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1

Sensitivity of hyperthermia-treated human cells to killing by ultraviolet or gamma radiation  

SciTech Connect

Human xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) or Fanconi anemia (FA) fibroblasts displayed shouldered 45/sup 0/C heat survival curves not significantly different from normal fibroblasts, a result similar to that previously found for ataxia telangiectasia (AT) cells, indicating heat resistance is not linked to either uv or low-LET ionizing radiation resistance. Hyperthermia (45/sup 0/C) sensitized normal and XP fibroblasts to killing by gamma radiation but failed to sensitize the cells to the lethal effects of 254 nm uv radiation. Thermal inhibition of repair of ionizing radiation lesions but not uv-induced lesions appears to contribute synergistically to cell death. The thermal enhancement ratio (TER) for the synergistic interaction of hyperthermia (45/sup 0/C, 30 min) and gamma radiation was significantly lower in one FA and two strains (TER = 1.7-1.8) than that reported previously for three normal strains (TER = 2.5-3.0). These XP and FA strains may be more gamma sensitive than normal human fibroblasts. Since hyperthermia treatment only slightly increases the gamma-radiation sensitivity of ataxia telangiectasia (AT) fibroblasts compared to normal strains, it is possible that the degree of thermal enhancement attainable reflects the genetically inherent ionizing radiation repair capacity of the cells. The data indicate that both repair inhibition and particular lesion types are required for lethal synergism between heat and radiation. We therefore postulate that the transient thermal inhibition of repair results in the conversion of gamma-induced lesions to irrepairable lethal damage, while uv-type damage can remain unaltered during this period.

Mitchel, R.E.; Smith, B.P.; Wheatly, N.; Chan, A.; Child, S.; Paterson, M.C.

1985-11-01

2

Interactions between Endothelial Cells and T Cells Modulate Responses to Mixed Neutron/Gamma Radiation.  

PubMed

Detonation of an improvised nuclear device near a population center would cause significant casualties from the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) due to exposure to mixed neutron/gamma fields (MF). The pathophysiology of ARS involves inflammation, microvascular damage and alterations in immune function. Interactions between endothelial cells (EC) and hematopoietic cells are important not only for regulating immune cell traffic and function, but also for providing the microenvironment that controls survival, differentiation and migration of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in blood-forming tissues. Endothelial cells/leukocyte interactions also influence tumor progression and the results of anticancer therapies. In this study, we hypothesized that irradiation of endothelial cells would modulate their effects on hematopoietic cells and vice versa. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and immortalized T lymphocytes (Jurkat cells) were cultured individually and in co-culture after exposure to mixed fields. Effects of nonirradiated cells were compared to effects of irradiated cells and alterations in signaling pathways were determined. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) p38 and p44/42 (ERK1/2) in HUVEC exhibited higher levels of phosphorylated protein after exposure to mixed field radiation. IL-6, IL-8, G-CSF, platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and angiopoietin 2 (ANG2) protein expression were upregulated in HUVEC by exposure to mixed field radiation. PCR arrays using HUVEC mRNA revealed alterations in gene expression after exposure to mixed fields and/or co-culture with Jurkat cells. The presence of HUVEC also influenced the function of Jurkat cells. Nonirradiated Jurkat cells showed an increase in proliferation when co-cultured with nonirradiated HUVEC, and a decrease in proliferation when co-cultured with irradiated HUVEC. Additionally, nonirradiated Jurkat cells incubated in media from irradiated HUVEC exhibited upregulation of activated caspase 3. Irradiation of Jurkat cells caused a G2/M arrest and increased adherence to HUVEC. When co-cultured with HUVEC, irradiated Jurkat cells exhibited G0/G1 arrest and increased apoptosis. The data indicate that gene expression and cell function of endothelial cells and hematopoietic cells are influenced by radiation and by interactions between the two cell types. These phenomena may affect the success of therapies for ARS and cancer. PMID:24828109

Cary, Lynnette H; Noutai, Daniel; Salber, Rudolph E; Williams, Margaret S; Ngudiankama, Barbara F; Whitnall, Mark H

2014-06-01

3

The effects of gamma radiation, UV and visible light on ATP levels in yeast cells depend on cellular melanization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously we have shown that growth of melanized fungi is stimulated by low levels of gamma radiation. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of visible light, UV light, and gamma radiation on the energy level (ATP concentration) in melanized Cryptococcus neoformans cells. Melanized C. neoformans cells as well as non-melanized controls were subjected to visible, UV

Ruth Bryan; Zewei Jiang; Matthew Friedman; Ekaterina Dadachova

2011-01-01

4

A paracrine signal mediates the cell transformation response to low dose gamma radiation in JB6 cells  

SciTech Connect

Radiation at low doses (? 50 cGy) can enhance or reduce tumor incidence in the mouse skin multistage model of carcinogenesis, depending on the timing of radiation exposure relative to chemical initiator. Here we have used JB6 mouse epidermal cells, an in vitro model of late stage tumor promotion, to evaluate the effects of low dose gamma radiation on cell transformation response. JB6 cells were isolated from the DNA-dependent Protein Kinase (DNA-PK) deficient Balb/c mouse that exhibits an unusually sensitive mammary tumor response to ionizing radiation. Exposure of JB6 cells to low dose (2-20 cGy) gamma radiation increased cell transformation response in a dose- and cell density-dependent fashion. JB6 cells were transfected with a membrane targeted enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP-membrane) and used as bystander cells in a co-culture model. Co-culture of 10 cGy irradiated JB6 cells with na?ve EYFP-membrane cells resulted in a significant increase in EYFP-expressing colonies, relative to co-cultures of sham exposed P+ cells/na?ve EYFP-membrane cells. In contrast, low dose gamma radiation (20 cGy) reduced tumor promoter (epidermal growth factor; 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate)-induced transformation response and cell survival in a clonogenic assay to a comparable extent (40%). Our results demonstrate different selective pressures depending on whether low dose radiation modulated the cell transformation response of irradiated or bystander cells, or whether irradiation occurred in conjunction with tumor promoter treatment. The co-culture system developed here is a promising model to define positive and negative selective pressures induced by low dose radiation in a DNA damage repair deficient context that are relevant to carcinogenesis responses.

Weber, Thomas J.; Siegel, Robert W.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Chrisler, William B.; Lei, Xingye C.; Colburn, Nancy H.

2005-05-01

5

MRK, a mixed lineage kinase-related molecule that plays a role in gamma-radiation-induced cell cycle arrest.  

PubMed

Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways are three-kinase modules that mediate diverse cellular processes and have been highly conserved among eukaryotes. By using a functional complementation screen in yeast, we have identified a human MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) that shares homology with members of the mixed lineage kinase (MLK) family and therefore was called MRK (MLK-related kinase). We report the structure of the MRK gene, from which are generated two splice forms of MRK, MRK-alpha and MRK-beta, encoding for proteins of 800 and 456 amino acids, respectively. By using a combination of solid phase protein kinase assays, transient transfections in cells, and analysis of endogenous proteins in stably transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, we found that MRK-beta preferentially activates ERK6/p38gamma via MKK3/MKK6 and JNK through MKK4/MKK7. We also show that expression of wild type MRK increases the cell population in the G(2)/M phase of the cell cycle, whereas dominant negative MRK attenuates the G(2) arrest caused by gamma-radiation. In addition, exposure of cells to gamma-radiation induces MRK activity. These data suggest that MRK may mediate gamma-radiation signaling leading to cell cycle arrest and that MRK activity is necessary for the cell cycle checkpoint regulation in cells. PMID:11836244

Gross, Eleanore A; Callow, Marinella G; Waldbaum, Linda; Thomas, Suzanne; Ruggieri, Rosamaria

2002-04-19

6

Mutant quantity and quality in mammalian cells (AL) exposed to cesium-137 gamma radiation: effect of caffeine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We examined the effect of caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) on the quantity and quality of mutations in cultured mammalian AL human-hamster hybrid cells exposed to 137Cs gamma radiation. At a dose (1.5 mg/ml for 16 h) that reduced the plating efficiency (PE) by 20%, caffeine was not itself a significant mutagen, but it increased by approximately twofold the slope of the dose-response curve for induction of S1- mutants by 137Cs gamma radiation. Molecular analysis of 235 S1- mutants using a series of DNA probes mapped to the human chromosome 11 in the AL hybrid cells revealed that 73 to 85% of the mutations in unexposed cells and in cells treated with caffeine alone, 137Cs gamma rays alone or 137Cs gamma rays plus caffeine were large deletions involving millions of base pairs of DNA. Most of these deletions were contiguous with the region of the MIC1 gene at 11p13 that encodes the S1 cell surface antigen. In other mutants that had suffered multiple marker loss, the deletions were intermittent along chromosome 11. These "complex" mutations were rare for 137Cs gamma irradiation (1/63 = 1.5%) but relatively prevalent (23-50%) for other exposure conditions. Thus caffeine appears to alter both the quantity and quality of mutations induced by 137Cs gamma irradiation.

McGuinness, S. M.; Shibuya, M. L.; Ueno, A. M.; Vannais, D. B.; Waldren, C. A.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

1995-01-01

7

Low doses of gamma-radiation induce nonlinear dose responses in Mammalian and plant cells.  

PubMed

The percentage of cells with chromosome aberrations or micronuclei induced by low doses of acute (dose rate of 47 cGy/min) or chronic (dose rate of 0.01 cGy/min) gamma-irradiation was studied in vitro in Chinese hamster fibroblasts, human lymphocytes, and Vicia faba seeds and seedlings. The sensitivity of the indicated biological entities to low doses was greater than expected based on linear extrapolation from higher doses. The dose-response curves for cytogenetic damage that were obtained were nonlinear when evaluated over the full range of the doses used. At very low doses, the dose-response curves appeared linear, followed by a plateau region at intermediate doses. At high doses the dose response curves again appeared linear with a slope different from that for the low-dose region. There was no statistically significant difference between the yields of cells with micronuclei induced by low doses of acute versus chronic irradiation. Similar data were obtained both for human lymphocyte culture and for roots and seeds of Vicia faba. Our experiments revealed that the dose range over which the plateau occurs depends on the type of cells irradiated. We have also shown that the modifying effects of the repair inhibitor caffeine and the radioprotector mercaptoethylenamine (MEA) are absent at low doses of gamma irradiation and that caffeine increased the number of cells with cytogenetic damage when evaluated over the plateau region. In the presence of MEA, the upper end of the plateau region was extended from just above 1 Gy to about 2 Gy. We therefore provide direct evidence that a plateau exists in the dose-response curve for the indicated radiation-induced stochastic effects. Furthermore, our results suggest that, for low linear energy transfer radiation, the induction of DNA repair occurs only after a threshold level of cytogenetic damage and that the higher yield of cytogenetic damage per unit dose at low radiation doses is attributable to an insignificant contribution or the absence of DNA repair processes. PMID:19330144

Zaichkina, S I; Rozanova, O M; Aptikaeva, G F; Achmadieva, A Ch; Klokov, D Y

2004-07-01

8

Cell cycle checkpoint status in human malignant mesothelioma cell lines: response to gamma radiation  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of the function of the cell cycle checkpoints in tumour cells may be important to develop treatment strategies for human cancers. The protein p53 is an important factor that regulates cell cycle progression and apoptosis in response to drugs. In human malignant mesothelioma, p53 is generally not mutated, but may be inactivated by SV40 early region T antigen (SV40 Tag). However, the function of p53 has not been investigated in mesothelioma cells. Here, we investigated the function of the cell cycle checkpoints in six human mesothelioma cell lines (HMCLs) by studying the cell distribution in the different phases of the cell cycle by flow cytometry, and expression of cell cycle proteins, p53, p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27KIP1. In addition, we studied p53 gene mutations and expression of SV40 Tag. After exposure to ?-radiation, HMCLs were arrested either in one or both phases of the cell cycle, demonstrating a heterogeneity in cell cycle control. G1 arrest was p21WAF1/CIP1- and p53-dependent. Lack of arrest in G1 was not related to p53 mutation or binding to SV40 Tag, except in one HMCL presenting a missense mutation at codon 248. These results may help us to understand mesothelioma and develop new treatments.

Vivo, C; Lecomte, C; Levy, F; Leroy, K; Kirova, Y; Renier, A; Kheuang, L; Piedbois, P; Chopin, D; Jaurand, M C

2003-01-01

9

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOEpatents

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01

10

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOEpatents

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01

11

Coffee-mediated protective effects against directly acting genotoxins and gamma-radiation in mouse lymphoma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytokinesis-block micronucleus test was performed using L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells to ascertain whether or not standard (caffeinated) instant coffee, the commonly consumed polyphenolic beverage with antioxidant activity can protect against chromosomal damage induced by the directly acting agents N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), mitomycin C (MMC), methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and gamma radiation. Our results demonstrated significant reductions in thein vitro genotoxic effects

S. K. Abraham; V. Vukicevic; H. Stopper

2004-01-01

12

Enhancement of human tumor cell killing by L-canavanine in combination with gamma-radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of several physiological properties of L-canavanine, we have tested the prediction that this analogue of arginine would enhance the cytotoxic effects of gamma-rays in mammalian cells. Using the human colonic tumor cell line, HT-29, time-dose studies were performed with log-phase cultures in order to determine conditions which maximize the incorporation of L-canavanine into cellular proteins while leaving

M. H. Green; J. F. Ward

1983-01-01

13

Analysis of white blood cell counts in mice after gamma- or proton-radiation exposure.  

PubMed

In the coming decades human space exploration is expected to move beyond low-Earth orbit. This transition involves increasing mission time and therefore an increased risk of radiation exposure from solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Acute radiation effects after exposure to SPE radiation are of prime importance due to potential mission-threatening consequences. The major objective of this study was to characterize the dose-response relationship for proton and ? radiation delivered at doses up to 2 Gy at high (0.5 Gy/min) and low (0.5 Gy/h) dose rates using white blood cell (WBC) counts as a biological end point. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent decrease in WBC counts in mice exposed to high- and low-dose-rate proton and ? radiation, suggesting that astronauts exposed to SPE-like radiation may experience a significant decrease in circulating leukocytes. PMID:21476859

Maks, Casey J; Wan, X Steven; Ware, Jeffrey H; Romero-Weaver, Ana L; Sanzari, Jenine K; Wilson, Jolaine M; Rightnar, Steve; Wroe, Andrew J; Koss, Peter; Gridley, Daila S; Slater, James M; Kennedy, Ann R

2011-08-01

14

Analysis of White Blood Cell Counts in Mice after Gamma- or Proton-Radiation Exposure  

PubMed Central

In the coming decades human space exploration is expected to move beyond low-Earth orbit. This transition involves increasing mission time and therefore an increased risk of radiation exposure from solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Acute radiation effects after exposure to SPE radiation are of prime importance due to potential mission-threatening consequences. The major objective of this study was to characterize the dose–response relationship for proton and ? radiation delivered at doses up to 2 Gy at high (0.5 Gy/min) and low (0.5 Gy/h) dose rates using white blood cell (WBC) counts as a biological end point. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent decrease in WBC counts in mice exposed to high- and low-dose-rate proton and ? radiation, suggesting that astronauts exposed to SPE-like radiation may experience a significant decrease in circulating leukocytes.

Maks, Casey J.; Wan, X. Steven; Ware, Jeffrey H.; Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wilson, Jolaine M.; Rightnar, Steve; Wroe, Andrew J.; Koss, Peter; Gridley, Daila S.; Slater, James M.; Kennedy, Ann R.

2013-01-01

15

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase mediates immune-independent human tumor cell resistance to olaparib, gamma radiation, and cisplatin  

PubMed Central

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO) is an immunosuppressive molecule expressed by most human tumors. IDO levels correlate with poor prognosis in cancer patients and IDO inhibitors are under investigation to enhance endogenous anticancer immunosurveillance. Little is known of immune-independent functions of IDO relevant to cancer therapy. We show, for the first time, that IDO mediates human tumor cell resistance to a PARP inhibitor (olaparib), gamma radiation, cisplatin, and combined treatment with olaparib and radiation, in the absence of immune cells. Antisense-mediated reduction of IDO, alone and (in a synthetic lethal approach) in combination with antisense to the DNA repair protein BRCA2 sensitizes human lung cancer cells to olaparib and cisplatin. Antisense reduction of IDO decreased NAD+ in human tumor cells. NAD+ is essential for PARP activity and these data suggest that IDO mediates treatment resistance independent of immunity and at least partially due to a previously unrecognized role for IDO in DNA repair. Furthermore, IDO levels correlated with accumulation of tumor cells in G1 and depletion of cells in G2/M of the cell cycle, suggesting that IDO effects on cell cycle may also modulate sensitivity to radiation and chemotherapeutic agents. IDO is a potentially valuable therapeutic target in cancer treatment, independent of immune function and in combination with other therapies.

Vareki, Saman Maleki; Rytelewski, Mateusz; Figueredo, Rene; Chen, Di; Ferguson, Peter J.; Vincent, Mark; Min, Weiping; Zheng, Xiufen; Koropatnick, James

2014-01-01

16

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase mediates immune-independent human tumor cell resistance to olaparib, gamma radiation, and cisplatin.  

PubMed

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO) is an immunosuppressive molecule expressed by most human tumors. IDO levels correlate with poor prognosis in cancer patients and IDO inhibitors are under investigation to enhance endogenous anticancer immunosurveillance. Little is known of immune-independent functions of IDO relevant to cancer therapy. We show, for the first time, that IDO mediates human tumor cell resistance to a PARP inhibitor (olaparib), gamma radiation, cisplatin, and combined treatment with olaparib and radiation, in the absence of immune cells. Antisense-mediated reduction of IDO, alone and (in a synthetic lethal approach) in combination with antisense to the DNA repair protein BRCA2 sensitizes human lung cancer cells to olaparib and cisplatin. Antisense reduction of IDO decreased NAD+ in human tumor cells. NAD+ is essential for PARP activity and these data suggest that IDO mediates treatment resistance independent of immunity and at least partially due to a previously unrecognized role for IDO in DNA repair. Furthermore, IDO levels correlated with accumulation of tumor cells in G1 and depletion of cells in G2/M of the cell cycle, suggesting that IDO effects on cell cycle may also modulate sensitivity to radiation and chemotherapeutic agents. IDO is a potentially valuable therapeutic target in cancer treatment, independent of immune function and in combination with other therapies. PMID:24784564

Maleki Vareki, Saman; Rytelewski, Mateusz; Figueredo, Rene; Chen, Di; Ferguson, Peter J; Vincent, Mark; Min, Weiping; Zheng, Xiufen; Koropatnick, James

2014-05-15

17

Cell cycle checkpoint status in human malignant mesothelioma cell lines: response to gamma radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the function of the cell cycle checkpoints in tumour cells may be important to develop treatment strategies for human cancers. The protein p53 is an important factor that regulates cell cycle progression and apoptosis in response to drugs. In human malignant mesothelioma, p53 is generally not mutated, but may be inactivated by SV40 early region T antigen (SV40

C Vivo; C Lecomte; F Levy; K Leroy; Y Kirova; A Renier; L Kheuang; P Piedbois; D Chopin; M C Jaurand

2003-01-01

18

Treatment by gamma or electron radiation decreases cell wall and gossypol content of cottonseed meal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current study evaluated the effect of gamma and beam treatment (up to 40 kGy) on chemical composition and gossypol content of cottonseed meal. Irradiation decreased the crude fiber content. Gamma and electron treatment decreased total and free gossypol content.

Nayefi, M.; Salari, S.; Sari, M.; Behgar, M.

2014-06-01

19

The effect of gamma radiation on the lipid profile of irradiated red blood cells.  

PubMed

An investigation into the effects of irradiation and of the storage time on aging and quality are a relevant issue to ensure the safety and the efficiency of irradiation in the prevention of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD). In this work, the biochemical properties and alterations presented by erythrocyte membranes, up to 28-days post-irradiation, with a dose of 25 Gy, were studied as a function of storage and post-irradiation time. There was a considerable variation in the total of phospholipid content, when comparing the control and irradiated samples, mostly from the third day onwards; and at the same time, the effect occurred as a function on the storage time of blood bags. The levels of total cholesterol decreased 3-9 days after irradiation. TBARS levels were increased after irradiation and 7 days of storage, but no increment of catalase activity was observed after the irradiation. Furthermore, the protein profile was maintained throughout the irradiation and storage time, until the 21st day, with the presence of a protein fragmentation band of around 28 kDa on the 28th day. In conclusion, although gamma irradiation is the main agent for the prevention of TA-GVHD, a better understanding of the physical and biochemical properties of erythrocytes are necessary to better assess their viability, and to be able to issue more secure recommendations on the shelf life of blood bags, and the safe use of the irradiated red cells therein. PMID:24218190

Maia, Grazielle Aparecida Silva; de Oliveira Renó, Cristiane; Medina, Jorge Mansur; da Silveira, Alan Barbosa; Mignaco, Julio Alberto; Atella, Georgia Correa; Cortes, Vanessa Faria; Barbosa, Leandro Augusto; de Lima Santos, Hérica

2014-05-01

20

Mutations and chromosomal aberrations in hMTH1-transfected and non-transfected TK6 cells after exposure to low dose rates of gamma radiation.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to analyse the dose rate effect of gamma radiation at the level of mutations, chromosomal aberrations, and cell growth in TK6 cells with normal as well as reduced levels of hMTH1 protein. TK6 cells were exposed to gamma radiation at dose rates ranging from 1.4 to 30.0 mGy/h (chronic exposure) as well as 24 Gy/h (acute exposure). Cell growth, frequency of thymidine kinase mutants, and of chromosomal aberrations in painted chromosomes 2, 8, and 14 were analysed. A decline in cell growth and an increase in unstable-type chromosomal aberrations with increasing dose rate were observed in both cell lines. A dose rate effect was not seen on mutations or stable-type chromosomal aberrations in any of the two cell lines. Reduction in the hMTH1 protein does not influence the sensitivity of TK6 cells to gamma radiation. This result fits well with data of others generated with the same cell line. PMID:24549366

Shakeri Manesh, Sara; Deperas-Kaminska, Marta; Fotouhi, Asal; Sangsuwan, Traimate; Harms-Ringdahl, Mats; Wojcik, Andrzej; Haghdoost, Siamak

2014-05-01

21

Gamma radiation characteristics of plutonium dioxide fuel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigation of plutonium dioxide as an isotopic fuel for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators yielded the isotopic composition of production-grade plutonium dioxide fuel, sources of gamma radiation produced by plutonium isotopes, and the gamma flux at the surface.

Gingo, P. J.

1969-01-01

22

Effects of low-dose radiation on gene expression in Syrian hamster embryo cells: Comparison of JANUS neutrons and gamma rays  

SciTech Connect

Past work by or group and others has shown the modulation of specific genes following exposure of cells to ionizing radiation. Many classes of genes have been found to be modulated in response to ionizing radiation, including those encoding cytoskeletal elements, cell growth arresting proteins, cytokines, and cellular oncogenes. The functions of this specific modulation of gene expression are currently being investigated by several groups: it has been suggested that gene modulation in response to radiation plays a role in the cellular repair of DNA damage, cell survival, or cellular transformation. Several groups have examined induction of nuclear proto-oncogenes following exposure to DNA-damaging agents. In all experiments, we examined modulation of gene expression by ionizing radiations in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) fibroblasts, which are normal diploid cells that can be neoplastically transformed by low doses of ionizing radiations. Cells plated in 100-mm Petri plates containing 10 ml of medium were irradiated with {sup 60}C {gamma}-rays or fission-spectrum neutrons (0.85 MeV) from the JANUS reactor. All irradiations were performed at 37{degrees}C on cycling cells; equitoxic doses of neutrons and {gamma}-rays were selected on the basis of survival data.

Woloschak, G.E.; Chang-Liu, C.M.

1992-07-01

23

Effects of low-dose radiation on gene expression in Syrian hamster embryo cells: Comparison of JANUS neutrons and gamma rays  

SciTech Connect

Past work by or group and others has shown the modulation of specific genes following exposure of cells to ionizing radiation. Many classes of genes have been found to be modulated in response to ionizing radiation, including those encoding cytoskeletal elements, cell growth arresting proteins, cytokines, and cellular oncogenes. The functions of this specific modulation of gene expression are currently being investigated by several groups: it has been suggested that gene modulation in response to radiation plays a role in the cellular repair of DNA damage, cell survival, or cellular transformation. Several groups have examined induction of nuclear proto-oncogenes following exposure to DNA-damaging agents. In all experiments, we examined modulation of gene expression by ionizing radiations in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) fibroblasts, which are normal diploid cells that can be neoplastically transformed by low doses of ionizing radiations. Cells plated in 100-mm Petri plates containing 10 ml of medium were irradiated with {sup 60}C {gamma}-rays or fission-spectrum neutrons (0.85 MeV) from the JANUS reactor. All irradiations were performed at 37{degrees}C on cycling cells; equitoxic doses of neutrons and {gamma}-rays were selected on the basis of survival data.

Woloschak, G.E.; Chang-Liu, C.M.

1992-01-01

24

Natural gamma radiation borehole logging system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A borehole logging system employs a gamma-ray detector for measuring the natural gamma radiation of the earth formations surrounding a borehole. Three energy band selectors, each employing a discriminator and count rate meter, separate the output of the gamma-ray detector into potassium, uranium, and thorium energy band signals. A first operational amplifier determines the difference between the potassium energy band

C. L. Dennis; W. S. Givens; J. B. Hickman

1976-01-01

25

Virtual Gamma Ray Radiation Sources through Neutron Radiative Capture  

SciTech Connect

The countrate response of a gamma spectrometry system from a neutron radiation source behind a plane of moderating material doped with a nuclide of a large radiative neutron capture cross-section exhibits a countrate response analogous to a gamma radiation source at the same position from the detector. Using a planar, surface area of the neutron moderating material exposed to the neutron radiation produces a larger area under the prompt gamma ray peak in the detector than a smaller area of dimensions relative to the active volume of the gamma detection system.

Scott Wilde, Raymond Keegan

2008-07-01

26

Trypanosoma cruzi Gene Expression in Response to Gamma Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trypanosoma cruzi is an organism highly resistant to ionizing radiation. Following a dose of 500 Gy of gamma radiation, the fragmented genomic DNA is gradually reconstructed and the pattern of chromosomal bands is restored in less than 48 hours. Cell growth arrests after irradiation but, while DNA is completely fragmented, RNA maintains its integrity. In this work we compared the

Priscila Grynberg; Danielle Gomes Passos-Silva; Marina de Moraes Mourão; Roberto Hirata Jr; Andrea Mara Macedo; Carlos Renato Machado; Daniella Castanheira Bartholomeu; Glória Regina Franco

2012-01-01

27

Induction of macrophage antitumor activity by gamma radiation  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed a model system for examination of macrophage-mediated tumor cells lysis, using the murine macrophage tumor cell line RAW 264.7. These cells, like normal macrophages, exhibit a strict requirement for interaction with both interferon-..gamma.. (IFN-..gamma.., the priming signal) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, the triggering signal) in the development of tumor cytolytic activity. In this system, the priming effects of IFN-..gamma.. decay rapidly following withdrawal of this mediator and the cells become unresponsive to LPS. They have recently observed that gamma radiation of the RAW 264.7 cells results in development of a primed state which is stable and responsive to LPS triggering for a least 48 hours. Irradiation-induced development of the primed phenotype is not solely the result of cytostatic effects as LPS treatment alone results in marked decreases in /sup 3/H-TdR incorporation in the absence of cytolytic potential. In addition to delivering the priming signal for tumor cytotoxicity, irradiation of this cell line results in changes in cell morphology that are typical of activation. Finally, treatment with irradiation results in increased cell surface expression of MHC-encoded Class I antigens; however, Class II antigen expression is not induced. Thus, the effects of gamma radiation on this cell line are strikingly similar to those resulting from incubation with IFN-..gamma...

Lambert, L.; Paulnock, D.M.

1986-03-05

28

Apparatus and method for detecting gamma radiation  

DOEpatents

A high efficiency radiation detector for measuring X-ray and gamma radiation from small-volume, low-activity liquid samples with an overall uncertainty better than 0.7% (one sigma SD). The radiation detector includes a hyperpure germanium well detector, a collimator, and a reference source. The well detector monitors gamma radiation emitted by the reference source and a radioactive isotope or isotopes in a sample source. The radiation from the reference source is collimated to avoid attenuation of reference source gamma radiation by the sample. Signals from the well detector are processed and stored, and the stored data is analyzed to determine the radioactive isotope(s) content of the sample. Minor self-attenuation corrections are calculated from chemical composition data.

Sigg, Raymond A. (Martinez, GA)

1994-01-01

29

Apparatus and method for detecting gamma radiation  

DOEpatents

A high efficiency radiation detector is disclosed for measuring X-ray and gamma radiation from small-volume, low-activity liquid samples with an overall uncertainty better than 0.7% (one sigma SD). The radiation detector includes a hyperpure germanium well detector, a collimator, and a reference source. The well detector monitors gamma radiation emitted by the reference source and a radioactive isotope or isotopes in a sample source. The radiation from the reference source is collimated to avoid attenuation of reference source gamma radiation by the sample. Signals from the well detector are processed and stored, and the stored data is analyzed to determine the radioactive isotope(s) content of the sample. Minor self-attenuation corrections are calculated from chemical composition data. 4 figures.

Sigg, R.A.

1994-12-13

30

Protective Role of Hsp27 Protein Against Gamma Radiation-Induced Apoptosis and Radiosensitization Effects of Hsp27 Gene Silencing in Different Human Tumor Cells  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The ability of heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) to protect cells from stressful stimuli and its increased levels in tumors resistant to anticancer therapeutics suggest that it may represent a target for sensitization to radiotherapy. In this study, we investigate the protective role of Hsp27 against radiation-induced apoptosis and the effect of its attenuation in highly expressing radioresistant cancer cell lines. Methods and Materials: We examined clonogenic death and the kinetics of apoptotic events in different tumor cell lines overexpressing or underexpressing Hsp27 protein irradiated with photons. The radiosensitive Jurkat cell line, which does not express Hsp27 constitutively or in response to {gamma}-rays, was stably transfected with Hsp27 complementary DNA. Attenuation of Hsp27 expression was accomplished by antisense or RNAi (interfering RNA) strategies in SQ20B head-and-neck squamous carcinoma, PC3 prostate cancer, and U87 glioblastoma radioresistant cells. Results: We measured concentration-dependent protection against the cytotoxic effects of radiation in Jurkat-Hsp27 cells, which led to a 50% decrease in apoptotic cells at 48 hours in the highest expressing cells. Underlying mechanisms leading to radiation resistance involved a significant increase in glutathione levels associated with detoxification of reactive oxygen species, a delay in mitochondrial collapse, and caspase activation. Conversely, attenuation of Hsp27 in SQ20B cells, characterized by their resistance to apoptosis, sensitizes cells to irradiation. This was emphasized by increased apoptosis, decreased glutathione basal level, and clonogenic cell death. Sensitization to irradiation was confirmed in PC3 and U87 radioresistant cells. Conclusion: Hsp27 gene therapy offers a potential adjuvant to radiation-based therapy of resistant tumors.

Aloy, Marie-Therese [Universite de Lyon 1, Laboratoire de Radiobiologie Cellulaire et Moleculaire, Faculte de Medecine Lyon-Sud, Oullins (France); Hospices Civils de Lyon, Service de Radiotherapie, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre-Benite (France)], E-mail: marie-therese.aloy@sante.univ-lyon1.fr; Hadchity, Elie; Bionda, Clara [Universite de Lyon 1, Laboratoire de Radiobiologie Cellulaire et Moleculaire, Faculte de Medecine Lyon-Sud, Oullins (France); Diaz-Latoud, Chantal [Universite de Lyon 1, UMR-CNRS-5534, Centre de Genetique Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Villeurbanne (France); Claude, Line; Rousson, Robert [Universite de Lyon 1, Laboratoire de Radiobiologie Cellulaire et Moleculaire, Faculte de Medecine Lyon-Sud, Oullins (France); Arrigo, Andre-Patrick [Universite de Lyon 1, UMR-CNRS-5534, Centre de Genetique Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Villeurbanne (France); Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Claire [Universite de Lyon 1, Laboratoire de Radiobiologie Cellulaire et Moleculaire, Faculte de Medecine Lyon-Sud, Oullins (France)

2008-02-01

31

Satellite Observation of Atmospheric Nuclear Gamma Radiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A satellite observation of the spectrum of gamma radiation from the Earth's atmosphere is presented in the energy interval from 300 keV to 8.5 MeV. The data were accumulated by the Gamma Ray Spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission over three and one-hal...

J. R. Letaw G. H. Share R. L. Kinzer R. Silberberg C. H. Tsao

1987-01-01

32

Dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate, USP material compatibility with gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma radiation is a commonly used method to reduce the microbial bioburden in compatible materials when it is applied at appropriate dose levels. Gamma irradiation kills bacteria and mold by breaking down the organism’s DNA and inhibiting cell division. The purpose of this study is to determine the radiation dosage to be used to treat Dibasic Calcium Phosphate Dihydrate, USP (DCPD) and to evaluate its physicochemical effects if any, on this material. This material will be submitted to various doses of gamma radiation that were selected based on literature review and existing regulations that demonstrate that this method is effective to reduce or eliminate microbial bioburden in natural source and synthetic materials. Analytical testing was conducted to the DCPD exposed material in order to demonstrate that gamma radiation does not alter the physicochemical properties and material still acceptable for use in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products. The results obtained through this study were satisfactory and demonstrated that the gamma irradiation dosages from 5 to 30 kGy can be applied to DCPD without altering its physicochemical properties. These are supported by the Assay test data evaluation of lots tested before and after gamma irradiation implementation that show no significant statistical difference between irradiated and non irradiated assay results. The results of this study represent an achievement for the industry since they provide as an alternative the use of Gamma irradiation technology to control the microbial growth in DCPD.

Betancourt Quiles, Maritza

33

High range gamma radiation meter  

SciTech Connect

A low power meter has been constructed and tested to measure gamma fields from .1 R/h to 1500 R/h over the energy range of 60 keV to 1.2 MeV. The portable, battery-powered meter consists of a local display unit and remote probe. The display unit indicates gamma intensities via a 4-1/2 digit liquid crystal display (LCD) and a 50-segment bargraph LCD.

Baird, W.; Bjarke, D.; Eisen, Y.

1986-02-01

34

High range gamma radiation meter  

SciTech Connect

A low power meter has been constructed and tested to measure gamma fields from .1 R/hr to 1500 R/hr over the energy range of 60 keV to 1.2 MeV. The portable, battery-powered meter consists of a local display unit and remote probe. The display unit indicates gamma intensities via a 4-1/2 digit liquid crystal display (LCD) and a 50-segment bargraph LCD.

Baird, W.; Bjarke, G.O.; Eisen, Y.

1985-01-01

35

Development of a Low Cost gamma Radiation Survey Meter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

(*RADIATION MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS, GAMMA COUNTERS), (*GAMMA COUNTERS, SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES), HEALTH PHYSICS INSTRUMENTATION, DESIGN, ENVIRONMENTAL TESTS, PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT, CIRCUITS, INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION, COSTS, SPECIFICATIONS

L. G. Figular

1964-01-01

36

Low Dose Radiation Response Curves, Networks and Pathways in Human Lymphoblastoid Cells Exposed from 1 to 10 cGy of Acute Gamma Radiation  

SciTech Connect

We investigated the low dose dependency of the transcriptional response of human cells to characterize the shape and biological functions associated with the dose response curve and to identify common and conserved functions of low dose expressed genes across cells and tissues. Human lymphoblastoid (HL) cells from two unrelated individuals were exposed to graded doses of radiation spanning the range of 1-10 cGy were analyzed by transcriptome profiling, qPCR and bioinformatics, in comparison to sham irradiated samples. A set of {approx}80 genes showed consistent responses in both cell lines; these genes were associated with homeostasis mechanisms (e.g., membrane signaling, molecule transport), subcellular locations (e.g., Golgi, and endoplasmic reticulum), and involved diverse signal transduction pathways. The majority of radiation-modulated genes had plateau-like responses across 1-10 cGy, some with suggestive evidence that transcription was modulated at doses below 1 cGy. MYC, FOS and TP53 were the major network nodes of the low-dose response in HL cells. Comparison our low dose expression findings in HL cells with those of prior studies in mouse brain after whole body exposure, in human keratinocyte cultures, and in endothelial cells cultures, indicates that certain components of the low dose radiation response are broadly conserved across cell types and tissues, independent of proliferation status.

Wyrobek, A. J.; Manohar, C. F.; Nelson, D. O.; Furtado, M. R.; Bhattacharya, M. S.; Marchetti, F.; Coleman, M.A.

2011-04-18

37

Gamma radiation background measurements from Spacelab 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Nuclear Radiation Monitor incorporating a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was flown as part of the verification flight instrumentation on the Spacelab 2 mission, July 29 to August 6, 1985. Gamma-ray spectra were measured with better than 20 s resolution throughout most of the mission in the energy range 0.1 to 30 MeV. Knowledge of the decay characteristics and the geomagnetic dependence of the counting rates enable measurement of the various components of the Spacelab gamma-ray background: prompt secondary radiation, Earth albedo, and delayed induced radioactivity. The status of the data analysis and present relevant examples of typical background behavior are covered.

Paciesas, William S.; Gregory, John C.; Fishman, Gerald J.

1988-01-01

38

Radiofungicidal effects of external gamma radiation and antibody-targeted beta and alpha radiation on Cryptococcus neoformans.  

PubMed

We evaluated the clonogenic survival, membrane permeability, metabolic activity (XTT reduction), and apoptosis (FLICA binding) of Cryptococcus neoformans cells subjected to gamma rays from an external source, and beta and alpha particles delivered to fungal cells by capsule-specific antibody. We found that gamma, beta, and alpha radiation affected cells through different pathways. PMID:18378712

Bryan, Ruth A; Huang, Xianchun; Morgenstern, Alfred; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Casadevall, Arturo; Dadachova, Ekaterina

2008-06-01

39

Radiofungicidal Effects of External Gamma Radiation and Antibody-Targeted Beta and Alpha Radiation on Cryptococcus neoformans?  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the clonogenic survival, membrane permeability, metabolic activity (XTT reduction), and apoptosis (FLICA binding) of Cryptococcus neoformans cells subjected to gamma rays from an external source, and beta and alpha particles delivered to fungal cells by capsule-specific antibody. We found that gamma, beta, and alpha radiation affected cells through different pathways.

Bryan, Ruth A.; Huang, Xianchun; Morgenstern, Alfred; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Casadevall, Arturo; Dadachova, Ekaterina

2008-01-01

40

Gamma Radiation Effects on Peanut Skin Antioxidants  

PubMed Central

Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached-deodorized (RBD) soybean oil. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Oil Stability Index method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. All extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Oil Stability Index method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts’ antioxidative properties when added to soybean oil.

de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-D'Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

2012-01-01

41

Gamma radiation effects on peanut skin antioxidants.  

PubMed

Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached-deodorized (RBD) soybean oil. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Oil Stability Index method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. All extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Oil Stability Index method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts' antioxidative properties when added to soybean oil. PMID:22489142

de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-D'Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

2012-01-01

42

Search for gamma Radiation from Centaurus A.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A balloon-borne search was conducted on 6 May 1968 from Australia for radiation between 34 Kev and 567 Kev from Centaurus A, a strong discrete celestial radio source. The central scintillator of the gamma ray telescope has an energy resolution of 13% FWHM...

R. C. Haymes D. V. Ellis G. J. Fishman S. W. Glenn J. D. Kurfess

1968-01-01

43

Phenotypic and functional changes induced in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells after gamma-ray radiation exposure.  

PubMed

Ionizing radiation (IR) exposure causes rapid and acute bone marrow (BM) suppression that is reversible for nonlethal doses. Evidence is accumulating that IR can also provoke long-lasting residual hematopoietic injury. To better understand these effects, we analyzed phenotypic and functional changes in the stem/progenitor compartment of irradiated mice over a 10-week period. We found that hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) identified by their repopulating ability continued to segregate within the Hoechst dye excluding "side population (SP)" early after IR exposure. However, transient phenotypic changes were observed within this cell population: Sca-1 (S) and c-Kit (K) expression levels were increased and severely reduced, respectively, with a concurrent increase in the proportion of SP(SK) cells positive for established indicators of the presence of HSCs: CD150 and CD105. Ten weeks after IR exposure, expression of Sca-1 and c-Kit at the SP cell surface returned to control levels, and BM cellularity of irradiated mice was restored. However, the c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+)Lin(-/low) (KSL) stem/progenitor compartment displayed major phenotypic modifications, including an increase and a severe decrease in the frequencies of CD150(+)Flk2(-) and CD150(-)Flk2(+) cells, respectively. CD150(+) KSL cells also showed impaired reconstituting ability, an increased tendency to apoptosis, and accrued DNA damage. Finally, 15 weeks after exposure, irradiated mice, but not age-matched controls, allowed engraftment and significant hematopoietic contribution from transplanted congenic HSCs without additional host conditioning. These results provide novel insight in our understanding of immediate and delayed IR-induced hematopoietic injury and highlight similarities between HSCs of young irradiated and old mice. PMID:19489102

Simonnet, Arthur J; Nehmé, Johnny; Vaigot, Pierre; Barroca, Vilma; Leboulch, Philippe; Tronik-Le Roux, Diana

2009-06-01

44

Field Deployable Gamma Radiation Detectors for DHS Use  

SciTech Connect

Recently, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has integrated all nuclear detection research, development, testing, evaluation, acquisition, and operational support into a single office: the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO). The DNDO has specific requirements set for all commercial and government off-the-shelf radiation detection equipment and data acquisition systems. This article would investigate several recent developments in field deployable gamma radiation detectors that are attempting to meet the DNDO specifications. Commercially available, transportable, handheld radio isotope identification devices (RIID) are inadequate for DHS’s requirements in terms of sensitivity, resolution, response time and reach back capability. The leading commercial vendor manufacturing handheld gamma spectrometer in the United States is Thermo Electron Corporation. Thermo Electron’s identiFINDER™, which primarily uses sodium iodide crystals (3.18-cm x 2.54-cm cylinders) as gamma detector, has a Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum energy resolution of 7 percent at 662 keV. Thermo Electron has just recently come up with a reach-back capability patented as RadReachBack™ that enables emergency personnel to obtain real-time technical analysis of radiation samples they find in the field. The current project has the goal to build a prototype handheld gamma spectrometer, equipped with a digital camera and an embedded cell phone to be used as an RIID with higher sensitivity (comparable to that of a 7.62-cm x 7.62-cm sodium iodide crystal at low gamma energy ranging from 30 keV to 3,000 keV), better resolution (< 3.0 percent at 662 keV), faster response time (able to detect the presence of gamma-emitting radio isotopes within 5 seconds of approach), which will make it useful as a field deployable tool. The handheld equipment continuously monitors the ambient gamma radiation and, if it comes across any radiation anomalies with higher than normal gamma gross counts, it sets an alarm condition. When a substantial alarm level is reached, the system auto triggers saving of relevant spectral data and software-triggers the digital camera to take a snapshot. The spectral data including in situ analysis and the imagery data will be packaged in a suitable format and sent to a command post using an imbedded cell phone.

Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay

2007-08-31

45

Composition and apparatus for detecting gamma radiation  

DOEpatents

A gamma radiation detector and a radioluminescent composition for use therein. The detector includes a radioluminescent composition that emits light in a characteristic wavelength region when exposed to gamma radiation, and means for detecting said radiation. The composition contains a scintillant such as anglesite (PbSO[sub 4]) or cerussite (PbCO[sub 3]) incorporated into an inert, porous glass matrix via a sol-gel process. Particles of radiation-sensitive scintillant are added to, a sol solution. The mixture is polymerized to form a gel, then dried under conditions that preserve the structural integrity and radiation sensitivity of the scintillant. The final product is a composition containing the uniformly-dispersed scintillant in an inert, optically transparent and highly porous matrix. The composition is chemically inert and substantially impervious to environmental conditions including changes in temperature, air pressure, and so forth. It can be fabricated in cylinders, blocks with holes therethrough for flow of fluid, sheets, surface coatings, pellets or other convenient shapes. 3 figs.

Hofstetter, K.J.

1994-08-09

46

Composition and apparatus for detecting gamma radiation  

SciTech Connect

A gamma radiation detector and a radioluminiscent composition for use therein. The detector includes a radioluminscent composition that emits light in a characteristic wavelength region when exposed to gamma radiation, and means for detecting said radiation. The composition contains a scintillant such as anglesite (PbSO.sub.4) or cerussite (PbCO.sub.3) incorporated into an inert, porous glass matrix via a sol-gel process. Particles of radiation-sensitive scintillant are added to, a sol solution. The mixture is polymerized to form a gel, then dried under conditions that preserve the structural integrity and radiation sensitivity of the scintillant. The final product is a composition containing the uniformly-dispersed scintillant in an inert, optically transparent and highly porous matrix. The composition is chemically inert and substantially impervious to environmental conditions including changes in temperature, air pressure, and so forth. It can be fabricated in cylinders, blocks with holes therethrough for flow of fluid, sheets, surface coatings, pellets or other convenient shapes.

Hofstetter, Kenneth J. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01

47

Gamma-radiation (GR) triggers a unique gene expression profile associated with cell death compared to proton radiation (PR) in mice in vivo  

PubMed Central

Proton radiation (PR) therapy offers a number of potential advantages over conventional (photon) ?-radiation (GR) therapy for cancer, due to a more localized delivery of the radiation dose. However, the pathophysiological effects following PR-exposure are less well characterized than those of GR-exposure and the molecular changes associated with the acute apoptotic effects in mice in vivo following PR have not been elucidated. Previous studies have estimated the RBE of protons for various in vivo and in vitro endpoints at between 1.1 and 1.3. We assumed an RBE of 1.1 for the endpoints to be evaluated in these studies. Based on this assumption, ICR mice were treated with whole-body doses of GR (1.1 and 7.0 Gy) and PR (1.0 and 6.4 Gy) that were expected to represent RBE-weighted doses. The bone marrow, thymus, spleen and GI-tract were isolated and processed for histology and immunohistochemistry. The apoptotic responses varied greatly between GR and PR in a tissue- and dose-dependent manner. Surprisingly, cell death in the splenic white pulp was consistently lower in PR-treated animals compared to animals treated with GR. This was in spite of an increased presence of damaged DNA following PR as determined by staining for ?H2AX and phospho-ATM. Interestingly, both PR and GR triggered nuclear accumulation of p53 and no significant differences were found in the majority of the known pro-apoptotic p53-target genes in the spleens of treated mice. However, GR uniquely triggered a pro-apoptotic expression profile including expression of the pro-apoptotic, p53- and interferon stimulated target gene Bcl-G. In contrast to PR, GR may, in a cell type specific manner, trigger a more diverse non-random stress-response that mediates apoptosis partially independent of the extent of DNA damage.

Finnberg, Niklas; Wambi, Chris; Ware, Jeffrey H.; Kennedy, Ann R.; El-Deiry, Wafik S.

2013-01-01

48

Field-deployable gamma-radiation detectors for DHS use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has integrated all nuclear detection research, development, testing, evaluation, acquisition, and operational support into a single office: the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO). The DNDO has specific requirements set for all commercial off-the-shelf and government off-the-shelf radiation detection equipment and data acquisition systems. This article would investigate several recent developments in field deployable gamma radiation detectors that are attempting to meet the DNDO specifications. Commercially available, transportable, handheld radio isotope identification devices (RIID) are inadequate for DHS' requirements in terms of sensitivity, resolution, response time, and reach-back capability. The leading commercial vendor manufacturing handheld gamma spectrometer in the United States is Thermo Electron Corporation. Thermo Electron's identiFINDERTM, which primarily uses sodium iodide crystals (3.18 x 2.54cm cylinders) as gamma detectors, has a Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum energy resolution of 7 percent at 662 keV. Thermo Electron has just recently come up with a reach-back capability patented as RadReachBackTM that enables emergency personnel to obtain real-time technical analysis of radiation samples they find in the field1. The current project has the goal to build a prototype handheld gamma spectrometer, equipped with a digital camera and an embedded cell phone to be used as an RIID with higher sensitivity, better resolution, and faster response time (able to detect the presence of gamma-emitting radio isotopes within 5 seconds of approach), which will make it useful as a field deployable tool. The handheld equipment continuously monitors the ambient gamma radiation, and, if it comes across any radiation anomalies with higher than normal gamma gross counts, it sets an alarm condition. When a substantial alarm level is reached, the system automatically triggers the saving of relevant spectral data and software-triggers the digital camera to take a snapshot. The spectral data including in situ analysis and the imagery data will be packaged in a suitable format and sent to a command post using an imbedded cell phone.

Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy

2007-09-01

49

Field Deployable Gamma Radiation Detectors for DHS Use  

SciTech Connect

Recently, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has integrated all nuclear detection research, development, testing, evaluation, acquisition, and operational support into a single office: the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO). The DNDO has specific requirements set for all commercial off-the-shelf and government off-the-shelf radiation detection equipment and data acquisition systems. This article would investigate several recent developments in field deployable gamma radiation detectors that are attempting to meet the DNDO specifications. Commercially available, transportable, handheld radio isotope identification devices (RIID) are inadequate for DHS requirements in terms of sensitivity, resolution, response time, and reach-back capability. The leading commercial vendor manufacturing handheld gamma spectrometer in the United States is Thermo Electron Corporation. Thermo Electron's identiFINDER{trademark}, which primarily uses sodium iodide crystals (3.18 x 2.54cm cylinders) as gamma detectors, has a Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum energy resolution of 7 percent at 662 keV. Thermo Electron has just recently come up with a reach-back capability patented as RadReachBack{trademark} that enables emergency personnel to obtain real-time technical analysis of radiation samples they find in the field. The current project has the goal to build a prototype handheld gamma spectrometer, equipped with a digital camera and an embedded cell phone to be used as an RIID with higher sensitivity, better resolution, and faster response time (able to detect the presence of gamma-emitting radio isotopes within 5 seconds of approach), which will make it useful as a field deployable tool. The handheld equipment continuously monitors the ambient gamma radiation, and, if it comes across any radiation anomalies with higher than normal gamma gross counts, it sets an alarm condition. When a substantial alarm level is reached, the system automatically triggers the saving of relevant spectral data and software-triggers the digital camera to take a snapshot. The spectral data including in situ analysis and the imagery data will be packaged in a suitable format and sent to a command post using an imbedded cell phone.

Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay

2007-08-01

50

SSPM Scintillator Readout for Gamma Radiation Detection  

SciTech Connect

Silicon-based photodetectors offer several benefits relative to photomultiplier tube–based scintillator systems. Solid-state photomultipliers (SSPM) can realize the gain of a photomultiplier tube (PMT) with the quantum efficiency of silicon. The advantages of the solid-state approach must be balanced with adverse trade-offs, for example from increased dark current, to optimize radiation detection sensitivity. We are designing a custom SSPM that will be optimized for green emission of thallium-doped cesium iodide (CsI(Tl)). A typical field gamma radiation detector incorporates thallium doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and a radiation converter with a PMT. A PMT’s sensitivity peaks in the blue wavelengths and is well matched to NaI(Tl). This paper presents results of photomultiplier sensitivity relative to conventional SSPMs and discusses model design improvements. Prototype fabrications are in progress.

Baker, S A; Wendelberger, B; Young, J A; Green, J A; Guise, R E; Franks, L

2011-09-01

51

Afterglow Radiation from Gamma Ray Bursts  

SciTech Connect

Gamma-ray bursts (GRB) are huge fluxes of gamma rays that appear randomly in the sky about once a day. It is now commonly accepted that GRBs are caused by a stellar object shooting off a powerful plasma jet along its rotation axis. After the initial outburst of gamma rays, a lower intensity radiation remains, called the afterglow. Using the data from a hydrodynamical numerical simulation that models the dynamics of the jet, we calculated the expected light curve of the afterglow radiation that would be observed on earth. We calculated the light curve and spectrum and compared them to the light curves and spectra predicted by two analytical models of the expansion of the jet (which are based on the Blandford and McKee solution of a relativistic isotropic expansion; see Sari's model [1] and Granot's model [2]). We found that the light curve did not decay as fast as predicted by Sari; the predictions by Granot were largely corroborated. Some results, however, did not match Granot's predictions, and more research is needed to explain these discrepancies.

Desmond, Hugh; /Leuven U. /SLAC

2006-08-28

52

Orchid flowers tolerance to gamma-radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cut flowers are fresh goods that may be treated with fumigants such as methyl bromide to meet the needs of the quarantine requirements of importing countries. Irradiation is a non-chemical alternative to substitute the methyl bromide treatment of fresh products. In this research, different cut orchids were irradiated to examine their tolerance to gamma-rays. A 200 Gy dose did inhibit the Dendrobium palenopsis buds from opening, but did not cause visible damage to opened flowers. Doses of 800 and 1000 Gy were damaging because they provoked the flowers to drop from the stem. Cattleya irradiated with 750 Gy did not show any damage, and were therefore eligible for the radiation treatment. Cymbidium tolerated up to 300 Gy and above this dose dropped prematurely. On the other hand, Oncydium did not tolerate doses above 150 Gy.

Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko

2000-03-01

53

Satellite observation of atmospheric nuclear gamma radiation.  

PubMed

We present a satellite observation of the spectrum of gamma radiation from the Earth's atmosphere in the energy interval from 300 keV to 8.5 MeV. The data were accumulated by the gamma ray spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission over 3 1/2 years, from 1980 to 1983. The excellent statistical accuracy of the data allows 20 atmospheric line features to be identified. The features are superimposed on a continuum background which is modeled using a power law with index -1.16. Many of these features contain a blend of more than one nuclear line. All of these lines (with the exception of the 511-keV annihilation line) are Doppler broadened. Line energies and intensities are consistent with production by secondary neutrons interacting with atmospheric 14N and 16O. Although we find no evidence for other production mechanisms, we cannot rule out significant contributions from direct excitation or spallation by primary cosmic ray protons. The relative intensities of the observed line features are in fair agreement with theoretical models; however, existing models are limited by the availability of neutron cross sections, especially at high energies. The intensity and spectrum of photons at energies below the 511-keV line, in excess of a power law continuum, can be explained by Compton scattering of the annihilation line photons in traversing an average of approximately 21 g cm-2 of atmosphere. PMID:11537397

Letaw, J R; Share, G H; Kinzer, R L; Silberberg, R; Chupp, E L; Forrest, D J; Rieger, E

1989-02-01

54

Solar cell radiation handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is presented for predicting the degradation of a solar array in a space radiation environment. Solar cell technology which emphasizes the cell parameters that degrade in a radiation environment, is discussed along with the experimental techniques used in the evaluation of radiation effects. Other topics discussed include: theoretical aspects of radiation damage, methods for developing relative damage coefficients, nature of the space radiation environment, method of calculating equivalent fluence from electron and proton energy spectrums and relative damage coefficients, and comparison of flight data with estimated degradation.

Carter, J. R., Jr.; Tada, H. Y.

1973-01-01

55

Isolation of simian virus 40-transformed inbred hamster cell lines heterogeneous for virus induction by chemicals or radiation. [UV and gamma radiation, BUDR, mitomycin C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloned cell lines have been isolated after simian virus 40 (SV40) transformation of kidney cells of an inbred hamster strain. Considerable heterogeneity for the induction of infectious virus was observed between the lines, ranging from the spontaneous production of infectious virus to nonproducer characteristics. In spite of their differences in virus inducibility, all the clones were found to contain equivalent

J. C. Kaplan; S. M. Wilbert; J. J. Collins; T. Rakusanova; G. B. Zamansky; P. H. Black

1975-01-01

56

Gamma-ray pulsars: Radiation processes in the outer magnetosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe an emission model for gamma ray pulsars based on curvature radiation-reaction limited charges in the outer magnetosphere. They show how pair production on thermal surface flux can limit the acceleration zones. Estimates for the efficiency of GeV photon production eta gamma and the gamma-ray beaming fraction are derived, including their dependence on pulsar parameters. In general eta

Roger W. Romani

1996-01-01

57

Titanium-Water Thermosyphon Gamma Radiation Exposure and Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Titanium-water thermosyphons are being considered for use in heat rejection systems for fission power systems. Their proximity to the nuclear reactor will result in some gamma irradiation. Noncondensable gas formation from radiation-induced breakdown of w...

D. A. Goodenow D. A. Jaworske J. L. A. Sanzi

2012-01-01

58

The Origin of the Diffuse Background gamma-Radiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent observations have now provided evidence for diffuse background gamma radiation extending to energies beyond 100 MeV. There is some evidence of isotropy and implied cosmological origin. Significant features in the spectrum of this background radiati...

F. W. Stecker J. L. Puget

1974-01-01

59

Titanium-Water Thermosyphon Gamma Radiation Effects and Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Titanium-water thermosyphons are being considered for use in heat rejection systems for fission power systems. Their proximity to the nuclear reactor will result in some exposure to gamma irradiation. Non-condensable gas formation from radiation may break...

D. A. Goodenow D. A. Jaworske J. L. Sanzi

2012-01-01

60

Inactivation of rabies diagnostic reagents by gamma radiation  

SciTech Connect

Treatment of CVS-11 rabies adsorbing suspensions and street rabies infected mouse brains with gamma radiation resulted in inactivated reagents that are safer to distribute and use. These irradiated reagents were as sensitive and reactive as the nonirradiated control reagents.

Gamble, W.C.; Chappell, W.A.; George, E.H.

1980-11-01

61

Technique of Absolute Efficiency Determination for gamma Radiation Semiconductor Detectors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Simple technique is suggested to determine the absolute efficiency (E) of semiconductor detectors (SCD) which employs low-intensity neutron sources wide spread in scientific laboratories. The technique is based on using radioactive nuclide gamma radiation...

Vo Dak Bang Chan Dyk Tkhiep Chan Daj Ngiep Fan Tkhu Khyong, S. Gehrbish

1983-01-01

62

Gamma Radiation from PSR B1055-52.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The telescopes on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CCRO) have observed PSR B1055-52 a number of times between 1991 and 1998. From these data, a more detailed picture of the gamma radiation from this source has been developed, showing several characteris...

D. J. Thompson M. Bailes D. L. Bertsch J. Cordes N. D. DAmico J. A. Esposito J. Finley R. C. Hartman W. Hermsen G. Kanbach V. M. Kaspi D. A. Kniffen L. Kuiper Y. C. Lin A. Lyne R. Manchester S. M. Matz H. A. Mayer-Hasselwander P. F. Michelson P. L. Nolan

1998-01-01

63

Ginsan improved Th1 immune response inhibited by gamma radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma radiation causes suppression of the immune function, and immune properties are related to cytokine production. In the\\u000a present study, the polysaccharide, Ginsan, purified from an ethanol-insoluble fraction of Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer,\\u000a Araliaceae) water extract was studied to assess its effects on the immunosuppressive activities of gamma radiation. Ginsan\\u000a was found to stimulate murine normal splenocytes by inducing

Seon-Kyu Han; Jie-Young Song; Yeon-Sook Yun; Seh-Yoon Yi

2005-01-01

64

Solar cell radiation handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The handbook to predict the degradation of solar cell electrical performance in any given space radiation environment is presented. Solar cell theory, cell manufacturing and how they are modeled mathematically are described. The interaction of energetic charged particles radiation with solar cells is discussed and the concept of 1 MeV equivalent electron fluence is introduced. The space radiation environment is described and methods of calculating equivalent fluences for the space environment are developed. A computer program was written to perform the equivalent fluence calculations and a FORTRAN listing of the program is included. Data detailing the degradation of solar cell electrical parameters as a function of 1 MeV electron fluence are presented.

Tada, H. Y.; Carter, J. R., Jr.; Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.

1982-01-01

65

Effect of Tumour Promoter Anthralin on Gamma Radiation and 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide Induced Genotoxicity in Diploid Yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

KEYWORDS Anthralin, radiation, 4-Nitroquinoline1-oxide, yeast, recombination, mutation ABSTRACT The potentiating effect of tumour promoter anthralin on gamma radiation and 4-Nitroquinoline 1- oxide (4-NQO) induced gene conversion and back mutation was studied using diploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7. Cells were exposed to 20-400 Gy of gamma radiation and plated on media without anthralin or containing 0.05- 10 mg\\/ml of anthralin. In

K. B. Anjaria; B. S. Rao

2004-01-01

66

Some Radiation Techniques Used in the GU-3 Gamma Irradiator  

SciTech Connect

Different radiation techniques, measurement of dose and its distibution throughout the irradiated materials are the main problems treated in this paper. The oscillometry method combined with the ionization chamber, as an absolute dosimeter, is used for calibration of routine ECB dosimeters. The dose uniformity, for the used radiation techniques in our GU-3 Gamma Irradiator with Cs-137, is from 93% up to 99%.

Dodbiba, Andon [Institute of Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 85, Tirana (Albania); Ylli, Ariana; Stamo, Iliriana; Kongjika, Efigjeni [Institute of Biological Research, Rruga Sami Frasheri 5, Tirana (Albania)

2007-04-23

67

Radiosensitivity and Induction of Apoptosis by High LET Carbon Ion Beam and Low LET Gamma Radiation: A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

Cancer treatment with high LET heavy ion beam, especially, carbon ion beam (12C), is becoming very popular over conventional radiotherapy like low LET gamma or X-ray. Combination of Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor with xenotoxic drugs or conventional radiation (gamma or X-ray) is the newer approach for cancer therapy. The aim of our study was to compare the radiosensitivity and induction of apoptosis by high LET 12C and low LET gamma radiation in HeLa and PARP-1 knocked down cells. We did comet assay to detect DNA breaks, clonogenic survival assay, and cell cycle analysis to measure recovery after DNA damage. We measured apoptotic parameters like nuclear fragmentation and caspase-3 activation. DNA damage, cell killing, and induction of apoptosis were significantly higher for 12C than gamma radiation in HeLa. Cell killing and apoptosis were further elevated upon knocking down of PARP-1. Both 12C and gamma induced G2/M arrest although the 12C had greater effect. Unlike the gamma, 12C irradiation affects DNA replication as detected by S-phase delay in cell cycle analysis. So, we conclude that high LET 12C has greater potential over low LET gamma radiation in killing cells and radiosensitization upon PARP-1 inhibition was several folds greater for 12C than gamma.

Ghorai, Atanu; Bhattacharyya, Nitai P.; Sarma, Asitikantha; Ghosh, Utpal

2014-01-01

68

Trypanosoma cruzi Gene Expression in Response to Gamma Radiation  

PubMed Central

Trypanosoma cruzi is an organism highly resistant to ionizing radiation. Following a dose of 500 Gy of gamma radiation, the fragmented genomic DNA is gradually reconstructed and the pattern of chromosomal bands is restored in less than 48 hours. Cell growth arrests after irradiation but, while DNA is completely fragmented, RNA maintains its integrity. In this work we compared the transcriptional profiles of irradiated and non-irradiated epimastigotes at different time points after irradiation using microarray. In total, 273 genes were differentially expressed; from these, 160 were up-regulated and 113 down-regulated. We found that genes with predicted functions are the most prevalent in the down-regulated gene category. Translation and protein metabolic processes, as well as generation of precursor of metabolites and energy pathways were affected. In contrast, the up-regulated category was mainly composed of obsolete sequences (which included some genes of the kinetoplast DNA), genes coding for hypothetical proteins, and Retrotransposon Hot Spot genes. Finally, the tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1, a gene involved in double-strand DNA break repair process, was up-regulated. Our study demonstrated the peculiar response to ionizing radiation, raising questions about how this organism changes its gene expression to manage such a harmful stress.

Grynberg, Priscila; Passos-Silva, Danielle Gomes; Mourao, Marina de Moraes; Hirata Jr, Roberto; Macedo, Andrea Mara; Machado, Carlos Renato; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Franco, Gloria Regina

2012-01-01

69

System for measuring the natural gamma radiation of surface and subsurface formations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system is described for measuring natural gamma radiation consisting of: a. a sodium iodide scintillation type gamma ray detector for providing an output representative of the total natural gamma radiation spectrum for potassium, uranium and throium sources, the output of the detector being temperature sensitive, b. an artificial source of gamma radiation that is temperature insensitive for producing a

Dion

1986-01-01

70

Correction of natural gamma radiation logs for the effects of gamma ray emission from and attenuation by the borehole fluid  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed are a method and a system for natural gamma radiation well logging in which the radiation detected in five energy windows is converted into a log of thorium, uranium and potassium (Th,U,K) which is corrected for the presence of gamma radiation emitting materials (e.g., potassium) and strong gamma radiation attenuators (e.g., barite and/or hematite) in the borehole fluid.

Ellis, D. V.

1985-09-17

71

Gamma and neutrino radiation dose from gamma ray bursts and nearby supernovae.  

PubMed

Supernovae and gamma ray bursts are exceptionally powerful cosmic events that occur randomly in space and time in our galaxy. Their potential to produce very high radiation levels has been discussed, along with speculation that they may have caused mass extinctions noted from the fossil record. It is far more likely that they have produced radiation levels that, while not lethal, are genetically significant, and these events may have influenced the course of evolution and the manner in which organisms respond to radiation insult. Finally, intense gamma radiation exposure from these events may influence the ability of living organisms to travel through space. Calculations presented in this paper suggest that supernovae and gamma ray bursts are likely to produce sea-level radiation exposures of about I Gy with a mean interval of about five million years and sea-level radiation exposures of about 0.2 Gy every million years. Comets and meteors traveling through space would receive doses in excess of 10 Gy at a depth of 0.02 m at mean intervals of 4 and 156 million years, respectively. This may place some constraints on the ability of life to travel through space either between planets or between planetary systems. Calculations of radiation dose from neutrino radiation are presented and indicate that this is not a significant source of radiation exposure for even extremely close events for the expected neutrino spectrum from these events. PMID:11906138

Karam, P Andrew

2002-04-01

72

Measurement and Calculation of Gamma Radiation from HWZPR Reactor  

SciTech Connect

HWZPR is a research reactor with natural uranium fuel, D{sub 2}O moderator and graphite reflector with maximum power of 100 W. It is a suitable means for theoretical research and heavy water reactor experiments. Neutrons from the core participate in different nuclear reactions by interactions with fuel, moderator, graphite and the concrete around the reactor. The results of these interactions are the production of prompt gammas in the environment. Useful information is gained by the reactor gamma spectrum measurement from point of view of relative quantity and energy distribution of direct and scattered radiations. Reactor gamma ray spectrum has been gathered in different places around the reactor by HPGe detector. In analysis of these spectra, {sup 1}H(n,{gamma}){sup 2}H, {sup 16}O(n,n'{gamma}){sup 16}O, {sup 2}H(n,{gamma}){sup 3}H and {sup 238}U(n,{gamma}){sup 239}U reactions occurring in reactor moderator and fuel, are important. The measured spectrum has been primarily estimated by the MCNP code. There is agreement between the code and the experiments in some points. The scattered gamma rays from {sup 27}Al (n,{gamma}){sup 28}Al reaction in the reactor tank, are the most among the gammas scattered in the reactor environment. Also the dose calculations by MCNP code show that 72% of gamma dose belongs to the energy range 3-11 MeV from reactor gamma spectrum and the danger of exposure from the reactor high-energy photons is serious. (author)

Jalali, Majid [Esfahan Nuclear Technology Center - ENTC (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2006-07-01

73

Monitoring precipitation and lightning via changes in atmospheric gamma radiation  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric {gamma}-radiation has been measured since 1999 and recently at three elevations 220m from the first site to ascertain position dependency and optimal elevation for observing {gamma}-rays from radon and radon-progeny found in precipitation. Radiation from time-independent and diurnal components was minimized in order to ascertain the reliability, accuracy and practicality of determining precipitation rates from correlated {gamma}-rates. Data taken with 4-12.9cm3 NaI detectors at elevations above ground of 9.91, 14.2, 15.7, and 21.4 m were fit with a model assuming a surface and/or volume deposition of radon progeny on/in water droplets during precipitation which predicts {gamma} -ray rates proportional to the 2/5 and/or 3/5 power of rain rates, respectively. With mostly surface deposition and age corrections for radon progeny, the correlation coefficients improved with elevation and reached a maximum at 0.95 around 20m. Atmospheric {gamma} radiation enables monitoring precipitation rates to 0.3 mm/h with time resolution limited only by counting statistics. High {gamma}-ray rates, decreasing with 40-minute half-life following lightning may be indirectly due to ions accelerated in electric field.

Greenfield, M.B.; Domondon, A.; Tsuchiya, S.; Tomiyama, G. [International Christian University, Mitaka (Japan)

2003-08-26

74

Impact of spectral smoothing on gamma radiation portal alarm probabilities.  

PubMed

Gamma detector counts are included in radiation portal monitors (RPM) to screen for illicit nuclear material. Gamma counts are sometimes smoothed to reduce variance in the estimated underlying true mean count rate, which is the "signal" in our context. Smoothing reduces total error variance in the estimated signal if the bias that smoothing introduces is more than offset by the variance reduction. An empirical RPM study for vehicle screening applications is presented for unsmoothed and smoothed gamma counts in low-resolution plastic scintillator detectors and in medium-resolution NaI detectors. PMID:21612936

Burr, T; Hamada, M; Hengartner, N

2011-10-01

75

Nano-Sensitization under gamma rays and fast ion radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of heavy compounds to enhance radiation induced damage is a promising approach to improve the therapeutic index of radiotherapy. In order to quantify and control the effects of these radiosensitizers, it is of fundamental interest to describe the elementary processes which take place at the molecular level. Using DNA as a probe, we present a comparison of the damage induced in the presence of platinum compounds exposed to different types of ionizing radiation. We present the results obtained with gamma rays (Linear Energy Transfer (LET) = 0.2 keV.?m-1), fast helium ions He2+ (LET = 2.3 keV.?m-1) and fast carbon ions C6+ (LET = 13 keV.?m-1 and LET = 110 keV.?m-1). The efficiency of two different sensitizers was measured: platinum based molecules (the chloroterpyridine platinum - PtTC) and platinum nanoparticles (PtNP). These experiments show that the two sensitizers are efficiently amplifying molecular damage under photon or ion irradiation. Experiments with a radical scavenger confirmed that these damages are mediated by free radicals for more than 90%. More interestingly, the induction of complex damage, the most lethal for the cells, is amplified by a factor of 1.5 on average if platinum (PtTC and PtNP) is present. As already known, the induction of complex damages increases also with the radiation LET. So, finally, the most significant enhancement of complex damage is observed when ion radiation is combined with platinum induced sensitization.

Porcel, E.; Li, S.; Usami, N.; Remita, H.; Furusawa, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Le Sech, C.; Lacombe, S.

2012-07-01

76

Annual effective dose from environmental gamma radiation in Bushehr city  

PubMed Central

Background Present study was an attempt to measure outdoor and indoor gamma dose rates in Bushehr city to determine corresponding annual effective dose and, to assess effect of active nuclear power plant located in Bushehr city on background radiation level of this city. Methods All measurements were performed by G.M (Geiger Muller) detector (X5C plus) calibrated in Iran Atomic Energy Agency. In order to avoid effects of ground on outdoor and indoor measurements, G.M detector was placed one meter higher than ground level. Also, during the outdoor measurements, G.M detector was used at least six meters away from the walls of any building nearby to avoid unwanted effects of the materials used in the buildings on measurements. Results Average gamma dose rates of outdoor and indoor measurements were determined as 51.8?±?8.8 nSv/h and 60.2?±?7.2 nSv/h, respectively. Annual effective dose due to background gamma radiation was calculated as 0.36 mSv which was lower than average global level. Conclusions The average annual effective dose from background gamma radiation in Bushehr city was less than global level. Comparison of the results of present study, as follow up, with previous attempt performed in 2004 to determine effective dose of environmental gamma radiation in Bushehr province revealed that, during eight years, nuclear power plant located in this city has not significantly increased level of annual effective dose of Bushehr city.

2014-01-01

77

Grafting onto polyformaldehyde fibers. [Gamma radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acrylic acid (AA), acrylonitrile (AN), and acrylamide (AM) were grafted onto polyformaldehyde (PF) fibers employing ..gamma..-ray irradiation as well as benzoyl peroxide initiation. The nature of the graft copolymer obtained from a given monomer was dependent on the type of method used for the grafting reactions. This was reflected in the various characteristics of the grafted PF fibers such as

H. T. Lokhande; A. S. Salvi

1978-01-01

78

Secondary gamma radiation from neutral particle beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a proton?induced gamma?ray emission experiment are presented. Such data can be used to simulate the effects of a neutral particle beam within the context of proposed midcourse?phase target discrimination schemes. A summary of the calculations is presented in order to support the general conclusion that the physical limitations on such a system are prohibitive.

Guy A. Letteer; John A. Jungerman; Carlos M. Castaneda

1991-01-01

79

Search for gamma Radiation from Centaurus A.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The letter reports a search for radiation between 34 and 567 keV from a region in Centaurus that includes the radio galaxy Centaurus A. No radiation from Centaurus A at any energy within this interval was detected and upper limits to the flux have been es...

R. C. Haymes D. V. Ellis G. J. Fishman S. W. Glenn J. D. Kurfess

1968-01-01

80

Primary stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to gamma radiation.  

PubMed

As the environment is inevitably exposed to ionizing radiation from natural and anthropogenic sources, it is important to evaluate gamma radiation induced stress responses in plants. The objective of this research is therefore to investigate radiation effects in Arabidopsis thaliana on individual and subcellular level by exposing 2-weeks-old seedlings for 7 days to total doses of 3.9 Gy, 6.7 Gy, 14.8 Gy and 58.8 Gy and evaluating growth, photosynthesis, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid concentrations and antioxidative enzyme capacities. While the capacity of photosystem II (PSII measured as Fv/Fm) remained intact, plants started optimizing their photosynthetic process at the lower radiation doses by increasing the PSII efficiency (?PSII) and the maximal electron transport rate (ETRmax) and by decreasing the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). At the highest radiation dose, photosynthetic parameters resembled those of control conditions. On subcellular level, roots showed increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) capacities under gamma irradiation but catalase (CAT), syringaldazine peroxidase (SPX) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) activities, on the other hand, decreased. In the leaves no alterations were observed in SOD, CAT and SPX capacities, but GPX was highly affected. Based on these results it seems that roots are more sensitive for oxidative stress under gamma radiation exposure than leaves. PMID:24333636

Vanhoudt, Nathalie; Horemans, Nele; Wannijn, Jean; Nauts, Robin; Van Hees, May; Vandenhove, Hildegarde

2014-03-01

81

Inverse response of polypropylene to gamma radiation under vacuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of gamma radiation under vacuum on polypropylene is analysed on the basis of a simple kinetic model. The influence of the irradiation parameters, total absorbed dose and dose rate, on the rates of the main reactions occurring during irradiation, i.e. ?-scission, addition to double bonds and termination, is studied. Using kinetic equations, and free radical and double bond

L. Sarcinelli; A. Valenza; G. Spadaro

1997-01-01

82

Fungistatic activity of soil sterilized by gamma radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil samples collected from a cultivated field (loam) at University of ; Osaka Prefecture were sifted through screen (<2 mm). The moisture content of the ; sifted soil was about 30% of the moistureholding capacity. The soil samples of ; about 30 g were placed in 9-cm diameter petri dishes and then exposed to gamma ; radiation from 6 x

Shin-Ichi Kusakari; Yasushi Takagi

1973-01-01

83

Production of Radioisotopic gamma Radiation Sources in JAERI.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present state of production of gamma radiation sources in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is described. Sources of exp 192 Ir, exp 60 Co and exp 170 Tm for industrial and exp 198 Au and exp 192 Ir for medical applications are produced a...

H. Katoh H. Kogure K. Suzuki

1980-01-01

84

EFFECT OF GAMMA RADIATION ON LEATHERS AND PICKLED CALFSKIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of vegetable-tammed, chrome-tanned and retanned leathers, and ; pickled calfskin to gamma radiation has been demonstrated to have a detrimental ; effect on the materials as shown by lowering of the shrinkage temperature, ; breaking strength, and elongation properties. The greatest damage occurred at ; the highest level of irradiation. Statistical analysis by matched-pair variance ; analysis of the

V. G. Vely; N. D. Gallagher; M. B. Neher

1960-01-01

85

Gamma Radiation from PSR B1055-52  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The telescopes on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CCRO) have observed PSR B1055-52 a number of times between 1991 and 1998. From these data, a more detailed picture of the gamma radiation from this source has been developed, showing several characteristics which distinguish this pulsar: the light curve is complex; there is no detectable unpulsed emission; the energy spectrum is flat, with no evidence of a sharp high-energy cutoff up to greater than 4 GeV. Comparisons of the gamma-ray data with observations at longer wavelengths show that no two of the known gamma-ray pulsars have quite the same characteristics; this diversity makes interpretation in terms of theoretical models difficult.

Thompson, D. J.; Bailes, M.; Bertsch, D. L.; Cordes, J.; DAmico, N. D.; Esposito, J. A.; Finley, J.; Hartman, R. C.; Hermsen, W.; Kanbach, G.; Kaspi, V. M.; Kniffen, D. A.; Kuiper, L.; Lin, Y. C.; Lyne, A.; Manchester, R.; Matz, S. M.; Mayer-Hasselwander, H. A.; Michelson, P. F.; Nolan, P. L.

1998-01-01

86

Gamma Radiation from PSR B1055-52  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The telescopes on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) have observed PSR B1055-52 a number of times between 1991 and 1998. From these data, a more detailed picture of the gamma radiation from this source has been developed, showing several characteristics which distinguish this pulsar: the light curve is complex; there is no detectable unpulsed emission; the energy spectrum is flat, with no evidence of a sharp high-energy cutoff up to greater than 4 GeV. Comparisons of the gamma-ray data with observations at longer wavelengths show that no two of the known gamma-ray pulsars have quite the same characteristics; this diversity makes interpretation in terms of theoretical models difficult.

Thompson, D. J.; Bailes, M.; Bertsch, D. L.; Cordes, J.; DAmico, N.; Esposito, J. A.; Finley, J.; Hartman, R. C.; Hermsen, W.; Kanbach, G.; Kaspi, V. M.; Kniffen, D. A.; Kuiper, L.; Lin, Y. C.; Lyne, A.; Manchester, R.; Matz, S. M.; Mayer-Hasselwander, H. A.; Michelson, P. F.; Nolan, P. L.

1999-01-01

87

Rejoining of gamma-radiation-induced single-strand breaks in plasmid DNA by human cell extracts: Dependence on the concentration of the hydroxyl radical scavenger, Tris  

SciTech Connect

The rejoining of single-strand breaks induced by {gamma} irradiation in plasmid DNA under different scavenging conditions is described using human cell extracts. As the scavenging capacity of the irradiated solution increases from 1.5 X 10{sup 7} to 3 X 10{sup 8} s{sup -1} using Tris-HCl as a scavenger, the ratio of single- to double-strand breaks is reduced from {approx}70:1 to 40:1. After irradiation, a proportion of DNA molecules have no initial strand breaks but contain damage that is converted to strand breaks when incubated either at 37{degrees}C or in the presence of cellular extract. Repair of damage by the extracts is dependent upon the scavenging capacity of the irradiated solution. Optimal rejoining is observed when the scavenging capacity is <1.5 X 10{sup 7} s{sup -1}, and results in the repair of some initial strand breaks. As the scavenging capacity increases to 3 X 10{sup 8} s{sup -1} the proportion of breaks repaired is significantly reduced. The relative increase in the yield of double-strand breaks and reduced repairability of single-strand breaks at a scavenging capacity of 3 X 10{sup 8} s{sup -1} is consistent with the concept that the severity of damage increases upon increasing the scavenger concentration. 26 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Hodgkins, P.S.; Fairman, M.P.; O`Neill, P. [Medical Research Council Radiation and Genome Stability Unit, Harwell, Didcot, Oxon (United Kingdom)

1996-01-01

88

Radiation effects on membranes - 1. Cellular permeability and cell survival  

SciTech Connect

The effect of various doses of ..gamma.. radiation (5-60 krad) on the membrane permeability and cell survival of Candida albicans, a pathogenic yeast, was investigated. A reduction in the cell survival and in the accumulation of amino acids (proline, glycine, lysine, and glutamic acid) was observed following irradiation. The rate of oxygen uptake, which is often associated with transport, was also reduced. There was no damage to available sulfhydryl groups following the exposure of cells to various doses of ..gamma.. radiation. The membrane lipid composition of C. albicans cells can be altered by growing them in alkanes of varying chain lengths. The effects of such altered lipid composition on radiosensitivity was examined. It was observed that C. albicans cells with altered lipid content acquire resistance to ..gamma.. radiation.

Khare, S.; Jayakumar, A.; Trivedi, A.; Kesavan, P.C.; Prasad, R.

1982-05-01

89

Effects of gamma radiation on spermatogenesis and fertility of male Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae)  

SciTech Connect

Amblyomma americanum males were treated with 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 16 krad of gamma radiation. Testes of ticks treated with 2, 3, 4, 8, and 16 krad were smaller than those of ticks irradiated at lower levels and controls. No recognizable alteration in timing of spermatogenesis was noted among the different radiation groups, but severe breakdown and depletion of germinal cells was noted at 4, 8, and 16 krad. Percent hatch of larvae from crosses of irradiated males and untreated females decreased with increasing radiation level. No hatch was observed from eggs of females mated to males treated at 2 krad or higher.

Oliver, J.H. Jr.; Stanley, M.A.

1987-04-01

90

A study of the diffuse galactic gamma radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The observed diffuse galactic gamma radiation is compared to that predicted from galactic cosmic ray interactions with galactic matter and photons, assuming that on a broad scale the galactic cosmic rays in the plane are correlated with matter density. Recent considerations of the galactic diffuse matter distribution, particularly the molecular hydrogen, the galactic photon density, and a revised cosmic ray galactic scale height, are included. The predictions are compared to the observational gamma ray longitude distributions, the latitude distribution, and energy spectrum, including the COS-B satellite results, and the COS-B background estimate. Considering the uncertainties, the agreement between the theoretical predictions and the gamma ray data seems generally reasonable, suggesting that the general concepts are likely to be correct. Both the results determined here alone and in conjunction with other work calculating source functions assuming only cosmic ray matter contributions indicate no necessity for a significant point source contribution to the diffuse gamma radiation in the energy range being considered (E(gamma)10 MeV).

Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.

1984-01-01

91

Development of a qualitative dose indicator for gamma radiation using lyophilized Deinococcus.  

PubMed

The feasibility of using Deinococcus showing strong resistance to both desiccation and ionizing radiation as a dose indicator of gamma radiation exposure was evaluated. Three Deinococcus strains having different levels of radiation resistance, Deinococcus radiodurans (DRD), Deinococcus radiopugnans (DRP), and the DRD pprI mutant (DRM), were selected to develop an appropriate dose indicator for a broad range of exposures. DRD, DRP, and DRM cultures with different numbers of cells [~10(7) to 10(3) colony forming units (CFU)/100 microliter] were lyophilized and subjected to various doses of gamma radiation to determine a critical dose that inhibited bacterial growth completely. Finally, a combination of DRD at ~10(7) and ~10(6) CFU, DRP at ~10(5) CFU, and DRM at ~10(4) CFU successfully indicated exposure to 5, 10, 20, and 30 kGy of gamma radiation, respectively. This study shows the possibility of developing a qualitative indicator of radiation exposure using Deinococcus. PMID:22814506

Lim, Sangyong; Song, Dusup; Joe, Minho; Kim, Dongho

2012-09-01

92

Gamma radiation survey of the LDEF spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The retrieval of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) spacecraft after nearly 6 years in orbit offered a unique opportunity to study the long term buildup of induced radioactivity in the variety of materials on board. The first complete gamma ray survey was conducted of a large spacecraft on LDEF shortly after its return to Earth. A surprising observation was the large Be-7 activity which was seen primarily on the leading edge of the satellite, implying that it was picked up by LDEF in orbit. This is the first known evidence for accretion of a radioactive isotope onto an orbiting spacecraft. Other isotopes seen during the survey, the strongest being Na-22 and Mn-54, are all attributed to activation of spacecraft components in orbit. Be-7 is a spallation product of cosmic rays on nitrogen and oxygen in the upper atmosphere. However, the observed density is much greater than expected due to cosmic ray production in situ. This implies transport of Be-7 from much lower altitudes up to the LDEF orbit.

Phillips, G. W.; King, S. E.; August, R. A.; Ritter, J. C.; Cutchin, J. H.; Haskins, P. S.; Mckisson, J. E.; Ely, D. W.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Piercey, R. B.

1991-01-01

93

Gamma radiation survey of the LDEF spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The retrieval of the Long Duration Exposure Facility spacecraft in January 1990 after nearly six years in orbit offered a unique opportunity to study the long term buildup of induced radioactivity in the variety of materials on board. We conducted the first complete gamma-ray survey of a large spacecraft on LDEF shortly after its return to earth. A surprising observation was the Be-7 activity which was seen primarily on the leading edge of the satellite, implying that it was picked up by LDEF in orbit. This is the first known evidence for accretion of a radioactive isotope onto an orbiting spacecraft. Other isotopes observed during the survey, the strongest being Na-22, are all attributed to activation of spacecraft components. Be-7 is a spallation product of cosmic rays on nitrogen and oxygen in the upper atmosphere. However, the observed density is much greater than expected due to cosmic-ray production in situ. This implies transport of Be-7 from much lower altitudes up to the LDEF orbit.

Phillips, G. W.; King, S. E.; August, R. A.; Ritter, J. C.; Cutchin, J. H.; Haskins, P. S.; Mckisson, J. E.; Ely, D. W.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Piercey, R. B.

1992-01-01

94

Gamma Radiation Induces Micronucleated Reticulocytes in 3-D Bone Marrow Bioreactors in Vitro  

PubMed Central

Radiation injury to the bone marrow is potentially lethal due to the potent DNA-damaging effects on cells of the hematopoietic system, including bone marrow stem cell, progenitor, and the precursor cell populations. Investigation of radiation genotoxic effects on bone marrow progenitor/precursor cells has been challenged by the lack of optimal in vitro surrogate organ culture systems, and the overall difficulty to sustain lineage-specific proliferation and differentiation of hematopoiesis in vitro. We report the investigation of radiation genotoxic effects in bone marrow cultures of C57Bl/6 mice established in 3-D bioreactors, which sustain long-term bone marrow cultures. For these studies, genotoxicity is measured by the induction of micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RET). The kinetics and dose-response relationship of MN-RET induction in response to gamma-radiation of bioreactor-maintained bone marrow cultures are presented. Our data showed that 3-D long-term bone marrow cultures had sustained erythropoiesis capable of generating reticulocytes up to 8 weeks. The peak time-interval of viable cell output and percentage of reticulocytes increased steadily and reached the initial peak between the 14th to 21st days after inoculations. This was followed by a rebound or staying relatively constant until week 8. The percentage of MN-RET reached the maximum between 24 and 32 hours post 1 Gy gamma-ray. There was a near linear MN-RET induction by gamma radiation from 0 Gy to 1.0 Gy, followed by an attenuated increase to 1.5 – 2.0 Gy. The MN-RET response showed a downtrend beyond 2 Gy. Our data suggest that bone marrow culture in the 3-D bioreactor may be a useful organ culture system for the investigation of radiation genotoxic effect in vitro.

Sun, Hongliang; Dertinger, Stephen D.; Hyrien, Ollivier; David Wu, J. H.; Chen, Yuhchyau

2009-01-01

95

Oxidation of naringenin by gamma-radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction of rad OH with naringenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone) in the presence of air induced the formation of the hydroxylation product eriodictyol (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavanone). Its yield was dependent on pH. The initial degradation yield of naringenin was Gi(-Nar)=(2.5±0.2)×10 -7 mol dm -3 J -1. For the reaction with rad OH, a rate constant k ( rad OH+naringenin)=(7.2±0.7)×10 9 M -1 s -1 was determined. In the presence of N 2O and NaN 3/N 2O, no eriodyctiol was formed. Apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavon) was detected as decay product of the naringenin phenoxyl radicals. In Ar-saturated solutions, naringenin exhibited a pronounced radiation resistance, G(-naringenin) ˜0.3×10 -7 mol dm -3 J -1.

Nagy, Tristan O.; Ledolter, Karin; Solar, Sonja

2008-06-01

96

Optical Sensors for Monitoring Gamma and Neutron Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For safety and efficiency, nuclear reactors must be carefully monitored to provide feedback that enables the fission rate to be held at a constant target level via adjustments in the position of neutron-absorbing rods and moderating coolant flow rates. For automated reactor control, the monitoring system should provide calibrated analog or digital output. The sensors must survive and produce reliable output with minimal drift for at least one to two years, for replacement only during refueling. Small sensor size is preferred to enable more sensors to be placed in the core for more detailed characterization of the local fission rate and fuel consumption, since local deviations from the norm tend to amplify themselves. Currently, reactors are monitored by local power range meters (LPRMs) based on the neutron flux or gamma thermometers based on the gamma flux. LPRMs tend to be bulky, while gamma thermometers are subject to unwanted drift. Both electronic reactor sensors are plagued by electrical noise induced by ionizing radiation near the reactor core. A fiber optic sensor system was developed that is capable of tracking thermal neutron fluence and gamma flux in order to monitor nuclear reactor fission rates. The system provides near-real-time feedback from small- profile probes that are not sensitive to electromagnetic noise. The key novel feature is the practical design of fiber optic radiation sensors. The use of an actinoid element to monitor neutron flux in fiber optic EFPI (extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric) sensors is a new use of material. The materials and structure used in the sensor construction can be adjusted to result in a sensor that is sensitive to just thermal, gamma, or neutron stimulus, or any combination of the three. The tested design showed low sensitivity to thermal and gamma stimuli and high sensitivity to neutrons, with a fast response time.

Boyd, Clark D.

2011-01-01

97

Radiation resistance testing of high-density polyethylene. [Gamma rays  

SciTech Connect

Mechanical tests following gamma inrradiation and creep tests during irradiation have been conducted on high-density polyethylene (HDPE) to assess the adequacy of this material for use in high-integrity containers (HICs). These tests were motivated by experience in nuclear power plants in which polyethylene electrical insulation detoriorated more rapidly than expected due to radiation-induced oxidation. This suggested that HDPE HICs used for radwaste disposal might degrade more rapidly than would be expected in the absence of the radiation field. Two types of HDPE, a highly cross-linked rotationally molded material and a non-cross-linked blow molded material, were used in these tests. Gamma-ray irradiations were performed at several dose rates in environments of air, Barnwell and Hanford backfill soils, and ion-exchange resins. The results of tensile and bend testing on these materials following irradiation will be presented along with preliminary results on creep during irradiation.

Dougherty, D.R.; Adams, J.W.

1983-01-01

98

Titanium-Water Thermosyphon Gamma Radiation Exposure and Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Titanium-water thermosyphons are being considered for use in heat rejection systems for fission power systems. Their proximity to the nuclear reactor will result in some gamma irradiation. Noncondensable gas formation from radiation-induced breakdown of water over time may render portions of the thermosyphon condenser inoperable. A series of developmental thermosyphons were operated at nominal operating temperature under accelerated gamma irradiation, with exposures on the same order of magnitude as that expected in 8 years of heat rejection system operation. Temperature data were obtained during exposure at three locations on each thermosyphon: evaporator, condenser, and condenser end cap. Some noncondensable gas was evident; however, thermosyphon performance was not affected because the noncondensable gas was compressed into the fill tube region at the top of the thermosyphon, away from the heat rejecting fin. The trend appeared to be an increasing amount of noncondensable gas formation with increasing gamma irradiation dose. Hydrogen is thought to be the most likely candidate for the noncondensable gas and hydrogen is known to diffuse through grain boundaries. Post-exposure evaluation of one thermosyphon in a vacuum chamber and at temperature revealed that the noncondensable gas diffused out of the thermosyphon over a relatively short period of time. Further research shows a number of experimental and theoretical examples of radiolysis occurring through gamma radiation alone in pure water.

Sanzi, James, L.A; Jaworske, Donald, A.; Goodenow, Debra, A.

2012-01-01

99

Titanium-Water Thermosyphon Gamma Radiation Effects and Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Titanium-water thermosyphons are being considered for use in heat rejection systems for fission power systems. Their proximity to the nuclear reactor will result in some exposure to gamma irradiation. Non-condensable gas formation from radiation may breakdown water over time and render a portion of the thermosyphon condenser inoperable. A series of developmental thermosyphons were operated at nominal operating temperature with accelerated gamma irradiation exposures on the same order of magnitude that is expected in eight years of heat rejection system operation. Temperature data were obtained during exposure at three locations on each thermosyphon; evaporator, condenser, and condenser end cap. Some non-condensable gas was evident, however thermosyphon performance was not affected because the non-condensable gas was compressed into the fill tube region at the top of the thermosyphon, away from the heat rejecting fin. The trend appeared to be an increasing amount of non-condensable gas formation with increasing gamma irradiation dose. Hydrogen is thought to be the most likely candidate for the non-condensable gas and hydrogen is known to diffuse through grain boundaries. Post-exposure evaluation of selected thermosyphons at temperature and in a vacuum chamber revealed that the non-condensable gas likely diffused out of the thermosyphons over a relatively short period of time. Further research shows a number of experimental and theoretical examples of radiolysis occurring through gamma radiation alone in pure water.

Sanzi, James L.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Goodenow, Debra A.

2012-01-01

100

Curvature-radiation--pair-production model for. gamma. -ray pulsars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assuming that pulsar ..gamma..-rays are produced via curvature radiation of primary electrons near the neutron star and that they are attenuated only through the pair production process in strong electric and magnetic fields, we use a detailed model of the magnetosphere to calculate the resulting optical depths and pulse shapes. We consider both the effect of E.B=0 and E.Bnot =0

A. K. Harding; E. Tademaru; L. W. Esposito

1978-01-01

101

Corrosion of copper-based materials in gamma radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion behaviors of pure copper (CDA 101), 7% aluminum-copper bronze (CDA 613) and 30% nickel-copper (CDA 715) are being studied in a gamma radiation field of 1 x 10⁵ R\\/h. These studies are in support of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project, by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), of copper-based materials for possible use in container systems

Yunker

1986-01-01

102

Effect of. gamma. radiation on high-water-content glasses  

SciTech Connect

Na/sub 2/OX3SiO/sub 2/ glasses containing up to approx. =11 wt% water were prepared under high-pressure, hydrothermal conditions. The samples were exposed to gamma radiation of 5x10/sup 7/ rad. Optical and ESR measurements were made before and after exposure to radiation, and it was found that the induced absorption in the visible region decreased drastically with increasing H/sub 2/O concentration. The induced ESR signal-integrated intensity also decreased with increasing water content. After irradiation an increase was observed in the fundamental OH absorption bands in the IR region of the spectra of the water-containing specimens.

Acocella, J.; Takata, M.; Tomozawa, M.; Warden, J.T.; Watson, E.B.

1982-09-01

103

Improved detector for the measurement of gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present invention lies in the field of gamma ray spectrometry of geologic deposits and other materials, such as building materials (cement, asphalt, etc.) More specifically, the invention is an improved device for the gamma ray spetcrometery of gelogical deposits as a tool for petroleum exploration, geologic research and monitoring of radio-active materials such as in uranium mill tailings and the like. Improvement consists in enlarging the area of the receptor face and without any necessarily substantial increase in the volume of the receptor crystal over the current cylindrical shapes. The invention also provides, as a corollary of the increase in area receptor crystal face, a reduction in the weight of the amount of material necessary to provide effective shielding of the crystal from atmospheric radiation and radiation from deposits not under examination. The area of the receptor crystal face is increased by forming the crystal as a truncated cone with the shielding shaped as a hollow frustrum of a cone. A photomultiplier device is secured to the smaller face of the crystal. The improved detector shape can also be used in scintillometers which measure total gamma radiation.

Zelt, F. B.

1985-07-01

104

Radiation hardness of high resistivity magnetic Czochralski silicon detectors after gamma, neutron, and proton radiations  

Microsoft Academic Search

High resistivity magnetic Czochralski Si detectors were irradiated with 60Co gamma rays, neutrons, and protons to various doses\\/fluences, along with control float zone Si detectors. 1) It has been found that for gamma radiation, magnetic Czochralski Si detectors behave similarly to the high-temperature, long-time (HTLT) oxygenated float zone Si detectors. There is no space charge sign inversion and there is

Zheng Li; Jaakko Harkonen; Wei Chen; J. Kierstead; Panja Luukka; Eija Tuominen; Etuovine Tuovinen; Elea Verbitskaya; Vladimir Eremin

2004-01-01

105

Ganmasen Shosha No Mausu Shinseishi No Shono Genki Ni Oyobosu Eikyo: Saiboshi to Soshiki Toransugurutaminaze No Yudo (Effects of gamma ray Radiation on the Developing Mouse Cerebellum: Apoptotic Cell Death and Induction of Tissue Transglutaminase).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is known that developing nerve cells are so sensitive to radiation that apoptotic death often occurs. In this process, condensation of chromatin and pykonosis, followed by reduction of cells, finally results in destruction of cells. It is considered th...

M. Tamaru M. Ando Y. Nagata M. Inoue

1993-01-01

106

[FTIR analysis of Sr2+ biosorption by Bacillus spp. strains isolated from soil treated with gamma-ray radiation].  

PubMed

One strain bacterium was isolated from purple soil of Sichuan basin. It was subject to Bacillus according to analysis results of 16S rDNA. The effect of its biosorption to Sr2+ under gamma-ray radiation was studied in this paper. As for the whole kinetic biosorption curves, the results show that bacterial growth rates of test groups have retardation phenomena compared to the control groups without radiation. Such as the appearance of biosorption equilibrium retarded 1.5 d while the max growth rate retarded 0.5 d after the radiation SEM analysis showed that the bacterial cells had abnormity distortion after radiation. This proved that gamma-ray radiation can bring obvious damage to experimental bacterial cells. FTIR analysis results indicated that bacteria cells were damaged by radiation and Sr2+ has cooperation damage effects with radiation in aqueous condition, and the bacterial cells of log phase are easier to be damaged by coming forth radiation than those of lag phase. This radiation damage under different radiation condition mainly leads to that the characteristic peaks of amylase, protein amide and lipids on bacterial cells are slightly shifted. PMID:23427542

Dai, Qun-Wei; Dong, Fa-Qin; Wu, Xiao-Li; Li, Qiong-Fang

2012-12-01

107

Lightning flashes conducive to the production and escape of gamma radiation to space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma radiation observed in space has been associated with lightning flashes in thunderstorms. These special flashes do not appear to be the large and energetic positive ground flashes that also produce sprites. Considerations of gamma ray attenuation in air indicate that such flashes may not produce gamma radiation at sufficient altitude to enable their escape to space. High-altitude intracloud lightning,

E. Williams; R. Boldi; J. Bór; G. Sátori; C. Price; E. Greenberg; Y. Takahashi; K. Yamamoto; Y. Matsudo; Y. Hobara; M. Hayakawa; T. Chronis; E. Anagnostou; D. M. Smith; L. Lopez

2006-01-01

108

On the omnipresent background gamma radiation of the continuous spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The background spectrum of a germanium detector, shielded from the radiations arriving from the lower and open for the radiations arriving from the upper hemisphere, is studied by means of absorption measurements, both in a ground level and in an underground laboratory. The low-energy continuous portion of this background spectrum that peaks at around 100 keV, which is its most intense component, is found to be of very similar shape at the two locations. It is established that it is mostly due to the radiations of the real continuous spectrum, which is quite similar to the instrumental one. The intensity of this radiation is in our cases estimated to about 8000 photons/(m2s·2?·srad) in the ground level laboratory, and to about 5000 photons/(m2s·2?·srad) in the underground laboratory, at the depth of 25 m.w.e. Simulations by GEANT4 and CORSIKA demonstrate that this radiation is predominantly of terrestrial origin, due to environmental gamma radiations scattered off the materials that surround the detector (the "skyshine radiation"), and to a far less extent to cosmic rays of degraded energy.

Banjanac, R.; Maleti?, D.; Jokovi?, D.; Veselinovi?, N.; Dragi?, A.; Udovi?i?, V.; Ani?in, I.

2014-05-01

109

Radiation metabolomics. 1. Identification of minimally invasive urine biomarkers for gamma-radiation exposure in mice.  

PubMed

Gamma-radiation exposure has both short- and long-term adverse health effects. The threat of modern terrorism places human populations at risk for radiological exposures, yet current medical countermeasures to radiation exposure are limited. Here we describe metabolomics for gamma-radiation biodosimetry in a mouse model. Mice were gamma-irradiated at doses of 0, 3 and 8 Gy (2.57 Gy/min), and urine samples collected over the first 24 h after exposure were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOFMS). Multivariate data were analyzed by orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS). Both 3- and 8-Gy exposures yielded distinct urine metabolomic phenotypes. The top 22 ions for 3 and 8 Gy were analyzed further, including tandem mass spectrometric comparison with authentic standards, revealing that N-hexanoylglycine and beta-thymidine are urinary biomarkers of exposure to 3 and 8 Gy, 3-hydroxy-2-methylbenzoic acid 3-O-sulfate is elevated in urine of mice exposed to 3 but not 8 Gy, and taurine is elevated after 8 but not 3 Gy. Gene Expression Dynamics Inspector (GEDI) self-organizing maps showed clear dose-response relationships for subsets of the urine metabolome. This approach is useful for identifying mice exposed to gamma radiation and for developing metabolomic strategies for noninvasive radiation biodosimetry in humans. PMID:18582157

Tyburski, John B; Patterson, Andrew D; Krausz, Kristopher W; Slavík, Josef; Fornace, Albert J; Gonzalez, Frank J; Idle, Jeffrey R

2008-07-01

110

Current Trends in Gamma Radiation Detection for Radiological Emergency Response  

SciTech Connect

Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies. In recent years, since the establishment of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office by the Department of Homeland Security, a tremendous amount of progress has been made in detection materials (scintillators, semiconductors), imaging techniques (Compton imaging, use of active masking and hybrid imaging), data acquisition systems with digital signal processing, field programmable gate arrays and embedded isotopic analysis software (viz. gamma detector response and analysis software [GADRAS]1), fast template matching, and data fusion (merging radiological data with geo-referenced maps, digital imagery to provide better situational awareness). In this stride to progress, a significant amount of interdisciplinary research and development has taken place–techniques and spin-offs from medical science (such as x-ray radiography and tomography), materials engineering (systematic planned studies on scintillators to optimize several qualities of a good scintillator, nanoparticle applications, quantum dots, and photonic crystals, just to name a few). No trend analysis of radiation detection systems would be complete without mentioning the unprecedented strategic position taken by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime transportation–the so-called second line of defense.

Mukhopadhyay, S., Guss, P., Maurer, R.

2011-09-01

111

Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation: Mexican clinical experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation, such as amnion and pig skin, are a reality in Mexico. These tissues are currently processed in the tissue bank and sterilized in the Gamma Industrial Irradiation Plant; both facilities belong to the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) (National Institute of Nuclear Research). With the strong support of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the bank was established at the ININ and the Mexican Ministry of Health issued its sanitary license on July 7, 1999. The Quality Management System of the bank was certified by ISO 9001:2000 on August 1, 2003; the scope of the system is "Research, Development and Processing of Biological Tissues Sterilized with Gamma Radiation". At present, more than 150 patients from 16 hospitals have been successfully treated with these tissues. This paper presents a brief description of the tissue processing, as well as the present Mexican clinical experience with children and adult patients who underwent medical treatment with radiosterilized amnion and pig skin, used as biological wound dressings on burns and ocular surface disorders.

Martínez-Pardo, M. E.; Ley-Chávez, E.; Reyes-Frías, M. L.; Rodríguez-Ferreyra, P.; Vázquez-Maya, L.; Salazar, M. A.

2007-11-01

112

Evaluation of Snow Water Equivalent by Airborne Measurement of Passive Terrestrial Gamma Radiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent research studies have investigated an airborne gamma radiation detection system to determine the water equivalent of snowpacks in nonmountainous areas. Snow attenuates natural gamma emissions from the soil, and the magnitude of attenuation is relat...

E. L. Peck V. C. Bissell E. B. Jones D. L. Burge

1971-01-01

113

IFN-{gamma}+ CD8+ T Lymphocytes: Possible Link Between Immune and Radiation Responses in Tumor-Relevant Hypoxia  

SciTech Connect

Activated T lymphocytes are known to kill tumor cells by triggering cytolytic mechanisms; however, their ability to enhance radiation responses remains unclear. This study examined the radiosensitizing potential of mouse CD8+ T cells, obtained by T-cell-tailored expansion and immunomagnetic purification. Activated CD8+ T cells displayed an interferon (IFN)-{gamma}+ phenotype and enhanced by 1.8-fold the radiosensitivity of EMT-6 tumor cells in 1% oxygen, which modeled tumor-relevant hypoxia. Radiosensitization was counteracted by neutralizing IFN-{gamma} or by blocking the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase, thus delineating the immune-tumor cell interaction through the IFN-{gamma} secretion pathway. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and fluorescence-activated cell sorter data in agreement detected downregulation of the IFN-{gamma} gene by hypoxia, which caused IFN-{gamma} deficiency next to radioresistance. Therefore, immune and radiation responses are likely to be allied in the hypoxic tumor microenvironment, and CD8+ T cells may bridge immunostimulatory and radiosensitizing strategies.

De Ridder, Mark [Radiotherapie, Oncologisch Centrum, UZ Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Cancer Research Unit, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: mark.deridder@uzbrussel.be; Jiang Heng; Esch, Gretel van; Law, Kalun; Monsaert, Christinne [Cancer Research Unit, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Berge, Dirk L. van den; Verellen, Dirk; Verovski, Valeri N. [Radiotherapie, Oncologisch Centrum, UZ Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Storme, Guy A. [Radiotherapie, Oncologisch Centrum, UZ Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Cancer Research Unit, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)

2008-07-01

114

Radiation effects in solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two types of space solar cells, silicon single-junction and InGaP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction (3J) solar cells, have been primarily adopted for spacecraft. The conversion efficiencies of the solar cells under AM0, 1 sun condition are ~17% for silicon and ~30% for 3J cells. Radiation degradation occurs in space due to high-energy electrons and protons existing in space environment. The degradation is caused by radiation induced crystal defects which act as minority-carrier recombination centers and majority-carrier trap centers. The 3J cells are superior radiation resistant to the silicon cells, and this is mainly because the InGaP top-subcell has property of very high radiation resistance.

Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Ohshima, Takeshi

2013-05-01

115

PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFECT PRODUCED IN SILICON SOLAR CELLS BY X- AND GAMMA RAYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The open-circuit voltage and photocurrent produced in a silicon solar ; cell by x and gamma rays were measured as a function of exposure dose rate, cell ; temperature, angle of incidence of radiation, and photon energy. This ; photoresponse was stable and proportional to the exposure dose rate, which was ; applied up to a maximum of 1.8 x

Scharf

1960-01-01

116

EFFECTS OF GAMMA RADIATION ON ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF IONIC LIQUIDS  

SciTech Connect

The electrochemical properties of ionic liquids (ILs) make them attractive for possible replacement of inorganic salts in high temperature molten salt electrochemical processing of nuclear fuel. To be a feasible replacement solvent, ILs need to be stable in moderate and high doses of radiation without adverse chemical and physical effects. Here, we exposed seven different ILs to a 1.2 MGy dose of gamma radiation to investigate their physical and chemical properties as they related to radiological stability. The azolium-based ILs experienced the greatest change in appearance, but these ILs were chemically more stable to gamma radiation than some of the other classes of ILs tested, due to the presence of aromatic electrons in the azolium ring. All the ILs exhibited a decrease in their conductivity and electrochemical window (at least 1.1 V), both of which could affect the utility of ILs in electrochemical processing. The concentration of the irradiation decomposition products was less than 3 mole %, with no impurities detectable using NMR techniques.

Visser, A; Nicholas Bridges, N; Thad Adams, T; John Mickalonis, J; Mark02 Williamson, M

2009-04-21

117

Effect of caffeine on the genotoxic effects of gamma radiation and 4-NQO in diploid yeast.  

PubMed

Caffeine is an environmental agent to which people are commonly exposed through medicines, drinks, food items, etc. It has been shown to be mutagenic in a number of test systems. In addition, it has also been shown to modify the mutagenic response of ionizing radiation, UV, and several chemical mutagens in a number of test systems. We have studied the effect of caffeine on gamma radiation and 4-Nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO)-induced gene conversion in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7. Stationary phase cells were either exposed to 100-600 Gy of 60Co gamma radiation or treated with 0.15-0.3 microM 4-NQO (30 degrees C, 1 hour), after which they were plated on synthetic complete or minimal media with or without caffeine. Caffeine concentrations ranged from 5 to 15 mM. The results indicated that caffeine at 5 and 10 mM decreased gamma radiation-induced gene conversion frequencies significantly at 400 and 600 Gy. At 600 Gy, the decrease was about 30% and 50% with caffeine concentrations of 5 and 10 mM, respectively. In contrast, caffeine was found to increase the induced gene conversion frequency when cells treated with 0.15, 0.225, and 0.3 microM 4-NQO were plated on media containing caffeine. The increase with 5, 10, and 15 mM caffeine was approximately 1.5, 2, and 2.5, respectively, times the value of 4-NQO alone. The results indicate that the posttreatment repair processes following gamma irradiation or 4-NQO treatment are modified via different pathways. PMID:11215705

Anjaria, K B; Rao, B S

2001-01-01

118

SAS 2 observations of the earth albedo gamma radiation above 35 MeV  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The earth albedo gamma radiation above 35 MeV in the equatorial region is investigated using observations from the second Small Astronomy Satellite. The zenith angle distribution of the gamma radiation has a peak toward the horizon which is about an order of magnitude more intense than the radiation coming from the nadir, and nearly two orders of magnitude more intense than the gamma radiation from most parts of the sky. The gamma radiation originating from the western horizon is a factor of four more intense than the radiation from the eastern horizon and a factor of three more intense than that from the northern and southern directions. This reflects the geomagnetic effects on the incident cosmic rays whose interactions produce the albedo gamma rays. The variation of the upcoming gamma ray intensity with vertical cutoff rigidity is consistent with the empirical relationship found by Gur'yan et al. (1979).

Thompson, D. J.; Simpson, G. A.; Ozel, M. E.

1981-01-01

119

Gamma-Ray Tracking: Utilizing New Concepts in the Detection of Gamma Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma-ray tracking in a closed array of highly segmented HPGe detectors is a new concept for the detection of ? radiation. Each of the interacting ? rays is identified and separated by measuring the energies and positions of individual interactions and applying tracking algorithms to reconstruct the scattering sequences, even if many ? rays hit the array at the same time. The three-dimensional position and the energy of interactions are determined by using a two-dimensionally segmented Ge detector along with pulse-shape analysis of the signals. Such a detector will have new and much improved capabilities compared to current ?-ray spectrometer. One implementation of this concept, called GRETA (Gamma Ray Energy Tracking Array), is currently being under development at LBNL. In this presentation I will introduce this new concept of gamma-ray tracking and will show the progress which have been made in four key areas; the manufacture of segmented detectors and pre-amplifiers that can provide high quality signals needed to resolve and locate individual interaction points, a data processing system including fast ADCs and processing units to digitize and process the segment signals, signal processing methods for determining energy, time, and position based on pulse shape digitization and digital signal processing, and the development of a tracking algorithm that uses the energy and position information to identify interaction points belonging to a particular gamma ray. Work supported by US Department of Energy, under contract DE-AC03-76SF00098.

Vetter, Kai

2001-10-01

120

Gamma-ray tracking: Utilizing new concepts in the detection of gamma-radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma-ray tracking in a closed array of highly segmented HPGe detectors is a new concept for the detection of ?-radiation. Each of the interacting ?-rays is identified and separated by measuring the energies and positions of individual interactions and by applying tracking algorithms to reconstruct the scattering sequences, even if many ?-rays hit the array at the same time. The three-dimensional position and the energy of interactions are determined by using two-dimensionally segmented Ge detectors along with pulse-shape analysis of the signals. Such a detector will have new and much improved capabilities compared to current ?-ray spectrometer. One implementation of this concept, called GRETA (Gamma-Ray Energy Tracking Array), is currently being under development at LBNL.

Vetter, K.

121

An investigation of gamma background radiation in Hamadan province, Iran.  

PubMed

The general population, everywhere in the world is exposed to a small dose of ionising radiation from natural sources. Stochastic effects such as cancer and genetic disorders are caused when living creatures are exposed to low doses. In Iran, it is measured in some cities, especially in high-background areas such as Ramsar, but so far there is no measurement in the Hamadan province. Hamadan is located in the west of Iran. Measurements were performed using a RDS-110 survey meter, CaSO(4):Dy thermoluminecense dosimetries (TLDs) and a Harshaw 4000 TLD reader. To estimate the dose rate  outdoors, four stations along the main directions (north, south, west and east) and one in the town centre were selected. Mean annual X and gamma equivalent dose in Hamadan province are 1.12±0.22  and 1.66±0.07 mSv, which related to RDS-110 survey meter and TLDs measurements, respectively. The TLDs and RDS-110 results are representative of the external photon radiation doses for the selected monitoring locations and for those locations for the hours during which the measurements were taken, respectively. Maximum and minimum of external photon radiation doses are related to Hamadan and Kaboudar-Ahang towns, respectively. According to the results of the study, it seems that the annual X and gamma equivalent dose in Hamadan province exceeded the global mean external exposure amounts by the UNSCEAR, and further studies are needed to measure internal exposures to determine the total environmental radiation level in  Hamadan province. PMID:22570508

Rostampour, Nima; Almasi, Tinoosh; Rostampour, Masoumeh; Mohammadi, Mohammad; Ghazikhanlou Sani, Karim; Khosravi, Hamid R; Pooya, S Mehdi Hosseini; Golzar, Bahman; Jabari Vesal, Naghi

2012-12-01

122

An experimental search for gamma radiation associated with thunderstorm activity  

SciTech Connect

This experiment is a repeat of an earlier experiment, but with more sensitive apparatus and in a location with a higher incidence of thunderstorm activity. The earlier experiment was undertaken by Ashby and Whitehead to investigate the theory that ball lightning might be associated with the annihilation of small amounts of antimatter, and it yielded some very interesting but inconclusive results. In the course of about 12 months of data taking, four high rate bursts of gamma radiation were detected. These events lasted a few seconds and had many thousands of counts (16500, 5000, 3700, and [gt] 7700. Unfortunately, the association of these gamma ray bursts with thunderstorms or ball lightning was not clearly established, although one of the bursts did occur during a local thunderstorm in rough coincidence with a lightning bolt striking a flagpole about 100 yards from the gamma ray detection crystals. A pulse height spectrum taken for this burst (no spectrum was taken for the other three) exhibited a significant peak, well above background, the energy of which appeared to be compatible with the 511 keV positron annihilation line. While the peak could not be unambiguously attributed to positron annihilation, this certainly appeared to be the most likely source.

Fryberger, D.

1992-11-01

123

An experimental search for gamma radiation associated with thunderstorm activity  

SciTech Connect

This experiment is a repeat of an earlier experiment, but with more sensitive apparatus and in a location with a higher incidence of thunderstorm activity. The earlier experiment was undertaken by Ashby and Whitehead to investigate the theory that ball lightning might be associated with the annihilation of small amounts of antimatter, and it yielded some very interesting but inconclusive results. In the course of about 12 months of data taking, four high rate bursts of gamma radiation were detected. These events lasted a few seconds and had many thousands of counts (16500, 5000, 3700, and {gt} 7700. Unfortunately, the association of these gamma ray bursts with thunderstorms or ball lightning was not clearly established, although one of the bursts did occur during a local thunderstorm in rough coincidence with a lightning bolt striking a flagpole about 100 yards from the gamma ray detection crystals. A pulse height spectrum taken for this burst (no spectrum was taken for the other three) exhibited a significant peak, well above background, the energy of which appeared to be compatible with the 511 keV positron annihilation line. While the peak could not be unambiguously attributed to positron annihilation, this certainly appeared to be the most likely source.

Fryberger, D.

1992-11-01

124

Enhancement of natural background gamma-radiation dose around uranium microparticles in the human body  

PubMed Central

Ongoing controversy surrounds the adverse health effects of the use of depleted uranium (DU) munitions. The biological effects of gamma-radiation arise from the direct or indirect interaction between secondary electrons and the DNA of living cells. The probability of the absorption of X-rays and gamma-rays with energies below about 200 keV by particles of high atomic number is proportional to the third to fourth power of the atomic number. In such a case, the more heavily ionizing low-energy recoil electrons are preferentially produced; these cause dose enhancement in the immediate vicinity of the particles. It has been claimed that upon exposure to naturally occurring background gamma-radiation, particles of DU in the human body would produce dose enhancement by a factor of 500–1000, thereby contributing a significant radiation dose in addition to the dose received from the inherent radioactivity of the DU. In this study, we used the Monte Carlo code EGSnrc to accurately estimate the likely maximum dose enhancement arising from the presence of micrometre-sized uranium particles in the body. We found that although the dose enhancement is significant, of the order of 1–10, it is considerably smaller than that suggested previously.

Pattison, John E.; Hugtenburg, Richard P.; Green, Stuart

2010-01-01

125

Effect of Gamma radiation on microbial population of natural casings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high microbial load of fresh and dry natural casings increases the risk of meat product contamination with pathogenic microorganisms, agents of foodborn diseases. The aim of this work is to evaluate the killing effect of gamma radiation of the resident microbial population of pork and beef casings, to improve their hygiene and safety. Portions of fresh pork (small intestines and colon) and dry beef casings were irradiated in a Cobalt 60 source with with absorbed doses of 1,2,5 and 10 kGy. The D 10 values of total aerobic microorganisms in the pork casings were 1.65 kGy for colon and 1.54 kGy for small intestine. The D 10 value found in beef dry casings (small intestine) was 10.17 kGy. Radurization with 5 kGy was able to reduce, at least, 6 logs the coliform bacteria in pork casings. The killing effect over faecal Streptococci was 4 logs for pork fresh casings and 2 logs for beef dry casings. Gamma radiation with 5 kGy proved to be a convenient method to reduce substantially the microbial population of pork fresh casings. Otherwise, the microbial population of beef dry casings still resisted to 10 kGy.

Trigo, M. J.; Fraqueza, M. J.

1998-06-01

126

Uv- and Gamma-Radiation Sensitive Mutants of Arabidopsis Thaliana  

PubMed Central

Arabidopsis seedlings repair UV-induced DNA damage via light-dependent and -independent pathways. The mechanism of the ``dark repair'' pathway is still unknown. To determine the number of genes required for dark repair and to investigate the substrate-specificity of this process we isolated mutants with enhanced sensitivity to UV radiation in the absence of photoreactivating light. Seven independently derived UV sensitive mutants were isolated from an EMS-mutagenized population. These fell into six complementation groups, two of which (UVR1 and UVH1) have previously been defined. Four of these mutants are defective in the dark repair of UV-induced pyrimidine [6-4] pyrimidinone dimers. These four mutant lines are sensitive to the growth-inhibitory effects of gamma radiation, suggesting that this repair pathway is also involved in the repair of some type of gamma-induced DNA damage product. The requirement for the coordinate action of several different gene products for effective repair of pyrimidine dimers, as well as the nonspecific nature of the repair activity, is consistent with nucleotide excision repair mechanisms previously described in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and nonplant higher eukaryotes and inconsistent with substrate-specific base excision repair mechanisms found in some bacteria, bacteriophage, and fungi.

Jiang, C. Z.; Yen, C. N.; Cronin, K.; Mitchell, D.; Britt, A. B.

1997-01-01

127

Mechanisms of radiation-induced neoplastic cell transformation  

SciTech Connect

Studies with cultured mammalian cells demonstrated clearly that radiation can transform cells directly and can enhance the cell transformation by oncogenic DNA viruses. In general, high-LET heavy-ion radiation can be more effective than X and gamma rays in inducing neoplastic cell transformation. Various experimental results indicate that radiation-induced DNA damage, most likely double-strand breaks, is important for both the initiation of cell transformation and for the enhancement of viral transformation. Some of the transformation and enhancement lesions can be repaired properly in the cell, and the amount of irrepairable lesions produced by a given dose depends on the quality of radiation. An inhibition of repair processes with chemical agents can increase the transformation frequency of cells exposed to radiation and/or oncogenic viruses, suggesting that repair mechanisms may play an important role in the radiation transformation. The progression of radiation-transformed cells appears to be a long and complicated process that can be modulated by some nonmutagenic chemical agents, e.g., DMSO. Normal cells can inhibit the expression of transforming properties of tumorigenic cells through an as yet unknown mechanism. The progression and expression of transformation may involve some epigenetic changes in the irradiated cells. 38 references, 15 figures, 1 table.

Yang, T.C.H.; Tobias, C.A.

1984-04-01

128

Method for imaging quantum dots during exposure to gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum dots have been used in a wide variety of biomedical applications. A key advantage of these particles is that their optical properties depend predictably on size, which enables tuning of the emission wavelength. Recently, it was found that CdSe/ZnS quantum dots lose their ability to photoluminescence after exposure to gamma radiation (J. Phys. Chem. C., 113: 2580-2585 (2009). A method for readout of the loss of quantum dot photoluminescence during exposure to radiation could enable a multitude of real-time dosimetry applications. Here, we report on a method to image photoluminescence from quantum dots from a distance and under ambient lighting conditions. The approach was to construct and test a time-gated imaging system that incorporated pulsed illumination. The system was constructed from a pulsed green laser (Nd:YAG, 20 pulses/s, 5 ns pulse duration, ~5 mJ/pulse), a time-gated camera (LaVision Picostar, 2 ns gate width), and optical components to enable coaxial illumination and imaging. Using the system to image samples of equivalent concentration to the previous end-point work, quantum dot photoluminescence was measureable under ambient room lighting at a distance of 25 cm from the sample with a signal to background of 7.5:1. Continuous exposure of samples to pulsed laser produced no measureable loss of photoluminescence over a time period of one hour. With improvements to the light collection optics the range of the system is expected to increase to several metres, which will enable imaging of samples during exposure to a gamma radiation source.

Immucci, Andrea N.; Chamson-Reig, Astrid; Yu, Kui; Wilkinson, Diana; Li, Chunsheng; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Carson, Jeffrey J. L.

2011-03-01

129

Interaction between gamma delta T cells and B cells regulating IgG production.  

PubMed Central

Despite profound knowledge about the molecular structure of the gamma delta T-cell receptor (TCR), the physiological function of gamma delta T cells remains enigmatic. Participation of these cells in complex immune reactions, however, is suggested by the appearance of gamma delta T cells in sites of infectious and autoimmune-induced inflammations. Only a few in vitro models of gamma delta T-cell stimulation have been established: besides a reactivity in the presence of microbial ligands, human gamma delta T cells proliferate upon in vitro challenge with cells from an allogeneic B-lymphoblastic cell line (B-LCL). We present data here demonstrating that this reactivity is not confined to allogenic B-LCL. Autologous B-LCL are also very strong stimulators for gamma delta T cells; more important, autologous B cells can stimulate gamma delta T cells after a period of mitogen-activation but not in a resting state. This activation seems to address a subgroup of gamma delta T cells, as the percentage of V delta 1+ cells is increased after stimulation. Activated gamma delta T cells, on the other hand, are able to exert an influence on B cells by inhibiting the secretion of IgG in coculture experiments. These data define a simple regulatory circle of B cells and gamma delta T cells in vitro and propose a model for gamma delta T-cell function which could explain many in vivo observations of gamma delta T-cell activation.

Hacker, G; Adam, S; Wagner, H

1995-01-01

130

Induction of p53 protein by gamma radiation in lymphocyte lines from breast cancer and ataxia telangiectasia patients.  

PubMed Central

Exposure of human cells to gamma-radiation causes levels of the tumour-suppressor nuclear protein p53 to increase in temporal association with the decrease in replicative DNA synthesis. Cells from patients with the radiosensitive and cancer-prone disease ataxia telangiectasia (AT) exhibit radioresistant DNA synthesis and show a reduced or delayed gamma-radiation-induced increase in p53 protein levels. We have used Western immunoblotting with semiquantitative densitometry to examine the gamma-radiation-induced levels of p53 protein in 57 lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from patients with AT, carriers of the AT gene, breast cancer patients and normal donors. We confirm the previously reported reduced induction in AT homozygote LCLs (n = 8) compared with normal donor LCLs (n = 17, P = 0.01). We report that AT heterozygote LCLs (n = 5) also have a significantly reduced p53 induction when compared with LCLs from normal donors (n = 17, P = 0.02). The response of breast cancer patient cells was not significantly different from normal donor cells but 18% (5/27) had a p53 response in the AT heterozygote range (95% confidence interval) compared with only 6% (1/17) of the normal donor cells. We found no significant correlation between p53 induction and cellular radiosensitivity in LCLs from breast cancer patients. These methods may be useful in identifying individuals at greater risk of the DNA-damaging effects of ionising radiation. Images Figure 2

Birrell, G. W.; Ramsay, J. R.

1995-01-01

131

GAMMA-HEATING PROGRAM FOR A HETEROGENEOUS CELL  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed account of the gamma heating density is valuable in designing ; reactors wherein isolated highdensity parts are embedded in low-density material ; which is relatively transparent to gamma radiation. A Monte Carlo ngnethod was ; developed to compute a detailed two-dimensional space map of the gammaheating ; density in an infinngte lattice generated by a three-region triangular symmetry

J. F. Quinlan; M. D. McDonald; J. R. Beeler

1959-01-01

132

Combination of {gamma}-radiation antagonizes the cytotoxic effects of vincristine and vinblastine on both mitotic arrest and apoptosis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Combination therapy with different modalities is a common practice in the treatment of cancer. The promising clinical profile of vincristine and vinblastine has promoted considerable interest in combining these vinca alkaloids with radiation therapy to treat a variety of solid tumors. However, the therapeutic efficacy and the interaction between the vinca alkaloids with radiation is not entirely clear. In this study, we assessed the potential interactions in the combination of vincristine or vinblastine with {gamma}-radiation against human tumor cells in vitro. Methods and materials: Vincristine or vinblastine and {gamma}-radiation were administrated at three different sequences designed as preradiated, coradiated, and postradiated combinations in human breast cancer cells and human epidermoid carcinoma cells. The cytotoxic interactions and mutual influences between these two modalities were analyzed by a series of assays including cytotoxic, morphologic, and biochemical examinations. Results: Our results showed that the combination of these two modalities did not produce any synergistic or additive effects. Instead, the clonogenic assays showed the survival rates of these combinations were increased up to 2.17-fold and 2.7-fold, respectively, of those treated with vincristine or vinblastine alone (p < 0.01). DNA fragmentation, T{alpha}T-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and flow cytometric assays also showed that the combination of {gamma}-radiation significantly interfered with the ability of these vinca alkaloids to induce apoptosis. Further analyses indicated that addition of {gamma}-radiation resulted in cell cycle arrest at the G{sub 2} phase, which subsequently prevented the mitotic arrest induced by vincristine or vinblastine. In addition, biochemical examinations revealed that {gamma}-radiation regulated p34{sup cdc2}/cyclin B1 and survivin, and inhibited I{kappa}B{alpha} degradation and bcl-2 phosphorylation. Conclusions: These results suggest that {gamma}-radiation might specifically block the cell cycle at the G{sub 2} phase, which in turn interferes with the cytotoxic effects of vincristine or vinblastine on mitotic arrest and apoptosis. Thereby, it eventually results in an antagonistic interaction between these two modalities. This finding may be implicated in the clinical application of combination therapy of vinca alkaloids and radiation.

Sui, Meihua [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Fan Weimin [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)]. E-mail: fanw@musc.edu

2005-03-15

133

Modeling Gamma-Radiation from Thunderclouds and Lightning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes are sub-millisecond bursts of energetic radiation originating from thunderclouds in the earth's atmosphere [e.g., Fishman et al., Science, 264, 1313, 1994; Dwyer et al., Space Sci. Rev., 10.1007/s11214-012-9894-0, 2012]. Recent analysis of TGF observations and lightning radio emission indicates that the production of TGFs is normally associated with the initial lightning leader development inside thunderclouds [e.g., Shao et al., J. Geophys. Res., 115, A00E30, 2010; Lu et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L11806, 2010; Cummer et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L14810, 2011]. In addition to relatively short TGFs, thunderclouds and lightning can also make minute long gamma-ray glows according to ground-based [e.g., Chilingarian et al., Phys. Rev. D, 82, 043009, 2010] and airborne measurements [e.g., Smith et al., J. Geophys. Res., 116, D20124, 2011]. A viable theory for explaining the gamma-ray production by thunderclouds and lightning is the relativistic feedback discharge mechanism introduced by Dwyer [Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 2055, 2003]. A comprehensive modeling study of TGFs based on this theory was recently reported in [Dwyer, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A02308, 2012], where many observed TGF aspects were successfully reproduced. In this talk, we report simulation results from a new TGF modeling code developed at Florida Tech that implements the same model as the work of Dwyer [2012]. The code is built on a streamer code that has been used for studying streamer discharges in sprites, lightning and laboratory experiments [e.g., Liu and Pasko, J. Geophys. Res., 109, A04301, 2004]. Components for modeling the transport of runaway electrons and positrons, the feedback process, the gamma-ray production, and the lightning leader propagation have been added. The new code can fully model transport of low energy electrons and ions, ionization, attachment, and recombination. Several simulation cases are reported, showing how single and multiple pulsed TGFs can be produced. Finally, we compare the present work with the gamma-ray observations and the modeling study by Dwyer [2012].

Liu, N.; Dwyer, J. R.

2012-12-01

134

Gamma radiation influence on technological characteristics of wheat flour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aimed at determining the influence of gamma radiation on technological characteristics of wheat (Triticum sativum) flour and physical properties of pan breads made with this flour. The bread formulation included wheat flour, water, milk, salt, sugar, yeast and butter. The ?-amylase activity of wheat flour irradiated with 1, 3 and 9 kGy in a Gammacell 220 (AECL), one day, five days and one month after irradiation was evaluated. Deformation force, height and weight of breads prepared with the irradiated flour were also determined. The enzymatic activity increased—reduction of falling number time—as radiation dose increased, their values being 397 s (0 kGy), 388 s (1 kGy), 343 s (3 kGy) and 293 s (9 kGy) respectively, remaining almost constant over the period of one month. Pan breads prepared with irradiated wheat flour showed increased weight. Texture analysis showed that bread made of irradiated flour presented an increase in maximum deformation force. The results indicate that wheat flour ionizing radiation processing may confer increased enzymatic activity on bread making and depending on the irradiation dose, an increase in weight, height and deformation force parameters of pan breads made of it.

Teixeira, Christian A. H. M.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L. d.

2012-08-01

135

Neutron and gamma radiation shielding material, structure, and process of making structure  

SciTech Connect

The present invention is directed to a novel neutron and gamma radiation shielding material consisting of 95 to 97% by weight SiO/sub 2/ and 5 to 3% by weight sodium silicate. In addition, the method of using this composition to provide a continuous neutron and gamma radiation shielding structure is disclosed.

Hondorp, H.L.

1981-07-06

136

Search for Charmonium States Decaying to J/\\psi\\gamma \\gamma $ Using Initial-State Radiation Events  

SciTech Connect

We study the processes e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} (J/{psi}{gamma}{gamma}){gamma} and e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} (J/{psi}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}){gamma} where the hard photon radiated from an initial e{sup +}e{sup -} collision with center-of-mass (CM) energy near 10.58 GeV is detected. In the final state J/{psi}{gamma}{gamma} we consider J/{psi}{pi}{sup 0}, J/{psi}{eta}, {chi}{sub c1}{gamma}, and {chi}c{sub 2}{gamma} candidates. The invariant mass of the hadronic final state defines the effective e{sup +}e{sup -} CM energy in each event, so these data can be compared with direct e{sup +}e{sup -} measurements. We report 90% CL upper limits for the integrated cross section times branching fractions of the J/{psi}{gamma}{gamma} channels in the Y (4260) mass region.

Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Bona, M.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Palano, A.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; /Bergen U.; Abrams, G.S.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Karlsruhe U., EKP /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

2006-11-30

137

Population doses from environmental gamma radiation in Iraq.  

PubMed

The exposure rates due to external gamma radiation were measured in 11 Iraqi governerates. Measurements were performed with an Environmental Monitoring System (RSS-111) in open air 1 m above the ground. The average absorbed dose rate in each governerate was as follows (number x 10(-2) microGy h-1): Babylon (6.0), Kerbala (5.3), Al-Najaf (5.4), Al-Kadysia (6.5), Wasit (6.5), Diala (6.5), Al-Anbar (6.5), Al-Muthana (6.6), Maisan (6.8), Thee-Kar (6.6), and Al-Basrah (6.5). The collective doses to the population living in these governerates were 499, 187, 239, 269, 262, 458, 384, 153, 250, 450, and 419 person-Sv, respectively. PMID:1559815

Marouf, B A; Mohamad, A S; Taha, J S; al-Haddad, I K

1992-05-01

138

Population doses from environmental gamma radiation in Iraq  

SciTech Connect

The exposure rates due to external gamma radiation were measured in 11 Iraqi governerates. Measurements were performed with an Environmental Monitoring System (RSS-111) in open air 1 m above the ground. The average absorbed dose rate in each governerate was as follows (number x 10(-2) microGy h-1): Babylon (6.0), Kerbala (5.3), Al-Najaf (5.4), Al-Kadysia (6.5), Wasit (6.5), Diala (6.5), Al-Anbar (6.5), Al-Muthana (6.6), Maisan (6.8), Thee-Kar (6.6), and Al-Basrah (6.5). The collective doses to the population living in these governerates were 499, 187, 239, 269, 262, 458, 384, 153, 250, 450, and 419 person-Sv, respectively.

Marouf, B.A.; Mohamad, A.S.; Taha, J.S.; al-Haddad, I.K. (Iraq Atomic Energy Commission, Nuclear Research Center, Tuwaitha, Baghdad, (Iraq))

1992-05-01

139

Studies on the protective effects of Boerhaavia diffusa L. against gamma radiation induced damage in mice.  

PubMed

The radioprotective effect of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Boerhaavia diffusa was studied using the in vivo mice model. The sublethally irradiated mice (600 rads, single dose) were treated intraperitoneally with 20 mg/kg of the extract. The animals were sacrificed at different time periods after the whole-body radiation. The most affected tissues--bone marrow and intestine--were considerably protected by the intraperitoneal administration of B. diffusa as estimated by bone marrow cellularity, maturing monocytes, and intestinal glutathione. Total white blood cell count was lowered drastically after radiation exposure (ninth day, 1500+/-500 cells/ mm(3)). When the animals were exposed to radiation and treated with B. diffusa, the total white blood cell count was lowered only to 4000+/-400 cells/mm(3) on the third day, and it reached an almost normal level (6250+/-470 cells/mm(3)) by the ninth day. The elevated level of serum and liver alkaline phosphatase after radiation exposure was reduced in the B. diffusa-treated group. The serum and liver glutamate pyruvate transferase, which were elevated after radiation exposure, were also reduced by treatment with B. diffusa compared to the control. The lipid peroxidation level also increased in the irradiated animals both in the liver and serum, but in B. diffusa-treated animals, there was a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation levels. The agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA isolated from bone marrow of mice exposed to gamma radiation showed heavy damage that was reduced by treatment with B. diffusa. These results are indicative of the radioprotective effect of the whole-plant extract of B. diffusa. PMID:18048886

Manu, K A; Leyon, P V; Kuttan, Girija

2007-12-01

140

Phoswich scintillator for proton and gamma radiation of high energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here a Phoswich scintillator design to achieve both high resolution gamma ray detection, and good efficiency for high energy protons. There are recent developments of new high resolution scintillator materials. Especially the LaBr3(Ce) and LaCl3(Ce) crystals have very good energy resolution in the order of 3% for 662 keV gamma radiation. In addition, these materials exhibit a very good light output (63 and 32 photons/keV respectively). A demonstrator detector in the form of an Al cylinder of 24 mm diameter and a total length of 80 mm with 2 mm wall thickness, containing a LaBr3(Ce) crystal of 20 mm diameter and 30 mm length directly coupled to a LaCl3(Ce) crystal of 50 mm length, and closed with a glass window of 5 mm, was delivered by Saint Gobain. To the glass window a Hamamatsu R5380 Photomultiplier tube (PMT) was coupled using silicon optical grease.

Tengblad, O.; Nilsson, T.; Borge, M. J. G.; Briz, J. A.; Carmona-Gallardo, M.; Cruz, C.; Gugliermina, V.; Nácher, E.; Perea, A.; Del Rio, J. Sanchez; Nieves, M. Turrion; Johansson, H. T.; Bergström, J.; Blomberg, E.; Bülling, A.; Gallneby, E.; Hagdahl, J.; Jansson, L.; Jareteg, K.; Masgren, R.; Nordström, M.; Risting, G.; Shojaee, S.; Wittler, H.

2011-11-01

141

Phoswich scintillator for proton and gamma radiation of high energy  

SciTech Connect

We present here a Phoswich scintillator design to achieve both high resolution gamma ray detection, and good efficiency for high energy protons. There are recent developments of new high resolution scintillator materials. Especially the LaBr3(Ce) and LaCl3(Ce) crystals have very good energy resolution in the order of 3% for 662 keV gamma radiation. In addition, these materials exhibit a very good light output (63 and 32 photons/keV respectively).A demonstrator detector in the form of an Al cylinder of 24 mm diameter and a total length of 80 mm with 2 mm wall thickness, containing a LaBr3(Ce) crystal of 20 mm diameter and 30 mm length directly coupled to a LaCl3(Ce) crystal of 50 mm length, and closed with a glass window of 5 mm, was delivered by Saint Gobain. To the glass window a Hamamatsu R5380 Photomultiplier tube (PMT) was coupled using silicon optical grease.

Tengblad, O.; Borge, M. J. G.; Briz, J. A.; Carmona-Gallardo, M.; Cruz, C.; Gugliermina, V.; Nacher, E.; Perea, A.; Sanchez del Rio, J.; Nieves, M. Turrion [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Nilsson, T.; Johansson, H. T.; Bergstroem, J.; Blomberg, E.; Buelling, A.; Gallneby, E.; Hagdahl, J.; Jansson, L.; Jareteg, K.; Masgren, R. [Department of fundamental Physics, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, S-41296 Goeteborg (Sweden); and others

2011-11-30

142

Combined Treatment With Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) Gamma Ligands and Gamma Radiation Induces Apoptosis by PPAR?-Independent Up-Regulation of Reactive Oxygen Species-Induced Deoxyribonucleic Acid Damage Signals in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate possible radiosensitizing activities of the well-known peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)? ligand ciglitazone and novel PPAR? ligands CAY10415 and CAY10506 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Methods and Materials: Radiosensitivity was assessed using a clonogenic cell survival assay. To investigate the mechanism underlying PPAR? ligand-induced radiosensitization, the subdiploid cellular DNA fraction was analyzed by flow cytometry. Activation of the caspase pathway by combined PPAR? ligands and ?-radiation treatment was detected by immunoblot analysis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured using 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and flow cytometry. Results: The 3 PPAR? ligands induced cell death and ROS generation in a PPAR?-independent manner, enhanced ?-radiation–induced apoptosis and caspase-3–mediated poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage in vitro. The combined PPAR? ligand/?-radiation treatment triggered caspase-8 activation, and this initiator caspase played an important role in the combination-induced apoptosis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? ligands may enhance the ?-radiation-induced DNA damage response, possibly by increasing ?-H2AX expression. Moreover, the combination treatment significantly increased ROS generation, and the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine inhibited the combined treatment-induced ROS generation and apoptotic cell death. Conclusions: Taken together, these results indicated that the combined treatment of PPAR? ligands and ?-radiation synergistically induced DNA damage and apoptosis, which was regulated by ROS.

Han, Eun Jong; Im, Chang-Nim; Park, Seon Hwa [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Eun-Yi [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Hee, E-mail: gobrian@kcch.re.kr [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2013-04-01

143

Effect of gamma radiation on microbial safety and nutritional quality of kachri (Cucumis callosus).  

PubMed

Fresh dried and old (6-12 months) dried kachri (Cucumis callosus) were treated with 0, 2.5, 5 and 7 kGy of gamma radiation in a cobalt 60 gamma cell (GC-1200). The irradiated samples of kachri were stored at room temperature (28?±?2 °C). Total bacterial count and nutrient composition were evaluated immediately after irradiation and at regular intervals of 1 month during 3 months of storage. Results indicated that gamma radiation reduced the total bacterial counts of dried samples of both fresh and old dried kachri. Dose of 5.0 kGy was sufficient to eliminate total bacterial count and there was no microbial growth in 5.0 kGy irradiated samples during the storage period. No significant differences were observed in the proximate composition of both types of kachri at all irradiation doses. It was concluded that irradiation treatments of kachri improves keeping quality of both freshly dried and old dried Kachri. PMID:24425974

Nathawat, N S; Joshi, Priyanka; Chhipa, Brij Gopal; Hajare, Sachin; Goyal, Madhu; Sahu, M P; Singh, Govind

2013-08-01

144

Gamma radiation effects on polydimethylsiloxane rubber foams under different radiation conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polydimethylsiloxane rubber foams were irradiated by gamma ray under different radiation conditions designed by orthogonal design method. Compression set measurement, infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy (ATR) and X-ray induced photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used. Three aging factors' influence effects on the mechanical property and chemical structure were studied. It was found that among the three factors and the chosen levels, both properties were affected most by radiation dose, while radiation dose rate had no obvious influence on both properties. The stiffening of the rubber foams was caused by cross-linking reactions in the Si-CH3. At the same radiation dose, the rigidity of the foams irradiated in air was lower than that in nitrogen. When polydimethylsiloxane was irradiated at a high dose in sealed nitrogen atmosphere, carbon element distribution would be changed. Hydrocarbons produced by gamma ray in the sealed tube would make the carbon content in the skin-deep higher than that in the middle, which indicated that polydimethylsiloxane rubber foams storing in a sealed atmosphere filled with enough hydrocarbons should be helpful to extend the service life.

Sui, H. L.; Liu, X. Y.; Zhong, F. C.; Li, X. Y.; Wang, L.; Ju, X.

2013-07-01

145

Cytoskeletal and functional changes in bioreactor assembled thyroid tissue organoids exposed to gamma radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fischer rat thyroid cells were grown under low-shear stress in a bioreactor to a stage of organization composed of integrated follicles resembling small thyroid glands prior to exposure to 3 Gray-gamma radiation. Bioreactor tissues and controls (both irradiated and non-irradiated) were harvested at 24, 48, 96 and 144 hours post-exposure. Tissue samples were fixed and fluorescently labeled for actin and microtubules. Tissues were assessed for changes in cytoskeletal components induced by radiation and quantified by laser scanning cytometry. ELISA's were used to quantify transforming growth factor-beta and thyroxin released from cells to the culture supernatant. Tissue architecture was disrupted by exposure to radiation with the structural organization of actin and loss of follicular content the most obviously affected. With time post-irradiation the actin appeared disordered and the levels of fluorescence associated with filamentous-actin and microtubules cycled in the tissue analogs, but not in the flask-grown cultures. Active transforming growth factor-beta was higher in supernatants from the irradiated bioreactor tissue. Thyroxin release paralleled cell survival in the bioreactors and control cultures. Thus, the engineered tissue responses to radiation differed from those of conventional tissue culture making it a potentially better mimic of the in vivo situation.

Green, Lora M.; Patel, Zarana; Murray, Deborah K.; Rightnar, Steven; Burell, Cheryl G.; Gridley, Daila S.; Nelson, Gregory A.

2002-01-01

146

Chemical effects of ionizing radiation on the individual amino acids within intact and pure protein molecules. Final report. [Gamma radiation, uv radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress is reported on the following research projects: gamma radiation induced chemical and molecular weight changes in proteins; the free radical pattern for the irradiated protein; similarities in the mechanism of action of ionizing and of uv radiation; and spin trapping in the study of gamma radiolysis. (HLW)

Freidberg

1977-01-01

147

Mediate gamma radiation effects on some packaged food items  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For most of prepackaged foods a 10 kGy radiation dose is considered the maximum dose needed; however, the commercially available and practically accepted packaging materials must be suitable for such application. This work describes the application of ionizing radiation on several packaged food items, using 5 dehydrated food items, 5 ready-to-eat meals and 5 ready-to-eat food items irradiated in a 60Co gamma source with a 3 kGy dose. The quality evaluation of the irradiated samples was performed 2 and 8 months after irradiation. Microbiological analysis (bacteria, fungus and yeast load) was performed. The sensory characteristics were established for appearance, aroma, texture and flavor attributes were also established. From these data, the acceptability of all irradiated items was obtained. All ready-to-eat food items assayed like manioc flour, some pâtés and blocks of raw brown sugar and most of ready-to-eat meals like sausages and chicken with legumes were considered acceptable for microbial and sensory characteristics. On the other hand, the dehydrated food items chosen for this study, such as dehydrated bacon potatoes or pea soups were not accepted by the sensory analysis. A careful dose choice and special irradiation conditions must be used in order to achieve sensory acceptability needed for the commercialization of specific irradiated food items.

Inamura, Patricia Y.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Teixeira, Christian A. H. M.; del Mastro, Nelida L.

2012-08-01

148

Jitter Radiation Model of the Crab Gamma-Ray Flares  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gamma-ray flares of the Crab nebula detected by the Fermi and AGILE satellites challenge our understanding of the physics of pulsars and their nebulae. The central problem is that the peak energy of the flares exceeds the maximum energy E c determined by synchrotron radiation loss. However, when turbulent magnetic fields exist with scales ?B smaller than 2?mc 2/eB, jitter radiation can emit photons with energies higher than E c. The scale required for the Crab flares is about two orders of magnitude less than the wavelength of the striped wind. We discuss a model in which the flares are triggered by plunging the high-density blobs into the termination shock. The observed hard spectral shape may be explained by the jitter mechanism. We make three observational predictions: first, the polarization degree will become lower in flares; second, no counterpart will be seen in TeV-PeV range; and third, the flare spectrum will not be harder than ?F ?vprop?1.

Teraki, Yuto; Takahara, Fumio

2013-02-01

149

JITTER RADIATION MODEL OF THE CRAB GAMMA-RAY FLARES  

SciTech Connect

The gamma-ray flares of the Crab nebula detected by the Fermi and AGILE satellites challenge our understanding of the physics of pulsars and their nebulae. The central problem is that the peak energy of the flares exceeds the maximum energy E {sub c} determined by synchrotron radiation loss. However, when turbulent magnetic fields exist with scales {lambda}{sub B} smaller than 2{pi}mc {sup 2}/eB, jitter radiation can emit photons with energies higher than E {sub c}. The scale required for the Crab flares is about two orders of magnitude less than the wavelength of the striped wind. We discuss a model in which the flares are triggered by plunging the high-density blobs into the termination shock. The observed hard spectral shape may be explained by the jitter mechanism. We make three observational predictions: first, the polarization degree will become lower in flares; second, no counterpart will be seen in TeV-PeV range; and third, the flare spectrum will not be harder than {nu}F {sub {nu}}{proportional_to}{nu}{sup 1}.

Teraki, Yuto; Takahara, Fumio, E-mail: teraki@vega.ess.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)] [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

2013-02-15

150

dl-. cap alpha. -tocopheryl succinate enhances the effect of. gamma. -irradiation on neuroblastoma cells in culture  

SciTech Connect

The effect of dl-..cap alpha..-tocopheryl (vitamin E) succinate in modifying the radiation response of mouse neuroblastoma (NBP/sub 2/) and mouse fibroblast (L-cells) cells in culture was studied on the criterion of growth inhibition (due to cell death and inhibition of cell division). Results show that vitamin E succinate markedly enhanced the effect of /sub 60/CO-..gamma..-irradiation on NB cells, but it did not significantly modify the effect of irradiation on mouse fibroblasts. Sodium succinate plus ethanol (0.25% final concentration) did not modify the radiation response of NB cells or fibroblasts. Butylated hydroxyanisole, a lipid soluble antioxidant, also enhanced the effect of irradiation on NB cells, indicating that the effect of vitamin E in modifying the radiation response may be mediated, in part, by antioxidation mechanisms.

Sarri, A.; Prasad, K.N.

1984-01-01

151

Rearrangement of variable region T cell receptor gamma genes in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. V gamma gene usage differs in mature and immature T cells.  

PubMed Central

Using probes recognizing variable regions (V gamma) and joining regions (J gamma) of the T cell receptor (TCR) gamma gene, we have analyzed the usage of V gamma genes in 24 patients with T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 36 patients with B-precursor ALL. In CD3- T-ALL derived from immature T cells, V gamma genes more proximal to J gamma were frequently rearranged; V gamma 8, V gamma 9, V gamma 10, and V gamma 11 were used in 19 of 24 rearrangements. In contrast, CD3+ T-ALL derived from a more mature stage of T cell ontogeny, showed a high frequency of rearrangements involving V gamma genes distal to J gamma; V gamma 2, V gamma 3, V gamma 4, and V gamma 5 were used in 17 of 25 rearrangements. In B-precursor ALL, no notable bias of V gamma gene usage was observed. This probably reflects the possibility that TCR genes may not rearrange according to a T cell hierarchy when under control of a B cell gene program. Furthermore, deletions of those V gamma genes located 3' to rearranged V gamma genes were observed in all patients analyzed. This supports the theory that loop deletion is a major mechanism for TCR-gamma gene rearrangement. Images

Hara, J; Benedict, S H; Yumura, K; Ha-Kawa, K; Gelfand, E W

1989-01-01

152

Analysis of biological samples using prompt gamma radiations induced by 14. 7-MeV neutrons  

SciTech Connect

We investigated a method for determining the elemental composition of biological samples that uses prompt gamma rays induced by 14.7-MeV neutrons. Alpha particles are produced simultaneously with the neutrons, which exit opposite the alpha detector through the vacuum chamber wall. The sample under investigation is irradiated and emits gamma radiations in a spectral energy distribution characteristic of the material. Barium-fluoride (BaF/sub 2/) and high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma detectors view the sample and record the spectrum of gamma radiation. 8 figs.

Hollas, C.L.; Ussery, L.E.; Butterfield, K.B.; Morgado, R.E.

1989-01-01

153

Sensitometry of the response of a new radiochromic film dosimeter to gamma radiation and electron beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new radiation-sensitive imaging material, called GafChromic™ Dosimetry Media, offers advances in high-dose radiation dosimetry and high-resolution radiography for gamma radiation and electrons. The potential uses in radiation processing, radiation sterilization of medical devices, population control of insects by irradiation, food irradiation, blood irradiation for organ-transplant immuno-suppression, clinical radiography, and industrial radiography have led to the present sensitometric study over

W. L. McLaughlin; Chen Yun-Dong; C. G. Soares; A. Miller; G. van Dyk; D. F. Lewis

1991-01-01

154

Airborne gamma-radiation survey of the Jabel Ishmas Quadrangle, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An airborne gamma-radiation survey system, which includes digital recording and automatic data processing procedures developed by the U. S. Geological Survey Saudi Arabian Project, is used to collect spectral gamma-radiation data as an aid to regional geologic mapping of pediment areas on the Arabian Shield. The areal extent of rock units can generally be distinguished by the intensity of their radiation pattern. Rocks of ultramafic composition have low radiation response, whereas more felsic rocks reflect higher radiation response. Interpretations based on radiometric data enable the geologist to gain some understanding about the geologic setting of an area before he begins field mapping.

Flanigan, Vincent J.

1975-01-01

155

The effect of gamma radiation on the ultrastructure of sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas)  

SciTech Connect

Radiation is being used to increase the storage life of fresh foods. Various doses of gamma radiation were administered to Jewel cultivar sweet potatoes and the effects were monitored by direct observation and by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Potatoes were divided into two groups: those irradiated immediately after harvest (doses = 0 kGy - 0.4 KGy) and those irradiated one week after harvest (doses = 0 kGy - 0.4 kGy). Potatoes were examined and viewed each month for 7 months. Gross observations included weight, color and texture of the sweet potatoes. Those potatoes irradiated immediately after harvest spoiled faster than those irradiated one week after harvest. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated several cellular modifications accompanying spoilage. Cell collapse was greatest at the higher radiation doses during the periods of 1 to 5 months post-irradiation. The shape and size of starch granules varied with storage time and radiation levels. The mitochondria, cell walls and plasma membranes appeared normal as seen by transmission electron microscopy until 6 months post-irradiation for potatoes irradiated both immediately after harvest and one week after harvest. Thereafter, degradative changes were observed.

Brown, A.

1986-12-01

156

Radiation Metabolomics: Identification of Minimally Invasive Urine Biomarkers for Gamma-Radiation Exposure in Mice  

PubMed Central

Gamma-radiation exposure has both short- and long-term adverse health effects. The threat of modern terrorism places human populations at risk for radiological exposures, yet current medical countermeasures to radiation exposure are limited. Here we describe metabolomics for ?-radiation biodosimetry in a mouse model. Mice were ?-irradiated at doses of 0, 3 and 8 Gy (2.57 Gy/min), and urine samples collected over the first 24 h after exposure were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC–TOFMS). Multivariate data were analyzed by orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS). Both 3- and 8-Gy exposures yielded distinct urine metabolomic phenotypes. The top 22 ions for 3 and 8 Gy were analyzed further, including tandem mass spectrometric comparison with authentic standards, revealing that N-hexanoylglycine and ?-thymidine are urinary biomarkers of exposure to 3 and 8 Gy, 3-hydroxy-2-methylbenzoic acid 3-O-sulfate is elevated in urine of mice exposed to 3 but not 8 Gy, and taurine is elevated after 8 but not 3 Gy. Gene Expression Dynamics Inspector (GEDI) self-organizing maps showed clear dose–response relationships for subsets of the urine metabolome. This approach is useful for identifying mice exposed to ? radiation and for developing metabolomic strategies for noninvasive radiation biodosimetry in humans.

Tyburski, John B.; Patterson, Andrew D.; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Slavik, Josef; Fornace, Albert J.; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Idle, Jeffrey R.

2008-01-01

157

Evaluation of the effects of paederus beetle extract and gamma irradiation on HeLa cells  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): Cervical cancer is a malignancy that is the second most common cause of death from cancer in women throughout the world. Paederus beetle (Paederus fuscipes) extract (PBE), contains bioactive compounds such as pederine which has cytotoxic properties and blocks DNA and protein synthesis at very low concentrations. In this investigation we tried to determine the effects co-treatment with PBE and gamma irradiation on HeLa cells. Materials and Methods: The viability of the cells was measured by two methods: MTT and Colony assay. Results: We found that supplementing gamma irradiation therapy with PBE does not increase cell death and it might even interfere with its cytotoxicty at the concentrations below 0.1 ng/ml and the viability for irradiation vs irradiation + PBE was 37%: 60%. Conclusion: This finding might be due to radioprotective effects of the very low doses of PBE against gamma radiation.

Samani, Fariba; Monfared, Ali Shabestani; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Khafri, Soraya; Karimi, Maesoumeh; Akhavan Niaki, Haleh

2014-01-01

158

Simultaneous measurement of neutron and gamma-ray radiation levels from a TRIGA reactor core using silicon carbide semiconductor detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of a silicon carbide radiation detector to measure neutron and gamma radiation levels in a TRIGA reactor's mixed neutron\\/gamma field was demonstrated. Linear responses to epicadmium neutron fluence rate (up to 3×107 cm-2 s-1) and to gamma dose rate (0.6-234 krad-Si h-1) were obtained with the detector. Axial profiles of the reactor core's neutron and gamma-ray radiation levels

A. R. Dulloo; F. H. Ruddy; J. G. Seidel; C. Davison; T. Flinchbaugh; T. Daubenspeck

1999-01-01

159

Effects of Dietary Iron and Gamma Radiation on the Rat Retina  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A health risk of concern for NASA relates to radiation exposure and its synergistic effects with other space environmental factors, includi ng nutritional status of the crew. Astronauts consume almost three times the recommended daily allowance of iron due to the use of fortifie d foods aboard the International Space Station, with iron intake occa sionally exceeding six times the recommended values. Recently, NASA has become concerned with visual changes associated with spaceflight, a nd research is being conducted to elucidate the etiology of eye structure alterations in the spaceflight environment. Terrestrially, iron o verload is also associated with certain optic neuropathies. In additi on, due to its role in Fenton reactions, iron can potentiate oxidative stress, which is a recognized cause of cataract formation. As part o f a study investigating the combined effects of radiation exposure an d iron overload on multiple physiological systems, we focused on defining the effects of both treatments on eye biology. In this study, 12- week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of four experimental groups: normal iron/no radiation (Control/Sham), high iron/no radiat ion (Fe/Sham), normal iron/gamma radiation (3 Gy cumulative dose, fra ctionated at 0.375 Gy/d every other day for 16 d) (Control/Rad), and high iron/gamma radiation (Fe/Rad). Oxidative stress-induced DNA damag e, measured as concentration of the marker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) in eye retinal tissue by enzyme-immunoanalysis did not show significant changes among treatments. However, there was an overall i ncrease in 8OHdG immunostaining density in retina sections due to radiation exposure (P = 0.05). Increased dietary iron and radiation expos ure had an interactive effect (P = 0.02) on 8OHdG immunostaining of t he retinal ganglion cell layer with iron diet increasing the signal in the group not exposed to radiation (P = 0.05). qPCR gene expression profiling of relevant target genes indicated upregulation of ferritin light chain (P = 0.09) as a result of dietary iron but no change in e xpression of the gene for ferritin heavy chain. Immunolocalization of light chain and heavy chain of the iron storage protein ferritin showed the expected distribution in the choroid, photoreceptor layer, inn er nuclear layer and in the inner plexiform layer that corresponded t o the synaptic terminals of bipolar cells. Evidence of stress and damage in the retina was also suggested by a decrease in expression of th e survival marker Bcl2 (P = 0.01) and the protective proteins clusterin (P = 0.04) and heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1, P < 0.001), as a result o f increased dietary iron. The effect of increased iron on expression of the antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) had a significant interaction with the effect of radiation (P < 0.001). In summary, the results of this study indicate that both gamma radiation exposure and a moderate increase in dietary iron can contribute to deleterious cha nges in retinal health and physiology.

Morgan, Jennifer; Marshall, Grace; Theriot, Corey A.; Chacon, Natalia; Zwart, Sara; Zanello, Susana B.

2012-01-01

160

Corrosion of copper-based materials in gamma radiation  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion behaviors of pure copper (CDA 101), 7% aluminum-copper bronze (CDA 613) and 30% nickel-copper (CDA 715) are being studied in a gamma radiation field of 1 x 10{sup 5} R/h. These studies are in support of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project, by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), of copper-based materials for possible use in container systems for the permanent geologic burial of nuclear waste. Weight loss, tear drop (stressed), and crevice specimens of the three materials were exposed to water vapor-air atmospheres at 95{sup 0}C and 150{sup 0}C and to liquid water at 95{sup 0}C for periods of one, three, and six months. Longer exposures are in progress. Measurements include: changes in the chemical composition of the gas and water, specimen weight changes, oxide film weights, evidence of microcracking and crevice corrosion, and chemical composition of the oxide films by Auger electron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Interim results show considerable pit and under-film corrosion of alloys CDA 613 and CDA 715. Uniform corrosion rates range from 0.012 mil/yr (0.30 {mu}m/yr) to 0.22 mil/yr (5.6 {mu}m/yr), based on specimen weight losses during six- and seven-month exposures. The time dependencies will be determined as more data become available.

Yunker, W.H.

1986-06-01

161

Development of an alpha/beta/gamma detector for radiation monitoring.  

PubMed

For radiation monitoring at the site of nuclear power plant accidents such as Fukushima Daiichi, radiation detectors not only for gamma photons but also for alpha and beta particles are needed because some nuclear fission products emit beta particles and gamma photons and some nuclear fuels contain plutonium that emits alpha particles. We developed a radiation detector that can simultaneously monitor alpha and beta particles and gamma photons for radiation monitoring. The detector consists of three-layered scintillators optically coupled to each other and coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The first layer, which is made of a thin plastic scintillator (decay time: 2.4 ns), detects alpha particles. The second layer, which is made of a thin Gd(2)SiO(5) (GSO) scintillator with 1.5 mol.% Ce (decay time: 35 ns), detects beta particles. The third layer made of a thin GSO scintillator with 0.4 mol.% Ce (decay time: 70 ns) detects gamma photons. By using pulse shape discrimination, the count rates of these layers can be separated. With individual irradiation of alpha and beta particles and gamma photons, the count rate of the first layer represented the alpha particles, the second layer represented the beta particles, and the third layer represented the gamma photons. Even with simultaneous irradiation of the alpha and beta particles and the gamma photons, these three types of radiation can be individually monitored using correction for the gamma detection efficiency of the second and third layers. Our developed alpha, beta, and gamma detector is simple and will be useful for radiation monitoring, especially at nuclear power plant accident sites or other applications where the simultaneous measurements of alpha and beta particles and gamma photons are required. PMID:22128972

Yamamoto, Seiichi; Hatazawa, Jun

2011-11-01

162

Some neutron and gamma radiation characteristics of plutonium cermet fuel for isotopic power sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma and neutron measurements on various types of plutonium sources are presented in order to show the effects of O-17, O-18 F-19, Pu-236, age of the fuel, and size of the source on the gamma and neutron spectra. Analysis of the radiation measurements shows that fluorine is the main contributor to the neutron yields from present plutonium-molybdenum cermet fuel, while both fluorine and Pu-236 daughters contribute significantly to the gamma ray intensities.

Neff, R. A.; Anderson, M. E.; Campbell, A. R.; Haas, F. X.

1972-01-01

163

Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B 1 and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

Ribeiro, J.; Cavaglieri, L.; Vital, H.; Cristofolini, A.; Merkis, C.; Astoreca, A.; Orlando, J.; Carú, M.; Dalcero, A.; Rosa, C. A. R.

2011-05-01

164

Effetti delle radiazioni (gamma) in film sottili di silicio amorfo idrogenato. (Effects of gamma radiations in hydrogenated amorphous silicon layers).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The behavior of hydrogenated amorphous silicon layers irradiated with a gamma ray source has been studied. The total dose was in the range 5 + 100k Gy. The dark current was used to investigate the time evolution. The recovery effect of radiation damage at...

S. Baccaro P. D'Atanasio G. Maiello M. Petti L. Schirone

1994-01-01

165

Effects of gamma Radiation on Groundwater Chemistry and Glass Reaction in a Saturated Tuff Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations project has completed a series of experiments that provide insight into groundwater chemistry and glass waste form performance in the presence of a gamma radiation field at 90 sup 0 C. Results from experimen...

W. L. Ebert J. K. Bates T. J. Gerding R. A. Van Konynenburg

1986-01-01

166

A gamma-ray testing technique for spacecraft. [considering cosmic radiation effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The simulated cosmic radiation effect on a spacecraft structure is evaluated by gamma ray testing in relation to structural thickness. A drawing of the test set-up is provided and measurement errors are discussed.

Gribov, B. S.; Repin, N. N.; Sakovich, V. A.; Sakharov, V. M.

1977-01-01

167

Use of gamma Radiation as a Form of Preservation of Sweet Potatoes. Quarterly Progress Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This progress report covers: harvest and conditioning following harvest; effects of gamma radiation on the sweet potato weevil, organoleptic properties of sweet potatoes, protein content of same, and sweet potato quality (vitamins, color, texture, and car...

1985-01-01

168

Utilization of gamma Radiation to Enhance the Properties of Polymers and to Initiate Polymerization of Monomers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Preliminary studies to develop capability in the use of gamma radiation to induce polymerization have been completed. Some attempts to produce polymers from some monomers are now underway. Results and future plans are discussed. (Author)

G. Hargreaves

1965-01-01

169

Influence of Penetrating gamma Radiation on the Reaction of Simulated Nuclear Waste Glass in Tuff Groundwater.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Static leaching experiments have been performed to determine the influence of penetrating gamma radiation on the reaction of simulated nuclear waste glass in tuff groundwater at 90(degree)C. Both the leachates and the reacted glass monoliths were analyzed...

W. L. Ebert J. K. Bates T. A. Abrajano T. J. Gerding

1989-01-01

170

Comparative Effects of Bremsstrahlung, Gamma, and Electron Radiation on Rat Motor Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of rapidly delivered supralethal doses of bremsstrahlung, electron, and gamma radiation were investigated on the performance of male Sprague Dawley rats exposed at a midline tissue dose (MTD) rate of 2000 rad/min. The bremsstrahlung and electr...

V. Bogo

1984-01-01

171

Standoff Performance of HPGe Detectors in Identification of Gamma-Ray Radiation Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection and identification of radiation sources at distances in the range of 15 meters or more is becoming increasingly important for illicit materials interdiction and the location of lost or orphan sources. In most locations, there is a considerable gamma-ray flux from natural background (NORM) and cosmic- induced nuclides. This gamma-ray flux varies with time, weather conditions, location, and

Ronald M. Keyser; Timothy R. Twomey; Sam Hitch

172

Additional adjoint Monte Carlo studies of the shielding of concrete structures against initial gamma radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adjoint Monte Carlo method previously developed by MAGI has been applied to the calculation of initial radiation dose due to air secondary gamma rays and fission product gamma rays at detector points within buildings for a wide variety of problems. These provide an in-depth survey of structure shielding effects as well as many new benchmark problems for matching by

M. Beer; M. O. Cohen

1975-01-01

173

Biological effect of gamma radiation on in vitro culture in rice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radiobiological effects of gamma radiation on different types of rice before or during in vitro culture, combined treatments of (sup 137)Cs (gamma)-rays and NaN(sub 3) on mature embryo culture, and irradiation on growth of calli derived from anther in ric...

Wang Cailian Xu Gang Shen Mei Chen Qiufang

1994-01-01

174

Mammalian Stem Cells Reprogramming in Response to Terahertz Radiation  

PubMed Central

We report that extended exposure to broad-spectrum terahertz radiation results in specific changes in cellular functions that are closely related to DNA-directed gene transcription. Our gene chip survey of gene expression shows that whereas 89% of the protein coding genes in mouse stem cells do not respond to the applied terahertz radiation, certain genes are activated, while other are repressed. RT-PCR experiments with selected gene probes corresponding to transcripts in the three groups of genes detail the gene specific effect. The response was not only gene specific but also irradiation conditions dependent. Our findings suggest that the applied terahertz irradiation accelerates cell differentiation toward adipose phenotype by activating the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG). Finally, our molecular dynamics computer simulations indicate that the local breathing dynamics of the PPARG promoter DNA coincides with the gene specific response to the THz radiation. We propose that THz radiation is a potential tool for cellular reprogramming.

Kang, Sona; Phipps, M. Lisa; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Rasmussen, Kim ?.; Bishop, Alan R.; Rosen, Evan D.; Martinez, Jennifer S.; Chen, Hou-Tong; Rodriguez, George; Alexandrov, Boian S.; Usheva, Anny

2010-01-01

175

Radiation sensitivity of Merkel cell carcinoma cell lines  

SciTech Connect

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), being a small cell carcinoma, would be expected to be sensitive to radiation. Clinical analysis of patients at our center, especially those with macroscopic disease, would suggest the response is quite variable. We have recently established a number of MCC cell lines from patients prior to radiotherapy, and for the first time are in a position to determine their sensitivity under controlled conditions. Some of the MCC lines grew as suspension cultures and could not be single cell cloned; therefore, it was not possible to use clonogenic survival for all cell lines. A tetrazolium based (MTT) assay was used for these lines, to estimate cell growth after {gamma} irradiation. Control experiments were conducted on lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) and the adherent MCC line, MCC13, to demonstrate that the two assays were comparable under the conditions used. We have examined cell lines from MCC, small cell lung cancer (SCLC), malignant melanomas, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) transformed lymphocytes (LCL), and skin fibroblasts for their sensitivity to {gamma} irradiation using both clonogenic cell survival and MTT assays. The results show that the tumor cell lines have a range of sensitivities, with melanoma being more resistant (surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) 0.57 and 0.56) than the small cell carcinoma lines, MCC (SF2 range 0.21-0.45, mean SF2 0.30, n = 8) and SCLC (SF2 0.31). Fibroblasts were the most sensitive (SF2 0.13-0.20, mean 0.16, n = 5). The MTT assay, when compared to clonogenic assay for the MCC13 adherent line and the LCL, gave comparable results under the conditions used. Both assays gave a range of SF2 values for the MCC cell lines, suggesting that these cancers would give a heterogeneous response in vivo. The results with the two derivative clones of MCC14 (SF2 for MCC14/1 0.38, MCC14/2 0.45) would further suggest that some of them may develop resistance during clonogenic evolution. 25 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Leonard, J.H.; Ramsay, J.R.; Birrell, G.W. [Queensland Institute of Medical Research (Australia)] [and others] [Queensland Institute of Medical Research (Australia); and others

1995-07-30

176

Accumulation of Mn(II) in Deinococcus radiodurans Facilitates GammaRadiation Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deinococcus radiodurans is extremely resistant to ionizing radiation. How this bacterium can grow under chronic gamma-radiation (50 Gy\\/hour) or recover from acute doses greater than 10 kGy is unknown. We show that D. radiodurans accumulates very high intracellular manganese and low iron levels compared to radiation sensitive bacteria, and resistance exhibits a concentration-dependent response to Mn(II). Among the most radiation-resistant

Michael J. Daly; E Gaidamakova; V Matrosova; A Vasilenko; M Zhai; Amudhan Venkateswaran; M Hess; M V. Omelchenko; Heather M. Kostandarithes; S Makarova; L. P. Wackett; Jim K. Fredrickson; D Ghosal

2004-01-01

177

Shelf life extension of fresh turmeric ( Curcuma longa L.) using gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma radiation processing was found to extend shelf life of fresh turmeric. A 5 kGy radiation dose and 10 °C storage temperature was found to keep peeled turmeric samples microbe free and acceptable until 60 days of storage. The control sample without radiation treatment spoiled within a week of storage. The changes in color, texture and moisture content of fresh turmeric due to radiation treatment were found to be statistically insignificant.

Dhanya, R.; Mishra, B. B.; Khaleel, K. M.; Cheruth, Abdul Jaleel

2009-09-01

178

Zoledronate stimulates gamma delta T cells in prostate cancer patients.  

PubMed

Androgen deprivation therapy is the mainstay of treatment for prostate cancer. Given its frequent failure, new therapy that reduces prostate cancer progression would be a breakthrough in treating this disease. Bisphosphonates are well-established agents for treating skeletal-related events (SREs) in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases. Exposure to bisphosphonates may not only reduce the incidence of SREs, but also have anticancer effects by modulating a patient's immunity. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of zoledronate (ZOL) on gamma delta T cells, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, and velocities. The effect of ZOL, with and without IL-2, on gamma delta T cell activation was examined in vitro. Furthermore, the activated state and the number of gamma delta T cells and changes in serum PSA levels were examined for patients who received ZOL infusion for the prevention of SREs. We found that ZOL activated gamma delta T cells, and the number of gamma delta T cell was increased when IL-2 was administered with ZOL in vitro. Comparisons before and after the first ZOL infusion revealed that gamma delta T cells in peripheral blood were activated by ZOL. Moreover, after the first ZOL treatment, reduction in serum PSA was observed in 3 of 11 patients, and reduction in PSA velocity was observed in 5 of 10 patients. Our findings indicate that ZOL stimulates gamma delta T cells in vivo and in vitro. This study provides further insight into the ability of gamma delta T cells to induce an antitumor immune response. PMID:20681408

Naoe, Michio; Ogawa, Yoshio; Takeshita, Kumiko; Morita, Jun; Shichijo, Takeshi; Fuji, Khozo; Fukagai, Takashi; Iwamoto, Sanju; Terao, Shuji

2010-01-01

179

RBE (relative biological effectiveness) of tritium beta radiation to gamma radiation and x-rays analyzed by both molecular and genetic methods  

SciTech Connect

The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of tritium beta radiation to /sup 60/Co gamma radiation was determined using sex-linked recessive lethals (SLRL) induced in Drosophila melanogaster spermatozoa as the biological effect. The SLRL test, a measure of mutations induced in germ cells transmitted through successive generations, yields a linear dose-response curve in the range used in these experiments. From these ratios of the slopes of the /sup 3/H beta and the /sup 60/ Co gamma radiation linear dose response curves, an RBE of 2.7 is observed. When sources of error are considered, this observation suggests that the tritium beta particle is 2.7 /plus minus/ 0.3 times more effective per unit of energy absorbed in inducing gene mutations transmitted to successive generation than /sup 60/Co gamma radiation. Ion tracks with a high density of ions (high LET) are more efficient than tracks with a low ion density (low LET) in inducing transmissible mutations, suggesting interaction among products of ionization. Molecular analysis of x-ray induced mutations shows that most mutations are deletions ranging from a few base pairs as determined from sequence data to multi locus deletions as determined from complementation tests and Southern blots. 14 refs., 1 fig.

Lee, W.R.

1988-01-01

180

GaAs Solar Cell Radiation Handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

History of GaAs solar cell development is provided. Photovoltaic equations are described along with instrumentation techniques for measuring solar cells. Radiation effects in solar cells, electrical performance, and spacecraft flight data for solar cells are discussed. The space radiation environment and solar array degradation calculations are addressed.

Anspaugh, B. E.

1996-01-01

181

Isodose mapping of terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate of Selangor state, Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya, Malaysia.  

PubMed

A terrestrial gamma radiation survey for the state of Selangor, Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya was conducted to obtain baseline data for environmental radiological health practices. Based on soil type, geological background and information from airborne survey maps, 95 survey points statistically representing the study area were determined. The measured doses varied according to geological background and soil types. They ranged from 17 nGy h(-1) to 500 nGy h(-1). The mean terrestrial gamma dose rate in air above the ground was 182 ± 81 nGy h(-1). This is two times higher than the average dose rate of terrestrial gamma radiation in Malaysia which is 92 nGy h(-1) (UNSCEAR 2000). An isodose map was produced to represent exposure rate from natural sources of terrestrial gamma radiation. PMID:24787672

Sanusi, M S M; Ramli, A T; Gabdo, H T; Garba, N N; Heryanshah, A; Wagiran, H; Said, M N

2014-09-01

182

[Determining the accumulated dose of gamma radiation in the tooth enamel].  

PubMed

Following ideas of Japanese and Canadian scientists the authors tried to develop practical application of dental enamel for dosimetry of gamma-radiation accumulated by an individual. Human teeth were irradiated in vitro with gamma-rays of 60Co and with x-rays, and the amount of free radicals in ++non-caries enamel was measured on an ESR spectrometer. Linear regression ESR signals on dose of radiation within an interval of 0.1-20 Gy were plotted for gamma- and x-rays with regression coefficients 0.276 and 0.693, respectively. These regressions were used for estimation of accumulated doses of gamma-radiation in 85 residents of Byelorussia and 301 residents of the Tomsk region during investigation of teeth that were removed in normal dental practice. PMID:2150657

Brilliant, M D; Klevezal', G A; Mordvintsev, P I; Khangulov, S V; Sukhovskaia, L I; Serezhenkov, V A; Voevodskaia, N V; Vanin, A F; Domracheva, E V; Shklovski?-Kordi, N E

1990-12-01

183

Role of CD3 gamma in T cell receptor assembly  

PubMed Central

The T cell receptor (TCR) consists of the Ti alpha beta heterodimer and the associated CD3 gamma delta epsilon and zeta 2 chains. The structural relationships between the subunits of the TCR complex are still not fully known. In this study we examined the role of the extracellular (EC), transmembrane (TM), and cytoplasmic (CY) domain of CD3 gamma in assembly and cell surface expression of the complete TCR in human T cells. A computer model indicated that the EC domain of CD3 gamma folds as an Ig domain. Based on this model and on alignment studies, two potential interaction sites were predicted in the EC domain of CD3 gamma. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that these sites play a crucial role in TCR assembly probably by binding to CD3 epsilon. Mutagenesis of N-linked glycosylation sites showed that glycosylation of CD3 gamma is not required for TCR assembly and expression. In contrast, treatment of T cells with tunicamycin suggested that N-linked glycosylation of CD3 delta is required for TCR assembly. Site-directed mutagenesis of the acidic amino acid in the TM domain of CD3 gamma demonstrated that this residue is involved in TCR assembly probably by binding to Ti beta. Deletion of the entire CY domain of CD3 gamma did not prevent assembly and expression of the TCR. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that specific TCR interaction sites exist in both the EC and TM domain of CD3 gamma. Furthermore, the study indicated that, in contrast to CD3 gamma, glycosylation of CD3 delta is required for TCR assembly and expression.

1996-01-01

184

Interferon gamma inhibits apoptotic cell death in B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia  

PubMed Central

The malignant, CD5+ B lymphocytes of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) die by apoptosis in vitro. This is in contrast to the prolonged life span of the leukemic cells in vivo and likely reflects the lack of essential growth factors in the tissue culture medium. We found that interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) inhibits programmed cell death and promotes survival of B-CLL cells in culture. This effect may also be important in vivo: increased serum levels of IFN-gamma, ranging from 60 to > 2,200 pg/ml, were found in 7 of 10 B-CLL samples tested, whereas the sera of 10 healthy individuals did not contain detectable levels of this cytokine (< 20 pg/ml). High levels of IFN-gamma message were detected in RNA from T cell-depleted B-CLL peripheral blood samples by Northern blot analysis. Synthesis of IFN-gamma by B-CLL lymphocytes was confirmed by in situ hybridization and flow cytometry. The majority of B-CLL cells (74-82%) expressed detectable levels of IFN- gamma mRNA, and CD19+ B-CLL cells were labeled with anti-IFN-gamma monoclonal antibodies. These results show that IFN-gamma inhibits programmed cell death in B-CLL cells and suggest that the malignant cells are able to synthesize this cytokine. By delaying apoptosis, IFN- gamma may extend the life span of the malignant cells and thereby contribute to their clonal accumulation.

1993-01-01

185

Radiation-induced inhibition of thymidine incorporation in vivo as a measure of the initial slope and RBEn/. gamma  

SciTech Connect

Radiation damage can be measured by decreased incorporation of 3H-TdR. The early effect of total body irradiation of mice, with doses up to 300-400 rad, of gamma rays or neutrons, on thymidine-3H incorporation into the DNA of murine proliferating normal and tumor cells are described. Total body irradiation with single doses up to 300 rad resulted in a steep dose-dependent depression of 3H-TdR incorporation into the DNA of the jejunal crypt, testis, spleen, fibrosarcoma (FSa), and FSa metastasis cells. The dose required to depress 3H-TdR incorporation values to 37% of control level (D37/thymidine) after ..gamma..-irradiation was calculated to be 405, 443, 72, 303, and 531 rad, for jejunal crypt, testis, spleen, FSa metastasis, and FSa tumor cells, respectively. The depression progressed during the first 3 hours after irradiation. After neutron irradiation, the D37/thymidine was calculated to be 81, 140, 35, and 155 rad for jejunal crypt, testis, spleen, and FSa metastasis cells, respectively. The RBEn/..gamma.. derived from these results were 5.00, 3.16, 2.06, and 1.95 for jejunal crypt, testis, spleen, and FSa metastasis cells, respectively. These findings show that cell survival after small doses of irradiation correlate with the effect of irradiation on the actively proliferating cells at the time of irradiation.

Dubravsky, N.B.; Maor, M.H.; Withers, H.R.

1985-08-01

186

Study of a number of biochemical indices of the blood and tissue of dogs after prolonged gamma-radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The glucose content in blood and the lipid content in serum and tissues of dogs exposed to chronic radiation for 3 and 5 years were studied. In tissues of these animals, the concentration of soluble DNA and DNA contained in DNP was studied in the spleen, lymph node (deep cervical node) and bone marrow of thigh bones. Results indicate that chronic gamma irradiation significantly changes concentrations of glucose in the blood, and that of several lipids in serum and tissues. A reduction in the concentration of DNP in tested organs reflects changes in the relative number of cells with various nuclear cytoplasmic ratios; most pronounced changes in biochemical indices occur in dogs exposed to chronic gamma radiation in doses of 125 rad per year.

Alers, I.; Alersova, E.; Praslichka, T.; Mishurova, E.; Sedlakova, A.; Malatova, Z.; Akhunov, A. A.; Markelov, B. A.

1974-01-01

187

THE INFLUENCE OF $gamma$RADIATION AND NEUTRONS ON LACQUER COATINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was made of the influence of gamma radiation and of ; neutrons on protective coatings of various filmforming materials, such as ; chlorinated rubber, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl butyral, copolymer ; of vinyl chloride and isobutyl ether or polyvinyl alcohol, alkyd resin, phenol-; formaldehyde resin and polymerized linseed oil. The radiation time was 3 mo ; (2,160 hr)

Z. Jedlinski; Z. Hippe; T. Uminski

1960-01-01

188

In Vitro Development of Buds from Tubers of Potato (Solanum tuuerosum L.) Subjected to gamma Radiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 'in vitro' development of buds from potato tubers subjected to gamma radiation at doses of 3, 6, 9 and 12 Krad is studied. The effect of radiation was dependent on the dormant stage of the buds. Intermediate doses (6-9 Krad) did inhibit mitotic divisi...

J. Fernandez Gonzalez M. A. Garcia Collantes

1976-01-01

189

Effect of adiponectin deficiency on intestinal damage and hematopoietic responses of mice exposed to gamma radiation  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin (APN) is an adipose tissue-derived cytokine that regulates insulin sensitivity and inflammation. It is also involved in modulation of cell proliferation by binding to various growth factors. Based on its known effects in modulating cell proliferation and oxidative stress, APN may potentially be involved in regulating tissue damage and repair following irradiation. Adiponectin KO mice and their WT littermates were exposed to a single whole-body dose of 3 or 6 Gy gamma radiation. Radiation-induced alterations were studied in jejunum, blood, bone marrow and thymus at day 1 and 5 post-irradiation and compared with sham-irradiated groups. In WT mice, irradiation did not significantly alter serum APN levels while inducing a significant decrease in serum leptin. Irradiation caused a significant reduction in thymocyte cellularity, with concomitant decrease in CD4+, CD8+ and CD4+CD8+ T cell populations, with no significant differences between WT and APN KO mice. Irradiation resulted in a significantly higher increase in the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes in the blood of APN KO compared with WT mice, whereas frequency of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow at day 5 was significantly higher in WT compared with APN KO mice. Finally, irradiation induced similar alterations in villus height and crypt cell proliferation in the jejunum of WT and APN KO mice. Jejunum explants from sham-irradiated APN KO mice produced higher levels of IL-6 compared with tissue from WT animals, but the difference was no longer apparent following irradiation. Our data indicate that APN deficiency does not play a significant role in modulating radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury in mice, while it may participate in regulation of damage to the hematopoietic system.

Ponemone, Venkatesh; Fayad, Raja; Gove, Melissa E.; Pini, Maria; Fantuzzi, Giamila

2009-01-01

190

Simultaneous measurement of neutron and gamma-ray radiation levels from a TRIGA reactor core using silicon carbide semiconductor detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of a SiC detector to measure neutron and gamma radiation levels in a TRIGA reactor's mixed neutron\\/gamma field was demonstrated. Linear responses to an epicadmium neutron fluence rate (up to 3×107 cm-2 s-1) and to a gamma dose rate (0.6-234 krad-Si h-1) were obtained with the detector. Axial profiles of the reactor core's neutron and gamma-ray radiation levels

A. R. Dulloo; F. H. Ruddy; J. G. Seidel; C. Davison; T. Flinchbaugh; T. Daubenspeck

1998-01-01

191

Distribution of terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate in the eastern coastal area of Odisha, India.  

PubMed

Terrestrial gamma radiation is one of the important radiation exposures on the earth's surface that results from the three primordial radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K. The elemental concentration of these elements in the earth's crust could result in the anomalous variation of the terrestrial gamma radiation in the environment. The geology of the local area plays an important role in distribution of these radioactive elements. Environmental terrestrial gamma radiation dose rates were measured around the eastern coastal area of Odisha with the objective of establishing baseline data on the background radiation level. The values of the terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate vary significantly at different locations in the study area. The values of the terrestrial gamma dose rate ranged from 77 to 1651 nGy h(-1), with an average of 230 nGy h(-1). During the measurement of the terrestrial gamma dose rate, sand and soil samples were also collected for the assessment of natural radionuclides. The activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K from these samples were measured using a gamma-ray spectrometry with a NaI(Tl) detector. Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K ranged from 15.6 to 69 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 46.7 Bq kg(-1), from 28.9 to 973 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 250 Bq kg(-1) and from 139 to 952 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 429, respectively. The detailed significance of these studies has been discussed from the radiation protection point of view. PMID:22874894

Gusain, G S; Rautela, B S; Sahoo, S K; Ishikawa, T; Prasad, G; Omori, Y; Sorimachi, A; Tokonami, S; Ramola, R C

2012-11-01

192

Reflectivity of linear and nonlinear gamma radiated apodized chirped Bragg grating under ocean  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the effect Co{sup 60} gamma radiation is investigated on the effective refractive index of apodized chirped Bragg grating. Nine apodization profiles are considered. Comparison between the reflectivity of the gamma radiated and non radiated fiber Bragg grating has been carried out. The electric field of signals propagating through the apodized chirped fiber Bragg grating (ACFBG) is first calculated from which, new values for the refractive index are determined. The nonlinear effects appear on the ACFBG reflectivity. The effect of nonlinearity and undersea temperature and pressure on the grating is also studied.

Hamdalla, Taymour A. [Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt); Faculty of Science, Tabuk University, Tabuk (Saudi Arabia)

2012-09-06

193

Evaluation of the Combined Effects of Gamma Radiation and High Dietary Iron on Peripheral Leukocyte Distribution and Function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is concerned with the health risks to astronauts, particularly those risks related to radiation exposure. Both radiation and increased iron stores can independently increase oxidative damage, resulting in protein, lipid and DNA oxidation. Oxidative stress increases the risk of many health problems including cancer, cataracts, and heart disease. This study, a subset of a larger interdisciplinary investigation of the combined effect of iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury, monitored immune parameters in the peripheral blood of rats subjected to gamma radiation, high dietary iron or both. Specific immune measures consisted of (A) peripheral leukocyte distribution; (B) plasma cytokine levels; (C) cytokine production profiles following whole blood stimulation of either T cells or monocytes.

Crucian, Brian E.; Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Quiriarte, Heather A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

2011-01-01

194

Snowpack snow water equivalent measurement using the attenuation of cosmic gamma radiation  

SciTech Connect

Incoming, background cosmic radiation constantly fluxes through the earth`s atmosphere. The high energy gamma portion of this radiation penetrates many terrestrial objects, including the winter snowpack. The attenuation of this radiation is exponentially related to the mass of the medium through which it penetrates. For the past three winters, a device measuring cosmic gamma radiation--and its attenuation through snow--has been installed at the Central Sierra Snow Laboratory, near Donner Pass, California. This gamma sensor, measuring energy levels between 5 and 15 MeV, has proved to be an accurate, reliable, non-invasive, non-mechanical instrument with which to measure the total snow water equivalent of a snowpack. This paper analyzes three winters` worth of data and discusses the physics and practical application of the sensor for the collection of snow water equivalent data from a remote location.

Osterhuber, R. [Univ. of California, Soda Springs, CA (United States). Central Sierra Snow Lab.; Fehrke, F. [California Dept. of Water Resources, Sacramento, CA (United States); Condreva, K. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

1998-05-01

195

Roles of ionizing radiation in cell transformation  

SciTech Connect

Earlier the authors described a repair misrepair model (RMR-I) which is applicable for radiations of low LET, e.g., x rays and gamma rays. RMR-II was described later. Here is introduced a mathematical modification of the RMR model, RMR-III, which is intended to describe lethal effects caused by heavily ionizing tracks. 31 references, 4 figures.

Tobias, C.A.; Albright, N.W.; Yang, T.C.

1983-07-01

196

Recent results on celestial gamma radiation from SMM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations made by the Gamma Ray Spectrometer on board the SMM are described. Recent results reported include observations and analyses of gamma-ray lines from Co-56 produced in supernovae, observations of the temporal variation of the 511 keV line observed during Galactic center transits, and measurements of the diffuse Galactic spectrum from 0.3 to 8.5 MeV. The work in progress includes measurements of the distribution of Galactic Al-26, observations to place limits on Galactic Ti-44 and Fe-60 and on Be-7 produced in novae, and searches for a characteristic gamma-ray emission from pair plasmas, a 2.223 MeV line emission, limits on deexcitation lines from interstellar C and O, and gamma-ray bursts.

Share, Gerald H.

1991-01-01

197

Galactic plane gamma radiation. [SAS-2 and COS-b observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of the complete data from SAS-2 accentuates the fact that the distribution of galactic gamma radiation has several similarities to that of other large-scale tracers of galactic structure. The gamma radiation shows no statistically significant variation with direction, and the spectrum seen along the plane is the same as that derived for the galactic component of the gamma radiation at high latitude. This uniformity of the energy spectrum, the smooth decrease in intensity as a function of galactic latitude, and the absence of any galactic gamma ray sources at high latitudes argue in favor of a diffuse origin for most of the galactic gamma radiation, rather than a collection of localized sources. All the localized sources identified in the SAS 2 data are associated with known compact objects on the basis of observed periodicities, except gamma195+5 Excluding those SAS 2 sources observed by COS-B and two other excesses (CG 312-1 and CG333+0) visible in the SAS 2 data associated with tangential directions of spiral arms, thera are eight remaining new sources in the COS-B catalog.

Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Ogelman, H. B.; Tuner, T.; Ozel, M. E.

1978-01-01

198

Accumulation of Mn(II) in Deinococcus radiodurans Facilitates GammaRadiation Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deinococcus radiodurans is extremely resistant to ionizing radiation. How this bacterium can grow under chronic gamma radiation [50 grays (Gy) per hour] or recover from acute doses greater than 10 kGy is unknown. We show that D. radiodurans accumulates very high intracellular manganese and low iron levels compared with radiation-sensitive bacteria and that resistance exhibits a concentration-dependent response to manganous

M. J. Daly; E. K. Gaidamakova; V. Y. Matrosova; A. Vasilenko; M. Zhai; A. Venkateswaran; M. Hess; M. V. Omelchenko; H. M. Kostandarithes; K. S. Makarova; L. P. Wackett; J. K. Fredrickson; D. Ghosal

2004-01-01

199

Advanced radiation imaging of low-intensity gamma-ray sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imaging gamma-ray sources and distributions of low intensity is difficult using current commercially available radiation imagers. Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. has carried out the research and development necessary to construct a novel, compact radiation-imaging device, RADCAM, for low-intensity applications. The device consists of a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) coupled to a CsI(Na) scintillation crystal, which is an excellent candidate for

M. Woodring; D. Souza; S. Tipnis; P. Waer; M. Squillante; G. Entine; K. P. Ziock

1999-01-01

200

Extract of Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) protects against gamma-radiation induced testicular damage in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Ionizing radiation is an important environmental risk factor and, a major therapeutic agent for cancer treatment. This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of extract of Xylopia aethiopica (XA) on gamma-radiation-induced testicular damage in rats. Vitamin C (VC) served as the reference antioxidant during the study. The study consists of 4 groups of 11 rats each. Group I received corn oil (vehicle), groups II and IV were pretreated with XA (250 mg/kg) and VC (250mg/kg) for 6 weeks before and 8 weeks after exposure to gamma-radiation; group III was exposed to a single dose of gamma-radiation (5 Gy). Biochemical analysis revealed that gamma-irradiation caused a significant increase (p < .05) in serum and testicular lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels by 217% and 221%, respectively. Irradiated rats had markedly decreased testicular catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Irradiation resulted in 59% and 40% decreases in spermatozoa motility and live/dead sperm count, respectively, and a 161% increase in total sperm abnormalities. Histologically, testes of the irradiated rats showed extensive degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules and defoliation of spermatocytes. Supplementation of XA and VC reversed the adverse effects of gamma-radiation on biochemical and histological indices of the rats. These findings demonstrated that Xylopia aethiopica has a protective effect by inhibiting oxidative damage in testes of irradiated rats. PMID:21305847

Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Adedara, Isaac Adegboyega; Popoola, Bosede; Farombi, Ebenezer Olatunde

2010-01-01

201

CCRI supplementary comparison of standards for absorbed dose to water in 60Co gamma radiation at radiation processing dose levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six national standards for absorbed dose to water in 60Co gamma radiation at the dose levels used in radiation processing have been compared over the range from 5 to 30 kGy using the alanine dosimeters of the NIST and the NPL as the transfer dosimeters. The standards are in agreement at the level of around 0.5%, which is significantly smaller

D. T. Burns; P. J. Allisy-Roberts; M. F. Desrosiers; V. Yu. Nagy; P. H. G. Sharpe; R. F. Laitano; K. Mehta; M. K. H. Schneider; Y. L. Zhang

2006-01-01

202

CCRI supplementary comparison of standards for absorbed dose to water in 60Co gamma radiation at radiation processing dose levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six national standards for absorbed dose to water in 60Co gamma radiation at the dose levels used in radiation processing have been compared over the range from 5 to 30kGy using the alanine dosimeters of the NIST and the NPL as the transfer dosimeters. The standards are in agreement at the level of around 0.5%, which is significantly smaller than

D. T. Burns; P. J. Allisy-Roberts; M. F. Desrosiers; V. Yu. Nagy; P. H. G. Sharpe; R. F. Laitano; K. Mehta; M. K. H. Schneider; Y. L. Zhang

2006-01-01

203

Gamma-radiation-induced mutation spectrum in the episomal lacI gene of Escherichia coli under oxic conditions.  

PubMed

In this study we have determined the mutation spectrum in the complete episomal lacI gene of Escherichia coli induced by gamma-radiation under oxic conditions. Mutants were generated by 60Co gamma-irradiation of an E. coli culture of stationary cells in LB medium, under continuous flushing with oxygen. Oligonucleotide probe analysis showed that 14% of the gamma-ray-induced mutations were located at the lacI gene hot spot at position 620-632, which is characterized by a triple repeat of the 5'-TGGC-3' sequence. Previously it was shown that about 70% of the spontaneous mutations were located at this site due to the loss or the addition of a TGGC sequence. The non-hot spot mutations were further characterized by automated sequence analysis. The results show that base pair (bp) substitutions were the main type of gamma-ray-induced mutations. Although all types of bp substitutions were observed, 74% of the bp substitutions involved C/G base pairs. C/G --> T/A and C/G --> A/T substitutions were predominant, both accounting for 35% of all bp substitutions, whereas A/T --> C/G substitutions were only seldomly observed (3%). A relatively large amount of -1 bp deletions (15% of all mutations) was detected in the gamma-ray-induced mutation spectrum, mainly affecting C/G base pairs, and 10% were deletions, ranging in size from 11 to 532 bp. It can be concluded that under oxic conditions gamma-radiation induces in E. coli mainly bp substitutions of all types but preferentially at C/G base pairs, and that the mutations tend to be randomly distributed within the lacI gene sequence. PMID:8600354

Wijker, C A; Lafleur, M V; van Steeg, H; Mohn, G R; Retèl, J

1996-02-01

204

Low doses of gamma-irradiation induce an early bystander effect in zebrafish cells which is sufficient to radioprotect cells.  

PubMed

The term "bystander effect" is used to describe an effect in which cells that have not been exposed to radiation are affected by irradiated cells though various intracellular signaling mechanisms. In this study we analyzed the kinetics and mechanisms of bystander effect and radioadaptation in embryonic zebrafish cells (ZF4) exposed to chronic low dose of gamma rays. ZF4 cells were irradiated for 4 hours with total doses of gamma irradiation ranging from 0.01-0.1 Gy. In two experimental conditions, the transfer of irradiated cells or culture medium from irradiated cells results in the occurrence of DNA double strand breaks in non-irradiated cells (assessed by the number of ?-H2AX foci) that are repaired at 24 hours post-irradiation whatever the dose. At low total irradiation doses the bystander effect observed does not affect DNA repair mechanisms in targeted and bystander cells. An increase in global methylation of ZF4 cells was observed in irradiated cells and bystander cells compared to control cells. We observed that pre-irradiated cells which are then irradiated for a second time with the same doses contained significantly less ?-H2AX foci than in 24 h gamma-irradiated control cells. We also showed that bystander cells that have been in contact with the pre-irradiated cells and then irradiated alone present less ?-H2AX foci compared to the control cells. This radioadaptation effect is significantly more pronounced at the highest doses. To determine the factors involved in the early events of the bystander effect, we performed an extensive comparative proteomic study of the ZF4 secretomes upon irradiation. In the experimental conditions assayed here, we showed that the early events of bystander effect are probably not due to the secretion of specific proteins neither the oxidation of these secreted proteins. These results suggest that early bystander effect may be due probably to a combination of multiple factors. PMID:24667817

Pereira, Sandrine; Malard, Véronique; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Davin, Anne-Hélène; Armengaud, Jean; Foray, Nicolas; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

2014-01-01

205

Influence of relaxation transitions on radiation-initiated cationic graft polymerization. [Gamma radiation  

SciTech Connect

Radiation grafting of vinyl n-butyl ether (VBE) to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) over a broad temperature range was investigated. The relaxation transitions in the PVC/VBE system were also determined. Grafting of vinyl alkyl ethers proceeds entirely by a cationic mechanism in a reaction medium that has been dried to a water concentration no greater than 0.1-1.0 ppm. In this connection, the diffusion properties of water in the temperature region were studied. Commercial films of unplasticized PVC (thickness 200 M); were subjected to swelling in two systems: in a 50% solution of VBE in benzene at 25/sup 0/C, and in the pure monomer at 40/sup 0/C. The reaction mixtures were first dried over metallic sodium in a deaerated atmosphere. The specimens were irradiated in a Co gamma-radiation unit to a dose of 10 kGy at a dose rate of 3 Gy/sec. The first reaction mixture was investigated over a range of temperatures from -60/sup 0/ to +70/sup 0/C, and the second from -15/sup 0/ to +50/sup 0/C. The degree of grafting was determined from the increase in weight of the original ungrafted film. The temperature was held to within +/-1/sup 0/C. The relaxation transitions in the swollen polymer systems were determined by two methods, thermostimulated current (TSC) and thermomechanics (TM). It was found that in the region of the glass transition of a swollen PVC-VBE system, radiation-initiated cationic graft polymerization proceeds at a maximal rate, and there are changes in state of the water molecules (the agents of breaking the ion reaction chain) and in their diffusion properties within the matrix.

Kudryavtsev, V.N.; Kabanov, V.Ya.; Chalykh, A.E.; Spitsyn, V.I.

1982-05-01

206

Solar cell radiation handbook. [Degradation of solar cells in space radiation environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this document is to detail a method of predicting the degradation of a solar array in a space radiation environment. The text contains a discussion of solar cell technology which emphasizes the cell parameters which degrade in a radiation environment. The experimental techniques used in the evaluation of radiation effects are discussed. The theoretical aspects of radiation

H. Y. Tada; J. R. Jr. Carter

1977-01-01

207

RBE (Relative Biological Effectiveness) of Tritium beta Radiation to gamma Radiation and X-rays Analyzed by Both Molecular and Genetic Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of tritium beta radiation to (sup 60)Co gamma radiation was determined using sex-linked recessive lethals (SLRL) induced in Drosophila melanogaster spermatozoa as the biological effect. The SLRL test, a measure ...

W. R. Lee

1988-01-01

208

Radiation hardness tests performed high gamma field sources. ... measured survive ionizing radiation order Murad survive ...... en Dependence transmission coefficients CCl crystals collared hard .  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean: Radiation hardness tests performed high gamma field sources. ... measured survive ionizing radiation order Murad survive ...... en Dependence transmission coefficients CCl crystals collared hard . ?

209

Molecular changes in UV-induced and gamma-ray-induced mutations in human lymphoblastoid cells.  

PubMed

We have characterized the structural changes in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene of 14 UV-induced, 15 gamma-ray-induced and 17 spontaneous mutants of human lymphoblastoid cells selected for 6-thioguanine (6TG) resistance. Southern blot analysis using the full-length HPRT cDNA as a probe revealed that 29% (5/17) of the spontaneous mutants contained detectable alterations in their restriction fragment patterns. Among the 15 mutants induced by gamma rays, 7 (47%) had such alterations indicative of large deletions in the HPRT gene. In contrast, all 14 UV-induced mutants exhibited hybridization patterns indistinguishable from those of the wild-type cells. These results suggest that UV is likely to induce point mutations at the HPRT locus on the human chromosome and that the molecular mechanism of UV-induced mutation is quite different from that of ionizing radiation-induced mutation or spontaneous mutation in human cells. PMID:1973821

Tachibana, A; Ohbayashi, T; Takebe, H; Tatsumi, K

1990-06-01

210

Natural gamma-ray spectrometry as a tool for radiation dose and radon hazard modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reviewed the calibration procedures of gamma-ray spectrometry with particular emphasis to factors that affect accuracy, detection limits and background radiation in field measurements for dosimetric and radon potential mapping. Gamma-ray spectra were acquired in western Liguria (Italy). The energy windows investigated are centred on the photopeaks of 214Bi (1.76MeV), 208Tl (2.62MeV) and 40K (1.46MeV). The inferred absorbed dose rate

M. Verdoya; P. Chiozzi; P. De Felice; V. Pasquale; M. Bochiolo; I. Genovesi

2009-01-01

211

Degradation of chitosan and sodium alginate by gamma radiation, sonochemical and ultraviolet methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three degradation methods: ultrasonic, ultraviolet and gamma irradiation were applied to sodium alginate and chitosan in aqueous solutions. The changes in molecular weight were monitored by GPC measurements. It has been found that from the energetic point of view the most effective method for both polymers is gamma radiation method with a yield of scission Gs=0.55×10-7mol\\/J for 1% alginate and

Jaroslaw M. Wasikiewicz; Fumio Yoshii; Naotsugu Nagasawa; Radoslaw A. Wach; Hiroshi Mitomo

2005-01-01

212

Study on chemical, UV and gamma radiation-induced grafting of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate onto chitosan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate has been grafted onto chitosan by using either chemical initiation, or photo-induction or gamma radiation-induced polymerisation, all under heterogeneous conditions. The evidence of grafting was provided by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermal analysis. The results concerning the effect of initiator concentration, initial monomer concentration and dose rate influencing on the yield of grafting reactions are presented. These suggest that gamma irradiation is the method that leads to higher yields of grafting.

Casimiro, M. H.; Botelho, M. L.; Leal, J. P.; Gil, M. H.

2005-04-01

213

The properties of gamma-radiation and high-energy neutron fluxes in "MIR" station orbit.  

PubMed

The study of radiation background components in the near-Earth space is very important for different branches of space research, in particular for space dosimetry and for the planning of gamma-astronomy experiments. Detailed information on the neutral components (gamma-quanta, neutrons) of background radiation was obtained during the Grif-1 experiment onboard Mir orbital station (OS). The measurements of fluxes of 0.05-50 MeV gamma-quanta and >30 MeV neutrons with a large area instrument (approximately 250 cm2 for gamma-quanta, approximately 30 cm2 for neutrons) as well as corresponding charged particle measurements (0.4-1.5 MeV electrons, 1-200 MeV protons) were made during this experiment. The background components induced by the station's own radiation as well as the albedo gamma-rays from the Earth's atmosphere were revealed as the result of data analysis for about 600 h of observation. A mathematical model describing the latitude and energy dependences of atmospheric albedo gamma-rays as well as of those of gamma-quanta produced in the material of the station due to cosmic ray interactions was developed. An analytical approximation of the spectrum of induced gamma-rays from radioactive isotopes stored in the station and instrument's materials is presented. The dynamics of gamma-quantum background fluxes during the geomagnetic disturbances of January 10-11, 1997 are discussed. An analytical representation of the latitude dependence of the integral flux of neutrons with >30 MeV is given. PMID:12442742

Bogomolov, A V; Bogomolov, V V; Denisov, Yu I; Logachev, Yu I; Svertilov, S I; Kudryavtsev, M I; Lyagushin, V I; Ershova, T V

2002-10-01

214

Investigation of the fluorescence emitted from polyallyl diglycol carbonate modified by gamma-ray radiation excited by UV radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluorescence emitted from the gamma-ray-irradiated polyallyl diglycol carbonate upon illumination by the 346 nm UV radiation is studied. The fluorescence spectra show two distinct phenomena, the variation of fluorescence wavelength and intensity with received irradiation dose. These variations are found to be correlated to the change in the dielectric constant and the change in absorption. The dielectric constant is

Elsayed K. Elmaghraby; Talat A. Salama

2010-01-01

215

Investigation of the fluorescence emitted from polyallyl diglycol carbonate modified by gamma-ray radiation excited by UV radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluorescence emitted from the gamma-ray-irradiated polyallyl diglycol carbonate upon illumination by the 346 nm UV radiation is studied. The fluorescence spectra show two distinct phenomena, the variation of fluorescence wavelength and intensity with received irradiation dose. These variations are found to be correlated to the change in the dielectric constant and the change in absorption. The dielectric constant is measured

Elsayed K. Elmaghraby; Talat A. Salama

2010-01-01

216

Dipole analysis on EGRET data of extragalactic gamma ray background radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dipole analysis on the EGRET (Energetic Gamma-Ray Experimental Telescope) data seems to be one of the numerous subjects that can be investigated for the extragalactic gamma ray background radiation. By the end of the first one and half years after launch, the all-sky survey program of GRO (Gamma Ray Observatory) will be completed. The EGRET detector will cover the full sky area fairly well by that time. A set of gamma ray data suitable for dipole moment calculations will be available. Furthermore, there now exist in the literature several dipole anisotropy results calculated for optical and infrared observations on the distribution of galaxies in the full sky. The results of dipole moment analysis from gamma ray observation can be compared with those at other wavebands, and hopefully some deeper understanding can be gained on the large scale structure of the Universe.

Lin, Ying-Chi

1990-01-01

217

Secondary production of neutral pi-mesons and the diffuse galactic gamma radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Isobaric and scaling model predictions of the secondary spectra of neutral pi-mesons produced in proton-proton collisions, at energies between threshold and a few GeV, are compared on the basis of accelerator data and found to show the isobaric model to be superior. This model is accordingly used, in conjuction with a scaling model representation at high energies, in a recalculation of the pi exp (0) gamma-radiation's contribution to the diffuse galactic gamma background; the cosmic ray-induced production of photons (whose energy exceeds 100 MeV) by such radiation occurs at a rate of 1.53 x 10 to the -25 photons/(s-H atom). These results are compared with previous calculations of this process as well as with COS-B observations of the diffuse galactic gamma-radiation.

Dermer, C. D.

1986-01-01

218

Effects of gamma Radiation and Storage Time on the Physical, Chemical and Sensory Qualities of ''Georgia Jet'' Sweet Potatoes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Effect of gamma radiation and storage time on sprouting, rotting, changes in nutritional composition and sensory quality of Georgia Jet Sweet Potatoes were studied. All radiation doses used in the study inhibited sprouting. Sweet potatoes were severely in...

P. I. Yakubu

1986-01-01

219

Breast cancer stem cells and radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present studies explore the response of breast cancer stem cells (BCSC's) to radiation and the implications for clinical cancer treatment. Current cancer therapy eliminates bulky tumor mass but may fail to eradicate a critical tumor initiating cell population termed \\

Tiffany Marie Phillips

2007-01-01

220

Gadolinium-doped water cerenkov-based neutron and high energy gamma-ray detector and radiation portal monitoring system  

DOEpatents

A water Cerenkov-based neutron and high energy gamma ray detector and radiation portal monitoring system using water doped with a Gadolinium (Gd)-based compound as the Cerenkov radiator. An optically opaque enclosure is provided surrounding a detection chamber filled with the Cerenkov radiator, and photomultipliers are optically connected to the detect Cerenkov radiation generated by the Cerenkov radiator from incident high energy gamma rays or gamma rays induced by neutron capture on the Gd of incident neutrons from a fission source. The PMT signals are then used to determine time correlations indicative of neutron multiplicity events characteristic of a fission source.

Dazeley, Steven A; Svoboda, Robert C; Bernstein, Adam; Bowden, Nathaniel

2013-02-12

221

Production of hydrogel wound dressings using gamma radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogel wound dressings have been prepared using the gamma rays irradiation technique. The dressings are composed of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and agar. The influence of some process parameters on the properties of the dressings has been investigated as: the gel fraction, maximum swelling, swelling kinetics, and mechanical properties. The gel fraction increases with increasing PVP concentration due

Z. Ajji; I. Othman; J. M. Rosiak

2005-01-01

222

Cosmic gamma Radiation of Ultra High Energy of Primordial Origin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The quantum mechanical effects near a collapsing black hole as shown by Stephen W. Hawking in 1974 to produce streaming particles through tunneling effect was explored in the context of cosmic gamma ray production. In this thesis, we show the possible pro...

1984-01-01

223

Sources of cosmic rays and galactic diffuse gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffuse galactic gamma-ray spectrum measured by the EGRET experiment is interpreted within a scenario in which cosmic rays (CRs) are injected by three different kind of sources, (i) supernovae (SN) which explode into the interstellar medium (ISM), (ii) Red Supergiants (RSG), and (iii) Wolf-Rayet stars (WR), where the two latter explode into their pre-SN winds.

Casanova, S.; Biermann, P. L.; Engel, R.; Meli, A.; Ulrich, R.

224

Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Metabolism and Radiation-Induced Seizures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Miniature swine convulsed spontaneously within 30 seconds after a 10,000-rad dose of 30 MeV electrons was delivered to the brain. The seizures ended 2 to 5 minutes later. Since alterations in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism occur in and may be a...

G. H. Zeman R. L. Chaput

1974-01-01

225

Calculated thickness of tungsten alloy required for specified attenuation of gamma radiation from sup 137 CS  

SciTech Connect

The traditional method of evaluating and calibrating health physics instruments is to use a calibrator that consists of a single high-activity gamma radiation source with different attenuators to select the radiation level desired for tesing. To have accurate radiation intensities inside the calibrator cavity, the attenuators must be designed from precise absorption calculations. This paper reports calculations made to determine the thickness of tungsten alloy metal required for specific attenuation. These calculations include the buildup contribution by secondary scattering radiation, and they are compared to values calculated with the buildup factor omitted. 3 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Chiles, M.M.; Allin, G.W.; Pace, J.V. III.

1991-01-01

226

Measurement of gamma and neutron radiations inside spent fuel assemblies with passive detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During operation of a fission nuclear reactor, many radionuclides are generated in fuel by fission and activation of 235U, 238U and other nuclides present in the assembly. After removal of a fuel assembly from the core, these radionuclides are sources of different types of radiation. Gamma and neutron radiation emitted from an assembly can be non-destructively detected with different types of detectors. In this paper, a new method of measurement of radiation from a spent fuel assembly is presented. It is based on usage of passive detectors, such as alanine dosimeters for gamma radiation and track detectors for neutron radiation. Measurements are made on the IRT-2M spent fuel assemblies used in the LVR-15 research reactor. During irradiation of detectors, the fuel assembly is located in a water storage pool at a depth of 6 m. Detectors are inserted into central hole of the assembly, irradiated for a defined time interval, and after the detectors removed from the assembly, gamma dose or neutron fluence are evaluated. Measured profiles of gamma dose rate and neutron fluence rate inside of the spent fuel assembly are presented. This measurement can be used to evaluate relative fuel burn-up.

Viererbl, L.; Lahodová, Z.; Voljanskij, A.; Klupák, V.; Koleška, M.; Cabalka, M.; Turek, K.

2011-10-01

227

Radiation detection system for portable gamma-ray spectroscopy  

DOEpatents

A portable gamma ray detection apparatus having a gamma ray detector encapsulated by a compact isolation structure having at least two volumetrically-nested enclosures where at least one is a thermal shield. The enclosures are suspension-mounted to each other to successively encapsulate the detector without structural penetrations through the thermal shields. A low power cooler is also provided capable of cooling the detector to cryogenic temperatures without consuming cryogens, due to the heat load reduction by the isolation structure and the reduction in the power requirements of the cooler. The apparatus also includes a lightweight portable power source for supplying power to the apparatus, including to the cooler and the processing means, and reducing the weight of the apparatus to enable handheld operation or toting on a user's person.

Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA); Howard, Douglas E. (Livermore, CA); Wong, James L. (Dublin, CA); Jessup, James L. (Tracy, CA); Bianchini, Greg M. (Livermore, CA); Miller, Wayne O. (Livermore, CA)

2006-06-20

228

Microwave and gamma radiation observations of soil moisture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unique dielectric properties of water at microwave wavelengths afford the possibility for remotely sensing the moisture content in the surface layer of the soil. The surface emissivity and reflectivity for the soils at these wavelengths are strong functions of its moisture content. The changes in emissivity can be observed by passive microwave techniques (radiometry) and the change in reflectivity can be observed by active microwave techniques (radar). The difference in the natural terrestrial gamma ray flux measured for wet and dry soil may be used to determine soil moisture. The presence of water moisture in the soil causes an effective increase in soil density, resulting in an increased attenuation of the gamma flux for wet soil and a corresponding lower flux above the ground surface.

Schmugge, T. J.; Njoku, E. G.; Peck, E.; Ulaby, F. T.

1979-01-01

229

Attenuation of VHE Gamma Rays by the Milky Way Interstellar Radiation Field  

SciTech Connect

The attenuation of very high energy gamma rays by pair production on the Galactic interstellar radiation field has long been thought of as negligible. However, a new calculation of the interstellar radiation field consistent with multi-wavelength observations by DIRBE and FIRAS indicates that the energy density of the Galactic interstellar radiation field is higher, particularly in the Galactic center, than previously thought. We have made a calculation of the attenuation of very high energy gamma rays in the Galaxy using this new interstellar radiation field which takes into account its nonuniform spatial and angular distributions. We find that the maximum attenuation occurs around 100 TeV at the level of about 25% for sources located at the Galactic center, and is important for both Galactic and extragalactic sources.

Moskalenko, Igor V.; /Stanford U., HEPL; Porter, Troy A.; /Louisiana State U.; Strong, Andrew W.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE

2006-04-19

230

Irradiation tests of critical components for remote handling in gamma radiation environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the fusion power core of a D-T fusion reactor will be highly activated once it starts operation, personnel access will be prohibited so that assembly and maintenance of the components in the reactor core will have to be totally conducted by remote handling technology. Fusion experimental reactors such as ITER require unprecedented remote handling equipments which are tolerable under gamma radiation of more than 10(exp 6) R/h. For this purpose, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been developing radiation hard components for remote handling purpose and a number of key components have been tested over 10(exp 9) rad at a radiation dose rate of around 10(exp 6) R/h, using Gamma Ray Radiation Test Facility in JAERI-Takasaki Establishment. This report summarizes the irradiation test results and the latest status of AC servo motor, potentiometer, optical elements, lubricant, sensors and cables, which are key elements of the remote handling system.

Obara, Henjiro; Kakudate, Satoshi; Oka, Kiyoshi; Furuya, Kazuyuki; Taguchi, Kou; Tada, Eisuke; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi; Ohkawa, Yoshinao; Morita, Yousuke; Yokoo, Noriko

1994-08-01

231

Effects of gamma radiation on life stages of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results of experiments conducted with Ephestia kuehniella Zeller to determine the effects of gamma radiation on life stages. Eggs, larvae, pupae and adults were irradiated with increasing doses of gamma radiation (seven dose levels between 50 and 400 Gy for eggs and larvae, six dose levels between 50 and 350 Gy for pupae and four dose levels between 250

Abdurrahman Ayvaz; Ayd?n ?. Tunçbilek

2006-01-01

232

Sources of Cosmic Rays and Galactic Diffuse Gamma Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffuse galactic gamma-ray spectrum measured by the EGRET experiment \\citep{Hunter:1997} are interpreted within a scenario in which cosmic rays (CRs) are injected by three different kind of sources, (i) supernovae (SN) which explode into the interstellar medium (ISM), (ii) Red Supergiants (RSG), and (iii) Wolf-Rayet stars (WR), where the two latter explode into their pre-SN winds (Biermann et al. 2001; Sina et al. 2001).

Casanova, S.; Biermann, P. L.; Engel, R.; Meli, A.; Ulrich, R.

2004-10-01

233

High-energy gamma radiation from extragalactic radio sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We propose that the important relationship between 3C 273 and 3C 279, the first two extragalactic sources detected at over 100 MeV energies, is their superluminal nature. In support of this conjecture, we propose a kinematic focusing mechanism, based on Compton scattering of accretion-disk photons by relativistic nonthermal electrons in the jet, that preferentially emits gamma rays in the superluminal direction.

Dermer, C. D.; Schlickeiser, R.; Mastichiadis, A.

1992-01-01

234

Poly (DADMAC) encapsulation in PES microcapsules utilizing gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this communication, a method for encapsulation of a polymeric resin using radiation technology is reported. The quaternary ammonium resin, polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) was incorporated in the core of a preformed hollow polyethersulfone microcapsule, using radiation technology, for the extraction of anions from aqueous solutions. The idea was to introduce the monomer into the porous microcapsules and initiate polymerization by radiation to trap the polymer formed inside the capsule. The resultant capsule was able to take up and exchange some anions (F -, Cl -, Br -, NO 32- and SO 42-) at relatively low concentrations.

Francis, Sanju; Varshney, Lalit; Tirumalesh, Keesari; Sabharwal, Sunil

2009-01-01

235

Immunotherapy of acute radiation syndromes with antiradiation gamma G globulin.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: If an immunotherapy treatment approach to treatment of acute radiation syndromes (ARS) were to be developed; consideration could be given to neutralization of radiation toxins (Specific Radiation Determinants- SRD) by specific antiradiation antibodies. To accomplish this objective, irradiated animals were injected with a preparation of antiradiation immunoglobulin G (IgG) obtained from hyperimmune donors. Radiation-indeced toxins that we call Specific Radiation Determinants (SRD) possess toxic (neurotoxic, haemotoxic and enterotoxic) characteristics as well as specific antigenic properties that combined with the direct physiochemical direct radiation damage, induce the development of many of the pathological processes associated with ARS. We tested several specific hyperimmune IgG preparations against these radiation toxins and observed that their toxic properties were neutralized by specific antiradiation IgGs. Material and Methods: Rabbits were inoculated with SRD radiation toxins to induce hyperimmune serum. The hyperimmune serum was pooled from several animals, purified, and concentrated. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of the hyperimmune serum revealed high titers of IgG with specific binding to radiation toxins. The antiradiation IgG preparation was injected into laboratory animals one hour before and three hours after irradiation, and was evaluated for its ability to protect inoculated animals against the development of acute radiation syndromes. Results: Animals that were inoculated with specific antiradiation antibodies before receiving lethal irradiation at LD 100/30 exhibited 60-75% survival rate at 30 days, whereas all control animals expired by 30 days following exposure. These inoculated animals also exhibited markedly reduced clinical symptoms of ARS, even those that did not survive irradiation. Discussion: The results of our experiments demonstrate that rabbit hyperimmune serum directed against SRD toxins afford significant, albeit incomplete, protection against high doses of radiation. In comparison, the mortality rate of irradiated control animals was 100% in the same time period. The mortality rates of hyperimmune serum-treated animals varied in different groups of animals and different forms of ARS; however, significant radioprotection was observed in each group treated with IgGs activated against specific radiation toxins.

Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Vecheslav; Casey, Rachael; Jones, Jeffrey; Kedar, Prasad

236

Measurement of gamma radiation levels in soil samples from Thanjavur using gamma-ray spectrometry and estimation of population exposure.  

PubMed

This study assesses the level of terrestrial gamma radiation and associated dose rates from the naturally occurring radionuclides (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K in 10 soil samples collected from Thanjavur (Tamil Nadu, India) using gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity profile of radionuclides has clearly showed the existence of low level activity in Thanjavur. The geometric mean activity concentrations of (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K is 42.9+/-9.4 Bq.kg(-1), 14.7+/-1.7 Bq.kg(-1) and 149.5+/-3.1 Bq.kg(-1) respectively are derived from all the soil samples studied. The activity concentration of (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K in soil is due to the presence of metamorphic rocks like shale, hornblende-biotite gneiss and quartzofeldspathic gneiss in these areas. Gamma absorbed dose rates in air outdoors were calculated to be in the range between 32 nGy.h(-1) and 59.1 nGy.h(-1) with an arithmetic mean of 43.3 +/-9 nGy.h(-1). This value is lesser than the population weighted world-averaged of 60 nGy.h(-1). Inhabitants of Thanjavur are subjected to external gamma radiation exposure (effective dose) ranging between 39.2 and 72.6 muSv.y(-1) with an arithmetic mean of 53.1+/-11 muSv.y(-1). The values of the external hazard index determined from the soil radioactivity of the study area are less than the recommended safe levels. PMID:20177570

Senthilkumar, B; Dhavamani, V; Ramkumar, S; Philominathan, P

2010-01-01

237

Enrichment of magnetic alignment stimulated by {gamma}-radiation in core-shell type nanoparticle Mn-Zn ferrite  

SciTech Connect

Core shell type nanoparticle Mn{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} systems with x=0.55, 0.65 and 0.75 were prepared using autocombustion method. The systems were characterized using tools like XRD and IR for structure confirmation. Magnetic parameter measurements like Saturation magnetization and coercivity were obtained from hysteresis loop which exhibited a symmetry shift due to core shell nature of the nanoparticles. Nanoparticles of particle size between 21.2nm to 25.7nm were found to show 20 percent shrinkage after being radiated by the {gamma}-radiation. This is due to variation in the cation distribution which also affects the cell volume of the cubic cell. Lattice constant reduction observed is reflected in the magnetic properties of the samples. A considerable hike in the saturation magnetization of the samples was observed due to enrichment of magnetic alignment in the magnetic core of the particles. Samples under investigation were irradiated with gamma radiation from Co{sup 60} source for different time intervals.

Naik, P. P.; Tangsali, R. B. [Department of Physics, Goa University, Taleigao Plateau, Goa-403206 (India); Sonaye, B.; Sugur, S. [Goa Medical College, Bambolim, Goa (India)

2013-02-05

238

Comparison between the Spectra of Gamma Radiation for Climate Dry Periods and Rainy in the Southeast of Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through this work, present themselves the results obtained for the spectra of ionizing radiation (X-rays and gamma) environmental southeast Brazil for the periods of dry and rainy climate, respectively. One of the objectives this work is promoting through analysis of the results a better understand, in the educational area, the physical processes related to the background radiation of the places where measurements were made. In Brazil, there is still little information about the radiation from soil, radon gas atmospheric, cosmic and artificial origin. Measurements of gamma radiation spectra were performed with a scintillator of NaI (Tl) (volume 300 cm3) mounted within an aluminum cell and coupled to a photomultiplier tube, which in turn is coupled through an interface to specify a notebook for storage of data. The measurement of X and gamma rays photons occur of way omnidirectional without distinction as to direction. The data acquisition was performed at fixed intervals of 1 minute continuously for the entire period of dry climate (June to October) and rainy (December 2012 to January 2013). Figures 1 and 2 show the results obtained for both periods, dry and rainy, respectively. Regarding the graph of Figure 1, is evidenced a cycle of 24 hours in the radiation spectrum. In this period without rain the radiation increases always between sunrise sunset until 11 - 12 hours local, due to the increased presence of radon gas (222Rn) which decays after 3.8 days in 214Pb and 214Bi, emitting photons in the range of energy the detector is measuring (0.030 to 3.0 MeV). The graph in Figure 2 shows that during the rainy period, there was a significant increase in radiation intensity, in addition to that already shown in the dry times that for certain time intervals. This increase is due to when occurs precipitation, the amount of radon gas increases because of the phenomenon of washing the lower atmosphere where the gas is suspended and diluted in water droplets. In the rainy period, the periodicity that is present in the spectrum of the dry climate is practically destroyed due to the interference of photons gamma of radon gas from the rain.

Gomes, M. P.; Martin, I. M.

2013-05-01

239

Gamma Radiation Dosimetry Using Tellurium Dioxide Thin Film Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin films of Tellurium dioxide (TeO2) were investigated for ?-radiation dosimetry purposes. Samples were fabricated using thin film vapour deposition technique. Thin films of TeO2 were exposed to a 60Co ?-radiation source at a dose rate of 6 Gy\\/min at room temperature. Absorption spectra for TeO2 films were recorded and the values of the optical band gap and energies of

Khalil Arshak; Olga Korostynska

2002-01-01

240

GaAs Solar Cell Radiation Handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The handbook discusses the history of GaAs solar cell development, presents equations useful for working with GaAs solar cells, describes commonly used instrumentation techniques for assessing radiation effects in solar cells and fundamental processes occurring in solar cells exposed to ionizing radiation, and explains why radiation decreases the electrical performance of solar cells. Three basic elements required to perform solar array degradation calculations: degradation data for GaAs solar cells after irradiation with 1 MeV electrons at normal incidence; relative damage coefficients for omnidirectional electron and proton exposure; and the definition of the space radiation environment for the orbit of interest, are developed and used to perform a solar array degradation calculation.

Anspaugh, B. E.

1996-01-01

241

Response of organic liquid scintillators to fast neutrons and gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid organic scintillators are cocktails of aromatic fluorophores in an aromatic solvent. They find widespread use in Liquid Scintillation Counters with applications in medical diagnostics as well as fundamental nuclear and particle physics. Ultima Gold™ XR, a commercially available organic liquid scintillator from Perkin Elmer, can be used in both aqueous and non-aqueous systems and is typically used for beta detection in medical diagnostics. Its performance under gamma radiation and neutron radiation is less well-characterized. Special and normal Ultima Gold™ XR liquid scintillators were exposed in separate experiments to fast neutrons and high energy photons from a nuclear reactor and to gamma rays from a Co-60 source. To perform the measurements in the radiation chamber, a custom light collection system consisting of a fiber optic cable, spectrometer and a diffuse reflecting optical cavity was fabricated. Advanced calibration procedures, traceable to NIST standards, were developed to determine photon fluxes and flux densities of the scintillators under ionizing radiation conditions. The scintillator emission spectra under gamma radiation from a Co-60 source and neutron radiation from a pool-type nuclear reactor were recorded and compared. Results on the spectrometer design and comparison of the spectra under different exposure are presented.

Hoertz, Paul G.; Mills, Karmann; Davis, Lynn; Baldasaro, Nicholas; Gupta, Vijay

2013-03-01

242

Multiple fractions of gamma rays induced resistance to cis-dichloro-diammineplatinum (II) and methotrexate in human HeLa cells  

SciTech Connect

Previous irradiation could induce changes in the cell-sensitivity to additional cytotoxic agents. In this study we examined whether the sensitivity to additional cytotoxic agents was affected in cells irradiated with multiple fractions of gamma rays if these agents were given at the time when the lesions induced in DNA by radiation have already been repaired. Human cervix carcinoma HeLa cells were irradiated daily with 0.5 Gy of gamma rays five times a week for 6 weeks. When the fractionation regimen was completed, that is when the cells had accumulated the total dose of 15 Gy of gamma rays, the sensitivity of these cells to gamma rays, UV light, cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum (II) (cis-DDP), methotrexate (MTX), and hydroxyurea (HU) was examined and compared to control cells. Results revealed that preirradiated cells did not change sensitivity to gamma rays and UV light, but that they increased the resistance to cis-DDP, and MTX (especially for higher concentrations of MTX), and increased sensitivity to HU (for lower concentrations of HU). The increased resistance to cis-DDP was also measurable up to 30 days after the last dose of gamma rays. The results indicate that preirradiation of HeLa cells with multiple fractions of gamma rays could change their sensitivity to additional cytotoxic agents, and that this is a relatively long-lasting effect. Our results suggest that caution is needed in medical application of radiation combined with chemical treatment.

Osmak, M.; Perovic, S. (Ruder Boskovic Institute, Croatia (Yugoslavia))

1989-06-01

243

Naturally induced secondary radiation in interplanetary space: Preliminary analyses for gamma radiation and radioisotope production from thermal neutron activation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal neutron activation analyses were carried out for various space systems components to determine gamma radiation dose rates and food radiation contamination levels. The space systems components selected were those for which previous radiation studies existed. These include manned space vehicle radiation shielding, liquid hydrogen propellant tanks for a Mars mission, and a food supply used as space vehicle radiation shielding. The computational method used is based on the fast neutron distribution generated by the BRYNTRN and HZETRN transport codes for Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) at solar minimum conditions and intense solar flares in space systems components. The gamma dose rates for soft tissue are calculated for water and aluminum space vehicle slab shields considering volumetric source self-attenuation and exponential buildup factors. In the case of the lunar habitat with regolith shielding, a completely exposed spherical habitat was assumed for mathematical convenience and conservative calculations. Activation analysis of the food supply used as radiation shielding is presented for four selected nutrients: potassium, calcium, sodium, and phosphorus. Radioactive isotopes that could represent a health hazard if ingested are identified and their concentrations are identified. For nutrients soluble in water, it was found that all induced radioactivity was below the accepted maximum permissible concentrations.

Plaza-Rosado, Heriberto

1991-09-01

244

Thermal analysis evaluation of mechanical properties changes promoted by gamma radiation on surgical polymeric textiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large number of surgical operations with post-operative infection problems and the appearing of new infectious diseases, contribute to the development of new materials in order to answer the needs of health care services. This development must take into account the modifications promoted by sterilisation methods in materials, namely by gamma radiation. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TGA) techniques show that a nonwoven and a laminate textiles maintain a good molecular cohesion, do not showing high levels of degradation, for gamma radiation dose values lower than 100 kGy in nonwoven and 200 kGy in laminate materials. The tensile strength and the elongation decrease slowly for the nonwoven textile and decrease faster for the laminate textile for 25 and 80 kGy absorbed dose. This paper shows that the DSC and TGA techniques can be helpful for the prevision of mechanical changes occurred in the materials as a consequence of the gamma irradiation.

Ferreira, L. M.; Casimiro, M. H.; Oliveira, C.; Cabeço Silva, M. E.; Marques Abreu, M. J.; Coelho, A.

2002-05-01

245

A curvature-radiation-pair-production model for gamma-ray pulsars  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the assumptions that pulsar gamma-rays are produced via curvature radiation of primary electrons near the neutron star and are attenuated only through the pair-production process in strong electric and magnetic fields, a detailed model of the magnetosphere is used to calculate the resulting optical depths and pulse shapes. The effect of both zero and nonzero Ex B on the

A. K. Harding; E. Tademaru; L. W. Esposito

1978-01-01

246

Comparison of Scattered Portion of gamma Radiation Penetrating Ribbed and Plane Slabs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On the basis of a correlated Monte Carlo technique, a computer program is developed which permits the comparison of the scattered portion of penetrating gamma radiation for ribbed slabs and for the corresponding smeared-out plane slabs. Four source config...

G. R. Thayer G. Dubois R. W. Roussin A. B. Chilton

1969-01-01

247

Radiation damage induced by \\/gamma irradiation on Ce3+ doped phosphate and silicate scintillating glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of \\/gamma irradiation on the optical properties of Ce3+-doped phosphate and silicate glasses is studied in the 1-250Gy dose range. Results are discussed by taking into account the possible dependence of radiation-induced effects on the composition of the glass matrix.

S. Baccaro; A. Cecilia; E. Mihokova; M. Nikl; K. Nitsch; P. Polato; G. Zanella; R. Zannoni

2002-01-01

248

Gamma Radiation Induced Oxidation and Tocopherols Decrease in In-Shell, Peeled and Blanched Peanuts  

PubMed Central

In-shell, peeled and blanched peanut samples were characterized in relation to proximate composition and fatty acid profile. No difference was found in relation to its proximate composition. The three major fatty acids were palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid. In order to investigate irradiation and storage effects, peanut samples were submitted to doses of 0.0, 5.0, 7.5 or 10.0 kGy, stored for six months at room temperature and monitored every three months. Peanuts responded differently to irradiation, particularly with regards to tocopherol contents, primary and secondary oxidation products and oil stability index. Induction periods and tocopherol contents were negatively correlated with irradiation doses and decreased moderately during storage. ?-Tocopherol was the most gamma radiation sensitive and peeled samples were the most affected. A positive correlation was found among tocopherol contents and the induction period of the oils extracted from irradiated samples. Gamma radiation and storage time increased oxidation compounds production. If gamma radiation is considered an alternative for industrial scale peanut conservation, in-shell samples are the best feedstock. For the best of our knowledge this is the first article with such results; this way it may be helpful as basis for future studies on gamma radiation of in-shell crops.

de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-D'Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

2012-01-01

249

Use of gamma radiation as a form of preservation of sweet potatoes. Quarterly progress report  

SciTech Connect

This progress report covers: harvest and conditioning following harvest; effects of ..gamma.. radiation on the sweet potato weevil, organoleptic properties of sweet potatoes, protein content of same, and sweet potato quality (vitamins, color, texture, and carbohydrates). Evaluation of preliminary results indicate that changes should be made in irradiation procedures/conditions and analyses. (DLC)

Not Available

1985-01-01

250

Measurements of the gamma Radiation Spectrum under the Vessel of a 900 MW PWR.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes a new method of measuring the gamma radiation energy spectrum and the associated dose equivalent rate under the vessel of a 900 MW PWR. The method is based on the use of thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) placed under iron and neutron...

G. Champion A. Dubail C. Marsigne A. Le Dieu de Ville T. Vergnaud

1984-01-01

251

EFFECT OF MODERATE DOSES OF GAMMA RADIATION ON THE KEEPING QUALITY OF BILBERRIES (VACCINIUM MYRTILLUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three batches of bilberries (European blueberries) in small polythene ; bags were treated with various doses of gamma radiation and kept afterwards ; either at ambient or cool storage temperatures for about 10 to 25 days. The dose ; of about 0.3 Mrad caused the destruction of somewhat more than 99% of the ; original microflora (bacteria, yeasts and moulds)

A. Horubala; E. Pijanowski

1961-01-01

252

Radiation Effects in High Electron Mobility Transistors: Total Dose Gamma Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

AlGaAs\\/GaAs high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) have been exposed to 90 Mrad(GaAs) of Co60 gamma radiation. Despite the heavy exposure, the peak transconductance for selected transistors was only diminished by approximately 4%. In addition, threshold voltage shifts of up to 80 mV were observed for both enhancement and depletion mode devices.

Michael J. O'Loughlin

1987-01-01

253

Degradation of biochemical activity in soil sterilized by dry heat and gamma radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activities of three enzymes present in soil, phosphatases, urease, and decarboxylase, were monitered as indicators of the loss of biochemical information occurring when soil was sterilized by dry heat (0.08% relative humidity), gamma radiation, or a combination of both. More enzymatic activity was retained in soil sterilized by a long exposure to dry heat at relatively low temperature (8

Katherine L. Shih; Kenneth A. Souza

1978-01-01

254

Use of PCR for Detecting Aspergillus flavus in Maize Treated by Gamma Radiation Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to verify the effects of gamma radiation process on the fungal DNA and the application of PCR in the detection of Aspergillus flavus in irradiated maize grains. The samples were inoculated with a toxigenic strain and incubated under controlled conditions of relative humidity, water activity, and temperature for 15 days. After incubation, the samples

Simone Aquino; Ralf Greiner; Ursula Konietzny; Regina H. Hassegawa; Tatiana Alves dos Reis; Benedito Corrêa; Anna Lucia C. H. Villavicencio

2008-01-01

255

Effect of Gamma and UV Radiation on Properties of EPDM\\/GTR\\/HDPE Blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethylene propylene dine monomer (EPDM) was blended with both ground tire rubber (GTR) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) prepared at different ratios and then exposed to gamma and ultraviolet radiations. The mechanical, physical, and thermal properties were investigated with respect to the kind of irradiation and blend compositions. A scanning electron microscope was also used to examine the morphology of the

M. M. Abou Zeid; S. T. Rabie; A. A. Nada; A. M. Khalil; R. H. Hilal

2008-01-01

256

Effect of sterilization by gamma radiation on nano-mechanical properties of teeth  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesExtracted teeth used in dental research need to be considered infective and hence be sterilized without the materials’ properties being altered. This study examined the effect of gamma radiation on the nano-mechanical properties of dentin and enamel of extracted human third molars.

Delia S. Brauer; Kuniko Saeki; Joan F. Hilton; Grayson W. Marshall; Sally J. Marshall

2008-01-01

257

Can gamma radiation be produced in the electrical environment above thunderstorms?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculations indicate that regions above large mesocsale convective systems may be favorable electrical environments for the production of gamma radiation by runaway electrons in bremsstrahlung collisions. It is well known (Gurevich, 1961) that an electric field however small can accelerate an electron continuously until the electric field is larger than the oppposing force of friction. Since the force of friction

Britton Chang; Colin Price

1995-01-01

258

Use of gamma radiation as a form of preservation of sweet potatoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of (GAMMA) radiation on the sweet potato weevil, organoleptic properties of sweet potatoes, protein content of same, and sweet potato quality (vitamins, color, texture, and carbohydrates) are discussed. Evaluation of preliminary results indicate that changes should be made in irradiation procedures/conditions and analyses.

259

Measurement of Inclusive Radiative B-Meson Decay B->X-s gamma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radiative decays of the B meson, B (yields) X(sub s)(gamma), proceed via virtual flavor changing neutral current processes that are sensitive to contributions from high mass scales, either within the Standard Model of electroweak interactions or beyond. I...

V. E. Ozcan

2006-01-01

260

Cadmium telluride gamma-radiation detectors with a high energy resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the possibility of improving the energy resolution of cadmium telluride gamma-radiation detectors through the choice of the geometry and size of the sensitive region of the detector. The optimum ratio of the product of the mobility and lifetime for electrons to the same product for holes from the point of view of energy resolution is greater than

L. A. Alekseeva; P. G. Dorogov; V. I. Ivanov; A. K. Khusainov

1985-01-01

261

The production and composition of rat sebum is unaffected by 3 Gy gamma radiation  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this work was to use metabolomics to evaluate sebum as a source of biomarkers for gamma-radiation exposure in the rat, and potentially in man. Proof of concept of radiation metabolomics was previously demonstrated in both mouse and rat urine, from the radiation dose- and time-dependent excretion of a set of urinary biomarkers. Materials and methods Rats were gamma-irradiated (3 Gy) or sham irradiated and groups of rats were euthanised at 1 h or 24 h post-irradiation. Sebum was collected by multiple washings of the carcasses with acetone. Nonpolar lipids were extracted, methylated, separated and quantitated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). Metabolomic analysis of the GCMS data was performed using both orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis and random forests machine learning algorithm. Results Irradiation did not alter sebum production. A total of 35 lipids were identified in rat sebum, 29 fatty acids, five fatty aldehydes, and cholesterol. Metabolomics showed that three fatty acids, palmitic, 2-hydroxypalmitic, and stearic acids were potential biomarkers. Sebaceous palmitic acid was marginally statistically significantly elevated (7.5–8.4%) at 24 h post-irradiation. Conclusions Rat sebaceous gland appears refractory to 3 Gy gamma-irradiation. Unfortunately, collection of sebum shortly after gamma-irradiation is unlikely to form the basis of high-throughput non-invasive radiation biodosimetry in man.

Lanz, Christian; Ledermann, Monika; Slavik, Josef; Idle, Jeffrey R.

2013-01-01

262

THE INFLUENCE OF GAMMA RADIATION ON THE PROPERTIES OF SOME FILM FORMING POLYMERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of gamma radiation on the properties of coatings from ; polyethylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl alcohol, acetate, and chloride, chlorinated ; polyvinyl chloride, polyvinylbutyral, methyl polymethacrylate, chlorinated ; rubber, cyclized rubber, polyurethan, silicone, and epoxy resins, as well as ; copolymers of styrene with acrylic acid. vinyl chloride and vinylidene, vinyl ; chloride and isobutyl ether of vinyl alcohol, vinyl

Z. Jedlinski; Z. Hippe; J. Zurakowska-Orszagh

1963-01-01

263

Physicomechanical properties of carbon-reinforced plastics with a polysulfone matrix in {gamma}-radiation fields  

SciTech Connect

The effect of {gamma}-radiation on carbon-reinforced plastics with an aromatic polysulfone matrix was studied. It was found that the network formation in the plastic occurs within the dose range of D{approx_equal}10 - 100 kGy. At D > 100 kGy, degradation processes dominate over crosslinking.

Arkhipov, A.A.; Korkhov, V.P.; Pudnik, V.V. [Nuclear Research Center, Salaspils (Latvia)] [and others

1995-01-01

264

Gamma radiation effects on physical properties of parchment documents: Assessment of Dmax  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parchments are important documents that give testimony for History; therefore these materials should be respected and preserved. Considering incremental biodeterioration problems that have to be faced daily, the Archive of the University of Coimbra (AUC) is involved in different scientific projects in order to evaluate and determine new methods for document decontamination and preservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate gamma radiation effects on the colour and texture of the AUC parchment documents. The assessment of these effects was used to estimate the maximum gamma radiation dose (Dmax) that could guarantee parchment documents' decontamination treatment, without significant alteration of their physical properties. Parchment samples were exposed to gamma radiation doses ranging from 10 to 30 kGy. The texture and colour of samples were assessed before and after the irradiation procedure, using a texture analyser and an electronic colorimeter. Hardness and springiness were determined based on texture spectra. Lightness (L*), Chroma (C), greenness vs. redness (a*) and yellowness vs. blueness (b*) values were obtained from colorimetric measures. Results indicate no significant effects of gamma radiation on the texture and colour of parchment for the studied doses.

Nunes, Inês; Mesquita, Nuno; Cabo Verde, Sandra; João Trigo, Maria; Ferreira, Armando; Manuela Carolino, Maria; Portugal, António; Luísa Botelho, Maria

2012-12-01

265

MICRONUCLEI IN BINUCLEATED LYMPHOCYTES OF MICE FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO GAMMA RADIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Experiments were designed to investigate the induction of micronuclei (MN) in mouse peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) after in vitro or in vivo exposure to 60Co gamma radiation. or the in vitro experiments, 4 ml of blood from male C57BL/6J mice were either irradiated in 6 ml Fa...

266

Effects of gamma irradiation on the radiation-resistant bacteria and polyphenol oxidase activity in fresh kale juice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma radiation was performed to prolong the shelf life of natural kale juice. The total aerobic bacteria in fresh kale juice, prepared by a general kitchen process, was detected in the range of 10 6 cfu/ml, and about 10 2 cfu/ml of the bacteria survived in the juice in spite of gamma irradiation treatment with a dose of 5 kGy. Two typical radiation-resistant bacteria, Bacillus megaterium and Exiguobacterium acetylicum were isolated and identified from the 5 kGy-irradiated kale juices. The D10 values of the vegetative cell and endospore of the B. megaterium in peptone water were 0.63±0.05 and 1.52±0.05 kGy, respectively. The D10 value of the E. acetylicum was calculated as 0.65±0.06 kGy. In the inoculation test, the growth of the surviving B. megaterium and E. acetylicum in the 3-5 kGy-irradiated kale juice retarded and/or decreased significantly during a 3 d post-irradiation storage period. However, there were no significant differences in the residual polyphenol oxidase activity and browning index between the nonirradiated control and the gamma irradiated kale juice during a post-irradiation period.

Kim, Dongho; Song, Hyunpa; Lim, Sangyong; Yun, Hyejeong; Chung, Jinwoo

2007-07-01

267

Orbital Observatory GLAST - New Step in the Study of Cosmic Gamma Radiation: Mission Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation is a overview of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), now named Fermi Space Telescope. The new telescope is scheduled for launch in the middle of 2008. It contains the high energy gamma-ray telescope LAT (Large Area Telescope) and the GMB (GLAST Burst Monitor). The science objectives of GLAST cover almost every area of high energy astrophysics, including Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), including Extragalactic background light (EBL), Gamma-ray bursts (GRB), Pulsars, Diffuse gamma-radiation, EGRET unidentified sources, Solar physics, Origin of Cosmic Rays and, Dark Matter and New Physics. Also included in this overview is a discussion of the preparation to the analysis of the science data.

Moiseev, Alexander

2008-01-01

268

Differential effect of gamma-radiation-induced heme oxygenase-1 activity in female and male C57BL/6 mice.  

PubMed

Ionizing radiation produces reactive oxygen species, which exert diverse biological effects on cells and animals. We investigated alterations of heme oxygenase (HO) and non-protein thiols (NPSH), which are known as two major anti-oxidant enzymes, in female and male C57BL/6 mice in the lung, liver, and brain after whole-body gamma-irradiation with 10 Gy (1-7 days) as well as in the lung after whole-thorax gamma-irradiation (WTI) with 12.5 Gy (1-26 weeks). Most significant alteration of HO activity was observed in the liver, which elevated 250% in males. NPSH level in female liver was increased on the 5th-7th days but decreased in males on the 3rd day. In the lung, the elevation of HO activity in both sexes and the pattern of NPSH change were similar to that of the liver. On the other hand, the increase of HO activity on the 16th week and the decrease of NPSH level on the 2nd week were observed only in male lung after WTI. This study shows that the liver is the most sensitive tissue to gamma-irradiation-induced alterations of HO activity in both female and male mice. In addition, there exists significant differential effect of gamma-irradiation on anti-oxidant system in female and male mice. PMID:16100440

Han, Youngsoo; Platonov, Alexander; Akhalaia, Medea; Yun, Yeon-Sook; Song, Jie-Young

2005-08-01

269

Dual glass sensor in a mixed gamma and neutron radiation field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cerium-activated lithium glass with highly enriched 6Li dopant is very useful in detecting low-energy neutrons. The neutrons are identified by pulse height separation; however, in a mixed gamma and neutron field a simple pulse height separation severely degrades the gamma rejection ratio for the sensor. By using a glass element doped with natural 7Li that is exactly the same as the cerium-activated glass, the ambient gamma response can be obtained. 7Li does not show any thermal neutron response. Therefore, the pulse height spectrum due to net neutrons can be obtained by subtracting the pulse height response of the 7Li-doped glass from that obtained from a 6Li-doped glass element. The pulse height peaks at 1.3 MeV (electron equivalent) with a full width half maximum (FWHM) resolution of 15.5%. A prototype dual counter for gamma and neutron radiation has been built and operationally tested to be linear in the dose rate range of 0 to 1 mrem/hr. A simple conversion formula relating gamma or neutron counts to the corresponding dose rates contains non-significant second-order correction terms. For small hand-held detectors, GS-20 and GS-30 combination glass scintillators have performed well by increasing the effective gamma rejection ratio from neutron counting while increasing the gamma sensitivity (by addition of counts from two similar scintillators).

Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Schmidthuber, Eric; Senh, Khy

2004-10-01

270

Production of hydrogel wound dressings using gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogel wound dressings have been prepared using the gamma rays irradiation technique. The dressings are composed of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and agar. The influence of some process parameters on the properties of the dressings has been investigated as: the gel fraction, maximum swelling, swelling kinetics, and mechanical properties. The gel fraction increases with increasing PVP concentration due to increased crosslink density, and decreases with increasing the PEG concentration. PEG seems to act not only as plasticizer but also to modify the gel properties as gelation% and maximum swelling. The prepared hydrogels dressings could be considered as a good barrier against microbes.

Ajji, Z.; Othman, I.; Rosiak, J. M.

2005-04-01

271

Radiation Enhances Regulatory T Cell Representation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Immunotherapy could be a useful adjunct to standard cytotoxic therapies such as radiation in patients with micrometastatic disease, although successful integration of immunotherapy into treatment protocols will require further understanding of how standard therapies affect the generation of antitumor immune responses. This study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of radiation therapy (RT) on immunosuppressive T regulatory (Treg) cells. Methods and Materials: Treg cells were identified as a CD4{sup +}CD25{sup hi}Foxp3{sup +} lymphocyte subset, and their fate was followed in a murine TRAMP C1 model of prostate cancer in mice with and without RT. Results: CD4{sup +}CD25{sup hi}Foxp3{sup +} Treg cells increased in immune organs after local leg or whole-body radiation. A large part, but not all, of this increase after leg-only irradiation could be ascribed to radiation scatter and Treg cells being intrinsically more radiation resistant than other lymphocyte subpopulations, resulting in their selection. Their functional activity on a per-cell basis was not affected by radiation exposure. Similar findings were made with mice receiving local RT to murine prostate tumors growing in the leg. The importance of the Treg cell population in the response to RT was shown by systemic elimination of Treg cells, which greatly enhanced radiation-induced tumor regression. Conclusions: We conclude that Treg cells are more resistant to radiation than other lymphocytes, resulting in their preferential increase. Treg cells may form an important homeostatic mechanism for tissues injured by radiation, and in a tumor context, they may assist in immune evasion during therapy. Targeting this population may allow enhancement of radiotherapeutic benefit through immune modulation.

Kachikwu, Evelyn L.; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; Liao, Yu-Pei; DeMarco, John J.; Agazaryan, Nzhde [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Economou, James S. [Department of Surgical Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); McBride, William H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Schaue, Doerthe, E-mail: dschaue@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

2011-11-15

272

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma overexpression suppresses proliferation of human colon cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined the correlation between PPAR{gamma} expression and cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPAR{gamma} overexpression reduces cell viability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show the synergistic effect of cell growth inhibition by a PPAR{gamma} agonist. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) plays an important role in the differentiation of intestinal cells and tissues. Our previous reports indicate that PPAR{gamma} is expressed at considerable levels in human colon cancer cells. This suggests that PPAR{gamma} expression may be an important factor for cell growth regulation in colon cancer. In this study, we investigated PPAR{gamma} expression in 4 human colon cancer cell lines, HT-29, LOVO, DLD-1, and Caco-2. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analysis revealed that the relative levels of PPAR{gamma} mRNA and protein in these cells were in the order HT-29 > LOVO > Caco-2 > DLD-1. We also found that PPAR{gamma} overexpression promoted cell growth inhibition in PPAR{gamma} lower-expressing cell lines (Caco-2 and DLD-1), but not in higher-expressing cells (HT-29 and LOVO). We observed a correlation between the level of PPAR{gamma} expression and the cells' sensitivity for proliferation.

Tsukahara, Tamotsu, E-mail: ttamotsu@shinshu-u.ac.jp [Department of Integrative Physiology and Bio-System Control, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan)] [Department of Integrative Physiology and Bio-System Control, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Haniu, Hisao [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan)] [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan)

2012-08-03

273

The context of T-cell receptor gamma chain genes among wild mouse species.  

PubMed

We have examined the context of mouse T-cell receptor gamma (Tcr gamma) chain variable (V gamma) and constant (C gamma) genes among a panel of geographically isolated species of mice. Our Southern hybridization survey with C gamma reveals that essentially three C gamma genes are found among mouse species extending phylogenetically from inbred mice through the feral species Mus pahari. However, a V gamma DNA probe detects three to nine V gamma restriction fragment bands among the same group of mice. These results suggest that certain feral mice such as M. pahari, M. platythrix, and M. shortridgei have amplified numbers of V gamma genes. Studies of individual mice from these particular species indicate the highly amplified V gamma content is not the result of a catastrophic gene duplication or deletion event. We conclude that certain species of mice maintain increased content of V gamma presumably for increased diversity in a T-cell response. PMID:3781572

Huppi, K; D'Hoostelaere, L; Kiefer, M; Steinmetz, M; Jouvin-Marche, E

1986-01-01

274

Role of L-carnitine in the prevention of seminiferous tubules damage induced by gamma radiation: a light and electron microscopic study.  

PubMed

The present study, we hypothesized that L-carnitine can minimize germ-cell depletion and morphological features of late cell damage in the rat testis following gamma (gamma)-irradiation. Wistar albino male rats were divided into three groups. Control group received physiological saline 0.2 ml intraperitoneally (i.p.), as placebo. Radiation group received scrotal gamma-irradiation of 10 Gy as a single dose plus physiological saline. Radiation + L-carnitine group received scrotal gamma-irradiation plus 200 mg/kg i.p. L-carnitine. L-carnitine starting 1 day before irradiation and 21 days (three times per week) after irradiation. Testis samples of the all groups were taken at day 21, 44 and 70 post-irradiation. All samples were processed at the light and electron microscopic levels. Morphologically, examination of gamma-irradiated testis revealed presence of marked disorganization and depletion of germ cells, arrest of spermatogenesis, formation of multinucleated giant cells, and vacuolization in the germinal epithelium. The type and extent of these changes varied at different post-treatment intervals. The damage was evident at the 21st day and reached maximum level by the 44th day. By day 44 post-irradiation, the changes were most advanced, and were associated with atrophied seminiferous tubules without germ cells, the increase in the number and size of vacuolizations in germinal epithelium, and the absent multinucleated giant cells due to spermatids had completely disappeared. The increase in nucleus invaginations, the dilatation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum cysternas and the increase in the number and size of lipid droplets in the Sertoli cells were determined at the electron microscopic level. In conclusion, L-carnitine supplementation during the radiotherapy would be effective in protecting against radiation-induced damages in rat testis, and thereby may improve the quality of patient's life after the therapy. PMID:19015832

Topcu-Tarladacalisir, Yeter; Kanter, Mehmet; Uzal, Mustafa Cem

2009-08-01

275

Response of thyroid follicular cells to gamma irradiation compared to proton irradiation. I. Initial characterization of DNA damage, micronucleus formation, apoptosis, cell survival, and cell cycle phase redistribution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The RBE of protons has been assumed to be equivalent to that of photons. The objective of this study was to determine whether radiation-induced DNA and chromosome damage, apoptosis, cell killing and cell cycling in organized epithelial cells was influenced by radiation quality. Thyroid-stimulating hormone-dependent Fischer rat thyroid cells, established as follicles, were exposed to gamma rays or proton beams delivered acutely over a range of physical doses. Gamma-irradiated cells were able to repair DNA damage relatively rapidly so that by 1 h postirradiation they had approximately 20% fewer exposed 3' ends than their counterparts that had been irradiated with proton beams. The persistence of free ends of DNA in the samples irradiated with the proton beam implies that either more initial breaks or a quantitatively different type of damage had occurred. These results were further supported by an increased frequency of chromosomal damage as measured by the presence of micronuclei. Proton-beam irradiation induced micronuclei at a rate of 2.4% per gray, which at 12 Gy translated to 40% more micronuclei than in comparable gamma-irradiated cultures. The higher rate of micronucleus formation and the presence of larger micronuclei in proton-irradiated cells was further evidence that a qualitatively more severe class of damage had been induced than was induced by gamma rays. Differences in the type of damage produced were detected in the apoptosis assay, wherein a significant lag in the induction of apoptosis occurred after gamma irradiation that did not occur with protons. The more immediate expression of apoptotic cells in the cultures irradiated with the proton beam suggests that the damage inflicted was more severe. Alternatively, the cell cycle checkpoint mechanisms required for recovery from such damage might not have been invoked. Differences based on radiation quality were also evident in the alpha components of cell survival curves (0.05 Gy(-1) for gamma rays, 0.12 Gy(-1) for protons), which suggests that the higher level of survival of gamma-irradiated cells could be attributed to the persistence of nonlethally irradiated thyrocytes and/or the capacity to repair damage more effectively than cells exposed to equal physical doses of protons. The final assessment in this study was radiation-induced cell cycle phase redistribution. Gamma rays and protons produced a similar dose-dependent redistribution toward a predominantly G(2)-phase population. From our cumulative results, it seems likely that a majority of the proton-irradiated cells would not continue to divide. In conclusion, these findings suggest that there are quantitative and qualitative differences in the biological effects of proton beams and gamma rays. These differences could be due to structured energy deposition from the tracks of primary protons and the associated high-LET secondary particles produced in the targets. The results suggest that a simple dose-equivalent approach to dosimetry may be inadequate to compare the biological responses of cells to photons and protons.

Green, L. M.; Murray, D. K.; Bant, A. M.; Kazarians, G.; Moyers, M. F.; Nelson, G. A.; Tran, D. T.

2001-01-01

276

Carbon Fibre Composite Materials Produced by Gamma Radiation Induced Curing of Epoxy Resins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that ionizing radiation can initiate polymerization of suitable monomers for many applications. In this work an epoxy difunctional monomer has been used as matrix of a carbon fibre composite in order to produce materials through gamma radiation, for aerospace and advanced automotive applications. Radiation curing has been performed at different absorbed doses and, as comparison, also thermal curing of the same monomer formulations has been done. Furthermore some irradiated samples have been also subjected to a post irradiation thermal curing in order to complete the polymerization reactions. The properties of the cured materials have been studied by moisture absorption isotherms, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis and mechanical flexural tests.

Dispenza, C.; Alessi, S.; Spadaro, G.

2008-08-01

277

Effect of 60Co-gamma radiation on the binding properties in furs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New Zealand white rabbit pelts were pickled by the usual procedure and were tanned with basic aluminium sulphate, basic chromium sulphate and their combinations. Tanned furs were irradiated with 60Co-gamma radiations in the dose range of 5.0-114.0 kGy. The effect of radiation on the binding properties of various added substances like mineral tannins, fats, moisture and shrinkage temperature has been assessed by their comparison with the control samples. The results of these investigations show that radiation on furs causes detannage, increases the moisture and bound fat content and decreases the shrinkage temperature of the furs.

Raina, R. K.

278

Combined Effects of Gamma Radiation and High Dietary Iron on Peripheral Leukocyte Distribution and Function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Both radiation and increased iron stores can independently increase oxidative damage, resulting in protein, lipid and DNA oxidation. Oxidative stress increases the risk of many health problems including cancer, cataracts, and heart disease. This study, a subset of a larger interdisciplinary investigation of the combined effect of iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury, monitored immune parameters in the peripheral blood of rats subjected to gamma radiation, high dietary iron or both. Specific immune measures consisted of: (1) peripheral leukocyte distribution, (2) plasma cytokine levels and (3) cytokine production profiles following whole blood mitogenic stimulation

Crucian, Brian E.; Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Quiriarte, Heather A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

2012-01-01

279

A new, passive dosemeter for gamma, beta and neutron radiations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) provides personal radiation dosimetry to the UK Ministry of Defence. Dstl has recently developed a dosemeter that is based on a combination of thermoluminescent and etched-track detectors. The Dstl Combined Dosemeter is capable of assessing doses due to photons, beta particles and neutrons. This paper presents the laboratory type testing results for the

L. A. Jones; R. P. Stokes

2011-01-01

280

Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD 90 and LD 99 were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

Silva, W. D.; Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T.

2010-10-01

281

Assessing Antibody Microarray for Space Missions: Effect of Long-term Storage, Gamma radiation and High Energy proton radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescent antibody microarray has been proposed for Molecular biomarker detector in planetary exploration [1]. A number of different environmental stresses may affect the antibody performance, such as temperatures variations, highly penetrating radiation and high energy particles. Here we have tested the effect of gamma radiation, proton radiation and longterm storage on the microarray immunoassay and fluorocromes. Although different antibodies might have different susceptibilities we conclude that there was not significant reduction in the functionality of antibodies printed on the microarray and the fluorescent tracers antibodies, even in a extreme case of receiving a radiation dose 3000-fold than a biochip would receive in a trip mission to Mars. In summary, antibodies are suitable for use in planetary exploration purposes.

de Diego-Castilla, G.; Parro, V.

2012-09-01

282

Transport properties of single-walled carbon nanotube transistors after gamma radiation treatment  

SciTech Connect

Single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNT-FETs) were characterized before and after gamma radiation treatment using noise spectroscopy. The results obtained demonstrate that in long channel CNT-FETs with a length of 10 {mu}m the contribution of contact regions can be neglected. Moreover, radiation treatment with doses of 1x10{sup 6} and 2x10{sup 6} rad allows a considerable decrease parallel to the nanotube parasitic conductivity and even the shift region with maximal conductivity to the voltage range of nearly zero gate voltage that improves the working point of the FETs. The Hooge parameters obtained before and after gamma radiation treatment with a dose of 1x10{sup 6} rad are found to be about 5x10{sup -3}. The parameters are comparable with typical values for conventional semiconductors.

Vitusevich, S. A.; Sydoruk, V. A.; Klein, N.; Offenhaeusser, A. [Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems and Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance for Future Information Technology (JARA-FIT), Forschungszentrum 52425 Juelich (Germany); Petrychuk, M. V. [Taras Shevchenko National University, Kiev, 01033 (Ukraine); Danilchenko, B. A. [Institute of Physics, NASU, Kiev (Ukraine); Ural, A.; Bosman, G. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville Florida 32611 (United States)

2010-03-15

283

Polyaniline nanofilms as a monitoring label and dosimetric device for gamma radiation  

SciTech Connect

In this work, an optical dosimeter for gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) based on the color change of polyaniline nanofilms in the emeraldine oxidation state was developed by spin coating of the polymer films on glass substrates. After irradiation, the nanofilms were characterized by UV-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy as a function of the {sup 60}Co radiation dose. The deep blue color, characteristic of undoped polyaniline films before irradiation subsequently becomes green as the film is irradiated, and the film absorption coefficient exhibits a linear dependence with logarithm of the irradiation dose from 1 to 10 kGy. These results strongly suggest that polyaniline nanofilms can be used as a qualitative and quantitative dosimeter for gamma radiation in the analyzed dose range.

Laranjeira, J.M.G.; Khoury, H.J.; Azevedo, W.M. de; Vasconcelos, E.A. de; Silva, E.F. da

2003-03-15

284

Influence of hyperthermia and. gamma. radiation on ADP-ribosyl transferase, NAD/sup +/, and ATP pools in human mononuclear leukocytes  

SciTech Connect

Effects of hyperthermia (42.5/sup 0/C) and ..gamma.. radiation (30 Gy) on ADP-ribosyl transferase, NAD/sup +/, and ATP pools in human mononuclear leukocytes have been investigated. It was found that the ..gamma..-ray activation level of the enzyme was not influenced by this hyperthermia for 45 min. Following deprivation of ATP synthesis by 2,4-dinitrophenol, an uncoupler of the oxidative phosphorylation, and omitting glucose from the culture medium, the NAD/sup +/ pool was reduced to about 60% of control value. The potentiation of ATP production by exogenously supplied adenosine was reduced after a combined treatment of the cells with hyperthermia and ..gamma.. radiation. Mitochondrial and endoplasmic changes within the mononuclear leukocytes were also observed. Based on these findings a model for the hyperthermia effect is proposed.

Jonsson, G.G.; Eriksson, G.; Pero, R.W.

1985-05-01

285

THE PHOTOSPHERIC RADIATION MODEL FOR THE PROMPT EMISSION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS: INTERPRETING FOUR OBSERVED CORRELATIONS  

SciTech Connect

We show that the empirical E{sub p}-L, {Gamma}-L, E{sub p}-{Gamma}, and {eta}-bar{sub {gamma}}-E{sub p} correlations (where L is the time-averaged luminosity of the prompt emission, E{sub p} is the spectral peak energy, {Gamma} is the bulk Lorentz factor, and {eta}-bar{sub {gamma}} is the emission efficiency of gamma-ray bursts, GRBs) are well consistent with the relations between the analogous parameters predicted in the photospheric radiation model of the prompt emission of GRBs. The time-resolved thermal radiation of GRB 090902B does follow the E{sub p}-L and {Gamma}-L correlations. A reliable interpretation of the four correlations in alternative models is still lacking. These may point toward a photospheric origin of prompt emission of some GRBs.

Fan Yizhong; Wei Daming; Zhang Fuwen [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Zhang Binbin, E-mail: yzfan@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: dmwei@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: fwzhang@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: bbzhang@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

2012-08-10

286

The ultrastructure of radiation-induced endosteal myelofibrosis in the dog. [Gamma radiation  

SciTech Connect

A rapidly developing, progressive form of endosteal myelofibrosis (MF) (with myeloid metaplasia) has been shown to occur at low frequency (approximately 4%) in dogs exposed continuously to low daily doses (10 R/day) of whole-body gamma irradiation. We report in this study the morphological details of the endosteal surface during both preclinical and clinical phases of developing MF by combination light microscopy and scanning/transmission electron microscopy. Pronounced alterations of the endosteum were observed and included: (1) during the early preclinical phases, a progressive time-dependent transition of the endosteal surface from predominantly resting to actively formative and resorptive states; and (2) during the late preclinical phase, aberrant autonomous osteogenic process(es) characterized by a marked reduction in the resorptive, osteoclast-associated endosteal areas occurring concomitantly with further increases in formative areas of the endosteum. Localized patches of overlapping, morphologically transformed endosteal cells (i.e., round-osteoblastic to branched-reticular shaped) were observed within the morphologically reactive, formative endosteum. Osteogenic-endosteal changes coincided with major restructuring of the hematopoietic parenchyma and supporting stromal network. We discuss the possibility that the early occurring endosteal changes are causally linked to normal reparative functions that operate during regenerative hematopoiesis following local and systemic injury. Based on morphological data collected during the late preclinical phase, we speculate that the mechanism of myelofibrosis induction involves the failure to terminate early osteogenic-dependent repair sequences.

Seed, T.M.; Chubb, G.T.; Tolle, D.V.; Fritz, T.E.; Poole, C.M.; Doyle, D.E.; Lombard, L.S.; Kaspar, L.V.

1982-01-01

287

EPR dosimetry in a mixed neutron and gamma radiation field.  

PubMed

Suitability of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy for criticality dosimetry was evaluated for tooth enamel, mannose and alanine pellets during the 'international intercomparison of criticality dosimetry techniques' at the SILENE reactor held in Valduc in June 2002, France. These three materials were irradiated in neutron and gamma-ray fields of various relative intensities and spectral distributions in order to evaluate their neutron sensitivity. The neutron response was found to be around 10% for tooth enamel, 45% for mannose and between 40 and 90% for alanine pellets according their type. According to the IAEA recommendations on the early estimate of criticality accident absorbed dose, analyzed results show the EPR potentiality and complementarity with regular criticality techniques. PMID:15353687

Trompier, F; Fattibene, P; Tikunov, D; Bartolotta, A; Carosi, A; Doca, M C

2004-01-01

288

Optical response of CdSe quantum dots to cesium-137 gamma-ray radiation.  

PubMed

The optical response of colloidal photoluminescent (PL) semiconductor nanocrystals to 137Cs gamma radiation was investigated. The quantum dots (QDs) used were CdSe dispersed in hexane, exhibiting bandgap absorption and emission peaking at 556 nm and 563 nm, respectively. The doses of the 137Cs gamma radiations were 0.1, 1.0, 10 and 100 Gy with a dose rate of 0.805 Gy/min. Each radiation was performed on two identical samples; right after the radiation, absorption and emission measurements were performed. The change of the optical properties after the radiation was presented together with those of a control sample without radiation exposure. The prompt absorption measurements showed that there is little change with the 0.1 Gy up to 100 Gy radiations, while the prompt emission measurements showed that with the 0.1 Gy and 1 Gy radiation, there is a negligible change in the PL intensity; with the 10 Gy and 100 Gy radiation, there is a noticeable decrease in the PL intensity. Therefore, it seems that the radiation does not destroy the QDs themselves but leads to some loss of their surface passivation. Furthermore, the optical properties of the eight irradiated samples and the control sample were monitored periodically up to days. Interestingly, after the storage of days in dark, there is significant recovery in the PL intensity of the large-dose irradiated samples; such a rebound tendency provides the potential for the colloidal QDs to be novel and promising candidates in radiation dosimeter with multi-detection capability. PMID:20355580

Yu, Kui; Cui, Yi; Li, Chunsheng; Zaman, Md Badruz; Wilkins, Ruth; Wu, Xiaohua; Ouyang, Jianying

2010-03-01

289

Effects of gamma radiation on codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), eggs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiosensitivity of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), eggs in different stages of development was studied. Eggs ranging in age from 1-24 to 97-120 h were exposed, at 24 h intervals, to gamma radiation doses ranging from 10 to 350 Gy. The effects of gamma radiation on egg hatch, pupation and adult emergence was examined. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of codling moth eggs decreased with increasing age. Egg hatch in 1-24 h old eggs was significantly affected at 20 Gy dose and at 60 Gy dose, egg hatch decreased to about 1%. At the age of 25-48 h, however, egg hatch at 60 Gy dose was about 10%, and egg sensitivity to gamma irradiation decreased significantly in the 49-72 h age group; 60 Gy dose had no significant effect on egg hatch. Eggs irradiated few hours before hatch (at the blackhead stage), were the most resistant ones; 100 Gy had no significant effect on egg hatch and at 350 Gy dose over 56% of the eggs hatched. When adult emergence was used as a criterion for measuring effectiveness, however, the effect of gamma radiation was very sever. A dose of 60 Gy completely prevented adult emergence and at 100 Gy dose all resulted larvae died before pupation.

Mansour, M.; Mohamad, F.

2004-12-01

290

Effect of gamma and laser radiations on the thermal properties of Makrofol nuclear track detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of the modification possibility of the thermal properties of Makrofol polycarbonate solid-state nuclear track detector using gamma and laser radiations has been carried out. Samples from 300 ?m thickness Makrofol sheets were classified into two main groups. The first group was irradiated with gamma doses at levels between 50 and 400 kGy, whereas the second group was exposed to infrared laser radiation with energy fluences at levels between 0.5 and 15 J/cm2. Non-isothermal studies were carried out using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) to obtain the thermal activation energy of decomposition for the Makrofol detector. The results of TGA indicate that the Makrofol samples decompose in one main weight loss stage. Also, the irradiation of Makrofol polymer with gamma doses in the range 135-300 kGy or the exposure to laser energy fluences at levels between 8.3 and 15 J/cm2 leads to further enhancement of the thermal stability of the polymer samples due to the cross-linking phenomenon. This suggests that gamma radiation could be a suitable technique for producing a plastic material with enhanced properties that can be a useful candidate for high-temperature applications. In addition, the variation of transition temperatures with the gamma or laser doses has been determined using differential thermal analysis DTA. The results indicate that the irradiation with gamma in the dose range 50-135 kGy or the exposure to laser energy fluences at levels between 8.3 and 15 J/cm2 decreases the melting temperature of the Makrofol samples, and this is most suitable for applications requiring the molding of this polymer at lower temperatures.

Nouh, S. A.; Naby, A. Abdel

291

Using Gamma-Radiation for Drug Releasing from MWNT Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A drug delivery system via multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) vehicle was synthesized in aqueous solution. MWNTs were first noncovalently functionalized with chitosan oligomers (CS) with a molecule weight of 4000-6000, making MWNTs water-soluble, and then a cancer ancillary drug tea polyphenols (TP) was conjugated mainly via the hydrogen bond between CS and TP molecules, making MWNTs efficient vehicle for drug delivering. The release of drug molecules can be realized by pH variation and ?-radiation, leading to new methods for controlling drug release from carbon nanotubes carrier. Due to the high penetrability of ?-rays, ?-radiation shows up new opportunities in controlled drug release, possibly facilitating the future cancer treatment in vivo.

Li, Jun; Sun, Hao; Dai, Yao-Dong

2010-03-01

292

Comparison of environmental radiation dosimetry and. gamma. -ray spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the period 1975-1980, direct radiation dose rates were measured at 16 fixed locations in the vicinity of the Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant, Houston County, AL, by exposure of TLDs which were read quarterly. The average quarterly dose rates using LiF chips varied widely over the 6-yr period and were divided into 2 distinct population groups of 4 and

W. Morrison Jackson; James D. Spaulding; John E. Noakes; Glenn L. Murphy

1985-01-01

293

Polymer Composites for Radiation Detection: Di-iodobenzene and light emitting polymer molecular solutions for gamma detection  

SciTech Connect

Conjugated polymers are largely intact by gamma exposure but can be energized in the presence of high-Z compounds. The resulting alteration of the polymer's high optical density and photoluminescence efficiency can be exploited for the detection of gamma radiation with high sensitivity. Di-iodobenzene and conjugated polymers mix on the molecular level in solid thin films. Composite films of various thicknesses were conveniently cast from solution and exposed to gamma radiation. The responses of the films to gamma dosage were observed with dramatic changes in ultraviolet-visible absorption and photoluminescence. (authors)

Qibing Pei; Yongsheng Zhao; Haizheng Zhong [University of California, Los Angeles, California (United States)

2008-07-01

294

Positive immunohistochemical staining of gammaH2AX is associated with tumor progression in gastric cancers from radiation-exposed patients.  

PubMed

To elucidate the mechanism of radiation-induced cancers, molecular analysis of cancers in atomic bomb (A-bomb) exposure is important. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are thought to be caused by the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation, and gammaH2AX (serine 139 phosphorylated form of histone H2AX) is reported to be a significant marker for DSBs. In the present study, we performed immunohistochemical analysis of gammaH2AX in gastric cancers (GCs) from 66 exposed and 47 non-exposed patients who developed GC after the bombing. Of the 47 GCs from non-exposed patients, 6 (13%) cases showed nuclear positive staining for gammaH2AX, whereas of the 66 GCs from exposed patients, 20 (30%) cases were positive (P=0.0405). However, among stage I GC, there was no significant difference in gammaH2AX expression frequency between exposed patients and non-exposed patients. Among exposed patients, stage II-IV cases were more frequently positive for gammaH2AX than stage I cases (P=0.0197). Among GCs from non-exposed patients, gammaH2AX staining showed no significant association with Lauren's classification, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis or TNM stage. These results suggest that the characteristics of tumor cells differ between GCs from exposed and non-exposed patients. DSBs may be involved in progression of GC in exposed patients. PMID:18949412

Sentani, Kazuhiro; Oue, Naohide; Sakamoto, Naoya; Nishisaka, Takashi; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki; Matsuura, Hiroo; Yasui, Wataru

2008-11-01

295

Dose rate assessment of terrestrial gamma radiation in the Delta region of Nigeria.  

PubMed

In situ gamma spectroscopy has been employed to characterise natural radiation in the soil at 32 locations in the Delta region of Nigeria. The outdoor gamma dose rates in the air due to 40K, 238U and 232Th in the soil were 1.5 +/- 0.9 nGy h(-1), 6.9 +/- 1.6 nGy h(-1) and 16.3 +/- 3.1 nGy h(-1) respectively. The estimated total annual outdoor effective dose to the people in the region was 31.6 microSv y(-1). PMID:14974607

Arogunjo, A M; Farai, I P; Fuwape, I A

2004-01-01

296

The COS-B experiment and mission. [high energy extraterrestrial gamma radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The COS-B satellite carries a single experiment, capable of detecting gamma rays with energies greater than 30 MeV to study the spatial, energy, and time characteristics of high-energy radiation of galactic and extragalactic origin. The capability to search for gamma ray pulsations is enhanced by the inclusion in the payload of a proportional counter sensitive of X-rays of 2 to 12 keV. The experiment was calibrated using particle accelerators. The results of these measurements are presented, and the performance of the system in orbit is discussed.

1977-01-01

297

A new integrated neutron/gamma radioisotope identification device evaluated under mixed radiation fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hand-Held RadioIsotope Identification Devices (HHRIID) are defined as a new class of portable neutron/gamma radiation detectors with specifications presented in the ANSI Standards N42.33 and N42.34. We have proposed a novel HHRIID design concept which uses a single photosensor to detect light emitted by two optically separated scintillator materials, one optimized for gamma detection and the other optimized for neutron detection. This work describes the performance of a modified charge integration discrimination method developed to test the viability of the new design. The scintillators chosen for the experiment were LYSO and ZnS:Ag/LiF.

Ivan, Adrian; Clothier, Brent A.; McDevitt, Daniel B.; Williams, James

2008-05-01

298

Accumulation of Mn(II) in Deinococcus radiodurans facilitates gamma-radiation resistance.  

PubMed

Deinococcus radiodurans is extremely resistant to ionizing radiation. How this bacterium can grow under chronic gamma radiation [50 grays (Gy) per hour] or recover from acute doses greater than 10 kGy is unknown. We show that D. radiodurans accumulates very high intracellular manganese and low iron levels compared with radiation-sensitive bacteria and that resistance exhibits a concentration-dependent response to manganous chloride [Mn(II)]. Among the most radiation-resistant bacterial groups reported, Deinococcus, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, and cyanobacteria accumulate Mn(II). In contrast, Shewanella oneidensis and Pseudomonas putida have high iron but low intracellular manganese concentrations and are very sensitive. We propose that Mn(II) accumulation facilitates recovery from radiation injury. PMID:15459345

Daly, M J; Gaidamakova, E K; Matrosova, V Y; Vasilenko, A; Zhai, M; Venkateswaran, A; Hess, M; Omelchenko, M V; Kostandarithes, H M; Makarova, K S; Wackett, L P; Fredrickson, J K; Ghosal, D

2004-11-01

299

Modern Methods of Real-Time Gamma Radiation Monitoring for General Personal Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time radiation detectors become an essential part of emergency personnel who may have to respond to unknown accidents, incidents or terrorist attacks, which could involve radioactive material. More and more ordinary citizens are interested in personal radiation protection as well. Reasons include lost sources, nuclear industrial accidents, nuclear or radiological terrorism and the possibility of nuclear weapons being used in a war. People want to have the ability to measure it for themselves and they want to be notified when the radiation levels are increased. To meet this demand, considerable research into new sensors is underway, including efforts to enhance the sensor performance through both the material properties and manufacturing technologies. Deep understanding of physical properties of the materials under the influence of radiation exposure is vital for the effective design of dosimeter devices. Detection of radiation is based on the fact that both the electrical and the optical properties of the materials undergo changes upon the exposure to ionizing radiation. It is believed that radiation causes structural defects. The influence of radiation depends on both the dose and the parameters of the films including their thickness: the degradation is more severe for the higher dose and the thinner films. This paper presents overview of modern methods of real-time gamma radiation monitoring for personal protection of radiation workers and general public and suggests further developments in this area.

Korostynska, O.; Arshak, K.; Arshak, A.; Vaseashta, Ashok

300

Apoptotic cells induce immunosuppression through dendritic cells: critical roles of IFN-gamma and nitric oxide.  

PubMed

Apoptotic cells induce immunosuppression through unknown mechanisms. To identify the underlying molecular mediators, we examined how apoptotic cells induce immunoregulation by dendritic cells (DC). We found that administration of DC exposed to apoptotic cells (DC(ap)) strongly inhibited the expansion of lymphocytes in draining lymph nodes in vivo and the subsequent Ag-specific activation of these lymphocytes ex vivo. Unexpectedly, DC(ap) supported T cell activation to a similar extent as normal DC in vitro, leading to proliferation and IL-2 production, except that DC(ap) did not support T cell production of IFN-gamma. Surprisingly, when DC(ap) were cocultured with normal DC, they completely lost their ability to support T cell activation, an effect reversed by anti-IFN-gamma or inhibitors of inducible NO synthase (iNOS). As expected, exposure to apoptotic cells rendered DC(ap) capable of producing much more NO in response to exogenous IFN-gamma than normal DC. Furthermore, DC(ap) from iNOS(-/-) or IFN-gammaR1(-/-) mice were not inhibitory in vitro or in vivo. Therefore, the IFN-gamma-induced production of NO by apoptotic cell-sensitized DC plays a key role in apoptotic cell-mediated immunosuppression. PMID:18713999

Ren, Guangwen; Su, Juanjuan; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Liying; Zhang, Jimin; Roberts, Arthur I; Zhang, Huatang; Das, Gobardhan; Shi, Yufang

2008-09-01

301

Blocked autophagy sensitizes resistant carcinoma cells to radiation therapy.  

PubMed

Autophagy or "self eating" is frequently activated in tumor cells treated with chemotherapy or irradiation. Whether autophagy represents a survival mechanism or rather contributes to cell death remains controversial. To address this issue, the role of autophagy in radiosensitive and radioresistant human cancer cell lines in response to gamma-irradiation was examined. We found irradiation-induced accumulation of autophagosomes accompanied by strong mRNA induction of the autophagy-related genes beclin 1, atg3, atg4b, atg4c, atg5, and atg12 in each cell line. Transduction of specific target-siRNAs led to down-regulation of these genes for up to 8 days as shown by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analysis. Blockade of each autophagy-related gene was associated with strongly diminished accumulation of autophagosomes after irradiation. As shown by clonogenic survival, the majority of inhibited autophagy-related genes, each alone or combined, resulted in sensitization of resistant carcinoma cells to radiation, whereas untreated resistant cells but not sensitive cells survived better when autophagy was inhibited. Similarly, radiosensitization or the opposite was observed in different sensitive carcinoma cells and upon inhibition of different autophagy genes. Mutant p53 had no effect on accumulation of autophagosomes but slightly increased clonogenic survival, as expected, because mutated p53 protects cells by conferring resistance to apoptosis. In our system, short-time inhibition of autophagy along with radiotherapy lead to enhanced cytotoxicity of radiotherapy in resistant cancer cells. PMID:18316613

Apel, Anja; Herr, Ingrid; Schwarz, Heinz; Rodemann, H Peter; Mayer, Andreas

2008-03-01

302

Deviation from additivity in mixture toxicity: relevance of nonlinear dose-response relationships and cell line differences in genotoxicity assays with combinations of chemical mutagens and gamma-radiation.  

PubMed Central

Sublinear dose-response relationships are often seen in toxicity testing, particularly with bioassays for carcinogenicity. This is the result of a superimposition of various effects that modulate and contribute to the process of cancer formation. Examples are saturation of detoxification pathways or DNA repair with increasing dose, or regenerative hyperplasia and indirect DNA damage as a consequence of high-dose cytotoxicity and cell death. The response to a combination treatment can appear to be supra-additive, although it is in fact dose-additive along a sublinear dose-response curve for the single agents. Because environmental exposure of humans is usually in a low-dose range and deviation from linearity is less likely at the low-dose end, combination effects should be tested at the lowest observable effect levels (LOEL) of the components. This principle has been applied to combinations of genotoxic agents in various cellular models. For statistical analysis, all experiments were analyzed for deviation from additivity with an n-factor analysis of variance with an interaction term, n being the number of components tested in combination. Benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and dibenz[a,c]anthracene were tested at the LOEL, separately and in combination, for the induction of revertants in the Ames test, using Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and rat liver S9 fraction. Combined treatment produced no deviation from additivity. The induction of micronuclei in vitro was investigated with ionizing radiation from a 137Cs source and ethyl methanesulfonate. Mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells revealed a significant 40% supra-additive combination effect in an experiment based on three independent replicates for controls and single and combination treatments. On the other hand, two human lymphoblastoid cell lines (TK6 and WTK1) as well as a pilot study with human primary fibroblasts from fetal lung did not show deviation from additivity. Data derived from one cell line should therefore not be generalized. Regarding the testing of mixtures for deviation from additive toxicity, the suggested experimental protocol is easily followed by toxicologists.

Lutz, Werner K; Vamvakas, Spyros; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Schlatter, Josef; Stopper, Helga

2002-01-01

303

Effect of sublethal gamma radiation on host defenses in experimental scrub typhus.  

PubMed

The effect of sublethal gamma radiation on inbred mice chronically infected with scrub typhus rickettsiae was examined. Inbred mice which were inoculated with the Gilliam or Karp strain of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi by the subcutaneous route harbored the infection for at least 1 year. Irradiation of these animals at 12 or 52 weeks postinoculation with normally sublethal levels induced a significantly higher percentage of rickettsemic mice (recrudescence) than was seen in the unirradiated, similarly infected control animals. In addition, sublethal irradiation at 12 weeks induced a quantitative increase in total rickettsiae. Homologous antibody titers to the rickettsiae were examined for 5 weeks after irradiation to determine the role of the humoral response in radiation-induced recrudescence. Unirradiated, infected mice showed consistent titers of about 320 throughout the 5-week observation period, and the titer was not affected by exposure of up to 500 rads of gamma radiation. Drug dose-dependent radioprotection and modification of recrudescence was noted in infected, irradiated mice treated with the antiradiation compound S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethyl phosphorothioic acid. The results of this investigation supported the conclusion that the recrudescence of a chronic rickettsial infection in the appropriate host after immunological impairment due to gamma radiation can result in an acute, possibly lethal rickettsemia. PMID:3011671

Kelly, D J; Rees, J C

1986-06-01

304

Effect of sublethal gamma radiation on host defenses in experimental scrub typhus.  

PubMed Central

The effect of sublethal gamma radiation on inbred mice chronically infected with scrub typhus rickettsiae was examined. Inbred mice which were inoculated with the Gilliam or Karp strain of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi by the subcutaneous route harbored the infection for at least 1 year. Irradiation of these animals at 12 or 52 weeks postinoculation with normally sublethal levels induced a significantly higher percentage of rickettsemic mice (recrudescence) than was seen in the unirradiated, similarly infected control animals. In addition, sublethal irradiation at 12 weeks induced a quantitative increase in total rickettsiae. Homologous antibody titers to the rickettsiae were examined for 5 weeks after irradiation to determine the role of the humoral response in radiation-induced recrudescence. Unirradiated, infected mice showed consistent titers of about 320 throughout the 5-week observation period, and the titer was not affected by exposure of up to 500 rads of gamma radiation. Drug dose-dependent radioprotection and modification of recrudescence was noted in infected, irradiated mice treated with the antiradiation compound S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethyl phosphorothioic acid. The results of this investigation supported the conclusion that the recrudescence of a chronic rickettsial infection in the appropriate host after immunological impairment due to gamma radiation can result in an acute, possibly lethal rickettsemia.

Kelly, D J; Rees, J C

1986-01-01

305

Foods for a Mission to Mars: Investigations of Low-Dose Gamma Radiation Effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Food must be safe, nutritious, and acceptable throughout a long duration mission to maintain the health, well-being, and productivity of the astronauts. In addition to a developing a stable pre-packaged food supply, research is required to better understand the ability to convert edible biomass into safe, nutritious, and acceptable food products in a closed system with many restrictions (mass, volume, power, crew time, etc.). An understanding of how storage conditions encountered in a long-term space mission, such as elevated radiation, will impact food quality is also needed. The focus of this project was to contribute to the development of the highest quality food system possible for the duration of a mission, considering shelf-stable extended shelf-life foods, bulk ingredients, and crops to be grown in space. The impacts of space-relevant radiation doses on food, bulk ingredient, and select candidate crop quality and antioxidant capacity were determined. Interestingly, increasing gamma-radiation doses (0 to 1000 Gy) did not always increase dose-related effects in foods. Intermediate radiation doses (10 to 800Gy) often had significantly larger impact on the stability of bulk ingredient oils than higher (1000Gy) radiation doses. Overall, most food, ingredient, and crop systems investigated showed no significant differences between control samples and those treated with 3 Gy of gamma radiation (the upper limit estimated for a mission to Mars). However, this does not mean that all foods will be stable for 3-5 years, nor does it mean that foods are stable to space radiation comprising more than gamma rays.

Gandolph, J.; Shand, A.; Stoklosa, A.; Ma, A.; Weiss, I.; Alexander, D.; Perchonok, M.; Mauer, L. J.

2007-01-01

306

High-efficiency scintillation detector for combined of thermal and fast neutrons and gamma radiation  

DOEpatents

A scintillation based radiation detector for the combined detection of thermal neutrons, high-energy neutrons and gamma rays in a single detecting unit. The detector consists of a pair of scintillators sandwiched together and optically coupled to the light sensitive face of a photomultiplier tube. A light tight radiation pervious housing is disposed about the scintillators and a portion of the photomultiplier tube to hold the arrangement in assembly and provides a radiation window adjacent the outer scintillator through which the radiation to be detected enters the detector. The outer scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by thermal-neutrons and the inner scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by high-energy neutrons and gamma rays. The light pulses produced by events detected in both scintillators are coupled to the photomultiplier tube which produces a current pulse in response to each detected event. These current pulses may be processed in a conventional manner to produce a count rate output indicative of the total detected radiation even count rate. Pulse discrimination techniques may be used to distinguish the different radiations and their energy distribution.

Chiles, Marion M. (Knoxville, TN); Mihalczo, John T. (Oak Ridge, TN); Blakeman, Edward D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1989-01-01

307

High-efficiency scintillation detector for combined detection of thermal and fast neutrons and gamma radiation  

DOEpatents

A scintillation based radiation detector for the combined detection of thermal neutrons, high-energy neutrons and gamma rays in a single detecting unit. The detector consists of a pair of scintillators sandwiched together and optically coupled to the light sensitive face of a photomultiplier tube. A light tight radiation pervious housing is disposed about the scintillators and a portion of the photomultiplier tube to hold the arrangement in assembly and provides a radiation window adjacent the outer scintillator through which the radiation to be detected enters the detector. The outer scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by thermal-neutrons and the inner scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by high-energy neutrons and gamma rays. The light pulses produced by events detected in both scintillators are coupled to the photomultiplier tube which produces a current pulse in response to each detected event. These current pulses may be processed in a conventional manner to produce a count rate output indicative of the total detected radiation event count rate. Pulse discrimination techniques may be used to distinguish the different radiations and their energy distribution.

Chiles, M.M.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Blakeman, E.D.

1987-02-27

308

Sensitometry of the response of a new radiochromic film dosimeter to gamma radiation and electron beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new radiation-sensitive imaging material, called GafChromic™ Dosimetry Media, offers advances in high-dose radiation dosimetry and high-resolution radiography for gamma radiation and electrons. The potential uses in radiation processing, radiation sterilization of medical devices, population control of insects by irradiation, food irradiation, blood irradiation for organ-transplant immuno-suppression, clinical radiography, and industrial radiography have led to the present sensitometric study over the breadth of the wide dynamic range of this new routine detector and imaging material, namely, absorbed doses from 10 Gy to 5 × 10 4 Gy. The thin-coated film is colorless before irradiation, and registers a deep-blue image upon irradiation, with two absorption bands at about 650 nm (major band) and 600 nm (minor band). The response to electrons, in terms of increase in absorbance per unit absorbed dose, is the same as that to gamma radiation within the estimated uncertainty of the measurements (± 5%, 95% confidence level). The spatial resolving power is > 1200 lines/mm. After the first 24 hours, the image is stable over many months (within ± 5% in absorbance), however, the system should be irradiated and analyzed at approximately the temperatures used during calibration, because of temperature dependence during irradiation and readout, and temperatures greater than 55°C should be avoided.

McLaughlin, W. L.; Yun-Dong, Chen; Soares, C. G.; Miller, A.; Van Dyk, G.; Lewis, D. F.

1991-04-01

309

Mutation spectrum in the lacI gene, induced by gamma-radiation in aqueous solution under oxic conditions.  

PubMed

Irradiation of DNA in a cellular environment leads to many types of DNA damage, resulting from various effects of gamma-radiation. One of these effects is the formation of water-derived radicals (e.g., .OH radicals), which are formed in the vicinity of DNA (indirect effect). To study the influence of the indirect effect on gamma-radiation-induced mutations, a newly constructed plasmid, containing the lacI gene as a target gene, was irradiated with 60Co gamma-radiation in aqueous solution, in the presence of oxygen. Under these circumstances, only .OH radicals will be responsible for the induced mutations. Sequence analysis of the gamma-radiation-induced mutations showed that 96% of all mutations were base pair substitutions, 87% of which occurred in the lacI gene, the others are formed in the lac operator part. All gamma-radiation-induced mutations in the lacI gene occurred exclusively on G:C base pairs, and no mutations at A:T base pairs could be detected. In the spontaneous mutation spectrum, 83% of all mutations were base pair substitutions, 35% of which occurred in the lacI gene and 48% in the lac operator part. Base pair substitutions on G:C base pairs were very similar in the gamma-radiation-induced and in the spontaneous mutation spectrum, implying a high contribution of .OH radicals to spontaneous mutagenesis. A:T to G:C transitions accounted for 10% of all spontaneous base pair substitutions in the lacI gene and are probably the result of effects, other than just .OH radicals. It can be concluded that .OH radicals are an important source for mutations at G:C base pairs. In this paper, the extracellular gamma-radiation-induced mutation spectrum is also compared to the previously obtained, intracellular gamma-radiation-induced mutation spectrum of the lacI gene. Comparison shows some differences, such as relative high amounts of mutations at A:T base pairs, G:C to T:A transversions and frameshift mutations in the intracellular gamma-radiation-induced mutation spectrum, as compared to the extracellular gamma-radiation-induced mutation spectrum. Since the extracellular gamma-radiation-induced mutation spectrum shows that .OH radicals are mainly responsible for base pair substitutions on G:C base pairs, mutations at A:T base pairs in the intracellular gamma-radiation-induced mutation spectrum are apparently the result of additional or other factors. PMID:9726014

Wijker, C A; Wientjes, N M; Lafleur, V M

1998-07-17

310

Persistence of gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in proliferating and nonproliferating human mammary epithelial cells after exposure to gamma-rays or iron ions  

SciTech Connect

To investigate {gamma}-H2AX (phosphorylated histone H2AX) and 53BP1 (tumour protein 53 binding protein No. 1) foci formation and removal in proliferating and non-proliferating human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) after exposure to sparsely and densely ionizing radiation under different cell culture conditions. HMEC cells were grown either as monolayers (2D) or in extracellular matrix to allow the formation of acinar structures in vitro (3D). Foci numbers were quantified by image analysis at various time points after exposure. Our results reveal that in non-proliferating cells under 2D and 3D cell culture conditions, iron-ion induced {gamma}-H2AX foci were still present at 72 h after exposure, although 53BP1 foci returned to control levels at 48 h. In contrast in proliferating HMEC, both {gamma}-H2AX and 53BP1 foci decreased to control levels during the 24-48 h time interval after irradiation under 2D conditions. Foci numbers decreased faster after {gamma}-ray irradiation and returned to control levels by 12 h regardless of marker, cell proliferation status, and cell culture condition. Conclusions: The disappearance of radiation induced {gamma}-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in HMEC have different dynamics that depend on radiation quality and proliferation status. Notably, the general patterns do not depend on the cell culture condition (2D versus 3D). We speculate that the persistent {gamma}-H2AX foci in iron-ion irradiated non-proliferating cells could be due to limited availability of double strand break (DSB) repair pathways in G0/G1-phase, or that repair of complex DSB requires replication or chromatin remodeling.

Groesser, Torsten; Chang, Hang; Fontenay, Gerald; Chen, James; Costes, Sylvain V.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Parvin, Bahram; Rydberg, Bjorn

2010-12-22

311

Effect of gamma radiation on the structural and optical properties of Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) polymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effect of 1.25 MeV gamma radiation on the structural and optical properties of virgin and gamma irradiated (0-2000 kGy) Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) polymer samples are analyzed using powder X-ray diffractometer and UV-vis spectrophotometer. Diffraction pattern of PET polymer indicates the semi-crystalline in nature whereas the crystallinity increases with increasing dose of irradiation. The remarkable variation in crystallite size is also observed. The absorption and activation energy increase and the optical band gap (Eg) decreases with increasing dose in UV-vis studies. The existence of the maximum absorption, their shifting and broadening due to gamma irradiation in PET polymer are also discussed.

Siddhartha; Aarya, Suveda; Dev, Kapil; Raghuvanshi, Suresh Kumar; Krishna, J. B. M.; Wahab, M. A.

2012-04-01

312

Detection of galactic Al-26 gamma radiation by the SMM spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solar Maximum Mission satellite's gamma-ray spectrometer has detected a line near 1.81 MeV in each of the three years (1980-1982) over which the Galactic center traversed the broad aperture of that instrument. No significant intensity variation is noted over this period. The Galactic center/anticenter intensity ratio is greater than 2.5, and the center of the emission is noted to be consistent with the location of the Galactic center. For an assumed source distribution which follows the more than 100 MeV Galactic gamma radiation, the total flux in the direction of the Galactic center and the measured energy of the line are consistent with the detection of a narrow gamma-ray line from interstellar Al-26 by HEAO 3 in 1979-1980.

Share, G. H.; Kinzer, R. L.; Kurfess, J. D.; Forrest, D. J.; Chupp, E. L.; Rieger, E.

1985-01-01

313

Actions of gamma-aminobutyric acid on sympathetic ganglion cells.  

PubMed Central

1. Responses of single ganglion cells in the isolated rat superior cervical ganglion to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) applied via the bathing medium were recorded using intracellular micro-electrodes. 2. GABA produced a large fall in cell input resistance, frequently to immeasurable levels. In thirteen cells showing a modest response to 100 muM GABA, input resistance fell from 50-5 +/-9-5 to 15.9 +/- 3-2 Momega (means +/- S.E. of mean). After correction for resistance leaks introduced by the impaling electrode, the resting membrane resistance Rm and the resistance of the GABA-shunt Rg in these cells were calculated to be 79-3 +/- 16-6 and 35-0 +/- 9-5 Momega respectively. 3. Cells with recorded resting membrane potentials greater than -42 mV were depolarized by GABA; at resting potential less than -42 mV they were hyperpolarized...

Adams, P R; Brown, D A

1975-01-01

314

A new, passive dosemeter for gamma, beta and neutron radiations.  

PubMed

The Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) provides personal radiation dosimetry to the UK Ministry of Defence. Dstl has recently developed a dosemeter that is based on a combination of thermoluminescent and etched-track detectors. The Dstl Combined Dosemeter is capable of assessing doses due to photons, beta particles and neutrons. This paper presents the laboratory type testing results for the Combined Dosemeter, and also describes the procedure for calibrating the dosemeter for use in workplace neutron fields. The Combined Dosemeter meets the type test requirements that are relevant to its intended applications, and gives neutron doses that are within 50% of the true dose in the workplaces in which it is used, even when the wearer has the potential to be exposed to a variety of neutron spectra (e.g. on board nuclear-powered submarines). PMID:21346288

Jones, L A; Stokes, R P

2011-03-01

315

Susceptibility of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi Gilliam to gamma interferon in cultured mouse cells.  

PubMed Central

Recombinant rodent gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) inhibited the infection of cultured BALB/3T3 mouse fibroblasts by Rickettsia tsutsugamushi Gilliam, apparently mainly by clearance of intracellular rickettsiae. No significant effect on rickettsial entry into the cells was noted; IFN-gamma was toxic to infected cells, as measured by the capacity of treated, infected cells to attach to the surfaces of culture vessels. In a small proportion of IFN-gamma-treated cells, rickettsial replication appeared to persist at normal levels. A fraction (28%) of rickettsiae clonally isolated from cultures treated with IFN-gamma was resistant to IFN-gamma-mediated inhibition, but four serial passages of these resistant clones in the absence of additional IFN-gamma resulted in the loss of resistance. In several respects, therefore, the IFN-gamma-mediated inhibition of scrub typhus rickettsiae in cultured fibroblasts was similar to that reported for Rickettsia prowazekii.

Hanson, B

1991-01-01

316

Correlation between indoor radon concentration and dose rate in air from terrestrial gamma radiation in Japan.  

PubMed

A correlation between the indoor radon concentration and dose rate in air from terrestrial gamma radiation is studied using the results of nationwide indoor radon and external exposure surveys, although the surveys were not conducted at the same time nor at the same location. The radon concentration shows a log-normal-like distribution, whereas the terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate in air shows a normal-like distribution. A log-linear scatterplot for each pair of the indoor radon concentration and gamma-ray dose rate in air in each city reveals a clear relationship. The average, maximum, and minimum as well as regression line of radon concentration were found to increase with the gamma-ray dose rate in air. The group in higher quantile of radon concentration shows larger dependence on the gamma-ray dose rate. The rate of increase of radon concentration with the gamma-ray dose rate in air depends on the house structure. The wooden house has a larger rate of increase than the concrete house, and the regression lines cross at high air dose rate. Based on the finding in the present study a certain criterion level of air dose rate could be established and used for an effective survey to find out which houses might require a remedial action in conjunction with other screening tools. The criterion level of air dose rate might be more effective if the level is set for each house structure since the rate of increase of radon concentration depends on house structure. PMID:9721838

Fujimoto, K

1998-09-01

317

Lignocellulolytic mutants of Pleurotus ostreatus induced by gamma-ray radiation and their genetic similarities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To induce the lignocellulolytic mutants of Pleurotus ostreatus, the mycelia were irradiated by gamma-ray radiation to doses of 1-2 kGy. Five strains were isolated by the criteria of clamp connection, fruiting body formation, growth rate and activities of extracellular enzymes. All isolated strains were able to form the fruiting bodies and grew similarly to the control. The extracellular enzymes activities in liquid media of isolated strains were up to 10 times higher than the control. Genetic similarities of the isolated strains ranged from 64.4% to 93.3% of the control. From these results, it seems that the genetic diversity of P. ostreatus could be changed and useful strains be induced by gamma-ray radiation to recycle or reuse biowastes.

Lee, Y.-K.; Chang, H.-H.; Kim, J.-S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, K.-S.

2000-02-01

318

Buthionine sulfoximine mediated enhancement of gamma-radiation induced mutation frequency in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Experiments were carried out to investigate whether or not depletion of the glutathione (GSH) level in Drosophila melanogaster larvae with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) treatment can result in the modulation of the frequency of sex-linked recessive lethal (SLRL) mutations induced by gamma-radiation. Third instar larvae were fed on BSO for 24 h before exposure to 10 Gy gamma-radiation. Immediately after this the larvae were divided into two batches, which were used for determining the GSH level and the induction of SLRL mutations respectively. The results obtained suggest that the depletion of the GSH level with BSO can lead to an enhancement in the frequency of SLRL mutations (significant at the 5% level). In a subsequent experiment in which adult Drosophila melanogaster male flies were fed on BSO for 72 h before irradiation, a significant increase was observed in the incidence of SLRL mutations. PMID:7680760

Abraham, S K; Singh, S P; Kesavan, P C

1993-04-01

319

Three-dimensional radiation dosimetry for gamma knife using a gel dosimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of three-dimensional radiation dosimetry has been limited. With the use of water phantoms and ionization chambers, it has been possible to determine three dimensional dose distributions on a gross scale for cobalt 60 and linear accelerator sources. This method has been somewhat useful for traditional radiotherapy. There is, however, a need for more precise dosimetry, particularly with stereotactic radiosurgery. Most gamma knife facilities use either thermoluminescant dosimetry or film, neither of which provides three dimensional dose distributions. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a gel dosimetry system that relies on the production of a ferric ion-xylenol orange colored complex. This work demonstrates the use of laser light and a detector to quantify radiation-induced colorimetric changes in absorbance for the gel dosimeter. The absorbance has been reconstructed by the back projection technique to demonstrate the applicability of the gel dosimeter to gamma knife 3D-dose distributions.

Hussain, Kazi Muazzam

320

Development and characterization of starch nanoparticles by gamma radiation: potential application as starch matrix filler.  

PubMed

Gamma radiation arises as an advantageous alternative to obtain starch nanoparticles given its low cost, simple methodology and scalability. Starch nanoparticles (SNP) with sizes around 20 and 30 nm were obtained applying a dose of 20 kGy from cassava (CNP-?) and waxy maize (WNP-?) starch, respectively. They showed the same thermal degradation behavior and their maximum mass loss zone was similar to those nanoparticles obtained from acid hydrolysis (WNP-h). Additionally, CNP-? and WNP-? were used as nanofillers in a cassava matrix. Increments of 102% in storage modulus were obtained with the addition of only 2.5 wt.% of WNP-?, showing that gamma radiation is a successful methodology to obtain SNP able to be used as starch reinforcement. PMID:23769521

Lamanna, Melisa; Morales, Noé J; García, Nancy Lis; Goyanes, Silvia

2013-08-14

321

Doorway States As Principal Decay Pathway In 12C(12C,{gamma}) Radiative Capture  

SciTech Connect

The heavy-ion radiative capture reaction, 12C(12C,{gamma}), has been investigated at beam energies around 16 MeV. Three different experiments were performed. Capture cross-sections were obtained by measuring fused 24Mg residues using the FMA at ANL. These were found to significantly exceed values reported earlier. Subsequently, the decay pathways associated with radiative capture were studied in two separate measurements: one with the high-resolution Gammasphere array and a second with a high efficiency BGO array, where gamma rays were recorded in coincidence with 24Mg residues detected at the focal plane of the DRAGON recoil separator at TRIUMF. Both measurements indicate that a substantial fraction of the decay is mediated through high-lying doorway states, possibly associated with the long-predicted shape-isomeric band in 24Mg.

Jenkins, D.G.; Fulton, B.R.; Pearson, J. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Lister, C.J.; Carpenter, M.P.; Freeman, S.J.; Hammond, N.J.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T.; Wuosmaa, A.H. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Fallon, P.; Goergen, A.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; McMahan, M. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA 94720 (United States); Haas, F. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, CNRS-IN2P3/ULP, F67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)

2005-04-05

322

A new natural gamma radiation measurement system for marine sediment and rock analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new high-efficiency and low-background system for the measurement of natural gamma radioactivity in marine sediment and rock cores retrieved from beneath the seabed was designed, built, and installed on the JOIDES Resolution research vessel. The system includes eight large NaI(Tl) detectors that measure adjacent intervals of the core simultaneously, maximizing counting times and minimizing statistical error for the limited measurement times available during drilling expeditions. Effect to background ratio is maximized with passive lead shielding, including both ordinary and low-activity lead. Large-area plastic scintillator active shielding filters background associated with the high-energy part of cosmic radiation. The new system has at least an order of magnitude higher statistical reliability and significantly enhances data quality compared to other offshore natural gamma radiation (NGR) systems designed to measure geological core samples. Reliable correlations and interpretations of cored intervals are possible at rates of a few counts per second.

Vasiliev, M. A.; Blum, P.; Chubarian, G.; Olsen, R.; Bennight, C.; Cobine, T.; Fackler, D.; Hastedt, M.; Houpt, D.; Mateo, Z.; Vasilieva, Y. B.

2011-11-01

323

Effect of Gamma Radiation on the Ripening of Bartlett Pears 1  

PubMed Central

Gamma radiation at doses of 300 Krad or more inhibits the ripening of Bartlett pears (Pyrus communis L.). Immediately after irradiation there is a transitory burst of C2H4, which subsequently declines in fruits subjected to inhibitory doses. Ethylene production associated with ripening begins at the same time in unirradiated fruits and those subjected to noninhibitory doses, but the latter produces much more C2H4 at the climacteric peak. Fruits subjected to inhibitory doses produce low levels of C2H4 unless subjected to exogenously applied C2H4, whereupon they produce enough of the gas to induce ripening in unirradiated fruits. Pears subjected to 300 and 400 Krad of gamma rays did not ripen even when held in a flowing atmosphere containing 1000 ppm of C2H4 for 8 days at 20°. It is concluded that the action of gamma rays on Bartlett pears involves both an inhibition of C2H4 production and a decreased sensitivity of the fruit to the ripening action of the gas. Ripening of Bartlett pears is inhibited by gamma radiation only when applied to preclimacteric fruit.

Maxie, E. C.; Sommer, N. F.; Muller, Carlos J.; Rae, Henry L.

1966-01-01

324

Preparation and characterization of nanocrystalline powders of cuprous oxide by using [gamma]-radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The [gamma]-radiation method has been firstly used to prepare nanocrystalline powders of cuprous oxide from cupric sulfate aqueous solution in the presence of CH[sub 3]COOH\\/CH[sub 3]COONa buffer pair. X-ray powder diffraction reveals that the product is single phase of cuprous oxide. Electron microscopy shows that the average particle size of cuprous oxide prepared is about 14 rim. Influences of experimental

Zhu Yingjie; Qian Yitai; Zhang Manwei; Chen Zuyao; Xu Dengfeng; Yang Li; Zhou Guien

1994-01-01

325

Buildup factors of gamma rays including Bremsstrahlung and annihilation radiation for water, concrete, iron, and lead  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma-ray exposure buildup factors are calculated using a discrete ordinates direct integration code, PALLAS-PL, SP-Br, for water, concrete, iron, and lead, typifying materials of low, medium, and high atomic number. The radiation sources considered were both plane, at normal incidence, and at plane-isotropic. These data include the effects of secondary photon sources arising from Compton scattering, bremsstrahlung, and annihilation. Inclusion

K. Takeuchi; S. I. Tanaka

1984-01-01

326

Study on chemical, UV and gamma radiation-induced grafting of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate onto chitosan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate has been grafted onto chitosan by using either chemical initiation, or photo-induction or gamma radiation-induced polymerisation, all under heterogeneous conditions. The evidence of grafting was provided by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermal analysis.The results concerning the effect of initiator concentration, initial monomer concentration and dose rate influencing on the yield of grafting reactions

M. H. Casimiro; M. L. Botelho; J. P. Leal; M. H. Gil

2005-01-01

327

Study on chemical, UV and gamma radiation-induced grafting of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate onto chitosan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate has been grafted onto chitosan by using either chemical initiation, or photo-induction or gamma radiation-induced polymerisation, all under heterogeneous conditions. The evidence of grafting was provided by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermal analysis. The results concerning the effect of initiator concentration, initial monomer concentration and dose rate influencing on the yield of grafting

M. H. Casimiro; M. L. Botelho; J. P. Leal; M. H. Gil

2005-01-01

328

EFFECT OF Co⁶°$gamma$ RADIATION ON VITAMIN Bâ-GROUP SUBSTANCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

When aqueous solutions of 0.030 mg\\/ml pyridoxine hydrochloride, ; pyridoxal hydrochloride, and pyridoxamine dihydrochloride, the pH of which had ; been adjusted to approximates 2 with 0.01N hydrochloric acid, were irradiated ; with Co⁶° gamma radiation at a dose of 10⁵ rep, the loss of the ; vitamin was 94, 77, and 70%, respectively. Losses of less than 10% were

Shiroishi

1961-01-01

329

Dose quantities and instrumentation for measuring environmental gamma radiation during emergencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dosimetry for exposure to gamma radiation in the environment is reviewed, including the factors used to convert measurements of traceable quantities to effective dose equivalent. A value of 0.70 Sv Gy-1 is widely used to convert air kerma or absorbed dose-to-air to effective dose equivalent, but recent work shows that a value of 0.86 Sv Gy-1 is more appropriate

M. J. Clark; P. H. Burgess; D. R. McClure

1993-01-01

330

Nanostructured scintillating optical fiber prepared via sol-gel technique for detecting gamma radiation.  

PubMed

An innovative scintillating material prepared through distributing cesium iodide (CsI) nanocrystals into pores of a transparent nanoporous silica using a sol-gel technology has been developed. The CsI nanocrystals doped porous silica material has been designed and made into an optical fiber by using a patented sol-gel technique. This CsI-doped sol-gel silica optical fiber was conveniently connected to a highly sensitive photon detector in testing the material for detecting gamma radiation. The preliminary test result reported in this Letter clearly demonstrates the feasibility of this scintillating fiber for detecting high-energy radiations. PMID:19838287

Tao, Shiquan; Jayaprakash, Ashwini

2009-10-15

331

Degradation of biochemical activity in soil sterilized by dry heat and gamma radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of soil sterilization by dry heat (0.08% relative humidity), gamma radiation, or both on soil phosphatase, urease, and decarboxylase activity was studied. Soil sterilized by a long exposure to dry heat at relatively low temperatures (eight weeks at 100.5 C) retained higher activities than did soil exposed to a higher temperature (two weeks at 124.5 C), while all activity was destroyed by four days at 148.5 C. Sterilization with 7.5 Mrads destroyed less activity than did heat sterilization. The effect of several individually nonsterizing doses of heat radiation is described.

Shih, K. L.; Souza, K. A.

1978-01-01

332

Reduction of the 2,4,6-trichloroanisole content in cork stoppers using gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work demonstrates that it is possible to eliminate or transform 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA) in cork stoppers, using gamma radiation transforming it in molecular residues which do not have the same organoleptic/odour characteristics. This process when applied to packed cork stoppers ready to use, inside their sealed packages, avoiding later contamination, assures the elimination/reduction of the problem, which is an enormous advantage over the other processes. Studies were carried out with cork stoppers naturally contaminated using radiation doses from 15 to 400 kGy. The results showed elimination/reduction efficiencies of 2,4,6-TCA higher than 90%.

Pereira, C.; Gil, L.; Carriço, L.

2007-04-01

333

Gamma-radiation-induced wood-plastic composites from Syrian tree species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wood-plastic composites (WPC) have been prepared with five low-grade woods, native to Syria, using three monomer systems; acrylamide, butylmethacrylate, and styrene, with methanol as the swelling solvent. Polymerization was induced at various radiation doses (10, 20, and 30 kGy) at a dose rate of 3.5 kGy/h using a 60Co gamma radiation source. Some physical properties of WPC, namely polymer loading and compression strength have been measured. The polymer loading decreases approximately with increasing density of the wood species used.

Bakraji, Elias Hanna; Salman, Numan; Al-kassiri, Haroun

2001-05-01

334

Method for detecting water equivalent of snow using secondary cosmic gamma radiation  

DOEpatents

Water equivalent of accumulated snow determination by measurement of secondary background cosmic radiation attenuation by the snowpack. By measuring the attentuation of 3-10 MeV secondary gamma radiation it is possible to determine the water equivalent of snowpack. The apparatus is designed to operate remotely to determine the water equivalent of snow in areas which are difficult or hazardous to access during winter, accumulate the data as a function of time and transmit, by means of an associated telemetry system, the accumulated data back to a central data collection point for analysis. The electronic circuitry is designed so that a battery pack can be used to supply power.

Condreva, Kenneth J. (1420 Fifth St., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550)

1997-01-01

335

Gamma radiation grafted polymers for immobilization of Brucella antigen in diagnostic test studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiation grafting process has a wide field of industrial applications, and in the recent years the immobilization of biocomponents in grafted polymeric materials obtained by means of ionizing radiations is a new and important contribution to biotechnology. In the present work, gamma preirradiation grafting method was employed to produce acrylics hydrogels onto polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polystyrene (PS). Two monomers were used to graft the previously mentioned polymers: methacrylic acid (MAAc) and acrylamide (AAm), and several working conditions were considered as influencing the degree of grafting. All this grafted polymers were used to study the possibility of a subsequent immobilization of Brucella antigen (BAg) in diagnostic test studies (ELISA).

Docters, E. H.; Smolko, E. E.; Suarez, C. E.

336

Method for detecting water equivalent of snow using secondary cosmic gamma radiation  

DOEpatents

Water equivalent of accumulated snow determination by measurement of secondary background cosmic radiation attenuation by the snowpack. By measuring the attenuation of 3-10 MeV secondary gamma radiation it is possible to determine the water equivalent of snowpack. The apparatus is designed to operate remotely to determine the water equivalent of snow in areas which are difficult or hazardous to access during winter, accumulate the data as a function of time and transmit, by means of an associated telemetry system, the accumulated data back to a central data collection point for analysis. The electronic circuitry is designed so that a battery pack can be used to supply power. 4 figs.

Condreva, K.J.

1997-01-14

337

Evaluation of the in vivo genotoxic effects of gamma radiation on the peripheral blood leukocytes of head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation on non-target cells of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) patients exposed to various cumulative doses of gamma rays during radiotherapy. The ten patients (P1-P10) were treated with cobalt 60 gamma radiation (External Beam Radiotherapy) for a period of five to six weeks with a daily fraction of 2Gy for 5 days each week. The genotoxic effects of radiation (single strand breaks - SSBs) in these patients were analyzed using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) technique, with the Olive Tail Moment (OTM) as the critical parameter. A sample of each patient's peripheral blood before starting with radiotherapy (pre-therapy) served as the control, and blood collected at weekly time intervals during the course of the radiotherapy served as treated (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60Gy) samples. In vivo radiosensitivity of these patients, as indicated by SSB's after the cumulative radiation doses at the various times, was assessed using Student's t-test. Significant DNA damage relative to the individual patient's pre-therapy baseline data was observed in all patients. Inter-individual variation of the genotoxic effects was analyzed using two-way ANOVA. The correlation between doses for the means of smoker and non-smoker patients was calculated using the Pearson test. The results of this study may indicate the need to reduce the daily radiotherapy dose further to prevent genotoxic effects on non-target cells, thus improving safety. Furthermore, these results may indicate that the estimation of DNA damage following exposure to a gamma radiation, as measured by the comet assay in whole blood leukocytes, can be used to screen human populations for radiation-induced genetic damage at the molecular level. PMID:23370449

Kadam, Samit B; Shyama, Soorambail K; Almeida, Valentine G

2013-04-15

338

New decay branches of the radiative capture reaction {sup 12}C({sup 16}O,{gamma}){sup 28}Si  

SciTech Connect

Resonances in the {sup 12}C({sup 16}O,{gamma}){sup 28}Si radiative capture process at energies around the Coulomb barrier have been probed using the very selective 0 deg. Dragon spectrometer at Triumf and its associated BGO {gamma}-array. For the first time the full level scheme involved in this process has been measured and shows previously unobserved {gamma}-decay to doorway states around 11 MeV in {sup 28}Si.

Lebhertz, D.; Courtin, S.; Haas, F.; Salsac, M.-D.; Beck, C.; Michalon, A.; Rousseau, M. [IPHC, Universite Louis Pasteur, CNRS-IN2P3, Strasbourg (France); Marley, P. L.; Glover, R. G.; Kent, P. E. [University of York, York (United Kingdom); Hutcheon, D. A.; Davis, C.; Pearson, J. E. [TRIUMF, Vancouver (Canada)

2009-01-28

339

Breast cancer stem cells and radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present studies explore the response of breast cancer stem cells (BCSC's) to radiation and the implications for clinical cancer treatment. Current cancer therapy eliminates bulky tumor mass but may fail to eradicate a critical tumor initiating cell population termed "cancer stem cells". These cells are potentially responsible for tumor formation, metastasis, and recurrence. Recently cancer stem cells have been prospectively identified in various malignancies, including breast cancer. The breast cancer stem cell has been identified by the surface markers CD44+/CD24 -(low). In vitro mammosphere cultures allow for the enrichment of the cancer stem cell population and were utilized in order to study differential characteristics of BCSC's. Initial studies found that BCSC's display increased radiation resistance as compared to other non-stem tumor cells. This resistance was accompanied by decreased H2AX phosphorylation, decreased reactive oxygen species formation, and increased phosphorylation of the checkpoint protein Chk1. These studies suggest differential DNA damage and repair within the BCSC population. Studies then examined the consequences of fractionated radiation on the BCSC population and found a two-fold increase in BCSC's following 5 x 3Gy. This observation begins to tie cancer stem cell self-renewal to the clinical stem cell phenomenon of accelerated repopulation. Accelerated repopulation is observed when treatment gaps increase between sequential fractions of radiotherapy and may be due to cancer stem cell symmetric self-renewal. The balance between asymmetric and symmetric stem cell division is vital for proper maintenance; deregulation is likely linked to cancer initiation and progression. The developmental Notch-1 pathway was found to regulate BCSC division. Over-expressing the constitutively active Notch-1-ICD in MCF7 cells produced an increase in the BCSC population. Additionally, radiation was observed to increase the expression of the Notch-1 ligand, Jagged-1, and this was complemented by radiation induced Notch-1 activation. Studies also linked hypoxia and BCSC renewal through Epo signaling. Treatment with rhEpo induced an increase in BCSC's, which again was due to rhEpo induced Jagged-1 expression and subsequent Notch-1 activation. This thesis suggests that radiation and rhEpo induce Jagged-1 expression in non-stem cells, which then induce Notch-1 activation in adjacent stem cells, and results in symmetric cancer stem cell self-renewal.

Phillips, Tiffany Marie

340

Response of a lead collimator for a gamma-ray telescope to gamma radiation in the energy range 1-100 MeV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Monte Carlo method is applied to study the response of a lead collimator 3 cm thick to gamma radiation in the energy range 1-100 MeV, which was part of a gamma-ray telescope. The computation gives the continuum spectrum and the 511 keV line intensity emerging from the inner face of the collimator as a result of the electromagnetic interactions

I. N. Azcarate

2003-01-01

341

Behaviour of a Lead Collimator for a Gamma-Ray Telescope Exposed to Gamma Radiation in the Energy Range 1-100 MeV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Monte Carlo method is applied to study the transmission of a lead collimator 3 cm thick to gamma radiation in the energy range 1-100 MeV, which was part of a gamma-ray telescope. The computation gives the continuum spectrum and the 511 keV line intensity emerging from the inner face of the collimator as the result of the electromagnetic interactions

I. N. Azcárate; V. J. Mugherli

1996-01-01

342

Diffuse gamma radiation. [intensity, energy spectrum and spatial distribution from SAS 2 observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are reported for an investigation of the intensity, energy spectrum, and spatial distribution of the diffuse gamma radiation detected by SAS 2 away from the galactic plane in the energy range above 35 MeV. The gamma-ray data are compared with relevant data obtained at other wavelengths, including 21-cm emission, radio continuum radiation, and the limited UV and radio information on local molecular hydrogen. It is found that there are two quite distinct components to the diffuse radiation, one of which shows a good correlation with the galactic matter distribution and continuum radiation, while the other has a much steeper energy spectrum and appears to be isotropic at least on a coarse scale. The galactic component is interpreted in terms of its implications for both local and more distant regions of the Galaxy. The apparently isotropic radiation is discussed partly with regard to the constraints placed on possible models by the steep energy spectrum, the observed intensity, and an upper limit on the anisotropy.

Fichtel, C. E.; Simpson, G. A.; Thompson, D. J.

1978-01-01

343

Responses of the bacterial community to chronic gamma radiation in a rice paddy ecosystem.  

PubMed

Purpose: Public concern about radiation protection of the environment and non-human species is increasing. The potential impact of chronic gamma radiation on the bacterial community in a rice paddy ecosystem was investigated. Materials and methods: Paddy field microcosm samples were continuously exposed at a dose rate of 1 Gy day(-1) for five days after which the bacterial community structures in them were compared with those of unirradiated control samples by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene. Dissolved ions in ponding waters of the microcosm samples were determined by ion chromatography. Results: The DGGE band profiles were clearly different between the control and exposure samples. Sequencing of selected DGGE bands revealed that a specific species of the genus Clostridium and of the genus Massilia were grown under radiation exposure. Additionally, the concentrations of sulphate ion in the ponding water of the microcosm samples increased under radiation exposure. Concentrations of Na(+), Ca(2+), and F(-) inversely decreased. Conclusions: The data presented suggest that chronic gamma radiation affects the bacterial community structure and material cycles in the rice paddy ecosystem. PMID:21284570

Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Fuma, Shoichi; Tagami, Keiko; Honma-Takeda, Shino; Shikano, Shuichi

2011-07-01

344

Comparison of proton microbeam and gamma irradiation for the radiation hardness testing of silicon PIN diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simple and cost-effective solutions using Si PIN diodes as detectors are presently utilized in various radiation-related applications in which excessive exposure to radiation degrades their charge transport properties. One of the conventional methods for the radiation hardness testing of such devices is time-consuming irradiation with electron beam or gamma-ray irradiation facilities, high-energy proton accelerators, or with neutrons from research reactors. Recently, for the purpose of radiation hardness testing, a much faster nuclear microprobe based approach utilizing proton irradiation has been developed. To compare the two different irradiation techniques, silicon PIN diodes have been irradiated with a Co-60 gamma radiation source and with a 6 MeV proton microbeam. The signal degradation in the silicon PIN diodes for both irradiation conditions has been probed by the IBIC (ion beam induced charge) technique, which can precisely monitor changes in charge collection efficiency. The results presented are reviewed on the basis of displacement damage calculations and NIEL (non-ionizing energy loss) concept.

Jakši?, M.; Grilj, V.; Skukan, N.; Majer, M.; Jung, H. K.; Kim, J. Y.; Lee, N. H.

2013-09-01

345

Radiation hardness of plastic scintillating fiber against fast neutron and [gamma]-ray irradiation  

SciTech Connect

In future collider experiments, where a background radiation level is estimated to be very high, e.g. around 10[sup 2] [approximately] 10[sup 5] Gy/yr and 10[sup 11] [approximately] 10[sup 14] n/cm[sup 2]/yr at SSC, the detectors operating around the collision point in the experiments will encounter a considerable amount of radiation. Therefore, the detectors, especially the calorimeter, are required to be resistive against high radiation levels. From this point of view, it is of great importance to study the effects of radiation damage on the performance of the detectors. The authors report preliminary results of measurements of radiation hardness of the plastic scintillating fiber Kuraray SCSF-81 against irradiation with fast neutrons and [sup 60]Co [gamma]-rays in the region of the neutron fluence from 1 [times] 10[sup 11] to 5 [times] 10[sup 13] n/cm[sup 2] and the integrated [gamma]-ray dose from 890 to 10[sup 5] Gy, respectively. Deterioration of both intrinsic light yield and light transmittance of the SCSF-81 has been studied.

Murakami, Akira; Yoshinaka, Hideki; Goto, Minehiko (Saga Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics)

1993-08-01

346

Stimulated stromal cells induce gamma-globin gene expression in erythroid cells via nitric oxide production  

PubMed Central

Objective We have previously shown that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the hydroxyurea-induced increase of gamma-globin gene expression in cultured human erythroid progenitor cells and that hydroxyurea increases NO production in endothelial cells via endothelial NO synthase (NOS). We have now expanded those studies to demonstrate that the stimulation of gamma-globin gene expression is also mediated by NOS induction in stromal cells within the bone marrow microenvironment. Materials and Methods Using NO analyzer, we measured NO production in endothelial and macrophage cell cultures. In co-culture studies of erythroid and stromal cells we measured globin gene expression during stimulation by NO inducers. Results Hydroxyurea (30–100 ?M) induced NOS-dependent production of NO in human macrophages (up to 1.2 ?M). Co-culture studies of human macrophages with erythroid progenitor cells also resulted in induction of gamma-globin mRNA expression (up to 3 fold) in the presence of hydroxyurea. NOS-dependent stimulation of NO by lipopolysaccharide (up to 0.6 ?M) has been observed in human macrophages. We found that lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma together increased gamma-globin gene expression (up to 2 fold) in human macrophage/erythroid cell co-cultures. Co-culture of human bone marrow endothelial cells with erythroid progenitor cells also induced gamma-globin mRNA expression (2.4 fold) in the presence of hydroxyurea (40 ?M). Conclusion These results demonstrate an arrangement by which NO and fetal hemoglobin inducers may stimulate globin genes in erythroid cells via the common paracrine effect of bone marrow stromal cells.

Cokic, Vladan P.; Beleslin-Cokic, Bojana B.; Smith, Reginald D.; Economou, Antaeus P.; Wahl, Larry M.; Noguchi, Constance T.; Schechter, Alan N.

2009-01-01

347

The comparative effects of gamma radiation and in situ alpha particles on five strong-base anion exchange resins  

SciTech Connect

The effects of external gamma radiation and in situ alpha particles were measured on a recently available, macroporous, strong-base polyvinylpyridine resin and on four strong-base polystyrene anion exchange resins. Each resin was irradiated in 7 M nitric acid to 1--10 megaGray of gamma radiation from external {sup 60}Co, or to 5--14 megaGray of alpha particles from sorbed {sup 238}Pu. Each irradiated resin was measured for changes in dry weight, wet volume, weak-base and strong-base chloride exchange capacities, and exchange capacities for Pu(4) from nitric acid. Alpha-induced resin damage was significantly less than that caused by an equivalent dose of gamma radiation. The polyvinylpyridine resin offers the greatest resistance to damage from gamma radiation and from alpha particles. 5 refs., 1 figs. 5 tabs.

Marsh, S.F.

1991-01-01

348

Interaction of gamma Radiation and Temperature on the Determination of the Sterilizing Dose of Some Stored Products Pests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The influence of temperature on sterilizing dosages of gamma radiation was studied for Sitophilus zeamais Mots. in corn, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) in rice, Araecerus fasciculatus (DeGeer) in coffee, and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh.) in beans. It was found tha...

A. P. Barbosa

1976-01-01

349

Dose-dependent effects of gamma radiation on lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata) seedlings.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of gamma radiation on lettuce growth and development, as well as on the content of photosynthetic pigments in 28 days lettuce leaf. Materials and methods: Lettuce dry seeds were exposed to a (60)Co [Cobalt-60] gamma source at doses ranging from 2-70 Gray (Gy). The photosynthetic pigment content was determined spectrophotometrically. Results: Our results showed that an irradiation dose between of 2-30 Gy enhanced the growth parameters (final germination percentage, germination index, root and hypocotyl length) as compared to untreated plants. Seed germination test revealed that 30 Gy irradiation dose induced the highest increase of growth parameters, while at 70 Gy a significant decrease of plant vegetative growth was recorded. The results indicated that exposing the seeds at doses ranging from 2-30 Gy enhanced the photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids) content, while at higher doses (70 Gy)) the decrease of the assimilatory pigments was noticed. Conclusion: The present results suggested that seed treatment with gamma radiations (0-30 Gy) was effective in stimulating plant growth and development, as well as the content of assimilatory pigments. At a higher dose of 70 Gy, there was a drastic reduction in the length of shoots and roots and also in the total chlorophyll content. These observations confirm that ionizing radiation stimulates physiological parameters up to certain low doses, and then it inhibits these parameters at higher doses. PMID:23020834

Marcu, Delia; Cristea, Victoria; Daraban, Liviu

2013-03-01

350

SAS-2 observations of the galactic gamma radiation from the Vela region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from a scan of the galactic plane by the SAS-2 high energy gamma ray experiment in the region 250 deg l2 290 deg show a statistically-significant excess over the general radiation from the galactic plane for gamma radiation of energy 100 MeV in the region 260 deg l2 270 deg and -7.5 deg b2 0 deg. If the enhanced gamma radiation results from interactions of cosmic rays with galactic matter, as the energy spectrum suggests, it seems reasonable to associate the enhancement with large scale galactic features, such as spiral arm segments in that direction, or with the region surrounding the Vela supernova remnant, with which PSR 0833-45 is associated. If the excess is attributed to cosmic rays released from this supernova interacting with the interstellar matter in that region, then on the order of 3.10 to the 50th power ergs would be released by that supernova in the form of cosmic rays.

Thompson, D. J.; Bignami, G. F.; Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.

1974-01-01

351

Additional adjoint Monte Carlo studies of the shielding of concrete structures against initial gamma radiation. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adjoint Monte Carlo method previously developed by MAGI has been applied to the calculation of initial radiation dose due to air secondary gamma rays and fission product gamma rays at detector points within buildings for a wide variety of problems. These provide an in-depth survey of structure shielding effects as well as many new benchmark problems for matching by

M. Beer; M. O. Cohen

1975-01-01

352

Cancer Stem Cells and Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer stem cells have recently been proposed to play a significant role in the initiation and propagation of tumor cells.\\u000a They display indefinite self-renewal capacity and multilineage potential as well as an excessive proliferation capacity. Cancer\\u000a stem cells are quiescent with low mitotic frequencies. They seem to be relatively radioresistant and have been demonstrated\\u000a to increase in relative amount following

David Eriksson; Katrine Riklund; Lennart Johansson; Torgny Stigbrand

353

Optical and Solar Cell Properties of Alpha-ray, Proton, and Gamma-ray Irradiated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Films and Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of alpha-ray, proton, and gamma-ray irradiation on the electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells and the photoluminescence spectra of CIGS and CuInSe2 (CIS) thin films were investigated. Particle irradiation using alpha-ray and proton primarily degraded the interfaces of CIGS solar cells, even though the CIS and CIGS thin films did not degraded, in the case of a low irradiation fluence of the order of 109 cm-2. On the other hand, CIS and CIGS showed good tolerance to gamma-ray irradiation because the impact of wave radiation is insufficient to degrade the crystal, in comparison with particle radiation. These results will become the first step toward realizing practical applications of CIGS solar cells in space and clarifying their degradation mechanism.

Mutsumi Sugiyama,; Toshihiro Yasuniwa,; Hisayuki Nakanishi,; Shigefusa F. Chichibu,; Shinichi Kimura,

2010-04-01

354

LDEF solar cell radiation effects analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of the extended time that the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission stayed in space, the solar cells on the satellite experienced greater environments than originally planned. The cells showed an overall degradation in performance that is due to the combined effects of the various space environments. The purpose of this analysis is to calculate the effect of the accumulated radiation on the solar cells, thereby helping Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to unravel the relative power degradation from the different environments.

Rives, Carol J.; Azarewicz, Joseph L.; Massengill, Lloyd

1993-01-01

355

Cell cycle and LET dependence for radiation-induced mutation: a possible mechanism for reversed dose-rate effect.  

PubMed

A previous study of the mutagenic action of 252Cf radiation in mouse L5178Y cells showed that the mutation frequency was higher when the dose was chronic rather than acute, which was in sharp contrast to the effects reported for gamma-rays (Nakamura and Sawada, 1988). A subsequent study using synchronized cells revealed that the cells at the G2/M stage were uniquely sensitive to mutation induction by 252Cf radiation but not to gamma-rays (Tauchi et al., 1993). A long phase cell population was first subjected to conditioning gamma or 252Cf radiation doses at different dose-rates. The cell cycle distribution of these cells was then observed, and they were then exposed to 252Cf radiation, and the mutation rate was determined. The G2/M fraction increased by 3- to 4-fold when the conditioning doses (2 Gy of gamma or 1 Gy of 252Cf radiation) were delivered chronically over 10 h, but only slightly when the same doses were delivered over a 1 h period or less. Subsequent 252Cf irradiation gave higher mutation frequencies in the cells pre-irradiated with gamma-rays over a protracted period of time than in those exposed with the higher dose-rate gamma-rays. These results suggest that the radiation-induced G2 block could be at least partly (but not totally) responsible for this reverse dose-rate effect (Tauchi et al. 1996). Possible factors which cause the hyper-sensitivity of G2/M cells to mutation induction by neutrons will be discussed. PMID:10804993

Tauchi, H; Endo, S; Eguchi-Kasai, K; Furusawa, Y; Suzuki, M; Matsuura, S; Ando, K; Nakamura, N; Sawada, S; Komatsu, K

1999-12-01

356

Single-cell responses to ionizing radiation.  

PubMed

While gene expression studies have proved extremely important in understanding cellular processes, it is becoming more apparent that there may be differences in individual cells that are missed by studying the population as a whole. We have developed a qRT-PCR protocol that allows us to assay multiple gene products in small samples, starting at 100 cells and going down to a single cell, and have used it to study radiation responses at the single-cell level. Since the accuracy of qRT-PCR depends greatly on the choice of "housekeeping" genes used for normalization, initial studies concentrated on determining the optimal panel of such genes. Using an endogenous control array, it was found that for IMR90 cells, common housekeeping genes tend to fall into one of two categories-those that are relatively stably expressed regardless of the number of cells in the sample, e.g., B2M, PPIA, and GAPDH, and those that are more variable (again regardless of the size of the population), e.g., YWHAZ, 18S, TBP, and HPRT1. Further, expression levels in commonly studied radiation-response genes, such as ATF3, CDKN1A, GADD45A, and MDM2, were assayed in 100, 10, and single-cell samples. It is here that the value of single-cell analyses becomes apparent. It was observed that the expression of some genes such as FGF2 and MDM2 was relatively constant over all irradiated cells, while that of others such as FAS was considerably more variable. It was clear that almost all cells respond to ionizing radiation but the individual responses were considerably varied. The analyses of single cells indicate that responses in individual cells are not uniform and suggest that responses observed in populations are not indicative of identical patterns in all cells. This in turn points to the value of single-cell analyses. PMID:23995963

Ponnaiya, Brian; Amundson, Sally A; Ghandhi, Shanaz A; Smilenov, Lubomir B; Geard, Charles R; Buonanno, Manuela; Brenner, David J

2013-11-01

357

A technique for measuring gamma heating in a low fluence mixed radiation field  

SciTech Connect

Gamma heating measurements have been made in a low-Z lattice irradiated with 14-MeV neutrons and (n,n{prime}) gammas produced by a Texas Nuclear Model 9400 neutron generator. Heating measurements were made in the mid-line of the assembly using a proportional counter operating in the Continuously-varied Bias-voltage Acquisition mode. The neutron-induced signal was separated from the gamma-induced signal by exploiting the signal rise-time rate differences inherent to radiations of different Linear Energy Transfer, which are observable in a proportional counter. The operating limits of this signal separation technique were explored by observing the effect on the signal as the neutron spectrum is shifted from a D-T spectrum to a softer though still fast neutron spectrum as the counter is placed further into the irradiation lattice. The experiment was modelled using the one-dimensional radiation transport code ANISN/PC. The cross-section set used for these calculations was derived from the ENDF/B-V library using the code MC{sup 2}-2 for the case of D-T neutrons slowing down in a low-Z lattice. The calculated neutron and gamma spectra in the slab and the relevant mass-stopping powers were used to construct weighting factors which relate the energy deposition in the counter fill-gas to that in the counter wall and in the surrounding material. The total energy deposition at various positions in the lattice is estimated by applying these weighting factors to the measured gamma energy deposition in the counter at those locations. The overall utility of this measurement technique for fusion blanket neutronics is discussed. 8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Chiu, H.K. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Bennett, E.F.; Micklich, B.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

1991-01-01

358

Effect of SPE-like Proton or Photon Radiation on the Kinetics of Mouse Peripheral Blood Cells and Radiation Biological Effectiveness Determinations  

PubMed Central

Abstract Exploration missions outside low-Earth orbit are being planned; therefore, it is critical to understand the risk astronauts would be exposed to in the space environment, especially during extravehicular activities (EVAs). Reductions in white blood cell (WBC) numbers can occur as a result of exposure to solar particle event (SPE) radiation. The aim of the present study was to determine the duration of the effects on blood cell numbers from exposure to a single whole-body dose of SPE-like proton radiation or photon radiation as well as to determine the radiation biological effectiveness (RBE) values at those times when radiation exposure causes blood cell numbers to experience the most critical effects when using mice as a model. Our results indicate that both types of radiation cause significant reductions in the numbers of all blood cell types at different times post-irradiation. The RBE values were not significantly different from 1.0. These results indicate that the risk estimations for astronauts from exposure of mice to SPE-like proton radiation are comparable to those previously made for doses of standard reference radiations, suggesting that countermeasures should be developed for the decreases in blood cell counts observed following the exposure of mice to SPE radiation. Key Words: Proton radiation—Gamma radiation—Blood cell counts—Solar particle event. Astrobiology 13, 570–577.

Romero-Weaver, A.L.; Wan, X.S.; Diffenderfer, E.S.; Lin, L.

2013-01-01

359

Squamous cell carcinoma antigen suppresses radiation-induced cell death  

PubMed Central

Previous study has demonstrated that squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) 1 attenuates apoptosis induced by TNF?, NK cell or anticancer drug. In this study, we have examined the effect of SCCA2, which is highly homologous to SCCA1, but has different target specificity, against radiation-induced apoptosis, together with that of SCCA1. We demonstrated that cell death induced by radiation treatment was remarkably suppressed not only in SCCA1 cDNA-transfected cells, but also in SCCA2 cDNA-transfected cells. In these transfectants, caspase 3 activity and the expression of activated caspase 9 after radiation treatment were suppressed. Furthermore, the expression level of phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) was suppressed compared to that of the control cells. The expression level of upstream stimulator of p38 MAPK, phosphorylated MKK3/MKK6, was also suppressed in the radiation-treated cells. Thus, both SCCA1 and SCCA2 may contribute to survival of the squamous cells from radiation-induced apoptosis by regulating p38 MAPK pathway. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com

Murakami, A; Suminami, Y; Hirakawa, H; Nawata, S; Numa, F; Kato, H

2001-01-01

360

Satellite Cells Say NO to Radiation  

PubMed Central

Skeletal muscles are commonly exposed to radiation for diagnostic procedures and the treatment of cancers and heterotopic bone formation. Few studies have considered the impact of clinical doses of radiation on the ability of satellite cells (myogenic stem cells) to proliferate, differentiate and contribute to recovering/maintaining muscle mass. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether the proliferation of irradiated satellite cells could be rescued by manipulating NO levels via pharmacological approaches and mechanical stretch (which is known to increase NO levels). We used both SNP (NO donor) and PTIO (NO scavenger) to manipulate NO levels in satellite cells. We observed that SNP was highly effective in rescuing the proliferation of irradiated satellite cells, especially at doses less than 5 Gy. The potential importance of NO was further illustrated by the effects of PTIO, which completely inhibited the rescue effect of SNP. Mechanical cyclic stretch was found to produce significant increases in NO levels of irradiated satellite cells, and this was associated with a robust increase in satellite cell proliferation. The effects of both radiation and NO on two key myogenic regulatory factors (MyoD and myogenin) were also explored. Irradiation of satellite cells produced a significant increase in both MyoD and myogenin, effects that were mitigated by manipulating NO levels via SNP. Given the central role of myogenic regulatory factors in the proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells, the findings of the current study underscore the need to more fully understand the relationship between radiation, NO and the functionality of satellite cells.

Cho-Lim, Jennie J.; Caiozzo, Vincent J.; Tseng, Bertrand P.; Giedzinski, Erich; Baker, Mike J.; Limoli, Charles L.

2014-01-01

361

Biological radiation dose from secondary particles in a Milky Way gamma-ray burst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are a class of highly energetic explosions emitting radiation in a very short timescale of a few seconds and with a very narrow opening angle. Although, all GRBs observed so far are extragalactic in origin, there is a high probability of a GRB of galactic origin beaming towards the Earth in the past ~0.5 Gyr. We define the level of catastrophic damage to the biosphere as approximation 100 kJ m-2, based on Thomas et al. (2005a, b). Using results in Melott & Thomas (2011), we estimate the probability of the Earth receiving this fluence from a GRB of any type, as 87% during the last 500 Myr. Such an intense burst of gamma rays would ionize the atmosphere and deplete the ozone (O3) layer. With depleted O3, there will be an increased flux of Solar UVB on the Earth's surface with potentially harmful biological effects. In addition to the atmospheric damage, secondary particles produced by gamma ray-induced showers will reach the surface. Among all secondary particles, muons dominate the ground-level secondary particle flux (99% of the total number of particles) and are potentially of biological significance. Using the Monte Carlo simulation code CORSIKA, we modelled the air showers produced by gamma-ray primaries up to 100 GeV. We found that the number of muons produced by the electromagnetic component of hypothetical galactic GRBs significantly increases the total muon flux. However, since the muon production efficiency is extremely low for photon energies below 100 GeV, and because GRBs radiate strongly for only a very short time, we find that the biological radiation dose from secondary muons is negligible. The main mechanism of biological damage from GRBs is through Solar UVB irradiation from the loss of O3 in the upper atmosphere.

Atri, Dimitra; Melott, Adrian L.; Karam, Andrew

2014-07-01

362

Disinfection of domestic effluents by gamma radiation: effects on the inactivation of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs.  

PubMed

This work investigated the inactivation of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in domestic effluents by gamma radiation from a (60)Co source. Domestic wastewater was treated in a compact demo-scale system consisting of a UASB reactor and a trickling filter; treatment was carried out at the Center for Research and Training on Sanitation (CePTS), Federal University of Minas Gerais, in Belo Horizonte-MG, Brazil. One-liter of treated wastewater samples was artificially contaminated with an average of 1000 non-embryonated Ascaris lumbricoides eggs from human feces; samples were then irradiated in a multiple-purpose irradiator at different doses (0.5-5 kGy). Eggs were recovered from the wastewater and the viability of these irradiated eggs was evaluated; the description of the egg developmental phases with each dose of gamma radiation was recorded. Radiation doses of 3.5 kGy effectively disinfected effluents with lower concentrations of A. lumbricoides eggs; higher radiation doses of 5 kGy were necessary to disinfect effluents with higher eggs concentrations. PMID:21911240

de Souza, Gloria S M B; Rodrigues, Ludmila A; de Oliveira, Warllem J; Chernicharo, Carlos A L; Guimarães, Marcos P; Massara, Cristiano L; Grossi, Pablo A

2011-11-01

363

Size effects on gamma radiation response of magnetic properties of barium hexaferrite powders  

SciTech Connect

Little is currently known about the effects of gamma-ray irradiation on oxide magnet materials. In particular, the effect of particle size on radiation susceptibility was investigated. Two commercial powders of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} were thoroughly characterized, then exposed to 1 MGy of gamma radiation from a {sup 60}Co source. AC susceptibility and DC magnetometry and Moessbauer spectroscopy were performed after irradiation and compared to pre-irradiated measurements. DC magnetization and AC susceptibility decreased for both samples with the relative change of DC magnetization being larger for the micrometer-sized particles and the relative change of the AC susceptibility being larger for the nanometer-sized particles. Moessbauer spectroscopy indicated a decrease in both the hyperfine fields and in their distribution for each Fe site, particularly in the larger particle sample. Decreases in susceptibility are believed to be due to radiation-induced amorphization at the particle surfaces as well as amorphization and nucleation of new crystallites at internal crystallite boundaries, resulting in overall reduction in the particle magnetic moment. This radiation damage mechanism is different than that seen in previous studies of neutron and heavy ion irradiation of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}.

McCloy, John; Kukkadapu, Ravi; Crum, Jarrod; Johnson, Brad; Droubay, Tim [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

2011-12-01

364

Modulation of macrophage function by gamma-irradiation. Acquisition of the primed cell intermediate stage of the macrophage tumoricidal activation pathway  

SciTech Connect

Macrophage activation for tumor cell killing is a multistep pathway in which responsive macrophages interact sequentially with priming and triggering stimuli in the acquisition of full tumoricidal activity. Although this synergistic response of normal macrophages to sequential incubation with activation signals has been well established, characterization of the intermediate stages in this pathway has been difficult, due in large measure to the instability of the intermediate cell phenotypes. We have developed a model system for examination of macrophage-mediated tumor cell lysis, with the use of the murine macrophage tumor cell line RAW 264.7. These cells, like normal macrophages, exhibit a strict requirement for interaction with both interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma, the priming signal) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, the triggering signal) in the development of tumor cytolytic activity. In this system, the priming effects of IFN-gamma decay rapidly after withdrawal of this mediator and the cells become unresponsive to LPS triggering. We have recently observed that gamma-irradiation of the RAW 264.7 cells also results in development of a primed activation state for tumor cell killing. The effects of gamma-radiation on the RAW 264.7 cell line are strikingly similar to those resulting from incubation with IFN-gamma, with the exception that the irradiation-induced primed cell intermediate is stable and responsive to LPS triggering for at least 24 hr. Treatment with gamma-radiation also results in increased cell surface expression of major histocompatibility complex-encoded class I antigens; however, class II antigen expression is not induced.

Lambert, L.E.; Paulnock, D.M.

1987-10-15

365

Deinococcus swuensis sp. nov., a gamma-radiation-resistant bacterium isolated from soil.  

PubMed

Strain DY59(T), a Gram-positive non-motile bacterium, was isolated from soil in South Korea, and was characterized to determine its taxonomic position. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain DY59(T) revealed that the strain DY59(T) belonged to the family Deinococcaceae in the class Deinococci. The highest degree of sequence similarities of strain DY59(T) were found with Deinococcus radiopugnans KACC 11999(T) (99.0%), Deinococcus marmoris KACC 12218(T) (97.9%), Deinococcus saxicola KACC 12240(T) (97.0%), Deinococcus aerolatus KACC 12745(T) (96.2%), and Deinococcus frigens KACC 12220(T) (96.1%). Chemotaxonomic data revealed that the predominant fatty acids were iso-C15:0 (19.0%), C16:1 ?7c (17.7%), C15:1 ?6c (12.6%), iso-C17:0 (10.3%), and iso-C17:1 ?9c (10.3%). A complex polar lipid profile consisted of a major unknown phosphoglycolipid. The predominant respiratory quinone is MK-8. The cell wall peptidoglycan contained D-alanine, L-glutamic acid, glycine, and L-ornithine (di-amino acid). The novel strain showed resistance to gamma radiation, with a D10 value (i.e. the dose required to reduce the bacterial population by 10-fold) in excess of 5 kGy. Based on the phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic, and phenotypic data, strain DY59(T) (=KCTC 33033(T) =JCM 18581(T)) should be classified as a type strain of a novel species, for which the name Deinococcus swuensis sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:23812810

Lee, Jae-Jin; Lee, Hyun Ji; Jang, Gi Seon; Yu, Ja Myoung; Cha, Ji Yoon; Kim, Su Jeong; Lee, Eun Bit; Kim, Myung Kyum

2013-06-01

366

Obligatory role for phospholipase C-gamma(1) in villin-induced epithelial cell migration.  

PubMed

While there is circumstantial evidence to suggest a requirement for phospholipase C-gamma(1) (PLC-gamma(1)) in actin reorganization and cell migration, few studies have examined the direct mechanisms that link regulators of the actin cytoskeleton with this crucial signaling molecule. This study was aimed to examine the role that villin, an epithelial cell-specific actin-binding protein, and its ligand PLC-gamma(1) play in migration in intestinal and renal epithelial cell lines that endogenously or ectopically express human villin. Basal as well as epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated cell migration was accompanied by tyrosine phosphorylation of villin and its association with PLC-gamma(1). Inhibition of villin phosphorylation prevented villin-PLC-gamma(1) complex formation as well as villin-induced cell migration. The absolute requirement for PLC-gamma(1) in villin-induced cell migration was demonstrated by measuring cell motility in PLC-gamma(1)(-/-) cells and by downregulation of endogenous PLC-gamma(1). EGF-stimulated direct interaction of villin with the Src homology domain 2 domain of PLC-gamma(1) at the plasma membrane was demonstrated in living cells by using fluorescence resonance energy transfer. These results demonstrate that villin provides an important link between the activation of phosphoinositide signal transduction pathway and epithelial cell migration. PMID:17229814

Wang, Yaohong; Tomar, Alok; George, Sudeep P; Khurana, Seema

2007-05-01

367

EPR investigation of the gamma radiation response of different types of glasses.  

PubMed

Several types of laboratory glasses such as: "Jena", "Rasotherm", "Thüring" as well as window and windscreen glasses were studied by the method of EPR spectroscopy as possible emergency radiation dosimeters for gamma-ray irradiation. The most appropriate values of modulation amplitude and microwave power were found to obtain best sensitivity for the measured signals. Dose measurements have shown a linear dependence between the EPR signal intensity of radiation created defects in glasses and applied dose in the dose range 50-500 Gy. "Thüring" glass was found to be the most sensitive sample to radiation. The magnitude of window glass absorbed dose was evaluated as the difference between the intensity of its EPR signal recorded after irradiation and the background signal, obtained after thermal relaxation of the former. PMID:16495124

Gancheva, Veselka; Yordanov, Nicola D; Karakirova, Yordanka

2006-03-13

368

Lethal acute gamma radiation accident at Kjeller, Norway. Report of a case.  

PubMed

On September 2, 1982, a 64-year-old man accidently received a heavy dose of gamma radiation in a plant for sterilization by radiation. He developed an acute radiation syndrome. The leukocyte count rapidly diminished to low values, and extensive chromosome injuries could be demonstrated in cultured lymphocytes. He was hospitalized in an isolated room, and received large doses of antibiotics, and transfusions of leukocytes, platelets and blood. He died anuric on the 13th day. From spectroscopic analyses of electron-spin resonance in irradiated material the mean dose in the whole body was estimated to be 22.5 +/- 2 Gy. The course of the illness and the findings at autopsy are briefly described. PMID:2984904

Stavem, P; Brøgger, A; Devik, F; Flatby, J; van der Hagen, C B; Henriksen, T; Hoel, P S; Høst, H; Kett, K; Petersen, B

1985-01-01

369

Gravitational Radiations from the Precession Central Engine in Gamma-Ray Bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ultra-relativistic precessing jet in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) may be responsible for the complex structure in GRBs' light curves. In this work, we study the gravitational radiations of jet precession induced by neutrino-dominated accretion disks around black holes. In our model, the jet and the inner part of the disk may precess along with the black hole, which is driven by the outer part of the disk. Gravitational radiations are therefore expected to be significant from this precession system. Based our numerical results, we find that it is possible for DECIGO and BBO to detect such gravitational radiations regardless of GRBs' black hole masses, particularly for GRBs in the Local Group.

Sun, Mou-Yuan; Liu, Tong; Gu, Wei-Min; Lu, Ju-Fu

370

[gamma]-radiation-induced changes in the chemical and physical structure of poly(ethylene terephthalate)  

SciTech Connect

Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film was irradiated with [gamma]-rays in air at doses from 0 to 620 Mrad, and at the rate of 0l8 to 1.0 Mrad/hr. Radiation-induced physical structure changes were studied by DMA and DSC measurements. Tensile properties were measured to find interrelationships with chemical and physical structure changes. Below 100 Mrad, PET shows little change in NMR and IR spectra. Fluorescence emission spectra, however, show the presence and increase of monohydroxy-substituted phenylene groups. This hydroxylation appears to stabilize the polymer. The phenylene group in PET also contributes to radiation-resistance. The amorphous-crystalline interfaces impede the penetration of oxygen and slow the oxidative chain scission. Between 100 and 215 Mrad, UV studies reveal that the rates of reaction begin to change rapidly. Chain scission appears to take place first in the interspherulitic amorphous regions and then in the intraspherulitic (interlamella) regions. [gamma]-Radiation-induced oxidative degradation shows aspects of both photolysis and of thermooxidative degradation (proton and carbon-13 NMR, and IR studies). It was concluded that the crystalline phase breaks down in to smaller crystallites, and these smaller crystallites grow in size by acting as nucleating sites. Tensile measurements show that throughout the range of irradiation studied the tensile strength at break and the percent elongation decrease. The tensile strength decreases uniformly and the percent elongation exhibits a more rapid decrease above 100 Mrad. The results of this study lead to the conclusion that [gamma]-radiation-induced oxidative degradation of PET involves products that are seen in both photolysis and thermooxidation.

Jin, Ho-Seon.

1992-01-01

371

In situ determination of radon concentration and total gamma radiation in Kastel Gomilica, Croatia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To determine current radiation background of the environment at the "Giricic" location in Kastel Gomilica, Croatia, in situ measurement of radon concentration ( 222Rn and 220Rn) in an open atmosphere on a ground level and at the height of 1.5 m has been made as well as total gamma radiation at the height of 1 m in an energy range of 15 keV to 2 MeV. The researched location was divided in three specific parts: (i) regulated area with the bottom ash and flying ash in the basis ("old" depot), (ii) unregulated area with waste materials, including bottom ash and flying ash, in the basis ("new" depot), (iii) uncontaminated area with no waste materials deposited on. Average radon concentration on a ground level was 213 Bq/m 3 for the "old" depot, 214 Bq/m 3 for the "new" depot and 59 Bq/m 3 for the uncontaminated area and at the height of 1.5 m 20 Bq/m 3 for the "old" depot, 34 Bq/m 3 for the "new" depot and 26 Bq/m 3 for the uncontaminated area. Average total gamma radiation values in selected energy range were 109.92 cps (counts per second) for the "old" depot, 357.76 cps for the "new" depot and 65.97 cps for the uncontaminated area. For selected radionuclides ( 214Pb, 137Cs, 228Ac, 234mPa, 40K and 214Bi) average gamma radiation values at characteristic energies have been determined as well.

Lovrencic, Ivanka; Barisic, Delko; Orescanin, Visnja; Lulic, Stipe

2007-10-01

372

Kinetics of the radiation-induced radicals in gamma irradiated solid cefazolin sodium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Room and high temperature kinetic and spectroscopic features of the radical species produced in gamma irradiated cefazolin sodium (here after CS) were investigated in detail using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy to determine the feasibility of its sterilization by radiation and to explore the dosimetric properties of this semi-synthetic representative of cephalosporins. Irradiated CS exhibits an unresolved ESR doublet as other cephalosporins reported up to date. Signal intensity data derived from microwave saturation, dose-response, decays at room and at high temperature studies were analysed assuming a model of two radical species giving rise to doublet and singlet ESR signals. Spectroscopic parameters of these species were determined through spectrum simulation calculations. Decay parameters calculated from annealing studies at seven different temperatures were used to calculate the activation energies of the contributing species. Radiosensitivity of CS to gamma rays was found to be relatively low in the dose range of 0-25 kGy. This conclusion was considered as an indication of the feasibility of radiosterilization of CS by gamma radiation. Five different functions were tried to explore dose-response data of CS in the dose range of 0-25 kGy and it was concluded that a function comprising a linear and a quadratic terms of applied dose describes best experimental results.

Yurus, S.; Korkmaz, M.

2005-01-01

373

Radiation resistance of a gamma-ray irradiated nonlinear optic chromophore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiation resistance of organic electro-optic and optoelectronic materials for space applications is receiving increased attention. An earlier investigation reported that guest-host poled polymer EO modulator devices composed of a phenyltetraene bridge-type chromophore in amorphous polycarbonate (CLD/APC) did not exhibit a decrease in EO response (i.e., an increase in modulation-switching voltage- V?) following irradiation by low dose [10-160 krad(Si)] 60Co gamma-rays. To provide further evidences to the observed radiation stability, the post-irradiation responses of 60Co gamma-rays on CLD1/APC thin films are examined by various chemical and spectroscopic methods including: a solubility test, thin-layer chromatography, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption, and infra-red absorption. The results indicate that CLD1 and APC did not decompose under gamma-ray irradiation at dose levels ranging from 66-274 krad(Si) and from 61-154 krad(Si), respectively which support the previously reported data.

Zhang, Cheng; Taylor, Edward W.

2009-11-01

374

Studies on production of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) by gamma radiation processing of microbial levan.  

PubMed

Microbial levan, a natural polymer of fructose, was produced and purified by alcohol precipitation from culture supernatants of Bacillus megaterium type 1 grown in an optimized liquid sucrose medium. GPC analysis showed that the yield of the major fraction of levan having molecular weight ~5000 D increased with increase in sucrose concentration in the broth. Levan subjected to (60)Co-gamma radiation as well as acid hydrolysis was investigated by rheometry, UV-visible spectrophotometry and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) techniques. Unlike most of the polysaccharides, levan powder exhibited good radiation degradation stability up to 150 kGy. Gamma irradiation of 10% levan aqueous solution at 250 kGy yielded 63.0% fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) with an average molecular weight of 1250 D. Acid hydrolysis of levan using 0.5 N HCl for 60 min treatment time gave rise to the desired FOS with lower yield (23.1%) as compared to that obtained in gamma radiolysis process. PMID:23688493

Jalan, N; Varshney, Lalit; Misra, Nilanjal; Paul, Jhimli; Mitra, D; Rairakhwada, D D; Bhathena, Z; Kumar, Virendra

2013-07-01

375

Effect of gamma radiation on growth and survival of common seed-borne fungi in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work describes radiation-induced effects of major seeds like Oryza sativa Cv-2233, Oryza sativa Cv-Shankar, Cicer arietinum Cv-local and seed-borne fungi like Alternaria sp., Aspergillus sp., Trichoderma sp. and Curvularia sp. 60Co gamma source at 25 °C emitting gamma ray at 1173 and 1332 keV energy was used for irradiation. Dose of gamma irradiation up to 3 kGy (0.12 kGy/h) was applied for exposing the seed and fungal spores. Significant depletion of the fungal population was noted with irradiation at 1-2 kGy, whereas germinating potential of the treated grain did not alter significantly. However, significant differential radiation response in delayed seed germination, colony formation of the fungal spores and their depletion of growth were noticed in a dose-dependent manner. The depletion of the fungal viability (germination) was noted within the irradiation dose range of 1-2 kGy for Alternaria sp. and Aspergillus sp., while 0.5-1 kGy for Trichoderma sp. and Curvularia sp. However, complete inhibition of all the selected fungi was observed above 2.5 kGy.

Maity, J. P.; Chakraborty, A.; Chanda, S.; Santra, S. C.

2008-07-01

376

Isolation of cell cycle-dependent gamma ray-sensitive Chinese hamster ovary cell  

SciTech Connect

A technique for the isolation of gamma ray-sensitive Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutants is described, which uses nylon cloth replica plating and photography with dark-field illumination to directly monitor colonies for growth after gamma irradiation. Two gamma ray-sensitive mutants were isolated using this method. One of these cells (XR-1) had a two-slope survival curve: an initial steep slope and then a flattening of the curve at about 10% survival. Subsequently, it was found that this cell is sensitive to gamma irradiation in G1, early S, and late G2 phases of the cell cycle, whereas in the resistant phase (late S phase) its survival approaches that of the parental cells. The D37 in the sensitive G1 period is approximately 30 rads, compared with 300 rads of the parental cell. This mutant cell is also sensitive to killing by the DNA breaking agent, bleomycin, but is relatively insensitive to UV light and ethyl methane sulfonate, suggesting that the defect is specific for agents that produce DNA strand breakage.

Stamato, T.D.; Weinstein, R.; Giaccia, A.; Mackenzie, L.

1983-03-01

377

Inhibition of radiation-enhanced expression of integrin and metastatic potential in B16 melanoma cells by a lipoxygenase inhibitor  

SciTech Connect

Low-dose {gamma} radiation stimulates expression of phenotypic characteristics in B16 melanoma cells which regulate metastatic potential. A transient increase in the expression of an integrin receptor ({alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3}) was observed after exposure of B16 melanoma cells to 0.25 to 2.0 Gy of {gamma} radiation. This increased receptor expression resulted in enhanced adhesion of tumor cells to fibronectin in vitro and increased experimentally induced metastasis in vivo. In this report, we determined a role for the 12-lipoxygenase metabolite, 12-HETE, in radiation-enhanced metastasis. A significant increase in biosynthesis of 12-HETE in B16 melanoma cells was detected <5 min after exposure to 0.5 Gy {gamma} radiation. We then determined that radiation-enhanced expression of {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} integrin and adhesion of B16 melanoma cells to fibronectin in vitro and metastasis in vivo were reduced by treatment of the cells with the lipoxygenase inhibitor NDGA prior to irradiation. These findings suggest that low-dose radiation, at levels comparable to those used in fractionated or hyperfractionated radiotherapy, increases the metastatic potential of surviving tumor cells via a rapid and transient alteration in lipoxygenase metabolism of arachidonic acid and surface expression of an integrin receptor. 30 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Onoda, J.M.; Honn, K.V. [Wayne State Univ. School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States)]|[Gershenson Radiation Oncology Center, Detroit, MI (United States); Kantak, S.S.; Piechocki, M.P.; Awad, W.; Chea, R.; Liu, B. [Wayne State Univ. School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States)

1994-12-01

378

Undermethylation of interferon-gamma gene in human T cell lines and normal T lymphocytes.  

PubMed

The relative levels of DNA methylation at CCGG sequences within and around the interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) gene in normal human tissues and cell lines were examined by Southern blot analysis using isoschizomeric restriction enzymes, HpaII and MspI. On the test of normal tissues, the IFN-gamma gene was undermethylated only in a small population of T lymphocyte, whereas the gene was fully methylated in T cell-depleted lymphocytes and uterus cells. In TCL-Fuj cell line which is a T cell line producing a high level of IFN-gamma spontaneously, the IFN-gamma gene was undermethylated. Moreover, the extent of DNA methylation was inversely correlated to the level of expression of the IFN-gamma gene in several T cell lines including sublines derived from TCL-Fuj cells. However, partial or complete unmethylation at the CCGG sites of IFN-gamma gene was observed in a promyelocytic leukemia cell line and two epithelial cell lines that fail to produce IFN-gamma irrespective of induction. These results suggest that undermethylation of IFN-gamma gene is necessary but not sufficient for its efficient expression. PMID:3086842

Fukunaga, R; Matsuyama, M; Okamura, H; Nagata, K; Nagata, S; Sokawa, Y

1986-06-11

379

Antioxidative and radioprotective potential of rutin and quercetin in Swiss albino mice exposed to gamma radiation  

PubMed Central

The radioprotective potential of bioflavonoid, rutin (RUT) and quercetin (QRT) was investigated in Swiss albino mice exposed to gamma radiation. The radioprotective potential of RUT and QRT was assessed in pre-treatment group of mice followed on radiation-induced changes in glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were also analyzed. Elevation in the GSH, GST, SOD, CAT, and decreased LPO levels were observed in RUT and QRT pretreated group when compared to the irradiated animals. Furthermore, it was observed that RUT and QRT treatment was found to inhibit various free radicals generated in vitro, viz., 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH), O2, 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS)+, and OH in a concentration-dependent manner. This study clearly demonstrates the free radical scavenging action of RUT and QRT, indicating that it may have its potential as a radioprotective agent. Furthermore, the presence of a phenolic group in RUT and QRT is known to contribute to scavenging the radiation-induced free radicals and inhibition of oxidative stress. Present findings demonstrate the potential of RUT and QRT in mitigating radiation-induced oxidative stress, which may be attributed to the inhibition of radiation-induced decline in the endogenous antioxidant levels and scavenging of radiation-induced free radicals.

Patil, Shrikant L.; Mallaiah, Somashekarappa Hiriyur; Patil, Rajashekar K.

2013-01-01

380

A shuttle vector system for studying ionizing radiation-induced mutagenesis in mammalian cells.  

PubMed

A shuttle vector system was developed to quantitate and analyze ionizing radiation-induced mutation in mammalian host cells, COS-1 and CV-1. The shuttle vector pSV2-lacY, which was constructed to detect both point mutations and deletions, was irradiated in vitro with 60Co gamma rays before introduction into unirradiated host cells. The plasmid was then isolated and reintroduced into HB101 (lacY-) bacterial host cells for identification of mutated lacY marker genes. Gamma-irradiation produced a decrease of the survival (recovery) and an increase of mutation of the shuttle vector. The mutated shuttle vector molecules were examined for structural changes by means of restriction endonuclease digestion and agarose gel electrophoresis. A dose dependent increase was observed in the percentages of gross alteration events of total mutations in mammalian host. This system will be useful for studies of ionizing radiation-induced mutagenesis. PMID:8360857

Muraiso, C; Mudgett, J S; Matsudaira, H; Strniste, G F

1993-06-01

381

Gamma histone 2AX (?-H2AX)as a predictive tool in radiation oncology.  

PubMed

Abstract Ionizing radiation cause DNA damage to cells, leading them to cell death via DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) formation. DSBs formation is followed immediately by histone H2AX phosphorylation (?-H2AX) and multitude repair factors accumulation. Here we present the methods and the bio-sampling for ?-H2AX detection, ?-H2AX formation in normal cells and animal tissues, in cancer cell lines/tissues and in clinical trials after radiation treatment, alone or in combination with other factors. The purpose of this review is to highlight the use of ?-H2AX, as a marker to assess DNA damage and repair. PMID:24611829

Pouliliou, Stamatia; Koukourakis, Michael I

2014-05-01

382

Radiation degradation of solar cell arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of incorporating a detailed solar cell radiation degradation model into a convenient computational scheme suitable for the solar electric propulsion system is outlined. The study shows that several existing codes may be applied in sequence to solve the problem.

Hill, C. W.

1975-01-01

383

Recombinant gamma interferon induces HLA-DR expression on squamous cell carcinoma, trichilemmoma, adenocarcinoma cell lines, and cultured human keratinocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of recombinant human gamma interferon on the induction of HLA-DR expression by two human squamous cell carcinoma, three trichilemmoma, one eccrine carcinoma, two adenocarcinoma cell lines, and cultured human keratinocytes in vitro. None of eight epithelial cell lines or keratinocytes expressed HLA-DR without gamma interferon treatment. In contrast, pure gamma interferon (500 IU\\/ml, 72-h treatment) induced

K. Kameyama; T. Tone; H. Eto; S. Takezaki; T. Kanzaki; S. Nishiyama

1987-01-01

384

Decontamination du poivre noir et du poivre rouge par irradiation gamma. (Decontamination of black pepper and red pepper by gamma radiation).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the present work, it has been studied the decontamination of two types of spices (black pepper and red pepper) by gamma radiation. The initial microbial population of spices not treated is about 10 (7) to 10 (8) per gram. The population decrease expone...

S. Oularbi B. Mansouri

1993-01-01

385

Radiative-neutron-capture gamma-ray analysis by a linear combination technique  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The linear combination technique, when applied to a gamma-ray spectrum, gives a single number indicative of the extent to which the spectral lines of a sought element are present in a complex spectrum. Spectra are taken of the sought element and of various other substances whose spectra interfere with that of the sought element. A weighting function is then computed for application to spectra of unknown materials. The technique was used to determine calcium by radiative-neutron-capture gamma-ray analysis in the presence of interfering elements, notably titanium, and the results were compared with those for two popular methods of peak area integration. Although linearity of response was similar for the methods, the linear combination technique was much better at rejecting interferences. For analyses involving mixtures of unknown composition the technique consequently offers improved sensitivity. ?? 1972.

Tanner, A. B.; Bhargava, R. C.; Senftle, F. E.; Brinkerhoff, J. M.

1972-01-01

386

Thermoluminescence behavior of KClXBr1-X: In mixed crystals exposed to gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-doped KClXBr1-X (X=1, 0.75, 0.5, 0.25 and 0) mixed crystal has been grown by the Czochralski method. The segregation coefficient of In was studied by the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The crystal structure has been determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The thermoluminescence (TL) characterization of KClXBr1-X mixed crystals, exposed to gamma radiation has been performed. The results show the introduction of the dopants ions induced changes in the TL glow curve structure. The TL results suggest that doped KClXBr1-X mixed crystal has good potential active dosimeter applications for gamma ray irradiation.

Rezaee Ebrahim, Kh.; Hosseini, S. A.; Faripour, H.; Faiez, M. R.; Abdi, M. R.; Soltani, N.; Aghay Khareiky, A.

2014-09-01

387

Activation of PPAR{gamma} is not involved in butyrate-induced epithelial cell differentiation  

SciTech Connect

Histone deacetylase-inhibitors affect growth and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells by inducing expression of several transcription factors, e.g. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) or vitamin D receptor (VDR). While activation of VDR by butyrate mainly seems to be responsible for cellular differentiation, the activation of PPAR{gamma} in intestinal cells remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the role of PPAR{gamma} in butyrate-induced cell growth inhibition and differentiation induction in Caco-2 cells. Treatment with PPAR{gamma} ligands ciglitazone and BADGE (bisphenol A diglycidyl) enhanced butyrate-induced cell growth inhibition in a dose- and time-dependent manner, whereas cell differentiation was unaffected after treatment with PPAR{gamma} ligands rosiglitazone and MCC-555. Experiments were further performed in dominant-negative PPAR{gamma} mutant cells leading to an increase in cell growth whereas butyrate-induced cell differentiation was again unaffected. The present study clearly demonstrated that PPAR{gamma} is involved in butyrate-induced inhibition of cell growth, but seems not to play an essential role in butyrate-induced cell differentiation.

Ulrich, S. [1st Department of Medicine-ZAFES, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Waechtershaeuser, A. [1st Department of Medicine-ZAFES, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Loitsch, S. [1st Department of Medicine-ZAFES, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Knethen, A. von [1st Department of Biochemistry-ZAFES, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Bruene, B. [1st Department of Biochemistry-ZAFES, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Stein, J. [1st Department of Medicine-ZAFES, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany)]. E-mail: j.stein@em.uni-frankfurt.de

2005-10-15

388

Induction of transpositions of MGE Dm412 by {gamma}-radiation in an isogenic line of Drosophila melanogaster  

SciTech Connect

In an isogenic line of Drosophila, transpositions of mobile genetic elements (MGE) Dm412 were induced by {gamma}-radiation at doses of 300, 800, and 1300 R. The rates of induced transpositions were (for each dose, respectively) 3.9 x 10{sup {minus}3}, 1.0 x 10{sup {minus}2}, and 1.87 x 10{sup {minus}2} events per occupied site per haploid genome of the isogenic line per generation. Thus, the transposition rate increased linearly with the radiation dose. The specific rate of {gamma}-radiation-induced transpositions was (1.3 {+-} 0.6) x 10{sup {minus}5} per occupied site per haploid genome of the isogenic line per Roentgen per generation. {gamma}-Radiation-induced hot transposition sites and haplotypes, very similar to those induced by heat shock, were found. It was suggested that the mechanism of induction by {gamma}-radiation involves the heat shock system. Thus, it is more similar to the mechanism of temperature induction than to the direct mutational effect of {gamma}-radiation. Estimates of induced transposition rates per genome for each dose were calculated as 1.1, 3.0, and 5.6 events, respectively, per genome per generation. This level probably corresponds to the subthreshold level of genomes near the {open_quotes}catastrophic border of transpositional losses.{close_quotes} 21 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Zabanov, S.A. [Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Vasil`eva, L.A.; Ratner, V.A. [Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)]|[Novosibirsk State Univ. (Russian Federation)

1995-06-01

389

Isolation and partial characterization of peripheral blood CD4(sup +) T cell clones expressing (gamma)(delta)T cell receptors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rare T cell clones bearing both CD4 and T cell receptors (TCR(gamma) and TCR(delta)) were obtained from human peripheral blood by cell sorting using anti-CD4 and anti-TCR(delta)1 antibodies. All the clones established were reactive with anti-TCR(gamma)(de...

S. Kyoizumi M. Akiyama Y. Hirai Y. Kusunoki

1990-01-01

390

Airborne gamma radiation measurements of soil moisture during FIFE: Activities and results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soil moisture measurements were obtained during the summer of 1987 and 1989 near Manhattan, Kansas, using the National Weather Service (NWS) airborne gamma radiation system. A network of 24 flight lines were established over the research area. Airborne surveys were flown daily during two intensive field campaigns. The data collected was sufficient to modify the NWS standard operational method for estimating soil moisture for the Field Experiment (FIFE) flight lines. The average root mean square error of the soil moisture estimates for shorter FIFE flight lines was found to be 2.5 percent, compared with a reported value of 3.9 percent for NWS flight lines. Techniques were developed to compute soil moisture estimates for portions of the flight lines. Results of comparisons of the airborne gamma radiation soil moisture estimates with those obtained using the NASA Pushbroom Microwave Radiation (PBMR) system and hydrological model are presented. The airborne soil moisture measurements, and real averages computed using all remotely sensed and ground data, have been in support of the research of the many FIFE investigators whose overall goal was the upscale integration of models and the application of satellite remote sensing.

Peck, Eugene L.

1992-01-01

391

Size Effects on Gamma Radiation Response of Magnetic Properties of Barium Hexaferrite Powders  

SciTech Connect

Little is currently known about the effects of gamma-ray irradiation on oxide magnet materials. In particular, the effect of particle size on radiation susceptibility was investigated. Two commercial powders of BaFe12O19 were thoroughly characterized, then exposed to 1 MGy of gamma radiation from a 60Co source. AC susceptibility and DC magnetometry and Moessbauer spectroscopy were performed after irradiation and compared to pre-irradiated measurements. DC magnetization and AC susceptibility decreased for both samples with the relative change of DC magnetization being larger for the micrometer-sized particles and the relative change of the AC susceptibility being larger for the nanometer-sized particles. Moessbauer spectroscopy indicated a decrease in both the hyperfine fieldsand in the distribution of hyperfine fields for each Fe site, particularly in the larger particle sample. Decreases in susceptibility are believed to be due to recrystallization of the particles and redistribution of an amorphous component, in the bulk or on the surface, and consequent reduction in the particle magnetic moment. This radiation damage mechanism is different than that seen in previous studies of neutron and heavy ion irradiation of BaFe12O19.

McCloy, John S.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Johnson, Bradley R.; Droubay, Timothy

2011-12-08

392

Gallium Arsenide solar cell radiation damage experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells for space applications from three different manufactures were irradiated with 10 MeV protons or 1 MeV electrons. The electrical performance of the cells was measured at several fluence levels and compared. Silicon cells were included for reference and comparison. All the GaAs cell types performed similarly throughout the testing and showed a 36 to 56 percent power areal density advantage over the silicon cells. Thinner (8-mil versus 12-mil) GaAs cells provide a significant weight reduction. The use of germanium (Ge) substrates to improve mechanical integrity can be implemented with little impact on end of life performance in a radiation environment.

Maurer, R. H.; Kinnison, J. D.; Herbert, G. A.; Meulenberg, A.

1991-01-01

393

Interaction of ultraviolet and X-ray radiation with gamma rays produced by a jet in active galactic nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observations by the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory give evidence for the existence of a type of blazar with strong gamma-ray emission. Data obtained by EGRET for the quasar 3C 279 show a spectrum between 100 MeV and 10 GeV. Photons of such energies should interact with the X-rays and produce positron/electron pairs. If the optical depth against pair production for the gamma rays is large (tau(gamma gamma) greater than 1), the gamma-ray spectrum should be affected. The importance of this process has been pointed out by, e.g., Maraschi, Ghisellini, & Celotti (1992). Several works (e.g., Dermer 1993; Zbyszewska 1993; Sikora, Begelman, & Rees 1993) concerning gamma-ray radiation from quasar 3C 279 have proposed a model in which the gamma rays are produced via interaction between a moving cloud of relativistic electrons and external soft photons. The presence of gamma rays in active galactic nuclei spectra gives constraints on the localization and the luminosity of the medium which produces ultraviolet/X-ray photons. We investigate what conditions should be fulfilled in the above model to avoid the absorption of the gamma rays due to pair production.

Zbyszewska, Magda

1994-06-01

394

Interaction of ultraviolet and X-ray radiation with gamma rays produced by a jet in active galactic nuclei  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent observations by the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory give evidence for the existence of a type of blazar with strong gamma-ray emission. Data obtained by EGRET for the quasar 3C 279 show a spectrum between 100 MeV and 10 GeV. Photons of such energies should interact with the X-rays and produce positron/electron pairs. If the optical depth against pair production for the gamma rays is large (tau(gamma gamma) greater than 1), the gamma-ray spectrum should be affected. The importance of this process has been pointed out by, e.g., Maraschi, Ghisellini, & Celotti (1992). Several works (e.g., Dermer 1993; Zbyszewska 1993; Sikora, Begelman, & Rees 1993) concerning gamma-ray radiation from quasar 3C 279 have proposed a model in which the gamma rays are produced via interaction between a moving cloud of relativistic electrons and external soft photons. The presence of gamma rays in active galactic nuclei spectra gives constraints on the localization and the luminosity of the medium which produces ultraviolet/X-ray photons. We investigate what conditions should be fulfilled in the above model to avoid the absorption of the gamma rays due to pair production.

Zbyszewska, Magda

1994-01-01

395

Radiation induced genomic instability in bystander cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is considerable evidence that exposure to ionizing radiation may induce a heritable genomic instability that leads to a persisting increased frequency of genetic and functional changes in the non-irradiated progeny of a wide variety of irradiated cells Genomic instability is measured as delayed expressions in chromosomal alterations micronucleus formation gene mutations and decreased plating efficiency During the last decade numerous studies have shown that radiation could induce bystander effect in non-irradiated neighboring cells similar endpoints have also been used in genomic instability studies Both genomic instability and the bystander effect are phenomena that result in a paradigm shift in our understanding of radiation biology In the past it seemed reasonable to assume that the production of single- and double-strand DNA breaks are due to direct energy deposition of energy by a charged particle to the nucleus It turns out that biology is not quite that simple Using the Columbia University charged particle microbeam and the highly sensitive human hamster hybrid AL cell mutagenic assay we irradiated 10 of the cells with a lethal dose of 30 alpha particles through the nucleus After overnight incubation the remaining viable bystander cells were replated in dishes for colony formation Clonal isolates were expanded and cultured for 6 consecutive weeks to assess plating efficiency and mutation frequency Preliminary results indicated that there was no significant decrease in plating efficiency among the bystander colonies when compared with

Zhou, H.; Gu, S.; Randers-Pehrson, G.; Hei, T.

396

Mechanisms of linear energy transfer-dependent radiation resistance in myeloid leukemia cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionizing radiations (IRs) of high linear energy transfer (LET), such as alpha particles, produce fundamentally different forms of DNA damage in cells than conventional low LET radiation, such as gamma rays. Alpha particle therapies have recently emerged as important potential treatments of cancer, particularly for relatively easily-accessible malignancies of the hematopoietic system. Therefore, we created stable radioresistant myeloid leukemia HL60 cell clones derived after irradiation from either gamma rays (RG) or alpha particles (RA) in order to understand whether resistance to high LET (IR) was possible and the potential differences in radioresistance that could arise from radiations of different LET. Repeated irradiations yielded radioresistant HL60 clones and, regardless of derivation, displayed similar levels of resistance to IR of either type of radiation. The resistant phenotype in each type of radioresistant clone was driven by similar, multifactorial changes that included significant reductions in apoptosis, a decreased late G2/M checkpoint accumulation that was indicative of increased genomic instability, as well as more robust repair of specific types of DNA lesions that included DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The relative changes in resistance to alpha particles, however, were substantially lower than the increase in resistance to gamma rays. The data suggest that these processes were interdependent, as inhibition of homology directed repair in the resistant clones sensitized them to gamma IR to a larger extent than naive HL60 cells. Finally, we identified the downregulation of iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1) in gamma-resistant cells but not in alpha-resistant cells. Short-hairpin RNA-mediated reductions in expression of IRP1 in radiation-naive HL60 cells led to significant radioresistance to gamma rays, but not alpha particles. The IRP1-mediated radioresistance was associated with changes in iron-mediated oxidative stress that led to significant reductions in IR-induced apoptosis and faster DNA repair, and appeared to be specific to cytotoxic agents dependent on oxidative-type stress. The data suggest that many similarities exist between radioresistant cells derived from fundamentally different types of IR, but that there are also LET-specific changes in cellular adaptation to repeated IR exposure. The data also underscore the potent cytotoxicity of alpha particles and warrant their continued investigation as cancer therapies.

Haro, Kurtis John

397

Effect of solvents on radiation-induced ionic graft polymerization. [Gamma radiation  

SciTech Connect

The influence of various solvents on radiation-induced cationic (grafting of vinyl-n-butyl ether onto polyethylene) and anionic (grafting of 2-methyl-5-vinylpyridine onto polyethylene) graft polymerization was studied. This ionic grafting was performed in thoroughly dried systems at room temperature. It was established that electron-acceptor solvents promote cationic grafting but that electron-donor solvents promote the anionic. A clear correlation between the donor number of solvents and grafting value by the anionic mechanism was shown. There was no correlation between dielectric constants and grafting values. The reaction orders, according to monomer concentraton by 2-methyl-5-vinylpyridine grafting in various solvents, were equal to approximately 1.5 and 2 for the radical and anionic mechanisms, respectively. The effect of solvents on radiation-induced ionic graft polymerization is discussed. The results of this study indicate the correct choice of solvents for radiation-induced ionic grafting.

Kabanov, V.Ya.; Aliev, R.E.; Sidorova, L.P.

1980-03-01

398

Radiation tests of SEP solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar cells specially designed for Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) were tested with radiation fluences up to 10 to the 12th power protons having energies of 1.5, 1.0, and 0.5 MeV, and with fluences up to 10 to the 16th power electrons having 1.0 MeV energy. Spectrolab cells having a back-surface field were also irradiated with the same particles and fluences. Cell performances are described by curves in which normalized and absolute values of maximum power, maximum-power voltage, short-circuit current, and open-circuit voltage are plotted as a function of fluence.

Oman, H.

1977-01-01

399

Gamma-H2AX as a biomarker of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation in targeted and bystander human artificial skin models and peripheral blood lymphocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionizing radiation (IR) exposure is inevitable. In addition to exposure from cosmic rays, the sun and radioactive substances, modern society has created new sources of radiation exposure such as space and high altitude journeys, X-ray diagnostics, radiological treatments and the increasing threat of radiobiological terrorism. For these reasons, a reliable, reproducible and sensitive assessment of dose and time exposure to IR is essential. We developed a minimally invasive diagnostic test for IR exposure based on detection of a phosphorylated variant of histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX), which occurs specifically at sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The phosphorylation of thousands of H2AX molecules forms a gamma-H2AX focus in the chromatin flanking the DSB site that can be detected in situ. We analyzed gamma- H2AX focus formation in both directly irradiated cells as well as in un-irradiated "bystanders" in close contact with irradiated cells. In order to insure minimal invasiveness, we examined commercially available artificial skin models as a surrogate for human skin biopsies as well as peripheral blood lymphocytes. In human skin models, cells in a thin plane were microbeamirradiated and gamma-H2AX formation was measured both in irradiated and in distal bystander cells over time. In irradiated cells DSB formation reached a maximum at 15-30 minutes post- IR and then declined within several hours; all cells were affected. In marked contrast, the incidence of DSBs in bystander cells reached a maximum by 12-48 hours post-irradiation, gradually decreasing over the 7 day time course. At the maxima, 40-60% of bystander cells were affected. Similarly, we analyzed blood samples exposed to IR ex vivo at doses ranging from 0.02 to 3 Gy. The amount of DNA damage was linear in respect to radiation dose and independent of the age or sex of the blood donor. The method is highly reproducible and highly sensitive. In directly irradiated cells, the number of gamma-H2AX foci peaked 30 min after irradiation and then declined at a relatively steady pace as the cell repaired the DNA damage. Radiation effects were still detectable after 48 hrs for doses greater than 1 Gy and remained linear to initial dose. Activated bystander lymphocytes cultured with media from irradiated lymphocytes exhibited a two-fold increased damage response as seen by gamma- H2AX formation. The effect reached a maximum 3 hrs post-exposure and was retained for over 24 hrs. Thus, detection of gamma-H2AX formation to determine DNA damage in a minimally invasive skin test and a non-invasive blood test could be useful and promising tools to analyze direct and indirect effects of radiation exposure.

Redon, Christophe; Dickey, Jennifer; Bonner, William; Sedelnikova, Olga

400

Naturally activated V gamma 4 gamma delta T cells play a protective role in tumor immunity through expression of eomesodermin.  

PubMed

We previously demonstrated that gammadelta T cells played an important role in tumor immune surveillance by providing an early source of IFN-gamma. The precise role of different subsets of gammadelta T cells in the antitumor immune response, however, is unknown. Vgamma1 and Vgamma4 gammadelta T cells are the principal subsets of peripheral lymphoid gammadelta T cells and they might play distinct roles in tumor immunity. In support of this, we observed that reconstitution of TCRdelta(-/-) mice with Vgamma4, but not Vgamma1, gammadelta T cells restored the antitumor response. We also found that these effects were exerted by the activated (CD44(high)) portion of Vgamma4 gammadelta T cells. We further determined that IFN-gamma and perforin are critical elements in the Vgamma4-mediated antitumor immune response. Indeed, CD44(high) Vgamma4 gammadelta T cells produced significantly more IFN-gamma and perforin on activation, and showed greater cytolytic activity than did CD44(high) Vgamma1 gammadelta T cells, apparently due to the high level of eomesodermin (Eomes) in these activated Vgamma4 gammadelta T cells. Consistently, transfection of dominant-negative Eomes in Vgamma4 gammadelta T cells diminished the level of IFN-gamma secretion, indicating a critical role of Eomes in the effector function of these gammadelta T cells. Our results thus reveal distinct functions of Vgamma4 and Vgamma1 gammadelta T cells in antitumor immune response, and identify a protective role of activated Vgamma4 gammadelta T cells, with possible implications for tumor immune therapy. PMID:20525896

He, Weifeng; Hao, Jianlei; Dong, Siyuan; Gao, Yunfei; Tao, Jian; Chi, Hongbo; Flavell, Richard; O'Brien, Rebecca L; Born, Willi K; Craft, Joseph; Han, Jihong; Wang, Puyue; Zhao, Liqing; Wu, Jun; Yin, Zhinan

2010-07-01

401

Predominant expansion of V gamma 9/V delta 2 T cells in a tularemia patient.  

PubMed Central

We describe a 58-year-old man with tularemia and expanding gamma delta T cells in his peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) (32.7% of total PBL). In the present work, we analyzed the T-cell receptor V gamma/V delta repertoire of these cells by making use of the polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry and found that they were mostly CD4- CD8- CD3+ V gamma 9/V delta 2+. The sequence analysis of 16 cDNA clones encoding the V gamma 9-J region revealed that the V gamma 9-Jp combination was strikingly overrepresented but that the junctional (N) region was heterogeneous. This suggested that the gamma delta T cells in PBL from a patient with tularemia were polyclonally expanded. Images

Sumida, T; Maeda, T; Takahashi, H; Yoshida, S; Yonaha, F; Sakamoto, A; Tomioka, H; Koike, T; Yoshida, S

1992-01-01

402

Preparation and characterization of nanocrystalline powders of cuprous oxide by using [gamma]-radiation  

SciTech Connect

The [gamma]-radiation method has been firstly used to prepare nanocrystalline powders of cuprous oxide from cupric sulfate aqueous solution in the presence of CH[sub 3]COOH/CH[sub 3]COONa buffer pair. X-ray powder diffraction reveals that the product is single phase of cuprous oxide. Electron microscopy shows that the average particle size of cuprous oxide prepared is about 14 rim. Influences of experimental conditions on particle size of cuprous oxide and the mechanism of the formation of cuprous oxide are discussed.

Zhu Yingjie; Qian Yitai; Zhang Manwei; Chen Zuyao; Xu Dengfeng; Yang Li; Zhou Guien (Univ. of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China))

1994-04-01

403

Gamma radiation effects on the dynamic fatigue measurements of glass discs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Circular specimens of low iron soda lime silicate glass were blasted with grit after having a circular notch etched into their centers. After separation into two groups, one group was exposed to gamma radiation. The fracture strengths of all samples were then tested by the biaxial technique, i.e., specimens were balanced on three balls and loaded in the center by a piston. The irradiated samples had received a 140,000 Gy dose from a Co-60 source. An enhanced interaction between the ambient moisture and the grit-blasted central notch was observed in the irradiated samples, which displayed accelerated corrosion.

Ananaba, T. O. J.; Kinser, D. L.

1985-01-01

404

Cadmium telluride gamma-radiation detectors with a high energy resolution  

SciTech Connect

This paper considers the possibility of improving the energy resolution of cadmium telluride gamma-radiation detectors through the choice of the geometry and size of the sensitive region of the detector. The optimum ratio of the product of the mobility and lifetime for electrons to the same product for holes from the point of view of energy resolution is greater than or equal to 10/sup 2/ for a detector of spherical geometry and should be less than or equal to 10 for a cylindrical geometry and approximately 1 for a planar geometry. The optimum values of the major and minor radii of a spherical detector are calculated.

Alekseeva, L.A.; Dorogov, P.G.; Ivanov, V.I.; Khusainov, A.K.

1985-07-01

405

Determination of canine dose conversion factors in mixed neutron and gamma radiation fields. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of mixed-field neutron/gamma radiation dosimetry in canine irradiation experiments conducted at the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) is to determine the absorbed midline tissue dose (MLT) at the region of interest in the canine. A dose conversion factor (DCF) can be applied to free-in-air (FIA) dose measurements to estimate the MLT doses to canines. This report is a summary of the measured DCFs that were used to determine the MLT doses in canines at AFRRI from 1979 to 1992.

Torres, B.A.; Bhatt, R.C.; Myska, J.C.; Holland, B.K.

1996-07-01

406

Use of gamma ray radiation to parallel the plates of a Fabry-Perot interferometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of gamma radiation to parallel the plates of a Fabry-Perot etalon is examined. The method for determining the etalon parallelism, and the procedure for irradiating the posts are described. Changes in effective gap for the etalon over the surface are utilized to measure the parallelism of the Fabry-Perot etalon. An example in which this technique is applied to an etalon of fused silica plates, which are 132 mm in diameter and coded with zinc sulfide and cryolite, with Zerodur spaces 2 cm in length. The effect of the irradiation of the posts on the thermal performance of the etalon is investigated.

Skinner, Wilbert R.; Hays, Paul B.; Anderson, Sally M.

1987-01-01

407

Cellular hypersensitivity to chronic gamma-radiation in cultured fibroblasts from ataxia-telangiectasia heterozygotes  

SciTech Connect

Retrospective studies of cancer incidence in AT families suggest that the major detrimental impact of the AT gene on the health of the general population stems from its disease-predisposing potential in heterozygotes. The absence of a definitive marker for routine identification of such carriers, however, has previously precluded direct validation of this predicted effect of AT heterozygosity. We demonstrate that chronic gamma-ray exposure, because it expands the difference in radiation cytotoxicity between normal and heterozygotic strains compared to acute dose delivery, may point the way to development of a reliable laboratory diagnostic procedure for identification of carriers of a defective AT gene.

Paterson, M.C.; MacFarlane, S.J.; Gentner, N.E.; Smith, B.P.

1985-01-01

408

On the mechanism of UV and gamma-ray-induced intrachromosomal recombination in yeast cells synchronized in different stages of the cell cycle.  

PubMed

A genetic system selecting for deletion events (DEL recombination) due to intrachromosomal recombination has previously been constructed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Intrachromosomal recombination is inducible by chemical and physical carcinogens. We wanted to understand better the mechanism of induced DEL recombination and to attempt to determine in which phase of the cell cycle DEL recombination is inducible. Yeast cells were arrested at specific phases of the cell cycle, irradiated with UV or gamma-rays, and assayed for DEL recombination and interchromosomal recombination. In addition, the contribution of intrachromatid crossing-over to the number of radiation induced DEL recombination events was directly investigated at different phases of the cell cycle. UV irradiation induced DEL recombination preferentially in S phase, while gamma-rays induced DEL recombination in every phase of the cell cycle including G1. UV and gamma-radiation induced intrachromatid crossing over preferentially in G1, but it accounted at the most for only 14% of the induced DEL recombination events. The possibility is discussed that single-strand annealing or one-sided invasion events, which can occur in G1 and may be induced by a double-strand break intermediate, may be responsible for a large proportion of the induced DEL recombination events. PMID:7565592

Galli, A; Schiestl, R H

1995-08-21

409

Inhaled ¹⁴⁷Pm and\\/or total-body gamma radiation: Early mortality and morbidity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rats were given doses of ⁶°Co gamma radiation and\\/or lung burdens of ¹⁴⁷Pm (in fused aluminosilicate particles) within lethal ranges in an experiment to determine and compare morbidity and mortality responses for the radiation insults within 1 year after exposure. Radiation-induced morbidity was assessed by measuring changes in body weights, hematologic parameters, and pulmonary-function parameters. Acute mortality and morbidity from

R. E. Filipy; K. E. Lauhala; D. R. McGee; W. C. Cannon; R. L. Buschbom; J. R. Decker; E. G. Kuffel; J. F. Park; H. A. Ragan; S. S. Yaniv; B. R. Scott

1989-01-01

410

Effect of the Pretreatment with UV and Gamma Radiations on the Modification of Plywood Surface by Photocuring with Epoxy Acrylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to further improve the physical properties of plywood surface that was pretreated with UV and Gamma radiation at\\u000a different radiation intensities before photocuring. After pretreatment with radiation the plywood surface was coated with\\u000a different prepared formulations containing epoxyacrylate (EA-1020) as an oligomer, difunctional monomers such as tripropylene\\u000a glycol diacrylate (TPGDA), 2-hexadioldiacrylate (HDDA), Ethylene Glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and trifunctional

Mubarak A. Khan; Ruhul A. Khan; B. S. Aliya; Z. Nasreen

2006-01-01