critically needed for a wide array of studies, including molecular neuroscience, developmental neurogenesis, disease research and neurotoxicology. Over the last decade, neurons derived from various stem cell lines have shown varying ability to develop into functionally mature neurons. In this review, we will discuss the neurogenic potential of various stem cells populations, addressing strengths and weaknesses of each, with particular attention to the emergence of functional behaviors. We will propose methods to functionally characterize new stem cell-derived neuron (SCN) platforms to improve their reliability as physiological relevant models. Finally, we will review how synaptically active SCNs can be applied to accelerate research in a variety of areas. Ultimately, emphasizing the critical importance of synaptic activity and network responses as a marker of neuronal maturation is anticipated to result in in vitro findings that better translate to efficacious clinical treatments. PMID:26240679

  8. Nitric oxide regulates cell behavior on an interactive cell-derived extracellular matrix scaffold.

    PubMed

    Xing, Qi; Zhang, Lijun; Redman, Travis; Qi, Shaohai; Zhao, Feng

    2015-12-01

    During tissue injury and wound healing process, there are dynamic reciprocal interactions among cells, extracellular matrix (ECM), and mediating molecules which are crucial for functional tissue repair. Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the key mediating molecules that can positively regulate various biological activities involved in wound healing. Various ECM components serve as binding sites for cells and mediating molecules, and the interactions further stimulate cellular activities. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) can migrate to the wound site and contribute to tissue regeneration through differentiation and paracrine signaling. The objective of this work was to investigate the regulatory effect of NO on hMSCs in an interactive ECM-rich microenvironment. In order to mimic the in vivo stromal environment in wound site, a cell-derived ECM scaffold that was able to release NO within the range of in vivo wound fluid NO level was fabricated. Results showed that the micro-molar level of NO released from the ECM scaffold had an inhibitory effect on cellular activities of hMSCs. The NO impaired cell growth, altered cell morphology, disrupted the F-actin organization, also decreased the expression of focal adhesion related molecules integrin α5 and paxillin. These results may contribute to the elucidation of how NO acts on hMSCs in wound healing process. PMID:26074441

  9. Cell-derived matrices for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications1

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Lindsay E.; McDevitt, Todd C.

    2014-01-01

    The development and application of decellularized extracellular matrices (ECM) has grown rapidly in the fields of cell biology, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine in recent years. Similar to decellularized tissues and whole organs, cell-derived matrices (CDMs) represent bioactive, biocompatible materials consisting of a complex assembly of fibrillar proteins, matrix macromolecules and associated growth factors that often recapitulate, at least to some extent, the composition and organization of native ECM microenvironments. The unique ability to engineer CDMs de novo based on cell source and culture methods makes them an attractive alternative to conventional allogeneic and xenogeneic tissue-derived matrices that are currently harvested from cadaveric sources, suffer from inherent heterogeneity, and have limited ability for customization. Although CDMs have been investigated for a number of biomedical applications, including adhesive cell culture substrates, synthetic scaffold coatings, and tissue engineered products, such as heart valves and vascular grafts, the state of the field is still at a relatively nascent stage of development. In this review, we provide an overview of the various applications of CDM and discuss successes to date, current limitations and future directions. PMID:25530850

  10. Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Increased Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1 Expression Enhanced Fracture Healing

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Chih-Yuan; Hua, Jia; Coathup, Melanie; Kalia, Priya; Blunn, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of critical size bone defects pose a challenge in orthopedics. Stem cell therapy together with cytokines has the potential to improve bone repair as they cause the migration and homing of stem cells to the defect site. However, the engraftment, participation, and recruitment of other cells within the regenerating tissue are important. To enhance stem cell involvement, this study investigated overexpression of stem cells with stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) using an adenovirus. We hypothesized that these engineered cells would effectively increase the migration of native cells to the site of fracture, enhancing bone repair. Before implantation, we showed that SDF-1 secreted by transfected cells increased the migration of nontransfected cells. In a rat defect bone model, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing SDF-1 showed significantly (p=0.003) more new bone formation within the gap and less bone mineral loss at the area adjacent to the defect site during the early bone healing stage. In conclusion, SDF-1 was shown to play an important role in accelerating fracture repair and contributing to bone repair in rat models, by recruiting more host stem cells to the defect site and encouraging osteogenic differentiation and production of bone. PMID:25251779

  11. Tuft-cell-derived IL-25 regulates an intestinal ILC2-epithelial response circuit.

    PubMed

    von Moltke, Jakob; Ji, Ming; Liang, Hong-Erh; Locksley, Richard M

    2016-01-14

    Parasitic helminths and allergens induce a type 2 immune response leading to profound changes in tissue physiology, including hyperplasia of mucus-secreting goblet cells and smooth muscle hypercontractility. This response, known as 'weep and sweep', requires interleukin (IL)-13 production by tissue-resident group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and recruited type 2 helper T cells (TH2 cells). Experiments in mice and humans have demonstrated requirements for the epithelial cytokines IL-33, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and IL-25 in the activation of ILC2s, but the sources and regulation of these signals remain poorly defined. In the small intestine, the epithelium consists of at least five distinct cellular lineages, including the tuft cell, whose function is unclear. Here we show that tuft cells constitutively express IL-25 to sustain ILC2 homeostasis in the resting lamina propria in mice. After helminth infection, tuft-cell-derived IL-25 further activates ILC2s to secrete IL-13, which acts on epithelial crypt progenitors to promote differentiation of tuft and goblet cells, leading to increased frequencies of both. Tuft cells, ILC2s and epithelial progenitors therefore comprise a response circuit that mediates epithelial remodelling associated with type 2 immunity in the small intestine, and perhaps at other mucosal barriers populated by these cells. PMID:26675736

  12. Dedifferentiated follicular granulosa cells derived from pig ovary can transdifferentiate into osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Oki, Yoshinao; Ono, Hiromasa; Motohashi, Takeharu; Sugiura, Nobuki; Nobusue, Hiroyuki; Kano, Koichiro

    2012-01-01

    Transdifferentiation is the conversion of cells from one differentiated cell type into another. How functionally differentiated cells already committed to a specific cell lineage can transdifferentiate into other cell types is a key question in cell biology and regenerative medicine. In the present study we show that porcine ovarian follicular GCs (granulosa cells) can transdifferentiate into osteoblasts in vitro and in vivo. Pure GCs isolated and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 20% FBS (fetal bovine serum) proliferated and dedifferentiated into fibroblast-like cells. We referred to these cells as DFOG (dedifferentiated follicular granulosa) cells. Microarray analysis showed that DFOG cells lost expression of GC-specific marker genes, but gained the expression of osteogenic marker genes during dedifferentiation. After osteogenic induction, DFOG cells underwent terminal osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization in vitro. Furthermore, when DFOG cells were transplanted subcutaneously into SCID mice, these cells formed ectopic osteoid tissue. These results indicate that DFOG cells derived from GCs can differentiate into osteoblasts in vitro and in vivo. We suggest that GCs provide a useful model for studying the mechanisms of transdifferentiation into other cell lineages in functionally differentiated cells. PMID:22839299

  13. Functional Kidney Bioengineering with Pluripotent Stem-Cell-Derived Renal Progenitor Cells and Decellularized Kidney Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Du, Chan; Narayanan, Karthikeyan; Leong, Meng Fatt; Ibrahim, Mohammed Shahrudin; Chua, Ying Ping; Khoo, Vanessa Mei Hui; Wan, Andrew C A

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in developmental biology and stem cell technology have led to the engineering of functional organs in a dish. However, the limited size of these organoids and absence of a large circulatory system poses limits to its clinical translation. To overcome these issues, decellularized whole kidney scaffolds with native microstructure and extracellular matrix (ECM) are employed for kidney bioengineering, using human-induced pluripotent-stem-cell-derived renal progenitor cells and endothelial cells. To demonstrate ECM-guided cellular assembly, the present work is focused on generating the functional unit of the kidney, the glomerulus. In the repopulated organ, the presence of endothelial cells broadly upregulates the expression level of genes related to renal development. When the cellularized native scaffolds are implanted in SCID mice, glomeruli assembly can be achieved by co-culture of the renal progenitors and endothelial cells. These individual glomerular units are shown to be functional in the context of the whole organ using a simulated bio-reactor set-up with urea and creatinine excretion and albumin reabsorption. Our results indicate that the repopulation of decellularized native kidney using clinically relevant, expandable patient-specific renal progenitors and endothelial cells may be a viable approach for the generation of a functional whole kidney. PMID:27294565

  14. Reversal of diabetes with insulin-producing cells derived in vitro from human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Rezania, Alireza; Bruin, Jennifer E; Arora, Payal; Rubin, Allison; Batushansky, Irina; Asadi, Ali; O'Dwyer, Shannon; Quiskamp, Nina; Mojibian, Majid; Albrecht, Tobias; Yang, Yu Hsuan Carol; Johnson, James D; Kieffer, Timothy J

    2014-11-01

    Transplantation of pancreatic progenitors or insulin-secreting cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) has been proposed as a therapy for diabetes. We describe a seven-stage protocol that efficiently converts hESCs into insulin-producing cells. Stage (S) 7 cells expressed key markers of mature pancreatic beta cells, including MAFA, and displayed glucose-stimulated insulin secretion similar to that of human islets during static incubations in vitro. Additional characterization using single-cell imaging and dynamic glucose stimulation assays revealed similarities but also notable differences between S7 insulin-secreting cells and primary human beta cells. Nevertheless, S7 cells rapidly reversed diabetes in mice within 40 days, roughly four times faster than pancreatic progenitors. Therefore, although S7 cells are not fully equivalent to mature beta cells, their capacity for glucose-responsive insulin secretion and rapid reversal of diabetes in vivo makes them a promising alternative to pancreatic progenitor cells or cadaveric islets for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:25211370

  15. Functional differentiation of stem cell-derived neurons from different murine backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Lydia; Sütterlin, Rosmarie; Nenniger, Markus; Vogt, Kaspar E.

    2014-01-01

    Murine stem cell-derived neurons have been used to study a wide variety of neuropsychiatric diseases with a hereditary component, ranging from autism to Alzheimer’s. While a significant amount of data on their molecular biology has been generated, there is little data on the physiology of these cultures. Different mouse strains show clear differences in behavioral and other neurobiologically relevant readouts. We have studied the physiology of early differentiation and network formation in neuronal cultures derived from three different mouse embryonic stem cell lines. We have found largely overlapping patterns with some significant differences in the timing of the functional milestones. Neurons from R1 showed the fastest development of intrinsic excitability, while E14Tg2a and J1 were slower. This was also reflected in an earlier appearance of synaptic activity in R1 cultures, while E14Tg2a and J1 were delayed by up to 2 days. In conclusion, stem cells from all backgrounds could be successfully differentiated into functioning neural networks with similar developmental patterns. Differences in the timing of specific milestones, suggest that control cell lines and time-points should be carefully chosen when investigating genetic alterations that lead to subtle deficits in neuronal function. PMID:24600351

  16. Process Extension from Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Motor Neurons through Synthetic Extracellular Matrix Mimics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, Daniel Devaud

    This thesis focuses on studying the extension of motor axons through synthetic poly(ethylene glycol) PEG hydrogels that have been modified with biochemical functionalities to render them more biologically relevant. Specifically, the research strategy is to encapsulate embryonic stem cell-derived motor neurons (ESMNs) in synthetic PEG hydrogels crosslinked through three different chemistries providing three mechanisms for dynamically tuning material properties. First, a covalently crosslinked, enzymatically degradable hydrogel is developed and exploited to study the biophysical dynamics of axon extension and matrix remodeling. It is demonstrated that dispersed motor neurons require a battery of adhesive peptides and growth factors to maintain viability and extend axons while those in contact with supportive neuroglial cells do not. Additionally, cell-degradable crosslinker peptides and a soft modulus mimicking that of the spinal cord are requirements for axon extension. However, because local degradation of the hydrogel results in a cellular environment significantly different than that of the bulk, enzymatically degradable peptide crosslinkers were replaced with reversible covalent hydrazone bonds to study the effect of hydrogel modulus on axon extension. This material is characterized in detail and used to measure forces involved in axon extension. Finally, a hydrogel with photocleavable linkers incorporated into the network structure is exploited to explore motor axon response to physical channels. This system is used to direct the growth of motor axons towards co-cultured myotubes, resulting in the formation of an in vitro neural circuit.

  17. Evaluation of MDCK Cell-Derived Influenza H7N9 Vaccine Candidates in Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Yu-Fen; Weng, Tsai-Chuan; Lai, Chia-Chun; Lin, Jun-Yang; Chen, Po-Ling; Wang, Ya-Fang; Chao, Sin-Ru; Chang, Jui-Yuan; Hwang, Yi-Shiuh; Yeh, Chia-Tsui; Yu, Cheng-Ping; Chen, Yee-Chun; Su, Ih-Jen; Lee, Min-Shi

    2015-01-01

    Avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) viruses emerged as human pathogens in China in early 2013 and have killed >100 persons. Influenza vaccines are mainly manufactured using egg-based technology which could not meet the surging demand during influenza pandemics. In this study, we evaluated cell-based influenza H7N9 vaccines in ferrets. An egg-derived influenza H7N9 reassortant vaccine virus was adapted in MDCK cells. Influenza H7N9 whole virus vaccine antigen was manufactured using a microcarrier-based culture system. Immunogenicity and protection of the vaccine candidates with three different formulations (300μg aluminum hydroxide, 1.5μg HA, and 1.5μg HA plus 300μg aluminum hydroxide) were evaluated in ferrets. In ferrets receiving two doses of vaccination, geometric mean titers of hemagglutination (HA) inhibition and neutralizing antibodies were <10 and <40 for the control group (adjuvant only), 17 and 80 for the unadjuvanted (HA only) group, and 190 and 640 for the adjuvanted group (HA plus adjuvant), respectively. After challenge with wild-type influenza H7N9 viruses, virus titers in respiratory tracts of the adjuvanted group were significantly lower than that in the control, and unadjuvanted groups. MDCK cell-derived influenza H7N9 whole virus vaccine candidate is immunogenic and protective in ferrets and clinical development is highly warranted. PMID:25799397

  18. Radioresistance of cancer stem-like cell derived from canine tumours.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, A; Deguchi, T; Sato, T; Nemoto, Y; Maruo, T; Madarame, H; Shida, T; Naya, Y; Ogihara, K; Sahara, H

    2016-09-01

    Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are a small subpopulation of cancer cells that are responsible for the initiation, recurrence and metastasis of cancer. We previously demonstrated that, using the Hoechst 33342 dye-based side population technique, CSCs/CICs in canine lung adenocarcinoma cell line exist. In this study, as CSCs/CICs are known to form spheres in anchorage-independent environment in vitro, we evaluated the stemness of spheroid cells derived from canine lung adenocarcinoma and osteosarcoma cells by expression of stemness markers, and investigated radioresistance. Spheroid cells showed greater expression of stemness markers Oct-4 and CD133 gene than those of adherent-cultured cells. In nude mouse xenograft models, spheroid cells showed higher tumourigenic ability than adherent-cultured cells. In addition, spheroid cells showed significantly resistant against radioactivity as compared with adherent-cultured cells. These results suggest that spheroid cells could possess stemness and provide a CSCs/CICs research tool to investigate CSCs/CICs of canine tumour cells. PMID:25070729

  19. Tuft-cell-derived IL-25 regulates an intestinal ILC2–epithelial response circuit

    PubMed Central

    von Moltke, Jakob; Ji, Ming; Liang, Hong-Erh; Locksley, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic helminths and allergens induce a type 2 immune response leading to profound changes in tissue physiology, including hyperplasia of mucus-secreting goblet cells1 and smooth muscle hypercontractility2. This response, known as ‘weep and sweep’, requires interleukin (IL)-13 production by tissue-resident group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and recruited type 2 helper T cells (TH2 cells)3. Experiments in mice and humans have demonstrated requirements for the epithelial cytokines IL-33, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and IL-25 in the activation of ILC2s4–11, but the sources and regulation of these signals remain poorly defined. In the small intestine, the epithelium consists of at least five distinct cellular lineages12, including the tuft cell, whose function is unclear. Here we show that tuft cells constitutively express IL-25 to sustain ILC2 homeostasis in the resting lamina propria in mice. After helminth infection, tuft-cell-derived IL-25 further activates ILC2s to secrete IL-13, which acts on epithelial crypt progenitors to promote differentiation of tuft and goblet cells, leading to increased frequencies of both. Tuft cells, ILC2s and epithelial progenitors therefore comprise a response circuit that mediates epithelial remodelling associated with type 2 immunity in the small intestine, and perhaps at other mucosal barriers populated by these cells. PMID:26675736

  20. Transcriptional and Functional Profiling of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiaoyan; Fu, Ji-Dong; Drukker, Micha; Lee, Andrew; Li, Ronald A.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Weissman, Irving L.; Robbins, Robert C.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2008-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can serve as a potentially limitless source of cells that may enable regeneration of diseased tissue and organs. Here we investigate the use of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) in promoting recovery from cardiac ischemia reperfusion injury in a mouse model. Using microarrays, we have described the hESC-CM transcriptome within the spectrum of changes that occur between undifferentiated hESCs and fetal heart cells. The hESC-CMs expressed cardiomyocyte genes at levels similar to those found in 20-week fetal heart cells, making this population a good source of potential replacement cells in vivo. Echocardiographic studies showed significant improvement in heart function by 8 weeks after transplantation. Finally, we demonstrate long-term engraftment of hESC-CMs by using molecular imaging to track cellular localization, survival, and proliferation in vivo. Taken together, global gene expression profiling of hESC differentiation enables a systems-based analysis of the biological processes, networks, and genes that drive hESC fate decisions, and studies such as this will serve as the foundation for future clinical applications of stem cell therapies. PMID:18941512

  1. Modeling Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived-Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Maillet, Agnes; Tan, Kim; Chai, Xiaoran; Sadananda, Singh N.; Mehta, Ashish; Ooi, Jolene; Hayden, Michael R.; Pouladi, Mahmoud A.; Ghosh, Sujoy; Shim, Winston; Brunham, Liam R.

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin is a highly efficacious anti-cancer drug but causes cardiotoxicity in many patients. The mechanisms of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity (DIC) remain incompletely understood. We investigated the characteristics and molecular mechanisms of DIC in human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs). We found that doxorubicin causes dose-dependent increases in apoptotic and necrotic cell death, reactive oxygen species production, mitochondrial dysfunction and increased intracellular calcium concentration. We characterized genome-wide changes in gene expression caused by doxorubicin using RNA-seq, as well as electrophysiological abnormalities caused by doxorubicin with multi-electrode array technology. Finally, we show that CRISPR-Cas9-mediated disruption of TOP2B, a gene implicated in DIC in mouse studies, significantly reduces the sensitivity of hPSC-CMs to doxorubicin-induced double stranded DNA breaks and cell death. These data establish a human cellular model of DIC that recapitulates many of the cardinal features of this adverse drug reaction and could enable screening for protective agents against DIC as well as assessment of genetic variants involved in doxorubicin response. PMID:27142468

  2. Isolation and characterization of embryonic stem cell-derived cardiac Purkinje cells.

    PubMed

    Maass, Karen; Shekhar, Akshay; Lu, Jia; Kang, Guoxin; See, Fiona; Kim, Eugene E; Delgado, Camila; Shen, Steven; Cohen, Lisa; Fishman, Glenn I

    2015-04-01

    The cardiac Purkinje fiber network is composed of highly specialized cardiomyocytes responsible for the synchronous excitation and contraction of the ventricles. Computational modeling, experimental animal studies, and intracardiac electrical recordings from patients with heritable and acquired forms of heart disease suggest that Purkinje cells (PCs) may also serve as critical triggers of life-threatening arrhythmias. Nonetheless, owing to the difficulty in isolating and studying this rare population of cells, the precise role of PC in arrhythmogenesis and the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for their proarrhythmic behavior are not fully characterized. Conceptually, a stem cell-based model system might facilitate studies of PC-dependent arrhythmia mechanisms and serve as a platform to test novel therapeutics. Here, we describe the generation of murine embryonic stem cells (ESC) harboring pan-cardiomyocyte and PC-specific reporter genes. We demonstrate that the dual reporter gene strategy may be used to identify and isolate the rare ESC-derived PC (ESC-PC) from a mixed population of cardiogenic cells. ESC-PC display transcriptional signatures and functional properties, including action potentials, intracellular calcium cycling, and chronotropic behavior comparable to endogenous PC. Our results suggest that stem-cell derived PC are a feasible new platform for studies of developmental biology, disease pathogenesis, and screening for novel antiarrhythmic therapies. PMID:25524238

  3. Human pluripotent stem cell-derived neural constructs for predicting neural toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Michael P.; Hou, Zhonggang; Propson, Nicholas E.; Zhang, Jue; Engstrom, Collin J.; Costa, Vitor Santos; Jiang, Peng; Nguyen, Bao Kim; Bolin, Jennifer M.; Daly, William; Wang, Yu; Stewart, Ron; Page, C. David; Murphy, William L.; Thomson, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cell-based in vitro models that reflect human physiology have the potential to reduce the number of drug failures in clinical trials and offer a cost-effective approach for assessing chemical safety. Here, human embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived neural progenitor cells, endothelial cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and microglia/macrophage precursors were combined on chemically defined polyethylene glycol hydrogels and cultured in serum-free medium to model cellular interactions within the developing brain. The precursors self-assembled into 3D neural constructs with diverse neuronal and glial populations, interconnected vascular networks, and ramified microglia. Replicate constructs were reproducible by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and expressed neurogenesis, vasculature development, and microglia genes. Linear support vector machines were used to construct a predictive model from RNA-Seq data for 240 neural constructs treated with 34 toxic and 26 nontoxic chemicals. The predictive model was evaluated using two standard hold-out testing methods: a nearly unbiased leave-one-out cross-validation for the 60 training compounds and an unbiased blinded trial using a single hold-out set of 10 additional chemicals. The linear support vector produced an estimate for future data of 0.91 in the cross-validation experiment and correctly classified 9 of 10 chemicals in the blinded trial. PMID:26392547

  4. Accurate Prediction of Drug-Induced Liver Injury Using Stem Cell-Derived Populations

    PubMed Central

    Szkolnicka, Dagmara; Farnworth, Sarah L.; Lucendo-Villarin, Baltasar; Storck, Christopher; Zhou, Wenli; Iredale, John P.; Flint, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Despite major progress in the knowledge and management of human liver injury, there are millions of people suffering from chronic liver disease. Currently, the only cure for end-stage liver disease is orthotopic liver transplantation; however, this approach is severely limited by organ donation. Alternative approaches to restoring liver function have therefore been pursued, including the use of somatic and stem cell populations. Although such approaches are essential in developing scalable treatments, there is also an imperative to develop predictive human systems that more effectively study and/or prevent the onset of liver disease and decompensated organ function. We used a renewable human stem cell resource, from defined genetic backgrounds, and drove them through developmental intermediates to yield highly active, drug-inducible, and predictive human hepatocyte populations. Most importantly, stem cell-derived hepatocytes displayed equivalence to primary adult hepatocytes, following incubation with known hepatotoxins. In summary, we have developed a serum-free, scalable, and shippable cell-based model that faithfully predicts the potential for human liver injury. Such a resource has direct application in human modeling and, in the future, could play an important role in developing renewable cell-based therapies. PMID:24375539

  5. Paracrine Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Human Adipose Tissue in Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Linero, Itali; Chaparro, Orlando

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation has proved to be a promising strategy in cell therapy and regenerative medicine. Although their mechanism of action is not completely clear, it has been suggested that their therapeutic activity may be mediated by a paracrine effect. The main goal of this study was to evaluate by radiographic, morphometric and histological analysis the ability of mesenchymal stem cells derived from human adipose tissue (Ad-MSC) and their conditioned medium (CM), to repair surgical bone lesions using an in vivo model (rabbit mandibles). The results demonstrated that both, Ad-MSC and CM, induce bone regeneration in surgically created lesions in rabbit's jaws, suggesting that Ad-MSC improve the process of bone regeneration mainly by releasing paracrine factors. The evidence of the paracrine effect of MSC on bone regeneration has a major impact on regenerative medicine, and the use of their CM can address some issues and difficulties related to cell transplants. In particular, CM can be easily stored and transported, and is easier to handle by medical personnel during clinical procedures. PMID:25198551

  6. Mast cell-derived neurotrophin 4 mediates allergen-induced airway hyperinnervation in early life

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kruti R.; Aven, Linh; Shao, Fengzhi; Krishnamoorthy, Nandini; Duvall, Melody G.; Levy, Bruce D.; Ai, Xingbin

    2016-01-01

    Asthma often progresses from early episodes of insults. How early life events connect to long-term airway dysfunction remains poorly understood. We demonstrated previously that increased neurotrophin 4 (NT4) levels following early life allergen exposure cause persistent changes in airway smooth muscle (ASM) innervation and airway hyper-reactivity (AHR) in mice. Herein, we identify pulmonary mast cells as a key source of aberrant NT4 expression following early insults. NT4 is selectively expressed by ASM and mast cells in mice, nonhuman primates and humans. We show in mice that mast cell-derived NT4 is dispensable for ASM innervation during development. However, upon insults, mast cells expand in number and degranulate to release NT4 and thus become the major source of NT4 under pathological condition. Adoptive transfer of wild type mast cells, but not NT4−/− mast cells restores ASM hyperinnervation and AHR in KitW-sh/W-sh mice following early life insults. Notably, an infant nonhuman primate model of asthma also exhibits ASM hyperinnervation associated with the expansion and degranulation of mast cells. Together, these findings identify an essential role of mast cells in mediating ASM hyperinnervation following early life insults by producing NT4. This role may be evolutionarily conserved in linking early insults to long-term airway dysfunction. PMID:26860818

  7. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells: A leap toward personalized therapies.

    PubMed

    Whitt, Jason; Vallabhaneni, Krishna C; Penfornis, Patrice; Pochampally, Radhika

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal Stem/stromal cell (MSCs) transplantation procedures have been used since the 1960's to treat leukemia and other diseases, but due to the risks involved only patients with life threatening illnesses were typically subjected to the transplantation procedure until the last decade. Recent advancements in transplantation techniques have made it more feasible to use it for non-life-threatening diseases. However, the potential uses for stem cells are still limited by their rarity, and, in the case of allogeneic transplants, graft-vs.-host complications. An evolving alternative to conventional stem cell therapies is induced pluripotent stem-cell derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (iPSC- MSCs), which have a multi-lineage potential comparable to conventionally acquired MSCs with the added benefit of being less immunoreactive. However there are still many hurdles left to be overcome before they can be used regularly for personalized therapies. This review will focus on recent advancements that have been made regarding the role MSCs play in tumor development and the potential uses iPSC-MSCs may have in future cancer treatment. PMID:26423301

  8. Engraftment of embryonic stem cell-derived myogenic progenitors in a dominant model of muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Darabi, Radbod; Baik, June; Clee, Mark; Kyba, Michael; Tupler, Rossella; Perlingeiro, Rita C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Muscular dystrophies (MD) consist of a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders, recessive or dominant, characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakening. To date, no effective treatment is available. Experimental strategies pursuing muscle regeneration through the transplantation of stem cell preparations have brought hope to patients affected by this disorder. Efficacy has been demonstrated in recessive MD models through contribution of wild-type nuclei to the muscle fiber heterokaryon, however to date, there has been no study investigating the efficacy of a cell therapy in a dominant model of MD. We have recently demonstrated that Pax3-induced embryonic stem (ES) cell- derived myogenic progenitors are able to engraft and improve muscle function in mdx mice, a recessive mouse model for Duchenne MD. To assess whether this therapeutic effect can be extended to a dominant type of muscle disorder, here we transplanted these cells into FRG1 transgenic mice, a dominant model that has been associated with Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. Our results show that Pax3-induced ES-derived myogenic progenitors are capable of significant engraftment after intramuscular or systemic transplantation into Frg1 mice. Analyses of contractile parameters revealed functional improvement in treated muscles of male mice, but not females, which are less severely affected. This study is the first to use Frg1 transgenic mice to assess muscle regeneration as well as to support the use of a cell-based therapy for autosomal dominant types of MD. PMID:19682990

  9. Pathogen Sensing Pathways in Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived-Endothelial Cells: Role of NOD1 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Daniel M.; Foldes, Gabor; Gatheral, Timothy; Paschalaki, Koralia E.; Lendvai, Zsuzsanna; Bagyura, Zsolt; Nemeth, Tamas; Skopal, Judit; Merkely, Bela; Telcian, Aurica G.; Gogsadze, Leila; Edwards, Michael R.; Gough, Peter J.; Bertin, John; Johnston, Sebastian L.; Harding, Sian E.; Mitchell, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cell-derived endothelial cells (hESC-EC), as well as other stem cell derived endothelial cells, have a range of applications in cardiovascular research and disease treatment. Endothelial cells sense Gram-negative bacteria via the pattern recognition receptors (PRR) Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 and nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain-containing protein (NOD)-1. These pathways are important in terms of sensing infection, but TLR4 is also associated with vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. Here, we have compared TLR4 and NOD1 responses in hESC-EC with those of endothelial cells derived from other stem cells and with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). HUVEC, endothelial cells derived from blood progenitors (blood outgrowth endothelial cells; BOEC), and from induced pluripotent stem cells all displayed both a TLR4 and NOD1 response. However, hESC-EC had no TLR4 function, but did have functional NOD1 receptors. In vivo conditioning in nude rats did not confer TLR4 expression in hESC-EC. Despite having no TLR4 function, hESC-EC sensed Gram-negative bacteria, a response that was found to be mediated by NOD1 and the associated RIP2 signalling pathways. Thus, hESC-EC are TLR4 deficient but respond to bacteria via NOD1. This data suggests that hESC-EC may be protected from unwanted TLR4-mediated vascular inflammation, thus offering a potential therapeutic advantage. PMID:24690886

  10. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuron as a human model for testing environmentally induced developmental neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons as a human model for testing environmentally induced developmental neurotoxicity Ingrid L. Druwe1, Timothy J. Shafer2, Kathleen Wallace2, Pablo Valdivia3 ,and William R. Mundy2. 1University of North Carolina, Curriculum in Toxicology...

  11. A role for T cell-derived interleukin 22 in psoriatic skin inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Boniface, K; Guignouard, E; Pedretti, N; Garcia, M; Delwail, A; Bernard, F-X; Nau, F; Guillet, G; Dagregorio, G; Yssel, H; Lecron, J-C; Morel, F

    2007-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-22 is a T cell-derived cytokine that has been reported recently to induce cutaneous inflammation in an experimental murine model of psoriasis, and to induce in vitro an inflammatory-like phenotype. In the present study, we assessed the presence of IL-22 and the IL-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1) in skin lesions, skin-derived T cells, as well as IL-22 levels in sera from patients with psoriasis. IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 transcripts are expressed at a similar level in psoriatic and healthy skin. In contrast, IL-22 mRNA expression was up-regulated in psoriatic skin lesions compared to normal skin, whereas IL-22 mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from psoriatic patients and normal subjects were similar. Circulating IL-22 levels were significantly higher in psoriatic patients than in normal subjects. T cells isolated from psoriatic skin produced higher levels of IL-22 in comparison to peripheral T cells isolated from the same patients. IL-10 was expressed at similar levels in skin biopsies and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of psoriatic patients and normal subjects. Finally, we show here that supernatants of lesional psoriatic skin-infiltrating T cells induce an inflammatory response by normal human epidermal keratinocytes, resembling that observed in psoriatic lesions. Taken together, the results reported in this study indicate that IL-22 is a cytokine produced by skin-infiltrating lymphocytes that is potentially involved in initiation and/or maintenance of the pathogenesis of psoriasis. PMID:17900301

  12. Functionally Enhanced Human Stem Cell Derived Hepatocytes in Galactosylated Cellulosic Sponges for Hepatotoxicity Testing.

    PubMed

    Tasnim, Farah; Toh, Yi-Chin; Qu, Yinghua; Li, Huan; Phan, Derek; Narmada, Balakrishnan C; Ananthanarayanan, Abhishek; Mittal, Nikhil; Meng, Ryan Q; Yu, Hanry

    2016-06-01

    Pluripotent stem cell derived hepatocyte-like cells (hPSC-HLCs) are an attractive alternative to primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) used in applications ranging from therapeutics to drug safety testing studies. It would be critical to improve and maintain mature hepatocyte functions of the hPSC-HLCs, especially for long-term studies. If 3D culture systems were to be used for such purposes, it would be important that the system can support formation and maintenance of optimal-sized spheroids for long periods of time, and can also be directly deployed in liver drug testing assays. We report the use of 3-dimensional (3D) cellulosic scaffold system for the culture of hPSC-HLCs. The scaffold has a macroporous network which helps to control the formation and maintenance of the spheroids for weeks. Our results show that culturing hPSC-HLCs in 3D cellulosic scaffolds increases functionality, as demonstrated by improved urea production and hepatic marker expression. In addition, hPSC-HLCs in the scaffolds exhibit a more mature phenotype, as shown by enhanced cytochrome P450 activity and induction. This enables the system to show a higher sensitivity to hepatotoxicants and a higher degree of similarity to PHHs when compared to conventional 2D systems. These results suggest that 3D cellulosic scaffolds are ideal for the long-term cultures needed to mature hPSC-HLCs. The mature hPSC-HLCs with improved cellular function can be continually maintained in the scaffolds and directly used for hepatotoxicity assays, making this system highly attractive for drug testing applications. PMID:27157693

  13. Inflammation-induced endothelial cell-derived extracellular vesicles modulate the cellular status of pericytes.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Seiji; Niida, Shumpei; Azuma, Erika; Yanagibashi, Tsutomu; Muramatsu, Masashi; Huang, Ting Ting; Sagara, Hiroshi; Higaki, Sayuri; Ikutani, Masashi; Nagai, Yoshinori; Takatsu, Kiyoshi; Miyazaki, Kenji; Hamashima, Takeru; Mori, Hisashi; Matsuda, Naoyuki; Ishii, Yoko; Sasahara, Masakiyo

    2015-01-01

    Emerging lines of evidence have shown that extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate cell-to-cell communication by exporting encapsulated materials, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), to target cells. Endothelial cell-derived EVs (E-EVs) are upregulated in circulating blood in different pathological conditions; however, the characteristics and the role of these E-EVs are not yet well understood. In vitro studies were conducted to determine the role of inflammation-induced E-EVs in the cell-to-cell communication between vascular endothelial cells and pericytes/vSMCs. Stimulation with inflammatory cytokines and endotoxin immediately induced release of shedding type E-EVs from the vascular endothelial cells, and flow cytometry showed that the induction was dose dependent. MiRNA array analyses revealed that group of miRNAs were specifically increased in the inflammation-induced E-EVs. E-EVs added to the culture media of cerebrovascular pericytes were incorporated into the cells. The E-EV-supplemented cells showed highly induced mRNA and protein expression of VEGF-B, which was assumed to be a downstream target of the miRNA that was increased within the E-EVs after inflammatory stimulation. The results suggest that E-EVs mediate inflammation-induced endothelial cell-pericyte/vSMC communication, and the miRNAs encapsulated within the E-EVs may play a role in regulating target cell function. E-EVs may be new therapeutic targets for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25687367

  14. Inhibition of pluripotent stem cell-derived teratoma formation by small molecules.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Ok; Moon, Sung Hwan; Jeong, Ho-Chang; Yi, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Tae-Hee; Shim, Sung Han; Rhee, Yong-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hun; Oh, Seok-Jeong; Lee, Moo-Yeol; Han, Min-Joon; Cho, Yee Sook; Chung, Hyung-Min; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Cha, Hyuk-Jin

    2013-08-27

    The future of safe cell-based therapy rests on overcoming teratoma/tumor formation, in particular when using human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), such as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Because the presence of a few remaining undifferentiated hPSCs can cause undesirable teratomas after transplantation, complete removal of these cells with no/minimal damage to differentiated cells is a prerequisite for clinical application of hPSC-based therapy. Having identified a unique hESC signature of pro- and antiapoptotic gene expression profile, we hypothesized that targeting hPSC-specific antiapoptotic factor(s) (i.e., survivin or Bcl10) represents an efficient strategy to selectively eliminate pluripotent cells with teratoma potential. Here we report the successful identification of small molecules that can effectively inhibit these antiapoptotic factors, leading to selective and efficient removal of pluripotent stem cells through apoptotic cell death. In particular, a single treatment of hESC-derived mixed population with chemical inhibitors of survivin (e.g., quercetin or YM155) induced selective and complete cell death of undifferentiated hPSCs. In contrast, differentiated cell types (e.g., dopamine neurons and smooth-muscle cells) derived from hPSCs survived well and maintained their functionality. We found that quercetin-induced selective cell death is caused by mitochondrial accumulation of p53 and is sufficient to prevent teratoma formation after transplantation of hESC- or hiPSC-derived cells. Taken together, these results provide the "proof of concept" that small-molecule targeting of hPSC-specific antiapoptotic pathway(s) is a viable strategy to prevent tumor formation by selectively eliminating remaining undifferentiated pluripotent cells for safe hPSC-based therapy. PMID:23918355

  15. The nature of activatory and tolerogenic dendritic cell-derived signal II

    PubMed Central

    Bakdash, Ghaith; Sittig, Simone P.; van Dijk, Tjeerd; Figdor, Carl G.; de Vries, I. Jolanda M.

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are central in maintaining the intricate balance between immunity and tolerance by orchestrating adaptive immune responses. Being the most potent antigen presenting cells, DCs are capable of educating naïve T cells into a wide variety of effector cells ranging from immunogenic CD4+ T helper cells and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells to tolerogenic regulatory T cells. This education is based on three fundamental signals. Signal I, which is mediated by antigen/major histocompatibility complexes binding to antigen-specific T cell receptors, guarantees antigen specificity. The co-stimulatory signal II, mediated by B7 family molecules, is crucial for the expansion of the antigen-specific T cells. The final step is T cell polarization by signal III, which is conveyed by DC-derived cytokines and determines the effector functions of the emerging T cell. Although co-stimulation is widely recognized to result from the engagement of T cell-derived CD28 with DC-expressed B7 molecules (CD80/CD86), other co-stimulatory pathways have been identified. These pathways can be divided into two groups based on their impact on primed T cells. Whereas pathways delivering activatory signals to T cells are termed co-stimulatory pathways, pathways delivering tolerogenic signals to T cells are termed co-inhibitory pathways. In this review, we discuss how the nature of DC-derived signal II determines the quality of ensuing T cell responses and eventually promoting either immunity or tolerance. A thorough understanding of this process is instrumental in determining the underlying mechanism of disorders demonstrating distorted immunity/tolerance balance, and would help innovating new therapeutic approaches for such disorders. PMID:23450201

  16. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) as a target in liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Liepelt, Anke; Tacke, Frank

    2016-08-01

    The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) or CXCL12 is constitutively expressed in healthy liver. However, its expression increases following acute or chronic liver injury. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC), hepatic stellate cells (HSC), and malignant hepatocytes are important sources of SDF-1/CXCL12 in liver diseases. CXCL12 is able to activate two chemokine receptors with different downstream signaling pathways, CXCR4 and CXCR7. CXCR7 expression is relevant on LSEC, while HSC, mesenchymal stem cells, and tumor cells mainly respond via CXCR4. Here, we summarize recent developments in the field of liver diseases involving this chemokine and its receptors. SDF-1-dependent signaling contributes to modulating acute liver injury and subsequent tissue regeneration. By activating HSC and recruiting mesenchymal cells from bone marrow, CXCL12 can promote liver fibrosis progression, while CXCL12-CXCR7 interactions endorse proregenerative responses in chronic injury. Moreover, the SDF-1 pathway is linked to development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by promoting tumor growth, angiogenesis, and HCC metastasis. High hepatic CXCR4 expression has been suggested as a biomarker indicating poor prognosis of HCC patients. Tumor-infiltrating myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) also express CXCR4 and migrate toward CXCL12. Thus CXCL12 inhibition might not only directly block HCC growth but also modulate the tumor microenvironment (angiogenesis, MDSC), thereby sensitizing HCC patients to conventional or emerging novel cancer therapies (e.g., sorafenib, regorafenib, nivolumab, pembrolizumab). We herein summarize the current knowledge on the complex interplay between CXCL12 and CXCR4/CXCR7 in liver diseases and discuss approaches on the therapeutic targeting of these axes in hepatitis, fibrosis, and liver cancer. PMID:27313175

  17. Bioactive cell-derived matrices combined with polymer mesh scaffold for osteogenesis and bone healing.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Gul; Hwang, Mintai P; Du, Ping; Ko, Jaehoon; Ha, Chul-won; Do, Sun Hee; Park, Kwideok

    2015-05-01

    Successful bone tissue engineering generally requires an osteoconductive scaffold that consists of extracellular matrix (ECM) to mimic the natural environment. In this study, we developed a PLGA/PLA-based mesh scaffold coated with cell-derived extracellular matrix (CDM) for the delivery of bone morphogenic protein (BMP-2), and assessed the capacity of this system to provide an osteogenic microenvironment. Decellularized ECM from human lung fibroblasts (hFDM) was coated onto the surface of the polymer mesh scaffolds, upon which heparin was then conjugated onto hFDM via EDC chemistry. BMP-2 was subsequently immobilized onto the mesh scaffolds via heparin, and released at a controlled rate. Human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPMSCs) were cultured in such scaffolds and subjected to osteogenic differentiation for 28 days in vitro. The results showed that alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mineralization, and osteogenic marker expression were significantly improved with hPMSCs cultured in the hFDM-coated mesh scaffolds compared to the control and fibronectin-coated ones. In addition, a mouse ectopic and rat calvarial bone defect model was used to examine the feasibility of current platform to induce osteogenesis as well as bone regeneration. All hFDM-coated mesh groups exhibited a significant increase of newly formed bone and in particular, hFDM-coated mesh scaffold loaded with a high dose of BMP-2 exhibited a nearly complete bone defect healing as confirmed via micro-CT and histological observation. This work proposes a great potency of using hFDM (biophysical) coupled with BMP-2 (biochemical) as a promising osteogenic microenvironment for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:25736498

  18. A novel broadband impedance method for detection of cell-derived microparticles

    PubMed Central

    Lvovich, Vadim; Srikanthan, Sowmya; Silverstein, Roy L.

    2010-01-01

    A novel label-free method is presented to detect and quantify cell-derived microparticles (MPs) by the electrochemical potential-modulated electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). MPs are present in elevated concentrations during pathological conditions and play a major role in the establishment and pathogenesis of many diseases. Considering this, accurate detection and quantification of MPs is very important in clinical diagnostics and therapeutics. A combination of bulk solution electrokinetic sorting and interfacial impedance responses allows achieving detection limits as low as several MPs per µL. By fitting resulting EIS spectra with an equivalent electrical circuit, the bulk solution electrokinetic and interfacial impedance responses were characterized. In the bulk solution two major relaxations were prominent - β-relaxation in low MHz region due to the MP capacitive membrane bridging, and α-relaxation at ∼ 10 kHz due to counter ions diffusion. At low frequencies (10-0.1 Hz) at electrochemical potentials exceeding −100 mV, a facile interfacial Faradaic process of oxidation in MPs coupled with diffusion and non Faradaic double layer charging dominate, probably due to oxidation of phospholipids and/or proteins on the MP surface and MP lysis. Buffer influence on the MP detection demonstrated that that a relatively low conductivity Tyrode’s buffer background solution is preferential for the MP electrokinetic separation and characterization. This study also demonstrated that standard laboratory methods such as flow cytometry underestimate MP concentrations, especially those with smaller average sizes, by as much as a factor of 2 to 40. PMID:20729061

  19. Dendritic cell-derived exosomes as maintenance immunotherapy after first line chemotherapy in NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Besse, Benjamin; Charrier, Mélinda; Lapierre, Valérie; Dansin, Eric; Lantz, Olivier; Planchard, David; Le Chevalier, Thierry; Livartoski, Alain; Barlesi, Fabrice; Laplanche, Agnès; Ploix, Stéphanie; Vimond, Nadège; Peguillet, Isabelle; Théry, Clotilde; Lacroix, Ludovic; Zoernig, Inka; Dhodapkar, Kavita; Dhodapkar, Madhav; Viaud, Sophie; Soria, Jean-Charles; Reiners, Katrin S.; Pogge von Strandmann, Elke; Vély, Frédéric; Rusakiewicz, Sylvie; Eggermont, Alexander; Pitt, Jonathan M.; Zitvogel, Laurence; Chaput, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dendritic cell-derived exosomes (Dex) are small extracellular vesicles secreted by viable dendritic cells. In the two phase-I trials that we conducted using the first generation of Dex (IFN-γ-free) in end-stage cancer, we reported that Dex exerted natural killer (NK) cell effector functions in patients. A second generation of Dex (IFN-γ-Dex) was manufactured with the aim of boosting NK and T cell immune responses. We carried out a phase II clinical trial testing the clinical benefit of IFN-γ-Dex loaded with MHC class I- and class II-restricted cancer antigens as maintenance immunotherapy after induction chemotherapy in patients bearing inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) without tumor progression. The primary endpoint was to observe at least 50% of patients with progression-free survival (PFS) at 4 mo after chemotherapy cessation. Twenty-two patients received IFN-γ-Dex. One patient exhibited a grade three hepatotoxicity. The median time to progression was 2.2 mo and median overall survival (OS) was 15 mo. Seven patients (32%) experienced stabilization of >4 mo. The primary endpoint was not reached. An increase in NKp30-dependent NK cell functions were evidenced in a fraction of these NSCLC patients presenting with defective NKp30 expression. Importantly, MHC class II expression levels of the final IFN-γ-Dex product correlated with expression levels of the NKp30 ligand BAG6 on Dex, and with NKp30-dependent NK functions, the latter being associated with longer progression-free survival. This phase II trial confirmed the capacity of Dex to boost the NK cell arm of antitumor immunity in patients with advanced NSCLC. PMID:27141373

  20. Ceruloplasmin copper induces oxidant damage by a redox process utilizing cell-derived superoxide as reductant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, C. K.; Fox, P. L.

    1998-01-01

    Oxidative damage by transition metals bound to proteins may be an important pathogenic mechanism. Ceruloplasmin (Cp) is a Cu-containing plasma protein thought to be involved in oxidative modification of lipoproteins. We have previously shown that Cp increased cell-mediated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation by a process requiring cell-derived superoxide, but the underlying chemical mechanism(s) is (are) unknown. We now show that superoxide reduction of Cp Cu is a critical reaction in cellular LDL oxidation. By bathocuproine disulfonate (BCS) binding and by superoxide utilization, we showed that exogenous superoxide reduces a single Cp Cu atom, the same Cu required for LDL oxidation. The Cu atom remained bound to Cp during the redox cycle. Three avenues of evidence showed that vascular cells reduce Cp Cu by a superoxide-dependent process. The 2-fold higher rate of Cp Cu reduction by smooth muscle cells (SMC) compared to endothelial cells (EC) was consistent with their relative rates of superoxide release. Furthermore, Cp Cu reduction by cells was blocked by Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Finally, the level of superoxide produced by EC and SMC was sufficient to cause the amount of Cu reduction observed. An important role of Cp Cu reduction in LDL oxidation was suggested by results showing that SOD1 inhibited Cp Cu reduction and LDL oxidation by SMC with equal potency, while tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulated both processes. In summary, these results show that superoxide is a critical cellular reductant of divalent transition metals involved in oxidation, and that protein-bound Cu is a substrate for this reaction. The role of these mechanisms in oxidative processes in vivo has yet to be defined.

  1. Stem cell-derived motor neurons from spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy patients.

    PubMed

    Grunseich, Christopher; Zukosky, Kristen; Kats, Ilona R; Ghosh, Laboni; Harmison, George G; Bott, Laura C; Rinaldi, Carlo; Chen, Ke-lian; Chen, Guibin; Boehm, Manfred; Fischbeck, Kenneth H

    2014-10-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA, Kennedy's disease) is a motor neuron disease caused by polyglutamine repeat expansion in the androgen receptor. Although degeneration occurs in the spinal cord and muscle, the exact mechanism is not clear. Induced pluripotent stem cells from spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy patients provide a useful model for understanding the disease mechanism and designing effective therapy. Stem cells were generated from six patients and compared to control lines from three healthy individuals. Motor neurons from four patients were differentiated from stem cells and characterized to understand disease-relevant phenotypes. Stem cells created from patient fibroblasts express less androgen receptor than control cells, but show androgen-dependent stabilization and nuclear translocation. The expanded repeat in several stem cell clones was unstable, with either expansion or contraction. Patient stem cell clones produced a similar number of motor neurons compared to controls, with or without androgen treatment. The stem cell-derived motor neurons had immunoreactivity for HB9, Isl1, ChAT, and SMI-32, and those with the largest repeat expansions were found to have increased acetylated α-tubulin and reduced HDAC6. Reduced HDAC6 was also found in motor neuron cultures from two other patients with shorter repeats. Evaluation of stably transfected mouse cells and SBMA spinal cord showed similar changes in acetylated α-tubulin and HDAC6. Perinuclear lysosomal enrichment, an HDAC6 dependent process, was disrupted in motor neurons from two patients with the longest repeats. SBMA stem cells present new insights into the disease, and the observations of reduced androgen receptor levels, repeat instability, and reduced HDAC6 provide avenues for further investigation of the disease mechanism and development of effective therapy. PMID:24925468

  2. The isolation of cell derived extracellular matrix constructs using sacrificial open-cell foams.

    PubMed

    Wolchok, Jeffrey C; Tresco, Patrick A

    2010-12-01

    Extracellular matrix derived from human and animal tissues is being used to repair and reconstruct a variety of tissues clinically. The utility of such constructs is limited by the geometry, composition and constitutive properties of the tissue or organ from which the ECM is harvested. To address this limitation, we have developed an approach to isolate extracellular matrix in bulk from populations of living cells grown in culture on three-dimensional substrates. Human biopsy derived fibroblasts were seeded within open-cell foams and cultured in-vitro for periods up to three weeks, after which the synthetic component was removed by incubation in a water miscible solvent. After several wash steps and lyophilization, a white, lacy, multi-molecular construct was isolated. Tandem mass spectroscopy showed that it contained 22 extracellular matrix constituents, including such proteins and proteoglycans as collagen type I and type III, fibronectin, transforming growth factor beta, decorin and biglycan among others. On average 47 mg of construct was isolated for each gram of synthetic substrate initially seeded with cells. The biomaterial harvested from human tracheal fibroblasts had an elastic modulus (250 kPa) and a composition similar to that of human vocal fold tissue, and supported reseeding with human tracheal derived fibroblasts. An important finding was that the approach was useful in isolating ECM from a variety of cell lineages and developmental stages including skin fibroblasts, brain derived astrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells. The results, together with the archival literature, suggest that the approach can be used to produce a range of cell derived constructs with unique physical and chemical attributes for a variety of research and medical applications. PMID:20950855

  3. Exposure to Phthalates Affects Calcium Handling and Intercellular Connectivity of Human Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Posnack, Nikki Gillum; Idrees, Rabia; Ding, Hao; Jaimes III, Rafael; Stybayeva, Gulnaz; Karabekian, Zaruhi; Laflamme, Michael A.; Sarvazyan, Narine

    2015-01-01

    Background The pervasive nature of plastics has raised concerns about the impact of continuous exposure to plastic additives on human health. Of particular concern is the use of phthalates in the production of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products. Di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP) is a commonly used phthalate ester plasticizer that imparts flexibility and elasticity to PVC products. Recent epidemiological studies have reported correlations between urinary phthalate concentrations and cardiovascular disease, including an increased risk of high blood pressure and coronary risk. Yet, there is little direct evidence linking phthalate exposure to adverse effects in human cells, including cardiomyocytes. Methods and Results The effect of DEHP on calcium handling was examined using monolayers of gCAMP3 human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes, which contain an endogenous calcium sensor. Cardiomyocytes were exposed to DEHP (5 – 50 μg/mL), and calcium transients were recorded using a Zeiss confocal imaging system. DEHP exposure (24 – 72 hr) had a negative chronotropic and inotropic effect on cardiomyocytes, increased the minimum threshold voltage required for external pacing, and modified connexin-43 expression. Application of Wy-14,643 (100 μM), an agonist for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, did not replicate DEHP’s effects on calcium transient morphology or spontaneous beating rate. Conclusions Phthalates can affect the normal physiology of human cardiomyocytes, including DEHP elicited perturbations in cardiac calcium handling and intercellular connectivity. Our findings call for additional studies to clarify the extent by which phthalate exposure can alter cardiac function, particularly in vulnerable patient populations who are at risk for high phthalate exposure. PMID:25799571

  4. Pharmacoelectrophysiology of viral-free induced pluripotent stem cell-derived human cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Ashish; Chung, YingYing; Sequiera, Glen Lester; Wong, Philip; Liew, Reginald; Shim, Winston

    2013-02-01

    Development of pharmaceutical agents for cardiac indication demands elaborate safety screening in which assessing repolarization of cardiac cells remains a critical path in risk evaluations. An efficient platform for evaluating cardiac repolarization in vitro significantly facilitates drug developmental programs. In a proof of principle study, we examined the effect of antiarrhythmogenic drugs (Vaughan Williams class I-IV) and noncardiac active drugs (terfenadine and cisapride) on the repolarization profile of viral-free human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs). Extracellular field potential (FP) recording using microelectrode arrays demonstrated significant delayed repolarization as prolonged corrected FP durations (cFPDs) by class I (quinidine and flecainide), class III (sotalol and amiodarone), and class IV (verapamil), whereas class II drugs (propranolol and nadolol) had no effects. Consistent with their sodium channel-blocking ability, class I drugs also significantly reduced FPmin and conduction velocity. Although lidocaine (class IB) had no effects on cFPDs, verapamil shortened cFPD and FPmin by 25 and 50%, respectively. Furthermore, verapamil reduced beating frequencies drastically. Importantly, the examined drugs exhibited dose-response curve on prolongation of cFPDs at an effective range that correlated significantly with therapeutic plasma concentrations achieved clinically. Consistent with clinical outcomes, drug-induced arrhythmia of tachycardia and bigeminy-like waveforms by quinidine, flecainide, and sotalol was demonstrated at supraphysiological concentrations. Furthermore, off-target effects of terfenadine and cisapride on cFPD and Na( + ) channel blockage were similarly revealed. These results suggest that hiPSC-CMs may be useful for safety evaluation of cardioactive and noncardiac acting drugs for personalized medicine. PMID:23091167

  5. Insulin - producing cells derived from stem cells: recent progress and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Santana, A; Enseñat - Waser, R; Arribas, Maria Isabel; Reig, J A; Roche, E

    2006-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is characterized by the selective destruction of pancreatic β-cells caused by an autoimmune attack. Type 2 diabetes is a more complex pathology which, in addition to β-cell loss caused by apoptotic programs, includes β-cell dedifferentiation and peripheric insulin resistance. β-Cells are responsible for insulin production, storage and secretion in accordance to the demanding concentrations of glucose and fatty acids. The absence of insulin results in death and therefore diabetic patients require daily injections of the hormone for survival. However, they cannot avoid the appearance of secondary complications affecting the peripheral nerves as well as the eyes, kidneys and cardiovascular system. These afflictions are caused by the fact that external insulin injection does not mimic the tight control that pancreaticderived insulin secretion exerts on the body’s glycemia. Restoration of damaged β-cells by transplantation from exogenous sources or by endocrine pancreas regeneration would be ideal therapeutic options. In this context, stem cells of both embryonic and adult origin (including β-cell/islet progenitors) offer some interesting alternatives, taking into account the recent data indicating that these cells could be the building blocks from which insulin secreting cells could be generated in vitro under appropriate culture conditions. Although in many cases insulin-producing cells derived from stem cells have been shown to reverse experimentally induced diabetes in animal models, several concerns need to be solved before finding a definite medical application. These refer mainly to the obtainment of a cell population as similar as possible to pancreatic β-cells, and to the problems related with the immune compatibility and tumor formation. This review will summarize the different approaches that have been used to obtain insulin-producing cells from embryonic and adult stem cells, and the main problems that hamper the clinical

  6. Targeting eradication of malignant cells derived from human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yingbin; Cai, Shaoxi; Yang, Li; Yu, Shuhui; Jiang, Jiahuan; Yan, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Haoxing; Liu, Lan; Liu, Qun; Du, Jun; Cai, Shaohui; Sung, K.L. Paul

    2010-12-10

    Human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSC) have been shown to participate in malignant transformation. However, hampered by the low frequency of malignant transformation of hBMSC, we do not yet know how to prevent malignant transformation of implanted hBMSC. In this study, in order to establish a model for the eradication of hBMSC-derived malignant cells, a gene fusion consisting of a human telomerase (hTERT) promoter modified with both c-Myc and myeloid zinc finger protein2 (MZF-2) binding elements and followed by the E. coli cytosine deaminase (CD) and luciferase genes was stably transferred into hBMSC via lentiviral transduction; n-phosphonacelyl-L-aspartic acid (PALA) selection was used to generate malignant cell colonies derived from transduced hBMSC after treatment with the carcinogenic reagent BPDE. Cells that were amplified after PALA selection were used for transplantation and 5-FC pro-drug cytotoxicity tests. The results showed that PALA-resistant malignant cells could be generated from hBMSC co-induced with lentiviral transduction and treatment with Benzo(a)pyrene Diol Epoxide (BPDE); the modification of c-Myc and MZF-2 binding elements could remarkably enhance the transcriptional activities of the hTERT promoter in malignant cells, whereas transcriptional activity was depressed in normal hBMSC; malignant cells stably expressing CD under the control of the modified hTERT promoter could be eliminated by 5-FC administration. This study has provided a method for targeted eradication of malignant cells derived from hBMSC.

  7. Analysis of Signaling Endosome Composition and Dynamics Using SILAC in Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neurons*

    PubMed Central

    Debaisieux, Solène; Encheva, Vesela; Chakravarty, Probir; Snijders, Ambrosius P.; Schiavo, Giampietro

    2016-01-01

    Neurons require efficient transport mechanisms such as fast axonal transport to ensure neuronal homeostasis and survival. Neurotrophins and their receptors are conveyed via fast axonal retrograde transport of signaling endosomes to the soma, where they elicit transcriptional responses. Despite the essential roles of signaling endosomes in neuronal differentiation and survival, little is known about their molecular identity, dynamics, and regulation. Gaining a better mechanistic understanding of these organelles and their kinetics is crucial, given the growing evidence linking vesicular trafficking deficits to neurodegeneration. Here, we exploited an affinity purification strategy using the binding fragment of tetanus neurotoxin (HCT) conjugated to monocrystalline iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs), which in motor neurons, is transported in the same carriers as neurotrophins and their receptors. To quantitatively assess the molecular composition of HCT-containing signaling endosomes, we have developed a protocol for triple Stable Isotope Labeling with Amino acids in Cell culture (SILAC) in embryonic stem cell-derived motor neurons. After HCT internalization, retrograde carriers were magnetically isolated at different time points and subjected to mass-spectrometry and Gene Ontology analyses. This purification strategy is highly specific, as confirmed by the presence of essential regulators of fast axonal transport in the make-up of these organelles. Our results indicate that signaling endosomes undergo a rapid maturation with the acquisition of late endosome markers following a specific time-dependent kinetics. Strikingly, signaling endosomes are specifically enriched in proteins known to be involved in neurodegenerative diseases and neuroinfection. Moreover, we highlighted the presence of novel components, whose precise temporal recruitment on signaling endosomes might be essential for proper sorting and/or transport of these organelles. This study provides the first

  8. Slow conduction in mixed cultured strands of primary ventricular cells and stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kucera, Jan P.; Prudat, Yann; Marcu, Irene C.; Azzarito, Michela; Ullrich, Nina D.

    2015-01-01

    Modern concepts for the treatment of myocardial diseases focus on novel cell therapeutic strategies involving stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (SCMs). However, functional integration of SCMs requires similar electrophysiological properties as primary cardiomyocytes (PCMs) and the ability to establish intercellular connections with host myocytes in order to contribute to the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart. The aim of this project was to investigate the properties of cardiac conduction in a co-culture approach using SCMs and PCMs in cultured cell strands. Murine embryonic SCMs were pooled with fetal ventricular cells and seeded in predefined proportions on microelectrode arrays to form patterned strands of mixed cells. Conduction velocity (CV) was measured during steady state pacing. SCM excitability was estimated from action potentials measured in single cells using the patch clamp technique. Experiments were complemented with computer simulations of conduction using a detailed model of cellular architecture in mixed cell strands. CV was significantly lower in strands composed purely of SCMs (5.5 ± 1.5 cm/s, n = 11) as compared to PCMs (34.9 ± 2.9 cm/s, n = 21) at similar refractoriness (100% SCMs: 122 ± 25 ms, n = 9; 100% PCMs: 139 ± 67 ms, n = 14). In mixed strands combining both cell types, CV was higher than in pure SCMs strands, but always lower than in 100% PCM strands. Computer simulations demonstrated that both intercellular coupling and electrical excitability limit CV. These data provide evidence that in cultures of murine ventricular cardiomyocytes, SCMs cannot restore CV to control levels resulting in slow conduction, which may lead to reentry circuits and arrhythmias. PMID:26442264

  9. Effects of cardioactive drugs on human induced pluripotent stem cell derived long QT syndrome cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Kuusela, Jukka; Kujala, Ville J; Kiviaho, Anna; Ojala, Marisa; Swan, Heikki; Kontula, Kimmo; Aalto-Setälä, Katriina

    2016-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) have enabled a major step forward in pathophysiologic studies of inherited diseases and may also prove to be valuable in in vitro drug testing. Long QT syndrome (LQTS), characterized by prolonged cardiac repolarization and risk of sudden death, may be inherited or result from adverse drug effects. Using a microelectrode array platform, we investigated the effects of six different drugs on the electrophysiological characteristics of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes as well as hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes from control subjects and from patients with type 1 (LQT1) and type 2 (LQT2) of LQTS. At baseline the repolarization time was significantly longer in LQTS cells compared to controls. Isoprenaline increased the beating rate of all cell lines by 10-73 % but did not show any arrhythmic effects in any cell type. Different QT-interval prolonging drugs caused prolongation of cardiac repolarization by 3-13 % (cisapride), 10-20 % (erythromycin), 8-23 % (sotalol), 16-42 % (quinidine) and 12-27 % (E-4031), but we did not find any systematic differences in sensitivity between the control, LQT1 and LQT2 cell lines. Sotalol, quinidine and E-4031 also caused arrhythmic beats and beating arrests in some cases. In summary, the drug effects on these patient-specific cardiomyocytes appear to recapitulate clinical observations and provide further evidence that these cells can be applied for in vitro drug testing to probe their vulnerability to arrhythmia. PMID:27026928

  10. Body Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  11. Stem cell-derived angiogenic/vasculogenic cells: possible therapies for tissue repair and tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zwaginga, J J; Doevendans, P

    2003-11-01

    1. The recent ability to isolate stem cells and study their specific capacity of self-renewal with the formation of different cell types has opened up exciting vistas to help the repair of damaged tissue and even the formation of new tissue. In the present review, we deal with the characteristics and sources that stem cells can be derived and cultured from. 2. We focus on the role that stem cell-derived vascular cells or endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) may play in (re)vascularization of ischaemic and engineered tissues. This so-called vasculogenesis resembles the embryological process in which 'haemangioblasts' differentiate in blood cells, as well as in primitive vessels. Although also derived from the blood-forming bone marrow, in adult life vasculogenic stem cells contribute only little to the regular vascular repair mechanisms: namely (i) angiogenesis (outgrowth of vessels from existing vessels); and (ii) arteriogenesis (monocyte-aided increase in the calibre of existing arteriolar collaterals). 3. Most attempts to increase vascular repair by stem cells involve the use of growth factors, which mobilize stem cells from bone marrow into the blood, sometimes combined with isolation and reinfusion of these cells after ex vivo expansion and differentiation into EPC. 4. Clear improved perfusion of ischaemic sites and new vasculature has been observed in vivo mostly in animal models. Specific homing or administration of these cells and regulated and quantitative expansion and (final) differentiation at these vascular (repair) sites are less studied, but are paramount for efficacy and safety. 5. In conclusion, the use of embryonic stem cells will still encounter ethical objections. Moreover, special attention and measures are needed to cope with the allogeneic barriers that these cells usually encounter. In general, the long and complicated ex vivo cultures to obtain sufficient offspring from the very small numbers of stem cells that can be obtained as starting

  12. Endothelial cells derived from embryonic stem cells respond to cues from topographical surface patterns

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The generation of micro- and nano-topography similar to those found in the extra cellular matrix of three-dimensional tissues is one technique used to recapitulate the cell-tissue physiology found in the native tissues. Despite the fact that ample studies have been conducted on the physiological significance of endothelial cells alignment parallel to shear stress, as this is the normal physiologic arrangement for healthy arterial EC, very few studies have examined the use of topographical signals to initiate endothelial cell alignment. Here, we have examined the ability for our mouse embryonic stem cell-derived endothelial cells (ESC-EC) to align on various microchip topographical systems. Briefly, we generated metal molds with ‘wrinkled’ topography using 1) 15 nm and 2) 30 nm of gold coating on the pre-strained polystryene (PS) sheets. After thermal-induced shrinkage of the PS sheets, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchips were then generated from the wrinkled molds. Using similar Shrink™-based technology, 3) larger selectively crazed acetone-etched lines in the PS sheets, and 4) fully crazed acetone-treated PS sheets of stochastic topographical morphology were also generated. The 15 nm and 30 nm gold coating generated ‘wrinkles’ of uniaxial anisotropic channels at nano-scaled widths while the crazing generated micron-sized channels. The ESC-EC were able to respond and align on the 320 nm, 510 nm, and the acetone-etched 10.5 μm channels, but not on the fully ‘crazed’ topographies. Moreover, the ESC-EC aligned most robustly on the wrinkles, and preferentially to ridge edges on the 10.5 μm-sized channels. The ability to robustly align EC on topographical surfaces enables a variety of controlled physiological studies of EC-EC and EC-ECM contact guidance, as well as having potential applications for the rapid endothelialization of stents and vascular grafts. PMID:23819656

  13. Human iPS cell-derived astrocyte transplants preserve respiratory function after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Javed, Elham; Scura, Daniel; Hala, Tamara J; Seetharam, Suneil; Falnikar, Aditi; Richard, Jean-Philippe; Chorath, Ashley; Maragakis, Nicholas J; Wright, Megan C; Lepore, Angelo C

    2015-09-01

    Transplantation-based replacement of lost and/or dysfunctional astrocytes is a promising therapy for spinal cord injury (SCI) that has not been extensively explored, despite the integral roles played by astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS). Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are a clinically-relevant source of pluripotent cells that both avoid ethical issues of embryonic stem cells and allow for homogeneous derivation of mature cell types in large quantities, potentially in an autologous fashion. Despite their promise, the iPS cell field is in its infancy with respect to evaluating in vivo graft integration and therapeutic efficacy in SCI models. Astrocytes express the major glutamate transporter, GLT1, which is responsible for the vast majority of glutamate uptake in spinal cord. Following SCI, compromised GLT1 expression/function can increase susceptibility to excitotoxicity. We therefore evaluated intraspinal transplantation of human iPS cell-derived astrocytes (hIPSAs) following cervical contusion SCI as a novel strategy for reconstituting GLT1 expression and for protecting diaphragmatic respiratory neural circuitry. Transplant-derived cells showed robust long-term survival post-injection and efficiently differentiated into astrocytes in injured spinal cord of both immunesuppressed mice and rats. However, the majority of transplant-derived astrocytes did not express high levels of GLT1, particularly at early times post-injection. To enhance their ability to modulate extracellular glutamate levels, we engineered hIPSAs with lentivirus to constitutively express GLT1. Overexpression significantly increased GLT1 protein and functional GLT1-mediated glutamate uptake levels in hIPSAs both in vitro and in vivo post-transplantation. Compared to human fibroblast control and unmodified hIPSA transplantation, GLT1-overexpressing hIPSAs reduced (1) lesion size within the injured cervical spinal cord, (2) morphological denervation by respiratory phrenic motor

  14. Human iPS cell-derived astrocyte transplants preserve respiratory function after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ke; Javed, Elham; Scura, Daniel; Hala, Tamara J.; Seetharam, Suneil; Falnikar, Aditi; Richard, Jean-Philippe; Chorath, Ashley; Maragakis, Nicholas J.; Wright, Megan C.; Lepore, Angelo C.

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation-based replacement of lost and/or dysfunctional astrocytes is a promising therapy for spinal cord injury (SCI) that has not been extensively explored, despite the integral roles played by astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS). Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are a clinically-relevant source of pluripotent cells that both avoid ethical issues of embryonic stem cells and allow for homogeneous derivation of mature cell types in large quantities, potentially in an autologous fashion. Despite their promise, the iPS cell field is in its infancy with respect to evaluating in vivo graft integration and therapeutic efficacy in SCI models. Astrocytes express the major glutamate transporter, GLT1, which is responsible for the vast majority of glutamate uptake in spinal cord. Following SCI, compromised GLT1 expression/function can increase susceptibility to excitotoxicity. We therefore evaluated intraspinal transplantation of human iPS cell-derived astrocytes (hIPSAs) following cervical contusion SCI as a novel strategy for reconstituting GLT1 expression and for protecting diaphragmatic respiratory neural circuitry. Transplant-derived cells showed robust long-term survival post-injection and efficiently differentiated into astrocytes in injured spinal cord of both immunesuppressed mice and rats. However, the majority of transplant-derived astrocytes did not express high levels of GLT1, particularly at early times post-injection. To enhance their ability to modulate extracellular glutamate levels, we engineered hIPSAs with lentivirus to constitutively express GLT1. Overexpression significantly increased GLT1 protein and functional GLT1-mediated glutamate uptake levels in hIPSAs both in vitro and in vivo post-transplantation. Compared to human fibroblast control and unmodified hIPSA transplantation, GLT1-overexpressing hIPSAs reduced (1) lesion size within the injured cervical spinal cord, (2) morphological denervation by respiratory phrenic motor

  15. Endothelial cells derived from embryonic stem cells respond to cues from topographical surface patterns.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Rachel; Mercurio, Kevin; Luna, Jesus Isaac; Glaser, Drew E; Leppert, Valerie J; McCloskey, Kara E

    2013-01-01

    The generation of micro- and nano-topography similar to those found in the extra cellular matrix of three-dimensional tissues is one technique used to recapitulate the cell-tissue physiology found in the native tissues. Despite the fact that ample studies have been conducted on the physiological significance of endothelial cells alignment parallel to shear stress, as this is the normal physiologic arrangement for healthy arterial EC, very few studies have examined the use of topographical signals to initiate endothelial cell alignment. Here, we have examined the ability for our mouse embryonic stem cell-derived endothelial cells (ESC-EC) to align on various microchip topographical systems. Briefly, we generated metal molds with 'wrinkled' topography using 1) 15 nm and 2) 30 nm of gold coating on the pre-strained polystryene (PS) sheets. After thermal-induced shrinkage of the PS sheets, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchips were then generated from the wrinkled molds. Using similar Shrink™-based technology, 3) larger selectively crazed acetone-etched lines in the PS sheets, and 4) fully crazed acetone-treated PS sheets of stochastic topographical morphology were also generated. The 15 nm and 30 nm gold coating generated 'wrinkles' of uniaxial anisotropic channels at nano-scaled widths while the crazing generated micron-sized channels. The ESC-EC were able to respond and align on the 320 nm, 510 nm, and the acetone-etched 10.5 μm channels, but not on the fully 'crazed' topographies. Moreover, the ESC-EC aligned most robustly on the wrinkles, and preferentially to ridge edges on the 10.5 μm-sized channels. The ability to robustly align EC on topographical surfaces enables a variety of controlled physiological studies of EC-EC and EC-ECM contact guidance, as well as having potential applications for the rapid endothelialization of stents and vascular grafts. PMID:23819656

  16. G-protein Coupled Receptor Signaling in Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Cardiovascular Cells: Implications for Disease Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Dolatshad, Nazanin F.; Hellen, Nicola; Jabbour, Richard J.; Harding, Sian E.; Földes, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cell derivatives show promise as an in vitro platform to study a range of human cardiovascular diseases. A better understanding of the biology of stem cells and their cardiovascular derivatives will help to understand the strengths and limitations of this new model system. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are key regulators of stem cell maintenance and differentiation and have an important role in cardiovascular cell signaling. In this review, we will therefore describe the state of knowledge concerning the regulatory role of GPCRs in both the generation and function of pluripotent stem cell derived-cardiomyocytes, -endothelial, and -vascular smooth muscle cells. We will consider how far the in vitro disease models recapitulate authentic GPCR signaling and provide a useful basis for discovery of disease mechanisms or design of therapeutic strategies. PMID:26697426

  17. Altered calcium handling and increased contraction force in human embryonic stem cell derived cardiomyocytes following short term dexamethasone exposure.

    PubMed

    Kosmidis, Georgios; Bellin, Milena; Ribeiro, Marcelo C; van Meer, Berend; Ward-van Oostwaard, Dorien; Passier, Robert; Tertoolen, Leon G J; Mummery, Christine L; Casini, Simona

    2015-11-27

    One limitation in using human pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) for disease modeling and cardiac safety pharmacology is their immature functional phenotype compared with adult cardiomyocytes. Here, we report that treatment of human embryonic stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) with dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid, activated glucocorticoid signaling which in turn improved their calcium handling properties and contractility. L-type calcium current and action potential properties were not affected by dexamethasone but significantly faster calcium decay, increased forces of contraction and sarcomeric lengths, were observed in hESC-CMs after dexamethasone exposure. Activating the glucocorticoid pathway can thus contribute to mediating hPSC-CMs maturation. PMID:26456652

  18. Loss of Tie2 receptor compromises embryonic stem cell-derived endothelial but not hematopoietic cell survival.

    PubMed

    Hamaguchi, Isao; Morisada, Tohru; Azuma, Masaki; Murakami, Kyoko; Kuramitsu, Madoka; Mizukami, Takuo; Ohbo, Kazuyuki; Yamaguchi, Kazunari; Oike, Yuichi; Dumont, Daniel J; Suda, Toshio

    2006-02-01

    Tie2 is a receptor-type tyrosine kinase expressed on hematopoietic stem cells and endothelial cells. We used cultured embryonic stem (ES) cells to determine the function of Tie2 during early vascular development and hematopoiesis. Upon differentiation, the ES cell-derived Tie2+ Flk1+ fraction was enriched for hematopoietic and endothelial progenitor cells. To investigate lymphatic differentiation, we used a monoclonal antibody against LYVE-1 and found that LYVE-1+ cells derived from Tie2+ Flk1+ cells possessed various characteristics of lymphatic endothelial cells. To determine whether Tie2 played a role in this process, we analyzed differentiation of Tie2-/- ES cells. Although the initial numbers of LYVE-1+ and PECAM-1+ cells derived from Tie2-/- cells did not vary significantly, the number of both decreased dramatically upon extended culturing. Such decreases were rescued by treatment with a caspase inhibitor, suggesting that reductions were due to apoptosis as a consequence of a lack of Tie2 signaling. Interestingly, Tie2-/- ES cells did not show measurable defects in development of the hematopoietic system, suggesting that Tie2 is not essential for hematopoietic cell development. PMID:16219799

  19. Growth and turning properties of adult glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor coreceptor α1 nonpeptidergic sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Guo, GuiFang; Singh, Vandana; Zochodne, Douglas W

    2014-09-01

    An overlapping population of adult primary sensory neurons that innervate the skin express the glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor coreceptor α1 (GFRα1), the lectin IB4, and the "regenerative brake" phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10. Using an adapted turning and growth assay, we analyzed the growth cone behavior of adult immunoselected GFRα1 sensory neurons. These neurons had less robust baseline growth and reluctant responsiveness to individual growth factors but responded to synergistic types of input from glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor, hepatocyte growth factor, a phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 inhibitor, or a downstream Rho kinase inhibitor. Hepatocyte growth factor and the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 inhibitor were associated with growth cone turning. A gradient of protein extracted from skin samples, a primary target of GFRα1 axons, replicated the impact of synergistic support. Within the skin, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor was expressed within epidermal axons, indicating an autocrine role accompanying local hepatocyte growth factor synthesis. Taken together, our findings identify unique growth properties and plasticity of a distinct population of epidermal axons that are relevant to neurologic repair and skin reinnervation. PMID:25101700

  20. Functional Integration of Grafted Neural Stem Cell-Derived Dopaminergic Neurons Monitored by Optogenetics in an In Vitro Parkinson Model

    PubMed Central

    Tønnesen, Jan; Parish, Clare L.; Sørensen, Andreas T.; Andersson, Angelica; Lundberg, Cecilia; Deisseroth, Karl; Arenas, Ernest; Lindvall, Olle; Kokaia, Merab

    2011-01-01

    Intrastriatal grafts of stem cell-derived dopamine (DA) neurons induce behavioral recovery in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD), but how they functionally integrate in host neural circuitries is poorly understood. Here, Wnt5a-overexpressing neural stem cells derived from embryonic ventral mesencephalon of tyrosine hydroxylase-GFP transgenic mice were expanded as neurospheres and transplanted into organotypic cultures of wild type mouse striatum. Differentiated GFP-labeled DA neurons in the grafts exhibited mature neuronal properties, including spontaneous firing of action potentials, presence of post-synaptic currents, and functional expression of DA D2 autoreceptors. These properties resembled those recorded from identical cells in acute slices of intrastriatal grafts in the 6-hydroxy-DA-induced mouse PD model and from DA neurons in intact substantia nigra. Optogenetic activation or inhibition of grafted cells and host neurons using channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and halorhodopsin (NpHR), respectively, revealed complex, bi-directional synaptic interactions between grafted cells and host neurons and extensive synaptic connectivity within the graft. Our data demonstrate for the first time using optogenetics that ectopically grafted stem cell-derived DA neurons become functionally integrated in the DA-denervated striatum. Further optogenetic dissection of the synaptic wiring between grafted and host neurons will be crucial to clarify the cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying behavioral recovery as well as adverse effects following stem cell-based DA cell replacement strategies in PD. PMID:21394212

  1. Finding the rhythm of sudden cardiac death: new opportunities using induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Sallam, Karim; Li, Yingxin; Sager, Philip T; Houser, Steven R; Wu, Joseph C

    2015-06-01

    Sudden cardiac death is a common cause of death in patients with structural heart disease, genetic mutations, or acquired disorders affecting cardiac ion channels. A wide range of platforms exist to model and study disorders associated with sudden cardiac death. Human clinical studies are cumbersome and are thwarted by the extent of investigation that can be performed on human subjects. Animal models are limited by their degree of homology to human cardiac electrophysiology, including ion channel expression. Most commonly used cellular models are cellular transfection models, which are able to mimic the expression of a single-ion channel offering incomplete insight into changes of the action potential profile. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes resemble, but are not identical, adult human cardiomyocytes and provide a new platform for studying arrhythmic disorders leading to sudden cardiac death. A variety of platforms exist to phenotype cellular models, including conventional and automated patch clamp, multielectrode array, and computational modeling. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes have been used to study long QT syndrome, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and other hereditary cardiac disorders. Although induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are distinct from adult cardiomyocytes, they provide a robust platform to advance the science and clinical care of sudden cardiac death. PMID:26044252

  2. Nano-zymography Using Laser-Scanning Confocal Microscopy Unmasks Proteolytic Activity of Cell-Derived Microparticles.

    PubMed

    Briens, Aurélien; Gauberti, Maxime; Parcq, Jérôme; Montaner, Joan; Vivien, Denis; Martinez de Lizarrondo, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Cell-derived microparticles (MPs) are nano-sized vesicles released by activated cells in the extracellular milieu. They act as vectors of biological activity by carrying membrane-anchored and cytoplasmic constituents of the parental cells. Although detection and characterization of cell-derived MPs may be of high diagnostic and prognostic values in a number of human diseases, reliable measurement of their size, number and biological activity still remains challenging using currently available methods. In the present study, we developed a protocol to directly image and functionally characterize MPs using high-resolution laser-scanning confocal microscopy. Once trapped on annexin-V coated micro-wells, we developed several assays using fluorescent reporters to measure their size, detect membrane antigens and evaluate proteolytic activity (nano-zymography). In particular, we demonstrated the applicability and specificity of this method to detect antigens and proteolytic activities of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), urokinase and plasmin at the surface of engineered MPs from transfected cell-lines. Furthermore, we were able to identify a subset of tPA-bearing fibrinolytic MPs using plasma samples from a cohort of ischemic stroke patients who received thrombolytic therapy and in an experimental model of thrombin-induced ischemic stroke in mice. Overall, this method is promising for functional characterization of cell-derived MPs. PMID:27022410

  3. Nano-zymography Using Laser-Scanning Confocal Microscopy Unmasks Proteolytic Activity of Cell-Derived Microparticles

    PubMed Central

    Briens, Aurélien; Gauberti, Maxime; Parcq, Jérôme; Montaner, Joan; Vivien, Denis; Martinez de Lizarrondo, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Cell-derived microparticles (MPs) are nano-sized vesicles released by activated cells in the extracellular milieu. They act as vectors of biological activity by carrying membrane-anchored and cytoplasmic constituents of the parental cells. Although detection and characterization of cell-derived MPs may be of high diagnostic and prognostic values in a number of human diseases, reliable measurement of their size, number and biological activity still remains challenging using currently available methods. In the present study, we developed a protocol to directly image and functionally characterize MPs using high-resolution laser-scanning confocal microscopy. Once trapped on annexin-V coated micro-wells, we developed several assays using fluorescent reporters to measure their size, detect membrane antigens and evaluate proteolytic activity (nano-zymography). In particular, we demonstrated the applicability and specificity of this method to detect antigens and proteolytic activities of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), urokinase and plasmin at the surface of engineered MPs from transfected cell-lines. Furthermore, we were able to identify a subset of tPA-bearing fibrinolytic MPs using plasma samples from a cohort of ischemic stroke patients who received thrombolytic therapy and in an experimental model of thrombin-induced ischemic stroke in mice. Overall, this method is promising for functional characterization of cell-derived MPs. PMID:27022410

  4. Inducible VEGF Expression by Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Reduces the Minimal Islet Mass Required to Reverse Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh-Saffar, E.; Tahamtani, Y.; Aghdami, N.; Azadmanesh, K.; Habibi-Anbouhi, M.; Heremans, Y.; De Leu, N.; Heimberg, H.; Ravassard, P.; Shokrgozar, M. A.; Baharvand, H.

    2015-01-01

    Islet transplantation has been hampered by loss of function due to poor revascularization. We hypothesize that co-transplantation of islets with human embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal stromal cells that conditionally overexpress VEGF (hESC-MSC:VEGF) may augment islet revascularization and reduce the minimal islet mass required to reverse diabetes in mice. HESC-MSCs were transduced by recombinant lentiviruses that allowed conditional (Dox-regulated) overexpression of VEGF. HESC-MSC:VEGF were characterized by tube formation assay. After co-transplantation of hESC-MSC:VEGF with murine islets in collagen-fibrin hydrogel in the omental pouch of diabetic nude mice, we measured blood glucose, body weight, glucose tolerance and serum C-peptide. As control, islets were transplanted alone or with non-transduced hESC-MSCs. Next, we compared functional parameters of 400 islets alone versus 200 islets co-transplanted with hESC-MSC:VEGF. As control, 200 islets were transplanted alone. Metabolic function of islets transplanted with hESC-MSC:VEGF significantly improved, accompanied by superior graft revascularization, compared with control groups. Transplantation of 200 islets with hESC-MSC:VEGF showed superior function over 400 islets alone. We conclude that co-transplantation of islets with VEGF-expressing hESC-MSCs allowed for at least a 50% reduction in minimal islet mass required to reverse diabetes in mice. This approach may contribute to alleviate the need for multiple donor organs per patient. PMID:25818803

  5. Cell-derived extracellular vesicles as a platform to identify low-invasive disease biomarkers.

    PubMed

    González, Esperanza; Falcón-Pérez, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Biomarkers are of great importance for prediction, diagnosis and monitoring the progression and therapeutic success of a disease. Whole body fluids, such as blood or urine, constitute the main desired biological source to identify these markers, mostly due to the minimally invasive procedures used to collect them. An additional benefit of studying these biological fluids that has been demonstrated by many different groups is that they contain cell-released extracellular vesicles, carrying a cargo of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids that reflects cell/tissue origin and, remarkably, cellular status. In this review, the information obtained from the characterization of this body fluid compartment in human samples is discussed in the context of its usefulness as diagnostic resource for several pathologies, including cancer, inflammatory, vascular and metabolic diseases. The review shows the great variety of methods used for this purpose as well as the different types of molecules that could serve as specific or common disease markers. PMID:25948243

  6. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells: Methods and Application

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Biraja C.; Jiang, Zhengxin; Suh, Carol; Qyang, Yibing

    2015-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play a major role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. The advent of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology and their capability to differentiation into virtually every cell type in the human body make this field a ray of hope for vascular regenerative therapy and for understanding disease mechanism. In this review, we first discuss the recent iPSC technology and vascular smooth muscle development from embryo and then examine different methodology to derive VSMCs from iPSCs and their applications in regenerative therapy and disease modeling. PMID:25559088

  7. CT -- Body

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Body Computed tomography (CT) of the body uses special x-ray ... Body? What is CT Scanning of the Body? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  8. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Promote Angiogenesis: Potencial Clinical Application

    PubMed Central

    Merino-González, Consuelo; Zuñiga, Felipe A.; Escudero, Carlos; Ormazabal, Valeska; Reyes, Camila; Nova-Lamperti, Estefanía; Salomón, Carlos; Aguayo, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult multipotent stem cells that are able to differentiate into multiple specialized cell types including osteocytes, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. MSCs exert different functions in the body and have recently been predicted to have a major clinical/therapeutic potential. However, the mechanisms of self-renewal and tissue regeneration are not completely understood. It has been shown that the biological effect depends mainly on its paracrine action. Furthermore, it has been reported that the secretion of soluble factors and the release of extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes, could mediate the cellular communication to induce cell-differentiation/self-renewal. This review provides an overview of MSC-derived exosomes in promoting angiogenicity and of the clinical relevance in a therapeutic approach. PMID:26903875

  9. Expression of Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1 and of Its Receptor CXCR4 in Liver Regeneration from Oval Cells in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Mavier, Philippe; Martin, Nadine; Couchie, Dominique; Préaux, Anne-Marie; Laperche, Yannick; Zafrani, Elie Serge

    2004-01-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor-1 is a chemokine that plays a major role during embryogenesis. Since stromal cell-derived factor-1 and its unique receptor CXCR4 are involved in the differentiation of progenitor cells, we studied the expression of this chemokine and of its receptor in hepatic regeneration from precursor oval cells. Hepatic regeneration was induced by treating rats with 2-acetylaminofluorene, and followed by partial hepatectomy. Oval cell accumulation, which predominated in periportal regions, reached a maximum at days 9 to 14 after hepatectomy and declined thereafter. Oval cells strongly expressed stromal cell-derived factor-1 protein and mRNA. CXCR4 mRNA hepatic level paralleled the number of oval cells and in situ hybridization showed CXCR4 mRNA expression by these cells. Treatment of rats with fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide which binds to stromal cell-derived factor-1 and blocks its biological effects, markedly decreased oval cell accumulation in five of the seven treated rats. In conclusion, our data demonstrate an expression of stromal cell-derived factor-1 and of its receptor CXCR4 in oval cells during hepatic regeneration and strongly suggest that stromal cell-derived factor-1 stimulates the proliferation of these precursor cells through an autocrine/paracrine pathway. PMID:15579440

  10. Cardiac Non-myocyte Cells Show Enhanced Pharmacological Function Suggestive of Contractile Maturity in Stem Cell Derived Cardiomyocyte Microtissues.

    PubMed

    Ravenscroft, Stephanie M; Pointon, Amy; Williams, Awel W; Cross, Michael J; Sidaway, James E

    2016-07-01

    The immature phenotype of stem cell derived cardiomyocytes is a significant barrier to their use in translational medicine and pre-clinical in vitro drug toxicity and pharmacological analysis. Here we have assessed the contribution of non-myocyte cells on the contractile function of co-cultured human embryonic stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) in spheroid microtissue format. Microtissues were formed using a scaffold free 96-well cell suspension method from hESC-CM cultured alone (CM microtissues) or in combination with human primary cardiac microvascular endothelial cells and cardiac fibroblasts (CMEF microtissues). Contractility was characterized with fluorescence and video-based edge detection. CMEF microtissues displayed greater Ca(2+ )transient amplitudes, enhanced spontaneous contraction rate and remarkably enhanced contractile function in response to both positive and negative inotropic drugs, suggesting a more mature contractile phenotype than CM microtissues. In addition, for several drugs the enhanced contractile response was not apparent when endothelial cell or fibroblasts from a non-cardiac tissue were used as the ancillary cells. Further evidence of maturity for CMEF microtissues was shown with increased expression of genes that encode proteins critical in cardiac Ca(2+ )handling (S100A1), sarcomere assembly (telethonin/TCAP) and β-adrenergic receptor signalling. Our data shows that compared with single cell-type cardiomyocyte in vitro models, CMEF microtissues are superior at predicting the inotropic effects of drugs, demonstrating the critical contribution of cardiac non-myocyte cells in mediating functional cardiotoxicity. PMID:27125969

  11. High-Throughput Single-Cell Derived Sphere Formation for Cancer Stem-Like Cell Identification and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Chih; Ingram, Patrick N.; Fouladdel, Shamileh; McDermott, Sean P.; Azizi, Ebrahim; Wicha, Max S.; Yoon, Euisik

    2016-06-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that many malignancies are driven by a cellular compartment that displays stem cell properties. Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) can be identified by expression of cell surface markers or enzymatic activity, but these methods are limited by phenotypic heterogeneity and plasticity of CSCs. An alternative phenotypic methodology based on in-vitro sphere formation has been developed, but it is typically labor-intensive and low-throughput. In this work, we present a 1,024-microchamber microfluidic platform for single-cell derived sphere formation. Utilizing a hydrodynamic capturing scheme, more than 70% of the microchambers capture only one cell, allowing for monitoring of sphere formation from heterogeneous cancer cell populations for identification of CSCs. Single-cell derived spheres can be retrieved and dissociated for single-cell analysis using a custom 96-gene panel to probe heterogeneity within the clonal CSC spheres. This microfluidic platform provides reliable and high-throughput sphere formation for CSC identification and downstream clonal analysis.

  12. Optimization of surface-immobilized extracellular matrices for the proliferation of neural progenitor cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Komura, Takashi; Kato, Koichi; Konagaya, Shuhei; Nakaji-Hirabayashi, Tadashi; Iwata, Hiroo

    2015-11-01

    Neural progenitor cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells have been considered as a potential source for cell-transplantation therapy of central nervous disorders. However, efficient methods to expand neural progenitor cells are further required for their clinical applications. In this study, a protein array was fabricated with nine extracellular matrices and used to screen substrates suitable for the expansion of neural progenitor cells derived from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells. The results showed that neural progenitor cells efficiently proliferated on substrates with immobilized laminin-1, laminin-5, or Matrigel. Based on this result, further attempts were made to develop clinically compliant substrates with immobilized polypeptides that mimic laminin-1, one of the most effective extracellular matrices as identified in the array-based screening. We used here recombinant DNA technology to prepare polypeptide containing the globular domain 3 of laminin-1 and immobilized it onto glass-based substrates. Our results showed that neural progenitor cells selectively proliferated on substrate with the immobilized polypeptide while maintaining their differentiated state. PMID:25943789

  13. High-Throughput Single-Cell Derived Sphere Formation for Cancer Stem-Like Cell Identification and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Chih; Ingram, Patrick N.; Fouladdel, Shamileh; McDermott, Sean P.; Azizi, Ebrahim; Wicha, Max S.; Yoon, Euisik

    2016-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that many malignancies are driven by a cellular compartment that displays stem cell properties. Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) can be identified by expression of cell surface markers or enzymatic activity, but these methods are limited by phenotypic heterogeneity and plasticity of CSCs. An alternative phenotypic methodology based on in-vitro sphere formation has been developed, but it is typically labor-intensive and low-throughput. In this work, we present a 1,024-microchamber microfluidic platform for single-cell derived sphere formation. Utilizing a hydrodynamic capturing scheme, more than 70% of the microchambers capture only one cell, allowing for monitoring of sphere formation from heterogeneous cancer cell populations for identification of CSCs. Single-cell derived spheres can be retrieved and dissociated for single-cell analysis using a custom 96-gene panel to probe heterogeneity within the clonal CSC spheres. This microfluidic platform provides reliable and high-throughput sphere formation for CSC identification and downstream clonal analysis. PMID:27292795

  14. Therapeutic potential of CAR-T cell-derived exosomes: a cell-free modality for targeted cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Yang, Zhuo-Shun; Zou, Dan-Dan; Wang, Bin; Warnock, Garth L.; Dai, Long-Jun; Luo, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-based T-cell adoptive immunotherapy is a distinctively promising therapy for cancer. The engineering of CARs into T cells provides T cells with tumor-targeting capabilities and intensifies their cytotoxic activity through stimulated cell expansion and enhanced cytokine production. As a novel and potent therapeutic modality, there exists some uncontrollable processes which are the potential sources of adverse events. As an extension of this impactful modality, CAR-T cell-derived exosomes may substitute CAR-T cells to act as ultimate attackers, thereby overcoming some limitations. Exosomes retain most characteristics of parent cells and play an essential role in intercellular communications via transmitting their cargo to recipient cells. The application of CAR-T cell-derived exosomes will make this cell-based therapy more clinically controllable as it also provides a cell-free platform to diversify anticancer mediators, which responds effectively to the complexity and volatility of cancer. It is believed that the appropriate application of both cellular and exosomal platforms will make this effective treatment more practicable. PMID:26496034

  15. Cardiac Non-myocyte Cells Show Enhanced Pharmacological Function Suggestive of Contractile Maturity in Stem Cell Derived Cardiomyocyte Microtissues

    PubMed Central

    Ravenscroft, Stephanie M.; Pointon, Amy; Williams, Awel W.; Cross, Michael J.; Sidaway, James E.

    2016-01-01

    The immature phenotype of stem cell derived cardiomyocytes is a significant barrier to their use in translational medicine and pre-clinical in vitro drug toxicity and pharmacological analysis. Here we have assessed the contribution of non-myocyte cells on the contractile function of co-cultured human embryonic stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) in spheroid microtissue format. Microtissues were formed using a scaffold free 96-well cell suspension method from hESC-CM cultured alone (CM microtissues) or in combination with human primary cardiac microvascular endothelial cells and cardiac fibroblasts (CMEF microtissues). Contractility was characterized with fluorescence and video-based edge detection. CMEF microtissues displayed greater Ca2+ transient amplitudes, enhanced spontaneous contraction rate and remarkably enhanced contractile function in response to both positive and negative inotropic drugs, suggesting a more mature contractile phenotype than CM microtissues. In addition, for several drugs the enhanced contractile response was not apparent when endothelial cell or fibroblasts from a non-cardiac tissue were used as the ancillary cells. Further evidence of maturity for CMEF microtissues was shown with increased expression of genes that encode proteins critical in cardiac Ca2+ handling (S100A1), sarcomere assembly (telethonin/TCAP) and β-adrenergic receptor signalling. Our data shows that compared with single cell-type cardiomyocyte in vitro models, CMEF microtissues are superior at predicting the inotropic effects of drugs, demonstrating the critical contribution of cardiac non-myocyte cells in mediating functional cardiotoxicity. PMID:27125969

  16. Identification of nephrotoxic compounds with embryonic stem-cell-derived human renal proximal tubular-like cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yao; Kandasamy, Karthikeyan; Chuah, Jacqueline Kai Chin; Lam, Yue Ning; Toh, Wei Seong; Oo, Zay Yar; Zink, Daniele

    2014-07-01

    The kidney is a major target for drug-induced toxicity, and the renal proximal tubule is frequently affected. Nephrotoxicity is typically detected only late during drug development, and the nephrotoxic potential of newly approved drugs is often underestimated. A central problem is the lack of preclinical models with high predictivity. Validated in vitro models for the prediction of nephrotoxicity are not available. Major problems are related to the identification of appropriate cell models and end points. As drug-induced kidney injury is associated with inflammatory reactions, we explored the expression of inflammatory markers as end point for renal in vitro models. In parallel, we developed a new cell model. Here, we combined these approaches and developed an in vitro model with embryonic stem-cell-derived human renal proximal tubular-like cells that uses the expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 as end points. The predictivity of the model was evaluated with 41 well-characterized compounds. The results revealed that the model predicts proximal tubular toxicity in humans with high accuracy. In contrast, the predictivity was low when well-established standard in vitro assays were used. Together, the results show that high predictivity can be obtained with in vitro models employing pluripotent stem cell-derived human renal proximal tubular-like cells. PMID:24495215

  17. Therapeutic potential of CAR-T cell-derived exosomes: a cell-free modality for targeted cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiang-Jun; Sun, Xu-Yong; Huang, Kuan-Ming; Zhang, Li; Yang, Zhuo-Shun; Zou, Dan-Dan; Wang, Bin; Warnock, Garth L; Dai, Long-Jun; Luo, Jie

    2015-12-29

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-based T-cell adoptive immunotherapy is a distinctively promising therapy for cancer. The engineering of CARs into T cells provides T cells with tumor-targeting capabilities and intensifies their cytotoxic activity through stimulated cell expansion and enhanced cytokine production. As a novel and potent therapeutic modality, there exists some uncontrollable processes which are the potential sources of adverse events. As an extension of this impactful modality, CAR-T cell-derived exosomes may substitute CAR-T cells to act as ultimate attackers, thereby overcoming some limitations. Exosomes retain most characteristics of parent cells and play an essential role in intercellular communications via transmitting their cargo to recipient cells. The application of CAR-T cell-derived exosomes will make this cell-based therapy more clinically controllable as it also provides a cell-free platform to diversify anticancer mediators, which responds effectively to the complexity and volatility of cancer. It is believed that the appropriate application of both cellular and exosomal platforms will make this effective treatment more practicable. PMID:26496034

  18. Akt Suppression of TGFβ Signaling Contributes to the Maintenance of Vascular Identity in Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Israely, Edo; Ginsberg, Michael; Nolan, Daniel; Ding, Bi-Sen; James, Daylon; Elemento, Olivier; Rafii, Shahin; Rabbany, Sina Y

    2016-01-01

    The ability to generate and maintain stable in vitro cultures of mouse endothelial cells (EC) has great potential for genetic dissection of the numerous pathologies involving vascular dysfunction as well as therapeutic applications. However, previous efforts at achieving sustained cultures of primary stable murine vascular cells have fallen short, and the cellular requirements for EC maintenance in vitro remain undefined. In this study, we have generated vascular ECs from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, and show that active Akt is essential to their survival and propagation as homogeneous monolayers in vitro. These cells harbor the phenotypical, biochemical, and functional characteristics of ECs, and expand throughout long-term cultures, while maintaining their angiogenic capacity. Moreover, Akt-transduced embryonic ECs form functional perfused vessels in vivo that anastomose with host blood vessels. We provide evidence for a novel function of Akt in stabilizing EC identity, whereby the activated form of the protein protects mouse ES cell-derived ECs from TGFβ-mediated transdifferentiation by downregulating SMAD3. These findings identify a role for Akt in regulating the developmental potential of ES cell-derived ECs, and demonstrate that active Akt maintains endothelial identity in embryonic ECs by interfering with active TGFβ-mediated processes that would ordinarily usher these cells to alternate fates. PMID:23963623

  19. Defined MicroRNAs Induce Aspects of Maturation in Mouse and Human Embryonic-Stem-Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Desy S; Chen, Jyh-Hong; Lundy, David J; Liu, Chung-Hung; Hwang, Shiaw-Min; Pabon, Lil; Shieh, Ru-Chi; Chen, Chien-Chang; Wu, Sheng-Nan; Yan, Yu-Ting; Lee, Sho-Tone; Chiang, Po-Min; Chien, Shu; Murry, Charles E; Hsieh, Patrick C H

    2015-09-29

    Pluripotent-cell-derived cardiomyocytes have great potential for use in research and medicine, but limitations in their maturity currently constrain their usefulness. Here, we report a method for improving features of maturation in murine and human embryonic-stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes (m/hESC-CMs). We found that coculturing m/hESC-CMs with endothelial cells improves their maturity and upregulates several microRNAs. Delivering four of these microRNAs, miR-125b-5p, miR-199a-5p, miR-221, and miR-222 (miR-combo), to m/hESC-CMs resulted in improved sarcomere alignment and calcium handling, a more negative resting membrane potential, and increased expression of cardiomyocyte maturation markers. Although this could not fully phenocopy all adult cardiomyocyte characteristics, these effects persisted for two months following delivery of miR-combo. A luciferase assay demonstrated that all four miRNAs target ErbB4, and siRNA knockdown of ErbB4 partially recapitulated the effects of miR-combo. In summary, a combination of miRNAs induced via endothelial coculture improved ESC-CM maturity, in part through suppression of ErbB4 signaling. PMID:26365191

  20. Pulmonary Epithelial Cell-Derived Cytokine TGF-β1 Is a Critical Cofactor for Enhanced Innate Lymphoid Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Denney, Laura; Byrne, Adam J.; Shea, Thomas J.; Buckley, James S.; Pease, James E.; Herledan, Gaelle M.F.; Walker, Simone A.; Gregory, Lisa G.; Lloyd, Clare M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Epithelial cells orchestrate pulmonary homeostasis and pathogen defense and play a crucial role in the initiation of allergic immune responses. Maintaining the balance between homeostasis and inappropriate immune activation and associated pathology is particularly complex at mucosal sites that are exposed to billions of potentially antigenic particles daily. We demonstrated that epithelial cell-derived cytokine TGF-β had a central role in the generation of the pulmonary immune response. Mice that specifically lacked epithelial cell-derived TGF-β1 displayed a reduction in type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), resulting in suppression of interleukin-13 and hallmark features of the allergic response including airway hyperreactivity. ILCs in the airway lumen were primed to respond to TGF-β by expressing the receptor TGF-βRII and ILC chemoactivity was enhanced by TGF-β. These data demonstrate that resident epithelial cells instruct immune cells, highlighting the central role of the local environmental niche in defining the nature and magnitude of immune reactions. PMID:26588780

  1. Teratocarcinomas Arising from Allogeneic Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Tissue Constructs Provoked Host Immune Rejection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Ai; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Fukushima, Satsuki; Kawamura, Takuji; Kashiyama, Noriyuki; Ito, Emiko; Watabe, Tadashi; Masuda, Shigeo; Toda, Koichi; Hatazawa, Jun; Morii, Eiichi; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac tissue constructs is a promising regenerative treatment for cardiac failure: however, its tumourigenic potential is concerning. We hypothesised that the tumourigenic potential may be eliminated by the host immune response after allogeneic cell transplantation. Scaffold-free iPSC-derived cardaic tissue sheets of C57BL/6 mouse origin were transplanted into the cardiac surface of syngeneic C57BL/6 mice and allogeneic BALB/c mice with or without tacrolimus injection. Syngeneic mice and tacrolimus-injected immunosuppressed allogeneic mice formed teratocarcinomas with identical phenotypes, characteristic, and time courses, as assessed by imaging tools including 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography. In contrast, temporarily immunosuppressed allogeneic mice, following cessation of tacrolimus injection displayed diminished progression of the teratocarcinoma, accompanied by an accumulation of CD4/CD8-positive T cells, and finally achieved complete elimination of the teratocarcinoma. Our results indicated that malignant teratocarcinomas arising from induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac tissue constructs provoked T cell-related host immune rejection to arrest tumour growth in murine allogeneic transplantation models. PMID:26763872

  2. Thrombin mitogenic responses and protein phosphorylation are different in cultured human endothelial cells derived from large and microvessels

    SciTech Connect

    Dupuy, E.; Bikfalvi, A.; Rendu, F.; Toledano, S.L.; Tobelem, G. )

    1989-12-01

    It is well established that thrombin induces various biological responses in endothelial cells derived from large vessels. However, little is known about the effects of thrombin on the microvasculature. Protein phosphorylation may be one of the mechanisms by which an extracellular stimulus initiates cellular events like proliferation. Therefore, we have compared the effects of either human alpha-thrombin or phorbol esters (TPA) on the proliferation or protein phosphorylation in endothelial cells derived from large vessels (umbilical vein, HUVEC) or microvessels (omental tissue, HOMEC). In HOMEC, thrombin did not stimulate cell proliferation and protein phosphorylation while TPA slightly reduced the cell proliferation and induced the phosphorylation of a 27-kDa protein. In contrast, in HUVEC, thrombin or TPA markedly enhanced the cell proliferation and stimulated the phosphorylation of a 59-kDa protein. These data indicate that endothelial cells from large and small vessels respond differently to thrombin and there is a complex and as yet unclear relationship between the proliferation and the protein phosphorylation induced by thrombin.

  3. The Production of Interleukin-11 and Decidualization Are Compromised in Endometrial Stromal Cells Derived from Patients with Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Karpovich, Natalia; Klemmt, Petra; McVeigh, J. Enda; Barlow, David H.; Mardon, Helen J.; Hwang, Jung Hye; Heath, John K.

    2006-01-01

    IL-11 signaling is critical for decidualization of the endometrial stroma in early pregnancy in the mouse. In this study, we investigate the function of IL-11 signaling in cAMP-induced decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells. We show that treatment of endometrial stromal cells with 8-bromo-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP) results in an increase in the levels of secreted IL-11, whereas levels of cell surface IL-11 receptor α are similar with or without 8-Br-cAMP treatment. The production of IL-11 correlates with the production of molecular markers of decidualization, prolactin and IGF-binding protein-1. The expression of these markers is inhibited when IL-11 signaling is specifically blocked in decidualizing endometrial stromal cells by the IL-11 antagonist W147A. We demonstrate that 8-Br-cAMP-induced endometrial stromal cells derived from patients with primary infertility produce lower levels of prolactin, IGF-binding protein-1, and IL-11 than cells derived from fertile women. Our results suggest that IL-11 expression is critically important during decidualization in the human endometrium, and that aberrant regulation of endometrial IL-11 production may be associated with some types of infertility. PMID:15613426

  4. Mast Cell-Derived Tumor Necrosis Factor Can Promote Nerve Fiber Elongation in the Skin during Contact Hypersensitivity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kakurai, Maki; Monteforte, Rossella; Suto, Hajime; Tsai, Mindy; Nakae, Susumu; Galli, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    In humans, lesions of contact eczema or atopic dermatitis can exhibit increases in epidermal nerves, but the mechanism resulting in such nerve elongation are not fully understood. We found that contact hypersensitivity reactions to oxazolone in mice were associated with significant increases in the length of nerves in the epidermis and dermis. Using genetically mast cell-deficient c-kit mutant mice selectively repaired of their dermal mast cell deficiency with either wild-type or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-deficient mast cells, we found that mast cells, and mast cell-derived TNF, significantly contributed to the elongation of epidermal and dermal PGP 9.5+ nerves and dermal CGRP+ nerves, as well as to the inflammation observed at sites of contact hypersensitivity in response to oxazolone. Moreover, the percentage of mast cells in close proximity to dermal PGP 9.5+ nerve fibers was significantly higher in wild-type mice and in c-kit mutant mice repaired of their dermal mast cell deficiency by the adoptive transfer of wild-type mast cells than in TNF-deficient mice or in TNF−/− mast cell-engrafted c-kit mutant mice. These observations show that mast cells, and mast cell-derived TNF, can promote the elongation of cutaneous nerve fibers during contact hypersensitivity in the mouse. PMID:17071594

  5. T cell derived IL-10 is dispensable for tolerance induction in a murine model of allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Stefanie; Dolch, Anja; Surianarayanan, Sangeetha; Dorn, Britta; Bewersdorff, Mayte; Alessandrini, Francesca; Behrendt, Rayk; Karp, Christopher L; Muller, Werner; Martin, Stefan F; Roers, Axel; Jakob, Thilo

    2016-08-01

    Regulatory mechanisms initiated by allergen-specific immunotherapy are mainly attributed to T cell derived IL-10. However, it has not been shown that T cell derived IL-10 is required for successful tolerance induction (TI). Here, we analyze cellular sources and the functional relevance of cell type specific IL-10 during TI in a murine model of allergic airway inflammation. While TI was effective in IL-10 competent mice, neutralizing IL-10 prior to tolerogenic treatment completely abrogated the beneficial effects. Cellular sources of IL-10 during TI were identified by using transcriptional reporter mice as T cells, B cells, and to a lesser extent DCs. Interestingly, TI was still effective in mice with T cell, B cell, B and T cell, or DC-specific IL-10 deficiency. In contrast, TI was not possible in mice lacking IL-10 in all hematopoetic cells, while it was effective in bone marrow (BM) chimera that lacked IL-10 only in nonhematopoetic cells. Taken together, allergen-specific tolerance depends on IL-10 from hematopoetic sources. The beneficial effects of allergen-specific immunotherapy cannot solely be attributed to IL-10 from T cells, B cells, or even DCs, suggesting a high degree of cellular redundancy in IL-10-mediated tolerance. PMID:27287239

  6. Stem cell-derived tissue-associated regulatory T cells ameliorate the development of autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Mohammad; Song, Jianyong; Fino, Kristin; Sandhu, Praneet; Song, Xinmeng; Lei, Fengyang; Zheng, Songguo; Ni, Bing; Fang, Deyu; Song, Jianxun

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have the potential to produce almost all of the cells in the body, including regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, the exact conditions required for the development of antigen (Ag)-specific Tregs from PSCs (i.e., PSC-Tregs) are not well delineated. Ag-specific PSC-Tregs can be tissue/organ-associated and migrate to local inflamed tissues/organs to suppress the autoimmune response after adoptive transfer, thereby avoiding potential overall immunosuppression from non-specific Tregs. In this study, we developed a new approach to generate functional Ag-specific Tregs from induced PSCs (iPSCs), i.e., iPSC-Tregs, which had the ability to generate an Ag-specific immunosuppressive response in a murine model of arthritis. We retrovirally transduced murine iPSCs with a construct containing genes of Ag-specific T cell receptor (TCR) and the transcriptional factor FoxP3. We differentiated the iPSCs into Ag-specific iPSC-Tregs using in vitro or in vivo Notch signaling, and demonstrated that adoptive transfer of such Tregs dramatically suppressed autoimmunity in a well-established Ag-induced arthritis model, including the inflammation, joint destruction, cartilage prostaglandin depletion, osteoclast activity, and Th17 production. Our results indicate that PSCs can be used to develop Ag-specific Tregs, which have a therapeutic potential for Treg-based therapies of autoimmune disorders. PMID:26846186

  7. Pluripotency of adult stem cells derived from human and rat pancreas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, C.; Birth, M.; Rohwedel, J.; Assmuth, K.; Goepel, A.; Wedel, T.

    Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells found within fully developed tissues or organs of an adult individuum. Until recently, these cells have been considered to bear less self-renewal ability and differentiation potency compared to embryonic stem cells. In recent studies an undifferentiated cell type was found in primary cultures of isolated acini from exocrine pancreas termed pancreatic stellate cells. Here we show that pancreatic stellate-like cells have the capacity of extended self-renewal and are able to differentiate spontaneously into cell types of all three germ layers expressing markers for smooth muscle cells, neurons, glial cells, epithelial cells, chondrocytes and secretory cells (insulin, amylase). Differentiation and subsequent formation of three-dimensional cellular aggregates (organoid bodies) were induced by merely culturing pancreatic stellate-like cells in hanging drops. These cells were developed into stable, long-term, in vitro cultures of both primary undifferentiated cell lines as well as organoid cultures. Thus, evidence is given that cell lineages of endodermal, mesodermal, and ectodermal origin arise spontaneously from a single adult undifferentiated cell type. Based on the present findings it is assumed that pancreatic stellate-like cells are a new class of lineage uncommitted pluripotent adult stem cells with a remarkable self-renewal ability and differentiation potency. The data emphasize the versatility of adult stem cells and may lead to a reappraisal of their use for the treatment of inherited disorders or acquired degenerative diseases.

  8. An Engineered Cardiac Reporter Cell Line Identifies Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Myocardial Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Mihardja, Shirley S.; Liszewski, Walter; Erle, David J.; Lee, Randall J.; Bernstein, Harold S.

    2011-01-01

    Unlike some organs, the heart is unable to repair itself after injury. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) grow and divide indefinitely while maintaining the potential to develop into many tissues of the body. As such, they provide an unprecedented opportunity to treat human diseases characterized by tissue loss. We have identified early myocardial precursors derived from hESCs (hMPs) using an α-myosin heavy chain (αMHC)-GFP reporter line. We have demonstrated by immunocytochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) that reporter activation is restricted to hESC-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) differentiated in vitro, and that hMPs give rise exclusively to muscle in an in vivo teratoma formation assay. We also demonstrate that the reporter does not interfere with hESC genomic stability. Importantly, we show that hMPs give rise to atrial, ventricular and specialized conduction CM subtypes by qPCR and microelectrode array analysis. Expression profiling of hMPs over the course of differentiation implicate Wnt and transforming growth factor-β signaling pathways in CM development. The identification of hMPs using this αMHC-GFP reporter line will provide important insight into the pathways regulating human myocardial development, and may provide a novel therapeutic reagent for the treatment of cardiac disease. PMID:21245908

  9. Aquaporin 3 is regulated by estrogen in the chicken oviduct and is involved in progression of epithelial cell-derived ovarian carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Yang, C; Lim, W; Bae, H; Song, G

    2016-04-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane proteins that passively deliver water across the plasma membrane to play an important role in maintaining cell shape. Members of the AQP family are distributed in most of the tissues in the human body and perform a variety of functions based on the water homeostasis suitable for each organ. However, there is little known about the expression and regulation of AQP family members in chickens. Therefore, we determined the expression of AQPs in various tissues of chickens. Among 13 isotypes, AQP3 was highly expressed in the chicken oviduct. Expression of AQP3 messenger RNA (mRNA) increased in the magnum (P < 0.001) and isthmus (P < 0.001) of chick oviducts treated with diethylstilbestrol. Consistent with these results, the localization of AQP3 was detected in the glandular and luminal epithelia of the magnum and isthmus of oviducts of diethylstilbestrol-treated chicks. In addition, the pattern of expression of AQP3 changed in an estrogen-dependent manner during the molting period. During the regenerative period of the oviduct after molting, expression of AQP3 mRNA increased coordinately with increasing concentrations of estradiol (P < 0.001), whereas expression of AQP3 mRNA decreased as concentrations of estradiol in plasma decreased in response to induced molting (P < 0.001). Also, expression of the AQP3 increased (P < 0.001) in cancerous ovaries of laying hens. In conclusion, AQP3 does not simply function to transport water into and out of cells but also appears to be closely involved in development of the chicken oviduct, which is regulated by estrogens. Furthermore, our results suggest AQP3 as a new diagnostic for early detection and treatment of epithelial cell-derived ovarian carcinomas. PMID:26808975

  10. Exogenous Nitric Oxide Protects Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Pálóczi, János; Varga, Zoltán V.; Szebényi, Kornélia; Sarkadi, Balázs; Madonna, Rosalinda; De Caterina, Raffaele; Csont, Tamás; Eschenhagen, Thomas; Ferdinandy, Péter; Görbe, Anikó

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Human embryonic stem cell- (hESC-) derived cardiomyocytes are one of the useful screening platforms of potential cardiocytoprotective molecules. However, little is known about the behavior of these cardiomyocytes in simulated ischemia/reperfusion conditions. In this study, we have tested the cytoprotective effect of an NO donor and the brain type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in a screening platform based first on differentiated embryonic bodies (EBs, 6 + 4 days) and then on more differentiated cardiomyocytes (6 + 24 days), both derived from hESCs. Methods. Both types of hESC-derived cells were exposed to 150 min simulated ischemia, followed by 120 min reperfusion. Cell viability was assessed by propidium iodide staining. The following treatments were applied during simulated ischemia in differentiated EBs: the NO-donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) (10−7, 10−6, and 10−5 M), BNP (10−9, 10−8, and 10−7 M), and the nonspecific NO synthase inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA, 10−5 M). Results. SNAP (10−6, 10−5 M) significantly attenuated cell death in differentiated EBs. However, simulated ischemia/reperfusion-induced cell death was not affected by BNP or by L-NNA. In separate experiments, SNAP (10−6 M) also protected hESC-derived cardiomyocytes. Conclusions. We conclude that SNAP, but not BNP, protects differentiated EBs or cardiomyocytes derived from hESCs against simulated ischemia/reperfusion injury. The present screening platform is a useful tool for discovery of cardiocytoprotective molecules and their cellular mechanisms. PMID:27403231

  11. Porcine Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from IVF Embryos Contribute to Chimeric Development In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Binghua; Li, Yan; He, Yilong; Wei, Renyue; Sun, Ruizhen; Yin, Zhi; Bou, Gerelchimeg; Liu, Zhonghua

    2016-01-01

    Although the pig is considered an important model of human disease and an ideal animal for the preclinical testing of cell transplantation, the utility of this model has been hampered by a lack of genuine porcine embryonic stem cells. Here, we derived a porcine pluripotent stem cell (pPSC) line from day 5.5 blastocysts in a newly developed culture system based on MXV medium and a 5% oxygen atmosphere. The pPSCs had been passaged more than 75 times over two years, and the morphology of the colony was similar to that of human embryonic stem cells. Characterization and assessment showed that the pPSCs were alkaline phosphatase (AKP) positive, possessed normal karyotypes and expressed classic pluripotent markers, including OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG. In vitro differentiation through embryonic body formation and in vivo differentiation via teratoma formation in nude mice demonstrated that the pPSCs could differentiate into cells of the three germ layers. The pPSCs transfected with fuw-DsRed (pPSC-FDs) could be passaged with a stable expression of both DsRed and pluripotent markers. Notably, when pPSC-FDs were used as donor cells for somatic nuclear transfer, 11.52% of the reconstructed embryos developed into blastocysts, which was not significantly different from that of the reconstructed embryos derived from porcine embryonic fibroblasts. When pPSC-FDs were injected into day 4.5 blastocysts, they became involved in the in vitro embryonic development and contributed to the viscera of foetuses at day 50 of pregnancy as well as the developed placenta after the chimeric blastocysts were transferred into recipients. These findings indicated that the pPSCs were porcine pluripotent cells; that this would be a useful cell line for porcine genetic engineering and a valuable cell line for clarifying the molecular mechanism of pluripotency regulation in pigs. PMID:26991423

  12. Porcine Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from IVF Embryos Contribute to Chimeric Development In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Xue, Binghua; Li, Yan; He, Yilong; Wei, Renyue; Sun, Ruizhen; Yin, Zhi; Bou, Gerelchimeg; Liu, Zhonghua

    2016-01-01

    Although the pig is considered an important model of human disease and an ideal animal for the preclinical testing of cell transplantation, the utility of this model has been hampered by a lack of genuine porcine embryonic stem cells. Here, we derived a porcine pluripotent stem cell (pPSC) line from day 5.5 blastocysts in a newly developed culture system based on MXV medium and a 5% oxygen atmosphere. The pPSCs had been passaged more than 75 times over two years, and the morphology of the colony was similar to that of human embryonic stem cells. Characterization and assessment showed that the pPSCs were alkaline phosphatase (AKP) positive, possessed normal karyotypes and expressed classic pluripotent markers, including OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG. In vitro differentiation through embryonic body formation and in vivo differentiation via teratoma formation in nude mice demonstrated that the pPSCs could differentiate into cells of the three germ layers. The pPSCs transfected with fuw-DsRed (pPSC-FDs) could be passaged with a stable expression of both DsRed and pluripotent markers. Notably, when pPSC-FDs were used as donor cells for somatic nuclear transfer, 11.52% of the reconstructed embryos developed into blastocysts, which was not significantly different from that of the reconstructed embryos derived from porcine embryonic fibroblasts. When pPSC-FDs were injected into day 4.5 blastocysts, they became involved in the in vitro embryonic development and contributed to the viscera of foetuses at day 50 of pregnancy as well as the developed placenta after the chimeric blastocysts were transferred into recipients. These findings indicated that the pPSCs were porcine pluripotent cells; that this would be a useful cell line for porcine genetic engineering and a valuable cell line for clarifying the molecular mechanism of pluripotency regulation in pigs. PMID:26991423

  13. Metabolic and Signaling Functions of Cancer Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, P; Vardaki, I; Occhionero, A; Panaretakis, T

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles have gained tremendous attention in the recent years as a novel mechanism of cell to cell communication. There are several types of extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, microvesicles, exosome, like vesicles, apoptotic bodies that differ mainly in the mechanism of biogenesis and secretion. The most well studied type of extracellular vesicles are the exosomes which are endosome-derived vesicles with a diameter of 50-150nm and enriched in ESCRT proteins including Alix, TSG101, Hsp70, and tetraspanins. It is now well established that exosomes promote tumor growth, alter the tumor microenvironment, facilitate the dissemination of cancer cells in an organotropic manner, modulate immune responses, and mediate resistance to therapy. Exosomes have also been recently implicated in an emerging hallmark of cancer, the cancer cell metabolism. The metabolic state of the cell defines, to a certain extent, both the rate of secretion and the molecular content of tumor-derived exosomes. Furthermore, exosomes have been shown to possess intrinsic metabolic activity since they can synthesize ATP by glycolysis. It follows that exosomes carry a number of metabolic enzymes and metabolites, including lactate, PGE, LDH isoforms, pyruvate, and monocarboxylate transporters. Last but not the least, exosomes are implicated in fatty acid synthesis and cholesterol metabolism and are thought to be crucial for the transcellular metabolism procedure. Uptake of exosomes is thought to alter the intracellular metabolic state of the cell. In summary, we describe the state of the art on the role of metabolism in the secretion, uptake, and the biological effects of exosomes in the metabolism of recipient cells. PMID:27572129

  14. The effect of inflammatory cell-derived MCP-1 loss on neuronal survival during chronic neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, Andrew J.; Tian, Weiming; Saucier-Sawyer, Jennifer K.; Rizk, Paul J.; Saltzman, W. Mark; Bellamkonda, Ravi; Kyriakides, Themis R.

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial implants elicit neurodegeneration via the foreign body response (FBR) that includes BBB leakage, macrophage/microglia accumulation, and reactive astrogliosis, in addition to neuronal degradation that limit their useful lifespan. Previously, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1, also CCL2), which plays an important role in monocyte recruitment and propagation of inflammation, was shown to be critical for various aspects of the FBR in a tissue-specific manner. However, participation of MCP-1 in the brain FBR has not been evaluated. Here we examined the FBR to intracortical silicon implants in MCP-1 KO mice at 1, 2, and 8 weeks after implantation. MCP-1 KO mice had a diminished FBR compared to WT mice, characterized by reductions in BBB leakage, macrophage/microglia accumulation, and astrogliosis, and an increased neuronal density. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of MCP-1 in implant-bearing WT mice maintained the increased neuronal density. To elucidate the relative contribution of microglia and macrophages, bone marrow chimeras were generated between MCP-1 KO and WT mice. Increased neuronal density was observed only in MCP-1 knockout mice transplanted with MCP-1 knockout marrow, which indicates that resident cells in the brain are major contributors. We hypothesized that these improvements are the result of a phenotypic switch of the macrophages/microglia polarization state, which we confirmed using PCR for common activation markers. Our observations suggest that MCP-1 influences neuronal loss, which is integral to the progression of neurological disorders like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson disease, via BBB leakage and macrophage polarization. PMID:24881026

  15. Body Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, K. Allen

    1989-01-01

    Described are activities for measuring the human body. The activities include measurements and calculations, calculating volume and density, problems related to body measurement, and using a nomogram. Several charts, illustrations, and a nomogram are provided. (YP)

  16. Micro-Arrayed Human Embryonic Stem Cells-Derived Cardiomyocytes for In Vitro Functional Assay

    PubMed Central

    Serena, Elena; Cimetta, Elisa; Zatti, Susi; Zaglia, Tania; Zagallo, Monica; Keller, Gordon; Elvassore, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The heart is one of the least regenerative organs in the body and any major insult can result in a significant loss of heart cells. The development of an in vitro-based cardiac tissue could be of paramount importance for many aspects of the cardiology research. In this context, we developed an in vitro assay based on human cardiomyocytes (hCMs) and ad hoc micro-technologies, suitable for several applications: from pharmacological analysis to physio-phatological studies on transplantable hCMs. We focused on the development of an assay able to analyze not only hCMs viability, but also their functionality. Methods hCMs were cultured onto a poly-acrylamide hydrogel with tunable tissue-like mechanical properties and organized through micropatterning in a 20×20 array. Arrayed hCMs were characterized by immunofluorescence, GAP-FRAP analyses and live and dead assay. Their functionality was evaluated monitoring the excitation-contraction coupling. Results Micropatterned hCMs maintained the expression of the major cardiac markers (cTnT, cTnI, Cx43, Nkx2.5, α-actinin) and functional properties. The spontaneous contraction frequency was (0.83±0.2) Hz, while exogenous electrical stimulation lead to an increase up to 2 Hz. As proof of concept that our device can be used for screening the effects of pathological conditions, hCMs were exposed to increasing levels of H2O2. Remarkably, hCMs viability was not compromised with exposure to 0.1 mM H2O2, but hCMs contractility was dramatically suppressed. As proof of concept, we also developed a microfluidic platform to selectively treat areas of the cell array, in the perspective of performing multi-parametric assay. Conclusions Such system could be a useful tool for testing the effects of multiple conditions on an in vitro cell model representative of human heart physiology, thus potentially helping the processes of therapy and drug development. PMID:23152776

  17. Am80 inhibits stromal cell-derived factor-1-induced chemotaxis in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Taichi; Jimi, Shiro; Hara, Shuuji; Takamatsu, Yasushi; Suzumiya, Junji; Tamura, Kazuo

    2010-03-01

    C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) play a potent role in metastasis and infiltration of many types of tumors, including T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), into the central nervous system or lymph nodes. Although higher levels of CXCR4 expression have been shown to correlate with shorter survival of patients, effective drugs affecting cell surface CXCR4 expression are still unknown. In the present study, we examined the effects of a synthetic retinoid Am80 on CXCR4 expression of cultured T-ALL cells, such as Jurkat. Am80 inhibited surface CXCR4 expression and SDF-1-induced chemotaxis by the acceleration of CXCR4 internalization via activation of conventional PKC. Am80 may be an effective drug to inhibit the extramedullary infiltration of T-ALL cells. PMID:20141446

  18. Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neural Precursors Develop Into Neurons and Integrate Into the Host Brain

    PubMed Central

    Guillaume, Daniel J.; Johnson, M. Austin; Li, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Su-Chun

    2009-01-01

    Whether and how in-vitro-produced human neural precursors mature and integrate into the brain are crucial to the utility of human embryonic stem (hES) cells in treating neurological disorders. After transplantation into the ventricles of neonatal immune-deficient mice, hES-cell-derived neural precursors stopped expressing the cell division marker Ki67, except in neurogenic areas, and differentiated into neurons and then glia in a temporal course intrinsic to that of human cells regardless of location. The human cells located in the gray matter became neurons in the olfactory bulb and striatum, whereas those in the white matter produced exclusively glia. Importantly, the grafted human cells formed synapses. Thus, the in-vitro-produced human neural precursors follow their intrinsic temporal program to produce neurons and glia and, in response to environmental signals, generate cells appropriate to their target regions and integrate into the brain. PMID:16941479

  19. Mast cell-derived interleukin 10 limits skin pathology in contact dermatitis and chronic irradiation with ultraviolet B.

    PubMed

    Grimbaldeston, Michele A; Nakae, Susumu; Kalesnikoff, Janet; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J

    2007-10-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis, such as in response to poison ivy or poison oak, and chronic low-dose ultraviolet B irradiation can damage the skin. Mast cells produce proinflammatory mediators that are thought to exacerbate these prevalent acquired immune or innate responses. Here we found that, unexpectedly, mast cells substantially limited the pathology associated with these responses, including infiltrates of leukocytes, epidermal hyperplasia and epidermal necrosis. Production of interleukin 10 by mast cells contributed to the anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive effects of mast cells in these conditions. Our findings identify a previously unrecognized function for mast cells and mast cell-derived interleukin 10 in limiting leukocyte infiltration, inflammation and tissue damage associated with immunological or innate responses that can injure the skin. PMID:17767162

  20. Controversies in Cardiovascular Research: Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes – boutique science or valuable arrhythmia model?

    PubMed Central

    Knollmann, Björn C

    2013-01-01

    As part of the series on Controversies in Cardiovascular Research, the article reviews the strengths and limitations of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CM) as models of cardiac arrhythmias. Specifically, the article attempts to answer the following questions: Which clinical arrhythmias can be modeled by iPSC-CM? How well can iPSC-CM model adult ventricular myocytes? What are the strengths and limitations of published iPSC-CM arrhythmia models? What new mechanistic insight has been gained? What is the evidence that would support using iPSC-CM to personalize anti-arrhythmic drug therapy? The review also discusses the pros and cons of using the iPSC-CM technology for modeling specific genetic arrhythmia disorders such as long QT syndrome, Brugada Syndrome or Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia. PMID:23569106

  1. Integrated Analysis of Contractile Kinetics, Force Generation, and Electrical Activity in Single Human Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Kijlstra, Jan David; Hu, Dongjian; Mittal, Nikhil; Kausel, Eduardo; van der Meer, Peter; Garakani, Arman; Domian, Ibrahim J

    2015-12-01

    The quantitative analysis of cardiomyocyte function is essential for stem cell-based approaches for the in vitro study of human cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. We present a method to comprehensively assess the function of single human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte (hPSC-CMs) through simultaneous quantitative analysis of contraction kinetics, force generation, and electrical activity. We demonstrate that statistical analysis of movies of contracting hPSC-CMs can be used to quantify changes in cellular morphology over time and compute contractile kinetics. Using a biomechanical model that incorporates substrate stiffness, we calculate cardiomyocyte force generation at single-cell resolution and validate this approach with conventional traction force microscopy. The addition of fluorescent calcium indicators or membrane potential dyes allows the simultaneous analysis of contractility and calcium handling or action potential morphology. Accordingly, our approach has the potential for broad application in the study of cardiac disease, drug discovery, and cardiotoxicity screening. PMID:26626178

  2. Integrated Analysis of Contractile Kinetics, Force Generation, and Electrical Activity in Single Human Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kijlstra, Jan David; Hu, Dongjian; Mittal, Nikhil; Kausel, Eduardo; van der Meer, Peter; Garakani, Arman; Domian, Ibrahim J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The quantitative analysis of cardiomyocyte function is essential for stem cell-based approaches for the in vitro study of human cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. We present a method to comprehensively assess the function of single human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte (hPSC-CMs) through simultaneous quantitative analysis of contraction kinetics, force generation, and electrical activity. We demonstrate that statistical analysis of movies of contracting hPSC-CMs can be used to quantify changes in cellular morphology over time and compute contractile kinetics. Using a biomechanical model that incorporates substrate stiffness, we calculate cardiomyocyte force generation at single-cell resolution and validate this approach with conventional traction force microscopy. The addition of fluorescent calcium indicators or membrane potential dyes allows the simultaneous analysis of contractility and calcium handling or action potential morphology. Accordingly, our approach has the potential for broad application in the study of cardiac disease, drug discovery, and cardiotoxicity screening. PMID:26626178

  3. Monosynaptic Tracing using Modified Rabies Virus Reveals Early and Extensive Circuit Integration of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neurons.

    PubMed

    Grealish, Shane; Heuer, Andreas; Cardoso, Tiago; Kirkeby, Agnete; Jönsson, Marie; Johansson, Jenny; Björklund, Anders; Jakobsson, Johan; Parmar, Malin

    2015-06-01

    Human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived dopamine neurons are currently moving toward clinical use for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the timing and extent at which stem cell-derived neurons functionally integrate into existing host neural circuitry after transplantation remain largely unknown. In this study, we use modified rabies virus to trace afferent and efferent connectivity of transplanted hESC-derived neurons in a rat model of PD and report that grafted human neurons integrate into the host neural circuitry in an unexpectedly rapid and extensive manner. The pattern of connectivity resembled that of local endogenous neurons, while ectopic connections were not detected. Revealing circuit integration of human dopamine neurons substantiates their potential use in clinical trials. Additionally, our data present rabies-based tracing as a valuable and widely applicable tool for analyzing graft connectivity that can easily be adapted to analyze connectivity of a variety of different neuronal sources and subtypes in different disease models. PMID:26004633

  4. Unique proliferation response in odontoblastic cells derived from human skeletal muscle stem cells by cytokine-induced matrix metalloproteinase-3

    SciTech Connect

    Ozeki, Nobuaki; Hase, Naoko; Kawai, Rie; Yamaguchi, Hideyuki; Hiyama, Taiki; Kondo, Ayami; Nakata, Kazuhiko; Mogi, Makio

    2015-02-01

    A pro-inflammatory cytokine mixture (CM: interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ) and IL-1β-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 activity have been shown to increase the proliferation of rat dental pulp cells and murine stem cell-derived odontoblast-like cells. This suggests that MMP-3 may regulate wound healing and regeneration in the odontoblast-rich dental pulp. Here, we determined whether these results can be extrapolated to human dental pulp by investigating the effects of CM-induced MMP-3 up-regulation on the proliferation and apoptosis of purified odontoblast-like cells derived from human skeletal muscle stem cells. We used siRNA to specifically reduce MMP-3 expression. We found that CM treatment increased MMP-3 mRNA and protein levels as well as MMP-3 activity. Cell proliferation was also markedly increased, with no changes in apoptosis, upon treatment with CM and following the application of exogenous MMP-3. Endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases were constitutively expressed during all experiments and unaffected by MMP-3. Although treatment with MMP-3 siRNA suppressed cell proliferation, it also unexpectedly increased apoptosis. This siRNA-mediated increase in apoptosis could be reversed by exogenous MMP-3. These results demonstrate that cytokine-induced MMP-3 activity regulates cell proliferation and suppresses apoptosis in human odontoblast-like cells. - Highlights: • Pro-inflammatory cytokines induce MMP-3 activity in human odontoblast-like cells. • Increased MMP-3 activity can promote cell proliferation in odontoblasts. • Specific loss of MMP-3 increases apoptosis in odontoblasts. • MMP-3 has potential as a promising new target for pupal repair and regeneration.

  5. Polyphosphate induces matrix metalloproteinase-3-mediated proliferation of odontoblast-like cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ozeki, Nobuaki; Hase, Naoko; Yamaguchi, Hideyuki; Hiyama, Taiki; Kawai, Rie; Kondo, Ayami; Nakata, Kazuhiko; Mogi, Makio

    2015-05-01

    Inorganic polyphosphate [Poly(P)] may represent a physiological source of phosphate and has the ability to induce bone differentiation in osteoblasts. We previously reported that cytokine-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 accelerates the proliferation of purified odontoblast-like cells. In this study, MMP-3 small interfering RNA (siRNA) was transfected into odontoblast-like cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells to investigate whether MMP-3 activity is induced by Poly(P) and/or is associated with cell proliferation and differentiation into odontoblast-like cells. Treatment with Poly(P) led to an increase in both cell proliferation and additional odontoblastic differentiation. Poly(P)-treated cells showed a small but significant increase in dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1) mRNA expression, which are markers of mature odontoblasts. The cells also acquired additional odontoblast-specific properties including adoption of an odontoblastic phenotype typified by high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and a calcification capacity. In addition, Poly(P) induced expression of MMP-3 mRNA and protein, and increased MMP-3 activity. MMP-3 siRNA-mediated disruption of the expression of these effectors potently suppressed the expression of odontoblastic biomarkers ALP, DSPP, and DMP-1, and blocked calcification. Interestingly, upon siRNA-mediated silencing of MMP-3, we noted a potent and significant decrease in cell proliferation. Using specific siRNAs, we revealed that a unique signaling cascade, Poly(P)→MMP-3→DSPP and/or DMP-1, was intimately involved in the proliferation of odontoblast-like cells. - Highlights: • Polyphosphate increases proliferation of iPS cell-derived odontoblast-like cells. • Polyphosphate-induced MMP-3 results in an increase of cell proliferation. • Induced cell proliferation involves MMP-3, DSPP, and/or DMP-1 sequentially. • Induced MMP-3 also results in an increase of odontoblastic

  6. Functional Evaluation of Biological Neurotoxins in Networked Cultures of Stem Cell-derived Central Nervous System Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Kyle; Beske, Phillip; Lyman, Megan; McNutt, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic and mechanistic studies of the presynaptically targeted clostridial neurotoxins (CNTs) have been limited by the need for a scalable, cell-based model that produces functioning synapses and undergoes physiological responses to intoxication. Here we describe a simple and robust method to efficiently differentiate murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into defined lineages of synaptically active, networked neurons. Following an 8 day differentiation protocol, mouse embryonic stem cell-derived neurons (ESNs) rapidly express and compartmentalize neurotypic proteins, form neuronal morphologies and develop intrinsic electrical responses. By 18 days after differentiation (DIV 18), ESNs exhibit active glutamatergic and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic synapses and emergent network behaviors characterized by an excitatory:inhibitory balance. To determine whether intoxication with CNTs functionally antagonizes synaptic neurotransmission, thereby replicating the in vivo pathophysiology that is responsible for clinical manifestations of botulism or tetanus, whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology was used to quantify spontaneous miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents (mEPSCs) in ESNs exposed to tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) or botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotypes /A-/G. In all cases, ESNs exhibited near-complete loss of synaptic activity within 20 hr. Intoxicated neurons remained viable, as demonstrated by unchanged resting membrane potentials and intrinsic electrical responses. To further characterize the sensitivity of this approach, dose-dependent effects of intoxication on synaptic activity were measured 20 hr after addition of BoNT/A. Intoxication with 0.005 pM BoNT/A resulted in a significant decrement in mEPSCs, with a median inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.013 pM. Comparisons of median doses indicate that functional measurements of synaptic inhibition are faster, more specific and more sensitive than SNARE cleavage assays or the mouse lethality assay

  7. Human Stem Cell-Derived Skin Progenitors Produce Alpha 2-HS Glycoprotein (Fetuin): A Revolutionary Cosmetic Ingredient.

    PubMed

    Nistor, Gabriel; Poole, Aleksandra J; Draelos, Zoe; Lupo, Mary; Tzikas, Thomas; Liu, Jerome H; Keirstead, Hans S

    2016-05-01

    These studies were designed to determine the effect of stem cell-derived skin lineage precursor secretions on the intrinsic and extrinsic symptoms of human skin aging.
    Human stem cells cultivated in balanced conditions were differentiated into skin lineage precursors, and shown to secrete large amounts of fetuin as well as multiple growth factors beneficial for human skin development and maintenance. The cell secretions were incorporated in two simple cosmetic formulations (serum and lotion) and investigated in an IRB-approved 12-week human trial that included 25 subjects in each group. Subjects were examined at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks by a dermatologist to evaluate safety, trans-epidermal water loss, wrinkles, firmness, radiance, texture, softness, and overall appearance. A sub-group of subjects from each group consented for biopsies for histological analyses.
    Protein analyses in the cell secretions revealed a high concentration of the multifunctional alpha 2-HS glycoprotein (fetuin) along with a multitude of protein factors involved in the development and maintenance of healthy human skin. Clinical investigation demonstrated significant amelioration of the clinical signs of intrinsic and extrinsic skin aging, findings that were confirmed by significant changes in skin morphology, filaggrin, aquaporin 3, and collagen I content.
    Our data strongly support our hypothesis that cosmetic application of stem cell-derived skin lineage precursor secretions containing fetuin and growth factors beneficial for human skin development and maintenance, positively influence intrinsic and extrinsic aging.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(5):583-598. PMID:27168267

  8. Three-Dimensional Adult Cardiac Extracellular Matrix Promotes Maturation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Fong, Ashley H; Romero-López, Mónica; Heylman, Christopher M; Keating, Mark; Tran, David; Sobrino, Agua; Tran, Anh Q; Pham, Hiep H; Fimbres, Cristhian; Gershon, Paul D; Botvinick, Elliot L; George, Steven C; Hughes, Christopher C W

    2016-08-01

    Pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) have great potential in the development of new therapies for cardiovascular disease. In particular, human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may prove especially advantageous due to their pluripotency, their self-renewal potential, and their ability to create patient-specific cell lines. Unfortunately, pluripotent stem cell-derived CMs are immature, with characteristics more closely resembling fetal CMs than adult CMs, and this immaturity has limited their use in drug screening and cell-based therapies. Extracellular matrix (ECM) influences cellular behavior and maturation, as does the geometry of the environment-two-dimensional (2D) versus three-dimensional (3D). We therefore tested the hypothesis that native cardiac ECM and 3D cultures might enhance the maturation of iPSC-derived CMs in vitro. We demonstrate that maturation of iPSC-derived CMs was enhanced when cells were seeded into a 3D cardiac ECM scaffold, compared with 2D culture. 3D cardiac ECM promoted increased expression of calcium-handling genes, Junctin, CaV1.2, NCX1, HCN4, SERCA2a, Triadin, and CASQ2. Consistent with this, we find that iPSC-derived CMs in 3D adult cardiac ECM show increased calcium signaling (amplitude) and kinetics (maximum upstroke and downstroke) compared with cells in 2D. Cells in 3D culture were also more responsive to caffeine, likely reflecting an increased availability of calcium in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Taken together, these studies provide novel strategies for maturing iPSC-derived CMs that may have applications in drug screening and transplantation therapies to treat heart disease. PMID:27392582

  9. Early maturation and distinct tau pathology in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons from patients with MAPT mutations.

    PubMed

    Iovino, Mariangela; Agathou, Sylvia; González-Rueda, Ana; Del Castillo Velasco-Herrera, Martin; Borroni, Barbara; Alberici, Antonella; Lynch, Timothy; O'Dowd, Sean; Geti, Imbisaat; Gaffney, Daniel; Vallier, Ludovic; Paulsen, Ole; Káradóttir, Ragnhildur Thóra; Spillantini, Maria Grazia

    2015-11-01

    Tauopathies, such as Alzheimer's disease, some cases of frontotemporal dementia, corticobasal degeneration and progressive supranuclear palsy, are characterized by aggregates of the microtubule-associated protein tau, which are linked to neuronal death and disease development and can be caused by mutations in the MAPT gene. Six tau isoforms are present in the adult human brain and they differ by the presence of 3(3R) or 4(4R) C-terminal repeats. Only the shortest 3R isoform is present in foetal brain. MAPT mutations found in human disease affect tau binding to microtubules or the 3R:4R isoform ratio by altering exon 10 splicing. We have differentiated neurons from induced pluripotent stem cells derived from fibroblasts of controls and patients with N279K and P301L MAPT mutations. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons recapitulate developmental tau expression, showing the adult brain tau isoforms after several months in culture. Both N279K and P301L neurons exhibit earlier electrophysiological maturation and altered mitochondrial transport compared to controls. Specifically, the N279K neurons show abnormally premature developmental 4R tau expression, including changes in the 3R:4R isoform ratio and AT100-hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates, while P301L neurons are characterized by contorted processes with varicosity-like structures, some containing both alpha-synuclein and 4R tau. The previously unreported faster maturation of MAPT mutant human neurons, the developmental expression of 4R tau and the morphological alterations may contribute to disease development. PMID:26220942

  10. Isolation and Assessment of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived From Bone Marrow: Histologic and Histomorphometric Study in a Canine Periodontal Defect.

    PubMed

    Paknejad, Mojgan; Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza Baghaban; Ghaedi, Baharak; Rokn, Amir-Reza; Khorsand, Afshin; Etemad-Moghadam, Shahroo; Alaeddini, Mojgan; Dehghan, Mohammad Mehdi; Moslemi, Neda; Nowzari, Hessam

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate an isolation procedure to culture mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and evaluate their potential in periodontal regeneration. Potential stem cells from bone marrow, aspirated from the iliac crest of nine mongrel canines 1 to 2 years of age, were cultivated. After the examination of surface epitopes of the isolated cells, the total RNA from osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic cell cultures were analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to confirm stem cell gene expressions. 2 × 10(7) mL of the stem cells were loaded on 0.2 mL of anorganic bovine bone mineral (ABBM) granules. In each animal, bilateral acute/chronic intrabony periodontal defects were created surgically and by placement of ligatures around the cervical aspect of the teeth. At week 5, after flap debridement, the bilateral defects were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups: the control group received ABBM, and the test group received BMSCs-loaded ABBM. Eight weeks after transplantation, regenerative parameters were analyzed histologically and histometrically. The RNA expressions confirmed the cultivation of mesenchymal stem cell. More new cementum and periodontal ligament (PDL) were measured in the test group (cementum: 3.33 ± 0.94 vs 2.03 ± 1.30, P = 0.027; PDL: 2.69 ± 0.73 vs 1.53 ± 1.21, P = 0.026). New bone formation was similar in both groups (2.70 ± 0.86 vs 1.99 ± 1.31; P = 0.193). Mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow should be considered a promising technique for use in patients with periodontal attachment loss and merits further investigations. PMID:24383495

  11. Fas signal promotes lung cancer growth by recruiting myeloid-derived suppressor cells via cancer cell-derived PGE2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongliang; Liu, Qiuyan; Zhang, Minggang; Yu, Yizhi; Liu, Xia; Cao, Xuetao

    2009-03-15

    Fas/FasL system has been extensively investigated with respect to its capacity to induce cellular apoptosis. However, accumulated evidences show that Fas signaling also exhibits nonapoptotic functions, such as induction of cell proliferation and differentiation. Lung cancer is one of cancer's refractory to the immunotherapy, however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully understood. In this study, we show that Fas overexpression does not affect in vitro growth of 3LL cells, but promotes lung cancer growth in vivo. However, such tumor-promoting effect is not observed in FasL-deficient (gld) mice, and also not observed in the immune competent mice once inoculation with domain-negative Fas-overexpressing 3LL cells, suggesting the critical role of Fas signal in the promotion of lung cancer growth in vivo. More accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells is found in tumors formed by inoculation with Fas-overexpressing 3LL cells, but not domain-negative Fas-overexpressing 3LL cells. Accordingly, Fas-ligated 3LL lung cancer cells can chemoattract more MDSC but not regulatory T cells in vitro. Furthermore, Fas ligation induces 3LL lung cancer cells to produce proinflammatory factor PGE(2) by activating p38 pathway, and in turn, 3LL cells-derived PGE(2) contribute to the Fas ligation-induced MDSC chemoattraction. Furthermore, in vivo administration of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor can significantly reduce MDSC accumulation in the Fas-overexpressing tumor. Therefore, our results demonstrate that Fas signal can promote lung cancer growth by recruiting MDSC via cancer cell-derived PGE(2), thus providing new mechanistic explanation for the role of inflammation in cancer progression and immune escape. PMID:19265159

  12. Early maturation and distinct tau pathology in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons from patients with MAPT mutations

    PubMed Central

    Iovino, Mariangela; Agathou, Sylvia; González-Rueda, Ana; Del Castillo Velasco-Herrera, Martin; Borroni, Barbara; Alberici, Antonella; Lynch, Timothy; O’Dowd, Sean; Geti, Imbisaat; Gaffney, Daniel; Vallier, Ludovic; Paulsen, Ole; Káradóttir, Ragnhildur Thóra

    2015-01-01

    Tauopathies, such as Alzheimer’s disease, some cases of frontotemporal dementia, corticobasal degeneration and progressive supranuclear palsy, are characterized by aggregates of the microtubule-associated protein tau, which are linked to neuronal death and disease development and can be caused by mutations in the MAPT gene. Six tau isoforms are present in the adult human brain and they differ by the presence of 3(3R) or 4(4R) C-terminal repeats. Only the shortest 3R isoform is present in foetal brain. MAPT mutations found in human disease affect tau binding to microtubules or the 3R:4R isoform ratio by altering exon 10 splicing. We have differentiated neurons from induced pluripotent stem cells derived from fibroblasts of controls and patients with N279K and P301L MAPT mutations. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons recapitulate developmental tau expression, showing the adult brain tau isoforms after several months in culture. Both N279K and P301L neurons exhibit earlier electrophysiological maturation and altered mitochondrial transport compared to controls. Specifically, the N279K neurons show abnormally premature developmental 4R tau expression, including changes in the 3R:4R isoform ratio and AT100-hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates, while P301L neurons are characterized by contorted processes with varicosity-like structures, some containing both alpha-synuclein and 4R tau. The previously unreported faster maturation of MAPT mutant human neurons, the developmental expression of 4R tau and the morphological alterations may contribute to disease development. PMID:26220942

  13. Bridging Functional and Structural Cardiotoxicity Assays Using Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes for a More Comprehensive Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Clements, Mike; Millar, Val; Williams, Angela S; Kalinka, Sian

    2015-11-01

    More relevant and reliable preclinical cardiotoxicity tests are required to improve drug safety and reduce the cost of drug development. Current in vitro testing strategies predominantly take the form of functional assays to predict the potential for drug-induced ECG abnormalities in vivo. Cardiotoxicity can also be structural in nature, so a full and efficient assessment of cardiac liabilities for new chemical entities should account for both these phenomena. As well as providing a more appropriate nonclinical model for in vitro cardiotoxicity testing, human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes offer an integrated system to study drug impact on cardiomyocyte structure as well as function. Employing human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiacmyocytes (hESC-CMs) on 3 assay platforms with complementary insights into cardiac biology (multielectrode array assay, electrophysiology; impedance assay, cell movement/beating; and high content analysis assay, subcellular structure) we profiled a panel of 13 drugs with well characterized cardiac liabilities (Amiodarone, Aspirin, Astemizole, Axitinib, AZT, Bepridil, Doxorubicin, E-4031, Mexiletine, Rosiglitazone, Sunitinib, Sibutramine, and Verapamil). Our data show good correlations with previous studies and reported clinical observations. Using multiparameter phenotypic profiling techniques we demonstrate the dynamic relationship that exists between functional and structural toxicity, and the benefits of this more holistic approach to risk assessment. We conclude by showing for the first time how the advent of transparent MEA plate technology enables functional and structural cardiotoxic responses to be recorded from the same cell population. This approach more directly links changes in morphology of the hESC-CMs with recorded electrophysiology signatures, offering even greater insight into the wide range of potential drug impacts on cardiac physiology, with a throughput that is more amenable to early drug discovery. PMID:26259608

  14. Cancer Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Are Associated with Coagulopathy Causing Ischemic Stroke via Tissue Factor-Independent Way: The OASIS-CANCER Study

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Oh Young; Chung, Jong-Won; Lee, Mi Ji; Kim, Suk Jae; Cho, Yeon Hee; Kim, Gyeong-Moon; Chung, Chin-Sang; Lee, Kwang Ho; Ahn, Myung-Ju; Moon, Gyeong Joon

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer and stroke, which are known to be associated with one another, are the most common causes of death in the elderly. However, the pathomechanisms that lead to stroke in cancer patients are not well known. Circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a role in cancer-associated thrombosis and tumor progression. Therefore, we hypothesized that cancer cell-derived EVs cause cancer-related coagulopathy resulting in ischemic stroke. Methods Serum levels of D-dimer and EVs expressing markers for cancer cells (epithelial cell adhesion molecule [CD326]), tissue factor (TF [CD142]), endothelial cells (CD31+CD42b-), and platelets (CD62P) were measured using flow cytometry in (a) 155 patients with ischemic stroke and active cancer (116 − cancer-related, 39 − conventional stroke mechanisms), (b) 25 patients with ischemic stroke without cancer, (c) 32 cancer patients without stroke, and (d) 101 healthy subjects. Results The levels of cancer cell-derived EVs correlated with the levels of D-dimer and TF+ EVs. The levels of cancer cell-derived EVs (CD326+ and CD326+CD142+) were higher in cancer-related stroke than in other groups (P<0.05 in all the cases). Path analysis showed that cancer cell-derived EVs are related to stroke via coagulopathy as measured by D-dimer levels. Poor correlation was observed between TF+ EV and D-dimer, and path analysis demonstrated that cancer cell-derived EVs may cause cancer-related coagulopathy independent of the levels of TF+ EVs. Conclusions Our findings suggest that cancer cell-derived EVs mediate coagulopathy resulting in ischemic stroke via TF-independent mechanisms. PMID:27427978

  15. Body Piercing

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Laura M; Carnes, Molly

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the current information on medical complications, psychological implications, and legislative issues related to body piercing, a largely unregulated industry in the United States. METHODS We conducted a MEDLINE search of English language articles from 1966 until May 1998 using the search terms “body piercing” and “ear piercing.” Bibliographies of these references were reviewed for additional citations. We also conducted an Internet search for “body piercing” on the World Wide Web. MAIN RESULTS: In this manuscript, we review the available body piercing literature. We conclude that body piercing is an increasingly common practice in the United States, that this practice carries substantial risk of morbidity, and that most body piercing in the United States is being performed by unlicensed, unregulated individuals. Primary care physicians are seeing growing numbers of patients with body pierces. Practitioners must be able to recognize, treat, and counsel patients on body piercing complications and be alert to associated psychological conditions in patients who undergo body piercing. PMID:10354260

  16. Cardiac progenitor cell-derived exosomes prevent cardiomyocytes apoptosis through exosomal miR-21 by targeting PDCD4.

    PubMed

    Xiao, J; Pan, Y; Li, X H; Yang, X Y; Feng, Y L; Tan, H H; Jiang, L; Feng, J; Yu, X Y

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac progenitor cells derived from adult heart have emerged as one of the most promising stem cell types for cardiac protection and repair. Exosomes are known to mediate cell-cell communication by transporting cell-derived proteins and nucleic acids, including various microRNAs (miRNAs). Here we investigated the cardiac progenitor cell (CPC)-derived exosomal miRNAs on protecting myocardium under oxidative stress. Sca1(+)CPCs-derived exosomes were purified from conditional medium, and identified by nanoparticle trafficking analysis (NTA), transmission electron microscopy and western blotting using CD63, CD9 and Alix as markers. Exosomes production was measured by NTA, the result showed that oxidative stress-induced CPCs secrete more exosomes compared with normal condition. Although six apoptosis-related miRNAs could be detected in two different treatment-derived exosomes, only miR-21 was significantly upregulated in oxidative stress-induced exosomes compared with normal exosomes. The same oxidative stress could cause low miR-21 and high cleaved caspase-3 expression in H9C2 cardiac cells. But the cleaved caspase-3 was significantly decreased when miR-21 was overexpressed by transfecting miR-21 mimic. Furthermore, miR-21 mimic or inhibitor transfection and luciferase activity assay confirmed that programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) was a target gene of miR-21, and miR-21/PDCD4 axis has an important role in anti-apoptotic effect of H9C2 cell. Western blotting and Annexin V/PI results demonstrated that exosomes pre-treated H9C2 exhibited increased miR-21 whereas decreased PDCD4, and had more resistant potential to the apoptosis induced by the oxidative stress, compared with non-treated cells. These findings revealed that CPC-derived exosomal miR-21 had an inhibiting role in the apoptosis pathway through downregulating PDCD4. Restored miR-21/PDCD4 pathway using CPC-derived exosomes could protect myocardial cells against oxidative stress-related apoptosis. Therefore

  17. Upregulation of CD4+T-Cell Derived MiR-223 in The Relapsing Phase of Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Aref; Ghaedi, Kamran; Tanhaei, Somayeh; Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, Mazdak; Teimuri, Shohreh; Etemadifar, Masoud; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a class of non-coding RNAs which play key roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Previous studies indicate that miRNAs are dysregulated in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Th17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells are two subsets of CD4+T-cells which have critical functions in the onset and progression of MS. The current study seeks to distinguish fluctuations in expression of CD4+T-cell derived miR-223 during the relapsing-remitting (RR) phase of MS (RR-MS), as well as the expressions of Th17 and Treg cell markers. Materials and Methods This experimental study used real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to evaluate CD4+ T cell derived miR-223 expression patterns in patients that experienced either of the RR-MS phases (n=40) compared to healthy controls (n=12), along with RNA markers for Th17 and Treg cells. We conducted flow cytometry analyses of forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) and RAR-related orphan receptor γt (RORγt) in CD4+T-cells. Putative and validated targets of miR-223 were investigated in the miRWalk and miRTarBase databases, respectively. Results miR-223 significantly upregulated in CD4+T-cells during the relapsing phase of RR-MS compared to the remitting phase (P=0.000) and healthy individuals (P=0.036). Expression of RORγt, a master transcription factor of Th17, upregulated in the relapsing phase, whereas FOXP3 upregulated in the remitting phase. Additionally, potential targets of miR-223, STAT1, FORKHEAD BOX O (FOXO1) and FOXO3 were predicted by in silico studies. Conclusion miR-223 may have a potential role in MS progression. Therefore, suppression of miR-223 can be proposed as an appropriate approach to control progression of the relapsing phase of MS. PMID:27602319

  18. Body Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System ...

  19. Stromal-Cell-Derived Factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXCL12 as Potential Target of Therapeutic Angiogenesis in Critical Leg Ischaemia

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Teik K.; Shiwen, X.; Abraham, D.; Tsui, J.; Baker, D.

    2012-01-01

    In the Western world, peripheral vascular disease (PVD) has a high prevalence with high morbidity and mortality. In a large percentage of these patients, lower limb amputation is still required. Studies of ischaemic skeletal muscle disclosed evidence of endogenous angiogenesis and adaptive skeletal muscle metabolic changes in response to hypoxia. Chemokines are potent chemoattractant cytokines that regulate leukocyte trafficking in homeostatic and inflammatory processes. More than 50 different chemokines and 20 different chemokine receptors have been cloned. The chemokine stromal-cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 aka CXCL12) is a constitutively expressed and inducible chemokine that regulates multiple physiological processes, including embryonic development and organ homeostasis. The biologic effects of SDF-1 are mediated by chemokine receptor CXCR4, a 352 amino acid rhodopsin-like transmembrane-specific G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). There is evidence that the administration of SDF-1 increases blood flow and perfusion via recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). This review will focus on the role of the SDF-1/CXCR4 system in the pathophysiology of PVD and discuss their potential as therapeutic targets for PVD. PMID:22462026

  20. Xeno-sensing activity of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in human pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Min; Kim, Ji-Woo; Choi, Youngjun; Chun, Hang-Suk; Im, Ilkyun; Han, Yong-Mahn; Song, Chang-Woo; Yoon, Seokjoo; Park, Han-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Although hepatocyte-like cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC-HLCs) are considered a promising model for predicting hepatotoxicity, their application has been restricted because of the low activity of drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs). Here we found that the low expression of xenobiotic receptors (constitutive androstane receptor, CAR; and pregnane X receptor, PXR) contributes to the low activity of DMEs in hPSC-HLCs. Most CAR- and PXR-regulated DMEs and transporters were transcriptionally down-regulated in hPSC-HLC. Transcriptional expression of CAR and PXR was highly repressed in hPSC-HLCs, whereas mRNA levels of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) were comparable to those of adult liver. Furthermore, ligand-induced transcriptional activation was observed only at AHR in hPSC-HLCs. Bisulfite sequencing analysis demonstrated that promoter hypermethylation of CAR and PXR was associated with diminished transcriptional activity in hPSC-HLCs. Treatment with AHR-selective ligands increased the transcription of AHR-dependent target genes by direct AHR-DNA binding at the xenobiotic response element. In addition, an antagonist of AHR significantly inhibited AHR-dependent target gene expression. Thus, AHR may function intrinsically as a xenosensor as well as a ligand-dependent transcription factor in hPSC-HLCs. Our results indicate that hPSC-HLCs can be used to screen toxic substances related to AHR signaling and to identify potential AHR-targeted therapeutics. PMID:26899675

  1. Human iPS Cell-Derived Insulin Producing Cells Form Vascularized Organoids under the Kidney Capsules of Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Raikwar, Sudhanshu P.; Kim, Eun-Mi; Sivitz, William I.; Allamargot, Chantal; Thedens, Daniel R.; Zavazava, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is caused by autoimmune disease that leads to the destruction of pancreatic β-cells. Transplantation of cadaveric pancreatic organs or pancreatic islets can restore normal physiology. However, there is a chronic shortage of cadaveric organs, limiting the treatment of the majority of patients on the pancreas transplantation waiting list. Here, we hypothesized that human iPS cells can be directly differentiated into insulin producing cells (IPCs) capable of secreting insulin. Using a series of pancreatic growth factors, we successfully generated iPS cells derived IPCs. Furthermore, to investigate the capability of these cells to secrete insulin in vivo, the differentiated cells were transplanted under the kidney capsules of diabetic immunodeficient mice. Serum glucose levels gradually declined to either normal or near normal levels over 150 days, suggesting that the IPCs were secreting insulin. In addition, using MRI, a 3D organoid appeared as a white patch on the transplanted kidneys but not on the control kidneys. These organoids showed neo-vascularization and stained positive for insulin and glucagon. All together, these data show that a pancreatic organ can be created in vivo providing evidence that iPS cells might be a novel option for the treatment of T1D. PMID:25629318

  2. Generation of Highly Purified Human Cardiomyocytes from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Klaus; Jentsch, Nico; Klingenstein, Melanie; Drzymalski, Marzena; Wagner, Stefan; Maier, Lars S.; Hehr, Ute; Baessler, Andrea; Fischer, Marcus; Hengstenberg, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have an enormous potential for physiological studies. A novel protocol was developed combining the derivation of iPS from peripheral blood with an optimized directed differentiation to cardiomyocytes and a subsequent metabolic selection. The human iPS cells were retrovirally dedifferentiated from activated T cells. The subsequent optimized directed differentiation protocol yielded 30-45% cardiomyocytes at day 16 of differentiation. The derived cardiomyocytes expressed appropriate structural markers like cardiac troponin T, α-actinin and myosin light chain 2 (MLC2V). In a subsequent metabolic selection with lactate, the cardiomyocytes content could be increased to more than 90%. Loss of cardiomyocytes during metabolic selection were less than 50%, whereas alternative surface antibody-based selection procedures resulted in loss of up to 80% of cardiomyocytes. Electrophysiological characterization confirmed the typical cardiac features and the presence of ventricular, atrial and nodal-like action potentials within the derived cardiomyocyte population. Our combined and optimized protocol is highly robust and applicable for scalable cardiac differentiation. It provides a simple and cost-efficient method without expensive equipment for generating large numbers of highly purified, functional cardiomyocytes. It will further enhance the applicability of iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes for disease modeling, drug discovery, and regenerative medicine. PMID:25970162

  3. Comparison of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Serum Biomarkers for Detection of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Teratomas

    PubMed Central

    Riegler, Johannes; Ebert, Antje; Qin, Xulei; Shen, Qi; Wang, Mouer; Ameen, Mohamed; Kodo, Kazuki; Ong, Sang-Ging; Lee, Won Hee; Lee, Grace; Neofytou, Evgenios; Gold, Joseph D.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The use of cells derived from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) for regenerative therapies confers a considerable risk for neoplastic growth and teratoma formation. Preclinical and clinical assessment of such therapies will require suitable monitoring strategies to understand and mitigate these risks. Here we generated human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), selected clones that continued to express reprogramming factors after differentiation into cardiomyocytes, and transplanted these cardiomyocytes into immunocompromised rat hearts post-myocardial infarction. We compared magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cardiac ultrasound, and serum biomarkers for their ability to delineate teratoma formation and growth. MRI enabled the detection of teratomas with a volume >8 mm3. A combination of three plasma biomarkers (CEA, AFP, and HCG) was able to detect teratomas with a volume >17 mm3 and with a sensitivity of more than 87%. Based on our findings, a combination of serum biomarkers with MRI screening may offer the highest sensitivity for teratoma detection and tracking. PMID:26777057

  4. Elevated Plasma Stromal-Cell-Derived Factor-1 Protein Levels Correlate with Severity in Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ping-Kun; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Wang, Hsiang-Ling; Chou, Ming-Chih; Yang, Shun-Fa

    2014-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to investigate differential changes in plasma levels of stromal-cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) before and after antibiotic treatment in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and observe the association between the severity of CAP and the plasma SDF-1 level. Methods. We gathered blood specimens from 61 adult CAP patients before and after antibiotic treatment and from 60 healthy controls to measure the plasma concentrations of SDF-1 by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. The plasma SDF-1 concentration was elevated significantly in patients with CAP before receiving treatment compared with the controls and decreased significantly after the patients received treatment. Leukocyte (WBC) and neutrophil counts and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels decreased significantly after antibiotic treatment. Moreover, differences in the plasma concentration of SDF-1 were significantly correlated with PSI, CURB-65, and APACHE II scores (r = 0.389, P = 0.002, and n = 61; r = 0.449, P < 0.001, and n = 61; and r = 0.363, P = 0.004, and n = 61, resp.). Conclusions. An elevated plasma SDF-1 concentration can be used as a biological marker for the early diagnosis of CAP and for the early detection of its severity. PMID:25371597

  5. Monosynaptic Tracing using Modified Rabies Virus Reveals Early and Extensive Circuit Integration of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Grealish, Shane; Heuer, Andreas; Cardoso, Tiago; Kirkeby, Agnete; Jönsson, Marie; Johansson, Jenny; Björklund, Anders; Jakobsson, Johan; Parmar, Malin

    2015-01-01

    Summary Human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived dopamine neurons are currently moving toward clinical use for Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the timing and extent at which stem cell-derived neurons functionally integrate into existing host neural circuitry after transplantation remain largely unknown. In this study, we use modified rabies virus to trace afferent and efferent connectivity of transplanted hESC-derived neurons in a rat model of PD and report that grafted human neurons integrate into the host neural circuitry in an unexpectedly rapid and extensive manner. The pattern of connectivity resembled that of local endogenous neurons, while ectopic connections were not detected. Revealing circuit integration of human dopamine neurons substantiates their potential use in clinical trials. Additionally, our data present rabies-based tracing as a valuable and widely applicable tool for analyzing graft connectivity that can easily be adapted to analyze connectivity of a variety of different neuronal sources and subtypes in different disease models. PMID:26004633

  6. Compound K attenuates stromal cell-derived growth factor 1 (SDF-1)-induced migration of C6 glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyuck; Roh, Hyo Sun; Kim, Jai Eun; Park, Sun Dong; Park, Won Hwan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Stromal cell-derived growth factor 1 (SDF-1), also known as chemokine ligand 12, and chemokine receptor type 4 are involved in cancer cell migration. Compound K (CK), a metabolite of protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside by gut microbiota, is reported to have therapeutic potential in cancer therapy. However, the inhibitory effect of CK on SDF-1 pathway-induced migration of glioma has not yet been established. MATERIALS/METHODS Cytotoxicity of CK in C6 glioma cells was determined using an EZ-Cytox cell viability assay kit. Cell migration was tested using the wound healing and Boyden chamber assay. Phosphorylation levels of protein kinase C (PKC)α and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were measured by western blot assay, and matrix metallopeptidases (MMP) were measured by gelatin-zymography analysis. RESULTS CK significantly reduced the phosphorylation of PKCα and ERK1/2, expression of MMP9 and MMP2, and inhibited the migration of C6 glioma cells under SDF-1-stimulated conditions. CONCLUSIONS CK is a cell migration inhibitor that inhibits C6 glioma cell migration by regulating its downstream signaling molecules including PKCα, ERK1/2, and MMPs. PMID:27247721

  7. Stroma Cell-Derived Factor-1α Signaling Enhances Calcium Transients and Beating Frequency in Rat Neonatal Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hadad, Ielham; Veithen, Alex; Springael, Jean–Yves; Sotiropoulou, Panagiota A.; Mendes Da Costa, Agnès; Miot, Françoise; Naeije, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Stroma cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) is a cardioprotective chemokine, acting through its G-protein coupled receptor CXCR4. In experimental acute myocardial infarction, administration of SDF-1α induces an early improvement of systolic function which is difficult to explain solely by an anti-apoptotic and angiogenic effect. We wondered whether SDF-1α signaling might have direct effects on calcium transients and beating frequency. Primary rat neonatal cardiomyocytes were culture-expanded and characterized by immunofluorescence staining. Calcium sparks were studied by fluorescence microscopy after calcium loading with the Fluo-4 acetoxymethyl ester sensor. The cardiomyocyte enriched cellular suspension expressed troponin I and CXCR4 but was vimentin negative. Addition of SDF-1α in the medium increased cytoplasmic calcium release. The calcium response was completely abolished by using a neutralizing anti-CXCR4 antibody and partially suppressed and delayed by preincubation with an inositol triphosphate receptor (IP3R) blocker, but not with a ryanodine receptor (RyR) antagonist. Calcium fluxes induced by caffeine, a RyR agonist, were decreased by an IP3R blocker. Treatment with forskolin or SDF-1α increased cardiomyocyte beating frequency and their effects were additive. In vivo, treatment with SDF-1α increased left ventricular dP/dtmax. These results suggest that in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes, the SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling increases calcium transients in an IP3-gated fashion leading to a positive chronotropic and inotropic effect. PMID:23460790

  8. Subculture of Germ Cell-Derived Colonies with GATA4-Positive Feeder Cells from Neonatal Pig Testes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Won Young; Kim, Jin Hoi; Park, Chan Kyu; Do, Jeong Tae; Kim, Jae Hwan; Choi, Young Suk; Kim, Nam Hyung; Song, Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Enrichment of spermatogonial stem cells is important for studying their self-renewal and differentiation. Although germ cell-derived colonies (GDCs) have been successfully cultured from neonatal pig testicular cells under 31°C conditions, the short period of in vitro maintenance (<2 months) limited their application to further investigations. To develop a culture method that allows for in vitro maintenance of GDCs for long periods, we subcultured the GDCs with freshly prepared somatic cells from neonatal pig testes as feeder cells. The subcultured GDCs were maintained up to passage 13 with the fresh feeder cells (FFCs) and then frozen. Eight months later, the frozen GDCs could again form the colonies on FFCs as shown in passages 1 to 13. Immunocytochemistry data revealed that the FFCs expressed GATA-binding protein 4 (GATA4), which is also detected in the cells of neonatal testes and total testicular cells, and that the expression of GATA4 was decreased in used old feeder cells. The subcultured GDCs in each passage had germ and stem cell characteristics, and flow cytometric analyses revealed that ~60% of these cells were GFRα-1 positive. In conclusion, neonatal pig testes-derived GDCs can be maintained for long periods with GATA4-expressing testicular somatic cells. PMID:26880974

  9. Successful immortalization of mesenchymal progenitor cells derived from human placenta and the differentiation abilities of immortalized cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiaohong; Soda, Yasushi; Takahashi, Kenji; Bai, Yuansong; Mitsuru, Ayako; Igura, Koichi; Satoh, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Tani, Kenzaburo; Tojo, Arinobu; Takahashi, Tsuneo A. . E-mail: takahasi@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2006-12-29

    We reported previously that mesenchymal progenitor cells derived from chorionic villi of the human placenta could differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes under proper induction conditions and that these cells should be useful for allogeneic regenerative medicine, including cartilage tissue engineering. However, similar to human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), though these placental cells can be isolated easily, they are difficult to study in detail because of their limited life span in vitro. To overcome this problem, we attempted to prolong the life span of human placenta-derived mesenchymal cells (hPDMCs) by modifying hTERT and Bmi-1, and investigated whether these modified hPDMCs retained their differentiation capability and multipotency. Our results indicated that the combination of hTERT and Bmi-1 was highly efficient in prolonging the life span of hPDMCs with differentiation capability to osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic cells in vitro. Clonal cell lines with directional differentiation ability were established from the immortalized parental hPDMC/hTERT + Bmi-1. Interestingly, hPDMC/Bmi-1 showed extended proliferation after long-term growth arrest and telomerase was activated in the immortal hPDMC/Bmi-1 cells. However, the differentiation potential was lost in these cells. This study reports a method to extend the life span of hPDMCs with hTERT and Bmi-1 that should become a useful tool for the study of mesenchymal stem cells.

  10. Collagen modules for in situ delivery of mesenchymal stromal cell-derived endothelial cells for improved angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Portalska, Karolina Janeczek; Chamberlain, M Dean; Lo, Chuen; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Sefton, Michael V; de Boer, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Modular tissue engineering is a strategy to create scalable, self-assembling, three-dimensional (3D) tissue constructs. This strategy was used to deliver endothelial-like cells derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (EL-MSCs) to locally induce vascularization. First, tissue engineered modules were formed, comprising EL-MSCs and collagen-based cylinders. Seven days of module culture in a microfluidic chamber under continuous flow resulted in the formation of interstices, formed by random packing of the modules, which served as channels and were lined by the EL-MSCs. We observed maintenance of the endothelial phenotype of the EL-MSCs, as demonstrated by CD31 staining, and the cells proliferated well. Next, collagen modules covered with EL-MSCs, with or without embedded MSCs, were implanted subcutaneously in immune-compromised SCID/Bg mice. After 7 days, CD31-positive vessels were observed in the samples. These data demonstrate the feasibility of EL-MSCs coated collagen module as a strategy to locally stimulate angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23592688

  11. iPS Cell-Derived Dopamine Neurons Reveal Differences between Monozygotic Twins Discordant for Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Woodard, Chris M.; Campos, Brian A.; Kuo, Sheng-Han; Nirenberg, Melissa J.; Nestor, Michael W.; Zimmer, Matthew; Mosharov, Eugene; Sulzer, David; Zhou, Hongyan; Paull, Daniel; Clark, Lorraine; Schadt, Eric E.; Sardi, Sergio Pablo; Rubin, Lee; Eggan, Kevin; Brock, Mathew; Lipnick, Scott; Rao, Mahendra; Chang, Stephen; Li, Aiqun; Noggle, Scott

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Parkinson’s disease (PD) has been attributed to a combination of genetic and non-genetic factors. We studied a set of monozygotic twins harboring the heterozygous glucocerebrosidase mutation (GBA N370S) but clinically discordant for PD. We applied induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology for PD disease modeling using the twins’ fibroblasts to evaluate and dissect the genetic and non-genetic contributions. Utilizing fluorescence-activated cell sorting, we obtained a homogenous population of ‘footprint-free’ iPS cell-derived midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons. The mDA neurons from both twins had ~ 50% GBA enzymatic activity, ~ 3-fold elevated α-synuclein protein levels, and a reduced capacity to synthesize and release dopamine. Interestingly, the affected twin’s neurons showed an even lower dopamine level, increased monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) expression, and impaired intrinsic network activity. Overexpression of wild-type GBA and treatment of MAO-B inhibitors normalized α-synuclein and dopamine levels, suggesting a combination therapy for the affected twin. PMID:25456120

  12. Successful differentiation to T cells, but unsuccessful B-cell generation, from B-cell-derived induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wada, Haruka; Kojo, Satoshi; Kusama, Chie; Okamoto, Naoki; Sato, Yorino; Ishizuka, Bunpei; Seino, Ken-ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Forced expression of certain transcription factors in somatic cells results in generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, which differentiate into various cell types. We investigated T-cell and B-cell lineage differentiation from iPS cells in vitro. To evaluate the impact of iPS cell source, murine splenic B-cell-derived iPS (B-iPS) cells were generated after retroviral transduction of four transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc). B-iPS cells were identical to embryonic stem (ES) cells and mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF)-derived iPS cells in morphology, ES cell marker expression as well as teratoma and chimera mouse formation. Both B-iPS and MEF-derived iPS cells differentiated into lymphocytes in OP9 co-culture systems. Both efficiently differentiated into T-cell lineage that produced IFN-γ on T-cell receptor stimulation. However, iPS cells including B-iPS cells were relatively resistant to B-cell lineage differentiation. One of the reasons of the failure of B-cell lineage differentiation seemed due to a defect of Pax5 expression in the differentiated cells. Therefore, current in vitro differentiation systems using iPS cells are sufficient for inducing T-cell but not B-cell lineage. PMID:21135032

  13. Increased circulating cell-derived microparticle count is associated with recurrent implantation failure after IVF and embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Zamora, M Angeles; Tàssies, Dolors; Reverter, Juan Carlos; Creus, Montserrat; Casals, Gemma; Cívico, Salvadora; Carmona, Francisco; Balasch, Juan

    2016-08-01

    Cell-derived microparticles (cMPs) are small membrane vesicles that are released from many different cell types in response to cellular activation or apoptosis. Elevated cMP counts have been found in almost all thrombotic diseases and pregnancy wastage, such as recurrent spontaneous abortion and in a number of conditions associated with inflammation, cellular activation and angiogenesis. cMP count was investigated in patients experiencing unexplained recurrent implantation failure (RIF). The study group was composed of 30 women diagnosed with RIF (RIF group). The first control group (IVF group) (n = 30) comprised patients undergoing a first successful IVF cycle. The second control group (FER group) included 30 healthy women who had at least one child born at term and no history of infertility or obstetric complications. cMP count was significantly higher in the RIF group compared with the IVF and FER groups (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) (RIF group: 15.8 ± 6.2 nM phosphatidylserine equivalent [PS eq]; IVF group: 10.9 ± 5.3 nM PS eq; FER group: 9.6 ± 4.0 nM PS eq). No statistical difference was found in cMP count between the IVF and FER groups. Increased cMP count is, therefore, associated with RIF after IVF and embryo transfer. PMID:27236712

  14. The significance of membrane fluidity of feeder cell-derived substrates for maintenance of iPS cell stemness

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yue; Mao, Hongli; Joddar, Binata; Umeki, Nobuhisa; Sako, Yasushi; Wada, Ken-Ichi; Nishioka, Chieko; Takahashi, Eiki; Wang, Yi; Ito, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    The biological activity of cell-derived substrates to maintain undifferentiated murine-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells was correlated to membrane fluidity as a new parameter of cell culture substrates. Murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were employed as feeder cells and their membrane fluidity was tuned by chemical fixation using formaldehyde (FA). Membrane fluidity was evaluated by real-time single-molecule observations of green fluorescent protein-labeled epidermal growth factor receptors on chemically fixed MEFs. Biological activity was monitored by colony formation of iPS cells. Treatment with a low concentration of FA sustained the membrane fluidity and biological activity, which were comparable to those of mitomycin C-treated MEFs. The biological activity was further confirmed by sustained expression of alkaline phosphatase, SSEA-1, and other pluripotency markers in iPS cells after 3–5 days of culture on FA-fixed MEFs. Chemical fixation of feeder cells has several advantages such as providing ready-to-use culture substrates without contamination by proliferating feeder cells. Therefore, our results provide an important basis for the development of chemically fixed culture substrates for pluripotent stem cell culture as an alternative to conventional treatment by mitomycin C or x-ray irradiation. PMID:26065582

  15. Pluripotent muse cells derived from human adipose tissue: a new perspective on regenerative medicine and cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Simerman, Ariel A; Dumesic, Daniel A; Chazenbalk, Gregorio D

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, Multilineage Differentiating Stress Enduring (Muse) cells were introduced to the scientific community, offering potential resolution to the issue of teratoma formation that plagues both embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent (iPS) stem cells. Isolated from human bone marrow, dermal fibroblasts, adipose tissue and commercially available adipose stem cells (ASCs) under severe cellular stress conditions, Muse cells self-renew in a controlled manner and do not form teratomas when injected into immune-deficient mice. Furthermore, Muse cells express classic pluripotency markers and differentiate into cells from the three embryonic germ layers both spontaneously and under media-specific induction. When transplanted in vivo, Muse cells contribute to tissue generation and repair. This review delves into the aspects of Muse cells that set them apart from ES, iPS, and various reported adult pluripotent stem cell lines, with specific emphasis on Muse cells derived from adipose tissue (Muse-AT), and their potential to revolutionize the field of regenerative medicine and stem cell therapy. PMID:24940477

  16. Pluripotent muse cells derived from human adipose tissue: a new perspective on regenerative medicine and cell therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, Multilineage Differentiating Stress Enduring (Muse) cells were introduced to the scientific community, offering potential resolution to the issue of teratoma formation that plagues both embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent (iPS) stem cells. Isolated from human bone marrow, dermal fibroblasts, adipose tissue and commercially available adipose stem cells (ASCs) under severe cellular stress conditions, Muse cells self-renew in a controlled manner and do not form teratomas when injected into immune-deficient mice. Furthermore, Muse cells express classic pluripotency markers and differentiate into cells from the three embryonic germ layers both spontaneously and under media-specific induction. When transplanted in vivo, Muse cells contribute to tissue generation and repair. This review delves into the aspects of Muse cells that set them apart from ES, iPS, and various reported adult pluripotent stem cell lines, with specific emphasis on Muse cells derived from adipose tissue (Muse-AT), and their potential to revolutionize the field of regenerative medicine and stem cell therapy. PMID:24940477

  17. Conditional-ready mouse embryonic stem cell derived macrophages enable the study of essential genes in macrophage function

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, A. T. Y.; Hale, C.; Xia, J.; Tate, P. H.; Goulding, D.; Keane, J. A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Forrester, L.; Billker, O.; Skarnes, W. C.; Hancock, R. E. W.; Dougan, G.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to differentiate genetically modified mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells into functional macrophages provides a potentially attractive resource to study host-pathogen interactions without the need for animal experimentation. This is particularly useful in instances where the gene of interest is essential and a knockout mouse is not available. Here we differentiated mouse ES cells into macrophages in vitro and showed, through a combination of flow cytometry, microscopic imaging, and RNA-Seq, that ES cell-derived macrophages responded to S. Typhimurium, in a comparable manner to mouse bone marrow derived macrophages. We constructed a homozygous mutant mouse ES cell line in the Traf2 gene that is known to play a role in tumour necrosis factor-α signalling but has not been studied for its role in infections or response to Toll-like receptor agonists. Interestingly, traf2-deficient macrophages produced reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or flagellin stimulation and exhibited increased susceptibility to S. Typhimurium infection. PMID:25752829

  18. Honeycomb porous films as permeable scaffold materials for human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed

    Calejo, Maria Teresa; Ilmarinen, Tanja; Jongprasitkul, Hatai; Skottman, Heli; Kellomäki, Minna

    2016-07-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in developed countries, characterised by the degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a pigmented cell monolayer that closely interacts with the photoreceptors. RPE transplantation is thus considered a very promising therapeutic option to treat this disease. In this work, porous honeycomb-like films are for the first time investigated as scaffold materials for human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelium (hESC-RPE). By changing the conditions during film preparation, it was possible to produce films with homogeneous pore distribution and adequate pore size (∼3-5 µm), that is large enough to ensure high permeability but small enough to enable cell adherence and spreading. A brief dip-coating procedure with collagen type IV enabled the homogeneous adsorption of the protein to the walls and bottom of pores, increasing the hydrophilicity of the surface. hESC-RPE adhered and proliferated on all the collagen-coated materials, regardless of small differences in pore size. The differentiation of hESC-RPE was confirmed by the detection of specific RPE protein markers. These results suggest that the porous honeycomb films can be promising candidates for hESC-RPE tissue engineering, importantly enabling the free flow of ions and molecules across the material. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1646-1656, 2016. PMID:26914698

  19. NeuroD induces the expression of visinin and calretinin by proliferating cells derived from toxin-damaged chicken retina.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Andy J; Wang, Shu-Zhen; Reh, Thomas A

    2004-03-01

    Müller glia have been shown to be a potential source of neural regeneration in the avian retina. In response to acute damage Müller glia de-differentiate, proliferate, express transcription factors found in embryonic retinal progenitors, and some of the progeny differentiate into neurons and glia (Fischer and Reh [2001a] Nat. Neurosci. 4:247-252). However, most of the cells produced by proliferating Müller cells appear to remain undifferentiated. The purpose of this study was to test whether the neurogenic gene NeuroD can promote the differentiation of proliferating cells derived from the postnatal chick retina. We used recombinant avian retroviruses to transfect green fluorescent protein (GFP) or NeuroD. The majority of cells transfected with GFP remained undifferentiated, with a few cells differentiating into calretinin-immunoreactive neurons. Many cells transfected with the NeuroD-virus expressed calretinin, neurofilament, or visinin, while most cells remained undifferentiated. The number of calretinin-expressing cells that were generated was increased approximately 20-fold with forced expression of NeuroD. In addition, we found that cells transfected with NeuroD never expressed glutamine synthetase, a marker of mature Müller glia, suggesting that NeuroD suppresses glial differentiation. We conclude that NeuroD stimulates cells from the toxin-damaged chicken retina to acquire some neuronal phenotypes. We propose that most of these cells were derived from Müller glia. PMID:14991711

  20. A new system for profiling drug-induced calcium signal perturbation in human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kimberley J; Silvester, Nicole C; Barberini-Jammaers, Steven; Mason, Sammy A; Marsh, Sarah A; Lipka, Magdalena; George, Christopher H

    2015-03-01

    The emergence of human stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte (hSCCM)-based assays in the cardiovascular (CV) drug discovery sphere requires the development of improved systems for interrogating the rich information that these cell models have the potential to yield. We developed a new analytical framework termed SALVO (synchronization, amplitude, length, and variability of oscillation) to profile the amplitude and temporal patterning of intra- and intercellular calcium signals in hSCCM. SALVO quantified drug-induced perturbations in the calcium signaling "fingerprint" in spontaneously contractile hSCCM. Multiparametric SALVO outputs were integrated into a single index of in vitro cytotoxicity that confirmed the rank order of perturbation as astemizole > thioridazine > cisapride > flecainide > valdecoxib > sotalol > nadolol ≈ control. This rank order of drug-induced Ca(2+) signal disruption is in close agreement with the known arrhythmogenic liabilities of these compounds in humans. Validation of the system using a second set of compounds and hierarchical cluster analysis demonstrated the utility of SALVO to discriminate drugs based on their mechanisms of action. We discuss the utility of this new mechanistically agnostic system for the evaluation of in vitro drug cytotoxicity in hSCCM syncytia and the potential placement of SALVO in the early stage drug screening framework. PMID:25367900

  1. Three-Dimensional Culture of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Hepatic Endoderm and Its Role in Bioartificial Liver Construction

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ruchi; Greenhough, Sebastian; Medine, Claire N.; Hay, David C.

    2010-01-01

    The liver carries out a range of functions essential for bodily homeostasis. The impairment of liver functions has serious implications and is responsible for high rates of patient morbidity and mortality. Presently, liver transplantation remains the only effective treatment, but donor availability is a major limitation. Therefore, artificial and bioartificial liver devices have been developed to bridge patients to liver transplantation. Existing support devices improve hepatic encephalopathy to a certain extent; however their usage is associated with side effects. The major hindrance in the development of bioartificial liver devices and cellular therapies is the limited availability of human hepatocytes. Moreover, primary hepatocytes are difficult to maintain and lose hepatic identity and function over time even with sophisticated tissue culture media. To overcome this limitation, renewable cell sources are being explored. Human embryonic stem cells are one such cellular resource and have been shown to generate a reliable and reproducible supply of human hepatic endoderm. Therefore, the use of human embryonic stem cell-derived hepatic endoderm in combination with tissue engineering has the potential to pave the way for the development of novel bioartificial liver devices and predictive drug toxicity assays. PMID:20169088

  2. Coupling primary and stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes in an in vitro model of cardiac cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Aratyn-Schaus, Yvonne; Pasqualini, Francesco S; Yuan, Hongyan; McCain, Megan L; Ye, George J C; Sheehy, Sean P; Campbell, Patrick H; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2016-02-15

    The efficacy of cardiac cell therapy depends on the integration of existing and newly formed cardiomyocytes. Here, we developed a minimal in vitro model of this interface by engineering two cell microtissues (μtissues) containing mouse cardiomyocytes, representing spared myocardium after injury, and cardiomyocytes generated from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, to model newly formed cells. We demonstrated that weaker stem cell-derived myocytes coupled with stronger myocytes to support synchronous contraction, but this arrangement required focal adhesion-like structures near the cell-cell junction that degrade force transmission between cells. Moreover, we developed a computational model of μtissue mechanics to demonstrate that a reduction in isometric tension is sufficient to impair force transmission across the cell-cell boundary. Together, our in vitro and in silico results suggest that mechanotransductive mechanisms may contribute to the modest functional benefits observed in cell-therapy studies by regulating the amount of contractile force effectively transmitted at the junction between newly formed and spared myocytes. PMID:26858266

  3. Magnetically Responsive Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Smooth Muscle Cells Maintain Their Benefits to Augmenting Elastic Matrix Neoassembly.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Ganesh; Sivaraman, Balakrishnan; Moore, Lee; Zborowski, Maciej; Ramamurthi, Anand

    2016-04-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) represent abnormal aortal expansions that result from chronic proteolytic breakdown of elastin and collagen fibers by matrix metalloproteases. Poor elastogenesis by adult vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) limits regenerative repair of elastic fibers, critical for AAA growth arrest. Toward overcoming these limitations, we recently demonstrated significant elastogenesis by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived SMCs (BM-SMCs) and their proelastogenesis and antiproteolytic effects on rat aneurysmal SMCs (EaRASMCs). We currently investigate the effects of super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION) labeling of BM-SMCs, necessary to magnetically guide them to the AAA wall, on their functional benefits. Our results indicate that SPION-labeling is noncytotoxic and does not adversely impact the phenotype and elastogenesis by BM-SMCs. In addition, SPION-BM-SMCs showed no changes in the ability of the BM-SMCs to stimulate elastin regeneration and attenuate proteolytic activity by EaRASMCs. Together, our results are promising toward the utility of SPIONs for magnetic targeting of BM-SMCs for in situ AAA regenerative repair. PMID:26830683

  4. Time-lapse imaging of primary preneoplastic mammary epithelial cells derived from genetically engineered mouse models of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakles, Rebecca E; Millman, Sarah L; Cabrera, M Carla; Johnson, Peter; Mueller, Susette; Hoppe, Philipp S; Schroeder, Timm; Furth, Priscilla A

    2013-01-01

    Time-lapse imaging can be used to compare behavior of cultured primary preneoplastic mammary epithelial cells derived from different genetically engineered mouse models of breast cancer. For example, time between cell divisions (cell lifetimes), apoptotic cell numbers, evolution of morphological changes, and mechanism of colony formation can be quantified and compared in cells carrying specific genetic lesions. Primary mammary epithelial cell cultures are generated from mammary glands without palpable tumor. Glands are carefully resected with clear separation from adjacent muscle, lymph nodes are removed, and single-cell suspensions of enriched mammary epithelial cells are generated by mincing mammary tissue followed by enzymatic dissociation and filtration. Single-cell suspensions are plated and placed directly under a microscope within an incubator chamber for live-cell imaging. Sixteen 650 μm x 700 μm fields in a 4x4 configuration from each well of a 6-well plate are imaged every 15 min for 5 days. Time-lapse images are examined directly to measure cellular behaviors that can include mechanism and frequency of cell colony formation within the first 24 hr of plating the cells (aggregation versus cell proliferation), incidence of apoptosis, and phasing of morphological changes. Single-cell tracking is used to generate cell fate maps for measurement of individual cell lifetimes and investigation of cell division patterns. Quantitative data are statistically analyzed to assess for significant differences in behavior correlated with specific genetic lesions. PMID:23425702

  5. Amyloid β 1-42 induces hypometabolism in human stem cell-derived neuron and astrocyte networks

    PubMed Central

    Tarczyluk, Marta A; Nagel, David A; Rhein Parri, H; Tse, Erin HY; Brown, James E; Coleman, Michael D; Hill, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, affecting more than 35 million people worldwide. Brain hypometabolism is a major feature of AD, appearing decades before cognitive decline and pathologic lesions. To date, the majority of studies on hypometabolism in AD have used transgenic animal models or imaging studies of the human brain. As it is almost impossible to validate these findings using human tissue, alternative models are required. In this study, we show that human stem cell-derived neuron and astrocyte cultures treated with oligomers of amyloid beta 1-42 (Aβ1-42) also display a clear hypometabolism, particularly with regard to utilization of substrates such as glucose, pyruvate, lactate, and glutamate. In addition, a significant increase in the glycogen content of cells was also observed. These changes were accompanied by changes in NAD+/NADH, ATP, and glutathione levels, suggesting a disruption in the energy-redox axis within these cultures. The high energy demands associated with neuronal functions such as memory formation and protection from oxidative stress put these cells at particular risk from Aβ-induced hypometabolism. Further research using this model may elucidate the mechanisms associated with Aβ-induced hypometabolism. PMID:25853906

  6. Amyloid β 1-42 induces hypometabolism in human stem cell-derived neuron and astrocyte networks.

    PubMed

    Tarczyluk, Marta A; Nagel, David A; Rhein Parri, H; Tse, Erin H Y; Brown, James E; Coleman, Michael D; Hill, Eric J

    2015-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, affecting more than 35 million people worldwide. Brain hypometabolism is a major feature of AD, appearing decades before cognitive decline and pathologic lesions. To date, the majority of studies on hypometabolism in AD have used transgenic animal models or imaging studies of the human brain. As it is almost impossible to validate these findings using human tissue, alternative models are required. In this study, we show that human stem cell-derived neuron and astrocyte cultures treated with oligomers of amyloid beta 1-42 (Aβ1-42) also display a clear hypometabolism, particularly with regard to utilization of substrates such as glucose, pyruvate, lactate, and glutamate. In addition, a significant increase in the glycogen content of cells was also observed. These changes were accompanied by changes in NAD(+)/NADH, ATP, and glutathione levels, suggesting a disruption in the energy-redox axis within these cultures. The high energy demands associated with neuronal functions such as memory formation and protection from oxidative stress put these cells at particular risk from Aβ-induced hypometabolism. Further research using this model may elucidate the mechanisms associated with Aβ-induced hypometabolism. PMID:25853906

  7. N-butylidenephthalide attenuates Alzheimer's disease-like cytopathy in Down syndrome induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Yu; Chen, Sheng-Mei; Lu, Huai-En; Lai, Syu-Ming; Lai, Ping-Shan; Shen, Po-Wen; Chen, Pei-Ying; Shen, Ching-I; Harn, Horng-Jyh; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Hwang, Shiaw-Min; Su, Hong-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) patients with early-onset dementia share similar neurodegenerative features with Alzheimer's disease (AD). To recapitulate the AD cell model, DS induced pluripotent stem cells (DS-iPSCs), reprogrammed from mesenchymal stem cells in amniotic fluid, were directed toward a neuronal lineage. Neuroepithelial precursor cells with high purity and forebrain characteristics were robustly generated on day 10 (D10) of differentiation. Accumulated amyloid deposits, Tau protein hyperphosphorylation and Tau intracellular redistribution emerged rapidly in DS neurons within 45 days but not in normal embryonic stem cell-derived neurons. N-butylidenephthalide (Bdph), a major phthalide ingredient of Angelica sinensis, was emulsified by pluronic F127 to reduce its cellular toxicity and promote canonical Wnt signaling. Interestingly, we found that F127-Bdph showed significant therapeutic effects in reducing secreted Aβ40 deposits, the total Tau level and the hyperphosphorylated status of Tau in DS neurons. Taken together, DS-iPSC derived neural cells can serve as an ideal cellular model of DS and AD and have potential for high-throughput screening of candidate drugs. We also suggest that Bdph may benefit DS or AD treatment by scavenging Aβ aggregates and neurofibrillary tangles. PMID:25735452

  8. Suppression of Dendritic Cell-Derived IL-12 by Endogenous Glucocorticoids Is Protective in LPS-Induced Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Mittelstadt, Paul R.; Castro, Ehydel; Ashwell, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis, an exaggerated systemic inflammatory response, remains a major medical challenge. Both hyperinflammation and immunosuppression are implicated as causes of morbidity and mortality. Dendritic cell (DC) loss has been observed in septic patients and in experimental sepsis models, but the role of DCs in sepsis, and the mechanisms and significance of DC loss, are poorly understood. Here, we report that mice with selective deletion of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in DCs (GRCD11c-cre) were highly susceptible to LPS-induced septic shock, evidenced by elevated inflammatory cytokine production, hypothermia, and mortality. Neutralizing anti-IL-12 antibodies prevented hypothermia and death, demonstrating that endogenous GC-mediated suppression of IL-12 is protective. In LPS-challenged GRCD11c-cre mice, CD8+ DCs were identified as the major source of prolonged IL-12 production, which correlated with elevations of NK cell-derived IFN-γ. In addition, the loss of GR in CD11c+ cells rescued LPS-induced loss of CD8+ DCs but not other DC subsets. Unlike wild-type animals, exposure of GRCD11c-cre mice to low-dose LPS did not induce CD8+ DC loss or tolerance to subsequent challenge with high dose, but neutralization of IL-12 restored the ability of low-dose LPS to tolerize. Therefore, endogenous glucocorticoids blunt LPS-induced inflammation and promote tolerance by suppressing DC IL-12 production. PMID:26440998

  9. Stroma cell-derived factor-1α signaling enhances calcium transients and beating frequency in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Hadad, Ielham; Veithen, Alex; Springael, Jean-Yves; Sotiropoulou, Panagiota A; Mendes Da Costa, Agnès; Miot, Françoise; Naeije, Robert; De Deken, Xavier; Entee, Kathleen Mc

    2013-01-01

    Stroma cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) is a cardioprotective chemokine, acting through its G-protein coupled receptor CXCR4. In experimental acute myocardial infarction, administration of SDF-1α induces an early improvement of systolic function which is difficult to explain solely by an anti-apoptotic and angiogenic effect. We wondered whether SDF-1α signaling might have direct effects on calcium transients and beating frequency.Primary rat neonatal cardiomyocytes were culture-expanded and characterized by immunofluorescence staining. Calcium sparks were studied by fluorescence microscopy after calcium loading with the Fluo-4 acetoxymethyl ester sensor. The cardiomyocyte enriched cellular suspension expressed troponin I and CXCR4 but was vimentin negative. Addition of SDF-1α in the medium increased cytoplasmic calcium release. The calcium response was completely abolished by using a neutralizing anti-CXCR4 antibody and partially suppressed and delayed by preincubation with an inositol triphosphate receptor (IP3R) blocker, but not with a ryanodine receptor (RyR) antagonist. Calcium fluxes induced by caffeine, a RyR agonist, were decreased by an IP3R blocker. Treatment with forskolin or SDF-1α increased cardiomyocyte beating frequency and their effects were additive. In vivo, treatment with SDF-1α increased left ventricular dP/dtmax.These results suggest that in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes, the SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling increases calcium transients in an IP3-gated fashion leading to a positive chronotropic and inotropic effect. PMID:23460790

  10. N-butylidenephthalide Attenuates Alzheimer's Disease-Like Cytopathy in Down Syndrome Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Yu; Chen, Sheng-Mei; Lu, Huai-En; Lai, Syu-Ming; Lai, Ping-Shan; Shen, Po-Wen; Chen, Pei-Ying; Shen, Ching-I; Harn, Horng-Jyh; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Hwang, Shiaw-Min; Su, Hong-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) patients with early-onset dementia share similar neurodegenerative features with Alzheimer's disease (AD). To recapitulate the AD cell model, DS induced pluripotent stem cells (DS-iPSCs), reprogrammed from mesenchymal stem cells in amniotic fluid, were directed toward a neuronal lineage. Neuroepithelial precursor cells with high purity and forebrain characteristics were robustly generated on day 10 (D10) of differentiation. Accumulated amyloid deposits, Tau protein hyperphosphorylation and Tau intracellular redistribution emerged rapidly in DS neurons within 45 days but not in normal embryonic stem cell-derived neurons. N-butylidenephthalide (Bdph), a major phthalide ingredient of Angelica sinensis, was emulsified by pluronic F127 to reduce its cellular toxicity and promote canonical Wnt signaling. Interestingly, we found that F127-Bdph showed significant therapeutic effects in reducing secreted Aβ40 deposits, the total Tau level and the hyperphosphorylated status of Tau in DS neurons. Taken together, DS-iPSC derived neural cells can serve as an ideal cellular model of DS and AD and have potential for high-throughput screening of candidate drugs. We also suggest that Bdph may benefit DS or AD treatment by scavenging Aβ aggregates and neurofibrillary tangles. PMID:25735452

  11. Human ether-a-go-go-related gene K+ channels regulate shedding of leukemia cell-derived microvesicles.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fang; Li, Juanjuan; Du, Wen; Wang, Ningfang; Li, Huiyu; Huang, Shiang

    2012-08-01

    Microvesicles (MVs) are released by various cancer cells, including leukemia cells. They can "hijack" membrane components from their parental cells and exert pleiotropic effects on tumor progression. Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG1) K(+) channels are highly expressed in cancer cells and appear of exceptional importance in favoring cancer development. Given the attributes of MVs and hERG1 K(+) channels in disease progression, we investigated the putative relationship between hERG1 K(+) channels and MVs in leukemia. The protein content of MVs isolated from K562 cell supernatants was significantly higher than that from HL-60 cells. The molecular profile of these MVs showed that in addition to the myeloid lineage antigen (CD11b), MVs contained hERG1 K(+) channels. Interestingly, inhibition of hERG1 K(+) channels rapidly reduced MV fractions in supernatants. Furthermore, MVs created positive feedback loops to facilitate leukemogenesis. Upon exposure to MVs, the plasma membrane expression of hERG1 protein was in turn up-regulated, the migration of leukemia cells was significantly increased, and the adhesion of leukemia cells to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was markedly enhanced. Importantly, hERG1 K(+) channel inhibitor E-4031 impaired these effects. We conclude that leukemia cell-derived MVs can "hijack" the plasma membrane hERG1 K(+) channels, which regulate the release of MVs and their biological effects upon leukemia cells. PMID:22292854

  12. Single-cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing Csx/Nkx2.5 and GATA4 undergo the stochastic cardiomyogenic fate and behave like transient amplifying cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Yoji; Sakurada, Kazuhiro; Takeda, Yukiji; Gojo, Satoshi; Umezawa, Akihiro . E-mail: umezawa@1985.jukuin.keio.ac.jp

    2007-02-15

    Bone marrow-derived stromal cells can give rise to cardiomyocytes as well as adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes in vitro. The existence of mesenchymal stem cells has been proposed, but it remains unclear if a single-cell-derived stem cell stochastically commits toward a cardiac lineage. By single-cell marking, we performed a follow-up study of individual cells during the differentiation of 9-15c mesenchymal stromal cells derived from bone marrow cells. Three types of cells, i.e., cardiac myoblasts, cardiac progenitors and multipotent stem cells were differentiated from a single cell, implying that cardiomyocytes are generated stochastically from a single-cell-derived stem cell. We also demonstrated that overexpression of Csx/Nkx2.5 and GATA4, precardiac mesodermal transcription factors, enhanced cardiomyogenic differentiation of 9-15c cells, and the frequency of cardiomyogenic differentiation was increased by co-culturing with fetal cardiomyocytes. Single-cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing Csx/Nkx2.5 and GATA4 behaved like cardiac transient amplifying cells, and still retained their plasticity in vivo.

  13. Body lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... off the body. Your provider may prescribe a skin cream or a wash that contains permethrin, malathione, or benzyl alcohol. If your case is severe, the provider may prescribe medicine that you take by mouth.

  14. Body Image

    MedlinePlus

    ... spider veins Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) Eating disorders Anorexia nervosa Binge eating disorder Bulimia nervosa Over-exercising ... conditions? Visit our Mental health section. Fact sheets Anorexia nervosa Binge eating disorder Bulimia nervosa Cosmetics and ...

  15. Body Signals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurley-Dilger, 'Laine

    1986-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students observe pairs of students engaged in conversation. Observations of "body language" are made, shifts in stance, and duration of stance. Discusses the application of this type of study to other species. (TW)

  16. Body lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... also get lice from infected clothing, towels, or bedding. Body lice are bigger than other types of ... last if you: Bathe regularly Wash clothes and bedding at least once a week Placing clothes in ...

  17. Bog bodies.

    PubMed

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-06-01

    In northern Europe during the Iron Age, many corpses were deposited in bogs. The cold, wet and anaerobic environment leads in many cases to the preservation of soft tissues, so that the bodies, when found and excavated several thousand years later, are remarkably intact. Since the 19th century the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma. Conversely, the preservation of bones is less good, as the mineral component has been leached out by the acidic bog. Together with water-logging of collagenous tissue, this means that if the bog body is simply left to dry out when found, as was the case pre-19th century, the bones may literally warp and shrink, leading to potential pitfalls in paleopathological diagnostics. Bog bodies have in several instances been crucial in determining the last meal, as gut contents may be preserved, and thus augment our knowledge on pre-historic diet by adding to, for example, stable isotope analyses. This article presents an overview of our knowledge about the taphomic processes as well as the methods used in bog body research. PMID:25998635

  18. Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Microvesicles Induce Gene Expression Changes in Müller Cells of the Retina

    PubMed Central

    Katsman, Diana; Stackpole, Emma J.; Domin, Daniel R.; Farber, Debora B.

    2012-01-01

    Cell-derived microvesicles (MVs), recognized as important components of cell-cell communication, contain mRNAs, miRNAs, proteins and lipids and transfer their bioactive contents from parent cells to cells of other origins. We have studied the effect that MVs released from embryonic stem cells (ESMVs) have on retinal progenitor Müller cells. Cultured human Müller cells were exposed to mouse ESMVs every 48 hours for a total of 9 treatments. Morphological changes were observed by light microscopy in the treated cells, which grew as individual heterogeneous cells, compared to the uniform, spindle-like adherent cellular sheets of untreated cells. ESMVs transferred to Müller cells embryonic stem cell (ESC) mRNAs involved in the maintenance of pluripotency, including Oct4 and Sox2, and the miRNAs of the 290 cluster, important regulators of the ESC-specific cell cycle. Moreover, ESMV exposure induced up-regulation of the basal levels of endogenous human Oct4 mRNA in Müller cells. mRNA and miRNA microarrays of ESMV-treated vs. untreated Müller cells revealed the up-regulation of genes and miRNAs involved in the induction of pluripotency, cellular proliferation, early ocular genes and genes important for retinal protection and remodeling, as well as the down-regulation of inhibitory and scar-related genes and miRNAs involved in differentiation and cell cycle arrest. To further characterize the heterogeneous cell population of ESMV-treated Müller cells, their expression of retinal cell markers was compared to that in untreated control cells by immunocytochemistry. Markers for amacrine, ganglion and rod photoreceptors were present in treated but not in control Müller cells. Together, our findings indicate that ESMs induce de-differentiation and pluripotency in their target Müller cells, which may turn on an early retinogenic program of differentiation. PMID:23226281

  19. Accelerated intoxication of GABAergic synapses by botulinum neurotoxin A disinhibits stem cell-derived neuron networks prior to network silencing

    PubMed Central

    Beske, Phillip H.; Scheeler, Stephen M.; Adler, Michael; McNutt, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are extremely potent toxins that specifically cleave SNARE proteins in peripheral synapses, preventing neurotransmitter release. Neuronal responses to BoNT intoxication are traditionally studied by quantifying SNARE protein cleavage in vitro or monitoring physiological paralysis in vivo. Consequently, the dynamic effects of intoxication on synaptic behaviors are not well-understood. We have reported that mouse embryonic stem cell-derived neurons (ESNs) are highly sensitive to BoNT based on molecular readouts of intoxication. Here we study the time-dependent changes in synapse- and network-level behaviors following addition of BoNT/A to spontaneously active networks of glutamatergic and GABAergic ESNs. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings indicated that BoNT/A rapidly blocked synaptic neurotransmission, confirming that ESNs replicate the functional pathophysiology responsible for clinical botulism. Quantitation of spontaneous neurotransmission in pharmacologically isolated synapses revealed accelerated silencing of GABAergic synapses compared to glutamatergic synapses, which was consistent with the selective accumulation of cleaved SNAP-25 at GAD1+ pre-synaptic terminals at early timepoints. Different latencies of intoxication resulted in complex network responses to BoNT/A addition, involving rapid disinhibition of stochastic firing followed by network silencing. Synaptic activity was found to be highly sensitive to SNAP-25 cleavage, reflecting the functional consequences of the localized cleavage of the small subpopulation of SNAP-25 that is engaged in neurotransmitter release in the nerve terminal. Collectively these findings illustrate that use of synaptic function assays in networked neurons cultures offers a novel and highly sensitive approach for mechanistic studies of toxin:neuron interactions and synaptic responses to BoNT. PMID:25954159

  20. Recording axonal conduction to evaluate the integration of pluripotent cell-derived neurons into a neuronal network.

    PubMed

    Shimba, Kenta; Sakai, Koji; Takayama, Yuzo; Kotani, Kiyoshi; Jimbo, Yasuhiko

    2015-10-01

    Stem cell transplantation is a promising therapy to treat neurodegenerative disorders, and a number of in vitro models have been developed for studying interactions between grafted neurons and the host neuronal network to promote drug discovery. However, methods capable of evaluating the process by which stem cells integrate into the host neuronal network are lacking. In this study, we applied an axonal conduction-based analysis to a co-culture study of primary and differentiated neurons. Mouse cortical neurons and neuronal cells differentiated from P19 embryonal carcinoma cells, a model for early neural differentiation of pluripotent stem cells, were co-cultured in a microfabricated device. The somata of these cells were separated by the co-culture device, but their axons were able to elongate through microtunnels and then form synaptic contacts. Propagating action potentials were recorded from these axons by microelectrodes embedded at the bottom of the microtunnels and sorted into clusters representing individual axons. While the number of axons of cortical neurons increased until 14 days in vitro and then decreased, those of P19 neurons increased throughout the culture period. Network burst analysis showed that P19 neurons participated in approximately 80% of the bursting activity after 14 days in vitro. Interestingly, the axonal conduction delay of P19 neurons was significantly greater than that of cortical neurons, suggesting that there are some physiological differences in their axons. These results suggest that our method is feasible to evaluate the process by which stem cell-derived neurons integrate into a host neuronal network. PMID:26303583

  1. Surface Modified Biodegradable Electrospun Membranes as a Carrier for Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Sorkio, Anni; Porter, Patrick J; Juuti-Uusitalo, Kati; Meenan, Brian J; Skottman, Heli; Burke, George A

    2015-09-01

    Human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial (hESC-RPE) cells are currently undergoing clinical trials to treat retinal degenerative diseases. Transplantation of hESC-RPE cells in conjuction with a supportive biomaterial carrier holds great potential as a future treatment for retinal degeneration. However, there has been no such biodegradable material that could support the growth and maturation of hESC-RPE cells so far. The primary aim of this work was to create a thin porous poly (L-lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLCL) membrane that could promote attachment, proliferation, and maturation of the hESC-RPE cells in serum-free culture conditions. The PLCL membranes were modified by atmospheric pressure plasma processing and coated with collagen IV to enhance cell growth and maturation. Permeability of the membranes was analyzed with an Ussing chamber system. Analysis with scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurement, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrated that plasma surface treatment augments the surface properties of the membrane, which enhances the binding and conformation of the protein. Cell proliferation assays, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, indirect immunofluoresence staining, trans-epithelial electrical resistance measurements, and in vitro phagocytosis assay clearly demonstrated that the plasma treated PLCL membranes supported the adherence, proliferation, maturation and functionality of hESC-RPE cells in serum-free culture conditions. Here, we report for the first time, how PLCL membranes can be modified with atmospheric pressure plasma processing to enable the formation of a functional hESC-RPE monolayer on a porous biodegradable substrate, which have a potential as a tissue-engineered construct for regenerative retinal repair applications. PMID:25946229

  2. Lipocalin 2 from macrophages stimulated by tumor cell-derived sphingosine 1-phosphate promotes lymphangiogenesis and tumor metastasis.

    PubMed

    Jung, Michaela; Ören, Bilge; Mora, Javier; Mertens, Christina; Dziumbla, Sarah; Popp, Rüdiger; Weigert, Andreas; Grossmann, Nina; Fleming, Ingrid; Brüne, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Tumor cell-derived factors skew macrophages toward a tumor-supporting phenotype associated with the secretion of protumorigenic mediators. Apoptosing tumor cells release sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), which stimulates the production of lipocalin 2 (LCN2) in tumor-associated macrophages and is associated with tumor metastasis. We explored the mechanism by which S1P induces LCN2 in macrophages and investigated how this contributed to tumor growth and metastasis. Knockdown of S1P receptor 1 (S1PR1) in primary human macrophages and experiments with bone marrow-derived macrophages from S1PR1-deficient mice showed that S1P signaled through S1PR1 to induce LCN2 expression. The LCN2 promoter contains a consensus sequence for signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and deletion of the STAT3 recognition sequence reduced expression of an LCN2-controlled reporter gene. Conditioned medium from coculture experiments indicated that the release of LCN2 from macrophages induced tube formation and proliferation in cultures of primary human lymphatic endothelial cells in a manner dependent on the kinase PI3K and subsequent induction of the growth factor VEGFC, which functioned as an autocrine signal stimulating the receptor VEGFR3. Knockout of Lcn2 attenuated tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis and breast tumor metastasis both in the breast cancer model MMTV-PyMT mice and in mice bearing orthotopic wild-type tumors. Our findings indicate that macrophages respond to dying tumor cells by producing signals that promote lymphangiogenesis, which enables metastasis. PMID:27353364

  3. Differential responses of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes to anisotropic strain depends on disease status.

    PubMed

    Chun, Young Wook; Voyles, David E; Rath, Rutwik; Hofmeister, Lucas H; Boire, Timothy C; Wilcox, Henry; Lee, Jae Han; Bellan, Leon M; Hong, Charles C; Sung, Hak-Joon

    2015-11-01

    Primary dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a non-ischemic heart disease with impaired pumping function of the heart. In this study, we used human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) from a healthy volunteer and a primary DCM patient to investigate the impact of DCM on iPSC-CMs׳ responses to different types of anisotropic strain. A bioreactor system was established that generates cardiac-mimetic forces of 150 kPa at 5% anisotropic cyclic strain and 1 Hz frequency. After confirming cardiac induction of the iPSCs, it was determined that fibronectin was favorable to other extracellular matrix protein coatings (gelatin, laminin, vitronectin) in terms of viable cell area and density, and was therefore selected as the coating for further study. When iPSC-CMs were exposed to three strain conditions (no strain, 5% static strain, and 5% cyclic strain), the static strain elicited significant induction of sarcomere components in comparison to other strain conditions. However, this induction occurred only in iPSC-CMs from a healthy volunteer ("control iPSC-CMs"), not in iPSC-CMs from the DCM patient ("DCM iPSC-CMs"). The donor type also significantly influenced gene expressions of cell-cell and cell-matrix interaction markers in response to the strain conditions. Gene expression of connexin-43 (cell-cell interaction) had a higher fold change in healthy versus diseased iPSC-CMs under static and cyclic strain, as opposed to integrins α-5 and α-10 (cell-matrix interaction). In summary, our iPSC-CM-based study to model the effects of different strain conditions suggests that intrinsic, genetic-based differences in the cardiomyocyte responses to strain may influence disease manifestation in vivo. PMID:26476764

  4. nAChRs Mediate Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Endothelial Cells: Proliferation, Apoptosis, and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Velotta, Jeffrey B.; Huang, Mei; Li, Zongjin; Lee, Andrew; Robbins, Robert C.; Cooke, John P.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Many patients with ischemic heart disease have cardiovascular risk factors such as cigarette smoking. We tested the effect of nicotine (a key component of cigarette smoking) on the therapeutic effects of human embryonic stem cell-derived endothelial cells (hESC-ECs). Methods and Results To induce endothelial cell differentiation, undifferentiated hESCs (H9 line) underwent 4-day floating EB formation and 8-day outgrowth differentiation in EGM-2 media. After 12 days, CD31+ cells (13.7±2.5%) were sorted by FACScan and maintained in EGM-2 media for further differentiation. After isolation, these hESC-ECs expressed endothelial specific markers such as vWF (96.3±1.4%), CD31 (97.2±2.5%), and VE-cadherin (93.7±2.8%), form vascular-like channels, and incorporated DiI-labeled acetylated low-density lipoprotein (DiI-Ac-LDL). Afterward, 5×106 hESC-ECs treated for 24 hours with nicotine (10−8 M) or PBS (as control) were injected into the hearts of mice undergoing LAD ligation followed by administration for two weeks of vehicle or nicotine (100 µg/ml) in the drinking water. Surprisingly, bioluminescence imaging (BLI) showed significant improvement in the survival of transplanted hESC-ECs in the nicotine treated group at 6 weeks. Postmortem analysis confirmed increased presence of small capillaries in the infarcted zones. Finally, in vitro mechanistic analysis suggests activation of the MAPK and Akt pathways following activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Conclusions This study shows for the first time that short-term systemic administrations of low dose nicotine can improve the survival of transplanted hESC-ECs, and enhance their angiogenic effects in vivo. Furthermore, activation of nAChRs has anti-apoptotic, angiogenic, and proliferative effects through MAPK and Akt signaling pathways. PMID:19753305

  5. Human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes engraft but do not alter cardiac remodeling after chronic infarction in rats

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, S; Naumova, AV; Zhu, WZ; Laflamme, MA; Gold, J; Murry, CE

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies indicated that, in an acute myocardial infarction model, human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CM) injected with a pro-survival cocktail (PSC) can preserve contractile function. Because patients with established heart failure may also benefit from cell transplantation, we evaluated the physiological effects of hESC-CM transplanted into a chronic model of myocardial infarction. Methods and Results Intramyocardial injection of hESC-CM with PSC was performed in nude rats at 1 month following ischemia-reperfusion. The left ventricular function of hESC-CM injected rats was evaluated at 1, 2 and 3 months after the cell injection procedure and was compared to 3 control groups (rats injected with serum-free media, PSC-only, or non-cardiac human cells in PSC). Histology at 3 months revealed that human cardiomyocytes survive, develop increased sarcomere organization and are still proliferating. Despite successful engraftment, both echocardiography and MRI analyses showed no significant difference in left ventricular structure or function between these 4 groups at any time point of the study, suggesting that human cardiomyocytes do not affect cardiac remodeling in a rat model of chronic myocardial infarction. Conclusion When injected into a chronic infarct model, hESC-CM can engraft, survive and form grafts with striated cardiomyocytes at least as well as was previously observed in an acute myocardial infarction model. However, although hESC-CM transplantation can attenuate the progression of heart failure in an acute model, the same hESC-CM injection protocol is insufficient to restore heart function or to alter adverse remodeling of a chronic myocardial infarction model. PMID:20854826

  6. Circulating Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1α Levels in Heart Failure: A Matter of Proper Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Baerts, Lesley; Waumans, Yannick; Brandt, Inger; Jungraithmayr, Wolfgang; Van der Veken, Pieter; Vanderheyden, Marc; De Meester, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Background The chemokine Stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF1α, CXCL12) is currently under investigation as a biomarker for various cardiac diseases. The correct interpretation of SDF1α levels is complicated by the occurrence of truncated forms that possess an altered biological activity. Methodology We studied the immunoreactivities of SDF1α forms and evaluated the effect of adding a DPP4 inhibitor in sampling tubes on measured SDF1α levels. Using optimized sampling, we measured DPP4 activity and SDF1α levels in patients with varying degrees of heart failure. Results The immunoreactivities of SDF1α and its degradation products were determined with three immunoassays. A one hour incubation of SDF1α with DPP4 at 37°C resulted in 2/3 loss of immunoreactivity in each of the assays. Incubation with serum gave a similar result. Using appropriate sampling, SDF1α levels were found to be significantly higher in those heart failure patients with a severe loss of left ventricular function. DPP4 activity in serum was not altered in the heart failure population. However, the DPP4 activity was found to be significantly decreased in patients with high SDF1α levels Conclusions We propose that all samples for SDF1α analysis should be collected in the presence of at least a DPP4 inhibitor. In doing so, we found higher SDF1α levels in subgroups of patients with heart failure. Our work supports the need for further research on the clinical relevance of SDF1α levels in cardiac disease. PMID:26544044

  7. Vaccination with vascular progenitor cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells elicits antitumor immunity targeting vascular and tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Koido, Shigeo; Ito, Masaki; Sagawa, Yukiko; Okamoto, Masato; Hayashi, Kazumi; Nagasaki, Eijiro; Kan, Shin; Komita, Hideo; Kamata, Yuko; Homma, Sadamu

    2014-05-01

    Vaccination of BALB/c mice with dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with the lysate of induced vascular progenitor (iVP) cells derived from murine-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells significantly suppressed the tumor of CMS-4 fibrosarcomas and prolonged the survival of CMS-4-inoculated mice. This prophylactic antitumor activity was more potent than that of immunization with DCs loaded with iPS cells or CMS-4 tumor cells. Tumors developed slowly in mice vaccinated with DCs loaded with iVP cells (DC/iVP) and exhibited a limited vascular bed. Immunohistochemistry and a tomato-lectin perfusion study demonstrated that the tumors that developed in the iVP-immunized mice showed a marked decrease in tumor vasculature. Immunization with DC/iVP induced a potent suppressive effect on vascular-rich CMS-4 tumors, a weaker effect on BNL tumors with moderate vasculature, and nearly no effect on C26 tumors with poor vasculature. Treatment of DC/iVP-immunized mice with a monoclonal antibody against CD4 or CD8, but not anti-asialo GM1, inhibited the antitumor activity. CD8(+) T cells from DC/iVP-vaccinated mice showed significant cytotoxic activity against murine endothelial cells and CMS-4 cells, whereas CD8(+) T cells from DC/iPS-vaccinated mice did not. DNA microarray analysis showed that the products of 29 vasculature-associated genes shared between genes upregulated by differentiation from iPS cells into iVP cells and genes shared by iVP cells and isolated Flk-1(+) vascular cells in CMS-4 tumor tissue might be possible targets in the immune response. These results suggest that iVP cells from iPS cells could be used as a cancer vaccine targeting tumor vascular cells and tumor cells. PMID:24627093

  8. Immunotherapy against Metastatic Melanoma with Human iPS Cell-Derived Myeloid Cell Lines Producing Type I Interferons.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Azusa; Fukushima, Satoshi; Nakahara, Satoshi; Kubo, Yosuke; Tokuzumi, Aki; Yamashita, Junji; Aoi, Jun; Haruta, Miwa; Senju, Satoru; Nishimura, Yasuharu; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Ihn, Hironobu

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, immunotherapy for advanced melanoma has been gaining increased attention. The efficacy of anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 antibodies, anti-programmed cell death 1 antibodies, and the BRAF(V600E) kinase inhibitor has been proven in metastatic melanoma. At the same time, adoptive cell transfer has significant effects against metastatic melanoma; however, it is difficult to apply on a broad scale because of the problems related to cell preparation. To overcome these problems, we developed immune cell therapy using induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. The benefit of our method is that a large number of cells can be readily obtained. We focused on macrophages for immune cell therapy because macrophage infiltration is frequently observed in solid cancers. In this study, the efficacy of human iPS cell-derived myeloid cell lines (iPS-ML) genetically modified to express type I IFNs against human melanoma cells was examined. The morphology, phagocytic ability, and surface markers of iPS-ML were similar to those of macrophages. The iPS-ML that express type I IFNs (iPS-ML-IFN) showed significant effects in inhibiting the growth of disseminated human melanoma cells in SCID mice. The infiltration of iPS-ML into the tumor nests was confirmed immunohistologically. The iPS-ML-IFNs increased the expression of CD169, a marker of M1 macrophages that can activate antitumor immunity. The iPS-ML-IFNs could infiltrate into tumor tissue and exert anticancer effects in the local tumor tissue. In conclusion, this method will provide a new therapeutic modality for metastatic melanoma. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(3); 248-58. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26714554

  9. Examining the protective role of ErbB2 modulation in human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, Sandy; Guo, Liang; Mussio, Jodie; Furniss, Mike; Hamre, John; Davis, Myrtle

    2014-10-01

    Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) are being used as an in vitro model system in cardiac biology and in drug discovery (e.g., cardiotoxicity testing). Qualification of these cells for use in mechanistic investigations will require detailed evaluations of cardiomyocyte signaling pathways and cellular responses. ErbB signaling and the ligand neuregulin play critical roles in survival and functional integrity of cardiac myocytes. As such, we sought to characterize the expression and activity of the ErbB family of receptors. Antibody microarray analysis performed on cell lysates derived from maturing hiPSC-CMs detected expression of ∼570 signaling proteins. EGFR/ErbB1, HER2/ErbB2, and ErbB4, but not ErbB3 receptors, of the epidermal growth factor receptor family were confirmed by Western blot. Activation of ErbB signaling by neuregulin-1β (NRG, a natural ligand for ErbB4) and its modulation by trastuzumab (a monoclonal anti-ErbB2 antibody) and lapatinib (a small molecule ErbB2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor) were evaluated through assessing phosphorylation of AKT and Erk1/2, two major downstream kinases of ErbB signaling, using nanofluidic proteomic immunoassay. Downregulation of ErbB2 expression by siRNA silencing attenuated NRG-induced AKT and Erk1/2 phosphorylation. Activation of ErbB signaling with NRG, or inhibition with trastuzumab, alleviated or aggravated doxorubicin-induced cardiomyocyte damage, respectively, as assessed by a real-time cellular impedance analysis and ATP measurement. Collectively, these results support the expanded use of hiPSC-CMs to examine mechanisms of cardiotoxicity and support the value of using these cells in early assessments of cardiotoxicity or efficacy. PMID:25055963

  10. Characterization of human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes: bioenergetics and utilization in safety screening.

    PubMed

    Rana, Payal; Anson, Blake; Engle, Sandra; Will, Yvonne

    2012-11-01

    Cardiotoxicity remains the number one reason for drug withdrawal from the market, and Food and Drug Administration issued black box warnings, thus demonstrating the need for more predictive preclinical safety screening, especially early in the drug discovery process when much chemical substrate is available. Whereas human-ether-a-go-go related gene screening has become routine to mitigate proarrhythmic risk, the development of in vitro assays predicting additional on- and off-target biochemical toxicities will benefit from cellular models exhibiting true cardiomyocyte characteristics such as native tissue-like mitochondrial activity. Human stem cell-derived tissue cells may provide such a model. This hypothesis was tested using a combination of flux analysis, gene and protein expression, and toxicity-profiling techniques to characterize mitochondrial function in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derived human cardiomyocytes in the presence of differing carbon sources over extended periods in cell culture. Functional analyses demonstrate that iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes are (1) capable of utilizing anaerobic or aerobic respiration depending upon the available carbon substrate and (2) bioenergetically closest to adult heart tissue cells when cultured in galactose or galactose supplemented with fatty acids. We utilized this model to test a variety of kinase inhibitors with known clinical cardiac liabilities for their potential toxicity toward these cells. We found that the kinase inhibitors showed a dose-dependent toxicity to iPSC cardiomyocytes grown in galactose and that oxygen consumption rates were significantly more affected than adenosine triphosphate production. Sorafenib was found to have the most effect, followed by sunitinib, dasatinib, imatinib, lapatinib, and nioltinib. PMID:22843568

  11. Examining the Protective Role of ErbB2 Modulation in Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Eldridge, Sandy; Mussio, Jodie; Furniss, Mike; Hamre, John; Davis, Myrtle

    2014-01-01

    Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) are being used as an in vitro model system in cardiac biology and in drug discovery (e.g., cardiotoxicity testing). Qualification of these cells for use in mechanistic investigations will require detailed evaluations of cardiomyocyte signaling pathways and cellular responses. ErbB signaling and the ligand neuregulin play critical roles in survival and functional integrity of cardiac myocytes. As such, we sought to characterize the expression and activity of the ErbB family of receptors. Antibody microarray analysis performed on cell lysates derived from maturing hiPSC-CMs detected expression of ∼570 signaling proteins. EGFR/ErbB1, HER2/ErbB2, and ErbB4, but not ErbB3 receptors, of the epidermal growth factor receptor family were confirmed by Western blot. Activation of ErbB signaling by neuregulin-1β (NRG, a natural ligand for ErbB4) and its modulation by trastuzumab (a monoclonal anti-ErbB2 antibody) and lapatinib (a small molecule ErbB2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor) were evaluated through assessing phosphorylation of AKT and Erk1/2, two major downstream kinases of ErbB signaling, using nanofluidic proteomic immunoassay. Downregulation of ErbB2 expression by siRNA silencing attenuated NRG-induced AKT and Erk1/2 phosphorylation. Activation of ErbB signaling with NRG, or inhibition with trastuzumab, alleviated or aggravated doxorubicin-induced cardiomyocyte damage, respectively, as assessed by a real-time cellular impedance analysis and ATP measurement. Collectively, these results support the expanded use of hiPSC-CMs to examine mechanisms of cardiotoxicity and support the value of using these cells in early assessments of cardiotoxicity or efficacy. PMID:25055963

  12. Isolation and transplantation of corneal endothelial cell-like cells derived from in-vitro-differentiated human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Pang, Kunpeng; Wu, Xinyi

    2014-06-15

    The maintenance of corneal dehydration and transparency depends on barrier and pump functions of corneal endothelial cells (CECs). The human CECs have no proliferation capacity in vivo and the ability to divide in vitro under culture conditions is dramatically limited. Thus, the acquisition of massive cells analogous to normal human CECs is extremely necessary whether from the perspective of cellular basic research or from clinical applications. Here we report the derivation of CEC-like cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) through the periocular mesenchymal precursor (POMP) phase. Using the transwell coculture system of hESCs with differentiated human corneal stromal cells, we induced hESCs to differentiate into POMPs. Then, CEC-like cells were derived from POMPs with lens epithelial cell-conditioned medium. Within 1 week, CEC-like cells that expressed the corneal endothelium (CE) differentiation marker N-cadherin and transcription factors FoxC1 and Pitx2 were detectable. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-based isolation of the N-cadherin/vimentin dual-positive population enriches for CEC-like cells. The isolated CEC-like cells were labeled with carboxyfluorescein diacetate, succinimidyl ester (CFDA SE) and seeded onto posterior acellular porcine corneal matrix lamellae to construct the CEC-like cell sheets. Pump function parameters of the CEC-like cell sheets approximated those of human donor corneas. Importantly, when the CEC-like cell sheets were transplanted into the eyes of rabbit CE dysfunction models, the corneal transparency was restored gradually. In conclusion, CEC-like cells derived from hESCs displayed characteristics of native human CECs. This renewable source of human CECs offers massive cells for further studies of human CEC biological characteristics and potential applications of replacement therapies as substitution for donor CECs in the future. PMID:24499373

  13. Embryonic stem cells derived neuron transplantation recovery in models of parkinsonism in relation to severity of the disorder in rats.

    PubMed

    Haobam, Reena; Tripathy, Debasmita; Kaidery, Navneet A; Mohanakumar, Kochupurackal P

    2015-04-01

    6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)- and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced hemi-parkinsonism was investigated in relation to the severity of the disorder in terms of behavioral disability and nigral neuronal loss and recovery regarding the number of stem cell-derived neurons transplanted in the striatum. Intra-median forebrain bundle infusion of the parkinsonian neurotoxins and intra-striatal transplantation of differentiated embryonic stem cells (ESCs) were carried out by rat brain stereotaxic surgery. The severity of the disease was determined using the number of amphetamine- or apomorphine-induced rotations, striatal dopamine levels as estimated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-electrochemistry, and the number of surviving tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Rats that received unilateral infusion of 6-OHDA or MPP(+) responded with dose-dependent, unilateral bias in turning behavior when amphetamine or apomorphine was administered. Rotational asymmetry in both models correlated significantly well with the loss in the number of nigral dopaminergic neurons and striatal dopamine depletion. Transplantation of 2×10(5) differentiated murine ESCs revealed remarkably similar kinds of recovery in both animal models. The survival of the grafted dopaminergic cells in the striatum was better in animals with low-severity parkinsonism, but poor in the animals with severe parkinsonism. Amphetamine-induced rotational recovery correlated positively with an increasing number of cells transplanted in animals with uniform nigral neuronal lesion. These results suggest that disease severity is an important factor for determining the number of cells to be transplanted in parkinsonian rats for desirable recovery, which may be true in clinical conditions too. PMID:25546608

  14. Chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and stromal cell-derived factor-1α, suppress amyloid β-induced neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Dayanidhi; Milatovic, Snjezana-Zaja; Milatovic, Dejan; Splittgerber, Ryan; Fan, Guo-Huang; Richmond, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by a progressive cognitive decline and accumulation of neurotoxic oligomeric peptides amyloid-β (Aβ). Although the molecular events are not entirely known, it has become evident that inflammation, environmental and other risk factors may play a causal, disruptive and/or protective role in the development of AD. The present study investigated the ability of the chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), the respective ligands for chemokine receptors CXCR2 and CXCR4, to suppress Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment with MIP-2 or SDF-1α significantly protected neurons from Aβ-induced dendritic regression and apoptosis in vitro through activation of Akt, ERK1/2 and maintenance of metalloproteinase ADAM17 especially with SDF-1α. Intra-cerebroventricular (ICV) injection of Aβ led to reduction in dendritic length and spine density of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and increased oxidative damage 24 h following the exposure. The Aβ-induced morphometric changes of neurons and increase in biomarkers of oxidative damage, F2-isoprostanes, was significantly inhibited by pretreatment with the chemokines MIP-2 or SDF-1α. Additionally, MIP-2 or SDF-1α was able to suppress the aberrant mislocalization of p21-activated kinase (PAK), one of the proteins involved in the maintenance of dendritic spines. Furthermore, MIP-2 also protected neurons against Aβ neurotoxicity in CXCR2−/− mice, potentially through observed up regulation of CXCR1 mRNA. Understanding the neuroprotective potential of chemokines is crucial in defining the role for their employment during the early stages of neurodegeneration. PMID:21704645

  15. Functional and phenotypic differences of pure populations of stem cell-derived astrocytes and neuronal precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Kleiderman, Susanne; Sá, João V; Teixeira, Ana P; Brito, Catarina; Gutbier, Simon; Evje, Lars G; Hadera, Mussie G; Glaab, Enrico; Henry, Margit; Sachinidis, Agapios; Alves, Paula M; Sonnewald, Ursula; Leist, Marcel

    2016-05-01

    Availability of homogeneous astrocyte populations would facilitate research concerning cell plasticity (metabolic and transcriptional adaptations; innate immune responses) and cell cycle reactivation. Current protocols to prepare astrocyte cultures differ in their final content of immature precursor cells, preactivated cells or entirely different cell types. A new method taking care of all these issues would improve research on astrocyte functions. We found here that the exposure of a defined population of pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cells (NSC) to BMP4 results in pure, nonproliferating astrocyte cultures within 24-48 h. These murine astrocytes generated from embryonic stem cells (mAGES) expressed the positive markers GFAP, aquaporin 4 and GLT-1, supported neuronal function, and acquired innate immune functions such as the response to tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1. The protocol was applicable to several normal or disease-prone pluripotent cell lines, and the corresponding mAGES all exited the cell cycle and lost most of their nestin expression, in contrast to astrocytes generated by serum-addition or obtained as primary cultures. Comparative gene expression analysis of mAGES and NSC allowed quantification of differences between the two cell types and a definition of an improved marker set to define astrocytes. Inclusion of several published data sets in this transcriptome comparison revealed the similarity of mAGES with cortical astrocytes in vivo. Metabolic analysis of homogeneous NSC and astrocyte populations revealed distinct neurochemical features: both cell types synthesized glutamine and citrate, but only mature astrocytes released these metabolites. Thus, the homogeneous cultures allowed an improved definition of NSC and astrocyte features. PMID:26689134

  16. A novel in vitro model system for smooth muscle differentiation from human embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xia; Stice, Steven L.; Boyd, Nolan L.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel in vitro model for smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation from human embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal cells (hES-MCs). We found that hES-MCs were differentiated to SMCs by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in a dose- and time-dependent manner as demonstrated by the expression of SMC-specific genes smooth muscle α-actin, calponin, and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain. Under normal growth conditions, however, the differentiation capacity of hES-MCs was very limited. hES-MC-derived SMCs had an elongated and spindle-shaped morphology and contracted in response to the induction of carbachol and KCl. KCl-induced calcium transient was also evident in these cells. Compared with the parental cells, TGF-β-treated hES-MCs sustained the endothelial tube formation for a longer time due to the sustained SMC phenotype. Mechanistically, TGF-β-induced differentiation was both Smad- and serum response factor/myocardin dependent. TGF-β regulated myocardin expression via multiple signaling pathways including Smad2/3, p38 MAPK, and PI3K. Importantly, we found that a low level of myocardin was present in mesoderm prior to SMC lineage determination, and a high level of myocardin was not induced until the differentiation process was initiated. Taken together, our study characterized a novel SMC differentiation model that can be used for studying human SMC differentiation from mesoderm during vascular development. PMID:23220114

  17. Nanofiber Matrices Promote the Neuronal Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neural Precursors In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Shawn H.; Christopherson, Gregory T.; Xu, Leyan; Nasonkin, Igor; Yu, Christopher; Mao, Hai-Quan; Koliatsos, Vassilis E.

    2011-01-01

    The potential of human embryonic stem (ES) cells as experimental therapies for neuronal replacement has recently received considerable attention. In view of the organization of the mature nervous system into distinct neural circuits, key challenges of such therapies are the directed differentiation of human ES cell-derived neural precursors (NPs) into specific neuronal types and the directional growth of axons along specified trajectories. In the present study, we cultured human NPs derived from the NIH-approved ES line BGO1 on polycaprolactone fiber matrices of different diameter (i.e., nanofibers and microfibers) and orientation (i.e., aligned and random); fibers were coated with poly-L-ornithine/laminin to mimic the extracellular matrix and support the adhesion, viability, and differentiation of NPs. On aligned fibrous meshes, human NPs adopt polarized cell morphology with processes extending along the axis of the fiber, whereas NPs on plain tissue culture surfaces or random fiber substrates form nonpolarized neurite networks. Under differentiation conditions, human NPs cultured on aligned fibrous substrates show a higher rate of neuronal differentiation than other matrices; 62% and 86% of NPs become TUJ1 (+) early neurons on aligned micro- and nanofibers, respectively, whereas only 32% and 27% of NPs acquire the same fate on random micro- and nanofibers. Metabolic cell activity/viability studies reveal that fiber alignment and diameter also have an effect on NP viability, but only in the presence of mitogens. Our findings demonstrate that fibrous substrates serve as an artificial extracellular matrix and provide a microenviroment that influences key aspects of the neuronal differentiation of ES-derived NPs. PMID:20973749

  18. Nanofiber matrices promote the neuronal differentiation of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural precursors in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mahairaki, Vasiliki; Lim, Shawn H; Christopherson, Gregory T; Xu, Leyan; Nasonkin, Igor; Yu, Christopher; Mao, Hai-Quan; Koliatsos, Vassilis E

    2011-03-01

    The potential of human embryonic stem (ES) cells as experimental therapies for neuronal replacement has recently received considerable attention. In view of the organization of the mature nervous system into distinct neural circuits, key challenges of such therapies are the directed differentiation of human ES cell-derived neural precursors (NPs) into specific neuronal types and the directional growth of axons along specified trajectories. In the present study, we cultured human NPs derived from the NIH-approved ES line BGO1 on polycaprolactone fiber matrices of different diameter (i.e., nanofibers and microfibers) and orientation (i.e., aligned and random); fibers were coated with poly-L-ornithine/laminin to mimic the extracellular matrix and support the adhesion, viability, and differentiation of NPs. On aligned fibrous meshes, human NPs adopt polarized cell morphology with processes extending along the axis of the fiber, whereas NPs on plain tissue culture surfaces or random fiber substrates form nonpolarized neurite networks. Under differentiation conditions, human NPs cultured on aligned fibrous substrates show a higher rate of neuronal differentiation than other matrices; 62% and 86% of NPs become TUJ1 (+) early neurons on aligned micro- and nanofibers, respectively, whereas only 32% and 27% of NPs acquire the same fate on random micro- and nanofibers. Metabolic cell activity/viability studies reveal that fiber alignment and diameter also have an effect on NP viability, but only in the presence of mitogens. Our findings demonstrate that fibrous substrates serve as an artificial extracellular matrix and provide a microenviroment that influences key aspects of the neuronal differentiation of ES-derived NPs. PMID:20973749

  19. Activated Stat5 trafficking Via Endothelial Cell-derived Extracellular Vesicles Controls IL-3 Pro-angiogenic Paracrine Action

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Giusy; Dentelli, Patrizia; Togliatto, Gabriele; Rosso, Arturo; Gili, Maddalena; Gallo, Sara; Deregibus, Maria Chiara; Camussi, Giovanni; Brizzi, Maria Felice

    2016-01-01

    Soluble factors and cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) control vascular cell fate during inflammation. The present study investigates the impact of Interleukin 3 (IL-3) on EV release by endothelial cells (ECs), the mechanisms involved in EV release and paracrine actions. We found that IL-3 increases EV release, which is prevented by IL-3Ralpha blockade. EVs released upon IL-3 stimulation were able to induce pro-angiogenic signals as shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay performed on the promoter region of cyclin D1 and tridimensional tube-like structure formation. We herein demonstrate that these effects rely on the transfer of miR-126-3p, pre-miR-126 and, more importantly, of activated signal transduction and activator of transcription 5 (pSTAT5) from IL-3-EV cargo into recipient ECs. We show, using the dominant negative form (ΔN)STAT5 and an activated STAT5 (1*6STAT5) constructs, that STAT5 drives IL-3-mediated EV release, miR-126-3p and pSTAT5 content. Finally, using EVs recovered from ΔNSTAT5 expressing ECs, we provide evidence that miR-126-3p and pSTAT5 trafficking is relevant for IL-3-mediated paracrine pro-angiogenic signals. These results indicate that IL-3 regulates EC-EV release, cargo and IL-3 angiogenic paracrine action via STAT5. Moreover, these results provide evidence that EC-derived IL-3-EVs can serve as pro-angiogenic clinical delivery wound healing devices. PMID:27157262

  20. Nucleus pulposus cells derived IGF-1 and MCP-1 enhance osteoclastogenesis and vertebrae disruption in lumbar disc herniation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhongjiao; Huang, Peng; Chong, Yanxue; George, Suraj K; Wen, Bingtao; Han, Na; Liu, Zhiqiang; Kang, Lixin; Lin, Nie

    2014-01-01

    Study design: Chronic strained lumbar disc herniation (LDH) cases were classified into bulging LDH, herniated LDH and prolapse LDH types according to imaging examination, and vertebrae disruptions were evaluated. Cytokines derived from the nucleus pulposus cells were detected, and their effects on osteoclastogenesis, as well as the mechanisms involved, were studied via an in vitro osteoclast differentiation system. Objective: To clarify the mechanisms of lumbar vertebrae resorption induced by lumbar herniation. Summary and background data: Chronic strained lumbar disc herniation induced vertebrae erosion exacerbates quality of patients’ life and clinical outcome. Although nucleus pulposus cells derived cytokines were reported to play an important role in this pathogenesis, the fundamental mechanisms underlying this process are still unclear. Methods: Chronic strained lumbar disc herniation patients were diagnosed with CT scan and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. RNA was extracted from 192 surgical specimens of the herniated lumbar disc and 29 surgical excisions of the lumbar disc from spinal injury patients. The expressions of osteoclastogenesis related cytokines and chemokines were examined using real time PCR. Monocytes were induced into osteoclast with M-CSF and RANKL in vitro, while the IGF-1 and MCP-1 were added into the differentiation procedure in order to evaluate the effects and explore the molecular mechanisms. Results: Vertebrae erosion had a positive relationship with lumbar disc herniation severity types. In all of the osteoclastogenesis related cytokines, the IGF-1 and MCP-1 were the most highly expressed in the nucleus pulposus cells. IGF-1 enhances activation of NF-kB signaling directly, but MCP-1 upregulated the expression of RANK, so that enhanced cellular sensitivity to RANKL resulted in increasing osteoclastogenesis and activity. Conclusion: Lumbar herniation induced overexpression of IGF-1 and MCP-1 in nucleus pulposus cells aggravated

  1. Plasmid-based transient human stromal cell-derived factor-1 gene transfer improves cardiac function in chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Sundararaman, S; Miller, T J; Pastore, J M; Kiedrowski, M; Aras, R; Penn, M S

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that transient stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1) improved cardiac function when delivered via cell therapy in ischemic cardiomyopathy at a time remote from acute myocardial infarction (MI) rats. We hypothesized that non-viral gene transfer of naked plasmid DNA-expressing hSDF-1 could similarly improve cardiac function. To optimize plasmid delivery, we tested SDF-1 and luciferase plasmids driven by the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter with (pCMVe) or without (pCMV) translational enhancers or α myosin heavy chain (pMHC) promoter in a rodent model of heart failure. In vivo expression of pCMVe was 10-fold greater than pCMV and pMHC expression and continued over 30 days. We directly injected rat hearts with SDF-1 plasmid 1 month after MI and assessed heart function. At 4 weeks after plasmid injection, we observed a 35.97 and 32.65% decline in fractional shortening (FS) in control (saline) animals and pMHC-hSDF1 animals, respectively, which was sustained to 8 weeks. In contrast, we observed a significant 24.97% increase in animals injected with the pCMVe-hSDF1 vector. Immunohistochemistry of cardiac tissue revealed a significant increase in vessel density in the hSDF-1-treated animals compared with control animals. Increasing SDF-1 expression promoted angiogenesis and improved cardiac function in rats with ischemic heart failure along with evidence of scar remodeling with a trend toward decreased myocardial fibrosis. These data demonstrate that stand-alone non-viral hSDF-1 gene transfer is a strategy for improving cardiac function in ischemic cardiomyopathy. PMID:21472007

  2. Impedance-based detection of beating rhythm and proarrhythmic effects of compounds on stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Malin K B; Wang, Qing-Dong; Becker, Bruno

    2011-12-01

    The xCELLigence real time cell analyzer Cardio system offers a new system for real-time cell analysis that measures impedance-based signals in a label-free noninvasive manner. The aim of this study was to test whether impedance readings are a useful tool to detect compound effects on beating frequency (beats per minute, bpm) and arrhythmias of human induced pluripotent stem cell- and a mouse embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte line (hiPSC-CM and mESC-CM, respectively). Baseline values for control wells were 45±3 and 179±6 bpm, respectively (n=6). Correspondingly, isoproterenol increased beating frequency by 77% and 71%, whereas carbachol decreased frequency by 11% and 100% (stopped in 5/6 mESC-CM wells). E-4031 decreased beating rate and caused arrhythmias in both cell types, however, more pronounced in the human iPSC-CMs. Amlodipine inhibited contractions in both models, and T-type calcium channel block strongly reduced beating rate and eventually stopped beating in mESC-CM but caused a smaller effect in hiPSC-CM. The results of this initial study show that, under the right conditions, the beating frequency of a monolayer of cells can be stably recorded over several days. Additionally, the system detects changes in beating frequency and amplitude caused by added reference compounds. This assay system has the potential to enable medium-throughput screening, but for implementation into routine daily work, extended validation, testing of additional batches of cardiomyocytes, and further assay optimization (e.g., frequency of media exchange, growth matrix, seeding density, age of cells after plating, and temperature control) will be needed. PMID:22085047

  3. Evaluation of the Cardiotoxicity of Mitragynine and Its Analogues Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianjun; Jamil, Mohd Fadzly Amar; Tan, Mei Lan; Adenan, Mohd Ilham; Wong, Philip; Shim, Winston

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mitragynine is a major bioactive compound of Kratom, which is derived from the leave extracts of Mitragyna speciosa Korth or Mitragyna speciosa (M. speciosa), a medicinal plant from South East Asia used legally in many countries as stimulant with opioid-like effects for the treatment of chronic pain and opioid-withdrawal symptoms. Fatal incidents with Mitragynine have been associated with cardiac arrest. In this study, we determined the cardiotoxicity of Mitragynine and other chemical constituents isolated using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs). Methods and Results The rapid delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr), L-type Ca2+ current (ICa,L) and action potential duration (APD) were measured by whole cell patch-clamp. The expression of KCNH2 and cytotoxicity was determined by real-time PCR and Caspase activity measurements. After significant IKr suppression by Mitragynine (10 µM) was confirmed in hERG-HEK cells, we systematically examined the effects of Mitragynine and other chemical constituents in hiPSC-CMs. Mitragynine, Paynantheine, Speciogynine and Speciociliatine, dosage-dependently (0.1∼100 µM) suppressed IKr in hiPSC-CMs by 67% ∼84% with IC50 ranged from 0.91 to 2.47 µM. Moreover, Mitragynine (10 µM) significantly prolonged APD at 50 and 90% repolarization (APD50 and APD90) (439.0±11.6 vs. 585.2±45.5 ms and 536.0±22.6 vs. 705.9±46.1 ms, respectively) and induced arrhythmia, without altering the L-type Ca2+ current. Neither the expression,and intracellular distribution of KCNH2/Kv11.1, nor the Caspase 3 activity were significantly affected by Mitragynine. Conclusions Our study indicates that Mitragynine and its analogues may potentiate Torsade de Pointes through inhibition of IKr in human cardiomyocytes. PMID:25535742

  4. Introducing a single-cell-derived human mesenchymal stem cell line expressing hTERT after lentiviral gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    Böcker, Wolfgang; Yin, Zhanhai; Drosse, Inga; Haasters, Florian; Rossmann, Oliver; Wierer, Matthias; Popov, Cvetan; Locher, Melanie; Mutschler, Wolf; Docheva, Denitsa; Schieker, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) can be readily isolated from bone marrow and differentiate into multiple tissues, making them a promising target for future cell and gene therapy applications. The low frequency of hMSCs in bone marrow necessitates their isolation and expansion in vitro prior to clinical use, but due to senescence-associated growth arrest during culture, limited cell numbers can be generated. The lifespan of hMSCs has been extended by ectopic expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) using retroviral vectors. Since malignant transformation was observed in hMSCs and retroviral vectors cause insertional mutagenesis, we ectopically expressed hTERT using lentiviral gene transfer. Single-cell-derived hMSC clones expressing hTERT did not show malignant transformation in vitro and in vivo after extended culture periods. There were no changes observed in the expression of tumour suppressor genes and karyotype. Cultured hMSCs lack telomerase activity, but it was significantly increased by ectopic expression of hTERT. HTERT expression prevented hMSC senescence and the cells showed significantly higher and unlimited proliferation capacity. Even after an extended culture period, hMSCs expressing hTERT preserved their stem cells character as shown by osteogenic, adipogenic and chon-drogenic differentiation. In summary, extending the lifespan of human mesenchymal stem cells by ectopic expression of hTERT using lentiviral gene transfer may be an attractive and safe way to generate appropriate cell numbers for cell and gene therapy applications. PMID:18318690

  5. Recommended Ethical Safeguards on Fertilization of Human Germ Cells Derived from Pluripotent Stem Cells Solely for Research Purposes.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Production of human fertilized embryos by using germ cells derived from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) entails ethical issues that differ fundamentally depending on the aim. If the aim is solely to conduct research, then embryo generation, utilization and destruction must respect for the human embryo as having the innate potential to develop into a human being. If the aim is human reproduction, this technology must never be used to manipulate human life, confuse social order, or negatively affect future generations. Researchers should distinguish the aims and then accordingly establish a consensus on the safeguards needed to proceed with scientifically significant and socially accepted research, or otherwise set a moratorium. Currently, in Japan, germ cell production from human PSCs is permitted, whereas fertilization of these germ cells is not. The Japanese Expert Panel on Bioethics in the Cabinet Office has proposed that all of the following conditions must be met to approve fertilization for research purposes: (1) the research is significant for the life sciences and medicine; (2) the benefits or anticipated benefits are socially accepted; (3) human safety is assured; and (4) safeguards are put in place. If fertilization is ethically approved, I recommend the following safeguards: limitation of the purpose to improving conventional ART as an initial step; permitted culture of human embryos until the appearance of the primitive streak; restriction of the number of embryos produced to the minimum necessary; prohibition of transplantation into a human or animal uterus; and provision of human-derived ova that are not required for ART treatment. PMID:27276914

  6. Endothelial cell-derived nitric oxide enhances aerobic glycolysis in astrocytes via HIF-1α-mediated target gene activation.

    PubMed

    Brix, Britta; Mesters, Jeroen R; Pellerin, Luc; Jöhren, Olaf

    2012-07-11

    Astrocytes exhibit a prominent glycolytic activity, but whether such a metabolic profile is influenced by intercellular communication is unknown. Treatment of primary cultures of mouse cortical astrocytes with the nitric oxide (NO) donor DetaNONOate induced a time-dependent enhancement in the expression of genes encoding various glycolytic enzymes as well as transporters for glucose and lactate. Such an effect was shown to be dependent on the hypoxia-inducible factor HIF-1α, which is stabilized and translocated to the nucleus to exert its transcriptional regulation. NO action was dependent on both the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MEK signaling pathways and required the activation of COX, but was independent of the soluble guanylate cyclase pathway. Furthermore, as a consequence of NO treatment, an enhanced lactate production and release by astrocytes was evidenced, which was prevented by downregulating HIF-1α. Several brain cell types represent possible sources of NO. It was found that endothelial cells, which express the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) isoform, constitutively produced the largest amount of NO in culture. When astrocytes were cocultured with primary cultures of brain vascular endothelial cells, stabilization of HIF-1α and an enhancement in glucose transporter-1, hexokinase-2, and monocarboxylate transporter-4 expression as well as increased lactate production was found in astrocytes. This effect was inhibited by the NOS inhibitor l-NAME and was not seen when astrocytes were cocultured with primary cultures of cortical neurons. Our findings suggest that endothelial cell-derived NO participates to the maintenance of a high glycolytic activity in astrocytes mediated by astrocytic HIF-1α activation. PMID:22787058

  7. Cardiomyocyte MEA data analysis (CardioMDA)--a novel field potential data analysis software for pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Pradhapan, Paruthi; Kuusela, Jukka; Viik, Jari; Aalto-Setälä, Katriina; Hyttinen, Jari

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac safety pharmacology requires in-vitro testing of all drug candidates before clinical trials in order to ensure they are screened for cardio-toxic effects which may result in severe arrhythmias. Micro-electrode arrays (MEA) serve as a complement to current in-vitro methods for drug safety testing. However, MEA recordings produce huge volumes of data and manual analysis forms a bottleneck for high-throughput screening. To overcome this issue, we have developed an offline, semi-automatic data analysis software, 'Cardiomyocyte MEA Data Analysis (CardioMDA)', equipped with correlation analysis and ensemble averaging techniques to improve the accuracy, reliability and throughput rate of analysing human pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocyte (CM) field potentials. With the program, true field potential and arrhythmogenic complexes can be distinguished from one another. The averaged field potential complexes, analysed using our software to determine the field potential duration, were compared with the analogous values obtained from manual analysis. The reliability of the correlation analysis algorithm, evaluated using various arrhythmogenic and morphology changing signals, revealed a mean sensitivity and specificity of 99.27% and 94.49% respectively, in determining true field potential complexes. The field potential duration of the averaged waveforms corresponded well to the manually analysed data, thus demonstrating the reliability of the software. The software has also the capability to create overlay plots for signals recorded under different drug concentrations in order to visualize and compare the magnitude of response on different ion channels as a result of drug treatment. Our novel field potential analysis platform will facilitate the analysis of CM MEA signals in semi-automated way and provide a reliable means of efficient and swift analysis for cardiomyocyte drug or disease model studies. PMID:24069215

  8. Cellular stress conditions are reflected in the protein and RNA content of endothelial cell-derived exosomes

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Olivier G.; Verhaar, Marianne C.; Chen, Yong; Vader, Pieter; Gremmels, Hendrik; Posthuma, George; Schiffelers, Raymond M.; Gucek, Marjan; van Balkom, Bas W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The healthy vascular endothelium, which forms the barrier between blood and the surrounding tissues, is known to efficiently respond to stress signals like hypoxia and inflammation by adaptation of cellular physiology and the secretion of (soluble) growth factors and cytokines. Exosomes are potent mediators of intercellular communication. Their content consists of RNA and proteins from the cell of origin, and thus depends on the condition of these cells at the time of exosome biogenesis. It has been suggested that exosomes protect their target cells from cellular stress through the transfer of RNA and proteins. We hypothesized that endothelium-derived exosomes are involved in the endothelial response to cellular stress, and that exosome RNA and protein content reflect the effects of cellular stress induced by hypoxia, inflammation or hyperglycemia. Methods We exposed cultured endothelial cells to different types of cellular stress (hypoxia, TNF-α-induced activation, high glucose and mannose concentrations) and compared mRNA and protein content of exosomes produced by these cells by microarray analysis and a quantitative proteomics approach. Results We identified 1,354 proteins and 1,992 mRNAs in endothelial cell-derived exosomes. Several proteins and mRNAs showed altered abundances after exposure of their producing cells to cellular stress, which were confirmed by immunoblot or qPCR analysis. Conclusion Our data show that hypoxia and endothelial activation are reflected in RNA and protein exosome composition, and that exposure to high sugar concentrations alters exosome protein composition only to a minor extend, and does not affect exosome RNA composition. PMID:24009886

  9. Interleukin 5, a T-cell-derived B-cell differentiation factor also induces cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Takatsu, K; Kikuchi, Y; Takahashi, T; Honjo, T; Matsumoto, M; Harada, N; Yamaguchi, N; Tominaga, A

    1987-01-01

    We describe an interleukin, termed interleukin 5, that is the recombinant product previously referred to as T-cell-replacing factor (TRF), B-cell growth factor II (BCGF II), or killer-helper factor (KHF). TRF has been defined as a T-cell-derived lymphokine that acts on activated B cells as a B-cell differentiation factor. We have previously demonstrated that TRF is identical to BCGF II and induces expression of receptors for interleukin 2 (IL-2) on activated B cells. We also have reported that KHF can induce not only expression of IL-2 receptors on peanut agglutinin-binding (PNA+) thymocytes but also generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in PNA+ thymocytes in the presence of IL-2. We show here that culture supernatants of T-cell hybridomas that produce TRF as well as TRF purified by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC-TRF) have KHF activity and generate CTL in PNA+ thymocytes in the presence of stimulator cells and IL-2. Moreover, translation products (recombinant TRF) of Xenopus oocytes injected with cDNA encoding for murine TRF (BCGF II) also exert KHF activity. A rat monoclonal anti-TRF antibody TB13 can block generation of CTL by HPLC-TRF or recombinant TRF. These results indicate that TRF acts not only on B cells as BCGF II but also on PNA+ thymocytes as KHF. In view of the diverse activities and targets of TRF, we propose that TRF refers to a different interleukin, interleukin 5. Images PMID:3495803

  10. Availability of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes in assessment of drug potential for QT prolongation

    SciTech Connect

    Nozaki, Yumiko; Honda, Yayoi; Tsujimoto, Shinji; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Kunimatsu, Takeshi; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2014-07-01

    Field potential duration (FPD) in human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs), which can express QT interval in an electrocardiogram, is reported to be a useful tool to predict K{sup +} channel and Ca{sup 2+} channel blocker effects on QT interval. However, there is no report showing that this technique can be used to predict multichannel blocker potential for QT prolongation. The aim of this study is to show that FPD from MEA (Multielectrode array) of hiPS-CMs can detect QT prolongation induced by multichannel blockers. hiPS-CMs were seeded onto MEA and FPD was measured for 2 min every 10 min for 30 min after drug exposure for the vehicle and each drug concentration. I{sub Kr} and I{sub Ks} blockers concentration-dependently prolonged corrected FPD (FPDc), whereas Ca{sup 2+} channel blockers concentration-dependently shortened FPDc. Also, the multichannel blockers Amiodarone, Paroxetine, Terfenadine and Citalopram prolonged FPDc in a concentration dependent manner. Finally, the I{sub Kr} blockers, Terfenadine and Citalopram, which are reported to cause Torsade de Pointes (TdP) in clinical practice, produced early afterdepolarization (EAD). hiPS-CMs using MEA system and FPDc can predict the effects of drug candidates on QT interval. This study also shows that this assay can help detect EAD for drugs with TdP potential. - Highlights: • We focused on hiPS-CMs to replace in vitro assays in preclinical screening studies. • hiPS-CMs FPD is useful as an indicator to predict drug potential for QT prolongation. • MEA assay can help detect EAD for drugs with TdP potentials. • MEA assay in hiPS-CMs is useful for accurately predicting drug TdP risk in humans.

  11. The age- and shorter telomere-dependent TERT promoter mutation in follicular thyroid cell-derived carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Liu, T; Wang, N; Cao, J; Sofiadis, A; Dinets, A; Zedenius, J; Larsson, C; Xu, D

    2014-10-16

    Telomerase activation through induction of its catalytic component telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) expression is essential for malignant transformation. TERT promoter mutations namely C228T and C250T that stimulate TERT transcription and telomerase activation have recently been identified in many human malignancies. We thus determined these mutations and their biological and clinical implications in thyroid carcinomas in the present study. The TERT promoter was sequenced in 10 thyroid cancer cell lines and 144 tumors from 20 patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), 51 with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), 36 with follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC), and 37 with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). We identified C228T or C250T mutation in 6/8 of ATC cell lines, as well as in tumor tissue from 10/20, 13/51, 8/36 and 0/37 patients with ATC, PTC, FTC and MTC, respectively. In PTC patients, these mutations were exclusively present in the group with age >45 years (P<0.0001), and highly correlated shorter telomeres (P<0.0001) and distant metastasis (P=0.028). The previous radioactivity exposure did not induce the mutation. The presence of C228T or C250T was an independent predictor associated with shorter disease-related survival (DRS) in the entire cohort (P<0.0001), as well as among patients >45 years (P=0.021). ATC patients carrying the mutation survived shorter than those without mutations, although not statistically significant (P=0.129). The TERT promoter mutation was associated with overall survival (P=0.038) and DRS (P=0.058) of FTC patients. Taken together, age- and shorter telomere-dependent TERT promoter mutations occur frequently in follicular cell-derived thyroid carcinoma (ATC, PTC and FTC) but not in parafollicular cell-originated MTC, and may serve as a marker for aggressive disease and poor outcome. PMID:24141777

  12. Potent Paracrine Effects of human induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Attenuate Doxorubicin-induced Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuelin; Liang, Xiaoting; Liao, Songyan; Wang, Weixin; Wang, Junwen; Li, Xiang; Ding, Yue; Liang, Yingmin; Gao, Fei; Yang, Mo; Fu, Qingling; Xu, Aimin; Chai, Yuet-Hung; He, Jia; Tse, Hung-Fat; Lian, Qizhou

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) can protect cardiomyocytes against anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy (AIC) through paracrine effects. Nonetheless the paracrine effects of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived MSCs (iPSC-MSCs) on AIC are poorly understood. In vitro studies reveal that doxorubicin (Dox)-induced reactive oxidative stress (ROS) generation and cell apoptosis in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) are significantly reduced when treated with conditioned medium harvested from BM-MSCs (BM-MSCs-CdM) or iPSC-MSCs (iPSC-MSCs-CdM). Compared with BM-MSCs-CdM, NRCMs treated with iPSC-MSCs-CdM exhibit significantly less ROS and cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Transplantation of BM-MSCs-CdM or iPSC-MSCs-CdM into mice with AIC remarkably attenuated left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and dilatation. Compared with BM-MSCs-CdM, iPSC-MSCs-CdM treatment showed better alleviation of heart failure, less cardiomyocyte apoptosis and fibrosis. Analysis of common and distinct cytokines revealed that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) were uniquely overpresented in iPSC-MSC-CdM. Immunodepletion of MIF and GDF-15 in iPSC-MSCs-CdM dramatically decreased cardioprotection. Injection of GDF-15/MIF cytokines could partially reverse Dox-induced heart dysfunction. We suggest that the potent paracrine effects of iPSC-MSCs provide novel “cell-free” therapeutic cardioprotection against AIC, and that MIF and GDF-15 in iPSC-MSCs-CdM are critical for these enhanced cardioprotective effects. PMID:26057572

  13. Stem cell-derived nodal-like cardiomyocytes as a novel pharmacologic tool: insights from sinoatrial node development and function.

    PubMed

    Barbuti, Andrea; Robinson, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    Since the first reports on the isolation and differentiation of stem cells, and in particular since the early success in driving these cells down a cardiac lineage, there has been interest in the potential of such preparations in cardiac regenerative therapy. Much of the focus of such research has been on improving mechanical function after myocardial infarction; however, electrophysiologic studies of these preparations have revealed a heterogeneous mix of action potential characteristics, including some described as "pacemaker" or "nodal-like," which in turn led to interest in the therapeutic potential of these preparations in the treatment of rhythm disorders; several proof-of-concept studies have used these cells to create a biologic alternative to electronic pacemakers. Further, there are additional potential applications of a preparation of pacemaker cells derived from stem cells, for example, in high-throughput screens of new chronotropic agents. All such applications require reasonably efficient methods for selecting or enriching the "nodal-like" cells, however, which in turn depends on first defining what constitutes a nodal-like cell since not all pacemaking cells are necessarily of nodal lineage. This review discusses the current state of the field in terms of characterizing sinoatrial-like cardiomyocytes derived from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, markers that might be appropriate based on the current knowledge of the gene program leading to sinoatrial node development, what functional characteristics might be expected and desired based on studies of the sinoatrial node, and recent efforts at enrichment and selection of nodal-like cells. PMID:25733770

  14. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 promotes human adipose tissue-derived stem cell survival and chronic wound healing

    PubMed Central

    LI, QIANG; GUO, YANPING; CHEN, FEIFEI; LIU, JING; JIN, PEISHENG

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) hold great potential for the stem cell-based therapy of cutaneous wound healing. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) activates CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)4+ and CXCR7+ cells and plays an important role in wound healing. Increasing evidence suggests a critical role for SDF-1 in cell apoptosis and the survival of mesenchymal stem cells. However, the function of SDF-1 in the apoptosis and wound healing ability of ADSCs is not well understood. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of SDF-1 on the apoptosis and therapeutic effect of ADSCs in cutaneous chronic wounds in vitro and in vivos. By flow cytometric analysis, it was found that hypoxia and serum free promoted the apoptosis of ADSCs. When pretreated with SDF-1, the apoptosis of ADSCs induced by hypoxia and serum depletion was partly recovered. Furthermore, in vivo experiments established that the post-implantation cell survival and chronic wound healing ability of ADSCs were increased following pretreatment with SDF-1 in a diabetic mouse model of chronic wound healing. To explore the potential mechanism underlying the effect of SDF-1 on ADSC apoptosis, western blot analysis was employed and the results indicate that SDF-1 may protect against cell apoptosis in hypoxic and serum-free conditions through activation of the caspase signaling pathway in ADSCs. This study provides evidence that SDF-1 pretreatment can increase the therapeutic effect of ADSCs in cutaneous chronic wounds in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27347016

  15. Quantitative assessment of neurite outgrowth in human embryonic stem-cell derived neurons using automated high-content image analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    During development neurons undergo a number of morphological changes including neurite outgrowth from the cell body. Exposure to neurotoxicants that interfere with this process may cause in permanent deficits in nervous system function. While many studies have used rodent primary...

  16. Body Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The high-tech art of digital signal processing (DSP) was pioneered at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1960s for use in the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. Designed to computer enhance pictures of the Moon, this technology became the basis for the Landsat Earth resources satellites and subsequently has been incorporated into a broad range of Earthbound medical and diagnostic tools. DSP is employed in advanced body imaging techniques including Computer-Aided Tomography, also known as CT and CATScan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CT images are collected by irradiating a thin slice of the body with a fan-shaped x-ray beam from a number of directions around the body's perimeter. A tomographic (slice-like) picture is reconstructed from these multiple views by a computer. MRI employs a magnetic field and radio waves, rather than x-rays, to create images. In this photograph, a patient undergoes an open MRI.

  17. Body Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The high-tech art of digital signal processing (DSP) was pioneered at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1960s for use in the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. Designed to computer enhance pictures of the Moon, this technology became the basis for the Landsat Earth resources satellites and subsequently has been incorporated into a broad range of Earthbound medical and diagnostic tools. DSP is employed in advanced body imaging techniques including Computer-Aided Tomography, also known as CT and CATScan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CT images are collected by irradiating a thin slice of the body with a fan-shaped x-ray beam from a number of directions around the body's perimeter. A tomographic (slice-like) picture is reconstructed from these multiple views by a computer. MRI employs a magnetic field and radio waves, rather than x-rays, to create images.

  18. Body Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computer-aided Tomography (CT) images are often complementary. In most cases, MRI is good for viewing soft tissue but not bone, while CT images are good for bone but not always good for soft tissue discrimination. Physicians and engineers in the Department of Radiology at the University of Michigan Hospitals are developing a technique for combining the best features of MRI and CT scans to increase the accuracy of discriminating one type of body tissue from another. One of their research tools is a computer program called HICAP. The program can be used to distinguish between healthy and diseased tissue in body images.

  19. Body Levers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiappetta, Eugene L.

    1987-01-01

    Explains how the muscle and bone arrangement of the human body can be used in teaching the principles of simple machines. Presents an activity that investigates the lever system of the forearm. Includes background information on levers and suggests questions for classroom discussion. (ML)

  20. Transplantation of stem cell-derived astrocytes for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Nicaise, Charles; Mitrecic, Dinko; Falnikar, Aditi; Lepore, Angelo C

    2015-01-01

    Neglected for years, astrocytes are now recognized to fulfill and support many, if not all, homeostatic functions of the healthy central nervous system (CNS). During neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal cord injury (SCI), astrocytes in the vicinity of degenerating areas undergo both morphological and functional changes that might compromise their intrinsic properties. Evidence from human and animal studies show that deficient astrocyte functions or loss-of-astrocytes largely contribute to increased susceptibility to cell death for neurons, oligodendrocytes and axons during ALS and SCI disease progression. Despite exciting advances in experimental CNS repair, most of current approaches that are translated into clinical trials focus on the replacement or support of spinal neurons through stem cell transplantation, while none focus on the specific replacement of astroglial populations. Knowing the important functions carried out by astrocytes in the CNS, astrocyte replacement-based therapies might be a promising approach to alleviate overall astrocyte dysfunction, deliver neurotrophic support to degenerating spinal tissue and stimulate endogenous CNS repair abilities. Enclosed in this review, we gathered experimental evidence that argue in favor of astrocyte transplantation during ALS and SCI. Based on their intrinsic properties and according to the cell type transplanted, astrocyte precursors or stem cell-derived astrocytes promote axonal growth, support mechanisms and cells involved in myelination, are able to modulate the host immune response, deliver neurotrophic factors and provide protective molecules against oxidative or excitotoxic insults, amongst many possible benefits. Embryonic or adult stem cells can even be genetically engineered in order to deliver missing gene products and therefore maximize the chance of neuroprotection and functional recovery. However, before broad clinical translation, further preclinical

  1. Stromal cell-derived factor 1 polymorphism in patients infected with HIV and implications for AIDS progression in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Amara, Sameh; Domenech, Jorge; Jenhani, Faouzi

    2010-01-01

    Background An interesting finding in the epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is that certain mutations in genes coding for chemokines, and their receptors and ligands, may confer resistance or susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) progression. The mutation most frequently studied is stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)1-3′A, a single nucleotide polymorphism in the 3′ untranslated region at the 801 position of the SDF1 gene, which seems to be associated with susceptibility or resistance to diseases, including AIDS. We examined the frequency of the above polymorphisms in the Tunisian population, and evaluated their contribution to a protective genetic background against HIV infection and progression. Methods and materials One hundred forty blood samples from HIV-infected patients from the Cellular Immunology Research Laboratory at the National Blood Transfusion Center were compared with those of 164 random blood donors from the same center. Genotyping was initially performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. SDF1 PCR product genomic regions were further subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for genotype determination. Screening for the SDF1 polymorphism in the HIV-infected population yielded 56 heterozygous (40%), 52 mutation homozygous (37.1%), and 32 wild-type homozygous (22.8%) subjects. In contrast, in our healthy population, we found 70/164 heterozygous (42.6%), nine mutation homozygous (5.4%), and 85 wild-type homozygous (51.8%) subjects. The allele frequencies in the HIV-infected and healthy populations were f(SD1 3′A) = 57.1%, f(SDF1) = 42.8%, f(SDF1 3′A) = 26.8%, and f(SDF1) = 73.1%, respectively. The allelic and genotypic frequencies of the SDF1 3′A in our population show significantly higher distribution profiles compared with those observed in other Caucasian, European, and African American populations. Our results were examined by χ2 test and

  2. Characterization of Transcription Factor Networks Involved in Umbilical Cord Blood CD34+ Stem Cells-Derived Erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Biaoru; Ding, Lianghao; Yang, Chinrang; Kang, Baolin; Liu, Li; Story, Michael D.; Pace, Betty S.

    2014-01-01

    Fetal stem cells isolated from umbilical cord blood (UCB) possess a great capacity for proliferation and differentiation and serve as a valuable model system to study gene regulation. Expanded knowledge of the molecular control of hemoglobin synthesis will provide a basis for rational design of therapies for β-hemoglobinopathies. Transcriptome data are available for erythroid progenitors derived from adult stem cells, however studies to define molecular mechanisms controlling globin gene regulation during fetal erythropoiesis are limited. Here, we utilize UCB-CD34+ stem cells induced to undergo erythroid differentiation to characterize the transcriptome and transcription factor networks (TFNs) associated with the γ/β-globin switch during fetal erythropoiesis. UCB-CD34+ stem cells grown in the one-phase liquid culture system displayed a higher proliferative capacity than adult CD34+ stem cells. The γ/β-globin switch was observed after day 42 during fetal erythropoiesis in contrast to adult progenitors where the switch occurred around day 21. To gain insights into transcription factors involved in globin gene regulation, microarray analysis was performed on RNA isolated from UCB-CD34+ cell-derived erythroid progenitors harvested on day 21, 42, 49 and 56 using the HumanHT-12 Expression BeadChip. After data normalization, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis identified transcription factors (TFs) with significant changes in expression during the γ/β-globin switch. Forty-five TFs were silenced by day 56 (Profile-1) and 30 TFs were activated by day 56 (Profile-2). Both GSEA datasets were analyzed using the MIMI Cytoscape platform, which discovered TFNs centered on KLF4 and GATA2 (Profile-1) and KLF1 and GATA1 for Profile-2 genes. Subsequent shRNA studies in KU812 leukemia cells and human erythroid progenitors generated from UCB-CD34+ cells supported a negative role of MAFB in γ-globin regulation. The characteristics of erythroblasts derived from UCB-CD34+ stem cells

  3. The Role of Genetic Variants of Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1 in Pediatric HIV-1 Infection and Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Gianesin, Ketty; Freguja, Riccardo; Carmona, Francesco; Zanchetta, Marisa; Del Bianco, Paola; Malacrida, Sandro; Montagna, Marco; Rampon, Osvalda; Giaquinto, Carlo; De Rossi, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Stromal cell-Derived Factor 1 (SDF1) is the natural ligand of CXCR4, the coreceptor of HIV-1 X4 viruses. This study investigated the role of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1801157 (NM_000609.5:c.*519G>A) of the SDF1 gene in the natural history of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 and disease progression of HIV-1-infected children. The study was conducted in 428 children born to HIV-1-seropositive mothers, who had not undergone antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy, and in 120 HIV-1-infected children for whom the end-point was the onset of AIDS or the initiation of ART; 16 children developed early AIDS (<24 months of life), 13 from 24 to 84 months of age, and 14 had late AIDS (>84 months). The rs1801157 SNP was not associated with risk of perinatal infection in any genetic models tested. By contrast, this SNP influenced disease progression in a time-dependent manner. rs1801157 GA heterozygous children had a higher risk of late AIDS (HR = 6.3, 95%CI 1.9–20.7, p = 0.002) than children with the rs1801157 GG genotype. Children were studied for viral coreceptor usage at birth, after 84 months of age and/or at AIDS onset. While R5 viruses using CCR5 coreceptor were predominant at birth (94%) and at early AIDS (85%), viruses using CXCR4 coreceptor emerged during the course of infection and were detected in 49% of children older than 84 months and in 62% of late AIDS. The rs1801157 SNP did not influence the emergence of R5X4 viruses, but children with the rs1801157 GA genotype and R5X4 viruses were at significantly higher risk of late AIDS than children with rs1801157 GG genotype (OR = 8.0, 95% CI 1.2–52.2, p = 0.029). Our results indicate that the rs1801157 SNP does not influence perinatal infection, but impacts disease progression. This effect is time-dependent and linked to the coreceptor-usage of viral variants that undergo evolution during the course of HIV-1 infection. PMID:22962615

  4. Effect of stromal-cell-derived factor 1 on stem-cell homing and tissue regeneration in ischaemic cardiomyopathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askari, Arman T.; Unzek, Samuel; Popovic, Zoran B.; Goldman, Corey K.; Forudi, Farhad; Kiedrowski, Matthew; Rovner, Aleksandr; Ellis, Stephen G.; Thomas, James D.; DiCorleto, Paul E.; Topol, Eric J.; Penn, Marc S.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myocardial regeneration via stem-cell mobilisation at the time of myocardial infarction is known to occur, although the mechanism for stem-cell homing to infarcted tissue subsequently and whether this approach can be used for treatment of ischaemic cardiomyopathy are unknown. We investigated these issues in a Lewis rat model (ligation of the left anterior descending artery) of ischaemic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: We studied the effects of stem-cell mobilisation by use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (filgrastim) with or without transplantation of syngeneic cells. Shortening fraction and myocardial strain by tissue doppler imaging were quantified by echocardiography. FINDINGS: Stem-cell mobilisation with filgrastim alone did not lead to engraftment of bone-marrow-derived cells. Stromal-cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), required for stem-cell homing to bone marrow, was upregulated immediately after myocardial infarction and downregulated within 7 days. 8 weeks after myocardial infarction, transplantation into the peri-infarct zone of syngeneic cardiac fibroblasts stably transfected to express SDF-1 induced homing of CD117-positive stem cells to injured myocardium after filgrastim administration (control vs SDF-1-expressing cardiac fibroblasts mean 7.2 [SD 3.4] vs 33.2 [6.0] cells/mm2, n=4 per group, p<0.02) resulting in greater left-ventricular mass (1.24 [0.29] vs 1.57 [0.27] g) and better cardiac function (shortening fraction 9.2 [4.9] vs 17.2 [4.2]%, n=8 per group, p<0.05). INTERPRETATION: These findings show that SDF-1 is sufficient to induce therapeutic stem-cell homing to injured myocardium and suggest a strategy for directed stem-cell engraftment into injured tissues. Our findings also indicate that therapeutic strategies focused on stem-cell mobilisation for regeneration of myocardial tissue must be initiated within days of myocardial infarction unless signalling for stem-cell homing is re-established.

  5. Texture Descriptors Ensembles Enable Image-Based Classification of Maturation of Human Stem Cell-Derived Retinal Pigmented Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Caetano dos Santos, Florentino Luciano; Skottman, Heli; Juuti-Uusitalo, Kati; Hyttinen, Jari

    2016-01-01

    showed that the developed ensembles of texture descriptors are able to classify the RPE cell maturation stage. Moreover, we proved that preprocessing and region-based decomposition improves many descriptors’ accuracy in biological dataset classification. Finally, we built the first public dataset of stem cell-derived RPE cells, which is publicly available to the scientific community for classification studies. The proposed tool is available at https://www.dei.unipd.it/node/2357 and the RPE dataset at http://www.biomeditech.fi/data/RPE_dataset/. Both are available at https://figshare.com/s/d6fb591f1beb4f8efa6f. PMID:26895509

  6. Resveratrol-Induced Apoptosis and Increased Radiosensitivity in CD133-Positive Cells Derived From Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, C.-L.; Huang, P.-I; Tsai, P.-H.; Tsai, M.-L.; Lo, J.-F.; Lee, Y.-Y.; Chen, Y.-J.; Chen, Y.-W.; Chiou, S.-H.

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: CD133 has recently been proposed as a marker for cancer stem-like cells (CSC) in brain tumors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible role of resveratrol (RV) in radiosensitivity of CD133-positive/-negative cells derived from atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT-CD133{sup +/-}). Materials and Methods: AT/RT-CD133{sup +/-} were isolated and characterized by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and then treated with RV at different doses. Migratory ability, colony formation, apoptotic activity, and xenotransplantation were assessed for RV alone, ionizing radiation (IR) alone, and IR with RV conditions. Results: AT/RT-CD133{sup +} displayed enhanced self-renewal and highly coexpressed 'stem cell' genes and drug-resistant genes, in addition to showing significant resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and radiotherapy as compared with CD133{sup -} cells. After treatment with 200 {mu}M RV, the in vitro proliferation rates and in vivo tumor restoration abilities of ATRT-CD133{sup +} were dramatically inhibited. Importantly, treatment with 150 {mu}M RV can effectively inhibit the expression of drug-resistant genes in AT/RT-CD133{sup +}, and further facilitate to the differentiation of CD133{sup +} into CD133{sup -}. In addition, treatment with 150 {mu}M RV could significantly enhance the radiosensitivity and IR-mediated apoptosis in RV-treated ATRT-CD133{sup +/-}. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that the mean survival rate of mice with ATRT-CD133{sup +} that were treated with IR could be significantly improved when IR was combined with 150 {mu}M RV treatment. Conclusions: AT/RT-CD133{sup +} exhibit CSC properties and are refractory to IR treatment. Our results suggest that RV treatment plays crucial roles in antiproliferative, proapoptotic, and radiosensitizing effects on treated-CD133{sup +/-}; RV may therefore improve the clinical treatment of AT/RT.

  7. Ion channelopathies in human induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes: a dynamic clamp study with virtual IK1

    PubMed Central

    Meijer van Putten, Rosalie M. E.; Mengarelli, Isabella; Guan, Kaomei; Zegers, Jan G.; van Ginneken, Antoni C. G.; Verkerk, Arie O.; Wilders, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) are widely used in studying basic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias that are caused by ion channelopathies. Unfortunately, the action potential profile of hiPSC-CMs—and consequently the profile of individual membrane currents active during that action potential—differs substantially from that of native human cardiomyocytes, largely due to almost negligible expression of the inward rectifier potassium current (IK1). In the present study, we attempted to “normalize” the action potential profile of our hiPSC-CMs by inserting a voltage dependent in silico IK1 into our hiPSC-CMs, using the dynamic clamp configuration of the patch clamp technique. Recordings were made from single hiPSC-CMs, using the perforated patch clamp technique at physiological temperature. We assessed three different models of IK1, with different degrees of inward rectification, and systematically varied the magnitude of the inserted IK1. Also, we modified the inserted IK1 in order to assess the effects of loss- and gain-of-function mutations in the KCNJ2 gene, which encodes the Kir2.1 protein that is primarily responsible for the IK1 channel in human ventricle. For our experiments, we selected spontaneously beating hiPSC-CMs, with negligible IK1 as demonstrated in separate voltage clamp experiments, which were paced at 1 Hz. Upon addition of in silico IK1 with a peak outward density of 4–6 pA/pF, these hiPSC-CMs showed a ventricular-like action potential morphology with a stable resting membrane potential near −80 mV and a maximum upstroke velocity >150 V/s (n = 9). Proarrhythmic action potential changes were observed upon injection of both loss-of-function and gain-of-function IK1, as associated with Andersen–Tawil syndrome type 1 and short QT syndrome type 3, respectively (n = 6). We conclude that injection of in silico IK1 makes the hiPSC-CM a more reliable model for investigating mechanisms underlying cardiac

  8. Regulation of alternative macrophage activation in the liver following acetaminophen intoxication by stem cell-derived tyrosine kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Carol R.; Hankey, Pamela; Mishin, Vladimir; Francis, Mary; Yu, Shan; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2012-07-15

    Stem cell-derived tyrosine kinase (STK) is a transmembrane receptor reported to play a role in macrophage switching from a classically activated/proinflammatory phenotype to an alternatively activated/wound repair phenotype. In the present studies, STK{sup −/−} mice were used to assess the role of STK in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity as evidence suggests that the pathogenic process involves both of these macrophage subpopulations. In wild type mice, centrilobular hepatic necrosis and increases in serum transaminase levels were observed within 6 h of acetaminophen administration (300 mg/kg, i.p.). Loss of STK resulted in a significant increase in sensitivity of mice to the hepatotoxic effects of acetaminophen and increased mortality, effects independent of its metabolism. This was associated with reduced levels of hepatic glutathione, rapid upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, and prolonged induction of heme oxygenase-1, suggesting excessive oxidative stress in STK{sup −/−} mice. F4/80, a marker of mature macrophages, was highly expressed on subpopulations of Kupffer cells in livers of wild type, but not STK{sup −/−} mice. Whereas F4/80{sup +} macrophages rapidly declined in the livers of wild type mice following acetaminophen intoxication, they increased in STK{sup −/−} mice. In wild type mice hepatic expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-12, products of classically activated macrophages, increased after acetaminophen administration. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and its receptor, CCR2, as well as IL-10, mediators involved in recruiting and activating anti-inflammatory/wound repair macrophages, also increased in wild type mice after acetaminophen. Loss of STK blunted the effects of acetaminophen on expression of TNFα, IL-1β, IL-12, MCP-1 and CCR2, while expression of IL-10 increased. Hepatic expression of CX3CL1, and its receptor, CX3CR1 also increased in STK{sup −/−} mice

  9. Application of human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes in safety pharmacology requires caution beyond hERG.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Malin K B; Vos, Marc A; Mirams, Gary R; Duker, Göran; Sartipy, Peter; de Boer, Teun P; van Veen, Toon A B

    2012-05-01

    Human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CM) have been proposed as a new model for safety pharmacology. So far, a thorough description of their basic electrophysiology and extensive testing, and mechanistic explanations, of their overall pro-arrhythmic ability is lacking. Under standardized conditions, we have evaluated the sensitivity of hESC-CM to proarrhythmic provocations by blockade of hERG and other channels. Using voltage patch clamp, some ion current densities (pA/pF) in hESC-CM were comparable to adult CM: I(Kr) (-12.5 ± 6.9), I(Ks) (0.65 ± 0.12), I(Na,peak) (-72 ± 21), I(Na,late) (-1.10 ± 0.36), and I(Ca,L) (-4.3 ± 0.6). I(f) density was larger (-10 ± 1.1) and I(K1) not existent or very small (-2.67 ± 0.3). The low I(K1) density was corroborated by low KCNJ2 mRNA levels. Effects of pro-arrhythmic compounds on action potential (AP) parameters and provocation of early afterdepolarizations (EADs) revealed that Chromanol293B (100 μmol/l) and Bay K8644 (1 μmol/l) both significantly prolonged APD(90). ATX-II (<1 μmol/l ) and BaCl(2) (10 μmol/l ) had no effect on APD. The only compound that triggered EADs was hERG blocker Cisapride. Computer simulations and AP clamp showed that the immature AP of hESC-CM prevents proper functioning of I(Na)-channels, and result in lower peak/maximal currents of several other channels, compared to the adult situation. Lack of functional I(K1) channels and shifted I(Na) channel activation cause a rather immature electrophysiological phenotype in hESC-CM, and thereby limits the potential of this model to respond accurately to pro-arrhythmic triggers other than hERG block. Maturation of the electrical phenotype is a prerequiste for future implementation of the model in arrhythmogenic safety testing. PMID:22353256

  10. Characterization of transcription factor networks involved in umbilical cord blood CD34+ stem cells-derived erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Biaoru; Ding, Lianghao; Yang, Chinrang; Kang, Baolin; Liu, Li; Story, Michael D; Pace, Betty S

    2014-01-01

    Fetal stem cells isolated from umbilical cord blood (UCB) possess a great capacity for proliferation and differentiation and serve as a valuable model system to study gene regulation. Expanded knowledge of the molecular control of hemoglobin synthesis will provide a basis for rational design of therapies for β-hemoglobinopathies. Transcriptome data are available for erythroid progenitors derived from adult stem cells, however studies to define molecular mechanisms controlling globin gene regulation during fetal erythropoiesis are limited. Here, we utilize UCB-CD34+ stem cells induced to undergo erythroid differentiation to characterize the transcriptome and transcription factor networks (TFNs) associated with the γ/β-globin switch during fetal erythropoiesis. UCB-CD34+ stem cells grown in the one-phase liquid culture system displayed a higher proliferative capacity than adult CD34+ stem cells. The γ/β-globin switch was observed after day 42 during fetal erythropoiesis in contrast to adult progenitors where the switch occurred around day 21. To gain insights into transcription factors involved in globin gene regulation, microarray analysis was performed on RNA isolated from UCB-CD34+ cell-derived erythroid progenitors harvested on day 21, 42, 49 and 56 using the HumanHT-12 Expression BeadChip. After data normalization, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis identified transcription factors (TFs) with significant changes in expression during the γ/β-globin switch. Forty-five TFs were silenced by day 56 (Profile-1) and 30 TFs were activated by day 56 (Profile-2). Both GSEA datasets were analyzed using the MIMI Cytoscape platform, which discovered TFNs centered on KLF4 and GATA2 (Profile-1) and KLF1 and GATA1 for Profile-2 genes. Subsequent shRNA studies in KU812 leukemia cells and human erythroid progenitors generated from UCB-CD34+ cells supported a negative role of MAFB in γ-globin regulation. The characteristics of erythroblasts derived from UCB-CD34+ stem cells

  11. Chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha}, suppress amyloid {beta}-induced neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, Dayanidhi; Milatovic, Snjezana-Zaja; Milatovic, Dejan; Fan, Guo-Huang; Richmond, Ann

    2011-11-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a progressive cognitive decline and accumulation of neurotoxic oligomeric peptides amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}). Although the molecular events are not entirely known, it has become evident that inflammation, environmental and other risk factors may play a causal, disruptive and/or protective role in the development of AD. The present study investigated the ability of the chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha} (SDF-1{alpha}), the respective ligands for chemokine receptors CXCR2 and CXCR4, to suppress A{beta}-induced neurotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment with MIP-2 or SDF-1{alpha} significantly protected neurons from A{beta}-induced dendritic regression and apoptosis in vitro through activation of Akt, ERK1/2 and maintenance of metalloproteinase ADAM17 especially with SDF-1{alpha}. Intra-cerebroventricular (ICV) injection of A{beta} led to reduction in dendritic length and spine density of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and increased oxidative damage 24 h following the exposure. The A{beta}-induced morphometric changes of neurons and increase in biomarkers of oxidative damage, F{sub 2}-isoprostanes, were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with the chemokines MIP-2 or SDF-1{alpha}. Additionally, MIP-2 or SDF-1{alpha} was able to suppress the aberrant mislocalization of p21-activated kinase (PAK), one of the proteins involved in the maintenance of dendritic spines. Furthermore, MIP-2 also protected neurons against A{beta} neurotoxicity in CXCR2-/- mice, potentially through observed up regulation of CXCR1 mRNA. Understanding the neuroprotective potential of chemokines is crucial in defining the role for their employment during the early stages of neurodegeneration. -- Research highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neuroprotective ability of the chemokines MIP2 and CXCL12 against A{beta} toxicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MIP-2 or

  12. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 enhances pro-angiogenic effect of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yaohong; Shao, Hongwei; Eton, Darwin; Yang, Zhe; Alonso-Diaz, Luis; Zhang, Hongkun; Schulick, Andrew; Livingstone, Alan S.; Yu, Hong

    2008-01-01

    Objective Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilizes bone marrow mononuclear cells into the peripheral circulation. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) enhances the homing of progenitor cells mobilized from the bone marrow and augments neovascularization in ischemic tissue. We hypothesize that SDF-1 will boost the pro-angiogenic effect of G-CSF. Methods and results NIH 3T3 cells retrovirally transduced with SDF-1α gene (NIH 3T3/SDF-1) were used to deliver SDF-1 in vitro and in vivo. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) co-cultured with NIH 3T3/SDF-1 cells using cell culture inserts migrated faster and were less apoptotic compared to those not exposed to SDF-1. NIH 3T3/SDF-1 (106 cells) were injected into the ischemic muscles immediately after resection of the left femoral artery and vein of C57BL/6J mice. G-CSF (25 μg/kg/day) was injected intraperitioneally daily for 3 days after surgery. Blood perfusion was examined using a laser Doppler perfusion imaging system. The perfusion ratio of ischemic/non-ischemic limb increased to 0.57±0.03 and 0.50±0.06 with the treatment of either SDF-1 or G-CSF only, respectively, 3 weeks after surgery, which was significantly higher than the saline-injected control group (0.41±0.01, P<0.05). Combined treatment with both SDF-1 and G-CSF resulted in an even better perfusion ratio of 0.69±0.08 (P<0.05 versus the single treatment groups). Mice were sacrificed 21 days after surgery. Immunostaining and Western blot assay of the tissue lysates showed that the injected NIH 3T3/SDF-1 survived and expressed SDF-1. CD34+ cells were detected with immunostaining, capillary density was assessed with alkaline phosphatase staining, and the apoptosis of muscle cells was viewed using an in situ cell death detection kit. More CD34+ cells, increased capillary density, and less apoptotic muscle cells were found in both G-CSF and SDF-1 treated group (P<0.05 versus other groups). Conclusion Combination of G-CSF-mediated progenitor cell

  13. Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-mediated spontaneous activity in mouse embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Nidhi; Banach, Kathrin

    2007-06-15

    Embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (ESdCs) have been proposed as a source for cardiac cell-replacement therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the Ca2+-handling mechanisms that determine the frequency and duration of spontaneous Ca2+ transients in single ESdCs. With laser scanning confocal microscopy using the Ca2+-sensitive dye Fluo-4/AM, we determined that spontaneous Ca2+ transients in ESdCs at the onset of beating (day 9) depend on Ca2+ entry across the plasma membrane (50%) whereas Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release is the major contributor to Ca2+ transients in ESdCs after 16 days (72%). Likewise, Ca2+ extrusion in 9-day-old ESdCs depends on Na+-Ca2+ exchange (50.0+/-8%) whereas Ca2+ reuptake by the sarco(endo)plasmic Ca2+ ATPase (72+/-5%) dominates in further differentiated cells. Spontaneous Ca2+ transients were suppressed by the inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor (IP3R) blocker 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) and the phospholipase C blocker U73122 but continued in the presence of caffeine. Stimulation of IP3 production by phenylephrine or endothelin-1 had a positive chronotropic effect that could be reversed by U73122 and 2-APB. The presence of Ca2+-free solution and block of L-type Ca2+ channels by nifedipine also resulted in a cessation of spontaneous activity. Overall, IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release in ESdCs is translated into a depolarization of the plasma membrane and a whole-cell Ca2+ transient is subsequently induced by voltage-dependent Ca2+ influx. Although ryanodine receptor-mediated Ca2+ release amplifies the IP3R-induced trigger for the Ca2+ transients and modulates its frequencies, it is not a prerequisite for spontaneous activity. The results of this study offer important insight into the role of IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release for pacemaker activity in differentiating cardiomyocytes. PMID:17379641

  14. Primordial germ cell migration in the yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) and identification of stromal cell-derived factor 1.

    PubMed

    Fernández, J A; Bubner, E J; Takeuchi, Y; Yoshizaki, G; Wang, T; Cummins, S F; Elizur, A

    2015-03-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are progenitors of the germ cell lineage, giving rise to either spermatogonia or oogonia after the completion of gonadal differentiation. Currently, there is little information on the mechanism of PGCs migration leading to the formation of the primordial gonad in perciform fish. Yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) (YTK) (order Perciforms) inhabit tropical and temperate waters in the southern hemisphere. Fundamental details into the molecular basis of larval development in this species can be easily studied in Australia, as they are commercially cultured and readily available. In this study, histological analysis of YTK larvae revealed critical time points for the migration of PGCs to the genital ridge, resulting in the subsequent development of the primordial gonad. In YTK larvae at 3, 5, 7 and 10 days post hatch (DPH), PGCs were not yet enclosed by somatic cells, indicating the primordial gonad had not yet started to form. While at 15, 18 and 20 DPH PGCs had already settled at the genital ridge and started to become enclosed by somatic cells indicating the primordial gonad had started to develop. A higher number of PGCs were observed in the larvae at 15 and 18 DPH indicating PGCs proliferation, which corresponds with them becoming enclosed by the somatic cells. Directional migration of PGCs toward the genital ridge is a critical event in the subsequent development of a gonad. In zebrafish, mouse and chicken, stromal-cell derived factor (SDF1) signalling is one of the key molecules for PGC migration. We subsequently isolated from YTK the SDF1 (Slal-SDF1) gene, which encodes for a 98-residue precursor protein with a signal peptide at the N-terminus. There is spatial conservation between fish species of four cysteine residues at positions C9, C11, C34 and C49, expected to form disulphide bonds and stabilize the SDF structure. In YTK, Slal-SDF1 gene expression analyses shows that this gene is expressed in larvae from 1 to 22 DPH and

  15. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth (SHEDs) Induce Immune Modulatory Profile in Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Fernando de Sá; Ramos, Rodrigo Nalio; de Almeida, Danilo Candido; Bassi, Enio Jose; Gonzales, Roberto Pereira; Miyagi, Sueli Patricia Harumi; Maranduba, Claudinéia Pereira; Sant'Anna, Osvaldo Augusto Brazil Esteves; Marques, Márcia Martins; Barbuto, José Alexandre Marzagão; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; da Costa Maranduba, Carlos Magno

    2014-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells have prominent immune modulatory properties, which may have clinical applications; however their major source, bone marrow, is of limited availability. On the other hand, mesenchymal stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) are readily accessible, but their immune regulatory properties have not been completely investigated. This study was designed, therefore, to evaluate the SHEDs influence on DCs differentiation, maturation, ability to activate T cells and to expand CD4+Foxp3+ T cells. Methodology/Principal Findings The experiments were based in cellular co-culture during differentiation and maturation of monocyte derived-DCs (moDCs), with, or not, presence of SHEDs. After co-culture with SHEDs, (moDCs) presented lower expression of BDCA-1 and CD11c, in comparison to DC cultivated without SHEDs. CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86 levels were also decreased in mature DCs (mDCs) after co-cultivation with SHEDs. To assess the ability of SHEDs-exposed moDCs to modulate T cell responses, the former were separated from SHEDs, and co-cultured with peripheral blood lymphocytes. After 5 days, the proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was evaluated and found to be lower than that induced by moDCs cultivated without SHEDs. In addition, an increase in the proportion of CD4+Foxp3+IL-10+ T cells was observed among cells stimulated by mature moDCs that were previously cultivated with SHEDs. Soluble factors released during co-cultures also showed a reduction in the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ), and an increase in the anti-inflammatory molecule IL-10. Conclusion/Significance This study shows that SHEDs induce an immune regulatory phenotype in moDCs cells, evidenced by changes in maturation and differentiation rates, inhibition of lymphocyte stimulation and ability to expand CD4+Foxp3+ T cells. Further characterization and validation of this phenomenon could support the use of SHEDs, directly or indirectly

  16. Melanoma cell-derived exosomes promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition in primary melanocytes through paracrine/autocrine signaling in the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Deyi; Barry, Samantha; Kmetz, Daniel; Egger, Michael; Pan, Jianmin; Rai, Shesh N; Qu, Jifu; McMasters, Kelly M; Hao, Hongying

    2016-07-01

    The tumor microenvironment is abundant with exosomes that are secreted by the cancer cells themselves. Exosomes are nanosized, organelle-like membranous structures that are increasingly being recognized as major contributors in the progression of malignant neoplasms. A critical element in melanoma progression is its propensity to metastasize, but little is known about how melanoma cell-derived exosomes modulate the microenvironment to optimize conditions for tumor progression and metastasis. Here, we provide evidence that melanoma cell-derived exosomes promote phenotype switching in primary melanocytes through paracrine/autocrine signaling. We found that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway was activated during the exosome-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-resembling process, which promotes metastasis. Let-7i, an miRNA modulator of EMT, was also involved in this process. We further defined two other miRNA modulators of EMT (miR-191 and let-7a) in serum exosomes for differentiating stage I melanoma patients from non-melanoma subjects. These results provide the first strong molecular evidence that melanoma cell-derived exosomes promote the EMT-resembling process in the tumor microenvironment. Thus, novel strategies targeting EMT and modulating the tumor microenvironment may emerge as important approaches for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. PMID:27063098

  17. [Body contouring].

    PubMed

    Krüger, N; Lübberding, S; Sattler, G

    2015-10-01

    In our contemporary postmodern society, a modified perception of the human body is accompanied by an increasing demand for body shaping procedures. The treatment needs to be effective but it is just as important that they are safe and can be easily integrated into the daily working and routine schedule. While the options for minimally invasive volume addition are largely limited to injectable implants based on hyaluronic acid or autologous fat, a multitude of options are available for volume reduction. Before deciding on the method of choice, the following needs to be considered: which indications need to be treated, the extent of the reduction in volume and how much pain and possible undesired reactions the patient is prepared to accept. PMID:26349684

  18. Enhanced Metabolizing Activity of Human ES Cell-Derived Hepatocytes Using a 3D Culture System with Repeated Exposures to Xenobiotics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Jang, Yu Jin; An, Su Yeon; Son, Jeongsang; Lee, Jaehun; Lee, Gyunggyu; Park, Ji Young; Park, Han-Jin; Hwang, Dong-Youn; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Han, Jiyou

    2015-09-01

    Highly homogeneous and functional stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) are considered a promising option in the cell-based therapy of liver disease and the development of effective in vitro toxicity screening tools. However, the purity of cells and expression and/or activity of drug metabolizing enzymes in stem cell-derived HLCs are usually too low to be useful for clinical or in vitro applications. Here, we describe a highly optimized hepatic differentiation protocol, which produces >90% (BGO1 and CHA15) albumin-positive HLCs with no purification process from human embryonic stem cell lines. In addition, we show that hepatic enzyme gene expressions and activities were significantly improved by generating 3D spheroidal aggregate of HLCs, compared with 2D HLCs. The 3D differentiation method increased expression of nuclear receptors (NRs) that regulate the proper expression of key hepatic enzymes. Furthermore, significantly increased hepatic functions such as albumin and urea secretion were observed in 3D hepatic spheroids, compared with 2D HLCs. HLCs in the spheroid exhibited morphological and ultrastructural features of normal hepatocytes. Importantly, we show that repeated exposures to xenobiotics facilitated further functional maturation of HLC, as confirmed by increased expression of genes for drug metabolizing enzymes and transcription factors. In conclusion, the 3D culture system with repeated exposures to xenobiotics may be a new strategy for enhancing hepatic metabolizing ability of stem cell-derived HLCs as a cell source for in vitro high-throughput hepatotoxicity models. PMID:26089346

  19. Secondary allergic T cell responses are regulated by dendritic cell-derived thrombospondin-1 in the setting of allergic eye disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, R E; Reyes, N J; Khandelwal, P; Schlereth, S L; Lee, H S; Masli, S; Saban, D R

    2016-08-01

    Allergic eye disease, as in most forms of atopy, ranges in severity among individuals from immediate hypersensitivity to a severe and debilitating chronic disease. Dendritic cells play a key role in stimulating pathogenic T cells in allergen re-exposure, or secondary responses. However, molecular cues by dendritic cells underpinning allergic T cell response levels and the impact that this control has on consequent severity of allergic disease are poorly understood. Here, we show that a deficiency in thrombospondin-1, a matricellular protein known to affect immune function, has subsequent effects on downstream T cell responses during allergy, as revealed in an established mouse model of allergic eye disease. More specifically, we demonstrate that a thrombospondin-1 deficiency specific to dendritic cells leads to heightened secondary T cell responses and consequent clinical disease. Interestingly, whereas thrombospondin-1-deficient dendritic cells augmented activity of allergen-primed T cells, this increase was not recapitulated with naïve T cells in vitro. The role of dendritic cell-derived thrombospondin-1 in regulating secondary allergic T cell responses was confirmed in vivo, as local transfer of thrombospondin-1-sufficient dendritic cells to the ocular mucosa of thrombospondin-1 null hosts prevented the development of augmented secondary T cell responses and heightened allergic eye disease clinical responses. Finally, we demonstrate that topical instillation of thrombospondin-1-derived peptide reduces T cell activity and clinical progression of allergic eye disease. Taken together, this study reveals an important modulatory role of dendritic cell-derived thrombospondin-1 on secondary allergic T cell responses and suggests the possible dysregulation of dendritic cell-derived thrombospondin-1 expression as a factor in allergic eye disease severity. PMID:26856994

  20. Anti-Aβ Drug Screening Platform Using Human iPS Cell-Derived Neurons for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yahata, Naoki; Asai, Masashi; Kitaoka, Shiho; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Asaka, Isao; Hioki, Hiroyuki; Kaneko, Takeshi; Maruyama, Kei; Saido, Takaomi C.; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Asada, Takashi; Yamanaka, Shinya; Iwata, Nobuhisa; Inoue, Haruhisa

    2011-01-01

    Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes progressive memory and cognitive decline during middle to late adult life. The AD brain is characterized by deposition of amyloid β peptide (Aβ), which is produced from amyloid precursor protein by β- and γ-secretase (presenilin complex)-mediated sequential cleavage. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells potentially provide an opportunity to generate a human cell-based model of AD that would be crucial for drug discovery as well as for investigating mechanisms of the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We differentiated human iPS (hiPS) cells into neuronal cells expressing the forebrain marker, Foxg1, and the neocortical markers, Cux1, Satb2, Ctip2, and Tbr1. The iPS cell-derived neuronal cells also expressed amyloid precursor protein, β-secretase, and γ-secretase components, and were capable of secreting Aβ into the conditioned media. Aβ production was inhibited by β-secretase inhibitor, γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI), and an NSAID; however, there were different susceptibilities to all three drugs between early and late differentiation stages. At the early differentiation stage, GSI treatment caused a fast increase at lower dose (Aβ surge) and drastic decline of Aβ production. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that the hiPS cell-derived neuronal cells express functional β- and γ-secretases involved in Aβ production; however, anti-Aβ drug screening using these hiPS cell-derived neuronal cells requires sufficient neuronal differentiation. PMID:21984949

  1. Mast cell- and dendritic cell-derived exosomes display a specific lipid composition and an unusual membrane organization.

    PubMed Central

    Laulagnier, Karine; Motta, Claude; Hamdi, Safouane; Roy, Sébastien; Fauvelle, Florence; Pageaux, Jean-François; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Salles, Jean-Pierre; Perret, Bertrand; Bonnerot, Christian; Record, Michel

    2004-01-01

    Exosomes are small vesicles secreted from multivesicular bodies, which are able to stimulate the immune system leading to tumour cell eradication. We have analysed lipids of exosomes secreted either upon stimulation from rat mast cells (RBL-2H3 cells), or constitutively from human dendritic cells. As compared with parent cells, exosomes displayed an enrichment in sphingomyelin, but not in cholesterol. Phosphatidylcholine content was decreased, but an enrichment was noted in disaturated molecular species as in phosphatidylethanolamines. Lyso(bis)phosphatidic acid was not enriched in exosomes as compared with cells. Fluorescence anisotropy demonstrated an increase in exosome-membrane rigidity from pH 5 to 7, suggesting their membrane reorganization between the acidic multivesicular body compartment and the neutral outer cell medium. NMR analysis established a bilayer organization of exosome membrane, and ESR studies using 16-doxyl stearic acid demonstrated a higher flip-flop of lipids between the two leaflets as compared with plasma membrane. In addition, the exosome membrane exhibited no asymmetrical distribution of phosphatidylethanolamines. Therefore exosome membrane displays a similar content of the major phospholipids and cholesterol, and is organized as a lipid bilayer with a random distribution of phosphatidylethanolamines. In addition, we observed tight lipid packing at neutral pH and a rapid flip-flop between the two leaflets of exosome membranes. These parameters could be used as a hallmark of exosomes. PMID:14965343

  2. Transplantation of mouse embryonic stem cell-derived neurons into the striatum, subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra, and behavioral recovery in hemiparkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Inden, Masatoshi; Kim, Do-hoon; Qi, Meirigeng; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Yanagisawa, Daijiro; Nishimura, Kaneyasu; Tsuchiya, Daiju; Takata, Kazuyuki; Hayashi, Kousuke; Taniguchi, Takashi; Yoshimoto, Kanji; Shimohama, Shun; Sumi, Shoichiro; Inoue, Kazutomo

    2005-10-28

    Usefulness of the in vitro and in vivo generation of neural precursors from embryonic stem (ES) cells has been widely discussed, but functional recovery in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate a transplantation strategy for PD by assessing whether double-transplants in the striatum (ST) and substantia nigra (SN), or ST and subthalamic nucleus (STN) induce functional recovery in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. Methamphetamine-induced rotation was significantly reduced by transplantation of mouse ES cell-derived neurons into the ST, but not the STN or SN alone. Double-transplantation was also effective at recovering rotational behavior. Although immunoreactivity for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was almost completely lost in the ipsilateral striatum in hemiparkinsonian rats, TH immunoreactivity was detected in transplanted cells and sprouting fibers in the ST, STN and SN. These results suggest that both the involvement of ST as a place of transplantation and the number of ES cell-derived neurons are essential factors for efficacy on hemiparkinsonian behaviors. PMID:16023291

  3. IGF-2/IGF-1R signaling has distinct effects on Sox1, Irx3, and Six3 expressions during ES cell derived-neuroectoderm development in vitro.

    PubMed

    Takata, Nozomu; Sakakura, Eriko; Sasai, Yoshiki

    2016-05-01

    Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are involved in growth and tissue development, including diseases such as type-2 diabetes and cancers. However, their roles in lineage specification, especially in early mammalian neural development, are poorly understood. Here, we analyzed the protein expression of IGF-2 in early mouse embryo, and it was preferentially detected in anterior mesodermal tissue, adjacent to the neural plate. We utilized a self-organizing neural tissue culture system and analyzed the direct effect of IGF-2 on the general neural marker Sox1. Interestingly, using recombinant IGF-2 and a chemical inhibitor of its receptor (IGF-1R), we found that the IGF-2/IGF-1R pathway positively regulated Sox1 expression in embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived neural tissue. Furthermore, to visualize the expression patterns of other neural markers, we used reporter ES cell lines and we found that the IGF-2/IGF-1R signaling upregulated the expression of the posterior neural marker Irx3. In contrast, the anterior neural marker Six3 was downregulated by IGF-2/IGF-1R signaling. Together, our results demonstrate that IGF-2/IGF-1R signaling has different effects on neural marker expression, which may influence the early regional identity of ES cell-derived neural tissues. PMID:26956358

  4. Isolation of Multipotent Nestin-Expressing Stem Cells Derived from the Epidermis of Elderly Humans and TAT-VHL Peptide-Mediated Neuronal Differentiation of These Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, Hiroshi; Kubo, Atsuhiko; Yoshizumi, Tetsuya; Mikami, Taro; Maegawa, Jiro

    2013-01-01

    A specialized population of cells residing in the hair follicle is quiescent but shows pluripotency for differentiating into epithelial-mesenchymal lineage cells. Therefore, such cells are hoped to be useful as implantable donor cells for regenerative therapy. Recently, it was reported that intracellular delivery of TAT-VHL peptide induces neuronal differentiation of skin-derived precursors. In the present study, we successfully isolated multipotent stem cells derived from the epidermis of elderly humans, characterized these cells as being capable of sphere formation and strong expression of nestin, fibronectin, and CD34 but not of keratin 15, and identified the niche of these cells as being the outer root sheath of the hair follicles. In addition, we showed that TAT-VHL peptide induced their neuronal differentiation in vitro, and confirmed by fluorescence immunohistochemistry the neuronal differentiation of such peptide-treated cells implanted into rodent brains. These multipotent nestin-expressing stem cells derived from human epidermis are easily accessible and should be useful as donor cells for neuronal regenerative cell therapy. PMID:23644888

  5. Fabrication and evaluation of electrohydrodynamic jet 3D printed polycaprolactone/chitosan cell carriers using human embryonic stem cell-derived fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yang; Sriram, Gopu; Fawzy, Amr S; Fuh, Jerry Yh; Rosa, Vinicius; Cao, Tong; Wong, Yoke San

    2016-08-01

    Biological function of adherent cells depends on the cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions in three-dimensional space. To understand the behavior of cells in 3D environment and their interactions with neighboring cells and matrix requires 3D culture systems. Here, we present a novel 3D cell carrier scaffold that provides an environment for routine 3D cell growth in vitro We have developed thin, mechanically stable electrohydrodynamic jet (E-jet) 3D printed polycaprolactone and polycaprolactone/Chitosan macroporous scaffolds with precise fiber orientation for basic 3D cell culture application. We have evaluated the application of this technology by growing human embryonic stem cell-derived fibroblasts within these 3D scaffolds. Assessment of cell viability and proliferation of cells seeded on polycaprolactone and polycaprolactone/Chitosan 3D-scaffolds show that the human embryonic stem cell-derived fibroblasts could adhere and proliferate on the scaffolds over time. Further, using confocal microscopy we demonstrate the ability to use fluorescence-labelled cells that could be microscopically monitored in real-time. Hence, these 3D printed polycaprolactone and polycaprolactone/Chitosan scaffolds could be used as a cell carrier for in vitro 3D cell culture-, bioreactor- and tissue engineering-related applications in the future. PMID:27252227

  6. Improvement of Radiotherapy-Induced Lacrimal Gland Injury by Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Conditioned Medium via MDK and Inhibition of the p38/JNK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanqing; Deng, Chenliang; Qian, Jiang; Zhang, Mingui; Li, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy is the most widely used and effective treatment for orbital tumors, but it causes dry eye due to lacrimal gland damage. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived conditioned medium (iPSC-CM) has been shown to rescue different types of tissue damage. The present study investigated the mechanism of the potential radioprotective effect of IPS cell-derived conditioned medium (iPSC-CM) on gamma-irradiation-induced lacrimal gland injury (RILI) in experimental mice. In this study, we found that iPSC-CM ameliorated RILI. iPSC-CM markedly decreased radiotherapy induced inflammatory processes, predominantly through suppressing p38/JNK signaling. Further signaling pathway analyses indicated that iPSC-CM could suppress Akt (Protein Kinase B, PKB) phosphorylation. High levels of midkine (MDK) were also found in iPSC-CM and could be involved in lacrimal gland regeneration by promoting cell migration and proliferation. Thus, our study indicates that inhibiting the p38/JNK pathway or increasing the MDK level might be a therapeutic target for radiation-induced lacrimal gland injury. PMID:25314301

  7. Bone marrow stromal/stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles regulate osteoblast activity and differentiation in vitro and promote bone regeneration in vivo.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yunhao; Wang, Lian; Gao, Zhengliang; Chen, Genyin; Zhang, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that extracellular vesicles (EVs) are secreted by diverse tissues and play important roles in cell-cell communication, organ interactions and tissue homeostasis. Studies have reported the use of EVs to stimulate tissue regeneration, such as hepatic cell regeneration, and to treat diseases, such as pulmonary hypertension. However, little is known about the osteogenic effect of EVs. In this study, we explore the role of bone marrow stromal cell-derived EVs in the regulation of osteoblast activity and bone regeneration. We isolated bone marrow stromal/stem cell (BMSC)-derived EVs through gradient ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration, and tested the influence of the EVs on osteogenesis both in vivo and in vitro. The results indicated that EVs positively regulated osteogenic genes and osteoblastic differentiation but did not inhibit proliferation in vitro. Furthermore, we constructed an EVs delivery system to stimulate bone formation in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with calvarial defects. We found that BMSC-derived EVs led to more bone formation in the critical-size calvarial bone defects. Moreover, we found that miR-196a plays an essential role in the regulation of osteoblastic differentiation and the expression of osteogenic genes. We anticipate that our assay using bone marrow stromal cell-derived EVs will become a valuable tool for promoting bone regeneration. PMID:26911789

  8. Bone marrow stromal/stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles regulate osteoblast activity and differentiation in vitro and promote bone regeneration in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yunhao; Wang, Lian; Gao, Zhengliang; Chen, Genyin; Zhang, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that extracellular vesicles (EVs) are secreted by diverse tissues and play important roles in cell-cell communication, organ interactions and tissue homeostasis. Studies have reported the use of EVs to stimulate tissue regeneration, such as hepatic cell regeneration, and to treat diseases, such as pulmonary hypertension. However, little is known about the osteogenic effect of EVs. In this study, we explore the role of bone marrow stromal cell-derived EVs in the regulation of osteoblast activity and bone regeneration. We isolated bone marrow stromal/stem cell (BMSC)-derived EVs through gradient ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration, and tested the influence of the EVs on osteogenesis both in vivo and in vitro. The results indicated that EVs positively regulated osteogenic genes and osteoblastic differentiation but did not inhibit proliferation in vitro. Furthermore, we constructed an EVs delivery system to stimulate bone formation in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with calvarial defects. We found that BMSC-derived EVs led to more bone formation in the critical-size calvarial bone defects. Moreover, we found that miR-196a plays an essential role in the regulation of osteoblastic differentiation and the expression of osteogenic genes. We anticipate that our assay using bone marrow stromal cell-derived EVs will become a valuable tool for promoting bone regeneration. PMID:26911789

  9. Guiding the morphogenesis of dissociated newborn mouse retinal cells and hES cell-derived retinal cells by soft lithography-patterned microchannel PLGA scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    McUsic, Andrew C.; Lamba, Deepak A.; Reh, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived photoreceptors are a promising cell source for enhanced in vitro models of retinal degenerative diseases, but the more differentiated characteristics of retinal cells do not typically develop in dissociated cell cultures. Therefore, we have reconstructed organized retinal tissue by seeding dissociated cells into an array of aligned units that more faithfully mimics the retina. We solvent-processed poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) into a microchannel scaffold format to achieve this geometric constraint. We compared the effect of PLGA concentration on channel morphology and, along with other culture conditions, on the infiltration of dissociated newborn mouse retinal cells into the channels. Culturing scaffolds at the gas-liquid interface with low serum media increased infiltrated rod photoreceptor viability 18-fold over submerged, high serum cultures when evaluated after seven days. Rod photoreceptors and Müller glia aligned processes parallel to the microchannel walls. Otx2+ and Pax6+ subpopulations recapitulated lamination behavior. Further, we constructed scaffold/retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) co-cultures and observed rods extending rhodopsin-positive processes toward RPE cells, mimicking normal rod polarization and morphology. Finally, human embryonic stem cell-derived photoreceptors exhibited infiltration and morphological characteristics similar to mouse retinal cells inside the scaffolds. These findings constitute an important advance in generating tissue-level retinal models from dissociated cells for use as drug screening platforms and in regenerative medicine. PMID:22115999

  10. Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells derived from defined CD8+ and CD4+ subsets confer superior antitumor reactivity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sommermeyer, Daniel; Hudecek, Michael; Kosasih, Paula L.; Gogishvili, Tea; Maloney, David G.; Turtle, Cameron J.; Riddell, Stanley R.

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive T-cell therapy with gene-modified T-cells expressing a tumor-reactive T-cell receptor (TCR) or chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is a rapidly growing field of translational medicine and has shown success in the treatment of B-cell malignancies and solid tumors. In all reported trials, patients have received T-cell products comprised of random compositions of CD4+ and CD8+ naïve and memory T-cells, meaning that each patient received a different therapeutic agent. This variation might have influenced the efficacy of T-cell therapy, and complicates comparison of outcomes between different patients and across trials. We analyzed CD19 CAR-expressing effector T-cells derived from different subsets (CD4+/CD8+ naïve, central memory, effector memory). T-cells derived from each of the subsets were efficiently transduced and expanded, but showed clear differences in effector function and proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Combining the most potent CD4+ and CD8+ CAR-expressing subsets resulted in synergistic antitumor effects in vivo. We show that CAR-T-cell products generated from defined T-cell subsets can provide uniform potency compared with products derived from unselected T-cells that vary in phenotypic composition. These findings have important implications for the formulation of T-cell products for adoptive therapies. PMID:26369987

  11. Estrogen enhances the bone regeneration potential of periodontal ligament stem cells derived from osteoporotic rats and seeded on nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly(L-lactide)

    PubMed Central

    E, LING-LING; XU, WEN-HUAN; FENG, LIN; LIU, YI; CAI, DONG-QING; WEN, NING; ZHENG, WEN-JIE

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of estrogen on the bone regeneration potential of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) derived from osteoporotic rats and seeded on a collagen-based composite scaffold [nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly(L-lactide) (nHAC/PLA)]. For this purpose, 48 healthy 3-month-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into 2 groups as follows: the bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX) rats and sham-operated rats. The PDLSCs were isolated at 3 months after surgery (by which time postmenopausal osteoporosis had developed). The effects of estrogen on the characteristics of these cells seeded in a culture plate and of the cells seeded on nHAC/PLA were then investigated. The PDLSC + nHAC/PLA constructs were implanted subcutaneously into the backs of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice for 12 weeks in order to examine the role of estrogen in the bone formation ability of PDLSCs derived from osteoporotic rats. The results from methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay revealed that the proliferation of the cells derived from the rats in the OVX group was significantly higher than that of the cells derived from the rats in the sham-operated group at the stage of logarithmic growth. The staining intensity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the mineralization of the cells derived from the rats in the OVX group was significantly weaker than that of the cells from the rats in the sham-operated group. When the PDLSCs were seeded on nHAC/PLA, ALP activity, osteocalcin (OCN) secretion, mineral formation and the mRNA expression levels of ALP, OCN, estrogen receptor (ER)α and ERβ in the cells derived from the rats in the OVX group were markedly decreased. Treatment with 17β-estradiol (E2) significantly weakened the proliferative ability of the cells derived from the OVX group rats, and enhanced their osteogenic differentiation ability and the mRNA expression levels of ALP, OCN, ERα and ERβ. When the constructs were implanted into the backs of SCID

  12. Estrogen enhances the bone regeneration potential of periodontal ligament stem cells derived from osteoporotic rats and seeded on nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly(L-lactide).

    PubMed

    E, Ling-Ling; Xu, Wen-Huan; Feng, Lin; Liu, Yi; Cai, Dong-Qing; Wen, Ning; Zheng, Wen-Jie

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of estrogen on the bone regeneration potential of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) derived from osteoporotic rats and seeded on a collagen-based composite scaffold [nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly(L-lactide) (nHAC/PLA)]. For this purpose, 48 healthy 3‑month-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into 2 groups as follows: the bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX) rats and sham‑operated rats. The PDLSCs were isolated at 3 months after surgery (by which time postmenopausal osteoporosis had developed). The effects of estrogen on the characteristics of these cells seeded in a culture plate and of the cells seeded on nHAC/PLA were then investigated. The PDLSC + nHAC/PLA constructs were implanted subcutaneously into the backs of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice for 12 weeks in order to examine the role of estrogen in the bone formation ability of PDLSCs derived from osteoporotic rats. The results from methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay revealed that the proliferation of the cells derived from the rats in the OVX group was significantly higher than that of the cells derived from the rats in the sham-operated group at the stage of logarithmic growth. The staining intensity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the mineralization of the cells derived from the rats in the OVX group was significantly weaker than that of the cells from the rats in the sham-operated group. When the PDLSCs were seeded on nHAC/PLA, ALP activity, osteocalcin (OCN) secretion, mineral formation and the mRNA expression levels of ALP, OCN, estrogen receptor (ER)α and ERβ in the cells derived from the rats in the OVX group were markedly decreased. Treatment with 17β-estradiol (E2) significantly weakened the proliferative ability of the cells derived from the OVX group rats, and enhanced their osteogenic differentiation ability and the mRNA expression levels of ALP, OCN, ERα and ERβ. When the constructs were implanted

  13. Treating Diet-Induced Diabetes and Obesity with Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Pancreatic Progenitor Cells and Antidiabetic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Bruin, Jennifer E.; Saber, Nelly; Braun, Natalie; Fox, Jessica K.; Mojibian, Majid; Asadi, Ali; Drohan, Campbell; O’Dwyer, Shannon; Rosman-Balzer, Diana S.; Swiss, Victoria A.; Rezania, Alireza; Kieffer, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived pancreatic progenitor cells effectively reverse hyperglycemia in rodent models of type 1 diabetes, but their capacity to treat type 2 diabetes has not been reported. An immunodeficient model of type 2 diabetes was generated by high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in SCID-beige mice. Exposure to HFDs did not impact the maturation of macroencapsulated pancreatic progenitor cells into glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells following transplantation, and the cell therapy improved glucose tolerance in HFD-fed transplant recipients after 24 weeks. However, since diet-induced hyperglycemia and obesity were not fully ameliorated by transplantation alone, a second cohort of HFD-fed mice was treated with pancreatic progenitor cells combined with one of three antidiabetic drugs. All combination therapies rapidly improved body weight and co-treatment with either sitagliptin or metformin improved hyperglycemia after only 12 weeks. Therefore, a stem cell-based therapy may be effective for treating type 2 diabetes, particularly in combination with antidiabetic drugs. PMID:25801507

  14. Treatment of macular degeneration using embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelium: preliminary results in Asian patients.

    PubMed

    Song, Won Kyung; Park, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Jae Ho; Choi, Jinjung; Chong, So Young; Shim, Sung Han; Del Priore, Lucian V; Lanza, Robert

    2015-05-12

    Embryonic stem cells hold great promise for various diseases because of their unlimited capacity for self-renewal and ability to differentiate into any cell type in the body. However, despite over 3 decades of research, there have been no reports on the safety and potential efficacy of pluripotent stem cell progeny in Asian patients with any disease. Here, we report the safety and tolerability of subretinal transplantation of human embryonic-stem-cell (hESC)-derived retinal pigment epithelium in four Asian patients: two with dry age-related macular degeneration and two with Stargardt macular dystrophy. They were followed for 1 year. There was no evidence of adverse proliferation, tumorigenicity, ectopic tissue formation, or other serious safety issues related to the transplanted cells. Visual acuity improved 9-19 letters in three patients and remained stable (+1 letter) in one patient. The results confirmed that hESC-derived cells could serve as a potentially safe new source for regenerative medicine. PMID:25937371

  15. Treating diet-induced diabetes and obesity with human embryonic stem cell-derived pancreatic progenitor cells and antidiabetic drugs.

    PubMed

    Bruin, Jennifer E; Saber, Nelly; Braun, Natalie; Fox, Jessica K; Mojibian, Majid; Asadi, Ali; Drohan, Campbell; O'Dwyer, Shannon; Rosman-Balzer, Diana S; Swiss, Victoria A; Rezania, Alireza; Kieffer, Timothy J

    2015-04-14

    Human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived pancreatic progenitor cells effectively reverse hyperglycemia in rodent models of type 1 diabetes, but their capacity to treat type 2 diabetes has not been reported. An immunodeficient model of type 2 diabetes was generated by high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in SCID-beige mice. Exposure to HFDs did not impact the maturation of macroencapsulated pancreatic progenitor cells into glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells following transplantation, and the cell therapy improved glucose tolerance in HFD-fed transplant recipients after 24 weeks. However, since diet-induced hyperglycemia and obesity were not fully ameliorated by transplantation alone, a second cohort of HFD-fed mice was treated with pancreatic progenitor cells combined with one of three antidiabetic drugs. All combination therapies rapidly improved body weight and co-treatment with either sitagliptin or metformin improved hyperglycemia after only 12 weeks. Therefore, a stem cell-based therapy may be effective for treating type 2 diabetes, particularly in combination with antidiabetic drugs. PMID:25801507

  16. Metastases of renal cell carcinoma to the thyroid gland with synchronous benign and malignant follicular cell-derived neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Zamarrón, Carlos; Abdulkader, Ihab; Areses, María C; García-Paz, Vanesa; León, Luís; Cameselle-Teijeiro, José

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) is the most common origin for metastasis in the thyroid. A 51-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for a subcarinal lesion. Ten years before, the patient had undergone a nephrectomy for CCRCC. Whole-body fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed elevated values in the thyroid gland, while the mediastinum was normal. An endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the mediastinal mass was consistent with CCRCC, and this was confirmed after resection. The thyroidectomy specimen also revealed lymphocytic thyroiditis, nodular hyperplasia, one follicular adenoma, two papillary microcarcinomas, and six foci of metastatic CCRCC involving both thyroid lobes. Curiously two of the six metastatic foci were located inside two adenomatoid nodules (tumor-in-tumor). The metastatic cells were positive for cytokeratins, CD10, epidermal growth factor receptor, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2. No BRAF gene mutations were found in any of the primary and metastatic lesions. The patient was treated with sunitinib and finally died due to CCRCC distant metastases 6 years after the thyroidectomy. In CCRCC patients, a particularly prolonged survival rate may be achieved with the appropriate therapy, in contrast to the ominous prognosis typically found in patients with thyroid metastases from other origins. PMID:23878753

  17. Effects of Long-Term Exposure to 60 GHz Millimeter-Wavelength Radiation on the Genotoxicity and Heat Shock Protein (Hsp) Expression of Cells Derived from Human Eye

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Shin; Narita, Eijiro; Shimizu, Yoko; Suzuki, Yukihisa; Shiina, Takeo; Taki, Masao; Shinohara, Naoki; Miyakoshi, Junji

    2016-01-01

    Human corneal epithelial (HCE-T) and human lens epithelial (SRA01/04) cells derived from the human eye were exposed to 60 gigahertz (GHz) millimeter-wavelength radiation for 24 h. There was no statistically significant increase in the micronucleus (MN) frequency in cells exposed to 60 GHz millimeter-wavelength radiation at 1 mW/cm2 compared with sham-exposed controls and incubator controls. The MN frequency of cells treated with bleomycin for 1 h provided positive controls. The comet assay, used to detect DNA strand breaks, and heat shock protein (Hsp) expression also showed no statistically significant effects of exposure. These results indicate that exposure to millimeter-wavelength radiation has no effect on genotoxicity in human eye cells. PMID:27509516

  18. Use of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) to Monitor Compound Effects on Cardiac Myocyte Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liang; Eldridge, Sandy; Furniss, Mike; Mussio, Jodie; Davis, Myrtle

    2015-01-01

    There is a need to develop mechanism-based assays to better inform risk of cardiotoxicity. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) are rapidly gaining acceptance as a biologically relevant in vitro model for use in drug discovery and cardiotoxicity screens. Utilization of hiPSC-CMs for mechanistic investigations would benefit from confirmation of the expression and activity of cellular pathways that are known to regulate cardiac myocyte viability and function. This unit describes an approach to demonstrate the presence and function of signaling pathways in hiPSC-CMs and the effects of treatments on these pathways. We present a workflow that employs protocols to demonstrate protein expression and functional integrity of signaling pathway(s) of interest and to characterize biological consequences of signaling modulation. These protocols utilize a unique combination of structural, functional, and biochemical endpoints to interrogate compound effects on cardiomyocytes. PMID:26331525

  19. Human embryonic stem cell-derived pancreatic endoderm alleviates diabetic pathology and improves reproductive outcome in C57BL/KsJ-Lep(db/+) gestational diabetes mellitus mice.

    PubMed

    Xing, Baoheng; Wang, Lili; Li, Qin; Cao, Yalei; Dong, Xiujuan; Liang, Jun; Wu, Xiaohua

    2015-07-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus is a condition commonly encountered during mid to late pregnancy with pathologic manifestations including hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and fetal maldevelopment. The cause of gestational diabetes mellitus can be attributed to both genetic and environmental factors, hence complicating its diagnosis and treatment. Pancreatic progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells were shown to be able to effectively treat diabetes in mice. In this study, we have developed a system of treating diabetes using human embryonic stem cell-derived pancreatic endoderm in a mouse model of gestational diabetes mellitus. Human embryonic stem cells were differentiated in vitro into pancreatic endoderm, which were then transplanted into db/+ mice suffering from gestational diabetes mellitus. The transplant greatly improved glucose metabolism and reproductive outcome of the females compared with the control groups. Our findings support the feasibility of using differentiated human embryonic stem cells for treating gestational diabetes mellitus patients. PMID:26066567

  20. Features specific to retinal pigment epithelium cells derived from three-dimensional human embryonic stem cell cultures — a new donor for cell therapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhengya; Li, Qiyou; Xu, Haiwei; Yin, Zheng Qin

    2016-01-01

    Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) transplantation is a particularly promising treatment of retinal degenerative diseases affecting RPE-photoreceptor complex. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) provide an abundant donor source for RPE transplantation. Herein, we studied the time-course characteristics of RPE cells derived from three-dimensional human ESCs cultures (3D-RPE). We showed that 3D-RPE cells possessed morphology, ultrastructure, gene expression profile, and functions of authentic RPE. As differentiation proceeded, 3D-RPE cells could mature gradually with decreasing proliferation but increasing functions. Besides, 3D-RPE cells could form polarized monolayer with functional tight junction and gap junction. When grafted into the subretinal space of Royal College of Surgeons rats, 3D-RPE cells were safe and efficient to rescue retinal degeneration. This study showed that 3D-RPE cells were a new donor for cell therapy of retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:27009841

  1. Use of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) to Monitor Compound Effects on Cardiac Myocyte Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Furniss, Mike; Mussio, Jodie; Davis, Myrtle

    2015-01-01

    There is a need to develop mechanism-based assays to better inform risk of cardiotoxicity. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) are gaining rapid acceptance as a biologically relevant in vitro model for use in drug discovery and cardiotoxicity screens. Utilization of hiPSC-CMs for mechanistic investigations would benefit from confirmation of the expression and activity of cellular pathways that are known to regulate cardiac myocyte viability and function. This unit describes an approach to demonstrate the presence and function of signaling pathway(s) in hiPSC-CMs and the effects of treatments on these pathways. We present a workflow that employs protocols to demonstrate protein expression, functional integrity of signaling pathway(s) of interest and that characterize biological consequences of signaling modulation. These protocols utilize a unique combination of structural, functional and biochemical endpoints to interrogate compound effects on cardiomyocytes. PMID:26331525

  2. Effects of Long-Term Exposure to 60 GHz Millimeter-Wavelength Radiation on the Genotoxicity and Heat Shock Protein (Hsp) Expression of Cells Derived from Human Eye.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Shin; Narita, Eijiro; Shimizu, Yoko; Suzuki, Yukihisa; Shiina, Takeo; Taki, Masao; Shinohara, Naoki; Miyakoshi, Junji

    2016-01-01

    Human corneal epithelial (HCE-T) and human lens epithelial (SRA01/04) cells derived from the human eye were exposed to 60 gigahertz (GHz) millimeter-wavelength radiation for 24 h. There was no statistically significant increase in the micronucleus (MN) frequency in cells exposed to 60 GHz millimeter-wavelength radiation at 1 mW/cm² compared with sham-exposed controls and incubator controls. The MN frequency of cells treated with bleomycin for 1 h provided positive controls. The comet assay, used to detect DNA strand breaks, and heat shock protein (Hsp) expression also showed no statistically significant effects of exposure. These results indicate that exposure to millimeter-wavelength radiation has no effect on genotoxicity in human eye cells. PMID:27509516

  3. High-performance beating pattern function of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte-based biosensors for hERG inhibition recognition.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ning; Wang, Tianxing; Wang, Qin; Zhou, Jie; Zou, Ling; Su, Kaiqi; Wu, Jieying; Wang, Ping

    2015-05-15

    High-throughput and high clinical relevance methods are demanded to predict the drug-induced cardiotoxicity in pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries to effectively decrease late-stage drug attrition. In this study, human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) were integrated into an interdigital impedance sensor array to fabricate a high performance iPSC-CM-based biosensor array with high-throughput and high-consistency beating pattern. Typical withdrawal approved drugs (astemizole, sertindole, cisapride, and droperidol) with hERG inhibition and positive control E-4031 were employed to determine the beating pattern function. From the results, it can be concluded that this iPSC-CM-based biosensor array can specifically differentiate the hERG inhibitors from the non-hERG inhibition compounds through beating pattern function. PMID:25153933

  4. Study of neuroprotective function of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) derived-flavonoid monomers using a three-dimensional stem cell-derived neural model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yueting; Sun, Jiachen; George, Julian; Ye, Hua; Cui, Zhanfeng; Li, Zhaohui; Liu, Qingxi; Zhang, Yaozhou; Ge, Dan; Liu, Yang

    2016-05-01

    An in vitro three-dimensional (3D) cell culture system that can mimic organ and tissue structure and function in vivo will be of great benefit for drug discovery and toxicity testing. In this study, the neuroprotective properties of the three most prevalent flavonoid monomers extracted from EGb 761 (isorharmnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin) were investigated using the developed 3D stem cell-derived neural co-culture model. Rat neural stem cells were differentiated into co-culture of both neurons and astrocytes at an equal ratio in the developed 3D model and standard two-dimensional (2D) model using a two-step differentiation protocol for 14 days. The level of neuroprotective effect offered by each flavonoid was found to be aligned with its effect as an antioxidant and its ability to inhibit Caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Cell exposure to quercetin (100 µM) following oxidative insult provided the highest levels of neuroprotection in both 2D and 3D models, comparable with exposure to 100 µM of Vitamin E, whilst exposure to isorhamnetin and kaempferol provided a reduced level of neuroprotection in both 2D and 3D models. At lower dosages (10 µM flavonoid concentration), the 3D model was more representative of results previously reported in vivo. The co-cultures of stem cell derived neurons and astrocytes in 3D hydrogel scaffolds as an in vitro neural model closely replicates in vivo results for routine neural drug toxicity and efficacy testing. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:735-744, 2016. PMID:26919031

  5. IL-1β-induced, matrix metalloproteinase-3-regulated proliferation of embryonic stem cell-derived odontoblastic cells is mediated by the Wnt5 signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ozeki, Nobuaki; Hase, Naoko; Hiyama, Taiki; Yamaguchi, Hideyuki; Kawai, Rie; Kondo, Ayami; Nakata, Kazuhiko; Mogi, Makio

    2014-10-15

    We previously established a method for differentiating induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem (ES) cells into α2 integrin-positive odontoblast-like cells. We also reported that interleukin (IL)-1β induces matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3-regulated cell proliferation and suppresses apoptosis in these cells, suggesting that MMP-3 plays a potentially unique physiological role in the regeneration of odontoblast-like cells. Here, we examined whether up-regulation of MMP-3 activity by IL-1β was mediated by Wnt signaling and led to increased proliferation of odontoblast-like cells. IL-1β increased mRNA and protein levels of Wnt5a, Wnt5b and the Wnt receptor Lrp5. Exogenous Wnt5a and Wnt5b were found to increase MMP-3 mRNA, protein and activity, and interestingly the rate of proliferation in these cells. Treatment with siRNAs against Wnt5a, Wnt5b and Lrp5 suppressed the IL-1β-induced increase in MMP-3 expression and suppressed cell proliferation, an effect rescued by application of exogenous Wnt5. These results demonstrate the sequential involvement of Wnt5, Lrp5 and MMP-3 in effecting IL-1β-induced proliferation of ES cell-derived odontoblast-like cells. - Highlights: • IL-1β induces Wnt5, Lrp5/Fzd9 and MMP-3 in ES cell-derived odontoblast-like cells. • IL-1β-induced Wnt5 expression results in increased cell proliferation. • Exogenous Wnt5 increases MMP-3 activity and cell proliferation. • Exogenous Wnt5 rescues IL-1β-driven proliferation with anti-Wnt5 siRNA suppression. • IL-1β-induced cell proliferation involves Wnt5, Lrp5, and MMP-3 sequentially.

  6. Stem cells derived from human first-trimester umbilical cord have the potential to differentiate into oocyte-like cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    HU, XIANG; LU, HUA; CAO, SHENG; DENG, YAN-LI; LI, QI-JIA; WAN, QIAN; YIE, SHANG-MIAN

    2015-01-01

    Compared to stem cells derived from human term umbilical cord, stem cells derived from human first-trimester umbilical cord (hFTUC) exhibit a significantly greater proliferative potential, and more efficiency in terms of their in vitro differentiation. In the present study, we investigated whether hFTUC-derived stem cells are able to differentiate into germ cells. The hFTUC-derived stem cells were first isolated, expanded and then cultured in differentiation medium containing human follicular fluid, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)/luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol for 24 days. During the period of induction, a subpopulation of the cultured cells appeared that had a morphological resemblance to primordial germ cells (PGCs) and cumulus-oocyte complex (COC)-like cells, and oocyte-like cells (OLCs). The PGC-like cells expressed specific markers indicative of germ cell formation such as octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4), stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 (SSEA1), B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (BLIMP1), PR domain containing 14 (PRDM14), transcription factor AP-2 gamma (TFAP2C), VASA, STELLA, deleted in azoospermia-like (DAZL) and interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3). The OLCs, which contained a single germinal vesicle, expressed oocyte-specific markers, such as synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SCP3), growth/differentiation factor-9 (GDF9), GDF9B and zona pellucida (ZP)1, ZP2 and ZP3. The COC-like cells secreted estradiol, vascular endothelial growth factor and leukemia inhibitory factor. Thus, our findings suggest that hFTUC-derived stem cells have an intrinsic ability to differentiate into OLCs, which may provide an in vitro model for the identification of factors involved in germ cell formation and differentiation. PMID:25760093

  7. Lewy Body Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Lewy body disease is one of the most common causes of dementia in the elderly. Dementia is the loss of mental ... to affect normal activities and relationships. Lewy body disease happens when abnormal structures, called Lewy bodies, build ...

  8. Body Composition Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... more bone and muscle will weigh more in water than a person with less bone and muscle. The volume of the body is calculated and body density and body fat percentage are calculated. This technique ...

  9. Pattern of endothelial progenitor cells and apoptotic endothelial cell-derived microparticles in chronic heart failure patients with preserved and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Berezin, Alexander E.; Kremzer, Alexander A.; Martovitskaya, Yulia V.; Berezina, Tatyana A.; Gromenko, Elena A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic heart failure (HF) remains a leading cause of cardiovascular (CV) mortality and morbidity worldwide. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the pattern of angiogenic endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and apoptotic endothelial cell-derived microparticles (EMPs) would be able to differentiate HF with reduced (HFrEF) and preserved (HFpEF) ejection fraction. Methods One hundred sixty four chronic HF subjects met inclusion criteria. Patients with global left ventricular ejection fraction ≥ 50% were categorized as the HFpEF group (n = 79) and those with ≤ 45% as the HFrEF group (n = 85). Therefore, to compare the circulating levels of biological markers 35 control subjects without HF were included in the study. All control individuals were age- and sex-matched chronic HF patients. The serum level of biomarkers was measured at baseline. The flow cytometric technique was used for predictably distinguishing circulating cell subsets depending on expression of CD45, CD34, CD14, Tie-2, and CD309 antigens and determining endothelial cell-derived microparticles. CD31+/annexin V+ was defined as apoptotic endothelial cell-derived MPs, MPs labeled for CD105+ or CD62E+ were determined as MPs produced due to activation of endothelial cells. Results In multivariate logistic regression model T2DM (R2 = 0.26; P = 0.001), obesity (R2 = 0.22; P = 0.001), previous MI (R2 = 0.17; P = 0.012), galectin-3 (R2 = 0.67; P = 0.012), CD31+/annexin V+ EMPs (R2 = 0.11; P = 0.001), NT-proBNP (R2 = 0.11; P = 0.046), CD14+ CD309+ cells (R2 = 0.058; P = 0.001), and CD14+ СD309+ Tie-2+ cells (R2 = 0.044; P = 0.028) were found as independent predictors of HFpEF. Using multivariate Cox-regression analysis adjusted etiology (previous myocardial infarction), cardiovascular risk factors (obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus) we found that NT-proBNP (OR 1.08; 95% CI = 1.03–1.12; P = 0.001) and CD31+/annexin V+ EMPs to CD14+ CD309

  10. Determining optimal surface roughness of TiO(2) blasted titanium implant material for attachment, proliferation and differentiation of cells derived from human mandibular alveolar bone.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, K; Wennerberg, A; Wroblewski, J; Hultenby, K; Lopez, B S; Arvidson, K

    2001-10-01

    In the complex process of bone formation at the implant-tissue interface, implant surface roughness is an important factor modulating osteoblastic function. In this study, primary cultures of osteoblast-like cells, derived from human mandibular bone, were used. The aim was to examine the effect of varying surface roughness of titanium implant material on cellular attachment, proliferation and differentiation. A recognized method of increasing surface roughness and enlarging the surface area of titanium implants is by blasting with titanium dioxide particles: the four specimen types in the study comprised surfaces which were machine-turned only, or blasted after turning, with 63-90 microm, 106-180 microm, or 180-300 microm TiO(2) particles, respectively. The specimens were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning. The turned samples had the smoothest surfaces: average height deviation (S(a)) of 0.20 microm. The roughest were those blasted with 180-300 microm particles, S(a) value 1.38 microm. Blasting with intermediate particle sizes yielded S(a) values of 0.72 microm and 1.30 microm, respectively. Cell profile areas were measured using a semiautomatic interactive image analyzer. Figures were expressed as percentage of attachment. DNA synthesis was estimated by measuring the amount of [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation into trichloroacetic acid (TCA) insoluble cell precipitates. The specific activity of alkaline phosphatase was assayed using p-nitrophenylphosphate as a substrate. The ability of the cells to synthesize osteocalcin was investigated in serum-free culture medium using the ELSA-OST-NAT immunoradiometric kit. After 3 h of culture, the percentage of cellular attachment did not differ significantly between specimens blasted with 180-300 micromparticles and the turned specimens. All blasted surfaces showed significantly higher [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation than the turned surfaces (P<0.05), with the highest on the surfaces blasted

  11. Characterization of various types of mast cells derived from model mice of familial gastrointestinal stromal tumors with KIT-Asp818Tyr mutation

    PubMed Central

    Kajimoto, Noriko; Nakai, Norihiro; Ohkouchi, Mizuka; Hashikura, Yuka; Liu-Kimura, Ning-Ning; Isozaki, Koji; Hirota, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    Sporadic mast cell neoplasms and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) often have various types of somatic gain-of-function mutations of the c-kit gene which encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, KIT. Several types of germline gain-of-function mutations of the c-kit gene have been detected in families with multiple GISTs. All three types of model mice for the familial GISTs with germline c-kit gene mutations at exon 11, 13 or 17 show development of GIST, while they are different from each other in skin mast cell number. Skin mast cell number in the model mice with exon 17 mutation was unchanged compared to the corresponding wild-type mice. In the present study, we characterized various types of mast cells derived from the model mice with exon 17 mutation (KIT-Asp818Tyr) corresponding to human familial GIST case with human KIT-Asp820Tyr to clarify the role of the c-kit gene mutation in mast cells. Bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (BMMCs) derived from wild-type mice, heterozygotes and homozygotes were used for the experiments. Immortalized BMMCs, designated as IMC-G4 cells, derived from BMMCs of a homozygote during long-term culture were also used. Ultrastructure, histamine contents, proliferation profiles and phosphorylation of various signaling molecules in those cells were examined. In IMC-G4 cells, presence of additional mutation(s) of the c-kit gene and effect of KIT inhibitors on both KIT autophosphorylation and cell proliferation were also analyzed. We demonstrated that KIT-Asp818Tyr did not affect ultrastructure and proliferation profiles but did histamine contents in BMMCs. IMC-G4 cells had an additional novel c-kit gene mutation of KIT-Tyr421Cys which is considered to induce neoplastic transformation of mouse mast cells and the mutation appeared to be resistant to a KIT inhibitor of imatinib but sensitive to another KIT inhibitor of nilotinib. IMC-G4 cells might be a useful mast cell line to investigate mast cell biology. PMID:26722383

  12. Adaptive HIV-Specific B Cell-Derived Humoral Immune Defenses of the Intestinal Mucosa in Children Exposed to HIV via Breast-Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Moussa, Sandrine; Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Gody, Jean Chrysostome; Léal, Josiane; Grésenguet, Gérard; Le Faou, Alain; Bélec, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Background We evaluated whether B cell-derived immune defenses of the gastro-intestinal tract are activated to produce HIV-specific antibodies in children continuously exposed to HIV via breast-feeding. Methods Couples of HIV-1-infected mothers (n = 14) and their breastfed non HIV-infected (n = 8) and HIV-infected (n = 6) babies, and healthy HIV-negative mothers and breastfed babies (n = 10) as controls, were prospectively included at the Complexe Pédiatrique of Bangui, Central African Republic. Immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG and IgM) and anti-gp160 antibodies from mother’s milk and stools of breastfed children were quantified by ELISA. Immunoaffinity purified anti-gp160 antibodies were characterized functionally regarding their capacity to reduce attachment and/or infection of R5- and X4- tropic HIV-1 strains on human colorectal epithelial HT29 cells line or monocyte-derived-macrophages (MDM). Results The levels of total IgA and IgG were increased in milk of HIV-infected mothers and stools of HIV-exposed children, indicating the activation of B cell-derived mucosal immunity. Breast milk samples as well as stool samples from HIV-negative and HIV-infected babies exposed to HIV by breast-feeding, contained high levels of HIV-specific antibodies, mainly IgG antibodies, less frequently IgA antibodies, and rarely IgM antibodies. Relative ratios of excretion by reference to lactoferrin calculated for HIV-specific IgA, IgG and IgM in stools of HIV-exposed children were largely superior to 1, indicating active production of HIV-specific antibodies by the intestinal mucosa. Antibodies to gp160 purified from pooled stools of HIV-exposed breastfed children inhibited the attachment of HIV-1NDK on HT29 cells by 63% and on MDM by 77%, and the attachment of HIV-1JRCSF on MDM by 40%; and the infection of MDM by HIV-1JRCSF by 93%. Conclusions The intestinal mucosa of children exposed to HIV by breast-feeding produces HIV-specific antibodies harbouring in vitro major

  13. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Progenitor Cells in Phenotypic Screening: A Transforming Growth Factor-β Type 1 Receptor Kinase Inhibitor Induces Efficient Cardiac Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Drowley, Lauren; Koonce, Chad; Peel, Samantha; Jonebring, Anna; Plowright, Alleyn T; Kattman, Steven J; Andersson, Henrik; Anson, Blake; Swanson, Bradley J; Wang, Qing-Dong; Brolen, Gabriella

    2016-02-01

    Several progenitor cell populations have been reported to exist in hearts that play a role in cardiac turnover and/or repair. Despite the presence of cardiac stem and progenitor cells within the myocardium, functional repair of the heart after injury is inadequate. Identification of the signaling pathways involved in the expansion and differentiation of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) will broaden insight into the fundamental mechanisms playing a role in cardiac homeostasis and disease and might provide strategies for in vivo regenerative therapies. To understand and exploit cardiac ontogeny for drug discovery efforts, we developed an in vitro human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived CPC model system using a highly enriched population of KDR(pos)/CKIT(neg)/NKX2.5(pos) CPCs. Using this model system, these CPCs were capable of generating highly enriched cultures of cardiomyocytes under directed differentiation conditions. In order to facilitate the identification of pathways and targets involved in proliferation and differentiation of resident CPCs, we developed phenotypic screening assays. Screening paradigms for therapeutic applications require a robust, scalable, and consistent methodology. In the present study, we have demonstrated the suitability of these cells for medium to high-throughput screens to assess both proliferation and multilineage differentiation. Using this CPC model system and a small directed compound set, we identified activin-like kinase 5 (transforming growth factor-β type 1 receptor kinase) inhibitors as novel and potent inducers of human CPC differentiation to cardiomyocytes. Significance: Cardiac disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, with no treatment available that can result in functional repair. This study demonstrates how differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells can be used to identify and isolate cell populations of interest that can translate to the adult human heart. Two separate examples of phenotypic

  14. Adolescence and Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinshenker, Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses body image among adolescents, explaining that today's adolescents are more prone to body image distortions and dissatisfaction than ever and examining the historical context; how self-image develops; normative discontent; body image distortions; body dysmorphic disorder (BDD); vulnerability of boys (muscle dysmorphia); who is at risk;…

  15. Injectable hydrogel promotes early survival of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived oligodendrocytes and attenuates longterm teratoma formation in a spinal cord injury model.

    PubMed

    Führmann, T; Tam, R Y; Ballarin, B; Coles, B; Elliott Donaghue, I; van der Kooy, D; Nagy, A; Tator, C H; Morshead, C M; Shoichet, M S

    2016-03-01

    Transplantation of pluripotent stem cells and their differentiated progeny has the potential to preserve or regenerate functional pathways and improve function after central nervous system injury. However, their utility has been hampered by poor survival and the potential to form tumors. Peptide-modified biomaterials influence cell adhesion, survival and differentiation in vitro, but their effectiveness in vivo remains uncertain. We synthesized a peptide-modified, minimally invasive, injectable hydrogel comprised of hyaluronan and methylcellulose to enhance the survival and differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Cells were transplanted subacutely after a moderate clip compression rat spinal cord injury. The hydrogel, modified with the RGD peptide and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-A), promoted early survival and integration of grafted cells. However, prolific teratoma formation was evident when cells were transplanted in media at longer survival times, indicating that either this cell line or the way in which it was cultured is unsuitable for human use. Interestingly, teratoma formation was attenuated when cells were transplanted in the hydrogel, where most cells differentiated to a glial phenotype. Thus, this hydrogel promoted cell survival and integration, and attenuated teratoma formation by promoting cell differentiation. PMID:26773663

  16. High throughput measurement of Ca²⁺ dynamics for drug risk assessment in human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes by kinetic image cytometry.

    PubMed

    Cerignoli, Fabio; Charlot, David; Whittaker, Ross; Ingermanson, Randy; Gehalot, Piyush; Savchenko, Alex; Gallacher, David J; Towart, Rob; Price, Jeffrey H; McDonough, Patrick M; Mercola, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Current methods to measure physiological properties of cardiomyocytes and predict fatal arrhythmias that can cause sudden death, such as Torsade de Pointes, lack either the automation and throughput needed for early-stage drug discovery and/or have poor predictive value. To increase throughput and predictive power of in vitro assays, we developed kinetic imaging cytometry (KIC) for automated cell-by-cell analyses via intracellular fluorescence Ca²⁺ indicators. The KIC instrument simultaneously records and analyzes intracellular calcium concentration [Ca²⁺](i) at 30-ms resolution from hundreds of individual cells/well of 96-well plates in seconds, providing kinetic details not previously possible with well averaging technologies such as plate readers. Analyses of human embryonic stem cell and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes revealed effects of known cardiotoxic and arrhythmogenic drugs on kinetic parameters of Ca²⁺ dynamics, suggesting that KIC will aid in the assessment of cardiotoxic risk and in the elucidation of pathogenic mechanisms of heart disease associated with drugs treatment and/or genetic background. PMID:22926323

  17. Comparison of the growth promoting activities and toxicities of various auxin analogs on cells derived from wild type and a nonrooting mutant of tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Caboche, M.; Muller, J.F. ); Chanut, F. ); Aranda, G.; Cirakoglu, S. )

    1987-01-01

    A naphthaleneacetic acid tolerant mutant isolated from a mutagenized culture of tobacco mesophyll protoplasts and impaired in root morphogenesis has been previously characterized by genetic analysis. To understand the biochemical basis for naphthaleneacetic acid resistance, cells derived from this mutant and from wild-type tobacco were compared for their ability to respond to various growth regulators. The growth promoting abilities and cytotoxicities of auxin analogs were different for mutant and wild-type cells. These different activities were not correlated with increased rate of conjugation or breakdown of the auxins by mutant cells. These observations, as well as previous studies on the interaction of the mutant with Agrobacterium, suggest that mutant resistance to auxins is not a result of a specific modification of the process by which auxins induce cell killing, but to a more general alteration of the cellular response to auxin. A screening of auxin-related molecules which induce cell death in wild-type cells but not mutant cells without promoting growth in either was performed. p-Bromophenyleacetic acid was found to display these characteristics.

  18. Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1α Plays a Crucial Role Based on Neuroprotective Role in Neonatal Brain Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Miki; Matsubara, Keiichi; Matsubara, Yuko; Uchikura, Yuka; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Fujioka, Toru; Matsumoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Owing to progress in perinatal medicine, the survival of preterm newborns has markedly increased. However, the incidence of cerebral palsy has risen in association with increased preterm birth. Cerebral palsy is largely caused by cerebral hypoxic ischemia (HI), for which there are no effective medical treatments. We evaluated the effects of stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) on neonatal brain damage in rats. Left common carotid (LCC) arteries of seven-day-old Wistar rat pups were ligated, and animals were exposed to hypoxic gas to cause cerebral HI. Behavioral tests revealed that the memory and spatial perception abilities were disturbed in HI animals, and that SDF-1α treatment improved these cognitive functions. Motor coordination was also impaired after HI but was unimproved by SDF-1α treatment. SDF-1α reduced intracranial inflammation and induced cerebral remyelination, as indicated by the immunohistochemistry results. These data suggest that SDF-1α specifically influences spatial perception abilities in neonatal HI encephalopathy. PMID:26251894

  19. Modeling of drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction by using human iPS cell-derived enterocyte-like cells.

    PubMed

    Negoro, Ryosuke; Takayama, Kazuo; Nagamoto, Yasuhito; Sakurai, Fuminori; Tachibana, Masashi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-15

    Many drugs have potential to induce the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes, particularly cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), in small intestinal enterocytes. Therefore, a model that can accurately evaluate drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction is urgently needed. In this study, we overlaid Matrigel on the human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived enterocyte-like cells (hiPS-ELCs) to generate the mature hiPS-ELCs that could be applied to drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction test. By overlaying Matrigel in the maturation process of enterocyte-like cells, the gene expression levels of intestinal markers (VILLIN, sucrase-isomaltase, intestine-specific homeobox, caudal type homeobox 2, and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein) were enhanced suggesting that the enterocyte-like cells were maturated by Matrigel overlay. The percentage of VILLIN-positive cells in the hiPS-ELCs found to be approximately 55.6%. To examine the CYP3A4 induction potential, the hiPS-ELCs were treated with various drugs. Treatment with dexamethasone, phenobarbital, rifampicin, or 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 resulted in 5.8-fold, 13.4-fold, 9.8-fold, or 95.0-fold induction of CYP3A4 expression relative to that in the untreated controls, respectively. These results suggest that our hiPS-ELCs would be a useful model for CYP3A4 induction test. PMID:26966071

  20. Safe and efficient method for cryopreservation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem and progenitor cells by a programmed freezer with a magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yuichiro; Iwanami, Akio; Kohyama, Jun; Itakura, Go; Kawabata, Soya; Sugai, Keiko; Nishimura, Soraya; Kashiwagi, Rei; Yasutake, Kaori; Isoda, Miho; Matsumoto, Morio; Nakamura, Masaya; Okano, Hideyuki

    2016-06-01

    Stem cells represent a potential cellular resource in the development of regenerative medicine approaches to the treatment of pathologies in which specific cells are degenerated or damaged by genetic abnormality, disease, or injury. Securing sufficient supplies of cells suited to the demands of cell transplantation, however, remains challenging, and the establishment of safe and efficient cell banking procedures is an important goal. Cryopreservation allows the storage of stem cells for prolonged time periods while maintaining them in adequate condition for use in clinical settings. Conventional cryopreservation systems include slow-freezing and vitrification both have advantages and disadvantages in terms of cell viability and/or scalability. In the present study, we developed an advanced slow-freezing technique using a programmed freezer with a magnetic field called Cells Alive System (CAS) and examined its effectiveness on human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (hiPSC-NS/PCs). This system significantly increased cell viability after thawing and had less impact on cellular proliferation and differentiation. We further found that frozen-thawed hiPSC-NS/PCs were comparable with non-frozen ones at the transcriptome level. Given these findings, we suggest that the CAS is useful for hiPSC-NS/PCs banking for clinical uses involving neural disorders and may open new avenues for future regenerative medicine. PMID:26804710

  1. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatic cell lines as a new model for host interaction with hepatitis B virus

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Shun; Kakinuma, Sei; Asahina, Yasuhiro; Kamiya, Akihide; Miyoshi, Masato; Tsunoda, Tomoyuki; Nitta, Sayuri; Asano, Yu; Nagata, Hiroko; Otani, Satoshi; Kawai-Kitahata, Fukiko; Murakawa, Miyako; Itsui, Yasuhiro; Nakagawa, Mina; Azuma, Seishin; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Nishitsuji, Hironori; Ujino, Saneyuki; Shimotohno, Kunitada; Iwamoto, Masashi; Watashi, Koichi; Wakita, Takaji; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is not eradicated by current antiviral therapies due to persistence of HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in host cells, and thus development of novel culture models for productive HBV infection is urgently needed, which will allow the study of HBV cccDNA eradication. To meet this need, we developed culture models of HBV infection using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocyte lineages, including immature proliferating hepatic progenitor-like cell lines (iPS-HPCs) and differentiated hepatocyte-like cells (iPS-Heps). These cells were susceptible to HBV infection, produced HBV particles, and maintained innate immune responses. The infection efficiency of HBV in iPS-HPCs predominantly depended on the expression levels of sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), and was low relative to iPS-Heps: however, long-term culture of iPS-Heps was difficult. To provide a model for HBV persistence, iPS-HPCs overexpressing NTCP were established. The long-term persistence of HBV cccDNA was detected in iPS-HPCs overexpressing NTCP, and depended on the inhibition of the Janus-kinase signaling pathway. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that iPS-derived hepatic cell lines can be utilized for novel HBV culture models with genetic variation to investigate the interactions between HBV and host cells and the development of anti-HBV strategies. PMID:27386799

  2. Lysophosphatidylethanolamine acyltransferase 1/membrane-bound O-acyltransferase 1 regulates morphology and function of P19C6 cell-derived neurons.

    PubMed

    Tabe, Shirou; Hikiji, Hisako; Ariyoshi, Wataru; Hashidate-Yoshida, Tomomi; Shindou, Hideo; Okinaga, Toshinori; Shimizu, Takao; Tominaga, Kazuhiro; Nishihara, Tatsuji

    2016-07-01

    Glycerophospholipids, which are components of biomembranes, are formed de novo by the Kennedy pathway and subsequently mature through the Lands cycle. Lysophospholipid acyltransferases (LPLATs) are key enzymes in both pathways and influence the fatty acid composition of biomembranes. Neuronal differentiation is characterized by neurite outgrowth, which requires biomembrane biosynthesis. However, the role of LPLATs in neuronal differentiation remains unknown. In this study, we examined whether LPLATs are involved in neuronal differentiation using all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-treated P19C6 cells. In these cells, mRNA levels of lysophosphatidylethanolamine acyltransferase (LPEAT)-1/membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT)-1 were higher than those in undifferentiated cells. LPEAT enzymatic activity increased with 16:0- and 18:1-CoA as acyl donors. When LPEAT1/MBOAT1 was knocked down with small interfering RNA (siRNA), outgrowth of neurites and expression of neuronal markers decreased in ATRA-treated P19C6 cells. Voltage-dependent calcium channel activity was also suppressed in these cells transfected with LPEAT1/MBOAT1 siRNA. These results suggest that LPEAT1/MBOAT1 plays an important role in neurite outgrowth and function.-Tabe, S., Hikiji, H., Ariyoshi, W., Hashidate-Yoshida, T., Shindou, H., Okinaga, T., Shimizu, T., Tominaga, K., Nishihara, T. Lysophosphatidylethanolamine acyltransferase 1/membrane-bound O-acyltransferase 1 regulates morphology and function of P19C6 cell-derived neurons. PMID:27048541

  3. Intra-Articular Injection of Human Meniscus Stem/Progenitor Cells Promotes Meniscus Regeneration and Ameliorates Osteoarthritis Through Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1/CXCR4-Mediated Homing

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Weiliang; Chen, Jialin; Zhu, Ting; Chen, Longkun; Zhang, Wei; Fang, Zhi; Heng, Boon Chin; Yin, Zi; Chen, Xiao; Ji, Junfeng

    2014-01-01

    Meniscus injury is frequently encountered in clinical practice. Current surgical therapy involving partial or complete meniscectomy relieves pain in the short-term but often leads to osteoarthritis (OA) in the long-term. In this study, we report a new strategy of articular cartilage protection by intra-articular injection of novel human meniscus stem/progenitor cells (hMeSPCs). We found that hMeSPCs displayed both mesenchymal stem cell characteristics and high expression levels of collagen II. In the rat meniscus injury model, hMeSPC transplantation not only led to more neo-tissue formation and better-defined shape but also resulted in more rounded cells and matured extracellular matrix. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) enhanced the migration of hMeSPCs, whereas AMD3100 abolished the chemotactic effects of SDF-1 on hMeSPCs, both in vitro and in vivo. In an experimental OA model, transplantation of hMeSPCs effectively protected articular cartilage, as evidenced by reduced expression of OA markers such as collagen I, collagen X, and hypoxia-inducible factor 2α but increased expression of collagen II. Our study demonstrated for the first time that intra-articular injection of hMeSPCs enhanced meniscus regeneration through the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis. Our study highlights a new strategy of intra-articular injection