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Sample records for cells identified ultrastructurally

  1. Effects of ultrasound upon endothelial cell ultrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodemer, Claus; Jenne, Jürgen; Fatar, Marc; Hennerici, Michael G.; Meairs, Stephen

    2012-11-01

    A number of new brain applications for therapeutic ultrasound are emerging including drug delivery through BBB opening, enhancement of angiogenesis, sonothrombolysis and neuromodulation. Safety remains important as alterations in the cytoskeleton and tight junctions of endothelial cells have been described. In this study we characterize the in vitro effects of ultrasound on cell morphology using a new human brain cell line (hCMEC/D3). Changes in ultrastructure were analyzed with antibodies against tubulin, actin and catenin. Transport was analyzed by measuring transferrin uptake. No significant changes were seen after continuous wave ultrasound treatment of hCMEC/D3 cells grown in Opticell{trade mark, serif} chambers. We could not observe disassembled actin stress fibers or variations in the microtubule network. However, severe damage occurred in cells cultured in petri dishes.

  2. Brush cells in the human duodenojejunal junction: an ultrastructural study

    PubMed Central

    Morroni, Manrico; Cangiotti, Angela Maria; Cinti, Saverio

    2007-01-01

    Brush cells have been identified in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract mucosa of many mammalian species. In humans they are found in the respiratory tract and the gastrointestinal apparatus, in both the stomach and the gallbladder. The function of brush cells is unknown, and most morphological data have been obtained in rodents. To extend our knowledge of human brush cells, we performed an ultrastructural investigation of human small intestine brush cells. Six brush cells identified in five out of more than 300 small intestine biopsies performed for gastrointestinal tract disorders were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Five brush cells were located on the surface epithelium and one in a crypt. The five surface brush cells were characterized by a narrow apical pole from which emerged microvilli that were longer and thicker than those of enterocytes. The filamentous core extended far into the cell body without forming the terminal web. Caveolae were abundant. Filaments were in the form of microfilaments and intermediate filaments. Cytoplasmic projections containing filaments were found on the basolateral surface of brush cells. In a single cell, axons containing vesicles and dense core granules were in close contact both with the basal and the lateral surface of the cell. The crypt brush cell appeared less mature. We concluded that human small intestine brush cells share a similar ultrastructural biology with those of other mammals. They are polarized and well-differentiated cells endowed with a distinctive cytoskeleton. The observation of nerve fibres closely associated with brush cells, never previously described in humans, lends support to the hypothesis of a receptor role for these cells. PMID:17509089

  3. A Model of the Ultrastructure of a Cell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushell, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Presents a project for modeling cellular ultrastructure for 14-17 year old students that helps to develop concepts of measurement and scaling in addition to supporting student understanding of cell biology. (Author/YDS)

  4. The ultrastructure of separated and cultured cell of Porphyra yezoensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Jun-Xue; Fei, Xiu-Geng

    2001-03-01

    There are many reports that cells (protoplasts) separated from the thallus of Porphyra by enzyme can develop to normal leafy thalli in the same way as monospores. But there are few investigations on the subcellular structure of the isolated vegetative cell for comparison with the subcellular structure of monospores. To clarify whether the separated and cultured cells undergo the same or similar ultrastructure changes during culture and germination as monospores undergo in their formation and germination, we observed their ultrastructure, compared them with those of the monospore and found that the ultrastructure of separated and cultured cells did not have the characteristic feature as that of monospore formation, such as production of small and large fibrous vesicles, but was accompanied by vacuolation and starch mobilization like that in monospore germination. The paper also discusses the relations between monospores and separated and cultured cells.

  5. Ultrastructure Study of Apple Meristem Cells During Cryopreservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ultrastructure of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) meristem cells was studied before and after cold acclimation (CA) and during the steps of PVS2 vitrification. We compared cells of in vitro grown shoots of two cultivars, Grushovka Vernenskaya and Voskhod. Cells of the two cultivars were simila...

  6. Ultrastructure study of apple meristem cells during cryopreservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ultrastructure of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) meristem cells was studied before and after cold acclimation (CA) and during the steps of PVS2 vitrification. We compared cells of in vitro grown shoots of two cultivars, Grushovka Vernenskaya and Voskhod. Cells of the two cultivars were simila...

  7. Ultrastructural identification of interstitial cells of Cajal in hen oviduct.

    PubMed

    Gandahi, J A; Chen, S F; Yang, P; Bian, X G; Chen, Q S

    2012-06-01

    The interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are widely believed to be neuroeffector cells of smooth muscle activity in all tubular organs, including the oviduct. The avian oviduct involves the secretion, sheathing, and transportation of a large-sized egg, but there is no information available on ICC in this special organ. We have demonstrated the presence of ICC in different segments throughout the oviduct in the laying hen and provided details on their ultrastructure by transmission electron microscopy technique, for the first time. The observed ICC appeared bipolar and multipolar cells of different shapes, with varying nuclear morphologies, a thin rim of electron-dense cytoplasm, and an infrequent basal lamina. They showed moniliform primary processes with one or 2 secondary or terminal processes. We found ICC near smooth muscle cells, nerve fibers, and the epithelia, where they make specialized contacts in the form of close membrane associations or gap-like junctions and peg-and-socket-like junctions. Intricate labyrinthine-type networking contacts were also present in ICC processes. Moreover, we report for the first time, that ICC in avian oviduct make interdigitating contacts with the epithelium. Cytoplasmic organelles identified in ICC include numerous well-developed mitochondria, abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, and dispersed intermediate filaments. Many caveolae and vesicles were also present. Golgi bodies and centrioles were rare. Fibroblasts, on the other hand, were distinct cells with larger cytoplasmic area, more rough endoplasmic reticulum, and less mitochondrial content. No basal lamina, intermediate filaments, or caveolae were present in fibroblasts. Their processes were shorter and showed no contacts with smooth muscle cells or nerves. We conclude that these ICC might also have a key role in the regulatory mechanisms of motility and transportation in the hen oviduct, as already proved in mammalian oviduct. Such role of ICC might also be responsible

  8. Ulcerative colitis: ultrastructure of interstitial cells in myenteric plexus.

    PubMed

    Rumessen, J J; Vanderwinden, J-M; Horn, T

    2010-10-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are key regulatory cells in the gut. In the colon of patients with severe ulcerative colitis (UC), myenteric ICC had myoid ultrastructural features and were in close contact with nerve terminals. In all patients as opposed to controls, some ICC profiles showed degenerative changes, such as lipid droplets and irregular vacuoles. Nerve terminals often appeared swollen and empty. Glial cells, muscle cells, and fibroblast-like cells (FLC) showed no alterations. FLC enclosed macrophages (MLC), which were in close contact with naked axon terminals. The organization and cytological changes may be of pathophysiological significance in patients with UC. PMID:20568987

  9. Ultrastructure of organic cell walls in Proterozoic microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moczydlowska-Vidal, M.

    2009-04-01

    The antiquity of life has been well appreciated since the discoveries of microfossils and confirmation of their authenticity, as well as the recognition of geochemical signs of biogenicity in the Archean successions. Resolving the biological affinities of early biota is essential for the unravelling the changes that led to modern biodiversity, but also for the detection of possible biogenic records outside of the terrestrial biosphere. Advanced techniques in microscopy, tomography and spectroscopy applied to examine individual microfossils at the highest attainable spatial resolution have provided unprecedented insights into micro- and nano-scale structure and composition of organic matter. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy studies of the wall ultrastructure of sphaeromorphic and ornamented acritarchs have revealed complex, single to multilayered walls, having a unique texture in sub-layers and an occasionally preserved trilaminar sheath structure (TLS) of the cell wall. A variety of optical characteristics, the electron density and texture of fabrics of discrete layers, and the properties of biopolymers may indicate the polyphyletic affiliations of such microfossils and/or the preservation of various stages (vegetative, resting) in their life cycle. I evaluate the morphological features of organic-walled unicellular microfossils in conjunction with their cell wall ultrastructure to infer their life cycle and to recognize various developmental stages represented among microfossils attributed to a single form-taxon. Several cases of fine wall ultrastructure in microfossils have been documented and have had a conclusive influence on understanding their affinities. Some Proterozoic and Cambrian leiosphaerids are of algal affinities. Certain specimens represent chlorophyceaens, having the multilayered composite wall with TLS structure known from vegetative and resting cells in modern genera of the Chlorococcales and Volvocales. The wall ultrastructure of

  10. Vanadium induced ultrastructural changes and apoptosis in male germ cells.

    PubMed

    Aragón, M A; Ayala, M E; Fortoul, T I; Bizarro, P; Altamirano-Lozano, M

    2005-01-01

    Vanadium is a transition metal that is emitted to the atmosphere during combustion of fossil fuels. In the environment, vanadium occurs in the (V) oxidized form, but in the body it is found exclusively in the (IV) oxidized form. Vanadium tetraoxide is an inorganic chemical species in the (IV) oxidized form that has been shown to induce toxic effects in vitro and in vivo. The reproductive toxicity of vanadium in males was studied through monitoring germ cell apoptosis during spermatogenesis. We analyzed ultrastructural damage, and testosterone and progesterone concentrations following vanadium tetraoxide administered to male mice for 60 days. Spermatogenesis stages I-III and X-XII frequently showed apoptotic germ cells in control and treated animals; vanadium tetraoxide treatment induced an increase in the number of germ cell apoptosis in stages I-III and XII at 9.4 and 18.8 mg/kg, respectively. Although spermatogenesis is regulated by testosterone, in our study this hormone level was not modified by vanadium administration; thus, germ cell death was not related with testosterone concentration. At the ultrastructural level, we observed inclusion structures that varied as to location and content in the Sertoli and germ cells. PMID:15808796

  11. The ultrastructural study of tumorigenic cells using nanobiomarkers.

    PubMed

    Pavon, Lorena Favaro; Marti, Luciana Cavalheiro; Sibov, Tatiana Tais; Malheiros, Suzana M F; Oliveira, Daniela Mara; Guilhen, Daiane Donna; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel; Amaro Junior, Edson; Gamarra, Lionel Fernel

    2010-06-01

    Despite recent advances, patients with malignant brain tumors still have a poor prognosis. Glioblastoma (WHO grade 4 astrocytoma), the most malignant brain tumor, represents 50% of all astrocytomas, with a median survival rate of <1 year. It is, therefore, extremely important to search for new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for patients with glioblastoma. This study describes the application of superparamagnetic nanoparticles of iron oxide, as well as monoclonal antibodies, of immunophenotypic significance, conjoined to quantum dots for the ultrastructural assessment of glioblastoma cells. For this proposal, an immunophenotypic study by flow cytometry was carried out, followed by transmission electron microscopy analysis. The process of tumor cell labeling using nanoparticles can successfully contribute to the identification of tumorigenic cells and consequently for better understanding of glioblastoma genesis and recurrence. In addition, this method may help further studies in tumor imaging, diagnosis, and prognostic markers detection. PMID:20578834

  12. How effectively does a clinostat mimic the ultrastructural effects of microgravity on plant cells?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    Columella cells of seedlings of Zea mays L. cv. Bear Hybrid grown in the microgravity of orbital flight allocate significantly larger relative-volumes to hyaloplasm and lipid bodies, and significantly smaller relative-volumes to dictyosomes, plastids, and starch than do columella cells of seedlings grown at 1 g. The ultrastructure of columella cells of seedlings grown at 1 g and on a rotating clinostat is not significantly different. However, the ultrastructure of cells exposed to these treatments differs significantly from that of seedlings grown in microgravity. These results indicate that the actions of a rotating clinostat do not mimic the ultrastructural effects of microgravity in columella cells of Z. mays.

  13. Effects of soft x-ray irradiation on cell ultrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Thomas W.; Page, Anton M.; Foster, Guy F.; Stead, Anthony D.

    1993-01-01

    The future of x-ray microscopy lies mainly in its potential for imaging fresh, hydrated biological material at a resolution superior to that of light microscopy. For the image to be accepted as representing the cellular organization of the living cell, it is essential that artefacts are not introduced as a result of the image collection system. One possible source of artefacts is cellular damage resulting form the irradiation of the material with soft x rays. Cells of the unicellular alga Chlorella have been examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) following exposure to different doses of monochromatic (380 eV) soft x rays. Extreme ultrastructural damage has been detected following doses of 103 - 104 Gy, in particular loss of cellular membranes such as the internal thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast. This is discussed in relation to dosage commonly used for imaging by soft x-ray microscopy.

  14. Stromal cells in the human gut show ultrastructural features of fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells but not myofibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Eyden, Brian; Curry, Alan; Wang, Guofeng

    2011-07-01

    The free spindled cells of the lamina propria of the gut have been reported as showing fibroblastic, smooth-muscle and myofibroblastic differentiation. A precise understanding of the differentiation of these cells is essential for appreciating their functions, and this paper addresses this question using ultrastructural analysis. Histologically normal samples from different areas of the gastrointestinal tract were studied. Both subepithelial stromal cells, lying immediately beneath the basal lamina, and the deeper interstitial stromal cells, were studied. Subepithelial and interstitial cells had comparable features, reinforcing the idea that these formed a single reticulum of cells. Two major cell types were identified. Some were smooth-muscle cells, on the basis of abundant myofilaments with focal densities, glycogen, an irregular cell surface, focal lamina and multiple attachment plaques alternating with plasmalemmal caveolae. Some cells had a lesser expression of these markers, especially of myofilaments, and were regarded as poorly differentiated smooth-muscle cells and descriptively referred to as 'myoid'. Other cells were fibroblastic to judge by prominent rough endoplasmic reticulum, an absence of myofilaments and lamina, but presence of focal adhesions. The fibronexus junctions of true myofibroblasts were not seen. The study emphasises that the smooth-muscle actin immunoreactivity in this anatomical site resides in smooth-muscle cells and not in myofibroblasts, a view consistent with earlier ultrastructural and immunostaining results. The recognition that these cells are showing smooth-muscle or fibroblastic but not true myofibroblastic differentiation should inform our understanding of the function of these cells. PMID:20662992

  15. Dexamethasone induced ultrastructural changes in cultured human trabecular meshwork cells.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K; McCartney, M D; Miggans, S T; Clark, A F

    1993-09-01

    Glucocorticoid-induced ocular hypertension has been demonstrated in both animals and humans. It is possible that glucocorticoid-induced changes in trabecular meshwork (TM) cells are responsible for this hypertension. In order to elaborate further the effect of glucocorticoids on the trabecular meshwork, the ultrastructural consequences of dexamethasone (DEX) treatment were examined in three different human TM cell lines. Confluent TM cells were treated with 0.1 microM of DEX for 14 days, and then processed for light, epifluorescent microscopy or transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of DEX treatment on TM cell and nuclear size was quantified using computer assisted morphometrics. Morphometric analysis showed a significant increase in both TM cell and nuclear size after 14 days of DEX treatment. Epifluorescent microscopy of rhodamine-phalloidin stained, control TM cells showed the normal arrangement of stress fibers. In contrast, DEX-treated TM cells showed unusual geodesic dome-like cross-linked actin networks. Control TM cells had the normal complement and arrangement of organelles as well as electron dense inclusions and large vacuoles. DEX-treated TM cells showed stacked arrangements of smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, proliferation of the Golgi apparatus, pleomorphic nuclei and increased amounts of extracellular matrix material. The DEX-induced alterations observed in the present study may be an indication of the processes that are occurring in the in vivo disease process. PMID:8261790

  16. Photodynamic therapy on the ultrastructure of glioma cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shaoshan; Zhang, Ruyou; Zheng, Yongri

    2005-07-01

    OBJECTIVE :the main purpose of this experiment was to study the change of C6 glioma cells' ultrastructure treated by photodynamic therapy(PDT), observe the change of morphology METHOD :Make the model of rat glioma by transplanted C6 glioma cells into caudate nucleus,treated the glioma rat by PDT after two weeks. Observed the difference of subcellular structure before and after PDT by electron microscope. RESULT : Apoptosis and necrosis can be seen after treated by PDT in the C6 glioma, basal membrance damaged ,number of cellular organ of endothelial cell of blood capillary declined,tight junction of endothelial cell lengthen and the gap enlarge. The PDT has slightly effect on the nomorl rat"s subcellular structue. CONCLUSION: PDT can induce the apoptosis and necrosis of C6 glioma cell. The damage of the ultramicrostructure of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum was the foundmentol of the change. PDT initiate the damage of BBB of the C6 glioma cell and weeken the function、and makes it a useful way of treating the glioma combained with chemotherapy.

  17. Melatonin action in tumor skeletal muscle cells: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Burattini, S; Battistelli, M; Codenotti, S; Falcieri, E; Fanzani, A; Salucci, S

    2016-04-01

    Melatonin (Mel), or N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, is a circadian hormone that can diffuse through all the biological membranes thanks to its amphiphilic structure, also overcoming the blood-brain barrier and placenta. Although Mel has been reported to exhibit strong antioxidant properties in healthy tissues, studies carried out on tumor cultures gave a different picture of its action, often describing Mel as effective to trigger the cell death of tumor cells by enhancing oxidative stress. Based on this premise, here Mel effect was investigated using a tumor cell line representative of the human alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS), the most frequent soft tissue sarcoma affecting childhood. For this purpose, Mel was given either dissolved in ethanol (EtOH) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at different concentrations and time exposures. Cell viability assays and ultrastructural observations demonstrated that Mel was able to induce a dose- and time-dependent cell death independently on the dissolution solvent. Microscopy analyses highlighted the presence of various apoptotic and necrotic patterns correlating with the increasing Mel dose and time of exposure. These findings suggest that Mel, triggering apoptosis in ARMS cells, could be considered as a promising drug for future multitargeted therapies. PMID:26953151

  18. Ultrastructure and calcium balance in meristem cells of pea roots exposed to extremely low magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyavskaya, N. A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigations of low magnetic field (LMF) effects on biological systems have attracted attention of biologists due to planned space flights to other planets where the field intensity does not exceed 10 -5 Oe. Pea ( Pisum sativum L.) seeds were grown in an environment of LMF 3 days. In meristem cells of roots exposed to LMF, one could observe such ultrastructural peculiarities as a noticeable accumulation of lipid bodies, development of a lytic compartment (vacuoles, cytosegresomes and paramural bodies), and reduction of phytoferritin in plastids. Mitochondria were the most sensitive organelle to LMF application. Their size and relative volume in cells increased, matrix was electron-transparent, and cristae reduced. Because of the significant role of calcium signalling in plant responses to different environmental factors, calcium participation in LMF effects was investigated using a pyroantimonate method to identify the localization of free calcium ions. The intensity of cytochemical reaction in root cells after LMF application was strong. The Ca 2+ pyroantimonate deposits were observed both in all organelles and in a hyaloplasm of the cells. Data obtained suggest that the observed LMF effects on ultrastructure of root cells were due to disruptions in different metabolic systems including effects on Ca 2+ homeostasis.

  19. Cadmium-induced ultrastructural changes in Euglena cells

    SciTech Connect

    Duret, S.; Bonaly, J.; Bariaud, A.; Vannereau, A.; Mestre, J.C.

    1986-02-01

    The ultrastructure of Euglena gracilis grown in the presence of Cd showed only numerous myelin-like structures in mitochondria, chloroplasts altered in shape, and thylakoid arrangement and increase of osmiophilic plastoglobuli. These alterations indicate that respiratory processes are the initial target of Cd toxicity.

  20. Array tomography: characterizing FAC-sorted populations of zebrafish immune cells by their 3D ultrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Wacker, Irene; Chockley, Peter; Bartels, Carolin; Spomer, Waldemar; Hofmann, Andreas; Gengenbach, Ulrich; Singh, Sachin; Thaler, Marlene; Grabher, Clemens; SCHRÖDER, RASMUS R

    2015-01-01

    For 3D reconstructions of whole immune cells from zebrafish, isolated from adult animals by FAC-sorting we employed array tomography on hundreds of serial sections deposited on silicon wafers. Image stacks were either recorded manually or automatically with the newly released ZEISS Atlas 5 Array Tomography platform on a Zeiss FEGSEM. To characterize different populations of immune cells, organelle inventories were created by segmenting individual cells. In addition, arrays were used for quantification of cell populations with respect to the various cell types they contained. The detection of immunological synapses in cocultures of cell populations from thymus or WKM with cancer cells helped to identify the cytotoxic nature of these cells. Our results demonstrate the practicality and benefit of AT for high-throughput ultrastructural imaging of substantial volumes. Lay Description To look at immune cells from zebrafish we employed array tomography, a technique where arrays of serial sections deposited on solid substrates are used for imaging. Cell populations were isolated from the different organs of zebrafish involved in haematopoiesis, the production of blood cells. They were chemically fixed and centrifuged to concentrate them in a pellet that was then dehydrated and embedded in resin. Using a custom-built handling device it was possible to place hundreds of serial sections on silicon wafers as well ordered arrays. To image a whole cell at a resolution that would allow identifying all the organelles (i.e. compartments surrounded by membranes) inside the cell, stacks of usually 50–100 images were recorded in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). This recording was either done manually or automatically using the newly released Atlas Array Tomography platform on a ZEISS SEM. For the imaging of the sections a pixel size of about 5 nm was chosen, which defines membrane boundaries very well and allows segmentation of the membrane topology. After alignment of the

  1. Morphologic, molecular, and ultrastructural characterization of a feline synovial cell sarcoma and derived cell line.

    PubMed

    Cazzini, Paola; Frontera-Acevedo, Karelma; Garner, Bridget; Howerth, Elizabeth; Torres, Bryan; Northrup, Nicole; Sakamoto, Kaori

    2015-05-01

    A 2.5-year-old, male, neutered cat presented with a 5-month history of progressive right hind limb lameness and an enlarged right popliteal lymph node. Radiographs revealed significant bony lysis of the tarsus and distal tibia, and fine-needle aspirate of the bone lesion and lymph node revealed a neoplastic population of cells with uncertain origin. Amputation was elected, and the mass was submitted for histology and cellular culture for better characterization. Histologic examination revealed a mixture of spindle-shaped cells and larger, round to polygonal cells. All cells were immunoreactive for vimentin, and only the larger polygonal cells were also positive for cytokeratin. All cells were negative for desmin, smooth muscle actin, cluster of differentiation (CD)3, CD18, CD79a, macrophage antibody (MAC)387, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Cultured neoplastic cells failed to express CD18, and were not able to secrete the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1 (IL-1)β, and IL-6 when stimulated by lipopolysaccharide, disproving that the cells originated from the macrophage or monocyte line. Ultrastructurally, neoplastic cells were characterized by abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, interdigitating cellular processes, and membrane condensations. Based on location and cytologic, histologic, ultrastructural, and functional studies, this neoplasm was considered a synovial cell sarcoma. PMID:25901004

  2. Ultrastructural analysis of cell component distribution in the apical cell of Ceratodon protonemata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, L. M.; Sack, F. D.

    1995-01-01

    A distinctive feature of tip-growing plant cells is that cell components are distributed differentially along the length of the cell, although most ultrastructural analyses have been qualitative. The longtitudinal distribution of cell components was studied both qualitatively and quantitatively in the apical cell of dark-grown protonemata of the moss Ceratodon. The first 35 micrometers of the apical cell was analyzed stereologically using transmission electron microscopy. There were four types of distributions along the cell's axis, three of them differential: (1) tubular endoplasmic reticulum was evenly distributed, (2) cisternal endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi vesicles were distributed in a tip-to-base gradient, (3) plastids, vacuoles, and Golgi stacks were enriched in specific areas, although the locations of the enrichments varied, and (4) mitochondria were excluded in the tip-most 5 micrometers and evenly distributed throughout the remaining 30 micrometers. This study provides one of the most comprehensive quantitative, ultrastructural analyses of the distribution of cell components in the apex of any tip-growing plant cell. The finding that almost every component had its own spatial arrangement demonstrates the complexity of the organization and regulation of the distribution of components in tip-growing cells.

  3. Ultrastructural features of goat oviductal secretory cells at follicular and luteal phases of the oestrous cycle

    PubMed Central

    ABE, HIROYUKI; ONODERA, MASAKAZU; SUGAWARA, SHICHIRO; SATOH, TAKESHI; HOSHI, HIROYOSHI

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the ultrastructure of secretory cells in the various regions of the goat oviduct during the follicular and luteal phases of the oestrous cycle. During the follicular phase in the fimbriae, the secretory cells contained small secretory granules with electron-dense matrices. In the luteal phase, the secretory granules disappeared and cytoplasmic protrusions, extending beyond the luminal border of the ciliated cells and often containing the nucleus, were predominant. During the follicular phase in ampullary secretory cells, numerous secretory granules with moderately electron-dense matrices were present in the supranuclear cytoplasm and exocytosis of secretory granules was observed. The number of secretory granules was dramatically reduced in the ampullary secretory cells at the luteal phase. Conspicuous cytoplasmic protrusions of secretory cells were observed similar to those of the fimbrial epithelium. Isthmic cells were almost free of secretory granules and lysosome-like bodies were found both at the follicular and luteal phases. In conclusion, our ultrastructural observations of goat oviduct revealed marked cyclic changes in the ultrastructural features of secretory cells and the ultrastructural features and the numbers of secretory granules were distinctive for each particular segment. PMID:10634690

  4. Pollen and microsporangium development in Hovenia dulcis (Rhamnaceae): a different type of tapetal cell ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Gotelli, Marina M; Galati, Beatriz G; Zarlavsky, Gabriela; Medan, Diego

    2016-07-01

    Despite that there is some literature on pollen morphology of Rhamnaceae, studies addressing general aspects of the microsporogenesis, microgametogenesis, and anther development are rare. The aim of this paper is to describe the ultrastructure of pollen grain ontogeny with special attention to tapetum cytology in Hovenia dulcis. Anthers at different stages of development were processed for transmission and scanning electron microscopy, bright-field microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. Different histochemical reactions were carried out. The ultrastructural changes observed during the development of the tapetal cells and pollen grains are described. Large vesicles containing carbohydrates occur in the tapetal cell cytoplasm during the early stages of pollen development. Its origin and composition are described and discussed. This is the first report on the ontogeny and ultrastructure of the pollen grain and related sporophytic structures of H. dulcis. PMID:26277353

  5. Inflammation and Cell Death in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: An Immunopathological and Ultrastructural Model.

    PubMed

    Ardeljan, Christopher P; Ardeljan, Daniel; Abu-Asab, Mones; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) remains elusive despite the characterization of many factors contributing to the disease in its late-stage phenotypes. AMD features an immune system in flux, as shown by changes in macrophage polarization with age, expression of cytokines and complement, microglial accumulation with age, etc. These point to an allostatic overload, possibly due to a breakdown in self vs. non-self when endogenous compounds and structures acquire the appearance of non-self over time. The result is inflammation and inflammation-mediated cell death. While it is clear that these processes ultimately result in degeneration of retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptor, the prevalent type of cell death contributing to the various phenotypes is unknown. Both molecular studies as well as ultrastructural pathology suggest pyroptosis, and perhaps necroptosis, are the predominant mechanisms of cell death at play, with only minimal evidence for apoptosis. Herein, we attempt to reconcile those factors identified by experimental AMD models and integrate these data with pathology observed under the electron microscope-particularly observations of mitochondrial dysfunction, DNA leakage, autophagy, and cell death. PMID:25580276

  6. Involution of human fetal Leydig cells. An immunohistochemical, ultrastructural and quantitative study.

    PubMed Central

    Codesal, J; Regadera, J; Nistal, M; Regadera-Sejas, J; Paniagua, R

    1990-01-01

    The testes of stillborn fetuses (from 13 to 28 weeks of gestational age), fetuses born alive (from 29 weeks of gestational age) who died a few days later, and infants dying 1 to 8 months after birth were processed for light and electron microscopy. Paraffin-embedded material was stained with the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex (ABC) method for immunohistochemical detection of testosterone (T) in order to quantify the age-related changes in the number of T-positive interstitial cells. This number decreased progressively from the 24th week of gestation up to birth and remained unchanged up to the second month of postnatal life. During the third month of age, the number of T-positive cells rose markedly but fell again from the fourth month to the end of the study. The ultrastructural study revealed the following types of interstitial cells at all ages studied: fibroblast-like cells, myofibroblast-like cells, developed fetal Leydig cells, degenerating fetal Leydig cells and infantile Leydig cells with a multilobed nucleus and focal cytoplasmic accumulations of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and lipid droplets. Quantitative ultrastructural studies revealed that the changes in the number of fetal Leydig cells with age were similar to those found in the number of T-positive cells although, for each age studied, absolute values were higher in the ultrastructural study. The number of infantile Leydig cells increased with age. Images Figs. 1-4 Figs. 5-9 Figs. 10-11 PMID:2272896

  7. Long clinostation influence on the ultrastructure of Funaria hygrometrica moss protonema cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedukha, E. M.

    Changes in the ultrastructure of protonema cells of Funaria hygrometrica, cultivated during 20 days on a horizontal clinostat (2 rev/min), were determined by the electron microscopy method. About 20% of the cells were almost identical to those in the control, 20% were destructive cells, and in 60% ultrastructure changes were observed. The heterogeneity of the reaction demonstrated the evidence of sensitive cells on the clinostation process. Changes affected the ultrastructure of plastids, wall of the cell, and the form of the nucleus as well. Starch disappeared from chloroplasts practically completely, thylakoids swelled, granas frequently disappeared from plastids. Peroxisomes number in cells increased appreciably, width of cell walls decreased by almost half their size. Ca++-binding sites were revealed in cytoplasma of cells. Electronocytochemical exposure of ATPases activity with the presence of Mg++ and Ca++ ions showed that Mg2+-ATPase activity localization in clinosted cells was not too different from the control, while Ca2+-ATPase location presented differences in plasmalemma and Ca-sites. These changes are perhaps connected with the membranes permeability breaking and affect the plant cells adaptation to the influence of hypogravitation.

  8. Ultrastructure of Zika virus particles in cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Barreto-Vieira, Debora Ferreira; Barth, Ortrud Monika; Silva, Marcos Alexandre Nunes da; Santos, Carolina Cardoso; Santos, Aline da Silva; F, Joaquim Batista; Filippis, Ana Maria Bispo de

    2016-08-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has infected thousands of Brazilian people and spread to other American countries since 2015. The introduction of ZIKV brought a strong impact to public health in Brazil. It is of utmost importance to identify a susceptible cell line that will enable the isolation and identification of the virus from patient samples, viral mass production, and testing of drug and vaccine candidates. Besides real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction diagnosis for detecting the viral genome, virus isolation in cell lines was useful in order to study the structure of the viral particle and its behaviour inside cells. Analysis of ZIKV infected cell lines was achieved using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Blood was obtained from a Brazilian patient during the first days after presenting with signs of the disease, and ZIKV from the patient's blood was isolated in the C6/36 mosquito cell line. Afterwards, Vero cells were inoculated with the viral suspension, fixed six days after inoculation, embedded in polymers, and ultra-thin cut. Like dengue viruses, this flavivirus showed numerous virus particles present inside cellular vesicles thereby confirming the susceptibility of the Vero cell line to ZIKV replication. TEM is a unique technique available to make the virus visible. PMID:27581122

  9. Ultrastructure of Zika virus particles in cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Barreto-Vieira, Debora Ferreira; Barth, Ortrud Monika; da Silva, Marcos Alexandre Nunes; Santos, Carolina Cardoso; Santos, Aline da Silva; F, Joaquim Batista; de Filippis, Ana Maria Bispo

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has infected thousands of Brazilian people and spread to other American countries since 2015. The introduction of ZIKV brought a strong impact to public health in Brazil. It is of utmost importance to identify a susceptible cell line that will enable the isolation and identification of the virus from patient samples, viral mass production, and testing of drug and vaccine candidates. Besides real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction diagnosis for detecting the viral genome, virus isolation in cell lines was useful in order to study the structure of the viral particle and its behaviour inside cells. Analysis of ZIKV infected cell lines was achieved using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Blood was obtained from a Brazilian patient during the first days after presenting with signs of the disease, and ZIKV from the patient’s blood was isolated in the C6/36 mosquito cell line. Afterwards, Vero cells were inoculated with the viral suspension, fixed six days after inoculation, embedded in polymers, and ultra-thin cut. Like dengue viruses, this flavivirus showed numerous virus particles present inside cellular vesicles thereby confirming the susceptibility of the Vero cell line to ZIKV replication. TEM is a unique technique available to make the virus visible. PMID:27581122

  10. Ultrastructural characteristics of type A epithelioid cells during BCG-granulomatosis and treatment with lysosomotropic isoniazid.

    PubMed

    Shkurupii, V A; Kozyaev, M A; Nadeev, A P

    2006-04-01

    We studied BCG-granulomas, their cellular composition, and ultrastructure of type A epithelioid cells in the liver of male BALB/c mice with spontaneous granulomatous inflammation. The animals received free isoniazid or isoniazid conjugated with lysosomotropic intracellularly prolonged matrix (dialdehyde dextran, molecular weight 65-75 kDa). Lysosomotropic isoniazid was accumulated in the vacuolar apparatus of epithelioid cells and produced a stimulatory effect on plastic processes in these cells. PMID:17152378

  11. Ultrastructure and Composition of the Nannochloropsis gaditana Cell Wall

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Matthew J.; Weiss, Taylor L.; Jinkerson, Robert E.; Jing, Jia; Roth, Robyn; Goodenough, Ursula; Posewitz, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Marine algae of the genus Nannochloropsis are promising producers of biofuel precursors and nutraceuticals and are also harvested commercially for aquaculture feed. We have used quick-freeze, deep-etch electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and carbohydrate analyses to characterize the architecture of the Nannochloropsis gaditana (strain CCMP 526) cell wall, whose recalcitrance presents a significant barrier to biocommodity extraction. The data indicate a bilayer structure consisting of a cellulosic inner wall (∼75% of the mass balance) protected by an outer hydrophobic algaenan layer. Cellulase treatment of walls purified after cell lysis generates highly enriched algaenan preparations without using the harsh chemical treatments typically used in algaenan isolation and characterization. Nannochloropsis algaenan was determined to comprise long, straight-chain, saturated aliphatics with ether cross-links, which closely resembles the cutan of vascular plants. Chemical identification of >85% of the isolated cell wall mass is detailed, and genome analysis is used to identify candidate biosynthetic enzymes. PMID:25239976

  12. Ultrastructural analysis of bone nodules formed in vitro by isolated fetal rat calvaria cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bhargava, U.; Bar-Lev, M.; Bellows, C.G.; Aubin, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    When cells enzymatically digested from 21 d fetal rat calvaria are grown in ascorbic acid and Na beta-glycerophosphate, they form discrete three-dimensional nodular structures with the histological and immunohistochemical appearance of woven bone. The present investigation was undertaken to verify that bone-like features were identifiable at the ultrastructural level. The nodules formed on top of a fibroblast-like multilayer of cells. The upper surface of the nodules was lined by a continuous layer of cuboidal osteoblastic cells often seen to be joined by adherens junctions. Numerous microvilli, membrane protrusions, and coated pits could be seen on the upper surface of these cells, their cytoplasm contained prominent RER and Golgi membranes, and processes extended from their lower surfaces into a dense, highly organized collagenous matrix. Some osteocyte-like cells were completely embedded within this matrix; they also displayed RER and prominent processes which extended through the matrix and often made both adherens and gap junctional contacts with the processes of other cells. The fibroblastic cells not participating in nodule formation were surrounded by a less dense collagenous matrix and, in contrast to the matrix of the nodules, it did not mineralize. An unmineralized osteoid-like layer was seen directly below the cuboidal top layer of cells. A mineralization front was detectable below this in which small, discrete structures resembling matrix vesicles and feathery mineral crystals were evident and frequently associated with the collagen fibrils. More heavily mineralized areas were seen further into the nodule. Electron microprobe and electron and X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the mineral to be hydroxyapatite.

  13. Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma: a clinicopathological study emphasizing ultrastructural features and cytogenetic heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shan-Shan; Shen, Qin; Xia, Qiu-Yuan; Tu, Pin; Shi, Qun-Li; Zhou, Xiao-Jun; Rao, Qiu

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCPRCC) is a recently recognized renal neoplasm, which was initially described in end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but some cases have been reported in otherwise normal kidneys. We report a series of 11 CCPRCC (age range, 33-72 years; male-to-female ratio, 8:3). Follow-up was available for 8 patients. No patients developed local recurrence, distant or lymph-node metastasis, or cancer death. Histologically, all tumors exhibit morphologic features typical of CCPRCC including a mixture of cystic and papillary components, covered by small to medium-sized cuboidal cells with abundant clear cytoplasm. All 11 cases exhibited moderate to strong positivity for CK7, CA9, Vim, and HIF-1α, coupled with negative reactions for CD10, P504S, and RCC. We did not find any VHL gene mutations in all 11 cases. Losses of chromosomes 3 (monoploid chromosome 3) was detected in 3 cases. Ultrastructurally, the tumor cells composed of numerous glycogens with scanty cell organelles, reminiscent of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC). In conclusion, the coexpression of CA9 and HIF-1α in the absence of VHL gene abnormalities in CCPRCC suggests activation of the HIF pathway by mechanisms independent of VHL gene mutation. Losses of chromosomes 3 (monosomies chromosome 3) was detected in 3 cases suggesting that at least some of these lesions have demonstrated abnormalities of chromosomes 3. Ultrastructurally, CCPRCC composed of numerous glycogens with scanty cell organelles, reminiscent of CCRCC suggesting the close pathogenesis relationship of CCPRCC with CCRCC. PMID:24294381

  14. Effects of Streptococcus sanguinis Bacteriocin on Cell Surface Hydrophobicity, Membrane Permeability, and Ultrastructure of Candida Thallus

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Shengli; Zhao, Yingnan; Xia, Xue; Dong, Xue; Ge, Wenyu; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans (C.a) and Candida tropicalis (C.t) were treated with Streptococcus sanguinis bacteriocin (S.s bacteriocin), respectively; the bacteriostatic dynamics of S.s bacteriocin, their effects on cell surface hydrophobicity, leakage of inorganic phosphorus and macromolecular substance, cytosolic calcium concentration, and ultrastructure changes of Candida thallus were detected and analyzed. The results showed that inhibitory effect of S.s bacteriocin on C.a and C.t reached peak level at 24 h, the cell-surface hydrophobicity decreased significantly (P < 0.05) after S.s bacteriocin treatment, and there was leakage of cytoplasmic inorganic phosphorus and macromolecular substance from C.a and C.t; cytosolic calcium concentration decreased greatly. After 24 h treatment by S.s bacteriocin, depressive deformity and defect could be found in the cell surface of C.a and C.t; the thallus displayed irregular forms: C.a was shrunken, there was unclear margins abutting upon cell wall and cell membrane, nucleus disappeared, and cytoplasm was inhomogeneous; likewise, C.t was first plasmolysis, and then the cytoplasm was shrunk, the ultrastructure of cell wall and cell membrane was continuously damaged, and the nucleus was karyolysis. It was illustrated that S.s bacteriocin had similar antifungal effect on C.a and C.t; their cell surface hydrophobicity, membrane permeability, and ultrastructure were changed significantly on exposure to S.s bacteriocin. PMID:26064919

  15. Effects of Streptococcus sanguinis Bacteriocin on Cell Surface Hydrophobicity, Membrane Permeability, and Ultrastructure of Candida Thallus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shengli; Zhao, Yingnan; Xia, Xue; Dong, Xue; Ge, Wenyu; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans (C.a) and Candida tropicalis (C.t) were treated with Streptococcus sanguinis bacteriocin (S.s bacteriocin), respectively; the bacteriostatic dynamics of S.s bacteriocin, their effects on cell surface hydrophobicity, leakage of inorganic phosphorus and macromolecular substance, cytosolic calcium concentration, and ultrastructure changes of Candida thallus were detected and analyzed. The results showed that inhibitory effect of S.s bacteriocin on C.a and C.t reached peak level at 24 h, the cell-surface hydrophobicity decreased significantly (P < 0.05) after S.s bacteriocin treatment, and there was leakage of cytoplasmic inorganic phosphorus and macromolecular substance from C.a and C.t; cytosolic calcium concentration decreased greatly. After 24 h treatment by S.s bacteriocin, depressive deformity and defect could be found in the cell surface of C.a and C.t; the thallus displayed irregular forms: C.a was shrunken, there was unclear margins abutting upon cell wall and cell membrane, nucleus disappeared, and cytoplasm was inhomogeneous; likewise, C.t was first plasmolysis, and then the cytoplasm was shrunk, the ultrastructure of cell wall and cell membrane was continuously damaged, and the nucleus was karyolysis. It was illustrated that S.s bacteriocin had similar antifungal effect on C.a and C.t; their cell surface hydrophobicity, membrane permeability, and ultrastructure were changed significantly on exposure to S.s bacteriocin. PMID:26064919

  16. Peculiarities of ultrastructure of Chlorella cells growing aboard the Bion-10 during 12 days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, A. F.; Sytnik, K. M.

    The ultrastructure of Chlorella cells grown in darkness on a solid agar medium with organic additions aboard the Bion-1O biosatellite was studied. Certain differences in submicroscopic organization of organelles in the experimental cells were revealed compared to the Earth control. The changes are registered mainly in ultrastructure of energetic organelles - mitochondria and plastids of the experimental cells, in particular, an increase of mitochondria and their cristae size, as well as an increase of the total volume of mitochondrion per cell were established. The decrease of the starch amount in the plastid stroma and the electron density of the latter was also observed. In many experimental cells, the increase of condensed chromatin in the nuclei has been noted. Ultrastructural rearrangements in cells after laboratory experiment realized according to the thermogram registered aboard the Bion-10 were insignificant compared to the flight experiment. Data obtained are compared to results of space flight experiments carried out aboard the Bion-9 (polycomponent aquatic system) and the orbital station Mir (solid agar medium).

  17. Ultrastructural studies on erythropoiesis in the avian thymus. I. Description of cell types.

    PubMed

    Kendall, M D; Frazier, J A

    1979-06-01

    Thymus lobes from three species of birds, Quelea quelea, Passer domesticus and Sturnus vulgaris, have been examined ultrastructurally. The component cell types are compared with their counterparts in mammalian thymus glands, and found to be similar. Greater differences between small, intermediate and enlarged lobes of one species than exist between species. Developing erythroid cells are present in most enlarging and some enlarged glands. They appear to be developing at the expense of lymphoid cells in some birds. The origin of these cells is discussed. Cells that are possible candidates for the production of some thymic hormones are also described. PMID:466697

  18. Ultrastructural study of mouse adipose-derived stromal cells induced towards osteogenic direction.

    PubMed

    Tsupykov, Oleg; Ustymenko, Alina; Kyryk, Vitaliy; Smozhanik, Ekaterina; Yatsenko, Kateryna; Butenko, Gennadii; Skibo, Galina

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the ultrastructural characteristics of mouse adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) induced towards osteogenic lineage. ASCs were isolated from adipose tissue of FVB-Cg-Tg(GFPU)5Nagy/J mice and expanded in monolayer culture. Flow cytometry, histochemical staining, and electron microscopy techniques were used to characterize the ASCs with respect to their ability for osteogenic differentiation capacity. Immunophenotypically, ASCs were characterized by high expression of the CD44 and CD90 markers, while the relative content of cells expressing CD45, CD34 and CD117 markers was <2%. In assays of differentiation, the positive response to osteogenic differentiation factors was observed and characterized by deposition of calcium in the extracellular matrix and alkaline phosphatase production. Electron microscopy analysis revealed that undifferentiated ASCs had a rough endoplasmic reticulum with dilated cisterns and elongated mitochondria. At the end of the osteogenic differentiation, the ASCs transformed from their original fibroblast-like appearance to having a polygonal osteoblast-like morphology. Ultrastructurally, these cells were characterized by large euchromatic nucleus and numerous cytoplasm containing elongated mitochondria, a very prominent rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and intermediate filament bundles. Extracellular matrix vesicles of variable size similar to the calcification nodules were observed among collagen fibrils. Our data provide the ultrastructural basis for further studies on the cellular mechanisms involved in osteogenic differentiation of mouse adipose-derived stem/stromal cells. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:557-564, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27087359

  19. Distribution and ultrastructural characteristics of dark cells in squamous metaplasias of the respiratory tract epithelium. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Klein-Szanto, A.J.P.; Nettesheim, P.; Pine, A.; Martin, D.

    1981-05-01

    Dark epithelial basal cells were found in both carcinogen-induced and non-carcinogen-induced squamous metaplasias of the tracheal epithelium. Formaldehyde-induced squamous metaplasias exhibited 4% dark cells in the basal layer. Metaplasias induced by vitamin A deficiency and those induced by dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) without atypia showed 18-20% basal dark cells. DMBA-induced metaplasias with moderate to severe atypia exhibited 50% basal dark cells. The labeling index of basal cells in metaplastic epithelia, regardless of the inducing agent, was 16-18%, ie, the same as that of the normal esophageal stratified squamous epithelium. The percentage of labeled dark basal cells per total dark cell population was approximately 19% in the non-carcinogen-induced metaplasias and in the DMBA-induced metaplasias without atypia. In the atypical metaplasias induced by DMA this percentage increased to 26. On the basis of ultrastructural observations, five types of dark epithelial cells could be distinguished in the metaplastic epithelia. Each type of squamous metaplasia could thus be recognized by a determined numerical distribution of dark cells in the basal layer and a specific pattern of distribution of the ultrastructurally defined dark cell categories.

  20. Biochemistry and cell ultrastructure changes during senescence of Beta vulgaris L. leaf.

    PubMed

    Romanova, Alla K; Semenova, Galina A; Ignat'ev, Alexander R; Novichkova, Natalia S; Fomina, Irina R

    2016-05-01

    The comparative study of biochemical and ultrastructure features in senescing sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves was carried out. One group of plants was grown under normal conditions in washed river sand and poured in turn with nitrate-containing mineral solution or water (N plants). Another group of plants, after 1 month of normal growth, was further grown with nitrate omitted in the nutritive solution (defN plants). The starting point of normal leaf senescence in N plants was identified by the maximal content of soluble protein. Soluble carbohydrate pools were statistically constant in senescing N plants, whereas glucose pools varied noticeably. A decrease in the contents of soluble protein and chlorophyll (a + b) in the course of senescing was typical for N plant leaves. The cell membrane in N plant leaves remained mostly intact; the central vacuoles in the leaf cells were large, and their membranes remained intact. The chloroplasts and mitochondria in senescing N plant leaves became swollen. The vesicles that were present in the cytoplasm of N plant leaves were especially large in the oldest leaves. It was concluded that senescing of sugar beet leaves at sufficient nitrate nutrition occurs according to a "vacuolar" scenario. In the case of nitrate deficiency, the content of soluble carbohydrates in defN leaves first reached maximum and then decreased in older leaves; the protein and chlorophyll (a + b) contents were totally lower than those in normal leaves and continuously decreased during the experiments. Chloroplasts in mesophyll cells of defN plant leaves became more rounded; starch grains in chloroplasts degraded and the number and size of lipid globules increased. The multitude of membrane impairments and lots of large vesicles-"crystals" appeared during the experiment. The results showed the controlling action of nitrogen nutrition in the senescing of sugar beet leaves. PMID:26666552

  1. Ultrastructural changes in muscle cells of patients with collagen VI-related myopathies.

    PubMed

    Tagliavini, Francesca; Sardone, Francesca; Squarzoni, Stefano; Maraldi, Nadir Mario; Merlini, Luciano; Faldini, Cesare; Sabatelli, Patrizia

    2013-10-01

    Collagen VI is an extracellular matrix protein expressed in several tissues including skeletal muscle. Mutations in COL6A genes cause Bethlem Myopathy (BM), Ullrich Congenital Muscular Dystrophy (UCMD) and Myosclerosis Myopathy (MM). Collagen VI deficiency causes increased opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), leading to ultrastructural and functional alterations of mitochondria, amplified by impairment of autophagy. Here we report for the first time ultrastructural studies on muscle biopsies from BM and UCMD patients, showing swollen mitochondria with hypodense matrix, disorganized cristae and paracrystalline inclusions, associated with dilated sarcoplasmic reticulum and apoptotic changes. These data were supported by scanning electron microscopy analysis on BM and UCMD cultured cells, showing alterations of the mitochondrial network. Morphometric analysis also revealed a reduced short axis and depicted swelling in about 3% of mitochondria. These data demonstrate that mitochondrial defects underlie the pathogenetic mechanism in muscle tissue of patients affected by collagen VI myopathies. PMID:24596691

  2. GABAergic and glycinergic pathways to goldfish retinal ganglion cells: an ultrastructural double label study

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    An ultrastructural double label has been employed to compare GABAergic and glycinergic systems in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the goldfish retina. Electron microscope autoradiography of /sup 3/H-GABA and /sup 3/H-glycine uptake was combined with retrograde HRP-labeling of ganglion cells. When surveyed for distribution, GABAergic and glycinergic synapses were found onto labeled ganglion cells throughout the IPL. This reinforces previous physiological work that described GABAergic and glycinergic influences on a variety of ganglion cells in goldfish and carp; These physiological effects often reflect direct inputs.

  3. Ultrastructural evidence for divergent and alternating differentiations in spindle cell sarcoma xenografts.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, U; Stüben, G; Stuschke, M; Donhuijsen, K

    1997-04-01

    Seven spindle cell sarcomas, 5 poorly differentiated ones and 2 moderately well differentiated ones, were established on nude mice and long term passaging was done. Sarcoma strains were analysed electron microscopically in an attempt to get further insight in spindle cell sarcoma differentiation pathways. Ultrastructurally, the tumours were classified as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (3/7), leiomyosarcoma (2/7), rhabdomyosarcoma (1/7), and spindle cell sarcoma not otherwise classifiable (1/7). Undifferentiated tumour cells including fibroblastoid ones predominated in most xenografts, whereas cells harbouring cytoplasmic specificities tended to be few in number. Nevertheless, divergent differentiations exhibiting unusual double or triple patterns could be documented ultrastructurally in 12/30 xenografts with juxtaposed myomatous as well as nerve sheath-like cells and, in addition, histiocytoid (MFH-like) elements in 3 of the xenografts. Moreover, sarcoma strains alternated fine structural constellations in the course of passaging, whereby different phenotypes, myomatous, nerve sheath-like, unspecific, or mixed ones, succeeded one another. These findings pursue recent immunohistochemical data on multidirectional sarcoma differentiation by means of electron microscopy. They, furthermore, fit well into the concept of multipotential stem cells as progenitors in mesenchymal differentiation and suggest microenvironment to play a modifying role in the expression of cell differentiation. PMID:9165712

  4. Cell Wall Ultrastructure of Stem Wood, Roots, and Needles of a Conifer Varies in Response to Moisture Availability.

    PubMed

    Pattathil, Sivakumar; Ingwers, Miles W; Victoriano, Olivia L; Kandemkavil, Sindhu; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O; Aubrey, Doug P

    2016-01-01

    The composition, integrity, and architecture of the macromolecular matrix of cell walls, collectively referred to as cell wall ultrastructure, exhibits variation across species and organs and among cell types within organs. Indirect approaches have suggested that modifications to cell wall ultrastructure occur in response to abiotic stress; however, modifications have not been directly observed. Glycome profiling was used to study cell wall ultrastructure by examining variation in composition and extractability of non-cellulosic glycans in cell walls of stem wood, roots, and needles of loblolly pine saplings exposed to high and low soil moisture. Soil moisture influenced physiological processes and the overall composition and extractability of cell wall components differed as a function of soil moisture treatments. The strongest response of cell wall ultrastructure to soil moisture was increased extractability of pectic backbone epitopes in the low soil moisture treatment. The higher abundance of these pectic backbone epitopes in the oxalate extract indicate that the loosening of cell wall pectic components could be associated with the release of pectic signals as a stress response. The increased extractability of pectic backbone epitopes in response to low soil moisture availability was more pronounced in stem wood than in roots or needles. Additional responses to low soil moisture availability were observed in lignin-associated carbohydrates released in chlorite extracts of stem wood, including an increased abundance of pectic arabinogalactan epitopes. Overall, these results indicate that cell walls of loblolly pine organs undergo changes in their ultrastructural composition and extractability as a response to soil moisture availability and that cell walls of the stem wood are more responsive to low soil moisture availability compared to cell walls of roots and needles. To our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence, delineated by glycomic analyses, that

  5. Cell Wall Ultrastructure of Stem Wood, Roots, and Needles of a Conifer Varies in Response to Moisture Availability

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pattathil, Sivakumar; Ingwers, Miles W.; Victoriano, Olivia L.; Kandemkavil, Sindhu; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O.; Aubrey, Doug P.

    2016-06-24

    The composition, integrity, and architecture of the macromolecular matrix of cell walls, collectively referred to as cell wall ultrastructure, exhibits variation across species and organs and among cell types within organs. Indirect approaches have suggested that modifications to cell wall ultrastructure occur in response to abiotic stress; however, modifications have not been directly observed. Glycome profiling was used to study cell wall ultrastructure by examining variation in composition and extractability of non-cellulosic glycans in cell walls of stem wood, roots, and needles of loblolly pine saplings exposed to high and low soil moisture. Soil moisture influenced physiological processes and themore » overall composition and extractability of cell wall components differed as a function of soil moisture treatments. The strongest response of cell wall ultrastructure to soil moisture was increased extractability of pectic backbone epitopes in the low soil moisture treatment. The higher abundance of these pectic backbone epitopes in the oxalate extract indicate that the loosening of cell wall pectic components could be associated with the release of pectic signals as a stress response. The increased extractability of pectic backbone epitopes in response to low soil moisture availability was more pronounced in stem wood than in roots or needles. Additional responses to low soil moisture availability were observed in lignin associated carbohydrates released in chlorite extracts of stem wood, including an increased abundance of pectic arabinogalactan epitopes. Overall, these results indicate that cell walls of loblolly pine organs undergo changes in their ultrastructural composition and extractability as a response to soil moisture availability and that cell walls of the stem wood are more responsive to low soil moisture availability compared to cell walls of roots and needles. In conclusion, to our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence, delineated by

  6. Cell Wall Ultrastructure of Stem Wood, Roots, and Needles of a Conifer Varies in Response to Moisture Availability

    PubMed Central

    Pattathil, Sivakumar; Ingwers, Miles W.; Victoriano, Olivia L.; Kandemkavil, Sindhu; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O.; Aubrey, Doug P.

    2016-01-01

    The composition, integrity, and architecture of the macromolecular matrix of cell walls, collectively referred to as cell wall ultrastructure, exhibits variation across species and organs and among cell types within organs. Indirect approaches have suggested that modifications to cell wall ultrastructure occur in response to abiotic stress; however, modifications have not been directly observed. Glycome profiling was used to study cell wall ultrastructure by examining variation in composition and extractability of non-cellulosic glycans in cell walls of stem wood, roots, and needles of loblolly pine saplings exposed to high and low soil moisture. Soil moisture influenced physiological processes and the overall composition and extractability of cell wall components differed as a function of soil moisture treatments. The strongest response of cell wall ultrastructure to soil moisture was increased extractability of pectic backbone epitopes in the low soil moisture treatment. The higher abundance of these pectic backbone epitopes in the oxalate extract indicate that the loosening of cell wall pectic components could be associated with the release of pectic signals as a stress response. The increased extractability of pectic backbone epitopes in response to low soil moisture availability was more pronounced in stem wood than in roots or needles. Additional responses to low soil moisture availability were observed in lignin-associated carbohydrates released in chlorite extracts of stem wood, including an increased abundance of pectic arabinogalactan epitopes. Overall, these results indicate that cell walls of loblolly pine organs undergo changes in their ultrastructural composition and extractability as a response to soil moisture availability and that cell walls of the stem wood are more responsive to low soil moisture availability compared to cell walls of roots and needles. To our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence, delineated by glycomic analyses, that

  7. Ultrastructural Aspects of the Prenatal Bovine Ovary Differentiation with a Special Focus on the Interstitial Cells.

    PubMed

    Kenngott, R A-M; Scholz, W; Sinowatz, F

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the ultrastructural features during the development of fetal bovine ovaries (crown rump length ranging from 11.4 to 94.0 cm). An interesting observation was the occurrence of big elongated cells containing a variety of electron dense granules and light homogenous vacuoles/bodies. They were located between the stroma cells surrounding the germ cell cord ends, adjacent to the first formed primordial follicles, typically situated near blood vessels. ER alpha and ER beta receptor positive cells could be detected in the same regions by means of immunohistochemistry. Intercellular bridges linked the germ cells nests oogonia. Germ cell cords consisted of centrally located, large, pale oogonia, surrounded by elongated somatic cells with very long cytoplasm extensions. Primordial follicles with flat pale follicular cells could be observed on the inner end of the cords. Extrusions of the outer nuclear membrane could often been recognised in voluminous oocytes. PMID:27439665

  8. Effects of shading on the photosynthetic characteristics and mesophyll cell ultrastructure of summer maize.

    PubMed

    Ren, Baizhao; Cui, Haiyan; Camberato, James J; Dong, Shuting; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Jiwang

    2016-08-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of shading on the photosynthetic characteristics and mesophyll cell ultrastructure of two summer maize hybrids Denghai605 (DH605) and Zhengdan958 (ZD958). The ambient sunlight treatment was used as control (CK) and shading treatments (40 % of ambient sunlight) were applied at different growth stages from silking (R1) to physiological maturity (R6) (S1), from the sixth leaf stage (V6) to R1 (S2), and from seeding to R6 (S3), respectively. The net photosynthetic rate (P n) was significantly decreased after shading. The greatest reduction of P n was found at S3 treatment, followed by S1 and S2 treatments. P n of S3 was decreased by 59 and 48 % for DH605, and 39 and 43 % for ZD958 at tasseling and milk-ripe stages, respectively, compared to that of CK. Additionally, leaf area index (LAI) and chlorophyll content decreased after shading. In terms of mesophyll cell ultrastructure, chloroplast configuration of mesophyll cells dispersed, and part of chloroplast swelled and became circular. Meanwhile, the major characteristics of chloroplasts showed poorly developed thylakoid structure at the early growth stage, blurry lamellar structure, loose grana, and a large gap between slices and warping granum. Then, plasmolysis occurred in mesophyll cells and the endomembrane system was destroyed, which resulted in the dissolution of cell membrane, karyotheca, mitochondria, and some membrane structures. The damaged mesophyll cell ultrastructure led to the decrease of photosynthetic capacity, and thus resulted in significant yield reduction by 45, 11, and 84 % in S1, S2, and S3 treatments, respectively, compared to that of CK. PMID:27437706

  9. Improved sectioning and ultrastructure of bacteria and animal cells embedded in Lowicryl.

    PubMed

    Bénichou, J C; Fréhel, C; Ryter, A

    1990-04-01

    Lowicryl K4M-embedded Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria have a tendency to separate between the cell surface and the resin. This often leads to distortion of bacteria and more especially of mycobacteria. We describe attempts made to overcome this technical problem. Different assays were made on Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Mycobacterium avium: 1) Modification of the bacterial surface by coating of bacteria with proteinic compounds; 2) treatment of bacteria with metallic salts known to modify cell wall polysaccharides; and 3) comparison between Lowicryl K4M and HM20. Conditions have been found in which the separation of all bacterial species from the resin is abolished. The most important factor appeared to be the treatment of bacteria before dehydration, with 0.5% uranyl acetate for 30 min. The second most important factor, especially for M. avium and to a lower extent for Gram-negative bacteria, was the use of Lowicryl HM20. No differences were observed with Gram-positive bacteria between K4M and HM20. Pre-embedding in gelatin instead of agar improved sectioning of M. avium, but had no effects on the other bacterial species. These conditions applied to macrophages infected with Shigella dysenteriae or M. avium also gave excellent results. In addition to sectioning improvement of bacteria, uranyl acetate improved the ultrastructure of bacteria and macrophages. All organelles were more clearly delineated and, hence, more easily identified. Finally, it was shown that UA treatment did not affect immunogold labeling of a variety of antigens. PMID:2110246

  10. Tumour Angiogenesis: Ultrastructure of Endothelial Cells in Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Warren, B. A.; Greenblatt, M.; Kommineni, V. R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Under the influence of a diffusible factor or factors from melanoma tumour tissue and neonatal hamster renal tissue, which passed through millipore filters, the endothelial cells of capillaries and small venules in the adult hamster were found to undergo mitotic division. Occasional endothelial cells in mitosis were noted in small arteries. Endothelial cells within the same vessel did not undergo mitosis in a synchronous fashion. During mitosis they retained intact their intercellular junctions with adjacent endothelial cells. No specific orientation of the mitotic spindle to the long axis of the vessel was noted. The usual appearance of cells in division was observed in this specific instance of endothelial cells in an adult animal undergoing mitotic division. In particular the formation of chromosomes and the various changes that ensue in the nuclear membrane were traced within endothelial cells. Typical spindle lamellae were found in cells during the formation of the membranes of the daughter nuclei. ImagesFig. 7Fig. 1Figs. 2-3Figs. 4-5Fig. 6 PMID:4555714

  11. Ultrastructural Analysis of Different Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells After in Vitro Expansion: A Technical Review

    PubMed Central

    Danišovič, Ľ.; Majidi, A.; Varga, I.

    2015-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy reveals ultrastructural details of cells, and it is a valuable method for studying cell organelles. That is why we used this method for detailed morphological description of different adult tissue-derived stem cells, focusing on the morphological signs of their functions (proteosynthetic activity, exchange with external environment, etc.) and their comparison. Preparing a specimen from the cell culture suitable for transmission electron microscopy is, however, much more challenging than routine tissue processing for normal histological examination. There are several issues that need to be solved while working with cell pellets instead of solid tissue. Here we describe a simple protocol for the isolation and culture of mesenchymal stem cells from different adult tissues, with applications to stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. Since we are working with population of cells that was obtained after many days of passaging, very efficient and gentle procedures are highly necessary. We demonstrated that our semi-conservative approach regarding to histological techniques and processing of cells for transmission electron microscopy is a well reproducible procedure which results in quality pictures and images of cell populations with minimum distortions and artifacts. We also commented about riskiest steps and histochemical issues (e.g., precise pH, temperature) while preparing the specimen. We bring full and detailed procedures of fixation, post-fixation, infiltration, embedding, polymerization and contrasting of cell obtained from in vitro cell and tissue cultures, with modifications according to our experience. All this steps are essential for us to know more about adult stem cells derived from different sources or about other random cell populations. The knowledge about detailed ultra-structure of adult stem cells cultured in vitro are also essential for their using in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. PMID:26708176

  12. Ultrastructural comparison of porcine putative embryonic stem cells derived by in vitro fertilization and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hyunju; Kim, Eunhye; Hwang, Seon-Ung; Yoon, Junchul David; Jeon, Yubyeol; Park, Kyu-Mi; Kim, Kyu-Jun; Jin, Minghui; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Lee, Eunsong; Kim, Hyunggee; Kim, Gonhyung; Hyun, Sang-Hwan

    2016-04-22

    The ultrastructure of porcine putative embryonic stem cells and porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFFs) was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The aim of this study was to compare the features of organelles in in vitro fertilization (IVF) derived porcine embryonic stem cells (IVF-pESCs) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) derived pESCs (SCNT-pESCs). Also, the features of organelles in high-passage IVF-pESCs were compared with those in low-passage cells. The ultrastructure of PFFs showed rare microvilli on the cell surfaces, polygonal or irregular nuclei with one to two reticular-shaped nucleoli and euchromatin, low cytoplasm-to-nucleus ratios, rare ribosomes, rare rough endoplasmic reticulum, elongated mitochondria, rich lysosomes and rich phagocytic vacuoles. IVF-pESCs showed rare microvilli on the cell surfaces, round or irregular nuclei with one to two reticular-shaped nucleoli and euchromatin, low cytoplasm-to-nucleus ratios, rich ribosomes, long stacks of rough endoplasmic reticulum, elongated mitochondria, rare lysosomes and rare autophagic vacuoles. By contrast, SCNT-pESCs showed rich microvilli with various lengths and frequencies on the cell surfaces, polygonal nuclei with one reticular shaped nucleoli and heterochromatin, high cytoplasm-to-nucleus ratios, rare ribosomes, rare rough endoplasmic reticulum, round mitochondria, rich lysosomes and rich phagocytic vacuoles with clear intercellular junctions. Furthermore, high-passage IVF-pESCs showed irregularly shaped colonies, pyknosis and numerous lysosomes associated with autophagic vacuoles showing signs of apoptosis. In conclusion, this study confirms that the ultrastructural characteristics of pESCs differ depending on their origin. These ultrastructural characteristics might be useful in biomedical research using pESCs, leading to new insights regarding regenerative medicine and tissue repair. PMID:26821870

  13. Adaptive response to starvation in the fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare: cell viability and ultrastructural changes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The ecology of columnaris disease, caused by Flavobacterium columnare, is poorly understood despite the economic losses that this disease inflicts on aquaculture farms worldwide. Currently, the natural reservoir for this pathogen is unknown but limited data have shown its ability to survive in water for extended periods of time. The objective of this study was to describe the ultrastructural changes that F. columnare cells undergo under starvation conditions. Four genetically distinct strains of this pathogen were monitored for 14 days in media without nutrients. Culturability and cell viability was assessed throughout the study. In addition, cell morphology and ultrastructure was analyzed using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Revival of starved cells under different nutrient conditions and the virulence potential of the starved cells were also investigated. Results Starvation induced unique and consistent morphological changes in all strains studied. Cells maintained their length and did not transition into a shortened, coccus shape as observed in many other Gram negative bacteria. Flavobacterium columnare cells modified their shape by morphing into coiled forms that comprised more than 80% of all the cells after 2 weeks of starvation. Coiled cells remained culturable as determined by using a dilution to extinction strategy. Statistically significant differences in cell viability were found between strains although all were able to survive in absence of nutrients for at least 14 days. In later stages of starvation, an extracellular matrix was observed covering the coiled cells. A difference in growth curves between fresh and starved cultures was evident when cultures were 3-months old but not when cultures were starved for only 1 month. Revival of starved cultures under different nutrients revealed that cells return back to their original elongated rod shape upon encountering nutrients. Challenge

  14. ULTRASTRUCTURE OF THE NUCLEOLUS DURING THE CHINESE HAMSTER CELL CYCLE

    PubMed Central

    Noel, J. S.; Dewey, W. C.; Abel, J. H.; Thompson, R. P.

    1971-01-01

    Changes in the structure of the nucleolus during the cell cycle of the Chinese hamster cell in vitro were studied. Quantitative electron microscopic techniques were used to establish the size and volume changes in nucleolar structures. In mitosis, nucleolar remnants, "persistent nucleoli," consisting predominantly of ribosome-like granular material, and a granular coating on the chromosomes were observed. Persistent nucleoli were also observed in some daughter nuclei as they were leaving telophase and entering G1. During very early G1, a dense, fibrous material characteristic of interphase nucleoli was noted in the nucleoplasm of the cells. As the cells progressed through G1, a granular component appeared which was intimately associated with the fibrous material. By the middle of G1, complete, mature nucleoli were present. The nucleolar volume enlarged by a factor of two from the beginning of G1 to the middle of S primarily due to the accumulation of the granular component. During the G2 period, there was a dissolution or breakdown of the nucleolus prior to the entry of the cells into mitosis. Correlations between the quantitative aspects of this study and biochemical and cytochemical data available in the literature suggest the following: nucleolar reformation following division results from the activation of the nucleolar organizer regions which transcribe for RNA first appearing in association with protein as a fibrous component (45S RNA) and then later as a granular component (28S and 32S RNA). PMID:4933472

  15. Histopathologic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of a granular cell tumour in an Australian parakeet (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Hernández, V; Carrera, E; Méndez, A; Morales, J C; Morales, E; Sánchez, F D

    2012-10-01

    An adult male Australian parakeet (Melopsittacus undulatus) presented a firm nodular lesion in the lateral metacarpal region of the right wing. Microscopically, there were neoplastic cells, round and polyhedral in shape, with abundant, slightly eosinophilic granular cytoplasm; they were strongly periodic-acid Schiff-positive and resistant to diastase digestion. Some groups of neoplastic cells were immunopositive for smooth muscle actin and desmin. There was no immunopositivity for S-100 protein, CD68 and cytokeratin. Ultrastructurally, the neoplastic cells were round and polygonal in shape, and they were characterized by abundant cytoplasm with numerous homogeneous osmophilic bodies covered by an electron-dense membrane (lysosomes). The histopathologic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of the neoplastic tissue are consistent with a granular cell tumour, which has been described in different animal species and anatomic locations; however, this seems to be an infrequent neoplasm in Australian parakeets. The immunopositivity of the neoplastic cells for smooth muscle actin and desmin, as well as slight positivity for muscle with Masson's trichrome, suggest that this is a tumour of myogenic origin. PMID:22913601

  16. Ultrastructural changes in tracheal epithelial cells exposed to oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpott, D. E.; Harrison, G. A.; Turnbill, C.; Black, S.

    1977-01-01

    White albino rats were sacrificed after 24, 36, 48, 72, and 96 h of exposure to 100% O2 at 1 atm. Tissue was prepared for the scanning electron microscope (SEM) by Critical Point Drying and for the transmission electron microscope (TEM) by plastic embedding. Scanning microscopy showed a loss of microvilli after 48 h of exposure. Cilia appeared relatively normal with SEM, but TEM revealed changes in the outer membrane. In TEM, nonciliated cells appeared swollen and often encroached on the ciliated cells. A heavy mucous blanket remained even after processing. All the changes observed that are induced by oxygen exposure contribute to mucostasis, reducing and/or halting mucociliary clearance.

  17. Ultrastructural similarity between bat and human mast cell secretory granules.

    PubMed

    Oliani, S M; Vugman, I; Jamur, M C

    1993-01-01

    Mast cells in the tongue of the bat (Artibeus lituratus) show a well-developed Golgi area and abundant mitochondria in the granule-free perinuclear cytoplasm. Rough endoplasmic reticulum profiles, free ribosomes, mitochondria, bundles of filaments and a great number of secretory granules are found throughout the remaining cytoplasm. The granules, of various shapes and sizes, are simple containing an electron-dense, homogeneous matrix, coarse particles or cylindrical scrolls, or combinations (cylindrical scrolls with either electron-dense, homogeneous matrix or coarse particle contents). Up to now, scroll-containing granules have been considered to be a unique feature of human mast cells. PMID:8453310

  18. Ultrastructural aspects of foreign body giant cells generated on different substrates.

    PubMed

    Ten Harkel, Bas; Koopsen, Jelle; van Putten, Sander M; van Veen, Henk; Picavet, Daisy I; de Vries, Teun J; Bank, Ruud A; Everts, Vincent

    2016-07-01

    Implantation of biomaterials into the body, e.g. for tissue engineering purposes, induces a material-dependent inflammatory response called the foreign body reaction (FBR). A hallmark feature of this response is the formation of large multinucleated cells: foreign body giant cells (FBGCs). Biomaterials like cross-linked and non-cross-linked collagen often induce the formation of FBGCs. It is unknown whether different biomaterials result in the formation of different FBGCs. To investigate this, we implanted cross-linked and non-cross-linked dermal sheep collagen subcutaneously in mice. After 21 days the implanted material was collected and prepared for ultrastructural analysis. More FBGCs formed on and between implants of cross-linked collagen compared to non-cross-linked material. The ultrastructural aspects of the FBGCs present on the two types of implants proved to be similar. On both materials, they formed long slender protrusions on the basolateral membrane, they were very rich in mitochondria, contained numerous nuclei, and showed signs of the presence of a clear zone facing the implanted material. Similar clear zones, that resemble osteoclastic features, were also seen in FBGCs generated in vitro on bone slices, but these cells did not form a ruffled border. However, similarities in ultrastructure such as the occurrence of slender protrusions and high mitochondrion content were also found in the FBGCs generated in vitro. These data indicate that FBGCs formed on different substrates share many morphological characteristics. The formation of long finger-like protrusions seemed typical for the FBGCs, in vivo as well as in vitro, however the function of these structures needs further analysis. PMID:27155321

  19. Comparative effectiveness of a clinostat and a slow-turning lateral vessel at mimicking the ultrastructural effects of microgravity in plant cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    The object of this research was to determine how effectively the actions of a clinostat and a fluid-filled, slow-turning lateral vessel (STLV) mimic the ultrastructural effects of microgravity in plant cells. We accomplished this by qualitatively and quantitatively comparing the ultrastructures of cells grown on clinostats and in an STLV with those of cells grown at 1 g and in microgravity aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. Columella cells of Brassica perviridis seedlings grown in microgravity and in an STLV have similar structures. Both contain significantly more lipid bodies, less starch, and fewer dictyosomes than columella cells of seedlings grown at 1 g. Cells of seedlings grown on clinostats have significantly different ultrastructures from those grown in microgravity or in an STLV, indicating that clinostats do not mimic microgravity at the ultrastructural level. The similar structures of columella cells of seedlings grown in an STLV and in microgravity suggest that an STLV effectively mimics microgravity at the ultrastructural level.

  20. Ultrastructure of the Epidermal Cell Wall and Cuticle of Tomato Fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L.) during Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Segado, Patricia; Domínguez, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The epidermis plays a pivotal role in plant development and interaction with the environment. However, it is still poorly understood, especially its outer epidermal wall: a singular wall covered by a cuticle. Changes in the cuticle and cell wall structures are important to fully understand their functions. In this work, an ultrastructure and immunocytochemical approach was taken to identify changes in the cuticle and the main components of the epidermal cell wall during tomato fruit development. A thin and uniform procuticle was already present before fruit set. During cell division, the inner side of the procuticle showed a globular structure with vesicle-like particles in the cell wall close to the cuticle. Transition between cell division and elongation was accompanied by a dramatic increase in cuticle thickness, which represented more than half of the outer epidermal wall, and the lamellate arrangement of the non-cutinized cell wall. Changes in this non-cutinized outer wall during development showed specific features not shared with other cell walls. The coordinated nature of the changes observed in the cuticle and the epidermal cell wall indicate a deep interaction between these two supramolecular structures. Hence, the cuticle should be interpreted within the context of the outer epidermal wall. PMID:26668335

  1. Spray-freezing freeze substitution (SFFS) of cell suspensions for improved preservation of ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Fields, S D; Strout, G W; Russell, S D

    1997-08-01

    Some unicellular organisms present challenges to chemical fixations that lead to common, yet obvious, artifacts. These can be avoided in entirety by adapting spray-freezing technology to ultrarapidly freeze specimens for freeze substitution. To freeze specimens, concentrated suspensions of cells ranging in diameter from 0.5-30 pm were sprayed with an airbrush at 140-200 kPa (1.05-1.5 torr; 20.3-29.0 psi) into a nylon mesh transfer basket submerged in liquid propane. After freezing, the mesh basket containing the frozen sample was lifted out of the chamber, drained and transferred through several anhydrous acetone rinses at 188 K (-85 degrees C). Freeze substitution was conducted in 1% tannic acid/1% anhydrous glutaraldehyde in acetone at 188 K (-85 degrees C), followed by 1% OsO4/acetone at 277 K (4 degrees C). Freeze substitution was facilitated using a shaking table to provide gentle mixing of the substitution medium on dry ice. High quality freezing was observed in 70% of spray-frozen dinoflagellate cells and in 95% of spray-frozen cyanobacterial cells. These could be infiltrated and observed directly; however, overall ultrastructural appearance and membrane contrast were improved when the freeze-substituted cells were rehydrated and post-fixed in aqueous OSO4, then dehydrated and embedded in either Spurr's or Epon resin. Ultrastructural preservation using this ultrarapid freezing method provided specimens that were consistently superior to those obtainable in even the best comparable chemical fixations. PMID:9264343

  2. Immunocytochemical localization and ultrastructural study of gonadotroph cells in the female desert lizard Uromastyx acanthinura.

    PubMed

    Hammouche, S; Gernigon, T; Exbrayat, J M

    2007-02-01

    The pars distalis from the pituitary gland of adult female desert lizards (Uromastyx acanthinura), captured during vitellogenesis (late may) and hivernal period, was studied with immunocytochemical methods using specific antisera against human FSH (hFSH) and LH (hLH). The immunostaining with anti-hLH and anti-hFSH allowed the identification of only FSH-like containing cells. The FSH-like immunoreactive cells were affected differently by a physiological stage and showed some heterogenous cytological characteristics. During vitellogenesis, four aspects of rostral FSH-like immunoreactive cells could be recognized. The expression of FSH-like in mainly immunoreactive cells was parallel to an intense synthetic activity and to the presence of ultrastructural features indicating an intense release of the hormone. This release was considerably altered in winter, the immunoreactive cells stored an important amount of secretion granules which increased in size and undergo a crinophagic process. PMID:17098269

  3. Ultrastructural interaction between spermatozoon and human oviductal cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Vigil, Pilar; Salgado, Ana María; Cortés, Manuel E

    2012-04-01

    The oviduct is an important organ for successful mammalian reproduction. In this work, human oviducts were inseminated and their explants analyzed using scanning electron microscopy in order to study, at a finer ultrastructual level, the interaction between spermatozoon and oviduct in vitro. Results show unequivocally a spermatozoon tightly attached through the acrosomal region of its head to several cilia of the human tubal epithelial cells. This finding proves that spermatozoa do indeed adhere to the endosalpinx, a fact of utmost relevance for the physiology of the reproductive process, since it supports the idea of a spermatozoa reservoir being formed in the oviduct, which is also briefly discussed. PMID:22355149

  4. Ultrastructure of the Bacteroides nodosus cell envelope layers and surface.

    PubMed Central

    Every, D; Skerman, T M

    1980-01-01

    The surface structure and cell envelope layers of various virulent Bacteroides nodosus strains were examined by light microscopy and by electron microscopy by using negative staining, thin-section, and freeze-fracture-etch techniques. Three surface structures were described: pili and a diffuse material, both of which emerged from one or both poles of the bacteria (depending on the stage of growth and division), and large rodlike structures (usually 30 to 40 nm in diameter) associated with a small proportion of the bacterial population. No capsule was detected. The cell envelope consisted of four layers: a plasma membrane, a peptidoglycan layer, an outer membrane, and an outermost additional layer. The additional layer was composed of subunits, generally hexagonally packed with center-to-center spacing of 6 to 7 nm. The outer membrane and plasma membrane freeze-fractured through their hydrophobic regions revealing four fracture faces with features similar to those of other gram-negative bacteria. However, some unusual features were seen on the fracture faces of the outer membrane: large raised ring structure (11 to 12 nm in diameter) on cw 3 at the poles of the bacteria; complementary pits or ring-shaped depressions on cw 2; and small raised ring structures (7 to 8 nm in diameter) all over cw 2. Images PMID:6154040

  5. Ultrastructural analysis of midgut cells from Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae resistant to Bacillus sphaericus.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Janaina Viana; Vasconcelos, Romero Henrique Teixeira; Furtado, André Freire; Peixoto, Christina Alves; Silva-Filha, Maria Helena Neves Lobo

    2008-12-01

    The larvicidal action of the entomopathogen Bacillus sphaericus towards Culex quinquefasciatus is due to the binary (Bin) toxin present in crystals, which are produced during bacterial sporulation. The Bin toxin needs to recognize and bind specifically to a single class of receptors, named Cqm1, which are 60-kDa alpha-glucosidases attached to the apical membrane of midgut cells by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. C. quinquefasciatus resistance to B. sphaericus has been often associated with the absence of the alpha-glucosidase Cqm1 in larvae midgut microvilli. In this work, we aimed to investigate, at the ultrastructural level, the midgut cells from C. quinquefasciatus larvae whose resistance relies on the lack of the Cqm1 receptor. The morphological analysis showed that midgut columnar cells from the resistant larvae are characterized by a pronounced production of lipid inclusions, throughout the 4th instar. At the end of this stage, resistant larvae had an increased size and number of these inclusions in the midgut cells, while only a small number were observed in the cells from susceptible larvae. The morphological differences in the midgut cells of resistant larvae found in this work suggested that the lack of the Cqm1 receptor, which also has a physiological role as being an alpha-glucosidase, can be related to changes in the cell metabolism. The ultrastructural effects of Bin toxin on midgut epithelial cells from susceptible and resistant larvae were also investigated. The cytopathological alterations observed in susceptible larvae treated with a lethal concentration of toxin included breakdown of the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrial swelling, microvillar disruption and vacuolization. Some effects were observed in cells from resistant larvae, although those alterations did not lead to larval death, indicating that the receptor Cqm1 is essential to mediate the larvicidal action of the toxin. This is the first ultrastructural study to show differences

  6. Comparison of nonciliated tracheal epithelial cells in six mammalian species: ultrastructure and population densities.

    PubMed

    Plopper, C G; Mariassy, A T; Wilson, D W; Alley, J L; Nishio, S J; Nettesheim, P

    1983-12-01

    Three types of nonciliated epithelial cells in mammalian conducting respiratory airways are thought to be secretory: mucous (goblet) cells, serous epithelial cells, and Clara cells. Mucous and serous cells are considered to be the secretory cells of the trachea. Clara cells are considered to be the secretory cells of the most distal conducting airways or bronchioles. To ascertain if mucous and serous epithelial cells are common to the tracheal epithelium of mammalian species, we characterized the ultrastructure and population densities of tracheal epithelial cells in six species: hamster (H), rat (Rt), rabbit (Rb), cat (C), Bonnet monkey (M. radiata) (B), and sheep (S). Following fixation by airway infusion with glutaraldehyde/paraformaldehyde, tracheal tissue was processed for light and electron microscopy (EM) by a selective embedding technique. Tracheal epithelium over cartilage was quantitated by light microscopy and characterized by transmission EM. Mucous cells were defined by abundant large nonhomogeneous granules, numerous Golgi complexes, basally located nuclei and granular endoplasmic reticulum (GER). The percentage of mucous cells in the tracheal epithelium was: H (0%), Rt (0.5%), Rb (1.3%), C (20.2%), B (8%), S (5.1%). Serous cells had homogeneous, electron-dense granules and extensive GER. Serous cells were present only in rats (39.2%). Clara cells had homogeneous electron-dense granules, abundant agranular endoplasmic reticulum (AER) and basal GER. Clara cells were found in hamsters (41.4%) and rabbits (17.6%). In sheep trachea, 35.9% of the epithelial cells had small electron-lucent granules, abundant AER and numerous Golgi complexes. In Bonnet monkey trachea, 16% of the epithelial cells had small electron-lucent granules, numerous polyribosomes, perinuclear Golgi apparatus and moderate GER. In cat trachea, 5.4% of the epithelial cells lacked granules, and had moderate numbers of mitochondria, moderate amounts of polyribosomes, a central nucleus, and

  7. Effect of storage media and storage time on histological and ultrastructural changes in cat epididymal cells.

    PubMed

    Tittarelli, C M; Jurado, S B; Nuñez-Favre, R; Bonaura, M C; de la Sota, R L; Stornelli, M A

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the histological and ultrastructural changes in cat epididymides (n = 22) stored at 4 °C in two different media [saline solution (SAL) or tris-egg yolk (TEY)]. Our hypothesis was that epididymides stored in TEY would have delayed epithelial cell autolysis. Four epididymides were fixed and processed immediately, and the remaining 18 epididymides were stored at 4 °C in SAL or TEY for 24, 48 or 72 h. In histological sections, the nuclear features and stereocilia morphology were scored from 0 to 3. Ultrastructurally, nuclear chromatin and stereocilia morphology were scored from 0 to 3. In addition, using transmission electron microscopy nuclear number, nuclear area, mitochondrial number and mitochondrial area were recorded. In the histological study, parameters changed with time and media (p < 0.01). A significant effect of time was observed (p < 0.01), and the morphological changes were greatest when the storage time increased. Morphological changes were higher in SAL compared with TEY (p < 0.01). In the ultrastructural study, nuclear chromatin and stereocilia morphology decreased with time and media as in the histological study (p < 0.01). In addition, nuclear number and nuclear area changed with time (p < 0.004; p < 0.001) but not with media. Conversely, mitochondrial number and mitochondrial area did not change with media or time (p > 0.05). In conclusion, these results show that TEY preserved epididymal epithelial cells better than SAL; this finding could help improve sperm quality of stored epididymides. PMID:23279519

  8. Ultrastructural effects of radiation on cells and tissues: concluding remarks

    SciTech Connect

    Seed, T.M.; Carr, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    Concluding remarks which condense the subject matter covered in the preceding series of reports which indicate the complex nature of the biological response to ionizing radiation and the inherent difficulties associated with developing unifying concepts and definitions. The multiplicity of the major response variables, i.e., specimen type, radiation parameters, analytical approach and endpoints measured, is undoubtedly a major problem. In these studies, the specimens analyzed ranged from eucaryotic algae grown in vitro in suspension cultures to brain tissue of cancer patients. Specimens were irradiated with now fewer than seven types of ionizing radiation, which varied both in quality (i.e., high and low LET) and quantity (i.e., doses from 0.1 to 90 Gy). Exposure regimens included single, fractionated, and chronic exposures. Further, there were major differences in the analytical approach employed (e.g., structural and functional assays) and end-points measured (e.g., lethality, cell growth, surface topography, etc.).

  9. The influenza fingerprints: NS1 and M1 proteins contribute to specific host cell ultrastructure signatures upon infection by different influenza A viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Terrier, Olivier; Moules, Vincent; Carron, Coralie; Cartet, Gaeelle; Frobert, Emilie; Yver, Matthieu; Traversier, Aurelien; Wolff, Thorsten; Naffakh, Nadia; and others

    2012-10-10

    Influenza A are nuclear replicating viruses which hijack host machineries in order to achieve optimal infection. Numerous functional virus-host interactions have now been characterized, but little information has been gathered concerning their link to the virally induced remodeling of the host cellular architecture. In this study, we infected cells with several human and avian influenza viruses and we have analyzed their ultrastructural modifications by using electron and confocal microscopy. We discovered that infections lead to a major and systematic disruption of nucleoli and the formation of a large number of diverse viral structures showing specificity that depended on the subtype origin and genomic composition of viruses. We identified NS1 and M1 proteins as the main actors in the remodeling of the host ultra-structure and our results suggest that each influenza A virus strain could be associated with a specific cellular fingerprint, possibly correlated to the functional properties of their viral components.

  10. Morphology and ultrastructure of the somatic cells in Astacus leptodactylus ovary.

    PubMed

    Petrescu, Ana-Maria; Moldovan, Lucia; Zarnescu, Otilia

    2016-01-01

    We defined the somatic environment in which female germinal cells develop, and performed ultrastructural analyses of various somatic cell types, with particular reference to muscle cells and follicle cells, that reside within the ovary at different stages of oogenesis. Our findings show that ovarian wall of the crayfish is composed of long muscle cells, blood cells, blood vessels and hemal sinuses. The follicle and germinal cells lie within a common compartment of ovarian follicles that is defined by a continuous basal matrix. The follicle cells form branching cords and migrate to surround the developing oocytes. A thick basal matrix separates the ovarian interstitium from ovarian follicles compartment. Transmission electron microscopy shows that inner layer of basal matrix invaginates deeply into the ovarian compartment. Our results suggest that before being surrounded by follicle cells to form follicles, oogonia and early previtellogenic oocytes reside within a niche surrounded by a basal matrix that separates them from ovarian interstitium. We found coated pits and coated vesicles in the cortical cytoplasm of previtellogenic and vitellogenic oocytes, suggesting the receptor mediated endocytosis for transfer of material from the outside of the oocytes, via follicle cells. The interstitial compartment between the inner muscular layer of the ovarian wall and the basal matrix of the ovarian follicle compartment contains muscle cells, hemal sinuses, blood vessels and blood cells. Granular hemocytes, within and outside the vessels, were the most abundant cell population in the ovarian interstitium of crayfish after spawning and in the immature ovary. PMID:26453477

  11. Immunocytochemical and ultrastructural characterization of mammosomatotrope-, growth hormone-, and prolactin-cells from the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata l., Teleostei): an ontogenic study.

    PubMed

    Villaplana, Mariano; García Ayala, Alfonsa; García Hernández, Maria Pilar; Agulleiro, Blanca

    2003-03-01

    Growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and mammosomatotrope (MS) cells of gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata, a teleost fish, were studied in specimens from hatching to 15 months (adults) using conventional electron microscopy and an immunogold method using anti-tilapia GH sera and anti-chum salmon PRL serum. MS cells, immunoreactive to both anti-GH sera and anti-PRL sera, had been first identified in fish in a previous study in newly hatched larvae and in older larvae and juvenile specimens of Sparus aurata by light microscopic immunocytochemistry. In the present work, MS cells reacted positively to immunogold label only in older larvae and juveniles and their secretory granules immunoreacted with both GH and PRL antisera or with only one of them. MS cells were ultrastructurally similar to the PRL cells, with which they coincided in time. This is the first report on the ultrastructural characterization of MS cells in fish. In adults, the secretory granules of GH cells (immunoreactive to anti-GH serum) were mainly round, of variable size, and had a homogeneous, highly electron-dense content. Irregularly shaped secretory granules were also present. PRL cells (immunoreactive to anti-PRL serum) were usually observed in a follicular arrangement; they showed few, small, and mainly round secretory granules with a homogeneous and high or medium electron-dense content. Some oval or elongated secretory granules were also observed. GH and PRL cells that showed involutive features were also found. In newly hatched larvae, GH, PRL, and MS cells could not be distinguished either by their ultrastructure or by the immunogold labeling of the secretory granules. In 1-day-old larvae, presumptive GH and PRL cells were observed according to their position in the pituitary gland. In 2-day-old larvae, a few cells showed some of the ultrastructural features described for GH and PRL cells of adults. During development, the number, size, and shape of the secretory granules in both cell types

  12. Abiotic and enzymatic degradation of wheat straw cell wall: a biochemical and ultrastructural investigation.

    PubMed

    Lequart, C; Ruel, K; Lapierre, C; Pollet, B; Kurek, B

    2000-07-14

    The action of an abiotic lignin oxidant and a diffusible xylanase on wheat straw was studied and characterized at the levels of the molecular structures by chemical analysis and of the cell wall ultrastructure by transmission electron microscopy. While distinct chemical changes in the target polymers were observed when each system was used separately, a combination of the two types of catalysts did not significantly increase either lignin oxidation or hemicellulose hydrolysis. Microscopic observations however revealed that the supramolecular organization of the cell wall polymers was significantly altered. This suggests that the abiotic Mn-oxalate complex and the xylanase cooperate in modifying the cell wall architecture, without noticeably enhancing the degradation of the constitutive polymers. PMID:10949315

  13. Comparison of pigment cell ultrastructure and organisation in the dermis of marble trout and brown trout, and first description of erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids.

    PubMed

    Djurdjevič, Ida; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Sušnik Bajec, Simona

    2015-11-01

    Skin pigmentation in animals is an important trait with many functions. The present study focused on two closely related salmonid species, marble trout (Salmo marmoratus) and brown trout (S. trutta), which display an uncommon labyrinthine (marble-like) and spot skin pattern, respectively. To determine the role of chromatophore type in the different formation of skin pigment patterns in the two species, the distribution and ultrastructure of chromatophores was examined with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The presence of three types of chromatophores in trout skin was confirmed: melanophores; xanthophores; and iridophores. In addition, using correlative microscopy, erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids was described for the first time. Two types of erythrophores are distinguished, both located exclusively in the skin of brown trout: type 1 in black spot skin sections similar to xanthophores; and type 2 with a unique ultrastructure, located only in red spot skin sections. Morphologically, the difference between the light and dark pigmentation of trout skin depends primarily on the position and density of melanophores, in the dark region covering other chromatophores, and in the light region with the iridophores and xanthophores usually exposed. With larger amounts of melanophores, absence of xanthophores and presence of erythrophores type 1 and type L iridophores in the black spot compared with the light regions and the presence of erythrophores type 2 in the red spot, a higher level of pigment cell organisation in the skin of brown trout compared with that of marble trout was demonstrated. Even though the skin regions with chromatophores were well defined, not all the chromatophores were in direct contact, either homophilically or heterophilically, with each other. In addition to short-range interactions, an important role of the cellular environment and long-range interactions between chromatophores in promoting adult pigment pattern

  14. Ultrastructure of single cells, callus-like and monospore-like cells in Porphyra yezoensis ueda on semisolid culture medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Junxue; Shen, Songdong; Jiang, Ming; Fei, Xiugeng

    2003-06-01

    It had been demonstrated that individual cells or protoplasts isolated from Porphyra thallus by enzyme could develop into normal leafy thalli in the same way as monospores, and that isolated cells develop in different way in liquid and on semi-solid media. The authors observed the ultrastructure of isolated vegetative cells cultured on semi-solid media and compared them with those of monospores and isolated cells cultured in liquid media. The results showed that subcellular structures were quite different among cells in different conditions. In their development, isolated cells on semi-solid media did not show the characteristic subcellular feature of monospore formation, such as production of fibrous vesicles. Callus-like cells formed on semi-solid media underwent a distinctive modification in cellular organization. They developed characteristic cell inclusions and a special 2-layer cell covering. Golgi bodies, ER, starch grains, mitochondria. Vacuoles were not commonly found in them.

  15. Ultrastructural changes produced in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells by ultraviolet-visible radiation in the presence of melanins

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, P.J.; Pawlowski, A.; Persad, S.D.; Menon, I.A.; Haberman, H.F.

    1988-01-01

    Irradiation of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells in the presence of pheomelanin, i.e., red hair melanin (RHM), has been reported to produce extensive cell lysis. Irradiation in the presence of eumelanin, i.e., black hair melanin (BHM), or irradiation in the absence of either type of melanin did not produce this effect. We observed that RHM particles penetrated the cell membrane without apparent structural damage to the cell or the cell membrane. Irradiation of the cells in the absence of melanin did not produce any changes in the ultrastructure of the cells. Incubation of the cells in the dark in the presence of RHM produced only minor structural, mainly cytoplasmic changes. Irradiation of the cells in the presence of RHM produced extensive ultrastructural changes prior to complete cell lysis; these changes were more severe than the effects of incubation of the cells in the dark in the presence of RHM. When the cells incubated in the dark or irradiated in the presence of latex particles or either one of the eumelanins particles, viz. BHM or synthetic dopa melanin, these particles did not penetrate into the cells or produce any ultrastructural changes. These particles were in fact not even ingested by the cells.

  16. Ultrastructural evaluation of parathyroid glands and thyroid C cells of cattle fed Solanum malacoxylon.

    PubMed

    Collins, W T; Capen, C C; Döbereiner, J; Tokarnia, C H

    1977-06-01

    Fine structural alterations of thyroid C cells and parathyroid chief cells were evaluated after feeding dried leaves of the calcinogenic plant, Solanum malacoxylon, to cattle for 1, 6 and 32 days. Thyroid C cells initially were degranulated in response to the hypercalcemia, and parathyroid chief cells accumulated secretory granules. There was hypertrophy of thyroid C cells with well-developed secretory organelles but few secretory granules in the cytoplasm after 6 days of feeding S. malacoxylon. Inactive chief cells with dispersed profiles of endoplasmic reticulum and increased lysosomal bodies predominated in the parathyroid glands. Multiple foci of soft tissue mineralization were present in the heart, lung, and kidney. Thyroid C cells underwent hypertrophy and hyperplasia after 32 days of S. malacoxylon, and parathyroid chief cells were inactive or atrophic in response to the long-term hypercalcemia. Severe soft tissue mineralization was present throughout the cardiovascular system, lung, kidney, and spleen. These ultrastructural changes in thyroid C cells and parathyroid chief cells plus the widespread soft tissue mineralization observed after feeding cattle small amounts of S. malacoxylon are consistent with the recent evidence that leaves of this plant are a potent source of the active metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, of vitamin D. PMID:869016

  17. Ultrastructural evaluation of parathyroid glands and thyroid C cells of cattle fed Solanum malacoxylon.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, W. T.; Capen, C. C.; Döbereiner, J.; Tokarnia, C. H.

    1977-01-01

    Fine structural alterations of thyroid C cells and parathyroid chief cells were evaluated after feeding dried leaves of the calcinogenic plant, Solanum malacoxylon, to cattle for 1, 6 and 32 days. Thyroid C cells initially were degranulated in response to the hypercalcemia, and parathyroid chief cells accumulated secretory granules. There was hypertrophy of thyroid C cells with well-developed secretory organelles but few secretory granules in the cytoplasm after 6 days of feeding S. malacoxylon. Inactive chief cells with dispersed profiles of endoplasmic reticulum and increased lysosomal bodies predominated in the parathyroid glands. Multiple foci of soft tissue mineralization were present in the heart, lung, and kidney. Thyroid C cells underwent hypertrophy and hyperplasia after 32 days of S. malacoxylon, and parathyroid chief cells were inactive or atrophic in response to the long-term hypercalcemia. Severe soft tissue mineralization was present throughout the cardiovascular system, lung, kidney, and spleen. These ultrastructural changes in thyroid C cells and parathyroid chief cells plus the widespread soft tissue mineralization observed after feeding cattle small amounts of S. malacoxylon are consistent with the recent evidence that leaves of this plant are a potent source of the active metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, of vitamin D. Images Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:869016

  18. The ultrastructure of the Sertoli cell of the vervet monkey, Chlorocebus aethiops.

    PubMed

    Lebelo, S L; van der Horst, G

    2010-12-01

    The ultrastructure of the Sertoli cell of the vervet monkey was studied using both scanning and transmission electron microscopic techniques. SEM micrographs revealed perforated sleeve-like processes which encased mature elongated spermatids which are ready for spermiation. TEM micrographs showed a large Sertoli cell nucleus characterized by many lobes (4-5) and consisting of a homogenous nucleoplasm and a distinctive nucleolus. The nucleus occupies a significant portion of the basal region of the cell. The distribution of chromatin clearly shows high activity of these cells. Lipid droplets and free ribosomes are also found scattered throughout the cytoplasm. Well-developed Golgi apparatus is found in the basal region of the cell. There is phagocytic activity in the Sertoli cells as revealed by the presence of numerous phagosomes. Numerous mitochondria with well-developed tubular cristae are found on the basal side of the nucleus, whereas few mitochondria are located on the apical side of the nucleus. Distinct desmosomes are located between cells. A well-developed smooth endoplasmic reticulum and granular endoplasmic reticulum are frequently found in the cytoplasm of the Sertoli cells. The results of this investigation showed that Sertoli cells of the vervet monkey are almost similar to those of humans and show many similarities with other mammalian species. PMID:20828773

  19. Ultrastructural evidence for differentiation in a human glioblastoma cell line treated with inhibitors of eicosanoid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.E.; Anderson, K.M. ); Seed, T.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Human glioblastoma cells incubated in the presence of inhibitors of eicosanoid biosynthesis show decreased cellular proliferation without cytotoxicity. The authors studied the ultrastructural morphology of a human glioblastoma cell line cultured with nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), a lipoxygenase inhibitor, or 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid, a cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitor. When glioblastoma cells were treated for 3 days with antiproliferative concentrations of either agent, they shared many morphological characteristics, including evidence for increased astrocytic differentiation with only limited signs of toxicity. The inhibited glioma cells demonstrated an increase in the number and length of astrocytic processes containing greater numbers of glial filaments, and the NDGA-treated cells also demonstrated extensive lateral pseudopod formation along the processes. The glioblastoma cell shape also become more elongated, losing the usual nuclear lobularity and nuclear inclusions, especially in NDGA-treated cells. Many cytoplasmic organelles packed the cytosol of the inhibited glioma cells, including prominent Golgi apparatus, dilated smooth endoplasmic reticulum evolving into dilated vesicles, cytoplasmic vacuoles, and numerous concentric laminations. There was limited evidence for toxicity, however, as the mitochondria were more pleomorphic with some mitochondrial distension and disruption of the cristae along with an increase in cytoplasmic vacuolization. The authors conclude that the inhibitors of eicosanoid biosynthesis. NDGA and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid, not only suppress glioblastoma cell proliferation, but also include increased astrocytic differentiation.

  20. Changes in cell wall ultrastructure induced by sudden flooding at 25{degrees}C in Pisum sativum (Fabaceae) primary roots.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Purbasha; Niki, Teruo; Gladish, Daniel K

    2008-07-01

    Cellular degeneration is essential for many developmental and stress acclimation processes. Undifferentiated parenchymatous cells in the central vascular cylinder of pea primary roots degenerate under hypoxic conditions created by flooding at temperatures >15°C, forming a long vascular cavity that seems to provide a conduit for longitudinal oxygen transport in the roots. We show that specific changes in the cell wall ultrastructure accompanied previously detected cytoplasmic and organellar degradation in the cavity-forming roots. The degenerating cells had thinner primary cell walls, less electron-dense middle lamellae, and less abundant cell wall homogalacturonans in altered patterns, compared to healthy cells of roots grown under cold, nonflooded conditions. Cellular breakdown and changes in wall ultrastructure, however, remained confined to cells within a 50-μm radius around the root center, even after full development of the cavity. Cells farther away maintained cellular integrity and had signs of wall synthesis, perhaps from tight regulation of wall metabolism over short distances. These observations suggest that the cell degeneration might involve programmed cell death. We also show that warm, nonflooded or cold, flooded conditions that typically do not induce vascular cavity formation can also induce variations in cell wall ultrastructure. PMID:21632404

  1. Changes in lung morphology and cell number in radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis: a quantitative ultrastructural study

    SciTech Connect

    Vergara, J.A.; Raymond, U.; Thet, L.A.

    1987-05-01

    We used stereologic-morphometric techniques to obtain a detailed quantitative picture of the changes in lung ultrastructure of rats at 12 and 26 weeks after unilateral thoracic irradiation with 3000 cGy. At 12 weeks post-radiation, the total number type 1 epithelial cells, type 2 epithelial cells and capillary endothelial cells were decreased 50-70%, total type 1 epithelial and capillary surface areas were decreased 55-60%, and the total volume of intracapillary blood was decreased 75%. The interstitial cells and matrix together accounted for more than 9% of the peripheral lung tissue volume including air, compared to 3% in controls. The numerical density of interstitial cells was increased to 3-fold the control value. The numerical density of interstitial cells was increased to 3-fold the control value. Although fibroblasts still comprised the largest interstitial cell subgroup, the numerical density of mast cells was increased over 150-fold and other inflammatory and immune cells were increased to a lesser extent. At 26 weeks post-radiation, the number, volume, and surface area of the type 1 epithelium and capillary endothelium had further decreased to only 5-10% of control values. The total number of type 2 epithelial cells was reduced by 75% but the volume density was actually increased because of a 4-fold increase in the mean cell volume. The interstitial cells and matrix now comprised over 77% of total peripheral lung tissue volume including air as compared to 6% in controls. Mast cells and plasma cells comprised 11% and 19% of all interstitial cells respectively and the densities of these cells were 540 and 180-fold the control value respectively. The relation of these morphometric findings to the results of previous morphologic studies is discussed.

  2. Pollen ultrastructure in anther cultures of Datura innoxia. I. Division of the presumptive vegetative cell.

    PubMed

    Dunwell, J M; Sunderland, N

    1976-12-01

    Ultrastructural features of embryogenic pollen in Datura innoxia are described, just prior to, during, and after completion of the first division of the presumptive vegetative cell. In anther cultures initiated towards the end of the microspore phase and incubated at 28 degrees C in darkness, the spores divide within 24 h and show features consistent with those of dividing spores in vivo. Cytokinesis is also normal in most of the spores and the gametophytic cell-plate curves round the presumptive generative nucleus in the usual highly ordered way. Further differentiation of the 2 gametophytic cells does not take place and the pollen either switches to embryogenesis or degenerates. After 48-72 h, the remaining viable pollen shows the vegetative cell in division. The cell, which has a large vacuole and thin layer of parietal cytoplasm carried over from the microspore, divides consistently in a plane parallel to the microspore division. The dividing wall follows a less-ordered course than the gametophytic wall and usually traverses the vacuole, small portions of which are incorporated into the daughter cell adjacent to the generative cell. The only structural changes in the vegetative cell associated with the change in programme appear to be an increase in electron density of both plastids and mitochondria and deposition of an electron-dense material (possibly lipid) on the tonoplast. The generative cell is attached to the intine when the vegetative cell divides. Ribosomal density increases in the generative cell and exceeds that in the vegetative cell. A thin electron-dense layer also appears in the generative-cell wall. It is concluded that embryogenesis commences as soon as the 2 gametophytic cells are laid down. Gene activity associated with postmitotic synthesis of RNA and protein in the vegetative cell is switched off. The data are discussed in relation to the first division of the embryogenic vegetative cells in Nicotiana tabacum. PMID:1018041

  3. On the mechanism of cell internalization of chrysotile fibers: An immunocytochemical and ultrastructural study

    SciTech Connect

    Malorni, W.; Iosi, F.; Falchi, M.; Donelli, G. )

    1990-08-01

    Human breast carcinoma cells (CG5) and human laryngeal carcinoma cells (HEp-2) were exposed to 10 and 50 {mu}ml (about 5 {mu}m) chrysotile asbestos fibers. Morphological and ultrastructural changes were evaluated by means of immunocytochemistry and by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The authors attention was focused on the mechanisms of cell internalization and on transport of chrysotile fibers. The fibers appeared to penetrate the cell cytoplasm and to be translocated in proximity of the nucleus. Small chrysotile fibers could also be found inside the nucleus of interphase cells. Involvement of the main cytoskeletal components, i.e., microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules, in the cytotoxicity of chrysotile fibers was also evaluated. Their findings suggest that after fiber penetration, a rearrangement of the cytoskeletal apparatus occurs. It has also been observed that small fibers remain associated with the cytoskeletal framework, which can thus play a role in asbestos intracytoplasmic translocation in epithelial cells. Furthermore, after the cell has completely recovered its morphology, fiber internalization ultimately seems to lead to the formation of giant multinucleated cells. These data could be indicative of an interaction occurring between asbestos fibers and the normal mitotic process.

  4. Ultrastructural and phenotypic characterization of CABA I, a new human ovarian cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Dolo, V; Ginestra, A; Violini, S; Miotti, S; Festuccia, C; Miceli, D; Migliavacca, M; Rinaudo, C; Romano, F M; Brisdelli, F; Canevari, S; Pavan, A; Vittorelli, M L

    1997-01-01

    We have established an ovarian cancer cell line (CABA I) from ascitic fluid obtained from a patient with papillary adenocarcinoma of the ovary prior to drug treatment. The epithelial origin of the cell line was confirmed by morphology and by immunofluorescence analysis using anticytokeratin antibodies. Ultrastructural analysis revealed a very irregular membrane surface and a clear cytoplasm rich in electron-lucent vesicles. CABA I cells grow rapidly in culture (doubling time 18 h) in an anchorage-independent manner. Exogenously added beta-estradiol and epidermal growth factor (EGF) treatments did not influence cell growth rate. FACS analysis to determine the phenotypic profile of tumor-associated antigen, membrane receptor, and adhesion molecule expression indicated that the cell line was positive for different members of the c-erbB family, for alpha 6 and beta 1 integrin receptors, and intensively positive for HLA class I antigens and the folate receptor. Molecular characterization revealed no mutations for c-myc and c-k-ras genes, but did detect an exon 5 mutation in the p53 gene. CABA I cells grew poorly as heterotransplants in nude mice, and tumors showed long latency periods. Because early (15-20) and late (55-60) passage cells maintain the same growth and phenotypic characteristics, the CABA I cell line might provide a good in vitro model system to investigate the cellular and molecular events involved in ovarian carcinogenesis. PMID:9220498

  5. Ultrastructure of tracheal epithelial cells migrating in an in vivo environment.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Hajime; Tanaka, Hideo; Ono, Michio

    2008-12-01

    The tracheal epithelium can be induced to move as a cellular sheet by heterotopic transplantation, which offers the opportunity to observe migrating cells as a group in an in vivo environment. We therefor investigated the ultrastructural characteristics of migrating tracheal epithelial cells with special reference to the moving front using this transplantation. The migrating epithelial cells underwent squamous metaplasia and lost their differentiated characteristics such as cilia or secretory granules. Several unique observations were made concerning the mechanism of mobility: one is that epithelial cells in the front were elongated in a direction perpendicular to the course of movement, different from previous reports in vitro. The second is that lamellipodia, which are regarded as the major locomotive machinery in the adult wound epithelium, did not make up the major part of the front; the major portion of the anterior fringe of the moving front was usually smooth and gently curved, and actin cables parallel to the elongated cells were observed by confocal laser microscopy, indicating that the purse-string mechanism of epithelial wound healing takes place. The third finding is that the cells in the front had irregular bleb-like structures on their antero-basal surface, which were formed even in the portion where the cells did not attach to the matrix. Few organelles were recognized in these structures. From their location, one might propose that these bleb-like structures play a role in the recognition of the substrate and thus the movement of the cell sheet. PMID:19359805

  6. Functional canine dendritic cells can be generated in vitro from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and contain a cytoplasmic ultrastructural marker.

    PubMed

    Ibisch, C; Pradal, G; Bach, J M; Lieubeau, B

    2005-03-01

    For physiological and practical reasons the dog is a large animal model used increasingly to study the pathogenesis of human diseases and new therapeutic approaches, in particular for immune disorders. However, some immunological resources are lacking in this model, especially concerning dendritic cells. The aim of our study was to develop an efficient method to generate dendritic cells (DC) in vitro from dog peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and to characterize their functional, structural and ultrastructural properties. PBMC were cultured in vitro with IL-4 and GM-CSF. After 1 week of culture, a great proportion of non-adherent cells displayed typical cytoplasmic processes, as evidenced both by optical and electron microscopy. Cytometric analysis revealed the presence of 41.7+/-24.6% CD14+ cells expressing both CD11c and MHC class II molecules. Allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions confirmed the ability of these cultures to stimulate the proliferation of allogeneic lymphocytes as already reported as a characteristic of DC in other species. In addition, we describe for the first time the presence in canine DC of cytoplasmic periodic microstructures (PMS) that could represent ultrastructural markers of canine DC. In conclusion, our study provides an easy method to generate DC from PBMC in sufficient numbers for immunological in vitro investigations in dogs, a pre-clinical model for many human diseases. PMID:15847807

  7. Ultrastructural study of the mast cells of the human duodenal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Moneret-Vautrin, D A; de Korwin, J D; Tisserant, J; Grignon, M; Claudot, N

    1984-09-01

    The ultrastructure of the process of degranulation of mast cells of human duodenal mucosa was examined. In normal controls little degranulation was seen, but in persons with false food allergy (pseudo-allergy) considerable degranulation of mast cells was detected. This is consistent with the hypothesis that some persons have an abnormal fragility of duodenal mast cells in the presence of histamine-releasing substances. Incubation of duodenal biopsy material with various histamine-releasing agents (compound 48/80, Concanavalin A, the calcium ionophore A 23187, and anti-IgE) confirmed the susceptibility of duodenal mast cells for antigen non-specific release of histamine, or that mediated by IgE. In a group of patients with immediate-type, anaphylactic, food allergy, mast cells in the absence of antigen are in a normal state, but degranulation occurs on exposure in vitro or in vivo to specific antigen. The susceptibility to degranulation continues in persons cured of their food allergy. This suggests that a clinical cure is not due to a change of susceptibility of duodenal mast cells to release histamine, but is possibly associated with formation of blocking antibodies, and/or a modification in reactivity of basophils and mast cells of other organs. PMID:6207955

  8. Ultrastructural and Chemical Evidence That the Cell Wall of Green Cotton Fiber Is Suberized 1

    PubMed Central

    Yatsu, L. Y.; Espelie, Karl E.; Kolattukudy, P. E.

    1983-01-01

    Green cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers were shown by electron microscopy to have numerous thin concentric rings around the lumen of the cell. These rings possessed a lamellar fine structure characteristic of suberin. LiA1D4 depolymerization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed the presence of a suberin polymer in the green cotton with the major aliphatic monomers being ω-hydroxydocosanoic acid (70%) and docosanedoic acid (25%). Ordinary white cotton was shown by chemical and ultrastructural examination to be encircled by a thin cuticular polymer containing less than 0.5% of the aliphatic components found in green cotton. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:16663251

  9. Hygroscopic swelling and shrinkage of latewood cell wall micropillars reveal ultrastructural anisotropy

    PubMed Central

    Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Stiefel, Michael; Jefimovs, Konstantins; Mokso, Rajmund; Derome, Dominique; Carmeliet, Jan

    2014-01-01

    We document the hygroscopic swelling and shrinkage of the central and the thickest secondary cell wall layer of wood (named S2) in response to changes in environmental humidity using synchrotron radiation-based phase contrast X-ray tomographic nanoscopy. The S2 layer is a natural fibre-reinforced nano-composite polymer and is strongly reactive to water. Using focused ion beam, micropillars with a cross section of few micrometres are fabricated from the S2 layer of the latewood cell walls of Norway spruce softwood. The thin neighbouring cell wall layers are removed to prevent hindering or restraining of moisture-induced deformation during swelling or shrinkage. The proposed experiment intended to get further insights into the microscopic origin of the anisotropic hygro-expansion of wood. It is found that the swelling/shrinkage strains are highly anisotropic in the transverse plane of the cell wall, larger in the normal than in the direction parallel to the cell wall's thickness. This ultrastructural anisotropy may be due to the concentric lamellation of the cellulose microfibrils as the role of the cellulose microfibril angle in the transverse swelling anisotropy is negligible. The volumetric swelling of the cell wall material is found to be substantially larger than the one of wood tissues within the growth ring and wood samples made of several growth rings. The hierarchical configuration in wood optimally increases its dimensional stability in response to a humid environment with higher scales of complexity. PMID:24671938

  10. Ultrastructural assessment of the differentiation potential of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Valente, Sabrina

    2013-10-01

    Mesenchymal stromal (stem) cells (MSCs) are defined by plastic adherent growth, multiple phenotype expressions, and tripotential mesodermal capability. The authors report examples where electron microscopy (EM) plays a role in stem cell research. MSCs isolated from human arteries are ultrastructurally heterogeneous and become more homogenous after plastic adhesion. EM shows a moderate complement of organelles, mainly mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and glycogen aggregates. Clear vacuoles and vesicles are prominent when cells are recovered from plates using an enzymatic method. Since the mesengenic plasticity is the single most important criterion to define a cell as mesenchymal stromal, the authors induced experimentally adipogenic, leiomyogenic, cardiomyogenic, osteo-chondrogenic differentiations. In no case did EM reveal the achievement of complete differentiation. The authors obtained multivacuolated pre-adipocytes and never univacuolated adipocytes typical of mature white fat; myofibroblast and rhabdomyoblast morphotypes, where contractile filaments were not organized to form functional complexes, i.e., dense bodies and sarcomeres. Chondrogenesis and osteogenesis assays resulted in extracellular matrix changes. Collagen and proteoglycan filament/particle deposition was seen when chondrogenesis was promoted. Hydroxyapatite crystals, psammoma bodies, and plaque-like calcified matrix deposits were found in the osteogenic matrix. EM provides detailed structural information on the degree of differentiation induced in stem cells and demonstrates that the methods so far developed are not able to promote complete cell differentiation. These observations contribute to explain why clinical applications with hMSCs have produced results far lower than initial expectations. PMID:24047349

  11. Ultrastructure and Membrane Traffic During Cell Division in the Marine Pennate Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Atsuko; De Martino, Alessandra; Amato, Alberto; Montsant, Anton; Mathieu, Benjamin; Rostaing, Philippe; Tirichine, Leila; Bowler, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The marine pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum has become a model for diatom biology, due to its ease of culture and accessibility to reverse genetics approaches. While several features underlying the molecular mechanisms of cell division have been described, morphological analyses are less advanced than they are in other diatoms. We therefore examined cell ultrastructure changes prior to and during cytokinesis. Following chloroplast division, cleavage furrows are formed at both longitudinal ends of the cell and are accompanied by significant vesicle transport. Although neither spindle nor microtubules were observed, the nucleus appeared to be split by the furrow after duplication of the Golgi apparatus. Finally, centripetal cytokinesis was completed by fusion of the furrows. Additionally, F-actin formed a ring structure and its diameter became smaller, accompanying the ingrowing furrows. To further analyse vesicular transport during cytokinesis, we generated transgenic cells expressing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) fusions with putative diatom orthologs of small GTPase Sec4 and t-SNARE protein SyntaxinA. Time-lapse observations revealed that SyntaxinA-YFP localization expands from both cell tips toward the center, whereas Sec4-YFP was found in the Golgi and subsequently relocalizes to the future division plane. This work provides fundamental new information about cell replication processes in P. tricornutum. PMID:26386358

  12. Linking progression of fibrotic lung remodeling and ultrastructural alterations of alveolar epithelial type II cells in the amiodarone mouse model.

    PubMed

    Birkelbach, Bastian; Lutz, Dennis; Ruppert, Clemens; Henneke, Ingrid; Lopez-Rodriguez, Elena; Günther, Andreas; Ochs, Matthias; Mahavadi, Poornima; Knudsen, Lars

    2015-07-01

    Chronic injury of alveolar epithelial type II cells (AE2 cells) represents a key event in the development of lung fibrosis in animal models and in humans, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Intratracheal delivery of amiodarone to mice results in a profound injury and macroautophagy-dependent apoptosis of AE2 cells. Increased autophagy manifested in AE2 cells by disturbances of the intracellular surfactant. Hence, we hypothesized that ultrastructural alterations of the intracellular surfactant pool are signs of epithelial stress correlating with the severity of fibrotic remodeling. With the use of design-based stereology, the amiodarone model of pulmonary fibrosis in mice was characterized at the light and ultrastructural level during progression. Mean volume of AE2 cells, volume of lamellar bodies per AE2 cell, and mean size of lamellar bodies were correlated to structural parameters reflecting severity of fibrosis like collagen content. Within 2 wk amiodarone leads to an increase in septal wall thickness and a decrease in alveolar numbers due to irreversible alveolar collapse associated with alveolar surfactant dysfunction. Progressive hypertrophy of AE2 cells and increase in mean individual size and total volume of lamellar bodies per AE2 cell were observed. A high positive correlation of these AE2 cell-related ultrastructural changes and the deposition of collagen fibrils within septal walls were established. Qualitatively, similar alterations could be found in IPF samples with mild to moderate fibrosis. We conclude that ultrastructural alterations of AE2 cells including the surfactant system are tightly correlated with the progression of fibrotic remodeling. PMID:25957292

  13. Histochemical and ultrastructural characterization of serotonin-containing cells in rabbit tracheal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, R.D.; Shannon, W.A. Jr.; Hagler, H.K.; Said, S.I.

    1983-04-01

    Tracheal endocrine cells (TECs) that contain serotonin have been characterized previously by staining with ferric ferricyanide. In the present article, the ferric ferricyanide staining reaction has been used to locate the TECs in deplasticized thick sections of Epon-embedded rabbit tracheas. Adjacent thin sections of the same cell were subsequently observed by electron microscopy. The TECs were filled with dense-core vesicles (DCVs) located in the cytoplasm between the nucleus and the lumen and also lateral to the nucleus. In a separate experiment, pieces of rabbit trachea were treated with a solution of glutaraldehyde-dichromate to demonstrate the presence of amines. High levels of chromium were detected in the DCVs by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The results from these studies have correlated the ultrastructure of a serotonin-containing endocrine cell present in rabbit tracheal epithelium with a cell type previously characterized only by light and fluorescence histochemical methods. The results also indicate that serotonin in these cells is stored in the DCVs.

  14. Conversion of a rabbit proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) into a cell monolayer: ultrastructural study of cell dedifferentiation and redifferentiation.

    PubMed

    Koechlin, N; Pisam, M; Poujeol, P; Tauc, M; Rambourg, A

    1991-04-01

    The evolution of a primary culture of kidney proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) cells was followed step by step from the plating time of an isolated tubule to the 39th day of culture. During the first 48 h, the structural remodeling of PCT, leading to the formation of a cell monolayer without cell division, is accompanied by intracytoplasmic changes indicating cell dedifferentiation. Numerous autophagic vacuoles are observed inside the cells, and the ultrastructural features characteristic of in situ PCT cells are progressively lost. Despite these drastic modifications, cell polarity, as observed by immunocytochemical detection of the leucine aminopeptidase, remains unaltered. Starting at 48 h, the peripheral cells divide, and the culture proliferates in a centrifugal direction while newly formed cells differentiate. From 6 days onwards, glycogen granules, never encountered in in situ PCT cells, appear in cultured cells and progressively accumulate. At the optimal stage of the culture (12-17 days old), cells somewhat resemble PCT cells, but their apical brush borders remain rudimentary, and basal cytoplasmic interdigitations surrounding densely packed mitochondria are poorly developed. Subsequently, the cells become overloaded with glycogen and lipid inclusions and resemble degenerating cells. PMID:1879437

  15. Effects of Waterlogging on Leaf Mesophyll Cell Ultrastructure and Photosynthetic Characteristics of Summer Maize.

    PubMed

    Ren, Baizhao; Zhang, Jiwang; Dong, Shuting; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    A field experiment was performed to study the effects of waterlogging on the leaf mesophyll cell ultrastructure, chlorophyll content, gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll fluorescence, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of summer maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids Denghai605 (DH605) and Zhengdan958 (ZD958). The waterlogging treatments were implemented for different durations (3 and 6 days) at the third leaf stage (V3), the sixth leaf stage (V6), and the 10th day after the tasseling stage (10VT). Leaf area index (LAI), chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate (Pn), and actual photochemical efficiency (ΦPSII) were reduced after waterlogging, indicating that waterlogging significantly decreased photosynthetic capacity. The chloroplast shapes changed from long and oval to elliptical or circular after waterlogging. In addition, the internal structures of chloroplasts were degenerated after waterlogging. After waterlogging for 6 d at V3, the number of grana and grana lamellae of the third expanded leaf in DH605 were decreased by 26.83% and 55.95%, respectively, compared to the control (CK). Those in ZD958 were reduced by 30.08% and 31.94%, respectively. Waterlogging increased MDA content in both hybrids, suggesting an impact of waterlogging on membrane integrity and thus membrane deterioration. Waterlogging also damaged the biological membrane structure and mitochondria. Our results indicated that the physiological reactions to waterlogging were closely related to lower LAI, chlorophyll content, and Pn and to the destruction of chloroplast ultrastructure. These negative effects resulted in the decrease of grain yield in response to waterlogging. Summer maize was the most susceptible to damage when waterlogging occurred at V3, followed by V6 and 10VT, with damage increasing in the wake of waterlogging duration increasing. PMID:27583803

  16. Immunocytochemical and ultrastructural identification of pituitary cell types in the protogynous Thalassoma duperrey during adult sexual ontogeny

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parhar, I.S.; Nagahama, Y.; Grau, E.G.; Ross, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Protogynous wrasses (Thalassoma duperrey): females (F), primary males (PM) along with a few terminal-phase males (TM) and sex-changed males (SM), were used to characterize the topographical organization of the pituitary. In general, immunocytochemical and ultrastructural features of the adenohypophyseal cell types of the saddleback wrasse pituitary resemble those of other teleosts. In the rostral pars distalis (RPD), corticotropic cells were found bordering the neurohypophysis (NH) and surrounding the centroventrally located prolactin cells. Thyrotropic cells formed a small group in the anteriodorsal part of the rostral and proximal pars distalis (PPD). The somatotropic cells were distributed in large clusters, mostly organized in cell cords around the interdigitations of the NH of the dorsal PPD. Cells containing gonadotropin I?? subunit were localized in the dorsal parts of the PPD, in close association with somatotropic cells and gonadotropin II?? subunit containing cells were seen in the centroventral parts of the PPD and along the periphery of the pars intermedia (PI). The pars intermedia was composed of melanotropic cells and somatolactin cells that lined the neurohypohysis. Distinct ultrastructural differences in corticotropic and somatotropic cells were not observed between the four groups. In all groups, prolactin cells in the ventral-most RPD could be immature cells or actively secreting prolactin. Gonadotropic II cells of PM and F had relatively higher incidence of "nuclear budding" and cell organelles compared to TM and SM. Besides gonadotropic, the active melanotropic and somatolactin cells might be associated with some aspect(s) of reproduction.

  17. Structure of xanthan gum and cell ultrastructure at different times of alkali stress

    PubMed Central

    de Mello Luvielmo, Márcia; Borges, Caroline Dellinghausen; de Oliveira Toyama, Daniela; Vendruscolo, Claire Tondo; Scamparini, Adilma Regina Pippa

    2016-01-01

    The effect of alkali stress on the yield, viscosity, gum structure, and cell ultrastructure of xanthan gum was evaluated at the end of fermentation process of xanthan production by Xanthomonas campestris pv. manihotis 280-95. Although greater xanthan production was observed after a 24 h-alkali stress process, a lower viscosity was observed when compared to the alkali stress-free gum, regardless of the alkali stress time. However, this outcome is not conclusive as further studies on gum purification are required to remove excess sodium, verify the efficiency loss and the consequent increase in the polymer viscosity. Alkali stress altered the structure of xanthan gum from a polygon-like shape to a star-like form. At the end of the fermentation, early structural changes in the bacterium were observed. After alkali stress, marked structural differences were observed in the cells. A more vacuolated cytoplasm and discontinuities in the membrane cells evidenced the cell lysis. Xanthan was observed in the form of concentric circles instead of agglomerates as observed prior to the alkali stress. PMID:26887232

  18. Structure of xanthan gum and cell ultrastructure at different times of alkali stress.

    PubMed

    Luvielmo, Márcia de Mello; Borges, Caroline Dellinghausen; Toyama, Daniela de Oliveira; Vendruscolo, Claire Tondo; Scamparini, Adilma Regina Pippa

    2016-01-01

    The effect of alkali stress on the yield, viscosity, gum structure, and cell ultrastructure of xanthan gum was evaluated at the end of fermentation process of xanthan production by Xanthomonas campestris pv. manihotis 280-95. Although greater xanthan production was observed after a 24h-alkali stress process, a lower viscosity was observed when compared to the alkali stress-free gum, regardless of the alkali stress time. However, this outcome is not conclusive as further studies on gum purification are required to remove excess sodium, verify the efficiency loss and the consequent increase in the polymer viscosity. Alkali stress altered the structure of xanthan gum from a polygon-like shape to a star-like form. At the end of the fermentation, early structural changes in the bacterium were observed. After alkali stress, marked structural differences were observed in the cells. A more vacuolated cytoplasm and discontinuities in the membrane cells evidenced the cell lysis. Xanthan was observed in the form of concentric circles instead of agglomerates as observed prior to the alkali stress. PMID:26887232

  19. Characterization of uterine granular cell tumors in B6C3F1 mice: a histomorphologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Veit, A C; Painter, J T; Miller, R A; Hardisty, J F; Dixon, D

    2008-09-01

    The granular cell tumor is most often a benign neoplasm of uncertain origin. Four uterine granular cell tumors in control and treated female B6C3F1 mice were identified in chronic studies at the National Toxicology Program. Two tumors occurred in untreated control animals and 2 in treated animals receiving different compounds. Tissue sections were evaluated histologically and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff with diastase resistance, Masson's trichrome, toluidine blue, phosphotungstic acid-hematoxylin, and stained immunohistochemically with a panel of antibodies to muscle (desmin, alpha smooth muscle actin), neural (S-100, neuron specific enolase), epithelial (wide-spectrum cytokeratin), and macrophage (F4/80) markers. The main histomorphologic feature of tumor cells was the presence of abundant cytoplasmic eosinophilic granules that stained positive for periodic acid-Schiff with diastase resistance. Tumors varied in appearance and were comprised of sheets and nests of round to polygonal cells with distinct borders. Nuclei were hyperchromatic, pleomorphic, and centrally to eccentrically located and often contained single nucleoli. Occasional multinucleated giant cells were observed. Tumors were pale pink and homogeneous with trichrome stain and negative with toluidine blue. Three tumors had positive to weakly positive immunoreactivity for desmin, and 1 was positive for alpha smooth muscle actin. Expression of S-100, wide-spectrum cytokeratin, and neuron-specific enolase was negative for all tumors. Ultrastructurally, prominent electron-dense cytoplasmic granules were abundant and contained secondary lysosomes with heterogeneous lysosomal contents. The characteristics of these uterine granular cell tumors were suggestive of a myogenic origin. PMID:18725470

  20. Effects of docosahexaenoic acid and sardine oil diets on the ultrastructure of jejunal absorptive cells in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Tamura, M; Suzuki, H

    1996-01-01

    The influence of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and sardine oil diets on the ultrastructure of jejunal absorptive cells was studied. Adult male Crj:CD-1 (ICR) mice were fed a fat-free semisynthetic diet supplemented with 5% (by weight) purified DHA ethyl ester, refined sardine oil, or palm oil. The mice received the DHA or palm oil diets for 7 days (groups 1 and 2) and the refined sardine oil or palm oil diets for 30 days (groups 3 and 4). There were significant ultrastructural changes in the jejunal absorptive cells between the mice fed on the palm oil diet and those receiving the DHA and sardine oil diets. The endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus of some jejunal absorptive cells in the mice fed on the palm oil diet for 7 and 30 days developed vacuolation on the upper site of the nucleus. In contrast, many granules, which appeared to be lipid droplets, were observed in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus of the jejunal absorptive cells in the DHA and sardine oil diet groups. These results suggest that ultrastructural differences in the jejunal absorptive cells between mice in the omega-3 fatty acid and palm oil diet groups may be associated with the changes in lipid metabolism. PMID:9001686

  1. Ultrastructural characteristics of three undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem cell lines and their differentiated three-dimensional derivatives: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Suzan; Elsafadi, Mona; Mobarak, Mohammed; Alrwili, Ali; Vishnubalaji, Radhakrishnan; Manikandan, Muthurangan; Al-Qudsi, Fatma; Karim, Saleh; Al-Nabaheen, May; Aldahmash, Abdullah; Mahmood, Amer

    2014-04-01

    The fine structures of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) grown as colonies and differentiated in three-dimensional (3D) culture as embryoid bodies (EBs) were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Undifferentiated mESCs expressed markers that proved their pluripotency. Differentiated EBs expressed different differentiation marker proteins from the three germ layers. The ultrastructure of mESCs revealed the presence of microvilli on the cell surfaces, large and deep infolded nuclei, low cytoplasm-to-nuclear ratios, frequent lipid droplets, nonprominent Golgi apparatus, and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, we found prominent juvenile mitochondria and free ribosomes-rich cytoplasm in mESCs. Ultrastructure of the differentiated mESCs as EBs showed different cell arrangements, which indicate the different stages of EB development and differentiation. The morphologies of BALB/c and 129 W9.5 EBs were very similar at day 4, whereas C57BL/6 EBs were distinct from the others at day 4. This finding suggested that differentiation of EBs from different cell lines occurs in the same pattern but not at the same rate. Conversely, the ultrastructure results of BALB/c and 129 W9.5 ESCs revealed differentiating features, such as the dilated profile of a rough endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, we found low expression levels of undifferentiated markers on the outer cells of BALB/c and 129 W9.5 mESC colonies, which suggests a faster differentiation potential. PMID:24606239

  2. A comparative ultrastructural study of the parotid gland acinar cells of nine wild ruminant species (mammalia, artiodactyla).

    PubMed

    Stolte, M; Ito, S

    1996-01-01

    The ultrastructural similarities and differences of the parotid gland acinar cells of nine wild ruminants (roe deer, nyala, tahr, Eld's deer, red deer, Pere David's deer, European mouflon, African buffalo, sable antelope) representing three feeding types i.e. concentrate selectors (CS), grass and roughage eaters (GR) and intermediate feeders (IM) were compared. The parotid acinar cells of the CS contained more granular endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi-complexes and secretory granules than those of the GR. The acinar cells of the latter were characterized by numerous mitochondria, folded plasma membranes and intercellular secretory canaliculi. The ultrastructure of the secretory granules varied in different species but their morphology was not related to feeding type. An unusual feature of the parotid acinar cells of all feeding types was the evidence of an apocrine-like mode of secretion. A typical morphological change of some parotid acinar cells was the compression of the nucleus by large vacuoles. No distinctive differences were found in the ultrastructure of the parotid gland of wild and captive ruminants. PMID:9090994

  3. Yeast and fungal cell-wall polysaccharides can self-assemble in vitro into an ultrastructure resembling in vivo yeast cell walls.

    PubMed

    Kopecká, Marie

    2013-06-01

    Polysaccharides account for more than 90% of the content of fungal cell walls, but the mechanism underlying the formation of the architecture of the cell walls, which consist of microfibrils embedded in an amorphous wall matrix, remains unknown. We used electron microscopy to investigate ten different fungal cell-wall polysaccharides to determine whether they could self-assemble into the fibrillar or amorphous component of fungal cell walls in a test tube without enzymes. The ultrastructures formed by precipitating β-1,3-glucan and β-1,6-glucan are different depending on the existence of branching in the molecule. Linear β-1,3-glucan and linear β-1,6-glucan precipitate into a fibrillar ultrastructure. Branched β-1,6-glucan, mannan and glycogen precipitates are amorphous. Branched β-1,3-glucan forms a fibrillar plus amorphous ultrastructure. Self-assembly among combinations of different linear and branched cell-wall polysaccharides results in an ultrastructure that resembles that of a yeast cell wall, which suggests that self-assembly of polysaccharides may participate in the development of the three-dimensional architecture of the yeast cell wall. PMID:23160360

  4. Immunophenotypic, immunocytochemistry, ultrastructural, and cytogenetic characterization of mesenchymal stem cells from equine bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Maia, Leandro; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda C; Da Mota, Ligia S L Silveira; De Assis Golim, Marjorie; Laufer-Amorim, Reneé; De Vita, Bruna; Barberini, Danielle Jaqueta; Listoni, Amanda Jeronimo; De Moraes, Carolina Nogueira; Heckler, Marta Cristina Thomas; Amorim, Rogério Martins

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate, culture, and characterize mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from horse bone marrow (BM) using the techniques of flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, cytogenetics, and electron microscopy. Immunophenotypic analysis revealed the presence of MSCs with high expression of the CD90 marker, lower expression of the CD44 marker, and absent expression of the CD34 marker. In assays of differentiation, the positive response to osteogenic (OST), chondrogenic (CDG), and adipogenic (ADP) differentiation signals was observed and characterized by deposition of calcium-rich extracellular matrix (OST), proteoglycans and collagen II (CDG) and intracellular deposition of fat drops (ADP). In immunocytochemical characterization, MSCs were immunopositive for CD44, vimentin, and PCNA, and they were negative for CD13. In the ultrastructural analysis of MSCs, the most outstanding characteristic was the presence of rough endoplasmic reticulum with very dilated cisterns filled with a low electrodensity material. Additionally, MSCs had normal karyotypes (2n = 64) as evidenced by cytogenetic analysis, and aneuploidy in metaphase was not observed. The protocols for isolating, culturing, and characterizing equine MSCs used in this study were shown to be appropriate for the production of a cell population with a good potential for differentiation and without aneuploidy that can be used to study future cellular therapies. PMID:23533133

  5. Ultrastructural characterization of goblet-shaped particles from the cell wall of Flexibacter polymorphus.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, H F

    1977-09-01

    The ultrastructure of submicroscopic goblet-shaped particles ("goblets') from the cell wall of the marine-gliding microbe Flexibacter polymorphus was investigated. The goblets, which were partially purified by CsCl density-gradient centrifugation, were rich in protein, exhibiting a single absorption maximum in the ultraviolet at about 276 nm; they also contained a small amount of carbohydrate. As determined by electron microscopy, goblets negatively contrasted with ammonium molybdate were about 30 nm in diameter by 36 nm in length. When viewed in profile, each apparently consisted of five morphologically distinct kinds of components: the C-1, C-2, and C-3 subunits which formed the cup-shaped moiety of the goblet; a globular base unit; and a tubular stem-like structure connecting the cup with the base unit. In addition, a long fiber emerged from the interior of some goblets. The fine structural evidence suggested that goblets may be constructed from three stacked subunit rings (each composed of repeating C-1, C-2, or C-3 protomers) arranged concentrically. X-ray images of a clay model closely resembled electron micrographs of negatively stained goblets; thereby lending support to the proposed structure. It is speculated that goblets function in vivo as macromolecular pores through the outer membrane which mediate extrusion of extracellular fibers, possibly of importance in gliding motility or in attachment of cells to solid surfaces. PMID:907917

  6. Differentiation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells: correlation between the synthesis and secretion of immunoglobulins and the ultrastructure of the malignant cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rubartelli, A.; Sitia, R.; Zicca, A.; Grossi, C.E.; Ferrarini, M.

    1983-08-01

    The capacity of synthesizing and secreting Ig molecules was studied in 11 patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) whose cells expressed surface IgM, in 3 patients with surface IgG-bearing cells, and in 2 IgM prolymphocytic leukemias (IgM-PLL). Three types of mu chains were detected by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the endogenously labeled molecules isolated by specific immunoprecipitation. Two of them were isolated from the cell lysates and were identified as the membrane mu chain and the precursor of the secreted molecules, respectively. The latter also possibly contained precursors of the membrane molecules. The third type of molecule was detected only in the culture medium and was identified as secretory mu chain. Not all of the malignant clones possessed the three types of mu chains. Only 7/13 of the IgM-bearing malignant cell clones were capable of secretion, whereas the remaining synthesized the secretory mu chains but degraded them intracellularly. Two types of molecules (membrane and secreted) were found in the IgG-bearing CLL cells from three patients. In all of them, secretion was detected. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated that cells from the secreting clones had the features of more mature lymphocytes than the cells from nonsecreting clones. These features were represented by a developed Golgi apparatus, various types of vesicles (smooth and coated), and strands of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. A certain heterogeneity of the degree of maturation of the cells was observed within these clones. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that CLL clones are heterogeneous and can be distinguished through the different degrees of maturation of their cell components.

  7. [ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHANGES OF THE STEM CELLS IN THE CYCLE MONOLAYER--SPHERES--MONOLAYER].

    PubMed

    Martynova, M G; Krylova, T A; Bystrova, O A

    2016-01-01

    Sphere formation can be used to prepare stem cells (SCs) prior to transplantation. Here SCs isolated from human subepicardial adipose tissue were analyzed at different stages of the monolayer-spheres-monolayer cycle by transmission electron microscopy. The results obtained with both adherent-induced and hanging-drop induced spheres were similar. At first 2-3 passages (stage 1), isolated SCs displayed embryonal cell-like ultrastructure. With increasing passage times (stage 2), SCs became bigger and more electron-dark with a multilobed nucleus, well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), prominent Golgi apparatus and numerous vacuoles. After 2 h from the initiation of the formation of spheres (stage 3), SCs gathered into clusters and formed desmosome-like intercellular contacts. Their nucleus possessed a large loose fibrillo-granular nucleoli, the cytoplasm was densely packed with disintegrated cisternae of RER, Golgi apparatus was not detected. After 24 h from the initiation of spheres (stage 4), SCs in well-formed spheres exhibited large dense nucleoli and poorly developed Golgi apparatus and RER. One day after sphere dissociating (stage 5), SCs were embryonal cell-like and morphologically similar to the cells of the first stage except for the presence of a large nucleolus and numerous Golgi complexes. After 48 h from sphere dissociating (stage 6), SCs became electron-dark and resembled the SCs of the second stage by the presence of irregularly shaped nuclei and the cetoplasm filled with RER. We interpreted the results as senescence of the SCs with the number of passages after isolation from tissue and a day after dissociation of the spheres and as rejuvenation of the SCs just after sphere dissociation. Further research is needed to reveal the genetic, biochemical and physiological parameters of the SCs on established morphologically distinct stages in order to provide higher-quality cellular material for disease cell therapy. PMID:27220247

  8. Ultrastructural characterization of porcine oocytes and adjacent follicular cells during follicle development: lipid component evolution.

    PubMed

    Silva, Renata C; Báo, Sônia N; Jivago, José Luiz P R; Lucci, Carolina M

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the morphometry and ultrastructure of porcine preantral and antral follicles, especially the lipid component evolution. Ovarian tissue was processed for light microscopy. Ovarian tissue and dissected antral follicles (< 2, 2-4, and 4-6 mm) were also processed for transmission electron microscopy using routine methods and using an osmium-imidazole method for lipid detection. Primordial follicles (34 ± 5 μm in diameter, mean ± SD) had one layer of flattened-cuboidal granulosa cells around the oocyte, primary follicles (40 ± 7 μm) had a single layer of cuboidal granulosa cells around the oocyte, and secondary follicles (102 ± 58 μm) had two or more layers of cuboidal granulosa cells around the oocyte. Preantral follicle oocytes had many round mitochondria and both rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. In oocytes of primordial and primary follicles, lipid droplets were abundant and were mostly located at the cell poles. In secondary and antral follicles, the zona pellucida completely surrounded the oocyte, whereas some microvilli and granulosa cells projected through it. Numerous electron-lucent vesicles and vacuoles were present in the oolemma of secondary and antral follicles. Based on osmium-imidazole staining, most of these structures were shown to be lipid droplets. As the follicle developed, the appearance of the lipid droplets changed from small and black to large and gray, dark or dark with light streaks, suggesting that their nature may change over time. In summary, although porcine follicles and oocytes had many similarities to those of other mammalian species, they were rich in lipids, with lipid droplets with varying morphological patterns as the follicle developed. PMID:21835450

  9. Spent metal working fluids produced alterations on photosynthetic parameters and cell-ultrastructure of leaves and roots of maize plants.

    PubMed

    Grijalbo, Lucía; Fernandez-Pascual, Mercedes; García-Seco, Daniel; Gutierrez-Mañero, Francisco Javier; Lucas, Jose Antonio

    2013-09-15

    In this work we assess the capacity of maize (Zea mays) plants to phytoremediate spent metal working fluids (MWFs) and its effects on photosynthesis and ultrastructure of mesophyll and root cells. A corn-esparto fibre system patented by us has been used to phytoremediate MWFs in hydroponic culture. Furthermore, a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) has been used to improve the process. The results show that this system is capable of significantly reducing the chemical oxygen demand, under local legislation limits. However, plant systems are really damaged, mainly its photosynthetic system, as shown by the photosynthetical parameters. Nevertheless, strain inoculated improves these parameters, especially Hill reaction. The ultrastructure of photosynthetic apparatus was also affected. Chloroplast number decreased and becomes degraded in the mesophyll of MWFs treated plants. In some cases even plasmolysis of chloroplast membrane was detected. Early senescence symptoms were detected in root ultrastructural study. Severe cellular damage was observed in the parenchymal root cells of plants grown with MWFs, while vascular bundles cell remained unchanged. It seems that the inoculation minimises the damage originated by the MWFs pollutants, appearing as less degenerative organelles and higher chloroplast number than in non-inoculated ones. PMID:23770488

  10. Single-prolonged stress induce different change in the cell organelle of the hippocampal cells: A study of ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Wan, JunLai; Liu, Dongjuan; Zhang, Jie; Shi, Yuxiu; Han, Fang

    2016-01-01

    MRI studies have revealed structural and functional changes in the hippocampus of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients. Previous studies conducted by us in a PTSD animal model found that single prolonged stress (SPS) induced abnormal morphological changes in hippocampal cells. The effects of SPS on cellular organelles of the hippocampal neurons remain unknown; however, these changes have been involved in SPS-induced abnormal hippocampal function. The aim of the present study is to examine ultrastructural changes in cellular organelles, including the lysosomes, mitochondria (Mit), Golgi apparatus, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), following SPS exposure using transmission electron microscopy, enzyme histochemistry, and enzyme cytochemistry. First, morphological changes of the hippocampal cells and ultrastructural changes in cellular organelles, including lysosomes, ER, and Mit-induced by SPS were observed. Results from histo- and cytochemistry demonstrated that the Mit marker enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase (COX), and the lysosomal enzyme acid phosphatase, (ACP), increased following exposure to SPS. SPS induced COX release from Mit and led to a wider distribution of ACP in round lysosomes, NLY, and the Golgi. In addition, we found that SPS increased the presence of autophagosomes and induced changes in the autophagy-related protein, Beclin. These results indicated the differential effects of SPS on cellular organelles, that is, a positive effect on lysosomes as well as a negative effect on the Mit and ER. Increased lysosomal function may serve as protection against SPS-induced cell damage. Structural changes in the Mit and ER may be involved in SPS-induced disorders of energy metabolism and protein synthesis and export. PMID:26589383

  11. Simultaneous Ultrastructural Analysis of Fluorochrome-Photoconverted Diaminobenzidine and Gold Immunolabelling in Cultured Cells

    PubMed Central

    Malatesta, M.; Zancanaro, C.; Costanzo, M.; Cisterna, B.; Pellicciari, C.

    2013-01-01

    Diaminobenzidine photoconversion is a technique by which a fluorescent dye is transformed into a stably insoluble, brown, electrondense signal, thus enabling examination at both bright field light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In this work, a procedure is proposed for combining photoconversion and immunoelectron microscopy: in vitro cell cultures have been first submitted to photoconversion to analyse the intracellular fate of either fluorescent nanoparticles or photosensitizing molecules, then processed for transmission electron microscopy; different fixative solutions and embedding media have been used, and the ultrathin sections were finally submitted to post-embedding immunogold cytochemistry. Under all conditions the photoconversion reaction product and the target antigen were properly detected in the same section; Epon-embedded, osmicated samples required a pre-treatment with sodium metaperiodate to unmask the antigenic sites. This simple and reliable procedure exploits a single sample to simultaneously localise the photoconversion product and a variety of antigens allowing a specific identification of subcellular organelles at the ultrastructural level. PMID:24085275

  12. Morphology and ultrastructure of Interfilum and Klebsormidium (Klebsormidiales, Streptophyta) with special reference to cell division and thallus formation

    PubMed Central

    Mikhailyuk, Tatiana; Holzinger, Andreas; Massalski, Andrzej; Karsten, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Representatives of the closely related genera, Interfilum and Klebsormidium, are characterized by unicells, dyads or packets in Interfilum and contrasting uniseriate filaments in Klebsormidium. According to the literature, these distinct thallus forms originate by different types of cell division, sporulation (cytogony) versus vegetative cell division (cytotomy), but investigations of their morphology and ultrastructure show a high degree of similarity. Cell walls of both genera are characterized by triangular spaces between cell walls of neighbouring cells and the parental wall or central space among the walls of a cell packet, exfoliations and projections of the parental wall and cap-like and H-like fragments of the cell wall. In both genera, each cell has its individual cell wall and it also has part of the common parental wall or its remnants. Therefore, vegetative cells of Interfilum and Klebsormidium probably divide by the same type of cell division (sporulation-like). Various strains representing different species of the two genera are characterized by differences in cell wall ultrastructure, particularly the level of preservation, rupture or gelatinization of the parental wall surrounding the daughter cells. The differing morphologies of representatives of various lineages result from features of the parental wall during cell separation and detachment. Cell division in three planes (usual in Interfilum and a rare event in Klebsormidium) takes place in spherical or short cylindrical cells, with the chloroplast positioned perpendicularly or obliquely to the filament (dyad) axis. The morphological differences are mainly a consequence of differing fates of the parental wall after cell division and detachment. The development of different morphologies within the two genera mostly depends on characters such as the shape of cells, texture of cell walls, mechanical interactions between cells and the influence of environmental conditions. PMID:26504365

  13. Biomarkers to identify and isolate senescent cells.

    PubMed

    Matjusaitis, Mantas; Chin, Greg; Sarnoski, Ethan Anders; Stolzing, Alexandra

    2016-08-01

    Aging is the main risk factor for many degenerative diseases and declining health. Senescent cells are part of the underlying mechanism for time-dependent tissue dysfunction. These cells can negatively affect neighbouring cells through an altered secretory phenotype: the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). The SASP induces senescence in healthy cells, promotes tumour formation and progression, and contributes to other age-related diseases such as atherosclerosis, immune-senescence and neurodegeneration. Removal of senescent cells was recently demonstrated to delay age-related degeneration and extend lifespan. To better understand cell aging and to reap the benefits of senescent cell removal, it is necessary to have a reliable biomarker to identify these cells. Following an introduction to cellular senescence, we discuss several classes of biomarkers in the context of their utility in identifying and/or removing senescent cells from tissues. Although senescence can be induced by a variety of stimuli, senescent cells share some characteristics that enable their identification both in vitro and in vivo. Nevertheless, it may prove difficult to identify a single biomarker capable of distinguishing senescence in all cell types. Therefore, this will not be a comprehensive review of all senescence biomarkers but rather an outlook on technologies and markers that are most suitable to identify and isolate senescent cells. PMID:27212009

  14. 3D Ultrastructural Organization of Whole Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Cells Studied by Nanoscale Soft X-Ray Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Hummel, Eric; Guttmann, Peter; Werner, Stephan; Tarek, Basel; Schneider, Gerd; Kunz, Michael; Frangakis, Achilleas S.; Westermann, Benedikt

    2012-01-01

    The complex architecture of their structural elements and compartments is a hallmark of eukaryotic cells. The creation of high resolution models of whole cells has been limited by the relatively low resolution of conventional light microscopes and the requirement for ultrathin sections in transmission electron microscopy. We used soft x-ray tomography to study the 3D ultrastructural organization of whole cells of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii at unprecedented spatial resolution. Intact frozen hydrated cells were imaged using the natural x-ray absorption contrast of the sample without any staining. We applied different fiducial-based and fiducial-less alignment procedures for the 3D reconstructions. The reconstructed 3D volumes of the cells show features down to 30 nm in size. The whole cell tomograms reveal ultrastructural details such as nuclear envelope membranes, thylakoids, basal apparatus, and flagellar microtubule doublets. In addition, the x-ray tomograms provide quantitative data from the cell architecture. Therefore, nanoscale soft x-ray tomography is a new valuable tool for numerous qualitative and quantitative applications in plant cell biology. PMID:23300909

  15. Identification and Ultrastructural Characterization of a Novel Nuclear Degradation Complex in Differentiating Lens Fiber Cells.

    PubMed

    Costello, M Joseph; Brennan, Lisa A; Mohamed, Ashik; Gilliland, Kurt O; Johnsen, Sönke; Kantorow, Marc

    2016-01-01

    An unresolved issue in structural biology is how the encapsulated lens removes membranous organelles to carry out its role as a transparent optical element. In this ultrastructural study, we establish a mechanism for nuclear elimination in the developing chick lens during the formation of the organelle-free zone. Day 12-15 chick embryo lenses were examined by high-resolution confocal light microscopy and thin section transmission electron microscopy (TEM) following fixation in 10% formalin and 4% paraformaldehyde, and then processing for confocal or TEM as described previously. Examination of developing fiber cells revealed normal nuclei with dispersed chromatin and clear nucleoli typical of cells in active ribosome production to support protein synthesis. Early signs of nuclear degradation were observed about 300 μm from the lens capsule in Day 15 lenses where the nuclei display irregular nuclear stain and prominent indentations that sometimes contained a previously undescribed macromolecular aggregate attached to the nuclear envelope. We have termed this novel structure the nuclear excisosome. This complex by confocal is closely adherent to the nuclear envelope and by TEM appears to degrade the outer leaflet of the nuclear envelope, then the inner leaflet up to 500 μm depth. The images suggest that the nuclear excisosome separates nuclear membrane proteins from lipids, which then form multilamellar assemblies that stain intensely in confocal and in TEM have 5 nm spacing consistent with pure lipid bilayers. The denuded nucleoplasm then degrades by condensation and loss of structure in the range 600 to 700 μm depth producing pyknotic nuclear remnants. None of these stages display any classic autophagic vesicles or lysosomes associated with nuclei. Uniquely, the origin of the nuclear excisosome is from filopodial-like projections of adjacent lens fiber cells that initially contact, and then appear to fuse with the outer nuclear membrane. These filopodial

  16. Identification and Ultrastructural Characterization of a Novel Nuclear Degradation Complex in Differentiating Lens Fiber Cells

    PubMed Central

    Costello, M. Joseph; Brennan, Lisa A.; Gilliland, Kurt O.; Johnsen, Sönke; Kantorow, Marc

    2016-01-01

    An unresolved issue in structural biology is how the encapsulated lens removes membranous organelles to carry out its role as a transparent optical element. In this ultrastructural study, we establish a mechanism for nuclear elimination in the developing chick lens during the formation of the organelle-free zone. Day 12–15 chick embryo lenses were examined by high-resolution confocal light microscopy and thin section transmission electron microscopy (TEM) following fixation in 10% formalin and 4% paraformaldehyde, and then processing for confocal or TEM as described previously. Examination of developing fiber cells revealed normal nuclei with dispersed chromatin and clear nucleoli typical of cells in active ribosome production to support protein synthesis. Early signs of nuclear degradation were observed about 300 μm from the lens capsule in Day 15 lenses where the nuclei display irregular nuclear stain and prominent indentations that sometimes contained a previously undescribed macromolecular aggregate attached to the nuclear envelope. We have termed this novel structure the nuclear excisosome. This complex by confocal is closely adherent to the nuclear envelope and by TEM appears to degrade the outer leaflet of the nuclear envelope, then the inner leaflet up to 500 μm depth. The images suggest that the nuclear excisosome separates nuclear membrane proteins from lipids, which then form multilamellar assemblies that stain intensely in confocal and in TEM have 5 nm spacing consistent with pure lipid bilayers. The denuded nucleoplasm then degrades by condensation and loss of structure in the range 600 to 700 μm depth producing pyknotic nuclear remnants. None of these stages display any classic autophagic vesicles or lysosomes associated with nuclei. Uniquely, the origin of the nuclear excisosome is from filopodial-like projections of adjacent lens fiber cells that initially contact, and then appear to fuse with the outer nuclear membrane. These filopodial

  17. Ultrastructure of Polyangium cellulosum.

    PubMed Central

    Lampky, J R

    1976-01-01

    Polyangium cellulosum was examined with the transmission electron microscope and the scanning electron microscope. Freeze-fracturing and critical-point-drying techniques were employed with the latter instrument. Critical-point drying seemed to eliminate the distortion of cells and fruiting bodies. These instruments and techniques allowed for a detailed comparison of cell and fruiting-body ultrastructure. Lipid storage materials and mesosomes were found to be constant cell particulates in both vegetative cells and in the shortened myxospores. Images PMID:820686

  18. Ultrastructural maturation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells-derived cardiomyocytes under alternative induction of 5-azacytidine.

    PubMed

    Piryaei, Abbas; Soleimani, Masoud; Heidari, Mohammad Hassan; Saheli, Mona; Rohani, Razieh; Almasieh, Mohammadali

    2015-05-01

    Adult cardiomyocytes lack the ability to proliferate and are unable to repair damaged heart tissue, therefore differentiation of stem cells to cardiomyocytes represents an exceptional opportunity to study cardiomyocytes in vitro and potentially provides a valuable source for replacing damaged tissue. However, characteristic maturity of the in vitro differentiated cardiomyocytes and methods to achieve it are yet to be optimized. In this study, differentiation of human bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) into cardiomyocytes is accomplished and the process investigated ultrastructurally. The hBM-MSCs were alternatively treated with 5 μM of 5-azacytidine (5-aza) for 8 weeks resulting in differentiation to cardiomyocytes. Expressions of cardiomyocyte-specific genes [cardiac α-actinin, cardiac β-myosin heavy chain (MHC) and connexin-43] and proteins (cardiac α-actinin, cardiac troponin and connexin-43) were confirmed in a time-dependent manner from the first to the fifth weeks post-induction. Ultrastructural maturation of hBM-MSCs-derived cardiomyocyte (MSCs-CM) corresponded with increase in number and organization of myofilaments in cells over time. Starting from week five, organized myofibrils along with developing sarcomeres were detectable. Later on, MSCs-CM were characterized by the presence of sarcoplasmic reticulum, T-tubules and diads as cardiomyocytes connected to each other by intercalated disc-like structures. Here, we showed the potential of hBM-MSCs as a source for the production of cardiomyocytes and confirmed mature ultrastructural characteristics of these cells using our alternative incubation method. PMID:25573851

  19. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural characteristics of interstitial cells of Cajal in the rabbit duodenum. Presence of a single cilium

    PubMed Central

    Junquera, Concepción; Martínez-Ciriano, Carmen; Castiella, Tomás; Serrano, Pedro; Azanza, María Jesús; Ramón y Cajal Junquera, Santiago

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Santiago Ramón y Cajal discovered a new type of cell related to the myenteric plexus and also to the smooth muscle cells of the circular muscle layer of the intestine. Based on their morphology, relationships and staining characteristics, he considered these cells as primitive neurons. One century later, despite major improvements in cell biology, the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are still controversial for many researchers. The aim of study was to perform an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural characterization of the ICCs in the rabbit duo-denum. We have found interstitial cells that are positive for c-Kit, CD34 and nestin and are also positive for Ki67 protein, tightly associated with somatic cell proliferation. By means of electron microscopy, we describe ICCs around enteric ganglia. They present triangular or spindle forms and a very voluminous nucleus with scarce per-inuclear chromatin surrounded by a thin perinuclear cytoplasm that expands with long cytoplasmic processes. ICC processes penetrate among the smooth muscle cells and couple with the processes of other ICCs located in the connective tissue of the circular muscle layer and establish a three-dimensional network. Intercellular con-tacts by means of gap-like junctions are frequent. ICCs also establish gap-like junctions with smooth muscle cells. We also observe a population of interstitial cells of stellate morphology in the connective tissue that sur-rounds the muscle bundles in the circular muscle layer, usually close to nervous trunks. These cells establish different types of contacts with the muscle cells around them. In addition, the presence of a single cilium show-ing a structure 9 + 0 in an ICC is demonstrated for the first time. In conclusion, we report positive staining c-kit, CD34, nestin and Ki 67. ICCs fulfilled the usual transmission electron microscopy (TEM) criteria. A new ultrastructural characteristic of at least some ICCs is demonstrated: the presence of a single

  20. An ultrastructural study of goblet cells in rat nasal mucosa as revealed by the quick-freezing method.

    PubMed Central

    Shimomura, S; Hisamatsu, K; Fujii, Y; Ohno, S

    1996-01-01

    In order to clarify the natural ultrastructure of goblet cells in the rat nasal mucosa, they were examined by the quick-freezing and freeze-substitution (QF-FS) or deep-etching (QF-DE) methods for comparison with conventional fixation methods. Some nasal mucosal tissues were unstimulated; others were stimulated with acetylcholine or substance P. The QF-FS method yielded fewer artefacts on transmission electron microscopy than conventional fixation methods. In the stimulated goblet cells, most of the secretory granules appeared to be loose in the matrix and more distorted in shape. By the QF-DE method, they were observed 3-dimensionally to be larger in size and aggregated together. In contrast, the secretory granules in the unstimulated goblet cells were mostly round and small, and separate from each other. It is concluded that the ultrastructure of secretory granules is artefactually modified by conventional fixation methods and that granule structure in goblet cells alters during the secretory process. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8763482

  1. High resolution imaging of the ultrastructure of living algal cells using soft x-ray contact microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, T.W.; Cotton, R.A.; Page, A.M.; Tomie, T.; Majima, T.; Stead, A.D.

    1995-12-31

    Soft x-ray contact microscopy provides the biologist with a technique for examining the ultrastructure of living cells at a much higher resolution than that possible by various forms of light microscopy. Readout of the developed photoresist using atomic force microscopy (AFM) produces a detailed map of the carbon densities generated in the resist following exposure of the specimen to water-window soft x-rays (2--4nm) produced by impact of a high energy laser onto a suitable target. The established high resolution imaging method of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has inherent problems in the chemical pre-treatment required for producing the ultrathin sections necessary for this technique. Using the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas the ultrastructural appearance of the cells following SXCM and TEM has been compared. While SXCM confirms the basic structural organization of the cell as seen by TEM (e.g., the organization of the thylakoid membranes within the chloroplast; flagellar insertion into the cytoplasm), there are important differences. These are in the appearance of the cell covering and the presence of carbon-dense spherical cellular inclusions.

  2. Silicon alleviates cadmium toxicity by enhanced photosynthetic rate and modified bundle sheath's cell chloroplasts ultrastructure in maize.

    PubMed

    Vaculík, Marek; Pavlovič, Andrej; Lux, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Silicon was shown to alleviate the negative effects of various biotic and abiotic stresses on plant growth. Although the positive role of Si on toxic and heavy metal Cd has been already described, the mechanisms have been explained only partially and still remain unclear. In the present study we investigated the effect of Si on photosynthetic-related processes in maize exposed to two different levels of Cd via measurements of net photosynthetic rate (AN), chlorophyll a fluorescence and pigment analysis, as well as studies of leaf tissue anatomy and cell ultrastructure using bright-field and transmission electron microscopy. We found that Si actively alleviated the toxic syndromes of Cd by increasing AN, effective photochemical quantum yield of photosystem II (ϕPSII) and content of assimilation pigments, although did not decrease the concentration of Cd in leaf tissues. Cadmium did not affect the leaf anatomy and ultrastructure of leaf mesophyll's cell chloroplasts; however, Cd negatively affected thylakoid formation in chloroplasts of bundle sheath cells, and this was alleviated by Si. Improved thylakoid formation in bundle sheath's cell chloroplasts may contribute to Si-induced enhancement of photosynthesis and related increase in biomass production in C4 plant maize. PMID:26036417

  3. Ultrastructural and autoradiographic investigations of cell cultures derived from tendons or ligamentous material from patients with fibromatous disorders.

    PubMed

    Neumüller, J; Tohidast-Akrad, M; Ammer, K; Hakimzadeh, A; Stransky, G; Weis, S; Partsch, G; Eberl, R

    1988-01-01

    Cell cultures were derived from tendons or ligamentous material from patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), Dupuytren's contracture (DP), tendopathia nodosa (TN) and hallux valgus (HV). The ultrastructure of the operation specimens as well as of the cell monolayers was investigated, using a floating sheet method in order to preserve both cell-to-cell contacts and the orientation of the monolayers. The histologic features of the tissues obtained in the operations were correlated with the ultrastructure of the cells in culture derived from these specimens. In DP, above all in the nodules, an activation of the capillary endothelium in the vicinity of myofibroblasts and mast cells was observed. In CTS the collagen fibrils varied extremely in diameter. In DP and TN biopsies a splicing process of helicoidly arranged fibrils could be seen. A disintegration of elastic fibers in the fibrillar and amorphous components was found in DP nodules, HV and TN tissues. Transitional forms between fibroblasts and myofibroblasts were observed not only in DP but also-though in a smaller percentage--in the cultures derived from the other patients. The cells showed organelles for active protein synthesis and transport. Autophagocytosis and the formation of multilamellated bodies took place in TN and HV cultures. In CTS, DP and TN cultures cells were connected via gap junctions. In some cultures, above all in those derived from CTS, monocilia were found. In CTS cultures the formation of intracellular collagen occurred. Growth parameters were rather low in HV cultures. PLmax (maximal pulse labelling index) values were higher in TN cultures than in DP and HV cultures. Plating efficiency (PE) values were higher in cultures derived from cell-rich and capillarized tissues than in biopsies with few cells. PMID:3229549

  4. Morphological and ultrastructural characterization of ionoregulatory cells in the teleost Oreochromis niloticus following salinity challenge combining complementary confocal scanning laser microscopy and transmission electron microscopy using a novel prefixation immunogold labeling technique.

    PubMed

    Fridman, Sophie; Rana, Krishen J; Bron, James E

    2013-10-01

    Aspects of ionoregulatory or mitochondria-rich cell (MRC) differentiation and adaptation in Nile tilapia yolk-sac larvae following transfer from freshwater to elevated salinities, that is, 12.5 and 20 ppt are described. Investigations using immunohistochemistry on whole-mount Nile tilapia larvae using anti- Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase as a primary antibody and Fluoronanogold™ (Nanoprobes) as a secondary immunoprobe allowed fluorescent labeling with the high resolution of confocal scanning laser microscopy combined with the detection of immunolabeled target molecules at an ultrastructural level using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It reports, for the first time, various developmental stages of MRCs within the epithelial layer of the tail of yolk-sac larvae, corresponding to immature, developing, and mature MRCs, identifiable by their own characteristic ultrastructure and form. Following transfer to hyperosmotic salinities the density of immunogold particles and well as the intricacy of the tubular system appeared to increase. In addition, complementary confocal scanning laser microscopy allowed identification of immunopositive ramifying extensions that appeared to emanate from the basolateral portion of the cell that appeared to be correlated with the localization of subsurface tubular areas displaying immunogold labeled Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase. This integrated approach describes a reliable and repeatable prefixation immunogold labeling technique allowing precise visualization of NaK within target cells combined with a 3D imaging that offers valuable insights into MRC dynamics at an ultrastructural level. PMID:23873584

  5. Phenotypic, ultra-structural and functional characterization of bovine peripheral blood dendritic cell subsets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dendritic cells (DC) are multifunctional cells that bridge the gap between innate and adaptive immune systems. In bovine, significant information is lacking on the precise identity and role of peripheral blood DC subsets. In this study, we identify and characterize bovine peripheral blood DC subsets...

  6. Antioxidant activity and ultrastructural changes in gastric cancer cell lines induced by Northeastern Thai edible folk plant extracts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Phytochemical products have a critical role in the drug discovery process. This promising possibility, however, necessitates the need to confirm their scientific verification before use. Hence, this study aims to evaluate (1) the antioxidant activity, (2) cytotoxicity potential, and (3) the effect on ultrastructural alteration in gastric cancer cell lines through exposure to fractions of three local Northeastern Thai edible plants. Methods Plants, Syzygium gratum, Justicia gangetica and Limnocharis flava were extracted with ethyl acetate, and each crude extract analysed for their total phenolics content by Folin-Ciocalteu method. Their antioxidant activity was assessed using the ABTS system. The extracts were then assayed for cytotoxicity on two gastric cancer cell lines Kato-III and NUGC-4, and compared with Hs27 fibroblasts as a control using the MTT assay. The cell viability (%), IC50 values, as well as the ultrastructural alterations were evaluated after treatment with one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results The total phenolic values of the ethyl acetate extracts were well correlated with the antioxidant capacity, with extracted product of S. gratum displaying the highest level of antioxidant activity (a 10-fold greater response) over J. gangetica and L. flava respectively. Exposure of S. gratum and J. gangetica extracts to normal cell lines (Hs27) resulted in marginal cytotoxicity effects. However, through a dose-dependent assay S. gratum and J. gangetica extracts produced cytotoxicological effects in just over 75 percent of Kato-III and NUGC-4 cell lines. In addition, apoptotic characteristic was shown under TEM in both cancer cell lines with these two extracts, whereas characteristics of autophagy was found in cell lines after post exposure to extracts from L. flava. Conclusions From these three plants, S. gratum had the highest contents of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. All of them found to contain compound(s) with

  7. ABCB5 identifies immunoregulatory dermal cells

    PubMed Central

    Schatton, Tobias; Yang, Jun; Kleffel, Sonja; Uehara, Mayuko; Barthel, Steven R.; Schlapbach, Christoph; Zhan, Qian; Dudeney, Stephen; Mueller, Hansgeorg; Lee, Nayoung; de Vries, Juliane C.; Meier, Barbara; Vander Beken, Seppe; Kluth, Mark A.; Ganss, Christoph; Sharpe, Arlene H.; Waaga-Gasser, Ana Maria; Sayegh, Mohamed H.; Abdi, Reza; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Murphy, George F.; Kupper, Thomas S.; Frank, Natasha Y.; Frank, Markus H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cell-based strategies represent a new frontier in the treatment of immune-mediated disorders. However, the paucity of markers for isolation of molecularly-defined immunomodulatory cell populations poses a barrier to this field. Here we show that ATP-binding cassette member B5 (ABCB5) identifies dermal immunoregulatory cells (DIRCs) capable of exerting therapeutic immunoregulatory functions through engagement of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1). Purified Abcb5+ DIRCs suppressed T-cell proliferation, evaded immune rejection, homed to recipient immune tissues and induced Tregs in vivo. In fully MHC-mismatched cardiac allotransplantation models, allogeneic DIRCs significantly prolonged allograft survival. Blockade of DIRC-expressed PD-1 reversed the inhibitory effects of DIRCs on T-cell activation, inhibited DIRC-dependent Treg induction, and attenuated DIRC-induced prolongation of cardiac allograft survival, indicating that DIRC immunoregulatory function is mediated, at least in part, through PD-1. Our results identify ABCB5+ DIRCs as a distinct immunoregulatory cell population and suggest promising roles of this expandable cell subset in cellular immunotherapy. PMID:26321644

  8. Acute respiratory bronchiolitis: an ultrastructural and autoradiographic study of epithelial cell injury and renewal in Rhesus monkeys exposed to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Castleman, W.L.; Dungworth, D.L.; Schwartz, L.W.; Tyler, W.S.

    1980-03-01

    The pathogenesis of acute respiratory bronchiolitis was examined in Rhesus monkeys exposed to 0.8 ppM ozone for 4 to 50 hours. Epithelial injury and renewal were qualitatively and quantitatively characterized by correlated techniques of scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as by light-microscopic autoradiography following labeling with tritiated thymidine. Extensive degeneration and necrosis of Type 1 epithelial cells occurred on the respiratory bronchiolar wall during the initial 4 to 12 hours of exposure. Increased numbers of labeled epithelial cells were present in this region after 18 hours of exposure, and the highest labeling index (18%) was measured after 50 hours of exposure. Most (67 to 80%) of the labeled cells and all the mitotic epithelial cells (22) observed ultrastructurally were cuboidal bronchiolar epithelial cells. Of the labeled epithelial cells, 20 to 33% were Type 2 epithelial cells. After 50 hours of exposure the respiratory bronchiolar epithelium was hyperplastic. The predominant inflammatory cell in respiratory bronchiolar exudate was the alveolar macrophage. Monkeys that were exposed for 50 hours and allowed to recover in unozonized air for 7 days had incomplete resolution of respiratory bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia. The results indicate that Type 1 epithelial cells lining respiratory bronchioles are the cell types most sensitive to injury and that both cuboidal bronchiolar epithelial cells and Type 2 epithelial cells function as stem cells in epithelial renewal.

  9. Ultrastructural study of sperm cells in Acanthocolpidae: the case of Stephanostomum murielae and Stephanostomoides tenuis (Digenea)

    PubMed Central

    Bakhoum, Abdoulaye J.S.; Justine, Jean-Lou; Bray, Rodney A.; Bâ, Cheikh T.; Marchand, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The mature spermatozoa of Stephanostomum murielae and Stephanostomoides tenuis are described by transmission electron microscopy. They present several ultrastructural features previously reported in other digeneans. Their spermatozoa possess two axonemes of different length showing the 9 + ‘1’ trepaxonematan pattern, four attachment zones, two mitochondria (with an anterior moniliform one in S. murielae), a nucleus, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, spine-like bodies and granules of glycogen. The main differences between the mature spermatozoon of S. murielae and S. tenuis are the maximum number of cortical microtubules, the morphology of the anterior spermatozoon extremity and the anterior mitochondrion. This study is the first concerning members of the family Acanthocolpidae. The main ultrastructural characteristics discussed are the morphology of the anterior and posterior spermatozoon extremities, antero-lateral electron dense material, external ornamentations, spine-like bodies and number and morphology of mitochondria. In addition, the phylogenetic significance of all these ultrastructural features is discussed and compared to molecular results in order to highlight the complex relationships in the Digenea. PMID:25699200

  10. Interrelationship among testicular cells in wall lizard Hemidactylus flaviviridis (Rüppell): an ultrastructural seasonal and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Khan, U W; Rai, Umesh

    2004-04-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating ultrastructure of different testicular cells and their interactions through various junctional specializations during different phases of reproductive cycle in wall lizard H. flaviviridis to develop an integrated approach of cell-cell interaction in control of testicular functions. Specialized steroid synthesizing cell organelles such as smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) and long slender mitochondria with tubulo-vesicular cristae were predominantly seen in Leydig as well as Sertoli cells during spermatogenically active phase, suggesting their active involvement in steroid biosynthesis. Peritubular cells also exhibited marked seasonal variations. Multi-layered fibroblast-like peritubular cells during regressed phase became single layered myoid-like during spermatogenically active phase. The presence of various types of junctions, including gap and tight junctions (occluding junctions) and adhering junctions such as desmosomes, septate-like junction, ectoplasmic specializations and tubulo-bulbar complexes, were demonstrated among testicular cells in wall lizard H. flaviviridis. However, the nature and degree of junctional (environmental) interaction varied with the reproductive state of the wall lizard. Further, administration of dihydrotestosterone in wall lizards during regressed phase resulted in increase of lipid droplets in Leydig cells and accumulation of germ cell debris in seminiferous tubules. Some of the Sertoli cells were seen darker in response to testosterone treatment probably due to its inhibitory effect on lipid metabolism. These results suggest that testosterone either directly or via inhibiting pituitary basal gonadotropin secretion has suppressive effect on testicular cells. PMID:15088688

  11. Sperm-cell ultrastructure of North American sturgeons. IV. The pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus Forbes and Richardson, 1905)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DiLauro, M.N.; Walsh, R.A.; Peiffer, M.; Bennett, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Sperm-cell morphology and ultrastructure in the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) were examined using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Metrics and structure were compared with similar metrics obtained from other published descriptions of sturgeon sperm cells. General morphology was found to be similar to that of sperm cells of the white (Acipenser transmontanus), lake (A. fulvescens), stellate (A. stellatus), Chinese (A. sinensis), Russian (A. gueldenstaedti colchicus), and shortnose (A. brevirostrum) sturgeons, which all shared a gradual tapering of the nuclear diameter from posterior to anterior, unlike that of the Atlantic sturgeon (A. oxyrhynchus). The sperm cell of the pallid sturgeon was similar in size to that of the Atlantic sturgeon, being only slightly larger. The sperm cell of the pallid sturgeon differed from those of other sturgeons chiefly in the acrosomal region, where the posterolateral projections (PLP) have the shape of an acute triangle and are arranged in a spiral about the longitudinal axis of the cell. The PLP were longer than those of other sturgeons, being twice the length of those of the Atlantic sturgeon and 58% longer than those of the lake sturgeon. Also, in cross section the acrosome had the shape of a hollow cone rather than the cap of an oak tree acorn, as was found in ultrastructural studies of other sturgeons. In addition, we were able to confirm that the structural arrangement of the distal centriole of the midpiece is identical with that of the proximal centriole: nine sets of microtubular triplets around the periphery of the centriole. This information is of potential use to fishery biologists, forensic biologists, zoologists, reproductive physiologists, taxonomists, evolutionary biologists, and aquaculturists.

  12. Studies on the effects of microgravity on the ultrastructure and functions of cultured mammalian cells (L-6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Atsushige

    1993-01-01

    The human body consists of 10(exp 13) cells. Understanding the mechanisms by which the cells sense and respond to microgravity is very important as the basis for space biology. The cells were originally isolated aseptically from mammalian bodies and cultured in vitro. A set of cell culture vessels was developed to be applied to three kinds of space flight experiments. Experiment 1 is to practice the cell culture technique in a space laboratory and obtain favorable growth of the cells. Aseptic handling in tryspin treatment and medium renewal will be tested. The cells, following space flight, will be returned to the ground and cultured continuously to investigate the effects of space flight on the cellular characteristics. Experiment 2 is to examine the cytoskeletal structure of the cells under microgravity conditions. The cytoskeletal structure plays essential roles in the morphological construction, movements, axonal transport, and differentiation of the cells. The cells fixed during space flight will be returned and the cytoskeleton and ultrastructure observed using electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. Experiment 3 is to study the cellular productivity of valuable substances. The waste medium harvested during space flight are returned and quantitated for the cellular products. The effects of microgravity on mammalian cells will be clarified from the various aspects.

  13. Ultrastructural Studies of Germ Cell Development and the Functions of Leydig Cells and Sertoli Cells associated with Spermatogenesis in Kareius bicoloratus (Teleostei, Pleuronectiformes, Pleuronectidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hee-Woong; Kim, Sung Hwan; Chung, Jae Seung

    2016-01-01

    The ultrastructures of germ cells and the functions of Leydig cells and Sertoli cells during spermatogenesis inmale Kareius bicoloratus (Pleuronectidae) were investigated by electron microscope observation. Each of the well-developed Leydig cells during active maturation division and before spermiation contained an ovoid vesicular nucleus, a number of smooth endoplasmic reticula, well-developed tubular or vesicular mitochondrial cristae, and several lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. It is assumed that Leydig cells are typical steroidogenic cells showing cytological characteristics associated with male steroidogenesis. No cyclic structural changes in the Leydig cells were observed through the year. However, although no clear evidence of steroidogenesis or of any transfer of nutrients from the Sertoli cells to spermatogenic cells was observed, cyclic structural changes in the Sertoli cells were observed over the year. During the period of undischarged germ cell degeneration after spermiation, the Sertoli cells evidenced a lysosomal system associated with phagocytic function in the seminiferous lobules. In this study, the Sertoli cells function in phagocytosis and the resorption of products originating from degenerating spermatids and spermatozoa after spermiation. The spermatozoon lacks an acrosome, as have been shown in all teleost fish spermatozoa. The flagellum or sperm tail of this species evidences the typical 9+2 array of microtubules. PMID:27294207

  14. Glucan-associated protein modulations and ultrastructural changes of the cell wall in Candida albicans treated with micafungin, a water-soluble, lipopeptide antimycotic.

    PubMed

    Angiolella, L; Maras, B; Stringaro, A R; Arancia, G; Mondello, F; Girolamo, A; Palamara, A T; Cassone, A

    2005-08-01

    The composition of glucan-associated proteins (GAP) in the cell wall of Candida albicans was strongly affected by treatment with a sub-MIC yet beta-glucan synthesis inhibitory concentration (0.01 microg/ml) of FK463 (micafungin). Namely, a decrease in enzymes of glucose metabolism (mostly enolase and a novel 40 kDaltons component, here identified as the enzyme fructose-1,6-biphosphate aldolase) was observed, and this was coupled with an increase in two beta1-3 exo-glucanase isoforms (34 and 44 kDa, respectively). No GAP changes were detected in the same strain of the fungus made resistant to the drug, attesting to the specificity of the observed cell wall protein modulation. In addition, GAP changes were accompanied by marked ultrastructural alterations upon treatment with the sub-MIC dose of the drug, the majority of which was an aberrant cell surface morphology and a derangement of the normal layering of the cell wall. Our data demonstrate that sub-MIC doses of micafungin do critically affect not only the beta-glucan synthetic machinery but also protein composition and the whole cell wall structure of Candida albicans. PMID:16167521

  15. Ultrastructural localization of F-actin using phalloidin and quantum dots in HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cell line after cell death induction by arsenic trioxide.

    PubMed

    Izdebska, Magdalena; Gagat, Maciej; Grzanka, Dariusz; Grzanka, Alina

    2013-06-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are fluorescent nanocrystals whose unique properties are fundamentally different from organic fluorophores. Moreover, their cores display sufficient electron density to be visible under transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Here, we report a technique for phalloidin-based TEM detection of F-actin. The ultrastructural reorganization of F-actin after arsenic trioxide (ATO) treatment was estimated using a combination of pre- and post-embedding techniques with biotinylated phalloidin and QD-streptavidin conjugates or colloidal gold (AU) conjugated to streptavidin. Ultrastructural studies showed ATO-induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells. Moreover, different patterns of QD-labeled F-actin after ATO treatment were seen. In the case of AU labeling, only a few gold particles were seen and it was impossible to see any difference in F-actin distribution. TEM imaging experiments using QDs and colloidal gold (AU) showed that the strategy of bioconjugation of nanoprobes is the most important factor in biotinylated phalloidin detection of F-actin using streptavidin-coated nanoparticles, especially at the ultrastructural level. Additionally, the results presented in present study confirm the essential role of F-actin in chromatin reorganization during cell death processes. PMID:23312591

  16. Ultrastructure and cytochemical localization of laccase in two strains of Leptosphaerulina briosiana (Pollaci) Graham and Luttrell.

    PubMed Central

    Simon, L T; Bishop, D S; Hooper, G R

    1979-01-01

    Substrate specificity tests were used to identify the presence of laccase in two strains of Leptosphaerulina briosiana (Poll.) Graham and Luttrell, an ascomycete which causes leaf spot in alfalfa. Cytochemical localization of monophenol monooxygenase (laccase) as well as the ultrastructures of the two strains were investigated. Laccase was observed in the outer layers of the cell walls of both strains. The ultrastructures of vegetative hyphae of both strains were typical of those found in most ascomycetes. Images PMID:104971

  17. Quantitative and qualitative morphologic, cytochemical and ultrastructural characteristics of blood cells in the Crested Serpent eagle and Shikra.

    PubMed

    Salakij, Chaleow; Kasorndorkbua, Chaiyan; Salakij, Jarernsak; Suwannasaeng, Pimsuda; Jakthong, Pattarapong

    2015-08-01

    The Crested Serpent eagle (Spilornis cheela) is a bird of prey found in the tropical rain forest in Thailand. The Shikra (Accipiter badius) is a sparrow hawk and common resident in Thailand. Blood samples from 9 Crested Serpent eagles and 12 Shikras were obtained from September 2010 to November 2014. They were clinically healthy and negative for blood parasites detectable by light microscopy and molecular techniques (partial cytochrome b gene for avian malaria and partial 18S rRNA gene for trypanosome). Cytochemical staining (Sudan black B, peroxidase, α-naphthyl acetate esterase, and β-glucuronidase) and transmission electron microscopy were performed. Hematological results were reported as the mean ± standard deviation and median. Heterophils were the most prevalent leukocytes in the Crested Serpent eagle, but in the Shikra, lymphocytes were the most prevalent leukocytes. In the Shikra, some vacuoles were observed in the cytoplasm of the eosinophils. All blood cells in both types of raptors stained positively for β-glucuronidase but negatively for peroxidase. The ultrastructure of heterophils showed more clearly differentiate long rod granules in Crested Serpent eagle and spindle-shaped granules in Shikra. The ultrastructure of the eosinophils in the Crested Serpent eagle revealed varied electron-dense, round-shaped granules with round, different electron-dense areas in the centers of some granules, which differed from the structure reported for other raptors. These quantitative results may be useful for clinical evaluations of Crested Serpent eagles and Shikras that are undergoing rehabilitation for release. PMID:26563029

  18. Immunohistochemical and Ultrastructural Study of the Lamellae of Oocytes in Atretic Follicles in Relation to Different Processes of Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, M.L.; Echeverría, O.M.; García, G.; Ortiz, R.; Vázquez-Nin, G.H.

    2015-01-01

    Atresia is the process through which non-selectable oocytes are eliminated; it involves apoptosis and/or autophagy. This study used immunohistochemical and ultrastructural techniques to characterize the lamellae present in the cytoplasm of oocytes in follicles in the process of atresia in prepubertal and adult Wistar rats. The results indicate that the lamellae are positive to tubulin and myosin immunodetection under light and electron microscopy. Labeling is greater with anti-tubulin and lesser with anti-myosin. Our observations indicate that lamellae are present in oocytes at the initial antral stage in prepubertal rats; that is, from day 14 post-birth to adult age. We were able to determine that the increase in altered lamellae principally occurs in the apoptotic cells rather than in the autophagic cells. PMID:26428888

  19. Phenotypic, Ultra-Structural, and Functional Characterization of Bovine Peripheral Blood Dendritic Cell Subsets

    PubMed Central

    Sei, Janet J.; Ochoa, Amanda S.; Bishop, Elizabeth; Barlow, John W.; Golde, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are multi-functional cells that bridge the gap between innate and adaptive immune systems. In bovine, significant information is lacking on the precise identity and role of peripheral blood DC subsets. In this study, we identify and characterize bovine peripheral blood DC subsets directly ex vivo, without further in vitro manipulation. Multi-color flow cytometric analysis revealed that three DC subsets could be identified. Bovine plasmacytoid DC were phenotypically identified by a unique pattern of cell surface protein expression including CD4, exhibited an extensive endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, efficiently internalized and degraded exogenous antigen, and were the only peripheral blood cells specialized in the production of type I IFN following activation with Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists. Conventional DC were identified by expression of a different pattern of cell surface proteins including CD11c, MHC class II, and CD80, among others, the display of extensive dendritic protrusions on their plasma membrane, expression of very high levels of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules, efficient internalization and degradation of exogenous antigen, and ready production of detectable levels of TNF-alpha in response to TLR activation. Our investigations also revealed a third novel DC subset that may be a precursor of conventional DC that were MHC class II+ and CD11c−. These cells exhibited a smooth plasma membrane with a rounded nucleus, produced TNF-alpha in response to TLR-activation (albeit lower than CD11c+ DC), and were the least efficient in internalization/degradation of exogenous antigen. These studies define three bovine blood DC subsets with distinct phenotypic and functional characteristics which can be analyzed during immune responses to pathogens and vaccinations of cattle. PMID:25295753

  20. Schwann cell LRP1 regulates Remak bundle ultrastructure and axonal interactions to prevent neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Orita, Sumihisa; Henry, Kenneth; Mantuano, Elisabetta; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; De Corato, Alice; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Feltri, M. Laura; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Gaultier, Alban; Pollack, Melanie; Ellisman, Mark; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Gonias, Steven L.; Campana, W. Marie

    2013-01-01

    Trophic support and myelination of axons by Schwann cells in the PNS are essential for normal nerve function. Herein, we show that deletion of the LDL receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) gene in Schwann cells (scLRP1−/−) induces abnormalities in axon myelination and in ensheathment of axons by non-myelinating Schwann cells in Remak bundles. These anatomical changes in the PNS were associated with mechanical allodynia, even in the absence of nerve injury. In response to crush injury, sciatic nerves in scLRP1−/− mice showed accelerated degeneration and Schwann cell death. Remyelinated axons were evident 20 days after crush injury in control mice, yet were largely absent in scLRP1−/− mice. In the partial nerve ligation model, scLRP1−/− mice demonstrated significantly increased and sustained mechanical allodynia and loss of motor function. Evidence for central sensitization in pain processing included increased p38MAPK activation and activation of microglia in the spinal cord. These studies identify LRP1 as an essential mediator of normal Schwann cell-axonal interactions and as a pivotal regulator of the Schwann cell response to PNS injury in vivo. Mice in which LRP1 is deficient in Schwann cells represent a model for studying how abnormalities in Schwann cell physiology may facilitate and sustain chronic pain. PMID:23536074

  1. Ultrastructural changes and programmed cell death of trophocytes in the gonad of Isohypsibius granulifer granulifer Thulin, 1928 (Tardigrada, Eutardigrada, Isohypsibiidae).

    PubMed

    Poprawa, Izabela; Hyra, Marta; Kszuk-Jendrysik, Michalina; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena Maria

    2015-03-01

    The studies on the fates of the trophocytes, the apoptosis and autophagy in the gonad of Isohypsibius granulifer granulifer have been described using transmission electron microscope, light and fluorescent microscopes. The results presented here are the first that are connected with the cell death of nurse cells in the gonad of tardigrades. However, here we complete the results presented by Węglarska (1987). The reproductive system of I. g. granulifer contains a single sack-like hermaphroditic gonad and a single gonoduct. The gonad is composed of three parts: a germarium filled with proliferating germ cells (oogonia); a vitellarium that has clusters of female germ cells (the region of oocytes development); and a male part filled with male germ cells in which the sperm cells develop. The trophocytes (nurse cells) show distinct alterations during all of the stages of oogenesis: previtello-, vitello- and choriogenesis. During previtellogenesis the female germ cells situated in the vitellarium are connected by cytoplasmic bridges, and form clusters of cells. No ultrastructural differences appear among the germ cells in a cluster during this stage of oogenesis. In early vitellogenesis, the cells in each cluster start to grow and numerous organelles gradually accumulate in their cytoplasm. However, at the beginning of the middle of vitellogenesis, one cell in each cluster starts to grow in order to differentiate into oocyte, while the remaining cells are trophocytes. Eventually, the cytoplasmic bridges between the oocyte and trophocytes disappear. Autophagosomes also appear in the cytoplasm of nurse cells together with many degenerating organelles. The cytoplasm starts to shrink, which causes the degeneration of the cytoplasmic bridges between trophocytes. Apoptosis begins when the cytoplasm of these cells is full of autophagosomes/autolysosomes and causes their death. PMID:25543879

  2. Response of the common cutworm Spodoptera litura to lead stress: changes in sex ratio, Pb accumulations, midgut cell ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Shu, Yinghua; Zhou, Jialiang; Lu, Kai; Li, Keqing; Zhou, Qiang

    2015-11-01

    When cutworm Spodoptera litura larvae were fed on the diets with different lead (Pb) concentrations for one or five generations, changes in growth and food utilization were recorded; Pb accumulations were detected by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer; changes in midgut cell ultrastructure were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The effects of Pb stress on S. litura growth and food utilization differed significantly between insects of the 1st and 5th generation. The male-female rate of 200mgkg(-1) Pb treatment from the 1st generation and 50mgkg(-1) Pb treatment from the 5th generation was significantly higher than control. No significant difference of Pb accumulations was found in larvae, pupae and adults between the 1st and 5th generation. No significant difference of Pb accumulations in corresponding tissues of larvae was found between male and female. Compared to fat body, hemolymph, head, foregut and hindgut, the highest Pb accumulation was found in migut of larvae exposed to 200mgkg(-1) Pb. TEM showed that expanded intercellular spaces were observed in Pb-treated midgut cells. The nuclei were strongly destroyed by Pb stress, evidenced by chromatin condensation and destroyed nuclear envelope. Mitochondria became swollen with some broken cristae after exposure to Pb. Therefore, neither gender nor progeny difference was present in Pb accumulations of S. litura, although effects of Pb stress on S. litura growth and food utilization differed from different generations and genders. Pb accumulations in midgut caused pathological changes in cells ultrastructure, possibly reflected the growth and food utilization of S. litura. PMID:26248226

  3. Identifying cancer origin using circulating tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Si-Hong; Tsai, Wen-Sy; Chang, Ying-Hsu; Chou, Teh-Ying; Pang, See-Tong; Lin, Po-Hung; Tsai, Chun-Ming; Chang, Ying-Chih

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have become an established clinical evaluation biomarker. CTC count provides a good correlation with the prognosis of cancer patients, but has only been used with known cancer patients, and has been unable to predict the origin of the CTCs. This study demonstrates the analysis of CTCs for the identification of their primary cancer source. Twelve mL blood samples were equally dispensed on 6 CMx chips, microfluidic chips coated with an anti-EpCAM-conjugated supported lipid bilayer, for CTC capture and isolation. Captured CTCs were eluted to an immunofluorescence (IF) staining panel consisting of 6 groups of antibodies: anti-panCK, anti-CK18, anti-CK7, anti-TTF-1, anti-CK20/anti-CDX2, and anti-PSA/anti-PSMA. Cancer cell lines of lung (H1975), colorectal (DLD-1, HCT-116), and prostate (PC3, DU145, LNCaP) were selected to establish the sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing CTCs from lung, colorectal, and prostate cancer. Spiking experiments performed in 2mL of culture medium or whole blood proved the CMx platform can enumerate cancer cells of lung, colorectal, and prostate. The IF panel was tested on blood samples from lung cancer patients (n = 3), colorectal cancer patients (n = 5), prostate cancer patients (n = 5), and healthy individuals (n = 12). Peripheral blood samples found panCK+ and CK18+ CTCs in lung, colorectal, and prostate cancers. CTCs expressing CK7+ or TTF-1+, (CK20/ CDX2)+, or (PSA/ PSMA)+ corresponded to lung, colorectal, or prostate cancer, respectively. In conclusion, we have designed an immunofluorescence staining panel to identify CTCs in peripheral blood to correctly identify cancer cell origin. PMID:26828696

  4. Identifying cancer origin using circulating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Si-Hong; Tsai, Wen-Sy; Chang, Ying-Hsu; Chou, Teh-Ying; Pang, See-Tong; Lin, Po-Hung; Tsai, Chun-Ming; Chang, Ying-Chih

    2016-04-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have become an established clinical evaluation biomarker. CTC count provides a good correlation with the prognosis of cancer patients, but has only been used with known cancer patients, and has been unable to predict the origin of the CTCs. This study demonstrates the analysis of CTCs for the identification of their primary cancer source. Twelve mL blood samples were equally dispensed on 6 CMx chips, microfluidic chips coated with an anti-EpCAM-conjugated supported lipid bilayer, for CTC capture and isolation. Captured CTCs were eluted to an immunofluorescence (IF) staining panel consisting of 6 groups of antibodies: anti-panCK, anti-CK18, anti-CK7, anti-TTF-1, anti-CK20/anti-CDX2, and anti-PSA/anti-PSMA. Cancer cell lines of lung (H1975), colorectal (DLD-1, HCT-116), and prostate (PC3, DU145, LNCaP) were selected to establish the sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing CTCs from lung, colorectal, and prostate cancer. Spiking experiments performed in 2mL of culture medium or whole blood proved the CMx platform can enumerate cancer cells of lung, colorectal, and prostate. The IF panel was tested on blood samples from lung cancer patients (n = 3), colorectal cancer patients (n = 5), prostate cancer patients (n = 5), and healthy individuals (n = 12). Peripheral blood samples found panCK(+) and CK18(+) CTCs in lung, colorectal, and prostate cancers. CTCs expressing CK7(+) or TTF-1(+), (CK20/ CDX2)(+), or (PSA/ PSMA)(+) corresponded to lung, colorectal, or prostate cancer, respectively. In conclusion, we have designed an immunofluorescence staining panel to identify CTCs in peripheral blood to correctly identify cancer cell origin. PMID:26828696

  5. Quantitative ultrastructural analysis of the human parietal cell during acid inhibition and increase of gastric potential difference by glucagon.

    PubMed Central

    Ivey, K J; Tarnawski, A; Sherman, D; Krause, W J; Ackman, K; Burks, M; Hewett, J

    1980-01-01

    Glucagon inhibits gastric acid secretion and increases the negativity of gastric mucosal potential difference (PD) in man. To test the hypothesis that the increased negativity of PD after glucagon in man could be due to decreased parietal cell canalicular membrane area, a quantitative ultrastructural analysis was carried out. Four healthy volunteers with normal gastric mucosa were submitted to biopsy before and 20 minutes after intravenous injection of 2 mg glucagon (G). This time corresponded with the maximal change in PD and a decrease in gastric acid secretion. Canalicular and tubulovesicular membrane area of 80 parietal cells (40 cells before glucagon and 40 cells after glucagon) were quantified by the Loud morphometric method. After glucagon, the oxyntic cell canalicular membrane area was reduced by one-fourth (P less than 0.05), while tubulovesicular membrane area showed an increase (P less than 0.05) at the same time. The decrease in the area of parietal cell canalicular membrane caused by glucagon may in part be responsible for increased negativity of the gastric PD caused by this hormone. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7364316

  6. A case of primary clear cell hepatocellular carcinoma in a non-cirrhotic liver: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Erica Fan; Furth, Emma Elizabeth; Ziober, Amy; Xu, Theodore; Yao, Yuan; Hwang, Pil Gyu; Bing, Zhanyong

    2012-01-01

    The clear cell variant of hepatocellular carcinoma is a rare entity, occurring at a frequency of less than 10% of hepatocellular carcinoma, with a female prevalence and usually associated with hepatitis C and cirrhosis. We reported a case of primary clear cell hepatocellular carcinoma occurring in a non-cirrhotic liver without history of hepatitis. Our examination included gross pathology, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, special stains, and electron microscopy evaluation. The tumor was composed of sheets of medium-to-large cells with foamy and reticulated cytoplasm and small-to-medium sized nuclei with variably prominent nucleoli. Oil red O stain showed abundant intracellular lipid. Periodic Acid-Schiff stain confirmed the presence of abundant glycogen deposition. Immunohistochemically the tumor cells were positive for Hep Par1, negative for epithelial membrane antigen, steroidogenic factor-1, HMB45, melan A, CK7 and CK20. Electron microscopy study was performed, which was first done in a clear cell hepatocellular carcinoma occurring in a non-cirrhotic liver without elevation of liver function tests. Ultrastructural evaluation of the clear cells showed scarce cellular organelles, cytoplasmic lipid vacuoles and swollen mitochondria. PMID:22826786

  7. Identified nerve cells and insect behavior.

    PubMed

    Comer, C M; Robertson, R M

    2001-03-01

    Studies of insect identified neurons over the past 25 years have provided some of the very best data on sensorimotor integration; tracing information flow from sensory to motor networks. General principles have emerged that have increased the sophistication with which we now understand both sensory processing and motor control. Two overarching themes have emerged from studies of identified sensory interneurons. First, within a species, there are profound differences in neuronal organization associated with both the sex and the social experience of the individual. Second, single neurons exhibit some surprisingly rich examples of computational sophistication in terms of (a) temporal dynamics (coding superimposed upon circadian and shorter-term rhythms), and also (b) what Kenneth Roeder called "neural parsimony": that optimal information can be encoded, and complex acts of sensorimotor coordination can be mediated, by small ensembles of cells. Insect motor systems have proven to be relatively complex, and so studies of their organization typically have not yielded completely defined circuits as are known from some other invertebrates. However, several important findings have emerged. Analysis of neuronal oscillators for rhythmic behavior have delineated a profound influence of sensory feedback on interneuronal circuits: they are not only modulated by feedback, but may be substantially reconfigured. Additionally, insect motor circuits provide potent examples of neuronal restructuring during an organism's lifetime, as well as insights on how circuits have been modified across evolutionary time. Several areas where future advances seem likely to occur include: molecular genetic analyses, neuroecological syntheses, and neuroinformatics--the use of digital resources to organize databases with information on identified nerve cells and behavior. PMID:11163685

  8. [Bone Cell Biology Assessed by Microscopic Approach. Bone mineralization by ultrastructural imaging].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Tomoka

    2015-10-01

    Bone mineralization can be divided into two phases ; one is primary mineralization associated with osteoblastic bone formation, and the other is secondary mineralization which gradually increases mineral density of bone matrix after the primary mineralization. Primary mineralization is initiated by matrix vesicles synthesized by mature osteoblasts. Crystalline calcium phosphates are nucleated inside these matrix vesicles, and then, get out of them forming spherical mineralized nodule, which can grow more by being supplied with Ca2+ and PO4(3-) (matrix vesicle mineralization). Thereafter, the mineralized nodules make contacts with surrounding collagen fibrils, extending mineralization along with their longitudinal axis from the contact points (collagen mineralization). In this review, the ultrastructural findings on bone mineralization, specially, primary mineralization will be provided. PMID:26412723

  9. Ultrastructural analysis of olfactory ensheathing cells derived from olfactory bulb and nerve of neonatal and juvenile rats.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Rosa M; Ghotme, Kemel; Botero, Lucía; Bernal, Jaime E; Pérez, Rosalía; Barreto, George E; Bustos, Rosa Helena

    2016-02-01

    Olfactory nerve derived and olfactory bulb derived olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) have the ability to promote axonal regeneration and remyelination, both of which are essential in a successful cell transplant. Thus, morphological identification of OECs is a key aspect to develop an applicable cell therapy for injuries to the nervous system. However, there is no clear definition regarding which developmental stage or anatomical origin of OECs is more adequate for neural repair. In the present study, an ultrastructural comparison was made between OECs recovered from primary cultures of olfactory nerve and bulb in two developmental stages. The most notorious difference between cells obtained from olfactory nerve and bulb was the presence of indented nuclei in bulb derived OECs, suggesting a greater ability for possible chemotaxis. In neonatal OECs abundant mitochondria, lipid vacuoles, and smooth endoplasmic reticulum were detected, suggesting an active lipid metabolism, probably involved in synthesis of myelin. Our results suggest that neonatal OECs obtained from olfactory bulb have microscopic properties that could make them more suitable for neural repair. PMID:26254553

  10. A new nidovirus (NamDinh virus NDiV): Its ultrastructural characterization in the C6/36 mosquito cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Thuy, Nguyen Thanh; Huy, Tran Quang; Nga, Phan Thi; Morita, Kouichi; Dunia, Irene; Benedetti, Lucio

    2013-09-15

    We describe the ultrastructure of the NamDinh virus (NDiV), a new member of the order Nidovirales grown in the C6/36 mosquito cell line. Uninfected and NDiV-infected cells were investigated by electron microscopy 24–48 h after infection. The results show that the viral nucleocapsid-like particles form clusters concentrated in the vacuoles, the endoplasmic reticulum, and are scattered in the cytoplasm. Mature virions of NDiV were released as budding particles on the cell surface where viral components appear to lie beneath and along the plasma membrane. Free homogeneous virus particles were obtained by ultracentrifugation on sucrose gradients of culture fluids. The size of the round-shaped particles with a complete internal structure was 80 nm in diameter. This is the first study to provide information on the morphogenesis and ultrastructure of the first insect nidovirus NDiV, a missing evolutionary link in the emergence of the viruses with the largest RNA genomes. - Highlights: • NamDinh virus (NDiV), a new member of the order Nidovirales was tested in cultured cell line. • The morphogenesis and ultrastructure of NDiV were investigated by electron microscopy. • The viral nucleocapsid-like particles clustered and scattered in the cytoplasm. • NDiVs were released as budding particles on the cell surface. • The size of the viral particles with a complete internal structure was 80 nm in diameter.

  11. The influence of microgravity and spaceflight on columella cell ultrastructure in starch-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guisinger, M. M.; Kiss, J. Z.

    1999-01-01

    The ultrastructure of root cap columella cells was studied by morphometric analysis in wild-type, a reduced-starch mutant, and a starchless mutant of Arabidopsis grown in microgravity (F-microgravity) and compared to ground 1g (G-1g) and flight 1g (F-1g) controls. Seedlings of the wild-type and reduced-starch mutant that developed during an experiment on the Space Shuttle (both the F-microgravity samples and the F-lg control) exhibited a decreased starch content in comparison to the G-1g control. These results suggest that some factor associated with spaceflight (and not microgravity per se) affects starch metabolism. Elevated levels of ethylene were found during the experiments on the Space Shuttle, and analysis of ground controls with added ethylene demonstrated that this gas was responsible for decreased starch levels in the columella cells. This is the first study to use an on-board centrifuge as a control when quantifying starch in spaceflight-grown plants. Furthermore, our results show that ethylene levels must be carefully considered and controlled when designing experiments with plants for the International Space Station.

  12. Correlative Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy for Observing the Three-Dimensional Ultrastructure of Membranous Cell Organelles in Relation to Their Molecular Components.

    PubMed

    Koga, Daisuke; Kusumi, Satoshi; Bochimoto, Hiroki; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Ushiki, Tatsuo

    2015-12-01

    Although the osmium maceration method has been used to observe three-dimensional (3D) structures of membranous cell organelles with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the use of osmium tetroxide for membrane fixation and the removal of cytosolic soluble proteins largely impairs the antigenicity of molecules in the specimens. In the present study, we developed a novel method to combine cryosectioning with the maceration method for correlative immunocytochemical analysis. We first immunocytochemically stained a semi-thin cryosection cut from a pituitary tissue block with a cryo-ultramicrotome, according to the Tokuyasu method, before preparing an osmium-macerated specimen from the remaining tissue block. Correlative microscopy was performed by observing the same area between the immunostained section and the adjacent face of the tissue block. Using this correlative method, we could accurately identify the gonadotropes of pituitary glands in various experimental conditions with SEM. At 4 weeks after castration, dilated cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) were distributed throughout the cytoplasm. On the other hand, an extremely dilated cisterna of the RER occupied the large region of the cytoplasm at 12 weeks after castration. This novel method has the potential to analyze the relationship between the distribution of functional molecules and the 3D ultrastructure in different composite tissues. PMID:26374827

  13. Quantification of endocrine cells and ultrastructural study of insulin granules in the large intestine of opossum Didelphis aurita (Wied-Neuwied, 1826).

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Daiane Cristina Marques; Cupertino, Marli do Carmo; Fialho, Maria do Carmo Queiroz; Barbosa, Alfredo Jose Afonso; Fonseca, Cláudio Cesar; Sartori, Sirlene Souza Rodrigues; da Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the distribution of argyrophil, argentaffin, and insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells in the large intestine of opossums (Didelphis aurita) and to describe the ultrastructure of the secretory granules of insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells. Fragments of the large intestine of 10 male specimens of D. aurita were collected, processed, and subjected to staining, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy. The argyrophil, the argentaffin, and the insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells were sparsely distributed in the intestinal glands of the mucous layer, among other cell types of the epithelium in all regions studied. Proportionally, the argyrophil, the argentaffin, and the insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells represented 62.75%, 36.26%, and 0.99% of the total determined endocrine cells of the large intestine, respectively. Quantitatively, there was no difference between the argyrophil and the argentaffin endocrine cells, whereas insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells were less numerous. The insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells were elongated or pyramidal, with rounded nuclei of irregularly contoured, and large amounts of secretory granules distributed throughout the cytoplasm. The granules have different sizes and electron densities and are classified as immature and mature, with the mature granules in predominant form in the overall granular population. In general, the granule is shown with an external electron-lucent halo and electron-dense core. The ultrastructure pattern in the granules of the insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells was similar to that of the B cells of pancreatic islets in rats. PMID:24359801

  14. Ultrastructural analysis of primary human urethral epithelial cell cultures infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Harvey, H A; Ketterer, M R; Preston, A; Lubaroff, D; Williams, R; Apicella, M A

    1997-06-01

    In men with gonococcal urethritis, the urethral epithelial cell is a site of infection. To study the pathogenesis of gonorrhea in this cell type, we have developed a method to culture primary human urethral epithelial cells obtained at the time of urologic surgery. Fluorescent analysis demonstrated that 100% of the cells stained for keratin. Microscopic analyses indicated that these epithelial cells arrayed in a pattern similar to that seen in urethral epithelium. Using immunoelectron and confocal microscopy, we compared the infection process seen in primary cells with events occurring during natural infection of the same cell type in men with gonococcal urethritis. Immunoelectron microscopy studies of cells infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae 1291 Opa+ P+ showed adherence of organisms to the epithelial cell membrane, pedestal formation with evidence of intimate association between the gonococcal and the epithelial cell membranes, and intracellular gonococci present in vacuoles. Confocal studies of primary urethral epithelial cells showed actin polymerization upon infection. Polyclonal antibodies to the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) demonstrated the presence of this receptor on infected cells in the primary urethral cell culture. In situ hybridization using a fluorescent-labeled probe specific to the ASGP-R mRNA demonstrated this message in uninfected and infected cells. These features were identical to those seen in urethral epithelial cells in exudates from males with gonorrhea. Infection of primary urethral cells in culture mimics events seen in natural infection and will allow detailed molecular analysis of gonococcal pathogenesis in a human epithelial cell which is commonly infected. PMID:9169783

  15. Stem cell banking: between traceability and identifiability

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Stem cell banks are increasingly seen as an essential resource of biological materials for both basic and translational research. Stem cell banks support transnational access to quality-controlled and ethically sourced stem cell lines from different origins and of varying grades. According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, advances in regenerative medicine are leading to the development of a bioeconomy, 'a world where biotechnology contributes to a significant share of economic output'. Consequently, stem cell banks are destined to constitute a pillar of the bioeconomy in many countries. While certain ethical and legal concerns are specific to the nature of stem cells, stem cell banking could do well to examine the approaches fostered by tissue banking generally. Indeed, the past decade has seen a move to simplify and harmonize biological tissue and data banking so as to foster international interoperability. In particular, the issues of consent and of traceability illustrate not only commonalities but the opportunity for stem cell banking to appreciate the lessons learned in biobanking generally. This paper analyzes convergence and divergence in issues surrounding policy harmonization, transnational sharing, informed consent, traceability and return of results in the context of stem cell banks. PMID:20923580

  16. Fluorescence and ultrastructural localization of actin distribution patterns in the nucleus of HL-60 and K-562 cell lines treated with cytostatic drugs.

    PubMed

    Grzanka, Alina; Grzanka, Dariusz; Orlikowska, Magdalena

    2004-04-01

    Actin has been studied extensively for decades, but so far its well-defined role has been found localized to the cytoplasm. The present study characterizes the distribution pattern of actin in the nucleus of HL-60 and K-562 cell lines treated with etoposide and doxorubicin. F-actin labeled with TRITC-phalloidin was found in the nucleus in both cell lines independently of the cytostatic drugs used. Using confocal microscopy F-actin is seen in the center of the nucleus showed labeling of the nucleoli by phalloidin. There are also distinct tracts of F-actin seen from nucleoli to the nuclear envelope in some sections. HL-60 cells treated with 200 micro M etoposide and 5, 10 micro M doxorubicin showed cells with characteristic features of apoptosis at the ultrastructural level. Intense immunogold labeling for actin was seen in nucleus of HL-60 cells with compaction and margination of chromatin. In K-562 cells more intense labeling was often found in the cytoplasm of the cells. Positive labeling for actin was not found after control incubations. F-actin is present in the nucleus and there is labeling of nucleoli by phalloidin. The observation at the ultrastructural level suggests that actin can be involved in chromatin reorganization during the process of apoptosis. Increase of labeling at the ultrastructural level in the nucleus of HL-60 cells in relation with compaction and margination of nuclear chromatin might also suggest translocation of actin from cytoplasm to the nucleus in connection with chromatin reorganization. PMID:15010870

  17. Ultrastructural analyses of somatic embryo initiation, development and polarity establishment from mesophyll cells of Dactylis glomerata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasilenko, A.; McDaniel, J. K.; Conger, B. V.

    2000-01-01

    Somatic embryos initiate and develop directly from single mesophyll cells in in vitro-cultured leaf segments of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.). Embryogenic cells establish themselves in the predivision stage by formation of thicker cell walls and dense cytoplasm. Electron microscopy observations for embryos ranging from the pre-cell-division stage to 20-cell proembryos confirm previous light microscopy studies showing a single cell origin. They also confirm that the first division is predominantly periclinal and that this division plane is important in establishing embryo polarity and in determining the embryo axis. If the first division is anticlinal or if divisions are in random planes after the first division, divisions may not continue to produce an embryo. This result may produce an embryogenic cell mass, callus formation, or no structure at all. Grant numbers: NAGW-3141, NAG10-0221.

  18. Identify multiple myeloma stem cells: Utopia?

    PubMed Central

    Saltarella, Ilaria; Lamanuzzi, Aurelia; Reale, Antonia; Vacca, Angelo; Ria, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematologic malignancy of monoclonal plasma cells which remains incurable despite recent advances in therapies. The presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) has been demonstrated in many solid and hematologic tumors, so the idea of CSCs has been proposed for MM, even if MM CSCs have not been define yet. The existence of myeloma CSCs with clonotypic B and clonotypic non B cells was postulated by many groups. This review aims to focus on these distinct clonotypic subpopulations and on their ability to develop and sustain MM. The bone marrow microenvironment provides to MM CSCs self-renewal, survival and drug resistance thanks to the presence of normal and cancer stem cell niches. The niches and CSCs interact each other through adhesion molecules and the interplay between ligands and receptors activates stemness signaling (Hedgehog, Wnt and Notch pathways). MM CSCs are also supposed to be responsible for drug resistance that happens in three steps from the initial cancer cell homing microenvironment-mediated to development of microenvironment-independent drug resistance. In this review, we will underline all these aspects of MM CSCs. PMID:25621108

  19. Identify multiple myeloma stem cells: Utopia?

    PubMed

    Saltarella, Ilaria; Lamanuzzi, Aurelia; Reale, Antonia; Vacca, Angelo; Ria, Roberto

    2015-01-26

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematologic malignancy of monoclonal plasma cells which remains incurable despite recent advances in therapies. The presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) has been demonstrated in many solid and hematologic tumors, so the idea of CSCs has been proposed for MM, even if MM CSCs have not been define yet. The existence of myeloma CSCs with clonotypic B and clonotypic non B cells was postulated by many groups. This review aims to focus on these distinct clonotypic subpopulations and on their ability to develop and sustain MM. The bone marrow microenvironment provides to MM CSCs self-renewal, survival and drug resistance thanks to the presence of normal and cancer stem cell niches. The niches and CSCs interact each other through adhesion molecules and the interplay between ligands and receptors activates stemness signaling (Hedgehog, Wnt and Notch pathways). MM CSCs are also supposed to be responsible for drug resistance that happens in three steps from the initial cancer cell homing microenvironment-mediated to development of microenvironment-independent drug resistance. In this review, we will underline all these aspects of MM CSCs. PMID:25621108

  20. Ultra-Structural Alterations in In Vitro Produced Four-Cell Bovine Embryos Following Controlled Slow Freezing or Vitrification.

    PubMed

    Cavusoglu, T; Popken, J; Guengoer, T; Yilmaz, O; Uyanikgil, Y; Ates, U; Baka, M; Oztas, E; Zakhartchenko, V

    2016-08-01

    Cryopreservation is the process of freezing and preserving cells and tissues at low temperatures. Controlled slow freezing and vitrification have successfully been used for cryopreservation of mammalian embryos. We investigated the effect of these two cryopreservation methods on in vitro produced four-cell stage bovine embryos which were classified according to their quality and separated into three groups. The first group was maintained as untreated controls (n = 350). Embryos of the second (n = 385) and the third (n = 385) groups were cryopreserved either by controlled slow freezing or by vitrification. Embryos in groups 2 and 3 were thawed after 1 day. Hundred embryos were randomly selected from the control group, and 100 morphologically intact embryos from the second and third group were thawed after 1 day and cultured to observe the development up to the blastocyst stage. The blastocyst development rate was 22% in the control group, 1% in the slow-freezing group and 3% in the vitrification group. Remaining embryos of all three groups were examined by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy with subsequent histological staining procedures. Cryopreservation caused degenerative changes at the ultra-structural level. Compared with vitrification, slow freezing caused an increased mitochondrial degeneration, cytoplasmic vacuolization, disruption of the nuclear and plasma membrane integrity, organelle disintegration, cytoskeletal damage, a reduced thickness of the zona pellucida and a formation of fractures in the zona pellucida. Further studies are required to understand and decrease the harmful effects of cryopreservation. PMID:26293816

  1. Effects of long-term space condition on cell ultrastructure and the molecular level change of the tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinying, L.; Min, L.; Huai, X.; Yi, P.; Chunhua, Z.; Nechitalo, G.

    Effects of long-term exposure to physical factors of space flight on dormant seeds were studied on plants derived from tomato seeds flown for 6 years on board of the space station MIR Upon return to the Earth the seeds were germinated and grown to maturity Samples of plants were compared to plants from parallel ground-based controls Various differences of ultrastructure of the tomato leaf cell were observed with an electron microscope One plant carried by space station has the anatomy of leaves with a three-layered palisade tissue and other plants similar with ground controls have the anatomy of leaves with a one-layered palisade tissue The number of starch grains per chloroplast of every space-treated tomato leaf increased significantly compared with that of the ground control The leaf cell walls of two plants carried by space station became contracted and deformed The size of chloroplast in some space-treated plants was larger and the lamellae s structure of some chloroplasts turned curvature and loose The results obtained point out to significant changes occurring on the molecular level among the space-flight treated seedlings and the ground control The leaves of plants were used for AFLP Amplification Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis For the first generation space-flight treated tomato plants among 64 pairs of primers used in this experiment 43 primers generated the same DNA bands type and 21 primers generated a different DNA band type 2582 DNA bands were produced among which 34 DNA bands were polymorphic with the percentage

  2. Ultrastructure observation on the cells at different life history stages of Cryptocaryon irritans (Ciliophora: Prostomatea), a parasitic ciliate of marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rui; Ni, Bing; Fan, Xinpeng; Warren, Alan; Yin, Fei; Gu, Fukang

    2016-09-01

    Cells of Cryptocaryon irritans at different life history stages were studied using both light and electron microscopy. The characteristics of several organelles were revealed for the first time at the ultrastructural level. It was confirmed that the cytostome of trophonts, protomonts and theronts was surrounded by cilium-palp triplets rather than ciliary triplets. The nematodesmata underlying the circumoral dikinetids were single bundles, whereas these were always paired in Prorodontids. Toxicysts were present in late-stage tomonts and theronts, but were absent in trophonts and protomonts. We posited that toxicysts might play a role in infection and invasion of host-fish tissue by theronts. The adoral brosse was unlike that of any other family of the class Prostomatea based on its location and morphology. Membranous folds were present in trophonts, protomonts and theronts. These folds were longer and more highly developed in C. irritans than in exclusively free-living prostome ciliates suggesting that they might be linked to parasitism in C. irritans. Trophonts, protomonts and theronts had multiple contractile vacuoles. The basic ultrastructure of the contractile vacuole of C. irritans was similar to that of other kinetofragminophoran ciliates. They might play different roles in different stages of the life cycle since their ultrastructure varied among trophonts, protomonts and theronts. PMID:27460894

  3. An ultrastructural study of sinuatrial node cells in the embryonic rat heart.

    PubMed Central

    Domenech-Mateu, J M; Boya-Vegué, J

    1975-01-01

    Sinuatrial nodal tissue, obtained from rat embryos of 15, 16 and 17 days, was examined with the electron microscope. Embryonic nodal cells were generally similar to adult cells except that (1) they showed thick prolongations of the cytoplasm which insinuated themselves between neighbouring cells; (2) they possessed osmiophilic granules with a predeliction for the region of the Golgi complex; (3) they exhibited a lesser and variable degree of pinocytosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:1133091

  4. Ultrastructure and antigenicity of the unique cell wall pimple of the Candida opaque phenotype.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J; Mihalik, R; Soll, D R

    1990-01-01

    Cells of Candida albicans WO-1 switch frequently and reversibly between two colony-forming phenotypes, white and opaque. In the white form, budding cells appear similar to those of most other strains of C. albicans, but in the opaque form, budding cells are larger, are bean shaped, and possess pimples on the wall. These pimples exhibit a unique and complex morphology. With scanning electron microscopy, a central pit can be discerned, and in many cases, a bleb can be observed emerging from the pimple center. With transmission electron microscopy, channels are evident in some pimples and vesicles are apparent under the pimple in the cytoplasm, in the actual wall of the pimple, or emerging from the tip of the pimple. A large vacuole predominates in the opaque-cell cytoplasm. This vacuole is usually filled with spaghettilike membranous material and in a minority of cases is filled with vesicles, many of which exhibit a relatively uniform size. An antiserum to opaque cells recognizes three opaque-cell-specific antigens with molecular masses of approximately 14.5, 21, and 31 kilodaltons (kDa). Absorption with nonpermeabilized opaque cells demonstrated that only the 14.5-kDa antigen is on the cell surface; indirect immunogold labeling demonstrated that it is localized in or on the pimple. The possibility is suggested that the vacuole of opaque cells is the origin of membrane-bound vesicles which traverse the wall through specialized pimple structures and emerge from the pimple with an intact outer double membrane, a unique phenomenon in yeast cells. The opaque-cell-specific 14.5-kDa antigen either is in the pimple channel or is a component of the emerging vesicle. The functions of the unique opaque-cell pimple and emerging vesicle are not known. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7A-7B FIG. 7C-7D PMID:2403540

  5. Antiproliferative effect of linalool on RPMI 7932 human melanoma cell line: ultrastructural studies.

    PubMed

    Cerchiara, Teresa; Straface, Serafina Vittoria; Brunelli, Elvira; Tripepi, Sandro; Gallucci, Maria Caterina; Chidichimo, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Linalool, a small monoterpene molecule, is used widely for its flavoring and fragrant properties in many cosmetic products. In this work, we investigated the antiproliferative effect of two different linalool solutions on RPMI 7932 human melanoma and NCTC 2544 normal keratinocites cell lines using the trypan blue method. Morphological changes in cells were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, apoptosis was evaluated using caspase 3-antibody. Linalool showed a selective inhibitory effect on the growth of melanoma cells in a concentrationdependent manner, inducing several morphological changes, as revealed by SEM and TEM analysis. Moreover, the labelling for caspase-3 is abundant in the melanoma cells and almost absent in the normal keratinocites cells. The results suggest that linalool could be used as drug and/or as model drug for developing potential therapeutic agents for melanoma. PMID:25973472

  6. Ultra-structural changes and expression of chondrogenic and hypertrophic genes during chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells in alginate beads

    PubMed Central

    Dashtdar, Havva; Selvaratnam, Lakshmi; Balaji Raghavendran, Hanumantharao; Suhaeb, Abdulrazzaq Mahmod; Ahmad, Tunku Sara

    2016-01-01

    Chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in the form of pellet culture and encapsulation in alginate beads has been widely used as conventional model for in vitro chondrogenesis. However, comparative characterization between differentiation, hypertrophic markers, cell adhesion molecule and ultrastructural changes during alginate and pellet culture has not been described. Hence, the present study was conducted comparing MSCs cultured in pellet and alginate beads with monolayer culture. qPCR was performed to assess the expression of chondrogenic, hypertrophic, and cell adhesion molecule genes, whereas transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to assess the ultrastructural changes. In addition, immunocytochemistry for Collagen type II and aggrecan and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) analysis were performed. Our results indicate that pellet and alginate bead cultures were necessary for chondrogenic differentiation of MSC. It also indicates that cultures using alginate bead demonstrated significantly higher (p < 0.05) chondrogenic but lower hypertrophic (p < 0.05) gene expressions as compared with pellet cultures. N-cadherin and N-CAM1 expression were up-regulated in second and third weeks of culture and were comparable between the alginate bead and pellet culture groups, respectively. TEM images demonstrated ultrastructural changes resembling cell death in pellet cultures. Our results indicate that using alginate beads, MSCs express higher chondrogenic but lower hypertrophic gene expression. Enhanced production of extracellular matrix and cell adhesion molecules was also observed in this group. These findings suggest that alginate bead culture may serve as a superior chondrogenic model, whereas pellet culture is more appropriate as a hypertrophic model of chondrogenesis. PMID:26966647

  7. Novel Identified Receptors on Mast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Migalovich-Sheikhet, Helena; Friedman, Sheli; Mankuta, David; Levi-Schaffer, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Mast cells (MC) are major participants in the allergic reaction. In addition they possess immunomodulatory roles in the innate and adaptive immune reactions. Their functions are modulated through a number of activating and inhibitory receptors expressed on their surface. This review deals with some of the most recently described receptors, their expression patterns, ligand(s), signal transduction mechanisms, possible cross-talk with other receptors and, last but not least, regulatory functions that the MC can perform based on their receptor expression in health or in disease. Where the receptor role on MC is still not clear, evidences from other hematopoietic cells expressing them is provided as a possible insight for their function on MC. Suggested strategies to modulate these receptors’ activity for the purpose of therapeutic intervention are also discussed. PMID:22876248

  8. Ultrastructural patterns of the activated cell death programs in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Pais, Viorel; Danaila, Leon; Pais, Emil

    2013-04-01

    The authors analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) neurosurgical samples obtained from patients with cerebral tumors, neurotrauma, cerebral ischemia, Moyamoya disease, encephalitis, etc. Their observations concern a variety of dying cell types by different programmed death pathways, including apoptosis, paraptosis, autophagy, autoschizis, programmed necrosis, as well as combined and coexisting forms. This ample work pointed out not only the role of TEM in cell death diagnosis, but the biological differences in cell behavior and beneficial or detrimental effects of suicides for homeostasis, survival, or normal functioning of a tissue, like the integrated vascular tissue and brain parenchyma. PMID:23573891

  9. [Effect of chitosan on the cell ultrastructure and activity of hydrolases in tobacco leaves].

    PubMed

    Nagorskaia, V P; Reunov, A V; Lapshina, L A; Davydova, V N; Ermak, I M

    2012-01-01

    Effect of chitosan on the mesophyll cell ultrastucture and activity of hydrolases in leaves of tobacco cv. Samsun was studied. It was shown that, in many cells, chitosan treatment stimulated the protein-synthesizing apparatus (nucleolus dimension and amount of both mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum membranes increased) and, at the same time, caused some activation of lytic compartment expressed in the stimulation of the formation of dictyosomes, smooth ER elements and cytoplasmic vacuoles, which are all prominent constituents of this compartment. In biochemical experiments, it was established that chitosan substantially enhanced activity of hydrolases (acid phosphatase, RNase, proteases) in the leaves as compared to untreated leaves. In some cells chitosan treatment caused considerable destructive changes (condensation of nuclear chromatin, collapse of cytoplasm and so on) that can be classified as a result of programmed cell death development. PMID:23461036

  10. Ultrastructural changes during the fatigue of bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn, David H.

    2006-07-01

    Repetitive mechanical loading of bone can lead to ultrastructural-level damage, which can lead to fracture if not repaired. Skeletal fractures result not only from a loss in bone mass, but also because of alterations in tissue quality. Therefore, it is important to also delineate how changes in tissue ultrastructure affect the mechanistic response of bone to its physical environment. In this overview, factors affecting tissue quality, in particular fatigue resistance, are reviewed, followed by examples of recent work that has identified ultrastructural and compositional changes that occur in bone during fatigue.

  11. Ultrastructural and biochemical studies of two dynamically expressed cell surface determinants on Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Brawner, D L; Cutler, J E

    1986-01-01

    Variability in the expression of two different cell surface carbohydrate determinants was examined with two agglutinating immunoglobulin M monoclonal antibodies (H9 and C6) and immunoelectron microscopy during growth of three strains of Candida albicans. A single strain of Candida parapsilosis did not express either antigen at any time during growth. Antigens were detected on the surface of C. albicans by agglutination tests with either H9 or C6 over a 48-h growth period. The difference in specificities of the monoclonal antibodies was demonstrated by Ouchterlony double-diffusion tests with solubilized antigens and by variabilities in the reactivity of the agglutinins among yeast strains. The antigenic determinants were isolated by specific immunoprecipitation and protease digestion and characterized by methods including high-pressure liquid chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography, and mass spectroscopy with both chemical and electron ionization. These determinants both contain mannose and glucose. In the case of antigen H9, an additional carbohydrate was detected with gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. The location of antigens on individual cells was determined by indirect labeling of the determinants, first reacting cells with H9 or C6 followed by goat anti-mouse antibody conjugated with 20-nm colloidal gold particles. Transmission electron microscopy was used to examine cells. The antigens that were reactive with the monoclonal antibodies were associated with a flocculent surface layer. Expression of this layer and expression of the antigens is a dynamic process which is growth phase and strain dependent. The antigens were not expressed on very young cells and disappeared from the cell surface of most C. albicans strains with age. The use of monoclonal antibody to cell surface determinants may allow characterization of cell surface antigens of C. albicans and be helpful in establishing receptors which mediate adherence. Images PMID:3510174

  12. Evolution of foam cells in subcutaneous rabbit carrageenan granulomas: I. Light-microscopic and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, C. J.; Ghidoni, J. J.; Kelley, J. L.; Sprague, E. A.; Valente, A. J.; Suenram, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    With an increasing interest in the role of the monocyte-macrophage in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and as a progenitor of plaque intimal foam cells, a model for the study of foam-cell differentiation in an extravascular environment has been developed. Granulomas were induced in 25 normocholesterolemic (NC) and 28 hypercholesterolemic (HC) rabbits by the subcutaneous injection of 15 ml of 1% carrageenan. Granuloma tissue was harvested at 4, 7, 14, and 28 days and studied by light and transmission electron microscopy. Macrophages and foam cells were isolated by enzymic dispersion with collagenase and cultured for further characterization by scanning electron microscopy, nonspecific esterase (NSE), and oil red O (ORO) staining. Granuloma macrophages from NC rabbits were consistently ORO-negative, contrasting with those from HC rabbits which were strongly ORO-positive, even at 4 and 7 days. With an increasing duration of exposure to hypercholesterolemia, macrophages accumulated increasing amounts of stainable lipid, and in the 28-day HC granulomas, large foam cells distended by lipid inclusions accounted for 70% of the cells present. This model has established that NSE-positive macrophages in HC granulomas accumulate lipid and assume the morphologic characteristics of atheromatous intimal foam cells. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 PMID:3966533

  13. The digestive cells of the hepatopancreas in Aplysia depilans (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia): ultrastructural and cytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Lobo-da-Cunha, A

    2000-02-01

    Digestive cells are the most abundant cell type in the digestive diverticula of Aplysia depilans. These are tall columnar or club shaped cells, covered with microvilli on their apical surface. A large number of endocytic vesicles containing electron-dense substances can be found in the apical zone, but the presence of many heterolysosomes of large diameter is the main feature of these cells. Glycogen particles and some lipid droplets were also observed. Peroxisomes with a circular or oval profile were common, but crystalline nucleoids were not detected in them, although a dense spot in the matrix was observed in a few cases. These organelles were strongly stained after cytochemical detection of catalase activity. The Golgi stacks are formed by 4 or 5 cisternae, with dilated zones containing electron dense material. Arylsulphatase activity was detected in the Golgi stacks and also in lysosomes. Cells almost entirely occupied by a very large vacuole containing a residual dense mass seem to be digestive cells in advanced stages of maturation. The observation of semithin and ultrathin sections indicates that these very large vacuoles are the result of a fusion among the smaller lysosomes. Some images suggest that the content of these large vacuoles is extruded into the lumen of the digestive diverticula. PMID:10798317

  14. Ultrastructural Localization of Endogenous Exchange Factor for ARF6 in Adrenocortical Cells In Situ of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chomphoo, Surang; Mothong, Wilaiwan; Sawatpanich, Tarinee; Kanla, Pipatphong; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Hisatake; Hipkaeo, Wiphawi

    2016-01-01

    EFA6 (exchange factor for ARF6) activates Arf6 (ADP ribosylation factor 6) by exchanging ADP to ATP, and the resulting activated form of Arf6 is involved in the membrane dynamics and actin re-organization of cells. The present study was attempted to localize EFA6 type D (EFA6D) in mouse adrenocortical cells in situ whose steroid hormone secretion is generally considered not to depend on the vesicle-involved regulatory mechanism. In immunoblotting, an immunoreactive band with the same size as brain EFA6D was detected in homogenates of adrenal cortical tissues almost free of adrenal capsules and medulla. In immuno-light microscopy, EFA6D-immunoreactivity was positive in adrenocortical cells and it was often distinct along the plasmalemma, especially along portions of the cell columns facing the interstitium. In immuno-electron microscopy, the gold-labeling was more dense in the peripheral intracellular domains than the central domain of the immunopositive cells. The labeling was deposited on the plasma membranes in a discontinuous pattern and in cytoplasmic domains rich in filaments. It was also associated with some, but not all, of pleiomorphic vesicles and coated pits/vesicles. No labeling was seen in association with lipid droplets or smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The present finding is in support of the importance of EFA6D for activation of Arf6 in adrenocortical cells. PMID:27462133

  15. Ultrastructural Localization of Endogenous Exchange Factor for ARF6 in Adrenocortical Cells In Situ of Mice.

    PubMed

    Chomphoo, Surang; Mothong, Wilaiwan; Sawatpanich, Tarinee; Kanla, Pipatphong; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Hisatake; Hipkaeo, Wiphawi

    2016-06-28

    EFA6 (exchange factor for ARF6) activates Arf6 (ADP ribosylation factor 6) by exchanging ADP to ATP, and the resulting activated form of Arf6 is involved in the membrane dynamics and actin re-organization of cells. The present study was attempted to localize EFA6 type D (EFA6D) in mouse adrenocortical cells in situ whose steroid hormone secretion is generally considered not to depend on the vesicle-involved regulatory mechanism. In immunoblotting, an immunoreactive band with the same size as brain EFA6D was detected in homogenates of adrenal cortical tissues almost free of adrenal capsules and medulla. In immuno-light microscopy, EFA6D-immunoreactivity was positive in adrenocortical cells and it was often distinct along the plasmalemma, especially along portions of the cell columns facing the interstitium. In immuno-electron microscopy, the gold-labeling was more dense in the peripheral intracellular domains than the central domain of the immunopositive cells. The labeling was deposited on the plasma membranes in a discontinuous pattern and in cytoplasmic domains rich in filaments. It was also associated with some, but not all, of pleiomorphic vesicles and coated pits/vesicles. No labeling was seen in association with lipid droplets or smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The present finding is in support of the importance of EFA6D for activation of Arf6 in adrenocortical cells. PMID:27462133

  16. Anatomical structure and ultrastructure of the endocarp cell walls of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels (Sapotaceae).

    PubMed

    Sebaa, H S; Harche, M Kaid

    2014-12-01

    The anatomical and histochemical study of young and adult endocarps of Argania spinosa (sampled from Tindouf; Algeria) shows a general structure that is similar to that of majority of stone fruits. These samples consist of tissues that contain lignified and cellulosic cell walls. The majority of the tissues are composed of sclerenchyma cells; with very thick lignified cell walls and conducting tissues. Coniferyl lignins are abundant in the majority of the lignified tissues. However, the coniferyl lignins appear at the primary xylem during lignification. Syringyl lignins are present in small quantities. The electron microscopy observation of the sclerenchyma cell walls of the young endocarp shows polylamellate strates and, cellular microfibrils in arced patterns. This architecture is observed in the cell walls of the adult endocarp only after the incubation of the tissue in methylamine. These configurations (arcs) are the result of a regular and complete rotation with a 180° variation in the microfibril angle; the complete and symmetrical arcs show a helicoidal mode of construction. The observation of the sclerenchyma cells revealed the capacity of helicoidal morphogenesis to adjust itself under the influence of topological constraints, such as the presence of a large number of pit canals, which maintain symplastic transport. PMID:25125280

  17. Diamine oxidase-gold ultrastructural localization of histamine in human skin biopsies containing mast cells stimulated to degranulate in vivo by exposure to recombinant human stem cell factor.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, A M; Costa, J J; Morgan, E S; Monahan-Earley, R A; Galli, S J

    1997-10-15

    Stem cell factor (SCF) has a major role in hematopoiesis and in the regulation of mast cell development and function. For example, recombinant human SCF (rhSCF) can induce the development of human mast cells from precursor cells in vitro, stimulate mediator release from human skin mast cells in vitro, and promote both the development and functional activation of human skin mast cells in vivo. In the present study, we used a new ultrastructural enzyme-affinity method, employing diamine oxidase (DAO)-conjugated gold particles (DAO-gold), to detect histamine in skin biopsies obtained from patients with breast carcinomas who were receiving daily subcutaneous (SC) injections of rhSCF in a phase I study of this cytokine. We examined control biopsies obtained at sites remote from rhSCF injection as well as biopsies of rhSCF-injected skin that were obtained within 2 hours and 30 minutes of the SC injection of rhSCF at that site. The rhSCF-injected sites (which clinically exhibited a wheal-and-flare response), but not the control sites, contained mast cells undergoing regulated secretion by granule extrusion. The DAO-gold-affinity method detected histamine in electron-dense granules of mast cells in control and injected skin biopsies; however, the altered matrix of membrane-free, extruded mast cell granules was largely unreactive with DAO-gold. Notably, DAO-gold bound strongly to fibrin deposits and collagen fibers that were adjacent to degranulated mast cells. These findings represent the first morphologic evidence of histamine secretion by classical granule exocytosis in human mast cells in vivo. PMID:9376568

  18. Distribution of chitin in the yeast cell wall. An ultrastructural and chemical study.

    PubMed

    Molano, J; Bowers, B; Cabib, E

    1980-05-01

    The distribution of chitin in Saccharomyces cervisiae primary septa and cell walls was studied with three methods: electron microscopy of colloidal gold particles coated either with wheat germ agglutinin or with one of two different chitinases, fluorescence microscopy with fluorescein isothiocyanate derivatives of the same markers, and enzymatic treatments of [14C]glucosamine-labeled cells. The septa were uniformly and heavily labeled with the gold-attached markers, an indication that chitin was evenly distributed throughout. To study the localization of chitin in lateral walls, alkali-extracted cell ghosts were used. Observations by electron and fluorescence microscopy suggest that lectin-binding material is uniformly distributed over the whole cell ghost wall. This material also appears to be chitin, on the basis of the analysis of the products obtained after treatment of 14C-labeled cell ghosts with lytic enzymes. The chitin of lateral walls can be specifically removed by treatment with beta-(1 leads to 6)-glucanase containing a slight amount of chitinase. During this incubation approximately 7% of the total radioactivity is solubilized, about the same amount liberated when lateral walls of cell ghosts are completely digested with snail glucanase yield primary septa. It is concluded that the remaining chitin, i.e., greater than 90% of the total, is in the septa. The facilitation of chitin removal from the cell wall by beta-(1 leads to 6)-glucanase indicates a strong association between chitin and beta-(1 leads to 6)-glucan. Covalent linkages between the two polysaccharides were not detected but cannot be excluded. PMID:6989839

  19. Effect of Metformin on Viability, Morphology, and Ultrastructure of Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Balb/3T3 Embryonic Fibroblast Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Śmieszek, Agnieszka; Czyrek, Aleksandra; Basinska, Katarzyna; Trynda, Justyna; Skaradzińska, Aneta; Siudzińska, Anna; Marędziak, Monika; Marycz, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Metformin, a popular drug used to treat diabetes, has recently gained attention as a potentially useful therapeutic agent for treating cancer. In our research metformin was added to in vitro cultures of bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) and Balb/3T3 fibroblast at concentration of 1 mM, 5 mM, and 10 mM. Obtained results indicated that metformin negatively affected proliferation activity of investigated cells. The drug triggered the formation of autophagosomes and apoptotic bodies in all tested cultures. Additionally, we focused on determination of expression of genes involved in insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) signaling pathway. The most striking finding was that the mRNA level of IGF2 was constant in both BMSCs and Balb/3T3. Further, the analysis of IGF2 concentration in cell supernatants showed that it decreased in BMSC cultures after 5 and 10 mM metformin treatments. In case of Balb/3T3 the concentration of IGF2 in culture supernatants decreased after 1 and 5 mM and increased after 10 mM of metformin. Our results suggest that metformin influences the cytophysiology of somatic cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner causing inhibition of proliferation and abnormalities of their morphology and ultrastructure. PMID:26064951

  20. Effect of Metformin on Viability, Morphology, and Ultrastructure of Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Balb/3T3 Embryonic Fibroblast Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Czyrek, Aleksandra; Basinska, Katarzyna; Trynda, Justyna; Skaradzińska, Aneta; Siudzińska, Anna; Marycz, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Metformin, a popular drug used to treat diabetes, has recently gained attention as a potentially useful therapeutic agent for treating cancer. In our research metformin was added to in vitro cultures of bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) and Balb/3T3 fibroblast at concentration of 1 mM, 5 mM, and 10 mM. Obtained results indicated that metformin negatively affected proliferation activity of investigated cells. The drug triggered the formation of autophagosomes and apoptotic bodies in all tested cultures. Additionally, we focused on determination of expression of genes involved in insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) signaling pathway. The most striking finding was that the mRNA level of IGF2 was constant in both BMSCs and Balb/3T3. Further, the analysis of IGF2 concentration in cell supernatants showed that it decreased in BMSC cultures after 5 and 10 mM metformin treatments. In case of Balb/3T3 the concentration of IGF2 in culture supernatants decreased after 1 and 5 mM and increased after 10 mM of metformin. Our results suggest that metformin influences the cytophysiology of somatic cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner causing inhibition of proliferation and abnormalities of their morphology and ultrastructure. PMID:26064951

  1. [Transmission electron microscopy image of wear particles of joint endoprostheses and ultrastructural cell changes].

    PubMed

    Bos, I; Johannisson, R

    2003-01-01

    Wear particles from joint endoprostheses vary considerably in size, and may be detectable in tissue only by electron microscopy. Wear debris plays a central role in the non-infectious late loosening of prostheses, and it has been estimated that the submicron particles induce increased liberation of mediators of osteolysis by activated macrophages. From the types of prostheses currently in use, bone cement and polyethylene particles greatly predominate over metallic and ceramic particles. Since it had formerly not been possible to reliably identify wear particles in the transmission electron microscopy, and descriptions of them in the literature varied considerably, we analysed ultrathin sections obtained from periprosthetic tissue containing wear particles previously identified by laser microprobe mass analysis. Using this method, it proved possible to classify almost all the wear particles detected in the electron microscope, to determine their size range and to represent the cellular alterations caused by them. PMID:12655845

  2. Native Ultrastructure of the Red Cell Cytoskeleton by Cryo-Electron Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Nans, Andrea; Mohandas, Narla; Stokes, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Erythrocytes possess a spectrin-based cytoskeleton that provides elasticity and mechanical stability necessary to survive the shear forces within the microvasculature. The architecture of this membrane skeleton and the nature of its intermolecular contacts determine the mechanical properties of the skeleton and confer the characteristic biconcave shape of red cells. We have used cryo-electron tomography to evaluate the three-dimensional topology in intact, unexpanded membrane skeletons from mouse erythrocytes frozen in physiological buffer. The tomograms reveal a complex network of spectrin filaments converging at actin-based nodes and a gradual decrease in both the density and the thickness of the network from the center to the edge of the cell. The average contour length of spectrin filaments connecting junctional complexes is 46 ± 15 nm, indicating that the spectrin heterotetramer in the native membrane skeleton is a fraction of its fully extended length (∼190 nm). Higher-order oligomers of spectrin were prevalent, with hexamers and octamers seen between virtually every junctional complex in the network. Based on comparisons with expanded skeletons, we propose that the oligomeric state of spectrin is in a dynamic equilibrium that facilitates remodeling of the network as the cell changes shape in response to shear stress. PMID:22098732

  3. Ocimum sanctum extracts attenuate hydrogen peroxide induced cytotoxic ultrastructural changes in human lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Halder, Nabanita; Joshi, Sujata; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Tandon, Radhika; Gupta, Suresh Kumar

    2009-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is the major oxidant involved in cataract formation. The present study investigated the effect of an aqueous leaf extract of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) against H2O2 induced cytotoxic changes in human lens epithelial cells (HLEC). Donor eyes of the age range 20-40 years were procured within 5-8 h of death. After several washings with gentamicin (50 mL/L) and betadine (10 mL/L), clear transparent lenses (n=6 in each group) were incubated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) alone (normal) or in DMEM containing 100 microm of H2O2 (control) or in DMEM containing both H2O2 (100 microm) and 150 microg/mL of Ocimum sanctum extract (treated) for 30 min at 37 degrees C with 5% CO2 and 95% air. Following incubation, the semi-hardened epithelium of each lens was carefully removed, fixed and processed for electron microscopic studies. Thin sections (60-70 mm) were contrasted with uranyl acetate and lead citrate and viewed under a transmission electron microscope. Normal epithelial cells showed intact, euchromatic nucleus with few small vacuoles (diameter 0.58+/-0.6 microm) in well-demarcated cytoplasm. After treatment with H2O2, they showed pyknotic nuclei with clumping of chromatin and ill-defined edges. The cytoplasm was full of vacuoles (diameter 1.61+/-0.7 microm). The overall cellular morphology was typical of dying cells. Treatment of cells with Ocimum sanctum extract protected the epithelial cells from H2O2 insult and maintained their normal architecture. The mean diameter of the vacuoles was 0.66+/-0.2 microm. The results indicate that extracts of O. sanctum have an important protective role against H2O2 injury in HLEC by maintaining the normal cellular architecture. The protection could be due to its ability to reduce H2O2 through its antioxidant property and thus reinforcing the concept that the extracts can penetrate the HLEC membrane. PMID:19441070

  4. Scrotal angiokeratoma (Fordyce): histopathological and ultrastructural findings.

    PubMed

    Gioglio, L; Porta, C; Moroni, M; Nastasi, G; Gangarossa, I

    1992-01-01

    Bioptic findings related to four cases of scrotal angiokeratoma-Fordyce, were studied under light and electron microscopy. A particular heterogeneity of the structural and ultrastructural patterns typical of this lesion was thus observed. Light microscopy study pointed out, in particular, different degrees of dilation of papillary vessels, whereas ultrastructural study highlighted marked alterations of endothelial cells with structural and quantitative modifications of cytoplasmic organelles. PMID:1576434

  5. Arsenic induces sustained impairment of skeletal muscle and muscle progenitor cell ultrastructure and bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Fabrisia; Brown, Elke; Stolz, Donna; Ferrari, Ricardo; Goodpaster, Bret; Deasy, Bridget; Distefano, Giovanna; Roperti, Alexandra; Cheikhi, Amin; Garciafigueroa, Yesica; Barchowsky, Aaron

    2014-09-01

    Over 4 million individuals in the United States, and over 140 million individuals worldwide, are exposed daily to arsenic-contaminated drinking water. Human exposures can range from below the current limit of 10 μg/L to over 1mg/L, with 100 μg/L promoting disease in a large portion of those exposed. Although increased attention has recently been paid to myopathy following arsenic exposure, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying clinical symptoms remain poorly understood. This study tested the hypothesis that arsenic induces lasting muscle mitochondrial dysfunction and impairs metabolism. Compared to nonexposed controls, mice exposed to drinking water containing 100 μg/L arsenite for 5 weeks demonstrated impaired muscle function, mitochondrial myopathy, and altered oxygen consumption that were concomitant with increased mitochondrial fusion gene transcription. There were no differences in the levels of inorganic arsenic or its monomethyl and dimethyl metabolites between controls and exposed muscles, confirming that arsenic does not accumulate in muscle. Nevertheless, muscle progenitor cells isolated from exposed mice recapitulated the aberrant myofiber phenotype and were more resistant to oxidative stress, generated more reactive oxygen species, and displayed autophagic mitochondrial morphology, compared to cells isolated from nonexposed mice. These pathological changes from a possible maladaptive oxidative stress response provide insight into declines in muscle functioning caused by exposure to this common environmental contaminant. PMID:24960579

  6. Effects of Electroacupuncture on Interstitial Cells of Cajal (ICC) Ultrastructure and Connexin 43 Protein Expression in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Functional Dyspepsia (FD) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guoshan; Xie, Shen; Hu, Wei; Liu, Yuer; Liu, Mailan; Liu, Mi; Chang, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal motility disorder is the main clinical manifestation in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. Electroacupuncture is effective in improving gastrointestinal motility disorder in FD; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. It has been demonstrated that interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are pacemaker cells in the gastrointestinal tract, and the pacemaker potential is transmitted to nearby cells through gap junctions between ICC or ICC and the smooth muscle. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effects of electroacupuncture on ICC ultrastructure and expression of the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) in FD rats. Material/Methods The animals were randomized into 3 groups: control, model, and electroacupuncture. Electroacupuncture was applied at Zusanli (ST36) in the electroacupuncture group daily for 10 days, while no electroacupuncture was applied to model group animals. Results Ultrastructure of ICC recovered normally in gastric antrum and small intestine specimens was improved, with Cx43 expression levels in these tissues significantly increased in the electroacupuncture group compared with the model group. Conclusions These findings indicated that electroacupuncture is effective in alleviating ICC damage and reduces Cx43 levels in FD rats, and suggest that ICC and Cx43 are involved in electroacupuncture treatment in rats with FD to improve gastrointestinal motility disorders. PMID:27297942

  7. Effects of Electroacupuncture on Interstitial Cells of Cajal (ICC) Ultrastructure and Connexin 43 Protein Expression in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Functional Dyspepsia (FD) Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoshan; Xie, Shen; Hu, Wei; Liu, Yuer; Liu, Mailan; Liu, Mi; Chang, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Gastrointestinal motility disorder is the main clinical manifestation in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. Electroacupuncture is effective in improving gastrointestinal motility disorder in FD; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. It has been demonstrated that interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are pacemaker cells in the gastrointestinal tract, and the pacemaker potential is transmitted to nearby cells through gap junctions between ICC or ICC and the smooth muscle. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effects of electroacupuncture on ICC ultrastructure and expression of the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) in FD rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS The animals were randomized into 3 groups: control, model, and electroacupuncture. Electroacupuncture was applied at Zusanli (ST36) in the electroacupuncture group daily for 10 days, while no electroacupuncture was applied to model group animals. RESULTS Ultrastructure of ICC recovered normally in gastric antrum and small intestine specimens was improved, with Cx43 expression levels in these tissues significantly increased in the electroacupuncture group compared with the model group. CONCLUSIONS These findings indicated that electroacupuncture is effective in alleviating ICC damage and reduces Cx43 levels in FD rats, and suggest that ICC and Cx43 are involved in electroacupuncture treatment in rats with FD to improve gastrointestinal motility disorders. PMID:27297942

  8. Ultrastructural effects of lysozymes on the cell wall of Caryophanon latum.

    PubMed

    Trentini, W C; Murray, R G

    1975-02-01

    When Caryophanon latum was exposed to egg white lysozyme in isotonic sucrose and observed by phase-contrast microscopy, protoplasts emerged along the length of the trichomes, apparently at sites corresponding to cross septa. Electron microscopy of sections revealed that this enzyme initially attacked the core of the septal peptidoglycan and delamination of septa resulted. The inner densely staining layer of the lateral and polar wall (considered to contain peptidoglycan as the major component) remained intact except for destruction at the advancing tip of partial septa; protoplasts or cell debris could escape from the gaps formed at developing septa. Treatment of intact trichomes with pronase, a lipase - phospholipase C mixture, EDTA, glutaraldehyde, or heat, before exposure to egg white lysozyme did not alter this pattern nor did it render the remaining peptidoglycan more susceptible to attack. The wall material external to the peptidoglycan was solubilized by pronase. The peptidoglycan remaining after lysozyme treatment was not morphologically changed by treatment with pronase. Lysozyme derived from Chalaropsis hydrolyzed incomplete septa initially, while the lateral and polar wall and complete septa were degraded later. Therefore, it is most probable that the inner dense layer does contain the peptidoglycan component and that some biochemical maturation distinguishes the substrate for these enzymes in the lateral wall and septa. PMID:803400

  9. Morphological and ultrastructural changes in the cell structure of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 following treatment with Quercus infectoria nut galls.

    PubMed

    Suwalak, Sakol; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P

    2009-10-01

    Some information is available on the oak (Quercus infectoria) nut gall as an effective medicinal plant against Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7. However, its antibacterial mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In this study, some antibacterial actions against STEC O157:H7 were investigated by observing cell viability as well as morphological and ultrastructural changes. An ethanolic extract of Q. infectoria demonstrated inhibitory and bactericidal effects on all of the strains tested with minimal inhibition concentrations (MICs) at 0.78-1.56 mg ml(-1) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) at 1.56-3.12 mg ml(-1). Cell numbers treated with 4MIC of the extract decreased at least two log-fold within 4 h and were completely killed within 12 h. Scanning electron microscopy illustrated a complete loss of surface appendages and pronounced morphological changes at MIC and 2MIC. The whole cell collapsed at 4MIC. Ultrastructural changes from corresponding transmission electron micrographs further verified that damages in the treated cells increased with the increase in the extract concentrations. At MIC (0.78 mg ml(-1)), there was some evidence that the cytoplasmic membranes of the treated E. coli were bulging and/or ruptured, and the cells appeared to be discharging intracellular materials. At 2MIC, the outer membrane of the treated E. coli which was attached to the cell wall became separated from the wall. Disruption in the outer wall and cytoplasmic membranes, especially at the polar regions of the cells occurred and some vacuolization appeared. At 4MIC, the damage to E. coli cells was extensive, and there was loss of their cellular integrity. PMID:19451663

  10. Plumbagin, a plant-derived naphthoquinone metabolite induces mitochondria mediated apoptosis-like cell death in Leishmania donovani: an ultrastructural and physiological study.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Bhanu Priya; Kathuria, Manoj; Pant, Garima; Kumari, Neema; Mitra, Kalyan

    2016-08-01

    Naphthoquinones are known to exhibit a broad range of biological activities against microbes, cancer and parasitic diseases and have been widely used in Indian traditional medicine. Plumbagin is a plant-derived naphthoquinone metabolite (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) reported to inhibit trypanothione reductase, the principal enzyme and a validated drug target involved in detoxification of oxidative stress in Leishmania. Here, we report the mechanistic aspects of cell death induced by plumbagin including physiological effects in the promastigote form and ultrastructural alterations in both promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania donovani which till now remained largely unknown. Our observations show that oxidative stress induced by plumbagin resulted in depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane, depletion in ATP levels, elevation of cytosolic calcium, increase in caspase 3/7-like protease activity and lipid peroxidation in promastigotes. Apoptosis-like cell death induction post plumbagin treatment was confirmed by biochemical assays like Annexin V/FITC staining, TUNEL as well as morphological and ultrastructural studies. These findings collectively highlight the mode of action and importance of oxidative stress inducing agents in effectively killing both forms of the Leishmania parasite and opens up the possibility of exploring plumbagin and its derivatives as promising candidates in the chemotherapy of Leishmaniasis. PMID:27315817

  11. ULTRASTRUCTURAL CYTOCHEMISTRY

    PubMed Central

    Leduc, Elizabeth H.; Bernhard, Wilhelm

    1961-01-01

    Selective extraction of specific cell components by enzyme or acid hydrolysis is possible from ultrathin sections for electron microscopy and parallel 2 µ sections for light microscopy of tissues fixed in formalin and embedded in a water-soluble polyepoxide, product X133/2097. Normal rat tissues fixed 15 minutes in formalin at 3°C are more rapidly digested by proteinases than those fixed for the same length of time at 20°C. Trypsin selectively attacks the nuclear chromatin and the ribonucleoprotein particles of the ergastroplasm, whereas mitochondria and zymogen granules resist tryptic digestion. Pepsin rapidly attacks the mitochondria and zymogen granules. The ergastoplasm and nucleus at first resist peptic digestion, but in time the entire cytoplasm and interchromatinic portion of the nucleus are attacked. Ribonuclease abolishes cytoplasmic basophilia in 2 µ sections, but parallel ultra-thin sections, stained with uranyl acetate and examined in the electron microscope, show no change in the ribonucleoprotein particles of the ergastoplasm. Desoxyribonuclease alone had no effect, but after pretreatment of the sections with pepsin or hydrochloric acid, desoxyribonuclease specifically attacked the nuclear chromatin. Nucleic acid-containing structures in the sections are gradually disintegrated by perchloric acid or hydrochloric acid. PMID:13760208

  12. Intracellular ice and cell survival in cryo-exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum: an ultrastructural study of factors affecting cell and ice structures

    PubMed Central

    Wesley-Smith, James; Berjak, Patricia; Pammenter, N. W.; Walters, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Cryopreservation is the only long-term conservation strategy available for germplasm of recalcitrant-seeded species. Efforts to cryopreserve this form of germplasm are hampered by potentially lethal intracellular freezing events; thus, it is important to understand the relationships among cryo-exposure techniques, water content, structure and survival. Methods Undried embryonic axes of Acer saccharinum and those rapidly dried to two different water contents were cooled at three rates and re-warmed at two rates. Ultrastructural observations were carried out on radicle and shoot tips prepared by freeze-fracture and freeze-substitution to assess immediate (i.e. pre-thaw) responses to cooling treatments. Survival of axes was assessed in vitro. Key Results Intracellular ice formation was not necessarily lethal. Embryo cells survived when crystal diameter was between 0·2 and 0·4 µm and fewer than 20 crystals were distributed per μm2 in the cytoplasm. Ice was not uniformly distributed within the cells. In fully hydrated axes cooled at an intermediate rate, the interiors of many organelles were apparently ice-free; this may have prevented the disruption of vital intracellular machinery. Intracytoplasmic ice formation did not apparently impact the integrity of the plasmalemma. The maximum number of ice crystals was far greater in shoot apices, which were more sensitive than radicles to cryo-exposure. Conclusions The findings challenge the accepted paradigm that intracellular ice formation is always lethal, as the results show that cells can survive intracellular ice if crystals are small and localized in the cytoplasm. Further understanding of the interactions among water content, cooling rate, cell structure and ice structure is required to optimize cryopreservation treatments without undue reliance on empirical approaches. PMID:24368198

  13. Expression dynamics and ultrastructural localization of epitope-tagged Abutilon mosaic virus nuclear shuttle and movement proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinow, Tatjana; Tanwir, Fariha; Kocher, Cornelia; Krenz, Bjoern; Wege, Christina; Jeske, Holger

    2009-09-01

    The geminivirus Abutilon mosaic virus (AbMV) encodes two proteins which are essential for viral spread within plants. The nuclear shuttle protein (NSP) transfers viral DNA between the nucleus and cytoplasm, whereas the movement protein (MP) facilitates transport between cells through plasmodesmata and long-distance via phloem. An inducible overexpression system for epitope-tagged NSP and MP in plants yielded unprecedented amounts of both proteins. Western blots revealed extensive posttranslational modification and truncation for MP, but not for NSP. Ultrastructural examination of Nicotiana benthamiana tissues showed characteristic nucleopathic alterations, including fibrillar rings, when epitope-tagged NSP and MP were simultaneously expressed in leaves locally infected with an AbMV DNA A in which the coat protein gene was replaced by a green fluorescent protein encoding gene. Immunogold labelling localized NSP in the nucleoplasm and in the fibrillar rings. MP appeared at the cell periphery, probably the plasma membrane, and plasmodesmata.

  14. CD39 Expression Identifies Terminally Exhausted CD8+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Adland, Emily; Yates, Kathleen; Pauken, Kristen E.; Cosgrove, Cormac; Ledderose, Carola; Junger, Wolfgang G.; Robson, Simon C.; Wherry, E. John; Alter, Galit; Goulder, Philip J. R.; Klenerman, Paul; Sharpe, Arlene H.; Lauer, Georg M.; Haining, W. Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Exhausted T cells express multiple co-inhibitory molecules that impair their function and limit immunity to chronic viral infection. Defining novel markers of exhaustion is important both for identifying and potentially reversing T cell exhaustion. Herein, we show that the ectonucleotidse CD39 is a marker of exhausted CD8+ T cells. CD8+ T cells specific for HCV or HIV express high levels of CD39, but those specific for EBV and CMV do not. CD39 expressed by CD8+ T cells in chronic infection is enzymatically active, co-expressed with PD-1, marks cells with a transcriptional signature of T cell exhaustion and correlates with viral load in HIV and HCV. In the mouse model of chronic Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus infection, virus-specific CD8+ T cells contain a population of CD39high CD8+ T cells that is absent in functional memory cells elicited by acute infection. This CD39high CD8+ T cell population is enriched for cells with the phenotypic and functional profile of terminal exhaustion. These findings provide a new marker of T cell exhaustion, and implicate the purinergic pathway in the regulation of T cell exhaustion. PMID:26485519

  15. Proteome Profiling and Ultrastructural Characterization of the Human RCMH Cell Line: Myoblastic Properties and Suitability for Myopathological Studies.

    PubMed

    Kollipara, Laxmikanth; Buchkremer, Stephan; Weis, Joachim; Brauers, Eva; Hoss, Mareike; Rütten, Stephan; Caviedes, Pablo; Zahedi, René P; Roos, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Studying (neuro)muscular disorders is a major topic in biomedicine with a demand for suitable model systems. Continuous cell culture (in vitro) systems have several technical advantages over in vivo systems and became widely used tools for discovering physiological/pathophysiological mechanisms in muscle. In particular, myoblast cell lines are suitable model systems to study complex biochemical adaptations occurring in skeletal muscle and cellular responses to altered genetic/environmental conditions. Whereas most in vitro studies use extensively characterized murine C2C12 cells, a comprehensive description of an equivalent human cell line, not genetically manipulated for immortalization, is lacking. Therefore, we characterized human immortal myoblastic RCMH cells using scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and proteomics. Among more than 6200 identified proteins we confirm the known expression of proteins important for muscle function. Comparing the RCMH proteome with two well-defined nonskeletal muscle cells lines (HeLa, U2OS) revealed a considerable enrichment of proteins important for muscle function. SEM/TEM confirmed the presence of agglomerates of cytoskeletal components/intermediate filaments and a prominent rough ER. In conclusion, our results indicate RMCH as a suitable in vitro model for investigating muscle function-related processes such as mechanical stress burden and mechanotransduction, EC coupling, cytoskeleton, muscle cell metabolism and development, and (ER-associated) myopathic disorders. PMID:26781476

  16. Node-like cells in the myocardial layer of the pulmonary vein of rats: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed Central

    Masani, F

    1986-01-01

    The myocardial layer of the pulmonary vein of adult rats was examined by electron microscopy. Among ordinary myocardial cells resembling those of the atrial myocardium, clear cells with structural features similar to those of sinus node cells were identified. They were distributed in the intrapulmonary, preterminal portion of the pulmonary vein. They appeared singly or in small groups among the ordinary myocardial cells. Their cytoplasm was characterised by a paucity of myofilaments, irregular disposition of myofilament bundles, small and oval mitochondria, absence of atrial specific granules and a wide cytoplasmic matrix between intracellular organelles. The intercalated discs of node-like cells were composed of small junctional specialisations. Nerve fibres containing small and large vesicles with and without dense cores were juxtaposed to the node-like cells over an intercellular space of more than 200 nm. Taking into consideration physiological data, the possibility is discussed that the node-like cells may have a potential pacemaking activity and represent an ectopic pacemaker centre in the pulmonary vein. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:3429299

  17. Activation of cortical and inhibited differentiation of medullary epithelial cells in the thymus of lymphotoxin-beta receptor-deficient mice: an ultrastructural study

    PubMed Central

    Milićević, N M; Nohroudi, K; Milićević, Ž; Westermann, J

    2008-01-01

    The reciprocal influences of thymic lymphocyte and nonlymphocyte populations, i.e. thymic cross-talk, are necessary for the proper maturation of thymocytes and the development/maintenance of thymic stromal microenvironments. Although the molecular influences exerted by thymic stromal cells on maturing thymocytes have been extensively studied, the identity of signalling molecules used by thymocytes to influence the thymic stromal cells is still largely unknown. Our study provides the first ultrastructural evidence that the functional lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LTβR) signalling pathway is engaged in the cross-talk between thymocytes and the thymic stromal cell population. We show that LTβR signalling is of the utmost significance for the preservation of the subcellular integrity of all thymic epithelial cells. In the absence of LTβR there is (1) hypertrophy and activation of cortical thymic epithelial cells, (2) the complete loss of fully differentiated medullary thymic epithelial cells, and (3) the inhibited differentiation of remaining medullary thymic epithelial cells with the appearance of prominent intercellular cysts in the thymic medulla. PMID:18194204

  18. Influence of inorganic and organic selenium on number of living mycelial cells and their ultrastructure in culture of Hericium erinaceum (Bull.: Fr. Pers.).

    PubMed

    Slusarczyk, Joanna; Malinowska, Eliza; Krzyczkowski, W; Kuraś, M

    2013-03-01

    Mycelium of the white-rot fungus (Hericium erinaceum (Bull.: Fr. Pers.) produces polysaccharides showing anticancer and immunostimulating activity. In our previous works, we have shown that organic selenitetriglycerides (Selol) contribute to the increase of biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides (EPS) having antioxidative properties and containing large amounts of selenium. The present work is a study of influence of inorganic and organic form of selenium on viability of H. erinaceum mycelium and on ultrastructural changes taking place during its development in submerged culture. The mycelium was grown on media containing sodium selenite (Na2SeO3), a mixture of Na2SeO3 + Selol2% and on control medium (no selenium added). It was shown that mycelium cultured for 3 days in control conditions on standard media contained almost 100% of living cells, with over 80% after 24 days. Treatment with 100 ppm of Na2SeO3 lowered the number of viable cells to 11.8% and 9.1% after 3 and 24 days, respectively. The addition of 2% Selol caused the amounts of living cells to remain at ca 90%. Apparently, Selol helped the cells to cope with the toxic activity of inorganic selenium ions. The addition of sodium selenite induced degradative changes in cell organelles. Such changes were not observed in the case of Na2SeO3 + Selol mixture, in which case cells contained numerous ribosomes and small lipid bodies. PMID:23567834

  19. Ultrastructural studies of unstable angina in living man

    SciTech Connect

    Gotlieb, A.I.; Freeman, M.R.; Salerno, T.A.; Lichtenstein, S.V.; Armstrong, P.W. )

    1991-01-01

    Nineteen patients with refractory unstable angina who were undergoing aortocoronary bypass were studied to assess the extent of platelet aggregation present in the microvasculature. Ultrastructural findings on the morphology of cardiac muscle and microvasculature were correlated with the findings on coronary angiograms and thallium scans. There were no significant correlations. The presence of platelet aggregates was identified in four biopsies, two of which had thrombus by angiographic criteria. Biopsy in areas with thallium defects revealed an increased prevalence of white blood cells without acute myocardial infarction. This study confirms the presence of platelet aggregates in patients with unstable angina, albeit at a reduced frequency when compared with autopsy studies.

  20. Ultrastructural Characterization and Three-Dimensional Architecture of Replication Sites in Dengue Virus-Infected Mosquito Cells

    PubMed Central

    Junjhon, Jiraphan; Pennington, Janice G.; Edwards, Thomas J.; Perera, Rushika; Lanman, Jason

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT During dengue virus infection of host cells, intracellular membranes are rearranged into distinct subcellular structures such as double-membrane vesicles, convoluted membranes, and tubular structures. Recent electron tomographic studies have provided a detailed three-dimensional architecture of the double-membrane vesicles, representing the sites of dengue virus replication, but temporal and spatial evidence linking membrane morphogenesis with viral RNA synthesis is lacking. Integrating techniques in electron tomography and molecular virology, we defined an early period in virus-infected mosquito cells during which the formation of a virus-modified membrane structure, the double-membrane vesicle, is proportional to the rate of viral RNA synthesis. Convoluted membranes were absent in dengue virus-infected C6/36 cells. Electron tomographic reconstructions elucidated a high-resolution view of the replication complexes inside vesicles and allowed us to identify distinct pathways of particle formation. Hence, our findings extend the structural details of dengue virus replication within mosquito cells and highlight their differences from mammalian cells. IMPORTANCE Dengue virus induces several distinct intracellular membrane structures within the endoplasmic reticulum of mammalian cells. These structures, including double-membrane vesicles and convoluted membranes, are linked, respectively, with viral replication and viral protein processing. However, dengue virus cycles between two disparate animal groups with differing physiologies: mammals and mosquitoes. Using techniques in electron microscopy, we examined the differences between intracellular structures induced by dengue virus in mosquito cells. Additionally, we utilized techniques in molecular virology to temporally link events in virus replication to the formation of these dengue virus-induced membrane structures. PMID:24522909

  1. Methods To Identify Aptamers against Cell Surface Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Cibiel, Agnes; Dupont, Daniel Miotto; Ducongé, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    Aptamers are nucleic acid-based ligands identified through a process of molecular evolution named SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment). During the last 10-15 years, numerous aptamers have been developed specifically against targets present on or associated with the surface of human cells or infectious pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, fungi or parasites. Several of the aptamers have been described as potent probes, rivalling antibodies, for use in flow cytometry or microscopy. Some have also been used as drugs by inhibiting or activating functions of their targets in a manner similar to neutralizing or agonistic antibodies. Additionally, it is straightforward to conjugate aptamers to other agents without losing their affinity and they have successfully been used in vitro and in vivo to deliver drugs, siRNA, nanoparticles or contrast agents to target cells. Hence, aptamers identified against cell surface biomarkers represent a promising class of ligands. This review presents the different strategies of SELEX that have been developed to identify aptamers for cell surface-associated proteins as well as some of the methods that are used to study their binding on living cells.

  2. Alterations of leaf cell ultrastructures and AFLP DNA profiles in Earth-grown tomato plants propagated from long-term six years Mir-flown seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Min; Xue, Huai; Pan, Yi; Zhang, Chunhua; Lu, Jinying

    Leaf cell ultrastructures and DNA variations in the firstand the second-generation of Earthgrown tomato (Lycopersicon esculentun Mill) plants that had been endured a long-term six years spaceflight in the Mir were compared to their ground-based control plants, under observations with a Transmission Electron Microscope and the Amplification Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. For alterations in the morphological ultrastructures, one plant among the 11 first-generation plants generated from 30 Mir-flown seeds had a three-layered palisade cell structure, while other 10 first-generation plants and all ground-based controls had one-layered palisade cell structure in leaves. Starch grains were larger and in clusters, numbers of starch grains increased in the chloroplasts in the Mir-flown plants. Leaf cells became contracted and deformed, and cell shape patterns were different in the Mir-flown plants. For the leaf genomic DNA alterations, 34 DNA bands were polymorphic with a 1.32% polymorphism among 2582 DNA bands in the first-generation Mir-flown plants. Band types in the spaceflight treated plants were also different from those in the ground-based control. Of 11 survived first-generation plants, 7 spaceflight treated plants (Plant Nos. 1-6 and No. 9) had a same 7 polymorphic bands and a same 0.27%DNA mutation. The DNA mutation rate was greatest in Plants No.10 and No.7 (0.90% and 0.94%), less in Plant No.11 (0.31%) and least in Plant No.8 (0.20%). For the 38 send-generation plants propagated from the No. 5 Mir-flown seed, 6 DNA bands were polymorphic with a 0.23% polymorphism among 2564 amplified DNA bands. Among those 38 second-generation plants amplified by primer pair (E4: ACC, M8: CTT), one DNA band disappeared in 29 second-generation plants and in the original Mir-flown No. 5 plant, compared to the ground-base controls. Among the 38 second-generation plants generated from the Mir-flown No. 5 seed, the DNA band types of 29 second-generation plants were

  3. The Spectrum of Mitochondrial Ultrastructural Defects in Mitochondrial Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Amy E.; Ng, Yi Shiau; White, Kathryn; Davey, Tracey; Mannella, Carmen; Falkous, Gavin; Feeney, Catherine; Schaefer, Andrew M.; McFarland, Robert; Gorman, Grainne S.; Taylor, Robert W.; Turnbull, Doug M.; Picard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial functions are intrinsically linked to their morphology and membrane ultrastructure. Characterizing abnormal mitochondrial structural features may thus provide insight into the underlying pathogenesis of inherited and acquired mitochondrial diseases. Following a systematic literature review on ultrastructural defects in mitochondrial myopathy, we investigated skeletal muscle biopsies from seven subjects with genetically defined mtDNA mutations. Mitochondrial ultrastructure and morphology were characterized using two complimentary approaches: transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and serial block face scanning EM (SBF-SEM) with 3D reconstruction. Six ultrastructural abnormalities were identified including i) paracrystalline inclusions, ii) linearization of cristae and abnormal angular features, iii) concentric layering of cristae membranes, iv) matrix compartmentalization, v) nanotunelling, and vi) donut-shaped mitochondria. In light of recent molecular advances in mitochondrial biology, these findings reveal novel aspects of mitochondrial ultrastructure and morphology in human tissues with implications for understanding the mechanisms linking mitochondrial dysfunction to disease. PMID:27506553

  4. The Spectrum of Mitochondrial Ultrastructural Defects in Mitochondrial Myopathy.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Amy E; Ng, Yi Shiau; White, Kathryn; Davey, Tracey; Mannella, Carmen; Falkous, Gavin; Feeney, Catherine; Schaefer, Andrew M; McFarland, Robert; Gorman, Grainne S; Taylor, Robert W; Turnbull, Doug M; Picard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial functions are intrinsically linked to their morphology and membrane ultrastructure. Characterizing abnormal mitochondrial structural features may thus provide insight into the underlying pathogenesis of inherited and acquired mitochondrial diseases. Following a systematic literature review on ultrastructural defects in mitochondrial myopathy, we investigated skeletal muscle biopsies from seven subjects with genetically defined mtDNA mutations. Mitochondrial ultrastructure and morphology were characterized using two complimentary approaches: transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and serial block face scanning EM (SBF-SEM) with 3D reconstruction. Six ultrastructural abnormalities were identified including i) paracrystalline inclusions, ii) linearization of cristae and abnormal angular features, iii) concentric layering of cristae membranes, iv) matrix compartmentalization, v) nanotunelling, and vi) donut-shaped mitochondria. In light of recent molecular advances in mitochondrial biology, these findings reveal novel aspects of mitochondrial ultrastructure and morphology in human tissues with implications for understanding the mechanisms linking mitochondrial dysfunction to disease. PMID:27506553

  5. The Newly Identified T Helper 22 Cells Lodge in Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Gholamreza; Rastegar Pouyani, Mohsen; Navabi, Shadi sadat; Yazdani, Reza; Kiaee, Fatemeh; Mirshafiey, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Leukemia is a hematological tumor in which the malignant myeloid or lymphoid subsets play a pivotal role. Newly identified T helper cell 22 (Th22) is a subset of CD4+ T cells with distinguished gene expression, function and specific properties apart from other known CD4+ T cell subsets.Th22 cells are characterized by production of a distinct profile of effector cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-22, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The levels of Th22 and cytokine IL-22 are increased and positively related to inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Recently, several studies have reported the changes in frequency and function of Th22 in acute leukemic disorders as AML and ALL. This review discusses the role of Th22 and its cytokine IL-22 in the immunopathogenesis of leukemic disease. PMID:26261700

  6. Intra- and interspecific diversity of ultrastructural markers in Scedosporium.

    PubMed

    Stepanova, Amaliya A; de Hoog, G Sybren; Vasilyeva, Nataliya V

    2016-02-01

    Ultrastructural features of conidia, lateral walls of aerial and submerged hyphal cells, and of septal pore apparatus of Scedosporium apiospermum, S. boydii, Pseudallescheria angusta and Scedosporium aurantiacum were studied. Submerged hyphal cells possessed a thick extracellular matrix. Crystalline satellites accessory to the septal pore apparatus were revealed. Fundamental ultrastructural features appeared to be heterogeneous at low taxonomic levels. The closely interrelated members of the S. apiospermum complex showed quantitative ultrastructural variability, but the unambiguously different species S. aurantiacum deviated qualitatively by markers of conidial wall structure, Woronin bodies morphology and presence/absence of crystalline satellites of the septal pore apparatus. PMID:26781370

  7. [The ultrastructural manifestations of the regenerative processes in the Sertoli cells under the action of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation in the rats subjected to stress].

    PubMed

    Korolev, Yu N; Geniatulina, M S; Nikulina, L A; Mikhailik, L V

    2015-01-01

    The experiments on the outbred female rats using the electron microscopic technique have demonstrated that the application of ultrahigh frequency low-intensity electromagnetic radiation (LIEMR) with a flux density below 1 mCW/Cm2 and a frequency of approximately 1,000 MHz in the regime of primary prophylaxis and therapeutic-preventive action suppressed the development of the post-stress pathological ultrastructural changes and increased the activity of the regenerative processes in the Sertoli cells. It was shown that the developing adaptive and compensatory changes in the Sertoli cells most frequently involve the energy-producing structures (mitochondria) that undergo the enlargement of their average and total dimensions. Simultaneously, the amount of granular endoplasmic reticulum and the number of ribosomes increased while the intracellular links between the organelles strengthened and the reserve potential of the cells improved. It is concluded that the observed effects may be due to the action of both local and systemic regulation mechanisms. PMID:26285333

  8. Criteria for the diagnosis of primary endocrine carcinoma of the skin (Merkel cell carcinoma). A histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study of 13 cases.

    PubMed

    Leong, A S; Phillips, G E; Pieterse, A S; Milios, J

    1986-10-01

    Thirteen cases of primary endocrine carcinoma of the skin (Merkel cell carcinoma) were reviewed with the aim of defining the morphological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural criteria for diagnosis. The tumour cells were characterized by their scanty cytoplasm, generally small uniform nuclei with finely dispersed chromatin and multiple small nucleoli. Nuclear shapes varied from round to spindle, with larger and pleomorphic forms predominating in 2 tumours. A striking feature seen in 12 tumours was the occurrence of a "ball-in-mitt" pattern represented by 1 or 2 crescentic tumour cells closely wrapped around an oval cell. Staining for neuron-specific enolase was the most consistent marker of the tumour and the characteristic juxtanuclear globular staining for keratin and cytokeratin and the occasional coexpression of neurofilament set this tumour apart from other cutaneous neoplasms, in particular, metastatic carcinoid tumours and oat cell carcinoma from the lung. The fine structural features of note were striking paranuclear or juxtanuclear whorls of intermediate filaments, seen in 7 cases, the presence of variable numbers of membrane-bound dense core granules of 80-150 nm diameter in all cases and cytoplasmic spinous or microvillous projections containing microfilaments in 4 cases. Less consistent characteristics of primary endocrine carcinomas of the skin included cell moulding, argyrophilia and immunohistochemical staining for ACTH, VIP and calcitonin. The high frequency of vessel invasion in this series is in keeping with the high rate of local recurrence, lymph node metastases and visceral dissemination reported. The distinction from other similar appearing tumours in the skin is discussed. PMID:2434904

  9. Identifying Francisella tularensis Genes Required for Growth in Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brunton, J.; Steele, S.; Miller, C.; Lovullo, E.; Taft-Benz, S.

    2015-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent Gram-negative intracellular pathogen capable of infecting a vast diversity of hosts, ranging from amoebae to humans. A hallmark of F. tularensis virulence is its ability to quickly grow to high densities within a diverse set of host cells, including, but not limited to, macrophages and epithelial cells. We developed a luminescence reporter system to facilitate a large-scale transposon mutagenesis screen to identify genes required for growth in macrophage and epithelial cell lines. We screened 7,454 individual mutants, 269 of which exhibited reduced intracellular growth. Transposon insertions in the 269 growth-defective strains mapped to 68 different genes. FTT_0924, a gene of unknown function but highly conserved among Francisella species, was identified in this screen to be defective for intracellular growth within both macrophage and epithelial cell lines. FTT_0924 was required for full Schu S4 virulence in a murine pulmonary infection model. The ΔFTT_0924 mutant bacterial membrane is permeable when replicating in hypotonic solution and within macrophages, resulting in strongly reduced viability. The permeability and reduced viability were rescued when the mutant was grown in a hypertonic solution, indicating that FTT_0924 is required for resisting osmotic stress. The ΔFTT_0924 mutant was also significantly more sensitive to β-lactam antibiotics than Schu S4. Taken together, the data strongly suggest that FTT_0924 is required for maintaining peptidoglycan integrity and virulence. PMID:25987704

  10. Some physiological properties of identified mammalian neuroglial cells

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, M. J.; Gerschenfeld, H. M.

    1969-01-01

    Mammalian glial cells were identified and studied in the optic nerves of anaesthetized rats. Cells with membrane potentials of 77-85 mV were located in the optic nerve with capillary micropipettes. These were shown to be neuroglia by iontophoretic injection of a fluorescent dye through the recording electrode, followed by histological verification of the location of the dye. No distinction was made between astroglia and oligodendroglia. Neuroglial cells gave no impulse activity. Their membrane potential was studied in isolated optic nerves by varying the ionic composition of the bathing fluid. The glial membrane potential depends predominantly on a transmembrane gradient of potassium ions. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:5821876

  11. Identifying genes that mediate anthracyline toxicity in immune cells

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Amber; Suzuki, Oscar T.; Benton, Cristina; Parks, Bethany; Fedoriw, Yuri; Richards, Kristy L.; Thomas, Russell S.; Wiltshire, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The role of the immune system in response to chemotherapeutic agents remains elusive. The interpatient variability observed in immune and chemotherapeutic cytotoxic responses is likely, at least in part, due to complex genetic differences. Through the use of a panel of genetically diverse mouse inbred strains, we developed a drug screening platform aimed at identifying genes underlying these chemotherapeutic cytotoxic effects on immune cells. Using genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we identified four genome-wide significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) that contributed to the sensitivity of doxorubicin and idarubicin in immune cells. Of particular interest, a locus on chromosome 16 was significantly associated with cell viability following idarubicin administration (p = 5.01 × 10−8). Within this QTL lies App, which encodes amyloid beta precursor protein. Comparison of dose-response curves verified that T-cells in App knockout mice were more sensitive to idarubicin than those of C57BL/6J control mice (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the cellular screening approach coupled with GWAS led to the identification and subsequent validation of a gene involved in T-cell viability after idarubicin treatment. Previous studies have suggested a role for App in in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity to anticancer agents; the overexpression of App enhances resistance, while the knockdown of this gene is deleterious to cell viability. Further investigations should include performing mechanistic studies, validating additional genes from the GWAS, including Ppfia1 and Ppfibp1, and ultimately translating the findings to in vivo and human studies. PMID:25926793

  12. Use of energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy for routine ultrastructural analysis of high-pressure-frozen or chemically fixed plant cells.

    PubMed

    Lütz-Meindl, U; Aichinger, N

    2004-06-01

    In the present study energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy by use of an in-column spectrometer is employed as a powerful tool for ultrastructural analysis of plant cells. Images of unstained very thin (50 nm) and thick (140 nm) sections of the unicellular green alga Micrasterias denticulata, as a model system for a growing plant cell, taken by conventional transmission electron microscopy are compared to those obtained from filtering at zero energy loss (elastic bright field) and to those generated by energy filtering below the carbon-specific absorption edge at about 250 eV. The results show that the high-contrast images produced by the latter technique are distinctly superior in contrast and information content to micrographs taken at conventional transmission electron microscopy mode or at elastic bright field. Post- or en bloc staining with heavy metals, which is indispensable for conventional bright-field transmission electron microscopy, can be completely omitted. Delicate structural details such as membranous or filamentous connections between organelles, organelle interactions, or vesicle and vacuole contents are clearly outlined against the cytoplasmic background. Also, immunoelectron microscopic localization of macromolecules benefits from energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy by a better and more accurate assignment of antigens and structures and by facilitating the detection of immunomarkers without renunciation of contrast. PMID:15221520

  13. Abnormal pulmonary macrophages in lysinuric protein intolerance. Ultrastructural, morphometric, and x-ray microanalytic study.

    PubMed

    Parto, K; Mäki, J; Pelliniemi, L J; Simell, O

    1994-05-01

    Pediatric patients with lysinuric protein intolerance are predisposed to develop alveolar hemorrhage and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. We evaluated the ultrastructural features of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and the potential abnormality of pulmonary macrophages in lysinuric protein intolerance. Lung tissue specimens obtained at autopsy were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Pulmonary macrophages from bronchoalveolar lavages were studied by electron microscopy, morphometry, and x-ray microanalysis and compared with control cells. The macrophages of patients with lysinuric protein intolerance contained significantly more multilamellar structures than did control cells and showed electron-dense material identified to contain excess iron. The predisposition to develop alveolar proteinosis and the abnormal ultrastructure of pulmonary macrophages suggest altered phospholipid metabolism in patients with lysinuric protein intolerance. The marked intramacrophageal accumulations of iron might indicate altered iron metabolism or subclinical hemorrhages in lung tissue. PMID:8192561

  14. Forecasting hailfall using parameters for convective cells identified by radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigo, Tomeu; Carmen Llasat, M.

    2016-03-01

    The main goal of the present paper is to propose some new criteria that will improve the diagnosis for hail at the surface in real-time, so that they can be applied to surveillance tasks and for nowcasting purposes. The criteria are based on a better knowledge of convective cells that produce hail during their life cycle and better distinguishing between these cells and cells that do not produce hail on the surface. The work focused on a region in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula, selecting hail events that occurred in the 2004-2012 period and using the information provided by the Meteorological Service of Catalonia's weather radar network. The methodology deals with the analysis of the level of reflectivity associated with the maximum values, which can be considered as the core of the convective vertical development. The chosen radar parameters are operative and they take into consideration the following: the reflectivity, the vertically integrated liquid, the highest altitude at which radar echoes have been observed over a determined reflectivity threshold, as well as the direction and the duration of the convective cells. This work aims to complement all the previous work carried out by different authors, in order to better identify hail in the chosen region.

  15. Identifying Essential Cell Types and Circuits in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Maloney, Susan E.; Rieger, Michael A.; Dougherty, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is highly genetic in its etiology, with potentially hundreds of genes contributing to risk. Despite this heterogeneity, these disparate genetic lesions may result in the disruption of a limited number of key cell types or circuits –information which could be leveraged for the design of therapeutic interventions. While hypotheses for cellular disruptions can be identified by postmortem anatomical analysis and expression studies of ASD risk genes, testing these hypotheses requires the use of animal models. In this review, we explore the existing evidence supporting the contribution of different cell types to ASD, specifically focusing on rodent studies disrupting serotonergic, GABAergic, cerebellar and striatal cell types, with particular attention to studies of the sufficiency of specific cellular disruptions to generate ASD-related behavioral abnormalities. This evidence suggests multiple cellular routes can create features of the disorder, though it is currently unclear if these cell types converge on a final common circuit. We hope that in the future, systematic studies of cellular sufficiency and genetic interaction will help to classify patients into groups by type of cellular disruptions which suggest tractable therapeutic targets. PMID:24290383

  16. Effect of colchicine on the Golgi apparatus and on GERL of rat jejunal absorptive cells. Ultrastructural localization of thiamine pyrophosphatase and acid phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Pavelka, M; Ellinger, A

    1981-04-01

    Ultrastructural localization of thiamine pyrophosphatase (TTP) and acid phosphatase (AcPase) activity was performed on jejunal absorptive cells of rats pretreated with the antimicrotubular agent colchicine and of control animals. Demonstration of TPP activity showed that most of the dislocated Golgi stacks after colchicine application lacked positively staining cisternae of the mature side. This cytochemical finding is in agreement with the morphologically demonstrable changes of the Golgi stacks resulting in a loss of polarity and give evidence for a colchicine-induced deficiency of the Golgi apparatus. The cytochemical localization of AcPase activity showed deposits of reaction product over lysosomes and GERL and demonstrated a dislocation of GERL occurring concomitantly with the changes of the Golgi apparatus. The antimicrotubular effect of colchicine is well documented; thus the morphological and cytochemical changes of the Golgi apparatus and of GERL might be due to a disturbed microtubular function after application of this agent suggesting an influence of microtubules in the maintenance of the integrity of these organelles. This hypothesis includes the possibility of an involvement of microtubules in formation and differentiation of Golgi stacks and GERL as well as a kind of "skeletal"function being responsible for their characteristic structure and fashion. PMID:6113143

  17. Long-Term Spinal Ventral Root Reimplantation, but not Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Treatment, Positively Influences Ultrastructural Synapse Recovery and Motor Axonal Regrowth

    PubMed Central

    Barbizan, Roberta; Castro, Mateus V.; Ferreira Jr., Rui Seabra; Barraviera, Benedito; Oliveira, Alexandre L. R.

    2014-01-01

    We recently proposed a new surgical approach to treat ventral root avulsion, resulting in motoneuron protection. The present work combined such a surgical approach with bone marrow mononuclear cells (MC) therapy. Therefore, MC were added to the site of reimplantation. Female Lewis rats (seven weeks old) were subjected to unilateral ventral root avulsion (VRA) at L4, L5 and L6 levels and divided into the following groups (n = 5 for each group): Avulsion, sealant reimplanted roots and sealant reimplanted roots plus MC. After four weeks and 12 weeks post-surgery, the lumbar intumescences were processed by transmission electron microscopy, to analyze synaptic inputs to the repaired α motoneurons. Also, the ipsi and contralateral sciatic nerves were processed for axon counting and morphometry. The ultrastructural results indicated a significant preservation of inhibitory pre-synaptic boutons in the groups repaired with sealant alone and associated with MC therapy. Moreover, the average number of axons was higher in treated groups when compared to avulsion only. Complementary to the fiber counting, the morphometric analysis of axonal diameter and “g” ratio demonstrated that root reimplantation improved the motor component recovery. In conclusion, the data herein demonstrate that root reimplantation at the lesion site may be considered a therapeutic approach, following proximal lesions in the interface of central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS), and that MC therapy does not further improve the regenerative recovery, up to 12 weeks post lesion. PMID:25353176

  18. Identifying States along the Hematopoietic Stem Cell Differentiation Hierarchy with Single Cell Specificity via Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ilin, Yelena; Choi, Ji Sun; Harley, Brendan A C; Kraft, Mary L

    2015-11-17

    A major challenge for expanding specific types of hematopoietic cells ex vivo for the treatment of blood cell pathologies is identifying the combinations of cellular and matrix cues that direct hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) to self-renew or differentiate into cell populations ex vivo. Microscale screening platforms enable minimizing the number of rare HSCs required to screen the effects of numerous cues on HSC fate decisions. These platforms create a strong demand for label-free methods that accurately identify the fate decisions of individual hematopoietic cells at specific locations on the platform. We demonstrate the capacity to identify discrete cells along the HSC differentiation hierarchy via multivariate analysis of Raman spectra. Notably, cell state identification is accurate for individual cells and independent of the biophysical properties of the functionalized polyacrylamide gels upon which these cells are cultured. We report partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models of single cell Raman spectra enable identifying four dissimilar hematopoietic cell populations across the HSC lineage specification. Successful discrimination was obtained for a population enriched for long-term repopulating HSCs (LT-HSCs) versus their more differentiated progeny, including closely related short-term repopulating HSCs (ST-HSCs) and fully differentiated lymphoid (B cells) and myeloid (granulocytes) cells. The lineage-specific differentiation states of cells from these four subpopulations were accurately identified independent of the stiffness of the underlying biomaterial substrate, indicating subtle spectral variations that discriminated these populations were not masked by features from the culture substrate. This approach enables identifying the lineage-specific differentiation stages of hematopoietic cells on biomaterial substrates of differing composition and may facilitate correlating hematopoietic cell fate decisions with the extrinsic cues that

  19. Thymosin Beta 4 May Translocate from the Cytoplasm in to the Nucleus in HepG2 Cells following Serum Starvation. An Ultrastructural Study

    PubMed Central

    Piludu, Marco; Piras, Monica; Pichiri, Giuseppina; Coni, Pierpaolo; Orrù, Germano; Cabras, Tiziana; Messana, Irene; Faa, Gavino; Castagnola, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Due to its actin-sequestering properties, thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is considered to play a significant role in the cellular metabolism. Several physiological properties of Tβ4 have been reported;, however, many questions concerning its cellular function remain to be ascertained. To better understand the role of this small peptide we have analyzed by means of transmission immunoelectron microscopy techniques the ultrastructural localization of Tβ4 in HepG2 cells. Samples of HepG2 cells were fixed in a mixture of 3% formaldehyde and 0.1% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer and processed for standard electron microscopic techniques. The samples were dehydrated in a cold graded methanol series and embedded in LR gold resin. Ultrathin sections were labeled with rabbit antibodies to Tβ4, followed by gold-labeled goat anti-rabbit, stained with uranyl acetate and bismuth subnitrate, observed and photographed in a JEOL 100S transmission electron microscope. High-resolution electron microscopy showed that Tβ4 was mainly restricted to the cytoplasm of HepG2 growing in complete medium. A strong Tβ4 reactivity was detected in the perinuclear region of the cytoplasmic compartment where gold particles appeared strictly associated to the nuclear membrane. In the nucleus specific Tβ4 labeling was observed in the nucleolus. The above electron microscopic results confirm and extend previous observations at light microscopic level, highlighting the subcellular distribution of Tβ4 in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments of HepG2 cells. The meaning of Tβ4 presence in the nucleolus is not on the best of our knowledge clarified yet. It could account for the interaction of Tβ4 with nucleolar actin and according with this hypothesis, Tβ4 could contribute together with the other nucleolar acting binding proteins to modulate the transcription activity of the RNA polymerases. PMID:25835495

  20. Ultrastructural alterations during embryonic rats' lung development caused by ozone.

    PubMed

    López, Irma; Sánchez, Ivonne; Bizarro, Patricia; Acevedo, Sandra; Ustarroz, Martha; Fortoul, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is an oxidizing agent that acts on phospholipids, proteins and sugars of cellular membranes producing free radicals, which cause oxidative damages. The O3 exposure has been used as a model to study oxidative stress, in which the respiratory airways represent the entrance to the organism. In this study, ultrastructural alterations were identified at the bronchiolar level during the intra-uterine lung development, using an O3 exposure model in pregnant rats during 18, 20 and 21 days of gestation. Twelve pregnant Wistar rats, six controls and six exposed to 1 ppm O3 inhalation during 12 h per day, were used. The rats were sacrificed at gestational days 18, 20 and 21; the fetuses were obtained and their lungs dissected. The ultrastructural analysis evidenced swollen mitochondria, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the epithelial cells and structural disorder caused by the oxidative stress. At gestation day 20, flake-off epithelial cells and laminar bodies in the bronchiolar lumen were observed. In the 21-gestation-day group, the mitochondria were edematous and their cristae were disrupted by the damage caused in mitochondrial membranes. PMID:18083976

  1. [Changes in the ultrastructure of the stomach mucous membrane parietal cells caused by inhibitors of hydrochloric acid secretion].

    PubMed

    Dondukova, G V; Morozov, I A

    2002-01-01

    The study of the action of phamotidine and omeprazol on the stomach parietal cells in patients with duodenal ulcer has shown that phamotidin results in changes of secretory membrane of the parietal cells increasing its secretory potential while omeprazol reduces energetic metabolism of the lining cell by the impact on its mitochondrial apparatus. Both in children and adults with duodenal ulcer more developed mitochondrial cell activity was found after omeprazol treatment. PMID:15338718

  2. Functional screen identifies regulators of murine hematopoietic stem cell repopulation.

    PubMed

    Holmfeldt, Per; Ganuza, Miguel; Marathe, Himangi; He, Bing; Hall, Trent; Kang, Guolian; Moen, Joseph; Pardieck, Jennifer; Saulsberry, Angelica C; Cico, Alba; Gaut, Ludovic; McGoldrick, Daniel; Finkelstein, David; Tan, Kai; McKinney-Freeman, Shannon

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the molecular regulation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) engraftment is paramount to improving transplant outcomes. To discover novel regulators of HSPC repopulation, we transplanted >1,300 mice with shRNA-transduced HSPCs within 24 h of isolation and transduction to focus on detecting genes regulating repopulation. We identified 17 regulators of HSPC repopulation: Arhgef5, Armcx1, Cadps2, Crispld1, Emcn, Foxa3, Fstl1, Glis2, Gprasp2, Gpr56, Myct1, Nbea, P2ry14, Smarca2, Sox4, Stat4, and Zfp251. Knockdown of each of these genes yielded a loss of function, except in the cases of Armcx1 and Gprasp2, whose loss enhanced hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) repopulation. The discovery of multiple genes regulating vesicular trafficking, cell surface receptor turnover, and secretion of extracellular matrix components suggests active cross talk between HSCs and the niche and that HSCs may actively condition the niche to promote engraftment. We validated that Foxa3 is required for HSC repopulating activity, as Foxa3(-/-) HSC fails to repopulate ablated hosts efficiently, implicating for the first time Foxa genes as regulators of HSPCs. We further show that Foxa3 likely regulates the HSC response to hematologic stress. Each gene discovered here offers a window into the novel processes that regulate stable HSPC engraftment into an ablated host. PMID:26880577

  3. Cell Surface Proteome of Dental Pulp Stem Cells Identified by Label-Free Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Niehage, Christian; Karbanová, Jana; Steenblock, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising tools for regenerative medicine. They can be isolated from different sources based on their plastic-adherence property. The identification of reliable cell surface markers thus becomes the Holy Grail for their prospective isolation. Here, we determine the cell surface proteomes of human dental pulp-derived MSCs isolated from single donors after culture expansion in low (2%) or high (10%) serum-containing media. Cell surface proteins were tagged on intact cells using cell impermeable, cleavable sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin, which allows their enrichment by streptavidin pull-down. For the proteomic analyses, we first compared label-free methods to analyze cell surface proteomes i.e. composition, enrichment and proteomic differences, and we developed a new mathematical model to determine cell surface protein enrichment using a combinatorial gene ontology query. Using this workflow, we identified 101 cluster of differentiation (CD) markers and 286 non-CD cell surface proteins. Based on this proteome profiling, we identified 14 cell surface proteins, which varied consistently in abundance when cells were cultured under low or high serum conditions. Collectively, our analytical methods provide a basis for identifying the cell surface proteome of dental pulp stem cells isolated from single donors and its evolution during culture or differentiation. Our data provide a comprehensive cell surface proteome for the precise identification of dental pulp-derived MSC populations and their isolation for potential therapeutic intervention. PMID:27490675

  4. Cell Surface Proteome of Dental Pulp Stem Cells Identified by Label-Free Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Niehage, Christian; Karbanová, Jana; Steenblock, Charlotte; Corbeil, Denis; Hoflack, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising tools for regenerative medicine. They can be isolated from different sources based on their plastic-adherence property. The identification of reliable cell surface markers thus becomes the Holy Grail for their prospective isolation. Here, we determine the cell surface proteomes of human dental pulp-derived MSCs isolated from single donors after culture expansion in low (2%) or high (10%) serum-containing media. Cell surface proteins were tagged on intact cells using cell impermeable, cleavable sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin, which allows their enrichment by streptavidin pull-down. For the proteomic analyses, we first compared label-free methods to analyze cell surface proteomes i.e. composition, enrichment and proteomic differences, and we developed a new mathematical model to determine cell surface protein enrichment using a combinatorial gene ontology query. Using this workflow, we identified 101 cluster of differentiation (CD) markers and 286 non-CD cell surface proteins. Based on this proteome profiling, we identified 14 cell surface proteins, which varied consistently in abundance when cells were cultured under low or high serum conditions. Collectively, our analytical methods provide a basis for identifying the cell surface proteome of dental pulp stem cells isolated from single donors and its evolution during culture or differentiation. Our data provide a comprehensive cell surface proteome for the precise identification of dental pulp-derived MSC populations and their isolation for potential therapeutic intervention. PMID:27490675

  5. Ultrastructural and cytochemical aspects of the basophilic cells in the hepatopancreas ofAplysia depilans(Mollusca, Opisthobranchia).

    PubMed

    Lobo-da-Cunha, A

    1999-02-01

    The basophilic cells ofAplysia depilanshave a pyramidal shape and a large nucleus usually located near the center or in the basal half of the cell. The nucleus possesses several clumps of condensed chromatin and a prominent nucleolus. The great profusion of rough endoplasmic reticulum cisterns in a major feature of these cells. Secretion granules are accumulated in the apical zone, and arylsulphatase was detected in some of them. In some basophilic cells a very substantial part of the cell volume was occupied by clear vacuoles, some of them reaching 9 mum. However, in other cells only a few vacuoles were observed. Probably the cells with just a few vacuoles are still young, and after a progressive accumulation, the vacuoles become abundant in old cells. The presence of a dark nucleus in the cells with a large number of vacuoles suggests that they are in a final stage of their life. Arylsulphatase was detected in the vacuoles and also in small secondary lysosomes containing substances in digestion. Bundles of tubules with 50 nm in diameter were found within some cisterns of rough endoplasmic reticulum. A cell fraction enriched in mannitol oxidase, extracted from the hepatopancreas of a terrestrial slug, consisted in very similar tubular structures. Using a histochemical method, mannitol oxidase was detected in the basophilic cells ofA. depilans, and it may be associated with the tubular structures of the endoplasmic reticulum. This is the first report of mannitol oxidase in opisthobranch molluscs. Almost spherical peroxisomes with a small nucleoid were abundant in these cells. The nucleoids presented a rectangular section, but a crystalline structure was not evident. The peroxisomes were stained after the cytochemical detection of catalase activity. PMID:18627851

  6. Ultrastructural Analysis of ICP34.5− Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Replication in Mouse Brain Cells In Vivo▿

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Hina; Muller, Jacqueline; Markovitz, Nancy S.

    2010-01-01

    Replication-competent forms of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) defective in the viral neurovirulence factor infected cell protein 34.5 (ICP34.5) are under investigation for use in the therapeutic treatment of cancer. In mouse models, intratumoral injection of ICP34.5-defective oncolytic HSVs (oHSVs) has resulted in the infection and lysis of tumor cells, an associated decrease in tumor size, and increased survival times. The ability of these oHSVs to infect and lyse cells is frequently characterized as exclusive to or selective for tumor cells. However, the extent to which ICP34.5-deficient HSV-1 replicates in and may be neurotoxic to normal brain cell types in vivo is poorly understood. Here we report that HSV-1 defective in ICP34.5 expression is capable of establishing a productive infection in at least one normal mouse brain cell type. We show that γ34.5 deletion viruses replicate productively in and induce cellular damage in infected ependymal cells. Further evaluation of the effects of oHSVs on normal brain cells in animal models is needed to enhance our understanding of the risks associated with the use of current and future oHSVs in the brains of clinical trial subjects and to provide information that can be used to create improved oHSVs for future use. PMID:20702618

  7. Ultrastructural and functional characterization of circulating hemocytes from Galleria mellonella larva: Cell types and their role in the innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gongqing; Liu, Yi; Ding, Ying; Yi, Yunhong

    2016-08-01

    Galleria mellonella larvae have been widely used as a model to study the virulence of various human pathogens. Hemocytes play important roles in the innate immune response of G. mellonella. In this study, the hemocytes of G. mellonella larvae were analyzed by transmission electron microscope, light microscope, and cytochemistry. The cytological and morphological analyses revealed four types of hemocytes; Plasmatocytes, granular cells, spherule cells and oenocytoids. Differential hemocyte counts showed that under our conditions plasmatocytes and granular cells were the most abundant circulating cell types in the hemolymph. We also investigated the role of different types of hemocytes in the cellular and humoral immune defenses. The in-vivo experiment showed that plasmatocytes, granular cells and oenocytoids phagocytized FITC-labelled Escherichia coli bacteria in larvae of G. mellonella, whereas the granular cells exhibited the strongest phagocytic ability against these microbial cells. After incubation with L-DOPA, plasmatocytes, granular cells and oenocytoids are stained brown, indicating the presence of phenoloxidase activity. These results shed new light on our understanding of the immune function of G. mellonella hemocytes. PMID:27378036

  8. A cell-based phenotypic assay to identify cardioprotective agents

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Stephanie; Olm-Shipman, Adam; Walters, Andrew; Urciuoli, William R.; Devito, Stefanie; Nadtochiy, Sergiy M.; Wojtovich, Andrew P.; Brookes, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Tissue ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury underlies several leading causes of death such as heart-attack and stroke. The lack of clinical therapies for IR injury may be partly due to the difficulty of adapting IR injury models to high-throughput screening (HTS). Objective To develop a model of IR injury that is both physiologically relevant and amenable to HTS. Methods and Results A micro-plate based respirometry apparatus was used. Controlling gas flow in the plate head space, coupled with the instrument’s mechanical systems, yielded a 24 well model of IR injury in which H9c2 cardiomyocytes were transiently trapped in a small volume, rendering them ischemic. Following initial validation with known protective molecules, the model was used to screen a 2000 molecule library, with post IR cell death as an endpoint. pO2 and pH monitoring in each well also afforded metabolic data. Ten protective, detrimental and inert molecules from the screen were subsequently tested in a Langendorff perfused heart model of IR injury, revealing strong correlations between the screening endpoint and both recovery of cardiac function (negative r2=0.66), and infarct size (positive, r2=0.62). Relationships between the effects of added molecules on cellular bioenergetics, and protection against IR injury, were also studied. Conclusion This novel cell-based assay can predict either protective or detrimental effects on IR injury in the intact heart. Its application may help identify therapeutic or harmful molecules. PMID:22394516

  9. CCDC65 Mutation Causes Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia with Normal Ultrastructure and Hyperkinetic Cilia

    PubMed Central

    Horani, Amjad; Brody, Steven L.; Ferkol, Thomas W.; Shoseyov, David; Wasserman, Mollie G.; Ta-shma, Asaf; Wilson, Kate S.; Bayly, Philip V.; Amirav, Israel; Cohen-Cymberknoh, Malena; Dutcher, Susan K.; Elpeleg, Orly; Kerem, Eitan

    2013-01-01

    Background Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetic disorder characterized by impaired ciliary function, leading to chronic sinopulmonary disease. The genetic causes of PCD are still evolving, while the diagnosis is often dependent on finding a ciliary ultrastructural abnormality and immotile cilia. Here we report a novel gene associated with PCD but without ciliary ultrastructural abnormalities evident by transmission electron microscopy, but with dyskinetic cilia beating. Methods Genetic linkage analysis was performed in a family with a PCD subject. Gene expression was studied in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and human airway epithelial cells, using RNA assays and immunostaining. The phenotypic effects of candidate gene mutations were determined in primary culture human tracheobronchial epithelial cells transduced with gene targeted shRNA sequences. Video-microscopy was used to evaluate cilia motion. Results A single novel mutation in CCDC65, which created a termination codon at position 293, was identified in a subject with typical clinical features of PCD. CCDC65, an orthologue of the Chlamydomonas nexin-dynein regulatory complex protein DRC2, was localized to the cilia of normal nasal epithelial cells but was absent in those from the proband. CCDC65 expression was up-regulated during ciliogenesis in cultured airway epithelial cells, as was DRC2 in C. reinhardtii following deflagellation. Nasal epithelial cells from the affected individual and CCDC65-specific shRNA transduced normal airway epithelial cells had stiff and dyskinetic cilia beating patterns compared to control cells. Moreover, Gas8, a nexin-dynein regulatory complex component previously identified to associate with CCDC65, was absent in airway cells from the PCD subject and CCDC65-silenced cells. Conclusion Mutation in CCDC65, a nexin-dynein regulatory complex member, resulted in a frameshift mutation and PCD. The affected individual had altered cilia beating patterns, and no detectable

  10. Ultrastructure of gingival epithelium in chronic gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Lushnikova, E L; Nepomnyashchikh, L M; Oskolsky, G I; Jurkevich, N V

    2012-03-01

    We studied ultrastructural reorganization of the gingival mucosa in chronic gingivitis. It was found that chronic inflammation leads to significant intracellular reorganization of epitheliocytes in the basal and prickle cell layers of gingival epithelium and their pronounced structural and functional heterogeneity. The main ultrastructural alterations of epitheliocytes in the basal and prickle cell layers include pronounced vacuolization of the perinuclear zone (partial necrosis), formation of thick tonofilament bundles, focal lysis and sequestration of glycogen, and destruction and reduction of intracellular junctions in some cases accompanied by acantholytic alterations. Chronic inflammation in the gingival mucosa induced extensive remodeling of the lamina propria manifested in multiplication of the basement membrane and obturation of blood vessels with collagen fibrils. PMID:22803154

  11. Ultrastructural studies on erythropoiesis in the avian thymus. II. A stereological analysis of the lymphoid and erythroid cells.

    PubMed

    Kendall, M D

    1979-06-01

    The cortex of enlarging thymic lobes from adult haemorrhaged Quelea quelea were found to be similar to those of wild birds where the thymic enlargement was occurring naturally. A detailed stereological analysis of cells broadly designated as lymphoid, and the construction of models to account for the results, indicates that the enlarging thymic lobe contains both large and small blast cells, a heterogenous group of medium lymphocytes, erythroid cells, and two types of very small lymphocytes. The distinction between early erythroid cells and some lymphocytes, despite this detailed analysis is very difficult, but it is possible in enlarging thymic lobes that up to 42% of the lymphoid cells may have erythroid characteristics. PMID:466698

  12. Ultrastructural evidence for nerve fibers within all vital layers of the human epidermis.

    PubMed

    Hilliges, M; Wang, L; Johansson, O

    1995-01-01

    To prove the existence of human intraepidermal nerve fibers at the electron microscopic level, we used both conventional and immunohistochemical ultrastructural techniques. Specimens were obtained from skin of the back, one of the most densely innervated areas of the human epidermis. The immunohistochemical marker protein gene product 9.5 was chosen because it is highly potent in labeling nerves. Thin nerve fibers were found in the basal, spinous, and granular layers of the epidermis with both techniques used, although it was more difficult to identify the nervous structures with the conventional method. The nerves appeared in the intercellular spaces and contacted keratinocyte cell bodies or cilia by membrane-membrane apposition, but without any specialized structures. Nerve fibers in the very superficial part of the vital human epidermis have not been described before at the ultrastructural level. PMID:7798631

  13. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies of rat epididymis.

    PubMed

    Francavilla, S; De Martino, C; Scorza Barcellona, P; Natali, P G

    1983-01-01

    The anatomical distribution of smooth muscle actin, myosin, fibronectin and basement membrane has been investigated immunohistochemically, using the indirect immunofluorescence technique, in the rat epididymis. The findings were correlated with the ultrastructural organization of the organ. Actin was found to be distributed in the stereociliary region of the epithelial principal cells and in the terminal web region. Actin was also visible along the base of the epithelium. Myosin was detected in the terminal web and in the terminal bar regions of the epithelium. The contractile cells showed a strong stain for both proteins. Basement membrane immunoreactivity was distributed along the epithelial basement membrane and around the contractile cells of the wall. In the cauda, between the epithelium and the contractile cell layers, the lamina propria, containing blood vessels and a thin layer of cells, was negative for all antigens investigated. Fibronectin showed a granular distribution around the contractile cells, mainly in the cauda. The ultrastructural study showed only thin (5-6 nm in diameter) filaments in the stereocilia and terminal web region. Thin filaments were also visible in the cytoplasm of the basal cells, thus suggesting a contractile function of this cell type. The heterogeneous appearance of the contractile cells of the wall seemed to support the different contractile pattern of the epididymal regions: caput, corpus and cauda. The cells present in the lamina propria showed cytoplasmic vesicles with dark granules resembling the "A" cell granules of the endocrine pancreas and gut mucosa cells. PMID:6354463

  14. The interaction of microgravity and ethylene on the ultrastructure cell and Ca2+ localization in soybean hook hypocotyl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nedukha, O. M.; Kordyum, E. L.; Brown, C.; Chapman, D.

    2001-01-01

    Calcium ions are secondary messenger in numerous cellular processes of plant grown at 1 g. Ca2+ are connected with oxygen atoms, of pectin carboxy groups and/or with H(+)-groups of protein (Roux and Slocum, 1982; Hepler and Wayne, 1985). The influence of altered gravity on the calcium balance in some cells is established. The increased synthesis of ethylene in plant grown in microgravity caused the change of the structural-functional organization of cell (Hensel and Iversen, 1980; Hilaire et al., 1996). Available data put the new question: how do high ethylene level and microgravity influence on the redistribution of Ca2+ in cell of seedling in early stage of growth? Therefore, the goal of our data was the comparable study of the cell ulltrastructure and localization of Ca2+ in hook hypocotyl of soybean seedling under interaction of microgravity and ethylene.

  15. Effects of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) extract and N-nitro-L-arginine on renal function and ultrastructure of kidney cells in experimental type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ozbayer, Cansu; Kurt, Hulyam; Kalender, Suna; Ozden, Hilmi; Gunes, Hasan V; Basaran, Ayse; Cakmak, Ecir A; Civi, Kismet; Kalender, Yusuf; Degirmenci, Irfan

    2011-10-01

    Diabetes is the leading cause of chronic renal failure. Our purpose was to determine the effects of N-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA) and an extract of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) (SrB) leaves on renal function in streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA)-induced diabetic rats. Rats were divided into seven groups. Three of these groups were controls. Diabetes was induced by STZ-NA in the other four. Diabetic rats were treated with SrB (200 mg/kg), L-NNA (100 mg/kg), or SrB + L-NNA for 15 days after 5-8 weeks of diabetes. At the end of the experiments, urine and blood samples were collected from the rats, and kidney tissue samples were collected with the animals under ether anesthesia. Renal filtration changes were determined by measuring urine pH, urine volume, and serum and urine creatinine. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity was measured in kidney homogenates. Alterations in kidney ultrastructure were determined by electron microscopy, and histological changes were examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining. No statistical differences were observed in urine creatinine or creatinine clearance. Even so, we observed higher NOS activity in SrB-treated diabetic rats. SrB-treated diabetic rats had less mitochondrial swelling and vacuolization in thin kidney sections than other diabetic groups. The control groups showed normal histological structure, whereas in the diabetic groups, membrane thickening, tubular epithelial cells, and cellular degeneration were observed. Thus, SrB has beneficial effects on diabetes compared with l-NNA. Our results support the validity of SrB for the management of diabetes as well as diabetes-induced renal disorders. PMID:21663490

  16. Plural light chains in a single plasma cell of a monoclonal gammopathy undetermined significance case: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Saito, Nagahito; Konishi, Kohei; Ohta, Shuichi; Kondo, Takeshi; Kato, Mototsugu; Hashino, Satoshi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Asaka, Masahiro; Ooi, Hong-Kean

    2007-02-01

    A 44-year-old man was found to have M-proteins of IgG consisting of kappa- and lambda-chains in serum without lymphadenopathy or splenomegaly. The serum concentrations of IgG, IgA and IgM were within normal limits. Bone marrow examination showed normal cellular marrow containing 6.3% of plasma cells with no abnormal features. No chromosomal abnormality was observed at all. The patient was diagnosed as having monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. The bone marrow plasma cells possessed free kappa- and lambda-chains in Golgi apparatus, rough endoplasmic reticula and cytoplasmic matrices. Plural light chains were simultaneously produced with the same heavy chain in a plasma cell by immunoelectron microscopy. This is the first report in the world of a monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance producing plural light chains with the same heavy chain. PMID:17506772

  17. Transcriptional Profiling of Bipotential Embryonic Liver Cells to Identify Liver Progenitor Cell Surface Markers

    PubMed Central

    Ochsner, Scott A.; Strick-Marchand, Hélène; Qiu, Qiong; Venable, Susan; Dean, Adam; Wilde, Margaret; Weiss, Mary C.; Darlington, Gretchen J.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to purify to homogeneity a population of hepatic progenitor cells from adult liver is critical for their characterization prior to any therapeutic application. As a step in this direction, we have used a bipotential liver cell line from 14 days postcoitum mouse embryonic liver to compile a list of cell surface markers expressed specifically by liver progenitor cells. These cells, known as bipotential mouse embryonic liver (BMEL) cells, proliferate in an undifferentiated state and are capable of differentiating into hepatocyte-like and cholangiocyte-like cells in vitro. Upon transplantation, BMEL cells are capable of differentiating into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes in vivo. Microarray and Gene Ontology (GO) analysis of gene expression in the 9A1 and 14B3 BMEL cell lines grown under proliferating and differentiating conditions was used to identify cell surface markers preferentially expressed in the bipotential undifferentiated state. This analysis revealed that proliferating BMEL cells express many genes involved in cell cycle regulation, whereas differentiation of BMEL cells by cell aggregation causes a switch in gene expression to functions characteristic of mature hepatocytes. In addition, microarray data and protein analysis indicated that the Notch signaling pathway could be involved in maintaining BMEL cells in an undifferentiated stem cell state. Using GO annotation, a list of cell surface markers preferentially expressed on undifferentiated BMEL cells was generated. One marker, Cd24a, is specifically expressed on progenitor oval cells in livers of diethyl 1,4-dihydro-2,4,6-trimethyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate-treated animals. We therefore consider Cd24a expression a candidate molecule for purification of hepatic progenitor cells. PMID:17641245

  18. Satellited 4q identified in amniotic fluid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, I.; Hsieh, C.L.; Songster, G.

    1995-01-16

    Extra material was identified on the distal long arm of a chromosome 4 in an amniotic fluid specimen sampled at 16.6 weeks of gestational age. There was no visible loss of material from chromosome 4, and no evidence for a balanced rearrangement. The primary counseling issue in this case was advanced maternal age. Ultrasound findings were normal, and family history was unremarkable. The identical 4qs chromosome was observed in cells from a paternal peripheral blood specimen and appeared to be an unbalanced rearrangement. This extra material was NOR positive in lymphocytes from the father, but was negative in the fetal amniocytes. Father`s relatives were studied to verify the familial origin of this anomaly. In situ hybridization with both exon and intron sequences of ribosomal DNA demonstrated that ribosomal DNA is present at the terminus of the 4qs chromosome in the fetus, father, and paternal grandmother. This satellited 4q might have been derived from a translocation event that resulted in very little or no loss from the 4q and no specific phenotype. This derivative chromosome 4 has been inherited through at least 3 generations of phenotypically normal individuals. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Immunophenotypic and Ultrastructural Analysis of Mast Cells in Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome Type-1: A Possible Connection to Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kirshenbaum, Arnold S.; Cruse, Glenn; Desai, Avanti; Bandara, Geethani; Leerkes, Maarten; Lee, Chyi-Chia R.; Fischer, Elizabeth R.; O’Brien, Kevin J.; Gochuico, Bernadette R.; Stone, Kelly; Gahl, William A.; Metcalfe, Dean D.

    2016-01-01

    Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome type-1 (HPS-1) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in HPS1 which result in reduced expression of the HPS-1 protein, defective lysosome-related organelle (LRO) transport and absence of platelet delta granules. Patients with HPS-1 exhibit oculocutaneous albinism, colitis, bleeding and pulmonary fibrosis postulated to result from a dysregulated immune response. The effect of the HPS1 mutation on human mast cells (HuMCs) is unknown. Since HuMC granules classify as LROs along with platelet granules and melanosomes, we set out to determine if HPS-1 cutaneous and CD34+ culture-derived HuMCs have distinct granular and cellular characteristics. Cutaneous and cultured CD34+-derived HuMCs from HPS-1 patients were compared with normal cutaneous and control HuMCs, respectively, for any morphological and functional differences. One cytokine-independent HPS-1 culture was expanded, cloned, designated the HP proMastocyte (HPM) cell line and characterized. HPS-1 and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) alveolar interstitium showed numerous HuMCs; HPS-1 dermal mast cells exhibited abnormal granules when compared to healthy controls. HPS-1 HuMCs showed increased CD63, CD203c and reduced mediator release following FcɛRI aggregation when compared with normal HuMCs. HPM cells also had the duplication defect, expressed FcɛRI and intracytoplasmic proteases and exhibited less mediator release following FcɛRI aggregation. HPM cells constitutively released IL-6, which was elevated in patients’ serum, in addition to IL-8, fibronectin-1 (FN-1) and galectin-3 (LGALS3). Transduction with HPS1 rescued the abnormal HPM morphology, cytokine and matrix secretion. Microarray analysis of HPS-1 HuMCs and non-transduced HPM cells confirmed upregulation of differentially expressed genes involved in fibrogenesis and degranulation. Cultured HPS-1 HuMCs appear activated as evidenced by surface activation marker expression, a decrease in mediator content and

  20. Immunophenotypic and Ultrastructural Analysis of Mast Cells in Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome Type-1: A Possible Connection to Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Kirshenbaum, Arnold S; Cruse, Glenn; Desai, Avanti; Bandara, Geethani; Leerkes, Maarten; Lee, Chyi-Chia R; Fischer, Elizabeth R; O'Brien, Kevin J; Gochuico, Bernadette R; Stone, Kelly; Gahl, William A; Metcalfe, Dean D

    2016-01-01

    Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome type-1 (HPS-1) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in HPS1 which result in reduced expression of the HPS-1 protein, defective lysosome-related organelle (LRO) transport and absence of platelet delta granules. Patients with HPS-1 exhibit oculocutaneous albinism, colitis, bleeding and pulmonary fibrosis postulated to result from a dysregulated immune response. The effect of the HPS1 mutation on human mast cells (HuMCs) is unknown. Since HuMC granules classify as LROs along with platelet granules and melanosomes, we set out to determine if HPS-1 cutaneous and CD34+ culture-derived HuMCs have distinct granular and cellular characteristics. Cutaneous and cultured CD34+-derived HuMCs from HPS-1 patients were compared with normal cutaneous and control HuMCs, respectively, for any morphological and functional differences. One cytokine-independent HPS-1 culture was expanded, cloned, designated the HP proMastocyte (HPM) cell line and characterized. HPS-1 and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) alveolar interstitium showed numerous HuMCs; HPS-1 dermal mast cells exhibited abnormal granules when compared to healthy controls. HPS-1 HuMCs showed increased CD63, CD203c and reduced mediator release following FcɛRI aggregation when compared with normal HuMCs. HPM cells also had the duplication defect, expressed FcɛRI and intracytoplasmic proteases and exhibited less mediator release following FcɛRI aggregation. HPM cells constitutively released IL-6, which was elevated in patients' serum, in addition to IL-8, fibronectin-1 (FN-1) and galectin-3 (LGALS3). Transduction with HPS1 rescued the abnormal HPM morphology, cytokine and matrix secretion. Microarray analysis of HPS-1 HuMCs and non-transduced HPM cells confirmed upregulation of differentially expressed genes involved in fibrogenesis and degranulation. Cultured HPS-1 HuMCs appear activated as evidenced by surface activation marker expression, a decrease in mediator content and

  1. Ultrastructural Study of Salmonella typhimurium Treated with Membrane-Active Agents: Specific Reaction of Dansylchloride with Cell Envelope Components

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, Peter R. G.; Teuber, Michael

    1978-01-01

    Amino groups of cell envelope proteins, lipids, and lipopolysaccharides cannot be labeled in intact cells of Salmonella typhimurium G 30 by using 5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonylchloride incorporated in lecithin-cholesterol vesicles. However, application of membrane-interacting agents like tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris)-hydrochloride, ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Na salt) (EDTA), divalent cations, and sublethal doses of the cationic antibacterial agents polymyxin B and chlorhexidine induced specific fluorescent labeling of envelope proteins and lipids but not of cytoplasmic compounds, with the exception of a soluble protein with a molecular weight of 46,000 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Treatment with Tris-hydrochloride buffer produced labeling of the heat-modifiable protein B/B+ and of proteins with molecular weights of 26,000, 22,000, and below 17,000. A combination of Tris-hydrochloride and EDTA induced additional dansylation of the major protein A and of proteins of molecular weights 80,000, 60,000, and 44,000. Polymyxin B and chlorhexidine caused similar labeling patterns. In every case, except with divalent cation treatment, protein B/B+ was the most prominently labeled species. Phosphatidylethanolamine was dansylated up to 30%. Lipopolysaccharide was not reactive under any condition or treatment. In addition, the peptidoglycan-bound lipoprotein did not react with dansylchloride in either intact or Tris-hydrochloride-treated cells. The results are discussed with regard to a possible localization of labeled and unlabeled compounds of the cell envelope on the basis of a model placing cell envelope amino groups into ion-ion interactions with anionic components of other envelope compounds like phosphate and carboxyl groups. Images PMID:97268

  2. Cell-Surface Protein Profiling Identifies Distinctive Markers of Progenitor Cells in Human Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Uezumi, Akiyoshi; Nakatani, Masashi; Ikemoto-Uezumi, Madoka; Yamamoto, Naoki; Morita, Mitsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Asami; Yamada, Harumoto; Kasai, Takehiro; Masuda, Satoru; Narita, Asako; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Fukada, So-Ichiro; Nishino, Ichizo; Tsuchida, Kunihiro

    2016-08-01

    Skeletal muscle contains two distinct stem/progenitor populations. One is the satellite cell, which acts as a muscle stem cell, and the other is the mesenchymal progenitor, which contributes to muscle pathogeneses such as fat infiltration and fibrosis. Detailed and accurate characterization of these progenitors in humans remains elusive. Here, we performed comprehensive cell-surface protein profiling of the two progenitor populations residing in human skeletal muscle and identified three previously unrecognized markers: CD82 and CD318 for satellite cells and CD201 for mesenchymal progenitors. These markers distinguish myogenic and mesenchymal progenitors, and enable efficient isolation of the two types of progenitors. Functional study revealed that CD82 ensures expansion and preservation of myogenic progenitors by suppressing excessive differentiation, and CD201 signaling favors adipogenesis of mesenchymal progenitors. Thus, cell-surface proteins identified here are not only useful markers but also functionally important molecules, and provide valuable insight into human muscle biology and diseases. PMID:27509136

  3. [Ultrastructural findings in the liver due to long-term retinol (isotretinoin) treatment. Significance of the perisinusoidal (Ito) cells].

    PubMed

    Kapp, Pál; Bély, Miklós; Nemesánszky, Elemér

    2004-01-25

    A twenty year old, foreign-born sportsman visited the Out-patient Clinic of our Hospital with complaints of progressive arthralgia, hepatomegaly and increasingly abnormal liver function tests of six months duration. Tests for virus hepatitis were negative, alcohol abuse or drug addiction could be excluded. An open needle biopsy of the liver was performed and the tissue was examined with the light and electron microscope. On routine light microscopy no abnormality was recognized. Electron microscopic examination revealed changes characteristic of vitamin A toxicity: hyperplasia of the perisinusoidal (Ito) cells with evidence of their activation and transformation, increased storage of lipids and vitamin A, perisinusoidal fibrosis, damage of the sinusoidal wall, partial necrosis in hepatocytes and an increased number of lysosomes, megalysosomes and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER), the signs of cholestasis as well as an increased number of Kupffer cells in the lobules etc. Histochemical examination showed a high content of vitamin A in the transitional (Ito) cells and in hepatocytes. These data led to further questioning of the patient who disclosed that he had acne conglobata which had been treated with Isotretionin, 20 mg/day, for more than half a year. After the therapy was stopped, the symptoms of polyarthralgia improved and after a few months they ceased entirely, however, the laboratory data returned to normal only after a long period of time. This case indicates that electron microscopic examination of the liver biopsy may play an important role in the recognition of vitamin A intoxication. It also illustrates that symptoms of joint disease may be caused by long-term retinoid treatment. The authors have presented the latest clinical and experimental data concerning the changes in the liver, joints and skeleton caused by retinoid intoxication. PMID:14978883

  4. Ultrastructural characterization and Fourier analysis of fiber cell cytoplasm in the hyperbaric oxygen treated guinea pig lens opacification model.

    PubMed

    Freel, Christopher D; Gilliland, Kurt O; Mekeel, Harold E; Giblin, Frank J; Costello, M Joseph

    2003-04-01

    The structural characteristics of differentiated fiber cells in control and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO)-treated guinea pig lenses were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Emphasis was placed on cell damage, membrane integrity, and cytoplasmic texture. Given the faint gross opacities observed in HBO-treated lenses in previous studies, it was hypothesized that subtle but significant morphological differences due to oxidative damage exist between control and treated animals. Experimental animals received either 70 or 85 treatments with HBO (2.5 atm of 100% O(2) for 2.5 hr, 3 times per week for 5-7 months). All specimens were obtained within 24 hr of death. Freshly cut Vibratome lens sections were fixed and processed for low and high-magnification thin-section TEM analysis. Cytoplasmic texture was analyzed using Fourier and autocorrelation image processing techniques. Low-magnification analysis revealed relatively insignificant differences in general appearance between the fiber cells of the inner fetal and embryonic nuclei in control and HBO-treated guinea pigs. Both groups demonstrated cells of similar morphology with equivalent membrane complexity and homogeneous cytoplasmic texture. Evidence of any major cellular damage or extracellular space debris was not obvious. High-magnification analysis of the cytoplasm of the treated lenses exhibited a mild, yet detectable increase in texture compared with controls and was confirmed by Fourier analysis. Cytoplasmic texture increased in complexity with additional treatments. The absence of major cellular damage in the lenses of HBO-treated animals suggests a less conspicuous source of light scattering. The small changes in cytoplasmic organization observed between treated and control animals may entirely account for the increase in nuclear light scattering observed by slit lamp. The results obtained with this guinea pig/HBO model parallel many of the morphological data associated with human nuclear cataracts. The

  5. Single cell sorting identifies progenitor cell population from full thickness bovine articular cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yin; Zheng, Hongjun; Buckwalter, Joseph A.; Martin, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To date, no approved clinical intervention successfully prevents the progressive degradation of injured articular cartilage that leads to osteoarthritis (OA). Stem/progenitor cell populations within tissues of diarthrodial joint have shown their therapeutic potential in treating OA. However, this potential has not been fully realized due in part to the heterogeneity of these subpopulations. Characterization of clonal populations derived from a single cell may help identify more homogenous stem/progenitor populations within articular cartilage. Moreover, chondrogenic potential of clonal populations from different zones could be further examined to elucidate their differential roles in maintaining articular cartilage homeostasis. Method We combined FACS (Fluorescence-activated cell sorting) and clonogenicity screening to identify stem/progenitor cells cloned from single cells. High-efficiency colony-forming cells (HCCs) were isolated, and evaluated for stem/progenitor cell characteristics. HCCs were also isolated from different zones of articular cartilage. Their function was compared by lineage-specific gene expression, and differentiation potential. Results A difference in colony-forming efficiency was observed in terms of colony sizes. HCCs were highly clonogenic and multipotent, and overexpressed stem/progenitor cell markers. Also, proliferation and migration associated genes were over-expressed in HCCs. HCCs showed zonal differences with deep HCCs more chondrogenic and osteogenic than superficial HCCs. Conclusion Our approach is a simple yet practical way to identify homogeneous stem/progenitor cell populations with clonal origin. The discovery of progenitor cells demonstrates the intrinsic self-repairing potential of articular cartilage. Differences in differentiation potential may represent the distinct roles of superficial and deep zone stem/progenitor cells in the maintenance of articular cartilage homeostasis. PMID:25038490

  6. Fact or fiction - identifying the elusive multiple myeloma stem cell

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a debilitating disease of proliferating and malignant plasma cells that is currently incurable. The ability of monoclonal recurrence of disease suggests it might arise from a stem cell-like population capable of self-renewal. The difficulty to isolate the cancer stem-like cell in MM has introduced confusion toward this hypothesis. However, recent evidence has suggested that MM originates from the B cell lineage with memory-B cell like features, allowing for self-renewal of the progenitor-like status and differentiation to a monoclonal plasma cell population. Furthermore, this tumor-initiating cell uses signaling pathways and microenvironment similar to the hematopoietic stem cell, though hijacking these mechanisms to create and favor a more tumorigenic environment. The bone marrow niche allows for pertinent evasion, either through avoiding immunosurveillance or through direct interaction with the stroma, inducing quiescence and thus drug resistance. Understanding the interaction of the MM stem cell to the microenvironment and the mechanisms utilized by various stem cell-like populations to allow persistence and therapy-resistance can enable for better targeting of this cell population and potential eradication of the disease. PMID:24314019

  7. Ultrastructural modifications in the mitochondrion of mouse Sertoli cells after inhalation of lead, cadmium or lead-cadmium mixture.

    PubMed

    Bizarro, Patricia; Acevedo, Sandra; Niño-Cabrera, Geraldine; Mussali-Galante, Patricia; Pasos, Francisco; Avila-Costa, Maria Rosa; Fortoul, Teresa I

    2003-01-01

    CD-1 mice inhaled 0.01 M lead acetate, 0.006 M cadmium chloride or Pb-Cd mixture during 1h twice a week during 4 weeks. Testes were processed for transmission electron microscopic analysis. The percentage of damaged mitochondria was related to exposure time and the type of metal inhaled, noticing more damage when the mixture was administered. A dose-time relationship was found. Cadmium chloride caused the most severe mitochondrial alteration compared to lead acetate, whereas the mixture was more aggressive compared with each metal alone. Our results suggest that the changes in Sertoli cell could lead to a transformation process that may interfere with spermatogenesis. PMID:14555194

  8. Ultrastructural radioautography and cytochemistry of lead absorption.

    PubMed Central

    Parmley, R. T.; Barton, J. C.; Conrad, M. E.; Austin, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    Lead is a universal environmental contaminant absorbed largely through the gastrointestinal tract by unknown mechanisms. Because lead absorption is influenced by iron content in the body and diet, we used ultrastructural radioautography and cytochemistry to study absorption of physiologic lead doses in the rat duodenal epithelial cell and compared these findings to those previously reported for iron absorption. Rat duodenal loops exposed in vivo to 210Pb for 1 minute demonstrated the majority of labels on the microvilli, terminal web, and apical cytoplasm. Specimens exposed to radiolead for 10 minutes demonstrated more abundant labeling with a relative increase in labeling of epithelial cell mitochondria, nuclei and basal cytoplasm, as well as phagocytic cells, endothelial cells, and circulating erythrocytes of the lamina propria. Timm's sulfide-silver method localized trace metals in epithelial cells. After administration of lead, a significant increase in staining was observed in microvilli, mitochondria, non-membrane-bound cytoplasm, and nuclear chromatin. The rapid appearance of absorbed lead in epithelial cell mitochondria and nuclei, as well as phagocytic cells in the lamina propria, was distinctly different from that reported for absorbed iron and suggests different mechanisms for the subcellular transport of these cations. The combination of radioautography and Timm's sulfide-silver staining provides the specificity and resolution needed for ultrastructural evaluation of lead absorption and should be useful in further studies of lead metabolism. Images Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figures 1-2 PMID:464028

  9. Platelets: production, morphology and ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Thon, Jonathan N; Italiano, Joseph E

    2012-01-01

    Platelets are anucleate, discoid cells, roughly 2-3 μm in diameter that function primarily as regulators of hemostasis, but also play secondary roles in angiogensis and innate immunity. Although human adults contain nearly one trillion platelets in circulation that are turned over every 8-10 days, our understanding of the mechanisms involved in platelet production is still incomplete. Platelets stem from large (30-100 μm) nucleated cells called megakaryocytes that reside primarily in the bone marrow. During maturation megakaryocytes extend long proplatelet elongations into sinusoidal blood vessels from which platelets ultimately release. During this process, platelets develop a number of distinguishable structural elements including: a delimited plasma membrane; invaginations of the surface membrane that form the open canalicular system (OCS); a closed-channel network of residual endoplasmic reticulum that form the dense tubular system (DTS); a spectrin-based membrane skeleton; an actin-based cytoskeletal network; a peripheral band of microtubules; and numerous organelles including α-granules, dense-granules, peroxisomes, lysosomes, and mitochondria. Proplatelet elongation and platelet production is an elaborate and complex process that defines the morphology and ultrastructure of circulating platelets, and is critical in understanding their increasingly numerous and varied biological functions. PMID:22918725

  10. T cell receptor gene deletion circles identify recent thymic emigrants in the peripheral T cell pool

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Fan-kun; Chen, Chen-lo H.; Six, Adrien; Hockett, Richard D.; Cooper, Max D.

    1999-01-01

    Progenitor cells undergo T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements during their intrathymic differentiation to become T cells. Rearrangements of the variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) segments of the TCR genes result in deletion of the intervening chromosomal DNA and the formation of circular episomes as a byproduct. Detection of these extrachromosomal excision circles in T cells located in the peripheral lymphoid tissues has been viewed as evidence for the existence of extrathymic T cell generation. Because all of the T cells in chickens apparently are generated in the thymus, we have employed this avian model to determine the fate of the V(D)J deletion circles. In normal animals we identified TCR Vγ-Jγ and Vβ-Dβ deletion circles in the blood, spleen, and intestines, as well as in the thymus. Thymectomy resulted in the gradual loss of these DNA deletion circles in all of the peripheral lymphoid tissues. A quantitative PCR analysis of Vγ1-Jγ1 and Vβ1-Dβ deletion circles in splenic γδ and Vβ1+ αβ T cells indicated that their numbers progressively decline after thymectomy with a half-life of approximately 2 weeks. Although TCR deletion circles therefore cannot be regarded as reliable indicators of in situ V(D)J rearrangement, measuring their levels in peripheral T cell samples can provide a valuable index of newly generated T cells entering the T cell pool. PMID:9990059